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Title: Miss Leslie's Lady's New Receipt-Book - 3rd ed.
Author: Leslie, Eliza, 1787-1858
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s Note

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. A list of corrections
is found at the end of the text. Inconsistencies in spelling and
hyphenation have been maintained. A list of inconsistently spelled and
hyphenated words is found at the end of the text. Footnotes have been
moved to follow the recipes in which they appear.



  MISS LESLIE’S

  LADY’S NEW RECEIPT-BOOK;

  A Useful Guide for Large or Small Families,

  CONTAINING DIRECTIONS FOR

  COOKING, PRESERVING, PICKLING,

  AND

  PREPARING THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES ACCORDING TO THE MOST
  NEW AND APPROVED RECEIPTS, VIZ.:

  SOUPS,
  FISH,
  MEATS,
  VEGETABLES,
  POULTRY,
  OYSTERS,
  GAME,
  PUDDINGS,
  PIES,
  TARTS,
  CUSTARDS,
  ICE CREAMS,
  BLANC-MANGE,
  CAKES,
  CONFECTIONARY,
  SWEETMEATS,
  JELLIES,
  SYRUPS,
  CORDIALS,
  CANDIES,
  PERFUMERY, ETC.

  THIRD EDITION, ENLARGED,

  WITH ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS FOR PREPARING
  FARINA, INDIAN MEAL, FANCY TEA CAKE, MARMALADES, ETC.
  BEING A SEQUEL TO HER “COMPLETE COOKERY.”

  “Let these receipts be fairly and faithfully tried, and I trust that
  few, if any, will cause disappointment in the result.”--_Preface_

  PHILADELPHIA:
  A. HART, LATE CAREY & HART
  1850.



  ENTERED according to Act of Congress, in the year 1850, by
  A. HART,
  in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court for the Eastern District
  of Pennsylvania.

  Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins.



PREFACE.


The present volume is designed as a sequel to my book, entitled
“Directions for Cookery in all its Branches.” Since the first appearance
of that work, I have introduced into the new editions so many
improvements and additional receipts that its size can no longer be
conveniently increased. While obtaining fresh accessions of valuable
knowledge on this and other subjects connected with the domestic
improvement of my young countrywomen, I have been induced to note down,
as they presented themselves, these new items of information. And I now
offer them, arranged in due form, to that most efficient of all patrons,
the public.

Families who possess the means and the inclination to keep an excellent
table, and to entertain their guests in a handsome and liberal manner,
will, most probably, find in this book and its predecessor all that may
be wanted for such purposes. A large number of these new receipts are of
French origin; obtained from French cooks, or from persons instructed by
them. And I have endeavoured to render the directions as intelligible
and practicable as possible; so as to be easily understood, and easily
followed. I have not thought it necessary to give their titles in
French, as foreign designations can rarely be comprehended, or indeed
accurately pronounced, except by those who are familiar with the
language. Let these and the other receipts be fairly and faithfully
tried, and I trust that few, if any, will cause disappointment in the
result.

  ELIZA LESLIE.

  _Philadelphia, Oct. 15th, 1846._



GENERAL CONTENTS.


                     Page

  SOUPS, &C.                               9
  FISH, &C.                               19
  VEGETABLES, &C.                         38
  MEATS, &C.                              58
  POULTRY, GAME, &C.                      88
  PUDDINGS, &C.                          107
  SWEETMEATS, &C.                        165
  BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES                186
  CAKES, &C.                             193
  DOMESTIC LIQUORS, &C.                  230
  PERFUMERY, REMEDIES, &C.               252
  LAUNDRY-WORK, NEEDLE-WORK, &C.         297
  BREAKFASTS, DINNERS, SUPPERS, &C.      365
  ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS                    395
  THE INDIAN MEAL BOOK                   455
  INDEX                                  495
  INDEX TO ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS           503



WEIGHT AND MEASURE.


  Wheat flour             one pound of 16 ounces  is one quart.
  Indian meal             one pound 2 ounces      is one quart.
  Butter, when soft,      one pound 1 ounce       is one quart.
  Loaf-sugar, broken up,  one pound               is one quart.
  White sugar, powdered,  one pound 1 ounce       is one quart.
  Best brown sugar        one pound 2 ounces      is one quart.
  Eggs                    ten eggs             weigh one pound.


LIQUID MEASURE.

  Four large table-spoonfuls      are          half a jill.
  Eight large table-spoonfuls     are          one jill.
  Two jills                       are          half a pint.
  A common-sized tumbler          holds        half a pint.
  A common-sized wine-glass       holds about  half a jill.
  Two pints                       are          one quart.
  Four quarts                     are          one gallon.

About twenty-five drops of any thin liquid will fill a common-sized
tea-spoon.

Four table-spoonfuls will generally fill a common-sized wine-glass.

Four wine-glasses will fill a half-pint tumbler, or a large coffee-cup.

A quart black bottle holds in reality about a pint and a half; sometimes
not so much.

A table-spoonful of salt is about one ounce.


DRY MEASURE.

  Half a gallon         is      a quarter of a peck.
  One gallon            is      half a peck.
  Two gallons           are     one peck.
  Four gallons          are     half a bushel.
  Eight gallons         are     one bushel.

Throughout this book, the pound is avoirdupois weight--sixteen ounces.



THE
LADY’S RECEIPT-BOOK.



SOUPS, ETC.


SPRING SOUP.--Unless your dinner hour is very late, the stock for this
soup should be made the day before it is wanted, and set away in a stone
pan, closely covered. To make the stock, take a knuckle of veal, break
the bones, and cut it into several pieces. Allow a quart of water to
each pound of veal. Put it into a soup-pot, with a set of calves-feet,
and some bits of cold ham, cut off near the hock. If you have no ham,
sprinkle in a table-spoonful of salt, and a salt-spoon of cayenne. Place
the pot over a _moderate_ fire, and let it simmer slowly (skimming it
well) for several hours, till the veal is all to rags and the flesh of
the calves-feet has dropped in shreds from the bones. Then strain the
soup; and if not wanted that day, set it away in a stone pan, as above
mentioned.

Next day have ready-boiled two quarts or more of green peas, (they must
on no account be old,) and a pint of the green tops cut off from
asparagus boiled for the purpose. Pound a handful of raw spinach till
you have extracted a teacup-full of the juice. Set the soup or stock
over the fire; add the peas, asparagus, and spinach-juice, stirring them
well in; also a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, divided into four
bits, and rolled in flour. Let the whole come to a boil; and then take
it off and transfer it to a tureen. It will be found excellent.

In boiling the peas for this soup, you may put with them half a dozen
sprigs of green mint, to be afterwards taken out.

Late in the spring you may add to the other vegetables two cucumbers,
pared and sliced, and the whitest part or heart of a lettuce, boiled
together; then well-drained, and put into the soup with the peas and
asparagus. It must be very thick with vegetables.


SUMMER SOUP.--Take a large neck of mutton, and hack it so as nearly to
cut it apart, but not quite. Allow a small quart of water to each pound
of meat, and sprinkle on a table-spoonful of salt and a very little
black pepper. Put it into a soup-pot, and boil it _slowly_ (skimming it
well) till the meat is reduced to rags. Then strain the liquid, return
it to the soup-pot, and carefully remove all the fat from the surface.
Have ready half a dozen small turnips sliced thin, two young onions
sliced, a table-spoonful of sweet-marjoram leaves picked from the
stalks, and a quart of shelled Lima beans. Put in the vegetables, and
boil them in the soup till they are thoroughly done. You may add to them
two table-spoonfuls of green nasturtian seeds, either fresh or pickled.
Put in also some little dumplings, (made of flour and butter,) about ten
minutes before the soup is done.

Instead of Lima beans, you may divide a cauliflower or two broccolis
into sprigs, and boil them in the soup with the other vegetables.

This soup may be made of a shoulder of mutton, cut into pieces and the
bones cracked.


AUTUMN SOUP.--Begin this soup as early in the day as possible. Take six
pounds of the lean of fine fresh beef; cut it into small pieces;
sprinkle it with a tea-spoonful of salt, (not more); put it into a
soup-pot, and pour on six quarts of water. The hock of a cold ham will
greatly improve it. Set it over a moderate fire, and let it boil slowly.
After it comes to a boil skim it well. Have ready a quarter of a peck of
ochras cut into very thin round slices, and a quarter of a peck of
tomatoes cut into pieces; also a quart of shelled Lima beans. Season
them with pepper. Put them in; and after the whole has boiled three
hours _at least_, take six ears of young Indian corn, and having grated
off all the grain, add them, to the soup and boil it an hour longer.
Before you serve up the soup remove from it all the bits of meat, which,
if the soup is sufficiently cooked, will be reduced to shreds.

You may put in with the ochras and tomatoes one or two sliced onions.
The soup, when done, should be as thick as a jelly.

Ochras for soup may be kept all winter, by tying them separately to a
line stretched high across the store-room.


WINTER SOUP.--The day before you make the soup, get a fore-leg or shin
of beef. Have the bone sawed through in several places, and the meat
notched or scored down to the bone. This will cause the juice or essence
to come out more freely, when cooked. Rub it slightly with salt; cover
it, and set it away. Next morning, early as possible, as soon as the
fire is well made up, put the beef into a large soup-pot, allowing to
each pound a small quart of water. Then taste the water, and if the salt
that has been rubbed on the meat is not sufficient, add a very little
more. Throw in also a tea-spoonful of whole pepper-corns; and you may
add half a dozen blades of mace. Let it simmer slowly till it comes to a
boil; then skim it well. After it boils, you may quicken the fire. At
nine o’clock put in a large head of cabbage cut fine as for cold-slaw; a
dozen carrots sliced; the leaves stripped from a bunch of
sweet-marjoram; and the leaves of a sprig of parsley minced fine. An
hour afterwards, add six turnips, and three potatoes, all cut into four
or eight pieces. Also two onions, which will be better if previously
roasted brown, and then sliced. Keep the soup boiling steadily, but not
hard, unless the dinner hour is very early. For a late dinner, there
will be time to boil it slowly all the while; and all soups are the
better for long and slow boiling. See that it is well skimmed, so that,
when done, there will be not a particle of fat or scum on the surface.
At dinner-time take it up with a large ladle, and transfer it to a
tureen. In doing so, carefully avoid the shreds of meat and bone. Leave
them all in the bottom of the pot, pressing them down with the ladle. A
mass of shreds in the tureen or soup-plate looks slovenly and
disgusting, and should never be seen at the table; also, they absorb too
much of the liquid. Let the vegetables remain in the soup when it is
served up, but pick out every shred of meat or bone that may be found in
the tureen when ready to go to table.

In very cold weather, what is left of this soup will keep till the
second day; when it must be simmered again over the fire, till it just
comes to a boil. Put it away in a tin or stone vessel. The lead which is
used in glazing earthen jars frequently communicates its poison to
liquids that are kept in them.


RABBIT SOUP.--Begin this soup six hours before dinner. Cut up three
large, but young and tender rabbits, or four small ones, (scoring the
backs,) and dredge them with flour. Slice six mild onions, and season
them with half a grated nutmeg; or more, if you like it. Put some fresh
butter into a hot frying pan, (you may substitute for the butter some
cold roast-veal gravy that has been carefully cleared from the fat,)
place it over the fire, and when it boils, put in the rabbits and
onions, and fry them a light brown. Then transfer the whole to a
soup-pot; season it with a very small tea-spoonful of salt, a
tea-spoonful of whole pepper, a large tea-spoonful of sweet-marjoram
leaves stripped from the stalks, and four or five blades of mace, adding
three large carrots in slices. Pour on, slowly, four quarts of hot water
from a kettle already boiling hard. Cover the soup-pot, and let it
simmer slowly (skimming it well) till the meat of the rabbits is reduced
to shreds, and drops from the bones, which will not be in less than five
hours, if boiled as gently as it ought. When quite done, strain the soup
into a tureen. Have ready the grated yolks of six hard boiled eggs, and
stir them into the soup immediately after it is strained, and while it
is very hot. Add, also, some bread cut into dice or small squares, and
fried brown in fresh butter. Or substitute for the fried bread, buttered
toast, with all the crust removed, and cut into very small bits or
mouthfuls.

Hare soup may be made in this manner. It is also an excellent way of
disposing of old fowls. A similar soup may be made of fresh-killed
venison.

For hare or venison soup, add, (after straining it,) about half an hour
before you take it up, two glasses of sherry or Madeira, and a lemon
sliced thin.


CHICKEN SOUP.--Cut up two large fine fowls, as if carving them for the
table, and wash the pieces in cold water. Take half a dozen thin slices
of cold ham, and lay them in a soup-pot, mixed among the pieces of
chicken. Season them with a very little cayenne, a little nutmeg, and a
few blades of mace, but no salt, as the ham will make it salt enough.
Add a head of celery, split and cut into long bits, a quarter of a pound
of butter, divided in two, and rolled in flour. Pour on three quarts of
milk. Set the soup-pot over the fire, and let it boil rather slowly,
skimming it well. When it has boiled an hour, put in some small round
dumplings, made of half a pound of flour mixed with a quarter of a pound
of butter; divide this dough into equal portions, and roll them in your
hands into little balls about the size of a large hickory nut. The soup
must boil till the flesh of the fowls is loose on the bones, but not
till it drops off. Stir in, at the last, the beaten yolks of three or
four eggs; and let the soup remain about five minutes longer over the
fire. Then take it up. Cut off from the bones the flesh of the fowls,
and divide it into mouthfuls. Cut up the slices of ham in the same
manner. Mince the livers and gizzards. Put the bits of fowl and ham in
the bottom of a large tureen, and pour the soup upon it.

This soup will be found excellent, and may be made of large old fowls,
that cannot be cooked in any other way. If they are so old that when the
soup is finished they still continue tough, remove them entirely, and do
not serve them up in it.

Similar soup may be made of a large old turkey. Also of four rabbits.


DUCK SOUP.--Half roast a pair of fine large tame ducks; keeping them
half an hour at the fire, and saving the gravy, the fat of which must be
carefully skimmed off. Then cut them up; season them with black pepper;
and put them into a soup-pot with four or five small onions sliced thin,
a small bunch of sage, a thin slice of cold ham cut into pieces, a
grated nutmeg, and the yellow rind of a lemon pared thin, and cut into
bits. Add the gravy of the ducks. Pour on, slowly, three quarts of
boiling water from a kettle. Cover the soup-pot, and set it over a
moderate fire. Simmer it slowly (skimming it well) for about four hours,
or till the flesh of the ducks is dissolved into small shreds. When
done, strain it through a sieve into a tureen over a quart of young
green peas, that have been boiled by themselves. If peas are not in
season, substitute half a dozen hard boiled eggs cut into round slices,
white and yolk together.

If wild ducks are used for soup, three or four will be required for the
above quantity. Before you put them on the spit to roast, place a large
carrot in the body of each duck, to remove the sedgy or fishy taste.
This taste will be all absorbed by the carrot, which, of course, must be
thrown away.


PIGEON SOUP may be made as above. It will require one dozen tame
pigeons, or two dozen wild ones.

Wild pigeons may be made very fat by catching them alive in nets, at the
season when they abound; clipping their wings to prevent their flying
away; putting them into a field where there is a stream of water
convenient for them to drink, or into a large yard; and feeding them
twice a day with corn. When fattened in this manner, they will be found
profitable articles for sale; the objection to wild pigeons being that
they are usually so poor and lean.


FINE CLAM SOUP.--Take half a hundred or more small sand clams, and put
them into a pot of hard-boiling water. Boil them about a quarter of an
hour, or till all the shells have opened wide. Then take them out, and
having removed them from the shells, chop them small and put them with
their liquor into a pitcher. Strain a pint of the liquor into a bowl,
and reserve it for the soup. Put the clams into a soup-pot, with a
gallon of water, and a half pint of the liquor; a dozen whole
pepper-corns, half a dozen blades of mace; but no salt, as the
clam-liquor will be salt enough; add a pint of grated bread-crumbs, and
the crusts of the bread cut very small; also a tea-spoonful of
sweet-marjoram leaves. Let the soup boil two hours. Then add a quarter
of a pound of fresh butter, divided into half a dozen pieces, and each
piece rolled slightly in flour. Boil it half an hour longer, and then
about five minutes before you take up the soup, stir in the beaten yolks
of three eggs.

As the flavour will be all boiled out of the chopped clams, it will be
best to leave them in the bottom of the soup-pot, and not serve them up
in the tureen. Press them down with a broad wooden ladle, so as to get
as much liquor out of them as possible, while you are taking up the
soup.

This soup will be better still, if made with milk instead of water; milk
being an improvement to all fish-soups.


EXCELLENT CLAM SOUP.--Take forty or fifty clams, and wash and scrub the
outsides of the shells till they are perfectly clean. Then put them into
a pot with just sufficient water to keep them from burning. The water
must boil hard when you put in the clams. In about a quarter of an hour
the shells will open, and the liquor run out and mix with the water,
which must be saved for the soup, and strained into a soup-pot, after
the clams are taken out. Extract the clams from their shells, and cut
them up small. Then put them into the soup-pot, adding a minced onion, a
saucer of finely chopped celery, or a table-spoonful of celery seed, and
a dozen blades of mace, with a dozen whole pepper-corns. No salt, as the
clam-liquor will be quite salt enough. If the liquid is not in
sufficient quantity to fill a large tureen, add some milk. Thicken the
soup with two large table-spoonfuls of fresh butter rolled in flour. Let
it boil a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. Just before you take it
from the fire, stir in, gradually, the beaten yolks of five eggs; and
then take up the soup, and pour it into a tureen, the bottom of which
is covered with toasted bread, cut into square dice about an inch in
size.


FRENCH WHITE SOUP.--Boil a knuckle of veal and four calves’ feet in five
quarts of water, with three onions sliced, a bunch of sweet herbs, four
heads of white celery cut small, a table-spoonful of whole pepper, and a
_small_ tea-spoonful of salt, adding five or six large blades of mace.
Let it boil very slowly, till the meat is in rags and has dropped from
the bone, and till the gristle has quite dissolved. Skim it well while
boiling. When done, strain it through a sieve into a tureen, or a deep
white-ware pan. Next day, take off all the fat, and put the jelly (for
such it ought to be) into a clean soup-pot with two ounces of
vermicelli, and set it over the fire. When the vermicelli is dissolved,
stir in, gradually, a pint of thick cream, while the soup is quite hot;
but do not let it come to a boil after the cream is in, lest it should
curdle. Cut up one or two French rolls in the bottom of a tureen, pour
in the soup, and send it to table.


COCOA-NUT SOUP.--Take eight calves’ feet (two sets) that have been
scalded and scraped, but not skinned; and put them into a soup-kettle
with six or seven blades of mace, and the yellow rind of a lemon pared
thin. Pour on a gallon of water; cover the kettle, and let it boil very
slowly (skimming it well) till the flesh is reduced to rags and has
dropped entirely from the bones. Then strain it into a broad white-ware
pan, and set it away to get cold. When it has congealed, scrape off the
fat and sediment, cut up the cake of jelly, (or stock,) and put it into
a clean porcelain or enamelled kettle. Have ready half a pound of very
finely grated cocoa-nut. Mix it with a pint of cream. If you cannot
obtain cream, take rich unskimmed milk, and add to it three ounces of
the best fresh butter divided into three parts, each bit rolled in
arrow-root or rice-flour. Mix it, gradually, with the cocoa-nut, and add
it to the calves-feet-stock in the kettle, seasoned with half a grated
nutmeg. Set it over the fire, and boil it, slowly, about a quarter of an
hour; stirring it well. Then transfer it to a tureen, and serve it up.
Have ready small French rolls, or light milk biscuit to eat with it;
also powdered sugar in case any of the company should wish to sweeten
it.


ALMOND SOUP is made in the above manner, substituting pounded almonds
for the grated cocoa-nut. You must have half a pound of shelled sweet
almonds, mixed with two ounces of shelled bitter almonds. After
blanching them in hot water, they must be pounded to a smooth paste (one
at a time) in a marble mortar; adding frequently a little rose-water to
prevent their oiling, and becoming heavy. Or you may use peach-water for
this purpose; in which case omit the bitter almonds, as the peach water
will give the desired flavour. When the pounded almonds are ready, mix
them with the other ingredients, as above.

The calves’ feet for these soups should be boiled either very early in
the morning, or the day before.


SOUP-MEAT.--To make the soup _very good_, the meat (of which there
should be a large proportion, rather more than a pound to a quart of
water) must remain in, till it drops entirely from the bones and is
boiled to rags. But none of these fragments and shreds should be found
in the tureen when the soup is sent to table. They should all be kept at
the bottom of the pot, pressing down the ladle hard upon them when you
are dipping out the soup. If any are seen in the soup after it is taken
up, let them be carefully removed with a spoon. To send the soup to
table with bits of bone and shreds of meat in it, is a slovenly,
disgusting, and vulgar practice, and should be strictly forbidden; as
some indifferent cooks will do so to save themselves the trouble of
removing it. A mass of shreds left at the bottom of the tureen, absorbs
so much of the liquid as to diminish the quantity of the soup; and if
eaten is very unwholesome, all the nourishment being boiled out of it.

Mutton, however, need not be boiled to pieces in the soup, which will
have sufficient strength if the meat is left whole. A piece of loin of
mutton, that has been cooked in soup, is to many persons very palatable.
It is well worth sending to table.


SAUCE FOR MUTTON THAT HAS BEEN BOILED IN SOUP.--Mutton that has been
boiled in soup is very generally liked, particularly the loin. Take two
large boiled onions; cut them up, and put them into a saucepan with a
piece of fresh butter, slightly rolled in flour; a table-spoonful of
mustard, (French or tarragon mustard will be best); a very little salt
and cayenne; and some pickled cucumbers, chopped small; green nasturtian
seeds will be still better than cucumbers. Put all these ingredients
into a small saucepan, and add to them a little of the soup. Set the
sauce over the fire, and when it has come to a boil, take it off, and
keep it warm till the meat goes to table; then send it in a sauce-boat.


SUBSTITUTES FOR CAPER-SAUCE.--Take some pickled string-beans, or pickled
cucumbers, or gherkins; cut them into small bits, and put them thickly
into a sauce-tureen of melted butter, adding a spoonful of vinegar; or,
what is still better, the juice of a lemon Serve it up as sauce to
boiled mutton.

A still better substitute will be found in nasturtian seeds plucked from
the stems, and pickled by simply putting them (when green, but
full-grown) into a jar of cider-vinegar. Add a few table-spoonfuls of
these to the melted butter before it goes to table. Their flavour is
superior to that of capers.



FISH, ETC.


FRESH SALMON STEWED.--Having cleaned and washed the fish, cut it into
round slices or fillets, rather more than an inch in thickness. Lay them
in a large dish; sprinkling a very little salt evenly over the slices;
and in half an hour turn them on the other side. Let them rest another
half hour; then wash, drain, and wipe them dry with a clean towel.
Spread some of the best fresh butter thickly over the strainer of a
large fish-kettle; and lay the pieces of salmon upon it. Cover them
nearly all over with very thin slices of fresh lemon, from which the
seeds have been removed. Intersperse among the lemon a few slices of
shalots, or very small mild onions; a few sprigs of parsley and some
whole pepper-corns. Set the kettle over a large bed of live coals; and
spread very hot ashes thickly over the lid; which must be previously
well-heated on the _inside_ by standing it up before the fire. The heat
should be regularly kept up, while the fish is stewing, both above and
below it. It will require an hour to cook thoroughly. When dishing it,
remove the sliced lemon, shalots, parsley, &c., leaving them in the
bottom of the kettle. Put a cover over the fish, and set the dish that
contains it over a large vessel of hot water, while you are preparing
the sauce. For this sauce, mix thoroughly a quarter of a pound of fresh
butter with a table-spoonful of flour. Put it into a quart tin vessel
with a lid, and add a table-spoonful of water, and the seasoning that
was left in the bottom of the fish-kettle. Cover the vessel closely, and
set it in a larger sauce-pan or pot of boiling water. Shake it about
over the fire till it comes to a boil. If you _set it down_ on hot coals
the butter will oil. When it has boiled, remove the lemon, onion, &c.;
pour the sauce into a sauce-boat, and send it to table with the stewed
fish, garnished with sprigs of curled parsley.

This is a French mode of cooking salmon. Fresh cod, or halibut, may be
stewed in the same manner.


ROASTED SALMON.--Take a large piece of fine fresh salmon, cut from the
middle of the fish, well cleaned and carefully scaled. Wipe it dry in a
clean coarse cloth. Then dredge it with flour, put it on the spit, and
place it before a clear bright fire. Baste it with fresh butter, and
roast it well; seeing that it is thoroughly done to the bone. Serve it
up plain; garnishing the dish with slices of lemon, as many persons like
a little lemon-juice with salmon. This mode of cooking salmon will be
found excellent. A small one or a salmon-trout may be roasted whole.


BAKED SALMON.--A small salmon may be baked whole. Stuff it with
forcemeat made of bread-crumbs; chopped oysters, or minced lobster;
butter; cayenne; a little salt, and powdered mace,--all mixed well, and
moistened with beaten yolk of egg. Bend the salmon round, and put the
tail into the mouth, fastening it with a skewer. Put it into a large
deep dish; lay bits of butter on it at small intervals; and set it into
the oven. While baking, look at it occasionally, and baste it with the
butter. When one side is well browned, turn it carefully in the dish,
and add more butter. Bake it till the other side is well browned. Then
transfer it to another dish with the gravy that is about it, and send it
to table.

If you bake salmon in slices, reserve the forcemeat for the outside. Dip
each slice first in beaten yolk of egg, and then in the forcemeat, till
it is well coated. If in one large piece, cover it in the same manner
thickly with the seasoning.

The usual sauce for baked salmon is melted butter, flavoured with the
juice of a lemon, and a glass of port wine, stirred in just before the
butter is taken from the fire. Serve it up in a sauce-boat.


BOILED TURBOT OR SHEEP’S-HEAD FISH.--Having cleaned and washed the fish,
soak it an hour or two in salt and water to draw off the slime. Then let
it lie half an hour or more in cold water. Afterwards drain, and wipe it
dry. Score the back deeply with a knife. The whiteness of the fish will
be much improved by rubbing it over with a cut lemon. The fish-kettle
must be large, and nicely clean. Lay the fish with its back downward, on
the strainer of the kettle. Cover it well with cold water, (milk and
water in equal portions will be better still,) and add a small
table-spoonful of salt. Do not let it come to a boil too fast, and skim
it carefully. When the scum has ceased to rise, diminish the heat under
the kettle, and let it simmer for about half an hour or more; not
allowing it to boil hard. When the fish is done, take it up carefully
with a fish-slice; and having prepared the sauce, pour it over the fish
and send it to table hot.

For the sauce mix together very smoothly, with a broad bladed knife, a
quarter of a pound of fresh butter, two tea-spoonfuls of flour. Put them
into a clean sauce-pan, and hold it over the fire, and stir them till
melted. Then add a large salt-spoonful of powdered mace, and as much
cayenne as will lie on a sixpence. It will be much improved by the
addition of some boiled lobster, chopped small. When the sauce has
simmered two or three minutes, add very gradually, half a pint of rich
cream, and let it come almost to a boil, stirring all the time. After
the fish is taken up, pour the sauce over it hot. Or you may send it to
table in a sauce-boat. In this case ornament the fish with the coral of
the lobster put on in a handsome figure.

Another way of dressing this fish is, after it has been boiled to set it
on ice to get cold; and then, having carefully removed the bones, cut
the flesh into small squares, put it into a stew-pan, and having mixed
the above sauce, add it to the fish, and let it stew slowly in the
sauce; but do not let it come to a boil. When thoroughly hot, take it
up, and send it to table in a deep dish.


BAKED TURBOT OR SHEEP’S-HEAD FISH.--Having cleaned the fish, soak it an
hour or two in salt and water, and afterwards wash it well through two
or three fresh waters. Then dry it in a clean towel. Score it deeply,
across the back; and then lay it in a deep white baking-dish. Mix
together a large tea-spoonful of powdered mace and nutmeg; add a
salt-spoon of cayenne; a few sprigs of sweet-marjoram and sweet basil
finely minced; two large table-spoonfuls of fresh butter; and two
table-spoonfuls of grated bread-crumbs. Stir this mixture into a pint of
rich cream. Pour this marinade over the fish, cover it, and let it stand
half an hour. Then bake it in the marinade; and send it hot to table.

If the fish is too large to be baked whole, cut it into fillets;
extracting the bone.

Salmon-trout may be baked in this manner.


SEA BASS WITH TOMATOES.--Take three large fine sea-bass, or black-fish.
Cut off their heads and tails, and fry the fish in plenty of lard till
about half done. Have ready a pint of tomatoes, that have been pickled
cold in vinegar flavoured with a muslin bag of mixed spices. Drain the
tomatoes well from the vinegar; skin them, and mash them in a pan;
dredging them with about as much flour as would fill a large table-spoon
heaped up. Pour the mixture over the fish while in the frying pan; and
continue frying till they are thoroughly done.

Cutlets of halibut may be fried in this manner with tomatoes: also, any
other pan-fish.

Beef-steaks or lamb-chops are excellent fried thus with tomatoes.


BAKED SALMON-TROUT.--Having cleaned the fish, and laid it two hours in
weak salt and water, dry it in a cloth, and then rub both the inside and
outside with a seasoning of cayenne pepper, powdered mace, nutmeg, and a
little salt mixed well together. Then lay it in a deep baking pan, turn
the tail round into the mouth, and stick bits of fresh butter thickly
over the fish. Put it into an oven, and bake it well; basting it
frequently with the liquid that will soon surround it. When you suppose
it to be nearly done, try it by sticking down to the back-bone a
thin-bladed knife. When you find that the flesh separates immediately
from the bone, it is done sufficiently. Serve it up with lobster-sauce.

Any large fresh fish may be baked in this way.


CREAM TROUT.--Having prepared the trout very nicely, and cut off the
heads and tails, put the fish into boiling water that has been slightly
salted, and simmer them for five minutes. Then take them out, and lay
them to drain. Put them into a stew-pan, and season them well with
powdered mace, nutmeg, and a little cayenne, all mixed together. Put in
as much rich cream as will cover the fish, adding some bits of the fresh
yellow rind of a small lemon. Keep the pan covered, and let the fish
stew for about ten minutes after it has begun to simmer. Then dish the
fish, and keep them hot till you have finished the sauce. Mix, very
smoothly, a small tea-spoonful of arrow-root with a little milk, and
stir it into the cream. Then add the juice of the lemon. Pour the sauce
over the fish, and then send them to table.

Turbot or sheep’s-head fish may be dressed as above; of course it will
require a large proportion of seasoning, &c., and longer time to cook.

Carp is very nice stewed in this manner.


STEWED COD-FISH.--Take a fine _fresh_ cod, and cut into slices an inch
thick, separated from the bones. Lay the pieces of fish in the bottom of
a stew-pan: season them with a grated nutmeg; half a dozen blades of
mace; a salt-spoonful of cayenne pepper, and a small saucer-full of
chopped celery, or a bunch of sweet herbs tied together. Pour on half a
pint of oyster liquor diluted with two wine glasses or a jill of water,
and the juice of a lemon. Cover it close, and let it stew gently till
the fish is almost done, shaking the pan frequently. Then take a piece
of fresh butter the size of an egg; roll it in flour, and add it to the
stew. Also, put in two dozen large fine oysters, with what liquor there
is about them. Cover it again; quicken the fire a little, and let the
whole continue to stew five minutes longer. Before you send it to table
remove the bunch of sweet herbs.

Rock-fish may be stewed in this manner. Fresh salmon also.


FRIED COD-FISH.--Take the middle or tail part of a fresh cod-fish, and
cut it into slices not quite an inch thick, first removing the skin.
Season them with a little salt and cayenne pepper. Have ready in one
dish some beaten yolk of egg, and in another some grated bread-crumbs.
Dip each slice of fish twice into the egg, and then twice into the
crumbs. Fry them in fresh butter, and serve them up with the gravy about
them.

Halibut may be fried as above.


STEWED HALIBUT.--Cut the fish into pieces about four inches square, of
course omitting the bone. Season it very slightly with salt, and let it
rest for half an hour. Then take it out of the salt, put it into a large
deep dish, and strew over it a mixture of cayenne pepper, ground white
ginger, and grated nutmeg. Lay among it some small bits of fresh butter
rolled in grated cracker. Add half a pint of vinegar, (tarragon vinegar
if you have it.) Place the dish in a slow oven, and let the halibut cook
till thoroughly done, basting it very _frequently_ with the liquid. When
nearly done, add a large table-spoonful or more of capers, or pickled
nasturtians.


STEWED ROCK-FISH.--Take a large rock-fish, and cut it in slices near an
inch thick. Sprinkle it _very slightly_ with salt, and let it remain for
half an hour. Slice very thin a dozen large onions. Put them into a
stew-pan with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, cut into bits. Set
them over a slow fire, and stir them continually till they are quite
soft, taking care not to let them become brown. Then put in the sliced
fish in layers; seasoning each layer with a mixture of white ground
ginger, cayenne pepper, and grated nutmeg; add some chopped parsley, and
some bits of butter rolled in flour. Pour in a pint of water, and, if
you choose, a small wine-glass of vinegar, (tarragon vinegar will be
best.[25-*]) Set it over a good fire and let it cook about an hour.
When done, take out the fish carefully, to avoid breaking the slices.
Lay it in a deep dish that has been made hot, and cover it immediately.
Have ready the beaten yolks of two eggs. Stir them into the gravy. Give
it one boil up; and then either pour it over the fish, or serve it up in
a sauce-boat.

Halibut, fresh cod, or any other large fish may be stewed in this
manner.

    [25-* To make this vinegar,--half fill a bottle with tarragon
    leaves, and fill it quite up with the best cider vinegar. Cork it
    tightly, and do not remove the tarragon, but let it remain always at
    the bottom. The flavour is very fine.]


TO KEEP A SHAD WITHOUT CORNING.--By the following process, (which we can
highly recommend from experience,) a shad may be kept twenty-four hours,
or indeed longer, so as to be perfectly fresh in taste and appearance.
For instance, if brought _fresh_ from market on Saturday morning, it may
be broiled for breakfast on Sunday, and will seem like a fresh shad just
from the water. Immediately on bringing it in, let it be scaled,
cleaned, washed, split, and wiped dry; cutting off the head and tail.
Spread the shad open on a large flat dish. Mix well together in a cup, a
heaped table-spoonful of brown sugar; a heaped tea-spoonful of cayenne
pepper, and a tea-spoonful of fine salt; and then rub the mixture,
thoroughly and evenly, all over the inside of the fish; which, of
course, must be spread with the skin or outside downwards. Cover it
closely with a large tin cover or with another dish, and set it
immediately on ice or in a very cold place, and let it rest till next
morning, or till it is wanted for cooking. Immediately before you put it
on the gridiron, take a clean towel and carefully wipe off the whole of
the seasoning, not letting a particle of it remain round the edges, or
anywhere else. Then put the shad on a previously heated gridiron, over
hot coals, and broil it well. Butter it, and send it hot to table, where
every one can season it again, according to their taste. If these
directions are _exactly_ followed, no one, without being told, could
possibly guess that the shad was not fresh from market that morning.

Any fresh fish intended for splitting and broiling may be kept till next
day in this manner, which will be found very superior to what is called
corning.


EXCELLENT STEWED OYSTERS.--Take fifty fine large fresh oysters, and
strain the liquor from them into a saucepan. Season it with equal
portions of cayenne, black pepper, and salt, all mixed together in a
small tea-spoon, and add half a dozen blades of mace. Set it over the
fire, and let it come to a hard boil, skimming it well. Mix together in
a pan or bowl, a quarter of a pound of fresh butter and a table-spoonful
and a half (not more) of flour. Beat and stir the butter and flour till
it is quite smooth, and free from lumps. Having taken the oyster-liquor
from the fire, stir into it the beaten butter and flour. Set the
sauce-pan again over the fire, and give it another boil up. Then put in
the oysters, and when they come to a hard boil take them off. Have ready
in the bottom of a deep dish, two nice slices of toasted bread with all
the crust trimmed off. Cut the toast into dice or small squares. Pour
the oysters and their gravy hot into the dish. Cover them closely, and
send them to table. There is no better way of stewing oysters than this,
when you cannot conveniently do them with cream. If you _have_ cream,
(which for this purpose must be very rich,) add half a pint of it to the
gravy, and season it with grated nutmeg. The cream must be stirred in at
the last, just before the oysters are taken from the fire.


FRENCH STEWED OYSTERS.--Take a hundred large fine oysters. Set them over
the fire in their own liquor, (skimming them well,) and when they begin
to simmer take them out with a perforated ladle, and throw them directly
into a pan of cold water to plump them. When they are quite cold, place
them in a sieve, and drain them well. Having saved their liquor, add to
it a quarter of a pound of fresh butter divided into four pieces, (each
piece rolled in flour,) a dozen blades of mace, a powdered nutmeg, and a
small salt-spoon of cayenne. Set this mixture over the fire, and stir it
till the butter and flour is well mixed all through. Then put in the
oysters, and as soon as they have come to a boil, take off the
sauce-pan, and stir in immediately the beaten yolks of three eggs. Serve
them up hot.


OYSTER LOAVES.--Take some tall fresh rolls, or small loaves. Cut nicely
a round or oval hole in the top of each, saving the pieces that come
off. Then carefully scoop out the crumb from the inside, leaving the
crust standing. Have ready a sufficient quantity of large fresh oysters.
Put the oysters with one-fourth of their liquor into a stew-pan; adding
the bread-crumbs; a large piece of fresh butter; some powdered nutmeg;
and a few blades of mace. Stew them about ten minutes. Then stir in two
or three large table-spoonfuls of cream; take them off just as they are
coming to a boil. If cooked too long the oysters will become tough and
shrivelled, and the cream will curdle. Fill the inside of your scooped
loaves with the oysters, reserving as many large oysters as you have
loaves. Place the bit of upper-crust carefully on the top of each, so as
to cover the whole. Arrange them on a dish, and lay on each lid one of
the large oysters kept out for the purpose. These ornamental oysters
must be well drained from any liquid that is about them.


OYSTER OMELET.--Having strained the liquor from twenty-five oysters of
the largest size, mince them small; omitting the hard part or gristle.
If you cannot get large oysters, you should have forty or fifty small
ones. Break into a shallow pan six, seven, or eight eggs, according to
the quantity of minced oysters. Omit half the whites, and, (having
beaten the eggs till very light, thick, and smooth,) mix the oysters
gradually into them, adding a little cayenne pepper, and some powdered
nutmeg. Put three ounces or more of the best fresh butter into a small
frying-pan, if you have no pan especially for omelets. Place it over a
clear fire, and when the butter (which should be previously cut up) has
come to a boil, put in the omelet-mixture; stir it till it begin to set;
and fry it a light brown, lifting the edge several times by slipping a
knife under it, and taking care not to cook it too much or it will
shrivel and become tough. When done, clap a large hot plate or dish on
the top of the omelet, and turn it quickly and carefully out of the pan.
Fold it over; and serve it up immediately. It is a fine breakfast dish.
This quantity will make one large or two small omelets.

Clam omelets may be made as above.

An omelet-pan should be smaller than a common frying-pan, and lined with
tin. In a large pan the omelet will spread too much, and become thin
like a pancake.

Never turn an omelet while frying, as that will make it heavy and tough.
When done, brown it by holding a red-hot shovel or salamander close
above the top.

Excellent omelets may be made of cold boiled ham, or smoked tongue;
grated or minced small, mixed with a sufficiency of beaten eggs, and
fried in butter.


ANCHOVY TOAST.--Cut four slices of bread and toast them; having first
pared off the crust. Butter the toast on both sides. Wash, scrape, and
chop ten anchovies and put them thickly between the slices of toast.
Beat the yolks of four eggs, and then mix them with half a pint of
cream. Put the mixture into a sauce-pan, and set it over the fire to
simmer till thick; but do not allow it to boil. Stir it well, lest it
should curdle. When it is _near_ boiling, take it off, and pour it hot
over the toast.

Tongue toast may be made in this way.


OYSTER TOAST may be made as above; substituting minced oysters for the
anchovy; seasoning them with cayenne; and boiling a few blades of mace
with the egg and cream.


BROILED OYSTERS.--Take the largest and finest oysters. See that your
gridiron is very clean. Rub the bars with fresh butter, and set it over
a clear steady fire, entirely clear from smoke; or on a bed of bright
hot wood coals. Place the oysters on the gridiron, and when done on one
side, take a fork and turn them on the other; being careful not to let
them burn. Put some fresh butter in the bottom of a dish. Lay the
oysters on it, and season them slightly with pepper. Send them to table
hot.


FRENCH OYSTER PIE.--Having buttered the inside of a deep dish, line it
with puff-paste rolled out rather thick, and prepare another sheet of
paste for the lid. Put a clean towel into the dish (folded so as to
support the lid) and then put on the lid; set it into the oven, and bake
the paste well. When done, remove the lid, and take out the folded
towel. While the paste is baking, prepare the oysters. Having picked off
carefully any bits of shell that may be found about them, lay them in a
sieve and drain off the liquor into a pan. Put the oysters into a
skillet or stew-pan, with barely enough of the liquor to keep them from
burning. Season them with whole pepper; blades of mace; some grated
nutmeg; and some grated lemon-peel, (the yellow rind only,) and a little
finely minced celery. Then add a large portion of fresh butter, divided
into bits, and very slightly dredged with flour. Let the oysters simmer
over the fire, but do not allow them to come to a boil, as that will
shrivel them. Next beat the yolks only, of three, four, or five eggs,
(in proportion to the size of the pie,) and stir the beaten egg into the
stew a few minutes before you take it from the fire. Keep it warm till
the paste is baked. Then carefully remove the lid of the pie; and
replace it, after you have filled the dish with the oysters and gravy.

The lid of the pie may be ornamented with a wreath of leaves cut out of
paste, and put on before baking. In the centre, place a paste-knot or
flower.

Oyster pies are generally eaten warm; but they are very good cold.


CLAM PIE.--Take a sufficient number of clams to fill a large pie-dish
when opened. Make a nice paste in the proportion of a pound of fresh
butter to two quarts of flour. Paste for shell-fish, or meat, or chicken
pies should be rolled out double the thickness of that intended for
fruit pies. Line the sides and bottom of your pie-dish with paste. Then
cover the bottom with a thin beef-steak, divested of bone and fat. Put
in the clams, and season them with mace, nutmeg, and a few whole
pepper-corns. No salt. Add a spoonful of butter rolled in flour, and
some hard-boiled yolks of eggs crumbled fine. Then put in enough of the
clam-liquor to make sufficient gravy. Put on the lid of the pie, (which
like the bottom crust should be rolled out thick,) notch it handsomely,
and bake it well. It should be eaten warm.


CLAM FRITTERS.--Put a sufficient quantity of clams into a pot of boiling
water. The small sand-clams will be best. When the shells open wide,
take them out, extract the clams from the shells, and put them into a
stew-pan. Strain their liquor, and pour about half of it over the clams;
adding a little black pepper. They will require no salt. Let them stew,
slowly, for half an hour; then take them out; drain off all the liquor;
and mince the clams as fine as possible, omitting the hardest parts. You
should have as many clams as will make a large pint when minced. Make a
batter of seven eggs, beaten till very thick and light; and then mixed
gradually with a quart of milk, and a pint of sifted flour, stirred in
by degrees, and made perfectly smooth and free from lumps. Then,
gradually, mix the minced clams with the batter, and stir the whole very
hard. Have ready in a frying pan over the fire a sufficiency of boiling
lard. Put in, with a spoon, the batter so as to form fritters, and fry
them light brown. Drain them well when done, and serve them up hot.

Oyster fritters may be made as above; except that the oysters must be
minced raw, and mixed into the batter without having been stewed.


LOBSTER PATTIES.--Make some puff-paste, and spread it on very deep
patty-pans. Bake it empty. Having boiled well two or three fine
lobsters, extract all their meat, and mince it very small, mixing it
with the coral smoothly mashed, and some yolk of hard-boiled egg,
grated. Season it with a little salt; some cayenne; and some powdered
mace or nutmeg; adding a little yellow lemon-rind grated. Moisten the
mixture well with cream, or fresh butter, or salad oil. Put it into a
stew-pan; add a very little water, and let it stew till it just comes to
a boil. Take it off the fire, and the patties being baked, remove them
from the tin-pans, place them on a large dish, and fill them up to the
top with the mixture.

Similar patties may be made of prawns, or crabs.


A SEA-COAST PIE.--Having boiled a sufficient number of crabs or
lobsters, extract all the meat from the shells, and cut it into
mouthfuls. Have ready some fine large oysters drained from the liquor.
Cover the bottom and sides of a deep dish with puff-paste; and put in a
thick layer of crab or lobster, seasoned with a little cayenne pepper,
and a little grated lemon-peel; and mixed with some hard-boiled yolk of
egg, crumbled fine, and moistened with fresh butter. Next, put a close
layer of oysters, seasoned with pounded mace and grated nutmeg. Lay some
bits of butter rolled in flour on the top of the layer. Proceed in this
manner with alternate layers of crab or lobster, and of oysters, till
the dish is nearly full. Then pour in, at the last, a tea-cupfull of
more of the oyster liquor, with an equal quantity of rich cream. Have
ready a thick lid of puff-paste. Put it on the pie; pressing the edges
closely so as to unite them all round; and notch them handsomely. Make a
wreath of leaves cut out of paste, and a flower or knot for the centre;
place them on the top-crust; and bake the pie well. While it is baking,
prepare some balls made of chopped oysters; grated bread-crumbs;
powdered nutmeg, or mace; and grated lemon-peel; with a little beaten
yolk of egg to bind together the other ingredients. Having fried these
balls in butter, drain them, and when the pie is baked, lay a circle of
them round the top; between the border of paste-leaves and the
centre-knot.

This pie will be found so fine that it ought to be baked in a dish which
will contain a large quantity.


LOBSTER RISSOLES.--Extract the meat of a boiled lobster; mince it as
fine as possible; mix with it the coral pounded smooth, and some yolks
of hard-boiled eggs pounded also. Season it with cayenne pepper,
powdered mace, and a very little salt. Make a batter of beaten egg,
milk, and flour. To each egg allow two large table-spoonfuls of milk,
and a large tea-spoonful of flour. Beat the batter well, and then mix
the lobster with it gradually, till it is stiff enough to make into oval
balls, about the size of a large plum. Fry them in the best salad oil,
and serve them up either warm or cold.

Similar rissoles may be made of raw oysters minced fine; or of boiled
clams. These should be fried in lard.

Very young Indian corn, grated from the cob, prepared in the above
manner, made into balls, and fried in fresh butter, is excellent.
Previous to grating it is best to boil the ears of corn.


TO DRESS A TURTLE.--The turtle should be taken out of water, and killed
over night in winter, and early in the morning in summer. Hang it up by
the hind fins, and before it has had time to draw in its neck, cut off
its head with a very sharp knife, and leave the turtle suspended. It
should bleed two or three hours or more, before you begin to cut it up.
Then lay it on its back upon a table: have at hand several vessels of
cold water, in which to throw the most important parts as you separate
them; also a large boiler of hot water. Take off the fins at the joint,
and lay them by themselves in cold water; next divide the back-shell
from the under-shell. The upper part of the turtle is called the
calipash--the under part the calipee. In cutting open the turtle, be
very careful not to break the gall, which should be taken out and
thrown away; if broken, its bitterness will spoil all around it. Take
out the entrails, and throw them into a tub of cold water. When well
washed, open them from end to end with a small penknife, scrape off the
inside skin, and, to cleanse them thoroughly, draw them several times
through a woollen cloth. Wash, also, the liver, lungs, heart, kidneys,
&c., and lay them in cold water; the liver in a pan by itself. If there
are eggs, put them also into cold water. Having extracted the
intestines, stand up the turtle on end, to let the blood run out.
Afterwards cut out all the flesh from the upper and under shells, and
remove the bones. Cut the calipee (or meat belonging to the under-shell)
into pieces about as large as the palm of your hand, and break the
shell. The calipash, or meat next the back-shell, may be cut
smaller--the green fat into pieces about two inches square. Put all the
meat into a large pan, sprinkle it slightly with salt, and cover it up.
Lay the shells and fins in a tub of boiling water, and scald them till
the scales can be scraped off with a knife, and all the meat that still
adheres to the shells easily removed, as it is worth saving. Clean the
fins nicely, (taking off the dark skin,) and lay them in cold water.
Wipe the back-shell dry, and set it aside. Then proceed to make the
soup. For this purpose, take the coarser pieces of flesh with the bones
and entrails. Put them into a pot with a pound of ham cut into pieces,
and eight large calves’-feet (two sets) that have been singed and
scraped but not skinned. If you cannot conveniently obtain calves’-feet,
substitute a large fore-leg or knuckle of veal. Add four onions sliced
thin; two table-spoonfuls of sweet-marjoram leaves; a large bunch of
parsley; a dozen blades of mace; and a salt-spoon of cayenne. The ham
will make any other salt unnecessary. Pour on as much water as will
completely cover the whole, and let it simmer slowly over a steady fire
during five hours, skimming it well. If after a while the soup seems to
be boiling away too much, replenish it with a little hot water from a
kettle, kept boiling hard for the purpose. When it has simmered five
hours, take up the whole, and strain the soup through a sieve into a
deep pan. Wash out the soup-pot with hot water, and return the strained
soup to it, with the entrails cut into small pieces, and some of the
best of the meat and a portion of the green fat. Have ready two or three
dozen force-meat balls about the size of a boy’s marble, and made of the
usual proportions of minced veal, bread-crumbs, butter, grated
lemon-peel, mace, nutmeg, and beaten yolk of egg. Put them into the
soup, and let it boil an hour longer; also the eggs of the turtle, or
some hard-boiled yolks of eggs. After it has thus boiled another hour,
add two sliced lemons and a pint of Madeira. Boil the soup a quarter of
an hour longer, and it will then be ready for the tureen. It must never
boil hard.

In the mean time, stew in another pot the finest of the turtle-meat,
seasoned with a little salt, and cayenne, and a liberal allowance of
sweet-marjoram leaves rubbed fine, and mixed with powdered mace and
nutmeg. Add a pound of fresh butter, cut into quarters and rolled in
flour. When the turtle-meat has stewed an hour, put in the green fat,
add the grated peel, and the juice of two lemons, and a pint or more of
Madeira, and let the whole stew slowly an hour longer. While the meat is
stewing, take the shell off the back; wash it clean, and wipe it dry,
lay a band of puff-paste all round the inside of the shell, two inches
below the edge, and two inches above it. Notch the paste handsomely, and
fill the shell with the stewed turtle. Have ready the oven, heated as if
for bread. Lay a large iron baking-sheet or a square pan upon four
bricks (one at each corner) to elevate the shell from the floor of the
oven. Place on it the turtle-shell with its contents, and let it bake
till well browned on the surface. Send it to table in the shell placed
on a large dish. At the other end set the tureen of soup. Have ready as
two side dishes the fins stewed tender in a little of the soup; and the
liver fried in butter. Garnish with lemons cut in half.

This receipt is for a turtle of moderate size. A large one will of
course require an increased proportion of all the articles used in
seasoning it--more wine, &c. In serving up turtle at a dinner-party, let
it constitute the first course, and have no other dishes on table with
it. There is no need of any other fish or soup.



VEGETABLES, ETC.


AN EXCELLENT WAY OF BOILING CABBAGE.--Having trimmed the cabbage, and
washed it well in cold water, (examining the leaves to see that no
insects are lurking among them,) cut it almost into quarters, but do not
divide it entirely down at the stem, which should be cut off just below
the termination of the leaves. Let it lie an hour in a pan of cold
water. Have ready a pot _full_ of boiling water, seasoned with a small
tea-spoonful of salt. Put the cabbage into it, and let it boil for an
hour and a half, skimming it occasionally. Then take it out; put it into
a cullender to drain, and when all the hot water has drained off, set it
under the hydrant. Let the hydrant run on it, till the cabbage has
become perfectly cold all through. If you have no hydrant, set it under
a pump, or keep pouring cold water on it from a pitcher. Then, having
thrown out all the first water, and washed the pot, fill it again, and
let the second water boil. During this time the cabbage under the
hydrant will be growing cold. Then put it on again in the second water,
and boil it two hours, or two and a half. Even the thickest part of the
stalk must be perfectly tender all through. When thoroughly done, take
up the cabbage, drain it well through the cullender, pressing it down
with a broad ladle to squeeze out all the moisture; lay it in a deep
dish, and cut it _entirely_ apart, dividing it into quarters. Lay some
bits of fresh butter among the leaves, add a little pepper, cover the
dish, and send it to table hot.

This receipt for boiling cabbage was obtained from a physician, and on
trial has been found very superior to any other. Cabbage cooked in this
manner loses its unpleasant odour, and its unwholesome properties, and
may be eaten without apprehension, except by persons decidedly
dyspeptic. The usual cabbage-smell will not be perceptible in the
house--either while the cabbage is boiling or afterwards.

If you like it boiled with corned pork or bacon, the _second boiling_
(after the cabbage has been made cold under the hydrant) may be in the
pot with the meat--skimming it well.


TO STEW RED CABBAGE.--Having stripped off the outer leaves, and washed
the cabbage, quarter it, remove all the stalk, and cut the cabbage into
shreds. Slice some cold ham as thin as possible, and put it into a
stew-pan, alternately with layers of shred cabbage; having first laid
some bits of fresh butter in the bottom of the pan. Add about half a
pint of boiling water. Cover the pan closely, and let it stew steadily
for three hours, till the cabbage is very tender, and the liquid all
wasted; taking care not to let it burn. If you find it so dry as to be
in danger of scorching, add a little more _boiling_ water. When done,
press and drain it through a cullender, and serve it up with the cabbage
heaped in the middle of the dish, and the ham laid round.

It may be improved by adding, before it begins to stew, a jill of red
beet vinegar.

White cabbage may be stewed as above. Also cauliflower or broccoli,
omitting the vinegar.


YOUNG CORN OMELET.--To a dozen ears of fine young Indian corn allow five
eggs. Boil the corn a quarter of an hour; and then, with a large grater,
grate it down from the cob. Beat the eggs very light, and then stir
gradually the grated corn into the pan of eggs. Add a small salt-spoon
of salt, and a very little cayenne. Put into a hot frying-pan equal
quantities of lard and fresh butter, and stir them well together, over
the fire. When they boil, put in the mixture thick, and fry it;
afterwards browning the top with a red-hot shovel, or a salamander.
Transfer it, when done, to a heated dish, but do not fold it over. It
will be found excellent. This is a good way of using boiled corn that
has been left from dinner the preceding day.


CAULIFLOWER OMELET.--Take the white part of a boiled cauliflower after
it is cold; chop it very small, and mix with it a sufficient quantity of
well-beaten egg, to make a very thick batter. Then fry it in fresh
butter in a small pan, and send it hot to table.


FRIED CAULIFLOWER.--Having laid a fine cauliflower in cold water for an
hour, put it into a pot of boiling water that has been slightly salted,
(milk and water will be still better,) and boil it twenty-five minutes,
or till the large stalk is perfectly tender. Then divide it, equally,
into small tufts, and spread it on a dish to cool. Prepare a sufficient
quantity of batter made in the proportion of a table-spoonful of flour,
and two table-spoonfuls of milk to each egg. Beat the eggs very light;
then stir into them the flour and milk alternately; a spoonful of flour,
and two spoonfuls of milk at a time. When the cauliflower is cold, have
ready some fresh butter in a frying-pan over a clear fire. When it has
come to a boil and has done bubbling, dip each tuft of cauliflower twice
into the pan of batter, and fry them a light brown. Send them to table
hot.

Broccoli may be fried in this manner.


CAULIFLOWER MACCARONI.--Having removed the outside leaves, and cut off
the stalk, wash the cauliflower, and examine it thoroughly to see if
there are any insects about it. Next lay it for an hour in a pan of cold
water. Then put it into a pot of boiling milk and water that has had a
little fresh butter melted in it. Whatever scum may float on the top of
the water must be removed before the cauliflower goes in. Boil it,
steadily, half an hour, or till it is quite tender. Then take it out,
drain it, and cut it into short sprigs. Have ready three ounces of rich,
but not strong cheese, grated fine. Put into a stew-pan a quarter of a
pound of fresh butter; nearly half of the grated cheese; two large
table-spoonfuls of cream or rich milk; and a very little salt and
cayenne. Toss or shake it over the fire, till it is well mixed, and has
come to a boil. Then add the tufts of cauliflower; and let the whole
stew together about five minutes. When done, put it into a deep dish;
strew over the top the remaining half of the grated cheese, and brown it
with a salamander or a red hot shovel held above the surface.

This will be found very superior to real maccaroni.


BROCCOLI AND EGGS.--Take several heads of broccoli, and cut the stalks
short, paring off from the stalks the tough outside skin. Trim off the
small outside shoots or blossoms, and tie them together in bunches.
After all the broccoli has been washed, and lain half an hour or more in
a pan of fresh, cold water, put the large heads, with a salt-spoonful of
salt, into a pot of boiling water, and let them boil till thoroughly
done, and the stalk perfectly tender. When the large heads have boiled
about a quarter of an hour, put in the small tufts, which of course
require less time to cook. In the meanwhile have ready six beaten eggs.
Put a quarter of a pound of butter into a sauce-pan, and stir it over
the fire till it is all melted; then add gradually the beaten eggs, and
stir the mixture, or shake it over the fire till it becomes very thick.
Toast sufficient bread to cover entirely the bottom of a deep dish,
cutting it to fit exactly, having removed the crust. Pour the egg and
butter over the hot toast. Then place upon it the broccoli; the largest
and finest head in the middle, the lesser ones round it; and having
untied the small sprigs, lay them, in a circle close to the edge.


FRIED CELERY.--Take fine large celery; cut it into pieces three or four
inches in length, and boil it tender; having seasoned the water with a
very little salt. Then drain the pieces well, and lay them, separately,
to cool on a large dish. Make a batter in the proportion of three
well-beaten eggs stirred into a pint of rich milk, alternately with half
a pint of grated bread-crumbs, or of sifted flour. Beat the batter very
hard after it is all mixed. Put into a hot frying-pan, a sufficiency of
fresh lard; melt it over the fire, and when it comes to a boil, dip each
piece of celery _twice_ into the batter, put them into the pan, and fry
them a light brown. When done, lay them to drain on an inverted sieve
with a broad pan placed beneath it. Then dish the fried celery, and send
it to table hot.

Parsnips, and salsify (or oyster plant) may be fried in butter according
to the above directions. Also the tops of asparagus cut off from the
stalk; and the white part or blossom of cauliflower. Cold sweet potatoes
are very nice, peeled, cut into long slips, and fried in this way.


FRIED ARTICHOKES.--The artichokes must be young and tender. Cut them
into quarters, remove the choke part, and strip off the leaves. Having
washed the artichokes well, and laid them an hour in cold water, put
them into a pot of boiling water, and keep them boiling steadily for a
long time, till you find by trying them with a fork that they are tender
all through. Then take them out immediately, and drain them. Have ready
a sufficiency of batter, made in the proportion of the yolk of one egg
to a large table-spoonful of milk, and a tea-spoonful of flour. The eggs
must be well beaten before they are mixed with the milk; then beat in
the flour a spoonful at a time. Have ready over the fire some fresh
butter, or lard, in a frying-pan. When it has boiled hard, dip the
artichokes into the batter, (each piece should be twice dipped,) and fry
them brown. Then drain them well, and send them to table hot.

Parsnips may be fried as above. Salsify also.

Another way of frying artichokes, parsnips, and salsify, is, after they
have been boiled tender, to dip each piece first in beaten yolk of egg,
(without milk or flour,) and then roll it in finely-grated bread-crumbs.
Then put them into the pan and fry them in butter or lard, or a mixture
of both.

In boiling artichokes, observe to take them out as soon as they are
tender. If they remain in the water after they are done, they turn
blackish and lose their flavour.


MUSHROOM OMELET.--Take some fresh-gathered mushrooms; remove the stalks,
and rub the flaps or heads very slightly with a little salt, mixed with
cayenne. Then stew the mushrooms in a small sauce-pan, with barely
sufficient cream or rich milk to cover them. Put in with them a small
onion; and if the onion is found to turn blackish, throw away the whole;
it being proof that there is among them a false or poisonous mushroom.
Stir them with a silver spoon, and keep on the lid of the pan closely;
unless when you are stirring. If the spoon turns black, the mushrooms
should not be eaten.

After they have come to a boil, take them off the fire; drain them, and
when cool, chop them small. To a pint or more of the minced mushrooms,
allow six or seven eggs. Beat the eggs till very light and thick,
(omitting the whites of two,) and then mix in, gradually, the mushrooms;
stirring the whole very hard. Put three ounces of fresh butter into a
hot omelet-pan, or a _small_ frying-pan; place it over the fire, and
stir the butter as it melts. When it has boiled hard, put in the omelet
mixture, and as it fries, stir it till it begins to set. Do not turn the
omelet; but brown the top by holding close above it a red-hot shovel.
When done, drain off the butter; fold over or double the omelet; and
serve it up immediately, on a hot dish.

In gathering mushrooms, those that are fit to eat may be known by their
being of a pale pearl colour, or of a grayish white, instead of what is
called a dead white; and the under side of the flap or head (if good) is
of a light pink, or a pinkish salmon colour. The best mushrooms grow on
uplands, or in high open fields where the air is pure and good, and they
should be gathered early in the morning before the dew is off. All that
are found in low swampy ground, or in the woods, or under large trees
are poisonous.


SCOLLOPED TOMATOES.--Take fine large tomatoes, perfectly ripe. Scald
them to loosen the skins, and then peel them. Cover the bottom of a deep
dish thickly with grated bread-crumbs, adding a few bits of fresh
butter. Then put in a layer of tomatoes, seasoned slightly with a little
salt and cayenne, and some powdered mace or nutmeg. Cover them with
another layer of bread-crumbs and butter. Then another layer of seasoned
tomatoes; and proceed thus till the dish is full, finishing at the top
with bread-crumbs. Set the dish into a moderate oven, and bake it near
three hours. Tomatoes require long cooking, otherwise they will have a
raw taste, that to most persons is unpleasant.


FRENCH SPINACH.--Having picked them from the stalks, wash the leaves
carefully in two or three cold waters, till they are quite free from
grit. Put the spinach into a sauce-pan of hot water, in which a very
small portion of salt has been boiled. There must be sufficient water to
allow the spinach to float. Stir it frequently, that all the leaves may
be equally done. Let it boil for a quarter of an hour. Then take it out,
lay it in a sieve, and drain it well; pressing it thoroughly with your
hands. Next chop it as fine as possible. For a large dish of spinach,
put two ounces of butter into a stew-pan; dredge in a table-spoonful of
flour and four or five table-spoonfuls of rich cream, mixed with a
tea-spoonful of powdered loaf-sugar. Mix all well, and when they have
come to a boil, add, gradually, the spinach. Stew it about ten minutes,
(stirring it frequently,) till the superfluous moisture is all absorbed.
Then serve it up very hot, garnishing it all round with leaves of
puff-paste, that have been handsomely formed with a tin cutter, and are
fresh from the oven.


STEWED SPINACH.--Pick the spinach very clean, and wash it through two or
three waters. Then drain it, and put it into a sauce-pan, with only the
water that remains about it after the washing. Add a very little salt
and pepper, and let it stew for twenty minutes, or till it is quite
tender; turning it often, and pressing it down with a broad wooden spoon
or flat ladle. When done, drain it through a sieve, pressing out all the
moisture, till you get it as dry as you can. Then put it on a flat dish,
and chop or mince it well. Set it again over the fire; add to it some
bits of butter dredged with flour, and some beaten yolk of egg. Let it
simmer five minutes or more, and when it comes to a boil, take it off.
Have ready some thin slices of buttered toast, cut into triangular or
three-cornered pieces, without any crust. Lay them in regular order
round a flat dish, and heap the spinach evenly upon them, smoothing the
surface with the back of a spoon, and scoring it across in diamonds.


ASPARAGUS LOAVES.--Having scraped the stalks of three bundles of fine,
large asparagus, (laying it, as you proceed, in a pan of cold water,)
tie it up again in bunches, put them into a pot with a great deal of
boiling water, and a little salt, and boil them about twenty minutes, or
till quite tender. Then take out the asparagus, and drain it. Cut off
the green tops of two-thirds of the asparagus, and on the remainder
leave about two inches of the white stalk; this remaining asparagus must
be kept warm. Put the tops into a stew-pan with a pint of cream, or rich
milk, sufficient to cover them well; adding three table-spoonfuls of
fresh butter, rolled in flour, half a grated nutmeg, and the well-beaten
yolks of three eggs. Set the stew-pan over hot coals, and stir the
mixture till it comes to a boil. Then immediately remove it. Have ready
some tall fresh rolls or penny loaves; cut the tops carefully off, in a
nice circular or oval piece, and then scoop out the inside of the rolls,
and fill them with the stewed asparagus while it is hot. Make small
holes very nicely in the tops or lids. Fit the lids again on the rolls,
and stick in the holes (of which you must make as many as you can) the
remaining asparagus, that has had the bit of stalk left on for this
purpose. Send them to table warm, as side-dishes.


ASPARAGUS OMELET.--Take two bunches of the largest and finest asparagus.
Put it into a pot of boiling water, with a tea-spoonful of salt, and
boil it about twenty-five minutes, or till perfectly tender. Then drain
it, and chop small all the green part. Beat four eggs very light, and
add to them a wine-glass of cream. Mix the chopped asparagus thoroughly
with the egg and cream, adding a salt-spoon of salt, and a very little
cayenne. Melt a large slice of fresh butter in a frying-pan over the
fire; and when it has boiled, and the bubbling has ceased, put in the
mixture, and fry it till light and firm. Then slip it from the
frying-pan to a hot dish, and fold it over.

For a soft omelet, put the mixture into a skillet, with a piece of fresh
butter. Let it stew slowly for ten minutes. Lay a thin slice of buttered
toast in the bottom of a hot dish, and cut the toast into small squares,
but let them remain close together. With a spoon heap the soft omelet
upon the toast, and serve it up.

Any omelet mixture may be kept soft by stewing instead of frying it, and
it will be found far more wholesome.


STEWED PEAS.--Take young, tender green peas, and put into a stew-pan,
with sufficient fresh butter to keep them from burning, but no water.
Season them with a little black pepper, and a very little salt. Set them
over a moderate fire, and stir them about till the butter is well mixed
through them. Let them simmer till quite soft and slightly broken;
taking off the lid occasionally, and giving them a stir up from the
bottom. If you find them becoming too dry, add some more butter. When
done, drain off what superfluous butter may be about the peas, and send
them to table hot. They will be found excellent.

To the taste of many persons, they will be improved by a lump or two of
loaf-sugar put in with the butter; and also by a few sprigs of mint, to
be removed before the peas go to table.

Lima beans may be stewed in butter, as above: also, asparagus tops, cut
off from the white stalk.


FRENCH PEAS.--The peas should be young, freshly gathered, and shelled
immediately before they are cooked. Boil them in water slightly salted,
till they are perfectly tender. Then put them into a sieve, and drain
them as dry as possible. To each quart of peas allow an ounce and a half
of the best fresh butter; a large tea-spoonful of flour; and six
table-spoonfuls or a tea-cup of rich cream; with a small tea-spoonful of
powdered sugar. Put the butter into a stew-pan; place it over the fire;
and when it comes to a boil, stir in the flour, making it quite smooth,
and free from lumps. Having mixed the sugar with the cream, add it,
gradually, to the butter and flour; and when it boils hard stir in the
peas, and let them stew till they are all hot through. While stewing,
stir them occasionally to prevent their burning. If the pan is small it
is better to shake it over the fire.


LETTUCE PEAS.--Having washed four lettuces, and stripped off the outside
leaves, take their hearts, and (having chopped them well) put them into
a stew-pan with two quarts of young green peas, freshly shelled; a lump
or two of loaf-sugar; and three or four leaves of green mint minced as
finely as possible. Then put in a slice of cold ham, and a quarter of a
pound of butter divided into four bits and rolled in flour; and two
table-spoonfuls of water. Add a little black pepper, and let the whole
stew for about twenty-five minutes, or till the peas are thoroughly
done. Then take out the ham, and add to the stew half a pint of cream.
Let it continue stewing five minutes longer. Then send it to table.


PLAIN LETTUCE PEAS.--Cover the bottom and sides of a stew-pan with large
fresh leaves taken from lettuces. Have ready the peas, which should be
young and green. To each quart of shelled peas allow two table-spoonfuls
of fresh butter, and a lump of loaf sugar. Add a very little pepper and
salt, and a sprig of green mint. Cover the pan closely, and let it stew
for half an hour, or till the peas are thoroughly done. Then take them
out from the lettuce leaves, and send only the peas to table.


TO STEW CARROTS.--Half-boil the carrots; then scrape them nicely, and
cut them into thick slices. Put them into a stew-pan with as much milk
as will barely cover them, a very little salt and pepper, and a sprig or
two of chopped parsley. Simmer them till they are perfectly tender, but
not broken. When nearly done, add a piece of fresh butter rolled in
flour. Send them to table hot. Carrots require long cooking.

Parsnips and salsify may be stewed in the above manner, substituting a
little chopped celery for the parsley.


STEWED BEANS, (_French way._)--Take fresh young green beans, and string
them. Do not split them; but merely cut them in half. It destroys the
flavour of string-beans to divide them into small pieces. If very young,
do not even cut them in half, but merely string them and leave them
whole. Have by you a pan of cold water to drop the beans in, as you
proceed. Then, having washed and drained them, put them into a stew-pan
of boiling water, and let them boil twenty minutes or more, till they
are all tender. Then drain them well. Afterwards melt two ounces of
butter in a stew-pan, and then stir smoothly into it a tea-spoonful of
flour, adding a little powdered mace and a salt-spoon of salt. When it
comes to a boil, add a tea-cup of rich cream. Then put in the beans, and
stir or shake them over the fire till they are all thoroughly heated. A
moment before you take them from the fire, stir in the beaten yolks of
two eggs, and send them hot to table.

For this dish, you must have beans enough to absorb nearly all the
liquid. They must on no account float about in it, as it is intended for
a seasoning, not a gravy.

Stewed beans will be improved by adding a small piece of cold ham, to be
removed before they go to table. If ham is used, omit any salt in the
seasoning, as the ham will make it quite salt enough.


TO STEW COLD POTATOES.--Take cold potatoes, (either white or sweet
ones,) and cut them into round or circular slices. Have ready some nice
gravy of roast beef, veal, or fresh pork, that has been left from the
preceding day, and well skimmed. Care should every day be taken to save
whatever gravy is left of roast meat, skimming off _all_ the fat from
the surface, and putting away the gravy in a covered vessel set in a
cool place. The gravy of cold mutton or lamb is so like tallow that it
is unfit to use in any sort of cookery, and should always be consigned
to the crock of soap-fat.

Season the sliced potatoes slightly with pepper, and putting them into a
skillet with the cold gravy among them, stew them in that only, without
a drop of water. Let them stew but a quarter of an hour. They are nice
at breakfast, done in this manner; sweet potatoes especially.


TO IMPROVE OLD POTATOES.--In the spring when the potatoes of the
preceding autumn have become old, and deteriorated in quality, they will
be greatly improved if, previous to boiling, a piece about the size of a
shilling or a twelve-cent-piece, is cut off from each end; like “topping
and tailing” them. Afterwards boil these potatoes with the skins on, and
see that they are thoroughly done. _Old_ potatoes require very long
boiling, and are unfit to eat if hard in the centre, being then
extremely indigestible. Their specks and blemishes make them so
unsightly when sent to table whole, that it is best when sufficiently
boiled, to peel and mash them. Mash them with milk or cream, if you
cannot obtain good fresh butter. Salt butter will spoil their flavour
instead of improving it, and all bad butter (whether salt or fresh) is
unwholesome, as well as unpalatable, and should never be used for any
purpose.


SYDNEY SMITH’S SALAD-DRESSING.--Have ready two well-boiled potatoes,
peeled and rubbed through a sieve; they will give peculiar smoothness to
the mixture. Also, a very small portion of raw onion, not more than a
_quarter_ of a tea-spoonful, (as the presence of the onion is to be
scarcely hinted,) and the pounded yolks of two hard-boiled eggs. Mix
these ingredients on a deep plate with two small tea-spoonfuls of salt;
one of made mustard; three table-spoonfuls of olive oil; and one
table-spoonful of vinegar. Add, lastly, a tea-spoonful of essence of
anchovy; mash, and mix the whole together (using a boxwood spoon) and
see that all the articles are thoroughly amalgamated. Having cut up a
sufficiency of lettuce, (that has been well washed in cold water, and
drained,) add to it the dressing immediately before dinner, mixing the
lettuce through it with a boxwood fork.

This salad dressing was invented by the Rev. Sydney Smith, whose genius
as a writer and a wit is well-known on both sides the Atlantic. If
_exactly_ followed, it will be found very fine on trial; no peculiar
flavour predominating, but excellent as a whole. The above directions
are taken from a manuscript receipt given by Mr. Smith to an American
gentleman then in London.

In preparing this, or any other salad-dressing, take care not to use
that excessively pungent and deleterious combination of drugs which is
now so frequently imposed upon the public, as _the best white wine
vinegar_. In reality, it has no vinous material about it, and it may be
known by its violent and disagreeable sharpness, which overpowers and
destroys the taste (and also the substance) of whatever it is mixed
with. And it is also very unwholesome. Its colour is always very pale,
and it is nearly as clear as water. No one should buy or use it. The
first quality of _real_ cider vinegar is good for all purposes.

The above receipt may be tried for lobster-dressing.


LETTUCE CHICKEN SALAD.--Having skinned a pair of cold fowls, remove the
fat, and carve them as if for eating, cut all the flesh entirely from
the bones, and either mince it or divide it into small shreds. Mix with
it a little smoked tongue or cold ham, grated rather than chopped. Have
ready one or two fine fresh lettuces, picked, washed, drained, and cut
small. Put the cut lettuce on a dish, (spreading it evenly,) or into a
large bowl, and place upon it the minced chicken in a close heap in the
centre. For the dressing, mix together the following ingredients, in the
proportion of the yolks of four eggs well beaten; a tea-spoonful of
powdered white sugar; a salt-spoon of cayenne; (no salt if you have ham
or tongue with the chicken;) two tea-spoonfuls of made mustard; two
table-spoonfuls of vinegar, and four table-spoonfuls of salad oil. Stir
this mixture well: put it into a small sauce-pan, set it over the fire,
and let it boil three minutes, (not more,) stirring it all the time.
Then set it to cool. When quite cold, cover with it thickly the heap of
chicken in the centre of the salad. To ornament it, have ready half a
dozen or more hard-boiled eggs, which after the shell is peeled off,
must be thrown directly into a pan of cold water to prevent their
turning blue. Cut each egg (white and yolk together) lengthways into
four long pieces of equal size and shape; lay the pieces upon the salad
all round the heap of chicken, and close to it; placing them so as to
follow each other round in a slanting direction, something in the form
of a circular wreath of leaves. Have ready, also, some very red cold
beet, cut into small cones or points all of equal size; arrange them in
a circle upon the lettuce, outside of the circle of cut egg. To be
decorated in this manner, the salad should be placed in a dish rather
than a bowl. In helping it, give each person a portion of every thing,
and they will mix them together on their plates.

This salad should be prepared immediately before dinner or supper, as
standing long will injure it. The colder it is the better.


ITALIAN CHICKEN SALAD.--Make a dressing in the proportion of the yolks
of three hard-boiled eggs, mashed or pounded fine; a salt-spoon of salt;
and the same quantity of mustard, and of cayenne; and a salt-spoon of
powdered white sugar; four table-spoonfuls of salad-oil; and two
table-spoonfuls of vinegar, (tarragon vinegar will be best.) Simmer this
dressing over the fire, but do not let it come to a boil. Stir it all
the time. Take a sufficiency of the white meat of cold fowls, and pull
or cut it into flakes. Pile it in the middle of a dish, and pour the
salad-dressing over it. Have ready two fine fresh lettuces that have
been laid in cold water. Strip off the outside leaves; cut up the best
part of the lettuces, and arrange it evenly in a ridge, or circular heap
all round the pile of chicken in the centre. On the top of the ridge of
lettuce, place the whites of the eggs, cut into rings and laid round so
as to form a chain. Of course, a portion of the lettuce is to be helped
with the chicken.

A lobster salad may be made as above; also a salad of minced prawns or
crabs.

Persons who have no dislike to a very slight flavour of garlic, will
find this chicken-salad improved, by a clove of garlic being lightly
rubbed over the dish while empty.

In dressing and helping every sort of salad, use a boxwood spoon and
fork.


TARRAGON SAUCE.--Take a large handful of tarragon leaves, stripped from
the stalks: put them into a small sauce-pan with half a pint of boiling
water, and four blades of mace. Cover the sauce-pan, and let it stew
slowly till the liquid is reduced to one half, and the flavour of the
tarragon is well drawn out. Then strain it; and put the liquid into a
clean sauce-pan. Mix together a table-spoonful of flour, and six ounces
of butter, and when it has been well-stirred, and beaten smoothly, stir
it into the tarragon water. Place the sauce-pan over the fire, and watch
it closely. When it has simmered well, and is just beginning to boil,
take it off immediately and transfer it to a sauce-boat. Eat it with any
sort of boiled meat or poultry, or with boiled fish. The tarragon will
give it a fine flavour.

You may add to the tarragon, while stewing, a small white onion cut in
slices.

This sauce may be coloured a fine green, by pounding in a mortar a
sufficient quantity of young parsley or spinach. Then take some of the
juice, and add it to the liquid after you have strained it from the
tarragon leaves, and before you put in the butter.

Tarragon is an herb well worth cultivating. It grows from a slip or
root, and is easily raised. The leaves are fit to gather in July and
August. They impart a fine and peculiar flavour to sauces, soups, and
salad; and are indispensable in making French mustard. Tarragon may be
kept a year or more by drying it in bunches. Also by filling a bottle
half with tarragon leaves, and half with good vinegar.


FINE LEMON PICKLE.--Take some fresh ripe lemons, and (having first
rolled each one under your hand upon the table) cut them into quarters,
and remove all the seeds. Put the pieces of lemon, with all the juice,
into a stone jar. Have ready a sufficient quantity of excellent vinegar
to cover the lemon well; the vinegar being boiled with a clove or two of
garlic; some blades of mace; a broken up nutmeg; whole pepper, (the
white or peeled pepper-corns will be best;) some cayenne or bird-pepper;
and a very little salt. The proportion of these ingredients may be
according to your taste, but the seasoning should be high, yet not so as
to overpower the lemon-flavour. Having boiled the vinegar, with all
these articles, about ten minutes, pour the whole boiling hot upon the
lemon in the jar, and immediately cover it closely. Let the jar stand
three weeks in the chimney-corner, stirring it frequently, and setting
it occasionally in the oven after the baking is done. Then roll a sheet
of blotting paper into a cone, pinning up the side, and folding the
cone so as to close up the pointed end. Have ready some small clean
black bottles. Set the paper cone into the mouth of the bottle, and
through it filter the liquid. Seal the corks. This will be found an
excellent sauce for fish, or any sort of white meat; and will keep for
years.


PEACH PICKLES.--Stir two pounds of white sugar into two quarts of the
best cider vinegar. Boil it ten minutes, skimming it well. Have ready
some large fully-ripe peaches; rub them with a clean flannel to take off
the down, and stick four cloves into each. Put them into glass or
white-ware jars, (rather more than half-full,) and pour on them the
vinegar boiling hot. Cover them closely, set them in a cool place, and
let them rest for a week. Then pour off the liquid, and give it another
boiling. Afterwards pour it again on the peaches; cover them closely,
corking the jars, and tying leather over each, and put them away till
wanted for use.

Instead of cloves you may stick the peaches with blades of mace, six
blades to each peach.

Apricots may be pickled as above. Morella cherries also, using mace
instead of cloves.

If you find a coat of mould on the top of a jar of pickles, remove it
carefully, and do not throw away the pickles, as they may still be quite
good beneath.


CUCUMBER CATCHUP.--For a small quantity, take twelve fine full-grown
cucumbers, and lay them an hour in cold water. Then pare them, and grate
them down into a deep dish. Grate also six small onions, and mix them
with the grated cucumber. Season the mixture to your taste, with pepper,
salt, and vinegar; making it of the consistence of rich marmalade or
jam. When thoroughly incorporated, transfer it to a glass jar, cover it
closely, tying down over the top a piece of bladder, so as to make it
perfectly air-tight.

It will be found very nice (when fresh cucumbers are not in season) to
eat with beef or mutton, and if properly made and tightly covered will
keep well. It should be grated very fine, and the vinegar must be of
excellent quality--real cider vinegar.


ONION CUSTARD.--Peel and slice some mild onions, (ten or twelve, in
proportion to their size,) and fry them in fresh butter; draining them
well when you take them up. Then mince them as fine as possible. Beat
four eggs very light, and stir them gradually into a pint of milk, in
turn with the minced onions. Season the whole with plenty of grated
nutmeg, and stir it very hard. Then put it into a deep, white dish, and
bake it about a quarter of an hour. Send it to table as a side dish to
be eaten with meat or poultry. It is a French preparation of onions, and
will be found very fine.



MEATS, ETC.


STEWED LAMB.--Take a fine quarter of lamb, and for a large dish, cut the
whole of it into steaks; for a small dish, cut up the loin only; or
slice only the leg. Remove the skin, and all the fat. Place at the
bottom of a large stew-pot a fresh lettuce split into long quarters.
Having seasoned the steaks with a little salt and cayenne, and some
powdered nutmeg and mace, lay them upon the lettuce, pour on just
sufficient water to cover the whole, and let it stew gently for an hour,
skimming it occasionally. Then put in a quart or two of young green
peas, (in proportion to the quantity of meat,) a sprig of fresh green
mint, a lump of loaf-sugar, and some bits of fresh butter. Let it cook
slowly about half an hour longer, or till the peas are all soft and
well-done. In sending it to table, place the meat upon the lettuce, and
the peas round it.

Cold ham sliced, and stewed in this manner, will be found excellent. The
ham having been already cooked, half an hour will be sufficient to stew
it with the lettuce, and another half-hour after the peas are in.


LAMB CUTLETS, (_a French dish_.)--Cut a loin of lamb into chops. Remove
all the fat, trim them nicely, scrape the bone, and see that it is the
same length in all the cutlets. Lay them in a deep dish, and cover them
with salad oil. Let them steep in the oil for an hour. Mix together a
sufficiency of finely grated bread-crumbs, and a little minced parsley,
seasoned with a very little pepper and salt, and some grated nutmeg.
Having drained the cutlets from the oil, cover them with the mixture,
and broil them over a bed of hot, live coals, on a previously heated
gridiron, the bars of which have been rubbed with chalk. The cutlets
must be thoroughly cooked. When half done, turn them carefully. You may
bake them in a dutch-oven, instead of broiling them. Have ready some
boiled potatoes, mashed smooth and stiff with cream or butter. Heap the
mashed potatoes high on a heated dish, and make it into the form of a
dome or bee-hive. Smooth it over with the back of a spoon, and place the
lamb cutlets all round it, so that they stand up and lean against it,
with the broad end of each cutlet downward. In the top of the dome of
potatoes, stick a handsome bunch of curled parsley.


FILLET OF MUTTON.--Cut a fillet or round from a leg of mutton; remove
all the fat from the outside, and take out the bone. Beat it well on all
sides with a meat-beetle or a rolling-pin, to make it more tender, and
rub it slightly all over with a very little pepper and salt. Have ready
a stuffing made of finely-minced onions, bread-crumbs, and butter;
seasoned with a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and well-mixed. Fill,
with some of this stuffing, the place of the bone. Make deep incisions
or cuts all over the surface of the meat, and fill them closely with the
same stuffing. Bind a tape round the meat to keep it in shape. Put it
into a stew-pan, with just water enough to cover it, and let it stew
slowly and steadily during four, five, or six hours, in proportion to
its size; skimming it frequently. When done, serve it up with its own
gravy.

Tomato sauce is an excellent accompaniment to stewed mutton.

A thick piece of a round of fresh beef will be found very good, stuffed
and stewed in the above manner. It will require much longer stewing than
the mutton.


STEWED MUTTON CUTLETS.--Having removed all the fat and the bone, beat
the cutlets to make them tender, and season them with pepper, salt, and
nutmeg. Put them into a circular tin kettle, with some bits of fresh
butter that have been rolled in flour. Set the kettle (closely covered)
upon a trivet inside of a flat-bottomed pot or stew-pan. Pour boiling
water all round, but not so as to come up to the top of the inner
kettle. Set the pot over a slow fire, and let the stew simmer for two
hours. Then lift up the meat, and put under it a lettuce cut in four;
and three cucumbers, pared, split, and quartered; two onions sliced; and
four young turnips cut small. Add a few blades of mace, a salt-spoon of
salt, and a little more butter rolled in flour. Set it again in boiling
water, taking care that the water does not reach the top of the inner
kettle, the lid of which must be kept very tight. Let it boil slowly, or
rather simmer, two hours longer. Then dish it, placing the meat upon the
vegetables, and laying all round a ridge of green peas that have been
boiled in the usual way.

The bone (nicely trimmed and scraped) may be left in each cutlet; in
which case, when dishing them, stand them up in a circle, with the ends
of the bones leaning against each other at the top, somewhat as we see
poles placed in circles for lima-bean vines.


VEAL LOAF.--Take a cold fillet of veal, and (omitting the fat and skin)
mince the meat as fine as possible. Mix with it a quarter of a pound of
the fattest part of a cold ham, also chopped small. Add a tea-cupful of
grated bread-crumbs; a grated nutmeg; half a dozen blades of mace
powdered; the grated yellow rind of a lemon; and two beaten eggs. Season
with a salt-spoon of salt, and half a salt-spoon of cayenne. Mix the
whole well together, and make it into the form of a loaf. Then glaze it
over with beaten yolk of egg; and strew the surface evenly, all over,
with bread raspings, or with pounded cracker. Set the dish into a
dutch-oven, and bake it half an hour, or till hot all through. Have
ready a gravy made of the trimmings of the veal, stewed in some of the
gravy that was left when the fillet was roasted the day before. When
sufficiently cooked, take out the meat, and thicken the gravy with
beaten yolk of egg, stirred in about three minutes before you take it
from the fire.

Send the veal loaf to table in a deep dish, with the gravy poured round
it.

Chicken loaf, or turkey loaf, may be made in this manner.


STEWED CALF’S HEAD.--Take a fine, large calf’s head; empty it; wash it
clean, and boil it till it is quite tender, in just water enough to
cover it. Then carefully take out the bones, without spoiling the
appearance of the head. Season it with a little salt and cayenne, and
a grated nutmeg. Pour over it the liquor in which it has been boiled,
adding a jill of vinegar, and two table-spoonfuls of capers, or of
green nasturtian-seeds, that have been pickled. Let it stew very
slowly for half an hour. Have ready some force-meat balls made of
minced veal-suet, grated bread-crumbs, grated lemon-peel, and shred
sweet-marjoram,--adding beaten yolk of egg to bind the other
ingredients together. Put in the force-meat balls, and stew it slowly
a quarter of an hour longer, adding some bits of butter rolled in
flour to enrich the gravy. Send it to table hot.


CORNED FILLET OF VEAL.--Take a large fillet of veal, and make deep
incisions or cuts all over it with a sharp knife, and insert a slip of
the fat into each, pressing it down well to keep it in. Mix a
table-spoonful of powdered saltpetre with half a pound of fine salt,
and rub the meat all over with it. Make a brine of salt and water strong
enough to swim an egg on its surface, adding a lump of saltpetre about
the size of a walnut. Put the veal into the brine, (of which there must
be enough to more than cover it,) and let it remain ten days; turning it
every day. Then take it out, wash off the brine, and boil the veal till
thoroughly done and tender all through. It is best to eat it cold, and
sliced thin.


FRENCH WAY OF DRESSING A SHOULDER OF VEAL.--Cut the veal into nice
square pieces or mouthfuls, and parboil them. Put the bone and trimmings
into another pot, and stew them slowly a long time, in a very little
water, to make the gravy. Then put the meat into the dish in which it is
to go to table, and season it with a very little salt and cayenne
pepper, the yellow rind of a large lemon grated, and some powdered mace
and nutmeg. Add some bits of fresh butter rolled in flour, or some cold
dripping of roast veal. Strain the gravy and pour it in. Set it in a hot
dutch-oven, and bake it brown. When nearly done, add two glasses of
white wine, and serve it up hot.

Any piece of veal may be cooked in this way.


EXCELLENT MINCED VEAL.--Take three or four pounds of the lean only of a
fillet or loin of veal, and mince it very finely, adding a slice or two
of cold ham, minced also. Add three or four small young onions, chopped
small, a tea-spoonful of sweet-marjoram leaves rubbed from the stalks,
the yellow rind of a small lemon grated, and a tea-spoonful of mixed
mace and nutmeg powdered. Mix all well together, and dredge it with a
little flour. Put it into a stew-pan, with sufficient gravy of cold
roast veal to moisten it, and a large table-spoonful or more of fresh
butter. Stir it well, and let it stew till thoroughly done. If the veal
has been previously cooked, a quarter of an hour will be sufficient. It
will be much improved by adding a pint or more of small button
mushrooms, cut from the stems, and then put in whole. Also, by stirring
in two table-spoonfuls of cream about five minutes before it is taken
from the fire.


MINCED TURKEY OR CHICKEN.--Take a cold turkey, or one or two cold fowls;
remove all the skin, and cut the flesh from the bones. Then mince it
fine, with two or three thin slices of cold smoked tongue, and from half
a pint to a pint of button mushrooms well chopped. Add some mace and
nutmeg, and put the whole into a stew-pan, with a piece of fresh butter
rolled in flour, and sufficient cream to moisten it well. Let it stew
ten minutes. Then serve it up in a deep dish.

Instead of mushrooms, you may mix two or three dozen oysters, chopped,
and seasoned with pepper and powdered mace.


VEAL WITH OYSTERS.--Take two fine cutlets of about a pound each. Divide
them into several pieces, cut thin. Put them into a frying-pan, with
boiling lard, and let them fry awhile. When the veal is about half done,
add to it a quart of large, fine oysters,--their liquor thickened with a
few grated bread-crumbs, and seasoned with mace and nutmeg powdered.
Continue the frying till the veal and oysters are thoroughly done. Send
it to table in a covered dish.


TERRAPIN VEAL.--Take some cold roast veal (the fillet or the loin) and
cut it into _very small_ mouthfuls. Put into a skillet or stew-pan. Have
ready a dressing made of six or seven hard-boiled eggs minced fine; a
small tea-spoonful of made mustard; a salt-spoonful of salt; and the
same of cayenne pepper; a large tea-cupfull (half a pint) of cream, and
two glasses of sherry or Madeira wine. The dressing must be thoroughly
mixed. Pour it over the veal, and then give the whole a hard stir. Cover
it, and let it stew over the fire for ten minutes. Then transfer it to a
deep dish, and send it to table hot.

Cold roast duck or fowl may be drest as above. Also venison.


VEAL OLIVES.--Take some cold fillet of veal and cold ham, and cut them
into thin square slices of the same size and shape, trimming the edges
evenly. Lay a slice of veal on every slice of ham, and spread some
beaten yolk of egg over the veal. Have ready a thin force-meat, made of
grated bread-crumbs, sweet-marjoram rubbed fine, fresh butter, and
grated lemon-peel, seasoned with nutmeg and a little cayenne pepper.
Spread this over the veal, and then roll up each slice tightly with the
ham. Tie them round securely with coarse thread or fine twine; run a
bird-spit through them, and roast them well. For sauce, simmer in a
small sauce-pan, some cold veal gravy with two spoonfuls of cream, and
some mushroom catchup.


VEAL RISSOLES.--Take as much fine wheat bread as will weigh one pound,
after all the crust is cut off. Slice it; put it into a pan and pour
over it as much rich milk as will soak it thoroughly. After it has
soaked a quarter of an hour, lay it in a sieve and press it dry. Mince
as finely as possible a pound of veal cutlet with six ounces of veal
suet; then mix in gradually the bread; adding a salt-spoonful of salt, a
slight sprinkling of cayenne, and a small tea-spoonful of powdered mace
and nutmeg mixed; also the yellow rind of a lemon grated. Beat two eggs,
and moisten the mixture with them. Then divide it into equal portions,
and with a little flour on your hands roll it into oval balls rather
smaller than an egg. Strew over them some dry bread-crumbs; then fry
them in lard or fresh butter--drain them well, and send them to table
hot. For gravy (which should be commenced before the rissoles) put some
bits and trimmings of veal into a small sauce-pan, with as much water as
will cover them; a very little pepper and salt; and three or four blades
of mace. Cover the sauce-pan closely, and let the meat stew till all the
strength is extracted; skimming it well. Then strain it; return the
liquid to the sauce-pan; add a bit of butter rolled in flour; and
squeeze in the juice of a lemon. Give it a boil up; and then, at the
last, stir in the beaten yolk of an egg. Serve up this gravy in a
sauce-boat, to eat with the rissoles.

Instead of stewing meat for the purpose you may make this gravy with the
drippings of roast veal saved from the day before. You have then only to
melt it over the fire; adding the seasoning; and giving it one boil.

Similar rissoles may be made of minced chicken or turkey.


SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES.--Having trimmed some sweetbreads nicely, and
removed the gristle, parboil them, and then mince them very fine. Add
grated bread, and season with a _very little_ salt and pepper; some
powdered mace and nutmeg; and some grated lemon-rind. Moisten the whole
with cream, and make them up into small cones or sugar-loaves; forming
and smoothing them nicely. Have ready some beaten egg, mixed with grated
bread-crumbs. Dip into it each croquette, and fry them slowly in fresh
butter. Serve them hot; standing up on the dish, and with a sprig of
parsley in the top of each.

Sweetbreads should never be used unless perfectly fresh. They spoil very
rapidly. As soon as they are brought from market they should be split
open, and laid in cold water. Never attempt to keep sweetbreads till
next day, except in cold weather.

Similar croquettes may be made of cold boiled chicken; or cold roast
veal; or of oysters, minced raw, and seasoned and mixed as above.


FRICASSEED SWEETBREADS.--Take half a dozen sweetbreads; clean them
thoroughly, and lay them for an hour or two in a pan of water, having
first removed the strings and gristle. Then put them into a stew-pan
with as much rich milk or cream as will cover them well, and a very
little salt. Stew them slowly, till tender throughout, and thoroughly
done, saving the liquid. Then take them up; cover them; and set them
near the fire to keep warm. Prepare a quarter of a pound of fresh
butter, divided into four pieces, and rolled in flour. Put the butter
into the milk in which the sweetbreads were boiled, and add a few sprigs
of parsley cut small; five or six blades of mace; half a nutmeg grated;
and a very little cayenne pepper. Have ready the yolks of three eggs
well-beaten. Return the sweetbreads to the gravy; let it just come to a
boil; and then stir in the beaten egg _immediately before_ you take the
fricassee from the fire, otherwise it will curdle. Serve it up in a deep
dish with a cover.

Chickens, cut up, may be fricasseed in this manner.


TOMATO SWEETBREADS.--Cut up a quarter of a peck (or more) of fine ripe
tomatoes; set them over the fire, and let them stew with nothing but
their own juice till they go entirely to pieces. Then press them through
a sieve, to clear the liquid from the seeds and skins. Have ready four
or five sweetbreads that have been trimmed nicely, cleared from the
gristle, and laid open to soak in warm water. Put them into a stew-pan
with the tomato-juice, seasoned with a little salt and cayenne. Add two
or three table-spoonfuls of butter rolled in flour. Set the sauce-pan
over the fire, and stew the sweetbreads in the tomato-juice till they
are thoroughly done. A few minutes before you take them off, stir in two
beaten yolks of eggs. Serve up the sweetbreads in a deep dish, with the
tomato poured over them.


SWEETBREADS AND CAULIFLOWERS.--Take four large sweetbreads, and two fine
cauliflowers. Split open the sweetbreads and remove the gristle. Soak
them awhile in lukewarm water. Then put them into a sauce-pan of boiling
water, and let them boil ten minutes over the fire. Afterwards, lay them
in a pan of very cold water. The parboiling will render them white; and
putting them directly from the hot water into the cold will give them
firmness. Having washed and drained the cauliflowers, quarter them, and
lay them in a broad stew-pan with the sweetbreads upon them, seasoned
with a very little cayenne, two or three blades of mace, and some
nutmeg. Add as much water as will cover them; put on closely the lid of
the pan; and let the whole stew for about an hour. Then take a quarter
of a pound of fresh butter, and roll it in a table-spoonful of flour.
Add it to the stew with a tea-cupfull of rich milk or cream; and give it
one boil up--not more, or the milk may curdle. Serve it hot in a deep
dish; the sweetbreads in the middle with the gravy poured over them, and
the quartered cauliflowers laid handsomely round. This stew will be
found delicious.

Broccoli may be thus stewed with sweetbreads.


STEWED SWEETBREADS WITH OYSTERS.--Take four fine sweetbreads; cut them
open; extract the gristle, and lay them in warm water till all the blood
is soaked out. Then transfer them to another vessel, and scald them with
boiling water, to render them white and firm. Cover them closely, and
let them boil ten minutes in the hot water. Then throw them directly
into a pan of cold water. Take them out when quite cold; drain them; and
put them into a stew-pan with the liquor of three dozen large fine
oysters seasoned with half a grated nutmeg, or more; and eight or ten
blades of mace. Add two ounces of fresh butter, mixed very smoothly with
a tea-spoonful of flour. Cover the pan; and let them stew gently for
half an hour or more. Then put in the oysters, and let them stew with
the sweetbreads a little more than five minutes. Lastly stir in a jill
(two wine-glasses) of cream, immediately before you take the stew from
the fire. Sent it to table in a deep dish with a slice of buttered toast
at the bottom.


CLAM SWEETBREADS may be stewed exactly as above, only that clams must be
substituted for oysters; the clams being cut up very small, and put in
at the _beginning_ along with the liquor, &c. The flavour they impart to
the stew is by many persons considered superior to that of oysters.

In stewing sweetbreads you may either divide them into halves or
quarters.

When cooked with oysters or clams they require no salt.

Sweetbreads should be large, fine, of a delicate colour, and _perfectly
fresh_; otherwise they are unfit to eat. They spoil sooner than any part
of the calf.


SWEETBREAD OMELET.--For an omelet of six or seven eggs, take two fine
sweetbreads. Split them; take out the gristle; and soak them in two
lukewarm waters, to extract all the blood. Then put them into very hot
water; boil them ten minutes; take them out; set them away to cool; and
afterwards mince them small, and season them with a very little salt and
cayenne pepper, and some grated nutmeg. Beat the eggs (omitting the
whites of two) till very light. Then mix in the chopped sweetbreads. Put
three ounces or more of fresh butter into a small frying-pan, and place
it over the fire. Stir the butter with a spoon, as it melts; and when it
comes to a boil, put in the mixture, stirring it awhile after it is all
in. Fry it a rich brown. Heat the plate or dish in which you turn it out
of the pan. An omelet should never be turned while frying. The top may
be well browned by holding about it a salamander or a red-hot shovel.

If you wish it very thick have _three_ sweetbreads.

While frying the omelet, lift the edge occasionally by slipping a
knife-blade under it, that the butter may get well beneath.

If the omelets are cooked too much they will become tough, and
leather-like. Many persons prefer having them sent to table as _soft
omelets_, before they have set, or taken the form of a cake. In this
case, serve up the omelet in a deep dish, and help it with a spoon.


A ROUND OF BEEF STEWED BROWN.--Take a round of fresh beef; the larger it
is the more tender it will be: a small round is always, comparatively,
hard and tough. Remove the fat; with a sharp knife make deep cuts or
incisions all over the meat, and stuff into them a seasoning of finely
minced onions, mixed with powdered mace, nutmeg, and a little pepper and
salt. Then go all over the meat with the drippings or cold gravy of
roast beef, and dredge it slightly with flour. Have ready an iron
dutch-oven and its lid, well heated by standing up both lid and oven
before the fire. Then put the meat into the oven, cover it, and let it
brown on all sides. Have ready, cut into small pieces, two turnips; four
carrots; four oyster plants or salsify; three stalks of celery; two
small onions; and two large tomatoes, or a large table-spoonful of
tomato catchup. After the meat is browned, raise it up, and place the
vegetables underneath it, and pour on three half-pints of water, or more
if the round is very large. Let it cook slowly in the oven, with a
regular fire, for several hours, till it is entirely done all through;
taking care to keep it closely covered. After the meat is taken out,
place it on a large hot dish, with the vegetables round it. Cover it,
and keep it hot while you thicken the gravy with a small tea-spoonful of
flour, and the beaten yolk of an egg. Simmer this gravy a few minutes,
then put it into a sauce-boat, and serve it up with the meat.

What is left will be very good stewed over again the next day, with
fresh vegetables; letting the meat cook no longer than till the
vegetables are sufficiently done. Observe this rule with all stews,
soups, hashes, &c., when cooked the second time.


STEWED BEEF STEAKS.--Take beef steaks from the sirloin. Cut them thin;
remove the fat and bone, and trim them nicely. Beat them well with a
beetle or a rolling-pin. Season them slightly with pepper and salt, and
spread them over some finely minced onions, or some chopped mushrooms.
Lay among them some bits of fresh butter rolled in flour. Put them into
a stew-pan with a very close cover, and without any water. Set the pan
not on the fire, but before it or beside it, (turning it round
frequently,) and let them stew slowly for two or three hours, or till
they are thoroughly done. Then serve them up in their own gravy.


A BEEF STEAK POT-PIE.--Remove the fat and bone from two pounds or more
of fine, tender beef steaks, and cut them into small pieces. Season them
slightly with a very little salt and pepper; put them into a pot with a
piece of fresh butter rolled in flour, and just water enough to cover
them. Let them stew slowly (skimming them as soon as the water comes to
a boil) for an hour. Boil in another pot some white potatoes, (a dozen
small or eight large ones,) cut into quarters. While the steak is
stewing, make a paste of finely minced beef-suet and flour, in the
proportion of a pound and a half of suet to three pounds of flour. For a
large pot-pie, you should have more than the above quantity of paste;
the paste being always considered the best part of the pie, and much
liked by those who eat it at all. Having rubbed the minced suet into the
pan of flour, add a very little salt, and as little water as will
suffice to make it into a lump of dough. Beat the dough hard on both
sides with the rolling-pin, to assist in making it light and flaky.
Divide the dough into two portions; roll out one sheet thicker than the
other. Line the sides of a clean iron pot about half-way or two-thirds
up with the thin paste. Then, having poured a little of the gravy into
the bottom of the pot, put in a layer of the half-stewed beef; then a
layer of the thick paste, cut into long squares. Then a layer of the
quartered potatoes; then meat; then paste; then potatoes, and so on till
the whole is in. Pour on the remainder of the gravy, and add also a pint
of warm water. Cover the whole with a sheet of thin paste for a top
crust, which must not fit closely round the edge, as there must be room
for the gravy to boil up over it. Then place the pot over a moderate
fire, and boil it for an hour and a half. Send it to table on a large
dish,--the meat, and potatoes, and soft crust in the middle, and the
hard crust cut into pieces and laid round. Serve up the gravy in a boat.

This pie will be much improved by a few fresh mushrooms, cut from the
stalks, peeled, and put in when the stewed meat is transferred to the
pie-pot.

A pot-pie of fowls or rabbits may be made as above.

If you prefer butter to suet for making the paste, allow half a pound of
fresh butter to each pound of flour. Cut up the butter into the pan of
flour, rub it fine with your hands, wet it with as little water as
possible, beat and roll it out as above.


BEEF STEAKS WITH MUSHROOMS.--Take four pounds of the best sirloin
steaks, cut thin. Season them with black pepper, and a very little salt.
Put four table-spoonfuls of butter into a frying-pan, and set it over
the fire. When it is quite hot, put in the steaks and let them brown.
Have ready a quart of mushrooms, stemmed and skinned, and moistened with
a pint of water, seasoned with a little pepper and salt, and thickened
slightly with a good dredging of flour. Pour it over the steaks in the
frying-pan, and then let them cook till thoroughly done.

Venison steaks will be found excellent dressed in this manner, but the
venison must be fresh.


MINCED BEEF.--Take the lean of some cold roast beef. Chop it very fine,
adding a small minced onion; and season it with pepper and salt. Put it
into a stew-pan, with some of the gravy that has been left from the day
before, and let it stew for a quarter of an hour. Then put it
(two-thirds full) into a deep dish. Fill up the dish with mashed
potatoes, heaped high in the centre, smoothed on the surface, and
browned with a salamander or a red-hot shovel.

Cold roast mutton or lamb may be minced as above, adding some
sweet-marjoram to the seasoning, and filling up the dish with mashed
turnips instead of potatoes.

Also, cold roast pork; flavouring the seasoning with a little chopped
sage. Cover the top with sweet potatoe, boiled and mashed, or with
apple-sauce, that has been stewed as thick as possible.


TO STEW COLD CORNED BEEF.--Cut about four pounds of lean from a cold
round of beef, that tastes but little of the salt. Lay it in a stew-pan,
with a quarter of a peck of tomatoes quartered, and the same quantity of
ochras sliced; also, two small onions peeled and sliced, and two ounces
of fresh butter rolled in flour. Add a tea-spoonful of whole
pepper-corns, (_no salt_,) and four or five blades of mace. Place it
over a steady but moderate fire. Cover it closely, and let it stew three
or four hours. The vegetables should be entirely dissolved. Serve it up
hot.

This is an excellent way of using up the remains of a cold round of beef
at the season of tomatoes and ochras, particularly when the meat has
been rather under-boiled the first day of cooking it.

A few pounds of the lean of a _fresh_ round of beef, will be still
better cooked in this manner, increasing the quantity of ochras and
tomatoes, and stewing it six hours.

Cold fillet of veal is very good stewed with tomatoes, ochras, and an
onion or two. Also, the thick or upper part of a cold leg of mutton; or
of pork, either fresh or corned.


TO STEW SMOKED BEEF.--The dried beef, for this purpose, must be fresh
and of the very best quality. Cut it (or rather shave it) into very
thin, small slices, with as little fat as possible. Put the beef into a
skillet, and fill up with boiling water. Cover it, and let it soak or
steep till the water is cold. Then drain off that water, and pour on
some more, but merely enough to cover the chipped beef, which you may
season with a little pepper. Set it over the fire, and (keeping on the
cover) let it stew for a quarter of an hour. Then roll a few bits of
butter in a little flour, and add it to the beef, with the yolk of one
or two beaten eggs. Let it stew five minutes longer. Take it up on a hot
dish, and send it to the breakfast or tea-table.

Cold ham may be sliced thin, and stewed in the same manner. Dried
venison also.


FRENCH BEEF.--Take a circular piece from the round, (having removed the
bone,) and trim it nicely from the fat, skin, &c. Then lard it all over
with long slips of fat pork or bacon. The place from whence the bone was
taken must be filled with a force-meat, made of minced suet; grated
bread-crumbs; sweet-marjoram rubbed fine; and grated lemon-peel; add a
little salt and pepper, and mix in the beaten yolk of an egg to bind
together the other ingredients. Tie a twine or tape closely round the
outside of the beef, to keep it compact, and in shape. Put it into a
broad earthen jar with a cover; or into an iron bake-oven. Add some
whole pepper; a large onion stuck over with a dozen cloves; a bunch of
sweet herbs; three bay-leaves; a quarter of a pound of butter, divided
into small bits, (each piece rolled in flour,) and half a pint of
claret, or port-wine. Bake or stew it thus in its own liquor, for five,
six, or seven hours, (in proportion to its size,) for it must be
thoroughly done, quite tender, and brown all through the inside. Serve
it up hot with the gravy round it. It is also very good when cold.

A fillet of veal may be cooked in this manner. Also a fillet of fresh
pork, cut from the upper part of a hind leg; or a fillet of fresh
venison.


BEEF OLIVES.--Take the lean of some cold roast beef; cut it into slices
about half an inch thick, and four inches square. They must all be of
the same size and shape. Trim the edges nicely. Make a force-meat of
grated bread-crumbs, finely-chopped beef-suet; minced onion; grated
nutmeg or powdered mace; sweet-marjoram leaves rubbed fine; a _very
little_ salt and pepper; and some beaten yolk of egg. Having mixed all
thoroughly together, spread very thickly a portion of the force-meat
upon each slice of the cold beef. Then roll them up, and tie every one
securely round with coarse thread or fine twine. Have ready some
roast-beef gravy left from the day before, or make a fresh gravy by
boiling, or rather stewing the beef bones with as little water as
possible. When the gravy is ready, strain it into a clean stew-pan; put
in the beef olives; cover the pan, and let them stew slowly for half an
hour. Serve them up with their gravy. Remove the strings before the
olives go to table.

Veal olives may be made in the above manner, with a cold roast fillet of
veal, and veal gravy.


A PLAIN STEW.--Cut steaks from a sirloin or a tender round of beef,
omitting the fat and bone. Season them with pepper and a little salt.
Put them into a pot, and to three pounds of meat allow a quart of water.
When it has simmered for an hour, and been well skimmed, mix among it a
dozen potatoes, and half a dozen turnips, all pared and quartered; and
(if you like them) two onions sliced thin. If the stew appears too dry,
pour in a little _boiling_ water from a kettle. Let it stew slowly with
the vegetables another hour, or till the whole is perfectly tender.
Serve it up with the vegetables round it on a large dish.

Beef stewed with parsnips only is very good.

Lamb or veal cutlets may be stewed in this manner.

A fillet or round of fresh pork is excellent stewed with sweet potatoes,
which must be scraped or pared, and split in half.


BEEF’S TONGUE STEWED.--Take a fresh beef’s tongue of the largest size.
Remove the little bones, skin, &c., from about the root, and trim it
nicely. Take a table-spoonful each of salt, pepper, and powdered cloves,
and mix them all together. Rub the tongue well all over with this
seasoning. Lay it in a deep earthen pan, cover it with the best cider
vinegar, and let it stand three days, turning it frequently, and keeping
it closely covered. Then (having wiped off all the seasoning) put the
tongue into a stew-pot, and add half a pint of water--not more--and stew
it slowly till quite done. Have ready some force-meat balls, made with
minced veal, mixed with the ingredients usual in force-meat. Put in the
balls about twenty minutes before you take up the tongue. When it is
thoroughly done, and tender all through, peel it, and send it to table
with the force-meat balls round it.


BAKED TONGUE.--Take a large smoked tongue, put it into warm water and
soak it all day. Change the water in the evening, and then let it remain
in soak all night. Before you cook it, trim the root handsomely. Make a
coarse paste or dough, merely of flour and water, as it is not to be
eaten. Roll it out thin, and enclose the tongue in it. Put it into an
oven, and bake it slowly. It will require four hours or more. When you
think it is done, break a little of the paste just over the thickest
part, and try it by sticking a fork through it. If not perfectly tender,
let it bake a while longer. When quite done, remove the paste, and
either serve up the tongue, or set it away to get cold. This is the best
way of cooking a tongue to be eaten cold. If to be eaten warm, send it
to table surrounded with mashed potatoes, and the root concealed with
parsley sprigs. The best way to carve a tongue, is to cut it across in
round slices, beginning at the middle. If cut lengthways the flavour
will be impaired. Nevertheless, if you have two tongues, and wish to
make a large handsome-looking dish of them, (having first removed the
root,) split one lengthways, and lay the two halves spread open and near
together on a bed of mashed potatoes; and cut the other tongue into
circular slices. Arrange these slices in a handsome form or pattern all
round the split tongue that occupies the centre of the mashed potatoe;
and decorate the whole with sprigs of double parsley. If the tongues are
cold, instead of mashed potatoe, lay them on a bed of salad-dressed
lettuce, cut or chopped very small; or on chopped celery, dressed as
lettuce.


FILLET OF PORK.--Cut a fillet or round, handsomely and evenly, from a
fine leg of fresh pork. Remove the bone. Make a stuffing or force-meat
of grated bread-crumbs; butter; a tea-spoonful of sweet-marjoram or
tarragon leaves; and sage leaves enough to make a small table-spoonful,
when minced or rubbed fine; all well mixed, and slightly seasoned with
pepper and salt. Add some beaten yolk of egg to bind the whole together;
then stuff it closely into the hole from whence the bone was taken.
Score the skin of the pork in circles to go all round the fillet. These
circles should be very close together, or not quite half an inch apart.
Rub into them, slightly, a little powdered sage. Put it on the spit, and
roast it well, till it is thoroughly done throughout; as pork, if the
least underdone, is not fit to eat. Place it for the first hour not very
close to the fire, that the meat may get well heated all through, before
the skin begins to harden so as to prevent the heat from penetrating
sufficiently. Then set it as near the fire as it can be placed without
danger of scorching. Keep it roasting steadily with a bright, good,
regular fire, for two or three hours, or longer still if it is a large
fillet. It may require near four hours. Baste it at the beginning with
sweet oil (which will make the skin very crisp) or with lard.
Afterwards, baste it with its own gravy. When done, skim the fat from
the gravy, and then dredge in a little flour to thicken it. Send the
pork to table with the gravy in a boat; and a small tureen of
apple-sauce, made very thick, flavoured with lemon, and sweetened well.

A fillet of pork is excellent stewed slowly in a very little water,
having in the same stew-pot some sweet potatoes, peeled, split, and cut
into long pieces. If stewed, put _no sage_ in the stuffing; and remove
the skin of the pork. This is an excellent family dish in the autumn.


ITALIAN PORK.--Take a nice leg of fresh pork; rub it well with fine
salt, and let it lie in the salt for a week or ten days. When you wish
to cook it, put the pork into a large pot with just sufficient water to
cover it; and let it simmer, slowly, during four hours; skimming it
well. Then take it out, and lay it on a large dish. Pour the water from
the pot into an earthen pan; skim it, and let it cool while you are
skinning the pork. Then put into the pot, a pint of good cider vinegar,
mixed with half a pound of brown sugar, and a pint of the water in
which the pork has been boiled, and from which all the fat has been
carefully skimmed off. Put in the pork with the upper side towards the
bottom of the pot. Set it again over the fire, (which must first be
increased,) and heat the inside of the pot-lid by standing it upright
against the front of the fire. Then cover the pot closely, and let the
pork stew for an hour and a half longer; basting it frequently with the
liquid around it, and keeping the pot-lid as hot as possible that the
meat may be well browned. When done, the pork will have somewhat the
appearance of being coated with molasses. Serve up the gravy with it.
What is left of the meat may be sliced cold for breakfast or luncheon.

You may stew with it when the pork is put into the pot a second time,
some large chesnuts, previously boiled and peeled. Or, instead of
chesnuts, sweet potatoes, scraped, split, and cut into small pieces.


PORK OLIVES.--Cut slices from a fillet or leg of cold fresh pork. Make a
force-meat in the usual manner, only substituting for sweet herbs some
sage-leaves chopped fine. When the slices are covered with the
force-meat, and rolled up and tied round, stew them slowly either in
cold gravy left of the pork, or in fresh lard. Drain them well before
they go to table. Serve them up on a bed of mashed turnips or potatoes,
or of mashed sweet potatoes, if in season.


PIGS’ FEET FRIED.--Pigs’ feet are frequently used for jelly, instead of
calves’ feet. They are very good for this purpose, but a larger number
is required (from eight to ten or twelve) to make the jelly sufficiently
firm. After they have been boiled for jelly, extract the bones, and put
the meat into a deep dish; cover it with some good cider-vinegar,
seasoned with sugar and a little salt and cayenne. Then cover the dish,
and set it away for the night. Next morning, take out the meat, and
having drained it well from the vinegar, put it into a frying-pan in
which some lard has just come to a boil, and fry it for a breakfast
dish.


CONNECTICUT SAUSAGE-MEAT.--To fifteen pounds of the lean of fresh pork,
allow five pounds of the fat. Having removed the skin, sinews, and
gristle, chop both the fat and lean as fine as possible, and mix them
well together. Rub to a powder sufficient sage-leaves to make four
ounces when done. Mix the sage with three ounces of fine salt, two
ounces of brown sugar, an ounce of powdered black pepper, and a quarter
of an ounce of cayenne. Add this seasoning to the chopped pork, and mix
it thoroughly. Pack the sausage-meat down, hard and closely, into stone
jars, which must be kept in a cool place, and well covered. When wanted
for use, make some of it into small, flat cakes, dredge them with flour,
and fry them well. The fat that exudes from the sausage-cakes, while
frying, will be sufficient to cook them in.


A FINE VENISON PIE.--Cut steaks from a loin, or haunch of venison, which
should be as freshly killed as you can get it. The strange prejudice in
favour of hard, black-looking venison, that has been kept till the
juices are all dried up, is fast subsiding; the preference is now given
to that which has been newly killed, whenever it can be obtained. Those
who have eaten venison fresh from the woods, will never again be able to
relish it in the state in which it is brought to the Atlantic cities.

Having removed the bones, and seasoned it with a little salt and pepper,
put the venison into a pot, with barely as much water as will cover it,
and let it stew till perfectly tender, skimming it occasionally. Then
take it out, and set it to cool, saving the gravy in a bowl. Make a
light paste, in the proportion of three quarters of a pound of fresh
butter to a pound and a half of flour. Divide the paste into two
portions, and roll it out rather thick. Butter a deep dish, and line it
with one of the sheets of paste. Then put in the venison. Season the
gravy with a glass of _very good_ wine, either red or white, a few
blades of mace, and a powdered nutmeg. Stir into it the crumbled yolks
of some hard-boiled eggs. Pour the gravy over the meat, and put on the
other sheet of paste as the lid of the pie. Notch it handsomely round
the edges, and bake it well. If a steady heat is kept up, it will be
done in an hour. Send it to table hot.

Instead of wine, you may put into the gravy a glass of currant-jelly.

Any sort of game may be made into a pie, in the above manner.


A VERY PLAIN VENISON PIE.--Cut from the bone some good pieces of fresh
venison; season them a little with salt and pepper, and put them into a
pot, with plenty of sliced potatoes, (either white or sweet,) and barely
as much water as will cover the whole. Set it over the fire, and let it
stew slowly, till the meat is tender, and the potatoes also. Make a
paste of flour shortened with cold gravy, or drippings saved from roast
venison. The fat must be removed from the surface of the cold gravy, of
which you may allow half a pint to each pound of flour. Mix half the
shortening with the flour, using a broad knife or a spoon for the
purpose, and adding gradually sufficient cold water to make it into a
stiff dough. Beat the lump of dough well on all sides, with the
rolling-pin. Then take it out of the pan, roll it into a thick sheet,
and spread evenly over it with a knife the remainder of the drippings.
Flour it, fold it up, beat it with the rolling-pin, let it rest a short
time, and then roll it out again. Divide it into two sheets; grease a
pie-dish, and line the bottom and sides with one sheet. Put in the
venison and potatoes, with a portion of the gravy. Lay on the other
sheet of paste, as a lid, and crimp the edges. Set the pie into the
oven, and bake it brown. Eat it either hot or cold.

If you have no cold venison drippings, use drippings of cold roast-beef;
or an equal mixture of lard and butter.

A beef-pie may be made as above.

Mutton-pies are not recommended; as mutton cooked in a pie is entirely
too strong. The fat or drippings of mutton should _never_ be used in any
sort of cooking, as it tastes exactly like tallow, which it really is.

The above quantity of paste is only sufficient for a small pie. Paste
for meat-pies should be made very thick.

An excellent pot-pie may be made with venison and potatoes previously
stewed together. Boiled paste is always best when shortened with minced
suet. Beef-suet is superior to any other.


A VENISON PUDDING.--Take nice steaks of _fresh_ venison; season them
slightly with salt and pepper; put them into a pot, with a piece of
fresh butter, and stew them in barely sufficient water to keep them from
scorching. When they are quite tender, take them, up; cut all the meat
from the bones, and set it to cool. Save the gravy, and when cold
carefully remove all the fat from the surface. Prepare a paste, in the
proportion of three quarters of a pound of beef-suet, finely minced, to
two pounds of flour. Rub the suet thoroughly into the flour, adding a
small salt-spoon of salt, and sufficient cold water to moisten it into
a stiff dough. Beat the lump of dough, on all sides, with the
rolling-pin, to increase the lightness of the paste. Roll it out thick;
put the venison into it; and pour on enough of the gravy to wet the meat
all through. Then close over the paste, so as to form a large dumpling,
with the venison in the middle. Have ready a thick pudding-cloth, that
has been dipped in boiling water, shaken out, dredged with flour, and
spread open in a broad pan. Place the pudding in the cloth, tie it
firmly, leaving room for the pudding to swell; and, to prevent the water
getting in, stop up the tying-place with a bit of coarse dough. Lay an
old plate at the bottom of a large pot of boiling water; put in the
pudding, and keep it boiling steadily for an hour or more, turning it
several times. When done, dip it into cold water, untie the cloth, and
turn out the pudding. Send it to table hot.

A beef-steak pudding may be made as above.

You may make the crust of fresh butter, instead of suet; allowing a
pound of butter to two pounds, or two quarts of flour.


VENISON CHESNUT PUDDING.--Take some steaks of fresh-killed venison;
season them slightly with pepper and salt. Have ready a sufficient
quantity of large chesnuts, boiled and peeled. Make a crust of flour and
suet, in the proportion of three quarters of a pound of finely minced
suet to two pounds of flour. Roll it out thick, in two pieces, and place
on one piece the venison and chesnuts, in alternate layers. Pour on a
little water. Cover it with the other piece of paste, uniting it closely
round the edges. Put it into a strong pudding-cloth; tie it tightly, and
plaster the tying-place with a lump of flour and water. Put the pudding
into a pot of boiling water, and boil it four hours.

For the chesnuts, you may substitute cold, boiled sweet potatoes, cut
into round, thick slices.

This is an excellent pudding in a venison country; but the meat must be
very fresh and juicy. The paste may be made with butter.


FRENCH STEW OF RABBITS.--Having cut up the rabbits, lay the pieces in
cold water, to soak out the blood. Then wash them through another water.
Season them with a little pepper, some powdered mace and nutmeg, and the
yellow rind of a lemon grated. Put them into a jar, or a wide-mouthed
pitcher, adding some chopped celery, sweet-marjoram, and tarragon
leaves. Intersperse them with a few small thin slices of cold ham or
smoked tongue, and add a tea-cup full of water and two glasses of white
wine. Cover the jar very closely, so that none of the flavour may escape
with the steam; set it over the fire in a large kettle of cold water,
and let it stew slowly two hours. When nearly done, add some pieces of
butter rolled in flour.

Hares may be stewed in the same manner; also, fresh venison.

For the wine, you may substitute two wine-glasses of rich cream.


TONGUE TOAST.--Take a cold smoked tongue that has been well boiled; and
grate it with a coarse grater, or mince it fine. Mix it with cream, and
beaten yolk of egg; and give it a simmer over the fire. Having first cut
off all the crust, toast very nicely some slices of bread; and then
butter them rather slightly. Lay them in a flat dish that has been
heated before the fire; and cover each slice of toast thickly with the
tongue-mixture, spread on hot; and send them to table covered. This is a
nice breakfast or supper dish.

For tongue, you may substitute cold ham finely minced.


BISCUIT SANDWICHES.--Split some light _soft_ milk biscuits (or small
French rolls) and butter them. Cover the lower half thickly with grated
ham, or smoked tongue; pressing it down upon the butter. Then put on the
upper half or lid; pressing that on, to make it stick. Pile the biscuits
handsomely in a pyramid upon a flat dish, and place among them, at
regular distances, green sprigs of pepper-grass, corn-salad,
water-cresses, or curled parsley, allowing four or six to each biscuit.
Put in the sprigs between the upper and lower halves of the biscuits, so
that they may stick out at the edges.

To make more space for the grated ham, you may scoop out a little of the
inside of the upper-half of each milk biscuit or roll. They should be
fresh, of that day’s baking.

This is a nice supper-dish.


POTTED HAM.--Take some cold ham, slice it, and mince it small, fat and
lean together. Then pound it in a mortar; seasoning it as you proceed
with cayenne pepper, powdered mace, and powdered nutmeg. Then fill with
it a large deep pan, and set it in an oven for half an hour. Afterwards
pack it down hard in a stone jar, and fill up the jar with lard. Cover
it closely, and paste down a thick paper over the jar. If sufficiently
seasoned, it will keep well in winter; and is convenient for sandwiches,
or on the tea-table. A jar of this will be found useful to travellers in
remote places.


A FRENCH HAM PIE.--Having soaked and boiled a small ham, and taken out
the bone, trim the ham nicely so as to make it a good shape; and of the
bone and trimmings make a rich gravy, by stewing them in a sauce-pan
with a little water; carefully skimming off the fat. Make a sufficient
quantity of force-meat, out of cold roast chicken or veal, minced suet,
grated bread-crumbs, butter, pepper, chopped sweet-marjoram or tarragon;
and grated lemon-peel, adding the lemon-juice, and some beaten egg. Mix
the ingredients thoroughly. You may add some chopped oysters.

Having made a standing crust, allowing to two pounds of flour half a
pound of butter, and a pound of minced suet, wetted to a paste with
boiling water, put in the ham, (moistening it with the gravy,) and fill
in all the vacancies with the force-meat, having a layer of force-meat
at the bottom and top. Then put on the lid, pinching the edges together
so as to close them well. Brush the paste all over with beaten yolk of
egg; then put on the ornamental flowers and leaves that have been cut
out of the dough. Bake it three or four hours. It may be eaten warm, but
is generally preferred cold. It keeps well, if carefully secluded from
the air.


TONGUE PIE is made as above; only substituting a smoked tongue for the
ham. The tongue must be nicely trimmed and peeled, and the root minced
fine, and mixed with the veal or chicken force-meat.

Either of these pies may be made and baked in deep dishes, and with
paste made in the usual way of butter and flour, wetted with a little
cold water.


HAM TOAST.--Grate a sufficiency of the lean of cold ham. Mix some beaten
yolk of egg with a little cream, and thicken it with the grated ham.
Then put the mixture into a sauce-pan over the fire, and let it simmer
awhile. Have ready some slices of bread nicely toasted (all the crust
being pared off) and well buttered. Spread it over thickly with the ham
mixture, and send it to table warm.



POULTRY, GAME, ETC.


CHICKENS STEWED WHOLE.--Having trussed a pair of fine fat young fowls or
chickens, (with the liver under one wing, and the gizzard under the
other,) fill the inside with large oysters, secured from falling out, by
fastening tape round the bodies of the fowls. Put them into a tin
butter-kettle with a close cover. Set the kettle into a larger pot or
sauce-pan of boiling water, (which must not reach quite to the top of
the kettle,) and place it over the fire. Keep it boiling till the fowls
are well done, which they should be in about an hour after they begin to
simmer. Occasionally take off the lid to remove the scum; and be sure to
put it on again closely. As the water in the outside pot boils away,
replenish it with more _hot_ water from a tea-kettle that is kept
boiling hard. When the fowls are stewed quite tender, remove them from
the fire; take from them all the gravy that is about them, and put it
into a small sauce-pan, covering closely the kettle in which they were
stewed, and leaving the fowls in it to keep warm. Then add to the gravy
two table-spoonfuls of butter rolled in flour; two table-spoonfuls of
chopped oysters; the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs minced fine; half a
grated nutmeg; four blades of mace; and a small tea-cup of cream. Boil
this gravy about five minutes. Put the fowls on a dish, and send them to
table, accompanied by the gravy in a sauce-boat. This is an excellent
way of cooking chickens.


FOWL AND OYSTERS.--Take a fine fat young fowl, and having trussed it for
boiling, fill the body and crop with oysters, seasoned with a few blades
of mace; tying it round with twine to keep them in. Put the fowl into a
tall strait-sided jar, and cover it closely. Then place the jar in a
kettle of water; set it over the fire, and let it boil at least an hour
and a half after the water has come to a hard boil. When it is done,
take out the fowl, and keep it hot while you prepare the gravy, of which
you will find a quantity in the jar. Transfer this gravy to a sauce-pan;
enrich it with the beaten yolks of two eggs, mixed with three
table-spoonfuls of cream; and add a large table-spoonful of fresh butter
rolled in flour. If you cannot get cream, you must have a double portion
of butter. Set this sauce over the fire; stirring it well; and when it
comes to a boil, add twenty oysters chopped small. In five minutes take
it off; put it into a sauce-boat, and serve it up with the fowl, which
cooked in this manner will be found excellent.

Clams may be substituted for oysters; but they should be removed from
the fowl before it is sent to table. Their flavour being drawn out into
the gravy, the clams themselves will be found tough, tasteless, and not
proper to be eaten.


FRENCH CHICKEN PIE.--Parboil a pair of full-grown, but fat and tender
chickens. Then take the giblets, and put them into a small sauce-pan
with as much of the water in which the chickens were parboiled as will
cover them well, and stew them for gravy; add a bunch of sweet herbs and
a few blades of mace. When the chickens are cold, dissect them as if for
carving. Line a deep dish with thick puff-paste, and put in the pieces
of chicken. Take a nice thin slice of cold ham, or two slices of smoked
tongue, and pound them one at a time in a marble mortar, pounding also
the livers of the chickens, and the yolks of half a dozen hard-boiled
eggs. Make this force-meat into balls, and intersperse them among the
pieces of chicken. Add some bits of fresh butter rolled in flour, and
then (having removed the giblets) pour on the gravy. Cover the pie with
a lid of puff-paste, rolled out thick; and notch the edges handsomely;
placing a knot or ornament of paste on the centre of the top. Set it
directly into a well-heated oven, and bake it brown. It should be eaten
warm.

This pie will be greatly improved by a pint of mushrooms, cut into
pieces. Also by a small tea-cup of cream.

Any pie of poultry, pigeons, or game may be made in this manner.


CHICKEN GUMBO.--Cut up a young fowl as if for a fricassee. Put into a
stew-pan a large table-spoonful of fresh butter, mixed with a
tea-spoonful of flour, and an onion finely minced. Brown them over the
fire, and then add a quart of water, and the pieces of chicken, with a
large quarter of a peck of ochras, (first sliced thin, and then
chopped,) and a salt-spoon of salt. Cover the pan, and let the whole
stew together till the ochras are entirely dissolved, and the fowl
thoroughly done. If it is a very young chicken, do not put it in at
first; as half an hour will be sufficient to cook it. Serve it up hot in
a deep dish.

A cold fowl may be used for this purpose.

You may add to the ochras an equal quantity of tomatoes cut small. If
you use tomatoes, no water will be necessary, as their juice will supply
a sufficient liquid.


TOMATO CHICKEN.--Take four small chickens or two large ones, and cut
them up as for carving. Put them into a stew-pan, with one or two large
slices of cold boiled ham cut into little bits; eight or ten large
tomatoes; an onion sliced; a bunch of pot-herbs, (cut up;) a small green
pepper, (the seeds and veins first extracted;) half a dozen blades of
mace; a table-spoonful of lard, or of fresh butter rolled in flour; and
two pounded crackers, or a handful of grated bread-crumbs. Add a tumbler
or half a pint of water. Cover the sauce-pan closely with a cloth
beneath the lid; set it on hot coals, or over a moderate fire; and let
it stew slowly till the chickens are thoroughly done, and the tomatoes
entirely dissolved. Turn it out into a deep dish.

Rabbits may be stewed in this manner. Also, veal steaks, cut thin and
small.


TURKEY AND CHICKEN PATTIES.--Take the white part of some cold turkey or
chicken, and mince it very fine. Mince also some cold boiled ham or
smoked tongue, and then mix the turkey and ham together. Add the yolks
of some hard-boiled eggs, grated or minced; a very little cayenne; and
some powdered mace and nutmeg. Moisten the whole with cream or fresh
butter. Have ready some puff-paste shells, that have been baked empty in
patty-pans. Place them on a large dish, and fill them with the mixture.

Cold fillet of veal minced, and mixed with chopped ham, and grated yolk
of egg, and seasoned as above, will make very good patties.


CHICKEN RICE PUDDING.--Parboil a fine fowl, and cut it up. Boil, till
soft and dry, a pint of rice; and while warm, mix with it a large
table-spoonful of fresh butter. Beat four eggs very light; and then mix
them, gradually, with the rice. Spread a coating of the rice, &c., over
the bottom and sides of a deep dish. Place on it the pieces of the
parboiled fowl, with a little of the liquid in which it was
boiled--seasoned with powdered mace and nutmeg. Add some bits of fresh
butter rolled in flour, and a little cream. Cover the dish closely with
the remainder of the rice; set the pudding immediately into the oven and
bake it brown.

Cold chicken or turkey cooked the day before may be used for this
purpose. The pudding may be improved by the addition of a few very thin,
small slices of cold ham or smoked tongue.


RICE CROQUETTES.--Boil half a pound of rice till it becomes quite soft
and dry. Then mix with it two table-spoonfuls of rich (but not strong)
grated cheese, a small tea-spoonful of powdered mace, and sufficient
fresh butter to moisten it. Mince very fine six table-spoonfuls of the
white part of cold chicken or turkey, the soft parts of six large
oysters, and a sprig or two of tarragon or parsley; add a grated nutmeg,
and the yellow rind of a lemon. Mix the whole well, moistening it with
cream or white wine. Take of the prepared rice a portion about the size
of an egg, flatten it, and put into the centre a dessert-spoonful of the
mixture; close the rice round it as you would the paste round a
dumpling-apple. Then form it into the shape of an egg. Brush it over
with some beaten yolk of egg, and then dredge it with pounded crackers.
In this way make up the whole into oval balls. Have ready, in a
sauce-pan over the fire, a pound of boiling lard. Into this throw the
croquettes, two at a time, so as to brown them. Let them brown for a few
minutes; then take them out with a perforated skimmer. Drain them from
the lard, and serve them up hot, garnished with curled parsley.


COLUMBUS EGGS.--Take twelve hard-boiled eggs. Peel off the shells, and
cut the eggs into equal halves; cutting off also a little piece from
each of the ends to enable them to stand alone, in the form of cups.
Chop the yolks, and with them mix cold ham or smoked tongue, minced as
finely as possible. Moisten the mixture with cream, (or a little fresh
butter,) and season it with powdered mace or nutmeg. Fill with it the
cups or empty whites of the eggs, (being careful not to break them;)
pressing the mixture down, and smoothing it nicely. Arrange them on a
dish; putting two halves close together, and standing them upright, so
as to look like whole eggs.


WHITE FRICASSEE.--Cut a pair of chickens into pieces, as for carving;
and wash them through two or three waters. Then lay them in a large pan,
sprinkle them slightly with salt, and fill up the pan with boiling
water. Cover it, and let the chickens stand for half an hour. Then put
them immediately into a stew-pan; adding a few blades of mace, and a few
whole pepper-corns, and a handful of celery, split thin and chopped
finely; also, a small white onion sliced. Pour on cold milk and water
(mixed in equal portions) sufficient to cover the chickens well. Cover
the stew-pan, set it over the fire, and let it stew till the chickens
are thoroughly done, and quite tender. While the chickens are stewing,
prepare, in a smaller sauce-pan, a gravy or sauce made as follows:--Mix
two tea-spoonfuls of flour with as much cold water as will make it like
a batter, and stir it till quite smooth and free from lumps. Then add to
it, gradually, half a pint of boiling milk. Next put in a quarter of a
pound of fresh butter, cut into small pieces. Set it over hot coals, and
stir it till it comes to a boil, and the butter is well melted and mixed
throughout. Then take it off the fire, and, while it is hot, stir in a
glass of madeira or sherry, and four table-spoonfuls of rich cream, and
some grated nutmeg. Lastly, take the chickens out of the stew-pan, and
pour off all the liquor, &c. Return the chicken to the stew-pan, and
pour over it, hot, the above-mentioned gravy. Cover the pan closely, and
let it stand in a hot place, or in a kettle of boiling water for ten
minutes. Then send it to table in a covered dish.

To the taste of many persons, this fricassee will be improved by adding
to the chicken, while stewing, some small, thin slices of cold boiled
ham.

Rabbits or veal may be fricasseed in the above manner.


BROWN FRICASSEE.--Half roast a pair of ducks. Then cut them apart, as
for carving. If they are wild-ducks, parboil them with a large carrot
(cut to pieces) inside of each, to draw out the fishy or sedgy taste.
Having thrown away the carrot, cut the ducks into pieces, as for
carving. Put them into a clean stew-pan, and season them with pepper and
salt. Mix in a deep dish a very small onion minced fine, a
table-spoonful of minced or powdered tarragon-leaves, (for which you may
substitute sage and sweet-marjoram, if you cannot procure tarragon,) and
two or three large tomatoes, scalded, peeled, and quartered, or two
large table-spoonfuls of thick tomato catchup. Put in, also, two
table-spoonfuls of fresh butter rolled in grated bread-crumbs, and a
glass of port wine, claret, or brandy, with a small tea-spoonful of
powdered mace. Cover the pieces of duck with this mixture, and then add
barely as much water as will keep the whole from burning. Cover the pan
closely, and let the fricassee stew slowly for an hour, or till the
duck, &c., are thoroughly done.

Venison or lamb cutlets may be fricasseed in this manner. Likewise, tame
fat pigeons, which must previously be split in two. This, also, is a
very nice way of dressing hares or rabbits.


STEWED WILD DUCKS.--Having rubbed them slightly with salt, and parboiled
them for about twenty minutes with a large carrot (cut to pieces) in
each, to take off the sedgy or fishy taste, remove the carrots, cut up
the ducks, and put them into a stew-pan with just sufficient water to
cover them, and some bits of butter rolled slightly in flour. Cover the
pan closely; and let the ducks stew for a quarter of an hour or more.
Have ready a mixture in the proportion of a wine-glass of sherry or
madeira; the grated yellow rind and the juice of a large lemon or
orange, and one large table-spoonful of powdered loaf-sugar. Pour this
over the ducks, and let them stew in it about five minutes longer. Then
serve them up in a deep dish with the gravy about them. Eat the stewed
duck on hot plates with heaters under them.

Cold roast duck that has been under-done is very fine stewed as above.
Venison also, and wild geese.


TO ROAST CANVAS-BACK DUCKS.--Having trussed the ducks, put into each a
thick piece of soft bread that has been soaked in port wine. Place them
before a quick fire and roast them from three quarters to an hour.
Before they go to table, squeeze over each the juice of a lemon or
orange; and serve them up very hot with their own gravy about them. Eat
them with currant jelly. Have ready also a gravy made by stewing slowly
in a sauce-pan the giblets of the ducks in butter rolled in flour and as
little water as possible. Serve up this additional gravy in a boat.


CANVAS-BACK DUCKS DRESSED PLAIN.--Truss the ducks without washing; but
wipe them inside and out with a clean dry cloth. Roast them before a
rather quick fire for half an hour. Then send them to table hot, upon a
large dish placed on a heater. There must also be heaters under each
plate, and currant jelly on both sides of the table, to mix with the
gravy, on your plate; claret or port wine also, for those who prefer it
as an improvement to the gravy.


TO STEW CANVAS-BACK DUCKS.--Put the giblets into a sauce-pan with the
yellow rind of a lemon pared thin, a very little water, and a piece of
butter rolled in flour, and a very little salt and cayenne. Let them
stew gently to make a gravy; keeping the sauce-pan covered. In the mean
time, half roast the ducks, saving the gravy that falls from them. Then
cut them up; put them into a large stew-pan, with the gravy (having
first skimmed off the fat) and merely water enough to keep them from
burning. Set the pan over a moderate fire, and let them stew gently till
done. Towards the last (having removed the giblets) pour over the ducks
the gravy from the small sauce-pan, and stir in a large glass of port
wine, and a glass of currant jelly. Send them to table as hot as
possible.

Any ducks may be stewed as above. The common wild-ducks, teal, &c.,
should always be parboiled with a large carrot in the body to extract
the fishy or sedgy taste. On tasting this carrot before it is thrown
away, it will be found to have imbibed strongly that disagreeable
flavour.


PARTRIDGES IN PEARS.--Cut off the necks of the partridges close to the
breast. Truss them very tight and round, and rub over them a little salt
and cayenne pepper mixed. Cut off one of the legs, and leave the other
on. Make a rich paste of flour, butter, and beaten yolk of egg, with as
little water as possible. Roll it out thin and evenly, and put a portion
of it nicely round each partridge, pressing it on closely with your
hand, and forming it into the shape of a large pear. Leave one leg
sticking out at the top to resemble the stem. Set them in a pan; and
bake them in a dutch oven. In the mean time, make in a small sauce-pan,
a rich brown gravy of the livers, and other trimmings of the partridges,
and some drippings of roast veal or roasted poultry. It will be better
still if you reserve one or two small partridges to cut up, and stew for
the gravy. Season it with a little salt and cayenne. When it has boiled
long enough to be very thick and rich, take it off, strain it, and put
the liquid into a clean sauce-pan. Add the juice of a large orange or
lemon, made very sweet with powdered white sugar. Set it over the fire;
and when it comes to a boil, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs. Let
it boil two or three minutes longer; then take it off, and keep it hot
till the partridges and their paste are thoroughly well-baked. When
done, stand up the partridges in a deep dish, and serve up the gravy in
a sauce-boat. Ornament the partridge-pears by sticking some orange or
lemon leaves into the end that represents the stalk. This is a nice and
handsome side dish, of French origin.

Pigeons and quails may be dressed in this manner.


SALMI OF PARTRIDGES, (_French dish_.)--Having covered two large or four
small partridges with very thin slices of fat cold ham, secured with
twine, roast them; but see that they are not too much done. Remove the
ham, skin the partridges, cut them into pieces, and let them get quite
cold. Partridges that have been roasted the preceding day are good for
this purpose. Cut off all the meat from the bones, season it with a
little cayenne, and put it into a stew-pan. Mix together three
table-spoonfuls of sweet oil; a glass of excellent wine (either red or
white) and the grated peel and juice of a lemon. Pour this gravy over
the partridges, and let them stew in it during ten minutes; the add the
beaten yolk of an egg, and stew it about three or four minutes longer.
All the time it is stewing, continue to shake or move the pan over the
fire. Serve it up hot.


A NICE WAY OF COOKING GAME.--Pheasants, partridges, quails, grouse,
plovers, &c., are excellent stuffed with chesnuts: boiled, peeled, and
mashed or pounded. Cover the birds with very thin slices of cold ham;
then enclose them in vine-leaves tied on securely so as to keep in the
gravy. Lay them in a deep dish, and bake them in a close oven that has
nothing else in it, (for instance an iron dutch oven,) that the game may
imbibe no other flavour. When done, remove the ham and the vine leaves,
and dish the birds with the gravy that is about them.

Pheasants are unfit to eat after the first snow, as they then, for want
of other food, are apt to feed on wild laurel berries, which give their
flesh a disagreeably bitter taste, and are said to have sometimes
produced deleterious effects on persons who have eaten it.


BIRDS WITH MUSHROOMS.--Take two dozen reed-birds, (or other nice small
birds,) and truss them as if for roasting. Put into each a
button-mushroom; of which you should have a heaping pint after the
stalks are all removed. Put the birds, and the remaining mushrooms into
a stew-pan. Season them with a very little salt and pepper, and add
either a quarter of a pound of fresh butter (divided into four, and
slightly rolled in flour) or a pint of rich cream. If cream is not
plenty, you may use half butter and half cream, well mixed together.
Cover the stew-pan closely, and set it over a moderate fire, to stew
gently till the birds and mushrooms are thoroughly done and tender all
through. Do not open the lid to stir the stew; but give the pan,
occasionally, a hard shake. Have ready on a dish a thin slice of
buttered toast with the crust all cut off. When done, lay the birds on
the toast with the mushrooms all round.

If you cannot get button-mushrooms, divide large ones into quarters.

Plovers are very nice stewed with mushrooms.


BIRDS IN A GROVE, (_French dish._)--Having roasted some reed-birds,
larks, plovers, or any other small birds, such as are usually eaten,
mash some potatoes with butter or cream. Spread the mashed potatoe
thickly over the bottom, sides, and edges of a deep dish. Nick or crimp
the border of potatoe that goes round the edge; or scollop it with a tin
cutter. You may, if you choose, brown it by holding over it a
salamander, or a red-hot shovel. Then lay the roasted birds in the
middle of the dish, and stick round them and among them, very thickly a
sufficient number of sprigs of curled or double parsley.


THATCHED HOUSE PIE, (_French dish._)--Rub the inside of a deep dish with
two ounces of fresh butter, and spread over it two ounces of vermicelli.
Then line the dish with puff-paste. Have ready some birds seasoned with
powdered nutmeg and a very little salt and pepper. Place them with their
breasts downward. They will be much improved by putting into each a
mushroom or an oyster chopped fine. Lay them on the paste. Add some
gravy of roast veal, (cold gravy saved from veal roasted the preceding
day will do very well,) and cover the pie with a lid of puff-paste. Bake
it in a moderate oven, and when done, turn it out _carefully_ upon a
flat dish, and send it to table. The vermicelli which was originally at
the bottom, will now be at the top, covering the paste like thatch upon
a roof. Trim off the edges so as to look nicely. You may, if you choose,
use a larger quantity of vermicelli. The yellow sort will be best for
this purpose.


RICE PIE.--Pick clean a quart of rice, and wash it well through two or
three waters. Tie it in a cloth, put it into a pot of boiling water, and
boil it till perfectly soft. Then drain and press it till as dry as
possible, and mix with it two ounces of fresh butter, and two
table-spoonfuls of mild grated cheese. Take a small tin butter-kettle;
wet the inside, put in the rice, and stand it in a cool place till quite
cold. Then turn it carefully out of the kettle, (of which it will retain
the form,) rub it over with the beaten yolk of an egg, and set it in an
oven till lightly browned. Cut out from the top of the mass of rice an
oval lid, about two inches from the edge, so as to leave a flat rim or
border all round. Then excavate the mould of rice; leaving a standing
crust all round and at the bottom, about two inches thick. Have ready
some hot stewed oysters or birds, or brown or white fricassee. Fill up
the pie with it--adding the gravy. Lay on the lid, and decorate it with
sprigs of green curled parsley, stuck in all round the crack where the
lid is put on.

This pie may be filled with curried chickens.


A RAISED FRENCH PIE.--These pies have standing crust or walls, and may
be filled with game or poultry, previously boned, seasoned, and stewed.
They are generally made very large, and in winter will keep a week or
two if closely covered. They are frequently sent a considerable
distance, as Christmas presents; well packed in a close tin box.

To make the paste for a large pie:--Sift three pounds of flour into a
pan, and make a hole in the centre. Cut up a pound of fresh butter, and
two pounds of beef-suet, finely chopped. Put them into a clean pot, with
as much boiling water as will cover them. Set them over the fire; and
when the butter and suet are entirely dissolved, stir the whole with a
spoon, and pour it into the hole in the middle of the flour; mix it with
a spoon into a stiff paste, till it becomes cold enough for you to knead
with your hands into a lump of dough. Sprinkle some flour on your
paste-board, and on your hands; make the dough into the form of a cone
or sugar-loaf, and with your hands smooth and flatten the sides of it.
Then squeeze or press down the point of the cone; straighten the sides;
and flatten the top, so as to give it the shape of a hat crown. Next,
cut off from the top a thick, round slice, and lay it aside for the lid,
and another slice for the ornaments. With one hand make a hollow in the
large mass of dough, and with the other shape out and smooth the sides,
leaving enough for a crust at the bottom. In this manner, hollow it into
the shape of a straight-sided pan, leaving the wall or crust so thick
that it will stand alone. Then fill it with the bones of the poultry or
game, and some crusts of bread to keep it in shape. The portion of dough
reserved for the lid must then be moulded on the inverted bottom of a
deep plate, previously buttered. The lid may be a little larger than the
top of the pie. The paste reserved for the ornaments should be rolled
out, and cut with tin cutters into the form of leaves and flowers, or
vine-leaves and grapes. These should be carefully placed in a wreath
round the middle of the standing crust of the pie. A smaller wreath may
be laid like a border round the lid, at the top of which place a large
flower of paste, to look like a handle by which to lift it. Before you
put on the ornaments, have ready the beaten yolks of two eggs; and
dipping in a clean brush, glaze with it the whole outside of the pie,
including the lid. Then stick on the decorations. Put the pie into a
moderate oven, and bake it brown. The lid must be baked separately.
When both are done, remove the bones, &c., from the inside of the pie,
and fill it with the ingredients prepared, which must be previously
stewed in their own gravy, with the addition of some bits of butter
rolled in flour. Put on the lid, and cement the edges by glazing them
with a little beaten egg. These pies are usually made with slices of ham
or smoked tongue at the bottom; then partridges, pheasants, moor-fowl,
and other large game, all boned; and the spaces between filled up with
force-meat, or with mushrooms stewed and chopped. They may be made with
venison, wild turkeys, or wild ducks. Whatever is put into these pies
must have no bone about it, and should be well seasoned.

The ingredients may be put into the pie, and the lid laid on at
once,--pinching the edges together. In this case, it must bake three or
four hours, in proportion to its size.


PIGEONS WITH HAM.--Take fine fat tame pigeons. For stuffing, boil some
chesnuts till quite soft; and having peeled them, mash or pound them
smooth. Mix with them a little fat of cold ham, finely minced and
pounded. For chesnuts, may be substituted boiled sweet potatoe, mashed
with butter. Fill the pigeons with the stuffing, having first slightly
peppered their insides. Cover them with very thin slices of cold ham,
(fat and lean together,) and wrap them in fresh vine-leaves, tied round
with twine. Put them on a spit, and roast them three quarters of an
hour. When done, carefully remove the strings, and serve up the pigeons,
still wrapped in the ham and vine-leaves. They will be found very nice.

Partridges and quails may be drest in this manner.

Wild pigeons are so seldom fat, and have so little meat upon their
bones, that except for soups and gravies, they are scarcely worth
buying. In places where they abound, they may be turned to good account
by catching them in nets; clipping their wings; and keeping them in an
enclosure till they are fattened by feeding them well with corn, or
Indian meal moistened with water. When managed thus, they will be found
quite equal, if not superior, to tame pigeons.


A GIBLET PIE.--Clean, very nicely, the giblets of two geese or four
ducks. Put them into a stew-pan, with a sliced onion; a bunch of
tarragon, or sweet-marjoram and sage; half a dozen pepper-corns; and
four or five blades of mace. Add a very little water; cover the pan
closely, and let them stew till the giblets are tender. Then take them
out, and save all the gravy; having strained it from the seasoning
articles. Make a rich paste, and roll it out into two sheets. With one
sheet cover the bottom and sides of a deep dish. Put in the
giblets,--mixing among them a few cold boiled potatoes sliced, the
chopped yolks of some hard-boiled eggs, and some bits of butter rolled
in flour. Pour the gravy over the giblets, &c. Cover the pie with the
other sheet of paste, and notch the edges. Bake it brown, and send it to
table hot.

A pigeon pie may be made in a similar manner: also, a rabbit pie.


MOOR-FOWL OR GROUSE PUDDING.--Having skinned the moor-fowls, cut them up
as for carving, and season them slightly with salt and pepper. Have
ready a sufficient quantity of paste, made in the proportion of a pound
of fresh butter to two pounds of sifted flour. Roll it out thick, and
line with it a pudding mould, which must first be buttered; reserving
sufficient paste for the lid. Then put in the pieces of moor-fowl, and
place between each layer a layer of small mushrooms, or of fresh
oysters cut small. Next pour in a little water, (about half a pint,) and
add a piece of fresh butter rolled in flour. Then cover it with the
remaining paste, pressing it down very closely round the edge. Dip a
strong clean cloth into boiling water, dredge it with flour, and tie it
tightly over the mould or pudding-basin. Put it into a pot of boiling
water, and boil it three hours or more, according to its size.

A similar pudding may be made of pheasants, partridges, or quails; and
is a delicious way of cooking game of any sort: rabbits, also, are very
nice, cut up and put into a crust for boiling.


A BONED TURKEY.--For this purpose you must have a fine, large, tender
turkey; and after it is drawn, and washed, and wiped dry, lay it on a
clean table, and take a very sharp knife, with a narrow blade and point.
Begin at the neck; then go round to the shoulders and wings, and
carefully separate the flesh from the bone, scraping it down as you
proceed. Next loosen the flesh from the breast, and back, and body; and
then from the thighs. It requires care and patience to do it nicely, and
to avoid tearing or breaking the skin. The knife should always penetrate
quite to the bone; scraping loose the flesh rather than cutting it. When
all the flesh has been completely loosened, take the turkey by the neck,
give it a pull, and the whole skeleton will come out entire from the
flesh, as easily as you draw your hand out of a glove. The flesh will
then fall down, a flat and shapeless mass. With a small needle and
thread, carefully sew up any holes that have accidentally been torn in
the skin.

Have ready a large quantity of stuffing, made as follows:--Take three
sixpenny loaves of stale bread; grate the crumb; and put the crusts in
water to soak. When quite soft, break them up small into the pan of
grated bread-crumbs, and mix in a pound of fresh butter, cut into
little pieces. Take two large bunches of sweet-marjoram; the same of
sweet-basil; and one bunch of parsley. Mince the parsley very fine, and
rub to a powder the leaves of the marjoram and basil. You should have
two large, heaping table-spoonfuls of each. Chop, also, two very small
onions or shalots, and mix them with the herbs. Pound to powder a
quarter of an ounce of mace; a quarter of an ounce of cloves; and two
large nutmegs. Mix the spices together, and add a tea-spoonful of salt
and a tea-spoonful of ground black pepper. Then mix the herbs, spice,
&c., thoroughly into the bread-crumbs; and add, by degrees, four beaten
eggs to bind the whole together.

Take up a handful of this filling; squeeze it hard, and proceed to stuff
the turkey with it,--beginning at the wings; next do the body; and then
the thighs. Stuff it very hard, and as you proceed, form the turkey into
its natural shape, by filling out, properly, the wings, breast, body,
&c. When all the stuffing is in, sew up the body, and skewer the turkey
into the usual shape in which they are trussed; so that, if skilfully
done, it will look almost as if it had not been boned. Tie it round with
tape, and bake it three hours or more; basting it occasionally with
fresh butter. Make a gravy of the giblets, chopped, and stewed slowly in
a little water. When done, add to it the gravy that is in the dish about
the turkey, (having first skimmed off the fat,) and enrich it with a
glass of white wine, and two beaten yolks of eggs, stirred in just
before you take it from the fire.

If the turkey is to be eaten cold at the supper-table, drop
table-spoonfuls of currant or cranberry jelly all over it at small
distances, and in the dish round it.

A very handsome way of serving it up cold is, after making a sufficiency
of nice clear calves’-foot jelly, (seasoned, as usual, with wine, lemon,
cinnamon, &c.,) to lay the turkey in the dish in which it is to go to
table, and setting it under the jelly-bag, let the jelly drip upon it,
so as to form a transparent coating all over it; smoothing the jelly
evenly with the back of a spoon, as it congeals on the turkey. Apple
jelly may be substituted.

Large fowls may be boned and stuffed in the above manner: also a young
roasting pig.



PUDDINGS, ETC.


COLUMBIAN PUDDING.--Tie up closely in a bit of very thin white muslin, a
vanilla bean cut into pieces; and a broken-up stick of cinnamon. Put
this bag with its contents into half a pint of rich milk, and boil it a
long time till very highly flavoured. Then take out the bag; set the
milk near the fire to keep warm in the pan in which it was boiled,
covering it closely. Slice thin a pound of almond sponge-cake, and lay
it in a deep dish. Pour over it a quart of rich cream, with which you
must mix the vanilla-flavoured milk, and leave the cake to dissolve in
it. Blanch, in scalding water, two ounces of shelled bitter almonds or
peach-kernels; and pound them (one at a time) to a smooth paste in a
marble mortar; pouring on each a few drops of rose-water or peach-water
to prevent their oiling. When the almonds are done, set them away in a
cold place till wanted. Beat eight eggs till very light and thick; and
having stirred together, hard, the dissolved cake and the cream, add
them, gradually, to the mixture in turn with the almond, and half a
pound of powdered loaf sugar, a little at a time of each. Butter a deep
dish, and put in the mixture. Set the pudding into a brisk oven and bake
it well. Have ready a star nicely cut out of a large piece of candied
citron, a number of small stars all of equal size, as many as there are
states in the Union: and a sufficiency of rays or long strips also cut
out of citron. The rays should be wide at the bottom and run to a point
at the top. As soon as the pudding comes out of the oven, while it is
smoking, arrange these decorations. Put the large star in the centre,
then the rays so that they will diverge from it, widening off towards
the edge of the pudding. Near the edge place the small stars in a
circle.

Preserved citron-melon will be still better for this purpose than the
dry candied citron.

This is a very fine pudding; suitable for a dinner party, or a Fourth of
July dinner.


A MARIETTA PUDDING.--Take a teacup-full of loaf-sugar broken up. On some
of the largest lumps rub off the yellow rind of a large lemon. Then put
all the sugar into a pint of rich cream; when the sugar is melted, set
it over the fire, and when it comes to a boil, pour it hot over half a
pound of fresh savoy biscuits or lady-fingers, (maccaroons will be still
better,) laid in a deep dish. Cover the dish, and when the cakes are
quite dissolved, stir the cream well among them. Beat eight eggs very
light; and when the mixture is quite cold, stir the beaten eggs
gradually into it. Add, by degrees, four peels of candied citron, cut
into slips, and dredged with flour to prevent their sinking to the
bottom. Put the mixture into a deep dish, and bake it. When done, sift
sugar over the top. It may be eaten warm or cold. Send to table with it
a sauce, made of fresh butter and white sugar, beaten together till very
light, and flavoured with the juice of the lemon, whose rind was rubbed
on the lumps of sugar, and also with some grated nutmeg.

Instead of citron you may put into this pudding a pound of Zante
currants, (picked, washed, dried, and floured,) stirred gradually in at
the last.


AN ORLEANS PUDDING.--Half fill a deep dish with almond sponge-cake
sliced thin, or with sliced lady-cake. Grate the yellow rind of a lemon,
and mix it among the cake; adding also the juice of the lemon, and
sufficient white wine to moisten the cake, so that after standing
awhile it can be easily mashed. For wine you may substitute brandy; or
wine and brandy mixed. Beat six eggs very light, and stir them gradually
into a pint of cream or rich milk; adding four table-spoonfuls of
powdered white sugar, and half a nutmeg grated. Mix the eggs, &c., by
degrees, with the dissolved cake; stirring it very hard. The dish should
be full. Set it into the oven, and bake it brown. When cold, have ready
a meringue, made of beaten white of egg thickened with powdered
loaf-sugar, and flavoured with lemon-juice or rose-water. Spread this
evenly over the top of the pudding, putting one layer of the meringue
over another till it is very thick. Then set it for a few minutes into
the oven to brown slightly on the top.

Any very nice baked pudding will be improved by covering the surface
with a meringue.


HANOVER PUDDING.--Cut up half a pound of fresh butter in half a pint of
milk. Set them over the fire till the butter is soft enough to mix
thoroughly with the milk. Then take it off, and let it stand till
lukewarm. Have ready four well-beaten eggs. Stir them hard into the
butter and milk. Then add very gradually a pound of sifted flour. Last
stir in two large table-spoonfuls of strong fresh yeast. Beat the whole
very hard. Cover the pan, and let it stand near the fire for three hours
or till the mixture is quite light. Have ready half a pound of Zante
currants, picked, washed, and dried; or half a pound of fine raisins,
seeded and cut in half. Dredge the fruit thickly with flour to prevent
its sinking. Then mix it, gradually, into the pudding with two large
table-spoonfuls of sugar, and a tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon; and a
salt-spoon of sal-eratus, or small tea-spoonful of bi-carbonate of soda,
dissolved in a very little lukewarm water. Stir the whole very hard.
Transfer it to a deep tin pan, well-buttered, and bake it thoroughly.
Before it goes to table, turn it out on a dish, and serve it up warm
with any sort of nice sweet sauce.


TURKISH RICE PUDDING.--Pick and wash half a pound of rice. Prepare also
half a pound of Zante currants, which must be carefully picked clean,
washed through two waters, drained well, and then spread out to dry on a
flat dish before the fire. Put the rice into a sauce-pan, with a quart
of rich milk. Having dredged the currants with flour, stir them a few at
a time into the rice and milk. Then add four ounces of broken up
loaf-sugar, on which you have rubbed off the yellow rind of a large ripe
lemon or orange, and squeezed the juice. Stir in two ounces of fresh
butter divided into bits. When the rice is well swollen and quite soft,
take it from the fire, and mix with it gradually eight well-beaten yolks
of eggs. Transfer it to a deep china dish, and put it into an oven for
half an hour. Then sift powdered sugar thickly over the top, and brown
it by holding above it a red-hot shovel or salamander. Serve it up warm.

This pudding may be made with ground rice, or rice flour.


CREAM COCOA-NUT PUDDING.--Take two cocoa-nuts of large size. Break them
up, and pare off the brown skin from the pieces. Then grate them very
fine. Stir together a quarter of a pound of the best fresh butter, and a
quarter of a pound of finely-powdered loaf-sugar, till perfectly light.
Beat six eggs till very thick and smooth: afterwards mix them,
gradually, with a pint of rich cream. Add this mixture, by degrees, to
the beaten butter and sugar, in turn with the grated cocoa-nut; a little
at a time of each, stirring very well as you proceed. Then give the
whole a hard stirring. Put the mixture into a deep white dish and bake
it well. Send it to table _cold_, with loaf-sugar sifted over the top.

You may season the mixture by stirring in, at the last, a tea-spoonful
of mixed nutmeg and cinnamon finely powdered. And you may add a
table-spoonful of rose-brandy.

This pudding may be baked in puff-paste in two deep plates, with a broad
border of paste round the edge, handsomely notched. Or it may be done
without any paste _beneath_ the mixture; but merely a paste border round
the edge of the dish, which last is the better way. Paste at the bottom
of these soft pudding-mixtures is usually tough and clammy, from the
almost impossibility of getting it thoroughly done; and therefore it is
best omitted, as is now generally the case. If there is no paste under
it, the pudding should be baked in the dish in which it is to go to
table. Unless the oven is so hot as to burn the pudding, no dish will be
injured by baking. No pie or pudding should be sent to table in any
thing inferior to white-ware.


PINE-APPLE PUDDING.--Take half a pound of grated pine-apple; half a
pound of powdered white sugar, and a quarter of a pound of fresh butter.
Put the sugar into a deep pan, cut up the butter among it, and stir them
together till very light. Then add, by degrees, the grated pine-apple.
Grate a small two-penny sponge-cake, and mix it with a large tea-cup of
rich cream, and grate into it a small nutmeg, or half a large one. Add
this to the pine-apple mixture in the pan. Beat six eggs very light, and
stir them in gradually a little at a time. Stir the whole very hard,
after all the ingredients are put together. Butter a deep dish, put in
the mixture, and bake it well.

If your dish has a broad rim, lay round the edge a border of puff-paste,
cut into leaves resembling a wreath.


AN ALMOND RICE PUDDING.--Blanch, in boiling water, three ounces of
shelled bitter almonds, afterwards throwing them into cold water. Pound
them, one at a time, in a mortar, till they become a smooth paste;
adding frequently, as you pound them, a few drops of rose-water, to make
them white and light, and to prevent their oiling. Take a quart of rich,
unskimmed milk, and stir into it, gradually, three large, heaping
table-spoonfuls of ground rice flour, alternately with the pounded
almonds, and four heaping table-spoonfuls of powdered loaf-sugar. Set
the mixture over the fire, and boil and stir it till very thick. Then
put it into a deep dish, and set it away to cool. When cold, have ready
the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and thickened with
powdered sugar, that has been melted in rose-water. Cover with this the
surface of the pudding. Set it in an oven just long enough to be
slightly coloured of a light brown. Send it to table cold.


BOILED ALMOND PUDDING.--Blanch, in boiling water, a quarter of a pound
of shelled sweet almonds, and two ounces of shelled bitter almonds.
Throw them into a pan of cold water, as you blanch them. Afterwards
pound them, one at a time, in a mortar; adding to them, as you proceed,
the beaten whites of two or three eggs, a little at a time. They must be
pounded till they become a smooth paste; mixing together the sweet and
the bitter almonds, and removing them, as you go on, from the mortar to
a plate. Then set them in a cool place. Boil slowly a quart of cream, or
rich, unskimmed milk, with half a dozen blades of mace, whole; and half
a nutmeg, powdered. It may simmer half an hour, and when it comes to a
boil, take it off, remove the mace, and set the milk to cool. Beat eight
eggs very light, (omitting the whites of three,) and then add to them a
heaped table-spoonful of flour. Stir the beaten eggs and the pounded
almonds, alternately, into the pan of milk, (after it has become quite
cold,) add a table-spoonful of orange-flower or rose-water, and stir the
whole very hard. Have ready, over the fire, a pot of boiling water. Dip
into it a thick pudding-cloth, shake it out, spread it open in a large
empty pan, dredge it well with flour, and pour the pudding-mixture into
it. Tie it very closely, leaving sufficient space for the pudding to
swell, and plug the tying-place with a small lump of flour-and-water
dough. Lay an old plate in the bottom of the pot of boiling water. Put
in the pudding, and turn it over in a quarter of an hour. Boil it very
fast for an hour, or more, after it has commenced boiling; replenishing
the pot from a kettle of _boiling_ water. When the pudding is done, dip
it a moment into cold water; then turn it out on a dish. Send it to
table immediately, with a sauce of sweetened cream, flavoured with rose
or orange-flower water.


BISCUIT PUDDINGS.--Grate some stale milk-biscuits, till you have six
heaping table-spoonfuls of fine crumbs. Then sift them through a coarse
sieve. Beat six eggs very light, and stir them into a pint of cream, or
rich, unskimmed milk, alternately with the biscuit crumbs, a little of
each at a time. Beat the mixture very hard, and then butter some large
breakfast-cups, such as hold near half a pint. Nearly fill them with the
batter. Set them immediately into a brisk oven, and bake them half an
hour, or more. This quantity will make five puddings. Serve them up hot
in the cups, and eat them with wine-sauce, or with sauce of butter and
sugar, stirred to a cream, and flavoured with nutmeg and lemon.


MARMALADE PUDDINGS.--Make the above mixture, and, when they are baked,
turn the puddings out of the cups, make a slit or opening in the side
of each, and fill up the inside or cavity of each pudding with any sort
of nice marmalade or jam; taking care to fill them well. Then close the
slit with your fingers. They may be eaten warm or cold, and require no
other sauce than sweetened cream.


AN EXCELLENT CORN-MEAL PUDDING.--Boil a quart of rich milk, and pour it
scalding hot into a large pan. Stir in, gradually, a quart of sifted
Indian meal, and a quarter of a pound of fresh butter; adding the grated
yellow rind of a lemon or orange. Squeeze the juice upon a quarter of a
pound of brown sugar, and stir that in also. Add a large tea-spoonful of
powdered cinnamon. Have ready a pound of raisins, seeded, and cut in
half, and dredged thickly with wheat flour, to prevent their sinking.
Beat six eggs very light, and stir them gradually into the mixture.
Lastly, stir in the raisins, a few at a time, and stir the whole very
hard. Have ready a large pot of boiling water; dip into it a square
pudding-cloth, shake it out, and dredge it with flour. Spread out the
cloth in a deep, empty pan, and pour into it the pudding-mixture. Tie it
firmly, leaving room for the pudding to swell. Put it into the pot of
hot water, and boil it four hours, or five; turning it several times,
while boiling; and replenishing the water, as it boils away, with water
kept hot, for the purpose, in a kettle. When done, take out the pudding
from the pot; dip it, for a minute into cold water, before you untie the
cloth; then turn it out into a dish, and send it to table. It should not
be taken out of the pot till a minute or two before it is wanted.

Eat it with wine-sauce; or with butter, white sugar nutmeg, and lemon or
orange-juice, beaten together to a light cream.

What is left, may be tied again in a cloth, and boiled for an hour, next
day.

Instead of butter, you may use a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, minced
as fine as possible.


PEACH INDIAN PUDDING.--Wash a pint, or more, of dried peaches; then
drain them well; spread them on a large dish, and set them in the sun,
or near the fire, till all the water that remains about them is entirely
exhaled. Boil a quart of rich milk; mix it, while hot, with a pint of
West India molasses, and then set it away to cool. Chop, very fine, a
quarter of a pound of beef-suet, (veal-suet will do,) and stir it
gradually into the milk, a little at a time. Beat six eggs very light,
and stir them, by degrees, into the mixture, in turn with as much yellow
Indian meal (sifted) as will make a moderately thick batter. Having
dredged the peaches thickly with wheat flour, to prevent their sinking,
add them, one at a time, to the mixture, stirring it well; and, lastly,
stir in a table-spoonful of ground ginger, or a tea-spoonful of powdered
cinnamon. Dip a thick, square pudding-cloth into boiling water, then
shake it out, spread it open in a large pan, dredge it with flour, and
pour in the pudding-mixture. Tie it fast; leaving room for it to swell;
and plaster the tying-place with a bit of dough, made of flour and
water. Put the pudding into a large pot of boiling water, with an old
plate laid at the bottom, and boil it from four to five or six hours,
filling up the pot, as it boils away, with hot water from a tea-kettle,
and turning the pudding frequently. When done, dip it in cold water, lay
it in a pan, and turn it out of the cloth. Eat it with butter and sugar,
beaten to a cream, and seasoned with powdered nutmeg.

If there is not time to boil the pudding several hours, on the day you
want it for dinner, prepare it the day before; boil it then all the
afternoon, and boil it again the following day. Indian puddings can
scarcely be boiled too long. They will be the better, indeed, for eight
hours’ boiling.


A FINE INDIAN PUDDING.--Take a pound of raisins, and cut them in half,
having first removed the seeds. Then spread them on a large dish, and
dredge them thickly with fine wheat flour, turning them about, that both
sides may be well floured. Boil a quart of rich milk, and when it has
come to a boil, take it off the fire, and set it to cool. Transfer the
half of this milk (one pint) to another pan, and, while it is still
warm, stir into it a quarter of a pound of butter, cut into bits; a
quarter of a pound of brown sugar, (or else a half pint of West India
molasses,) mixed with the grated yellow rind of a large lemon or orange,
and also the juice. Add a large tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon and
nutmeg, mixed, and a glass of brandy. Beat eight eggs very light; and,
when it is quite cold, stir the eggs, gradually, into the other pint of
milk. Then mix the ingredients of both pans together; adding eight large
table-spoonfuls of Indian meal, or enough to make a thick batter.
Lastly, mix in the floured raisins, a few at a time, stirring the whole
very hard. Have ready, over the fire, a large pot of boiling water. Dip
a square pudding-cloth into it; shake it out; spread it open over the
inside of an empty pan, and dredge it with flour; pour the batter into
it, and tie it firmly; leaving room for the pudding to swell. Plaster a
small lump of flour-and-water dough upon the crevice of the tying-place,
to assist in keeping out the water, which, if it gets in, will render
the pudding heavy. Put it into the pot of hot water, and boil it
steadily for four, five, or six hours, turning it frequently in the
water. It can scarcely be boiled too long. Keep at the fire a kettle of
_hot_ water, to replenish the pudding-pot, as it boils away. Do not
take up the pudding, till immediately before it is to go to table. Dip
it into cold water, and then turn it out of the cloth upon a dish. Eat
it with wine-sauce, or with butter, sugar, and nutmeg. If enough of the
pudding is left, it may, next day, be tied in a cloth, and re-boiled for
an hour.


RASPBERRY PUDDING.--Fill a deep dish with a quart of ripe raspberries,
well mixed with four or five large table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar. As
you put in the raspberries mash them slightly with the back of a spoon.
Beat six eggs as light as possible, and mix them with a pint of cream or
rich unskimmed milk, and four more spoonfuls of sugar, adding some
grated nutmeg. Pour this over the raspberries. Set the dish immediately
into a moderate oven, and bake the pudding about half an hour. When
done, set the dish on ice, or where it will become quite cold before it
goes to table.

A similar pudding may be made with ripe currants, picked from the
stalks; or with ripe cherries stoned.

A pine-apple pudding made in this way is excellent. There must be as
much pine-apple as will measure a quart, after it is pared, sliced, and
grated fine. Sweeten it well with loaf-sugar.


A COTTAGE PUDDING.--Take ripe currants, and having stripped them from
the stalks, measure as many as will make a heaping quart. Cover the
bottom of a deep dish with slices of bread, slightly buttered, and with
the crust cut off. Put a thick layer of currants on the bread; and then
a layer of sugar. Then other layers of bread, currants, and sugar, till
the dish is full; finishing at the top with very thin slices of bread.
Set it into the oven, and bake it half an hour. Serve it either warm or
cold; and eat it with sweetened cream.

Instead of currants you may take cherries, (first stoning them all,)
raspberries, ripe blackberries, or barberries, plums, (first extracting
the stones,) stewed cranberries, or stewed gooseberries. If the fruit is
previously stewed, the pudding will require but ten minutes’ baking.
When it is sent to table have sugar at hand in case it should not be
sweet enough.


RIPE CURRANT PUDDING.--Take two quarts of fine ripe currants, strip them
from the stalks, and mix with them a quarter of a pound of sugar. Make a
paste of a pound and a half of sifted flour, and three-quarters of a
pound of the best fresh butter. Cut up half a pound of the butter into
the pan of flour, and rub the butter into the flour with your hands till
it is thoroughly mixed all through. Mix with it barely as much cold
water as will make it into a stiff dough. If you use too much water the
paste will be tough. Beat the lumps of dough on both sides with the
rolling-pin. Then transfer it to your paste-board; roll it out into a
thin sheet, and spread over it with a knife another quarter of a pound
of butter. Then flour it, fold it up, and beat it again with the
rolling-pin. Afterwards roll it out thicker. Put the currants into it,
and close the paste over the top in the manner of a large dumpling. Boil
it in a cloth in the usual manner. It will require two hours or more.
Eat it with sugar.

You may make the paste of minced suet instead of butter.


CHERRY PUDDING may be made as above, first stoning the cherries, which
should be ripe and red, and made very sweet with sugar.


GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.--Take a quart or more of full-grown green
gooseberries. Pick off the tops and tails, and as you do so, lay the
gooseberries in a pan. Then pour on sufficient boiling water to scald
them thoroughly, cover the pan, and let the gooseberries stand till they
grow cold. Next put them into a sieve and drain off the water. While the
gooseberries are cooling, prepare a paste for them. Take six ounces of
fresh beef-suet; weighed after you have trimmed it, and removed the
strings. Mince it as finely as possible. Sift a pound of flour into a
pan, and rub the minced suet into it; adding half a pint of cold water,
or barely enough to make it into a dough, and a small salt-spoon of
salt. Beat the lump of dough on all sides with the rolling-pin; this
will add to its lightness. Then transfer it to your paste-board, and
roll it out very evenly into a circular sheet. When the gooseberries are
cold, mix with them half a pound of the best brown sugar, and lay them
in a heap in the middle of the sheet of paste. Close the paste over them
in the manner of a large dumpling. Have ready a pot of boiling water.
Dip your pudding cloth into it; shake it out; spread it open in a broad
pan; and dredge it with flour. Then lay the pudding in it, and tie the
cloth very firmly, but leaving room for the pudding to swell. Stop up
the crevice at the tying-place with a small lump of stiff dough made of
flour and water. Put the pudding into the pot, (which should be boiling
hard at the time,) having placed an old plate at the bottom as a
preventive to the pudding sticking there, and scorching. After it has
been in fifteen minutes, turn it with a fork. If the water boils away
replenish it with more hot water from a kettle. Boil the pudding three
hours or more. Then take it up, dip it into cold water and turn it out
into a dish. Send it to table hot, and eat it with additional sugar. If
too much sugar is put in with the gooseberries at first, and boiled with
them, it will render them tough. It is best to depend chiefly on
sweetening them at table.

A similar pudding may be made of currants either green or ripe. They
will not require scalding. The paste may be of fresh butter instead of
suet.


A RAISIN PUDDING.--Stone a pound of large fine fresh raisins, and cut
them in half. If using the sultana, or seedless raisins, you may leave
them whole. Spread the raisins on a large flat dish; and mix with them
the yellow rind of a large fresh lemon, or orange. This rind must be
pared off as thin as possible, and cut into very small slips. Dredge the
raisins and peel thickly with flour to prevent their sinking or
clodding, tumbling them about with your hands that they may be well
floured all over. Mix the juice of the lemon or orange with five or six
large table-spoonfuls of sugar heaped up. Mince, as finely as possible,
half a pound of beef-suet. Beat six eggs very light, and then stir into
them, gradually, the suet and the sugar, in turn with six heaped
table-spoonfuls of sifted flour. Then add by degrees the fruit and a
powdered nutmeg. Lastly, stir in gradually a pint of rich milk. Stir the
whole very hard. Scald a large square pudding-cloth; shake it out;
spread it open in a deep pan; dredge it with flour; put in the
pudding-mixture, and tie the cloth firmly. It should be little more than
three-quarters full, that the pudding may have room to swell. Mix with
flour and water a small lump of stiff dough, and plaster it on the
tying-place to prevent the water getting inside. Have ready a pot full
of boiling water; and put in the pudding, having laid an old plate at
the bottom of the pot, to keep it from burning if it should sink. Turn
the pudding several times while boiling. It should boil hard at least
four hours, (five will not be too long,) and if the water boils away so
as not entirely to cover the whole of the bag it must be replenished
from a boiling kettle. Take up the pudding immediately before it is to
go to table. Dip it in cold water for an instant, then turn it out of
the cloth into a dish, and serve it up hot. Eat it with wine-sauce; or
with butter and sugar beaten to a cream.


MINCE PUDDING.--Take a pound and a half of mince-meat, and sift
three-quarters of a pound of flour. Beat six eggs very light, and stir
into them, alternately, the mince-meat and the flour, a little at a time
of each. Stir the whole very hard. Have ready a pudding-cloth dipped
into a pot of boiling water, then shook out, and dredged with flour.
Spread out the cloth in a large pan, and pour into it the pudding. Tie
it tightly, leaving room for the pudding to swell; and stop up the
tying-place with a small bit of dough made of flour and water. Put it
immediately into a large pot of boiling water, having an old plate at
the bottom to keep the pudding from scorching. Boil it steadily five or
six hours, turning it in the pot every hour. As the water boils away,
replenish it from a kettle of water that is kept boiling hard. Do not
turn out the pudding till immediately before it is sent to table. Eat it
with wine-sauce.

This pudding is excellent. The mince-meat is the same that is prepared
for mince-pies.


A TEMPERANCE PLUM PUDDING.--Take a pound of the best raisins, and cut
them in half, after removing the seeds. Or use sultana raisins that have
no seeds. Pick, and wash clean, a pound of currants, and dry them before
the fire, spread out on a large flat dish. Cut into slips half a pound
of citron. Then mix together, on the same dish, the currants, the
raisins, and the citron, and dredge them thickly with flour to prevent
their sinking or clodding in the pudding; tumbling them about with your
hands till they are all over well-covered with the flour. Mince very
fine a pound of beef-suet. Mix a pint of West India molasses with a pint
of rich milk. Sift into a pan a pound of flour. In another pan beat
eight eggs very light. Stir the beaten eggs, gradually, into the mixed
molasses and milk; alternately with the flour, and half a pound of
sugar, (which should previously be crushed smooth by roiling it with a
rolling-pin,) a little at a time of each. Then add, by degrees, the
fruit and the suet, a little of each alternately. Beat and stir the
whole very hard, till all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Take a
large clean square cloth of coarse strong linen, dip it in boiling
water, shake it, spread it out in a large pan, and dredge it with flour
to prevent the pudding from sticking to it when boiled. Then pour the
pudding-mixture into the cloth; leave room for it to swell, and tie it
firmly, plastering up the tying-place with a bit of coarse dough made of
flour and water. Have ready a large pot _full_ of water, and boiling
hard. Put in the pudding, and boil it well from six to eight hours. Less
than six will not be sufficient, and eight hours will not be too long.
Turn it several times while boiling, and keep at hand a kettle of _hot_
water to replenish the pot as it boils away. Do not take it up till
immediately before it is wanted on the table. Then dip it for a moment
into cold water, untie the cloth, and turn out the pudding. Serve it up
with a sauce-boat of sweetened cream, seasoned with nutmeg; or with
butter and sugar beaten together till light and white, and flavoured
with lemon. What is left of the pudding may be tied up in a cloth and
boiled again next day for an hour or more. It will be equally as nice as
on the first day. This is a much better way of re-cooking than to slice
and fry it.

This pudding may be made with sifted yellow Indian meal, instead of
wheat flour.


MARROW PUDDING.--Grate a quarter of a pound of sponge-cake, and mix with
it a quarter of a pound of beef-marrow, finely minced. Add the grated
peel and the juice of a large lemon or orange; half a grated nutmeg; and
four table-spoonfuls of sugar. Stone half a pound of very good fresh
raisins, cut them in half, and dredge them well with flour. Beat four
eggs very light, and stir them gradually into half a pint of cream or
rich milk. Mix it, by degrees, with the other ingredients. Lastly add
the raisins, a few at a time; and stir the whole very hard. Butter a
deep dish; put in the mixture; bake it an hour or more, and send it to
table warm, with slips of candied citron stuck all over the top, so as
to stand upright. For sauce have white wine, mixed with sugar and lemon
juice.

This pudding may be boiled in a cloth. It will require three hours’
boiling.


TRANSPARENT PUDDING.--Warm half a pound of fresh butter, but do not
allow it to melt. Mix with it half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and
stir them together till they are perfectly light. Add a small nutmeg
grated, or half a large one. Beat eight eggs as light as possible; and
stir them gradually into the butter and sugar. Finish with sufficient
extract of roses to give it a fine flavour. Stir the whole very hard;
butter a deep dish, put in the mixture, and bake it half an hour. Serve
it up cold.

You may bake this pudding in puff-paste.


TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Put four large table-spoonfuls of tapioca into a quart
of milk, and let it stand all night. In the morning put half a pint of
milk into a small sauce-pan, and boil in it a large stick of cinnamon
broken up, and a handful of bitter almonds or peach-kernels broken
small. Keep it covered and boil it slowly, till highly flavoured with
the cinnamon and almond, which must then be strained out, and the milk
mixed with that which has the tapioca in it. Put it into a tin vessel or
one lined with porcelain, and boil it till it becomes very thick with
the dissolved tapioca; stirring it frequently down to the bottom. Add a
piece of fresh butter as large as an egg; a quarter of a pound of sugar,
and four well-beaten eggs stirred in gradually; a table-spoonful of
brandy; and a grated nutmeg. Stir the whole well together, put it into a
deep dish, and bake it an hour.

Instead of boiling bitter almonds with the cinnamon in the extra half
pint of milk, you may boil the cinnamon only. And when you are
afterwards finishing the whole mixture, stir in a table-spoonful of
peach-water at the last.

Tapioca is to be bought at the grocer’s, and also at the druggist’s.


EXCELLENT GROUND RICE PUDDING.--Take half a pint from a quart of rich
milk, and boil in it a large handful of bitter almonds or peach kernels,
blanched and broken up; also half a dozen blades of mace, keeping the
sauce-pan closely covered. When the milk is highly flavoured and reduced
to one half the quantity, take it off and strain it. Stir, gradually,
into the remaining pint and a half of milk, five heaping table-spoonfuls
of ground rice; set it over the fire in a sauce-pan, and let it come to
a boil. Then take it off, and while it is warm, mix in gradually a
quarter of a pound of fresh butter and a quarter of a pound of white
sugar. Afterwards, beat eight eggs as light as possible, and stir them,
gradually, into the mixture. Add some grated nutmeg. Stir the whole very
hard; put it into a deep dish; and set it immediately into the oven.
Keep it baking steadily for an hour. It should then be done. It may be
eaten either warm or cold.

To ornament it, have ready some sweet almonds blanched whole, and then
split in half. Place six of them on the centre of the pudding, so as to
form a star. Lay others in lines like rays diverging from the star, and
place the remainder in a circle near the edge of the pudding.

Any pudding may be ornamented as above.


A SOUFFLÉ PUDDING.--Take eight rusks, or soft sugar-biscuits, or plain
buns. Lay them in a large deep dish, and pour on a pint of milk,
sufficient to soak them thoroughly. Cover the dish, and let them stand,
undisturbed, for about an hour and a half before dinner. In the mean
time, boil half a pint of milk in a small sauce-pan with a handful of
bitter-almonds or peach-kernels, broken small; or a small bunch of fresh
peach-leaves, with two large sticks of cinnamon broken up. Boil this
milk slowly, (keeping it covered,) and when it tastes strongly of the
flavouring articles, strain it, and set it away to cool. When cold, mix
it into another pint of milk, and stir in a quarter of a pound of
powdered loaf-sugar. Beat eight eggs very light, and add them gradually
to the milk, so as to make a rich custard. After dinner has commenced,
beat and stir the soaked rusk very hard till it becomes a smooth mass,
and then, by degrees, add to it the custard. Stir the whole till
thoroughly amalgamated. Set the dish into a brisk oven, and bake the
pudding rather more than ten minutes. The yeast, &c., in the rusk will
cause it to puff up very light. When done, send it to table warm, with
white sugar sifted over it. You may serve up with it as sauce, sweetened
thick cream flavoured with rose-water, and grated nutmeg. Or powdered
loaf-sugar and fresh butter stirred together in equal portions, and
seasoned with lemon and nutmeg.

Another way in making a soufflé pudding, instead of boiling the
flavouring in a separate half pint of milk, is, after making the custard
of cold milk, sugar, and eggs, to stir into it a wine-glass of
peach-water, rose-water, or orange-flower water; or else two
table-spoonfuls of Oliver’s extract of vanilla. Or you may flavour it
with the yellow rind of a large lemon rubbed off upon some lumps of the
sugar before it is powdered.


A CHARLOTTE PUDDING.--Have ready a sufficiency of dried peaches that
have been stewed very soft, and flavoured, while stewing, with the
yellow rind of one or two oranges, pared very thin and cut into small
slips. The stewed peaches must be mashed very smooth. Take a deep dish,
and cover the inside with a layer of brown sugar mixed with powdered
cinnamon or nutmeg. Upon this put a layer of thin slices of bread and
butter with all the crust pared off; turning the buttered side downward.
Next put on a thick layer of the stewed peaches. Then more sugar and
spice; then more bread and butter, and then another layer of peach.
Proceed thus till the dish is full; and cover the top slightly with
grated bread-crumbs. Put it into a moderate oven; and bake it brown.

It may be eaten either warm or cold.

Instead of peaches, you may make this pudding of stewed apple flavoured
with lemon; or with stewed goose-berries made very sweet with brown
sugar. If you use goose-berries, the spice should be nutmeg, not
cinnamon.


A NOVICE’S PUDDING.--Beat to a stiff froth the whites only of eight
eggs. Then beat into them half a pound of powdered white sugar--a
tea-spoonful at a time. Stir into a pint of rich cream or unskimmed
milk a wine-glass of rose-water, or a table-spoonful of extract of
roses. You may substitute two table-spoonfuls of extract of vanilla; or
two of peach water. Stir the beaten egg and sugar into the milk,
alternately with four ounces of sifted flour, a spoonful at a time. Beat
the whole very hard; put it into a deep dish, well-buttered, and set it
immediately into a rather quick oven, and bake it well. Serve it up
warm; and eat it with butter and white sugar beaten to a cream, and
flavoured in the same manner as the pudding.

This pudding will be found very white and delicate. It is peculiarly
excellent made with melted ice-cream that has been left.


CHOCOLATE PUDDING.--Have the best and strongest American chocolate or
cocoa. Baker’s prepared cocoa will be found excellent for all chocolate
purposes; better indeed than any thing else, as it is pure, and without
any adulteration of animal fat, being also very strong, and
communicating a high flavour. Of this, scrape down, very fine, two
ounces or more. Add to it a tea-spoonful of mixed spice, namely,
powdered nutmeg and cinnamon. Put it into a very clean sauce-pan, and
pour on a quart of rich milk, stirring it well. Set it over the fire, or
on hot coals; cover it; and let it come to a boil. Then remove the lid;
stir up the chocolate from the bottom, and press out all lumps. Then
return it to the fire, and when thoroughly dissolved and very smooth, it
is done. Next stir in, gradually, while the chocolate is still
boiling-hot, a quarter of a pound or more of powdered loaf-sugar. If you
use such white sugar as is bought ready powdered, you must have near
half a pound, as that sugar has very little strength, being now
adulterated with ground starch. When the chocolate is well sweetened,
set it away to cool. Beat eight eggs very light, and pour them through a
strainer into the pan of chocolate, when it is quite cold. Stir the
whole very hard. Then put it into the oven, and bake it well. Try it
when you think it done, with the twig from a broom. If on putting the
twig into the middle of the pudding, and sticking it quite down to the
bottom, the twig comes out clean, and with nothing clammy adhering to
it, the pudding is then sufficiently baked. It should be eaten cold.
Sift white sugar thickly over it before it goes to table. It will be
found very nice.

This pudding will bake best by sitting the pan in a dutch oven
half-filled with boiling water.


MACCARONI PUDDING.--Boil a quarter of a pound of maccaroni in a pint of
rich unskimmed milk, with a handful of blanched bitter almonds or
peach-kernels, and two sticks of cinnamon broken into pieces. It must
boil till the maccaroni is soft, and dissolving. Then remove the bitter
almonds and the cinnamon; stir in, while it is hot, a quarter of a pound
of fresh butter, a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, and half a pint
of rich cream. Mix all well, and beat it hard. Then beat four eggs till
very thick and light, and stir them gradually into the mixture after it
has cooled. Add a grated nutmeg, and a table-spoonful of brandy. Butter
a deep dish; put in the mixture; set it directly into the oven, and bake
it.

Vermicelli pudding may be made as above. Also a ground rice pudding.


A LADY’S PUDDING.--Rub off on lumps of loaf sugar the yellow rind of one
large lemon, or two small ones. Then crush that sugar, and add more to
it till you have four heaped table-spoonfuls. Beat to a stiff froth the
whites only of four eggs. Then gradually add the sugar (a little at a
time) to the beaten white of egg. Have ready in a pan, a pint of cream
or rich unskimmed milk. Stir into it by degrees the mixture of white of
egg and sugar, alternately with four heaped table-spoonfuls or four
ounces of sifted flour. When the whole is mixed, stir it long and hard;
and then transfer it to a deep dish, the inside of which must be
slightly buttered. Bake it from half an hour to three quarters; and when
done sift powdered sugar over the top. Send it to table warm, with a
sauce of equal quantities of fresh butter and powdered white sugar
stirred together to a light cream, and flavoured with lemon-juice and
grated nutmeg.

This pudding will be found very delicate. For a large one, take the
whites of eight eggs, the rind of two large lemons, half a pound of
sugar, a quart of cream or rich milk, and eight heaped table-spoonfuls
of flour.


BOILED LEMON PUDDING.--Grate very fine as many bread-crumbs as will
weigh half a pound. Take half a pound of broken up loaf-sugar, and on
some of the lumps rub off the yellow rind of two large lemons, or three
small ones, having first rolled the lemons under your hand upon a table
to increase the juice. Then powder finely all the sugar, including the
lumps on which the lemon-rind has been rubbed. Cut up in a deep pan a
quarter of a pound of fresh butter. Add to it half the powdered sugar,
and stir them hard together till very light and thick. Beat six eggs
till as light as possible; and then (having stirred in two
table-spoonfuls of sifted flour) add them gradually to the beaten butter
and sugar, in turn with the bread crumbs, a little at a time of each.
Squeeze the juice of the lemons through a strainer, and mix it with the
remaining sugar. Then add that sugar, gradually, to the other
ingredients, and stir the whole very hard. Have ready a pudding-cloth
dipped in boiling water, shaken out, spread open over a pan, and then
dredged with flour. Put in the pudding-mixture, and tie it firmly,
leaving room for it to swell, and not forgetting to stop up the little
aperture at the tying-place with a bit of flour-and-water dough. Put the
pudding into a large pot of boiling water, and keep it boiling steadily
for two hours or more, turning it several times in the pot. Serve it up
hot, accompanied by a cold sauce of equal portions of powdered white
sugar and fresh butter, beaten together to a cream, and flavoured with
lemon-juice and nutmeg.

You may boil it in a pudding-mould, with a hole or cavity in the centre.
After turning it out on the dish, fill up the hole with the
above-mentioned sauce, heaping high in the middle. For this purpose the
sauce should be made rather stiff, allowing more sugar and less butter.

A boiled orange pudding may be made in the same manner.


POTATOE-FLOUR PUDDING.--Boil a quart of rich milk; and while boiling,
stir in gradually a quarter of a pound of potatoe-flour well pulverized;
add a quarter of a pound of sugar, three ounces of butter, and a
tea-spoonful of powdered nutmeg and cinnamon. When it has thoroughly
boiled, set it to cool. When cold, stir in, by degrees, four eggs well
beaten. Put it into a deep dish, and bake it half an hour. Send it to
table cold with white sugar sifted over the top.


GREEN CUSTARD.--Pound in a marble or white-ware mortar a sufficient
quantity of fresh spinach, till you have extracted as much green juice
as will half fill a half-pint tumbler, or two common-sized wine-glasses.
Mix this quantity of spinach juice with a quart of rich unskimmed milk,
and a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar, broken very small. Flavour it
with a wine-glass of peach water, or with the yellow rind of two large
lemons grated off on some of the largest lumps of the sugar. Or, for the
flavouring, you may use a vanilla bean, or a handful of bitter almonds
or peach-kernels, boiled a long time in half a pint of milk, which must
then be strained, and mixed with the other milk. Beat very light eight
eggs, or the yolks only of sixteen; mix them with the milk, &c., (having
first strained the beaten eggs,) and having stirred the whole very hard,
pour it into a white-ware pitcher, and set it into a pot rather more
than half-full of boiling water. Place it on a stove or a bed of hot
coals on the hearth, and stir it to the bottom, and watch it continually
till it has almost come to a boil. When very near boiling, take it off
the fire immediately; for if it _quite_ boils, it will curdle. Set it
away to get cold. When lukewarm it will be an improvement to stir into
it two table-spoonfuls or more of rose-water. Cover the bottom of a
large glass-bowl or a deep dish, with slices of sponge-cake or Naples
biscuit. Then put on green sweetmeats, such as preserved goose-berries,
green gages, green grapes, or green citron melon. When the custard is
quite cold pour it on, and fill up the bowl with it. If made as above,
this will be found both delicious and ornamental for a dessert, or
supper table.

It may be served up in glass cups; putting into the bottom of each cup a
portion of sponge-cake, then a portion of green sweetmeats, and then
filling up with the green custard after it has become cold.

Pistachio-nuts pounded in a mortar will give a fine green colour.


RED CUSTARD--May be made according to the foregoing receipt, only
colouring it red by adding a teacup-full of milk, in which has been
steeped a small thin muslin bag filled with alkanet. Instead of _green_
sweet-meats, use preserved cherries, strawberries, or raspberries.

Alkanet is to be bought at the druggists, is very cheap, perfectly
innoxious, and is now much used for colouring confectionary. The colour
it imparts is more beautiful than any other red.

You may obtain a good red colouring by pounding boiled beets in a
mortar. Pounded beet-leaves will also furnish a juice for colouring red.


GELATINE CUSTARD.--Soak half an ounce of gelatine for three or four
hours in a pan of cold water. Have ready a quart of milk. Boil in half a
pint of it a bunch of peach-leaves, or a handful of bitter almonds
broken up; also, a stick of cinnamon broken in pieces. When it is highly
flavoured, strain this milk into the pan that contains the rest. Beat
four eggs very light, and mix them gradually with the milk, adding, by
degrees, the gelatine, (well drained,) and four heaping table-spoonfuls
of sugar. Set it over a slow fire and boil it, stirring it frequently.
As soon as the gelatine is entirely dissolved, and thoroughly mixed, the
custard will be done. Transfer it to a deep dish or to cups, and set it
on ice or in a cold place till wanted.


INDIAN PUFFS.--Boil a quart of milk; and when it has come to a boil,
stir into it, gradually, eight large table-spoonfuls of Indian meal;
four large table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar; and a grated nutmeg. Stir
it hard; letting it boil a quarter of an hour after all the Indian meal
is in. Then take it up, and set it to cool. While cooling, beat eight
eggs as light as possible, and stir them, gradually, into the batter
when it is quite cold. Butter some large tea-cups; nearly fill them with
the mixture; set them into a moderate oven; and bake them well. Send
them to table warm, and eat them with butter and molasses; or with
butter, sugar, lemon-juice, and nutmeg stirred to a cream. They must be
turned out of the cups.


SWEETMEAT DUMPLINGS.--Make a paste of half a pound of fresh butter, or
finely minced suet, and a pound of flour, moistened with a very little
cold water. Beat the lump of paste on all sides with a rolling-pin. Then
roll it out into a sheet, and divide it into equal portions. Lay on the
middle of each two halves (laid on each other) of preserved peaches, or
quinces, or large preserved plums. Then close the paste round the
sweetmeat, so as to form a dumpling. Have ready a pot of boiling water.
Throw the dumplings into it, tied up in little cloths, and let them boil
twenty-five minutes or half an hour. Try one first, to see if they are
done. When quite done, take them up, dip them in cold water, turn them
out of the cloths, and send the dumplings to table immediately. Eat them
with sugar only, or with sweetened cream.

These dumplings may be made with jam or marmalade, formed into a heap or
lump, and laid in the centre of each piece of paste.


ALTONA FRITTERS.--Pare some fine pippin or bell-flower apples that are
quite ripe, and of the largest size. Then extract the cores with a tin
apple-corer, so as to leave the hole in the centre smooth and even.
Spread the sliced apples on a large flat dish, and squeeze on each slice
some lemon-juice. Then sprinkle them thickly with powdered white sugar.
Prepare a batter, made in the proportion of eight eggs to a quart of
rich milk, and a pint and a half of sifted flour. Having beaten the eggs
till very light and thick, add them gradually to the milk in turn with
the flour, a little at a time of each, and stir the whole very hard.
Have ready, over hot coals, a skillet with a plentiful portion of the
best fresh butter, melted and boiling hard. Dip the slices of apple
twice into the batter, and then put them into the skillet of butter; as
many at a time as it will contain without danger of running into each
other as they spread. While they are frying, keep shaking the skillet
about, holding it by the handle. They will puff up very light, and must
be done of a bright brown. Take them out with a perforated skimmer, that
will drain off the butter. Have ready some powdered sugar, flavoured
with nutmeg or cinnamon. Roll the fritters in this, and send them to
table hot. This is a German preparation of fritters, and will be found
excellent on trial. They may be made of large peaches instead of apples;
paring the peaches, and cutting them in two, having removed the stones.
Allow half a peach (well sugared) to each fritter.

You may fry these fritters in lard, but they will not be so nice as if
done in fresh butter.


WASHINGTON FRITTERS.--Boil four large potatoes; peel them; and, when
cold, grate them as fine as possible. Mix well together two large
table-spoonfuls of cream, two table-spoonfuls of sweet white wine, half
a grated nutmeg, two table-spoonfuls of powdered sugar, and the juice of
a lemon. Beat eight eggs very light, (omitting the whites of two,) and
then mix them gradually with the cream, wine, &c., alternately with the
grated potatoe, a little at a time of each. Beat the whole together at
least a quarter of an hour after all the ingredients are mixed. Have
ready, in a frying-pan over the fire, a large quantity of boiling lard;
and when the bubbling has subsided, put in spoonfuls of the batter, so
as to make well-formed fritters. Fry them a light brown, and take them
up with a perforated skimmer, so as to drain them from the lard. Lay
them on a hot dish, and send them immediately to table. Serve up with
them, in a boat, a sauce made in the proportion of two glasses of white
wine, the juice of two lemons, and a table-spoonful of peach-water, or a
glass of rose-water. Make the sauce very sweet with powdered white
sugar, and grate nutmeg into it.

These fritters may be made with boiled sweet potatoes, grated when cold.


WINE FRITTERS.--Beat six eggs till very thick and smooth; and when they
are quite light, beat into them, gradually, six table-spoonfuls of sweet
malaga or muscadel wine, and six table-spoonfuls of powdered white
sugar. Have ready a sufficient number of large fresh milk biscuits,
split in two, soaked in a bowl of sweet wine about five minutes, and
drained on a sieve. Put some fresh lard into a frying-pan, and when it
boils, and has been skimmed, dip each piece of the split biscuit into
the batter of wine, eggs, and sugar, and fry them a light brown. When
done, take them up with a perforated skimmer, and drain them well from
the lard. Strew powdered white sugar over them.


SWEETMEAT FRITTERS.--Having boiled a large beet till it is tender all
through, and scraped off the outside, cut the beet into pieces, and
pound them in a marble mortar till you have extracted the juice. Then
stir into a quart of milk enough of the beet-juice to give it a deep red
colour. Beat seven eggs till very smooth and light, and stir them
gradually into the milk; alternately with a pint and a half of sifted
flour. The red colour will look paler after the egg is mixed with the
milk. If you find it too pale, add more beet-juice. Have ready some
boiling lard in a frying-pan over the fire; and when it has ceased to
bubble, and the surface has become smooth, put in the mixture by
spoonfuls, so as to form round or oval cakes of an equal size, and fry
them a light brown. If you find the batter too thin, stir in a very
little more flour. As the fritters are done, take them out, on a
perforated skimmer, draining the lard back into the frying-pan. Dredge
the fritters thickly with powdered sugar, and lay on each some preserved
peach, plum, or other sweetmeat. You may heap on every one a
table-spoonful or more of marmalade. Send them to table hot.


GREEN FRITTERS.--Are made as above; but coloured with the juice of
spinach, extracted by pounding in a mortar.


BREAD FRITTERS.--Pick, wash, and dry half a pound of Zante currants, and
having spread them out on a flat dish, dredge them well with flour.
Grate some bread into a pan, till you have a pint of crumbs. Pour over
the grated bread a pint of boiling milk, into which you have stirred, as
soon as taken from the fire, a piece of fresh butter, the size of an
egg. Cover the pan, and let it stand an hour. Then beat it hard, and add
nutmeg, and a quarter of a pound of powdered white sugar, stirred in
gradually, and two table-spoonfuls of the best brandy. Beat six eggs
till very light, and then stir them, by degrees, into the mixture.
Lastly, add the currants, a few at a time; and beat the whole very hard.
It should be a thick batter. If you find it too thin, add a little
flour. Have ready over the fire a hot frying-pan with boiling lard. Put
in the batter in large spoonfuls, (so as not to touch,) and fry the
fritters a light brown. Drain them on a perforated skimmer, or an
inverted sieve placed in a deep pan, and send them to table hot. Eat
them with wine, and powdered sugar.

Instead of currants, you may use sultana raisins, cut in half and well
floured.


INDIAN FRITTERS.--Having beaten eight eggs very light, stir them
gradually into a quart of rich milk, in turn with twelve large
table-spoonfuls of yellow Indian meal, adding a salt-spoon of salt. When
all is in, stir the whole very hard. Have ready over a clear fire, in a
pot or a large frying-pan, a pound of fresh lard, boiling fast. Drop the
batter into it, a ladleful at a time. If you find the batter too thin,
stir into it a little more Indian meal. As the lard boils away,
replenish it with more. As fast as they are done, take out each fritter
with a perforated skimmer; through the holes of which let the lard drip
back into the pot. The fritters must all be well drained. Send them to
table hot, and eat them with wine and sugar, or with molasses.

In cooking these fritters, you may drop in three or four, one
immediately after another; and they will not run, if the lard is boiling
fast, and the batter thick enough, and made with the proper number of
eggs.


VERY FINE MINCE-MEAT.--Boil two beef’s tongues, (perfectly fresh,) and,
when cold, skin and mince them; including the fat about the roots.
Mince, also, one pound of beef-suet, and mix it with the chopped
tongues. Add four nutmegs powdered; two ounces of powdered cinnamon; and
an ounce of powdered mace, with a table-spoonful of powdered cloves.
Pick clean, wash, and dry three pounds of Zante currants. Seed and chop
three pounds of the _best_ raisins. Mix the fruit with the other
ingredients, adding a pound of citron sliced, and the grated yellow
rind, and the juice of three large lemons or oranges. Sweeten the
mixture with two pounds of sugar, and moisten it with a quart of
excellent brandy, and a quart of sherry or Madeira wine. Having
thoroughly mixed the whole, pack it down, hard, into small stone jars,
covering them closely, and pasting strong white paper over the lids. Do
not add the apples till you take out the mince-meat for use, as it keeps
better without them. Then take a sufficient number of pippins or
bell-flowers, pare, core and chop them, and mix them with the
mince-meat, allowing three large apples to a pint of mince-meat. Their
freshness will improve the flavour.

It is best to make mince-meat two or three times during the winter; as
it will not continue very good longer than five or six weeks. Whenever
you take any out of the jars, put some additional brandy to the
remainder.

For mince-meat, and all other purposes, use none but the _best_ raisins.
What are called _cooking_ raisins, (like _cooking_ butter and _cooking_
wine,) injure instead of improving the articles with which they are
mixed. All things of bad quality are unwholesome as well as unpalatable.
It is better to do without mince-pies, plum-puddings and plum-cakes,
than to spoil them with hard, dried up, indigestible raisins; to say
nothing of the trouble of stoning and stemming them, when they are
nearly all seeds and stems.


TEMPERANCE MINCE-MEAT.--Take three pounds of the lean of a round of
fresh beef, that has been boiled the day before. It must be thoroughly
boiled, and very tender. Mince it, as finely as possible, with a
chopping-knife; and add to it two pounds of beef-suet, cleared from the
skin and filaments, and minced very small. Mix the suet and the lean
beef well together; and add a pound of brown sugar. Pick, wash, and dry
before the fire, two pounds of Zante currants. Seed and chop two pounds
of the best raisins. Sultana raisins have no seeds, and are therefore
the most convenient for all cookery purposes. Grate the yellow rind of
three large lemons or oranges into a saucer, and squeeze upon it their
juice, through a strainer. Mix this with the currants and raisins.
Prepare a heaped-up table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon; the same
quantity of powdered ginger; a heaped tea-spoonful of powdered nutmeg;
the same of powdered cloves; and the same of powdered mace. Mix all
these spices into a quart of the best _West India_ molasses. Then mix
well together the meat and the fruit; and wet the whole with the spiced
molasses; of which you must have enough to make the mixture very moist,
but not too thin. If you want the mince-meat for immediate use, add to
it four pounds of minced apple. The apples for this purpose should be
pippins or bell-flowers, pared, cored, quartered, and chopped fine. Add,
also, half a pound of citron, not minced, but cut into long slips.

If you intend the mince-meat for keeping, do not add the apple and
citron until you are about to make the pies, as it will keep better
without them. Mix all the other articles thoroughly, and pack down the
mince-meat, hard, in small stone jars. Lay upon the top of it, a round
of thin white paper, dipped in molasses, and cut exactly to fit the
inside circumference of the jar. Secure the jars closely with flat,
tight-fitting corks, and then with a lid; and paste paper down over the
top on the outside.

West India molasses will be found a good substitute for the wine and
brandy generally used to moisten mince-meat.


TRANSPARENT PASTE.--Take twelve ounces (or a pint and a half) of the
best fresh butter. Wash and squeeze it through several cold waters, and
press out whatever milk may remain about it. Then set it over the fire
to soften all through; but do not allow it to melt, so as to become
liquid or oily. Beat two eggs till very light and smooth; and when the
butter is cool, stir the eggs into it, adding, very gradually, a pound
of sifted flour that has been dried before the fire. Mix the whole into
a lump of soft dough, and beat it well on all sides with the
rolling-pin. Then transfer it to a paste-board, and roll it out thin. As
quickly as possible butter some tart-pans, and line them with the paste;
then brush it lightly with a little cold water, and sift on, thickly,
some powdered sugar. They must be baked empty. Set them immediately in a
rather brisk oven, and bake them a light brown. When cool, turn them
out, and fill them with marmalade, jam, or any very nice sweetmeats. If
properly made and baked, this paste looks very handsome. It may be baked
in large patty-pans the size of soup-plates.


LIGHT PASTE.--Sift into a pan three quarters of a pound of flour, and
another quarter on a plate. Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff
froth, and mix them with a wine-glass or more of cold water. With this
wet the flour to a stiff paste; and when it is formed into a lump, beat
it on all sides with the rolling-pin. Then lay it on the paste-board,
and roll it out into a thin sheet. Use the extra quarter of flour for
sprinkling and rolling. Have ready three quarters of a pound of the best
fresh butter, divided into three portions. Cover the sheet with one
portion of the butter, placed all over it in bits of equal size, and
laid on at equal distances. Then sprinkle on a little flour; fold up the
sheet of paste; flour it slightly when folded; roll it out again; and
put on in the same manner another portion of the butter; then flour it
slightly; fold it up; roll it out again; and add the third division of
butter. Then fold it, flour it, and give it a hard final rolling, always
moving the rolling-pin _from_ you instead of _towards_ you. The paste
will then be ready for any nice purpose.


ORANGE TARTS.--Take six or seven fine large sweet oranges; roll them
under your hand on a table to increase the juice, and then squeeze them
through a strainer over half a pound or more of powdered loaf-sugar. Mix
the orange-juice and the sugar thoroughly together. Use _none_ of the
peel. Break twelve eggs into a large shallow pan, and beat them till
thick and smooth. Then stir in, gradually, the orange-juice and sugar.
Have ready a sufficiency of the best puff-paste, roll it out thin, and
line some patty-pans with it, having first buttered them inside. Then
fill them with the orange-mixture, and set them immediately into a
rather brisk oven. Bake the tarts a light brown; and when done, set them
to cool. When quite cold, take them out of the patty-pans, put them on a
large dish, and grate sugar over their tops.

Lemon tarts may be made in a similar manner, but they require double the
quantity of sugar.

For baking tarts it is well to use (instead of tin patty-pans) small
deep plates of china or white-ware, with broad flat edges, like little
soup-plates. You can then have all round the edge a rim of paste
ornamentally notched. In notching the edge of a tart, (this must, of
course, be done before it goes into the oven,) use a sharp knife. Make
the cuts at equal distances about an inch broad, so as to form squares.
Turn upwards one square, and leave the next one down; and so on all
round the edge. This is the _chevaux-de-frize_ pattern. For the
shell-pattern, having notched the edge of the paste into squares, turn
up one half of _every_ square, giving the corner a fold down. The paste
should always be thickest round the rim or edge.

All tarts are best the day they are baked; but they should never be sent
to table warm.


A VERY FINE CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Boil a vanilla bean and a few blades of
mace in half a pint of rich milk till it is highly flavoured. Then take
out the bean; wipe it; and put it away for another time, and remove the
mace also. Mix the flavoured milk with a large half-pint of cream. Beat
four or five eggs till very light and thick; strain them, and add them
gradually to the cream, (when it is entirely cold,) to make a rich
custard. Set this custard over the fire, (stirring it all the time,) and
before it comes to a hard boil, take it off, and set it on ice. Have
ready, in another sauce-pan, an ounce of the best Russia isinglass
boiled to a thick jelly in a half pint of water. When the custard and
isinglass are both cold, (but not hard,) mix them well together, and add
four table-spoonfuls of powdered loaf-sugar. Then take half a pound of
loaf-sugar in lumps, and rub on them the yellow rind of two lemons. Mix
together the strained juice of the lemons, and two glasses of sherry or
madeira, and a glass of brandy; pour it upon the sugar; and when the
sugar is entirely dissolved, mix it with a quart of rich cream, and whip
it with rods or a whisk to a stiff froth. Take off the froth as it
stiffens, and add it gradually to the custard, stirring it very hard, at
the time; and also after the whole is mixed. Then set it on ice.

Cover the bottom of a handsome china dish or a glass bowl, with sliced
almond sponge-cake cut to fit. Then place round the sides slices of the
cake all of the same shape and size, making them wrap a little over each
other. Pour in the mixture. Cover the top with a layer of cake cut very
thin. Have ready an icing made in the usual manner of beaten white of
egg and powdered loaf-sugar; and flavoured with rose or lemon. Spread it
thickly and evenly over the surface of the top, smoothing it with a
broad knife dipped in cold water. Then set it on ice till wanted. This
Charlotte Russe is not to be turned out of the dish. It may be made in
two dishes.

Instead of vanilla, you may flavour the custard with a handful of
peach-leaves, or of broken up bitter almonds, boiled in the first
half-pint of milk, and two large sticks of cinnamon broken in pieces.

When the icing on the top has about half-dried, you may ornament it by
sticking on ripe strawberries of equal size in circles, stars, or any
fanciful figures. Or it may be decorated with white grapes, each grape
standing on end, if oval or long shaped.


ANOTHER CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Take a large circular or oval lady cake, and
with a sharp knife cut out nicely the inside, leaving the sides and
bottom standing, (about half an inch thick,) in the form of a mould.
Make a rich boiled custard, allowing eight eggs to a quart of unskimmed
milk, half a pint of which has been previously flavoured by boiling in
it half a dozen blades of mace with a vanilla bean, or a handful of
shelled bitter almonds or peach-kernels blanched and broken up. Strain
this flavoured milk and add it to the other. Then beat the eggs very
light and stir them gradually into the milk. Set it over hot coals,
stirring it all the time, but take it off before it comes to a boil, or
it will curdle. Have ready an ounce of isinglass boiled to a jelly in a
little water. When the custard and the isinglass are both cold (not
hard) mix them well together and add sufficient powdered loaf-sugar to
make it very sweet. Take a quart of rich cream that has been seasoned
with extract of roses, and whip it to a stiff froth. Take off the froth
as it stiffens, and add it gradually to the custard, stirring it very
hard after it is all in to prevent its separating. Fill with the mixture
the scooped-out sponge cake. Then cover the whole with an icing made in
the usual way of white of egg and sugar, flavoured with rose or lemon.
Then set it on ice till wanted.


AN ITALIAN CHARLOTTE.--Take a pint of rich cream; set it on ice, and
beat and stir it till it becomes a solid froth. Then boil a vanilla bean
in half a pint of rich milk till it is highly flavoured. Strain the
milk, and when cold mix with it six ounces of loaf-sugar and the beaten
yolks of four eggs, and set it over the fire, or rather on a bed of hot
coals. Boil it ten minutes, stirring it frequently. When it comes to a
boil, add half a pint of clear firm jelly-stock that has been made of
calves’ feet, or else an ounce of isinglass that has been melted in
barely as much boiling water as will cover it. Stir the mixture well,
and let it remain five minutes over the fire. Then take it off, and
place it on ice, stirring it till it begins to thicken. When it is about
the consistence of very thick gruel, add the whipped cream. Have ready
an almond sponge cake, baked in the form of a circular loaf. With a
sharp knife cut out the inside of this cake carefully and smoothly;
leaving the sides and bottom together, so as to form a mould not quite
an inch thick. Fill this up to the top with the Charlotte mixture; and
placing a large plate beneath it, set it on ice to congeal. In the mean
time, prepare a meringue or icing of beaten white of egg, thickened with
powdered loaf-sugar, and flavoured with extract of orange-flowers. Cover
the top and sides of the Charlotte with this icing; spread on evenly,
and smoothed with a knife dipped in cold water. Ornament it with
coloured sugar-jelly rings, handsomely arranged, or any other nice
bonbons.


A FRENCH CHARLOTTE.--Lay in a deep dish or pan half a pound of bitter
almond maccaroons (chocolate maccaroons will be still better) and pour
on sufficient white wine to cover them well, and let them stand till
entirely dissolved. Whip to a stiff froth a pint of rich cream,
sweetened with sugar and flavoured with rose or lemon. Have ready a
large circular almond sponge cake with the inside cut out, so as to
leave the sides and bottom standing in the form of a mould, not quite an
inch thick. Ornament the edge with a handsome border of icing. In the
bottom of this mould put the dissolved maccaroons; over them a layer of
thick jelly, made of some very nice fruit; and fill up with the whipped
cream, heaping it high in the centre.

This is a very fine Charlotte, and is easily made, no cooking being
required, after the materials are collected.


A SWEET OMELET.--Break small in an earthen pan six maccaroons made with
bitter almonds, and mix with them a dozen orange-blossoms pounded to a
paste. If the orange-flowers are not quite blown, the fragrance and
flavour will be finer. If more convenient, substitute for the blossoms a
large wine-glass of orange-flower water. Add six ounces of powdered
loaf-sugar, and mix all well together. Separate the whites from the
yolks of six eggs. Beat the yolks in a broad earthen pan till very light
and smooth, and add to them, gradually, the other ingredients. Have
ready the whites beaten to a stiff froth, and stir them in at the last,
a little at a time. Put four ounces of fresh butter into an omelet pan
(or a small, clean, short-handled frying-pan, tinned or enamelled
inside.) Set it over hot coals, and when the butter is all melted put in
the omelet-batter; which some one should continue to beat till the last
minute. When the omelet has become hot and has begun to colour, transfer
it to a well-buttered dish. Place it instantly in a rather brisk oven
and bake it from five to ten minutes, till it is a light-yellowish
brown, and puffed up high. Sift powdered sugar over it as quickly as
possible, and carry it immediately to the dinner-table; handing it round
rapidly for every one to take a piece, as it falls very soon.

These omelets are served up at dinner-parties immediately on the removal
of the meats.

They must be made, cooked, served up, and eaten with great celerity.
Therefore it is not usual to commence mixing a sweet or soufflée omelet,
till after the company has set down to dinner.

If exactly followed, this receipt will be found excellent.


SUNDERLANDS OR JELLY PUFFS.--Take a broad pan, and put into it a pint of
rich milk, and half a pound of the best fresh butter. Cut up the butter
in the milk, and, if in cold weather, set it in a warm place, on the
stove, or on the hearth near the fire, till the butter is quite soft;
but do not allow it to melt or oil; it must be merely warmed so as to
soften. Then take it off, and with a knife stir the butter well through
the milk till thoroughly mixed. Have ready half a pound of fine flour
sifted into a deep dish. In a broad pan beat eight eggs, with a whisk,
till they are very thick and light. Then stir the beaten egg into the
pan of milk and butter, in turn with the sifted flour, a little at a
time of each. Stir the whole very hard, and then put the mixture into
buttered tea-cups, filling them only two-thirds. Set them _immediately_
into a brisk oven, and bake them twenty minutes or more, till they are
well browned, and puffed up very light. Then take them from the oven,
and with a knife open a slit in the side of each puff, and carefully put
in, with a spoon, sufficient fruit jelly or marmalade to fill up the
whole inside or cavity. Afterwards close the slit, and press it
together with your fingers. As you fill them, lay each on a large dish;
and before they go to table, sift powdered white sugar over them. Eat
them cold. If properly made they will be found delicious.

Instead of jelly or marmalade, you may fill the Sunderlands with a rich
boiled custard, flavoured with vanilla or bitter almonds; and made with
yolk of egg, omitting the whites.

Or the filling may be of thick cream, made very sweet with loaf sugar,
and flavoured with rose or peach water, or with orange-flower water, or
with white wine.


RHUBARB CUPS.--Take twenty stalks of green rhubarb; cut them, and boil
them in a quart of water. When it comes to a hard boil, take it from the
fire; strain off the water; drain the rhubarb as dry as possible, and
then mash it, and make it very sweet with brown sugar. Have ready half a
pint of rice, that has been boiled in a quart of water, till soft and
dry. Mix the rhubarb and the rice well together; beating them hard. Then
mould it in cups slightly buttered, and set them on ice, or in a very
cold place. Just before dinner, turn them out on a large dish. Serve up
with them, in a bowl, cream and sugar, into which a nutmeg has been
grated; or else a sauce made of equal portions of fresh butter and
powdered white sugar, beaten together till very light, and flavoured
with powdered cinnamon, or nutmeg, and oil of lemon or lemon-juice.


SPANISH BLANC-MANGE.--Weigh half a pound of broken-up loaf-sugar of the
best quality. On one of the pieces rub off the yellow rind of a large
lemon. Then powder all the sugar, and mix with it a pint of rich cream,
the juice of the lemon, and half a pint (not less) of madeira or sherry.
Stir the mixture very hard, till all the articles are thoroughly
amalgamated. Then stir in, gradually, a second pint of cream.

Put into a small sauce-pan an ounce of the best isinglass, with one jill
(or two common-sized wine-glass-fulls) of cold water. Set the pan over
hot coals, and boil it till the isinglass is completely dissolved, and
not the smallest lump remaining. Frequently, while boiling, stir it down
to the bottom; taking care not to let it scorch. When the melted
isinglass has become lukewarm, stir it, gradually, into the mixture of
other ingredients; and then give the whole a hard stirring. Have ready
two or three white-ware moulds, that have just been dipped and rinsed in
cold water. Fill them with the mixture, and set them immediately on ice,
and in about two hours (or perhaps more) the blanc-mange will be
congealed. Do not remove it from the ice till _perfectly_ firm. Dip the
moulds for a moment in lukewarm water; then turn out the cream on glass
dishes.

This will be found a delicious article for a dessert, or an evening
party, provided the receipt is _exactly_ followed. We highly recommend
it, and _know_ that if fairly tried, precisely according to the above
directions, there can be no failure. It is superior to any of the usual
preparations of blanc-mange. The wine (which must be of excellent
quality) gives it a delicate and beautiful colour, and a fine flavour.


VANILLA BLANC-MANGE.--Chip fine an ounce of the best isinglass, and put
it into a small sauce-pan, with a jill of cold water, and boil it till
entirely dissolved. In another sauce-pan boil half a pint of rich milk
and a vanilla bean. Boil it, (with the lid on,) till the flavour of the
vanilla is well extracted. Whip a quart of rich cream to a stiff froth.
Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs. Beat the whites till they
stand alone. Then, in another pan, beat the yolks, and when they are
very light and smooth, add to them, gradually, a quarter of a pound of
powdered loaf-sugar, beaten in very hard. Then (having strained out the
bean) mix with the cream the milk in which it was boiled. Then beat in,
by degrees, the yolk of egg and sugar; then the white of egg; and,
lastly, the melted isinglass. When all the ingredients are united, beat
and stir the whole very hard. Rinse your moulds in cold water. Then put
in the mixture, and set it on ice, for two hours or more, to congeal.
When quite firm, (and just before it is wanted,) dip each mould down,
into a pan of lukewarm water, (taking care that the water does not reach
the top,) and turn out the blanc-mange on glass or china dishes. Keep it
on ice, till the minute before it is served up. It will be found very
fine.


MACCAROON BLANC-MANGE.--Chip small an ounce of the best Russia
isinglass; put it into a small sauce-pan; pour on it a jill of cold
water; and boil it till the isinglass is entirely melted, stirring and
skimming it well. Then strain it; cover it; and set it away. Have ready
a quart of cream, or very rich milk, boiling hot. Crush half a pound or
more of _bitter_-almond maccaroons; mix them well with the boiling
cream; cover the vessel, and let it stand (stirring it occasionally)
till the maccaroons are all dissolved. Next add the lukewarm isinglass;
stir the whole very hard, and then transfer it to blanc-mange moulds,
that have been slightly rubbed on the inside with a little sweet oil.
Set it on ice, (or in a very cold place,) and stir it occasionally till
it begins to congeal; then let it rest. When quite firm all through,
loosen it in the moulds, by slipping a knife beneath the edge of the
blanc-mange, and warm a clean cloth, and lay it a minute over the top.
This will render it easy to turn out. Or you may loosen the blanc-mange
by setting the mould in a pan of lukewarm water. Turn it out into a
glass dish. Lay on the top of the blanc-mange a sufficient number of
whole maccaroons, handsomely arranged in a large star, or in a circle,
and place another circle on the dish, round the bottom.


CHOCOLATE BLANC-MANGE.--The day before you want the blanc-mange, take
four calves’ feet, (singed but not skinned,) or eight or ten pigs’ feet.
Boil them slowly, (with frequent skimming,) in four quarts of water,
till all the meat drops from the bones. Then strain the liquid, through
a sieve, into a broad tin pan, cover it, and set it away in a cold, dry
place. Next day it should be a solid cake of clear jelly. Then scrape
off all the fat and sediment; cut the jelly into small bits; and put it
into a porcelain kettle or preserving pan, and melt it over the fire.
Have ready six ounces, or more, of cocoa or chocolate, that has been
scraped fine, and melted, over the fire, in a pint of boiling cream,
with six ounces of powdered loaf-sugar. When the chocolate, cream, and
sugar have boiled together five minutes after coming to a boil, mix them
with the melted jelly, and let the whole come to a boil again; and then
boil them together five minutes more, stirring it occasionally. Next put
it into moulds that have set all night in cold water. Do not wipe the
moulds, but leave them damp. Stir their contents well; and when the
blanc-mange is thickening, so that it is hard to stir, set the moulds on
ice, or place them in the cellar, in pans of cold water. When the
blanc-mange has quite congealed, and is very firm, turn it out of the
moulds, first setting them in lukewarm water, and serve it up on china
dishes.

Instead of calves’ or pigs’ feet, you may substitute an ounce of the
best Russia isinglass, or an ounce and a half of the common sort. The
isinglass must be previously dissolved, by boiling it in as much water
as will cover it, taking care not to let it burn. It must be melted
quite smooth. Mix it, while warm, with the chocolate, cream, and sugar.


COFFEE BLANC-MANGE may be made as above, substituting, for the
chocolate, six ounces of the best coffee, freshly roasted and ground,
and boiled in a pint of rich, unskimmed milk; or of cream, into which
there has been stirred an ounce or an ounce and a half of isinglass,
previously melted by boiling in water; and, also, six ounces of powdered
sugar. Boil all together, and then strain the liquid into moulds, and
set them on ice.


GELATINE BLANC-MANGE.--From two quarts of rich milk take a pint, and put
the pint into a small saucepan, with the yellow rinds of three lemons,
pared thin, and half a beaten nutmeg. For the lemon-rind, you may
substitute a handful of bitter almonds or peach-kernels, broken up; or
else a vanilla bean. Having boiled the pint of milk long and slowly,
till it tastes strongly of the flavouring articles, (keeping it closely
covered,) strain it, and mix it, in a larger sauce-pan, with the other
three pints of milk. Add an ounce and a half of gelatine, (that has
first been soaked in cold water,) and a quarter of a pound of fine
loaf-sugar. Set it over the fire, and continue to boil and stir it five
minutes after it has come to a boil. Then strain it, and transfer it to
blanc-mange moulds, first wetting the inside of each mould with cold
water. Place the moulds on ice, or in a very cold place, till the
blanc-mange has thoroughly congealed. Then turn it out on dishes.


CAKE SYLLABUB.--Half fill a glass bowl with thin slices of sponge-cake
or almond-cake. Pour on sufficient white wine to dissolve the cake.
Then rub off, on pieces of loaf-sugar, the yellow rind of two lemons,
and dissolve the sugar in a pint of rich cream. Squeeze the juice of the
lemons on some powdered loaf-sugar, and add it, gradually, to the cream.
Whip or mill the cream to a stiff froth; and then pile it on the
dissolved cake in the glass bowl. It should be heaped high above the
edge of the bowl. You may ornament the top of the syllabub with a circle
of real roses or other flowers,--a large one in the centre, and smaller
ones placed round in a ring.


ORANGE FLUMMERY.--Begin the day before, by boiling four large calves’
feet or eight small ones in three quarts of water. The best feet for
this purpose are those that are scalded and scraped, but not skinned.
After they have boiled slowly about five hours, put in the yellow rind
of four large oranges, pared very thin and cut small, and several sticks
of cinnamon broken up; and, if you choose, a dozen bitter almonds or
peach-kernels slightly pounded. Then let it boil an hour longer, till
the meat all drops from the bones, and is reduced to shreds, and till
the liquid is little more than a quart. Strain it through a sieve over a
broad white pan, and set it in a cold place till next morning, when it
ought to be a solid cake. Scrape off all the fat and sediment carefully;
otherwise it will not be clear when melted. Cut the cake into pieces;
put it into a porcelain kettle, with half a pound of double-refined
loaf-sugar, broken up, and melt it over the fire, adding, when it has
entirely dissolved, the juice of six large oranges. Next stir in,
gradually, the yolks of six eggs well-beaten, and continue stirring till
it has boiled ten minutes. Then take it off the fire, transfer it to a
broad pan, and set it on ice or in cold water. Continue stirring till it
is quite cold but not set. Wet some moulds with cold water, put the
mixture into them, and set it in a cold place or on ice to congeal.
When perfectly firm, wrap a cloth dipped in warm water round the moulds,
and turn it out on glass dishes.

Lemon flummery may be made in the same manner.


VANILLA FLUMMERY.--Take two quarts of rich milk. Put a pint of it into a
clean sauce-pan, and boil in it a vanilla bean, (keeping it closely
covered,) till the milk is highly flavoured. Then strain it into a pan,
and stir into it, gradually, half a pound of ground rice flour, mixing
it smoothly and free from lumps, till it becomes a thick batter. If you
find it too stiff, thin it with a little milk. Put the rest of the milk
(about three pints) into a larger sauce-pan, and set it over the fire.
When it comes to a boil, stir in, gradually, the rice-flour-batter,
alternately with a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Let it
continue boiling five minutes after all the batter has been put in. Then
take it off, and stir in two table-spoonfuls of rose-water. Wet some
moulds with cold water; put in the flummery and set it on ice or in a
very cold place to congeal. When quite firm, set the moulds for an
instant into a pan of lukewarm water.

Have ready a rich boiled custard, flavoured by boiling in the milk the
same vanilla bean that was previously used for the flummery. The custard
should be made in the proportion of a pint of milk to four eggs, and
four table-spoonfuls of sugar. Stir it all the time it is over the fire,
and take it off just as it begins to boil hard. When it is quite cold,
send it to table in a glass pitcher or bowl to eat with the flummery.

Rice flummery may be flavoured by boiling in the first pint of milk a
stick of cinnamon and a handful of bitter almonds or peach-kernels all
broken up.

The custard should then be flavoured also with cinnamon and bitter
almonds boiled in the custard milk.

Flummery may be coloured green by boiling in the last milk, spinach
juice extracted by pounding in a mortar some raw spinach, or some
pistachio nuts.

To colour it red, mix with the milk the juice of a beet that has been
boiled, scraped, cut up and pounded. Or boil in the milk a very small
muslin bag with alkanet tied up in it.


MERINGUED APPLES.--Pare and core (with a tin apple-corer) some fine
large pippin apples, but do not quarter or slice them. Wash them
separately in cold water, and then with the water still remaining about
the surface of the apples, stand them up in a deep baking-dish, but do
not place them so near each other as to touch. Pour into the bottom of
the dish just water enough to prevent their burning, set them into a
close oven, and bake them till they are perfectly tender all through,
but not to break; as they must on no account lose their shape. When
done, take them out; remove them to a flat china dish; and set them
immediately to cool, clearing off any juice that may be about them. When
quite cold, fill up the hole from whence the cores were extracted with
thick marmalade or fruit jelly. Have ready a meringue or icing made of
beaten white of egg, thickened with finely powdered loaf-sugar and
flavoured with lemon-juice, or extract of roses. In making a meringue
the usual proportion is the whites of four eggs to a pound of powdered
sugar. The white of egg must first be whisked to a stiff firm froth, and
the sugar then beaten into it, gradually, a spoonful at a time; the
flavouring being added at the last. When the apples are quite cold cover
them all over with the meringue, put on in table-spoonfuls, beginning at
the top of each apple and then spreading it down evenly with a
broad-bladed knife dipped frequently into a bowl of cold water. The
meringue must be put on very smoothly and of equal thickness all over.
Then dredge the surface with finely powdered loaf-sugar sifted in from a
very small sieve. Set them into a rather cool oven, and as soon as the
meringue is hardened, take them out.

Fine large free-stone peaches may be meringued in this manner. To
extract the stones of peaches loosen them carefully all round with a
sharp, narrow-pointed knife. You may then easily thrust them out,
without breaking the peaches, which for this purpose should not be
over-ripe.


CHOCOLATE CREAM.--Scrape down a quarter of a pound of the best
chocolate, or of Baker’s prepared cocoa. Put it into a marble mortar.
Pour on by degrees as much boiling water as will dissolve it, and beat
it well for about a quarter of an hour. Then sweeten it with four
table-spoonfuls of powdered loaf-sugar. Add, gradually, a pint and a
half of rich cream. Mill it with a chocolate mill, or a little tin
churn; or beat it hard with rods. As the froth rises, take it off and
lay it on the inverted bottom of a sieve that is placed in a deep pan.
When done, take the liquid that has drained through the sieve, and put a
portion of it in the bottom of each glass. Then fill the glasses with
the froth, heaping it high on the top, and set it in a cool dry place
till wanted.


ANOTHER WAY.--Boil a vanilla bean in half a pint of milk till the
flavour is well-extracted. Then take out the bean, wipe it dry, and put
it away. It may be used a second time for a slight vanilla flavouring.
Scrape down a quarter of a pound of excellent chocolate, or of Baker’s
prepared cocoa, and mix with it the vanilla-milk. Put it into a
chocolate pot or a sauce-pan, and pour on it a pint and a half of rich
milk. Set it over the fire, or on a bed of hot coals, and boil it
slowly; stirring it till the chocolate is entirely dissolved and
thoroughly incorporated with the milk. Beat six eggs very light, and
stir them, gradually, into the mixture; continuing to stir, lest it
should curdle. When the egg is all in, and it begins to boil up, take it
off, and when cool enough transfer it to glasses, or to a bowl.


PISTACHIO CREAM.--Take half a pound of pistachio nuts. Throw them into
scalding water, and peel off the skins. Put the nuts (not more than two
at a time) into a marble mortar, and pound them to a smooth paste,
adding frequently, as you proceed, a few drops of rose-water. Sweeten a
quart of cream with half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and stir into
it, gradually, the pistachio paste. Set the mixture over the fire; and
let it just come to a boil. Then take it out; stir in two
table-spoonfuls of rose-water or peach-water, and set on ice to cool.
Either serve it up liquid in a glass bowl, or put it into a freezer, and
freeze it as ice-cream. If you freeze it, you must substitute for the
rose-water or peach-water, a table-spoonful of extract of roses, or the
same quantity of extract of bitter almonds. The process of freezing
diminishes the strength of every sort of flavouring; and of sweetening
also.

If you serve it up as frozen, stick it all over with slips of pistachio
nut, peeled and sliced.


ALMOND CREAM.--Take a pound of shelled sweet almonds, and two ounces or
more of shelled bitter almonds, or peach-kernels. Blanch them in
scalding water, throwing them as you proceed into a bowl of cold water.
Then pound them (one at a time) in a mortar, till each becomes a smooth
paste; pouring in, as you proceed, a little rose-water to make the
almonds white and light, and transferring the paste to a plate as you
go on. Then when they are all done, mix the almonds with a quart of rich
cream, and a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Add half a dozen
blades of mace; put the mixture into a porcelain kettle, and boil it,
slowly, stirring it frequently down to the bottom. Having given it one
boil up, remove it from the fire, take out the mace, and when it has
cooled a little, put the cream into glass cups, grating nutmeg over
each. Serve it up quite cold. You may ornament each cup of this cream
with white of egg, beaten to a stiff froth, and heaped on the top.


COCOA-NUT CREAM may be made as above; substituting for the almonds a
pound of cocoa-nut grated finely. When it has boiled, and is taken from
the fire, stir into the cream a wine-glass of rose-water.

A similar cream may be made with pounded pistachio nuts.

Pecan nuts, blanched and pounded, (adding occasionally a little cold
water to take off the oiliness,) may be boiled as above, with cream,
sugar, and spice.

All these creams may be frozen, and served up as ice-cream.


VANILLA CREAM.--Boil a vanilla bean in half a pint of rich milk, till
the milk is highly flavoured with the vanilla. Then (having taken out
the bean) strain the milk into a pint of thick cream. Beat the yolks of
five eggs till very light, and then mix gradually with the beaten egg a
quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, beating it in very hard. Set
the cream over hot coals, and add to it by degrees the egg and sugar.
Stir it continually till it is on the point of coming to a boil. It must
be very thick and smooth. Cover the bottom and sides of a glass bowl or
dish, with three quarters of a pound of lady-cake, cut into nice even
slices. Pour on the mixture, and then set the bowl on ice or snow till
wanted.

For lady-cake, you may substitute finger-biscuit, or slices of almond
sponge-cake.

You may ornament the bowl by beating to a stiff froth the whites of two
or three of the eggs, and heaping it on the top.


ICED JELLY.--Make calves’ feet jelly in the usual way. Then put it into
a freezer, and freeze it as you would ice-cream. Serve it up in a glass
bowl or in jelly-glasses. You cannot mould it this way; but the taste of
jelly when broken up is much more lively than when moulded; also it
sparkles and looks handsomer.


CURRANT ICE.--Pick a sufficiency of ripe currants from their stems. Then
squeeze the currants through a linen bag, and to each quart of the juice
allow a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Mix them together, and when the
sugar is thoroughly melted, put it into a freezer, and freeze it in the
manner of ice-cream. Serve it up in glass bowls. It will be found
delicious in warm weather.


PLUM-WATER ICE.--Take some fine ripe plums. Wash them; cut them in half,
and stone them. Crack the stones, and take out the kernels. Weigh the
plums, and to every pound allow a pound and a half of loaf-sugar, and
the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth. Mix, in a preserving
kettle, the white of egg with the sugar, which should be finely
powdered; and allow to each pound and a half of sugar, half a pint of
water. Having stirred it well, set on the fire, (but not till all the
sugar is melted,) add the plum-kernels, and boil and skim it. When the
scum ceases to rise, take the syrup off the fire, pour it into a
white-ware vessel, and remove the kernels. While you are boiling the
sugar, put the plums into another vessel and boil them by themselves to
draw out the juice. Then put them into a linen bag, and squeeze all the
juice into a deep pan or pitcher placed beneath. Afterwards mix the
plum-juice with the syrup; stirring them thoroughly together; and put it
into a freezer. Freeze it well, and when done, serve it in a glass bowl,
and eat it in saucers.


DAMSON-WATER ICE may be made as above; except that you boil the damsons
whole and make no use of the kernels. When the damsons have all burst
open, put them into a linen bag; squeeze it well, mix the juice with the
syrup which you have previously prepared, and freeze it. The juice of
damsons is much thicker and richer than that of plums; but it requires
still more sugar.


CHERRY-WATER ICE is made nearly as above; except that the cherries must
be stoned, but not boiled. Put them raw into the bag, and squeeze them.
The cherries should be of the best and most juicy red sort, and
thoroughly ripe.


STRAWBERRY ICE is made of ripe strawberries put into a linen bag, and
the juice squeezed out. Then measure it, and to each pint of juice allow
half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Having mixed thoroughly the juice
and the sugar, put it into a freezer and freeze it. In this manner ices
(without cream) may be made of currant and raspberry juice, mixed raw
with sugar.


GOOSEBERRY-WATER ICE.--Having stewed the gooseberries, squeeze out the
juice through a linen bag. To every pint, allow a pound of loaf-sugar.
Mix it well, and freeze it.


PEACH ICE-CREAM.--Take fine soft free-stone peaches, perfectly ripe.
Pare them, and remove the stones. Crack about half the stones, and
extract the kernels, which must be blanched by putting them into a bowl,
and pouring on boiling water to loosen the skins. Then break them up, or
pound them slightly; put them into a little sauce-pan, and boil the
kernels in a small quantity of rich milk, till it is highly flavoured
with them; keeping the sauce-pan covered. Strain out the kernels, and
set the milk to cool. Cut up the peaches in a large, broad, shallow pan,
or a flat dish, and chop them very small. Mix with the chopped peaches
sufficient powdered loaf-sugar to make them very sweet, and then mash
them to a smooth jam with a silver spoon. Measure the peach jam; and to
each quart allow a pint of cream, and a pint of rich unskimmed milk. Mix
the whole well together, and put it into the freezer; adding when the
mixture is about half-frozen, the milk in which you boiled the kernels,
and which will greatly improve the peach-flavour. When well frozen, turn
out the cream and serve it in a glass bowl. If you wish to have it in a
shape, transfer it to a mould, and give it a second freezing. Before you
turn it out, wash the outside of the mould all over with cold water, or
wrap a wet cloth round it. Then open it, and the ice-cream will come out
easily.

Apricot ice-cream may be made as above.


CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM.--Scrape down half a pound of the best chocolate or
of Baker’s prepared cocoa. Put it into a sauce-pan, and pour on it a
pint of boiling milk. Stir, and mix it well, and smoothly. Then set it
over the fire, and let it come to a boil. Mix together in a pan, a
quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and a pint of rich cream. In
another pan beat very light the yolks of nine eggs. Afterwards gradually
stir the beaten egg into the cream and sugar, and then put the mixture
into a sauce-pan; stir in, by degrees, the chocolate; set it over the
fire, and simmer it till it is just ready to come to a boil. Strain it
through a sieve, transfer it to a freezer, and freeze it in the usual
manner of ice-cream.


BISCUIT ICE-CREAM.--Take some pieces of broken loaf-sugar, and rub off
on them the yellow rind of four lemons. Then pulverize the sugar and mix
it with half a pound of loaf-sugar already powdered. Have ready eight
small Naples biscuits or sponge-cakes, grated fine; stir them, in turn
with the sugar, into a quart of cream. Give the whole one boil up. Then
put it into a freezer, and freeze it in the usual manner. Afterwards
transfer it to a pyramid mould, and freeze it a second time.

Similar ice-cream may be made with maccaroons broken small and dissolved
in the cream, from whence half a pint must be previously taken and
boiled with a handful of broken up bitter almonds. Afterwards strain
this, and mix it with the rest.


FLAVOURED CURDS AND WHEY.--To turn two quarts of milk, take a piece of
dried rennet about the size of the palm of your hand; wash it well
through several cold waters to get the salt entirely off, and then wipe
it dry. Put it into a small bowl, and pour on it half a tumbler (a
quarter of a pint) of lukewarm water. The water must on no account be
hot, as to scald rennet weakens it and diminishes its power of
converting milk into curd. Cover the bowl; and let it stand to infuse at
least four hours. A longer time will do no harm; therefore, if you
intend making the curd early in the day, you may put the rennet in soak
over night. For lemon-flavouring--to two quarts of milk allow two
lemons, using only the _yellow_ rind or surface of the skin, and grating
it as finely as possible. Reserve the juice of the lemons for some other
purpose. Mix the grated rind with the rennet-water, first removing the
piece of rennet that has been soaking in it. Have ready in a large china
or glass bowl two quarts of rich milk, and stir into it the rennet-water
and lemon-rind. Cover the bowl, and set it in a moderately warm place
till the curd has become a firm, smooth, unbroken mass, and the whey
looks clear and greenish. Then set the bowl on ice, and keep it there
till wanted for the table. Accompany it with a small pitcher of rich
cream, and a little bowl of powdered loaf-sugar and nutmeg. Send it
round on saucers. It is a delicious article for summer dessert, or for a
summer tea-table.

To flavour curds and whey with vanilla--boil a vanilla bean slowly in
half a pint of milk, keeping the saucepan closely covered. When the milk
is highly flavoured with the vanilla, strain it; and when cold, mix it
with the milk you intend for the curds. Afterwards add the rennet-water.
Or you may use instead of the bean, extract of vanilla, allowing four
table-spoonfuls to two quarts of milk. Oliver’s extract of vanilla is of
excellent quality, and may be obtained in small bottles at most of the
drug stores in Philadelphia.

To give curds and whey a peach-flavour--stir into the milk some
peach-water, as soon as you have added the rennet-water; allowing two
table-spoonfuls of the peach-water to each quart of milk. If you have no
peach-water, take a handful of peach-kernels, (saved from the stones,)
pound them, and boil them slowly in half a pint of milk till it tastes
strongly of them. Then strain the milk, and when cold, mix it with the
rest, and add the rennet-water. A handful of _fresh_ peach-leaves boiled
long and slowly in a small portion of milk will produce a similar
flavour.

For a rose taste, stir into two quarts of milk a tea-spoonful of extract
of roses; or more if it is not very strong; or add four table-spoonfuls
of rose-water.

Curds and whey that has _not_ been previously flavoured, should be sent
to table with a small pitcher containing white wine, loaf-sugar, and
powdered nutmeg.


RENNETS.--Milk turned into a curd with wine, is by no means so good as
that which is done with rennet-water alone. The curd and whey do not
separate so completely: the curd is less firm, and the whey less clear;
the latter being thick and white, instead of thin and greenish as it
ought to be. Neither is it so light and wholesome as when turned with
rennet.

Rennets of the best quality can be had at all seasons in Philadelphia
market; particularly in the lower part, called the Jersey market. They
are sold at twelve, eighteen, or twenty-five cents, according to their
size, and will keep a year or two; but have most strength when fresh.
You may prepare excellent rennets yourself at a very trifling expense,
by previously bespeaking them of a veal butcher; a rennet being the
stomach of a calf. Its form is a bag. As soon as you get the rennet,
empty out all its contents, and wipe it very clean, inside and out; then
rinse it with cold water; but do not wash it much, as washing will
weaken its power of turning milk into curd. When you have made it quite
clean, lay the rennet in a broad pan, strew it over on both sides with
plenty of fine salt; cover it, and let it rest five days. When you take
it out of the pan, do not wipe or wash it, for it must be stretched and
dried with the salt on. For this purpose hold it open like a bag, and
slip within it a long, thick, smooth rod, bent into the form of a large
loop; wide at the top, and so narrow at the bottom as to meet together.
Stretch the rennet tightly and smoothly over this bent rod, on which it
will be double, and when you have brought the two ends of the rod
together at the bottom, and tied them fast, the form will somewhat
resemble that of a boy’s kite. Hang it up in a dry place, and cut out a
bit as you want it. A piece about two inches square will turn one quart
of milk, a piece of four inches two quarts. Having first washed off all
the salt in several cold waters, and wiped the bit of rennet dry; pour
on it sufficient _lukewarm_ water to cover it well. Let it stand several
hours; then pour the rennet-water into the milk you intend for the curd,
and set it in a warm place. When the curd is entirely formed, set the
vessel on ice.

Rennet may be used with good effect before it has _quite_ dried.


HINTS ON CALVES’ FOOT JELLY.--In making calves’ foot jelly, if you
intend it for moulds, put in two or three pieces of isinglass when you
are boiling the ingredients. If you wish it a deep rich colour, put into
the bottom of the straining-bag a large tea-spoonful of _brown_ sugar,
before you pour in the jelly. After all the jelly has run through the
bag, (which must on no account be squeezed,) let it, gradually, become
perfectly cold before you remove it to a colder place to congeal.



SWEETMEATS, ETC.


AMERICAN CITRON.--Pare a sufficient number of citron-melons, and cut
each melon into four thick quarters. Weigh them, and put them over-night
into a tureen, or a large white-ware pan or basin. Prepare some very
weak brine, allowing a table-spoonful of salt to a quart of water, for
every pound of citron. Pour the salt and water over the citron; cover
it, and let it stand all night to draw out the sliminess. Prepare some
alum-water, allowing to each quart of water a bit of alum about the size
of a grain of Indian corn. In the morning, drain the citron from the
brine, and wash every piece separately in the alum-water, which will
green and clear it. After it has lain half an hour in the alum-water,
drain the citron, and put it into a porcelain preserving-kettle,
allowing to every four pounds of the citron a large half pint of clear
fresh water. There must be water enough to cover the citron, and keep it
from burning. Add to every four pounds, the yellow rind of a large
lemon, grated, or pared off very thin, and cut into shreds. Set the
kettle over a clear fire, and boil it slowly, till the citron is tender
enough to be easily pierced through with a large needle. If it seems to
be boiling dry, add a little more cold water. When all are quite tender,
take out each piece separately with a fork. Spread them out on a large
dish. Then strain and measure the liquid; and to each pint allow a pound
of the best double-refined _loaf-sugar_; not the sugar that is sold
ready-powdered, as that is so adulterated with ground starch, that it
has little or no strength, and sweetmeats made with it are sure to
spoil, unless four times the usual quantity is put in.

Having broken up the loaf-sugar, add it to the liquid in the
preserving-kettle, and let it boil (skimming it well) till it becomes a
thick, rich, jelly-like syrup. It will most probably be boiled
sufficiently in about half an hour. Next put in the pieces of citron,
one at a time, and boil them ten minutes, or more, in the syrup, till it
has thoroughly penetrated them. Afterwards take out the citron; spread
it on a dish to cool; and transfer the syrup to a large pitcher. When
cold, put the citron into glass jars, and pour the syrup over it. Cover
the tops with white paper, dipped in brandy, and tie closely over each
another covering of bladder, that has been previously soaked in water.
The covers of lacquered tin, that belong to glass jars, seldom fit
perfectly tight, and are not to be trusted without another covering over
them.

This will be found a very fine sweetmeat. To dry it, in imitation of
foreign citron, select some of the finest pieces; spread them on a dish;
and set them for three days in the hot sun, turning each piece several
times a-day. Then make a hole near the end of each piece; run a twine
string through them, and hang them on lines, across an open, sunny
window. When sufficiently dry, put them into tight jars, or boxes, and
keep them to use, as citron, in cakes or mince-pies.

Preserved citron may be candied, (after it has lain five or six months
in the syrup,) by taking out the pieces, spreading them on a dish, and
boiling the syrup again, till it is as thick as possible. It may require
some additional sugar. Then pour it on the citron; and when it has grown
cold, and has dried on the pieces, put them into a jar.

When giving the citron its first boiling, in the lemon-peel and water,
you may add, to every four pounds of citron, half an ounce of
root-ginger, (if green and tender, it will be better,) or else a few
pieces of preserved ginger.

To increase the lemon-flavour, rub off, upon some lumps of sugar,
(before you make the syrup,) the yellow rind of two or three other
lemons.


PRESERVED CITRON-MELONS.--Take some fine citron-melons; pare, core, and
cut them into slices. Then weigh them; and, to every six pounds of
melon, allow six pounds of the best double-refined loaf-sugar; and the
juice and yellow rind (pared off very thin) of four large, fresh lemons;
also, half a pound of race-ginger.

Put the slices of melon into a preserving-kettle, and boil them half an
hour, or more, till they look _quite_ clear, and are so tender that a
broom-twig will pierce through them. Then drain them; lay them in a
broad pan of cold water; cover them; and let them stand all night. In
the morning, tie the race-ginger in a thin muslin cloth, and boil it in
three pints of clear spring or pump-water, till the water is highly
flavoured. Then take out the bag of ginger. Having broken up the sugar,
put it into a clean preserving-kettle, and pour the ginger-water over
it. When the sugar is all melted, set it over the fire; put in the
yellow peel of the lemons; and boil and skim it till no more scum rises.
Then remove the lemon-peel; put in the sliced citrons, and the juice of
the lemons; and boil them in the syrup till all the slices are quite
transparent, and so soft that a straw will go through them; but do not
allow them to break. When quite done, put the slices (while still warm)
into wide-mouthed glass or white-ware jars; and gently pour on the
syrup. Lay inside of each jar, upon the top of the syrup, a double white
tissue-paper, cut exactly to fit the surface. Put on the lids of the
jars, and paste thick paper over them.

This will be found a delicious sweetmeat; equal to any imported from the
West Indies, and far less expensive. We recommend it highly.
Citron-melons are brought to Philadelphia market in the month of August.


AN EASY WAY OF PRESERVING PINE-APPLES.--Take pine-apples, as ripe as
you can possibly get them; pare them, and cut them into thin, circular
slices. Weigh them, and to each pound of pine-apple allow a pound of
the best double-refined loaf-sugar. Place a layer of the pine-apple
slices in the bottom of a large, deep dish, or white-ware pan, and
sprinkle it thickly with a layer of the sugar, which must first be
powdered. Then put another layer of the pine-apple, and sugar it well;
and so on, till the dish is full; finishing with a layer of sugar on
the top. Cover the dish, and let it stand all night. In the morning
remove the slices of pine-apple to a tureen. Pour the syrup into a
porcelain preserving-kettle, and boil and skim it at least half an
hour. Do not remove it from the fire, till the scum has entirely
ceased to rise. Then pour the syrup, _boiling hot_, over the slices of
pine-apple in the tureen. Cover it, and let it stand till cold. Then
transfer the sliced pine-apple and the syrup to wide-mouthed glass
jars, or to large tumblers. Cover them well, pasting down thick white
paper over the top.


FINE PINE-APPLE MARMALADE.--Take the largest, ripest, and most perfect
pine-apples. Pare them, and cut out whatever blemishes you may find.
Weigh each pine-apple, balancing the other scale with an equal weight of
the best double-refined sugar, finely powdered, _at home_. The white
sugar, that is sold ready-powdered, is generally so adulterated with
finely pulverized starch, as to have very little strength or sweetness,
and is, therefore, unfit for sweetmeats, as, when made with it, they
will not keep. Grate the pine-apples on a large dish; using a large,
coarse grater, and omitting the hard core that goes down the centre of
each. Put the grated pine-apple and the sugar into a preserving-kettle,
mixing them thoroughly. Set it over a moderate and very clear fire, and
boil and skim it well, stirring it after skimming. After the scum has
ceased to appear, stir the marmalade frequently till it is done, which
will generally be in an hour, or an hour and a half after it has come to
a boil. But if it is not smooth, clear, and bright, in that time,
continue the boiling till it is. Put it, warm, into tumblers, or
broad-mouthed glass jars. Lay inside the top of each, doubled white
tissue-paper, cut exactly to fit, and press it down lightly with your
finger, round the edge, so as to cover smoothly the surface of the
marmalade. Then paste strong white paper over the top of each glass, and
set them in a cool, dry place.

This is a very delicious preparation of pine-apple.


THE BEST WAY OF PRESERVING PINE-APPLES.--Take six large, fine, ripe
pine-apples. Make them very clean, but do not pare off the rind, or cut
off the leaves. Put them, whole, into a very large and very clean pot or
kettle. Fill it up with cold water, and boil the pine-apples till they
are so tender that you can penetrate them all through with a twig from a
broom. Then take them out and drain them. When cool enough to handle
without inconvenience, remove the leaves, and pare off the rind. The
rind and leaves being left on, while boiling, will _keep in_ the flavour
of the fruit. Cut the pine-apples into round slices, about half an inch
thick, extracting the core from the centre, so as to leave a round hole
in the middle of every slice. Weigh them; and to each pound allow a
pound of double-refined loaf-sugar, broken up and powdered. Cover the
bottom of a large dish, or dishes, with a layer of the sugar. On this,
place a layer of pine-apple slices; then a layer of sugar; then one of
pine-apple; and so till the pine-apple slices are all covered; finishing
with a layer of sugar. Let them stand twenty-four hours. Then drain the
slices from the syrup, and lay them in wide jars. Put the syrup into a
clean preserving-kettle, and boil and skim it till the scum ceases to
rise. Then pour it hot upon the pine-apple. While still warm, cover the
jars closely, and paste paper over them. They will be found very fine.


QUINCES may be preserved in a similar manner; first boiling them whole,
with the skin on; then peeling them, and extracting the cores; then
slicing the quinces into round, thin pieces, and letting them stand
twenty-four hours in layers of sugar. Boil the syrup, and pour it over
the quinces, after they are in the jars.

Save the parings and cores, and also some of the water in which the
quinces were boiled. Weigh the boiled cores and parings, and to each
pound allow a half-pint of the quince-water. Set them over the fire, in
a clean kettle, and boil them, till dissolved as much as possible. Then
strain them through a linen bag. To each pint of juice allow a pound of
loaf-sugar, powdered. Having washed the kettle, put in the sugar; pour
on it the quince-liquor; and boil it till it becomes a jelly. Try it, by
holding a spoonful in the open air, and, if all is right, it will
congeal very soon.


FINE ORANGE MARMALADE.--Quarter some large, ripe oranges, and remove the
rind, the seeds, and the strings, or filaments; taking care, as you do
so, to save all the juice. Put the pulp and juice into a porcelain
sauce-pan, and mix with it an equal quantity of strained honey. If not
sweet enough, add some powdered loaf-sugar. Boil them together slowly,
stirring it frequently. Try if it is done, by taking out a spoonful,
and placing it in the cold air. If, in cooling, it becomes a very thick
marmalade, it is sufficiently boiled. Put it into wide-mouth glass jars,
and cover it closely; first, with a double white tissue-paper, cut
exactly to fit the surface of the marmalade, and then with thick white
paper, pasted down, carefully, over the top of the jar. A cover of
bladder, soaked in water, and put on wet, that it may contract in
drying, is still better.


APPLE MARMALADE.--Break up four pounds of fine loaf-sugar. Put it into a
preserving-kettle, and pour on a quart of clear, cold water. When the
sugar has melted, stir it; set the kettle over the fire, and let it boil
for a quarter of an hour after it has come to a boil; skimming it well.
Have ready some fine, ripe pippin or bell-flower apples, pared, cored
and sliced. There must be apple enough to weigh four pounds, when cut
up. Put it into the syrup, adding the grated rinds of four large lemons.
Let it simmer, stirring it well, till the apple is all dissolved, and
forming a smooth mass. Then add the juice of the lemons; boil it fast;
and continue boiling and stirring, till it becomes a very thick
marmalade. It will generally require _simmering_ an hour and a half, and
_boiling fast_ half an hour, or more. When it is done, put it, warm,
into deep white-ware jars; cover it closely, and paste paper over the
top, or tie a piece of bladder closely; and put it away in a dry, cool
place. If you want any for immediate use, put some into a handsome
mould, and, when cold and firm, turn it out on a glass dish; first
dipping the mould in warm water.


FINE ORANGE JELLY.--Take four large calves’ feet, that have been singed,
but not skinned. Boil them in a gallon of clear, soft water, till the
liquid is reduced to one quart, and all the meat has dropped from the
bones. Strain it into a pan, cover it, and let it stand till next
morning. It should then be a firm cake. Take a knife, and carefully
remove all the fat from the top of the cake, and all the sediment from
the bottom, and press some clean, soft, blotting-paper (or white paper)
upon it, to clear it from all remains of greasiness. Then cut the cake
of jelly into slices, and put it into a preserving-kettle. Add to it a
pound and a half of loaf-sugar, broken up, a pint and a half of strained
orange-juice, and the yellow rinds of four oranges, pared thin, and cut
in pieces. Beat, slightly, the whites of six eggs, and add them to the
mixture, with three of their shells, crushed small. Set the kettle over
a clear fire, and stir till you see indications of the scum begin to
rise. Then cease stirring, immediately, or the jelly will be cloudy.
After it has come to a boil, simmer it ten minutes. Then take it off the
fire. Let it stand about five minutes, and then pour the whole into a
jelly-bag; place a white pan beneath, for the jelly to drip into. Take
care not to squeeze the bag, or the clearness of the jelly will be
irrecoverably destroyed. If it is not clear, on first running through,
empty the bag, wash it clean, and return the jelly to it, and let it
drip again. Repeat this, if necessary, till it is quite bright and
transparent. When it has congealed, and become firm, put it into a glass
bowl, and break it up. If you wish it in moulds, put it into them, of
course, while it is liquid; but not till it is quite clear.

It will be clear much sooner, and with certainty, if you add two or
three blades of isinglass, when it first begins to boil.

The oranges should be ripe, high-coloured, and rolled under the hand, to
increase the juice.


EXCELLENT CURRANT-JELLY.--The currants should be quite ripe, but not
_over_-ripe. Having picked them from the stems, put the fruit into a
large stone jar, or pitcher, and tie closely over the top a very thick
paper, (for instance, sugar-loaf paper, or coarse brown.) Set the jar
into a kettle of boiling water, the water not quite reaching the top
of the jar; and let the currants remain over a moderate fire an hour
after they have begun to boil. Then pour them into a linen bag, and
let the juice drip into a vessel beneath. Do not squeeze the bag, or
the jelly will not be clear. When the juice has ceased to drip,
measure it; and to each quart allow a pound of the best double-refined
loaf-sugar, broken up. Crush the sugar small, by rolling it on a clean
paste-board, with a rolling-pin. Put the juice (_without the sugar_)
into a preserving-kettle, and let it just come to a boil. Then take it
off; and, while it is very hot, immediately stir into it the sugar, a
handful at a time, using a wooden spoon to stir it with. If the sugar
is of the best sort, it will require no skimming, and will have no
sediment. Therefore, as nothing of it will be lost or wasted, it is
more economical than sugar of inferior quality. Put the jelly
immediately into tumblers, or white jars, and cover it at once; first,
with double white tissue-paper, cut to fit exactly the inside of the
top; and then with writing-paper, cut larger, so as to turn downward,
round the outside of the top. Paste the paper firmly on, and set the
jelly away in a dry, cool place. Notch the edge of the paper, with
scissors.

White currant-jelly may be made as above. It will be a clear, bright,
amber colour.

Raspberry, strawberry, grape, gooseberry, and cranberry-jelly, can be
made in this manner. For the gooseberry, allow a pound and a half of
sugar to every pint of juice; for the cranberry, a pound and a half,
also.


FINE BLACK CURRANT-JELLY.--Make black currant-jelly according to the
above receipt; except that when you have stemmed the black currants, and
put them into the jar, to boil, you must add a little water; allowing a
small half-pint of water to each quart of the stemmed currants. The
juice of black currants is so very thick, that, if undiluted, the jelly
would be tough and ropy.


FOUR FRUIT JELLY.--Take equal quantities of ripe strawberries,
raspberries, currants, and red cherries. All should be fully ripe, and
the cherries must be stoned, taking care to save the juice that comes
from them in stoning. Add it, afterwards, to the rest. Mix the fruit
together, and put it in a linen bag. Squeeze it well into a tureen
placed beneath. When it has ceased to drip, measure the juice; and to
every pint, allow a pound and two ounces of the best double-refined
loaf-sugar, finely powdered. Mix together the juice and the sugar. Put
them into a porcelain preserving-kettle; set it over the fire, and let
it boil half an hour--skimming it frequently. Try the jelly by dipping
out a spoonful, and holding it in the open air. If it congeals readily,
it is sufficiently done. Put the jelly warm into tumblers or other
wide-topped glasses. Cover it with double-tissue paper, which must be
white, and cut exactly to fit the surface of the jelly. Lay it nicely
and smoothly inside the top of the glass, pressing it down with your
fingers all round the edge. Then paste white paper over the top, and a
little way down the sides of the glass, notching it round with scissors
to make it fit the better.

Set away the jelly in a cool dry closet.


BARBERRY JAM.--Take barberries that are perfectly ripe. Pick them from
the stems; and to each quart of berries, allow three-quarters of a pound
of clean rich brown sugar. Mash the barberries, and put them with all
their juice into a preserving-kettle, mixing with them the sugar, and
stirring it well in. Boil and skim till the scum ceases to rise, and the
jam has become a thick mass, which it will not be in less than an hour.
Put it warm into stone or glass jars. Cover them immediately and paste
down paper over their tops. It is a cheap and good sweetmeat for family
use, either on the tea-table or in tarts.

Barberries in bunches may be put loosely into jars, and sufficient cold
molasses poured in to fill up the vessels, which must be kept tightly
covered. Frost grapes, also, can be kept in this homely manner.


DAMSON JAM.--Fill a stone jar with fine ripe damsons that have been
washed in cold water but not dried. Cover it, set it in an open kettle
with water which must not quite reach the neck of the jar, and place it
over a hot fire. Let the water boil round the jar, till the stones of
the damsons are all loose, and falling out from the pulp. Then transfer
the damsons and their juice, to a broad pan, and carefully pick out all
the stones. Next mash the pulp with a broad flat wooden ladle, or with a
potatoe-masher, till it is all smooth and of an even consistence
throughout. Then measure it; and to every quart of the pulp allow a
pound and a half, or three large closely-packed pints of the best brown
sugar. Stir the sugar and pulp well together, till it becomes a thick
jam. Put the jam into a clean preserving-kettle, and boil it slowly an
hour or more, skimming it well. When done, put it into broad flat stone
jars, pressing it down, and smoothing the surface with the back of a
large spoon. Cover the jars closely, and put them away in a cool dry
place. If more convenient, you can put the jam into tumblers, pasting
thick white paper closely over each. If properly made it will be so
firm that you may cut it down in slices like cheese.

Plum jam may be made as above; but damsons are better for this purpose,
and also for jelly, as the juice is much thicker and richer than that of
plums.

It is an old-fashioned error to use unripe fruit for any sort of
sweet-meat. When the fruit is thoroughly ripe it has more flavour, is
far more wholesome, and keeps better.


AN EXCELLENT WAY OF PRESERVING STRAWBERRIES.--Select the largest and
finest strawberries. Having hulled them, or removed the green tops,
weigh the strawberries; and allow to each pound a pound of the best
double-refined loaf-sugar, finely powdered. Divide the sugar into two
equal portions. Put a layer of strawberries into the bottom of a
preserving-kettle, and cover them with a layer of sugar; then a layer of
strawberries; then a layer of sugar; until half the sugar is in. Next
set the kettle over a moderate fire, and let it boil slowly, till all
the sugar is melted. Then put in, gradually, the remainder of the sugar;
and after it is all in, let it boil hard for five minutes, taking off
the scum with a silver spoon; but there will be little or no scum if the
sugar is of the very best quality. Afterwards remove the kettle from the
fire, and take out the strawberries, one at a time, in a tea-spoon.
Spread out the strawberries on large flat dishes, so as not to touch
each other, and set them immediately in a cold place or on ice. Hang the
kettle again on the fire and give the syrup one boil up; skimming it, if
necessary. Place a fine strainer over the top of a mug or pitcher, and
pour the syrup through it. Then put the strawberries into glass jars or
tumblers; pour into each an equal portion of the syrup. Lay at the top a
round piece of white paper dipped in brandy. Close the jars tightly,
and paste paper over them.

Raspberries may be preserved as above. Also large ripe gooseberries. To
each pound of gooseberries allow a pound and a half of sugar.


VERY FINE PRESERVED PEACHES.--Take fine ripe free-stone peaches; pare
them; cut them in half and remove the stones. Have ready a sufficiency
of the best double-refined loaf-sugar, finely powdered. Weigh the sugar
and the peaches together, putting the sugar into one scale and the
peaches into the other, and balancing them evenly. Put the peaches into
a large pan or tureen, and strew among them one-half of the sugar. Cover
them, and let them stand in a cool place till next morning. Then take
all the juice from them, and put it into a porcelain preserving-kettle
with the remainder of the sugar. Set it over a moderate fire, and boil
and skim it. When it is boiling well, and the scum has ceased to rise,
put in the peaches and boil them till they are perfectly clear, but not
till they break; carefully skimming them. Boil with them a handful of
fresh clean peach-leaves tied in a bunch. When quite clear take the
peaches out of the syrup, and put them on a flat sloping dish to drain
into a deep dish placed below it. Take this syrup that has drained from
the peaches, put it to the syrup in the kettle, and give it one more
boil up. Then throw away the leaves. Lay the peaches flat in small glass
jars. Pour an equal portion of the hot syrup into each jar, and put on
the top a table-spoonful of the best white brandy. Cork the jars, and
paste down paper closely over the mouth of each.


COMMON PEACH JAM.--Take good ripe free-stone peaches, pare them, and cut
them into small pieces, seeing that none are blemished in the least.
Cover the bottom of a stone jar with a _thick_ layer of powdered sugar,
(very good brown sugar will do when strict economy is expedient,) then
put in a layer of the cut peaches, (without any cooking;) then another
of sugar; then one of peaches, and so on till the jar is filled; packing
the contents down as closely as possible. The top layer must be of
sugar, spread on thickly. Cover the jar immediately, and paste paper
down closely over the cover. This jam will be found very good for
children; and for family use when fresh peaches are not to be had. It
may be put into plain pies, or spread over the paste of a rolled-up
pudding. If the peaches are free from decay-spots, and the sugar in
sufficient abundance, the jam will keep many months; always excluding
the air from the jar.


TO PRESERVE GREEN GAGES.--Take gages that are perfectly ripe. Weigh
them; and to each pound of fruit allow a pound of the best
double-refined loaf-sugar, broken up. Put a layer of grape-leaves in the
bottom and round the sides of your preserving-kettle. Then put in the
gages, interspersing them thickly with vine-leaves, and covering them
with a thick layer. Pour in just enough of water to keep them from
burning. Set the kettle over the fire, cover it, and let it simmer
slowly till the gages are well greened. Then take them out, and spread
them on a large dish to cool. Afterwards prick them in several places
with a needle. Having washed the kettle clean, put the sugar into it
with a very little water,--about half a pint to each pound of sugar. Set
it over the fire, and boil and skim it till no more scum rises. Then put
in the gages, and boil them half an hour. When done, and cold, put them
into glass jars, and pour the syrup over them. Paste paper closely down
over the lids of the jars.


FINE BRANDY PEACHES.--Take large ripe free-stone peaches: the white ones
are best for this purpose. Having rubbed off the wool with a clean
flannel, put the peaches whole into boiling water, just to scald, but
not to boil them. Having remained in about five minutes, take them out,
and put them into cold water for an hour or more. After which, drain
them in a sieve, and wipe them dry. While the peaches are cooling,
prepare a syrup for them; allowing two pounds of the best double-refined
loaf-sugar, and the white of two eggs, and a pint of water, to two dozen
large peaches. Having broken up the sugar, put it into a preserving
kettle. Beat the white of egg to a stiff froth, and stir it into the
water. Then pour the water on the sugar, and let it dissolve before you
set the kettle over the fire; stirring it several times. Boil and skim
it well. When it is nearly up to the top, throw in a small tea-cup of
cold water. When it rises again, take it off the fire, and let it stand
close to it for a quarter of an hour; then skim it well, and pour it
carefully into a pitcher, taking care not to disturb any sediment that
may remain at the bottom of the preserving kettle. Put the peaches into
wide-mouthed glass jars, and pour into every jar an equal portion of the
syrup. Then fill up the jars with the best white brandy. Cork them
tightly, and paste paper closely over the tops; or tie on each a piece
of bladder, that has first been soaked to make it contract and fit the
closer when dry.


EXCELLENT BRANDY PEACHES.--Take fine large free-stone peaches, quite
ripe, but not too soft. Put them into a pan containing a weak solution
of sal-eratus and water; and let them lie in it till you find, upon
trial, that the wool can be easily rubbed off with a coarse clean towel.
Weigh them; and to each pound of peaches allow a pound of broken-up
loaf-sugar,--the best double-refined. Then crush the sugar by rolling it
with a rolling-pin. Have ready some large glass jars, with lacquered tin
covers. Put a layer of sugar into the bottom of each jar; then a layer
of peaches; then sugar; then peaches; and so on till the jar is very
nearly full,--the upper layer being of sugar. Then pour in some of the
best white brandy till the jars are filled quite to the top. Cover them
closely, and set them into a large flat-bottomed kettle of cold water.
The water must be a little below the tops of the jars. Place the kettle
over a moderate fire, and keep the peach-jars boiling in it half an hour
after they have come to a boil. Then set them away in your sweetmeat
closet.

As the lids of glass jars seldom fit tightly, put beneath each lid a
round of thick, soft white paper, and cover the top of the outside with
a piece of bladder tied down.


BRANDY PEARS may be done as above. It is customary to leave the stems
on. Rub off, upon some lumps of the sugar before crushing it, the yellow
rind of several fresh lemons, and squeeze the lemon-juice among the
crushed sugar. Allow the rind and juice of one large lemon to a small
jar of pears. In whatever way pears are cooked, they should always be
flavoured with lemon; otherwise they will be insipidly sweet.

To colour them a fine red, tie up a little cochineal, or some
well-picked alkanet, in a very thin muslin or bobbinet bag, and boil it
with the pears. When done, take out the bag.


BRANDY PEACHES THE FRENCH WAY.--Put large white peaches (a few at a
time) into scalding lye. Let them rest for a minute or two, till the
skin loosens so that it can be easily peeled off. Next put the peaches
into cold water, and let them remain till you have hot water ready to
scald them. After scalding, put into a large, broad preserving kettle as
many peaches as will lie side by side in the bottom. Pour on as much
cold water as will rather more than cover them; set the kettle over a
clear fire; and let them boil till they are soft enough to be easily
dented when pressed by your finger. Take them out; place them with the
stem end downward, on an inverted sieve set on a large dish. Then put
some more peaches into the kettle; add more cold water; boil them; and
put them to drain afterwards. Repeat this till all your peaches have had
a boil. Spread them on large dishes, and let them stand all night in a
cold place. Mix together some of the best white brandy and the best
loaf-sugar, powdered fine,--allowing a pound of sugar to every pint of
brandy. Stir it well while the sugar is dissolving; and when melted, set
it also in a cold place, and let it stand all night. In the morning, put
the peaches into glass jars, which should be all of the same size, and
fill them up with the brandy syrup; allowing an equal portion to each
jar. Cover the jars closely, and paste white paper over their tops.


BRANDY GREEN GAGES.--Take the largest and finest green gages, quite
ripe. Prick every one with a needle in several places. Spread fresh
grape-leaves over the bottom, and round the sides of a preserving
kettle. Put in a layer of green gages and a layer of grape-vine leaves,
alternately, adding to each layer a bit of alum but little larger than a
grain of indian corn. Cover the last layer of fruit thickly with
vine-leaves; fill up the kettle with cold water, and place it over a
moderate fire. Simmer the fruit slowly, but do not let it break. When
the gages are hot all through, take them out, and throw them into _cold_
water. Afterwards weight them; and to every pound of fruit, allow a
pound of the best double-refined loaf-sugar, powdered. Remove the
vine-leaves from the preserving-kettle, and put into it the sugar, with
barely sufficient water to keep it from burning. Stir the sugar well
with the water till it is dissolved, adding to every three pounds the
beaten white of an egg. Place the kettle over the fire, and boil and
skim till very clear, and the scum ceases to rise. Then take it off,
measure it, and to every pint of syrup allow a large half-pint of the
best and clearest brandy. Mix the syrup and brandy together. Having well
drained the green gages from the cold water, put them (two-thirds full)
into glass jars. Fill the jars up to the top with the liquor, poured on
warm. Cover them closely, pasting paper over the lids, and set them in a
dry, cool closet.

If the gages are not green enough with the first simmering, get fresh
vine-leaves, and simmer them again very slowly, hanging the kettle high.

Instead of vine-leaves, you may green any preserves by boiling them with
layers of the green husks that surround the ears of young indian corn.


BRANDY GRAPES.--For this purpose the grapes should be in large close
bunches, and quite ripe. Remove every grape that is the least
shrivelled, or in any way defective. With a needle prick each grape in
three places. Have ready a sufficiency of double-refined loaf-sugar,
powdered and sifted. Put some of the sugar into the bottom of your jars.
Then put in a bunch of grapes, and cover it thickly with sugar. Then
another bunch; then more sugar, and so on till the jar is nearly full;
finishing with a layer of sugar. Then fill up to the top with the best
white brandy. Cover the jars as closely as possible, and set them away.
They must not go over the fire. The grapes should be of the best
quality, either white or purple.


ICED GRAPES.--Take large close bunches of fine ripe thin-skinned grapes,
and remove any that are imperfect. Tie a string in a loop to the top of
the stem. Strain into a deep dish a sufficient quantity of white of egg.
Dip the bunches of grapes into it, immersing them thoroughly. Then drain
them, and roll them about in a flat dish of finely-powdered loaf-sugar
till they are completely coated with it, using your fingers to spread
the sugar into the hollows between the grapes. Hang up the bunches by
the strings till the icing is entirely dry. They should be dried in a
warm place. Send them to the supper-table at a party, on glass dishes.

Ripe currants may be iced as above. Raspberries, strawberries, ripe
gooseberries, plums and cherries, may be thus dipped in white of egg,
and rolled in sugar.


AMERICAN PRUNES.--Take the largest and finest purple plums, (oval or
long-shaped if you can get them.) They must be quite ripe. Spread them
separately on flat dishes, and set them in a large oven, directly after
the bread, pies, &c., have been taken out. Let the plums stay in till
the oven is cool; taking them out and turning them over two or three
times. If you bake every day, put in the plums as before, till they are
sufficiently dry. Otherwise; set the dishes in a balcony, or on the roof
of an out-house, or in some place where they will be exposed to the hot
sun. It will be well to cover them with thin gauze, to keep off wasps,
flies, &c. Continue to set them every day in the sun till they are well
dried, and look like prunes. Then pack them down in jars or boxes;
laying orange or lemon-leaves among them.


TO STEW DRIED PEACHES.--Dried peaches can be used for no purpose without
first being thoroughly stewed. They should be soaked for some hours
before cooking. Take a sufficient quantity, and put them over night into
a pan, (having first picked out all that are defective,) and wash them
well through two cold waters. Drain them, lay them in a clean pan, and
fill it up with scalding water. Cover them closely, and let them stand
all night. In the morning pour off the water, leaving just enough of it
about the peaches to keep them from burning when stewed, and transfer
them to a clean earthen pipkin or a sauce-pan. Set them over a moderate
fire, or on a bed of hot coals, (renewing the live coals when
necessary,) and let them stew till thoroughly done, and quite soft, so
that every piece can be mashed to a jam. While stewing, stir them up
frequently from the bottom, mashing them with the back of the spoon
against the sides of the pipkin. Keep them well covered, except when you
are stirring. When quite done, transfer them to a deep dish, and mix
with them, while they are smoking hot, a large portion of brown sugar,
so as to make them very sweet. Set them away to cool. They will then be
ready to use for pies, puddings, or as sauce to roast meat.


DRIED APPLES should be soaked and stewed as above. They will be much
improved by stewing with them some thin slips of the yellow rind of
lemon or orange; or by the addition of a few cloves.

Sugar should always be added after the fruit is done stewing, and while
still hot. If put in at first, it renders the fruit hard and tough;
besides that much of the sweetness is wasted in evaporation.



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES.


INDIANA BATTER CAKES.--Sift into a pan three large pints of yellow
corn-meal; and add a large table-spoonful of fresh lard; or of nice
drippings of roast beef, well cleared from fat. Add a small tea-spoonful
of sal-eratus, or a large one of soda, dissolved in a little warm water.
Next make the whole into a soft dough, with a pint of cold water.
Afterwards thin it to the consistence of a moderate batter, by adding,
gradually, not quite a pint and a half of warm water. When it is all
mixed, continue to stir it well for half an hour. Have ready a griddle
heated over the fire, and bake the batter in the manner of
buckwheat-cakes; send them to table hot, and eat them with butter or
molasses.

These cakes are very light and good, and convenient to make; as they
require neither eggs, milk, nor yeast. They may either be baked as soon
as mixed, or they may stand for an hour or more.


KENTUCKY BATTER CAKES.--Sift a quart of yellow indian meal into a large
pan; mix with it two large table-spoonfuls of wheat flour, and a
salt-spoonful of salt. Warm a pint and a half of rich milk in a small
sauce-pan, but do not let it come to a boil. When it begins to simmer,
take it off the fire, and put into it two pieces of fresh butter, each
about the size of a hen’s egg. Stir the butter into the warm milk till
it melts, and is well mixed. Then stir in the meal, gradually, and set
the mixture to cool. Beat four eggs, very light, and add them, by
degrees, to the mixture, stirring the whole very hard. If you find it
too thin, add a little more corn-meal. Have ready a griddle heated over
the fire, and bake the batter on it, in the manner of buckwheat-cakes.
Send them to table hot, and eat them with butter, to which you may add
molasses or honey.


RYE BATTER-CAKES.--Beat two eggs very light. Mix them, gradually, with a
quart of lukewarm milk, and sufficient rye-meal to make a batter about
as thick as for buckwheat-cakes. Then stir in a large table-spoonful of
the best brewer’s yeast; or twice that quantity, if the yeast is
home-made. Cover it, and set it to rise in a warm place. If too thin,
add more rye-meal. When quite light, and covered on the surface with
bubbles, bake it on a griddle, in the manner of buckwheat cakes. Butter
them, and eat them warm, at breakfast or tea.

If you cannot obtain good yeast, and wish to have the cakes ready with
as much expedition as possible, you may use patent yeast-powders,
according to the directions that accompany them. In this case, the cakes
must be baked in half an hour after the powders are mixed into the
batter.

Yeast-powders, put in at the last, are an improvement to all sorts of
batter-cakes that have been previously raised with good _real_ yeast;
also to cakes made light by eggs. But to depend _entirely_ on the
powders, without either real yeast, or eggs, is not well; as the cakes,
though _eatable_, are generally too tough and leathery to be wholesome.
In cities, fresh yeast, from the brewers, can be obtained every day, at
a very trifling cost, during the brewing season; which is usually from
October till April. At other seasons, it can be procured from the
bakers, or made at home; and should always be used in preference to
depending solely on yeast-powders. Though they improve the lightness of
batter, for which real yeast or beaten eggs have already been used,
they will not, of themselves alone, give it a wholesome degree of either
lightness or crispness. Too much dependence on yeast-powders is one
reason that the buckwheat-cakes of the present day are so inferior to
those of former times, when they were always made with real yeast.

Indian batter-cakes may be made as above.


HARLEM CAKES.--Sift into a pan three pints of flour. Warm, in a
sauce-pan, a pint of milk, and cut up in it half a pound of fresh
butter. When the butter is soft enough to mix with the milk, stir them
well together, and remove the sauce-pan from the fire. Beat three eggs,
very light, and mix them with the milk and butter, after they have
cooled. Then make a hole in the middle of the flour, and pour in the
mixture, and two large table-spoonfuls of strong fresh yeast. With a
spoon, mix the flour into the liquid, till the whole is thoroughly
incorporated. Then cover the pan with a thick woollen cloth, and set it
near the fire, to rise. It should be light in about five hours; perhaps
sooner. When quite light, mix in a tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a
very little warm water; divide the dough into long oval cakes, or rolls;
knead each separately. Sprinkle an iron baking-pan with flour; put in
the cakes; cover the pan, and let it stand half an hour before baking.
Bake the cakes in a moderate oven. Eat them fresh, with butter. They are
excellent tea cakes. Of course, they must be mixed in the forenoon.


BREAD MUFFINS.--Take four thick slices of _baker’s bread_, and cut off
all the crust. Lay them in a pan, and pour boiling water over them; but
barely enough to soak them well. Cover the bread, and after it has stood
an hour, drain off the water, and stir the soaked bread till it is a
smooth mass; then mix in two table-spoonfuls of sifted flour, and a
half-pint of milk. Having beaten two eggs very light, stir them,
gradually, into the mixture. Grease some muffin-rings; set them on a hot
griddle, and pour into each a portion of the mixture. Bake them brown;
send them to table hot; pull them open with your fingers, and spread on
butter. They will be found an excellent sort of muffin; very light and
nice.


SWEET POTATOE PONE.--Stir together, till very light and white, three
quarters of a pound of fresh butter, and three quarters of a pound of
powdered white sugar, adding two table-spoonfuls of ginger. Grate a
pound and a half of sweet potatoe. Beat eight eggs, very light, and stir
them, gradually, into the butter and sugar, in turn with the grated
sweet potatoe. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of sal-eratus or soda, in a gill
of sour milk, and stir it in at the last, beating the whole very hard.
Butter the inside of a tin pan. Put in the mixture, and bake it four
hours, or more. It should be eaten fresh.


RICE BREAD.--To a pint of well-boiled rice, add half a pint of
wheat-flour, mixing them well together. Take six eggs, and beat the
whites and yolks separately. Having beaten the whites to a stiff froth,
mix them, gradually, with a pint of rich milk, and two large
table-spoonfuls of fresh butter, softened at the fire. Mix, by degrees,
the yolks of the eggs with the rice and flour. Then add the white-of-egg
mixture, a little at a time. Stir the whole very hard. Put it into a
buttered tin pan, with straight or upright sides. Set it in a moderate
oven, and bake it an hour or more. Then turn it out of the pan, put it
on a dish, and send it warm to the breakfast-table, and eat it with
butter.

This cake may be baked, by setting the pan that contains it, into an
iron dutch-oven, placed over hot coals. Heat the lid of the oven on the
inside, by standing it up, before the fire, while the rice-bread is
preparing, and, after you put it on, keep the lid covered with hot
coals.

Rice-bread may be made of ground rice-flour, instead of whole rice.


RICE-FLOUR BREAD.--Sift into a pan a pint and a half of rice-flour, and
a pint and a half of fine wheat-flour. Add two large table-spoonfuls of
fresh butter, or lard; and mix in a pint and a half of milk. Beat four
eggs, very light, and then stir them, gradually, into the mixture. When
the whole has been well-mixed, add, at the last, a small tea-spoonful of
soda, or sal-eratus, dissolved in as much warm water as will cover it.
Put the whole into a buttered tin pan; set it, immediately, into a quick
oven, and bake it well. It is best when eaten fresh. Slice and butter
it.


RICE-FLOUR BATTER-CAKES.--Melt a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, or
lard, in a quart of milk; but be careful not to let it begin to boil.
Divide the milk equally, by putting it into two pans. Beat three eggs,
very light, and stir them into one half of the milk, with the addition
of a large table-spoonful of wheat-flour. Stir in as much ground
rice-flour as will make a thick batter. Then put in a _small_ tea-cupful
of strong, fresh yeast, and thin the batter with the remainder of the
milk. Cover it, and set it to rise. When it has risen high, and is
covered with bubbles, bake it on a griddle, in the manner of
buckwheat-cakes. Send them to table hot, and butter them.

Similar cakes may be made with indian-meal, instead of rice-flour.


LONG ROLLS.--Sift three quarts of flour into a large pan, and mix with
it a tea-spoonful of salt. Warm half a pint of water, but do not let it
become hot. Mix with it six table-spoonfuls of strong, fresh yeast. Make
a deep hole in the middle of the pan of flour. Pour in the liquid, and,
with a spoon, work into it the flour, round the edge of the hole;
proceeding gradually till you have all the flour mixed in, so as to form
a batter. Stir it well, for two or three minutes. Then strew the top all
over with a handful of dry flour. Cover the dough with a thick, double
cloth, and set it in a warm place, to rise. When it is quite light, and
the surface cracked all over, mix in three table-spoonfuls (not more) of
lard, or fresh butter. Knead it long and hard, and make it into long,
oval-shaped rolls, making, with a knife, a cleft in the top of each.
Sprinkle some square baking-pans with flour; lay the rolls in them, at
equal distances; cover them, as before; and set them in a warm place,
for half an hour. In the meantime, have the oven ready; put in the
rolls, and bake them brown.

Their lightness may be improved by mixing in (while kneading the dough,
previous to forming it into cakes) a heaping tea-spoonful of soda, or
sal-eratus, dissolved in as much warm water as will cover it.

In cold weather, you may mix these rolls with milk, instead of water;
but in summer the milk may turn sour, and spoil the dough. This,
however, may be corrected, by adding the soda, or sal-eratus; always a
good remedy for sour dough or batter.


POTATOE ROLLS.--Take fine large potatoes. Boil, peel, and mash them.
Then rub the mashed potatoe through a sieve. To each potatoe allow a
pint of sifted flour; a table-spoonful of strong fresh yeast; a jill of
milk-warm water; a salt-spoon of salt; the yolk of an egg; and a bit of
fresh butter about the size of a large hickory-nut. Mix together in a
large broad pan the flour, the mashed potatoe, and the salt. Make a hole
in the centre of the mixture, and pour into it the yeast mixed with the
warm water. Sprinkle a little flour over the top, and mix in a little
from round the sides of the hole. Cover it with a clean towel, and over
that a flannel, and set it near the fire to rise. When the dough is
quite light, and cracked all over the surface, knead in the butter and
also the yolks of eggs, having previously beaten them well, and add a
small tea-spoonful of soda dissolved in a little warm water. Then divide
the dough into equal parts, make it into long-shaped rolls, and lay them
in a tin or iron pan sprinkled with flour. Cover them, and again set
them to rise in a warm place. When perfectly light, (which should be in
about an hour,) set the pan into the oven, and bake the rolls brown.
They are best when quite fresh. Pull them open with your fingers, and
eat them with butter.



CAKES, ETC.


TO BEAT EGGS.--In making cakes it is of the utmost importance that the
eggs should be properly and sufficiently beaten; otherwise the cakes
will most certainly be deficient in the peculiar lightness
characterizing those that are made by good confectioners. Home-made
cakes, if good in other respects, are too frequently (even when not
absolutely heavy or streaked) hard, solid and tough. This often proceeds
from too large a portion of flour, and too small an allowance of butter
and eggs. The richest cake that can be made (provided it is light and
well baked) is less unwholesome than what are called plain cakes, if
they are solid or leathery. Cakes cannot be crisp and light without a
due proportion of the articles that are to make them so; and even then,
the ingredients must be thoroughly stirred or beaten; and of course
thoroughly baked afterwards.

Persons who do not know the right way, complain much of the fatigue of
beating eggs, and therefore leave off too soon. There will be no
fatigue, if they are beaten with the proper stroke, and with _wooden_
rods, and in a shallow, flat-bottomed _earthen_ pan. The coldness of a
tin pan retards the lightness of the eggs. For the same reason do not
use a metal egg-beater. In beating them do not move your elbow, but keep
it close to your side. Move only your hand at the wrist, and let the
stroke be quick, short, and horizontal; putting the egg-beater always
down to the bottom of the pan, which should therefore be shallow. Do not
leave off as soon as you have got the eggs into a foam; they are then
only _beginning_ to be light. But persist till after the foaming has
ceased, and the bubbles have all disappeared. Continue till the surface
is smooth as a mirror, and the beaten egg as thick as a rich boiled
custard; for till then it will not be really light. It is seldom
necessary to beat the whites and yolks separately, if they are
afterwards to be put together. The article will be quite as light, when
cooked, if the whites and yolks are beaten together, and there will then
be no danger of their going in streaks when baked. The justly-celebrated
Mrs. Goodfellow, of Philadelphia, always taught her pupils to beat the
whites and yolks together, even for sponge-cake; and lighter than hers
no sponge-cake could possibly be.

When white of egg is to be used without any yolk, (as for lady-cake,
maccaroons, meringues, icing, &c.,) it should be beaten till it stands
alone on the rods; not falling when held up.

Hickory rods for egg-beating are to be had at the wooden-ware shops, or
at the turner’s. For stirring butter and sugar together, nothing is
equal to a wooden spaddle. It should be about a foot long, and flattened
at the end like that of a mush-stick, only broader. Spoons are very
tedious and inconvenient either for beating eggs or stirring butter and
sugar, and do not produce the proper lightness.


BOSTON CAKE.--Put a pound of powdered white sugar into a deep pan, and
cut up in it a pound of fresh butter. Stir the butter and sugar together
till perfectly light. Then add a powdered nutmeg, a table-spoonful of
powdered mace and cinnamon mixed together, and a large wine-glass of
excellent brandy. If the brandy is of bad quality it will give the cake
a disagreeable taste. If very good, it will highly improve the flavour,
and also add to the lightness of the cake. Sift into a pan a pound of
flour. In another pan beat six eggs till very thick and smooth. Stir
them gradually into the butter and sugar, alternately with the flour,
and a pint of rich milk or cream, a little of each at a time. Have ready
a level tea-spoonful (not heaped) of pearlash, or sal-eratus, (or a full
tea-spoonful of bi-carbonate of soda,) dissolved in as much warm water
as will cover it. Add this at the last, and then give the whole a very
hard stirring. Butter a large square pan. Put in the mixture. Set it
immediately into the oven, and bake it thoroughly. It requires very long
baking. A thick square Boston cake will scarcely be done in less than
three hours. At the end of the first hour, increase the heat of the
oven, and also at the second. When cool, sift powdered sugar over it,
and cut it into squares.

If properly made, and well-baked, (following exactly the above
directions,) this cake will be found excellent, and will seem fresh
longer than any other; the milk keeping it soft.

Milk turned sour is very good for Boston cake; as by stirring the
dissolved pearlash or soda into the milk, the acidity will be entirely
removed, and the alkali rendered more effective in increasing the
lightness of the cake. Still great care will be necessary in baking it.

The best confectioners make this cake every day without any failure.


ALBANY CAKE.--Sift three pounds of flour into a pan. Stir together a
pound of fresh butter, and a pound of brown sugar. Mix together a pint
of West India molasses, and half a pint of rich milk. Have ready a pound
and a half of raisins, seeded, cut in two, and well dredged with flour
to prevent their sinking. Beat five eggs very light, and mix them
gradually with the milk and molasses, adding a glass of brandy, and a
table-spoonful of cinnamon powdered. Add the mixture gradually to the
beaten butter and sugar, alternately with the flour, a little at a time
of each. Next stir in a small teacup-full of strong fresh yeast. Then
sprinkle in the raisins. Lastly, stir in a very small tea-spoonful of
bi-carbonate of soda, or a still smaller portion of sal-eratus,
dissolved in as much lukewarm water as will cover it. Stir the whole
mixture long and hard. Cover it, and set it in a warm place to rise.
When quite light, butter a deep tin pan, put in the mixture, and bake it
in a loaf. It will require very long and steady baking.

Like all others that have yeast in them, this cake is best when fresh.


AUSTRIAN CAKE.--Take a thick straight-sided pound cake about the
circumference of a large dinner-plate, and cut it horizontally into
slices, the whole breadth of the cake, and rather more than half an inch
thick. Spread each slice, thickly and smoothly, with marmalade of peach,
raspberry, strawberry, or orange. The marmalade may be all the same, or
of a different sort on each slice. Lay the slices, nicely, and evenly,
one upon another, taking care that none of the marmalade oozes down from
between the edges. Then make a thick icing of white of egg and powdered
loaf-sugar, and flavour it with rose or orange-flower water. Heap a
large portion of it on the centre of the cake, and with a broad knife
(dipped frequently in cold water) spread it smoothly all over the top
and sides. Then set it away to harden. You may ornament it by putting
icing into a small syringe and pressing it out into the form of a
centre-piece and border of flowers. To do this requires practice, taste,
and ingenuity.

When the cake is to be eaten, cut it down into triangular pieces; each
including a portion of the different layers of marmalade.

Instead of marmalade you may use for this cake, fresh strawberries,
mashed smoothly and sweetened with white sugar.


MADISON CAKE.--Pick clean two pounds of sultana raisins, (those that
have no seeds,) and cut them in half. If you cannot procure the sultana,
use the bloom or muscatel raisins, removing all the seeds. When the
raisins are cut in two, dredge them _thickly_ on all sides with flour,
to prevent their sinking or clodding in the cake while baking. Sift into
a pan a pound and three quarters (_not more_) of flour. Cut up a pound
of fresh butter into a deep pan. Mix with it a pound of white lump-sugar
finely powdered; and stir them together till they become a thick, white,
cream. Have ready a tea-spoonful of powdered nutmeg, and a
table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon, and mix these spices, gradually,
with the butter and sugar. Beat fourteen eggs (_not fewer_) till very
light and thick. Then stir them, gradually, into the beaten butter and
sugar, alternately with the flour and a pint of rich milk, (sour milk
will be best.) Add at the last a very small tea-spoonful of pearlash, or
of bi-carbonate of soda, dissolved in a large wine-glass of brandy. Give
the whole a hard stirring, and then put it immediately into a deep
circular tin pan, the sides and bottom of which have been first well
greased with fresh butter. Set it directly into a well-heated oven, and
let it bake from five to six hours, according to its size. It requires
long and steady baking. When cool, cover it (top and sides) with a thick
icing, made in the usual way of beaten white of egg and sugar, and
flavoured with rose-water or lemon.

If the above directions are closely followed this will be found a very
fine cake, and it will keep soft and fresh a week if the air is
carefully excluded from it.

It will be still better, if in addition to the two pounds of raisins,
you mix in two pounds of Zante currants, picked, washed, dried before
the fire, and then well floured. Half a pound of citron cut into slips
and floured, may also be added.


STRAWBERRY CAKES.--Sift a small quart of flour into a pan, and cut up
among it half a pound of the best fresh butter; or mix in a pint of
butter if it is soft enough to measure in that manner. Rub with your
hands the butter into the flour, till the whole is crumbled fine. Beat
three eggs very light; and then mix with them three table-spoonfuls of
powdered loaf-sugar. Wet the flour and butter with the beaten egg and
sugar, so as to form a dough. If you find it too stiff, add a very
little cold water. Knead the dough till it quits your hands, and leaves
them clean. Spread some flour on your paste-board, and roll out the
dough into a rather thick sheet. Cut it into round cakes with the edge
of a tumbler, or something similar; dipping the cutter frequently into
flour to prevent its sticking. Butter some large square iron pans or
baking sheets. Lay the cakes in, not too close to each other. Set them
in a brisk oven, and bake them light brown. Have ready a sufficient
quantity of ripe strawberries, mashed and made very sweet with powdered
white sugar. Reserve some of your finest strawberries whole. When the
cakes are cool, split them, place them on flat dishes, and cover the
bottom piece of each with mashed strawberry, put on _thickly_. Then lay
on the top pieces, pressing them down. Have ready some icing, and spread
it thickly over the top and down the sides of each cake, so as to
enclose both the upper and lower pieces. Before the icing has quite
dried, ornament the top of every cake with the whole strawberries, a
large one in the centre, and the smaller ones placed round in a close
circle.

These are delicious and beautiful cakes if properly made. The
strawberries, not being cooked, will retain all their natural flavour.
Instead of strawberries you may use raspberries. The large white or
buff-coloured raspberry is the finest, if to be eaten uncooked.


PEACH CAKES.--Pick clean and wash a quart of dried peaches, and let them
stew all night in as much clear water as will cover them. In the
morning, drain off most of the water, leaving only as much of it about
the peaches as will suffice to prevent them from burning after they are
set over the fire. It will be best to have them soaked in the vessel in
which you intend to stew them. Keep them covered while stewing, except
when you take off the lid to stir them up from the bottom. When they are
all quite soft, and can be mashed into a smooth jam or marmalade, mix in
half a pound of brown sugar, and set the peaches to cool. In the mean
time, soften a quarter of a pound of the best fresh butter in half a
pint of warm milk, heated on the stove, but not allowed to come to a
simmer. Sift a pound of flour into a pan; pour in the warm milk and
butter (first stirring them well together) and a wine-glass of strong,
fresh yeast. Mix the whole into a dough. Cover it, and set it in a warm
place to rise. When quite light and cracked all over the surface, flour
your paste-board, put the dough upon it; mix in a small tea-spoonful of
sub-carbonate of soda, and knead it well; set it again in a warm place
for half an hour. Then divide the dough into equal portions, and make it
up into round cakes about the size in circumference of the top of a
tumbler. Knead each cake. Then roll them out into a thin sheet. Have
ready the peach jam, mashed very smooth, and with a portion of it cover
thickly the half of each cake. Fold over the other half, so as to
enclose the peach jam in the form of a half-moon. Bring the two edges
closely together and crimp them neatly. Lay the cakes in buttered square
pans, and bake them brown. When done grate sugar over the top. These
cakes are nice for children, being very light, if properly made and
baked. They are by no means rich, and are good substitutes for tarts.

Similar cakes may be made with stewed apple, flavoured with lemon and
sweetened. Or with raspberries, or any other convenient fruit stewed to
a jam.


SMALL LEMON CAKES.--Break up a pound of fine loaf-sugar, and on some of
the lumps rub off all the yellow rind of four lemons. Then powder all
the sugar. Beat to a stiff froth the whites of three eggs. Mix the
sugar, gradually (a tea-spoonful at a time) with the beaten white of
egg, so as to make a paste, stirring it very hard. Spread some white
paper (cut exactly to fit) on the bottom of a square shallow baking-pan.
Place equal portions of the paste at regular distances on this paper,
making them into round heaps, and smoothing their surfaces with the back
of a spoon or a broad-bladed knife, dipped frequently in cold water. Put
the cakes into a moderate oven and bake them a light brown. When cool
take them off the paper.

You may make orange cakes in this manner.

Strawberry cakes may be made as above, mixing the juice of ripe
strawberries with the sugar. Raspberry cakes also.


FINE HONEY CAKE.--Mix a quart of strained honey with half a pound of
powdered white sugar, and half a pound of fresh butter, and the juice of
two oranges or lemons. Warm these ingredients slightly, just enough to
soften the butter. Then stir the mixture very hard, adding a grated
nutmeg. Mix in, gradually, two pounds (or less) of sifted flour. Make it
into a dough, just stiff enough to roll out easily. Beat it well all
over with a rolling-pin. Then roll it out into a large sheet, half an
inch thick; cut it into round cakes with the top of a tumbler, (dipped
frequently in flour,) lay them in shallow tin pans, (slightly buttered,)
and bake them well.


CHOCOLATE CAKE.--Scrape down three ounces of the best and purest
chocolate, or prepared cocoa. Cut up, into a deep pan, three-quarters of
a pound of fresh butter; add to it a pound of powdered loaf-sugar; and
stir the butter and sugar together till very light and white. Have ready
fourteen ounces (two ounces _less_ than a pound) of sifted flour; a
powdered nutmeg; and a tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon--mixed
together. Beat the whites of ten eggs till they stand alone; then the
yolks till they are very thick and smooth. Then mix the yolks and whites
gradually together, beating very hard when they are all mixed. Add the
eggs, by degrees, to the beaten butter and sugar, in turn with the flour
and the scraped chocolate,--a little at a time of each; also the spice.
Stir the whole very hard. Put the mixture into a buttered tin pan with
straight sides, and bake it at least four hours. If nothing is to be
baked afterwards, let it remain in till the oven becomes cool. When
cold, ice it.


LEMON PUFFS.--Take a pound of the best loaf-sugar, and powder it. Grate
upon lumps of the same sugar the yellow rind of four large ripe lemons;
having first rolled each lemon under your hand, upon a table, to
increase the juice. Then powder these pieces of sugar also, and add them
to the rest. Strain the juice of the lemons over the sugar, mixing it
well in. Have ready in a saucer some extra powdered sugar. Beat to a
stiff froth the whites of four eggs, and then gradually and thoroughly
beat into it the lemon and sugar, till the mixture is very thick and
smooth. If too thin, add more sugar; if too thick, more beaten white of
egg. Take a sheet of nice white paper, and lay it smoothly in a square
tin pan; having first cut it to fit exactly. Put on it, at equal
distances, a round spot of thinly-spread powdered loaf-sugar, about the
size of a half-dollar or a little larger. Upon each spot place with a
spoon a pile of the mixture; smoothing it with a knife dipped in water,
and making the surface even. Sift over each a little powdered sugar. Set
the pan in a quick oven, and bake the puffs of a light brown. A few
minutes’ baking will suffice. They should rise very high. When cool,
loosen them carefully from the paper by inserting a broad knife beneath.
Then spread them out on a large flat dish, and keep them in a dry, cool
place till wanted.


ORANGE PUFFS may be made in the same manner, omitting the rind, and
using the juice only of _five_ oranges; unless they are all of a very
large size, and then four may suffice. Very nice puffs can be made with
the juice of strawberries, raspberries, currants, or cherries; mixed, as
above, with beaten white of egg and sugar.


ROSE MERINGUES.--Beat to a stiff froth the whites of six eggs, and then
beat in by degrees, a spoonful at a time, a pound or more of
finely-powdered loaf-sugar, till it is of the consistence of very thick
icing or meringue. Have ready a sufficient quantity of freshly-gathered
rosebuds, about half grown. Having removed the stalks and green leaves,
take as many of the buds as will weigh three ounces. With a pair of
sharp scissors clip or mince them as small as possible into the pan of
meringue; stirring them in with a spoon. Then stir the whole very hard.
Have ready some sheets of white paper, laid on baking tins. Drop the
meringues on it, in heaps all of the same size, and not too close
together. Smooth them with the back of a spoon or broad knife, dipped in
cold water. Set them in a moderate cool oven, and bake them about twenty
minutes. Take out one and try it, and if not thoroughly done, continue
them longer in the oven.

To heighten the red colour, add to the white of egg, before you beat it,
a very little water, in which has been steeped a thin muslin bag of
alkanet-root; or you may colour it with a little cochineal powder.

Orange-blossom meringues may be made as above.


WHIPPED CREAM MERINGUES.--Take the whites of eight eggs, and beat them
to a stiff froth, that will stand alone. Then beat into them, gradually,
a tea-spoonful at a time, two pounds or more of finely-powdered
loaf-sugar; continuing to add sugar till the mixture is very thick, and
finishing with a little lemon-juice or extract of rose. Have ready some
sheets of white paper, laid on a baking-board, and with a spoon drop the
mixture on it in long oval heaps, about four inches in length. Smooth
and shape them with a broad-bladed knife, dipped occasionally in cold
water. The baking-board used for this purpose should be an inch thick,
and must have a slip of iron beneath each end to elevate it from the
floor of the oven, so that it may not scorch, nor the bottoms of the
meringues be baked too hard. This baking-board must not be of pine wood,
as a pine board will communicate a disagreeable taste of turpentine. The
oven must be moderate. Bake the meringues of a light brown. When done,
take them off the paper by slipping a knife nicely beneath the bottom
of each. Then push back or scoop out carefully a portion of the inside
of each meringue, taking care not to break them. Have ready some nice
whipped cream, made in the following proportion:--Take a quarter of a
pound of broken-up loaf-sugar, and on some of the lumps rub off the
yellow rind of two large lemons. Powder the sugar, and then mix with it
the juice of the lemons, and grate in some nutmeg. Mix the sugar with a
half-pint of sweet white wine. Put into a pan a pint of rich cream, and
whip it with rods or a wooden whisk, or mill it with a chocolate mill,
till it is a stiff froth. Then mix in, gradually, the other ingredients;
continuing to whip it hard a while after they are all in. As you
proceed, lay the froth on an inverted sieve, with a dish underneath to
catch the droppings; which droppings must afterwards be whipped, and
added to the rest. Fill the inside of each meringue with a portion of
the whipped cream. Then put two together, so as to form one long oval
cake, joining them nicely, so as to unite the flat parts that were next
the paper, leaving the inside filled with the whipped cream. Set them
again in the oven for a few minutes. They must be done with great care
and nicety, so as not to break. Each meringue should be about the usual
length of a middle finger. In dropping them on the paper, take care to
shape the oval ends handsomely and smoothly. They should look like very
long kisses.


CREAM TARTS.--Put into a tea-cup a large table-spoonful of arrow-root
flour. Pour on it a very little cold milk, and mix it very smooth with a
spoon; seeing that it is entirely free from lumps. Boil, in a sauce-pan,
a quart of cream or rich unskimmed milk, with the yellow rind of a large
lemon or orange, pared thin, or cut into slips; or use for flavouring a
handful of bitter almonds or peach kernels, blanched and broken up; or,
what is still better, a vanilla bean. The milk must boil slowly
(keeping it closely covered) till it is highly flavoured. Then strain
out the lemon-peel or other flavouring, and set away the milk to cool.
Beat the yolks of eight eggs till very thick and smooth, and stir them
gradually into the milk, alternately with four heaped table-spoonfuls of
powdered loaf-sugar. Add some grated nutmeg. Put the whole into a
sauce-pan, and place it on hot coals or on the stove, and continue to
stir it till it begins to boil. Then remove it immediately, lest it
should curdle, and keep stirring it till it begins to cool. Afterwards
set it in a cold place.

Sift into a pan a pound and a half of flour; mix in a quarter of a pound
of white sugar; cut up in it half a pound of fresh butter, and rub it
well into the flour and sugar. Beat two eggs very light, and with them
wet the flour, &c., to a dough, adding a very small level tea-spoonful
of soda, dissolved in a very little cold water. Mix the paste well till
it becomes a lump of dough. Then beat it on all sides with the
rolling-pin. Transfer it to the paste-board, and roll it out thin.
Divide it equally into _square_ pieces. Put thickly on each piece a
portion of the cream or custard mixture, and fold over it the four
corners of the paste, so that they approach each other in the centre.
Dredge each tart with powdered loaf-sugar. Set them into the oven, and
let them bake of a light brown. They are best when fresh, but not warm;
and will be found delicious.

The custard may be coloured green by boiling pistachio nuts in the milk,
with the flavouring.


ICE-CREAM CAKES.--Stir together, till very light, a quarter of a pound
of powdered sugar and a quarter of a pound of fresh butter. Beat six
eggs very light, and stir into them half a pint of rich milk. Add,
gradually, the eggs and milk to the butter and sugar, alternately with
a half pound of sifted flour. Add a glass of sweet wine, and some grated
nutmeg. When all the ingredients are mixed, stir the batter very hard.
Then put it into small, deep pans, or cups, that have been
well-buttered, filling them about two-thirds with the batter. Set them,
immediately, into a brisk oven, and bake them brown. When done, remove
them from the cups, and place them, to cool, on an inverted sieve. When
quite cold, make a slit or incision in the side of each cake. If very
light, and properly baked, they will be hollow in the middle. Fill up
this cavity with ice-cream, carefully put in with a spoon, and then
close the slit, with your fingers, to prevent the cream running out.
Spread them on a large dish. Either send them to table immediately,
before the ice-cream melts, or keep them on ice till wanted.


LEMON OR ORANGE KISSES.--Take three large, ripe lemons, or oranges, and
rub off the yellow rind, upon some pieces belonging to a pound of fine
loaf-sugar. Then powder all the pound of sugar, and squeeze among the
sugar (through a strainer) the juice of the lemons or oranges; mixing it
well in. Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth, that will stand
alone. Then beat in, very hard, the sugar, &c., a tea-spoonful at a
time. Lay a sheet of white paper on a board. Drop the mixture on it, in
oval piles, smoothing them with a broad-bladed knife, dipped frequently
in cold water. Set them in a moderate oven, and when they are coloured a
light brown, take them out, slip a knife carefully under each, to remove
them from the papers, and place two bottoms together, so as to give them
the form of an egg. If you use oranges, scoop out a small hollow in the
bottom of each half-kiss, as soon as they are baked, and fill the
cavity with orange-pulp, sweetened. Then join the two halves together.

Instead of lemon or orange, they may be finely flavoured, by mixing with
the powdered sugar a sufficient quantity of extract of vanilla.


CHOCOLATE MACCAROONS.--Blanch half a pound of shelled sweet almonds, by
scalding them with boiling water, till the skin peels off easily. Then
throw them into a bowl of cold water, and let them stand awhile. Take
them out and wipe them, separately. Afterwards set them in a warm place,
to dry thoroughly. Put them, one at a time, into a marble mortar, and
pound them to a smooth paste; moistening them, as you proceed, with a
few drops of rose-water, to prevent their oiling. When you have pounded
one or two, take them out of the mortar, with a tea-spoon, and put them
into a deep plate, beside you, and continue removing the almonds to the
plate, till they are all done. Scrape down, as fine as possible, half a
pound of the best chocolate, or of Baker’s prepared cocoa, and mix it,
thoroughly, with the pounded almonds. Then set the plate in a cool
place. Put the whites of eight eggs into a shallow pan, and beat them to
a stiff froth, that will stand alone. Have ready a pound and a half of
finely-powdered loaf-sugar. Stir it, hard, into the beaten white-of-egg,
a spoonful at a time. Then stir in, gradually, the mixture of almond and
chocolate; and beat the whole very hard. Drop the mixture, in equal
portions, upon thin white paper, laid on square tin pans, smoothing
them, with a spoon, into round cakes, about the size of a half-dollar.
Dredge the top of each, lightly, with powdered sugar. Set them into a
quick oven, and bake them a light brown. When done, take them off the
paper.

For the first experiment, in making these maccaroons, it may be well to
try a smaller quantity. For instance, a quarter of a pound of shelled
almonds; a quarter of a pound of chocolate; four eggs; and
three-quarters of a pound of sugar.


LEMON MACCAROONS.--Take four large ripe lemons, and rub off the yellow
surface of the rind, upon a lump of sugar. Then powder that sugar, and
add to it not quite a pound of loaf-sugar, already powdered. Break four
eggs into a shallow pan, and beat them till very thick and light. Then
add the juice of the lemons, squeezed through a strainer, and a
tea-spoonful of powdered nutmeg and cinnamon, and stir in the sugar, a
little at a time, alternately with three large heaped-up table-spoonfuls
of sifted flour. A little more flour may, probably, be found necessary.
Mix the whole, thoroughly, so as to form a soft paste. Have ready some
shallow, square baking-pans, or sheets of iron, the bottoms covered with
white paper, laid smoothly in. Moisten your hands with water, and then
take up portions of the mixture, and roll them into balls, about the
size of a large plum, laying them, as you proceed, upon the paper, but
rather more than an inch apart. Lastly, with the blade of a knife,
dipped in water, smooth the surface of each. Set them into a moderate
oven, and bake them brown. Try one, when you think they are done. If not
sufficiently baked, let them remain longer in the oven. As soon as they
are cold, loosen them from the paper, by slipping under them a
broad-bladed knife. Orange maccaroons may be made in this manner, using
the grated rind of two oranges only, but the juice of four. To make
vanilla maccaroons, boil, in a covered vessel, a vanilla bean, with as
much milk as will barely cover it. When the milk is strongly flavoured
with the vanilla, strain it, and, when cold, add it to the beaten egg.
Then stir in, gradually, the sugar, spice, and flour, and proceed as
above.


GROUND-NUT MACCAROONS.--Take a sufficiency of ground-nuts, that have
been roasted in an iron pot, over the fire; remove the shells; and weigh
a pound of the nuts. Put them into a pan of cold water, and wash off the
skins. Have ready some beaten white of egg. Pound the ground-nuts, (two
or three at a time,) in a marble mortar, adding, frequently, a little
cold water, to prevent their oiling. They must be pounded to a smooth,
light paste; and, as you proceed, remove the paste to a saucer or a
plate. Beat, to a stiff froth, the whites of four eggs, and then beat
into it, gradually, a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and a large
tea-spoonful of powdered mace and nutmeg mixed. Then stir in, by
degrees, the pounded ground-nuts, till the mixture becomes very thick.
Flour your hands, and roll, between them, portions of the mixture,
forming each portion into a little ball. Lay sheets of white paper on
flat baking-tins, and place on them the maccaroons, at equal distances,
flattening them all a little, so as to press down the balls into cakes.
Then sift powdered sugar over each. Place them in a brisk oven, with
more heat at the top than in the bottom. Bake them about ten minutes.

Almond maccaroons may be made as above, mixing one-quarter of a pound of
shelled bitter almonds with three-quarters of shelled sweet almonds. For
almond maccaroons, instead of flouring your hands, you may dip them in
cold water; and when the maccaroons are formed on the papers, go
slightly over every one, with your fingers wet with cold water.

Maccaroons may be made, also, of grated cocoa-nut, mixed with beaten
white of egg and powdered sugar.


WEST INDIA COCOA-NUT CAKE.--Cut up and peel some pieces of a very ripe
cocoa-nut. Lay the pieces for awhile in cold water. Then take them out;
wipe them very dry; and grate, very finely, as much as, when grated,
will weigh half a pound. Powder half a pound of the best loaf-sugar.
Beat eight eggs, till very light, thick, and smooth. Then stir the
grated cocoa-nut and the powdered sugar, alternately, into the pan of
beaten egg, a little at a time of each; adding a handful of sifted
flour, a powdered nutmeg, and a glass of sweet wine. Stir the whole very
hard. Butter a square tin pan. Put in the mixture, set it immediately
into a quick oven, and bake it well; seeing that the heat is well kept
up all the time. When cool, cut it into squares. Have ready a thick
icing, made of powdered sugar and white of egg, flavoured with
rose-water, or extract of roses. Ice each square of the cake, all over
the top and sides.

You may bake it in a loaf, in a deep, circular pan. Ice the whole
surface, and ornament it.

For a large cake, baked in a loaf, allow a pound of grated cocoa-nut; a
pound of sugar; sixteen eggs; two handfuls of flour; two nutmegs, and
two glasses of wine. It will require very long baking.


RICE-FLOUR POUND-CAKE.--Weigh a pound of broken up loaf-sugar of the
best quality. Upon some of the largest lumps rub off the yellow rind of
three large ripe lemons that have been previously rolled under your
hand, on a table, to increase the juice. Then powder finely all the
pound of sugar. Cut up into a deep pan a pound of the best fresh butter;
mix with it the powdered sugar, and stir them together, with a wooden
spaddle, till perfectly light. Squeeze the juice of the lemons through a
strainer into a bowl, mix with it half a grated nutmeg, and add it to
the butter and sugar. Sift a pound (or a quart) of rice-flour into a
pan, and in another shallow pan beat twelve eggs till they are smooth
and thick. Then stir the beaten egg and the rice-flour, alternately,
into the butter and sugar, a little at a time of each. Having stirred
the whole long and hard, put the mixture into a buttered tin pan that
has straight or upright sides; set it immediately into a well-heated
oven, and bake it thoroughly. It will require four or five hours, in
proportion to its thickness. When done, it will shrink a little from the
sides of the pan; and a twig from a corn-broom, or a wooden skewer
plunged down to the bottom of the cake, will come out dry and clean.
When cool, ice it; adding a little rose-water or lemon-juice to the
icing. Heap the icing first on the centre of the top, and then with a
broad-bladed knife, (dipped occasionally into a bowl of cold water,)
spread it evenly all over the surface of the cake.

Instead of lemons, you may use for flavouring this cake, the yellow rind
of _two_ oranges grated on the sugar, and the juice of _three_ mixed
with the spice. Orange-rind being stronger and more powerful in taste
than that of lemon, a smaller quantity of it will suffice.

You may bake the above mixture in little tins, like queen-cakes; taking
care to grease them with _fresh_ butter.

This mixture will make a nice pudding; using only _half_ a pound of
rice-flour, but the above quantities of all the other ingredients. Bake
it in china or handsome white-ware, as it must go to table in the dish
it is baked in.


RICE SPONGE-CAKE.--Put twelve eggs into a scale, and balance them in the
other scale with their weight in broken loaf-sugar. Take out four of the
eggs, remove the sugar, and balance the remaining eight eggs with an
equal quantity of rice-flour. Rub off on some lumps of the sugar, the
yellow rind of three fine large ripe lemons. Then powder all the sugar.
Break the eggs, one at a time, into a saucer, and put all the whites
into a pitcher, and all the yolks into a broad shallow earthen pan.
Having poured the whites of egg from the pitcher through a strainer into
a rather shallow pan, beat them till so stiff that they stand alone.
Then add the powdered sugar, gradually, to the white of egg, and beat it
in well. In the other pan, beat the yolks till very smooth and thick.
Then mix them, gradually, a little at a time, with the white of egg and
sugar. Lastly, stir in, by degrees, the rice-flour, adding it lightly,
and stirring it slowly and gently round till the surface is covered with
bubbles. Transfer it directly to a butter tin pan; set it _immediately_
into a brisk oven; and bake it an hour and a half or more, according to
its thickness. Ice it when cool; flavouring the icing-with lemon or
rose. This cake will be best the day it is baked.

In every sort of sponge-cake, Naples-biscuit, lady-fingers, and in all
cakes made without butter, it is important to know that though the egg
and sugar is to be beaten very hard, the flour, which must _always_ go
in at the last, must be stirred in very slowly and lightly, holding the
whisk or stirring-rods perpendicularly or upright in your hand; and
moving it gently round and round on the surface of the batter without
allowing it to go down deeply. If the flour is stirred in _hard and
fast_, the cake will certainly be tough, leathery, and unwholesome.
Sponge-cake when cut should look coarse-grained and rough.


SWEET POTATOE CAKE.--Half-boil some fine sweet potatoes; peel them; and
when cold, grate as much as will weigh half a pound. If boiled long
enough to become soft, they will render the cake heavy. Stir together
in a deep pan, half a pound of fresh butter, and half a pound of
powdered loaf-sugar, till quite light and creamy. Then add a
tea-spoonful of powdered mace, nutmeg, and cinnamon, all mixed together;
and the juice and grated rind of two large lemons or oranges. Beat in a
shallow pan six eggs till very smooth and thick; and stir them into the
pan of butter and sugar in turn with the grated sweet-potatoe, a little
of each at a time. Then stir the whole very hard. Butter a deep tin pan
with straight sides. Put in the mixture, and bake it well. If you want
more cake than the above quantity, double the proportions of _each_
ingredient; but bake the mixture in two pans, rather than in one. Ice it
when cold, adding a little lemon or orange-juice to the icing. In
spreading the icing, begin by heaping it on the centre of the cake, and
then gradually bringing it all over the top and sides, dipping the
knife, frequently, into a bowl of cold water.


CHOCOLATE PUFFS.--Beat very stiff the whites of two eggs, and then beat
in, gradually, half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Scrape down very
fine, an ounce and a half of the best chocolate, (prepared cocoa is
better still,) and dredge it with flour to prevent its oiling; mixing
the flour well among it. Then add it, gradually, to the mixture of white
of egg and sugar, and stir the whole very hard. Cover the bottom of a
square tin pan with a sheet of fine white paper, cut to fit exactly.
Place upon it thin spots of powdered loaf-sugar about the size of a
half-dollar. Pile a portion of the mixture on each spot, smoothing it
with the back of a spoon or a broad knife, dipped in cold water. Sift
white sugar over the top of each. Set the pan into a brisk oven, and
bake them a few minutes. When cold, loosen them from the paper with a
broad knife.


COCOA-NUT PUFFS.--Break up a large ripe cocoa-nut. Pare the pieces, and
lay them awhile in cold water. Then wipe them dry, and grate them as
finely as possible. Lay the grated cocoa-nut in well-formed heaps on a
large handsome dish. It will require no cooking. The heaps should be
about the circumference of a dollar, and must not touch each other.
Flatten them down in the middle, so as to make a hollow in the centre of
each heap; and upon this pile some very nice sweetmeat. Make an
excellent whipped cream, well sweetened and flavoured with lemon and
wine, and beat it to a stiff froth. Pile some of this cream high upon
each cake over the sweetmeats. If on a supper-table you may arrange them
in circles round a glass stand.


PALMER CAKES.--Sift a pound of flour into a pan, and rub into it half a
pound of butter, and a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Add a
tea-spoonful of mixed spice, powdered cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace. Wet
the mixture with two well-beaten eggs; the juice of a large lemon or
orange; and sufficient rose-water to make it into a dough just stiff
enough to roll out easily. Sprinkle a little flour on the paste-board;
lay the lump of dough upon it, roll it out rather thin, and cut it into
round cakes with the edge of a tumbler dipped every time in flour to
prevent stickiness. Lay the cakes in buttered square pans. Set them in a
rather brisk oven, and bake them brown.


LIGHT SEED CAKE.--Sift into a pan a pound and a half of flour; cut up in
it a pound of fresh butter, and rub it well into the flour with your
hands. Mix in six table-spoonfuls of strong fresh yeast; add gradually
as much warm milk as will make it a soft dough, and knead it well. Cover
it with a double cloth and set it in a warm place to rise. When quite
light, and cracked all over the surface, mix in, alternately, a quarter
of a pound of powdered white sugar, and a quarter of a pound of carraway
seeds, a little of each at a time. Knead the dough well a second time,
adding a small tea-spoonful of soda dissolved in a very little warm
water. Cover it and set it to rise again. It will probably require now
but half an hour. Transfer it to a circular tin pan, slightly buttered,
and bake it in a loaf. It is best when eaten fresh, but not warm. It may
be baked in a square pan, and cut into square pieces when cool.


CARRAWAY CAKE.--Sift half a pound of rice flour into a dish. In a deep
pan cut up half a pound of fresh butter, and mix with it half a pound of
powdered loaf-sugar. Having warmed them slightly, stir together the
butter and sugar till very light and creamy. Break five eggs, and beat
them in a shallow pan till thick and smooth. Then stir them, gradually,
into the pan of beaten sugar and butter, alternately with the flour; a
little of each at a time. Add, by degrees, a tea-spoonful of powdered
cinnamon and nutmeg mixed; a wine-glass of rose water or of rose-brandy,
and half an ounce or more of carraway seeds thrown in a few at a time,
stirring hard all the while. Butter a square iron pan; put in the
mixture; set it in a rather brisk oven, and bake it well. When done,
sift powdered sugar over it; and when cool, cut it into long squares.


WONDERS.--Cut up half a pound of fresh butter into a pound of sifted
flour, and rub them well together with your hands. Mix in three-quarters
of a pound of white sugar, and a large tea-spoonful of cinnamon. Add a
glass of good white wine, and a glass of rose-water. Beat six eggs very
light, and mix them gradually with the above ingredients, so as to form
a dough. If you find the dough too soft, add by degrees a little more
flour. Roll out the dough into a thick sheet, and cut it into long slips
with a jagging-iron. Then form each strip into the figure 8. Have ready
over the fire a pot of boiling lard. Throw the cakes into it, a few at a
time, and let them cook till they are well browned all over. Then take
them out, with a perforated skimmer, draining back into the pot the lard
that is about them. As you take them out lay them on a flat dish, the
bottom of which is strewed with powdered sugar. They will keep a week,
but like most other cakes are best the day they are baked.


SOFT CRULLERS.--Sift three quarters of a pound of flour, and powder half
a pound of loaf-sugar. Heat a pint of water in a round-bottomed
sauce-pan, and when quite warm, mix the flour with it gradually. Set
half a pound of fresh butter over the fire in a small vessel; and when
it begins to melt, stir it gradually into the flour and water. Then add
by degrees the powdered sugar, and half a grated nutmeg. Take the
sauce-pan off the fire, and beat the contents, with a wooden spaddle or
spatula, till they are thoroughly mixed. Then beat six eggs very light,
and stir them gradually into the mixture. Beat the whole very hard, till
it becomes a thick batter. Flour a paste-board very well, and lay out
the batter upon it in rings, (the best way is to pass it through a screw
funnel.) Have ready, on the fire, a pot of boiling lard of the very best
quality. Put in the crullers, removing them from the board by carefully
taking them up, one at a time, on a broad-bladed knife. Boil but a few
at a time. They must be of a fine brown. Lift them out on a perforated
skimmer, draining the lard from them back into the pot. Lay them on a
large dish, and sift powdered white sugar over them.

Soft crullers cannot be made in warm weather.


NOTIONS.--Put into a sauce-pan a pint of milk, and two table-spoonfuls
of fresh butter. Set it over the fire, and when the butter begins to
melt, stir it well through the milk. As soon as it comes to a boil,
begin to stir in a pint of sifted flour, a little at a time; making the
mixture very smooth, and pressing out all the lumps. Let it continue to
boil five minutes after the flour is all in. Then pour it into a deep
pan, and set it to cool. In another pan beat six eggs very light. When
it is nearly cool, stir the beaten egg into the mixture, a little at a
time; stirring the whole very hard, till it is as light as possible.

Have ready, over the fire, a pot with a pound or more of fresh lard
melting in it. When the lard comes to a boil, take up portions of the
batter in a large spoon, or a small ladle, and drop them into the
boiling lard, so as to form separate balls. When they are well browned,
take them out with a perforated skimmer, draining the lard from them
back into the pot. Lay them on a flat dish, and when all are done, sift
over them a mixture of powdered sugar and powdered cinnamon or nutmeg.
They should be eaten quite fresh.


CROSS-BUNS.--Pick clean a pound and a half of Zante currants; wash,
drain, and dry them; spreading them on a large flat dish, placed in a
slanting position near the fire or in the sun. When they are perfectly
dry, dredge them thickly with flour to prevent their sinking or clodding
in the cakes. Sift into a deep pan two pounds of fine flour, and mix
thoroughly with it a table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon, (or of mixed
nutmeg and cinnamon,) and half a pound of powdered white sugar. Cut up
half a pound of the best fresh butter in half a pint of rich milk. Warm
it till the butter is quite soft, but not till it melts. While warm,
stir into the milk and butter two wine-glasses (or a jill) of strong
fresh yeast. Make a hole in the centre of the pan of flour; pour in the
mixed liquid; then, with a spoon or a broad knife, mix the flour
gradually in; beginning round the edge of the hole. Proceed thus till
you have the entire mass of ingredients thoroughly incorporated;
stirring it hard as you go on. Cover the pan with a clean flannel or a
thick towel, and set it in a warm place near the fire to rise. When it
has risen well, and the surface of the dough is cracked all over, mix in
a small tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved; flour your paste-board; divide
the dough into equal portions, and mixing in the currants, knead it into
round cakes about the size of a small saucer. Place them on a large flat
dish, cover them, and set them again in a warm place for about half an
hour. Then butter some square tin or iron baking-pans; transfer the buns
to them; and brush each bun lightly over with a glazing of beaten white
of eggs, sweetened with a little sugar. Then, with the back of a knife,
mark each bun with a cross, deeply indented in the dough, and extending
entirely from one edge to another. Let the oven be quite ready; set in
it the buns; and bake them of a deep brown colour. In England, and in
other parts of Europe, it is customary to have hot cross-buns at
breakfast on the morning of Good Friday. They are very good cakes at any
time; but are best when fresh.


TO ICE A LARGE CAKE.--It requires practice to ice cakes smoothly. It is
a good rule to allow a _large_ quarter of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar
to the white of every egg. The whites of four eggs and a pound of sugar
will ice a large cake. Having strained the white of egg into a broad,
shallow pan, beat it to a stiff froth with hickory rods or a large
silver fork. It must be beaten till it stands alone. Have ready the
powdered sugar in a bowl beside you; add it, gradually, to the beaten
white of egg, a tea-spoonful at a time, and beat it very hard. Perhaps
some additional sugar may be required to make the icing sufficiently
thick. Flavour it by beating in at the last a few drops of oil of lemon,
or a spoonful of fresh lemon or orange-juice, or a few drops of extract
of vanilla, or extract of roses. Lemon-juice will make it more adhesive,
so that it will stick on better. Turn bottom-upwards the empty pan in
which the cake was baked, and place this pan on a large flat dish, or an
old server. Dredge the cake all over with flour, to take off the
greasiness of the outside, which greasiness may otherwise prevent the
icing from sticking well. Then wipe off the flour with a clean towel.
Take up the icing with a spoon, and begin by heaping a large quantity of
it on the middle of the top of the cake. Then, with a broad-bladed
knife, spread it down evenly and smoothly, till the top and sides are
all covered with it of an equal thickness. Have beside you a bowl of
cold water, into which dip the knife-blade, occasionally, as you go on
spreading and smoothing the icing. Put it into a warm place to harden.
When nearly dry, have ready sufficient icing to ornament or flower the
cake. This must be done by means of a small syringe. By working and
moving this syringe skilfully, the icing will fall from it so as to form
borders, beadings, wreaths, and centre-pieces, according to your taste.
If you cannot procure a syringe, a substitute may be formed by rolling
or folding a piece of thick, smooth writing paper into a conical or
sugar-loaf form. At the large end of this cone leave paper enough to
turn down all round, so as to prevent the side opening, and the icing
escaping. The pointed end must be neatly cut off with scissors, leaving
a small round hole, through which the icing is to be pressed out when
ornamenting the cake. The hole must be cut perfectly even; otherwise the
icing will come out crooked and unmanageable. These paper cones, in
skilful hands, may succeed tolerably; but they must be continually
renewed, and are far less convenient than a syringe, which can be bought
at a small cost, and is always ready for use. Where much icing is to be
done, it is well to have a set of syringes with the points of different
patterns.

To decorate cakes with ornamental icing, requires practice, skill, and
taste. A person that has a good knowledge of drawing can generally do it
very handsomely.

To colour it of a beautiful pink, tie up a little alkanet in a thin
muslin bag, and let it infuse in the icing after it is made, squeezing
the bag occasionally. When sufficiently coloured, take out the bag, and
give the icing a hard stirring or beating before you put it on. Cover
the cake all over with the pink icing, and then have ready some white
icing for the border and other ornaments,--to be put on with the
syringe.

Icing may be made stiffer and more adhesive by mixing with it,
gradually, a small portion of dissolved gum tragacanth. This solution is
prepared by melting gum tragacanth in _boiling_ water, (if wanted for
immediate use,) having first picked the gum quite clean. The proportion
is half an ounce of the gum to half a pint of water. It is slow in
dissolving. To keep it from spoiling, add to the gum (before the water)
a few drops of strong oil of lemon, or oil of cinnamon.


FRENCH ICING FOR CAKES.--Dissolve some fine white gum arabic (finely
powdered) in rose-water. The proportion should be, as much of the
gum-arabic powder as will lie on a ten-cent piece to a tea-spoonful of
rose-water. Beat some white of egg to a stiff froth that will stand
alone. Stir in, gradually, sufficient double-refined powdered loaf-sugar
to make it very thick, (a good proportion is four ounces of sugar to
the white of one egg,) add to this quantity a tea-spoonful of the
rose-water with the gum arabic dissolved in it, and beat the whole very
hard. Instead of rose-water you may dissolve the gum in fresh
lemon-juice. Previous to icing the cake, dredge it with flour, and in a
few minutes wipe it off with a clean towel. This, by removing the
greasiness of the outside, will make the icing stick on the better. Heap
the icing first on the middle of the top of the cake; then with a
broad-bladed knife spread it evenly all over the surface. Dip the knife
frequently in a bowl of cold water as you proceed, and smooth the icing
well. If not thick enough, wait till it dries, and then add a second
coat.


ALMOND ICING.--Take half a pound of shelled sweet almonds, and three
ounces of shelled bitter almonds. Put them, a few at a time, into a
large bowl, and pour on boiling water to loosen the skins. As you peel
them, throw the almonds into a bowl of cold water. When they are all
blanched, pound them one at a time in a marble mortar, adding frequently
a few drops of rose-water to prevent their oiling. They must be pounded
to a smooth paste without the smallest particles of lumps. As you pound
the almonds, remove this paste with a tea-spoon to a deep plate. Beat
the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth. Then, gradually beat in a
pound of the best double-refined sugar. Lastly, add, by degrees, the
almond paste, a little at a time, and beat the whole very hard. If too
thick, thin it with lemon-juice.


APPLE CAKE.--Make a nice light paste with the proportion of three
quarters of a pound of fresh butter to a pound and a quarter of sifted
flour. Roll it out into a large round sheet. Have ready a sufficiency of
fine juicy apples, pared, cored, and sliced thin; mixed with one or two
sliced quinces; and half a pound, or more, of the best raisins, seeded
and cut in half. Make the mixture very sweet with brown sugar; and add
some grated nutmeg; and a wine-glass, or more, of rose-water; or else
the juice and grated yellow rind of one or two lemons. Mix all
thoroughly, and put it on the sheet of paste; which must then be closed
over the heap of mixture so as to form a very large dumpling. Put it
into a small dutch-oven, and set it over hot coals, having previously
heated the oven-lid by standing it upright before the fire. Then lay on
the lid, with hot coals spread over it. Have ready a sufficient quantity
of butter, brown sugar, and powdered cinnamon, stirred together till
very light. Spread a portion of it on the bottom of the oven. While the
cake is baking, remove the oven-lid frequently, and baste the cake with
this mixture, which will form a sort of thick brown crust, covering it
all over. It should bake from two to three hours; or longer if it is
large. When thoroughly done, turn it out on a dish. It should be eaten
fresh, the day it is baked; either warm or cold.

This is a German cake, and will be found very good.


CINNAMON CAKES.--Make a paste as above, and roll it out thin into a
square sheet. Have ready a mixture of brown sugar; fresh butter; and a
large portion of ground cinnamon; all stirred together till very light.
Spread this mixture thickly over the sheet of paste; then roll it up, as
you would a rolled up marmalade pudding. After it is rolled up, cut it
down into pieces or cakes of equal size, and press them rather flat.
Have ready over the fire a skillet or frying-pan with plenty of fresh
butter boiling hard. Put in some of the cakes and fry them brown. As
fast as they are done, take them out on a perforated skimmer; drain off
the butter, and lay them on a hot dish. Then put in more cakes, till all
are fried. They should be eaten warm, first sifting powdered white
sugar over them.

These cakes, also, are German. They may be conveniently prepared when
you are making pies, as the same paste will do for both.


GINGER POUND CAKE.--Cut up in a pan three quarters of a pound of butter;
mix with it a pint of West India molasses, and a tea-cup of brown sugar.
If in winter, set it over the fire till the butter has become soft
enough to mix easily with the molasses and sugar. Then take it off, and
stir them well together. Sift into a pan a pound of flour. In another
pan, beat five eggs very light. Add gradually the beaten eggs and the
flour, to the mixture of butter, sugar, and molasses, with two large
table-spoonfuls of ground ginger, and a heaped tea-spoonful of powdered
cinnamon. Then stir in a glass of brandy, and lastly a small
tea-spoonful of sal-eratus or sub-carbonate of soda melted in a very
little milk. Stir the whole very hard. Transfer the mixture to a
buttered tin-pan, and bake it in a moderate oven from two to three
hours, in proportion to its thickness.

This cake will be much improved by the addition of a pound of sultana or
seedless raisins, well dredged with flour to prevent their sinking, and
stirred in, gradually, at the last.

You may add also the yellow rind of a lemon or orange grated fine.


FLEMINGTON GINGERBREAD.--Stir together till quite light, a quarter of a
pound of fresh butter, and a quarter of a pound of brown sugar. Then mix
in half a pint of West India molasses. Sift rather less than a pint and
a half of flour. Beat four eggs till very light, and stir them gradually
into the mixture, alternately with the sifted flour. Add a heaping
table-spoonful of ginger, and a tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon. Stir
all well. Dissolve a level tea-spoonful of soda or pearlash in as much
warm water as will melt it; then stir it in at the last. Put the mixture
into a buttered tin-pan, (either square or round,) set it _immediately_
into the oven, which must be brisk but not too hot; and bake it well.
When you think it done, probe it to the bottom with a knife or a
broom-twig, stuck down into the centre; and do not take the cake from
the oven unless the knife comes out clean and dry. It requires long
baking.


GINGER CRACKERS.--Mix together in a deep pan, a pint of West India
molasses; half a pound of butter; and a quarter of a pound of brown
sugar; two large table-spoonfuls of ginger; a tea-spoonful of powdered
cinnamon; a small tea-spoonful of pearlash or soda, dissolved in a
little warm water; and sufficient sifted flour to make a dough just
stiff enough to roll out conveniently. Let the whole be well
incorporated into a large lump. Knead it till it leaves your hands
clean; then beat it hard with a rolling-pin, which will make it crisp
when baked. Divide the dough, and roll it out into sheets half an inch
thick. Cut it into cakes with a tin cutter about the usual size of a
cracker-biscuit, or with the edge of a teacup dipped frequently into
flour to prevent its sticking. Lay the cakes at regular distances in
square pans slightly buttered. Set them directly into a moderately brisk
oven, and bake them well, first pricking them with a fork.

Ginger crackers are excellent on a sea voyage. If made exactly as above
they will keep many weeks.

In greasing all cake-pans use only the best fresh butter: otherwise the
outside of a thick cake will taste disagreeably, and the whole of a thin
cake will have an unpleasant flavour.


SEA-VOYAGE GINGERBREAD.--Sift two pounds of flour into a pan, and cut up
in it a pound and a quarter of fresh butter; rub the butter well into
the flour, and then mix in a pint of West India molasses and a pound of
the best brown sugar. Beat eight eggs till very light. Stir into the
beaten egg two glasses or a jill of brandy. Add also to the egg a
teacup-full of ground ginger, and a table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon,
with a tea-spoonful of soda melted in a little warm water. Wet the
flour, &c., with this mixture till it becomes a soft dough. Sprinkle a
little flour on your paste-board, and with a broad knife spread portions
of the mixture thickly and smoothly upon it. The thickness must be equal
all through; therefore spread it carefully and evenly, as the dough will
be too soft to roll out. Then with the edge of a tumbler dipped in
flour, cut it out into round cakes. Have ready square pans, slightly
buttered; lay the cakes in them sufficiently far apart to prevent their
running into each other when baked. Set the pans into a brisk oven, and
bake the cakes well, seeing that they do not burn.

You may cut them out small with the lid of a cannister (or something
similar) the usual size of gingerbread nuts.

These cakes will keep during a long voyage, and are frequently carried
to sea. Many persons find highly-spiced gingerbread a preventive to
sea-sickness.


SPICED GINGERBREAD.--Sift into a deep pan a pound and a half of flour,
and cut up in it half a pound of the best fresh butter. Rub them
together, with your hands, till thoroughly incorporated. Then add half a
pound of brown sugar, crushed fine with the rolling-pin; a
table-spoonful of mixed spice, consisting of equal quantities of
powdered cloves, mace, and cinnamon. Also, a table-spoonful of ground
ginger, and two table-spoonfuls of carraway seeds. Mix the whole
together, and wet it with a pint of West India molasses. Dissolve a
small tea-spoonful of pearlash or soda in a very little warm water. Mix
it into the other ingredients. Spread some flour on your paste-board,
take the dough out of the pan, flour your hands, and knead the dough
till it ceases entirely to be sticky. Roll it out into a very thick
square sheet; cut it into long straight slips; twist every two slips
together, rounding off the ends nicely. Lay them (not too closely) in
buttered square pans, and bake them well. As gingerbread burns easily,
take care not to have the oven too hot. Instead of forming it into
twisted strips, you may cut the sheet of gingerbread-dough into round
cakes with the edge of a tumbler, which, as you proceed, must be
frequently dipped in flour.


CARRAWAY GINGERBREAD.--Cut up half a pound of fresh butter in a pint of
West India molasses and warm them together slightly, till the butter is
quite soft. Then stir them well, and add, gradually, a pound of good
brown sugar, a table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon, and two heaped
table-spoonfuls of ground ginger, or three, if the ginger is not very
strong. Sift two pounds or two quarts of flour. Beat four eggs till very
thick and light, and stir them, gradually, into the mixture, in turn
with the flour, and five or six large table-spoonfuls of carraway seeds,
a little at a time. Dissolve a very small tea-spoonful of pearlash or
soda in as much lukewarm water as will cover it. Then stir it in at the
last. Stir all very hard. Transfer it to a buttered tin pan with
straight sides, and bake it in a loaf in a moderate oven. It will
require a great deal of baking.


MOLASSES GINGERBREAD.--Mix together a quart of West India molasses, and
a pint of milk. Cut up in them a pound of fresh butter. Set the pan on
a stove, or in a warm place till the butter becomes soft enough to stir
and mix well into the molasses and milk. They must be merely warmed but
not made hot. Then stir in a small teacup of ginger, and a
table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon. Add, gradually, a little at a time,
three pounds of sifted flour. The whole should be a thick batter.
Lastly, stir in a large tea-spoonful of soda, or a smaller one of
pearlash or sal-eratus, dissolved in a very little lukewarm water. Bake
the mixture either in little tins, or in a large loaf. If the latter, it
will require very long baking; as long as a black-cake.


MOLASSES CAKE.--Cut up a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into a pint
of West India molasses. Warm it just sufficiently to soften the butter,
and make it mix easily. Stir it well into the molasses, and add a
table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon. Beat three eggs very light, and
stir them, gradually, into the mixture, in turn with barely enough of
sifted flour (not more than a pint and a half) to make it about as thick
as pound-cake batter. Add, at the last, a small or level tea-spoonful of
pearlash, or a full one of soda, dissolved in a very little warm water.
Butter some small tin cake-pans, or patty-pans, put in the mixture, and
set them immediately into the oven, which must not be too hot, as all
cakes made with molasses are peculiarly liable to scorch on the outside.


SUGAR CAKE.--Sift two pounds of flour into a pan, and cut up in it a
pound of fresh butter. Rub with your hands the butter into the flour
till it is thoroughly mixed. Then rub in a pound of sugar, and a grated
nutmeg. Wet the whole with half a pint of rich milk (or a jill of
rose-water, and a jill of milk) mixed with a well-beaten egg. Add, at
the last, a very small tea-spoonful of pearlash or soda, dissolved in a
little vinegar or warm water. Roll out the dough thick, and beat it well
on both sides with the rolling-pin. Then roll it thin, and cut it into
square cakes, notching the edges with a knife. Put them into a shallow
pan slightly buttered, (taking care not to place them too near, lest
they run into each other,) and bake them a light brown.

You may mix into the dough two table-spoonfuls of carraway seeds.


MOLASSES BREAD CAKE.--On a bread-making day, when the wheat-bread has
risen perfectly light and is cracked on the surface, take as much of the
dough as will fill a quart bowl, and place it in a broad pan. Cut up a
quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and set it over the fire to warm and
soften, but do not let it melt to an oil. When quite soft, mix with it
half a pint of West India molasses, a small table-spoonful of powdered
cinnamon, and the finely-grated yellow rind of a large orange or lemon;
adding also the juice. Have ready three eggs, well beaten, and add them
gradually to the mixture. It must form a lump of soft dough; but not too
thin to knead with your hands. Knead it well on the paste-board for a
quarter of an hour. Butter some tin pans; put an equal portion of the
dough into each; cover them; and set them in a warm but not a hot place
for a quarter of an hour before baking. Then bake the cakes well.
Instead of small pans you may bake the whole of the dough in one large
one. This cake should be eaten the day it is baked; fresh but not warm.
All _sweet_ cakes in which yeast is an ingredient are best and most
wholesome when fresh, as the next day they become hard, dry, and
comparatively heavy.


BREAD MUFFINS.--Take some bread dough that has risen as light as
possible, and knead into it some well-beaten egg in the proportion of
two eggs to about a pound of dough. Then mix in a tea-spoonful of soda
that has been dissolved in a very little lukewarm water. Let the dough
stand in a warm place for a quarter of an hour. Then bake it in
muffin-rings. You can thus, with very little trouble, have muffins for
tea whenever you bake bread in the afternoon.


TO FRESHEN CAKES.--Cakes when stale may be much improved, if about an
hour before they are wanted for tea, you enclose them in a circular
_wooden_ box with a tight-fitting lid, and place it on the marble hearth
before a good coal fire; but not so close as to be in danger of
scorching the box, which must be turned round, occasionally, so as to
receive the heat equally on all sides. A tin or stone-ware box will not
answer at all for this purpose, being too cold. If you burn wood-fires,
set the box with the cake into a plate-warmer, or place it on a tall
skillet, so as to be out of the way of coals or ashes falling on it,
should the sticks break on the fire.



DOMESTIC LIQUORS, ETC.


GOOSEBERRY CHAMPAGNE.--Take large, fine gooseberries, that are
full-grown, but not yet beginning to turn red; and pick off their tops
and tails. Then weigh the fruit, and allow a gallon of clear, soft water
to every three pounds of gooseberries. Put them into a large, clean tub;
pour on a little of the water; pound and mash them, thoroughly, with a
wooden beetle; add the remainder of the water, and give the whole a hard
stirring. Cover the tub with a cloth, and let it stand four days;
stirring it frequently and thoroughly, to the bottom. Then strain the
liquid, through a coarse linen cloth, into another vessel; and to each
gallon of liquid add four pounds of fine loaf-sugar; and to every five
gallons a quart of the best and clearest French brandy. Mix the whole
well together; and put it into a clean cask, that will just hold it, as
it should be filled full. Place the cask on its side, in a cool, dry
part of the cellar; and lay the bung loosely on the top. Secure the cask
firmly in its place, so that it cannot, by any chance, be shaken or
moved; as the least disturbance will injure the wine. Let it work for a
fortnight, or more; till the fermentation is quite over, and the hissing
has ceased. Then bottle it; driving in the corks tightly. Lay the
bottles on their sides. In six months, it will be fit for drinking, and
will be found as brisk as real champagne.


GREEN CURRANT WINE.--The currants must be full-grown, but not yet
beginning to redden. Strip them from the stems; weigh them; and to every
three pounds allow a gallon of soft water. Mash them well, and proceed
exactly as in the receipt for gooseberry champagne; except that you may
use the best light-coloured brown sugar, instead of loaf. Instead of
bottling it, as soon as it has done fermenting, you may, whenever the
hissing is over, put in the bung tightly; and let the wine remain in the
cask. In six months, it will be fit for drinking.


PEACH WINE.--Take eight pounds of ripe, juicy, free-stone peaches, of
the best kind. Slice them into two gallons of soft water; and add five
pounds of loaf-sugar, broken small. Crack all the stones; extract the
kernels; break them up; and lay them in the bottom of a clean tub. Put
the peaches, with the dissolved sugar, into a kettle; and boil and skim
it, until the scum ceases to rise. Then strain it, through a large
sieve, into the tub that has the kernels in the bottom. Stir all well
together, and cover it closely till it grows quite cool. Then put in a
large slice of toasted bread, covered all over with strong, fresh yeast.
Leave it to ferment; and, when the fermentation is over, strain it into
a keg, and add a bottle of muscadel or sweet malaga wine. Let it stand
six months. Then draw off a little in a glass, and, if it is not quite
clear, take out a pint of the wine; mix with it an ounce of powdered
gum-arabic; dissolve it in a slow heat; and then add an ounce of
powdered chalk. When they are dissolved, return the pint of wine to the
keg, stirring it in, lightly, with a stick; but taking care not to let
the stick go down to the bottom, lest it should disturb the lees, or
sediment. Let it stand three days longer, and then bottle it. It will be
fit for use in another six months.

Apricot wine may be made in the same manner.


DOMESTIC FRONTINIAC.--Put into a large kettle, twelve pounds of
broken-up loaf-sugar; and pour on it six gallons of clear, soft water,
and let the sugar dissolve. Take seven pounds of the best raisins, and
chop them small, having first removed the seeds. Mix the raisins with
the dissolved sugar; set the kettle over the fire, and let it boil for
an hour, skimming it well. Have ready half a peck of full-blown
elder-blossoms, gathered just before they are ready to fall from the
branches. Take the kettle from the fire; pour the liquor into a clean
tub; and as soon as it has cooled, (so as to be merely lukewarm,) stir
in the elder-flowers. Cover it closely. Next day, add six large
table-spoonfuls of lemon-syrup, and four of strong, fresh yeast. After
the wine has fermented two days, strain it into a clean cask; and, after
it has stood two months, bottle it. Next summer, it will be in fine
order for drinking, and will be found a delicious wine; very similar to
the real Frontiniac.


MORELLA WINE.--Take a sufficiency of large, fine morella cherries. They
must all be perfectly ripe, and free from blemish. Extract the stones;
carefully saving all the juice. Return it to the cherries; put them into
a clean tub; and let them stand, in a cold place, undisturbed, till next
morning. Then mash and press them through a cullender, or sieve, or put
them into a thin linen bag, and squeeze out all the juice; then measure
it. To every quart of juice, allow a large half-pound of fine
loaf-sugar, and mix them well together, in a clean cask. Crack the
stones; tie them up in a thin bag; and suspend the bag in the cask, in
the midst of the liquor. Leave it to ferment; and, when the fermentation
ceases, stop it closely. Let it stand four months, leaving the bag of
cherry-stones in the cask. Then bottle it, and in three months it will
be fit to drink.


DOMESTIC TOKAY.--Take fine grapes, that are all _perfectly_ ripe; pick
them carefully from the stalks, omitting all that are blemished; put
them into a large hair sieve, placed over a large, deep pan, or a clean
tub. Mash the grapes, with your hand, squeezing and pressing out all the
juice. To every quart of juice, allow a pound of sultana raisins,
chopped small, or of bloom raisins, seeded and chopped. Let the
grape-juice and raisins stand twelve days; stirring it twice or three
times every day. Then strain the liquor into a cask; but do not stop it
closely till after three days. Let it stand eight months; then bottle
it. If it is not clear, take out a pint of the wine; mix with it half an
ounce of isinglass, shaved fine, or an ounce of powdered gum-arabic. Set
it in a warm place, and, when dissolved, add an ounce of fine chalk.
This will be sufficient to fine a barrel of wine. Stir it lightly into
the rest. Let it stand three or four days, and then bottle it.


BLACKBERRY WINE.--The blackberries must all be full ripe, and without
blemish. Measure them; and to every quart of fruit allow a quart of
clear, soft water. Boil the water by itself. Put the blackberries into a
clean tub, and mash them with a wooden beetle, or a mallet. When the
water has boiled, pour it on the blackberries, and let it stand, till
next morning, in a cool place, stirring it occasionally. Then press out
all the juice, measure it, and to every quart of liquid allow half a
pound of sugar. Put the sugar into a cask, and strain the liquid upon
it, through a linen bag. Stir it frequently, till the sugar is
thoroughly dissolved. Let the cask remain unstopped, till the liquor has
done working. Then add half an ounce of isinglass, or an ounce of
gum-arabic, dissolved in a little hot water. You may substitute, for the
isinglass, or gum-arabic, the beaten whites of four eggs. Keep it open
till next day. Then bung it. It may be bottled in two months.

Raspberry wine may be made as above.

Black currant wine, also.


ROSOLIS.--Put four pounds of the best loaf-sugar into a large porcelain
kettle; and pour on it three quarts of water. When it has melted, set it
over the fire, and boil and skim it, till the scum ceases to rise. Then
add the whites of three eggs, whisked to a froth; and put in the shells
also, broken small. Let it again come to a boil. Then take it off the
fire; and, when it is only lukewarm, throw in a quart of fresh
rose-leaves, stirring them well through the liquid. Cover the vessel,
and let it stand till next day, till the fragrance of the roses is
extracted. Then remove the first rose-leaves, with a skimmer, and put
into it a second, and afterwards, a third supply. When the syrup has a
fine rose-flavour, strain it through a linen bag. If not perfectly
clear, filter it through blotting-paper, pinned inside the bottom of a
sieve. Then add half a pint of spirits of wine, that has been coloured
red, by infusing in it some alkanet root, tied up in a thin muslin bag.
Bottle the mixture; and it will be a delicate liqueur. Instead of
rose-leaves, you may flavour it immediately, by stirring in a large
portion of extract of roses.

This liqueur can be made very conveniently, where there is a garden
abounding in roses.


HIPPOCRAS.--Put into a jar a quart of the best port wine. Beat,
separately, in a mortar, a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon, two nutmegs,
twelve blades of mace, and a tea-spoonful of coriander seeds. Then mix
them all together; and put them into the wine. Add the yellow rind of
four large lemons, pared thin, and their juice, mixed with half a pound
of powdered loaf-sugar. Cover the vessel closely, and let it infuse a
week, or more. Then strain the liquid through a linen bag, and bottle
it.


PERSICOT.--Blanch, in scalding water, a pound and a half of bitter
almonds, and pound them in a mortar, till they are broken very small.
Then put them into two quarts of the best French white brandy. Let them
remain twenty-four hours in the brandy; shaking the mixture frequently.
Boil one quart of rich milk; and, when it has boiled, take it off the
fire, and mix with it two pounds of white sugar-candy, pounded fine.
Then mix the whole together, almonds, brandy, milk, and sugar-candy; and
let it stand for a week or two, or till very highly flavoured; shaking
or stirring it frequently. Afterwards strain it through a linen bag, and
bottle it. Drink it from small liqueur-glasses, with a bit of ice in
each.


NECTAR.--Take a pound of the best raisins, seeded and chopped; four
lemons, sliced thin, and the yellow rind pared off from two other
lemons; and two pounds of powdered loaf-sugar. Put into a porcelain
preserving-kettle two gallons of water. Set it over the fire, and boil
it half an hour. Then, while the water is boiling hard, put in the
raisins, lemons, and sugar; and continue the boiling for ten minutes.
Pour the mixture into a vessel with a close cover, and let it stand four
days; stirring it twice a-day. Then strain it through a linen bag, and
bottle it. It will be fit for use in a fortnight. Drink it from
wine-glasses, with a small bit of ice in each.


MINT JULEP.--Put into the bottom of a tumbler, about a dozen sprigs of
young and tender mint. Upon them place a large tea-spoonful of fine
white sugar; and then pour on peach-brandy, so as to reach nearly
one-third the height of the tumbler. Fill up with ice, pounded fine; and
lay on the top a thin slice of pine-apple, cut across into four pieces.
As an ornament, stick into the centre a handsome cluster of mint-sprigs,
so as to rise far above the edge of the tumbler. It will be the better
for standing awhile, in a vessel of finely-broken ice.


VANILLA SYRUP.--Put four or five vanilla beans into a very small, clean
sauce-pan, with half a pint of boiling water. Set it over the fire,
(closely covered,) and boil it, till the flavour of the vanilla is
thoroughly extracted, and the water tastes of it very strongly. Then
take out the vanilla, and strain the liquid. Break up three pounds of
the best double-refined loaf-sugar, and put it into a preserving-kettle,
with a quart of hot water. When thoroughly melted, set it on the fire,
and boil and skim it well; till the whole is reduced to nearly a quart.
Then stir in the vanilla liquid, and let it boil five or six minutes
longer. After taking it from the fire, pour it into a pitcher, till it
is cool enough to transfer to small bottles. Then cork it tightly, and
seal the corks.

It will be found excellent for flavouring custards, creams, &c., or to
mix with ice-water, for a summer beverage.

The extract will be stronger if the vanilla beans are split and cut into
pieces before boiling, and tied up in a very thin muslin bag.


ORANGE MILK.--Take two dozen large ripe oranges. Cut them in two; remove
the seeds; and squeeze the juice into a very large and clean _stone_
jar. Never use earthen-ware, to hold any thing acid, as the lead glazing
may produce the most deleterious effects. Have ready four pounds of the
finest loaf-sugar, dissolved in a gallon of the best rum or brandy. Pour
it into the jar that contains the orange-juice; stir the mixture well;
and add the yellow rind of the oranges, cut into little slips. Cover the
jar, and let it stand four days; stirring it frequently. Then take a
gallon of new, unskimmed milk, (the morning’s milk of that day,) boil
it, and, when it has come to a hard boil, pour it, hot, into the
mixture. Cover it closely, and let it stand till it gets quite cold.
Then strain it into another vessel, through a linen jelly-bag. Bottle it
immediately, and seal the corks. It improves by keeping, and will
continue good for many years.

To use it, mix a sufficient quantity, in a tumbler, with ice-water; or
take it, undiluted, in a small cordial glass.


ORANGE SYRUP.--Take large fine ripe oranges, with smooth thin rinds, and
roll each orange under your hand upon the table to increase the juice.
Set a very clean sieve upon a large bowl, and cut the oranges over it;
first halving them, and then notching each half to let out as much juice
as possible when squeezing them. Press them with all your strength in a
wooden squeezer, letting the juice drain through the sieve into the
bowl. To each pint of juice allow a pound and a half (a quart and a
pint) of the best double-refined loaf-sugar broken up. Put the sugar
into a preserving-kettle; pour the juice upon it; cover it, and let it
stand till all the sugar is quite soft, and can be easily mixed with the
juice. Next set the kettle over a moderate fire that has no blaze or
smoke, and boil it slowly; skimming it carefully till the scum ceases to
rise. Then take it off, remove the syrup from the kettle, and when it is
milk-warm, put it into very clean bottles, (new ones will be best,) cork
them tightly, and seal the corks. Keep it in a dry, cool place. It is
very fine for flavouring cakes, puddings, sweet sauces, &c. Or for
mixing with ice-water as a pleasant beverage. Also for ice-cream or
water-ice, when oranges are not to be had. Or for mixing with powdered
sugar to make the confection called orange-drops. Some persons, to
increase the strength of orange syrup, add the yellow rind of the
oranges grated on lumps of the sugar. This will do very well if the
syrup is to be used up soon. But by long keeping, the peel will give it
a very disagreeable taste and odour, resembling turpentine; unfitting it
for all purposes.

Lemon syrup may be made as above. To _this_ the addition of the yellow
rind of the lemons grated on sugar will be an improvement; as lemon rind
never acquires a turpentine taste.


IMITATION LEMON SYRUP.--Break up twelve pounds of the best
double-refined loaf-sugar. Put it into a preserving-kettle, and pour on
it a gallon of very clear soft water. When it has dissolved set it over
a moderate fire, and boil and skim it till the scum ceases to rise. Then
take it off, and stir in immediately, while the syrup is hot, six large
tea-spoonfuls of the best oil of lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of
tartaric acid. When cold, bottle the liquid, and cork it tightly. The
bottles for this purpose should either be quite new, or such as have
been used before for lemon syrup. Mixed with ice-water it is a wholesome
and refreshing beverage, and if you stir into a half tumbler of the
mixture a half tea-spoonful, or more, of carbonate of soda, it will foam
up, and be just like the soda-water you buy in the shops at six cents
per glass.

The above is the lemon syrup generally used for this purpose by the
druggists and confectioners.


CARBONATED SYRUP WATER.--Put into a tumbler lemon, raspberry,
strawberry, pine-apple, or any other _acid_ syrup, sufficient in
quantity to flavour the beverage very highly. Then pour in _very cold
ice-water_ till the glass is half full. Add _half_ a tea-spoonful of
bi-carbonate of soda, (to be obtained at the druggists’,) and stir it
well in with a tea-spoon. It will foam up to the top immediately, and
must be drank during the effervescence.

By keeping the syrup, and the carbonate of soda in the house, and mixing
them as above with ice-water, you can at any time have a glass of this
very pleasant drink; precisely similar to that which you get at the
shops. The cost will be infinitely less.


FINE RASPBERRY CORDIAL.--Fill a large stone jar with ripe raspberries.
Cover the jar closely, and let it stand in a corner of the hearth near
the fire, or on the top of a stove, till the fruit is heated so as to
break. Then put the raspberries into a linen bag, and squeeze the juice
into a pan beneath. Measure the juice, and to every quart allow a pound
of loaf-sugar, broken very small. Do not use the white sugar that is
sold ready-powdered; it is generally so adulterated with pulverized
starch, as to be unfit for any thing that is to be set away for keeping.
Put the juice and sugar (well mixed) into a preserving-kettle. Give it a
boil, and skim it well. When it has come to a boil, and the scum has
ceased to appear, take off the kettle; measure the liquid; and pour it
carefully into a large vessel; allowing an equal quantity of the best
French brandy. Stir it well, and when cold, put it into a demijohn, or a
large stone jug, and cork it tightly. Let it stand undisturbed a
fortnight; then, if it is not perfectly clear, filter it through
blotting-paper pinned inside the bottom of a sieve. Bottle it, and seal
the corks. Instead of brandy, you may use the best Jamaica spirits.

Currant or cherry cordial may be made in the above manner: first stoning
all the cherries, which should be fully ripe, and of the largest and
best kind; either red or black, or a mixture of both. The flavour will
be much improved by cracking the stones, and putting them into the
demijohn before you pour on the liquid.

Peach cordial, also, may be made as above. The peaches should be fine,
ripe, juicy free-stones; cut in pieces, and the stones removed.
Afterwards, crack the stones, and put the kernels (broken up) into the
bottom of the demijohn, to infuse with the liquid.


FINE RASPBERRY VINEGAR.--Put a sufficient quantity of ripe raspberries
into a large wooden or stone vessel, and pour on as much of the best
_genuine_ white wine vinegar as will cover them well. Cover the vessel,
and let it stand undisturbed during twenty-four hours; or longer, if the
juice is not entirely extracted; when it is, the raspberries will look
whitish and shrunk. You must, on no account, bruise or stir them. Then
strain the whole liquid through a large hair sieve placed over a broad
stone pan. Let the juice run through of itself, without any mashing or
squeezing. The least pressing will cause the liquid, when finished, to
look cloudy and dull. Have ready, in another vessel, the same quantity
of fresh raspberries that you put in at first; and pour the strained
liquid over them. Cover it, and let it again stand undisturbed for
twenty-four hours or more. Then again pass it through a sieve, without
any squeezing. A third time pour the liquid over the original quantity
of fresh raspberries in another vessel, and let it stand untouched
during twenty-four hours. Afterwards measure the liquid, and to every
pint allow a pound of the best double-refined loaf-sugar, broken small.
Put the whole into a large preserving-kettle, and boil and skim it about
twenty minutes. Then pour it into a clean stone vessel, and set it to
cool. Cover it, and let it stand all night. Next day, transfer it to
bottles, which must be perfectly dry and clean. Cork them closely, and
seal the corks. It will keep for years if made exactly according to the
above directions.

To use it as a beverage, put a large wine-glass of the raspberry vinegar
into a tumbler, and fill it up with ice-water. Mixed with hot water, and
drank as warm as possible immediately on going to bed, it is an
excellent palliative for a cold; and, by producing a perspiration, will
sometimes effect a cure.


FRENCH RASPBERRY VINEGAR.--Take a sufficiency of fine ripe raspberries.
Put them into a deep pan, and mash them with a wooden beetle. Then pour
them, with all their juice, into a large linen bag, and squeeze and
press out the liquid into a vessel beneath. Measure it; and to each
quart of the raspberry-juice allow a pound of powdered white sugar, and
a pint of the best cider vinegar. First mix together the juice and the
vinegar, and give them a boil in a preserving-kettle. When they have
boiled well, add gradually the sugar, with a beaten white of egg to
every two pounds; and boil and skim it till the scum ceases to rise.
When done, put it into clean bottles, and cork them tightly. It is a
very pleasant and cooling beverage in warm weather, and for invalids who
are feverish. To use it, pour out half a tumbler of raspberry vinegar,
and fill it up with ice-water.

It is a good palliative for a cold, mixed with hot water, and taken as
hot as possible immediately on going to bed, so as to produce
perspiration.


GOOD VINEGAR.--Take five gallons of soft, clear water, two quarts of
whisky, two quarts of the best West India molasses, and half a pint of
the best fresh yeast. Lay a sheet of white foolscap paper at the bottom
of a very clean keg, and pour in the mixture. Place it in the sun the
first warm weather at the close of May, or beginning of June. In six
weeks it will be fit for use. Put in the bung loosely, and do not stop
it tight till the fermentation is over. If you make it in winter, keep
it in a place where there is a stove or furnace.

Much of the vinegar that is offered for sale is excessively and
disagreeably sharp; overpowering the taste of every thing with which it
is combined. This vinegar is deleterious in its effects, and should
never be used; it is made entirely of drugs. Oysters and pickled
vegetables have been entirely destroyed or eaten up by it in a few
hours, so that nothing was left but a whitish liquid. To avoid all risk
from the unwholesome vinegar offered for sale, families would do well to
make their own. A keg of hard cider kept in a warm kitchen in winter,
and exposed to the hot sun in summer, will become excellent vinegar.


COMMON MOLASSES VINEGAR.--Mix together a gallon of West India molasses,
and four gallons of lukewarm water. Pour it into a clean five-gallon
cask, and place it in the chimney-corner; standing the cask on end, and
leaving the bung out. To give it, occasionally, some additional heat,
set the cask in the mouth of the oven on baking-days, after the bread is
drawn, and let it remain while the oven continues warm. In three months
it will be excellent and wholesome vinegar, at a very trifling
cost,--only that of the gallon of molasses. When the liquid is
sufficiently acid, stop the bung-hole closely, and remove the cask to a
cool place. In summer, you may make this vinegar by letting the cask
stand three or four months exposed to the hot sun; taking care to cover
the bung-hole in damp or rainy weather.


APPLE-WATER.--Take three large, juicy pippin apples; pare, core, and cut
them into very thin slices. Put them into a pitcher, (the yellow rind of
a lemon, pared thin, will be an improvement,) and pour on a pint of
boiling water. Cover the pitcher closely, and let it stand four hours.
Then pour the liquid into a glass, and sweeten it with loaf-sugar.

This is a cooling drink in a fever.


TOAST-WATER.--Take _thin_ slices of wheat bread, and toast it very brown
on both sides, but do not let it burn or blacken. Put the toast into a
pitcher that has straining holes at the spout, and pour over it, from a
tea-kettle, as much boiling water as you wish to make into drink. The
water must be actually boiling at the time. Cover the pitcher, and let
it stand till the water is cold. Then pour it off into a decanter. Made
in this way, toast-water is very wholesome and refreshing, and is
frequently drank at table by persons in health, as well as by invalids.


AN EXCELLENT WAY OF MAKING COFFEE.--For this purpose you should have a
percolator, or coffee-pot with strainers inside. The coffee will be much
stronger and better, if roasted and ground just before it is put in the
pot. There are no coffee-roasters so good as those of sheet-iron, made
somewhat in the form of a large long candle-box; standing before the
fire on feet; and turned round by a handle, so as to give all the coffee
that is inside an equal chance of heat. When about half done, put among
the coffee a piece of fresh butter. It should be roasted evenly
throughout, of a fine brown colour, and not allowed to blacken or burn.
Grind it while warm; and put into the percolator a sufficient quantity
of coffee, placing it _between_ the two strainers. Then (having stopped
up the spout) pour into the upper strainer a due proportion of _cold_
water; allowing a quart of water to half a pint or more of ground
coffee. Cold water is now found to make a stronger infusion than hot
water, as there is less evaporation, and none of the strength of the
coffee is carried off in steam. As soon as the water is all in, put on
the lid closely, and set away the pot. It is well to put the coffee to
infuse over night, if wanted for breakfast; and in the morning, if
required for evening. But, when necessary, it may be done in a much
shorter time. A little before the coffee is to go to table, lift off the
upper half of the percolator, (the part that contains the strainers,)
transfer the lid to the lower part; set the pot over the fire, and give
it one boil up--not more. As soon as it has come to a boil it is ready
for drinking; being already strained, and drawn. It will be found clear,
strong, and in all respects superior to that prepared in any other
manner. A short boil is sufficient to take off all taste of rawness.
Long boiling weakens coffee, and frequently turns it sour.

The above method will, we are confident, be highly approved on trial.
Also, it saves the expense of isinglass, white of egg, and other
articles generally used in clearing coffee. Percolators for making
coffee in this manner, can be obtained of all sizes at the large tin
manufactory of Messrs. Williams & Co., 276 Market street, between
Seventh and Eighth streets, Philadelphia.

A china or metal coffee-pot should always be scalded twice before coffee
is transferred to it, from the vessel in which it has been made.


COCOA.--The cocoa which is put up solid in close packages, and usually
sold at a shilling a paper, is far superior to the chocolate that is
manufactured into squares or cakes, and which is too frequently
adulterated with lard and meal. Baker’s prepared cocoa is excellent.
When you intend having it for drinking, shave down, or cut fine a
sufficient quantity of the cocoa; allowing about half the contents of a
paper to a quart of water, if you wish it very strong, and three pints
of water for moderate strength. Then put the cocoa into a clean
sauce-pan or a tin pot with a spout. Measure the water from a kettle
that is boiling hard at the time; and when you have the proper quantity
pour it scalding hot on the cocoa. Cover it closely; place it over the
fire; and let it boil till it is all dissolved into the same
consistence, and quite smooth, and free from the smallest lumps. While
boiling, you must several times take off the lid, and with a spoon stir
the cocoa down to the bottom. Then transfer it to your chocolate pot,
which must be twice scalded with boiling water. Send it to table as hot
as possible, adding milk and sugar to the cups when poured out. Eat with
it dry toast; _unbuttered_ rolls; milk-biscuit; or sponge-cake.


TO KEEP ORANGE-JUICE.--The oranges must be large and ripe. To increase
the quantity of juice, roll each orange under your hand on a table, or
with your foot upon a clean hearth-stone. Then cut them in half, and
score each half with four deep notches, so that when squeezed the juice
may run out more freely. Squeeze them through a strainer into a large
bowl. To each pint of juice allow a pound of the best loaf-sugar, broken
small. Cover the bowl, and let it stand undisturbed all night. In the
morning remove all the scum that has risen to the surface, and pour the
liquid through a funnel into clean, well-dried pint bottles; into each
of which you have previously put a table-spoonful of the best white
brandy. Cork each bottle tightly, and tie down a thin wet leather
closely over each cork. Keep the bottles in a dry place. You will find
this preparation excellent for flavouring, when fresh oranges are not to
be had.

Lemon-juice may be kept in the same manner, for flavouring or for punch.


TO PRESERVE LEMON-JUICE FOR A VOYAGE.--Select only the best and freshest
lemons. One that is in the least tainted will spoil the whole. Roll
every lemon under your hand upon a table to increase the juice. Then
squeeze them well through a strainer. To every quart of juice add an
ounce of cream of tartar. Let it stand three days, (stirring it
frequently,) and then filter it through thin muslin pinned tightly on
the bottom of a sieve. Put it into pint-bottles; filling up the neck of
each bottle with a little of the best olive oil. The corks must be put
in very tightly, and then sealed. When you open a bottle, avoid shaking
it; and carefully pour off the olive oil that is on the top of the
lemon-juice.


FINE MEAD.--Beat to a strong froth the whites of three eggs, and mix
them with six gallons of water; sixteen quarts of strained honey; and
the yellow rind of two dozen large lemons, pared very thin. Boil all
together, during three-quarters of an hour; skimming it well. Then put
it into a tub; and when lukewarm, add three table-spoonfuls of the best
fresh yeast. Cover it, and leave it to ferment. When it has done
working, transfer it to a barrel, with the lemon-peel in the bottom. Let
it stand six months. Then bottle it.


TO KEEP CIDER SWEET.--When barreling the cider, put into each barrel or
keg a jill (eight large table-spoonfuls) of white mustard-seed. This
will retard its becoming hard or sour.


TO MAKE BOTTLED CIDER VERY BRISK.--When you are bottling the cider, put
a large raisin into the bottom of each bottle before you pour in the
cider. Then cork it tightly.

In bottling spruce or molasses beer put in also a raisin.


TO KEEP ORANGES AND LEMONS.--Take a sufficiency of fine sand, and make
it very dry by exposing it to the heat of the sun or the fire, stirring
it frequently. Afterwards let it become quite cold, and then put a
quantity of it in a close box or barrel. Bury your oranges (which must
all be perfectly good) in this sand; placing them so as not to touch
each other, and with the stem-end downwards. At the top put a thick
layer of sand quite two inches deep. Cover the box closely, and keep it
in a cool place.


TO KEEP GRAPES.--See that there are no imperfect grapes on any of the
bunches. They must not be too ripe. Put in the bottom of a keg a layer
of bran that has been dried in the sun, or in an oven, and afterwards
become quite cold. Upon the bran, place a layer of grapes with bran
between the bunches so that they may not touch each other. Proceed thus
with alternate layers of bran and grapes till the keg is full; seeing
that the last is a thick layer of bran. Then close the keg, nailing on
the head so that no air can penetrate.

Grapes may also be packed in fine wood-ashes that has been well sifted.


TO KEEP APPLES.--Wipe every apple dry with a cloth, and see that no
blemished ones are left among them. Have ready a very dry tight barrel,
and cover the bottom with dry pebbles. These will attract the damp of
the apples. Then put in the fruit; head up the barrel; and plaster the
seams with mortar, taking care to have a thick rim of mortar all round
the top. Let the barrel remain undisturbed in the same place till you
want the apples for use. Pippins, bell-flowers, or other apples of the
best sorts, may be kept in this way till July.


TO KEEP CARROTS, PARSNIPS, BEETS, AND SWEET POTATOES.--These should all
be housed before the first frost. Range them side by side, and bury them
in dry sand; a bed of sand at the bottom; another between each layer of
the vegetables, and a thick sand covering for the whole. When wanted for
use, begin at one end, and draw them out in regular order, and not out
of the middle till you come to it.


TO KEEP FRESH BUTTER FOR FRYING, STEWING, &c.--Take several pounds of
the _very best_ fresh butter. Cut it up in a large tin sauce-pan, or in
any clean cooking vessel lined with tin. Set it over the fire, and boil
and skim it during half an hour. Then pour it off, carefully, through a
funnel into a stone jar, and cover it closely with a bladder or leather
tied down over the lid. The butter having thus been separated from the
salt and sediment, (which will be found remaining at the bottom of the
boiling-vessel,) if kept closely covered and set in a cool place, will
continue good for a year, and be found excellent for frying, and
stewing, and other culinary purposes. Prepare it thus in May or June,
and you may use it in winter, if living in a place where fresh butter
is not to be obtained in cold weather. Try it.


AN EASY WAY OF MAKING BUTTER IN WINTER.--The following will be found an
excellent method of making butter in cold weather for family use. We
recommend its trial. Take, in the morning, the unskimmed milk of the
preceding evening, (after it has stood all night in a _tin_ pan,) and
set it over a furnace of hot coals, or in a stove; being careful not to
disturb the cream that has risen to the surface. Let it remain over the
fire till it simmers, and begins to bubble round the edges; but on no
account let it come to a boil. Then take the pan carefully off, (without
disturbing the cream) and carry it to a cool place, but not where it is
cold enough to freeze. In the evening, take a spoon, and loosen the
cream round the sides of the pan. If very rich it will be almost a solid
cake. Slip off the sheet of cream into another and larger pan; letting
as little milk go with it as possible. Cover it, and set it away. Repeat
the process for several days, till you have thus collected a sufficiency
of clotted cream to fill the pan. Then scald a wooden ladle, and beat
the cream hard with it during ten minutes. You will then have excellent
butter. Take it out of the pan; lay it on a flat dish; and with the
ladle, squeeze and press it hard, till all the butter-milk is entirely
extracted and drained off. Then wash the butter in cold water, and work
a very little salt into it. Set it away in a cool place for three hours.
Then squeeze and press it again; also washing it a second time in cold
water. Make it up into pats, and keep it in a cool place.

The unskimmed morning’s milk, of course, may also be used for this
purpose, after it has stood twelve hours. The simmering over the fire
adds greatly to the quantity of cream, by throwing all the oily part of
the milk to the surface; but if allowed to boil, this oleaginous matter
will again descend, and mix with the rest, so as not to be separated.

This is the usual method of making winter butter in the south of
England; and it is very customary in the British provinces of America.
Try it.


COCHINEAL COLOURING.--Take an ounce of cochineal, and pound it to a fine
powder. Put it into an earthen or porcelain vessel, that is quite clean,
and entirely free from grease. Add a small salt-spoonful of potash, or
soda, and pour in a pint of clear, soft water. Set it over the fire;
and, when it has come to a boil, add a quarter of an ounce of cream of
tartar, with a quarter of an ounce of powdered alum; and let it boil ten
minutes. Then, while it is boiling hot, stir in three ounces of powdered
loaf-sugar. Bottle it, when cold, and keep it closely corked. You can
then have it always at hand, as a fine red colouring for icings,
blanc-mange, creams, jellies, and other sweetmeats.


COLOURING FOR CHEESE.--An ounce of real Spanish arnotta will colour
fifty pounds of cheese. Tie up the arnotta, in a thin linen rag, and put
it, over-night, into half a pint of warm water. In the morning, put the
arnotta-water into the tub of milk, along with the infusion of rennet,
indispensable in making cheese. For a deeper tint, dip the bag into the
milk, and squeeze it as long as any colour runs out.


ALKANET COLOURING.--Alkanet is now much used for giving a beautiful red
colour to confectionary. It is much cheaper than cochineal, and more
easily prepared. It has no peculiar taste, and no unwholesome
properties. You can purchase it at any druggist’s, and at a trifling
cost. It comes in small, dark-red chips. Before using it, pick it clean,
and see that there is none of the dust or powder remaining about it. Tie
up some of the alkanet chips, in a bit of very thin, clean muslin, like
a small bag, and let it infuse with the mixture you wish to colour. It
either may, or may not be boiled.


FINE RED OIL FOR LAMPS.--Infuse, for two or three hours, (or till the
colour is well communicated,) a muslin bag of alkanet chips, in the
clearest and best winter-strained lamp-oil. Then remove the bag of
alkanet, (which may be used again for the same purpose,) and put the oil
into clear glass lamps. It will be coloured of a beautiful red.
According to the quantity of alkanet, or the length of time it remains
steeping in the oil, you may have it of different tints, from light pink
to deep crimson. Oil thus coloured is beautiful for illuminations;
ball-rooms; or dispersed among the shrubbery, at a garden entertainment.
The price of alkanet does not exceed six cents per ounce; and an ounce
will do a great deal of colouring.


COLOURED WATER.--Slice a fresh red cabbage, and pour boiling water upon
it. Cover it, and let it stand till cold. Then strain off the water, and
put a portion of the infusion into three glasses. Pour into one glass a
little alum-water; into the second, a little dissolved potash; and into
the third, a few drops of muriatic acid. The liquid in the first glass
will be turned of a purple colour, by the alum-water; that in the second
will be changed to a green, by the solution of potash; and the third
will assume a fine crimson, from the muriatic acid. This water is used
by druggists, for the coloured jars in their shop-windows.



PERFUMERY, REMEDIES, ETC.


MACASSAR OIL.--This popular and pleasant unguent for the hair can (_as
we know_) be prepared at home, so as to equal, in efficacy and
appearance, any that is for sale in the shops; and at less than
one-third the expense. Take half an ounce of chippings of alkanet root,
which may be bought at a druggist’s, for a few cents. Divide this
quantity into two portions, and having cleared away any dust that may be
about the alkanet, put each portion of the chips into a separate bit of
new bobbinet, or very clear muslin. In tying it, use white thread, or
fine white cotton cord; as a coloured string may communicate a dirty
tinge to the oil. Put these little bags into a large glass tumbler, or a
straight-sided white-ware jar, and pour on half a pint of the best fresh
olive oil. Cover the vessel, and leave it undisturbed, for several days,
or a week; taking care not to shake or stir it; and do not press or
squeeze the bags. Have ready some small, flat-bottomed phials, or one
large one, that will hold half a pint. Take out carefully the bags of
alkanet, and lay them on a saucer. You will find that they have coloured
the oil a bright, beautiful crimson. The bags will serve a second time
for the same purpose. Put into the bottom of each phial a small quantity
of any pleasant perfume; such as oil of orange-flowers; jessamine; rose;
carnation; bergamot; oil of rhodium; oil of ambergris; or oil of cloves,
mixed with a little tincture of musk. Then fill up each phial with the
coloured oil, poured in through a small funnel; and, corking them
tightly, tie a piece of white kid leather over the top.

To use macassar oil, (observing _never to shake the bottle_,) pour a
little into a saucer, and, with your finger, rub it through the roots of
the hair.


ANTIQUE OIL.--This is a fine oil for the hair. Mix together, in a clean
glass vessel, half a pint of oil of sweet almonds, and half a pint of
the best olive oil. Then scent it with any sort of perfume.

To give it the colour and odour of roses, infuse, in the mixed oil, a
small, thin muslin bag of alkanet chips, and set it in a warm place,
till coloured of a beautiful pink. Then remove the bag of alkanet, and
perfume the oil with ottar of roses. Put it immediately into a bottle,
and cork it well.

For a violet perfume, infuse, in the above quantity of the mixed oils,
an ounce of the best orris powder. Let it stand, in a warm place, for a
week; then pour the whole into a strainer, press out the liquid, and
bottle it.

For an orange perfume, scent the oil with essence of neroli, or
orange-flowers.

For jasmine, with extract of jasmine.

For bergamot, with essence of bergamot.


OIL OF CASSIA.--Put into a wide-mouthed glass vessel, an ounce of ground
cassia. Heat three ounces of the best oil of cloves; and, while warm,
pour it on the cassia. Cover it closely, and let it stand a week. Then
press it through a sieve, placed over a bowl. Transfer it to small
bottles, and cork them closely. It is a fine perfume. To weaken it, add
a little _inodorous_ alcohol, which, on inquiring for, you can obtain at
the druggists’.


MILLEFLEURS PERFUME.--Mix together an ounce of oil of lavender; an ounce
of essence of lemon; an ounce and a quarter of oil of ambergris; and
half an ounce of oil of carraway. Add half a pint of alcohol, or
spirits of wine, which should be of the inodorous sort. Shake all well
together. Let it stand a week, closely corked, in a large bottle. You
may then divide it in small bottles.

By mixing this perfume with equal quantities of olive oil, and oil of
sweet almonds, instead of alcohol, you will have what is called
millefleurs antique oil, which is used to improve the hair of young
persons.


FRENCH HUNGARY WATER.--Take two large handfuls of the flowers and young
leaves of rosemary; with a handful of lavender-blossoms; half a handful
of thyme-blossoms; and half a handful of sage. Mix them well; put them
into a large glass jar or bottle, and pour on a quart of inodorous
spirits of wine. Then put in, as a colouring, some small bits of alkanet
tied in a thin muslin bag. Cork the bottle closely, and shake it about
for a while. Let it infuse during a month, exposed to the heat of the
sun. Then strain it, and transfer it to smaller bottles.


FINE LAVENDER WATER.--Mix together, in a clean bottle, a pint of
inodorous spirit of wine; an ounce of oil of lavender; a tea-spoonful of
oil of bergamot; and a table-spoonful of oil of ambergris.


BERGAMOT WATER.--Melt a pound of the best broken-up loaf-sugar in a pint
of water; add the yellow rind of six lemons or oranges, pared very thin.
Set it over the fire, and boil and skim it till the scum ceases to rise.
Then add the juice of the lemons or oranges; having squeezed it through
a strainer into a bowl. After stirring in the juice, take the syrup from
the fire, remove the pieces of rind, and stir in a tea-spoonful of
genuine essence of bergamot. Bottle it, and it will be immediately fit
for drinking. Pour some of it into a glass, and add a little ice-water.
It will be found very fine.


TO PERFUME SOAP.--Take half a pound or more of the best white soap.
Shave it down with a knife. Put the shavings into a clean white-ware
jar; cover the top closely, and secure the cover by tying down a cloth
over it. Set it into a large kettle or sauce-pan of hot water. The water
must not come up near the top of the jar. It is well to place a trivet
in the bottom of the kettle for the jar to stand on, so that a portion
of the water may go under it. Place the kettle over the fire, or in a
hot stove, and keep it boiling hard, till the soap in the jar within is
thoroughly dissolved. It must become liquid all through, and have no
lumps in it. Stir it well when done; and add, while warm, a sufficient
portion of any nice perfume to scent it highly. For instance, oil of
bitter almonds; extract of verbena; tincture of musk, or ambergris; oil
of rhodium; oil of bergamot, lavender, jessamine, rose, cinnamon,
cloves, &c. Having well stirred in the perfume, transfer the melted soap
to gallicups, or little square tin-pans, and set it away to cool and
harden. Afterwards, take out the cakes of soap, and wrap each cake
closely in soft paper. Put them away where the air cannot reach them.


COLUMBIAN SOAP.--Blanch, in scalding water, two ounces of bitter
almonds. Beat them in a mortar with an ounce of gum camphor, till
completely mixed; putting in, with every almond, a morsel of the
camphor. Then beat in an ounce and a quarter of tincture of benjamin,
and remove the mixture to a bowl. Afterwards, having shaved down a pound
of the best white soap, beat that also in the mortar; mixing with it,
gradually, as you proceed, the above ingredients, till the whole is
thoroughly incorporated. Divide it into equal portions, and roll it
with your hands into the form of balls. This soap will be found very
fine.

If you wish to have it in cakes, after you have shaved down the white
soap, put it into a clean jar, cover it, and set the jar into a pot of
boiling water, placed over the fire. When the soap is melted, remove it
from the fire; and when it begins to cool, (but is still liquid,) stir
in the other ingredients that have been mixed together as above. Then
mould it in little square tin pans, and set it to cool. When quite cold,
take it out of the pan, and wrap each cake in paper.


GOOD TOOTH-POWDER.--Procure, at a druggist’s, half an ounce of powdered
orris-root, half an ounce of prepared chalk finely pulverized, and two
or three small lumps of dutch pink. Let them all be mixed in a mortar,
and pounded together. The dutch pink is to impart a pale reddish colour.
Keep it in a close box.


ANOTHER TOOTH-POWDER.--Mix together, in a mortar, half an ounce of red
Peruvian bark, finely powdered; a quarter of an ounce of powdered myrrh;
and a quarter of an ounce of prepared chalk.


PARCHMENT GLUE.--Take half a pound of clean parchment cuttings, and boil
it in three quarts of soft water till reduced to one pint. Then strain
it from the dregs, and boil it again, till of the consistence of strong
glue.


LIP GLUE.--Take of isinglass and parchment glue, of each one ounce;
sugar-candy and gum tragacanth, each two drachms. Boil them in an ounce
of water, till the mixture is of the consistence of thick glue. When
cold, roll it between your hands, till you get it into the form of small
sticks, like sealing-wax.

By wetting it with your tongue, and rubbing the moistened end of the
stick on the edges of the paper that you wish to unite, it will, when
dry, form a firm cement. A stick of lip-glue is very convenient to take
with you when travelling, in case you should have occasion for some sort
of paste.


PERPETUAL PASTE.--Buy, at a druggist’s, an ounce of the best gum
tragacanth, (sometimes called gum dragon,) and six cents’ worth of
powdered corrosive sublimate. Pick the gum tragacanth clean, and put it
into a wide-mouthed glass or white-ware vessel, that will hold a quart.
Add as much corrosive sublimate as will lie on a five-cent piece. Pour
on a pint and a half of clear cold, soft water. Cover the vessel, and
let it stand till next day. The gum tragacanth will then be much
swelled, and nearly to the top of the vessel. Stir it down to the bottom
with a stick, as the corrosive sublimate will blacken a metal spoon.
Stir it several times during that day; but afterwards, do not stir it at
all; leaving it to form a smooth white mass, like a very thick jelly.
Then cover it closely, and set it away for use; taking care to keep it
out of the way of children, as the corrosive sublimate will render it
poisonous if swallowed.

This paste will keep to an indefinite period, if the air is carefully
excluded from it, and if it is not transferred to a vessel made of any
sort of metal. It forms a strong, colourless, and firm cement for paper,
&c.; and when once made, may be kept always at hand; and is most
convenient for all sorts of pasting; particularly little things, for
which it would seem scarcely worth while to take the trouble of boiling
flour-paste. It only spoils when kept in metal, or from long exposure to
the air.

We can certify to its superiority over all other paste, having the
experience of using it continually. The advantage of its being always
ready is an important recommendation. Try it, and you will be induced to
keep it constantly in the house.


GUM-ARABIC PASTE.--Take a common-sized tea-cup of cold, soft water, and
dissolve in it a large tea-spoonful of the best and cleanest powdered
gum-arabic. When the gum is entirely melted, stir in, by degrees, a
table-spoonful of fine wheat flour; carefully pressing out all the
lumps, and making it as smooth as possible. Keep it closely covered, and
in a cool place. If, after a few days, it should appear spotted or
mouldy on the top, remove the surface, and the paste beneath will still
be fit for use. This is a good cement for artificial flowers, and for
ornamental pasteboard work.


CEMENT FOR JARS AND BOTTLES.--According to the quantity of cement
required, take one-third bees-wax and two-thirds rosin. Pound the rosin
to a fine powder, and then put it, with the bees-wax, into any sauce-pan
or skillet suited to the purpose, and set them over the fire to melt.
When it becomes thoroughly liquid, take it off the fire, and stir in
some finely-powdered brickdust, till the mixture becomes as thick as
melted sealing-wax. Then plaster it, warm, round the covers of your
preserve or pickle-jars. If you use it for bottles, first cork them
tightly, and then dip their tops into the cement. It will dry in a few
minutes. This cement is very strong and very cheap, and especially
useful for articles that are to be carried to sea.


COVERING FOR CORKS.--The odour of a cologne bottle, or of any other
scented liquid, may be prevented from escaping by keeping the cork and
the neck of the bottle covered with the finger-end or thumb of an old
kid glove, cut off, for the purpose, at a suitable length and breadth,
and stretched or drawn down closely and tightly. This is more convenient
than the usual kid-leather covers, that must be untied and tied again
whenever the bottles are opened.


MILK OF ROSES.--Mix together a pint of rose-water, and an ounce of oil
of sweet almonds. Then add ten drops of oil of tartar. Bottle it, and
shake it well. It is good for the hands.


EXCELLENT POMATUM.--Melt some beef’s marrow on a slow fire, being
careful not to let it burn; then strain it several times over, that it
may be well purified. When partially cool, beat in some _castor_ oil, a
table-spoonful at a time. The proportion should be two-thirds of melted
marrow to one-third of oil. Perfume it by stirring in, as you proceed,
any sort of essential oil that is not too pungent. You may give it a
fine red colouring by putting in, after the marrow has melted, some
chips of alkanet tied in a very thin muslin bag, letting it remain till
the tint is thoroughly infused. Keep it in covered gallicups. A little
rubbed every day, or twice or three times a week, with the finger among
the roots of the hair, will greatly improve its growth and softness.


AN EXCELLENT WAY OF IMPROVING THE HAIR.--Once in three days take some
rich _unskimmed_ milk that has been made sour by standing in the sun.
Stir it up, so as to mix all through it the cream that has collected on
the surface. Wash the hair with this, rubbing it well into the roots.
Let it remain on the hair about a quarter of an hour or more. Then wash
it off, with a lather of white soap and warm water; rinsing the hair,
afterwards, with fresh water, either warm or cold, according to the
season. This is an Asiatic process; and if continued every third day,
seldom fails to render the hair of young people thick, soft, and glossy.


TO HAVE GOOD HAIR.--The women of Germany have remarkably fine and
luxuriant hair. The following is their most usual method of managing it.
About once a fortnight, boil for half an hour or more, a large handful
of bran in a quart of soft water. Strain it into a basin, and let it
cool till it is merely tepid or milk-warm. Rub into it a little white
soap; then dip in the corner of a soft linen towel, and wash your head
with it, thoroughly; dividing or parting aside the hair all over; so as
to reach the roots. Next take the yolk of an egg, (slightly beaten in a
saucer,) and with your fingers rub it well into the roots of the hair.
Let it rest a few minutes; and then wash it off entirely, with a cloth
dipped in pure water; and rinse your hair well, till all the yolk of egg
has disappeared from it. Afterwards, wipe and rub it dry with a towel,
and comb the hair up from your head, parting it with your fingers. In
winter it is best to do all this near the fire.

Have ready some soft pomatum, made of fresh beef-marrow, boiled with a
little almond oil or olive oil, stirring it all the time till it is well
amalgamated, and as thick as an ointment. When you take it from the fire
(and not before) stir into it a little mild perfume; such as rose-water,
orange-flower water, extract of roses, oil of carnations, or essence of
violets. Put it into gallicups that have lids, and keep it for use;
always well-covered. Take a very small quantity of this pomatum, and rub
it among your hair on the skin of your head, after it has been washed as
above.

At any time you may make your hair curl more easily by rubbing into it
some beaten yolk of egg, (washed off, afterwards with clear water,) and
then putting on a little pomatum before you pin up your curls. It is
well always to go through this process when you resume curls after
having worn your hair plain.

All hair should be combed every morning with a fine-toothed comb, to
remove the dust which insensibly gets into it during the preceding day,
and to keep the skin of the head always clean.

To prevent your bonnet being injured by any oiliness about your hair,
baste a piece of white or yellow oiled silk inside of that part of the
bonnet where the crown unites with the brim, carrying the silk some
distance up into the crown, and some distance down into the brim or
front.

Clean your head-brushes by washing them thoroughly with a bit of soft
sponge tied on the end of a stick, and dipped into a warm solution of
pearlash, prepared by dissolving a large table-spoonful of pearlash in a
pint of boiling water. When the bristles have thus been made quite
clean, rinse the brushes in hot water; letting them remain in it till it
becomes cool, or cold. Afterwards, drain the brushes; wipe them with a
clean cloth; and set them upright before the fire to dry.

The most convenient way of cleaning combs is with a strong silk thread,
made fast to the handle of a bureau-drawer--in front of which, seat
yourself with a towel spread over your lap to catch whatever impurities
may fall from the comb. Holding the comb in your left hand, and the
thread in your right, pass the thread hard between each of the
comb-teeth. Afterwards wash the comb in soap-suds, rinse it in cold
water, and dry it with a clean cloth.


SALT OF LEMON OR STAIN POWDER.--This powder, which is erroneously called
salt of lemon, is in reality composed simply of equal portions of finely
pulverized salt of sorrel and cream of tartar, (for instance an ounce of
each,) mixed together in a mortar, and afterwards put into small covered
boxes, or gallipots. It will immediately remove ink spots, fruit stains,
&c., from the hands or from any articles of _white_ linen or muslin;
first wetting the place with water (warm water is best) and then with
your finger rubbing on the powder, till the stain disappears.
Immediately afterwards wash it off with soap-suds. If applied to a
_coloured_ article that has been inked or stained, the powder in
removing the stain will take out the colour. But the colour
(particularly if black) may in most cases be restored by rubbing the
place with hartshorn; which if very strong should be somewhat diluted
with water, or it will leave a tinge of its own. If the hartshorn fails
to restore the colour, it is on account of some peculiarity in the dye.
It is always worth trying. We have seen a large splash of ink taken out
of a carpet by first wetting it with warm water and rubbing on some of
the above-mentioned stain powder. The colours were all restored to their
former brightness by afterwards applying hartshorn. Next day, the place
where the ink had been spilled on the carpet could not be distinguished.
We have also known the same experiment tried with perfect success on a
mousseline de laine dress on which an ink-stand had been overset.

Ink spots can be removed from _white_ clothes by the simple application
of a bit of clean tallow picked from the bottom of a mould candle,
rubbed on the ink spot, and left sticking there when the article goes
into the wash-tub. It will come out of the wash freed from the ink
stain.

This stain powder should be kept out of the way of children, as if
swallowed it is poisonous.

Fresh lemon-juice mixed with a little salt is excellent for removing
stains of ink, iron mould, &c.


TO MAKE GREASE BALLS.--Shave down half a pound of white soap, and mix it
with three ounces of fuller’s earth, powdered. Then mix together three
ounces of ox-gall, and two ounces of spirits of turpentine. With this,
moisten the soap and fuller’s earth, till you have a stiff paste. Mix it
thoroughly, and beat it well. Make it into balls with your hands, and
place the balls where they will dry slowly. To use it, scrape down a
sufficiency, and spread it on the grease spot. Let it rest awhile; then
brush it off, and scrape and apply some more. A few applications will
generally remove the grease.


TO EXTRACT GREASE WITH CAMPHINE OIL.--Grease of the very worst sort (for
instance whale oil) may be extracted successfully even from silks,
ribbons, and other delicate articles, by means of camphine oil, which
can always be procured at the lamp-stores. As this oil is best when
fresh, get but a small quantity at a time. Pour some camphine into a
clean cup, and dip lightly into it a bit of clean, soft, white rag. With
this rub the grease spot. Then take a fresh rag dipped in the camphine,
and continue rubbing till the grease is extracted, which will be very
soon. You will find the colour of the article uninjured. To remove the
turpentine odour of the camphine, rub the place with cologne water or
strong spirits of wine, and expose it to the open air. If any of the
camphine-scent remains, repeat the cologne. We have known lamp oil
removed from white satin by this process.


FINE YELLOW COLOURING FOR WALLS.--Procure from a paint-shop one pound of
chrome yellow, and three pounds of whiting. Mix and grind them
thoroughly together; and then add a quart of boiling water, and stir it
well in. Next boil a quarter of a pound of glue in a quart of water, and
when completely dissolved, add it immediately to the mixture, and stir
the whole very hard. Thin it with more water till you get it of the
desired consistence. It will be a beautiful yellow, approaching to lemon
colour.


BLUE WASH FOR WALLS.--Get a pound of blue vitriol from a drug or paint
store, and have it powdered very finely in a mortar. Provide also two
quarts of lime. Take six cents’ worth of glue, and boil it in a quart of
soft water till thoroughly dissolved. Put the powdered vitriol into a
wooden bucket, and when the glue-water is cold, pour it on the vitriol,
and mix and stir it well. When the vitriol is dissolved in the
glue-water, stir in by degrees the two quarts of lime. Then try the tint
of the mixture by dipping a piece of white paper into it; and when it
dries, you can judge if it is the colour you want. It should be a clear
light beautiful blue. If you think it too dark, add some more lime. If
too pale, stir in a little more of the powdered vitriol. It is well to
provide an extra quantity of each of the articles, in case a little more
of one or the other should be required on trial of the colour.


TO CLEAN WHITEWASH BRUSHES.--Wash off, with cold water, the lime from
the bristles of the brush; and scrub well with a hard scrubbing-brush
the part where the bristles are fixed into the wood. This should be done
at once, as soon as the whitewashing for that day is finished. It is far
better than to let them soak all night.


AN EASY WAY TO MAKE INK.--Take two ounces of the best and most perfect
nut-galls, and bruise them to pieces with a hammer. Put them into a
large mug, with half an ounce of copperas, and a quarter of an ounce of
powdered gum-arabic. Pour on a pint of boiling water. Cover the vessel,
and let it stand in a warm place for a week; frequently stirring the
contents with a stick. Afterwards leave it one day undisturbed; and then
pour off the liquid through a funnel into a bottle; in the bottom of
which you have put half a dozen cloves or a spoonful of brandy, either
of which will prevent the ink from moulding. Keep the bottle closely
corked.


TO USE DURABLE INK.--It is an error (rectified by experience) to wash as
soon as possible articles that have been marked with durable ink. On the
contrary, they should be kept _without washing_ for at least a week. If
washed too soon, the soap and water will disturb the ink before it is
thoroughly dried in, causing the letters to spread and look rough. Also,
it will not be so good a black. Every time, before using it, set the
little bottle with the marking liquid in the sun, or before a bright
fire; and then stir it up from the bottom. This will increase its
blackness. After putting the wash or gum-liquid on the place to be
marked, dry it by the fire or in the hot sun, and then iron it smoothly.
Do not write the name till next day, and then, as above mentioned, set
the marking ink in the sun, and stir it up from the bottom. When the
name is written, dry it as soon as possible, and then iron it again.

Durable ink may be extracted by wetting the writing with hot water, and
then rubbing on a little sal-ammonia.

After making durable ink, set the marking liquid or lunar caustic
preparation for three or four days in the hot sun; otherwise it will not
become black.


SUMACH INK.--The milk or gum that exudes from the sumach is a good
substitute for durable ink. Break off the stalks that support the
leaves. Squeeze them into a cup, and write with the liquid. Expose it to
the sun and it will become a fine black.


VERY FINE INK.--Into a large jar or pitcher put half a pound of the best
Aleppo galls, broken up with a hammer or flat-iron; but not pounded.
Pour on two quarts of soft water, nearly of boiling heat. Cover the
vessel; and let it stand on a warm hearth or in the hot sun for a
fortnight; stirring it to the bottom twice a day, with a stick. At the
end of the fortnight, add two ounces of green copperas; two ounces of
logwood chips; two ounces of gum-arabic; half an ounce of alum; and half
an ounce of sugar-candy. Let the whole remain in a moderate heat a
fortnight longer; stirring it twice a day. Keep the mouth of the vessel
covered with paper only, tied down over it. On the last day, do not stir
it, but pour the ink through a strainer into another vessel, and then
with a funnel transfer it to bottles. Pour a small tea-spoonful or more
of brandy into the top of each bottle, if small. To a pint bottle there
should be a table-spoonful of brandy. This will preserve the ink from
moulding. Cork the bottles well, and seal the corks. Keep them in a
place of temperate heat.

In buying Aleppo galls get those that are dark coloured, heavy, and free
from holes.


GOOD INK.--Bruise two ounces of Aleppo galls; put them into a pitcher
with half an ounce of copperas, and a quarter of an ounce of gum arabic.
Pour on a pint of soft water at boiling heat. Cover it, and let it stand
a week; stirring it several times a day, except on the last day. Then
pour it through a funnel into a bottle that has half a dozen cloves in
it. In pouring, see that you do not disturb the sediment at the bottom
of the pitcher. Cork the bottle tightly.


TO SOFTEN SPONGES.--A sponge, when first purchased, is frequently hard,
stiff, and gritty. To soften it, and dislodge the particles of sea-sand
from its crevices, (having first soaked and squeezed it through several
cold waters,) put the sponge into a clean tin sauce-pan, set it over the
fire, and boil it a quarter of an hour. Then take it out, put it into a
bowl of cold water, and squeeze it well. Wash out the sauce-pan, and
return the sponge to it, filling up with clean cold water, and boil it
another quarter of an hour. Repeat the process, giving it three boils in
fresh water; or more than three if you find it still gritty. Take care
not to boil it too long, or it will become tender, and drop to pieces.
You may bleach it by adding to the water a few drops of oil of vitriol.

The Mediterranean sponges are the best.

After using a sponge, always wash it immediately in clean water, squeeze
it out, and put it to dry.


TO REMOVE THE ODOUR FROM A VIAL.--The odour of its last contents may be
removed from a vial by filling it with cold water, and letting it stand
in any airy place uncorked for three days; changing the water every day.


TO LOOSEN A GLASS STOPPER.--The manner in which apothecaries loosen
glass stoppers when there is difficulty in getting them out, is to press
the thumb of the right hand very hard against the lower part of the
stopper, and then give the stopper a twist the other way, with the thumb
and fore-finger of the left hand; keeping the bottle stiff in a steady
position.


TO GET A BROKEN CORK OUT OF A BOTTLE.--If in drawing a cork it breaks,
and the lower part falls down into the liquid, tie a long loop in a bit
of twine, or small cord, and put it in; holding the bottle so as to
bring the piece of cork near to the lower part of the neck. Catch it in
the loop, so as to hold it stationary. You can then easily extract it
with a cork-screw.


TO PURIFY THE ATMOSPHERE OF A ROOM.--Mix, in a cup, some brown sugar,
with sufficient water to make it a thick liquid. Put a hot coal on a
shovel; pour on the coal a tea-spoonful, or more, of the sugar, and
carry it carefully about the room. The smoke will entirely remove any
disagreeable odour. If the sugar is thrown dry upon the hot coal, it
will blaze up, and burn out immediately, without effecting the desired
purpose; but if mixed with a little water, it will not blaze at all, but
the vapour arising from it will continue to smoke, till the unpleasant
smell is entirely dispelled.

A few sprigs of lavender, laid on hot coals, and carried round the room,
on a shovel, is a good remedy for a disagreeable odour.

Chloride of lime, sprinkled on dry, will, _unfailingly_, dispel the
effluvia of any ill-scented substance. It is very cheap. A jar of it
should be kept in every house; as, for this purpose, there is nothing
more effectual.


TO CLEAN JARS.--There is frequently much trouble in cleaning the inside
of jars that have contained sweet-meats, pickles, mince-meat, &c., so as
entirely to remove all the odour of their former contents, before they
can be used for another purpose. If the jars are of stone, fill them up
with scalding water, and let them stand awhile. If of white-ware, or
glass, the water must be merely warm; for if hot, it will crack them.
Then stir in a large tea-spoonful, or more, of pearlash. Whatever of
the former contents has remained sticking about, and adhering to the
sides and bottom, will immediately disengage itself, and float loose
through the water. Afterwards empty the jar, and if any odour lingers
about its inside, fill it again with warm water and a spoonful of
pearlash, and let it stand, undisturbed, a few hours, or till next day.
Then empty it again, and rinse it with cold water. Wash phials in the
same manner. Also, the inside of tea, coffee, and chocolate-pots. If you
cannot, conveniently, obtain pearlash, the same purpose may be answered,
nearly as well, by filling the vessels with strong lye, poured off clear
from the wood-ashes. For kegs, buckets, crocks, or other large vessels,
lye may always be used.


TO CLEAN LOOKING-GLASSES.--Take a newspaper, or a part of one, according
to the size of the glass. Fold it small, and dip it into a basin of
clean, cold water. When thoroughly wetted, squeeze it out in your hand,
as you would a sponge; and then rub it, hard, all over the face of the
glass; taking care that it is not so wet that the moisture will stream
down the glass. Also, if any drops get beneath the frame, and behind the
glass, they will remain there, in bubbles, and cannot be dislodged,
without removing the board at the back. There is no danger of any such
accidents, if the newspaper is merely moistened, or damped throughout;
without being so wet as to drip. After the glass has been well rubbed,
with the damp paper, let it rest a minute. Then go over it with a fresh
newspaper, (folded small in your hand,) till it looks clear and bright;
which it will, almost immediately. Finish with a fresh piece of
newspaper, thoroughly dry.

This method, simple as it is, will be found, on trial, the best and
most expeditious way of cleaning mirrors, or any plate-glass; giving a
clearness and polish, that cannot be so soon produced by any other
process. The inside of window-panes may be cleaned in this manner; the
windows having been first washed on the _outside_. Also, the glasses of
spectacles, &c. The glass globe of a lamp may thus be cleaned with
newspapers.

The efficacy is attributed to the materials used in making the
printing-ink.


TO REMOVE DARK STAINS FROM SILVER.--There are many substances that
communicate a dark, inky stain to silver spoons, forks, &c.; a stain
sometimes so inveterate as to resist all common applications. A certain
remedy is, to pour a little sulphuric acid into a saucer; wet with it a
soft linen rag; and rub it on the blackened silver, till the stain
disappears. Then brighten the article with whiting, finely powdered and
sifted, and moistened with spirits of wine. When the whiting has dried
on, and rested a quarter of an hour, or more, wipe it off with a silk
handkerchief, and polish with a soft buckskin.


TO CLEAN RINGS, BROOCHES, AND OTHER JEWELRY.--Put a little hartshorn
into a saucer; dip into it a clean, soft rag, from an old cambric
handkerchief. With the rag, go carefully over the jewelry, on both
sides. Then dry and polish, with another bit of soft rag; and, finally,
with a soft piece of old silk. Precious stones, mosaics and cameos may
be cleaned in this manner. To brighten pearls, tear off a small bit of
pin-paper, (such as rows of pins are stuck in,) roll it up, and, with
the end of the roll, rub each pearl, separately; renewing the paper
frequently.

The application of hartshorn, rubbed on with the finger, will generally
remove the stain-spots that are sometimes found on new silk, and on new
kid gloves. There are few stains, indeed, that may not be obliterated by
hartshorn. If too strong, dilute it with a little water. Pour out, into
your saucer, but very little hartshorn, at a time, as it evaporates
almost immediately.

Reddish stains, on black silk, or worsted, can, almost always, be
removed by hartshorn; and the original black colour will immediately
re-appear.


TO KEEP SILVER ALWAYS BRIGHT.--Silver, in constant use, should be washed
every day in a pan of suds made of good white soap and warm water;
drying it with old soft linen cloths. Twice a week, (after this
washing,) give it a thorough brightening with finely-powdered whiting,
mixed to a thin paste with alcohol; rubbing longer and harder where
there are stains. Then wipe this off, and polish with clean soft old
linen. Silver is cleaned in this manner at the best hotels.


PLATE POWDER.--Buy, at a druggist’s, an ounce of levigated oxide of
iron, and four ounces of prepared chalk, finely pulverized. Mix them
well together, and put the mixture into small boxes. Rub it, dry, on the
silver, and then polish with a clean buckskin; finishing with an old
silk handkerchief. This is the composition usually sold as plate powder.
Its colour is a reddish brown.


POWDER FOR CLEANING GOLD LACE.--Of burnt roche-alum, powdered as fine as
possible, take two ounces and a half. Mix, thoroughly, with it, half an
ounce of finely-powdered chalk. Take a small, clean, dry brush; dip it
into the mixture, and rub it, carefully, on gold lace, or gold
embroidery, that has become tarnished. Finish with a clean piece of new
canton flannel. Keep a box or bottle of this mixture, that it may be
ready to use on occasion. It is equally good for silver lace, and for
jewelry.


TO KEEP BRITANNIA-METAL BRIGHT.--Dip a clean woollen cloth into the best
and cleanest lamp oil, and rub it, hard, all over the outside of your
Britannia-ware. Then wash it well in strong soap-suds, and afterwards
polish with finely-powdered whiting and a buckskin. The inside of
Britannia vessels should be washed with warm water, in which a little
pearlash has been dissolved. They should then be set, open, to dry in
the sun and air. If not kept very nice, this metal will communicate a
disagreeable taste. There is so much copper in its composition, that
tea-pots or coffee-pots of china, or white-ware, are far preferable to
Britannia-metal.


TO CLEAN SILVER EXPEDITIOUSLY.--Put some powdered magnesia into a
saucer. Have ready a few bits of new canton flannel. It is well, in
cutting out canton flannel, to save the small shavings, or clippings,
for this purpose. Dip a bit of the flannel into the magnesia, and with
it rub the silver, very hard. It will brighten, immediately, if there
are no black stains on it. Finish, by polishing with a clean piece of
the flannel, without magnesia.

Dark stains on silver are best removed by rubbing them with flannel,
dipped in sulphuric acid. This should be done before any brightening
substance is applied.


PASTE FOR CLEANING KNIVES.--Make a mixture, one part emery, and three
parts crocus martis, in very fine powder. Mix them to a thick paste,
with a little lard or sweet oil. Have your knife-board covered with a
thick buff-leather. Spread this paste on your leather, to about the
thickness of a quarter-dollar. Rub your knives in it, and it will make
them much sharper and brighter, and will wear them out less, than the
common method of cleaning with brick-dust, on a bare board.


A GOOD WAY OF CLEANING SILVER.--Mix in a cup or saucer a paste of
powdered magnesia, and the best and clearest lamp oil, (whale oil,) and
cover with this paste the silver that is to be cleaned. Let it rest a
quarter of an hour or more; applying the paste to all the articles you
intend cleaning before you begin to remove it from any one of them.
Afterwards wipe it off, entirely, with a soft linen rag, and then
proceed to polish the plate with a soft buckskin, and some dry magnesia.
Finish with a silk handkerchief. The longer you rub, the brighter will
be the silver, but you must change frequently to clean parts of the
buckskin. If the silver has much chasing or ornamental frost-work, it
may be necessary to take a small soft brush to clean out all the hollows
and crevices. But, if possible, avoid using a brush, as it wears the
silver thin.

Silver may be kept continually bright with very little trouble, by
cleaning it three times a-week, or every day, with dry magnesia rubbed
on with a bit of clean shaggy canton flannel that has never been washed.
Scraps and clippings of woollen flannel should never be used for
cleaning plate, as its roughness may scratch it.

Dark stains on silver or gold may be immediately removed (however bad)
by the application of a little sulphuric acid poured into a saucer and
rubbed on with a soft rag. Then polish with magnesia and canton flannel.

The colour of silver will always be injured by keeping it in a room
where there is a coal fire.

The cases of gold or silver watches may be cleaned, as above, with
powdered magnesia and canton flannel.


TO TAKE WHITE MARKS FROM MAHOGANY.--If a white mark has been left on a
mahogany table by carelessly setting down on it a vessel of hot water,
rub the place hard with a rag dipped in lamp oil; and afterwards pour on
a little cologne water, or a little alcohol, and rub it dry with a clean
rag.

The dish-marks left on a dining-table can of course be taken off in the
same manner.

If brandy is spilt on mahogany, and leaves a whitish mark, that mark can
be removed by rubbing it hard with a rag dipped in more brandy. Try it.


TO TAKE SPERMACETI OUT OF A HEARTH OR FLOOR.--First scrape off the drops
of spermaceti with a knife. Then take a live coal in the tongs and hold
it carefully and closely over the place. Afterwards wipe it with a rag,
and then wash it with hot soap-suds.


TO REMOVE GREASE FROM A STOVE HEARTH.--When oil or any other grease has
been dropped on a stove hearth, immediately cover the place with _very
hot_ ashes. Afterwhile, clear away the ashes; and if the grease has not
quite disappeared, repeat the process.


TO MAKE SHOES OR BOOTS WATER-PROOF.--Melt together, in a pipkin, equal
quantities of bees-wax and mutton suet. While liquid, rub it over the
leather, including the soles.


TO EXTRACT OIL FROM THE FLOOR OR HEARTH.--Mix together two heaped
table-spoonfuls on powdered fuller’s earth; one large table-spoonful of
potash or pearlash; and one large table-spoonful of soft soap. Add
sufficient boiling water to make it into a thick paste. Spread it hot on
the oil spot, with a broad flat stick; let it remain an hour or two.
Then brush it off, and renew the application. When the grease has
disappeared, scrub the place with soap and water.

This mixture is equally good for boards, stone, or marble.


TO TAKE OFF WALL PAPER.--To clear a wall from paper previous to painting
or white-washing it, wet the old paper thoroughly with a long-handled
brush dipped in a bucket of water, (warm water is best.) Let it rest
till the water has penetrated it, and the paper blisters and loosens, so
that you can peel it off with your hands. Do not wet too much at a time.
If any small bits are found still adhering, wet them afresh, and scrape
them off with a strong knife.


TO REMOVE PAINT FROM THE WALL OF A ROOM.--If you intend papering a
painted wall, you must first get off the paint, otherwise the paper will
not stick. To do this mix in a bucket with warm water a sufficient
quantity of pearlash, or potash, so as to make a strong solution. Dip a
brush into this, and with it scour off all the paint, finishing with
cold water and a flannel.


DUSTING FURNITURE.--If a hand-brush is employed for dusting furniture it
should always be followed by a cloth; and the cloth should be so used as
to _wipe up_ the dust; and not merely flirted about it, so as to drive
the particles from one place to another. The cloth in wiping up the dust
should hold it _in_, and then be shaken frequently out of a back window.
A brush or a bunch of feathers will keep the dust floating about the
room; dislodging but not absorbing it; and only removing it from one
article to settle it on another. Therefore a cloth is indispensable in
_really_ freeing the furniture from dust. A yard of sixpenny calico, or
of strong unbleached muslin, will make two small dusters or one large
one. They should be hemmed or whipped over the edges, that servants may
have no pretext for regarding them as mere rags, to be thrown away or
torn up when dirty. It is difficult to dust well with a ragged
dusting-cloth.


TO TAKE FRUIT STAINS FROM WHITE DOILIES OR NAPKINS.--The use of coloured
doilies for wiping the fingers after eating fruit being nearly exploded,
and small white napkins being now substituted for that purpose, let
them, as soon as taken from table, be thrown _immediately_ into a large
vessel of clean water. If hot water is at hand it will be better than
cold. Leave them to soak during the remainder of the day. Then take them
out, put them where they will dry; and you will generally find that the
fruit stains have disappeared. If any remain, wet the stains with hot
water, and then rub on some lemon-juice, or salt-of-lemon stain-powder;
washing it off as soon as it has removed the stain. Cream of tartar will
sometimes produce this effect. It is scarcely possible to get a stain
out of any sort of linen after it has been previously washed with soap.


TO CLEAR CLOSETS FROM COCKROACHES.--Remove every article from the
closet, scrub the shelves with lye, and then whitewash the closet walls.
Next take a sufficiency of _black_ wadding, and soak it in spirits of
turpentine or camphor, or a mixture of both. Then with a fork or the
point of a knife, stuff it close and hard into every crevice, crack,
and hole, however small. United with the copperas dye of the black
wadding, the camphor and turpentine will destroy or expel the
cockroaches, so that for a long time you will see no more of them. If
they return, repeat the remedy; which of course will be as effective if
applied to the crevices about the kitchen walls or floors. Let the
closet remain empty for several days. Then place on each shelf a small
plate with dry chloride of lime to dissipate the smell of the
turpentine.

The preparation of phosphorus called Levy’s Exterminator, and which is
to be had at the druggists’, is very destructive to cockroaches, rats,
and mice. Cover with it a slice of bread and butter, then sprinkle on
some brown sugar, and lay it in places where these vermin have been
seen.

A mixture in the proportion of three table-spoonfuls of meal, and one
table-spoonful of red lead, wetted to a thin paste with West India
molasses, if laid on old plates, and set about their haunts, is very
efficacious in expelling cockroaches.

These remedies are all good; and if used perseveringly and always
resumed, as soon as the cockroaches begin to appear again, there will be
but little trouble with these detestable insects. Nothing has yet been
found that can banish them from a house so effectually as to preclude
all danger of their ever returning. But much comfort is gained by even a
temporary relief from them.

If an insect gets into the ear it may be destroyed by pouring in a
little sweet oil. They have been sometimes enticed out, by applying to
the ear a piece of ripe peach or apple.


SMALL COCKROACHES.--Many houses are much infested with small brown
cockroaches, which are especially troublesome and disgusting from their
disposition to get into bureaus, wardrobes, trunks, and even band-boxes.
They will soon depart, if bunches of pennyroyal (as fresh as you can get
it, and frequently renewed) are laid in all the places where they have
appeared, or are likely to come. Pennyroyal is to be generally bought in
market at the very trifling cost of one cent a bunch. At any season it
can be had at the druggists’, and at the garden stores. Rags dipped in
oil of pennyroyal, and laid about their haunts, will frequently expel
these cockroaches. But every one that is seen should be immediately
killed, and not merely brushed off, to run to another place. There is
little difficulty in keeping a house free from cockroaches and all other
vermin, if the remedies are applied in time, and with perseverance.

The very bad practice of using old bricks for cellar-walls and
back-buildings, is the chief cause of new houses becoming immediately
infested with cockroaches, &c. They have in this way been introduced at
once into some very elegant mansions in Philadelphia, where old bricks
have been used for the cellars; these bricks having originally belonged
to old almshouses, long since pulled down. To buy such bricks, however
cheap, is a miserable economy.


TO DESTROY CRICKETS.--Mix some powdered arsenic with roasted apple, and
put it into the cracks and holes whence the crickets issue. It will
effectually destroy them. And cockroaches also.


TO EXPEL FLEAS.--Get some pennyroyal. Having stripped the leaves from
the stalks, stuff them into little bags, made of muslin or thin calico,
and sewed up all round. Lay these bags among the bedding, and the
pennyroyal will send away the fleas. If more convenient, sprinkle the
bedding with oil or essence of pennyroyal. When travelling, it is well
to take with you some little bags of pennyroyal, in case you should have
to sleep in a bed infested with fleas.

Camphor is also a good remedy against fleas.

Pennyroyal will generally expel the small brown cockroaches, if bunches
of it are kept constantly in the closets, wardrobes, bureaus, &c. It is
likewise an excellent remedy against wood-ticks; keeping some of it
about you, if obliged to go into places where these intolerable insects
abound. When the wood-ticks fasten on the skin, brush them with a bunch
of pennyroyal, and they will fall off immediately.


TO DESTROY BED-BUGS.--Among the numerous ways of destroying bugs, there
is none better than to wash carefully, with a solution of corrosive
sublimate in spirits of wine, all the cracks and crevices of the
bedstead, at least once a week; taking care to throw out directly
whatever may remain in the bowl or saucer, which should at once be
washed clean in hot water. Corrosive sublimate is a most deadly poison,
if even a small quantity is swallowed. One of the best remedies for it,
is to take _immediately_ a large quantity of sweet oil.

Mercurial ointment, rubbed once a week into all the joints and crevices
of the bedstead, is an excellent destroyer of bugs. It can best be
rubbed in with the finger. Leave it on the bedstead without wiping off;
and do not put on the bedding till evening.


TO DESTROY FLIES.--Get, at a druggist’s, some Egyptian or Fly-killing
paper. Lay a piece of it on an old plate, and keep it moist by wetting
it frequently with water. It will soon be found covered with dead flies.
Shake them off, and wet the paper again.

Or mix together a table-spoonful of powdered black pepper, the same
quantity of brown sugar, and as much milk as will make it into a thin
paste. Set it about on saucers. It will attract the flies, and they will
die on eating it.


TO DESTROY GARDEN ANTS.--Mix together half a pound of flour of
brimstone, and four ounces of potash. Put them into an iron pot or pan,
and stir it over the fire till they are dissolved, and well
incorporated. Then pound them to a powder. Put the powder into a glass
jar, with a cover, and keep it for use. Infuse some of this powder in a
cup of water, and sprinkle with it the places that are infested by ants.
They will soon disappear.


TO EXPEL SMALL ANTS.--Mix a tea-spoonful of tartar emetic in two
table-spoonfuls of molasses. Stir this into a small saucer of water, and
set it where you have seen the ants. Let it remain all night; and in the
morning you will find a great number of ants lying dead on the surface
of the water, and the others will have been frightened away. Skim off
the dead ants, and set the saucer in any other place where these insects
have appeared. This we know, by experience, to be an excellent remedy
for the little ants with which so many houses are infested, and which
swarm over sweet things.


MICE.--An excellent preparation for expelling mice and rats is Levy’s
Exterminator, spread upon bread or cheese, and laid about the places
they frequent. It is a preparation of phosphorus; and after one mouse
has eaten it and (of course) died, the others will disappear. It is to
be had of most druggists; and will also destroy cockroaches, by
spreading it on bits of cake or something similar, and laying it at
night on the kitchen hearth, and in the closets. We highly recommend it.

If you propose to destroy a mouse by arsenic spread on bread and butter,
sprinkle on the arsenic a drop or two of oil of rhodium, and the mouse
will unfailingly be attracted to the poison. Place beside it a saucer of
water, and as soon as he has eaten of the poisoned bread and butter, he
will drink, and then die on the spot.

Oil of aniseed, spread on the bait, will attract them into a trap.


TO DESTROY CATERPILLARS.--Mix together twelve ounces of powdered
quick-lime, two ounces of snuff, two ounces of fine salt, and two ounces
of powdered sulphur. Strew this mixture over the caterpillars, or
dissolve it in five gallons of water; keep it in a convenient vessel,
and sprinkle with it places where they abound.

Any garden insects may be destroyed in this manner.


TO DESTROY WORMS IN GARDEN WALKS.--Pour into the worm-holes a strong
lye, made of wood-ashes, lime, and water. Or, if more convenient, use,
for this purpose, strong salt and water.


TO DESTROY THE BEE-MILLER.--This insect, whose night-visits are so
destructive to bees, may be destroyed by mixing a large wine-glass of
vinegar with a pint of water, that has been made very sweet with honey.
Set it in a bowl on the top of the hive, or beside it. It will attract
the miller, and then drown him.


TO MAKE THE HANDS SMOOTH AND SOFT.--For this purpose there is nothing
nicer than the beautiful, fragrant, and delicate composition called
Almond Cream, (Crême d’Amandes.) This almond cream (which must not be
confounded with another preparation called Amandine) is, when fresh,
very soft and white, and resembles ice-cream in appearance. To use
it--first dip your hands into a basin of water, and then put on one of
the palms a very small portion of the almond cream, (not larger than a
grain of indian corn,) and with the other hand rub it to a lather. Rub
it well into your hands and all over them before you wash it off. We
know, by experience, that this is the best of all preparations for
keeping the hands in nice order. If used every day, it will effectually
prevent the skin from chapping in cold weather; and will remove any
roughness caused by incidental employments, or by putting the hands into
salt water. We earnestly recommend it. Keep it closely covered. If you
live where it can be easily procured, do not get more than one gallicup
at a time, as almond cream is always best when freshly made. Exposure to
the air hardens and discolours it.

Another very excellent article for the hands is sand-soap, or sand
wash-balls,--a preparation of soap mixed with fine sea-sand. There is
nothing superior to it for washing the hands of boys, and of all persons
whose business obliges them to use much manual exertion. Also, the hands
of the most delicate lady will be rendered still softer and smoother by
the daily use of sand-soap. Try it--but not for the face or neck.

Sand-soap is made by shaving down and melting some white soap, and then
stirring into it, while warm, an equal quantity of fine dry sea-sand.
Put it, warm, into square moulds, or roll portions of the mixture
between your hands, so as to form balls. Set them in a dark place to dry
gradually.


TO REMOVE CORNS FROM BETWEEN THE TOES.--These corns are generally more
painful than any others, and are frequently situated as to be almost
inaccessible to the usual remedies. Wetting them several times a day
with hartshorn will in most cases cure them. Try it.


TO ALLAY PAIN IN THE FEET WHEN CAUSED BY FATIGUE.--If your feet become
painful from walking or standing too long, put them as soon as you can
into warm salt and water, mixed in the proportion of two large handfuls
of salt to a gallon of water. Sea-water made warm is still better, if
you can conveniently procure it. Keep your feet and ankles in the salt
water till it begins to feel cool, rubbing them well with your hands.
Then wipe them dry, and rub them long and hard with a coarse thick
towel, or with a hair glove. Where the feet are tender and easily
fatigued, it is an excellent practice to go through this process
regularly every night, or every morning, or both; also employing it
without fail always on coming home from a walk. With perseverance this
has cured neuralgia in the feet.

To prevent any roughness that may ensue after taking your hands out of
the brine, wash them immediately with soap; or what is still better,
with almond cream, first dipping them into cold water, and then rubbing
on a little of the above composition till it forms a lather. Almond
cream is much used by gentlemen as a shaving soap, but it is also a very
pleasant and useful article for a ladies washing-stand, being excellent
for smoothing the hands, and preventing their chopping in cold weather.
It is well to get but a small box at a time, as exposure to the air
somewhat dries and discolours it. It should be kept closely covered.

Chilblains or frost-bitten feet may be cured or prevented by dipping the
feet night and morning into _cold_ water. Then taking them out and
wiping them dry with a coarse towel. Persevere, and you will find the
remedy effectual.


RELIEF FOR RHEUMATIC PAINS.--Bathe the afflicted part at night and
morning, and frequently through the day, with warm salt and water,
(mixed in the proportion of two handfuls of salt to a quart of water,)
rubbing it well into the skin. Do this near the fire, or in a warm room;
avoiding exposure to a draught of air. Sea-water heated over the fire
will answer the purpose still better.

A table-spoonful of Hopkins’s Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla, taken
thrice a day, and persevered in for six or eight weeks, has frequently
cured a chronic rheumatism.

Swaim’s Panacea has effected wonderful cures in rheumatism of long
standing.


RELIEF FOR A SPRAINED ANKLE.--Wash the ankle very frequently with _cold_
salt and water, which is far better than warm vinegar or decoctions of
herbs. Keep your foot as cool as possible to prevent inflammation; and
sit with it elevated on a high cushion. Live on very low diet, and take
every day some cooling medicine; for instance epsom salts. By observing
these directions _only_, a sprained ankle has been cured in a few days.


BATHING THE FEET.--In bathing the feet of a sick person, use at the
beginning, tepid or lukewarm water. Have ready in a tea-kettle or
covered pitcher, some _hot_ water, of which pour in a little at
intervals; so as gradually to increase the temperature of the foot
bath, till it becomes as warm as it can be borne with comfort; after
which, the feet should be taken out before the water cools. This is a
much better way than to put them at first into very warm water, and let
it grow cool before they are taken out. Clean stockings, well warmed,
should be ready to put on the feet as soon as they are out of the water,
and have been rubbed dry with a flannel.


CURE FOR A RUN-ROUND.--That disease of the finger or toe commonly called
a _run-round_, may be easily cured by a remedy so simple that persons
who have not seen it tried are generally incredulous as to its efficacy.
The first symptoms of the complaint are heat, pain, swelling, and
redness at the top of the nail. The inflammation, if not checked, will
soon go round the whole of the nail, causing intense pain, accompanied
by a festering or gathering of yellow matter, and ending in the loss of
the nail. To prevent all this, as soon as the first symptoms of swelling
and inflammation commence, lay the finger flat on the table, and let the
nail be scratched, all over with the sharp point of a pair of scissors,
or a penknife. This excoriation must be done first crossways, and then
lengthways, so as thoroughly to scratch up the _whole surface_ of the
nail, leaving it rough and white. This little operation does not give
the slightest pain; and we have never, _in a single instance_, known it
fail. By next morning the finger will be well. If done before the
festering commences, it is a _certain_ and speedy cure. And it will even
succeed at a later stage of the disease, by first opening with a needle
that part of the swelling where the yellow matter has begun to appear;
and afterwards by scratching up the surface of the nail with scissors or
penknife.

Hard horny warts on the hands can be cured _positively_, and without
pain, by touching their tops twice a day or more with a clean quill pen,
dipped in aquafortis. The wart, after a few applications of the
aquafortis, will turn brown, and crumble till it falls off.

For ring-worms there is no remedy so good as mercurial ointment, rubbed
on it at night, and not washed off till morning. It causes no pain, and
by repetition will _always_ effect a cure.


TO APPLY AN EYE-STONE.--Eye-stones are frequently used to extract motes
from the eye, sparks from steam-engines, and other extraneous
substances. They are to be procured at the druggists’. They cost but two
or three cents a piece; and it is well to get several, that in case one
fails you may try another. To give an eye-stone activity, lay it for
about five minutes in a saucer of vinegar and water; and if it is a good
one it will soon begin to move or swim round in the liquid. Then wipe it
dry, and let it be introduced beneath the eye-lid, binding a
handkerchief closely round the eye. The eye-stone will make the circuit
of the eye, and in its progress take up the mote, which it will bring
with it, when on the pain ceasing, the handkerchief is removed.
Eye-stones are the eyes of lobsters.

When a mote or spark gets into your eye, immediately pull down the lower
eye-lash; and, at the same moment with a handkerchief in your hand, blow
your nose violently. This will frequently expel the mote without further
trouble. A mote will sometimes come out by merely holding your eye wide
open in a cup or glass filled to the brim with clear cold water. Or,
take a pin, and wrapping its head in the corner of a soft cambric
handkerchief, sweep carefully round the eye with it, above and below,
inserting it under the lid. This should be done with a firm and steady
hand, and will often bring out the mote. Another way is to take a long
clean bristle from a brush, tie the ends together with a bit of thread
so as to form a loop, and sweep round the eye with it, so that the loop
may catch the mote and bring it out.

A particle of iron or steel, has, _we know_, been extracted from the
eye, by holding near it a powerful magnet.

Rail-road sparks, &c., have frequently been removed from the eye by
introducing the feather-end of a quill, and sweeping it round beneath
the edge of the lid. If done with care and dexterity it will generally
succeed.


CURE FOR THE TETTER.--Obtain at a druggist’s an ounce of sulphur_et_ of
potash. Be careful to ask for this article _precisely_. It is a
preparation of sulphur and potash. Put the sulphuret into a large glass
jar; pour on it a quart of cold soft water; and leave it to dissolve,
having first corked it tightly. Afterwards add to it a wine-glass of
rose-water. It may be more convenient afterwards to transfer it to
smaller bottles, taking care to leave them closely corked. Pour into
each a table-spoonful or more of rose-water. To use it, pour a little
into a saucer, and dipping in a soft sponge, bathe the eruption five or
six times a day. Persist, and, in most cases, it will very soon effect a
cure. It is, indeed, a safe and most excellent remedy. Should the tetter
re-appear with the return of cold weather, immediately resume the use of
this solution. A bath in which sulphuret of potash was dissolved in
water (in the above proportions) has succeeded in curing the tetter
after the eruption had spread all over the body of a child.


CURE FOR EXCORIATED NOSTRILS.--If, after a severe cold in the head, the
inside of the nostrils continue sore and inflamed, rub them lightly with
a little kreosote ointment, applied to the interior of your nose with
the finger. Do this at night, and several times during the day. It will
very soon effect a cure; often in twenty-four hours.


FOR A CHAFED UPPER LIP.--For a chafed upper lip and soreness of the end
of the nose, such as generally accompanies a cold in the head or
influenza, much relief may be found from the homely remedy of greasing
the excoriation, at night on going to bed, with a bit of mutton tallow
(that of a candle will do) held to the fire to soften. Extend the
application over all the nose and even between the eyes. It is well to
keep always in the house some nice tallow, prepared by boiling and
skimming a sufficient quantity of fresh mutton fat, (there must not be a
particle of salt about it,) and then pouring it warm into gallicups,
which should be closely covered as soon as the liquid has congealed.


CURE FOR PRICKLY HEAT.--Mix a _large_ portion of wheat bran with either
cold or lukewarm water, and use it as a bath twice or thrice a day.
Children who are covered with prickly heat in warm weather will be thus
effectually relieved from that tormenting eruption. As soon as it begins
to appear on the neck, face, or arms, commence using the bran-water on
these parts repeatedly through the day, and it may probably spread no
farther. If it does, the bran-water bath will certainly cure it, if
persisted in.


BROWN MIXTURE FOR A COUGH.--Mix in a large bottle, half an ounce of
liquorice; a quarter of an ounce of gum-arabic; two tea-spoonfuls of
antimonial wine; sixty drops of laudanum; and half a pint of water.
Shake it well, and when the ingredients are thoroughly amalgamated it
will be fit for use. For a cold and cough, take a dessert-spoonful three
or four times a day, shaking or stirring it first.


RED LIP SALVE.--Mix together equal portions of the best suet and the
best lard. There must be no salt about them. Boil slowly, and skim and
stir the mixture. Then add a small thin bag of alkanet chips; and when
it has coloured the mixture of a fine deep red, take it out. While
cooling, stir in, very hard, sufficient rose or orange-flower water to
give it a fine perfume. A few drops of oil of rhodium will impart to it
a very agreeable rose-scent.

Cold cream for excoriated nostrils, chafed upper lips, or chapped hands
may be made nearly as above, but with one-third suet, and two-thirds
lard, and no alkanet. When it has boiled thoroughly, remove it from the
fire, and stir in, gradually, a large portion of rose-water, or a little
oil of rhodium, beating very hard. Put it into small gallicups, with
close covers.


MUSTARD PLASTERS.--Mustard plasters are frequently very efficacious in
rheumatic or other pains occasioned by cold. It is best to make them
entirely of mustard and vinegar without any mixture of flour. They
should be spread between two pieces of thin muslin, and bound on the
part affected. As soon as the irritation or burning becomes
uncomfortable, take off the plaster. They should never remain on longer
than twenty minutes; as by that time the beneficial effect will be
produced, if at all. When a mustard plaster has been taken off, wash the
part tenderly with a sponge and warm water. If the irritation on the
skin continues troublesome, apply successive poultices of grated
bread-crumbs wetted with lead water.

A mustard plaster behind the ear will often remove a toothache, earache,
or a rheumatic pain in the head. Applied to the wrists they will
frequently check an ague-fit, if put on as soon as the first symptoms of
chill evince themselves.


OPODELDOC.--Take an ounce of gum camphor; half a drachm of oil of
rosemary; half a drachm of oil of origanum; two ounces of castile soap
cut small; and half a pint of spirits of wine. Boil these all together
for half an hour after the boiling has commenced. Let the mixture cool
in the vessel, and then bottle it for use. It is a good embrocation for
bruises, sprains, stiffness of the neck and shoulder, and for rheumatic
pains.


CAMPHOR SPIRITS.--Break up into small bits an ounce of gum camphor, and
put it into a pint glass bottle. Then fill up with spirits of wine, cork
it, and leave the camphor to dissolve, shaking it occasionally. This
will be found quite as good as the camphor spirits obtained at the
druggist’s, and the cost will be far less. It is well to keep a bottle
of it always in the house. When taken to remove faintness or nervous
affections, pour a few drops into a wine-glass of water. Camphor kept
for external use is best when dissolved in whisky, as it produces less
irritation of the skin than when melted in alcohol.

The pain of a fly-blister will be much alleviated by sprinkling powdered
gum camphor thickly over the surface of the plaster before it is put on.
This should always be done.


REMEDY FOR ARSENIC.--Dissolve a few scruples of sulphuret of potash in
half a pint, or a pint of water, and administer it a little at a time,
as the patient can bear it; having first given the white of an egg.

Another remedy is to mix two tea-spoonfuls of made mustard with
sufficient warm water to thin it, so as to make it easy to swallow. It
acts as an emetic, and is good for any poison.


ANTIDOTE TO CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE.--If corrosive sublimate (one of the
worst poisons) has been swallowed, immediately drink a large quantity of
olive oil, even the whole contents of a flask; or more, indeed, if that
is not found sufficient. This remedy, if taken in time, is always
efficacious. If it cannot be _immediately_ obtained, try white of egg.


REMEDY FOR AN OVER-DOSE OF LAUDANUM.--A cup of the _strongest possible_
coffee has been known to keep the patient awake, and effect a positive
cure when all other means have failed. After the fatal sleep has been
thus prevented, and the patient is thoroughly roused and excited, let an
emetic be administered.


MEDICATED PRUNES.--Take a quarter of an ounce of senna and manna
(obtained ready mixed from the druggists’) and pour on it not quite a
pint of boiling water. Cover it; set it by the fire; and let it infuse
for an hour. If the vessel in which you prepare it has a spout, stop up
the spout with a roll or wad of soft paper. This should always be done
in making herb teas, or other decoctions; as a portion of the strength
evaporates at the spout. When the infusion of senna and manna has thus
stood an hour at the fire, strain it into a skillet or sauce-pan (one
lined with porcelain will be best) and stir in a large wine-glass or a
small teacup-full of West India molasses. Add about half a pound or more
of the best prunes; putting in sufficient prunes to absorb all the
liquid during the process of stewing. Then cover the vessel closely,
and let it stew (stirring it up occasionally) for an hour; or till you
find the stones of the prunes are all loose. If stewed too long, the
prunes will taste weak and insipid. When done, put it into a dish to
cool; and pick out all the stones. If properly prepared there will be no
perceptible taste of the senna and manna. It may be given to children at
their lunch or supper.


FINE HOARHOUND CANDY.--Take a large bunch of the herb hoarhound, as
green and fresh as you can get it. Having picked it clean, and washed
it, cut it up (leaves and stalks) with scissors. Scald, twice, a china
tea-pot or a covered pitcher; then empty it of the hot water. Put in the
hoarhound, pressing it down with your hands. The pot should be about
two-thirds full of the herb. Then fill it up with boiling water; cover
it closely, and wedge a small roll of paper tightly into the mouth of
the spout, to prevent any of the strength escaping with the steam. Set
it close to the fire to infuse, and keep it there till it begins to
boil. Then immediately take it away, and strain it into another vessel.
Mix with the liquid sufficient powdered loaf-sugar to make it a very
thick paste. When the sugar is in, set it over the fire, and give it a
boil, stirring and skimming it well. Take a shallow, square tin pan,
grease it slightly with sweet oil, and put into it the candy, as soon as
it is well boiled; smoothing the surface with a wet knife-blade. Sift
over it some powdered sugar. Set it away to cool; and when nearly
congealed, score it in squares. It is a well-known remedy for coughs and
hoarseness.

If you find it too thin, you may stir in, while boiling, a spoonful of
flour, of arrow-root, or of finely-powdered starch.

Another way of making this candy is, to boil the hoarhound in barely as
much water as will cover it, and till all the juice is extracted. Then
squeeze it through a cloth, and give the strained liquid another boil,
stirring in, gradually, sugar enough to make it very thick and stiff.
Afterwards sift sugar over a shallow tin pan, fill it with the paste,
and leave it to congeal; scoring it in squares before it is quite hard.

Any herb-candy may be made as above.


FINE LAVENDER COMPOUND.--For this purpose, use lavender buds, gathered
just before they are ready to blow. As soon as the blossom expands into
a flower, a portion of its strength and fragrance immediately
evaporates. This is also the case with roses; which, for rose-water,
should always be gathered, not after they are blown, but when just about
to open.

Having stripped the lavender buds from the stalks, measure a pint of the
buds, and mix with them half an ounce of whole mace; half an ounce of
whole cloves; two nutmegs broken up, but not grated; and half an ounce
of powdered cochineal. Put the whole into a large glass jar, and pour in
a quart of the best French brandy. Cover the jar closely; making it
completely air-tight by the addition of strong paper, pasted down over
the cover. Set it away, and leave the ingredients to infuse,
undisturbed, for a month. Then strain it into a pitcher; and from the
pitcher pour it through a funnel into bottles; corking them tightly. It
is a well-known remedy for flatulence, and pains and sickness of the
stomach. To use it, put some loaf-sugar into a spoon, and pour on
sufficient lavender to soften the sugar; then eat it.

Instead of cochineal, you may give a fine red colour to lavender
compound by tying up a quarter of an ounce of alkanet in a thin muslin
bag, (seeing that the alkanet is free from dust,) and putting the bag
into the jar while the other ingredients are infusing in the brandy.


BLACKBERRY SYRUP.--Take a sufficient quantity of fine, ripe, sweet
blackberries. Put them into a sieve placed over a large broad pan; and
with a clean potatoe-masher, (or something similar,) mash the
blackberries, and press out all their juice. Or (having bruised them
first) put the blackberries into a linen bag, and squeeze out all the
juice into a vessel placed beneath. Measure it; and to every quart of
the strained juice allow half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar; a heaped
tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon; the same of powdered cloves; and a
large nutmeg grated. Mix the spices with the juice and sugar, and boil
all together in a porcelain preserving-kettle; skimming it well. When
cold, stir into each quart of the syrup half a pint of fourth-proof
brandy. Then bottle it for use. This is a good family medicine; and is
beneficial in complaints incident to summer. It should be administered,
(at proper intervals,) from a tea-spoonful to a wine-glassful, according
to the age of the patient.


RHUBARB BITTERS.--Take two ounces of rhubarb root; half an ounce of
cardamom seeds; one drachm of Virginia snake-root; and half a drachm of
gentian root. Put these articles into a large bottle, and pour on it a
quart of good brandy.

It is excellent for children in complaints incident to summer weather.


TO PREVENT A JUG OF MOLASSES FROM RUNNING OVER.--A jug or bottle of
molasses frequently causes inconvenience by working over at the top,
after coming from the grocer’s, and being set in a room or closet that
is warmer than the place from which it was brought. To prevent this--as
soon as you receive it, pour out a portion into another vessel; for
instance, into a pitcher or bowl. Then set the jug of molasses into a
deep pan or basin, and leave it _uncorked_ till next day. By that time,
all danger from fermentation will have subsided. Then cork it tightly,
and set it away. Keep always under the bottom of the jug an old plate,
or a double piece of thick paper to receive any drippings that may run
down the sides. Never bring molasses to table without a plate or saucer
under the vessel that contains it.

West India molasses is far more wholesome and nourishing than any other,
and is decidedly the best for gingerbread, molasses-candy,
indian-puddings, &c. Sugar-house molasses, if used for those articles,
will render them hard and tough.


TO EXTINGUISH A COAL FIRE.--Many persons who burn anthracite coal in
their chambers, have suffered great inconvenience from not knowing how
to extinguish it before they go to bed. The process is very simple, and
always successful. Lift off with the tongs any large coals that may lie
on the top, and lay them on the iron hearth of the grate; they will make
good cinders to burn next day in a close-stove or furnace. Then shut up
the tongs, and with them make a hollow or deep cavity just in the centre
of the fire, heaping up the coals like a hill on each side, and making
the tongs go down to the bottom of the grate. If there are not many
coals, you may do this with the poker. The fire will immediately begin
to fade and deaden; and in less than ten minutes, it will be entirely
out, without farther trouble; unless it has been very large, and then it
may require a second stirring.

In the morning, let the grate be cleared _entirely_ of all the cinders
and ashes, and swept out clean with a brush. Cover the bottom of the
grate with a sort of flooring of small fresh coal, before you put in the
kindlings; otherwise, after the kindlings (wood or charcoal) are
lighted, they will burn away immediately, and fall through the bottom
bars of the grate, before they have had time to ignite the coal that has
been laid above them; so that the grate will have to be again cleared
out, fresh kindlings brought, and the fire built up anew, before it can
possibly succeed.

The above way of extinguishing a coal-fire answers equally well for a
close-stove or a furnace.

The heat of a grate may be considerably diminished by standing up the
blower against it; the bottom of the blower resting on the hearth. To
lessen the heat of a close-stove, leave open the large door of the
stove. In the same manner diminish the heat of a furnace.



LAUNDRY-WORK, NEEDLE-WORK, ETC.


SODA SOAP.--Take six pounds of the best brown soap, and cut it into
pieces. Put it into a large wash-kettle, and pour on seven gallons and a
half of clear soft water. Next stir in six pounds of washing-soda,
(sub-carbonate,) set it over the fire, and let it boil two hours after
it has come to a boil. Then strain it into stone jars; cover it, and put
it away. It must be used for _white clothes only_, as it will fade
coloured things. Put the clothes in soak the night before, in tubs of
cold water; having first rubbed the grease spots with wet fuller’s
earth, (scraped fine,) and the stains with wet cream of tartar. Allow a
pound of the soda soap to a bucket of water, and put it over the fire in
a wash-kettle. When the water is warm, put in as many white clothes as
convenient; seeing that there is water enough to cover them well. Boil
them an hour; occasionally moving them up and down with the
clothes-stick. Then take them out, and finish washing them in the usual
way. The soda soap will whiten them very much; but if used in a larger
quantity than the above proportion, it will injure them greatly. We do
not recommend any soda preparation for washing, unless it can be used
under the immediate inspection of a good housekeeper; most servants and
washerwomen being very apt to employ it too freely, if left to
themselves.


SOFT SOAP MADE WITH POTASH.--Put twelve pounds of potash into a barrel,
and then pour in water till the barrel is half full. Stir the potash
several times, while it is dissolving in the water. Have ready twelve
pounds of good soap-fat, and melt it over the fire in a large kettle.
Then stir it, gradually, into the barrel with the dissolved potash.
After standing a quarter of an hour, fill up the barrel with cold water;
and stir it hard. This process will form an excellent soft soap.


COLD STARCH FOR LINEN.--Take a quarter of a pint, or as much of the best
raw starch as will half fill a common-sized tumbler. Fill it nearly up
with very clear cold water. Mix it well with a spoon, pressing out all
the lumps, till you get it thoroughly dissolved, and very smooth. Next
add a tea-spoonful of salt to prevent its sticking. Then pour it into a
broad earthen pan; add, gradually, a pint of clear cold water; and stir
and mix it well. Do not boil it.

The shirts having been washed and dried, dip the collars and wristbands
into this starch, and then squeeze them out. Between each dipping, stir
it up from the bottom with a spoon. Then sprinkle the shirts, and fold
or roll them up, with the collars and wristbands folded evenly inside.
They will be ready to iron in an hour.

This quantity of cold starch is amply sufficient for the collars and
wristbands of half a dozen shirts. Any article of cambric muslin may be
done up with cold starch made as above.

Poland starch is better than any other. It is to be had at most grocery
stores.

Cold starch will not do for thin muslin, or for any thing that is to be
clapped and cleared. It is very convenient for linen, &c., in summer, as
it requires no boiling over the fire. Also, it goes farther than boiled
starch.


TO WASH WHITE SATIN RIBBON.--Make a strong lather of clear cold water
and the best white soap. Squeeze and press the ribbon through this, till
it looks quite clean; but do not rub it, as that will cause it to fray.
Then make a fresh lather of white soap and cold water, and squeeze the
ribbon through that. Do not rinse it, as the suds remaining in the
ribbon will give it the proper stiffness. Pull and stretch it evenly;
and then iron it on the wrong side while it is still damp. When quite
dry, roll it on a ribbon-block; wrap it closely in coarse brown paper;
and put it away till you want to use it. None but plain unfigured white
satin ribbon of very good quality, can be washed to advantage. The day
before washing it, rub some magnesia upon any grease that may be on the
ribbon, and some cream of tartar on the stains.

In winding several pieces of ribbon on the same block, always put the
end of each successive piece _under_ that of the last, instead of _over_
it; and wind the whole tight and smoothly. Secure the last end with two
very small minikin pins; as large pins will make conspicuous holes all
through, and probably leave a brassy or greenish stain. The ribbon-block
should on no account be narrower than the ribbon.

A small white silk handkerchief may be washed as above, if thick and
unfigured.


TO CLEAN SILK SHAWLS OR SCARFS.--Mix together a quarter of a pound of
soft soap; a tea-spoonful of brandy; and a pint of whisky or gin;
stirring them hard. Spread the shawl on a clean _linen_ cloth, and with
a clean sponge dipped in the mixture, go carefully over it on both
sides. The shawl should be kept even, by placing weights along the
edges. Dry it in the shade. Then wash (or rather squeeze it) in two or
three cold waters without soap; stretch it, and hang it out again; and
when almost dry, iron it.


TO CLEAN A SILK DRESS.--Rip the dress entirely apart. Take large raw
potatoes, and allow a pint of cold water to each potatoe. Having pared
the potatoes, grate them into the basin of water. Cover it; and let it
stand three hours, or more. Then pour it carefully off, into a broad
pan; leaving the sediment or coarse part of the grated potatoes at the
bottom of the basin. Having spread a clean linen cloth on a large
ironing table, and put some irons down to the fire, lay the silk (a
breadth at a time) upon the cloth, and with a clean sponge dipped in the
potatoe-water, go all over it, on the wrong side. Then hang that breadth
out upon a line; stretch it evenly, and leave it to dry. Take another
breadth; sponge it with the potatoe-water; hang it out; and proceed in
the same manner till all the silk is done. By the time the whole has
been sponged and hung out, the first breadths will in all probability be
dry enough to iron. It must be ironed on the wrong side.

The sleeves must be taken out and ripped open, before sponging them.
Each piece of the body must, of course, be done separately.


FRENCH METHOD OF WASHING COLOURED SILK CRAVATS, SCARFS, SHAWLS,
&c.--Make a mixture of the following articles in a large flat dish. A
large table-spoonful of soft soap, or of hard _brown_ soap shaved fine,
(white soap will not do,) a small tea-spoonful of strained honey, and a
pint of spirits of wine. Have ready a large brush (for instance a
clothes-brush) made perfectly clean. Lay the silk on a board or on an
ironing-table; stretching the article evenly, and securing it in its
place by weights set round upon its edges. Then dip the brush into the
mixture, and with it go all over the silk, lengthways of the texture;
beginning at that part of the silk which is least seen when worn; and
trying a little at a time till you have ascertained the effect. If you
find the colour of the silk changed by the liquid, weaken it by adding a
little more spirits of wine. Brocaded silks cannot be washed this way.

Having gone carefully over the whole of the article, dip it, up and
down, in a bucket of clean water, but do not squeeze or wring it. Repeat
this through another clean water, and then through a third. Afterwards
spread it on a line to dry, but without any squeezing or wringing. Let
it dry slowly. While still damp, take it down; pull it, and stretch it
even; then roll or fold it up; and let it rest a few minutes. Have irons
ready, and iron the silk; taking care that the iron is not so hot as to
change the colour.

The above quantity of the washing-mixture is sufficient for about half a
dozen silk handkerchiefs; for a silk apron; or for one shawl; or for two
scarfs, if not very long. If there is fringe on the scarfs it is best to
take it off and replace it with new; or else to gather the ends of the
scarfs, and finish them with a tassel or ball.

Gentlemen’s silk or chaly cravats may be made to look very well washed
in this manner. Ribbons also, if thick and rich. Indeed whatever is
washed by this process should be of excellent quality. A dress must be
previously taken apart.

This is also a good method for washing a white blond veil or scarf;
using a soft sponge instead of a brush, and making the mixture with
rather less soap and honey. When dry, lay the blond in smooth even
folds, within a large sheet of smooth nankeen paper. Press it for a few
days in a large quarto or folio book. Do not iron it.


TO MAKE THREAD LACE LOOK ALWAYS NEW.--Thread lace should never be sewed
fast, or washed upon the article of which it forms the trimming. It
should be merely run on, or basted with short stitches; so as to draw
out the thread easily, when the lace is taken off for washing. The
trouble is nothing in comparison to the advantage. In the first place,
thread lace, to look well and last long, should never be touched with
starch. Starching thread lace injures the texture, (causing the threads
to break,) and gives it a hard, stiff appearance. If sewed fast, and
washed and done up with the muslin collar or pelerine, it shrinks and
thickens up among the gathers, and partakes of the starch that has been
used for the muslin; and, of course, can have no resemblance to new lace
that has never been washed at all. Again, it will not last half so long,
as if always taken off, and done up separately from the muslin.

Every lady should have at least two lace bottles, as it is not well to
wind more than three or four yards of lace upon one bottle. They should
be straight black bottles of the largest size, and it is well to buy
them new for the purpose; otherwise something of their former contents
may come out when boiling, and injure the lace. Also there may be
remains of wax, rosin, or some other cement, lingering about the place
where the cork was; and this will melt in the water, and cause the lace
to look streaked. The bottles being perfectly clean, (inside and out,)
cover them with thick, strong, new white linen, sewed on tightly and
smoothly, with coarse thread. When not in use, keep them wrapped up in
clean paper.

Having taken off the lace from the article on which it was basted, begin
near the bottom of the bottle; tack one end of the lace with a needle
and strong thread to the linen; and wind it smoothly round with the edge
downward; and all the scollops smooth, so that none may be creased or
curled inward. Wind the lace on the bottle in such a manner as to leave
the scolloped or pattern-edge visible all round; and finish just below
the neck of the bottle. Then tack down with the needle and thread the
last or terminating end of the lace. Early in the evening put the bottle
with the lace into a clean _earthen_ or white-ware vessel, filled with
clear cold water, and let it soak till bed-time. Then change the water,
and let it soak all night.

In the morning, fill a clean porcelain kettle, or a deep earthen pipkin,
with a strong suds of clear soft water and the best white soap. Into
this, put the bottle with the lace on it; having tied a twine string
round the neck of the bottle so as to make it fast to the handles or the
rim of the vessel, that it may be kept as steady as possible while
boiling. It must on no account be boiled in a tin or iron vessel, as the
lace will then certainly be discoloured. Set the vessel over hot coals
or in a stove; and keep it boiling regularly till the lace looks quite
white. If very dirty, it will be necessary to change the water for a
clean fresh suds. It may boil from an hour to an hour and a half; but
take it out as soon as it looks clean and white. Then turn up the bottle
to drain off the suds, and set it (without rinsing) in the sun. Keep it
in the sun till the lace dries on the bottle. When _quite_ dry, take it
off; stretch or pull down each scollop separately with your thumb and
finger; and then wind the lace evenly and smoothly on a ribbon-block of
somewhat broader width. You can get ribbon-blocks at the stores where
ribbons are sold, and you will find them very useful. Wrap the block
with the lace on it in soft _brown_ paper, and put it away till you want
it for use. If you have no ribbon-block, fold or roll up a piece of
smooth clean paper, and roll the lace round it. Never wrap any thing in
printed paper.

The above method of cleaning thread lace, (without rubbing, squeezing,
rinsing, starching, or ironing,) as it is the most simple and easy, is
also the most certain of success. In fact we can confidently assert
that there is no other so good; and we only ask a trial of its efficacy;
well-assured that every lady who has once had her lace washed in this
manner will continue it; as it makes it look always new. Of course, it
should be done on a clear bright day, and the hotter the sun the better.
If you have more than one lace bottle to boil, they may be put into a
brass or bell-metal wash-kettle, (previously made very clean,) but
remember that no tin or iron must be used for this purpose. If the
coating or lining of an enamelled or porcelain kettle is the least
cracked or scaled off, do not boil the lace in it, or it will be stained
with iron mould.

Thread lace done _exactly_ according to these directions, has the look,
feel, transparency, and consistence of new lace that has never been
washed at all; and may easily be mistaken for it. Drying in the
soap-suds gives it just the right stiffness, and it will last much
longer than if washed in the old manner with squeezing, rinsing,
starching, clapping, and ironing.

Before your lace is sewed on the bottle, look over it, and see if it
requires any mending. There is a lace-stitch done with _very fine_
thread, that, when neatly executed, renders a mended place
imperceptible. It may be learned in a few minutes by seeing it done, but
cannot be described intelligibly. Those who have had no opportunity of
learning this stitch may mend lace very neatly by darning it with the
finest possible thread; taking care not to make the darn too thick, or
close, but imitating as nearly as possible the open texture of the lace.
In quilling or setting on the lace, endeavour to conceal the darns under
the pleats.

Cotton lace cannot be cleaned in the foregoing manner, as it is too soft
and fuzzy, and shrinks up too much. It requires squeezing, starching,
clapping, and ironing.


WASHING BLACK LACE.--Every description of black _silk_ lace (or of black
Scotch blond) may be made to look extremely well by the following
process; either veils, shawls, scarfs, capes, sleeves, or trimming-lace.
A black lace dress, must be previously taken apart, and all the loose
threads or stitches carefully picked out. We will suppose the article
that requires washing to be a veil that has been worn long enough to
look soiled and rusty. By exactly observing the following directions, it
may be made to appear fresh, new, and of an excellent black; provided
always that it was originally of good quality, with no mixture of cotton
in it. All lace articles of that brownish black, falsely called jet, are
now mixed with cotton; and frequently have no silk at all about them.

In a large clean earthen pan, or a small tub, make a strong lather of
white soap and clear soft water, warm but not hot. Mix with the suds a
large table-spoonful of ox-gall. No family should be without a bottle of
ox-gall, which can always be obtained from the butcher at a very
trifling cost. The gall as soon as brought home should be opened, its
liquid poured through a funnel into a clean black bottle, and tightly
corked. You may perfume it by putting in a grain of musk. It is useful
in washing all sorts of coloured things, as it materially assists in
preventing them from fading. Having stirred the gall well into the suds,
put in the black lace veil, and work and squeeze it up and down through
the lather for five minutes or more; taking care not to rub it. Then
squeeze it out well, open it loose, and shake it a little. Next,
transfer it to a second suds of clean warm water and white soap; adding
a tea-spoonful of gall. Into this second lather infuse _a large
quantity_ of blue, pressed into the water from the indigo bag, and well
stirred in. Having worked the veil up and down through this second suds
for about ten minutes, alternately loosening it out, and squeezing it
up, but not rubbing it. Squeeze it finally as dry as you can, and then
open it out widely.

Have ready in another pan some glue-stiffening, made as follows: On a
bit of glue about the size of a shilling pour two jills, or a half-pint,
of boiling water, and let it dissolve. After the glue is entirely
melted, add to it a quart of _cold_ water; and then make it _very blue_
by squeezing into it a large portion of indigo from the blue-bag. Stir
it well, and then put in the veil, rinsing and squeezing it up and down
through the stiffening water. Having done this sufficiently, squeeze out
the veil as dry as you can get it; then open it, stretch it, and clap it
all over. Next, fold it evenly; roll it up in a thick clean towel; and
let it rest for a quarter of an hour or more.

Spread a large clean _linen_ cloth on your clothes-line, and hang the
veil (well spread out) upon the cloth. When nearly, but not quite dry,
take down the veil, and clap and stretch it again. Have warm irons
ready. Lay a clean linen cloth over your blanket, and press the veil
smoothly on the wrong side; first trying the irons on an old piece of
thin black silk, crape, or gauze; lest they should be too hot for the
lace, and scorch or discolour it.

The foregoing process (followed exactly) will restore to any article of
_good_ black silk lace that has become brown and soft by wearing, the
deep black colour and consistence it had when new.

Be careful not to have too much glue, and to put plenty of indigo-blue
into the second suds and into the stiffening water.

Before washing the veil, rip open the casing at the top, and remove the
string. Afterwards, make a new case, and draw it with a new ribbon.


TO WASH A WHITE LACE SCARF.--Fold up the scarf, and lay it in a thin
cambric handkerchief, folded over so as to enclose the scarf, and
secured by basting it slightly with a needle and thread. Dip it in cold
water. Make a strong lather with white soap and warm water; put the
scarf, &c., into it, and let it rest all day. In the evening, make a
fresh lather, and leave the scarf in it all night, (having first
squeezed it well.) Next morning, make some thin starch. Shave small a
quarter of a cake of white wax, and put it into two quarts of soft
water; adding six lumps of loaf-sugar, and a table-spoonful of thin-made
starch. Put these articles into an earthen pipkin or a porcelain kettle,
and set it over the fire. On no account use, for this purpose, a vessel
of any sort of metal, as it will discolour the lace. When the mixture
has come to a boil, put in the scarf, (still folded in the
handkerchief,) and boil it ten minutes. Then take it out, open the
handkerchief, and if you do not find it perfectly white, return it to
the pipkin, and boil it longer. Afterwards, take it out of the
handkerchief, and throw the scarf into cold water. Squeeze and press it,
till it drips no longer. Then open it out; stretch it even; and hang it
in the sun. When almost dry, take it in, and iron it carefully on a
linen cloth.

A veil, a shawl, or a pelerine of white lace may be washed in this
manner.


TO CLEAN GOLD OR SILVER EMBROIDERY.--Warm some spirits of wine, and
apply it with a bit of clean sponge. Then dry it, by rubbing it with
soft, new canton flannel. Gold or silver lace may be cleaned thus. Also,
jewelry.


WASHING AMERICAN CHINTZES.--American chintzes, of good quality, (such as
are sold at twelve or fourteen cents per yard,) can be washed so as to
retain their colours, and look as bright as when quite new. The water
must be quite clean, and merely warm, but by no means hot. Rub the soap
into the water, so as to form a strong lather, before you put in the
dress. Add to the lather a handful of fine salt. Wash the chintz through
two warm waters, making a lather in the second also, and adding salt.
The salt will keep the colours from running. Then rinse it through two
cold waters; putting a table-spoonful of vinegar into each, before the
dress goes in. This will brighten the colours. Immediately, wring out
the dress, and hang it up to dry; but not in the sun. When nearly dry,
(so as to be just damp enough to iron,) have irons ready heated; bring
in the dress; stretch it well, and iron it on the wrong side. If allowed
to become _quite_ dry on the line, and then sprinkled and rolled up, and
laid aside to be ironed next day, the colours may run from remaining
damp all night.

An imported chintz, a gingham, or a mousseline de laine, may be washed
in the above manner; which _we know_ to be excellent; substituting, for
the salt, a table-spoonful of ox-gall in each water. All sorts of
coloured dresses should be washed and ironed as quickly as possible,
when once begun. It is well to allot a day purposely to coloured
dresses, rather than to do them with all the other things on the regular
washing-day. If washed in half-dirty suds, and left soaking in the
rinsing-water, the colours will _most assuredly_ run and fade, and the
dress look dingy all over.

Of course, nothing that has any colour about it should be either
scalded, or boiled, or washed in _hot_ water. Scalding, boiling, and
hot-water washing are only for things _entirely_ white.


PRESERVING THE COLOURS OF DRESSES.--Before washing a new dress, try a
small piece of the material, and see if the colours are likely to stand
of themselves. They are generally fast, if the article is so well
printed that the wrong side is difficult to distinguish from the right.
If you obtain from the store a small slip for testing the durability of
the colours, give it a fair trial, by washing it through two warm waters
with soap, and then rinsing it through two cold waters. No colours
whatever will stand, if washed in _hot_ water. Some colours, (very
bright pinks and light greens particularly,) though they may bear
washing perfectly well, will change as soon as a warm iron is applied to
them; the pink turning purplish, and the green bluish.

The colours of merinoes, mousselines de laine, ginghams, chintzes,
printed lawns, &c., may be preserved in washing by mixing a
table-spoonful of ox-gall in the first and second waters, (which should
not be more than lukewarm,) and making a lather of the soap and water
_before_ you put in the dress, instead of rubbing the soap on it
afterwards. At the last, to brighten the colours, stir into the second
rinsing-water a _small_ tea-spoonful of oil of vitriol, if the dress is
that of a grown person; for a child’s dress, half a tea-spoonful will
suffice. If washed at home, one of the ladies of the family should
herself put in the vitriol, as, if left to the servants, they may injure
the dress by carelessly putting in too much. Vitriol is excellent for
preserving light or delicate colours.

The colours of a common calico or mousseline de laine may be set by
putting into each of the two warm waters a large handful of salt, and
into each rinsing water a tea-spoonful of vinegar.

No coloured articles should be allowed to remain in the water, as
soaking will cause the colours to run in streaks. As soon as the dress
is washed and rinsed, let it be immediately wrung out, hung in the
shade, and, as soon as dry enough, taken in and ironed at once. Each
dress should be washed separately. The washing of dresses should only
be undertaken in fine weather.


PUTTING AWAY WOOLLENS.--The introduction of furnaces, for the purpose of
warming houses, is supposed to be one cause of the great increase of
moths, cockroaches, and other insects that now, more than ever, infest
our dwellings. For moths, particularly, the usual remedies of camphor,
tobacco, pepper, cedar-shavings, &c., seem no longer sufficiently
powerful; perhaps because their odour so soon evaporates. Still it is
well to try them when nothing better can be done; and they are sometimes
successful. Camphor and tobacco-shreds will be found much more
efficacious if (after interspersing them among the furs or woollens)
each fur or woollen article is carefully and closely pinned up in
newspapers; so closely as to leave no aperture or opening, however
small. The printing-ink has a tendency to keep off moths and other small
insects. The papers used for this purpose should be those that are
printed with ink of a good quality, not liable to rub off, and soil the
things enclosed. We highly recommend this mode of preserving furs and
woollens.

But the following method of putting away all the woollen, worsted, and
fur articles of the house, will be found an _infallible_ preservative
against moths; and the cost is trifling, in comparison with the security
it affords of finding the things in good order when opened for use on
the return of cold weather. Procure at a distiller’s, or elsewhere, a
tight empty hogshead that has held whisky. Have it well cleaned,
(_without washing_,) and see that it is quite dry. Let it be placed in
some part of the house that is little used in the summer, where there is
no damp, and where it can be shut up in entire darkness.

After the carpets have been taken up, and well shaken and beaten, and
the grease spots all removed, let them be folded and packed closely down
in the cask, which can be reached by means of a step-ladder. Put in,
also, the blankets; having first washed all that were not clean; also
the woollen table-covers. If you have worsted or cloth curtains and
cushion-covers, pack them in likewise, after they have been thoroughly
freed from dust. Also, flannels, merinos, cloaks, coats, furs, and, in
short, every thing that is liable to be attacked by the moths. It is
well to rip the cloaks from the collars, and the skirts of pelisses from
the bodies, before packing, as they can be folded more smoothly, and so
as to occupy less space. Fold and pack all the articles closely, and
arrange them to advantage, so as to fit in well, and fill up all hollows
and vacancies evenly. If well-packed, one hogshead will generally hold
all the woollen and fur articles belonging to a house of moderate size,
and to a moderate-sized family. But if _one_ is not enough, it is easy
to get another. When the cask is filled, nail the head on tightly, and
let the whole remain undisturbed till the warm weather is over. If the
house is shut up, and the family out of town in the summer, you may
safely leave your woollens, &c., put away in this manner. Choose a
clear, dry day for unpacking them in the autumn; and, when open, expose
them all separately to the air, till the odour of the whisky is gone
off. If they have been put away clean, and free from dust, it will be
found that the whisky-atmosphere has brightened their colours. As soon
as the things are all out of the cask, head it up again _immediately_,
and keep it for the same use next summer. If more convenient, you may
have the cask sawed in two before you pack it. In this case, you must
get an extra head for one of the halves.

In putting away woollens for the season, always keep out a blanket for
each bed, and some flannel for each member of the family, in case of
occasional cold days, or easterly rains in the summer.

Have no _hair_ trunks about the house; they always produce moths.


TO CLEAN WHITE FUR.--Take a sufficiency of dry starch, very finely
powdered, and sift it, through a fine sieve, into a broad, clean, tin
pan. Set the pan near enough the fire for the powdered starch to get
warm, stirring it frequently. Then roll and tumble about the white fur
among the powdered starch, till it is well saturated. Shut it up closely
in a bandbox, and let it remain unopened for a fortnight. It will then
look clean.

When you put away white fur in the spring, proceed as above, (using a
very large quantity of the pulverized starch,) and put into the box some
lumps of camphor tied up in thin white papers. Keep the box closely shut
through the summer, and do not open it to look at the fur till you want
it for cold weather. It will then be found a good clean white.

In joining pieces of fur or swans-down, lay the two edges together, and
pass the needle and thread back and forward on the wrong side, (in the
way that carpet-seams are sewed,) so as to unite the edges evenly and
flat without making a ridge. Then line every seam by sewing or running
strong tape along it, of course on the wrong side. Unless they are
strengthened in this manner with tape, the stitches are liable, after a
while, to give way, and the seams or joins to gape open, making rents
inside that are very difficult to repair.


TO KEEP A MUFF. Always when returning a muff to its box, give it several
hard twirls round. This will smooth the fur, and make all the hairs lie
the same way. To prevent the wadding inside the muff from sinking
downwards, and falling into clods, keep the muff-box always lying on the
side, instead of standing it upright. When you put it away till next
winter, place within it some lumps of camphor wrapped in papers, and
sprinkle the outside of the fur with powdered camphor. Then enclose the
muff, completely, in one or two large newspapers, sewing or pinning them
entirely over it, sides and ends, so that nothing can possibly get in.
Do the same with all your furs; and after putting them away with these
precautions, open them no more till the return of cold weather. The
printing ink on the papers will assist in keeping out moths.


TAKING CARE OF PICTURES.--An excellent way to preserve an oil-picture
from the injuries of damp, mould, and mildew, is to take the precaution
of covering the _back_ of the canvas (before nailing it on the straining
frame) with a coating of common white lead paint; and when that is dry,
give it a second coat. If you buy a picture that has been framed without
this precaution, do not neglect having the back of it coated as above,
before you hang it up.

The simplest way of cleaning an oil-picture, is to mix some whisky and
water _very weak_. If the mixture is too strong of the liquid, it may
take off the paint, or otherwise injure it. Dip into the mixture a very
soft and very clean sponge, which you must first ascertain to be
perfectly free from sand, grit, or any extraneous object. A good way to
soften and clean a sponge, is to boil it in several successive waters,
till there is no longer any appearance of sand at the bottom of the
vessel. Having carefully washed the picture with the sponge and
whisky-water, dry it by going over it with a clean soft _silk_
handkerchief. This is all that can be safely attempted by any one who
is not a regular picture cleaner. Therefore, if the picture is smoked or
much soiled, it is best to send it to a person who makes
picture-cleaning his profession. Many a good picture has been destroyed
by injudicious cleaning.

Till it has been made _perfectly clean_, no picture should be
re-varnished; otherwise the fresh varnish will work up the dirt, and
make it look worse than ever. As long as a picture is the least wet
(either with paint or varnish) it should be carefully guarded from dust;
the smallest particles of which by drying into the surface will injure
it irreparably. No sweeping or dusting should be permitted where there
is a picture not _perfectly and thoroughly_ dry. If there is a fire in
the room it should not be stirred, replenished, or touched in any way
till the picture has been previously carried out, lest some of the
flying ashes might stick to it.

When a picture is finished, it would always be well for the artist to
inscribe on the back of the canvas the subject of the painting, the date
of its completion, his own name and that of the person for whom it was
painted. In short, a concise history of the picture, arranged somewhat
like the title-page of a book. Had this excellent practice always
prevailed, there would be no occasion for any doubts and controversies
concerning the works of the old masters.


A PORTRAIT PAINTER’S TRAVELLING BOX.--The large wooden box for the easel
and other things indispensable to a portrait painter, when travelling
professionally, should be made broad, low, and square, so that it may be
used as a platform on which to place the chair of the sitter. When
unpacked of its contents, and appropriated to this purpose, the box must
be turned bottom upwards, and concealed under a cover of carpeting or
drugget brought along with it. The cover should fit smoothly and
closely, and be so made that it can be lifted off, and folded up,
whenever the platform is again to be used as a box.


TRAVELLING BOXES.--As bandboxes are no longer visible among the
baggage-articles of _ladies_, the usual way of carrying bonnets, caps,
muslins, &c., is in tall square wooden boxes, covered with black canvas
or leather, edged with strips of iron and brass nails, and furnished
with a tray for small things. They are usually lined with paper or
calico pasted all over the inside. This lining, however, is apt to peel
off in places where most rubbed; and is then very troublesome; catching
the corners of the tray so as to prevent its being lifted out. To
obviate this inconvenience, when you bespeak the box, direct that the
inside, instead of being lined with pasted paper or calico, shall be
planed smooth, and either stained of some colour, or left the natural
tint of the wood. It is best that the tray should have a _close_ bottom
of strong linen. When there are only strips nailed across, (like open
lattice-work,) the small articles laid upon them are always falling
through.

A small bandbox can be easily carried _inside_ of a trunk or box,
keeping it steady by filling in heavy articles closely round it. The
best way of securing a bandbox-lid, is to have a hole made in the rim or
top of the lid, and a corresponding hole in the side of the bandbox,
near its cover. Through each of these holes pass a string of ribbon or
ferret; securing one end by a large knot inside, and leaving the other
end outside; so that you can tie them together in a bow-knot. It is best
to have two pair of these strings, one pair on each side of the bandbox.

Let your whole name (not merely the initials) be painted in white or
yellow letters on each of your travelling trunks or boxes; and also the
name of the town in which you live. Have also your name and residence
painted in black on the leather part of your carpet-bag.

If you are clever at lettering, you can mark your trunks yourself with a
small brush and a saucer of ready-mixed paint, which you may buy at a
paint-shop for a few cents. The more conspicuously your baggage is
lettered, the less liable you are to lose it. To make it still more
easily distinguished, tie on the handles of each article a bit of
ribbon; the same colour on every one--for instance, all blue or all red.

On returning home, let all the travelling cases, bags, straps, keys,
&c., be kept together in one trunk; so that when preparing for your next
journey you may know exactly where to find them.


A RIBBON SACK.--These bags are quite pretty, and very convenient for a
short journey, or a visit of a day or two in the country. While on the
journey, they are to be carried in the hand, and may contain whatever is
necessary for a short absence from home; for instance, clean
night-clothes, tightly rolled up; stockings; handkerchiefs; sewing
materials; books, &c. To make a ribbon sack, take five or six pieces of
_very_ broad, very thick, strong ribbon; each piece at least
three-quarters of a yard in length. Sew all these stripes closely
together, with very strong sewing-silk. Then fold or double this piece
of joined ribbons, leaving one end half a finger longer than the other.
Sew up the two sides as you would a pillow-case, so as to form a square
sack with a flap to turn over at the top. Round off, with your scissors,
both corners of this flap, so as to make its edge semicircular. Then
bind the top or mouth all round (flap and straight-sides) with thick
velvet ribbon of a dark colour. Cover, with the same velvet ribbon, a
very thick strong cotton cord about three quarters of a yard in length;
and sew its two ends to the tops of the side-seams; so as to form an
arched handle like that of a basket. Work an upright button-hole near
the edge of the flap, and sew on a handsome button to meet it, a little
below the straight edge of the bag’s mouth. If the ribbon is very thick
and strong (broad belt-ribbon for instance) no lining will be necessary.
Also, no lining is required if the sack is of stout old-fashioned
brocade. No other sort of silk will be strong enough without a lining.


A LADY’S SHOE-BAG.--Take a piece of strong linen or ticking. Fold or
double it so as to leave a flap to turn over at the top. Then, with very
strong thread, stitch the bag into compartments--each division large
enough to contain, easily, a pair of shoes. Next sew up the sides, and
bind the flap with broad tape. Put strings or buttons to the flap so as
to tie it down. The shoes, when put in, must be laid together with the
heel of one to the toe of the other; and if they are slippers with
strings, tie the strings closely round both. These shoe-bags are very
convenient when you are travelling.


A BOOT-BAG.--Take a piece of very strong brown linen or Russia sheeting;
about a yard in length, and three-quarters wide. Fold it in the form of
a pillow-case, and sew up the sides; leaving it at the open or top-end
about a finger’s length (or four inches) longer at the back than at the
front, so as to turn over like a flap. Hem this flap. Take two pieces of
strong twilled tape, each about a yard or more in length. Double each
tape in the middle, so as to make a double string. Sew these strings on
one edge of the turn-over or flap, about half a quarter of a yard apart.
Having rolled up each boot, put them, side by side, into the bag. Pull
down the flap over the opening or mouth; bring round the strings; and
tie them tightly. The boots can thus be carried in a trunk or
carpet-bag, without injuring other articles.


A TOWEL-CASE.--Travellers often complain much of the difficulty of
procuring nice towels, in steamboats, at country inns, and at taverns in
remote places. This inconvenience may easily be obviated by putting a
few of your own towels into your trunk. In case of being obliged to
proceed on your journey before your towels are dry, take with you, on
leaving home, a square oil-cloth or oiled silk case or bag, made like a
large pocket-book with a flap to fold over, and to fasten down with two
or more buttons and loops. Having squeezed your wet towels as dry as you
can, fold or roll them into as small a compass as possible; and put them
into the case. Before you go to bed, take them out, and hang them about
your room to dry.

In this towel-case there maybe separate compartments for tooth-brushes,
soap, and a sponge.


CONVENIENT HAIR-BRUSHES.--We highly recommend to travellers those
hair-brushes that have a looking-glass at the back, with a comb fixed on
a pivot, and concealed beneath the mirror, so as to be drawn out when
wanted. Those of black buffalo horn are the strongest. With one of these
you may always have a comb and a small mirror at hand, all three
occupying no more space than a simple hair-brush.


A TRAVELLING-CASE FOR COMBS AND BRUSHES.--Get about three-quarters of a
yard of strong oiled silk of the best quality--double it--leaving one
side, at the top, about half a quarter longer than the other, so as to
fold over like a flap. Sew it strongly up, at the bottom and sides, with
a felled seam. Then stitch it lengthways into compartments, like an
old-fashioned thread-case--except that the divisions must differ in
size; taking care to make each division rather large, that the articles
may go in easily, and not rub against each other. Make one compartment
large enough to contain a hair-brush; allot another to a comb; others to
tooth-brushes; one to a nail-brush; one to a clasp-knife; one to a pair
of scissors; one to a vial of lavender or camphor; one to a sponge; and
another to a cake of soap; and a large one to hold a towel. In short,
make the divisions according to the size and number of useful articles
you require in travelling. Sew two pair of strings to the flap, and tie
them fast when the articles are all in. Let your name be marked on the
outside of the flap.

This bag may be made of strong linen, or ticking. But oiled silk is
better, as you can then put into it tooth-brushes and sponges when quite
wet. If of oiled silk, let there be one compartment large enough to hold
a wet towel. It is well in travelling always to take with you some
towels of your own; and if after using them there is no time for drying,
you can roll them up and carry them away wet, if you have furnished
yourself with an oiled silk bag.


TO CARRY INK WHEN TRAVELLING.--Have ready a small square bag of oiled
silk, or thick buckskin, with a narrow tape string sewed on near the
top. Buy a small six-cent vial of good ink. The vial must be broad and
short with a flat bottom; so that it will stand alone, and answer the
purpose of an ink-stand. If the seal on the cork has been cut away, get
a longer and better cork, and wedge it in as tightly as possible. Cut
off a finger-end from an old kid glove; put it over the cork, and draw
it down closely till it covers both the top and the neck of the bottle,
tying it on tightly with narrow tape. Then wrap the bottle in double
blotting-paper, and put it into the little oil-cloth bag, securing the
top well. To prevent all possibility of accidents, from ink stains, do
not pack the ink-bottle in a trunk with your clothing, but keep it in
your travelling-basket or reticule. _We know_ that ink thus secured has
been carried many hundred miles, with the convenience of being always at
hand to write with, whenever wanted, in a steamboat or at a
stopping-place. The best way of carrying quill-pens is in a pasteboard
pen-case, to be had at the stationers for a trifle. Steel-pens may be
wrapped in soft paper twisted at each end.

We highly recommend a neat and convenient article called a travelling
escritoir. It occupies no more space than a cake of scented soap, and is
so ingeniously contrived as to contain a small ink-bottle with a lid so
close-fitting as to be perfectly safe; a pen-holder; a piece of
sealing-wax; a wax taper; and some lucifer matches with sand-paper to
ignite them on the bottom of the box. The whole apparatus can be safely
carried in the pocket, or in a ladies reticule, or it may be put into a
travelling-desk. It is to be purchased in Philadelphia, at Maurice
Bywater’s stationery store, No. 151 Walnut street, near Fifth. We know
nothing better for the purpose; and the cost is trifling.


BONNETS.--Before you send a straw bonnet to be whitened, it will be well
to remove whatever stains or grease marks may be upon it. Do this
_yourself_, as many professed bonnet-cleaners are either unacquainted
with the best methods, or careless of taking the trouble; and will tell
you, afterwards, that these blemishes _would not_ come out. You can
easily remove grease marks from a straw, leghorn, or Florence braid
bonnet, by rubbing the place with a sponge dipped in _fresh_ camphine
oil; or by wetting it with warm water, and then plastering on some
scraped Wilmington clay, or grease-ball; letting it rest half an hour,
and then repeating the application till the grease has disappeared.
Magnesia rubbed on dry will frequently remove grease spots, if not very
bad. To take out stains, discoloured marks, or mildew, moisten slightly
with warm water some stain powder composed of equal portions of salt of
sorrel and cream of tartar, well mixed together. Rub on this mixture
with your finger. Let it rest awhile; then brush it off, and rub on more
of the powder. When the stain has disappeared, wash off the powder,
immediately, and thoroughly, with warm water. By previously using these
applications, no trace of grease or stain will remain on the bonnet,
after it has undergone the process of whitening and pressing in the
usual manner.

In cleaning straw bonnets it is best to give them as much gloss and
stiffening as possible. The gloss will prevent dust from sticking to the
surface, and the stiffness will render them less liable to get out of
shape when worn in damp weather. For a similar reason, the wire round
the inside of the edge should _in all bonnets_ be very thick and stout.
If the wire is too thin, even the wind will blow the brim out of shape.

An excellent way of cleaning and whitening straw or leghorn bonnets may
be found in the House Book, page 67.

In lining bonnets, always fit the lining on the _outside_ of the brim.
It is not only the least troublesome way, but the most certain of
success. Nothing is more disfiguring to a bonnet than an uneven puckered
lining--left too loose in some places, and stretched too tight in
others. If the lining is drawn more to one side than the other, the
brim will always set crookedly round the face. The best way, is first to
fit upon the _outside_ of the bonnet-front, a piece of thin, soft, white
paper, pinning it on smoothly and evenly, with numerous pins. Then cut
it the proper shape; allowing it rather more than an inch all round
larger than the brim. From this paper cut out the silk lining; allowing
still more for turning in at the edges, on account of the silk
ravelling. Then (having notched the edge of the lining all round) baste
it on the inside of the brim, and try it on before the glass, previous
to sewing it in permanently. See that it is perfectly smooth and even
throughout. A white silk bonnet-lining should be of the most decided
white, (a dead white, as it is called,) for if it has the least tinge of
pearl, rose, blue or yellowish-white, it will be unbecoming to any face
or complexion. Straw bonnets are frequently lined with white crape or
tarletane.

The lining of a silk or velvet bonnet should always be put in _before_
the brim is sewed to the crown.

In trimming a bonnet, after the bows, bands, &c., have all been arranged
with pins, sew them on with a needle and thread; and afterwards withdraw
the pins. If pins are allowed to remain in, they leave a greenish speck
wherever they have been; besides denting the straw, and probably tearing
it. Also, sew on the flowers, after you have arranged them to your
satisfaction.

Bonnet strings when somewhat soiled may be cleaned by rubbing them with
scraped Wilmington clay, or grease-ball, or else magnesia. Roll them on
a ribbon-block with the clay upon them; let them rest a few hours; then
brush off that clay, and put on some fresh. Roll the ribbon again on the
block, and leave it till next day. You will find it look much cleaner.
It is well always to buy an extra yard, or yard and a half of ribbon, to
replace with new ones the bonnet strings when soiled.

To keep the bows of a bonnet in shape when put away in the bandbox, fill
out each bow by placing rolls of wadding inside of all the loops.

A piece of thin oiled silk introduced between the lining and the
outside, partly beneath the upper part of the brim, and partly at the
lower part of the crown, will prevent any injury to the bonnet from
perspiration of the head, or oiliness of the hair.

In bespeaking a bonnet of a milliner, always request her to send you the
frame to try on, before she covers it; that you may see if it fits.

When a bonnet is to be sent to a distant place in wooden box,
(_bandboxes_ should never _visibly_ travel,) to keep the bonnet steady,
and prevent its tumbling or knocking about, sew very securely to the
brim and back, some bits of strong tape, and fasten the other end of
each bit of tape to the floor of the box, with _very small_ tack nails.
Fill all the loops and bows with wadding as above mentioned. A bonnet
thus secured may travel uninjured from Maine to Texas.


TO KEEP A BONNET WHITE.--If you have a white velvet or silk bonnet that
looks well enough to wear a second season, lay beside it in the bandbox
a cake of white wax, (such as you get at an apothecary’s for sixpence or
a shilling,) cover the bandbox closely, and do not on any account open
it till you are about to take the bonnet again into wear. You will then
find the cake of wax much discoloured, but the bonnet as white as ever.
Shawls of white silk or canton crape, or indeed any white articles, may
be kept in the same manner by putting a cake of white wax in the box
with them, and not opening it so as to admit the external air, till the
season for wearing them has returned.

In bespeaking bandboxes, desire that they shall not be lined with white
paper. A lining of the coarsest brown paper is far preferable for
preserving either the colours or the whiteness of any articles that are
kept in them. The chloride of lime used in manufacturing white paper is
very injurious to the colours of silks, and frequently causes in them
spots and stains. The very coarse thick brown paper made of old ropes is
far better; as the tar remaining about it partakes somewhat of the
qualities of turpentine, and is therefore a preservative to colours.

White ribbons, blonds, &c., should be kept wound on ribbon-blocks, and
wrapped in the coarse brown iron-monger’s paper.


WHALEBONES AND HOOKS.--The whalebones for dresses should always be
perfectly straight, for if crooked they draw the body crooked wherever
they are, and give it a warped or puckered look. Let them be stout also;
for if thin, they curve and break. In cutting them of the desired
length, round off and smooth the edge of both ends; for if left rough,
square, or sharp they will very soon pierce through the dress. If you
case them in linen or twilled tape, make the covering double, for about
an inch at each end; and sew them on to the body-lining with very strong
thread or silk. Secure them firmly and steadily at both ends, so that
they may not slip up and down, and rub through to the outside of the
body. For fastening dresses never use those hooks that have a sort of
bulb, or that spread out near the point. They catch very badly, and are
troublesome both to fasten and unfasten. Do not put black hooks on
dresses that are to be washed, as they cause iron-mould. When a dress
comes home from the wash with any of the hooks flattened in ironing,
raise or open them by inserting beneath the hook the points of your
scissors.

See that not a particle of _coloured_ lining is introduced anywhere
about a dress that is to be washed. No coloured lining-muslin will wash
at all; but its colour or dye will run and streak the outside of the
dress so as to spoil it. However dark a washable dress may be, the
lining should be _entirely_ of white linen or brown holland; the
smallest bit of coloured muslin will spoil it when washed.

On no consideration let even a dark or black chintz dress have any black
cotton cord about it; as when it comes from the wash it will be ruined
with black streaks, from the dye of the cord.


CUTTING OUT PATTERNS.--In taking the pattern or cutting out the shape of
a cape, pelerine, mantilla, or any other article of dress, instead of
using a newspaper for that purpose, (according to the general custom,)
cut the pattern in coarse, low-priced muslin or calico. Then with a
needle and thread sew or run all the different parts together, so that
you can try it on and see if it fits, or if any alteration will be
necessary in suiting it to your own figure. Cut out the _whole_ of the
pattern, and not merely the half; otherwise you will not be able to try
it on conveniently. The stiffness of paper and its liability to tear,
render it far less suitable for pattern-cutting than coarse muslin;
which, if not already in the house, can be bought for a mere trifle.


TO HEM BOBBINET.--In making a collar, pelerine, cape, scarf, or any
article of bobbinet, you may hem it so as to prevent the usual
inconvenience and disfigurement of the edges stretching out of shape
after being washed, starched, and ironed. After turning down the hem,
lay a _very small_ cotton cord into the upper or extreme edge of the
hem, and with a fine needle and thread secure the cord by running it
closely along with short stitches. Having done this, lay a second small
cord into the other edge, or the edge that is to be hemmed down. It is
well worth the trouble of thus going twice round with a cord at each
edge of the hem; which in consequence will remain ever firm and straight
after the article has been washed.

When any part of a bobbinet article is cut bias, or rounded in a
semicircle, it will be best, instead of hemming, to face the edge with a
bias slip of the same material, having a covered cording sewed in; as in
binding or facing the edge of a cape or pelerine. Without this
precaution, the bias or rounded edge will lose all shape in being
ironed. If new bobbinet is very stiff and full of creases, let it be
damped and ironed before it is cut out. As bobbinet shrinks much in
washing, every thing made of it should be allowed full large. It may be
shrunk before cutting out, by dipping it into a pan or tub of cold
water. As soon as it is wet all through, take it out and squeeze it with
your hands till it ceases entirely to drip. Then open, stretch, and pull
it, till you get it all straight and even. Next, fold it up smoothly,
and wrap it in a clean towel. It will be ready for ironing by the time
an iron can be heated; first trying the iron on something very thin.

A bobbinet, or any clear muslin dress should have the hems and tucks
drawn out before washing; renewing them after the dress is done up. The
dress will never look well, if washed and clear-starched with the hem,
&c., remaining in.


TO STRENGTHEN THE HEM OF A SILK DRESS.--In silk dresses the edge of the
hem at the bottom of the skirt is apt to wear out (or cut as it is
called) very soon, and look faggled or ravelled. To prevent this, get
some broad strong silk braid of the same colour as the dress, or a
little darker, (but on no account lighter,) and run it on to the edge,
on both sides, like a binding; with strong silk, and short close
stitches.


TO MAKE A COAT-DRESS OR GOWN SIT IN CLOSELY TO THE WAIST.--On finishing
the dress, take about a yard and a half (more or less) of rather broad
twilled tape. Sew the tape strongly in three places to the lower
extremity of the inside of the back, exactly where the body joins the
skirt; using sewing-silk the colour of the dress. The tape must be
fastened precisely in the middle, and at each of the side seams of the
back. When you put on the dress, bring the tape round (pulling it
downwards as you do so) and tie it in front under the skirt, and just
below the termination of the fore-body. By drawing the dress closely
into the waist, it makes the back look hollow, and is a great
improvement to the figure.


CORDING DRESSES.--A dress that is to be washed, should be corded with
the same material. A merino or mousseline de laine, if corded with silk,
will be disfigured, after washing, by the silk _always_ fading and
making the dress look old. But a balzorine or barege had best be corded
with silk, as they rarely bear washing, and the material is so slight
that, if used for cording, it will fray and wear off almost directly.
The silk should be of the darkest colour in the dress. Satin should
always be corded with silk, (and silk of the best quality,) as satin
cording ravels and frays immediately. Velvet also should have silk
cording.


DIRECTIONS FOR WORKING SLIPPERS.--Half a yard of canvas is a full
pattern for a large pair of slippers. If the canvas is of extra width,
three quarters of a yard will make two pair. It is well to get your
shoemaker to cut out for you the size and form, in a piece of paper.
They will look _immensely large_ before they are made up, but will not
be found so afterwards.

Coloured engravings of slipper patterns are for sale in all the worsted
and trimming stores. In making your selections, it is best to avoid
those patterns that have white in them; as the white crewel will look
soiled very soon, and give a dirty appearance to the whole slipper. You
may, however, contrive to substitute for the white stitches the palest
possible tints of pink, blue, or yellow.

To work one pair of slippers, you will require from fifteen to twenty
skeins of crewel. In selecting the crewel, place beside you the pattern,
that you may match the tints with it; choosing them so as to correspond
precisely with those in the coloured engraving. It is best to go
_exactly_ by the pattern. If varied according to your own fancy, they
will rarely look as well as when done in precise conformity to the taste
and judgment of the practised artist, who has designed the plate and its
colouring. Generally speaking, you should have _at least_ from four to
six shades of each colour; the darkest to be nearly black, the lightest
nearly white; otherwise the effect will be dull and indistinct. Strong
lights and shades are always of importance to brightness and beauty;
even in worked slippers.

Wind the crewels, separately, in balls; and have a sufficient number of
needles, so as to appropriate a needle to every shade. The needles must
be large and blunt-pointed. Keep beside you, while working, something in
which to stick the needles you are not using at the moment. A very
simple and convenient thing for this purpose, is an empty gallicup, with
a blank piece of canvas stretched flat, and tied tightly over the top.
Stick the needles into this canvas; it is better than a pin-cushion.

Slippers (like all other worsted work) should be done in a frame, the
canvas stretched tightly; and tacked firmly in, with strong thread. Keep
the pattern beside you all the time you are working; and follow every
stitch precisely. Do the central part first; next the heel part; and
then fill up with groundwork all the vacant space within the outline.
The usual way is to work them in common cross-stitch; but if done in
tent-stitch or queen-stitch, the slippers will be more elastic, much
softer, and will take a smaller quantity of crewel. When you have
finished working them, have the slippers made up by a very good
shoemaker. They will last a long time.

Instead of canvas, you may work slippers on fine broad-cloth, such as is
used for gentlemen’s coats. Cloth slippers require no filling up with
groundwork; having only a cluster of flowers in the centre, and a small
running-pattern round the heel. You must baste upon the cloth a bit of
canvas, a little larger than the space to be occupied by the flowers.
Work the flowers upon this; taking every stitch quite through both the
canvas and the cloth beneath it. When done, pull out the threads of the
canvas from under the stitches, (they can be drawn out very easily,) and
the flowers will remain in their proper form upon the cloth. This method
of working slippers saves time, trouble, and crewel; yet they will be
found less durable than if worked entirely on canvas, and with the whole
ground filled up by crewel-stitches; cloth wearing out much sooner than
worked canvas.

When preparing to work slippers, do not have them previously cut out, as
it will cause the canvas or cloth to stretch all round, and will spoil
their shape; besides being very troublesome to keep straight and even
while working. Having obtained from your shoemaker a paper or shape,
(allowed _extremely_ large,) lay it down on the canvas, and mark out the
form and size by a pen or pencil outline.

Cloth slippers braided in a handsome pattern with coloured braid, look
much better and are done far more expeditiously than when worked in
crewel.

Bands or rims for velvet caps look very well when braided. The braid may
be gold or silver.


TO WORK MERINO IN CROSS-STITCH.--If you determine to work merino in
cross-stitch, in the common manner of worsted work, have ready a pattern
accurately drawn and coloured, so as to represent the place and tint of
every stitch; and keep it before you to look at. Having marked out, with
a dot, the place for every sprig, baste _over_ each place a bit of very
fine canvas, leaving the raw edge. On this canvas work the sprigs;
carefully taking up with every stitch the merino beneath, as well as the
canvas above it. Avoid drawing your hand too tight. When done, pull out,
thread by thread, the canvas from under the needle-work; so as to leave
the sprig resting on the merino only. This you will find a much more
easy process than it appears on description. Have a number of needles,
one for every different shade, and thread them all in advance. A tumbler
or gallicup with a piece of canvas stretched tightly, and tied down over
the top, is a very convenient thing to have beside you to stick your
threaded needles in, when working worsted.


TO BRAID MERINO DRESSES OR CLOAKS FOR CHILDREN.--Patterns for braiding
should be as continuous as possible, so as to avoid frequent cutting off
and fastening on of the braid. These patterns should have nothing in
them that stops short; all the parts following and entwining, so as to
connect with each other.

For braiding, the dress must be cut out first, and the breadths sewed
together, so that the border may run smoothly and regularly along,
without any breaks or ill-joined places. Wind your braid upon cards or
corks, and reserve a sufficiency for raveling to sew on the rest with;
which is far better than to sew it on with silk thread, as, of course,
the raveling matches the colour so exactly as to render the stitches
imperceptible. The braid reserved for raveling should be cut into the
usual length of needle-fulls; then ravelled, and put into long
thread-papers.

Having drawn the pattern on a strip of stiff white paper, prick it all
along, according to its form or outline, with large, close pin-holes.
Then lay or baste it on the merino. Take some pounce, (gum-sandarac
finely powdered and sifted,) and with your finger rub it along the
pricked outline of the paper-pattern. On removing the paper, you will
find that the pounce-powder, going through the pin-holes, will have
traced the pattern in small dots on the merino. This will be a guide in
sewing on the braid, which should be run on, with short, close stitches.
A double row of braid, the inner or right-hand row a _much darker_ shade
than the first, has a raised or relieved look, which is very pretty;
particularly when the second row is of the same colour as the merino or
ground, but of an infinitely darker shade.

If you cannot match the merino with a braid exactly similar, select,
always, one of a darker rather than a lighter shade. A light-coloured
merino looks very well with a braiding of the same colour, but of a
shade _considerably_ darker. Gray, fawn-colour, or scarlet merino
appears to advantage braided with black; so, also, does light blue or
pale lilac. Salmon-colour looks well with purple braiding; and dark
brown braided with light blue or pink. The lining of a child’s cloak
should be of the same colour as the braiding.

Braiding can be done with great ease and expedition. A child’s dress or
cloak may be braided in two days, or less.

Cloth slippers look very well braided in shaded patterns, with the rows
of braid so close as to touch each other.

Cloth covers for tabourets or stools can be braided so as to look
infinitely handsomer and richer than those worked in worsted on canvas.
They should have a border all round, with corner-pieces, and a central
pattern in the middle; all which can be done beautifully in close
braiding. The pattern must be defined on the cloth by first drawing it
with a pen and ink on white paper; then pricking the outline with a
large pin, and laying pounce-powder along the pricked outline, so that
the powder may fall through the holes, and thus trace it on the cloth,
in the manner before mentioned.


DIRECTIONS FOR EMBROIDERING MERINO.--Merino dresses are usually worked
in small sprigs, representing a little flower or bud, with two or three
green leaves. Blue, lilac, or purple flowers have generally a more
tasteful effect for this purpose than red or yellow ones. They will be
sufficiently brightened by a shaded yellow spot in the centre. A
beautiful sprig may be formed entirely of leaves, some of them
comprising different tints of green, and others of brown. Three green
leaves, with two brown ones at the bottom of the sprig, look exceedingly
well on a gray merino; also, on a scarlet, crimson, or cherry-coloured
ground. Mourning-gray should have black sprigs only. Gold-coloured
flowers, if properly shaded, look well on purple, dark brown, or dark
slate-coloured merino; but blue or lilac will look better still. Blue
and brown harmonize well; also very light blue and very dark purple.
Pink flowers look best on a dark olive ground. Blue and red should never
come together in a dress. The effect of all sprigs, spots, or stars will
be greatly improved by working, on the _right hand_ of each, a shadow of
a colour similar to the merino, but of a _much darker_ shade. This dark
shade along the right-hand side will give the sprig a relieved or raised
appearance; and, if well done, will make it look almost as if you could
take it up with your fingers. Executed by a skilful embroidress, or by
one who is a proficient in drawing, this mode of producing a shadow,
that seems to come from behind the sprig, will be found extremely
beautiful. We are surprised that is not more generally known and
practised.

Previous to working a dress, it is well to have the breadths of the
skirts measured, and cut apart. The remainder, of course, is to be
reserved for the body, sleeves, and pelerine; but do not have these
parts fitted and cut out before embroidering. Though by that means you
may save the trouble of doing a few unnecessary sprigs, you will lose
more than you will gain; for the pieces, if cut out, will stretch out of
shape, and ravel at the edges, so that it will be very difficult to put
them _well_ together when wanted. Also, if previously cut out into their
respective shapes, the pieces cannot well be worked in a frame, which is
always the best way of doing embroidery.

You may work the dress with either soft-twisted silk, (not too fine,) or
with Berlin wool or crewel. If worked with silk, it cannot possibly be
washed to look well. _Floss_ silk should never be used for this or any
other embroidery, as, though it fills up well, and looks beautifully at
first, it almost immediately wears rough and fuzzy. Embroidery-stitch is
far more elegant than cross-stitch, having none of its stiffness,
hardness, and ungracefulness; and being, besides, more easy,
expeditious, and manageable; and capable of a far greater diversity of
forms.

Prepare on a pasteboard drawing-card, an exact pattern of the sprig,
drawn and coloured precisely as it is to be worked; and you may put a
dark back-ground behind one side of the sprig, of exactly the same tint
as the merino. Mark the distances of the sprigs by measuring their
places on the merino with a pair of compasses, (often called dividers,)
or by means of a piece of card. Designate the place of each sprig by a
dot with a red or white chalk pencil; the dot being the centre of the
sprig. Rub, on a saucer, some water-colour paint of any colour that will
show plainly on the merino, (which should first be stretched in a
frame.) If you cannot get a frame, or prefer working on your hand,
baste, under the place occupied by each sprig, a small circular bit of
stiff writing-paper; and be careful, while working, not to catch up the
paper with the stitches of your needle. When done, remove the paper, and
the sprigs will look smooth and even. If you attempt to work it merely
on your hand, with no paper beneath, it is impossible to prevent its
puckering and drawing up.

Fine embroidery must be worked with extremely close stitches in rows or
ridges. Every other stitch should be short, and every other one long. In
every row, the alternate long and short stitches should fit in, by
extending a little beyond those of the neighbouring row, so as to blend
well. If you have no knowledge of drawing, get your pattern-sprig done
by some person that draws well, and that is familiar with the effect of
lights and shades.

If your dress is to have a belt of the same, you may work a long strip
of merino for that purpose; the pattern being so arranged that the
flowers will form a close row or straight wreath. Allow this strip of
merino full wide, so that there may be an ample sufficiency for turning
in at the edges. Sleeve-bands, also, may be worked in this way.

A two-yard-square of merino, embroidered in coloured flowers, and
trimmed with a deep fringe, makes a beautiful shawl. On a dark brown or
purple merino, flowers entirely of shaded blue, with light brown leaves
and stalks interspersed among the green ones, will have a beautiful
effect; very superior to the common tasteless and gaudy calico-style of
introducing flowers of all colours--red, blue, and yellow. An olive
merino shawl may have pink flowers entirely; a slate, or dark gray, or a
purple will look well with rich gold-coloured flowers. In all
flower-borders, the introduction of brown leaves among the green will be
a decided improvement. If the merino is _light_ brown, or light gray, or
_pale_ olive, the flowers may be scarlet, cherry-colour, or crimson. For
a black merino, the embroidery should be of shaded gray.

Keep beside you, while working, a number of needles threaded with all
the different shades of silk, and stuck in a flat pin-cushion, or
something similar, so as to be always ready for use.


EMBROIDERY ON BOTH SIDES.--For this purpose, the embroidery-frame must
be placed in a perpendicular or upright position, and two persons
employed together; both equally skilled in needle-work. Get a carpenter
to make an upright stand, somewhat in the form of a towel-rail, and
about the usual height of a work-table; having broad feet, that it may
stand steadily, and a broad cross-bar just above them, and a shelf at
the top, on which to lay the needle-cushions, silk balls, &c., with a
raised ledge on each side of the shelf, to prevent their rolling off.
At each end of this shelf there must be slits down, into which put the
upright ends of the embroidery-frame, secured with wooden pegs.

We will suppose that the article to be embroidered the same on both
sides, is a plain canton-crape shawl, or a square of merino _intended_
for a shawl. Stretch the shawl tightly in the embroidery-frame, sewing
it strongly to the linen; the pattern having been drawn on both sides
with a camel’s-hair pencil dipped in water-colour paint, of a tint a
little darker than the shawl. The two ladies who are to work it, must
sit one on each side; and as one sticks in the needle, the other must
draw it through, and stick it in for the next stitch; to be drawn
through by her companion. The fastenings on and off must be neatly
concealed under the stitches. By thus working together, (each
alternately sticking in and drawing out the same needle,) both sides
will, of course, be embroidered _exactly_ alike, so that not the
slightest difference can be perceptible. It is in this manner that
canton-crape shawls are embroidered in China. The sewing-silk must be of
the best quality, not too fine or slack-twisted. Floss-silk will not do
at all.


EMBROIDERING STANDARDS.--Military standards have been successfully
embroidered in the above manner. They should be made of _very thick_,
strong India silk, satin not being the same on both sides. Instead of
sewing-silk, standards had best be worked with chenille, such as comes
on purpose for embroidering. Have a needle for every shade. An
embroidered standard should always be copied from a painted model,
executed by an artist; the model to stand in such a position that each
of the two embroiderers may see it all the time. An outline of the model
must be drawn on the silk. The most durable colour for a standard is
deep blue. Part of the embroidery (stars, for instance) may be done in
gold or silver thread.


FINE COLOURING FOR ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS.--For light blue and pink, buy, at
a drug or paint store, what are called blue saucers and pink saucers.
They contain the most beautiful tints of these colours. To use them,
take a large clean camel’s-hair pencil, and dipping it into some water,
liquefy a portion of the paint that is on the saucer, till you get the
exact tint you desire. When you have enough, pour off the liquid into a
teacup, and add a _small_ drop of lemon-juice to each tea-spoonful of
the colour. The lemon-juice (if used properly) will brighten and set the
colour; and is indeed superior to any thing else for this purpose. But
_too much_ of this, or any other acid, will destroy the colour entirely.
Therefore be very careful in employing it; though no colouring for
artificial flowers will be bright and clear without the addition of
_some little_ acid. Put the book-muslin, jaconet, white silk, or
whatever materials the flowers are to be made of, into the cup of liquid
dye; and when the muslin has thoroughly imbibed the colour, take it out,
stretch it evenly, and dry it in the shade. Then press it with an iron
_entirely cold_. A mixture of colour from both the blue and pink saucers
will make lilac.

_For a yellow colour._--Get six cents’ worth of saffron; put it into a
bowl, and pour on cold water, in quantity according to the deepness or
vividness of the tint that you wish. When it has infused sufficiently,
pour off the liquid; and, in proportion to its quantity, add to it,
carefully, four, five, or six drops of lemon-juice.

_For green._--Buy, at a druggist’s, one ounce of French berries. Put a
tea-spoonful of them into a common-sized tea-cup of boiling water.
Cover it, and let it infuse half an hour or more. Then (having poured it
off) add to the liquid (according to its quantity) about five or six
drops of lemon-juice. This infusion of French berries makes a bright
grass-green. To render it lighter, add some saffron yellow. To make it
darker, put to it some blue from the blue saucer.

_For a brown dye._--Infuse, in cold water, some pieces of bark from the
white or black walnut tree; exposing it for several days to the sun and
air, while it is soaking.

_Crimson._--You may make a beautiful crimson for shading artificial
flowers with a camel’s-hair pencil, by taking some of the fresh petals
of the piony, when the flower is in full bloom. Lay them on a plate, and
mash and press them with the back of a silver spoon, till you have
extracted as much of their red juice as you want. To about twelve drops
of the piony-juice, add one small drop of lemon-juice; and use the
colour for _shading_ the flowers, not for dyeing them.

_For a bright red shading._--Press out, in the above manner, the juice
of full-blown bergamot flowers; adding, also, (as above,) a drop of
lemon-juice to brighten and set the colour.

_Blue shading._--A beautiful blue shading can be obtained by pressing
and mashing on a plate, the flower-leaves of the common blue flag or
iris; adding, always, a very little lemon-juice. With this, and a
camel’s-hair pencil, you can put the shades and streaks into blue
flowers, whose first tint has been dyed from the blue saucer.

A mixture of crimson piony-juice, and blue flag-juice, will make a fine
purple for shading.

When a little touch of dark brown or black is required for flowers, dip
into water the end of a cake of umber, bistre, or indian ink, from a
colour-box; rub the paint on a plate, and apply it with a camel’s-hair
pencil.

All these dyes and shading colours for artificial flowers will (_as we
know_) be found beautiful on trial. An exact knowledge of the precise
proportions of the colouring materials cannot, however, be correctly
obtained without a little practice.


DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A TABOURET.--A tabouret is a square stool, tall
enough for a grown person to sit on, and about the usual height of a
chair. Get a carpenter to make a strong square box of well-seasoned
wood, planed smooth both inside and out. Instead of having the lid or
cover-piece _exactly_ at the top, it should be placed below it, four or
five inches down the inside, so as to leave a vacant space between
itself and the upper edges of the box; to the sides of which it must be
well secured, either with glue, or with small headless tack-nails. The
wooden bottom of the box must be placed two or three inches up, so as to
leave a space at each end of the lower corners for concealed castors,
that will cause the tabouret to be moved easily on the carpet.

The carpenter’s part of the work being thus accomplished, the remainder
of the tabouret can be easily completed by the ladies of the family, and
at far less cost than if done by an upholsterer. We have seen beautiful
tabourets made in this manner, and looking as if made entirely at a
shop.

Get about seven or eight yards of strong, broad, very stout webbing,
such as is used by saddlers or trunk-makers. You may either procure it
of _them_, or at one of the large fringe stores. Nail the webbing to the
upper edges of the box, across the vacant top, so as to interlace in
small open squares. This is to give elasticity to the seat when
finished. Make a square cushion of thick, strong brown linen; allowing
it, each way, three or four inches larger than the top of the box; as
the linen will take up that much, at least, in sewing and stuffing. Sew
the linen strongly round three sides, and leave the fourth open, for
putting in the stuffing. Then stuff it, hard and evenly, with curled
horse-hair, which you may obtain at a cabinet-maker’s or an
upholsterer’s. Afterwards, cover this cushion with damask, cloth,
velvet, or some other handsome and durable article, and bind the edges
all round. Next cover the four sides of the exterior of the box with the
same material as the outside covering of the cushion; stretching it on
very tightly and smoothly, and securing it to the wood with small
tack-nails. While one person is driving in the nails, another must hold
the box fast, and stretch and smooth the covering. When this has been
neatly accomplished, nail on the cushion to the top edge of the box,
above the webbing; hammering the tacks into the binding. Finish by
tacking a handsome fringe all round the cushion, so as to conceal the
binding. If you cannot get a fringe _exactly_ the colour of the outside
cover, choose one that is a good contrast,--either much darker or much
lighter. A light blue tabouret may have purple, brown, black, or deep
orange-coloured fringe. One of crimson or scarlet may have a fringe of
black, dark green, or gold-colour. For a green tabouret, the fringe may
be black, purple, or lilac. A brown or purple tabouret may have a light
blue or gold-coloured fringe. A gray one may be fringed with dark brown,
dark green, or purple. Light blue may be fringed with a very dark blue;
light green with a very dark green; pink with crimson; light brown with
a very dark brown; and bright scarlet with _very deep_ crimson. You may
suspend, all round, deep festoons of thick, rich cord, corresponding
with the fringe; one festoon to hang at each of the four sides. The
corners may be finished with long tassels.

In a similar manner, you can make an excellent and handsome footstool,
employing a carpenter to construct the frame or box.

The footstool may be covered with rich carpeting, trimmed with worsted
fringe.


THE SUMMER HEARTH.--Summer blowers, of handsomely ornamented iron, are
now much used to conceal the empty coal-grates, during the season of
warm weather. Like chimney-boards, they render the room very close, by
entirely excluding the fresh air that may enter from the chimney.
Certainly, in a bed-chamber, it is best that the fire-place should
always be left entirely open. A frame made to fit in exactly, and having
open slats, like a Venetian door, is a good screen for a summer-hearth.
These screens are best when divided down the middle, like a pair of
Venetian shutters; one or both of which may be left open at night, if in
a sleeping room. To sleep in a room from whence all external air is
entirely excluded, cannot be otherwise than prejudicial to health; and
rarely fails, sooner or later, to undermine the constitution. Many
people accustom themselves to sleep with the window-sash farthest from
the bed a little open all the year round, (except when the rain or snow
comes in that direction;) and in consequence of having acquired this
salutary habit, these persons rarely take cold from any exposure to a
draught of air. On this subject, the author can adduce the evidence of
her personal experience.

Another good chimney-screen is a maple or walnut-wood frame, filled up
with open wire-work, painted green like a wire fender, and fitting
exactly into the fire-place. These frames should have two brass knobs
near the top, for lifting them in and out. Chimney-boards, of course,
can only be put into open fire-places, where wood is burnt in cold
weather. On the hearth of a vacant Franklin stove it is usual to keep a
large jar of flowers, which should be renewed every day or two.

Where there is no summer-blower, it is usual to decorate the empty grate
with cut paper. This may be done in a very pretty manner by obtaining a
sufficient quantity of coloured, glossy writing-paper, of such tints as
will harmonize best with each other. For instance, green and lilac;
green and light pink; light blue and dark brown; blue and buff, or
cream-colour; purple and yellow; two shades of green--one very dark, the
other very light; or two shades of blue--one much lighter than the
other. Cut this paper, lengthways, into long, straight strips; in
breadth, about three or four inches. Fold these slips lengthways, and
evenly; and, while doubled, cut their edges with sharp scissors into a
fringe. Then wreathe these double fringes thickly and closely round the
bars of the grate, securing them with pins. On each bar there should be
two wreaths, each of a different colour or shade. Twist or wrap these
two wreaths together, so as to conceal the iron entirely; beginning the
first twist or fringe from the left hand, and crossing or entwining it
with one of another shade or colour commencing from the right. If well
arranged, this mode of decorating an empty grate has an excellent
effect. The bars should previously be well cleaned, and the back and
whole interior of the grate completely blacked. Tissue-paper is too soft
and thin for wreathing the bars of grates. Coloured writing-paper will
be found much better; or, indeed, any nice paper that is thick and
smooth, and of the same colour on both sides.


TISSUE-PAPER HEARTH CURTAINS.--There is an infinite variety of patterns
for tissue-paper drapery to conceal empty coal-grates. The most simple
is to take a sufficient number of long sheets of this paper; fold each
sheet, lengthways, in four or six; and with scissors cut through the
edges of the folds, so as to form scollops or points when opened out;
leaving at the bottom of each sheet a space to be cut into a deep
fringe. Having opened out the sheets, have ready part of the handle or
stick of an old broom, cut to fit the length of the aperture or slit
left open at the back of the grate for the draught. This stick must be
covered with baize or cloth sewed on tightly. Sew to this covering the
long streamers of cut tissue-paper, gathering them at the top so that
they may hang down full and double. Then lay the stick nicely in the
aperture at the top of the grate-back; fasten it securely, and let the
drapery fall over the outside of the bars, so as to conceal them.

The following is a very handsome way of arranging hearth curtains. Have
ready a sufficient number of long sheets of tissue-paper. Some of them
may be white, others of a delicate pink. They are to be cut out in a
handsome open-work pattern. You may take your pattern from muslin-work,
flowered ribbon, furniture chintz, wall-paper, or table-covers. The more
open it is the better. To render it accurate, first draw the outline on
stiff paper, and then cut out that paper accordingly. Lay this cut out
model upon a sheet of the pink tissue-paper spread out on a smooth
common table, and kept down by weights at each corner. With a pencil, go
round the model, and trace its outline upon the tissue-paper. Then with
a sharp penknife or scissors, cut it out with great care and nicety. If
you use a penknife, keep the tissue-paper stretched out smoothly upon
the table, all the time you are doing it.

Next, take two more sheets of the pink paper, and cut the upper part of
each sheet into the form of curtain-falls; festooned at the top, and
descending long and low at the side. Ornament them with a handsome cut
pattern, and scollop the edges.

The white tissue-paper is not to be cut or decorated with an open
pattern or flowering. It is to form a lining for the pink, through the
open work of which the white is to appear. The form or arrangement of
this white paper is to fit or correspond with that of the pink, only
that the white must be allowed two or three inches deeper at the edge,
that it may project out beyond the pink. These projecting white edges
are to be cut into a fringe. Additional fringe must be made of white
tissue-paper, and twisted together so as to represent cords; the cords
to be finished with tassels made of rolls of white paper fringe,
fastened to the cords very neatly by sewing them on with a needle and
thread. Observe that none of the _white_ paper is to be cut out in
flower patterns, or any sort of open work. It is only to furnish lining,
fringe, cords, and tassels for the pink. Observe, also, that the fringed
edge of this white lining is to appear beyond the scolloped edge of the
pink outside.

When all is ready, arrange it handsomely in the fire-place, so as
entirely to conceal the whole of the grate. It must be fixed at the top
by sewing it to a covered piece of broom-handle, made to fit the draught
aperture. The two long straight pieces of pink paper, with their white
lining underneath, are to go on first. Then put up the festoons with
their falls, having their white lining beneath, with its fringe
appearing beyond the pink scollops. Then put on, at proper distances,
the white cords and tassels. The effect, when complete, will represent
at the back, closed pink curtains, with their white lining appearing
through the cut-out flower pattern; over them, two festoons and falls
of pink lined with white, opening in front with their white fringe, and
white cords and tassels. In these festoons and falls, the cut-out
flowers of the pink paper outside, show the white paper lining beneath.
If well executed, these hearth curtains will (as we have seen) have a
most beautiful effect. The pattern or flowering of the cut work is
displayed to great advantage by the white lining. In one parlour you may
have hearth curtains of pink and white; in the other of green and white,
or blue and white.

Hearth curtains of tissue-paper may be fixed to the front ledge or slab
that goes along the top of the grate, provided this ledge is wide
enough. Leave, uncut, at the top of the sheets of paper, a plain piece
to fit the ledge. To keep down this paper upon the ledge, prepare three
heavy weights (for instance smooth stones) covered with thick silk or
satin, and decorated with large bows of ribbon of the same colour. In
this way, by keeping it down with weights on the top, we have seen a
very handsome drapery of cut out tissue-paper entirely concealing a
Franklin stove.


MARKING THE KEYS OF A PIANO.--Beginners on the piano (children
especially) sometimes find much difficulty in learning the affinity
between the keys and the notes. After acquiring the gamut theoretically,
it is frequently a long time before they can apply it practically to the
keys of the instrument, so as at once to find the right key on looking
at the corresponding note. The process may be much accelerated (and
indeed made perfectly easy) by some grown person marking on the keys the
letters that designate the notes. By the following simple method this
can be done without any injury or defacement of the ivory. Take a sheet
of thick smooth writing-paper, and cut out of it as many little square
pieces as there are white keys on the piano. Paste these papers on the
ivory; and when _perfectly_ dry, mark on each with common _blue_ ink the
letter belonging to that key. It will be best to do this in Roman
capitals. If the natural keys are thus distinctly designated, the
learner will find little difficulty from the flats and sharps, or black
keys, being left unmarked.

The learner will thus in a very short time become familiar with the
correspondence of the keys of the piano and the notes in the music book;
and will soon be at no loss in finding them. It is well, however, not to
remove the marks in less than a month or two. Then loosen the papers by
wetting them with a little water; take them off, and wipe the keys first
with a wet and then with a dry cloth. Blue ink of the common sort will
leave no trace upon the ivory; but good black ink might probably leave a
slight stain, unless the paper was very thick. Therefore do not use it.

The learner having thus become thoroughly acquainted with the keys while
they were lettered, will not find the least difficulty in remembering
them after the marks are taken off.


TO USE A PAPER-KNIFE.--In using a paper-knife to cut open the leaves of
a new book, keep your left hand firmly pressed down upon the open page,
while you hold the knife in your right. This will prevent the edges of
the leaves from cutting rough and jagged. Cut open the tops of the
leaves before you run the knife up the side-edges, and cut with a short,
quick, hard stroke. The most serviceable paper-knives are of ivory, and
without a handle; the handles being very apt to break.

The best way of writing your name in a book is on the inside of the
cover; but if the paper that lines it seems likely to cause the ink to
run or spread, cut out a handsome slip of fine smooth paper, write your
name upon that, and paste it on nicely. If you put your name on one of
the fly-leaves, it may be torn out; and if written on the corner of the
title-page, that corner may be snipped off, should the book fall into
the hands of a dishonest person.


HOUSEHOLD TOOLS.--Much inconvenience and considerable expense would be
saved, if it was the universal custom to keep in every house a few
tools, for the purpose of performing at home what are called small jobs;
instead of being always obliged to send for a mechanic, and pay him for
executing little things that might be very well done by a man or boy
belonging to the family; provided that the proper instruments were at
hand. The cost of these articles is very trifling, and the advantages of
having them always in the house (particularly in the country) are beyond
all price. In a small private family it may not be necessary to keep
more than a few of these things; but that few are almost indispensable
to comfort. For instance, there should be an axe, a saw, a claw-hammer,
a mallet, a screw-driver, a bed-screw, a gimlet, one or two jack-knives,
a pair of large scissors or shears, and a trowel. If there were two
gimlets, and two screw-drivers, (large and small,) it would be better
still. Likewise, an assortment of hooks, and of nails of different
sizes, from large spikes down to small tacks; not forgetting a supply of
brass-headed nails, some large and some small. Screws, also, will be
found very convenient. The nails and screws should be kept in a wooden
box, with divisions or partitions to separate the various sorts; for it
is very troublesome to select them when all mixed together.

No house should be without glue, chalk, putty, paint, cord, twine, and
wrapping-paper of different sorts. And care should be taken that the
supply is not suffered to run out, lest the deficiency might cause delay
and inconvenience at a time when most wanted.

It is well to have, in the lower part of the house, a deep closet
appropriated entirely to tools and things of equal utility, for
performing at once such little repairs as convenience may require,
without the delay or expense of sending for an artisan. This closet may
have one large, broad shelf; and that not more than three feet above the
floor. Beneath the shelf may be a deep drawer, divided in two. This
drawer may contain cakes of glue; pieces of chalk; hanks of
manilla-grass cord; and balls of twine, of different size and thickness.
At the sides of the closet may be small shelves for glue-pots,
paste-pots, and brushes; pots for black, white, green, and red paint;
cans of painting-oil, &c. On the wall above the large shelf, let the
tools be suspended, or laid across nails or hooks of proper size to
support them. This is much better than to keep them all in a box, where
they may be injured by rubbing against each other, and the hand may be
hurt by feeling among them to find the one that is wanted. When hung up
against the closet-wall, each tool may be seen at a glance. We have been
shown an excellent and simple contrivance for designating the exact
places of these things. On the wall, directly under the nails that
support the tools, is drawn, with a small brush dipped in black paint or
ink, an outline representation of the tool or instrument appropriated to
that particular place. For instance, under each saw is sketched the
outline of the saw; under each gimlet is a sketch of the gimlet; under
the screw-drivers are slight drawings of the screw-drivers. So that when
any tool is brought back after being taken away for use, the exact spot
to which it belongs may be seen in a moment by its representation on the
wall; and all confusion in putting them up, or finding them again, is
thus prevented. We highly recommend this plan.

Wrapping-paper may be piled on the floor beneath the large shelf. It can
be bought very low, by the ream, at the wholesale paper stores; and
every house should be supplied with it in several varieties. For
instance, coarse brown paper for common things. That denominated
ironmongers’ paper, being strong, thick, and in large sheets, is useful
for enclosing heavy articles. Nankeen-paper is best for putting up nice
parcels, such as books, or things of fine quality that are to be sent to
a distance. What is called shoe-paper (each ream generally containing a
variety of colours, red, blue, buff, &c.) is also very useful for
wrapping small articles, as, though soft, it is not brittle. This paper
is very cheap, the usual price seldom exceeding 56 cents per ream,
(twenty quires.)

Old waste newspapers are unfit for wrapping any articles that can be
soiled by the printing-ink rubbing off upon them. But they may be used
for packing china, glass, brass, tin, &c. Also for lighting fires,
singeing poultry, and cleaning mirrors or windows. Waste written-paper
is of little use, except for allumettes or lamp-lighters. It is well to
keep a large jar or bag to receive scraps of waste paper, as it sells
for a cent a pound, and these cents may be given to poor children.

We have seen persons, when preparing for a journey, or putting up things
to send away, “at their wits’ end” for want of a sheet of good
wrapping-paper; a string of twine; a few nails; or a little paint to
mark a box. We have seen a door standing ajar during a whole week, (and
in cold weather too,) for want of a screw-driver to fix a disordered
lock, the locksmith not coming when he was sent for.

It seems scarcely credible that any respectable house should be without
a hammer; yet we have known genteel families, whose sole dependence for
that indispensable article was on borrowing it of their neighbours. And
when the hammer was obtained, there were, perhaps, no nails in the
house; at least none of the requisite size.

The attention of boys should be early directed to the use of common
tools. And if there were tools at hand, there are few American boys that
would not take pleasure in learning to use them. By seeing carpenters,
locksmiths, bell-hangers, &c., at work, they may soon learn to be
passably expert in those arts; and a smart and observant boy will soon
acquire considerable amateur proficiency in them. Many useful jobs can
be done by servant-men, if there are proper tools in the house.


LETTERS.--For letter-writing, always use good paper; it should be fine,
smooth, white, and sufficiently thick not to let the writing show
through on the other side. Very good letter-paper can seldom be
purchased at less than twenty-five cents per quire. That which is lower
in price is inferior in quality. If you cannot trust yourself to write
straightly without some guide, have printed ruled lines to slip beneath
the page; for a letter does not look well if written on paper that is
already ruled with pale blue ink. If you write a small hand, your lines
should be closer together than if your writing is large. It is well to
have several sorts of ruled lines; they are to be bought at any
stationer’s for a few cents a page.

If you are writing to a relative, or to an intimate friend, and have
much to say, and expect to fill the sheet, begin near the top of the
first page. But if your letter is to be a short one, commence lower
down, several inches from the top. If a _very_ short letter, of only a
few lines, begin but a little above the middle of the page.

Write the date near the right-hand side, and place it about a line
higher than the two or three words of greeting or accosting with which
letters usually commence. Begin the first sentence a little below these
words, and farther towards the right than the lines that are to follow
it. It is well, in dating _every_ letter, to give always your exact
residence,--not only the town, but the street also, and the number of
your house. If your correspondent has had but one notification of your
present place of abode, the number, and even the street may have been
forgotten; the letter containing it may not be at hand as a reference;
and the reply may, in consequence, be misdirected; or directed in so
vague a manner that it may never reach you. We have known much trouble,
inconvenience, and indeed loss, ensue from not specifying, in the date
of _each_ letter, the exact dwelling-place of the writer. But if it is
always designated at the top of _every one_, a reference to any of your
letters will furnish the proper address. It is customary to date letters
at the top, and notes at the bottom. If your letter is so long as to
fill more than one sheet, number the pages.

As important words are frequently lost by being torn off with the seal
in opening a letter, leave always, in the third or last page, two blank
spaces where the seal is to come. These spaces should be left rather too
large than too small. You can write in short lines between them. If you
cannot otherwise ascertain where the sealing is likely to be, fold your
sheet into the form of a letter before you begin to write it; and then,
with the point of a pin, (or something similar,) trace, as faintly as
possible, two circles, one on the turn-over, the other on the
corresponding part of the paper that comes beneath it. These faint
circles, when you are writing the last page, will show you where the
seal is to go, and what space you are to leave for it. In opening a
letter, it is best to cut round the seal; rather than to break it, and
_tear_ the letter open.

In folding a letter let the breadth (from right to left) far exceed the
height. A letter the least verging towards squareness looks very
awkward. It is well to use a folding-stick (or ivory paper-knife) to
press along the edges of the folds, and make them smooth and even. Take
care in folding a letter to make _all_ the creases _exactly straight_
and even. If one is looser than another, or if there is the slightest
widening out or narrowing in towards the edge of the turn-over, the
letter will have a crooked, unsightly appearance. You may direct it
before sealing; slipping your ruled paper under the back of the letter,
that you may run no risk of writing the direction crooked. Begin the
address rather nearer to the bottom than the top of the folded letter.
Write the name of the person to whom you send it about the middle, and
very clearly and distinctly. Then give the number and street on the next
line a little nearer to the right. Then the town in _large_ letters, and
extending almost close to the extreme right. Just under the town, add
the abbreviation of the name of the state--as, Pa. for Pennsylvania, N.
Y. for New York. But if the letter is to go to New York _city_, put the
words New York in full, written large. Much confusion is caused by this
state and its metropolis having both the same name. It has been well
suggested that the name of the state might be changed to Ontario--a
beautiful change.

If the letter is to go to a provincial town, put the name of the county
in which that town is situated, immediately over the designation of the
state. We believe that throughout the union there are more than fifty
towns called Washington. If your letter is for the _city_ of Washington,
direct for Washington, D. C.--these initials implying the District of
Columbia.

Another reason for the propriety of designating the state is, that many
of our towns are called after places in Europe: and it has chanced
(though not very often) that letters not explicitly and fully directed,
have found their way into the mail-bags of packet vessels, and been
carried across the Atlantic. We know an instance of a gentleman who
directed an important letter simply to Boston, without any indication of
the state of Massachusetts; and the letter went from Philadelphia to the
small town of Boston in Lincolnshire, England. In writing _from_ Europe,
it is well always to finish the direction with the words United States
of North America.

If you send the letter by a private opportunity, it will be sufficient
to introduce close to the lower edge of the left-hand corner on the
back, simply the name of the gentleman who takes it, written small. It
is now considered old fashioned to insert on the back of such a letter,
“Politeness of Mr. Smith,” “Favoured by Mr. Jones,” “Honoured by Mr.
Brown.” If to cross the sea, write the name of the vessel on the left
hand corner of the outside.

If you make a mistake in a word, it will be better to draw your pen
through the error, so as to render it entirely illegible, and then
interline the correction, rather than attempt scratching out the mistake
with a penknife, and afterwards trying to write another word in the
identical place; a thing that is rarely, if ever, done well.

At the end of the letter, nearly on a line with your signature, (which
should be close to the right side,) it is usual to put, near the
extremity of the _left_ side of the page, the name of the person to whom
the letter is addressed. Write your signature rather larger than your
usual hand; and put a dot or period after your name.

In writing a ceremonious and very respectful note, or in addressing a
person with whom you are not very intimate, enclose it in an envelope,
and put the direction _on the cover only_. It is now customary always to
enclose in envelopes invitations to parties; visiting cards sent to
strangers; cards left previous to a marriage; and farewell cards on
leaving the place. On the latter it is usual to put the initials _t. t.
l._ (to take leave,) or _p. p. c._ (_pour prendre congé_, which has the
same signification.) We have also seen _p. d. a._ (_pour dire adieu_, to
bid adieu.) For a note, always use a very small seal. There are
varieties of beautiful little wafers for notes; also of beautiful
note-paper. It is not necessary in addressing an intimate friend to
follow, particularly, any of these conventional observances.

For sealing letters no light is so convenient as a wax taper. A lamp or
candle may smoke and blacken the wax. To seal well, your wax should be
of the finest quality. Good red wax is generally the best, and its
colour should be of a brilliant scarlet. Inferior red wax consumes very
fast; and always, when melted, looks purplish or brownish. When going to
melt sealing-wax, rest your elbow on the table to keep your hand steady.
Take the stick of wax between your thumb and finger, and hold it a
little above the light, so that it barely touches the point of the
flame. Then insert a little of the melted wax _under_ the turn-over part
of the letter, just where the seal is to come. This will make it more
secure than if the sole dependence was on the outside seal. Or instead
of this little touch of wax, you may slip under the turn-over a small
wafer, either white or of the same colour as the wax. Take the stick of
wax, hold it over the flame just so as to touch the tip; next turn it
round till the end of the stick is equally softened on every side. Then
apply it to your letter, beginning on the outer edge of the place you
intend for the seal; and moving the wax round in a circle, which must
gradually diminish till it terminates in the centre. Put the seal
exactly into the middle of the soft wax, and press it down hard, but do
not screw it round. Then withdraw it suddenly. Do not use motto seals
unless writing to a member of your own family, or to an intimate friend.
For common use, (and particularly for letters of business, or in
addressing strangers,) a plain seal with the initials of your name will
be best.

We subjoin the usual abbreviations of the states, &c.:--

Maine, _Me._ New Hampshire, _N. H._ Vermont, _Vt._ Massachusetts,
_Mass._ Rhode Island, _R. I._ Connecticut, _Ct._ New York, _N. Y._ New
Jersey, _N. J._ Pennsylvania, _Pa._ Delaware, _Del._ Maryland, _Md._
Virginia, _Va._ North Carolina, _N. C._ South Carolina, _S. C._ Georgia,
_Geo._ or _Ga._ Alabama, _Ala._ Mississippi, _Mi._ Louisiana, _La._
Tennessee, _Ten._ Kentucky, _Ky._ Ohio, _O._ Indiana, _Ind._ Illinois,
_Ill._ Missouri, _Mo._ District of Columbia, _D. C._ Michigan, _Mich._
Arkansas, _Ark._ Florida, _Fl._ Wisconsin, _Wis._ Iowa, _Io._ Texas,
_Tex._ Oregon, _Or._

To these may be added the abbreviations of the British possessions in
North America. Upper Canada, _U. C._ Lower Canada, _L. C._ Nova Scotia,
_N. S._ New Brunswick, _N. B._ New Providence, _N. P._

The name of the town to which the letter is to go, should always be
superscribed in full. If a country town or village, it will be necessary
to designate the county in which it is situated, as there are so many
provincial towns of the same name. Finish with the designation of the
state under the whole, close to the right-hand corner.

In directing to a clergyman, put _Rev._ (Reverend) before his name. To
an officer, immediately after his name, and on the same line with it,
put _U. S. A._ for United States Army; _U. S. N._ for United States
Navy. To a member of Congress, precede his name with _Hon._
(Honourable.)

In putting up packets to send away, either tie them round and across
with red tape (sealing them also) or seal them without tying. Twine or
cord may cut through the paper, and is better omitted. Never put up any
thing in newspaper. Beside the danger of soiling the articles inside, it
looks mean and disrespectful. Keep yourself provided with different
sorts of wrapping-paper. A large parcel should have more than one seal,
and the seal may be rather larger than for a letter.


CROSSING THE SEA.--The most usual voyage made by American ladies is
across the Atlantic; and the time chosen for that voyage is generally in
the spring or autumn. A winter passage is seldom attempted by ladies;
and few that have tried it once are willing to undertake it a second
time. To those who are preparing to traverse the ocean that separates us
from Europe, we hope the following hints may not be unacceptable.

We earnestly recommend that every lady who can afford to pay the
additional price, should engage, at an early period, a state-room
exclusively to herself; unless, indeed, she can share it with a near
relation. She will find the money well spent in securing the privacy and
comfort of an apartment into which no one has a right to intrude;
besides the additional space she will thus obtain for such articles as
she would like to have with her in her room. No one who has not been at
sea can imagine the perpetual and mutual annoyance of being confined to
the small limits of a state-room with a stranger; each incommoding the
other all the time, and each feeling herself under the continual
_surveillance_ of her companion; both expected to make incessant
sacrifices to the convenience of each other, and perhaps only one of
them having a disposition to submit to these sacrifices; in which case
she that is the most amiable is always the sufferer. We believe it to be
the rule in packet-ships that the first applicant for a passage is
allowed the privilege of being the last to have a stranger put into her
apartment. And if the passengers are not numerous, the fortunate first
applicant may in this manner have a whole state-room without the extra
charge. But by offering this additional price on taking her passage, she
can _always_ secure the exclusive possession of an entire state-room.

If you have an apartment exclusively to yourself, the place of the
second bed can be filled with boxes, books, &c., for which you would not
otherwise have room. But as no ship state-room is large enough to
contain _much_ baggage, you should make your arrangements to wear during
the voyage such articles of outside dress as will least require washing.
Therefore, let all light-coloured or white dresses be packed away in the
trunks that are to remain below, and not to be opened till the close of
the voyage.

As ladies can have no washing done at sea, it will be well to begin with
such dresses as can be worn all the passage. French silks are not good
sea dresses, (even when black,) for the salt-air shrivels, spots, and
turns them rusty. Dark-coloured india silks, or dark mousselines de
laine, or merinoes, are much better. Dark chintzes, with no white in the
figure, are convenient for common wear, at sea as well as on shore.

Muslin or bobbinet collars, to be worn in the ever-damp sea-air, should
have no other trimming than an edging sewed on plain; as quilled or
pleated frills lose their stiffening immediately. Silk neck-kerchiefs,
or little shawls for the neck, will be found very convenient as
substitutes for collars; and, if of white silk, they are extremely
becoming. Or you may wear a broad, thick white ribbon, shaped with three
diminishing pleats, to fit in closely the back of the neck, and crossed
in front. Quilled or fluted cap-borders soon become limp and formless
with the damp; so also do gauze or _glacé_ ribbons. Sea-caps should have
borders either simply gathered or laid on plain; and their ribbons
should be mantua, lutestring, or soft satin. A cap lined all through
with silk of a pretty colour, will be very convenient at sea, as it not
only assists in keeping the damp air from the head, but conceals the
hair effectually; and there are rough days when the motion of the ship
renders it impossible to arrange the hair nicely. A silk or madras
handkerchief, pinned up into a sort of small turban, is sometimes worn
at sea, instead of caps. They are very convenient, but only becoming to
pretty ladies.

It is colder at sea than on shore; and even in summer, the atmosphere of
the Atlantic is liable to be chilled for several days by the vicinity of
floating icebergs,--even when these icebergs are not seen. Therefore, be
careful at any season, to have in your state-room a sufficiency of warm
clothing. A spring-passage is generally colder than an autumn one; and
even in May it is sometimes found necessary, when on the open ocean, to
dress as if it were winter. Flannel, of course, is indispensable; so,
also, is a large thick woollen shawl, and a second shawl of lighter
texture for mild weather. A very convenient outside sea-dress is the
garment or coat that is sometimes called a mandarine. It should be made
of very dark India silk, which is soft, strong, and not liable to stain
or spot like the silks of Europe. This dress should be very long and
wide; wadded and lined all through; and made with large, loose sleeves,
large sleeve-holes, and a wrapper-body, confined at the waist by a broad
ribbon run into a casing, and tied in front. A mandarine can be put on
over another dress without rumpling it; and is far better than a cloak,
as it is warmer and more compact, sits closer, and is not so liable to
be blown about by the wind. At sea, there are always days when a
mandarine will be found very comfortable to wear, even in the cabin.

No dress intended to be worn on a voyage should fasten _behind_, as it
is not always that a lady can procure the assistance of another person
to do this for her. Gowns, (or coat-dresses, as they are frequently
called,) such as fasten in front, are the best habits for sea; and there
is now a well-known way of making wrappers that is both handsome and
convenient, and universally becoming. Fortunately, corsets are now
exploded; and as they are no longer worn on shore, of course no one
would be so absurd as to endure them at sea. Jackets of flannel, lined
silk, thick cotton, or jean, made without whalebones, and to fasten in
front, are best suited to a voyage. A flannel gown and a dark
double-wrapper are indispensable in case of sickness. Your upper
petticoat should be of dark linen, worsted, or silk. If you have no
mandarine, take with you, by all means, a wadded silk petticoat, and a
pair of slightly-wadded silk inside-sleeves, to be tied in beneath your
gown-sleeves in chilly weather. For this purpose, have four tapes sewed
to the top of each sleeve, at equal distances, and four corresponding
tapes sewed to the inside of each arm-hole of your gowns.

The best sea-stockings are those of substantial, _unbleached_ cotton. No
others are so comfortable. Dark satin-ribbed cotton stockings are also
good; so are the black raw silk, such as are shaggy inside. Take with
you some _very thick_ gray yarn stockings, to put on when your feet are
cold in bed, and to draw on, occasionally, over your shoes and other
stockings. Gaiter-boots, and boots lined with fur, are very comfortable
when once on; but at sea, there is often some trouble in lacing or
buttoning them. Shoes worn on ship-board should be thin-soled and roomy,
so that you may walk the deck easier, and keep your feet better when the
vessel rolls. Shoes of wadded silk are very pleasant at sea; so are
Indian moccasins, or carpet moccasins lined with wool. Take with you two
or three pairs of woolly sheep-skin soles, such as are coated on the
under side with india-rubber varnish. They are warm, dry, and
water-proof; can be slipped into your shoes or taken out, as occasion
may require; and either for sea or shore, are far superior to the cork
soles also in use.

A sea-bonnet should have a deep, close front, and a cape or ruffle at
the back of the neck. The complexion is always liable to be injured by
the salt air, the glare of the sun, and the bleak wind. A quilted close
bonnet of dark silk or satin, lined with pink, blue, or lemon-colour,
may be made to look very pretty. Cane or whalebone being very apt to
break in the wind, it is best to run wired-satin piping-cord into the
cases of a sea-bonnet, and round the edge. This will stiffen it
sufficiently; and being very elastic, will keep it in shape without
danger of breaking. These bonnets should, by all means, have a large
wadded cape attached to them. At sea, it is important to keep the back
of the neck always covered, for its exposure to the air may produce
rheumatic pains in the head, shoulders, and face. Even in the cabin, and
at all times when on ship-board, (except in decidedly warm weather,) it
is prudent to wear a handkerchief of silk, cashmere, or velvet, tied or
pinned round the neck, with a corner covering it closely behind.

Provide yourself, also, with a pair or two of warm gloves. On days
when fire is most needed, it is most difficult to have it in the cabin
of a ship. If the wind is strong, it impedes the draught of the stove,
and fills the cabin with the smoke that is beaten down the chimney.
And if the vessel rolls much, (as she always will in rough weather,)
there is danger of the fire falling about the floor; and to prevent
accidents from this cause, it is deemed safest to extinguish it
entirely, or else not to kindle it at all. The passengers must depend
chiefly on their clothing for warmth enough to make them tolerably
comfortable,--particularly if they cross the ocean early in the spring
or late in the autumn. But, as we before observed, a spring-passage is
always the coldest. In the autumn, there is no danger of meeting with
icebergs. Also, the ocean-water still retains a portion of the warmth
communicated to it by the summer sun; while, in the spring, it remains
a long while chilled from the cold of the preceding winter.

As dressing on ship-board is always more or less troublesome and
inconvenient, on account of the motion of the vessel, and must generally
be done in a sitting posture, it is well to make one dressing suffice
for the day.

When packing to go on board, select such articles as are indispensable
for use during the voyage, and put them all into one trunk, which must
not be too large to keep in your state-room. You will find drawers
there, in which you can place your caps, collars, handkerchiefs, and
other light articles. Have a strong linen clothes-bag, with a
drawing-string at the top, to hang up on one of the pegs or hooks in
your apartment. The remainder of your baggage must be put below, in the
place appropriated to stowing away the trunks of the passengers, with
the understanding that they are to remain there all the voyage.

However pleasant you may find it to stay on deck, it is best, as soon as
you get on board, to go to your state-room, and make your arrangements
there, lest you should be rendered incapable of doing so by the approach
of sea-sickness; an event that may usually be expected within an hour
after the vessel gets under-way, if she sails from New York or Boston,
or any port in the vicinity of the ocean. Take out of your trunk your
night-clothes, your easiest slippers, and whatever articles you may
require for immediate use; and place them where they can be directly
accessible.

Some few ladies, as well as gentlemen, cross the ocean without being in
the least troubled with sea-sickness; and very many only suffer from it
during the first two or three days, and are then perfectly well during
the remainder of the passage, however stormy it may be. If you should
incline to be sick, it will be nearly useless to struggle against it the
first day or two. You may try as a preventive, or as an early remedy
when the first symptoms come upon you, a lump of loaf-sugar placed in
the bottom of a wine-glass, with just as much brandy poured on as will
be sufficient to dissolve it, so that it can be eaten with a tea-spoon.
If taken in time, this frequently succeeds; and it rarely fails in the
short sickness that is sometimes felt in excursions down in the bay of
New York; or in Boston harbour, when the water is rough; or in going
round Point Judith; or in a trip by sea to any of the coast
bathing-places.

If you find your sickness increasing, give up to it for a day or two;
and you will afterwards feel much the better for it. For the first two
days you need take no nourishment but chicken-water. Avoid lemonade,
oranges, all other acids, and every sort of warm drink. Be careful,
while you are sick, not to taste any thing that you may like to eat
afterwards, as it will give you a disgust to it during the remainder of
the voyage. For the same reason, it is well not to use cologne-water, or
any very fine perfume during your sickness. Liquid camphor, sprinkled
over the bed and floor, will be found more refreshing and purifying to
the atmosphere than any thing else that you can take with you.

The third day (if not before) you ought to make every possible exertion
to go on deck, as you will be losing strength by remaining in bed; and
as long as you keep your head in a recumbent posture, you will not
become accustomed to the motion of the vessel. Also, on the third day,
endeavour to eat a small portion of solid, relishing food--such as a
piece of broiled ham, or the lean of salt beef, with a slice of dry
toast. We have known what is called the tone of the stomach restored
after sea-sickness by a little of the sailors’ salt beef and biscuit.
Something of this sort is always more effective than light or delicate
food.

It will be well before you embark, to provide yourself with a box of
that excellent medicine known as Lady Webster’s (or Lady Crespigny’s)
pills. They are called by both names; probably because both these ladies
patronized them in England. You may take one every night _immediately
after_ supper. In Philadelphia they are made according to the best
recipe by J. C. Turnpenny, druggist, corner of Spruce and Tenth streets.

You may find a clay-ball for the removal of grease spots very useful to
keep in your room; as, when the ship is rolling, greasy substances are
frequently spilt on dresses.

Take with you and keep always in your apartment, a life-preserver, in
case of being wrecked in sight of land; and it may really save your life
by buoying you up, and floating you to the shore. It is said that a
man’s hat, laid brim downwards, and tied up in a shawl or
pocket-handkerchief, and then fastened round the waist, will keep a
person above water long enough to prevent drowning, if not far from the
beach. The ladies of New York and Boston, and of other cities on the
sea-board, have it in their power to learn, without danger or
difficulty, the art of swimming; by subscribing to the salt-water baths,
and visiting them daily during the summer.

Nothing will make a sea-voyage seem shorter or less monotonous, than to
be well provided with occupation--such as amusing and interesting books,
and a due portion of needle-work or knitting. By all means take with you
one or more blank-books for the purpose of noting down whatever you may
wish to remember. If you can keep a regular journal, so much the better.
Also, the first day that you are able to write after getting to sea,
commence on a _large_ sheet of paper, a letter to one of your relations
or friends, having previously folded and directed it. Write but a few
lines at first; and every day add a little more to it, giving the fresh
dates. It will always be ready (requiring only a wafer to seal it) in
case you should have an opportunity of sending it by any vessel you may
chance to meet, on her way to the land you have left. If no such chance
offers during the voyage, this diary-letter will at least be ready to
transmit with those you write home directly after arriving at your
destined post. And your friends will be glad to have this concise
transcript of your sea-life.



BREAKFAST, DINNERS, SUPPERS, ETC.


At the earnest request of numerous young housekeepers, the author has
been induced to offer the following hints for the selection of suitable
articles in preparing breakfasts, dinners, and suppers. They, of course,
may be varied according to convenience, taste, and the size and
circumstances of the family. Receipts for them all may be found either
in the present work, or in its predecessor, “Miss Leslie’s Directions
for Cookery.”


BREAKFASTS FOR SPRING AND SUMMER.--Fresh shad broiled; hashed mutton;
boiled eggs; potatoes fried--Indian cakes; rolls.

Hashed veal; broiled ham; poached eggs; mashed potatoes--Milk toast;
rolls.

Fried cat-fish; omelet; cold boiled ham, or smoked tongue--Rolls;
buttered toast.

Veal cutlets; stewed clams; ham and eggs; potatoes mashed--Rye batter
cakes; rolls.

Clam fritters; hashed veal; cold ham; potatoes--Milk toast; muffins.

Fresh shad broiled; stewed chickens; cream cheese--Indian batter cakes;
rolls.

Mutton chops; omelet; boiled potatoes--Rice batter cakes; muffins.

Minced veal; broiled ham; poached eggs; cream cheese--Milk toast;
rolls.

Pickled salmon; broiled chickens; eggs--Indian cakes; milk toast.

Stewed chickens; broiled ham with eggs; mashed potatoes--Rye batter
cakes; rolls.

Fried egg-plant; tongue or ham toast; pepper-grass--Indian batter cakes;
rolls.

Broiled chickens; pork cheese; potatoes sliced and fried--Rye batter
cakes; muffins.

Stewed pigeons; young corn omelet; mashed potatoes--Flannel cakes;
toast.

Clam fritters; stewed egg-plant; broiled tomatoes--Rice cakes; rolls.

Broiled chickens; mock oysters of corn; cold ham--Milk toast; muffins.

Hashed veal; ham omelet; cucumbers; pepper-grass--Rice cakes; muffins.

Birds with mushrooms; soft omelet; sliced ham or tongue--Flannel cakes;
toast.

Tongue or ham toast; stewed mushrooms; cucumbers--Indian batter cakes;
rolls.

Fresh mackerel broiled; potatoes; young corn omelet--Rice cakes; rolls.

Broiled ham with poached eggs; fried chickens; cucumbers--Rye batter
cakes; toast.

Stewed chickens; fried sweet potatoes; broiled tomatoes--Flannel cakes;
rolls.

       *       *       *       *       *

In warm weather fresh fruit (thoroughly ripe, and eaten with sugar) is
an agreeable and wholesome addition to the breakfast table. Fruit-jam,
marmalade, and honey may be introduced at any season.


AUTUMN AND WINTER BREAKFASTS.--Pigeons stewed with mushrooms; fried
sweet potatoes; broiled tomatoes--Muffins; milk toast.

Fresh fish broiled; cold ham; potatoes--Indian cakes; rolls.

Oysters stewed or fried; broiled ham with poached eggs--Toast; rolls.

Broiled chickens; ham omelet; broiled tomatoes--Indian cakes; toast.

Stewed chickens; egg-plant sliced and fried; potatoes--Rice batter
cakes; rolls.

Hashed duck; ham broiled; poached eggs--Flannel cakes; toast.

Oyster fritters; cold ham or tongue; sweet potatoes sliced and
broiled--Indian cakes; rolls.

Mutton chops; broiled tomatoes; pickled salmon--Rice batter cakes;
toast.

Beef-steaks; stewed oysters; boiled potatoes--Indian cakes; muffins.

Stewed chickens; sausages; mashed potatoes--Rolls; toast.

Broiled chickens; liver pudding sliced; potatoes--Buckwheat cakes;
rolls.

Hashed veal; pig’s feet fried; potatoes--Buckwheat cakes; toast.

Venison steaks; broiled sweet potatoes; eggs--Indian batter cakes;
rolls.

Venison pasty; fried smelts; mashed potatoes--Buckwheat cakes; toast.

Minced cod-fish, drest with eggs, parsnips, onions, butter, &c.;
sausages; boiled potatoes--Indian cakes; rolls.

       *       *       *       *       *

In cold weather, small hominy, boiled, is often introduced at breakfast
tables--also indian mush, to be eaten with butter and molasses. We
subjoin a receipt for pumpkin mush, an excellent and wholesome breakfast
dish.


PUMPKIN MUSH.--Pour into a clean pot, two quarts or more of good milk,
and set it over the fire. Have ready some pumpkin stewed very soft and
dry; mashed smooth, and pressed in a cullender till all the liquid has
drained off. Then measure a large pint of the stewed pumpkin; mix with
it a piece of fresh butter, and a tea-spoonful of ground ginger. Stir it
gradually into the milk, as soon as it has come to a boil. Add, by
degrees, a large pint or more of indian-meal, a little at a time,
stirring it in, very hard, with the mush-stick. If you find the mush too
thin, as you proceed, add, in equal portions, more pumpkin and more
indian-meal, till it becomes so thick you can scarcely stir it round.
After it is all thoroughly mixed, and has boiled well, it will be
greatly improved by diminishing the fire a little, or hanging the pot
higher up, so as to let it simmer an hour or more. Mush can scarcely be
cooked too much. Eat it warm with butter and molasses, or with rich
milk. It is very good at luncheon in cold weather.

After boiling small hominy, drain off the water, and leave the dish
uncovered. If covered up, the condensation of the steam will render the
hominy thin and washy.


BREAKFAST PARTIES.--Black tea; green tea; coffee; chocolate; hot cakes
of various sorts; omelets; birds; game; oysters, stewed, fried, and
pickled; cold tongue; cold ham; biscuit sandwiches; boned turkey, cold;
potted or pickled lobster; raised French pie; pigeon, partridge, or
moorfowl pie; mushrooms fried, broiled, or stewed; jellies; marmalade;
honey; fresh fruit, or sweetmeats, according to the season; a large
almond sponge-cake. The table decorated with flowers.

       *       *       *       *       *

At a breakfast party the dress of the ladies should be more simple than
at a dinner or a supper party.


ECONOMICAL DINNERS FOR SMALL FAMILIES.--The receipts for these plain
dishes are generally to be found in Miss Leslie’s “Directions for
Cookery,” a work to which the present book is supplemental.


SPRING.--Boiled ham; spinach; asparagus; poke; potatoes[369-*]--Rhubarb
pie.

    [369-* There is no necessity for repeating the mention of potatoes.
    It will of course be understood that potatoes should constitute a
    portion of every dinner. Also that pickles should always be on the
    table with beef and mutton.]

Veal cutlets; cold ham; spinach; turnips; poke; asparagus--Baked batter
pudding.

Broiled halibut cutlets; cold ham; spinach; turnips; asparagus--Boiled
indian pudding.

Calf’s liver fried with ham; asparagus; turnips; poke; spinach--Rhubarb
pudding.

Boiled leg of mutton; stewed onions; turnips; carrots--Baked rice
pudding.

Family soup; fried ham and eggs; asparagus; beets; spinach--Baked indian
pudding.

Corned beef; cabbage; carrots; stewed onions; beets--Fritters.

Broiled shad; cold corned beef; carrots; spinach; asparagus--Eastern
pudding.

Veal pie; fried ham and eggs; asparagus; spinach; turnips--Gooseberry
fool.

Roast veal; peas; asparagus; spinach--Gooseberry pudding.

Boiled rock-fish; hashed veal; peas; spinach; asparagus--Farmer’s rice
pudding.

Boiled ham; peas; beans; spinach--Gooseberry pie.

Veal soup; cold ham; stewed onions; beans; peas--Currant pie.

Roast beef; horse-radish; peas; beans; asparagus--Custard in a dish.

Fresh cod-fish boiled; cold roast beef; horse-radish; peas; beans;
spinach--Eastern pudding.

Mutton soup; the meat that was boiled in it; stewed onions; turnips;
suet dumplings--Currant pie.

Roast lamb with mint-sauce; asparagus; peas; spinach--Custard in a dish.

Boiled black-fish; cold roast lamb; spring salad; beans;
peas--Gooseberry pudding.

Green pea-soup; veal cutlets; salad; peas; beans--Currant pie.

Boiled ham; fried chickens; peas; beans; salad--Fritters or pancakes.

Roast fillet of veal; cold ham; peas; beans; salad--Gooseberry pie.

Hashed veal; broiled ham with eggs; peas; beans--Boiled indian pudding.

Boiled sea-bass; beef-steaks; onions; beans; peas--Currant pie.

Stewed breast of veal; fried ham with eggs; peas; beans--Gooseberry
pudding.

Fresh cod-fish boiled; mutton chops; stewed onions; beans; peas--Baked
batter pudding.

Baked beef with a batter pudding under it; beans; peas--Gooseberry pie.

Broiled mackerel; stewed mutton; stewed onions; beans; peas--Boiled rice
pudding.

Boiled halibut; beef-steaks; onions; beans; peas--Currant pudding.

Salt cod-fish; stewed onions; veal cutlets; beans; peas--Baked rice
pudding.


PLAIN DINNERS FOR SUMMER.--Clam soup; beef-steaks; stewed onions; peas;
beans; summer cabbage--Cherry pie.

Boiled ham; veal cutlets; cucumbers; beans; peas--Custard pudding.

Cat-fish soup; cold ham; cucumbers; peas; beans--Cherry pie.

Stewed fillet of veal; cold ham; squashes; beans; beets--Batter pudding,
baked.

Boiled black-fish; beef-steak pie; squashes; beans; beets--Cherry
pudding.

Fried sea-bass; stewed knuckle of veal; cucumbers; squashes;
beans--Raspberry pudding.

Boiled mackerel; beef-steaks; onions; cucumbers; beans; squashes--Baked
rice pudding.

Clam soup; stewed fillet of veal; cucumbers; beets; fried
egg-plant--Sweet potatoe pudding.

Beef-steaks with stewed onions; boiled crabs; cucumbers; squashes;
boiled corn--Raspberry pie.

Stewed leg of mutton; turnips; squashes; beets; cucumbers--Blackberry
pie.

Boiled ham; clam fritters; beans; summer cabbage; corn--Custard pudding.

Clam pie; cold ham; sweet potatoes; lima beans; squashes--Boiled batter
pudding.

Boiled fowls; fried ham and eggs; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
beets--Raspberry pie.

Roast ducks; stewed egg-plant; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
turnips--Custard.

Boiled leg of mutton; nasturtian sauce; turnips; tomatoes;
beets--Blackberry pie.

Pilau; clam pie; lima beans; mashed turnips; tomatoes--Boiled indian
pudding.

Beef-steak pie; stewed egg-plant; turnips; lima beans; boiled
corn--Boiled rice pudding.

Boiled rock-fish; stewed breast of veal; sweet potatoes; tomatoes; lima
beans--Green corn pudding.

Roast pig with apple sauce; turnips; lima beans; sweet
potatoes--Raspberry pie.

Boiled ham; fried chickens; lima beans; tomatoes; boiled corn--Green
gage pie.

Pot-pie; mashed turnips; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
cucumbers--Fritters.

Fried sea-bass; boiled fowls; cauliflower; tomatoes; lima beans--Peach
pie.

Roast ducks; cauliflower; tomatoes; lima beans--Green gage pudding.

Boiled ham; clam fritters; summer cabbage; lima beans--Apple pie.

Fried chickens; cold ham; cauliflower; tomatoes; sweet potatoes--Sweet
potatoe pudding.

Fried calf’s liver; cold ham; chitterlings or calf’s tripe; tomatoes;
cauliflower; sweet potatoes--Peach pie.

Stewed beef’s heart; clam fritters; sweet potatoes; tomatoes;
squashes--Squash pudding.

Corned beef; cabbage; carrots; stewed onions; tomatoes--Plum pie.

Veal cutlets; cold corned beef; tomatoes; squashes; boiled
corn--Blackberry pudding.

Harico of mutton; fried chickens; sweet potatoes; lima beans; beets;
boiled corn--Peach pudding.

Chowder; mutton chops; turnips; stewed tomatoes; boiled
corn--Huckleberry pudding.

Stewed breast of veal; tomatoes; cauliflower; lima beans--Green gage
pudding.

Clam pie; veal cutlet; lima beans; boiled corn--Boiled indian pudding.

Halibut cutlets; roasted beef’s heart; tomatoes; sweet potatoes; boiled
corn--Plum pie.

Cat-fish soup; chicken pie; beans; peas; tomatoes--Raspberry pudding
boiled.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sea-shore dinner._--Chowder; crabs; broiled mackerel; potatoes--Raisin
pudding.


PLAIN DINNERS FOR AUTUMN.--Fresh pork, stewed with sweet potatoes; lima
beans; tomatoes; corn--Plum pie.

Roast ducks; stewed egg-plant; tomatoes; lima beans; squashes;
turnips--Peach pie.

Ochra soup; beef-steaks; tomatoes; lima beans; sweet potatoes--Sweet
potatoe pudding.

Roast leg of pork, with apple sauce; sweet potatoes; lima
beans--Custard.

Rabbit soup; boiled ham; cauliflower; lima beans; tomatoes--Peach pie.

Ham pie; veal cutlets; salsify; sweet potatoes; lima beans--Peach
pudding.

Rabbit pot-pie; broiled ham with eggs; lima beans; sweet potatoes--Baked
bread pudding.

Pigeon soup; beef-steaks; onions; tomatoes; lima beans; sweet
potatoes--Apple pie.

Stewed beef; tomatoes; turnips; salsify; sweet potatoes; turnips--Bread
and butter pudding.

Ox-tail soup; fried rabbits; lima beans; beets; sweet potatoes--Peach
pie.

Roast leg of mutton; stewed onions; russian turnips; beets--Apple rice
pudding.

Mutton harico; fried chickens; turnips; salsify; lima beans--Eastern
pudding.

Pork and beans; stewed rabbits; tomatoes; sweet potatoes; russian
turnips--Boiled indian pudding.

Oyster soup; roast goose with apple sauce; turnips; sweet
potatoes--Sweet potatoe pudding.

Boiled fowls with celery sauce; oyster fritters; turnips; sweet
potatoes; winter-squash--Apple pie.

Roast pork with apple sauce; turnips; salsify; tomatoes; sweet
potatoes--Baked batter pudding.

Roast beef with horse-radish; sweet potatoes; turnips; tomatoes;
cold-slaw--Baked apple pudding.

Mutton soup; the meat that was boiled in it; hashed beef; turnips;
beets; tomatoes--Baked rice pudding.

Fresh pork stewed with parsnips; turnips; winter-squash or cashaw--Apple
dumplings.

Beef bouilli; oyster fritters; turnips; stewed onions;
winter-squash--Apple pie.

Stewed leg of mutton; russian turnips; sweet potatoes; salsify--Baked
bread pudding.

Hashed mutton; fried ham with eggs; turnips; tomatoes;
winter-squash--Apple pudding, boiled.

Beef-steak pot-pie; turnips; tomatoes; stewed pumpkin--Fritters or
pancakes.

Boiled corned pork; cabbage; winter-squash; turnips--Bread and butter
pudding.

Roast mutton; turnips; cold-slaw; beets; tomatoes--Boiled rice pudding.

Bean soup; cassarole of mutton; turnips; beets; cold-slaw--Apple pie.

Pork pie with apples in it; veal cutlets; turnips; beets;
tomatoes--Boiled indian pudding.

Corned beef; cale cannon; tomatoes; beets; turnips; carrots--Indian
fritters.

Cold corned beef; tripe and oysters; stewed onions; cold-slaw--Pumpkin
pudding.

Fresh beef stewed with parsnips; tomatoes; turnips; beets--Baked rice
pudding.

Boiled ham; cabbage; tomatoes; stewed pumpkin; turnips--Apple pie.

Stewed beef’s-heart; cold ham; winter-squash; beets--Eastern pudding.

Pigeon pie; smoked tongue; winter-squash; turnips--Apple rice pudding.

Ox-tail soup; veal cutlets; turnips; tomatoes; winter-squash--Dried
peach pudding.


PLAIN DINNERS FOR WINTER.--Boiled ham; cabbage; beets; cold-slaw;
hominy--Apple pie.

Chicken pie; cold ham; turnips; beets; hominy--Boiled batter pudding.

Pease soup; beef-steaks; onions; turnips; beets; cold-slaw--Baked rice
pudding.

Roast goose with apple sauce; turnips; beets; winter-squash--Cranberry
pie.

Pork and beans; stewed fowl; winter-squash; turnips--Eastern pudding.

Salt cod-fish with onions and eggs; parsnips; pigeon dumplings; turnips;
beets--Apple pie.

Pickled pork with pease-pudding; winter-squash; hominy--Molasses pie.

Roast turkey with cranberry sauce; turnips; winter-squash;
salsify--Custard pudding.

Pork pie with apples; oyster fritters; turnips; stewed pumpkin--Boiled
bread pudding.

Round of beef stewed; parsnips; cale cannon; carrots; turnips--Baked
indian pudding.

Fried rabbits; cold beef; turnips; winter-squash; hominy--Boiled batter
pudding.

Pot-pie; winter-squash; turnips; beets--Pumpkin pudding.

Boiled corned pork with indian dumplings; stewed pumpkin; turnips--Baked
bread pudding.

Bean soup; beef-steaks; onions; turnips; winter-squash--Squash pudding.

Boiled leg of mutton with nasturtian sauce; turnips; stewed pumpkin;
hominy--Pumpkin pudding.

Salt cod-fish; onions; eggs; parsnips; pork-steaks--Apple pot-pie.

Boiled ham; cabbage; winter-squash; hominy--Dried peach pie.

Pilau; mutton chops; turnips; winter-squash; cold-slaw--Apple bread
pudding.

Roast fowls; turnips; winter-squash; salsify--Cranberry pie.

Roast beef; horse-radish; winter-squash; turnips; cold-slaw--Pumpkin
pudding.

Family soup; veal cutlets; turnips; winter-squash; parsnips--Dried apple
pie.

Roast pork; apple sauce; turnips; stewed pumpkin; parsnips--Baked rice
pudding.

Beef-steak pudding; fried ham and eggs; turnips; winter-squash--Rice
custard.

Boiled fowls; oyster fritters; turnips; winter-squash--Carrageen
blanc-mange.

Beef-steak pot-pie; turnips; parsnips; winter-squash--Apple bread
pudding.

Corned beef; cabbage; turnips; carrots; beets--Indian fritters.

Stewed rabbits; cold corned beef; cale cannon; winter-squash;
parsnips--Boiled indian pudding.

Ox-tail soup; roast leg of mutton; turnips; winter-squash;
parsnips--Apple dumplings.

Beef-steaks broiled; mutton harico; onions; hominy; turnips;
beets--Indian fritters.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Christmas dinner._--Roast turkey; cranberry sauce; boiled ham; turnips;
beets; winter-squash--Mince pies.

       *       *       *       *       *

_New Year’s dinner._--A pair of roast geese with apple sauce; smoked
tongue; turnips; cold-slaw; winter-squash--Plum pudding.


VERY NICE FAMILY DINNERS FOR SPRING.--Spring soup; roast fillet of veal;
(potatoes always;) peas; stewed spinach--Rhubarb pie; custards.

Stewed rock-fish; roast lamb with mint sauce; peas; asparagus;
poke--Gooseberry pie; boiled custard.

Clam soup; roast loin of veal; stewed peas; spinach; asparagus--Tapioca
pudding; gooseberry fool.

Stewed sea-bass; roast beef; stewed spinach; stewed peas; asparagus;
beets--Currant pie; custards.

Stewed halibut; chicken pie; stewed peas; stewed beans;
asparagus--Boiled lemon pudding; gooseberry pie.

Green pea soup; roast fillet of veal; beans; peas; asparagus--Gooseberry
pudding; boiled custard.

Boiled ham; roast ducks with apple sauce; stewed peas; beans;
asparagus--Currant pie; green custard.

Cat-fish soup; roast lamb with mint sauce; peas; asparagus;
spinach--Ground rice pudding; gooseberry fool.

Clam pie; roast loin of veal; stewed peas; asparagus; stewed
spinach--Currant pudding; red custard.

Maccaroni soup; roast ducks with apple sauce; peas; asparagus;
spinach--Currant pie; gelatine custard.

Baked shad; stewed fillet of veal; peas; asparagus; spinach--Soufflé
pudding; gooseberry pie.

Roast lamb with mint sauce; clam-sweetbreads; peas; beans;
asparagus--Ground rice pudding; currant pie.

Corned fillet of veal; clam pie; stewed peas; spinach; beans;
asparagus--Gooseberry pudding; green fritters.

Roast beef; stewed sweetbreads with oysters; beans; peas;
asparagus--Gelatine blanc-mange; gooseberry fool.

Halibut cutlets; stewed lamb; peas; beans; asparagus; beets--Maccaroni
pudding; currant pie.

Boiled ham; fowl and oysters; asparagus; spinach; peas--Gooseberry pie;
custards.

Green pea soup; chicken pie; broiled ham; peas; asparagus;
beans--Biscuit pudding; gooseberry fool.


FAMILY DINNERS FOR SUMMER--VERY NICE.--Fresh salmon stewed; roast ducks
with stewed currant sauce; beans; peas; turnips--Cherry pie; custards.

Clam soup; roast fowls; peas; turnips; beans--Raspberry charlotte; green
fritters.

Boiled ham; sweetbreads with cauliflowers; lima beans; tomatoes; baked
egg-plant--Sunderlands; strawberries and cream.

Roast fillet of veal; smoked tongue; lima beans; tomatoes; stewed
egg-plant--Sweet potatoe pudding; flavoured curds and whey.

Baked salmon; terrapin veal; chicken pie; sweet potatoes; lima beans;
tomatoes--Charlotte pudding; strawberries and cream.

Chickens stewed whole; boiled ham; summer cabbage; beans; sweet
potatoes--Maccaroni pudding; raspberries and cream.

Roast beef; fried chickens; cauliflowers; tomatoes; lima beans; sweet
potatoes--Cherry pie; custards.

Roast ducks with currant sauce; smoked tongue; stewed onions; lobster
salad; stewed beans; peas--Boiled lemon pudding; strawberries and cream.

Boiled ham; tomato chickens; beans; turnips; egg-plant; sweet
potatoes--Sweet potatoe pudding; raspberries and cream.

Clam pie; stewed wild ducks; sweet potatoes; turnips; squashes;
egg-plant--Peach pie; custards.

Salmon cutlets; chicken pie; smoked tongue; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
squashes--Sweet potatoe pudding; floating island.

Chicken gumbo; boiled ham; young corn omelet; lima beans; sweet
potatoes--Peach pie; flavoured curds and whey.

Roast pig with apple sauce; chicken pie; lima beans; tomatoes; young
corn omelet--Charlotte pudding; custard.

Ochra soup; roast beef; tomatoes; lima beans; squashes; turnips--Squash
pudding; fritters.

Stewed sea-bass; boiled ham; clam fritters; sweet potatoes; tomatoes;
lima beans--Peach pie; boiled custard.

Baked salmon-trout; pigeon pie; tomatoes; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
cucumbers--Sweet potatoe pudding; peaches and cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sea-shore dinner._--Oyster soup; clam pie; stewed rock-fish; crabs;
mashed potatoes--Boiled lemon pudding.


VERY NICE AUTUMN DINNERS FOR FAMILIES.--Autumn soup; Roast fowls; smoked
tongue; lima beans; squashes; sweet potatoes--Sweet potatoe pudding;
apple pie.

Italian pork; roast ducks with apple sauce; squashes; egg-plant; lima
beans--Peach pie; gelatine custard.

Oyster soup; roast beef; sweet potatoes; squashes; egg-plant; lima
beans--Quince pudding; bread fritters.

Sea-bass with tomatoes; boiled ham; pigeon pie; sweet potatoes; stewed
red cabbage; lima beans--Squash pudding; preserved peaches.

Ham pie; sweetbreads with oysters; sweet potatoes; lima beans;
egg-plant--Boiled lemon pudding; preserved quinces.

Rabbit soup; roast beef; cold-slaw; lima beans; tomatoes; sweet
potatoes--Sago pudding; preserved tomatoes.

Roast pork with apple sauce; sweet potatoes; lima beans;
egg-plant--Sweet potatoe pudding; fritters.

Boiled ham; roast fowls; stewed red cabbage; turnips; sweet potatoes;
lima beans--Squash pudding; apple pie.

Roast fillet of veal; cold ham; broccoli; turnips; lima beans; sweet
potatoes--Baked rice pudding; preserved peaches.

Stewed pork with sweet potatoes; fried rabbits; onions; turnips; lima
beans--Peach pudding; custards.

Roast goose with apple sauce; smoked tongue; onions; turnips; lima
beans; sweet potatoes--Eve’s pudding; floating island.

Oyster soup; chicken pie; beef-steaks; onion sauce; tomatoes; turnips;
sweet potatoes--Sweet potatoe pudding; preserved peaches.

Roast fowls; corned beef; stewed red cabbage; turnips; tomatoes--Apple
custard; preserved tomatoes.

Boiled rock-fish; roast pork with apple sauce; sweet potatoes; turnips;
tomatoes--Baked apple pudding; fritters.

Oyster soup; venison steaks; tomato sweetbreads; turnips; sweet
potatoes--Pumpkin pudding; preserved tomatoes.

Venison pie; smoked tongue; broccoli; sweet potatoes; turnips;
winter-squash--Eve’s pudding; fritters.

Roast venison; oyster fritters; turnips; sweet potatoes;
winter-squash--Apple pie; boiled custard.

Ochra soup; roast fowls; smoked tongue; turnips; sweet potatoes;
broccoli--Pumpkin pudding; baked pears.


WINTER DINNERS FOR FAMILIES--VERY NICE.--Winter soup; roast beef; stewed
onions; cold-slaw; turnips--Apple pie; custards.

Boiled ham; oyster pie; turnips; parsnips; stewed pumpkin--Baked rice
pudding; preserved tomatoes.

Chicken pot-pie; oyster fritters; turnips; parsnips; beets--Pumpkin
pudding; preserved peaches.

Boiled turkey with oyster sauce; smoked tongue; turnips; salsify;
beets--Cranberry pie; custards.

Roast fowls with cranberry sauce; oyster fritters; turnips; beets;
winter-squash--Potatoe pudding; preserved quinces.

Bean soup; roast pork with apple sauce; turnips; pumpkin; beets--Pumpkin
pudding; preserved tomatoes.

Roast beef; scolloped oysters; turnips; parsnips; stewed beets;
winter-squash--Cranberry pie; boiled custard.

Pease soup; roast fowls; turnips; beets; cold-slaw; hominy;
winter-squash--Squash pudding; baked apples.

Roast turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled ham; winter-squash; turnips;
salsify--Mince pudding; lemon custards.

Ham pie; oyster fritters; turnips; winter-squash; salsify; stewed
beets--Raisin pudding; baked pears.

Venison soup; roast fowls; stewed beets; turnips; winter-squash--Sago
pudding; baked apples.

Roast venison with currant jelly; chicken curry; turnips; winter-squash;
salsify--Cranberry pie; custards.

Roast fowls; boiled corned beef; cabbage; carrots; parsnips;
turnips--Apple pie; boiled custard.

Roast beef; stewed fowls; cold-slaw; stewed beets; turnips; hominy;
salsify--Plum pudding; cranberry pie.

Soup à la Julienne; roast goose with apple sauce; scolloped oysters;
turnips; stewed onions; stewed beets--Pumpkin pudding; preserved pears.

Roast mutton; chicken curry; cold-slaw; beets; turnips; stewed
pumpkin--Eve’s pudding; baked apples.

Venison pasty; fricasseed chickens; turnips; salsify;
winter-squash--Plum pudding; preserved tomatoes.

Roast beef; fricasseed fowls; cold-slaw; beets; turnips;
winter-squash--Mince pie; custards.

Boiled turkey with oyster sauce; boiled ham; stewed beets; turnips;
cold-slaw--Pumpkin pudding; baked apples.

Bean soup; cold ham; roast fillet of veal; stewed beets; turnips;
winter-squash--Mince pie; boiled custard.

A-la-mode beef; scolloped oysters; turnips; carrots; beets;
cold-slaw--Carrot pudding; preserved pears.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Christmas and New Years’ dinners._--Boiled turkey with oyster sauce;
two roast geese with apple sauce; roasted ham; chicken pie; stewed
beets; cold-slaw; turnips; salsify; winter-squash--Plum pudding; mince
pie; lemon custards; cranberry pie.

Roast turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled fowls with celery sauce;
boiled ham; goose pie; turnips; winter-squash; salsify; cold-slaw;
beets--Mince pudding boiled; lemon pudding baked; pumpkin pudding.

Mock turtle soup; roast turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled turkey with
celery sauce; roasted ham; smoked tongue; chicken curry; oyster pie;
beets; cold-slaw; winter-squash; salsify; fried celery--Plum pudding;
mince pie; calves’-feet jelly; blanc-mange.


COMPANY DINNERS--SPRING.--1. Oyster soup; boiled sheep’s-head fish;
roasted ham; white fricassee; chickens stewed whole; terrapin veal;
sweetbread croquettes; asparagus; stewed peas; stewed spinach; fried
celery; maccaroni--Lemon pudding; almond pudding; calves’-feet jelly;
vanilla ice-cream.

2. Maccaroni soup; stewed rock-fish; boiled ham; brown fricassee; veal
rissoles; chicken rice pudding; larded sweetbreads; asparagus loaves;
asparagus omelet; French spinach; French peas; stewed beets--Rhubarb
cups; transparent pudding; charlotte russe; lemon ice-cream.

3. French white soup; baked sheep’s-head fish; boiled ham; lamb cutlets,
the French way; roasted sweetbreads; beef’s tongue stewed; French
chicken pie; maccaroni; stewed peas; stewed beans; asparagus; stewed
spinach--Omelet soufflé; orleans pudding; blanc-mange; orange ice-cream.

4. Fine clam soup; halibut cutlets; roasted ham; brown fricassee;
broiled sweetbreads; pigeon pie; lobster rissoles; asparagus omelet;
maccaroni; lettuce peas; asparagus; French spinach; potatoe snow--Boiled
almond pudding; sweetmeat fritters; vanilla flummery; cake syllabub.

5. Green pea soup; stewed sea-bass; French ham pie; baked tongue;
cutlets à la Maintenon; fricasseed chickens; maccaroni; asparagus;
stewed peas; stewed beans--Marietta pudding; Spanish blanc-mange;
calves’-feet jelly; lemon ice-cream.

6. Asparagus soup; stewed halibut; roasted ham; chicken curry;
fricasseed sweetbreads; terrapin veal; chicken patties; maccaroni;
lettuce peas; potatoe snow; stewed beans; stewed beets--Lady’s pudding;
green custard; wine fritters; gooseberry water-ice.

7. Friar’s chicken; halibut cutlets; boiled ham; French chicken pie;
sweetbread croquettes; lamb cutlets, French way; lobster patties;
Columbus eggs; French peas; stewed beans; stewed beets; potatoe
snow--Orleans pudding; orange tarts; pistachio cream; iced jelly.

8. Rich veal soup; stewed carp; boiled ham; sweetbreads stewed with
oysters; roast ducks; soft crabs; chicken rice pudding; stewed peas;
stewed beans; stewed beets; potatoe snow--Maccaroni pudding; red
custard; chocolate cream; almond ice-cream.


COMPANY DINNERS--SUMMER.--1. Duck soup; fresh salmon stewed; roasted
ham; French chicken pie; veal olives; sweetbreads with cauliflowers;
baked clams; stewed lobster; fried artichokes; scolloped tomatoes;
lettuce peas; stewed beans; lettuce chicken salad--Pine-apple pudding;
currant ice; iced jelly; strawberries and cream.

2. Pigeon soup; cream trout; baked tongue; terrapin veal; clam
sweetbreads; chicken curry; roast ducks; fried cauliflower; French peas;
stewed beans; lobster salad--Lady’s pudding; pine-apple tarts; raspberry
charlotte; strawberry ice-cream.

3. The best clam soup; roasted salmon; boiled ham; rice pie; tomato
chickens; sweetbread croquettes; veal olives; lobster patties;
cauliflower maccaroni; lima beans; stuffed egg-plant; sweet
potatoes--Charlotte russe; cherry water-ice; vanilla blanc-mange; iced
jelly.

4. Lobster soup; baked salmon-trout; tongue pie; roast ducks; fricasseed
chickens; sweetbreads with cauliflowers; reed-birds; lettuce peas;
stewed beans; stewed beets; Sydney Smith’s salad--Almond pudding; orange
pudding; vanilla ice-cream; Spanish blanc-mange.

5. Maccaroni soup; salmon steaks; French ham pie; chickens stewed whole;
white fricassee; lobster rissoles; tomato sweetbreads; lima beans; sweet
potatoes; young corn omelet; potatoe snow; fried cauliflower;
salad--French charlotte; vanilla blanc-mange; lemon custards; raspberry
ice-cream.

6. Rich white soup; boiled salmon; roasted ham; stewed ducks; boiled
fowls; plovers; scolloped tomatoes; lima beans; sweet potatoes;
cauliflower omelet; lobster salad--Marietta pudding; raspberry
charlotte; iced jelly; pistachio cream.

7. Normandy soup; roasted salmon; boiled ham; French chicken pie; brown
fricassee; sweetbreads with cauliflowers; lobster patties; birds with
mushrooms; lima beans; scolloped tomatoes; sweet potatoes; turnips;
stewed egg-plant; salad--Orleans pudding; maccaroni pudding; Spanish
blanc-mange; peach ice-cream.

8. Mock turtle soup; baked salmon; roasted ham; tongue pie; fricasseed
chickens; stewed ducks; plovers; clam sweet breads; broccoli and eggs;
sweet potatoes; onion custard; lima beans; salad--Orange tarts;
charlotte russe; maccaroni blanc-mange; Marlborough pudding; lemon
ice-cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sea-shore dinner._--Clam soup; roast salmon; boiled ham; sea-coast pie;
stewed oysters; fried oysters; stewed lobster; crabs; baked clams;
mashed potatoes--Biscuit pudding; sweetmeat fritters; cake syllabub;
orange flummery.


COMPANY DINNERS--AUTUMN.--1. Mock turtle soup; stewed rock-fish; roasted
ham; boiled fowls; stewed ducks; fried rabbits; stuffed egg-plant;
broccoli and eggs; fried artichokes; stewed mushrooms; potatoe snow;
sweet potatoes--Chocolate pudding; meringued apples; cake syllabub;
peach ice-cream.

2. Venison soup; baked salmon-trout; boiled ham; French chicken pie;
roast ducks with cranberry sauce; veal olives; sweetbread omelet; stewed
red cabbage; turnips; onion custard; sweet potatoes--Boiled almond
pudding; orange tarts; sweetmeat fritters; vanilla ice-cream.

3. Rich brown soup; sea-bass with tomatoes; ham pie; fricasseed
chickens; roast goose with apple sauce; oyster omelet; birds with
mushrooms; scolloped tomatoes; cold-slaw; sweet potatoes; broccoli and
eggs; fried artichokes; onion custard--Lady’s pudding; sweetmeat tarts;
lemon custards; almond ice-cream.

3. Normandy soup; stewed rock-fish; tongue pie; roast fowls; partridges
in pears; stewed ducks; oyster loaves; lima beans; tomatoes broiled;
stewed mushrooms; cold-slaw; sweet potatoes--Orleans pudding; orange
custards; Spanish blanc-mange; vanilla ice-cream.

4. Soupe à la Julienne; cream trout; roasted ham; stewed wild ducks;
tomato sweetbreads; French oyster pie; white fricassee; mushroom omelet;
stewed red cabbage; lima beans; winter squash; sweet potatoes;
turnips--Marrow pudding; lemon custards; meringued apples; peach
ice-cream.

5. The best oyster soup; stewed rock-fish; boiled ham; roast wild ducks
with currant jelly; chicken rice pudding; birds in a grove; terrapin
veal; sweetbread croquettes; turnips; sweet potatoes; onion custard;
broiled tomatoes--Vanilla flummery; omelet soufflé; sweetmeat tarts;
lemon ice-cream.

6. Meg Merrilies soup; boiled rock-fish; roasted ham; stewed wild ducks;
French oyster pie; roasted pheasants; Columbus eggs; mushroom omelet;
lima beans; sweet potatoes; turnips; winter-squash; beets--Orange
flummery; sweet potatoe pudding; calves’ feet jelly; lemon ice-cream.

7. Rich white soup; sea-bass with tomatoes; baked tongue; roast goose
with apple sauce; fricasseed fowls; venison steaks with currant-jelly;
oyster omelet; broiled mushrooms; turnips; sweet potatoes;
winter-squash; lima beans--Cocoa-nut pudding; sweetmeat tarts; lemon
custards; chocolate ice-cream.

8. Hare or rabbit soup; stewed rock-fish; boiled ham; pigeon pie; roast
fowls; brown fricassee; partridges in pears; woodcocks; oyster loaves;
turnips; sweet potatoes; winter-squash; beets; cold-slaw--Sweet potatoe
pudding; orange tarts; whipped cream; Spanish blanc-mange.


COMPANY DINNERS--WINTER.--1. Mulligatawny soup; fresh cod-fish fried;
boiled ham; roast turkey with cranberry sauce; fowls stewed whole;
oyster pie; potatoe snow; turnips; parsnips; winter-squash--Cocoa-nut
pudding; lemon pudding; mince-pie; calves’ feet jelly.

2. Clear gravy soup; stewed rock-fish; roasted ham; boiled turkey with
oyster sauce; venison pie; brown fricassee; sweet potatoes; turnips;
parsnips; beets--Orange pudding; almond pudding; meringued apples;
chocolate cream.

3. Venison soup; fresh cod-fish boiled; smoked tongue; pair of roast
geese with apple sauce; oyster pie; French stew of rabbits; turnips;
potatoe snow; parsnips; onion custard; beets--Transparent pudding;
orange tarts; mince-pie; floating island.

4. Mock turtle soup; boiled rock-fish; ham pie; smoked tongue; roast
turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled fowls with celery sauce; oyster
loaves; sweetbread croquettes; turnips; parsnips; beets;
maccaroni--Charlotte russe; mince-pie; calves’ feet jelly; blanc-mange.

5. Rich brown soup; fresh cod-fish stewed; boiled ham; venison roasted;
red-head ducks with currant jelly; oyster patties; veal rissoles;
turnips; parsnips; beets; winter-squash; cold-slaw--Mince-pudding;
omelet soufflé; orange flummery; vanilla ice-cream.

6. Rich white soup; fresh cod-fish fried; roasted ham; venison pie;
boiled turkey with oyster sauce; partridges in pears; chicken rice
pudding; potatoe snow; beets; turnips; winter-squash; stewed red
cabbage--Plum pudding; chocolate blanc-mange; cocoa-nut cream;
apple-jelly.

7. Meg Merrilies soup; stewed rock-fish; boiled ham; canvas-back ducks
roasted; French oyster pie; fricasseed chickens; veal olives;
winter-squash; potatoe snow; beets; turnips; maccaroni--Orange pudding;
cocoa-nut pudding; cake syllabub; chocolate ice-cream.

8. Maccaroni soup; fresh cod-fish stewed; smoked tongue; canvas-back
ducks stewed; partridge pie; fricasseed fowls; stewed sweetbreads with
oysters; turnips; potatoe snow; parsnips; beets; cold-slaw--Orleans
pudding; Italian charlotte; apple compote; orange-jelly.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Christmas dinners._--Mock turtle soup; stewed rock-fish; roasted ham;
roasted venison with currant-jelly; boiled turkey with oyster sauce;
roast geese with apple sauce; French oyster pie; fricasseed chickens;
potatoe snow; parsnips; beets; winter-squash; cold-slaw--Plum pudding;
mince-pies; orange tarts; cream cocoa-nut pudding; Spanish blanc-mange;
apple-jelly; vanilla ice-cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

_New Year’s dinner._--Venison soup; stewed fresh cod; boiled ham;
roasted turkey with cranberry sauce; roast goose with apple sauce;
partridge pie; winter-squash; beets; potatoe snow; cold-slaw--Columbian
pudding; lemon tarts; charlotte polonaise; vanilla blanc-mange; trifle.


LARGE DINNER PARTIES.--1. _Spring._--Rich brown soup at one end; rich
white soup at the other; two dishes of sheep’s-head fish, one baked, one
stewed, or else baked salmon-trout and cream trout; roasted ham; smoked
tongue; chickens stewed whole; roast ducks with cranberry-jelly;
sweetbreads with oysters; terrapin veal; white fricassee; brown
fricassee; sweetbread croquettes; lobster rissoles; oyster loaves;
lobster patties; asparagus loaves; French spinach; French peas;
cauliflower maccaroni; stewed beans; fried cauliflower; fried
artichokes; stewed spinach; asparagus omelet; cauliflower
omelet--Columbian pudding; orange tarts; lemon tarts; charlotte
polonaise; green custard; red custard; pistachio cream; maccaroon
blanc-mange; vanilla blanc-mange; gooseberry-water ice; currant-water
ice; almond ice-cream; calves’ feet jelly.

       *       *       *       *       *

2. _Summer._--Turtle soup; fresh salmon stewed; salmon steaks; baked
turtle; boiled ham; baked tongue; roast ducks with cherry-jelly; chicken
curry; chicken patties; sweetbreads and cauliflowers; tomatoe
sweetbreads; lobster pie; stewed lobster; birds in a grove; thatched
house pie; plovers roasted; rice pie; mushroom omelets; broccoli and
eggs; fried artichokes; stewed peas; stewed beans; stewed beets; potatoe
snow; lettuce peas; scolloped tomatoes; mashed sweet potatoes; stuffed
egg-plants; stewed egg-plant; Sydney Smith’s salad--Pine-apple tarts;
lady’s pudding; transparent pudding; marmalade puddings; French
charlotte; Italian charlotte; iced jelly; vanilla blanc-mange; almond
blanc-mange; orange ice-cream; strawberry ice-cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

3. _Autumn._--Meg Merrilies soup; sea-bass with tomatoes; salmon-trout;
roasted ham; smoked tongue; roast fowls; partridge pie; birds with
mushrooms; partridges in pears; terrapin; young geese with apple sauce;
tongue pie; chicken gumbo; woodcocks roasted; rice croquettes; Columbus
eggs; onion custard; mushroom omelet; cauliflower omelet; scolloped
tomatoes; baked egg-plant; potatoe snow; lima beans; fried sweet
potatoes; mashed sweet potatoes--Cream cocoa-nut pudding; chocolate
pudding; sweet omelet; preserved pine-apple; preserved citron-melon;
Spanish blanc-mange; calves’ feet jelly; meringued apples; orange-water
ice; peach ice-cream; biscuit ice-cream.

       *       *       *       *       *

4. _Winter._--Mock turtle soup; oyster soup; rock-fish stewed; fresh
cod-fish fried; boiled ham; baked tongue; roast turkey with
cranberry-jelly; boiled turkey with oyster sauce; roasted canvas-back
ducks with currant-jelly; stewed canvas-back ducks; partridges in pears;
salmi of partridges; French oyster pie; turnips; potatoe snow;
winter-squash; fried salsify; fried celery; onion custard--Plum pudding;
mince-pie; charlotte polonaise; charlotte russe; calves’ feet jelly;
pistachio cream; cocoa-nut cream; chocolate ice-cream; orange ice-cream.


TEA PARTIES.--Have black tea, green tea, and coffee. Immediately after
the first cups are sent in, let fresh tea be put into the pots, that the
second cups may not be weaker than the first. With the cream and sugar,
send round a small pot of boiling water to weaken the tea of those who
do not like it strong; or for the convenience of ladies who drink only
milk and water, and who otherwise may cause interruption and delay by
sending out for it. When tea is handed round, it is not well to have hot
cakes with it; or any thing that is buttered, or any sort of greasy
relishes. Such things are frequently injurious to the gloves and dresses
of the ladies, and can well be dispensed with on these occasions. It is
sufficient to send round a waiter with large cakes of the _best_ sort,
ready sliced but the slices not taken apart. There should be an almond
sponge-cake for those who are unwilling to eat cakes made with butter.

Immediately on tea being over, let the servants go round to all the
company with waiters having pitchers of cold water and glasses, to
prevent the inconvenience of ladies sending out for glasses of water.

In less than an hour after tea, lemonade should be brought in,
accompanied by baskets of small mixed cakes, (maccaroons, kisses, &c.,)
which it is no longer customary to send in with the tea. Afterwards, let
the blanc-mange, jellies, sweetmeats, ice-creams, wines, liquors, &c.,
be handed round. Next, (after an hour’s interval,) the terrapin,
oysters, and chicken salad, &c. These are sometimes accompanied by ale,
porter, or cider; sometimes by champagne. At the close of the evening,
it is usual to send round a large plum-cake.

If the plan is to have a regular supper table, it is not necessary to
send in any refreshments through the evening, except lemonade and little
cakes.

When the company is not very numerous, and is to sit round a tea-table,
waffles or other hot articles may there be introduced. Take care to set
a tea-table that will certainly be large enough to accommodate all the
guests without crowding them.


SUPPER DISHES FOR A LARGE COMPANY.--[392-*]Boned turkey with jelly;
partridge pie; game dressed in various ways; cold ham glazed thickly all
over with a mixture of bread-crumbs, cream, and yolk of egg; two smoked
tongues, one placed whole in the centre of the dish, the other cut into
circular slices and laid round it; cold alamode beef; French chicken
salad; Italian chicken salad; marbled veal; potted lobster; pickled
lobster; terrapins; cream oysters; fried oysters; pickled oysters;
oyster patties; biscuit sandwiches; charlotte polonaise; charlotte
russe; French charlotte; calves’ feet jelly; trifle; Spanish
blanc-mange; chocolate blanc-mange; coffee blanc-mange; maccaroon
blanc-mange; vanilla blanc-mange; pistachio cream; cocoa-nut cream;
chocolate cream; vanilla cream; lemon custards; orange custards; green
custard; red custard; meringued apples; whipt cream meringues; iced
grapes; orange-water ice; damson-water ice; vanilla ice-cream; lemon
ice-cream; almond ice-cream; chocolate ice-cream; biscuit ice-cream;
maccaroon ice-cream; preserved pine-apple; preserved citron-melon;
preserved limes; preserved oranges; brandy peaches; brandy green gages;
port wine-jelly; pink champagne-jelly; frozen punch, &c.; plum-cake;
lady-cake; almond sponge-cake; frothed chocolate with dry toast.

    [392-* From these may be selected supper dishes for a small
    assemblage, or for a company of moderate size.]

       *       *       *       *       *

An elegant supper table may be decorated with a profusion of real
flowers tastefully disposed in pyramids and other forms; or with the
sugar temples, obelisks, pagodas, baskets, &c., made by the
confectioners. Unless at a very large and splendid supper it is bad
taste to introduce these sugar ornaments.


OYSTER SUPPERS.--It is customary at oyster suppers to have a great
portion of the oysters roasted in the shell and brought in on large
dishes “hot and hot.” Near every two chairs should be placed a small
bucket to receive the shells. An oyster knife, and a clean coarse towel
must be laid beside every plate, for the purpose of opening the oysters;
an office that is usually performed by the gentlemen. The oysters should
all be of the largest and best kind. Besides those that are roasted,
there should be other dishes of them, fried, stewed, and pickled. Also,
oysters in pies or patties;--cold-slaw; beets; pickles; and celery;
bread in the form of rolls; and butter made up into handsome basket or
pine-apple shapes. Ale and porter are frequently introduced at oyster
suppers.



ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS.


BUENA VISTA CAKE.--Put half a pound of powdered white sugar into a deep
pan, and cut up in it half a pound of fresh butter. Stir them together
hard, till perfectly light. Add a nutmeg powdered. (This cake should be
highly-flavoured with nutmeg.) Beat four eggs in a shallow pan, till
they are very thick and smooth. Then stir them, gradually, into the pan
of beaten butter and sugar; in turn with three-quarters of a pound of
sifted flour. Add a wine-glass of rose-water. Have ready three large
wine-glasses of cream or rich milk, divided equally in two portions, and
put into two cups. Take one yeast-powder, of the very best sort;
dissolve in one cup of the cream, the contents of the blue paper, (or
the carbonate of soda,) and in the other cup the contents of the white
paper, (tartaric acid,) and mix the first with the cake-batter; and
then, immediately after, stir in the other, lightly and slowly. Transfer
the batter to a large well-buttered square pan, and set it immediately
into a brisk oven. Bake it steadily an hour, or more. If not thoroughly
baked, it will be heavy. When cool, cut it into squares, and sift
powdered sugar over it. It will be still better to ice it, adding
rose-water or lemon-juice to the icing. It is best when fresh, the day
it is baked; though very good the following day.

This cake will be found excellent, if the foregoing directions are
_exactly_ followed. If wanted fresh for tea, at a short notice, it can
be made and baked in two hours. For instance, if commenced at five
o’clock in the afternoon it may be on the table at seven. The above
quantity of ingredients will make enough to fill a large cake-basket.

If you wish to have a large Buena Vista cake baked in a loaf, take
double the above quantity of ingredients, viz., one pound of butter, one
pound of powdered sugar, a pound and a half of flour; eight eggs, two
nutmegs, and two wine-glasses of rose water; six wine-glasses of cream
or milk, and two yeast-powders; that is, two of the blue papers and two
of the white. Put the mixture into a circular pan, and setting it
directly in a brisk oven bake it from four to five hours in proportion
to its thickness, keeping up a steady heat all the time. When done, ice
and ornament it; flavouring the icing with rose or lemon. One of the
decorations should be the words Buena Vista.

All cakes that have milk or cream in them require longer baking than
those that have not; and the heat of the oven must be well kept up.


YEAST-POWDERS.--Get at a druggist’s a pound of super-carbonate of soda,
and three-quarters of a pound of tartaric acid. Both these articles must
be of the very best quality. Prepare an equal number of square blue
papers, and square white papers; nicely folded. To be very accurate,
weigh the articles alternately. In every blue paper put a hundred grains
of the super-carbonate of soda, and in each white paper ninety grains of
tartaric acid; and then fold them up so as to secure their contents. If
you have not suitable scales and weights, you may guess tolerably well
at the proportions of the articles by measuring a full tea-spoonful of
the soda for each blue paper, and three-quarters of a tea-spoonful of
the acid for each white paper. Put them up in boxes, and keep them in a
dry place. The contents of one blue paper and of one white paper are
considered as one yeast-powder; half the contents of each paper are
called half a yeast-powder.

Yeast-powders of themselves have not sufficient power to raise bread or
cakes so as to make them light enough to be wholesome. They should only
be employed when real yeast, or eggs, are also used. Then they add
greatly to the lightness of the cake. They are also an improvement to
batter puddings. They must always be added at the last.

To use them, dissolve first the soda in a wine-glass and a half of milk
or lukewarm water, and when thoroughly melted, stir it into the batter.
Then melt in another cup the acid, with a similar quantity of milk or
water, and stir it in at the last.

These powders entirely destroy the flavour of lemon or orange-juice. But
they will convert sour milk into sweet. A yeast-powder added to
buckwheat batter that has already been raised by real yeast, will render
it surprisingly light. One blue and one white powder will suffice for
two quarts of batter.


FINE WAFER CAKES.--Wash and squeeze half a pound of fresh butter in a
pan of cold water. Then take it out, and cut it up in another pan, into
which you have sifted half a pound of powdered white sugar; and stir
them together with a spaddle (a round stick flattened at one end) till
they are very light and creamy. Then stir in half a grated nutmeg, a
small tea-spoonful of powdered mace, a glass of sherry or Madeira, and a
glass of rose or lemon brandy. Put the whites of four eggs into a deep
plate, beat them to a stiff froth with a whisk, and add the beaten white
of eggs gradually to the mixture. Lastly, stir in as much sifted flour
as will make a light soft dough or paste. Divide it into equal portions;
flour your hands, and roll each portion in your palms till it becomes
round like a small dumpling. Then having heated the wafer-iron, butter
the inside, and put in one of the dumplings, making it to fit well. Put
the wafer-iron into a clear hot fire, and bake each cake five minutes.
When done, take them out carefully and lay them separately on an
inverted sieve to cool.

This mixture may be more easily baked in thin flat cakes. Roll out the
dough into a thin sheet, and then cut it into round cakes with the edge
of a tumbler, or with a tin cutter of that circumference. Butter large
square iron pans, and lay the cakes in them, but not so close as to
touch. Put them into a quick oven, and bake them brown.


LANCASTER GINGERBREAD.--Cut up a quarter of a pound of fresh butter into
two pounds of sifted flour; rub it well in, and add a small teacup of
ground ginger, and a tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon. Stir in a pint
and a half of West India molasses, and milk enough to make it into a
thick batter. Lastly, add a tea-spoonful of soda dissolved in a little
tepid water; and immediately after dissolve in another cup a
salt-spoonful of tartaric acid, and stir that in. Stir the whole very
hard. Butter square pans, put into them the mixture, and bake it well;
seeing that the oven is not so hot as to scorch it. It requires very
long baking. When cool, cut it into squares.

Never put allspice into gingerbread or any other cake. It communicates a
disagreeably bitter taste. Allspice is now rarely used for any purpose;
cloves being far better. Either of them will considerably darken the
colour of the cake.


WARM ICING FOR CAKES.--Beat to a stiff froth the whites of four eggs;
then beat into them, gradually, (a spoonful at a time,) a pound of
finely-powdered loaf-sugar. Next put the beaten white of egg and sugar
into a very clean porcelain-lined kettle, (or something that will not
discolour it,) and boil and skim it till the scum ceases to rise. Then
remove it from the fire; and while it is warm, stir in the juice of two
large lemons or oranges, or a tea-spoonful of extract of roses, or a
wine-glass of rose-water, or a large table-spoonful of extract of
vanilla. Have ready your cake, which must first be dredged with flour
all over, and the flour wiped off with a clean cloth. This will make the
icing stick. With a spoon, place a large portion of the warm icing on
the centre of the top of the cake; and then with a broad-bladed knife,
(dipped now and then into a bowl of cold water) spread it thick and
evenly all over the surface. When done, let it dry gradually. It is best
that the cake, when iced, should be warm from the oven.

This warm icing is now much in use. It spreads easily; rises up high and
thick in cooling; and has a fine gloss on the surface.

To give it a fine red or pink colour, use cochineal. For green
colouring, pound in a mortar some raw spinach till you have extracted a
tea-cup full of green juice. Put the juice into a very clean porcelain
or earthen pan, set it over the fire, and give it one boil up, (not
more,) and when cold it will be fit for use. This is the best way of
preparing green colouring for all culinary purposes.


CINNAMON BREAD.--On a bread-baking day, (having made more than your
usual quantity of wheat bread,) when the dough has risen quite light, so
as to be cracked all over the surface, take out as much as would suffice
for a moderate-sized loaf, (for instance, a twelve-cent one,) and make
it into a large round cake. Having dissolved a yeast-powder in two
separate cups in a little lukewarm water, the carbonate of soda in one
cup, and the tartaric acid in another, mix the first with the dough of
the cake, and then mix in the second. Have ready a half-pint of brown
sugar, moistened with fresh butter, so as to make it a thick stiff
paste, and flavoured with a heaping table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon.
Make deep cuts or incisions, at equal spaces, over the cake, and fill
them with the above mixture, pressed in hard; and pinch the dough with
your thumb and finger, so as to close up each cut, to prevent the
seasoning from running out. Set it immediately into the oven with the
other bread, and bake it thoroughly. When cool, brush it over with white
of egg, in which some sugar has been melted.

This is an excellent plain cake for children, and can be prepared any
bread-baking day.

It is much improved by mixing with the dough two large heaped
table-spoonfuls of butter that has been melted in a teacup of warm milk,
and also one or two beaten eggs. Do this before you add the
yeast-powder.


SNOW CREAM.--Take a large pint of very rich cream, and half a pound of
the best loaf-sugar, powdered. Rub off, on a lump of sugar, the yellow
rind of three large lemons or oranges, (or, four or five, if small;)
scraping it off the sugar with a teaspoon as you proceed, and
transferring it to a saucer. Then powder this lump of sugar, and add it
to the rest. Mix with the sugar the juice of the fruit, and the grated
rind; and then mix the whole with two quarts of clean snow, in a broad
pan. Set the pan into a tub, and pack it closely all round with coarse
salt and snow; taking care that they do not quite reach to the edge of
the pan, lest some of the salt should get in, and spoil the whole. While
packed in the snow and salt, beat the mixture very hard till it is
smooth and stiff. Then set it on ice; or in a very cold place, till
wanted for use. Turn it out into a glass bowl.

This is a good and easy way of imitating ice-cream in families that are
not provided with the regular apparatus of a freezer and moulds. The
pint of cream must be very rich, and the flavouring very high. All
flavouring loses much strength in freezing.

You may flavour it with vanilla, by boiling a vanilla bean in half a
pint of milk, till the vanilla taste is well infused. Then strain the
milk, and mix it with the cream. Or, instead of vanilla, you may boil in
the milk a handful of shelled bitter almonds, or peach-kernels, to be
afterwards strained out.


LEMON HONEY.--Take three large ripe lemons, (or four or five small
ones,) and (having rolled them under your hand on a table, to increase
the juice,) rub off on a piece of loaf-sugar the yellow rind or zest,
scraping it up with a teaspoon as you proceed, and putting it aside on a
saucer. Then squeeze the juice of the lemons through a strainer, upon a
pound of loaf-sugar, (broken small or powdered,) and add the zest or
grated rind. Cut up, among the sugar, a large quarter of a pound of the
best fresh butter. Break six eggs into a shallow earthen pan, and beat
them till as light as possible. Then mix in, gradually, the sugar and
lemon, stirring all very hard. Put the whole into a porcelain-lined
kettle; set it over a moderate fire that has no blaze, and (stirring it
all the time) let it boil till it becomes of the consistence of very
thick honey. If the weather is warm, you may add to its thickness by
stirring in a table-spoonful of ground arrow-root, or of sifted flour.
When done, put it warm into glass jars; cover them, closely, and seal
the covers. It will keep in a cool dry place a month or more. If made
in winter, it will continue good for two months.


ORANGE HONEY is made as above, except that you must have five or six
oranges, all of the largest size, using the juice only and none of the
rind. Orange peel will give it an unpleasant taste after it has been
kept a few days.


RAISIN CURRANTS.--Strip as many ripe currants from the stems as will
fill a quart measure when done. Put them into a porcelain-lined kettle;
mash them, and add three quarters of a pound of sugar--brown will do.
Prepare three quarters of a pound of the largest and best raisins,
washed, drained, seeded, and cut in half. Or, use the small sultana or
seedless raisins. When the currants and sugar have come to a boil, and
been skimmed, mix in the raisins, gradually, and let them boil till
quite soft; skimming the surface well; and after each skimming stir the
whole down to the bottom of the kettle. When done, take it up in a deep
dish, and set it to cool. This is a nice, plain dessert.

For a larger quantity, take two quarts of stripped currants; a pound and
a half of sugar; and a pound and a half of raisins. None but raisins of
the best quality should be used for this or any other purpose.
Low-priced raisins are unwholesome, being always of bad quality.


CURRANT-RAISIN JAM.--Wash, drain, seed, and chop fine two pounds of the
best bloom or muscatel raisins, and put them into a large pan till
wanted. Having stripped them from the stems, squeeze through a linen bag
into a large bowl as many ripe currants as will yield three quarts of
juice. Sweeten this juice with two pounds and a half of sugar. Having
put the minced raisins into a preserving kettle, pour the currant-juice
over them, and give the whole a hard stirring. Set it over the fire, and
boil and skim it, (stirring it down after skimming,) till it is
thoroughly done, forming a thick smooth jam or marmalade. When cool, put
it into jars. Cork them closely, covering the corks with paper tied down
over the top, and set them away in a dry place. It is an excellent jam
for common use, and very nice with cream.


TO KEEP PINE-APPLES, WITHOUT COOKING.--Take large fine pine-apples--the
ripest you can procure. Pare and slice them thin, removing the hard core
from the centre. Weigh the slices, and to each pound allow a pound of
double-refined powdered loaf-sugar. Spread the slices on large flat
dishes, with a layer of sugar both under and over them. Let them stand
several hours; then put them up (without any cooking) in large glass
tumblers, with the syrup that has issued from them; and put a thick
layer of sugar at the top of each tumblerful. Cover the glasses closely,
and tie a piece of bladder over each.

If the sugar is of the best quality, and the pine-apples ripe and
without blemishes, they will keep perfectly well, done as above, and
retain the flavour of the fruit better than when cooked. They must be
kept in a dry cool place.


FINE PINE-APPLE MARMALADE.--Take pine-apples of large size, and as ripe
as possible. Having removed the green leaves, cut each pine-apple
(without paring) into four quarters; and then, with a large coarse tin
grater, grate them down as near the rind as you can go. Do this in a
large dish, carefully saving the juice. Then weigh the grated
pine-apple, and to every pound allow three large quarters of a pound of
the best double-refined loaf-sugar, finely powdered. Too much sugar
will, after boiling, cause the marmalade to candy in the jars. Mix with
the sugar the pine-apple and all its juice, and put them into a
preserving kettle over a moderate, but very clear, fire. Boil them
slowly together, skimming them when necessary, and frequently stirring
them up from the bottom with a silver spoon. Let them boil till they
become a very thick smooth mass, of a fine gold colour. Put the
marmalade warm into glass jars. Lay upon the surface a double tissue
paper, cut circular, and fitting exactly; then cover the jars, and tie a
piece of bladder over each.

Instead of grating the pine-apple, you may pare, core, and cut it into
small thin pieces; but it will require a longer time to boil, and will
be less smooth and beautiful. With a coarse grater the trouble is not
much.


MELON MARMALADE.--Take fine large citron melons, and cut them into
quarters, having removed the seeds. Weigh the pieces, and to every pound
allow a pound of the best double-refined loaf-sugar. To every three
pounds of melon allow two lemons, and a tea-spoonful of ground white
ginger. Then grate the melon slices on a coarse grater, but not too
close to the rind. Grate off the yellow rind of the lemons, and add it
with the ginger to the sugar, which must be finely powdered. Then mix
the whole with the grated melons in a preserving kettle. Set it over a
moderate fire, and boil, skim, and stir it till it is a very thick
smooth jam. Put it warm into glass jars, or large tumblers; lay a double
round of tissue paper on the surface of the marmalade; cover the jars
closely, and tie a piece of bladder over each.

Pumpkin marmalade may be made in the above manner, omitting the ginger.


TOMATO MARMALADE.--Take large fully-ripe tomatoes, and scald them in hot
water, so that the skins can be easily peeled off. Weigh the tomatoes;
and to every pound, allow a pound of the best sugar; to every three
pounds, two lemons and a small tea-spoonful of ground ginger. Grate off
the yellow rind of the lemons, and mix it with the sugar and ginger;
then add their juice. Put the tomatoes into a preserving kettle, and
mash them with the back of a wooden ladle. Then mix in the sugar, &c.,
stirring the whole very hard. Set the kettle over a moderate fire, and
boil it very slowly for three hours, till it is a smooth mass, skimming
it well; and stirring it to the bottom after each skimming.

This is an excellent sweet-meat; and as the lemon must on no account be
omitted, it should be made when lemons are plenty. The best time is the
month of August, as lemons are then to be had in abundance, and the
tomatoes are less watery than in the autumn months. For children it may
be made with brown sugar, and with less lemon and more ginger. Like all
preparations of tomato it is very wholesome.


YANKEE APPLE PUDDING.--Butter the bottom and inside of a deep tin pan.
Pare, core, and quarter six or eight large, fine, juicy apples; and
strew among them a heaped half-pint or more of broken sugar. Dissolve a
tea-spoonful either of soda, sal-eratus, or pearlash, in a pint of
_sour_ milk. The soda will take off entirely the acid of the milk, and
render the whole very light. Stir the milk, and pour it among the
apples. Have ready a good pie-crust, rolled out thick. Lay it over the
top of the pan of apples, &c.; trim the edge nicely, and notch it
neatly. Put the pudding into a hot oven, and bake it brown. It will
require at least an hour, or more, according to its depth. Eat it warm.

This is a good plain family pudding. A similar one may be made of
peaches; pared; stoned, and quartered.

[406-*]FILET GUMBO.--Cut up a pair of fine plump fowls into pieces, as
when carving. Lay them in a pan of cold water, till all the blood is
drawn out. Put into a pot, two large table-spoonfuls of lard, and set it
over the fire. When the lard has come to a boil, put in the chickens
with an onion finely minced. Dredge them well with flour, and season
slightly with salt and pepper; and, if you like it, a little chopped
marjoram. Pour on it two quarts of boiling water. Cover it, and let it
simmer slowly for three hours. Then stir into it two heaped
tea-spoonfuls of sassafras powder. Afterwards, let it stew five or six
minutes longer, and then send it to table in a deep dish; having a dish
of boiled rice to be eaten with it by those who like rice.

This gumbo will be much improved by stewing with it three or four thin
slices of cold boiled ham, in which case omit the salt in the seasoning.
Whenever cold ham is an ingredient in any dish, no other salt is
required.

A dozen fresh oysters and their liquor, added to the stew about half an
hour before it is taken up, will also be an improvement.

If you cannot conveniently obtain sassafras-powder, stir the gumbo
frequently with a stick of sassafras root.

This is a genuine southern receipt. Filet gumbo may be made of any sort
of poultry, or of veal, lamb, venison, or kid.

    [406-* Pronounced Fee_lay_.]


FINE CABBAGE SOUP.--Take a fine large cabbage, and, after removing the
outside leaves, and cutting the stalk short, divide the cabbage into
quarters, more than half way down, but not quite to the stem. Lay the
cabbage in cold water for half an hour or more. Then set it over the
fire in a pot _full_ of boiling water, and let it boil for an hour and a
half, skimming it frequently. Then take it out, drain it, and laying it
in a deep pan, pour on _cold_ water, and let the cabbage remain in it
till cold all through. Next (having drained it from the cold water) cut
the cabbage into shreds or small pieces, and put it into a clean pot
containing three pints of rich boiling milk, into which you have stirred
a quarter of a pound of the best fresh butter; adding a very little salt
and pepper. Boil it in the milk about two hours, or till thoroughly
done, and quite tender. Then cut up some pieces of bread into small
squares. Lay them in a tureen, and pour the soup upon them.

This, being made without meat, is an excellent soup for Lent or
fast-days.

It is still better when cauliflowers or broccoli are substituted for
cabbage; adding a few blades of mace, or some grated nutmeg.


EXCELLENT PICKLED CABBAGE.--Shred very fine, with a cabbage-cutter, a
large fresh red cabbage. Pack it down (with a little salt sprinkled
between each layer) in a large stone jar. The jar should be three parts
full of the shred cabbage. Then tie up, in a bag of very thin clean
muslin, two table-spoonfuls of whole black pepper; the same quantity of
cloves; and the same of cinnamon, broken very small, but not powdered.
Also a dozen blades of mace. Put two quarts of the best cider-vinegar
into a porcelain-lined kettle; throw in the bag of spices, and boil it.
Five minutes after it has come to a hard boil, take out the bag of
spice, and pour the vinegar hot over the cabbage in the jar; stirring it
up from the bottom, so that the vinegar may get all through the
cabbage. Then lay the bag of spice on the top, and while the pickle is
hot, cover the jar closely. It will be fit for use in two days.

If you find, after awhile, that the pickle tastes too much of the spice,
remove the spice-bag.

You may pickle white cabbage in the same way; omitting the cloves, and
boiling in the vinegar a second muslin bag, with three ounces of
turmeric, which will give the cabbage a fine bright yellow colour.
Having put up the cabbage into the jar, lay the turmeric-bag half way
down, and the spice-bag on the top. But the turmeric-bag need not be put
into the jar if the vinegar has sufficiently coloured the cabbage.

Small onions may be pickled, as above, with turmeric. Always, in
preparing onions, for any purpose, peel off the thin outer skin.


MADEIRA HAM.--Take a ham of the very finest sort; a Westphalia one, if
you can obtain it. Soak it in water all day and all night; changing the
water several times. A Westphalia ham should be soaked two days and
nights. Early in the morning of the day it is to be cooked, put it over
the fire in a large pot, and boil it four hours, skimming it well. Then
take it out; remove the skin, and put the ham into a clean boiler, with
sufficient Madeira wine to cover it well. Boil, or rather stew it an
hour longer, keeping the pot covered, except when you remove the lid to
turn the ham. When well stewed take it up, drain it, and strain the
liquor into a porcelain-lined saucepan. Have ready a sufficiency of
powdered white sugar. Cover the ham all over with a thick coating of the
sugar, and set it into a hot oven to bake for an hour.

Mix some orange or lemon-juice with the liquor, adding sugar and
nutmeg. Give it one boil up over the fire, and serve it up in a tureen,
as sauce to the ham.

What is left of the ham may be cut next day into thin slices, put into a
stew-pan, with the remains of the liquor or sauce poured over it, and
stewed for a quarter of an hour. Serve it up all together in the same
dish. Instead of Madeira you may use champagne. Bottled cider is also a
good substitute.

Fresh venison, pheasants, partridges, grouse, or any other game, (also
canvas-back ducks,) cut up and stewed with a mixture of Madeira wine,
orange, or lemon-juice, sugar, nutmeg, and a little butter will be found
very fine. The birds should first be half roasted, and the gravy saved
to add to the stew.


NEW WAY OF DRESSING TERRAPINS.--In buying terrapins, select those only
that are large, fat, and thick-bodied. Put them whole into water that is
boiling hard at the time, and (adding a little salt) boil them till
thoroughly done throughout. Then, taking off the shell, extract the
meat, and remove carefully the sand-bag and gall; also _all the
entrails_. They are disgusting, unfit to eat; and are no longer served
up in cooking terrapin for the best tables. Cut the meat into pieces,
and put it into a stew-pan with its eggs, and sufficient fresh butter to
stew it well. Let it stew till quite hot throughout, keeping the pan
carefully covered that none of the flavour may escape; but shake it over
the fire while stewing. In another pan, make a sauce of beaten yolk of
egg, highly flavoured with Madeira or sherry, and powdered nutmeg and
mace, and enriched with a large lump of fresh butter. Stir this sauce
well over the fire, and when it has _almost_ come to a boil, take it
off. Send the terrapin to table hot in a covered dish, and the sauce
_separately_ in a sauce-tureen, to be used by those who like it, and
omitted by those who prefer the genuine flavour of the terrapin when
simply stewed with butter.

This is now the usual mode of dressing terrapins in Maryland and
Virginia, and will be found superior to any other.

No dish of terrapins can be good unless the terrapins themselves are of
the best quality. It is mistaken economy to buy poor ones. Besides being
insipid and tasteless, it takes more in number to fill a dish. The
females are the best.


A TERRAPIN POT-PIE.--Take several fine large terrapins, the fattest and
thickest you can get. Put them into a large pot of water that is boiling
hard; and boil them half an hour or more. Then take them out of the
shell, pulling off the outer skin and the toe-nails. Remove the sand-bag
and the gall, taking care not to break it, or it will render the whole
too bitter to be eaten. Take out also the entrails, and throw them away;
as the custom of cooking them is now, very properly, exploded. Then cut
up all the meat of the terrapins, taking care to save all the liquid
that exudes in cutting up, and also the eggs. Season the whole with
pepper, mace, and nutmeg, adding a little salt; and lay among it pieces
of fresh butter slightly rolled in flour.

Have ready an ample quantity of paste, made in the proportion of a pound
of butter to two large quarts (or pounds) of flour, or a pound and a
half of butter to three quarts of flour, and rolled out thick. Butter
the inside of an iron pot, and line the sides with paste, till it
reaches within one-third of the top. Then put in the pieces of terrapin,
with the eggs, butter, &c., and with all the liquid. Lay among the
terrapin, square pieces of paste. Then pour in sufficient water to stew
the whole properly. Next, cover all with a circular lid, or top-crust of
paste, but do not fit it so closely that the gravy cannot bubble up
over the edges while cooking. Cut a slit in the top-crust. Place the
pot-pie over a good fire, and boil it till the whole is thoroughly done,
which will be from three-quarters to an hour, (after it comes to a
boil;) taking care not to let it get too dry, but keeping a kettle of
_hot_ water to replenish it if necessary. When done, take it up in a
deep dish, and serve it hot. Then let every one add what seasoning they
choose.

It may be much improved by mixing among the pieces of terrapin (before
putting them into the pie) some yolks of hard-boiled eggs, grated or
minced. They will enrich the gravy.


A BEEF-STEAK POT-PIE.--Take a sufficiency of tender beef-steaks from the
sirloin, removing all the fat and bone. Season them slightly with pepper
and salt; adding also some nutmeg. Put them into a pot with plenty of
water, and par-boil them. Meanwhile, make a large portion of paste, (a
pot-pie with but little paste is no better than a mere stew,) and roll
it out thick. If you use suet for shortening, allow to every two quarts
or two pounds of flour a large half-pound of suet, divested of the skin
and strings, and minced as finely as possible with a chopping-knife.
Sprinkle in a very little salt. Mix the suet with the flour in a large
pan, rubbing it fine with your hands, and adding gradually sufficient
cold water to make a stiff dough. Then transfer the lump of dough to the
paste-board; knead it well with your hands; and beat it hard on all
sides with the rolling-pin. Next roll it out into sheets. Line the sides
of a pot with a portion of the dough. Then put in the beef; adding for
gravy the liquid in which it was boiled, and a little hot water. Also,
some potatoes sliced or quartered. Intersperse the meat with square
slices of paste. Finish by covering it with a lid of paste, having a
slit in the top: but do not fit the lid too closely. Then placing the
pot over the fire, let it boil from three-quarters to an hour, (after it
comes to a boil,) replenishing it, if necessary, with more hot water.
This will be found an excellent family dish.


CHICKEN POT-PIE.--Cut up, and par-boil a pair of large fowls, seasoning
them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. You may add some small slices of
cold ham; in which case add _no salt_, as the ham will make it salt
enough. Or you may put in some pieces of the lean of fresh pork. You may
prepare a suet-paste; but for a chicken pot-pie it is best to make the
paste of butter, which should be fresh, and of the best quality. Allow
to each quart of flour, a small half-pound of butter. There should be
enough for a great deal of paste. Line the sides of the pot, two-thirds
up, with paste. Put in the chickens, with the liquor in which they were
parboiled. You may add some sliced potatoes. Intersperse the pieces of
chicken with layers of paste in square slices. Then cover the whole with
a lid of paste, not fitting very closely. Make a slit in the top, and
boil the pie about three-quarters of an hour or more.

This pie will be greatly improved by adding some clams to the chickens
while par-boiling, omitting salt in the seasoning, as the clams will
salt it quite enough.


BROILED MUSHROOMS.--Take the largest and finest fresh mushrooms. Peel
them, and cut off the stems as closely as possible. Lay the mushrooms on
their backs, upon a large flat dish; and into the hollow or cup of each
put a piece of fresh butter, and season it with a little black pepper.
Set a clean gridiron over a bed of clear hot coals, and when it is well
heated, put on the mushrooms, and broil them thoroughly. The gridiron
should be one with grooved bars, so as to retain the gravy. When the
first gridiron-full of mushrooms is well broiled, put them with their
liquor into a hot dish, and keep them closely covered while the rest are
broiling. This is an excellent way of cooking mushrooms.


AN EASY WAY TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS.--Take two quarts of small
freshly-gathered mushrooms. With a sharp-pointed knife peel off,
carefully, their thin outside skin; and cut off the stalks closely.
Prepare eight little bags of very thin clear muslin, and tie up in each
bag six blades of mace; six slices of root-ginger; and a small nutmeg
(or half a large one) broken small, but not powdered. Have ready four
glass jars, such as are considered to hold a quart. Lay a bag of spice
in the bottom of each; then put in a pint of the mushrooms, laying a
second bag of spice on the top. Have ready a sufficiency of the best
cider-vinegar, very slightly seasoned with salt; allowing to each quart
of vinegar but a salt-spoon of salt. Fill up the jars with the vinegar,
finishing at the top with two table-spoonfuls of sweet oil. Immediately
close up the jars, corking them tightly; and pasting thick paper, or
tying a piece of leather or bladder closely down over the corks.

These mushrooms will be found very fine; and as they require no cooking,
are speedily and easily prepared. When a jar is once opened, it will be
well to use them fast. They may be put up in small jars, or in glass
tumblers, such as hold but a pint altogether; seeing that the
proportions of spice in each jar or tumbler are duly divided, as above.
Keep them in a very dry place.

If you wish the mushrooms to be of a dark colour when pickled, add half
a dozen cloves to each bag of spice; but the clove-taste will most
likely overpower that of the mushrooms. On no account omit the oil.

If you cannot obtain button-mushrooms, cut large ones into four
quarters, first peeling them and removing the stems.


BREAKFAST ROLLS.--These rolls must be mixed the night before, near
bed-time. Sift three quarts of flour into a deep pan, and cut up into it
a half-pint cup-full (or a quarter of a pound) of fresh butter. Rub the
butter with your hands into the flour till thoroughly incorporated, and
add a very small tea-spoonful of salt. Make a hole in the middle of the
flour, and pour in four large table-spoonfuls of excellent yeast. Have
ready sufficient warm milk; a pint will generally be enough, (heated but
not boiling,) to make it into a light dough. Add the milk gradually; and
then knead the dough. Put it into a pan, cover it with a clean thick
cloth, and set it in a warm place. Early in the morning, add to the
dough a small tea-spoonful of pearl-ash or sal-eratus, or a large
tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a little warm water. Mix it well in,
and knead the dough over again. Then divide it into equal portions, and
make each portion into an _oval-shaped_ roll. Draw a deep mark along the
top-surface of each with a knife. Put them into a hot oven, and bake
them brown.

If intended for tea, mix them in the forenoon; and previous to baking,
make out the dough into _round cakes_, pricking them with a fork.


BUCKWHEAT BATTER PUDDING.--Mix early in the day, a quart of buckwheat
meal with a large tea-cup full of Indian meal or of wheat flour; and add
a tea-spoonful of salt. Have ready some water, warm but not boiling; and
stir it gradually into the pan of meal till it makes a thick batter.
Then add two large table-spoonfuls of fresh strong yeast from the
brewer’s. Of home-made yeast you will require three or four spoonfuls.
Stir the whole very hard; cover the pan and set it near the fire to
rise. When quite light, and covered with bubbles, melt a small
tea-spoonful of soda or pearl-ash in a little warm water, and stir it
into the batter. This, added to the yeast, will make the mixture light
enough for a pudding without eggs. Have ready on the fire, a pot of
boiling water. Dip in the pudding-cloth, then shake it out, spread it
into a bread pan, and dredge it with flour. Pour the batter into the
cloth as soon as you have added the soda, and tie it tightly, leaving a
vacancy of about one-third, to allow for the swelling of the pudding.
Put it into the pot while the water is boiling hard, and boil the
pudding fast during an hour or more; buckwheat meal requiring much less
time than indian or wheat. While boiling, turn the pudding several times
in the water. When done, turn it out on a dish, and send it to table
hot. Eat it with butter and sugar, or molasses.

This is a good plain pudding; but the batter must be _perfectly_ light
before it is tied up in the cloth; and if the water boils away,
replenish the pudding-pot with _boiling_ water from a kettle. To put
_cold_ water into a boiling pot will most certainly spoil whatever
pudding is cooking in it, rendering it heavy, flat, and unfit to eat.

If you intend having buckwheat cakes at breakfast, and this pudding at
dinner, mix at once sufficient batter for both purposes, adding the soda
at the last, just before you put the pudding into the cloth.

Yeast-powders will be still better than soda; real yeast having
previously been used when first mixing the batter. To use yeast-powders,
dissolve the contents of the blue paper (super-carbonate of soda) in a
little warm water, and stir it into the batter. Then, directly after,
melt in another cup the powder from the white paper, (tartaric acid,)
and stir that in also.


BUCKWHEAT PORRIDGE.--Boil a quart of rich milk, and when it has come to
a hard boil, stir in, gradually, as much buckwheat meal as will make it
of the consistence of very thick mush, adding a tea-spoon of salt, (not
more,) and a table-spoonful of fresh butter. Five minutes after it is
thick enough, remove it from the fire. If the milk is previously boiling
hard, and continues to boil while the meal is going in, but little more
cooking will be necessary.

Send it to table hot, and eat it with butter and sugar, or with molasses
and butter.

This is sometimes called a Five Minute Pudding, from its being made so
soon. It is very good for children, as a plain dessert; or for supper.

Before it goes to table, you may season it with powdered ginger, or
nutmeg.


APPLE TAPIOCA.--Take a quart bowl, and half fill it with tapioca: then
fill it very nearly to the top with cold water, allowing a little space
for the tapioca to swell in soaking. Cover it, and let it stand all
night. In the morning, pare and core six or eight fine pippin or
bell-flower apples. Put them into a preserving kettle; filling up the
holes from whence the cores were extracted with powdered sugar, and the
grated yellow rind of one large lemon, or two small ones; and also the
juice. Stew among the apples additional sugar, so as to make them
agreeably sweet. Add about half enough of water to cover them. This will
be sufficient to keep them from burning. Stew them gently till about
half done; turning them carefully several times. Then put in the
tapioca, and let it simmer with them till perfectly clear, and the
apples are tender and well done throughout; but not long enough for them
to break and fall to pieces. The tapioca will form a fine clear jelly
all round the apples.

This is a nice dessert for children. And also, cooling and nourishing
for invalids.

Quinces may be done in the same manner. They require more cooking than
apples. For quinces, it is best to use, as flavouring, the grated yellow
rind, and the juice of very ripe oranges.


TERRA FIRMA.--Take a piece of rennet about four inches square, and wash
it in two or three cold waters to get off all the salt. Then wipe it
dry, put it into a cup, and pour on sufficient lukewarm water to cover
it well. Let it stand four or five hours, or all night. Then stir the
rennet-water into three pints of rich unskimmed milk, flavoured with
rose or peach-water. Cover the pan of milk, and set it on the hearth
near the fire, till it forms a very firm curd. Then take it out,
(draining off the whey,) put it into a clean sieve, (under which set a
pan to receive the droppings,) and with the back of a broad flat wooden
ladle, press all the remaining whey out of the curd. Next put the mass
of curd into a deep bowl to mould it; and set it on ice till tea-time.
Then transfer it to a deep glass bowl or dish, and pour all round it
some cream sweetened well with sugar, and flavoured with rose or peach
like the curd. On the curd lay circles of small sweetmeats, such as
preserved strawberries, raspberries, or gooseberries. You may add to the
cream that is to surround it, white wine and nutmeg.


TO USE COLD PUDDING.--If you have a large piece of boiled pudding left
after dinner, (such as plum pudding, indian pudding, or batter pudding,)
and you wish to cook it next day, tie it up in a cloth, and put it into
a pot of boiling water, and keep it boiling hard for half an hour or
more. It will be found as good as on the first day, and perhaps rather
better; and it will be far more palatable, as well as more wholesome
than if sliced, and fried, or broiled. Eat it with the same sauce as on
the preceding day.


TO KEEP EGGS.--Break some glue into pieces, and boil it in sufficient
water to make a thin solution. While warm, dip a brush into it, and go
carefully over every egg. They must all be quite fresh. When the eggs
are thoroughly glazed with the glue, spread them out to dry. When quite
dry, pack them in kegs or boxes, with dry wood-ashes or saw-dust, (of
which there must be a plentiful portion,) putting a thick layer of the
ashes or saw-dust at the bottom and top of the keg. This is an excellent
way of keeping eggs for sea-voyages, and is well worth the trouble.
Before using them, soak them in warm water to get off the coating of
glue.

Eggs of parrots and other tropical birds preserved in this manner, and
the glue-coating soaked off in _cold_ water, it is said have afterwards
been hatched in the usual way; and the young birds have lived.


FINE FRENCH MUSTARD.--Take a sufficient quantity of green tarragon
leaves, (picked from the stalks) and put them into a wide-mouthed glass
jar till it is half full; pressing them down hard. Then fill up the jar
with the best cider-vinegar, and cork it closely. Let it infuse a week
or two. Then pour off the vinegar into a pitcher, remove all the
tarragon from the jar, and put in an equal quantity of fresh leaves of
the plant, and pour back the same vinegar from the pitcher. Cork it
again, and let the last tarragon remain in the jar. In another
fortnight the vinegar will be sufficiently flavoured with tarragon to
use it for French mustard, or for other purposes. Then peel a clove of
garlic, (not more than _one_,) and mince it as fine as possible. Mix it
into four ounces (a quarter of a pound) of the best mustard-powder, in a
deep white pan. Take a jill, or two large wine-glasses of the tarragon
vinegar, (strained from the leaves,) pour it into a mug, and mix with it
thoroughly an equal quantity of salad oil. Then with the mixture of
vinegar and oil, moisten the mustard-powder, gradually, (using a wooden
spoon,) till you get it a very little thicker than the usual consistence
of made mustard. Put it into small clean, white jars, and cork them
closely.

If you find that the above quantity of oil and vinegar will make the
mustard too thin, you need not use the whole of the liquid. If the
mustard seems too thick, dilute it gradually with a little more of the
oil and vinegar.

This mustard is very superior to the common preparation, and is
universally liked; particularly with beef and mutton. It must be kept
closely corked. It is usual to bring it to table in the little white
jar, with a small spoon beside it.

The herb tarragon may be had green and fresh in July and August. It is
much used in French cookery, as a seasoning for stews, soups, &c.

Tarragon vinegar is very good with boiled cabbage or greens. The
tarragon leaves of the second infusion should be kept remaining in the
jar, pouring off the vinegar from them as it is wanted. A small quantity
may be kept in a cruet; retaining the leaves at the bottom.


A WASHINGTON PUDDING.--Pick, and wash clean half a pound of Zante
currants; drain them, and wipe them in a towel, and then spread them out
on a flat dish, and place them before the fire to dry thoroughly.
Prepare about a quarter of a pound or half a pint of finely-grated
bread-crumbs. Have ready a heaping tea-spoonful of powdered mace,
cinnamon, and nutmeg mixed. When the currants are dry, dredge them
thickly on all sides with flour, to prevent their sinking or clodding in
the pudding while baking. Cut up in a deep pan half a pound of the best
fresh butter, and add to it half a pound of fine white sugar, powdered.
Stir the butter and sugar together, with a wooden spaddle, till they are
very light and creamy. Then add a table-spoonful of wine, and a
table-spoonful of brandy. Beat in a shallow pan eight eggs till
perfectly light, and as thick as a good boiled custard. Afterwards, mix
with them, gradually, a pint of rich milk and the grated bread-crumbs,
stirred in alternately. Next, stir this mixture, by degrees, into the
pan of beaten butter and sugar; and add the currants, a few at a time.
Finish with a table-spoonful of strong rose-water, or a wine-glass full,
if it is not very strong. Stir the whole very hard. Butter a large deep
white dish; or two of soup-plate size. Put in the batter. Set it
directly into a brisk oven, and bake it well. When cold, dredge the
surface with powdered sugar. Serve it up in the dish in which it was
baked. You may ornament the top with bits of citron cut into leaves and
forming a wreath; or with circles of preserved strawberries.

This will be found a very fine pudding. It must be baked in time to
become quite cold before dinner.

For currants, you may substitute raisins of the best quality; seeded,
cut in half, and well dredged with flour.

Instead of rose-water you may stir in the yellow rind (finely grated) of
one large lemon, or two small ones, and their juice also.


NEW WAY OF WASHING SILK.--For ribbons, cravats, and other small articles
of silk, put a sufficiency of the best fresh camphine oil into a large
basin, and press and squeeze the things well through it, without either
soap or water. Then squeeze them, till as dry as you can get them: open
them out; and having washed the basin, put into it some fresh camphine,
and wash the articles through that in the same manner as before. Have
hot irons ready, and as the things come out of the second camphine,
(after well squeezing and shaking them, but not rinsing,) spread them
open on the ironing-sheet, and iron them smoothly and evenly on the
wrong side. Do each article, as soon as it has had the second washing,
as they should remain wet as short a time as possible.

There is no way of washing silk things that will make them look so well
as this. It injures no colour, but rather brightens all, and gives the
silk just the right degree of stiffness, besides making it very clean
and fresh. When done, hang them in the open air for a while. A silk
dress may be washed in this manner, putting the camphine into a large
queensware-foot-bath. It should not go into a vessel of either wood or
metal. The dress must first be taken entirely apart; but it will look so
well when washed and ironed, that you will not regret the trouble.

Camphine generally sells at about fifty cents a gallon, sometimes lower.


TO SAVE STAIR-CARPETS.--Stair-carpets always wear out first (and
sometimes very soon) at those parts that go against the edges or ledges
of the stairs. They will last much longer at the edges, (indeed, as long
as any other part of the carpet,) if the following precaution is taken.
Get some old carpeting, (first made very clean,) and cut it into strips
just the width of the stair-carpet. Each strip must be wide enough to
put on double. Nail these strips, carefully and smoothly, on the round
edge of each stair, so as to cover it entirely, above and below.
Afterwards, put down the stair-carpet. When it is taken up to have the
stairs washed, these strips will be found no inconvenience to the
cleaning; taking care, however, if any of the nails or tacks get
loosened, to drive them in again tightly; and if bent, to replace them
by new ones. The slips must have time to get quite dry before the carpet
is put down again.

Another way to save a stair-carpet, is to buy enough to make it a yard
or more too long. Whenever the carpet is put down again, after it has
been taken up for the purpose of cleaning the stairs, shift its position
every time, so that the same places of the carpet may not always go
against the ledges of the stairs. The extra length must be folded under,
sometimes at the top of the staircase, and sometimes at the bottom.

Both these methods of saving a stair-carpet we know to be good. The
first is the least expensive; but it is more trouble to nail on all the
double slips of old carpeting, than to buy the additional yard of new.

In hotels where there is always plenty of old carpeting, and where there
are men who can easily nail on the slips, this is a much better way than
to cover the stairs first with oil-cloth, and then with zinc to save the
oil-cloth; corners of the zinc frequently getting loose and catching and
tearing the ladies’ dresses.

Oil spilt on a stair-carpet can generally be taken away by immediately
wiping off as much as can thus be removed, and then directly washing the
place with cold water; renewing the water with fresh, till the grease
disappears. If it will not come out, cover the place thoroughly with
scraped fuller’s earth. Let it rest an hour or two: then brush that off,
and put on a fresh layer of fuller’s earth; repeating it till the oil
is entirely expelled. Scraped Wilmington clay is still better than
fuller’s earth.


SPERMACETI, TO EXTRACT FROM CARPETS OR CLOTHES.--There is no better way
of removing spermaceti, than, (after scraping off with a knife as much
as you can get from the surface of the spot,) to cover it with a piece
of clean blotting paper, or any paper that is soft and thin, and press
it with a warm iron. By repeating this, (taking each time a clean part
of the paper,) any spermaceti spot may be removed from carpets, coats,
ladies’ dresses, or other similar articles.

When spermaceti has been dropped on a table, lay a blotting paper on the
spot, and then hold over it, _carefully_, at a small distance above, a
hot coal in the tongs. Pressing it with a warm iron would mark the
mahogany.


CHEAP OIL FOR KITCHEN LAMPS.--Let all scraps of fat (including even
whatever bits are left on the dinner-plates) and all drippings be
carefully saved, and put into an earthen crock, covered, and set in a
cold place. When the crock is full, transfer the fat to an iron pot,
filling it half-way up with fat; and pour in sufficient cold water to
reach the top. Set it over the fire, and boil and skim it till all the
impurities are removed. Next pour the melted fat into a large broad pan
of cold water, and set it away to cool. It will harden into a cake. Then
take out the cake, and put it away in a cool place. When wanted for use,
cut off a sufficient quantity, melt it by the fire till it becomes
liquid, and then fill the lamp with it, as with lard. It will give a
clear bright light, quite equal to that of lard, and better than whale
oil; and it costs nothing but the trouble of preparing the fat. We
highly recommend this piece of economy.


RELIEF FOR CORNS.--Experience proves that there is scarcely a
possibility of removing corns on the feet, so that they will never
return. The following remedy _we know_ to be an excellent palliative; it
will for a time diminish their size, and take away their soreness, and
is easily renewed when they again become troublesome. It is peculiarly
excellent for corns between the toes, which, of all others, are the most
painful when they inflame.

Get at a druggist’s a sixpenny box of Simple Cerate, (which is made of
white wax, spermaceti, and lard, melted together, and stewed to a
salve,) and with your finger, apply a small portion of this to each
corn, letting it stay on for two or three hours; and then repeat the
application. Do this several times during the day. For corns between the
toes, add to the cerate a little soft, open white wool, such as you may
pick off the surface of a blanket. Stick this in between the toes--the
salve that adheres to it will keep it in its place. Repeat this through
the day with fresh cerate and wool; putting on your stockings carefully.
At night, before going to bed, wash off the cerate. In the morning renew
it, as before. It gives not the least pain, but is soothing and
pleasant. Proceed in this manner for a few days or a week, and you will
find great relief. Try it, and be convinced.

Stockings with toes too narrow or pointed, are just as apt to produce
corns, and to increase their pain and inflammation, as the wearing of
narrow-toed shoes.


BROILED CANVAS BACK DUCKS.--To have these ducks with their flavour and
juices in perfection, they should be cooked immediately after killing.
If shot early in the morning, let them be broiled for breakfast; if
killed in the forenoon, they should be dressed for that day’s dinner.
When they can be obtained quite fresh, broiling is now considered the
best way of cooking them.

As soon as the ducks have been plucked, and drawn, and washed, split
them down the back, and lay them, spread open, on a very clean gridiron,
set over a bed of clear bright coals. The gridiron should have grooved
bars to retain as much as possible of the gravy. Broil them well and
thoroughly, so that the flesh may not have the least redness when sent
to table. They will generally be done in twenty minutes or more. Serve
them up as hot as possible. They will be found full of gravy, and
require no sauce when cooked in this manner; but you may season them as
you please when on your plate.


AUTUMN LEAVES.--The autumnal colours of our American forest trees are
justly admired for the brightness, richness, and variety of their tints.
Some of our fair countrywomen have worn them in Europe, formed into
wreaths for the hair, or trimmings for ball-dresses, and the effect was
considered beautiful. They may be preserved for this purpose by the
following process. Gather as many varieties of autumn foliage as you can
obtain; seeing that every leaf is perfect, and that there is a stem to
each. The best time is in the month of October. Include among them those
of the crimson maple, the purple beech, the willow oak with its
underside of silvery white, the yellow hickory, the aspen, and any
others that are richly tinted by the frost. Also, by way of contrast,
some green pine sprigs. Lay them separately between the leaves of a
large _writing-paper_ book, (an old ledger will do very well,) and do
not put tree-leaves between all the book-leaves successively, but
alternately; otherwise they will not be smooth and flat when pressed.
That is, put tree-leaves between the second and third pages of the
book, and then no more till between the sixth and seventh pages. Lay the
next tree-leaves between the tenth and eleventh pages, and so on, till
they are all in. Place several other heavy books upon the ledger so as
to press well the leaves beneath.

Stretch a twine across the room, or from the backs of two chairs, and
tie a small twine string to each stem. Have ready some very fine clear
varnish, (such as is used for maps, &c.) and with a large camels’ hair
brush, go carefully over both sides of the leaves, including the stem.
Fasten them all, separately, to the stretched twine; seeing that none of
them are near enough to each other to touch. Then lock the door of the
room, that nothing may get in to disturb them, or raise the slightest
dust while the varnish is drying. When perfectly dry, and not in the
least sticky to the touch of the finger, have ready some sheets of
smooth thick white paper. In each sheet cut small double slits to admit
the stems, and in this way secure the leaves from slipping about and
being injured. Write the name of each leaf above it. Let the other half
of the sheet lie upon them. Put these sheets within a double cover of
binders-board, (like a port-folio,) which you must then seal up in
paper, like a large parcel, and the leaves in all their autumn beauty
may be safely transported to any part of the world.

They will be found very useful to landscape-painters.


MADEIRA CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Take one ounce of gelatine, or of the very
best Russia isinglass, and soak it, near half an hour, in as much cold
water as will barely cover it. It must merely soften, and not dissolve.
Then drain off the water, and put the gelatine or isinglass into a pint
of rich cream; adding a vanilla bean split, cut to pieces, and tied
closely in a very thin muslin bag. Set the cream over a slow fire in a
porcelain preserving-kettle, and let it boil till the gelatine is
entirely dissolved, and thoroughly mixed with the cream. Give it a hard
stirring, down to the bottom, several times while boiling.

Have ready the yolks only, of eight eggs, beaten till very light and
thick; and then beat, gradually, into the yolk of egg three quarters of
a pound of the best powdered loaf-sugar. Then take the cream off the
fire, and (having first removed the vanilla) stir into it, by degrees,
the mixture of beaten yolk of egg and sugar. Set the kettle again over a
slow fire, and let it simmer till very thick; but do not allow it to
boil hard, or too long, lest it should curdle.

When the mixture is sufficiently thick, take it off, and set it away to
cool. Have ready the whites of four of the eight eggs beaten to a stiff
froth. Then stir two heaping table-spoonfuls of powdered loaf-sugar into
half a tumbler-full of Madeira wine, and beat it slowly into the white
of egg; adding a little more powdered sugar if the wine seems likely to
curdle the egg.

When the yellow or yolk-of-egg mixture is quite cold, stir gradually
into it the white mixture, till all is thoroughly amalgamated. Have
ready a mould or moulds lined with very thin slices of almond
sponge-cake. Fill them up with the mixture, and set them on ice till the
charlotte is wanted. Then turn it out. You may cover the top with icing
made in the usual way, and flavoured with extract of vanilla, or extract
of bitter almond--or peach-water.


LEMON CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Is made as in the preceding receipt;
substituting for the vanilla and Madeira, the yellow rind and the juice
of two large whole lemons, or three if not of the largest size. Rub off
the yellow rind (or zest) upon lumps of loaf-sugar, scraping it off with
a knife as you proceed, and saving it on a saucer. Then powder these
lumps, and mix them with half the remainder of the three-quarters of a
pound of sugar, and the scraped yellow rind. Add it (as above) to the
beaten yolk of egg, and boil it slowly with the isinglass and cream.
Then cut the lemons, and squeeze their juice into the remaining sugar.
Having beaten the whites of half the eight eggs to a stiff froth, add to
it the lemon-juice and sugar; and when the mixture of cream, egg, and
isinglass is cold, mix gradually with it the beaten white of egg, &c.
Lastly, line the mould with thin slices of lady-cake, or almond
sponge-cake; put in the mixture, and set it on ice. Before it goes to
table ice the top; flavouring the icing with lemon-juice.


ORANGE CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Is made as above--substituting for the lemons
three fine large oranges, and flavouring the icing with orange-juice.
Line the moulds with almond sponge-cake. Orange cake will be still
better for this purpose.


ROSE CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Take an ounce of Russia isinglass or of gelatine,
and soften it by soaking a while in cold water. Then boil it slowly in a
pint of cream, sweetened with a quarter of a pound of fine loaf-sugar,
(adding a handful of fresh rose-leaves tied in a thin muslin bag,) till
it is thoroughly dissolved, and well mixed. Take it off the fire; set it
to cool; and beat together till very light and thick, four whole eggs,
and the yolks only of four others. Stir the beaten eggs gradually into
the mixture of cream, sugar and isinglass, and set it again over the
fire. Stir it well, and see that it only simmers; taking it off before
it comes quite to a boil. Then, while it is warm, stir in sufficient
extract of roses, to give it a high rose-flavour and a fragrant smell.
Have ready two moulds lined with lady-cake, or almond sponge-cake. Fill
them with the mixture, and set them on ice. Before they go to table, ice
the tops of the charlotte, flavouring the icing with rose.


CHOCOLATE CHARLOTTE RUSSE.--Having soaked in cold water an ounce of
Russia isinglass, or of gelatine, shave down three ounces of the best
chocolate, which must have no spice or sugar in it, (Baker’s Prepared
Cocoa is excellent for this and all other chocolate purposes,) and mix
it gradually into a pint of cream, adding the soaked isinglass. Set the
cream, chocolate, and isinglass over the fire, in a porcelain kettle;
and boil it slowly till the isinglass is dissolved thoroughly, and the
whole is well mixed. Then take it off the fire and let it cool. Have
ready eight yolks of eggs and four whites, beaten all together till very
light; and stir them gradually into the mixture, in turn with half a
pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Simmer the whole over the fire, but do not
let it quite boil. Then take it off, and with a chocolate-mill, (or with
rods,) whip it to a strong froth. Line your moulds with sponge-cake, and
set them on ice.

If you like a strong chocolate flavour, take four ounces of the cocoa.


ALMOND ICE-CREAM.--To every quart of cream, allow two ounces of shelled
sweet almonds, and two ounces of shelled bitter almonds. Blanch the
almonds in scalding water, and then throw them into cold water;
afterwards, put them, one at a time, (bitter and sweet alternately,)
into a marble mortar, and pound them to a fine, smooth paste, moistening
them with a little cream as you proceed. When the almonds are all done,
stir them gradually into the cream you intend to freeze. Set it over a
fire, and continue to boil it five minutes after it has come to a boil.
Then strain it into a freezer, and while it is warm stir in gradually
sufficient powdered loaf-sugar to make it very sweet, allowing
three-quarters of a pound to every quart of cream. Freeze it in the
usual manner.


ALMOND ICE-CREAM--_Another way._ To each quart of cream, allow three
ounces of shelled bitter-almonds, and no sweet ones. Blanch them and
break them up slightly. Put them into a porcelain sauce-pan, and pour on
water, allowing half a pint of water to each ounce of almonds. Boil them
long and slowly, till the water is highly-flavoured, and so reduced in
quantity that it barely covers the almonds. Then strain it off; and when
cool, stir the almond water into the cream, adding sugar by degrees;
allowing three-quarters of a pound to every quart of cream. Put the
mixture into a freezer, and proceed as usual.


CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM.--Chocolate used for this purpose must have neither
sugar nor spice in it. Baker’s Prepared Cocoa is the best. For each
quart of cream, scrape down three large ounces of cocoa or chocolate,
put it into a sauce-pan with half a pint of hot water for each ounce,
and mix it into a smooth paste with a spoon. Place it over hot coals,
and when it has come to a boil, take it off the fire and set it to cool.
When it has become lukewarm, stir the chocolate into the cream, and
strain it. When strained, add gradually, for each quart of cream,
three-quarters of a pound of powdered loaf-sugar; and give the whole a
boil up. Then put it into a freezer.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Another way._--To every quart of cream, allow three ounces of Baker’s
Prepared Cocoa, and half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar. Scrape the
cocoa very fine, and stir it into the cream, alternately with the sugar,
a little of each at a time. Having well mixed the whole, boil and stir
it, continuing to do so five or six minutes after it has come to a boil.
Then strain it into the freezer.


ORANGE ICE-CREAM.--To each quart of cream, allow two fine ripe oranges,
and three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar. Rub the yellow rinds of the
oranges upon a large lump of sugar, and scraping it off as you proceed,
transfer it to a saucer. Then powder the lump of sugar, and put it, with
the rest, all of which must be powdered. Squeeze the juice of the
oranges among the sugar, mixing it well in. Then stir it gradually into
the cream. Give it one boil up, and then transfer it to the freezer.


LEMON ICE-CREAM.--May be made as in the above receipt. It will require
more sugar, as lemons are more acid than oranges.

Never use oil of lemon or essence of lemon for any flavouring. This
article is now too generally made of tartaric acid, vitriol, or other
drugs that render it unpalatable and unwholesome. Some of it tastes like
peppermint. All lemon-flavouring should be obtained from the fruit only.


WINE JELLY.--Take three ounces of Cooper’s isinglass or gelatine, and
soak it in cold water during five minutes. Then take it out and put it
into a preserving kettle, and dissolve it in two quarts of boiling
water. Stir into it a pound of loaf-sugar, on part of which has been
rubbed off the thin yellow rind of four large lemons. Add two large
sticks of cinnamon broken up, and the juice of the lemons mixed with a
pint of white wine, (madeira, sherry, or malaga,) and add also the
broken shells and beaten whites of four eggs. Having mixed all the
ingredients well in the preserving kettle, put on the cover, set the
kettle over the fire, and boil it steadily during twenty minutes. Then
take it off, and let it stand five minutes or more, to settle. Pour the
whole carefully into a thin flannel bag, and let it run into your jelly
moulds. On no account squeeze the bag, as that will injure the clearness
of the jelly.

This mode of preparing jelly with artificial isinglass saves the trouble
of boiling calves’ feet the day before. It can be made in a short time.


VERY FINE APPLE JELLY.--Having cut out all blemishes, quarter half a
bushel of the best pippin or bell-flower apples, without peeling or
coring, and as you cut them, throw them into a pan of cold water to
preserve the colour. When all the apples have been thus cut up, take
them out of the water, but do not wipe or dry them. Then weigh the cut
apples, and to each pound, allow a pound of the best loaf-sugar. Put
them with the sugar into a large preserving-kettle and barely enough of
water to prevent their burning, mixing among them the yellow rind of
half a dozen lemons pared off very thin and cut into pieces. Also the
juice of the lemons. When perfectly soft, and boiled to a mash, put the
apples, &c., into a large linen jelly-bag, and run the liquid into
moulds, if wanted for present use; and into jars if intended for
keeping. Lay brandy paper on the top of each jar, and cover them
closely.


PEAR MARMALADE.--Take large fine juicy pears. Pare, core, and cut them
up into small pieces. Weigh the pieces; and to every two pounds allow a
pound and a half of sugar, and the grated peel and juice of a large
orange or lemon, adding a tea-spoonful of powdered ginger. Put the whole
into a preserving-kettle and boil it over a moderate fire, till it
becomes a very thick, smooth marmalade, stirring it up from the bottom
frequently, and skimming the surface before each stirring. When quite
done, put it warm into jars--and cover it.

For children, or for common family use, it may be made with large pound
pears and brown sugar; but it always requires the acid of orange or
lemon to make it palatable; pears, when cooked, having no acid of their
own.


FIG-MARMALADE.--Take fine fresh figs that are perfectly ripe, such as
can only be obtained in countries where they are cultivated in
abundance. Weigh them, and to every two pounds of figs allow a pound and
a half of sugar, and the yellow rind of a large orange or lemon, pared
very thin. Cut up the figs, and put them into a preserving-kettle with
the sugar, and orange or lemon-rind, adding the juice. Boil them till
the whole is reduced to a thick, smooth mass, frequently stirring it up
from the bottom. When done, put it warm into jars, and cover it closely.


TOMATA MARMALADE.--This is the best sort of tomata sweetmeat. Take ripe
tomatas in the height of the season. In autumn they become watery, and
insipid. Weigh them; and to every pound of tomatas allow a pound of
sugar. Put the tomatas into a large pan, or a small tub, and scald them
with boiling water, so as to make the skin peel off easily. When you
have entirely removed the skins, put the tomatas (without any water)
into a preserving-kettle, mash them, and add the sugar, with spoonfuls
of ground ginger to your taste; also fresh lemon-peel finely grated, and
sufficient lemon-juice to give it a fine flavour. Stir up the whole
together, and set it over a moderate fire. Boil it gently for two or
three hours, till the whole becomes a thick, smooth mass--skimming it
well, and stirring it to the bottom after every skimming. When done, put
it warm into jars; cover it tightly, (pasting paper over the lids,) and
keep it in a dry place. This will be found a very fine sweetmeat. There
should be enough of ginger and lemon to overpower the tomata flavour.

For children, this sweetmeat is better than any other; and it may be
made for them very economically with good brown sugar, (always allowing
a pound of sugar to a pound of tomatas,) and with no other flavouring
than ginger. The natural taste of the tomatas must not be perceptible,
it is their substance only that is wanted, and their wholesome
properties.


RED FLUMMERY.--Boil a pound of ground rice in as much water as will
cover it. When it is thoroughly boiled, and very thick and smooth, stir
into the rice (while hot) a half pound of powdered white sugar, and
about three jills, or six large wine-glasses of fresh currant or cherry
juice, that has been pressed through a linen bag. Next replace it on the
fire, and boil the whole together for about ten minutes, stirring it
well. Then put it into moulds, and set it on ice. When cold, turn it
out, and eat it with sweetened cream, or with boiled custard.

You may use the juice of fresh strawberries or raspberries, stirred in
while the flummery is hot, but not boiled afterwards. The flavour of
strawberries and raspberries is always impaired and weakened by cooking.


RICE BLANCMANGE.--Boil half a pint of whole rice in as little water as
possible, till all the grains lose their form and become a soft mass.
Next put it into a sieve, and drain and press out all the water. Then
return it to the sauce-pan, and mix with it a large half pint of rich
milk, and a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar. Boil it again till the
whole is reduced to a pulp. Then remove it from the fire, and stir in,
(while hot,) a wine-glass of rose-water. Dip your moulds into cold
water, and then fill them with the rice; set them on ice, and when quite
firm and cold, turn out the blancmange, and serve it up on dishes with a
sauce-tureen of sweetened cream flavoured with nutmeg. Or you may eat it
with a boiled custard, or with wine sauce.

You may mould it in large breakfast cups. Always dip your moulds for a
moment in lukewarm water before you turn out their contents.


FARINA.--Farina is a very fine and delicate preparation made from the
inner part of the grain of new wheat. It is exceedingly nutritious, and
excellent, either for invalids or for persons in health. It is now much
in use, and is to be had in packages of a pound or half a pound at the
best grocers’ and druggists’, or in large quantities at No. 101 South
Front Street, Philadelphia; and 201 Cherry Street, New York. It is
highly recommended by physicians.

FARINA GRUEL.--Have some water boiling on the fire, and slowly sprinkle
in sufficient farina to thicken it to the desired consistence. Continue
the boiling twenty minutes afterwards. Sweeten it with loaf-sugar.


FARINA PANADA.--Soak the farina for several hours in milk. Then drain
it, and put it into a vessel that has a close lid. Set this vessel in a
kettle of water, raising it on a trivet or something similar. Place it
over the fire, and make it boil all round the outside of the inner
vessel. This will cook the farina very nicely. Keep it boiling till it
becomes a thick, smooth mass. When done, sweeten it with white sugar;
and, if permitted, you may flavour it with a little nutmeg and white
wine. Some fresh lemon peel may be boiled with it, to be removed when
the farina is taken up.


BAKED FARINA PUDDING.--Boil a quart of milk, gradually stirring into it,
while boiling, a quarter of a pound of farina. Then take it up; and,
while warm, mix into it a quarter of a pound of sugar; half a nutmeg
grated; and a wine-glass of rose-water, or of white wine, or half a
glass of brandy. Then beat four eggs very light, and stir them gradually
into the farina mixture. Bake it in a buttered, deep dish, and grate
sugar over it when done.


FARINA FLUMMERY or BLANCMANGE.--From a quart of rich milk take out a
half pint. Put the half-pint into a small sauce-pan, and add to it a
handful of bitter almonds broken up; or a bunch of fresh peach-leaves;
or a vanilla bean split and cut into pieces, and tied up in a bit of
thin muslin. Having boiled the milk till it is very highly-flavoured,
strain it, and add it to the pint and a half. Then set it over the fire
in a porcelain or delft-lined vessel, and boil it well. When it has come
to a boil, begin to sprinkle in gradually a quarter of a pound (or four
large heaping table-spoonfuls) of farina, stirring it well. Let it boil
a quarter of an hour after all the farina is in. When done, remove it
from the fire, and stir in (if you have used bitter almond or peach-leaf
flavouring) a wine-glass of rose-water; add four large table-spoonfuls
of powdered sugar. Put the flummery into a blancmange mould, set it on
ice, and turn it out when wanted for dinner. Have ready to eat with it,
a boiled custard, flavoured either with bitter almond or vanilla.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Another way._--Grate on a lump of sugar the yellow rind of a large
lemon or orange, scraping it off with a tea-spoon as you proceed, and
saving it on a saucer. Then mix it with a quarter of a pound of powdered
loaf-sugar. Boil a quart of water, and when it has come to a boil, stir
in alternately the sugar and four large heaping table-spoonfuls of
farina. Let it boil a quarter of an hour longer. Then add the juice of
the lemon or orange. Then put it into a mould and set it on ice to
congeal. Eat with it boiled custard, flavoured with lemon or orange.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Another way._--Mix with a pint of water a pint of ripe currant-juice,
strained through a sieve or bag, and well sweetened. In winter you may
substitute the juice of stewed cranberries made very sweet. Boil the
water and juice together. Then stir in gradually a quarter of a pound of
farina, and boil it fifteen minutes longer. Transfer it to a mould, and
set it on ice to congeal. Eat it with sweetened cream.


FARINA PLUM PUDDING.--Having extracted the seeds from half a pound of
the best raisins, cut them in half, and dredge them well with sifted
flour, to prevent their clodding, or sinking in the pudding. Pick, wash,
and dry half a pound of Zante currants, and dredge them also with flour.
Prepare a heaped teaspoonful of powdered spice; nutmeg, mace, and
cinnamon, mixed together. Boil three pints of milk, and while it is
boiling, sprinkle in a half pound of farina. Next add the spice, and let
it boil a quarter of an hour longer. Then take it up, and set it to
cool. When it is lukewarm, stir in gradually, six well-beaten eggs, in
turn with the raisins and currants; a large piece of fresh butter; and a
small glass of brandy. You may add some slips of citron, dredged with
flour. Stir the mixture very hard. Put it into a buttered pudding-mould.
Tie a double cloth tightly over the top, and place it in a pot of
boiling water. Boil it three or four hours; and then turn it out on a
dish. Eat it with wine-sauce; or with cold butter and sugar stirred
together to a cream, and flavoured with nutmeg and lemon.


ROXBURY TEA CAKE.--On bread-making day take a pound or a quart of very
light wheaten bread-dough, just before the loaves are put into the oven.
Lay it in an earthen pan, and mix in, gradually, and alternately, three
well-beaten eggs; a half-pint of powdered white sugar; half a pint of
rich milk or cream; half a pint or a half-pound of fresh butter; and a
tea-spoonful of mixed spice, powdered mace, nutmeg and cinnamon; with a
wine-glass of rose-water. Mix the whole thoroughly, beating and stirring
it well. Lastly, add a yeast powder; dissolving in one cup the portion
of soda in a little lukewarm water, and mixing it into the dough; and
melting in another cup the tartaric acid, and then stirring _that_ in.
Sprinkle some flour on your paste-board, and make the dough into small
round cakes. Having pricked the tops with a fork, lay them in a buttered
pan, set them immediately into the oven, and bake them brown. Eat them
fresh, the day they are baked. You may bake the dough all in one loaf.

This cake will be improved by the addition of some raisins of the best
quality, seeded and cut in half; and well-dredged with flour to prevent
their sinking into a clod.

For a larger quantity, you must have two quarts of risen bread-dough;
six eggs; a pint of powdered sugar; a pint of milk; a pound of fresh
butter; and a table-spoonful of mixed spice; two wine-glasses of
rose-water; and two yeast powders, or a full tea-spoonful of soda, and
somewhat less than a tea-spoon of tartaric acid.


ALPISTERAS. (_Spanish cakes._)--To one pound of fine flour, (well sifted
and dried,) add half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, (also sifted,) and
mix them well together. In a shallow pan beat your eggs very light, and
then gradually wet with them the mixed flour and sugar, adding a
wine-glass of rose-water, or orange-flower water, or else the juice of
two large oranges or lemons. Work the whole into a stiff dough, and
knead it well. Roll it out into a very thin sheet, and cut it into
squares of about five inches in size each way. Divide each square (half
way down) into slips, so as to resemble a hand with fingers. Then curl
or bend up the slips or fingers; or twist and twirl them so as to look
like bunches of ribbons. Have ready, in a pot over the fire, a large
portion of boiling lard. Put the alpisteras carefully into it, a few at
a time, and fry them a light brown. Take them up on a perforated
skimmer, draining back the lard into the pot. Spread them to cool on a
large dish; and when cool, sift powdered sugar over them.


PISTO OMELETTE.--This is a favourite omelette in Spain. Mince together
cold turkey or chicken, and an equal quantity of cold ham or tongue;
adding a chopped onion or two, and sufficient sweet marjoram and sweet
basil to season it well: also a little cayenne. No salt, as the ham will
render it quite salt enough. Have ready sufficient well-beaten eggs to
make it into a good omelette mixture; and stir the whole very hard at
the last. Have ready over the fire, a broad pan of boiling lard. Put in
the mixture with a ladle, and fry it in flat cakes. Serve it up hot.


GUISADA OR SPANISH STEW.--Take hare, rabbit, partridges, pheasants, or
chickens. Cut them up as in carving; and save the giblets. Do not wash
the pieces, but dry them in a cloth. Put them into a pan in which there
is a sufficiency of hot sweet oil, (adding a sliced onion,) and fry them
brown. Then transfer them (with the gravy) to an earthen stew-pan or
pipkin. Add some bits of cold ham cut thin and small, and a bunch of
sweet herbs chopped fine; also a little cayenne. Pour in wine and broth
in equal portions, sufficient to cover the pieces well; adding the
giblets. Let it simmer gently, till thoroughly done, carefully skimming
off all the grease, and stirring the meat up from the bottom with a
wooden spoon. Serve it hot in a covered dish.

It will be improved by the juice of one or two oranges, squeezed in
toward the last.


POLLO VALENCIANO.--This is also a Spanish dish. Cut up a large fine fowl
into pieces. Wipe them clean and dry, but do not wash them or lay them
in water. Put into a broad sauce-pan, a tea-cup of sweet oil, and a bit
of bread. Let it fry, (stirring it about with a wooden spoon,) and when
the bread is browned take it out, and throw it away. Then put in a
sliced onion, and fry that; but take care not to let it burn or it will
become bitter, and spoil the stew. Then put in the pieces of fowl, and
let them brown for a quarter of an hour. Then transfer it to a stew-pan,
adding a little bit of chili or red pepper minced small, and some
chopped sweet herbs. Also half a dozen large tomatas quartered; and two
tea-cups of _boiled_ rice. Add a little salt, and stir the whole well
together, having poured on sufficient hot broth to cover it. Place it
over the fire, and when it has come to a hard boil, put the lid on the
pan and set it aside to simmer till the whole is completely cooked, and
the gravy very thick. About ten minutes before the stew goes to table,
take off the lid of the stew-pan, lest the steam should condense on it
and clod the rice, or render it watery. Serve it up _un_covered.


GAZPACHO.--In Spanish countries this is a common luncheon or supper for
working people. Take onions, cucumbers, and a small chili or red pepper.
Peel them, chop them fine, and mix them with plenty of bread crumbs, and
a little salt. Mix equal quantities of vinegar and water, and add an
ample portion of sweet oil. Put the whole into a pipkin, and stir it
well. Set it on hot coals, and simmer it till well cooked. Eat slices of
bread with it.

In summer it is usual to serve up this mixture in a large bowl without
any cooking.


SPANISH SALAD.--A Spanish proverb says that for compounding a _good_
salad, four persons are required--a spendthrift for oil; a miser for
vinegar; a counsellor for salt, (or a man of judgment;) and a madman for
stirring up the whole, hard and furiously. Get a very large salad-bowl,
that there may be ample room for stirring well. Prepare in separate
vessels the lettuce and the seasoning. They should not be put together
till a few minutes before the salad is to be eaten; otherwise it will be
tough and sodden instead of crisp and fresh. Do not cut it with a knife,
but tear or strip off the leaves of the lettuce, and throw all the stalk
away. Then wash the leaves through several cold waters, and dry them in
a clean napkin. Put them into the large bowl; and in a smaller bowl mix
the seasoning, for which you must have equal quantities of mixed vinegar
and water; a small tea-spoonful of mixed cayenne and salt; and four
times as much sweet oil as the mixed vinegar and water. Mix all the
seasoning thoroughly, stirring it very hard. Have ready on a plate some
tarragon finely minced or powdered.

Just before the salad is to be eaten, pour the dressing over the lettuce
and strew the surface with tarragon. You may decorate the top with
nasturtion flowers; they are very nice to eat.


CAROLINA WAY OF BOILING RICE.--Pick the rice carefully, and wash it
through two or three cold waters till it is quite clean. Then (having
drained off all the water through a cullender) put the rice into a pot
of boiling water, with a very little salt; allowing as much as a quart
of water to half a pint of rice. Boil it twenty minutes or more. Then
pour off the water, draining the rice as dry as possible. Lastly, set it
on hot coals with the lid off, that the steam may not condense upon it
and render the rice watery. Keep it drying thus for a quarter of an
hour. Put it into a deep dish, and loosen and toss it up from the bottom
with two forks one in each hand, so that the grains may appear to stand
alone.


A NICE WAY OF COOKING ASPARAGUS.--Where asparagus is plenty, there is no
better way of cooking it than the following. Take it as nearly of a size
as possible, wash it, and cut off the stalks very short; leaving them
not more than half an inch in length. Two quarts of water will be
sufficient to boil one quart of asparagus tops; allow a tea-spoonful of
salt to this quantity of water, and set it over the fire to boil. When
the water is boiling hard, put in the asparagus; and boil it fast for at
least half an hour. To see if it is done, take up two or three of the
largest pieces and taste them. While it is boiling, prepare two slices
of bread cut half an inch thick, and (having removed the crust) toast
the bread brown on both sides. Have ready a large jill of melted (or
drawn) fresh butter. When the asparagus is done, take it up with a
perforated skimmer, and lay it on a sieve to drain. Dip the slices of
toast (one at a time) first in the hot asparagus liquor, and then in the
melted butter. Lay the slices, side by side, in a deep dish and cover it
with the asparagus, laid evenly over and round the toast. Then add the
remainder of the drawn butter, and send the asparagus to table hot, in a
covered dish.

This is a much nicer way than that of boiling and serving it up with the
long stalks left on. And where you have asparagus in abundance, (for
instance in a country garden,) it may always be cooked in this manner.

This is from the receipt of Mr. N. Darling of New Haven.


FRENCH WAY OF DRESSING ASPARAGUS.--Having boiled the asparagus-tops as
above; drain them on a sieve, and put them into a deep dish with a large
lump of the best fresh butter. Mix the butter well among the asparagus,
till it is melted throughout, and sprinkle in (if you like) a very
little pepper. Cover the dish, and keep it hot by the fire till it is
time to send it to table. You may lay in the bottom, of the dish two
thin slices of toast, spread over with butter, after being first dipped
in the asparagus water.

Another way is to substitute salad oil for butter, mixed among the
asparagus.


ONION EGGS.--Boil a dozen eggs quite hard. Slice and fry in fresh butter
five or six onions. Slice (whites and yolks together) ten of the eggs,
reserving two for the seasoning. Drain the sliced onions, and lay them
on a dish with the sliced eggs placed upon them. Cover the dish, and
keep it hot. Take the two remaining eggs; grate the yolks; and mix them
with cream and grated nutmeg, and a very little cayenne. Put this
mixture into a very small sauce-pan; give it one boil up; pour it over
the eggs and onions; and send it to table hot. For those who have no
objection to onions, this is a nice side dish.


EGG BALLS.--Boil eight eggs till quite hard; and when done, throw them
directly into cold water. Then put the yolks into a mortar, and pound
them to a paste, moistening them as you proceed with the beaten yolks of
three _raw_ eggs, seasoned with as much salt as will lie _flat_ upon a
shilling, and a little cayenne, and powdered nutmeg and mace. Mix the
whole well together, and make it up into small, round balls. Throw them
into mock-turtle soup, or into stewed terrapin, about two minutes before
you take it up.


CURRY BALLS.--Take a sufficiency of finely-grated bread-crumbs;
hard-boiled yolk of egg, grated; fresh butter; and a little curry
powder. Pound the whole in a mortar, moistening it with raw yolk of egg
(well-beaten) as you proceed. Make it into small balls, and add them to
stewed chicken or stewed rabbit, about five minutes before you take it
up.


TOMATA PASTE.--Scald and peel as many ripe tomatas as will fill a large,
deep, stone jar. Set them into a warm oven for an hour. Then skim off
the watery liquid that has risen to the top, and press and squeeze the
tomatas in a sieve. Afterwards add salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and
powdered cloves to your taste; and to every quart of tomatas allow a
half a pint of cider vinegar. Stew the whole slowly in a porcelain
kettle for three hours, (stirring it frequently from the bottom,) till
it becomes a smooth, thick paste. Then put it into small jars or
glasses, and cover it closely; pasting paper over each. It is an
excellent sauce, at the season when fresh tomatas are not to be had, and
is very good to thicken soup.


DRIED OCHRAS.--Take fine large fresh ochras; cut them into thin, round
slices; string them on threads, and hang them up in festoons to dry in
the store-room. Before using, they must be soaked in water during
twenty-four hours. They will then be good (with the addition of tomata
paste) to boil in soup or gumbo.


BEEF GUMBO.--Put into a large stew-pan some pieces of the lean of fresh
beef, cut up into small bits, and seasoned with a little pepper and
salt. Add sliced ochras and tomatas, (either fresh, or dried ochras and
tomata paste.) You may put in some sliced onions. Pour on water enough
to cover it well. Let it boil slowly, (skimming it well,) till every
thing is reduced to rags. Then strain and press it through a cullender.
Have ready a sufficiency of toasted bread, cut into dice. Lay it in the
bottom of a tureen, and pour the strained gumbo upon it.


FRIED CAULIFLOWER.--Having boiled the cauliflower in milk till
thoroughly done; take it out, drain it, and cut it up into very small
pieces, adding a _very little_ salt and cayenne. Have ready in a
frying-pan, sufficient fresh butter; and when it comes to a boil and is
bubbling all over, put in the cauliflower and fry it, but not till it
becomes brown. Make a slice or two of toast, dip it in hot water, butter
it; lay it on a dish; and put the fried cauliflower upon it.


FRIED CABBAGE.--Parboil a fine cabbage. Then take it out, drain it, and
lay it a while in cold water to remove the cabbage smell. Next put it
into a clean pot of fresh water, and boil it again till thoroughly done.
Afterwards chop it small, season it with a little pepper and salt, and
fry it in fresh butter.

A less delicate way is to fry it in boiling lard.


TO PREPARE LARD.--As soon it is cut off from the newly-killed pork, put
the fat into a crock; cover it; and let it stand all night in a cool
place. Next day, cut it into small bits, (carefully removing all the
fleshy particles of lean,) and put the fat into a pot without either
water or salt. The pot should not be more than half-full. Let it boil
slowly (stirring it frequently from the bottom lest it burn) till it
becomes quite clear, and transparent. Then ladle it out into clean pans.
When almost cold, put it into stone jars, which must be closely covered,
and kept in a cool place. If to go to a distance, tie it up in
bladders.

There are two sorts of pork fat for lard. The leaf fat, which is the
best; and the fat that adheres to the entrails. These two fats should be
boiled separately.

The entrails, whose skins are to be used for sausage-cases, must be well
scraped and cleaned out, and thrown into strong salt and water for two
days, and afterwards into strong lye for twenty-four hours. This lye,
when strained, will afterwards be good to assist in soap-making.


BRINE FOR HAM OR BACON.--To every four gallons of water, allow four
pounds of salt; two ounces of salt-petre; three pounds of sugar, and two
quarts of molasses. Boil the whole together; skimming it well. When
clear, let it cool. Rub the meat all over with ground red pepper. Then
put as much meat into the pickling tub as can be very well covered by
the brine, which must be poured on cold. Let it remain six weeks in the
pickle, turning each piece every day. Afterwards, smoke it well for a
fortnight, hanging the large end downward. The fire in the smoke-house
should be well kept up. Hickory or oak is the best wood for this
purpose. On no account use pine, spruce, fir, or hemlock. Corncobs are
excellent for smoking meat.

Sew up the hams closely in thick cotton cloth--or canvas covers, and
then white-wash them.

Tongues may be pickled and smoked as above. Also beef.


HOG’S HEAD CHEESE.--Hog’s head cheese is always made at what is called
“killing-time.” To make four cheeses of moderate size, take one large
hog’s head, two sets of feet, and the noses of all the pigs that have
been killed that day. Clean them well, and then boil them to rags.
Having drained off the liquid through a cullender, spread out the things
in a large dish, and carefully remove all the bones, even to the
smallest pieces. With a chopper, mince the meat as small as possible,
and season it to your taste with pepper, salt, powdered cloves, and some
chopped sage or sweet marjoram. Having divided the meat into four equal
parts, tie up each portion tightly in a clean coarse towel, and press it
into a compact cake, by putting on heavy weights. It will be fit for use
next day. In a cool dry place it will keep all winter. It requires no
farther cooking, and is eaten sliced at breakfast, or luncheon.


FRYING FISH.--Fish should be fried in fresh butter or lard; a large
allowance of which must be put by itself into the frying-pan, and held
over a clear fire till it becomes so hot as to boil hard in the pan.
Till it bubbles, the fish must not be put in. They must first be dried
separately, in a clean cloth, and then scored on the back, and slightly
dredged with flour. Unless the butter or lard for frying is sufficient
in quantity to cover the fish well, and bear them up, they will sink
heavily to the bottom of the pan, and perhaps stick there and burn.
Also, if there is not fat enough, the fish will absorb all of what there
is, and be disagreeably greasy.


AXJAR PICKLES.--Take a variety of young fruits or vegetables, and put
them into strong salt and water for three days; stirring them well,
night and morning. Then take them out, and spread them on trays, or old
servers, or large flat dishes; taking care that they do not touch each
other. Set them out in the sun every fine morning, and let them remain
till sunset; but not if it becomes damp, or even cloudy. Do this till
they are perfectly dry. Then wash them well in cold water, drain them,
and wipe them separately with a coarse cloth. Put them into large jars.
To a three gallon jar, put in half a pound of horse-radish, sliced, and
two cloves of garlic; half a hundred small white onions; two ounces of
mace; one ounce of cloves; two nutmegs powdered; two pounds of the best
crushed sugar; half a bottle of the best ground mustard; one pound of
yellow mustard seed; and half a pound of green ginger, sliced or
scraped. Then take half an ounce of turmeric powder; mix it with
sufficient vinegar to render it liquid, and pour it over the pickles in
the jar, which must not be more than half full of them. Have ready some
boiling vinegar of the best cider kind, and pour it scalding hot into
the jar, till it is three parts full. The pickles will expand to their
natural size. When they are perfectly cold, cork the jar tightly, and
seal the cork. These pickles will be fit for use in a month; but they
improve by keeping.

For this pickle you may use plums, small peaches; grapes picked from the
stems; cherries; barberries; nasturtion seeds; button tomatas;
radish-pods; beans, cauliflowers sliced; white cabbages sliced, small
cucumbers; and limes or small lemons--mixed together in any proportion
you like. The turmeric powder gives the whole a yellow tinge, and is
indispensable to this pickle.

Axjar is an East Indian word.


FINE PEACH MANGOES.--Take fine, large, free-stone peaches. They should
be ripe, but not the least bruised. The best for this purpose are the
large white free-stones. Having rubbed off the down with a clean
flannel, cut the peaches in half, and remove the stones. Prepare a
mixture, in equal portions, of mace, nutmeg, and root-ginger; all
broken up small, but not powdered. Fill with this the cavities of the
peaches whence the stones were extracted. Then put together the two
halves of each peach, (making them fit exactly,) and tie them round with
coarse thread or fine twine. If you choose, you may stick the outside of
the peaches all over with cloves. Put them into stone jars, filling each
jar rather more than three-quarters full; and laying among them little
thin muslin bags of turmeric to colour them yellow. If you prefer to
colour them red, tie up some cochineal in thin muslin bags.

Fill up the jars to the top with cold vinegar of the best quality--real
white wine vinegar, if you are sure it _is_ real. If the pickles are to
be sent to a distant place, or to a warmer climate, boil the vinegar,
and pour it on, scalding hot. Close the jars immediately; sealing the
corks with red cement, and tie a bladder tightly over the top of each.

These peach mangoes will be fit for use in two months.


TO PICKLE PEPPERS, SMALL CUCUMBERS, AND BEANS.--Put all these vegetables
together into a brine strong enough to bear up an egg to the surface;
and let them stay in it for three days. Then take them out, and lay them
in cold water for an hour. Change that water for fresh, and let them
remain another hour. Do this a third or fourth time.

Having washed them well in a fresh water, put them into a
preserving-kettle, (one lined with delft-porcelain is best,) and
surround and cover them with fresh cabbage leaves, or vine-leaves. Fill
up the kettle with cider-vinegar mixed with an equal quantity of water;
and during four hours let them simmer without boiling. Then take them
off the fire; take them out of the kettle, transfer them to broad pans,
and pour the vinegar over them. When they are cold, return the pickles
to the kettle, (having first washed it out clean,) and scald them four
times with fresh vinegar boiled for the purpose in another vessel. When
cold, put them into jars, (three parts full,) and pour on fresh vinegar
till it reaches the top. Lay among the pickles, mace; nutmegs broken
small; mustard seed; and whole white-pepper-corns, tied up in thin white
muslin bags.


PICKLED ONIONS.--Take small button-onions; remove the outer skin, and
lay the onions in dry salt for twenty-four hours. Then soak off the
salt, in several waters; wash them well; and put them into a porcelain
kettle, with equal quantities of vinegar and water. Simmer them till
tender. Then take them out; drain them; and, returning them to the
kettle, scald them with fresh vinegar boiled in another vessel. When
cold, take them out, drain them again; put them into wide-mouthed jars,
and fill up with cold vinegar. Place among them thin muslin bags with
mace and broken nutmegs. On the top of each jar, put a table-spoonful of
sweet oil. Cover them tightly.


PICKLED PLUMS or DAMSONS.--The fruit must be large, fine, fully ripe,
and with no blemishes. To every quart of plums allow a quarter of a
pound of loaf-sugar powdered, and a pint of the best cider vinegar.
Damsons being more acid will require half a pound of sugar. Put the
fruit with the sugar and vinegar into a preserving kettle, adding little
bags with some broken pieces of cinnamon and some blades of mace, and,
if you choose, a few cloves. Give them one boil up, and skim them well.
Put them warm into stone jars, and cover them closely at once. By winter
they will be fit for use.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Another way._--Is to pack a jar more than three-fourths full with
layers of ripe plums or damsons; and thick layers of powdered sugar
between. Fill up with cold vinegar, and cover them tightly.


PICKLED CHERRIES.--Take large, fine, red cherries, perfectly ripe, and
cut the stems about an inch long. Put the cherries into jars with layers
of powdered sugar between each layer of fruit, interspersing them with
little, thin muslin bags of broken cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg. The jars
should be three-quarters full of cherries and sugar. Fill up with cold
vinegar, and cover them closely.


TO KEEP STRING BEANS AND GREEN PEAS.--String the beans, (which should be
full grown but not old,) and cut them into _three_ pieces--not more.
Pack them in wide-mouthed stone-jars; a layer of beans and a thin layer
of fine salt. The day before they are to be cooked, take out a
sufficient quantity, and soak them at least twenty-four hours in a pan
of cold water, changing the water several times, till it no longer
tastes salt. Having drained them well, boil the beans till quite tender.
Then take them up, drain off the water thoroughly, so as to have the
beans as dry as possible. Next put them into a sauce-pan, with a piece
of fresh butter and a little black pepper. Cover the pan, and stew them
in the butter till they almost come to a boil.

Green peas may be kept in a similar manner. They should be fresh and
young. When you take them out of the salt, soak them, as above, for
twenty-four hours or more; changing the water till it tastes quite
fresh. Boil them soft; then drain them, and stew them a while with
butter and pepper.

You may, while boiling, add a _very little_ soda to the peas or beans.
This will green and soften them. Too much soda will give them a
disagreeable taste, and render them unfit to eat.


SCOTCH SHORT-CAKE.[453-*]--Take a pound of Zante currants; and, after
they are well picked and washed, dry them on a large dish before the
fire, or on the top of a stove. Instead of currants, you may use sultana
or seedless raisins cut in half. When well dried, dredge the fruit
profusely with flour to prevent its clodding while baking. Have ready a
tea-spoonful of mixed spice, powdered mace, nutmeg, and cinnamon. Sift
two quarts of flour, and spread it to dry at the fire. Cut up a pound of
the best fresh butter; put it into a clean sauce-pan, and melt it over
the fire; shaking it round and taking care that it does not burn. Put
the flour into a large pan, and mix with it a pound of powdered white
sugar. Pour the melted butter warm into the midst of the flour and
sugar; and with a large spoon or a broad knife mix the whole thoroughly
into a soft dough or paste, _without using a drop of water_. Next
sprinkle in the fruit, a handful at a time, (stirring hard between each
handful) and finish with a tea-spoonful of spice, well mixed in. Let all
the ingredients be thoroughly incorporated.

Strew some flour on your paste-board; lay the lumps of dough upon it,
flour your hands, and knead it a while on all sides. Then cut it in
half, and roll out each sheet about an inch thick. With a jagging-iron
cut it into large squares, ovals, triangles, or any form you please, and
prick the surface handsomely, with a fork. Butter some square pans, put
in the cakes, and bake them brown.

For currants and raisins, you may substitute citron cut into slips and
floured. This cake will be found very fine if the receipt is _exactly_
followed. In cold weather it keeps well; and packed in a tin or wooden
box, may be sent many hundred miles, for Thanksgiving-day, Christmas, or
New Year’s.

It is still more Scotch made of fine fresh oatmeal, sifted and dried.
When in London, the author has eaten Scotch cake sent from Edinburgh,
and made as above, but of oatmeal.

    [453-* This receipt, though inserted somewhat out of place, is too
    good to be omitted.]


RICE WAFFLES.--Take a tea-cup and a half, or a common sized tumbler-full
and a half, of rice that has been well boiled, and warm it in a pint of
rich milk, stirring it till smooth and thoroughly mixed. Then remove it
from the fire, and stir in a pint of cold milk and a small teaspoonful
of salt. Beat four eggs very light, and stir them into the mixture, in
turn with sufficient rice flour to make a thick batter. Bake it in a
waffle-iron. Send them to table hot; butter them; and eat them with
powdered sugar and cinnamon, prepared in a small bowl for the purpose.



THE INDIAN MEAL BOOK.


HINTS ON HEATING OVENS, AND BAKING.--Brick ovens are generally heated
with dry fagots or small branches, or with light split wood. For baking
bread, the oven-wood must be heavier than for pies. A heap of wood
should be placed in the centre of the oven on the brick floor, and then
set on fire. While the wood is burning, the door of the oven must be
left open. When the wood is all burnt down, and reduced to a mass of
small red coals, the oven will be very hot. Then shovel out all the
coals and sweep the oven floor with a broom, till it is perfectly clean,
and entirely free from ashes. Try the heat within. For baking bread, the
floor of the oven should look red; and a little flour thrown in should
burn brown immediately. If you can hold your hand within the mouth of
the oven as long as you can distinctly count twenty, the heat is about
right. Pies, puddings, &c., require less heat. When a brick oven is
used, a peel, or large broad-bladed, long-handled wooden shovel is
necessary for putting in the bread, pies, &c., placing them on the broad
or shovel-end of the peel, and then depositing them on the oven floor.
Then close up the door of the oven, and leave the things to bake. When
done, slip the peel beneath them, and hand them out on it.

To bake in an iron Dutch oven, (a large deep, cast-iron pan, with a
handle, a close-fitting lid, and standing on three or four feet,) you
must first stand the lid upright before a clear fire to heat the inside;
and it will be best if the oven itself is also stood up before the fire
for the same purpose. This should be done while the article to be baked
is preparing, that it may be put in as soon as it is ready. The oven
may be suspended to the crane, and hung over the fire, or it may be set
on a bed of hot wood-coals in the corner of the hearth. As soon as the
loaf or pie is in, put on the lid of the oven, and cover it all over
with hot coals, replenishing it with more live coals as the baking
proceeds. If you find it too hot on the top, deaden it with ashes. If
the oven stands on the hearth, keep up the heat at the bottom, by
additional live coals placed beneath it. Whether the oven is hung over
the fire, or stood on the hearth, there must always be hot coals all
over the lid, the hottest near the edge.

To bake on a griddle, you may either hang it over the fire, or set it
over hot coals on the hearth. Most griddles have feet. The fire must be
quite clear and bright, and free from smoke, or the cakes will be
blackened, and have a disagreeable taste. The griddle must be perfectly
clean; and while you are baking, it will require frequent scraping, with
a broad knife. If it is well scraped after every cake is taken off, it
will not want greasing, as there will be no stickiness. Otherwise, some
butter tied up in a clean rag and laid on a saucer, must be kept at hand
all the time, to rub over the griddle between the baking of each cake;
for butter, lard, or nice beef or veal-dripping may be substituted, but
it will not be so fine. Never grease with mutton-fat, as it will
communicate the taste of tallow. A bit of the fat of _fresh_ pork may
do, (stuck on a fork,) but salt pork will give the outside of the cakes
a disagreeable saltiness, and therefore should not be used.

A griddle may be placed in the oven of a hot stove. Some close stoves
have a hole in the top with a flat lid or cover, which lid can be used
as a griddle.

The tin-reflecting-ovens (with shelves for the pies and cakes) that are
used for baking in the summer, and that, having a furnace beneath, and a
chimney-pipe, can be set out of doors, so that the kitchen may not be
kept hot, are very good for things that will bake soon, and that do not
require what is called a strong, solid heat. But they are not effective
unless the inside is kept _very bright_; otherwise it will not reflect
the heat. These tin ovens should (as well as tin roasters) be cleaned
thoroughly and scoured bright with sand every time they are used.

The art of baking with anthracite, (or any other mineral coal,) can only
be acquired by practice. The above hints on baking, refer exclusively to
wood fires.

When a charcoal furnace is used for baking, stewing, or any sort of
cooking, it should either be set out in the open air, or the door of the
kitchen must be kept open all the time. The vapor of charcoal in a close
room is so deleterious as to cause death.


DRIED CORN MEAL YEAST CAKES.--Half a pound of fresh hops.--Four quarts
of water.--A pint of wheat or rye flour.--Half a pint of strong fresh
yeast, from the brewer or baker.--Three pints, or more of Indian meal.
Boil half a pound of fresh hops in four quarts of water, till the liquid
is reduced to two quarts. Strain it into a pan, and mix in sufficient
wheat flour to make a thin batter; adding half a pint of the best yeast
you can procure. Leave it to ferment; and when the fermentation is over,
stir in sufficient Indian meal to make a moderately stiff dough. Cover
it, and set in a warm place to rise. When it has become very light, roll
it out into a square sheet an inch thick, and cut it into flat cakes,
about four inches square. Spread them out separately, on a large dish;
and let them dry slowly, in a cool place where there is no sun. While
drying, turn them five or six times a-day. When they are quite dry and
hard, put them separately into brown paper bags, and keep them in a box
closely covered, and in a place not the least damp.

When you want them to use for yeast, dissolve in a little warm water,
one or more of the cakes, in proportion to the quantity of bread you
intend making. When it is quite dissolved, stir it hard, thicken it with
a little wheat flour, cover it, and place it near the fire to rise,
before you use it. Then mix it with the flour, according to the usual
manner of making bread. One yeast cake is enough for two quarts of meal
or flour.

This way of preserving yeast is very convenient for keeping through the
summer; or for conveying to a distance.


EXCELLENT HOME-MADE YEAST.--Yeast should always be kept in a glass
bottle or a stone jug, and never in earthen or metal. Before you make
fresh yeast, empty entirely the vessel that has contained the last; and
if of stone, scald it twice with boiling water, in which it will be well
to mix a little clear lye. Then rinse it with cold water, till perfectly
clean. If you have not used lye in scalding it, dissolve some potash or
pearlash in the rinsing-water, to remove any acidity that may linger
about the vessel, and may therefore spoil the new yeast. If you keep
your yeast in glass bottles, the water must be warm, but not hot; as
scalding water may crack them: also melt some potash or pearlash in this
water. The vessel for keeping it being purified, proceed to make your
yeast. Have ready, in a kettle over the fire, two quarts of boiling
water; put into it a very large handful of hops, (as fine and fresh as
possible,) and let the water boil again with the hops in it, for twenty
minutes or more. Sift into a pan three pints of wheat flour. Strain the
liquor from the hops into a large bowl, and pour half of it hot over the
flour. Stir it well, and press out all the lumps till it is quite
smooth. Let the other half of the liquid stand till it is cool, and then
pour it gradually to the rest; mixing it well, by stirring as you
proceed. Then take half a pint of good strong yeast--brewers’ or bakers’
yeast, if you can get it fresh; if not, you must use some that has been
left from your last making, provided it is not the least sour; stir this
yeast into the mixture of hop-water and flour; put it immediately into
your jug or bottles, and cork it loosely till the fermentation is over,
(which should be in an hour,) and it will then be fit for use.
Afterwards cork it tightly. It will keep better if you put a raisin or
two into the bottom of each bottle, before you pour in the fresh yeast.
Into a stone jug put half a dozen raisins.

All yeast is better and more powerful for being fresh. It is better to
make it frequently, (the trouble being little,) than to risk its
becoming sour by endeavouring to keep it too long. When sour, it becomes
weak and watery, and tastes and smells disagreeably, and will never make
light bread; besides being very unwholesome. The acidity may be somewhat
corrected by stirring in some dissolved pearlash, sal-eratus, or soda,
immediately before the yeast is used; but it is better to have it good
and fresh, without the necessity of any corrective. Yeast should always
be kept in a cool place.

Those who live in towns where there are breweries have no occasion to
make their own yeast during the brewing season; and in summer they can
every day supply themselves with fresh yeast from the baker’s. It is
only in country places where there are neither brewers nor bakers that
it is expedient to make it at home. For home-made yeast, we know the
above receipt to be excellent.

Sweet cakes, buns, rusks, &c., require stronger and fresher yeast than
bread; the sugar will otherwise retard their rising.


INDIAN BREAD, OR PONE.--Four quarts of Indian meal sifted.--A large half
pint of wheat flour.--A heaping table-spoonful of salt.--Half a pint of
strong-fresh yeast.--A quart of warm water.--Sift into a large deep pan,
the Indian meal and the wheat flour; mixing them well. Make a hole in
the centre. The water must be warm, but not hot. Mix it with the yeast,
and pour them into the hole in the midst of the meal. Take a spoon, and
with it mix into the liquid enough of the surrounding meal to make a
thin batter, which you must stir till it is quite smooth, and free from
lumps. Then strew a handful of wheat flour over the surface, scattering
it thinly, so as to cover the whole. Warm a clean cloth, and lay it
folded over the top of the pan. Then set it in a warm place to rise,
nearer the fire in winter than in summer. When it is quite light; and
has risen so that the flour on the surface is cracked, strew on the
salt, and begin to form the whole mass into a dough; commencing round
the hole that contains the batter, and adding, gradually, sufficient
lukewarm water (which you must have ready for the purpose) to mix it of
the proper consistence. When the whole is completely mixed, and the
batter in the centre is thoroughly incorporated with the dough, knead it
hard for at least half an hour. Then, having formed the dough into a
round lump in the middle of the pan, strew a little more flour thinly
over it. Cover it, and set it again in a warm place for half an hour.
Then flour your paste-board, divide the dough equally, and make it into
two loaves. Have the oven ready. Put in the loaves directly, and bake
them about two hours or more. Indian meal requires always more baking
than wheat. When you take them out, it is well to wrap each loaf in a
clean, coarse towel, previously sprinkled with cold water; and rolled up
damp till the bread is baked. Having thus wrapped up the loaves, stand
them on end to cool slowly. The damp cloths will prevent the crust from
hardening too much while the loaves are cooling.

All Indian bread, and every sort of Indian cake is best when quite
fresh.

Excellent bread may be made of equal proportions of wheat, rye flour,
and Indian; or of three parts wheat and one part Indian. All bread
should be kept closely secluded from the air, wrapped in cloths, and put
away in boxes or baskets with tightly-fitting lids.

Should you find the dough sour, (either from the heat of the weather, or
from standing too long,) you may recover it, by dissolving in a little
lukewarm water, a tea-spoonful of pearlash, sal-eratus, or soda.
Sprinkle this water all over the dough. Then knead it in, so that it may
be dispersed throughout. Then put it into the oven as soon as possible;
first tasting the dough, to discover if the sourness is entirely
removed. If not, mix in a little more pearlash, and then taste it again.
Take care not to put too much of any of these alkaline substances, lest
they communicate a disagreeable, soapy taste to the bread.

When you buy corn meal, it will keep better if the whole is sifted as
soon as you get it. Avoid buying much at a time, unless you can keep it
in a very cool place. When sour it is unfit to eat.


INDIAN RYE BREAD.--Two quarts of Indian meal. Two quarts of rye
meal.--Three pints of milk or water. Two teaspoonfuls of salt.--Half a
pint of strong fresh yeast. Having sifted the rye and Indian meal into a
large pan, mix them well together, adding the salt. Boil the milk or
water in a sauce-pan, and when scalding hot pour it on the meal, and
stir the whole very hard. If too stiff, add a little more warm water.
Let it stand till it becomes only of a lukewarm heat, and then stir in
the yeast. Knead the mixture into a stiff dough, and knead it long and
hard for at least half an hour. Then cover the pan with a thick cloth
that has been previously warmed, and set it near the fire to rise. When
the dough is quite light, and cracked all over the top, take it out of
the pan; divide the mass in half; make it into two loaves; knead each
loaf well for ten minutes or more; and then cover and set them again
near the fire, for about half an hour. By this time have the oven ready,
put in the loaves directly, and bake them at least an hour and a half.
This bread is considered very wholesome.

Should you find the dough sour, you may rectify it by kneading in a
tea-spoonful of soda or pearlash, dissolved in a little warm water.


INDIAN WHEAT BREAD.--This is made in the above manner, substituting
wheat for rye flour.

In any sort of home-made bread (either white or brown) a handful or more
of Indian meal will be found an improvement, rendering it moist and
sweet.


BOSTON RYE AND INDIAN BREAD.--Two quarts of Indian meal.--Two quarts of
rye meal.--Half a pint of strong fresh yeast.--Half a pint of West India
molasses.--A small table-spoonful of salt. Sift the rye and Indian meal
into a large pan or wooden bowl; and mix them, well together, adding the
salt. Have ready half a pint of water, warm but not hot. Mix with it the
molasses, and then stir into it the yeast. Make a hole in the middle of
the pan of meal; pour in the liquid; and then with a spoon work into it
a portion of the flour that surrounds the hole, till the liquid in the
centre becomes a thick batter. Sprinkle the top with rye meal; lay a
thick cloth over the pan; and set it in a warm place to rise. In three
or four hours it should be light enough to appear cracked all over the
surface. Then pour into the middle (by degrees) about a pint of warm
water, (it must not be hot,) and as you pour, mix it well all through
the dough, till the whole becomes a round mass. Sprinkle some rye flour
on the dough, and having floured your hands, knead it long and hard, (at
least half an hour, and after it ceases to stick to your hands,) turning
it over as you proceed. Then sprinkle the dough again with flour, cover
it, and again set it in a warm place to rise. Have the oven ready, and
of the proper heat, so that the bread may be put in as soon as it has
completely risen the second time. When perfectly light, the dough will
stand high, and the surface will be cracked all over. This quantity will
be sufficient for a common-sized loaf. Set it directly into the oven,
and bake it about two hours. When bread has done rising, it will fall
again if not put into the oven. As soon as it is done, wrap it
immediately in a clean coarse towel wrung out of cold water, and stand
it up on end till it is cool.

This is a palatable, cheap, and wholesome bread.

It may be mixed thinner, with a larger portion of water, and baked in a
deep tin or iron pan.

If the dough should have stood so long as to become sour (which it will,
if mixed over night) restore it by kneading in a small tea-spoonful of
pearlash or sal-eratus melted in a little warm water.


EGG PONE.--Three eggs.--A quart of Indian meal.--A large table-spoonful
of fresh butter.--A small tea-spoonful of salt.--A half-pint (or more)
of milk. Beat the eggs very light, and mix them with the milk. Then stir
in, gradually, the Indian meal; adding the salt and butter. It must not
be a batter, but a soft dough, just thick enough to be stirred well
with a spoon. If too thin, add more Indian meal; if too stiff, thin it
with a little more milk. Beat or stir it _long and hard_. Butter a tin
or iron pan. Put the mixture into it; and set the pan immediately into
an oven, which must be moderately hot at first, and the heat increased
afterward. A Dutch oven is best for this purpose. It should bake an hour
and a half or two hours, in proportion to its thickness. Send it to
table hot, and cut into slices. Eat it with butter, or molasses.


INDIAN MUSH.--Have ready on a clear fire, a pot of boiling water. Stir
into it, by degrees, (a handful at a time,) sufficient Indian meal to
make a very thick porridge, and then add a very small portion of salt,
allowing not more than a level tea-spoonful to a quart of meal. You must
keep the pot boiling all the time you are stirring in the meal; and
between every handful stir hard with the mush-stick, (a round stick
about half a yard long, flattened at the lower end,) as, if not well
stirred, the mush will be lumpy. After it is sufficiently thick and
smooth, keep it boiling an hour longer, stirring it occasionally. Then
cover the pot closely, and hang it higher up the chimney, or set it on
hot coals on the hearth, so as to simmer it slowly for another hour. The
goodness and wholesomeness of mush depends greatly on its being long and
thoroughly boiled. It should also be made very thick. If well made, and
well cooked, it is wholesome and nutritious; but the contrary, if thin,
and not sufficiently boiled. It is not too long to have it three or four
hours over the fire, first boiling, and then simmering. On the contrary
it will be better for it. The coarser the corn meal the less cooking it
requires. Send it to table hot, and in a deep dish. Eat it with sweet
milk, buttermilk, or cream; or with butter and sugar, or with butter and
molasses; making a hole in the middle of your plate of mush; putting
some butter into the hole, and then adding the sugar or molasses.

Cold mush that has been left, may be cut into slices, or mouthfuls, and
fried next day, in butter, or in nice drippings of veal, beef, or pork;
but not mutton or lamb.


INDIAN HASTY PUDDING.--Put two quarts of milk into a clean pot or
sauce-pan. Set it over the fire, adding a level tea-spoonful of salt,
and, when it comes to a boil, stir in a lump of fresh butter about the
size of a goose-egg. Then add (a handful at a time) sufficient Indian
meal to make it very thick, stirring it all the while with a mush-stick.
Keep it boiling well, and continue to throw in Indian meal till it is so
thick that the stick stands upright in it. Then send it to table hot,
and eat it with milk, cream, or molasses and butter. What is left may be
cut into slices, and fried next day, or boiled in a bag.


INDIAN MEAL GRUEL.--This is an excellent food for the sick. Having
sifted some Indian meal, mix in a quart bowl three table-spoonfuls of
the meal with six of cold water. Stir it smooth, and press out the lumps
against the side of the bowl. Have ready a very clean sauce-pan,
entirely free from grease, with a pint of boiling water. Pour this,
scalding hot, on the mixture in the bowl, a little at a time, and stir
it well, adding a pinch of salt. Then put the whole back into the
sauce-pan. Set it on hot coals, and stir it till it boils, making the
spoon go down to the bottom, to prevent the gruel from burning. After it
has come to a boil, let it continue boiling half an hour, stirring it
frequently, and skimming it. Give it to the invalid warm, in a bowl or
tumbler, to be eaten with a teaspoon. It may be sweetened with a little
sugar. When the physician permits, some grated nutmeg may be added; also
a very little wine.


RYE MUSH.--To make smooth rye mush, sift a quart or more of rye meal
into a pan, and gradually pour in sufficient cold water to make a very
thick batter, stirring it hard with a spoon as you proceed, and
carefully pressing out all the lumps against the side of the pan. Add a
very little salt. The batter must be so thick at the last that you can
scarcely stir it. Then thin it with a little more water, and see that it
is quite smooth. Rye, and also wheat flour, have a disposition to be
more lumpy than corn meal, when made into mush. When thoroughly mixed
and stirred, put it into a pot, place it over the fire, and boil it
well, stirring it with a mush-stick till it comes to a hard boil; then
place it in a diminished heat, and simmer it slowly till you want to
dish it up. Eat it warm, with butter and molasses, or with sweet milk,
or fresh buttermilk. Rye mush is considered very wholesome, particularly
in cases of dyspepsia.


COMMON HOE-CAKE.--Take an earthen or tin pan, and half fill it with
coarse Indian meal, which had best be sifted in. Add a little salt. Have
ready a kettle of boiling water. Pour into the Indian meal sufficient
hot water (a little at a time) to make a stiff dough, stirring it with a
spoon as you proceed. It must be thoroughly mixed, and stirred hard. If
you want the cakes for breakfast, mix this dough over night; cover the
pan, and set it in a _cool_ place till morning. If kept warm, it may
turn sour. Early next morning, as soon as the fire is burning well, set
the griddle over it, and take out the dough, a handful at a time.
Flatten and shape it by patting it with your hands, till you form it
into cakes about the size of a common saucer, and half an inch thick.
When the griddle is quite hot, lay on it as many cakes as it will hold,
and bake them brown. When the upper side is done, slip a bread knife
beneath, and turn them over. They must be baked brown on both sides. Eat
them warm, with buttermilk, sweet milk, butter, molasses, or whatever is
most convenient. If you intend these cakes for dinner or supper, mix
them as early in the day as you can, and (covering the pan) let them
stand in a cool place till wanted for baking. In cold weather you may
save trouble by mixing over night enough to last the next day for
breakfast, dinner, and supper; baking them as they are wanted for each
meal. Or they may be all baked in the morning, and eaten cold; but they
are then not so palatable as when warm. They will be less liable to
stick, if before each baking the griddle is dredged with wheat flour, or
greased with a bit of fat pork stuck on a fork. You may cover it all
over with one large cake, instead of several small ones.

In America there is seldom a house without a griddle. Still, where
griddles are not, these cakes may be baked on a board standing nearly
upright before the fire, and supported by a smoothing-iron or a stone
placed against the back. Where wood fires are used, a good way of baking
these cakes is to clear a clean place in the hottest part of the hearth,
and, having wrapped the cake in paper, lay it down there, and cover it
up with hot red ashes. It will bake very well, (replenishing the heat by
throwing on from time to time a fresh supply of hot ashes,) and when
taken out of the paper they will be found sweet and good. The early
settlers of our country frequently baked their Indian cakes under the
ashes of their wood fires; and the custom is still continued by those
who cannot yet obtain the means of cooking them more conveniently.

This cake is so called, because in some parts of America it was
customary to bake it on the iron of a hoe, stood up before the fire. It
is better known by that name than by any other.


COMMON GRIDDLE CAKE.--A quart of Indian meal.--Sufficient warm water to
make a soft dough.--A small tea-spoonful of salt.--Put the Indian meal
into a pan, and add the salt. Make a hole in the centre of the meal, and
pour in a little warm water. Then mix it with a large, strong spoon,
adding, by degrees, water enough to make a soft dough. Flour your hands,
and knead it into a large lump--divide it into two equal portions. Flour
your paste-board, lay on it the first lump of dough, and roll it out
about an inch thick. Then, (having already heated your griddle,) lay the
cake upon it, spreading it evenly, and make it a good round shape. It
should cover the whole surface of the griddle, which must first be
greased, either with butter or lard tied in a rag, or with a bit of fat
fresh pork. Butter it well; and when one side is well browned, turn it
on the other, taking care not to break it. Send it to table hot, cut
into three-cornered pieces--split and butter them. As soon as the first
cake is sent in, put the other to bake.

This is one of the plainest and simplest preparations of Indian cake,
and is very good when warm.


PLAIN JOHNNY CAKE.--A quart of Indian meal.--A pint of warm water.--A
level tea-spoonful of salt.--Sift a quart of Indian meal into a pan.
Make a hole in the middle, and pour in a pint of warm water, adding the
salt. With a spoon mix the meal and water gradually into a soft dough.
Stir it very hard for a quarter of an hour or more, till it becomes
light and spongy. Then spread the dough; smooth and evenly, on a stout,
flat board. A piece of the head of a flour barrel will serve for this
purpose. Place the board nearly (but not quite) upright, and set a
smoothing-iron or a stone against the back to support it. Bake it well.
When done, cut it into squares, and send it hot to table, split and
buttered. You may eat molasses with it.


NICE JOHNNY CAKE.--A quart of sifted Indian meal.--A small teacup of
molasses, (West India is best.)--Two large table-spoonfuls of fresh
butter.--A tea-spoonful of ground ginger.--Some boiling water. Having
sifted the meal into a pan, rub the butter into it; add the molasses and
ginger, and pour on, by degrees, sufficient boiling water to make a
moderately soft dough. It must be stirred very hard. Then grease with
fresh butter a board of sufficient size, spread the dough thickly upon
it, and stand it nearly upright to bake before the fire, placing a
flat-iron against the back of the board. The cake must be very well
baked, taking care that the surface does not burn, while the inside is
soft and raw. Cut it into squares when done, and send them hot to table,
split and buttered.

The johnny-cake board had best be placed so as _slightly_ to slant
backwards; otherwise the upper part of the cake, being opposite to the
hottest part of the fire, may bake too fast for the lower part.


VERY PLAIN INDIAN DUMPLINGS.--Sift some Indian meal into a pan; add
about a salt-spoon of salt to each quart of meal; and scald it with
sufficient boiling water to make a stiff dough. Pour in the water
gradually; stirring as you pour. When the dough becomes a stiff lump,
divide it into equal portions; flour your hands, and make it into thick,
flat dumplings about as large round as the top of a glass tumbler, or a
breakfast cup. Dredge the dumplings on all sides with flour, put them
into a pot of boiling water (if made sufficiently stiff they need not be
tied in cloths,) and keep them boiling hard till thoroughly done. Try
them with a fork, which must come out quite clean, and with no
clamminess sticking to it. They are an excellent appendage to salt pork
or bacon, serving them up with the meat; or they may be eaten afterwards
with butter and molasses, or with milk sweetened well with brown sugar,
and flavoured with a little ground spice.


VERY PLAIN INDIAN BATTER CAKES.--A quart of warm water, or of skim
milk.--A quart of Indian meal and half a pint of wheat flour, sifted.--A
level tea-spoonful of salt. Pour the water into a pan; add the salt; and
having mixed together the wheat and Indian meal, stir them gradually
into the water, a handful at a time. It should be about the consistence
of buckwheat cake or muffin batter. Beat it long and hard. If you find
it too thick, add a little more water. Have ready a hot griddle, grease
it, and bake the cakes on it. They should not be larger than the top of
a tumbler, or a small saucer. Send them to table hot, in even piles, and
eat them with butter or molasses.

These are the plainest sort of Indian batter cakes; but if well beaten
and properly baked, they will be found very good, as well as economical.
It is an improvement to mix them with milk instead of water.


INDIAN MUFFINS.--A pint and a half of yellow Indian meal, sifted.--A
handful of wheat flour.--A quarter of a pound of fresh butter.--A quart
of milk.--Four eggs.--A very small tea-spoonful of salt. Put the milk
into a saucepan. Cut the butter into it. Set it over the fire and warm
it till the butter is very soft, but not till it melts. Then take it
off, stir it well, till all mixed, and set it away to cool. Beat four
eggs very light; and when the milk is cold, stir them into it,
alternately with the meal, a little at a time, of each. Add the salt.
Beat the whole very hard after it is all mixed. Then butter some
muffin-rings on the inside. Set them in a hot oven, or on a heated
griddle; pour some of the batter into each; and bake the muffins well.
Send them hot to table, continuing to bake while a fresh supply is
wanted. Pull them open with your fingers, and eat them with butter, to
which you may add molasses or honey. These muffins will be found
excellent, and can be prepared in a very short time; for instance, in
three quarters or half an hour before breakfast or tea.

This mixture may be baked in waffle-irons, as waffles. Butter them, and
have on the table a glass bowl with powdered sugar and powdered
cinnamon, to eat with these waffles.


VIRGINIA GRIDDLE CAKES.--A quart of Indian meal.--Two large
table-spoonfuls of wheat flour.--A heaped salt-spoon of salt.--A piece
of fresh butter, about two ounces.--Four eggs.--A pint, or more, of
milk. Sift the Indian meal into a large pan; mix with it the wheat
flour; and add the salt. Warm the milk in a small saucepan, but do not
let it come to a boil. When it begins to simmer, take it off, and put
the butter into it, stirring it about till well mixed. Then stir in the
meal, a little at a time, and let it cool while you are beating the
eggs. As soon as they are beaten very light, add them gradually to the
mixture, stirring the whole very hard. It must be a light batter, and
may require more milk.

Having heated the griddle well by placing it over the fire or in the
oven of a hot stove, rub it over with some fresh butter, tied in a
clean white rag, and pour on a large ladle-full of the batter. When the
cake has baked brown, turn it, with a cake-turner, and bake the other
side. Then take it off, and put it on a hot plate. Grease the griddle
again, and put on another cake; and so on till you have three or four
ready to send to table for a beginning. Continue to bake, and send in
hot cakes as long as they are wanted. Eat them with butter; to which you
may add molasses or honey.


MISSOURI CAKES.--Three large pints of yellow Indian meal.--A pint of
cold water.--A tea-spoonful of salt.--A level tea-spoonful of sal-eratus
or soda dissolved in a little warm water.--A large table-spoonful of
beef-dripping, or lard.--A small pint and a half of warm water. Sift
three large pints (a little more than three pints) of Indian meal into a
pan; add a tea-spoonful of salt, a large table-spoonful of lard, or nice
dripping of roast-beef; and a tea-spoonful of sal-eratus or soda melted
in a little warm water. Make it into a soft dough with a pint of cold
water. Then thin it to the consistence of a moderate batter, by adding,
gradually, not quite a pint and a half of warm water. When it is all
mixed, beat or stir it well, for half an hour. Then have a griddle ready
over the fire. When hot, grease it with beef-suet, or with lard or
butter tied in a clean white rag. Put on a large ladle-full of the
batter, and bake the cakes fast. Send them hot to table, about half a
dozen at a time, seeing that the edges are nicely trimmed. Eat them with
butter, to which you may add honey or molasses.

These cakes are excellent; and very convenient, as they require neither
eggs, milk, nor yeast. They may be baked as soon as mixed, or they may
stand an hour or more.


INDIAN SLAP-JACKS.--A quart of yellow Indian meal.--Half a pint or more
of boiling water.--Half a pint of wheat flour.--Three large
table-spoonfuls of strong fresh yeast.--A heaping salt-spoon of salt.--A
level tea-spoonful of pearlash, soda, or sal-eratus, dissolved in warm
water.--Lard for frying. Sift the Indian meal into a pan, and add the
salt. Then pour on the boiling water, and stir it well. When it has
cooled a little, and become only milk-warm, stir in the wheat flour, and
add the yeast. Stir it long and hard. Cover the pan, and set it near the
fire. When the mixture has risen quite light, and is covered with
bubbles, add the dissolved pearlash to puff it still more. Have ready a
hot frying-pan over the fire; grease it with a little lard, and put in a
portion of the mixture, sufficient for one large cake nearly the size of
the pan, or two small ones. Spread the mixture thin, and fry it brown.
Send the cakes hot to table, and eat them with butter or molasses.

This is one of the plainest sorts of Indian cake, but if properly made,
and baked, will be found very good.


INDIAN FLAPPERS.--A quart of sifted Indian meal.--A handful of wheat
flour.--A quart of milk.--Four eggs.--A heaping salt-spoon of salt. Mix
together the Indian and wheat meal, adding the salt. Beat the eggs light
in another pan, and then stir them a little at a time into the milk,
alternately with the meal, a handful at a time. Stir the whole very hard
at the last. Have ready a hot griddle, and bake the cakes on it in the
manner of buckwheat cakes, or crumpets; greasing or scraping the griddle
always before you put on a fresh ladle-full of batter. Make all the
cakes the same size, and when done trim the edges nicely with a knife.
Send them to table hot, laid one on another evenly, buttered and cut in
half. Or they may be buttered after they go to table.


INDIAN CRUMPETS.--A quart of Indian meal.--Half a pint of wheat
flour.--A quart of milk.--A heaping salt-spoonful of salt.--Three
eggs.--Two large table-spoonfuls of strong fresh yeast.--Warm the milk.
Sift the Indian meal and the flour into a pan, and mix them well. Then
stir them into the milk, a handful at a time; adding the salt. Beat the
eggs very light in another pan, and then stir them, gradually, into the
milk and meal. Lastly, add the yeast. Stir the whole well; then cover
it, and set it to rise in a warm place, such as a corner of the hearth.
When it has become very light, and is covered with bubbles, have the
griddle ready heated to begin to bake the cakes; first greasing the
griddle. For each crumpet pour on a large ladle-full of batter. Send
them to table several on a plate, and as hot as possible. Eat them with
butter, to which you may add molasses or honey.

If the batter should chance to become sour by standing too long, you may
remedy it by stirring in a level tea-spoonful of pearlash, soda, or
sal-eratus, dissolved in a very little lukewarm water. Then bake it.


CORN MEAL BREAKFAST CAKES.--A quart of Indian meal.--A handful, or more,
of wheat flour.--A large salt-spoon of salt.--A quart of warm water.--An
additional pint of lukewarm water.--A bit of pearlash the size of a
hazel-nut, or the same quantity of soda or sal-eratus. Mix over night,
in a large pan, the Indian meal, the wheat flour and salt. Pour on
gradually a quart of warm water, (warm but not hot,) and stir it in with
a large wooden or iron spoon, so as to form a very soft dough. Cover
the pan, and set it on the dresser till morning. In the morning thin the
dough with another pint of warm water, so as to make it into a batter,
having first dissolved in the water a salt-spoonful of powdered pearlash
or sal-eratus, or a bit the size of a hazel-nut. Beat the mixture hard.
Then cover it, and let it stand near the fire for a quarter of an hour
before you begin to bake it. Bake it in thin cakes on a griddle. Send
them to table hot, and eat them with butter, and molasses or honey.


INDIAN RICE CAKES.--Take equal quantities of yellow Indian meal and well
boiled rice. Mix them together in a pan, the meal and rice alternately,
a little at a time of each. The boiled rice may be either hot or cold;
but it will be rather best to mix it hot. Having first mixed it with a
spoon, knead it well with your hands; moistening it with a little milk
or water, if you find it too stiff. Have ready, over the fire, a heated
griddle. Grease it with fresh butter tied in a clean white rag; and
having made the mixture into flat round cakes, bake them well on both
sides. Eat them with butter and sugar, or butter and molasses, or with
butter alone.


PUMPKIN INDIAN CAKES.--Take equal portions of Indian meal, and stewed
pumpkin that has been well mashed and drained very dry in a sieve or
cullender. Put the stewed pumpkin into a pan, and stir the meal
gradually into it, a spoonful at a time, adding a little butter as you
proceed. Mix the whole thoroughly, stirring it very hard. If not thick
enough to form a stiff dough, add a little more Indian meal. Make it
into round, flat cakes, about the size of a muffin, and bake them over
the fire on a hot griddle greased with butter. Or lay them in a square
iron pan, and bake them in an oven.

Send them to table hot, and eat them with butter.


EXCELLENT BUCKWHEAT CAKES.--A quart of buckwheat meal, sifted.--A level
tea-spoonful of salt.--A small half-pint, or a large handful of Indian
meal.--Two large table-spoonfuls of strong fresh brewer’s yeast, or four
table-spoonfuls of home-made yeast.--Sufficient lukewarm water to make a
moderate batter. Mix together the buckwheat and Indian meal, and add the
salt. Make a hole in the centre of the meal, and pour in the yeast. Then
stir in gradually, from a kettle, sufficient tepid or lukewarm water to
make a moderately thick batter when united with the yeast. Cover the
pan, set it in a warm place, and leave it to rise. It should be light in
about three hours. When it has risen high and is covered with bubbles,
it is fit to bake. Have ready a clean griddle well heated over the fire.
Grease it well with a bit of fresh butter tied in a clean white rag, and
kept on a saucer near you. Then dip out a large ladle-full of the
batter, and bake it on the griddle; turning it when brown, with the
cake-turner, and baking it brown on the other side. Grease the griddle
slightly between baking each cake; or scrape it smooth with a broad
knife. As fast as you bake the cakes, lay them, several in a pile, on a
hot plate. Butter them, and if of large size cut them across into four
pieces. Or send them to table to be buttered there. Trim off the edges
before they go in.

If your batter has been mixed over night, and is found sour in the
morning, dissolve a salt-spoon of pearlash or sal-eratus in a little
lukewarm water, stir it into the batter, let it stand a quarter of an
hour, and then bake it. The alkali will remove the acidity, and increase
the lightness of the batter. If you use soda for this purpose it will
require a tea-spoonful.

If the batter is kept at night in so cold a place as to freeze, it will
be unfit for use. Do not grease the griddle with meat-fat of any sort.


NICE RYE BATTER CAKES.--A quart of lukewarm milk.--Two eggs.--A large
table-spoonful of fresh brewer’s yeast, or two of home-made
yeast.--Sufficient sifted rye meal to make a moderate batter.--A
salt-spoon of salt. Having warmed the milk, beat the eggs very light,
and stir them gradually into it, alternately with the rye meal, adding
the salt. Put in the meal, a handful at a time, till you have the batter
about as thick as for buckwheat cakes. Then stir in the yeast, and give
the batter a hard beating, seeing that it is smooth and free from lumps.
Cover the pan, and set it in a warm place to rise. When risen high, and
covered with bubbles, the batter is fit to bake. Have ready over the
fire a hot griddle, and bake the cakes in the manner of buckwheat. Send
them to table hot, and eat them with butter, molasses, or honey.

Yeast powders, used according to the directions that accompany them, and
put in at the last, just before baking, are an improvement to the
lightness of all batter cakes, provided that real yeast or eggs are also
in the mixture. But it is not well to depend on the powders exclusively,
particularly when real yeast is to be had. The lightness produced by
yeast powders alone, is not the right sort; and though the cakes are
eatable, they are too tough and leathery to be wholesome. As
_auxiliaries_ to genuine yeast, and to beaten eggs, yeast powders are
excellent.

Indian batter cakes may be made as above--or rye and Indian may be mixed
in equal proportions.


INDIAN LIGHT BISCUIT.--A quart of sifted Indian meal.--A pint of sifted
wheat flour.--A very small tea-spoonful of salt.--Three pints of
milk.--Four eggs. Sift the Indian and wheat meal into a pan, and add the
salt. Mix them well. Beat the whites and the yolks of the eggs
separately in two pans. The yolks must be beaten till very thick and
smooth; the whites to a stiff froth that will stand alone of itself.
Then stir the yolks gradually, (a little at a time,) into the milk. Add
by degrees the meal. Lastly, stir in the beaten white of egg, and give
the whole a long and hard stirring. Butter a sufficient number of cups,
or small, deep tins--nearly fill them with the batter. Set them
immediately into a hot oven, and bake them fast. Turn them out of the
cups. Send them warm to table, pull them open, and eat them with butter.

They will puff up finely if, at the last, you stir in a level
tea-spoonful of soda, melted in a little warm water.


INDIAN CUPCAKES.--A pint and a half of yellow Indian meal.--Half a pint
of wheat flour.--A pint and a half of _sour_ milk; buttermilk is
best.--A small tea-spoonful of sal-eratus or soda, dissolved in warm
water.--Two eggs.--A level tea-spoonful of salt. Sift the Indian and
wheat meal into a pan and mix them well, adding the salt. If you have no
butter-milk or other sour milk at hand, turn some sweet milk sour by
setting a pan of it in the sun, or stirring in a spoonful of vinegar.
Take out a small teacupful of the sour milk, and reserve it to be put in
at the last. Beat the eggs very light, and then stir them, gradually,
into the milk, alternately with the meal, a little at a time of each.
Lastly, dissolve the soda or sal-eratus, and stir it into the cup of
sour milk that has been reserved for the purpose. It will effervesce;
stir it while foaming into the mixture, which should be a thick batter.
Have ready some teacups, or little deep tins. Butter them well; nearly
fill them with the batter, and set them immediately into a rather brisk
oven. The cakes must be thoroughly baked all through. When done, turn
them out on large plates, and send them hot to the breakfast or
tea-table. Split them into three pieces, and eat them with butter.

The soda will entirely remove the acidity of the milk, which will
effervesce the better for being sour at first, adding therefore to the
lightness of the cake. Taste the milk, and if you find that the
slightest sourness remains, add a little more dissolved soda.

All the alkalies, pearlash, sal-eratus, soda, and sal-volatile, will
remove acidity, and increase lightness; but if too much is used they
will impart a disagreeable taste. It is useless to put lemon or orange
juice into any mixture that is afterwards to have one of these alkalies,
as they will entirely destroy the flavour of the fruit.


KENTUCKY SWEET CAKE.--A pint of fine yellow Indian meal, sifted.--Half a
pint of wheat flour.--Half a pound of powdered white sugar.--Half a
pound of fresh butter.--Eight eggs.--A powdered nutmeg.--A large
tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon.--A glass of white wine.--A glass of
brandy. Having powdered the spice, and mixed together the wine and
brandy, put the spice to steep in the liquor. Mix well the Indian meal
and the wheat flour, putting them into a broad pan. In another pan, stir
together the butter and sugar (as for a pound cake) till they are very
light and creamy. Break the eggs into a shallow earthen pan, and beat
them till very thick and light. Then, by degrees, stir into the beaten
butter and sugar, the spice and the liquor, a little at a time of each.
Afterwards, add alternately the meal and the beaten egg, also a little
of each at a time. Stir the whole very hard when all the ingredients are
in. Butter a straight-sided tin pan, put the mixture into it; set it
immediately into a rather brisk oven; and bake it well for three or four
hours or more, in proportion to its thickness.

This is a very nice cake. It should be eaten the same day that it is
baked; as when stale (even one day old) all Indian cakes become dry,
hard, and rough.

It will be improved by the addition of a pound of raisins, stoned, cut
in half, and well dredged with wheat flour to prevent their sinking to
the bottom. Sultana or seedless raisins are best for all sorts of cakes
and puddings.


CAROLINA RICE CAKES.--Having picked and washed half a pint of rice, boil
it by itself till the grains lose all form and are dissolved into a
thick mass, or jelly. While warm, mix into it a large lump of the best
fresh butter, and a salt-spoonful of salt. Pour into a bowl, a moderate
sized teacupful of ground rice-flour; and add to it as much milk as will
make a tolerably stiff batter. Stir it till it is quite smooth, and free
from lumps. Then mix it thoroughly with the boiled rice. Beat six eggs
as light as possible, and stir them, gradually, into the mixture. Bake
it on a griddle, in cakes about as large round as a saucer. Eat them
warm with butter; and have on the table, in a small bowl, some powdered
white sugar and nutmeg, for those who like it.


CAROLINA CORN CAKES.--Mix together in a pan, a pint and a half of sifted
corn meal, and a half pint of wheat flour, adding a heaped salt-spoon of
salt. Beat three eggs very light. Have ready a quart of _sour_ milk.
(You can turn sweet milk sour by stirring into it a very little
vinegar.) Put into a teacup a small tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda,
and dissolve it in a little lukewarm water. In another teacup melt a
salt-spoonful of tartaric acid. Add, alternately, to the milk, the
beaten eggs and the mixed meal, a little at a time of each; stirring
very hard. Then stir in the melted soda, and lastly the dissolved
tartaric acid. Having stirred the whole well together, butter some
square pans; fill them with the batter; set them immediately into a hot
oven; and bake them well. Serve them up hot, and eat them with butter or
molasses, or both. These cakes may be baked in muffin rings. All hot
cakes in the form of muffins should be pulled open with the fingers when
about to be eaten; and not split with a knife, the pressure of the knife
tending to make them heavy.


MADISON CAKE.--A pint and a half of sifted yellow corn meal.--Half a
pint of wheat flour.--Half a pint of sour milk.--Half a pint of powdered
white sugar.--Half a pound of fresh butter.--Six eggs.--A gill, or two
wine-glasses of brandy.--A pound of raisins of the best quality.--A
large tea-spoonful of mixed spice, powdered mace, nutmeg, and
cinnamon.--A large salt-spoon of sal-eratus, or a small tea-spoonful of
soda. If you have no sour milk at hand, turn half a pint of rich milk
sour by setting it in the sun, or stirring in a tea-spoonful of vinegar.
For this cake the milk must be sour, that the sal-eratus or soda may act
more powerfully by coming in contact with an acid. The acidity will then
be entirely removed by the effervescence, and the cake will be rendered
very light, and perfectly sweet. Having powdered the spice, put it into
the brandy, and let it infuse till wanted. Prepare the raisins by
stoning them, and cutting them in half; dredging them well with flour.
They should be muscadel, or bloom raisins, or sultana; if the latter,
they will require no seeding. Low-priced raisins, of inferior quality,
should never be used for cooking or for any purpose, as they are
unwholesome.

Sift the corn meal and the wheat flour into a pan, and mix them well. In
another pan mix the butter and sugar, and stir them together with a
hickory spaddle (which is like a short mush-stick, only broader at the
flattened end) till they are light and creamy. Then add the brandy and
spice. In a broad, shallow pan, beat the eggs till very thick and
smooth. Then stir them gradually into the butter and sugar in turn with
the meal. Dissolve the sal-eratus or soda in a very little lukewarm
water, and stir it into the sour milk. Then, while foaming, add the milk
to the rest of the mixture, and stir very hard. Lastly, throw in the
raisins, a few at a time, and give the whole a hard stirring.

Butter a deep square pan or a turban-mould. Put in the mixture. Set it
_directly_ into a brisk oven, and bake it at least three hours; or four
if in a turban-mould. When half done, the heat should be increased. This
cake should be eaten the day it is baked.


NANTUCKET PUDDING.--Six large ears of Indian corn; full grown, but young
and soft.--A pint of milk.--A quarter of a pound of fresh butter.--A
quarter of a pound of sugar.--Four eggs.--Half a nutmeg grated, and five
or six blades of mace powdered.--Having first boiled the corn for a
quarter of an hour, grate the grains off the cob with a coarse grater.
Then add the butter (cut into little bits) and the sugar. Having stirred
them well into the corn, thin it with milk. Beat the eggs very light,
and add them to the mixture, a little at a time, and finish with the
spice. Stir the whole very hard. Butter a deep white dish, put in the
pudding, set it directly into the oven, and bake it two hours. Send it
to table warm, and eat it with butter and sugar, or molasses. It is not
good cold. What is left may be put into a small dish, and baked over
again next day, for half an hour; or tied in a cloth, and boiled a
while.


SAMP PUDDING.--A pint of samp that has been boiled, and grown cold.--A
pint of milk.--Three large table-spoonfuls of fresh butter.--Three large
table-spoonfuls of sugar, or half a pint of West India molasses.--Six
eggs.--A table-spoonful of powdered cinnamon and nutmeg mixed, or a
table-spoonful of ground ginger. Boil the milk; and just after you take
it from the fire stir in the butter and sugar; or instead of the sugar
half a pint of West India molasses. Then add the spice, and set the
milk, &c., to cool. Beat the eggs till thick and smooth. Then stir them,
gradually, into the mixture, a little at a time, in turn with the samp.
Butter a deep dish; put in the mixture, and bake it well. Eat it warm,
with butter, sugar, and nutmeg beaten together to a cream; or with
molasses and butter.

A rice pudding may be made as above; the rice being previously boiled by
itself, and well drained.

A samp pudding may be tied in a cloth and boiled.


A FARMER’S INDIAN PUDDING.--Three small pints of sifted Indian meal, the
yellow sort.--A quart of rich milk.--A pint of West India molasses.--A
table-spoonful of ground cinnamon, or ginger. Before you begin, set over
the fire a large pot filled with water, which must boil hard by the time
the pudding is mixed. Put the milk by itself, into another pot or
sauce-pan, and give it a boil. When it has come to a boil, pour it into
a deep pan, and stir into it a pint of the best West India molasses.
Then add, by degrees, the Indian meal, a handful at a time; and lastly,
the spice. Stir the whole very hard. Have ready a square pudding-cloth;
dip it in boiling water; shake it out; dredge it with flour, and spread
it open in a broad pan. Then pour the pudding-batter into the cloth;
and, leaving near one-third vacant, as room for it to swell, tie it
firmly with tape. Make a morsel of stiff dough with flour and a little
water, and with it stop closely the little aperture at the tying-place,
to prevent water from getting in there. Plaster it on well. Put the
pudding into the large pot of boiling water; cover it closely with the
lid; and let it boil steadily for at least three hours; four will not be
too long. While boiling, turn it frequently. As the water boils away,
replenish it with some more water, kept boiling hard for this purpose,
in a kettle. On no account pour in _cold_ water, as that will render the
pudding heavy. Turn it out of the cloth immediately before it goes to
table, and eat it with butter and molasses. It will be found excellent.
The West India molasses will make it as light as if it had eggs.

You may add with the spice, the yellow rind of a large lemon or orange,
finely grated.


A VERY NICE BOILED INDIAN PUDDING.--Three pints of sifted Indian
meal.--Half a pound of beef-suet, minced as fine as possible.--A quart
of milk.--Half a pint of West India molasses.--Six eggs.--Three or four
sticks of cinnamon, broken small.--A grated nutmeg. Having cleared the
suet from the skin and strings, chop it as fine as possible, and mix it
with the Indian meal. Boil the cinnamon in the milk till it is highly
flavoured. Then strain the milk (boiling hot) into the pan of Indian
meal and suet, and add the molasses. Stir the mixture very hard. Cover
it and set it away in a cool place. Beat the eggs till quite light, and
add them, gradually, to the mixture as soon as it is quite cold. Then
grate in the nutmeg. Dip a thick square cloth into boiling water, shake
it out, dredge it with flour, and then spread it open in a deep pan, and
pour in the mixture. Leaving one-third of the space vacant allowing for
the pudding to swell, tie the cloth very securely, and to guard against
water getting into it, plug up the little crack at the tying place by
plastering on a bit of dough made of flour and water. Put the pudding
into a large pot of boiling water, (having an old plate in the bottom,)
and boil it six hours or more, turning it often, and replenishing the
pot, when necessary, with boiling water from a kettle. If you dine
early, the pudding should be mixed before breakfast. Serve it up hot.

Eat it with wine sauce, with butter and molasses, or with a sauce of
butter, sugar, lemon-juice and nutmeg, beaten together to a cream. What
is left of the pudding, may next day be tied in a cloth, and boiled over
again for an hour.


BAKED CORN MEAL PUDDING.--A pint of sifted Indian meal.--Half a pint of
West India molasses.--A quarter of a pound of fresh butter.--A pint of
milk.--Four eggs.--The yellow rind of a large fresh orange or lemon
grated.--A tea-spoonful of powdered cinnamon and nutmeg mixed. Boil the
milk. Sift the Indian meal into an earthen pan, pour the boiling milk
over it, and stir them well together. Cut up the butter into a small
sauce-pan; pour the molasses over it; set it on the fire, and let them
warm together till the butter is soft, but not oiled. Stir them well,
and mix them with the milk and Indian meal. Set the pan in a cool place.
In a separate pan beat the eggs very light, and when the mixture has
become cold, add the eggs to it, gradually. Then stir in the spice, and
grated orange or lemon peel. Stir the whole very hard. Put the mixture
into a buttered white dish, and bake it well. Serve it up hot, and eat
it with a sauce made of powdered white sugar, and fresh butter seasoned
with nutmeg and lemon or orange juice, and stirred together to a cream;
or with a liquid sauce of melted butter, wine and nutmeg.

This quantity of ingredients will make a small pudding. For a large one,
allow a double portion of each article, and bake it longer.

It will be improved by gradually stirring in at the last, a pound of
Zante currants or of sultana raisins, well dredged with flour.


PUMPKIN INDIAN PUDDING.--Take a pint and a half of cold stewed pumpkin,
and mix into it a pint and a half of Indian meal, adding a
table-spoonful of ground ginger. Boil a quart of milk, and as soon as
you take it from the fire, stir into it a pint of West India molasses.
Then add to it gradually the mixture of pumpkin and corn meal, and stir
the whole very hard. It will be much improved by adding the grated
yellow rind of a large orange or lemon. Have ready over the fire a large
pot of boiling water. Dip your pudding-cloth into it; shake it out;
spread out the cloth in a broad pan: dredge it with flour; pour the
mixture into it, and tie it fast, leaving about one-third of the space
for the pudding to swell. Boil it three hours or more--four hours will
not be too long. Turn it several times while boiling. Replenish the pot
as it boils, with hot water from a kettle kept boiling for the purpose.
Take up the pudding immediately before it is wanted for table--dip it a
moment in cold water, and turn it out into a dish. Eat it with butter
and molasses.

This pudding requires no eggs in the mixture. The molasses, if West
India, will make it sufficiently light.

What is left may be tied in a cloth, and re-boiled next day.


A BACKWOODS POT-PIE.--Put a large portion of yellow Indian meal, (with a
very little salt,) into a deep pan, and pour on scalding water,
(stirring it in as you proceed,) till you have a soft dough. Beat and
stir it long and hard, adding more corn meal, till the dough becomes
stiff. It will be improved by mixing in a little wheat flour. When it is
cool enough to handle, knead it a while with your hands. Take off
portions of the dough or paste, and form them into flat, square cakes.
Take a large pot; grease the sides with a little good dripping or lard,
and line them with the cakes of corn meal. Have ready some fresh venison
cut into pieces, and seasoned with a little salt and pepper. Put some of
it into the pot, (adding some water to assist in the gravy,) and cover
it with a layer of corn cakes. Then more venison, and then more cakes,
till the pot is nearly full. The last layer must be a large cake with a
slit in the middle. Set it over the fire, and let it boil steadily till
the whole is thoroughly done. Then take it up, and dish it together,
meat and paste.

The paste that is to line the sides of the pot should be thinner than
that which is to be laid among the meat. Put no paste at the bottom.

If you have any cold drippings of roast venison, you may mix some of it
with the corn meal, as shortening.

Sweet potatoes sliced, and laid among the meat, will improve this pie.


TO BOIL INDIAN CORN.--Corn for boiling should be full grown, but young
and tender, and the grains soft and milky. If its grains are becoming
hard and yellow, it is too old for boiling. Strip the ears of their
leaves and the silk. Put them into a large pot of boiling water, and
boil it rather fast for half an hour or more, in proportion to its size
and age. When done, take it up, drain it, dish it under a cover, or
napkin, and serve it up hot. Before eating it, rub each ear with salt
and pepper, and then spread it with butter. Epicures in corn consider it
sweetest when eaten off the cob. And so it is; but _before company_ few
persons like to hold an ear of Indian corn in their hands, and bite the
grains off the cob with their teeth. Therefore, it is more frequently
cut off the cob into a dish; mixed with salt, pepper, and butter, and
helped with a spoon.

It is said that young green corn will boil sufficiently in ten minutes,
(putting it _of course_ into a pot of boiling water.) Try it.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Another way._--Having pulled off the silk, boil the corn, without
removing the leaves that enclose the cob. With the leaves or husk on, it
will require a longer time to cook, but is sweeter and more nutritious.


GREEN CORN DUMPLINGS.--A quart of young corn grated from the cob.--Half
a pint of wheat flour, sifted.--Half a pint of milk.--Six
table-spoonfuls of butter.--Two eggs.--A salt-spoonful of salt.--A
salt-spoonful of pepper.--Butter for frying. Having grated as fine as
possible, sufficient young fresh corn to make a quart, mix with it the
wheat flour, and add the salt and pepper. Warm the milk in a small
saucepan, and soften the butter in it. Then add them gradually to the
pan of corn, stirring very hard; and set it away to cool. Beat the eggs
light, and stir them into the mixture when it has cooled. Flour your
hands and make it into little dumplings. Put into a frying-pan a
sufficiency of fresh butter, (or lard and butter in equal proportions,)
and when it is boiling hot, and has been skimmed, put in the dumplings;
and fry them ten minutes or more, in proportion to their thickness. Then
drain them, and send them hot to the dinner-table.


CORN PORRIDGE.--Take young corn, and cut the grains from the cob.
Measure it, and to each heaping pint of corn, allow not quite a quart of
milk. Put the corn and milk into a pot; stir them well together: and
boil them till the corn is perfectly soft. Then add some bits of fresh
butter dredged with flour, and let it boil five minutes longer. Stir in
at the last, some beaten yolk of egg; and in three minutes remove it
from the fire. Take up the porridge, and send it to table hot, and stir
some fresh butter into it. You may add sugar and nutmeg.


CORN OYSTERS.--Three dozen ears of large young Indian corn.--Six
eggs.--Lard and butter in equal portions for frying. The corn must be
young and soft. Grate it from the cob as fine as possible, and dredge it
with wheat flour. Beat very light the six eggs, and mix them gradually
with the corn. Then let the whole be well incorporated by hard beating.
Add a salt-spoon of salt.

Have ready, in a frying pan, a sufficient quantity of lard and fresh
butter mixed together. Set it over the fire till it is boiling hot, and
then put in portions of the corn-mixture, so as to form oval cakes about
three inches long, and nearly an inch thick. Fry them brown, and send
them to table hot. In taste they will be found to have a singular
resemblance to fried oysters, and are universally liked if properly
done. They make nice side-dishes at dinner, and are very good at
breakfast.


SUMMER SACCATASH.--String a quarter of a peck of young green beans, and
cut each bean into three pieces (not more) and do not split them. Have
by you a pan of cold water, and throw the beans into it as you cut them.
Have ready over the fire a pot or saucepan of boiling water, put in the
beans, and boil them hard near twenty minutes. Afterwards take them up,
and drain them well through a cullender. Take half a dozen ears of young
but full-grown Indian corn (or eight or nine if they are not all large)
and cut the grains down from the cob. Mix together the corn and the
beans, adding a very small tea-spoonful of salt, and boil them about
twenty minutes. Then take up the saccatash, drain it well through a
sieve, put it into a deep dish, and while hot mix in a large piece of
butter, (at least the size of an egg,) add some pepper, and send it to
table. It is generally eaten with salted or smoked meat.

Fresh Lima beans are excellent cooked in this manner, with green corn.
They must be boiled for half an hour or more before they are cooked with
the corn.

Dried beans and dried corn will do very well for saccatash, but they
must be soaked all night before boiling. The water poured on them for
soaking should be hot.


WINTER SACCATASH.--This is made of dried shelled beans, and hard corn.
Take equal quantities of shelled beans and corn; put them over night
into separate pans, and pour boiling water over them. Let them soak till
morning. Then pour off that water, and scald them again. First boil the
beans by themselves. When they are soft, add the corn, and let them boil
together till the corn is quite soft, which will require at least an
hour. Take them up, drain them in a sieve; then put them into a deep
dish, and mix in a large piece of fresh butter, and a little pepper and
salt.

This is an excellent accompaniment to pickled pork, bacon; or corned
beef. The meat must be boiled by itself in a separate pot.


HOMINY.--Hominy is Indian Corn shelled from the cob, divested of the
yellow or outer skin by scalding in hot lye, and then winnowed and
dried. It is perfectly white. Having washed it through two or three
waters, pour boiling water on it, cover it, and let it soak all night,
or for several hours. Then put it into a pot or saucepan, allow two
quarts of water to each quart of hominy, and boil it till perfectly
soft. Then drain it, put it into a deep dish, add some butter to it, and
send it to table hot, (and _uncovered_,) to eat with any sort of meat;
but particularly with corned beef or pork. What is left may be made next
day into thick cakes, and fried in butter. To be _very good_, hominy
should boil four or five hours.


CAROLINA GRITS, or SMALL HOMINY.--The small-grained hominy must be
washed and boiled in the same manner as the large, only allow rather
less water for boiling. For instance, put a pint and a half of water to
a quart of small hominy. Drain it well, send it to table in a deep dish
_without a cover_, and eat it with butter and sugar, or molasses. If
covered after boiling, the vapour will condense within the lid, and make
the hominy thin and watery.


SAMP.--This is Indian corn skinned, and then pounded or ground till it
is still smaller and finer than the Carolina grits. It must be cooked
and used in the same manner. It is very nice eaten with cream and sugar.

For invalids it may be made thin, and eaten as gruel.


HOMINY CAKES.--A pint of small hominy, or Carolina grits.--A pint of
white Indian meal, sifted.--A salt-spoonful of salt.--Three large
table-spoonfuls of fresh butter.--Three eggs, or three table-spoonfuls
of strong yeast.--A quart of milk. Having washed the small hominy, and
left it soaking all night, boil it soft, drain it, and while hot, mix it
with the Indian meal; adding the salt, and the butter. Then mix it
gradually with the milk, and set it away to cool. Beat the eggs very
light, and add them, gradually, to the mixture. The whole should make a
thick batter. Then bake them on a griddle, in the manner of buckwheat
cakes, greasing or scraping the griddle, always before you put on a
fresh cake. Trim off their edges nicely, and send them to table hot. Eat
them with butter.

Or you may bake them in muffin rings.

If you prefer making these cakes with yeast, you must begin them
earlier, as they will require time to rise. The yeast should be strong
and fresh. If _not_ very strong, use four table-spoonfuls instead of
two. Cover the pan, set it in a warm place; and do not begin to bake
till it is well risen, and the surface of the mixture is covered with
bubbles.


TO KEEP INDIAN CORN FOR COOKING.--Take the corn when it is young and
tender, and barely full-grown. Let it remain on the cob till you have
boiled it ten or fifteen minutes (not more) in a large pot of
slightly-salted water that must be boiling hard when the corn is put in.
When thus parboiled, take it out, and when cool enough to handle, cut
down the grains from the cob, into a deep pan, with a knife. Then spread
out the grains in large flat dishes or shallow pans, and set them in an
oven, after the bread, pies, &c., are done, and have been taken out. Let
the corn remain in the oven till it is all well dried. If your oven is
heated every day, you may put the corn into it a second time. When
quite dry, and after it has cooled, put it into a large thick bag; tie
the bag tightly, and hang it up in a cool store-room. When wanted for
use, corn thus prepared will be found excellent for boiling in winter
soup; or boiled by itself and drained, and sent to table in a
vegetable-dish to eat with meat; first mixing with it some butter, and a
little pepper and salt. It will boil as soft, and taste as well as when
fresh from the garden. It will be better for soaking all night in water,
before cooking.

Bakers who heat their ovens every day, would find it profitable to buy
Indian corn in large quantities, and prepare it as above, to sell
afterwards for table use. If the corn is not young and fresh, it will
require half an hour’s boiling before it is dried in the oven.

What is called sweet corn is excellent for this purpose.


EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR PORK AND BEANS.--Take a good piece of pickled pork
(not very fat) and to each pound of pork allow a quart of dried white
beans. The bone should be removed from the pork, and the beans well
picked and washed. The evening before they are wanted for cooking, put
the beans and pork to soak in _separate pans_; and just before bed-time,
drain off the water, and replace it with fresh. Let them soak all night.
Early in the morning, drain them well from the water, and wash first the
beans, and then the pork in a cullender. Having scored the skin in
stripes or diamonds, put the pork into a pot with fresh cold water, and
the beans into another pot with sufficient cold water to cook them well.
Season the pork with a little pepper, but of course no salt. Boil them
separately and slowly till the pork is thoroughly done (skimming it
well) and till the beans have all burst open. Afterwards take them out,
and drain them well from the water. Then lay the pork in the middle of a
tin pan, (there must be no liquid fat about it) and the beans round it;
and over it, so as nearly to bury it from sight. Pour in a very little
water, and set the dish into a hot oven, to bake or brown for half an
hour. If kept too long in the oven the beans will become dry and hard.
If sufficiently boiled when separate, half an hour will be long enough
for the pork and beans to bake together. Carefully skim off any liquid
fat that may rise to the surface. Cover the dish, and send it to table
hot.

For a small dish, two quarts of beans and two pounds of pork will be
enough. To this quantity when put to bake in the oven you may allow half
a pint of water.

This is a good plain dish, very popular in New England, and generally
liked in other parts of the country.



INDEX.


  Albany cake, 195.

  Alkanet colouring, 250.

  Almond icing, 221.

  Almond pudding, boiled, 112.

  Almond rice pudding, 112.

  Almond soup, 16.

  Altona fritters, 133.

  American chintzes, to wash, 307.

  American citron, 165.

  American prunes, 183.

  Anchovy toast, 29.

  Ants,--to destroy garden ants, 280.

  Ants,--to expel small ants, 280.

  Antique oil, 253.

  Apple cake, 221.

  Apples, to keep, 248.

  Apple marmalade, 171.

  Apples meringued, 154.

  Apples (dried,) 184.

  Apple water, 243.

  Artichokes, fried, 42.

  Artificial flowers, fine colouring for, 337.

  Arsenic, remedy for, 290.

  Asparagus loaves, 46.

  Asparagus omelet, 46.

  Atmosphere of a room, to purify, 268.

  Austrian cake, 196.

  Autumn soup, 8.


  Baked tongue, 76.

  Barberry jam, 174.

  Bathing the feet, 284.

  Batter cakes, (Indiana,) 186.

  Batter cakes, (Kentucky,) 186.

  Batter cakes, (rye,) 187.

  Beans, stewed, 49.

  Bed-bugs, to destroy, 279.

  Bee-miller, to destroy, 281.

  Beef,--cold corned, to stew, 73.

  Beef, (French,) 74.

  Beef, minced, 72.

  Beef olives, 75.

  Beef, round of, stewed brown, 69.

  Beef,--smoked, to stew, 74.

  Beef-steaks with mushrooms, 72.

  Beef-steak pot-pie, 71.

  Beef’s tongue, stewed, 76.

  Beets, to keep, 248.

  Bergamot water, 254.

  Biscuit ice-cream, 161.

  Biscuit pudding, 113.

  Biscuit sandwiches, 85.

  Birds in a grove, (French dish,) 99.

  Birds with mushrooms, (French,) 98.

  Black lace, to wash, 305.

  Black-currant jelly, (fine,) 174.

  Blackberry syrup, 294.

  Blackberry wine, 233.

  Blanc-mange, (chocolate,) 150.

  Blanc-mange, (coffee,) 151.

  Blanc-mange, (gelatine,) 151.

  Blanc-mange, (maccaroon,) 149.

  Blanc-mange, (Spanish,) 147.

  Blanc-mange, (vanilla,) 148.

  Blue wash for walls, 264.

  Bobbinet, (to hem,) 325.

  Boned turkey, 104.

  Bonnets, 320.

  Bonnet, to keep white, 323.

  Boot-bag, to make, 317.

  Boston cake, 194.

  Brandy grapes, 182.

  Brandy green gages, 181.

  Brandy peaches, (excellent,) 179.

  Brandy peaches, (fine,) 179.

  Brandy peaches, (the French way,) 181.

  Brandy pears, 180.

  Bread fritters, 136.

  Bread muffins, 188, 229.

  Bread, (rice,) 189.

  Bread, (rice-flour,) 190.

  Breakfasts for spring and summer, 365.

  Breakfasts for autumn and winter, 367.

  Breakfast parties, 368.

  Britannia metal,--to keep it bright, 272.

  Broccoli and eggs, 41.

  Broken cork, to get out of a bottle, 268.

  Brown fricassee, 94.

  Brown mixture for a cough, 288.


  Cabbage, an excellent way of boiling, 38.

  Cabbage, (red, to stew,) 39.

  Cake, Albany, 195.

  Cake, apple, 221.

  Cake, Austrian, 196.

  Cake, Boston, 194.

  Cake, carraway, 215.

  Cake, chocolate, 201.

  Cakes, cinnamon, 222.

  Cake, cocoa-nut, (West India,) 210.

  Cakes, ginger pound, 223.

  Cakes, Harlem, 188.

  Cake, honey, 200.

  Cakes, ice-cream, 205.

  Cake, lemon, 200.

  Cakes, light seed, 214.

  Cake, Madison, 197.

  Cakes, molasses, 227.

  Cakes, palmer, 214.

  Cakes, peach, 199.

  Cake, rice-flour pound, 210.

  Cake, rice sponge, 211.

  Cakes, strawberry, 198.

  Cake, sweet-potatoe, 212.

  Cakes, sugar, 227.

  Cakes, to freshen them, 229.

  Cake-syllabub, 151.

  Calf’s head, stewed, 61.

  Calves’ feet jelly, (hints on,) 164.

  Camphor spirits, 290.

  Caper sauce, substitutes for, 17.

  Carbonated syrup-water, 238.

  Carraway gingerbread, 226.

  Carrots, to keep, 248.

  Carrots, stewed, 49.

  Case for combs, brushes, &c., 318.

  Cassia, (oil of,) 253.

  Caterpillars, to destroy, 281.

  Cauliflower, fried, 40.

  Cauliflower omelet, 40.

  Cauliflower maccaroni, 40.

  Cauliflowers and sweetbread, 67.

  Celery, fried, 42.

  Cement for jars and bottles, 258.

  Chafed upper-lip, (cure for,) 288.

  Champagne, (gooseberry,) 230.

  Charlotte, (French,) 145.

  Charlotte, (Italian,) 144.

  Charlotte russe, (very fine,) 142.

  Charlotte russe, another way, 143.

  Charlotte pudding, 126.

  Cherry pudding, 118.

  Cherry-water ice, 159.

  Chicken gumbo, 90.

  Chicken patties, 91.

  Chicken pie, (French,) 89.

  Chicken salad, (Italian,) 53.

  Chicken salad, (lettuce,) 52.

  Chicken rice pudding, 91.

  Chickens, stewed whole, 88.

  Chickens with tomatoes, 90.

  Chocolate blanc-mange, 150.

  Chocolate cream, 155.

  Chocolate cream, another way, 155.

  Chocolate ice-cream, 160.

  Chocolate maccaroons, 207.

  Chocolate puffs, 213.

  Cider,--to keep it sweet, 247.

  Citron, (American,) 165.

  Citron melons, preserved, 167.

  Clam fritters, 32.

  Clam pie, 31.

  Clam soup, (fine,) 13.

  Clam soup, (excellent,) 14.

  Clam sweetbreads, 68.

  Closets, to clear from cockroaches, 276.

  Coal-fire, to extinguish, 295.

  Coat, dress, or gown, to make it set closely to the waist, 327.

  Cochineal colouring, 250.

  Cockroaches, 277.

  Cocoa, 245.

  Cocoa-nut cake, (West India,) 210.

  Cocoa-nut cream, 157.

  Cocoa-nut pudding, 110.

  Cocoa-nut puffs, 214.

  Cocoa-nut soup, 15.

  Cod-fish, fried, 24.

  Cod-fish, stewed, 24.

  Coffee, an excellent way of making it, 243.

  Coffee blanc-mange, 151.

  Cold corned beef, to stew, 73.

  Cold potatoes, to stew, 50.

  Cold starch for linen, 298.

  Colouring for cheese, 250.

  Colours of dresses, to preserve, 308.

  Coloured water, 251.

  Coloured silks, French mode of washing, 300.

  Columbian pudding, 107.

  Columbian soap, 255.

  Columbus eggs, 92.

  Combs and brushes, 318.

  Company dinners for spring, 383.

  Company dinners for summer, 384.

  Company dinners for autumn, 386.

  Company dinners for winter, 387.

  Connecticut sausage meat, 80.

  Corks, covering for, 258.

  Corns, to remove from between the toes, 283.

  Corn meal pudding, 114.

  Corrosive sublimate, (antidote for,) 291.

  Cottage pudding, 117.

  Cream cocoa-nut pudding, 110.

  Cream, (pistachio,) 156.

  Cream trout, 23.

  Cream tarts, 204.

  Cream, (vanilla,) 157.

  Crickets, to destroy, 278.

  Croquettes of rice, 92.

  Croquettes of sweetbreads, 65.

  Cross buns, 217.

  Crossing the sea, 356.

  Crullers, (soft,) 216.

  Cucumber catchup, 56.

  Curds and whey, flavoured, 161.

  Currant ice, 158.

  Currant jelly, (excellent,) 173.

  Currant pudding, 118.

  Custard, (green,) 130.

  Custard, (red,) 131.


  Damson jam, 175.

  Damson-water ice, 159.

  Dark stains, to remove from silver, 270.

  Directions for embroidering merino, 332.

  Directions for working slippers, 327.

  Directions for making a tabouret, 339.

  Domestic Frontiniac, 231.

  Domestic Tokay, 233.

  Dried apples, 184.

  Dried peaches, stewed, 184.

  Ducks, (canvas-back, dressed plain,) 95.

  Ducks, (canvas-back, roasted,) 95.

  Ducks, (canvas-back, stewed,) 96.

  Ducks, (wild ducks, stewed,) 94.

  Duck soup, 12.

  Dumplings, (sweetmeat,) 133.

  Dusting furniture, 275.


  Eggs, to beat, 193.

  Eggs and broccoli, 41.

  Embroidery on both sides, 335.

  Embroidering standards, 336.

  Excoriated nostrils, (cure for,) 287.

  Eye-stone, to apply one, 286.


  Fillet of mutton, 59.

  Fillet of pork, 77.

  Frontiniac wine, (domestic,) 231.

  Flavoured curds and whey, 161.

  Fleas, to expel, 278.

  Flemington gingerbread, 223.

  Flies, to destroy, 279.

  Four fruit jelly, 174.

  Fowl and oysters, 88.

  French beef, 74.

  French brandy peaches, 181.

  French charlotte, 145.

  French chicken pie, 89.

  French hungary water, 254.

  French icing for cakes, 220.

  French oyster pie, 30.

  French peas, 48.

  French lamb cutlets, 58.

  French pie, (raised,) 100.

  French stew of rabbits, 84.

  French way of dressing a shoulder of veal, 62.

  French method of washing coloured silks, 300.

  Fresh butter, to keep for frying, 248.

  Fritters, (Altona,) 133.

  Fritters, (bread,) 136.

  Fritters, (green,) 136.

  Fritters, (indian,) 137.

  Fritters, (sweetmeat,) 135.

  Fritters, (Washington,) 134.

  Fritters, (wine,) 135.

  Fruit stains, to remove them from doilies, napkins, &c., 276.


  Game, a nice way of cooking it, 98.

  Garden ants, to destroy, 280.

  Gelatine blanc-mange, 151.

  Gelatine custard, 132.

  Giblet pie, 103.

  Gingerbread, (carraway,) 226.

  Ginger crackers, 224.

  Gingerbread, (Flemington,) 223.

  Gingerbread, (molasses,) 226.

  Gingerbread for a sea-voyage, 225.

  Gingerbread, spiced, 225.

  Glass-stopper, to loosen, 267.

  Gold or silver embroidery, to clean, 307.

  Gooseberry champagne, 230.

  Gooseberry pudding, 118.

  Gooseberry-water ice, 159.

  Grapes, iced, 183.

  Grapes in brandy, 182.

  Grease, to extract with camphine oil, 263.

  Grease-balls, to make, 263.

  Grease, to remove from a stove-hearth, 274.

  Green custard, 130.

  Green currant wine, 230.

  Green fritters, 136.

  Green gages, preserved, 178.

  Green gages in brandy, 181.

  Ground-nut maccaroons, 209.

  Ground rice pudding, (excellent,) 124.

  Grouse or moorfowl pudding, 103.

  Gumbo, (chicken,) 90.

  Gum arabic paste, 258.


  Hair, an excellent way of improving, 259.

  Hair, to have it very good, 260.

  Hair-brushes, convenient ones, 318.

  Halibut, stewed, 25.

  Ham pie, (French,) 85.

  Ham, potted, 85.

  Ham toast, 86.

  Hands, to make them smooth and white, 281.

  Hanover pudding, 109.

  Harlem cakes, 188.

  Hearth in summer, 341.

  Hem of a silk dress, to strengthen, 326.

  Hints on calves’ feet jelly, 164.

  Hippocras, 234.

  Hoarhound candy, (fine,) 292.

  Honey cake, (fine,) 200.

  Household tools, 347.


  Ice-cream, (biscuit,) 161.

  Ice-cream cakes, 205.

  Ice-cream, (chocolate,) 160.

  Ice-cream, (peach,) 160.

  Icing, (almond,) 221.

  Icing for cakes, (French,) 220.

  Icing for a large cake, 218.

  Iced grapes, 183.

  Iced jelly, 158.

  Imitation lemon syrup, 238.

  Indian fritters, 137.

  Indian pudding, (fine,) 116.

  Indian pudding, (peach,) 115.

  Indian puffs, 132.

  Ink, to carry while travelling, 319.

  Ink, durable--to use, 265.

  Ink, (very fine,) 266.

  Ink, (sumach,) 266.


  Jam, (barberry,) 174.

  Jam, (damson,) 175.

  Jars, to clean, 268.

  Jelly, (black currant, fine,) 174.

  Jelly, (red currant, excellent,) 173.

  Jelly, (four fruit,) 174.

  Jelly, (iced,) 158.

  Jelly, (orange, very fine,) 171.

  Jelly puffs, or Sunderlands, 146.

  Jug of molasses, to prevent its running over, 294.


  Kentucky batter-cakes, 186.

  Knives, paste for cleaning, 272.


  Lace, (black,) to wash, 305.

  Lace, (thread,) to make it look like new, 301.

  Lady’s pudding, 128.

  Lady’s shoe bag, 317.

  Lamb cutlets, French way, 58.

  Lamb, stewed, 58.

  Lavender compound, (fine,) 293.

  Lavender water, (fine,) 254.

  Laudanum, remedy for an overdose, 291.

  Lemon cakes, (small,) 200.

  Lemon juice, to preserve, 246.

  Lemon kisses, 206.

  Lemons and oranges, to keep, 247.

  Lemon pickle, (fine,) 55.

  Lemon puffs, 201.

  Lemon syrup, (imitation,) 238.

  Letters, 350.

  Lettuce peas, 48.

  Lettuce peas, (plain,) 49.

  Light paste, 140.

  Light seed cake, 214.

  Linen, cold starch for, 298.

  Lip glue, 256.

  Lip salve, red, 289.

  Lobster patties, 32.

  Lobster rissoles, 34.

  Looking-glasses, to clean, 269.


  Maccaroni, (cauliflower,) 40.

  Maccaroni pudding, 128.

  Maccaroon blanc-mange, 149.

  Maccaroons, (chocolate,) 207.

  Maccaroons, (ground-nut,) 209.

  Maccaroons, (lemon,) 209.

  Macassar oil, 252.

  Mahogany, to take out white marks from, 274.

  Marmalade, (pine apple,) 168.

  Marmalade pudding, 113.

  Marrow pudding, 123.

  Medicated prunes, 291.

  Meringued apples, 154.

  Meringues, (rose,) 202.

  Meringues, (whipt cream,) 203.

  Merino, to braid, 330.

  Merino dresses, to work in cross stitch, 330.

  Merino, to embroider, 332.

  Mice, 280.

  Milk of roses, 259.

  Millefleurs perfume, 253.

  Minced beef, 72.

  Minced veal, (excellent,) 62.

  Mince meat, (very fine,) 137.

  Mince meat, (temperance,) 138.

  Mince pudding, 121.

  Molasses cake, 227.

  Molasses bread-cake, 228.

  Molasses gingerbread, 226.

  Molasses, to prevent a jug of it from running over, 294.

  Muff, to keep, 312.

  Muffins, (bread,) 188, 229.

  Mushrooms, with birds, 98.

  Mushroom omelet, 43.

  Mutton cutlets, stewed, 60.

  Mutton, (fillet of,) 59.


  Nectar, 235.

  Nice family dinners for spring, 377.

  Nice family dinners for summer, 378.

  Nice family dinners for autumn, 379.

  Nice family dinners for winter, 381.

  Nice way of cooking game, 98.

  Notions, 217.


  Oil, (antique,) 253.

  Oil of cassia, 253.

  Oil, (Macassar,) 252.

  Oil, to extract it from a floor or hearth, 274.

  Olives, (beef,) 75.

  Olives, (pork,) 79.

  Onion custard, 57.

  Opodeldoc, 290.

  Orange flummery, 152.

  Orange jelly, (fine,) 171.

  Orange juice, to keep, 245.

  Oranges and lemons, to keep, 247.

  Orange marmalade, (fine,) 170.

  Orange milk, 236.

  Orange puffs, 202.

  Orange syrup, 237.

  Orange tarts, 141.

  Orleans pudding, 108.

  Oysters, broiled, 30.

  Oysters and fowls, 88.

  Oyster loaves, 28.

  Oyster omelet, 28.

  Oyster pie, (French,) 30.

  Oysters and sweetbreads, 68.

  Oyster suppers, 393.

  Oyster toast, 30.


  Pain in the feet, to allay, 283.

  Paint, to remove from the wall of a room, 275.

  Palmer cakes, 214.

  Paper knife, to use, 346.

  Parchment glue, 256.

  Parsnips, to keep fresh, 248.

  Partridges in pears, 96.

  Partridge salmi, 97.

  Paste, (gum Arabic,) 258.

  Paste, (light,) 140.

  Paste, (transparent,) 139.

  Paste, (perpetual,) 257.

  Patterns, cutting them out, 325.

  Patties, (chicken and turkey,) 63.

  Patties, (lobster,) 32.

  Peaches, (brandy, fine,) 179.

  Peaches, (brandy, excellent,) 179.

  Peaches, (brandy, the French way,) 181.

  Peach cakes, 199.

  Peaches, (dried,) to stew, 184.

  Peach ice cream, 160.

  Peach jam, 177.

  Peach pickles, 56.

  Peaches, preserved, (very fine,) 177.

  Peach wine, 231.

  Pears, (brandy,) 180.

  Peas, with lettuce, 48.

  Peas, (French way,) 48.

  Peas, stewed, 47.

  Perfume, (millefleurs,) 253.

  Perpetual paste, 257.

  Persicot, 235.

  Phials, to remove the odour from, 267.

  Piano, marking its keys, 345.

  Pictures, taking care of, 313.

  Pie, (clam,) 31.

  Pie, (French ham,) 85.

  Pie, (giblet,) 103.

  Pie, (raised French,) 100.

  Pie, (rice,) 100.

  Pie, (thatched house,) 99.

  Pie, (tongue,) 86.

  Pigeons with ham, 102.

  Pigeon soup, 13.

  Pigs’ feet, fried, 79.

  Pine-apples, an easy way of preserving, 168.

  Pine-apples, the best way of preserving, 169.

  Pine-apple marmalade, 168.

  Pine-apple pudding, 111.

  Pistachio cream, 156.

  Plate powder, 271.

  Plain dinners for spring, 369.

  Plain dinners for summer, 371.

  Plain dinners for autumn, 373.

  Plain dinners for winter, 375.

  Plum-water ice, 158.

  Pomatum, (excellent,) 259.

  Pork, (Italian,) 78.

  Pork olives, 79.

  Portrait painter’s travelling box, 314.

  Potatoes, to stew, 50.

  Potatoes, to improve when old, 51.

  Potatoe-flour pudding, 130.

  Pot-pie, (beef steak,) 71.

  Potted ham, 85.

  Powder for cleaning gold lace, 271.

  Prickly-heat, cure for, 288.

  Prunes, (American,) 183.

  Prunes, (medicated,) 291.

  Pudding, (almond rice), 112.

  Pudding, almond, boiled, 112.

  Pudding, biscuit, 113.

  Pudding, charlotte, 126.

  Pudding, cherry, 118.

  Pudding, chicken, (rice,) 91.

  Pudding, chocolate, 127.

  Pudding, Columbian, 107.

  Pudding, corn meal, (excellent,) 114.

  Pudding, cottage, 117.

  Pudding, cream cocoa-nut, 110.

  Pudding, currant, 118.

  Pudding, gooseberry, 118.

  Pudding, ground rice, (excellent,) 124.

  Pudding, Hanover, 109.

  Pudding, indian, (fine,) 116.

  Pudding, lady’s, 128.

  Pudding, lemon, boiled, 129.

  Pudding, maccaroni, 128.

  Pudding, Marietta, 108.

  Pudding, marmalade, 113.

  Pudding, marrow, 123.

  Pudding, mince, 121.

  Pudding, moorfowl, or grouse, 103.

  Pudding, Orleans, 108.

  Pudding, potatoe-flour, 130.

  Pudding, raspberry, 117.

  Pudding, raisin, 120.

  Pudding, tapioca, 123.

  Pudding, temperance, (plum,) 120.

  Pudding, transparent, 123.

  Pudding, Turkish, (rice,) 110.

  Pudding, venison, 82.

  Pudding, venison and chestnut, 83.

  Pumpkin mush, 368.

  Putting away woollens, 310.


  Quinces, 170.


  Rabbit soup, 10.

  Rabbits, (French stew,) 84.

  Raisin pudding, 120.

  Raspberry cordial, (fine,) 239.

  Raspberry pudding, 117.

  Raspberry vinegar, (fine,) 240.

  Raspberry vinegar, (French,) 241.

  Red cabbage, stewed, 39.

  Red custard, 131.

  Red lip-salve, 289.

  Remedy for arsenic, 290.

  Rennets, 163.

  Rheumatic pains, relief for, 284.

  Rhubarb bitters, 294.

  Rhubarb cups, 147.

  Ribbon sack, 316.

  Rice-bread, 189.

  Rice-flour bread, 190.

  Rice-flour batter cakes, 190.

  Rice croquettes, 92.

  Rice-flour pound cake, 210.

  Rice sponge cake, 211.

  Rice pie, 100.

  Rice pudding, (chicken,) 91.

  Rice pudding, (Turkish,) 110.

  Rings, brooches, &c., to clean, 270.

  Ripe currant pudding, 118.

  Rissoles, (lobster,) 34.

  Rissoles, (veal,) 64.

  Rock-fish, stewed, 25.

  Rolls, (long,) 191.

  Rolls, (potatoe,) 191.

  Rose meringues, 202.

  Rosolis, 234.

  Run-round, cure for, 285.

  Rye batter cakes, 187.


  Salmon, baked, 20.

  Salmon, stewed, 19.

  Salmon, roasted, 20.

  Salmon-trout, baked, 23.

  Salt of lemon or stain-powder, 262.

  Sandwiches, (biscuit,) 85.

  Sauce for mutton that has been boiled in soup, 17.

  Scolloped tomatoes, 44.

  Sea-bass with tomatoes, 22.

  Sea-voyage gingerbread, 225.

  Shad, to keep without corning, 26.

  Sheep’s-head fish, (or turbot,) baked, 22.

  Sheep’s-head fish, (or turbot,) boiled, 21.

  Shoe-bag, (a lady’s,) 317.

  Shoes or boots, to render water-proof, 274.

  Shoulder of veal, (French way,) 62.

  Silk dress, to clean, 300.

  Silk shawls or scarfs, to wash, 299.

  Silks, French method of washing them, 300.

  Silk dress, to strengthen its hem, 326.

  Silver, to clean expeditiously, 272.

  Silver, a good way of cleaning, 271.

  Silver, a wash for cleaning, 271.

  Smoked beef, to stew, 74.

  Soap, (Columbian,) 255.

  Soap, to perfume, 255.

  Soufflé pudding, 125.

  Soup, almond, 16.

  Soup, autumn, 8.

  Soup, chicken, 11.

  Soup, clam, (excellent,) 14.

  Soup, clam, (fine,) 13.

  Soup, cocoa-nut, 15.

  Soup, duck, 12.

  Soup, French white soup, 15.

  Soup, rabbit, 10.

  Soup, spring, 7.

  Soup, summer, 8.

  Soup, turtle, 34.

  Soup, winter, 9.

  Soup-meat, 16.

  Spanish blanc-mange, 147.

  Spiced gingerbread, 225.

  Spermaceti, to take out of a hearth or floor, 274.

  Spinach, (French way,) 45.

  Spinach, stewed, 45.

  Sprained ankle, relief for, 284.

  Stains, to remove from silver, 270.

  Standards, to embroider, 336.

  Stove-hearth, to remove grease from, 274.

  Strawberries, an excellent way of preserving, 176.

  Strawberry cakes, 198.

  Strawberry-water ice, 159.

  Sugar cake, 227.

  Summer hearth, 341.

  Sunderlands, or jelly-puffs, 146.

  Suppers, (oyster,) 393.

  Supper-parties, 392.

  Sweetbreads with cauliflowers, 67.

  Sweetbreads with clams, 68.

  Sweetbread croquettes, 65.

  Sweetbread omelet, 69.

  Sweetbreads with oysters, 68.

  Sweetbreads with tomatoes, 66.

  Sweetmeat dumplings, 133.

  Sweetmeat fritters, 135.

  Sweet omelet, 145.

  Sweet potatoe cake, 212.

  Sweet potatoe pone, 189.

  Syllabub cake, 151.

  Sydney Smith’s salad-dressing, 51.


  Tabouret, (directions for making one,) 339.

  Tapioca pudding, 123.

  Tarragon sauce, 54.

  Tea parties, 390.

  Temperance mince-meat, 138.

  Temperance plum pudding, 121.

  Terrapin veal, 63.

  Tetter, cure for, 287.

  Thatched house pie, 99.

  Thread lace, to make it look always new, 301.

  Toast water, 243.

  Tokay wine, (domestic,) 233.

  Tomato chickens, 90.

  Tomato sweetbreads, 66.

  Tongue pie, 86.

  Tongue, toast, 84.

  Tooth-powder, 256.

  Towel-case, to make, 318.

  Transparent paste, 139.

  Transparent pudding, 123.

  Trout with cream, 23.

  Turkey, boned, 104.

  Turkey patties, 91.

  Turkish rice pudding, 110.

  Turtle, to dress, 34.


  Vanilla blanc-mange, 148.

  Vanilla cream, 157.

  Vanilla flummery, 153.

  Vanilla syrup, 236.

  Veal, (fillet of,) corned, 61.

  Veal loaf, 60.

  Veal, minced, (excellent,) 62.

  Veal olives, 64.

  Veal, shoulder of, (French way,) 62.

  Veal dressed as terrapin, 63.

  Venison pie, 80.

  Venison pie, (plain,) 81.

  Venison pudding, 82.

  Venison chestnut pudding, 83.

  Vial, to remove the odour from, 267.

  Vinegar, (good,) 241.

  Vinegar, (molasses,) 242.

  Vinegar, (raspberry, French,) 241.

  Vinegar, (raspberry, very fine,) 240.


  Wall paper, to take off, 275.

  Washing chintzes, 307.

  Washing black-lace, 305.

  Washing coloured cravats, &c., 310.

  Washington fritters, 134.

  Water-ice, (cherry,) 159.

  Water-ice, (damson,) 159.

  Water-ice, (gooseberry,) 159.

  Water-ice, (plum,) 158.

  Water-ice, (strawberry,) 159.

  West India cocoa-nut cake, 210.

  Whalebone and hooks, 324.

  White fricassee, 93.

  White lace scarf, to wash, 306.

  White fur, to clean, 312.

  White satin ribbon, to wash, 298.

  White-wash brushes, to clean, 264.

  Whipt cream meringues, 203.

  Wild ducks, stewed, 94.

  Wine fritters, 135.

  Winter soup, 9.

  Wonders, 215.

  Woollens, to put away, 310.

  Working slippers, 327.

  Worms in garden walks, to destroy, 281.


  Yellow colouring for walls, 263.

  Young corn omelet, 39.



ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS.


  Almond ice-cream, 429.
    -- Another way, 430.

  Alpisteras, (Spanish cake,) 439.

  Apple jelly, (excellent,) 432.

  Apple pudding, (Yankee,) 405.

  Apple tapioca, 416.

  Asparagus, (a nice way of cooking,) 443.

  Asparagus, (French way of dressing,) 443.

  Autumn leaves, 425.

  Axjar pickles, 448.


  Backwoods pot-pie, 487.

  Beans, (pickled,) 450.

  Beans and peas, (to keep,) 452.

  Beef gumbo, 445.

  Beef-steak pot-pie, 411.

  Boston rye and Indian bread, 462.

  Breakfast rolls, 414.

  Brine for bacon and ham, 447.

  Buckwheat batter pudding, 414.

  Buckwheat cakes, (excellent,) 476.

  Buckwheat porridge, 416.

  Buena Vista cake, 395.


  Cabbage, (fried,) 446.

  Cabbage, pickled, (excellent,) 407.

  Cabbage soup, (fine,) 406.

  Canvas-back ducks,--to broil, 424.

  Carolina grits, or small hominy, 491.

  Carolina corn cakes, 480.

  Carolina rice cakes, 480.

  Carolina way of boiling rice, 442.

  Cauliflower, to fry, 446.

  Cherries, (pickled,) 452.

  Chocolate ice cream, 430.
    -- Another way, 431.

  Charlotte russe, (chocolate,) 429.

  Charlotte russe, (lemon,) 428.

  Charlotte russe, (Madeira,) 427.

  Charlotte russe, (orange,) 428.

  Charlotte russe, (rose,) 428.

  Chicken pot-pie, 412.

  Cinnamon bread, 399.

  Cold pudding,--to cook, 417.

  Corn, (Indian,) to boil, 487.

  Corn-meal breakfast cakes, 474.

  Corn-meal pudding, (baked,) 485.

  Corn-meal yeast cakes, (dried,) 457.

  Corn oysters, 489.

  Corn porridge, 489.

  Corns,--relief for, 424.

  Currant raisin jam, 402.

  Curry balls, 444.


  Damsons or plums, (pickled,) 451.

  Dumplings, (green corn,) 488.


  Egg balls, 444.

  Egg pone, 463.

  Eggs, to keep, 418.

  Farina, 435.

  Farina flummery, 436.
    -- Another way, 437.
    -- Another way, 437.

  Farina gruel, 436.

  Farina panada, 436.

  Farina pudding, (baked,) 436.

  Farina plum-pudding, 437.

  Farmer’s Indian pudding, 483.

  Fig marmalade, 433.

  Filet gumbo, 406.

  Flummery, (red,) 434.

  French mustard, (fine,) 418.

  Frying fish, 448.


  Gazpacho, (Spanish,) 441.

  Green corn dumplings, 488.

  Guisada, (a Spanish stew,) 440.


  Hog’s head cheese, 447.

  Hoe cake, (common,) 466.

  Hominy, 491.

  Hominy cakes, 491.


  Ice-cream, (almond,) 429, 430.

  Ice-cream, (lemon,) 431.

  Ice-cream, (orange,) 431.

  Icing,--warm, 399.

  Indian batter cakes, (very plain,) 470.

  Indian bread, or pone, 460.

  Indian rye bread, 461.

  Indian wheat bread, 462.

  Indian corn, (for keeping,) 492.

  Indian crumpets, 474.

  Indian cup-cakes, 478.

  Indian griddle cake, 468.

  Indian dumplings, (very plain,) 469.

  Indian flappers, 473.

  Indian-meal gruel, 465.

  Indian hasty pudding, 465.

  Indian light biscuit, 478.

  Indian mush, 464.

  Indian muffins, 470.

  Indian boiled pudding, (very nice,) 484.

  Indian rice cakes, 475.

  Indian slap-jacks, 473.


  Johnny cake, (plain,) 468.

  Johnny cake, (very nice,) 469.


  Kentucky sweet cake, 479.


  Lancaster gingerbread, 398.

  Lard, (to prepare,) 446.

  Lemon honey, 401.


  Madison cake, 481.

  Madeira cake, 427.

  Madeira ham, 408.

  Melon marmalade, 404.

  Missouri cakes, 472.

  Mushrooms,--broiled, 412.

  Mushrooms pickled, (an easy way,) 413.


  Nantucket pudding, 482.


  Ochras, dried, 445.

  Oil for kitchen lamps, (cheap,) 423.

  Onion eggs, 444.

  Onions, to pickle, 451.

  Orange honey, 402.

  Ovens, hints on heating, 455.


  Peach mangoes, (fine,) 449.

  Pear marmalade, 433.

  Peppers, to pickle, 450.

  Pine-apples,--to keep without cooking, 403.

  Pine-apple marmalade, (fine,) 403.

  Pisto omelette, (Spanish,) 440.

  Plums and damsons, (to preserve,) 451.

  Pollo valenciano, (Spanish,) 440.

  Pork and beans, (excellent,) 493.

  Pumpkin Indian cakes, 475.

  Pumpkin Indian pudding, 486.


  Raisin currants, 402.

  Red flummery, 434.

  Rice blancmange, 435.

  Rice waffles, 454.

  Rye batter cakes, (nice,) 477.

  Rye mush, 466.

  Roxbury tea cakes, 438.


  Saccatash, (for summer,) 489.

  Saccatash, (for winter,) 490.

  Samp, 491.

  Samp pudding, 483.

  Scotch short cake, 453.

  Silk,--new way of washing, 421.

  Snow cream, 400.

  Spanish salad, 441.

  Spermaceti,--to extract, 423.

  Stair-carpets,--to save, 421.


  Terra firma, 417.

  Terrapin pot-pie, 410.

  Terrapins,--a new way of dressing, 409.

  Tomato marmalade, 405.

  Tomato marmalade, 433.

  Tomato paste, 445.


  Virginia griddle cakes, 471.


  Wafer cakes, (fine,) 397.

  Washington pudding, 419.

  Wine jelly, 431.


  Yeast cakes, (dried corn-meal,) 457.

  Yeast, (excellent home-made,) 458.

  Yeast powders, 396.



  A. HART, LATE CAREY & HART,

  HAS RECENTLY PUBLISHED THE 10TH EDITION OF

  THE HOUSE BOOK:

  A MANUAL OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

  BY MISS LESLIE.

  PRICE ONE DOLLAR.


  THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF ITS CONTENTS:

  Accidents from fire, 147.

  Alabaster, (to clean,) 199.

  Anthracite coal, 129.

  Anthracite coal grates, 129.

  Ants, (to destroy,) 114.

  Aronetta dye, 98.

  Astral lamps, 156.

  Astral lamps, (management of,) 157.

  Attics, (the) 325.


  Baskets, 239.

  Beaver hats, (to take care of,) 70.

  Bed-bugs or chinches, (remedies for,) 105.

  Bedding, 308.

  Bed-covers, 311.

  Bed-curtains, 306.

  Bed feathers, (to wash,) 64.

  Bed-rooms, (to clean,) 318.

  Beds, (to make up,) 316.

  Beds, (to warm,) 321.

  Bedsteads, 303.

  Bedsteads, (to put up,) 305.

  Bees, (to keep,) 370.

  Bells, 332.

  Bishop’s lawn, (to wash,) 46.

  Bituminous or English coal, 141.

  Blacking, (fine--to make,) 73.

  Blacking that will preserve the leather, 73.

  Blacking for stoves, 216.

  Black crape, (to remove water-stains from,) 85.

  Black dye, 99.

  Black dye for yarn, 104.

  Black silk, (to wash,) 45.

  Black silk sleeves, (to restore when faded,) 79.

  Black silk stockings, (to wash,) 58.

  Black worsted stockings, (to wash,) 34.

  Blankets, (to keep through the summer,) 310.

  Blankets, (to wash,) 34.

  Block tin dish covers, (to clean,) 207.

  Blond, (to wash,) 54.

  Blue composition, 96.

  Blue dye, 95.

  Blue dye, (dark,) 96.

  Blue dye for yarn, 103.

  Bobbinet, (to shrink,) 62.

  Bobbinet or cotton lace, (to wash,) 51.

  Body of a dress, (to make,) 410.

  Bonnet cover, (to make,) 353.

  Bonnets, (gingham--to wash,) 48.

  Bonnets, (straw or Leghorn--to clean,) 67.

  Book muslin dresses, (to wash,) 43.

  Boots and shoes, (to clean,) 72.

  Boots and shoes, (French polish for,) 74.

  Boot tops, (wash for,) 74.

  Brass, (to clean,) 218.

  Brass kettles, (to clean,) 219.

  Bread seals, (to make,) 375.

  Breakfast table, (to set,) 274.

  Brick hearths, (to clean,) 201.

  Brick oven, (to heat,) 145.

  Britannia metal, (to clean,) 207.

  Broken dishes, (to mend,) 291.

  Broken glass, (to mend,) 292.

  Brown dye, 100.

  Brown dye for yarn, 101.

  Brown linen, (fine--to wash,) 47.

  Brushing a coat, 75.

  Brushes, 241.

  Brushes, (to clean,) 72.

  Buff colour, (to dye,) 102.

  Buff dye, (excellent,) 97.

  Burn salve, (to make,) 150.

  Butter knives, 254.


  Candles, 167.

  Candles, (common mould--to make,) 168.

  Candles, (fine home-made,) 169.

  Candles, (dip--to make,) 170.

  Candles, (small wax--to make,) 169.

  Candlesticks, (japanned--to clean,) 209.

  Candlesticks, (silver and plated--to clean,) 206.

  Carpets, 173.

  Carpet-bags, 352.

  Carpets, (to beat,) 181.

  Carpets, (bed-room,) 178.

  Carpets, (stair,) 179.

  Carpets, (to sweep,) 180.

  Carpets, (to wash,) 181.

  Carpets, (to extract oil from,) 83.

  Carpets, (rag,) 185.

  Castors, 251.

  Carving, 268.

  Cask, (an old one--to sweeten,) 226.

  Cellars, 245.

  Cement for alabaster, &c., 293.

  Cement cakes, 294.

  Cement, (common,) 293.

  Cement for iron, 293.

  Chairs, sofas, &c., 296.

  Chairs, (to clean,) 198, 340.

  Chair-screens, 153.

  Chandeliers, (to clean,) 212.

  Charcoal, 127.

  Chemises, (to make,) 394.

  Chimneys, 334.

  Chimneys on fire, 146.

  China-ware, 290.

  China, (to pack,) 347.

  Chinches, or bed-bugs, (to destroy,) 105.

  Chintz, (dark--to wash,) 39.

  Chintz, (furniture--to wash,) 49.

  Cinnamon brown, (to dye,) 100.

  Clipping bags, 196.

  Cloak, (a lady’s--to fold,) 77.

  Clothes balls, 91.

  Cloth clothes, (to wash,) 35.

  Clothes brushes, (to clean,) 72.

  Coal, (anthracite,) 129.

  Coal grates, (anthracite,) 129.

  Coal grate fires, 132.

  Coal stove fires, 139.

  Coal spark, (to extract from the eye,) 150.

  Coffee starch, 21.

  Cockroaches, (to destroy,) 109.

  Coke fires, 142.

  Collar, (false one--to make,) 392.

  Coloured dresses, (to wash,) 37.

  Colours, (liquid--to prepare,) 379.

  Combs, (to clean,) 72.

  Combs, (tortoise-shell--to mend,) 71.

  Cotton comfortables, (to make,) 313.

  Cotton stockings, (unbleached--to wash,) 59.

  Cotton cord, (to shrink,) 62.

  Counterpanes, (to wash,) 313.

  Court-plaster, (to make,) 381.

  Cow, (to keep,) 355.

  Cream oysters, 288.

  Crickets, (to destroy,) 112.

  Crockery, (kitchen,) 233.

  Curtains, 188.

  Curtains, (to clean,) 189.


  Dairy, 359.

  Dampness in beds, (to detect,) 321.

  Damp walls, 335.

  Decanters, (to clean,) 209.

  Dip candles, (to make,) 170.

  Dining-tables, (to polish,) 197.

  Dinner table, (to set,) 256.

  Dinner table, (to wait on,) 261.

  Doilies, 256.

  Doors and windows, (to stop their cracks,) 322.

  Door locks, 333.

  Down feathers, (to clean,) 64.

  Double wrappers, (to make,) 401.

  Dresses, (coloured--to wash,) 37.

  Dress, (book muslin--to wash,) 43.

  Dress, (painted muslin--to wash,) 42.

  Dress, (a lady’s--to fold,) 75.

  Dresses, (to fold for packing,) 347.

  Dress-making, (hints on,) 406.

  Dress, (a lady’s--to make the body,) 410.

  Dress, (to make the sleeves,) 416.

  Dress, (to make the skirt,) 420.

  Ducks, (to keep,) 369.

  Durable ink, (to make,) 378.

  Dust, (to remove from a dress,) 86.

  Dyes, (domestic--remarks on,) 93.

  Dyes for yarn, (country manner,) 101.


  Enamelled kettles, (to clean,) 220.

  Entrance halls, 328.

  Entry lamps, 160.

  Evening parties, (hints on,) 280.


  Faded dress, (to bleach,) 26.

  False collars, (to make,) 392.

  False shirt-bosoms, (to make,) 393

  Feathers, (bed--to wash,) 64.

  Filtering jars, 244.

  Finger glasses, 254.

  Fire irons, (to clean,) 216.

  Fire irons, (to prevent from rusting,) 217.

  Fire screens, 151.

  Flannel, (to make up,) 396.

  Flannel, (new--to shrink,) 31, 32.

  Flannel, (to wash,) 32.

  Fleas, 111.

  Flies, 112.

  Floating tapers, 163.

  Floating tapers, (cheap ones,) 166

  Floating tapers, (to renew,) 164.

  Flower stands, 194.

  Folding clothes for ironing, 26.

  Folding a coat, 75.

  Folding a coat for packing, 348.

  Folding a lady’s dress, 75.

  Folding a dress for packing, 347.

  Folding a lady’s cloak, 77.

  Floors, 335.

  Forks, (to clean,) 213.

  Fowls, (to keep,) 363.

  Front doors, 330.

  Fruit stains, (to remove,) 79.

  Furniture, (black walnut,) 193

  Furniture, (curled maple,) 193.

  Furniture, (mahogany,) 192.

  Furniture, (rose wood,) 193.

  Furniture, (varnished mahogany, to clean,) 196.

  Furniture, (kitchen,) 228.

  Furniture, (to take care when the house is repairing,) 343.


  Geese, (to keep,) 368.

  German silver, (to clean,) 206.

  Gingham bonnets, (to wash,) 48.

  Gilt chandeliers, (to clean,) 212.

  Glass, (broken--to mend,) 292.

  Glass, (to pack,) 347.

  Glass, (to clean,) 210.

  Glass stoppers, (to get out,) 210.

  Gloves, (kid or hoskin--to wash,) 61.

  Gloves, (white French thread--to clean,) 59.

  Gloves, (gentlemen’s--to clean,) 62.

  Gloves, (wash-leather--to wash,) 60.

  Glue stiffening, 22.

  Glue, (common,) 295.

  Glue, (of rice,) 295.

  Gold fish, (to take care of,) 375.

  Gold muslin, (to wash,) 44.

  Gold ornaments, (to clean,) 70.

  Gown dress, (to make,) 425.

  Grates for anthracite coal, 129.

  Grease, (to extract from a dress,) 80.

  Grease spots, (to remove from books,) 83.

  Grease, (to remove from wall paper,) 84.

  Green dye, 96.

  Green dye for yarn, 103.

  Green colouring for maps, 379.


  Hard soap, (to make,) 17.

  Hard soap, (fine--to make,) 18.

  Hats, (beaver--to take care of,) 70.

  Head-brushes, (to clean,) 72.

  Hearths, (stone--to clean,) 201.

  Hearths, (brick--to clean,) 201.

  Heat marks, (to remove from a table,) 88.

  Hints on evening parties, 280.

  Hints on dress-making, 406.

  Hoskin gloves, (to clean,) 61.

  Hood, (a lady’s--to make,) 403.

  House-cleaning, (preparations for,) 336.

  House-cleaning, (finishing,) 342.

  Household articles, (to pack,) 354.

  Hydrants, 247.


  Ink, (black--to make,) 376.

  Ink, (durable--to make,) 378.

  Ink, (red--to make,) 378.

  Ink-stains, (to remove from a carpet,) 87.

  Ink-stains, (to take out of mahogany,) 88.

  Ink-stains, (to take out of a table-cover,) 86.

  Ink-stains, (to take out of white clothes,) 87.

  Ink-stains, (to take out of unpainted wood,) 88.

  Ink, (marking--to take out,) 87.

  Italian or patent iron, 29.

  Ironing, 26.

  Ironing silk, 31.

  Ironing velvet, 30.

  Iron, (polished--to preserve from rust,) 218.

  Iron ware, 234.

  Iron, (cement for when broken,) 293.


  Japanned candlesticks, (to clean,) 209.

  Japanned waiters, (to clean,) 208.

  Jars, (to purify,) 224.


  Keeping a cow, 355.

  Kettles, (brass--to clean,) 219.

  Kettles, (tea--to clean,) 221.

  Kettles, (porcelain,) 220.

  Kitchen clothes, 240.

  Kitchen crockery, 233.

  Kitchen furniture, 228.

  Kitchen lamps, 163.

  Knife rests, 254.

  Knives, (to clean,) 213.


  Lace, (cotton or bobbinet--to wash,) 51.

  Lace, (thread--to wash,) 52, 53.

  Lace, (gold--to clean,) 45.

  Lace veil, (black--to wash,) 56.

  Lace veil, (white--to wash,) 55.

  Lamps, (astral,) 156.

  Lamps, (astral--to manage,) 157.

  Lamps, (chamber,) 162.

  Lamps, (entry,) 160.

  Lamps, (kitchen,) 163.

  Lamps, (night,) 165.

  Lamp oil, 155.

  Lamp oil, (to take out of a carpet,) 83.

  Lamp oil, (to take out of a floor,) 82.

  Lamp-oil, (to extract from a dress,) 81.

  Lamp oil, (to extract from a sofa,) 82.

  Lamp rugs, 161.

  Lanterns, 163.

  Laundry work, 7.

  Lawn, (bishop’s--to wash,) 46.

  Leghorn bonnets, (to clean,) 67.

  Linen, (to make up,) 386.

  Linen, (mildewed--to restore,) 88.

  Linen, (scorched--to restore,) 89.

  Linen, (stained--to restore,) 90.

  Linen window-blinds, 190.

  Linen, (to whiten,) 89.

  Looking-glasses, (to clean,) 211.

  Lye, (to make,) 13.


  Mahogany furniture, 192.

  Mahogany furniture, (varnished--to clean,) 196.

  Mahogany tables, (unvarnished--to clean,) 197.

  Mahogany, (to remove ink-spots from,) 88.

  Mahogany chairs and sofas, 198.

  Maps, (to colour,) 380.

  Marble, (white--to clean,) 199.

  Marble, (coloured--to clean,) 200

  Marble, (cement for,) 293.

  Marabout feathers, (to clean,) 64.

  Marking ink, (to take out,) 87.

  Marseilles quilt, (to wash,) 313.

  Mattresses, (to renew,) 66.

  Mats for the table, 253.

  Matting, (straw,) 184.

  Merino dresses, (to wash,) 41.

  Mice, 117.

  Mildew, (to take out of linen,) 88

  Mirrors, 300.

  Mixture for stains, 91.

  Moths, 115.

  Mould candles, (to make,) 168.

  Mourning chintz, (to wash,) 39.

  Mousseline de laine, (to wash,) 41.

  Mud, (to take out of a dress,) 86.

  Muslin, (book--to wash,) 43.

  Muslin, (gold or silver--to wash,) 44.

  Muslin, (painted--to wash,) 42.

  Muslins, (small--to do up,) 49.

  Musquitoes, 112.


  Nankeen, (to wash,) 48.

  Nankeen colour, (to dye,) 99.

  Napkins, 255.

  New tin, (to remove its taste,) 225.

  New wood, (to remove its taste,) 225.

  Night gowns, (to make,) 398.

  Night capes, (to make,) 403.

  Nurseries, 323.


  Oil cans, (to clean,) 155.

  Oil cloths or painted carpets, 183.

  Olive dye, 100.

  Orange dye, 102.

  Ornaments of gold, (to clean,) 70.

  Oysters, (with cream,) 288.

  Oyster patties, 289.


  Packing a carpet bag, 352.

  Packing glass and china, 347.

  Packing household articles, 354.

  Packing a large trunk, 349.

  Paint, (to clean,) 339.

  Paint, (to remove from a dress,) 84.

  Paint, (to remove from a coat,) 85.

  Paint, (to remove its smell,) 343.

  Painted muslin, (to wash,) 42.

  Pantry, 251.

  Paper, (to make transparent,) 380.

  Paper window-blinds, 190.

  Paste, (common--for paper,) 294.

  Paste, (cold,) 295.

  Paste, (rye,) 295.

  Pearls, (to clean,) 71.

  Pelerines, (to make,) 426.

  Pencil marks, (to preserve,) 381.

  Pictures, 186.

  Pink dye, 94.

  Phials, (to wash,) 211.

  Plate mixture, (fine,) 204.

  Plate mixture, (another,) 204.

  Plated candlesticks, (to clean,) 206.

  Plated ware, (to clean,) 205.

  Plates and dishes, (to wash,) 223.

  Polishing dining-tables, 197.

  Porcelain kettles, 220.

  Poultry, (to draw,) 272.

  Pounce, (to make,) 381.

  Preparations for house-cleaning, 336.

  Preparing rooms for summer, 344.

  Pumps, 247.

  Putty, (old--to soften,) 292.


  Quilts, (to wash,) 312.

  Quilts, (Marseilles--to wash,) 313

  Quilts, (silk--to make,) 314.

  Quilted wrappers, 402.


  Rabbit skins, (to prepare,) 120.

  Rag carpets, 185.

  Rats, 117.

  Receptacles for dresses, 298.

  Refrigerators, 243.

  Red dye, 94.

  Red dye for yarn, 103.

  Red colouring for maps, 379.

  Remarks on bed-chambers, 296.

  Remarks on domestic dyes, 93.

  Remarks on dyeing yarn, 101.

  Remarks on kitchens, 227.

  Remarks on sewing-work, 382.

  Remedies for stings, &c., 116.

  Rennets, (to prepare,) 362.

  Reticules, (travelling,) 352.

  Ribbons, (to wash,) 56.

  Rice glue, 295.

  Rocking-chairs, 194.

  Rush lights, 170.

  Rust, (to take out of steel,) 217.


  Safes, 244.

  Salmon colour, (to dye,) 98.

  Salt of lemon, 92.

  Satin shoes, (white--to clean,) 91.

  Scorched linen, (to restore,) 89.

  Scrap jars, 195.

  Scrubbing floors, 341.

  Setting the dinner table, 256.

  Sewing, 382.

  Silk, (black--to wash,) 45.

  Silk sleeves, (black--to restore,) 79.

  Silk, (to iron,) 31.

  Silk, (to keep,) 90.

  Silk quilt, (to make,) 314.

  Silver, (to clean,) 201.

  Silver, (German--to clean,) 206.

  Shirts, (to fold,) 349.

  Shirts, (plain ones--to make,) 388.

  Shirts with bosom pieces, 390.

  Shirts open at the back of the neck, 391.

  Shirt bosoms, (false--to make,) 393.

  Shirt collars, (false--to make,) 392.

  Short blinds for windows, 191.

  Shrinking bobbinet, 62.

  Shrinking cotton cord, 62.

  Shrinking new flannel, 31, 32.

  Skirt of a dress, (to make,) 420.

  Skylights, 327.

  Slate colour, (to dye,) 99.

  Sleeves of a dress, (to make,) 416.

  Slop buckets, (to purify,) 224.

  Small muslins, (to wash,) 49.

  Small wax candles, (to make,) 169.

  Soap fat, (to keep from moulding,) 14, 15.

  Soap, (common hard--to make,) 17.

  Soap, (fine hard--to make,) 18.

  Soft soap, (to make,) 15.

  Soda, (for washing,) 24.

  Sofas and mahogany chairs, 198.

  Spark, (to extract from the eye,) 150.

  Spermaceti, (to take out,) 85.

  Spots of tar and turpentine, (to remove,) 81.

  Sprinkling and folding clothes, 26.

  Squirrel-skins, (to prepare,) 120.

  Stains, (to remove from black crape,) 85.

  Stains, (to remove from table-linen,) 78.

  Stains, (to remove from silk,) 79.

  Stains, (to remove from silver spoons,) 204.

  Stains of stove pipes, or soot, 83.

  Stair carpets, 179.

  Stair rods, (to clean,) 219.

  Starch, (common--to prepare,) 20.

  Starch, (gum-arabic,) 21.

  Starch of home manufacture, 20.

  Starch made with coffee, 21.

  Steel, (to remove its rust,) 217.

  Stockings, (black worsted--to wash,) 34.

  Stockings, (black silk--to wash,) 58.

  Stockings, (white silk--to wash,) 57.

  Stockings, (silk--to tinge pink,) 58.

  Stockings, (French thread--to wash,) 59.

  Stockings, (unbleached cotton--to wash,) 59.

  Stockings, (woollen--to wash,) 33.

  Stone hearths, (to clean,) 201.

  Stopping door and window cracks, 322.

  Store-rooms, 248.

  Stoves, (blacking for,) 216.

  Stoves, (close,) 125.

  Stoves for coal, 125.

  Stoves for wood, 127.

  Straw bonnets, (to clean,) 67.

  Straw matting, 184.

  Supper parties, 287.

  Swansdown capes or tippets, (to clean,) 63.


  Table, (breakfast--to set,) 274.

  Table, (dinner--to set,) 256.

  Table, (to wait on,) 261.

  Table-linen, 255.

  Table mixture, 197.

  Tapers, (floating,) 163.

  Tapers, (floating--very cheap,) 166.

  Tapers, (floating--to renew,) 164.

  Tar or turpentine spots, (to remove,) 81.

  Tea-kettles, (to clean,) 221.

  Tea-table, (to set,) 279.

  Tea things, (to wash,) 222.

  Tea urns, (to clean,) 208.

  Tin dish-covers, (to clean,) 207.

  Tins, (common--to clean,) 208.

  Tin, (new--to remove its taste of rosin,) 225.

  Tin ware, 236.

  Thread gloves and stockings, (to wash,) 59.

  Toilet tables, 300.

  Tortoise shell, (to clean, and mend,) 71.

  Trunks, (to pack,) 349.

  Turkeys, (to keep,) 367.


  Venetian blinds, 190.

  Vials, (to wash,) 211.


  Waiting on table, 261.

  Walls, 171.

  Washing bed-feathers, 64.

  Washing with soda, 24.

  Washing white clothes, 22.

  Washing-stands, 301.

  Wax, (to take out of cloth,) 85.

  Wax candles, (small ones--to make,) 169.

  Wax-polish, (for furniture,) 197.

  Whiting, (very fine,) 205.

  Whitening clothes, 25.

  White satin shoes, (to clean,) 91.

  White-washing, 338.

  Wilmington clay balls, 92.

  Window cracks, (to stop,) 322.

  Window-blinds of linen, 190.

  Window blinds of paper, 190.

  Window panes, (to mend,) 292.

  Window washing, 340.

  Wood, 121.

  Wood fires, 122.

  Wood stove fires, 123.

  Wooden ware, 238.

  Woollen shawls, (to wash,) 37.

  Woollen stockings, (to wash,) 33.

  Woollen table-covers, (to wash,) 36.

  Woollen yarn, (to wash,) 34.

  Worsted stockings, (black--to wash,) 34.

  Wrappers, (double--to make,) 401

  Wrappers, (quilted--to make,) 402


  Yellow dye, 95.

  Yellow dye for yarn, 103.



Transcriber’s Note


The following typographical errors were corrected:

  Page  Error
  17    tarrigon changed to tarragon
  30    in a seive changed to in a sieve
  FN 25-*    at the bottom changed to at the bottom.
  43    made in the preportion changed to made in the proportion
  88    POULTRY, GAME, ETC changed to POULTRY, GAME, ETC.
  92    till it become changed to till it becomes
  103   moistened with water changed to moistened with water.
  119   has been in fiifteen changed to has been in fifteen
  119   render them tough changed to render them tough.
  123   eight eggs a slight changed to eight eggs as light
  136   GREEN FRITTERS changed to GREEN FRITTERS.
  227   black-cake changed to black-cake.
  256   thoroughly incorporaied. changed to thoroughly incorporated.
  273   is a coal fire changed to is a coal fire.
  285   foot bath, ill changed to foot bath, till
  353   Massachusets; changed to Massachusetts;
  366   ham omelet; cucumbers: changed to ham omelet; cucumbers;
  377   Stewed rock-fish: changed to Stewed rock-fish;
  378   peas; aspargus changed to peas; asparagus
  379   egg-plant--Peach pie: changed to egg-plant--Peach pie;
  384   stewed beets: potatoe snow changed to stewed beets; potatoe snow
  385   plovers; scolloped tomatoes changed to plovers; scolloped tomatoes;
  385   lemon ice-crean. changed to lemon ice-cream.
  386   There are two menus numbered 3
  391   enough to accomodate changed to enough to accommodate
  403   you can procure changed to you can procure.
  407   brocoli changed to broccoli
  464   a handful at at changed to a handful at
  468   Then, having changed to Then, (having
  474   hazle-nut changed to hazel-nut
  490   must be soked changed to must be soaked
  495   gardenants, changed to garden ants,
  495   Apple marmalade, 191. changed to Apple marmalade, 171.
  495   Austrian cake, 146. changed to Austrian cake, 196.
  495   Autumn soup, 4. changed to Autumn soup, 8.
  495   stewed brown, 69 changed to stewed brown, 69.
  495   Bergamot water, 113. changed to Bergamot water, 254.
  495   jelly, (fine,) 171. changed to jelly, (fine,) 174.
  496   188-299 changed to 188, 229
  496   Bread, (rice.) 189. changed to Bread, (rice,) 189.
  496   Brown fricassee, 24. changed to Brown fricassee, 94.
  496   Cabbage, (red, to stew,) 37. changed to Cabbage, (red, to
        stew,) 39.
  496   Cake, lemon, 210. changed to Cake, lemon, 200.
  496   Cakes, light seed, 215. changed to Cakes, light seed, 214.
  496   Charlotte pudding, 127. changed to Charlotte pudding, 126.
  496   keep it sweet, 249. changed to keep it sweet, 247.
  497   Cocoa, 244. changed to Cocoa, 245.
  497   to preserve, 303. changed to to preserve, 308.
  497   Columbian soup changed to Columbian soap
  497   between the toes, 327. changed to between the toes, 283.
  497   (antidote for,) 231. changed to (antidote for,) 291.
  497   Custard, (green,) 131. changed to Custard, (green,) 130.
  497   both sides, 336. changed to both sides, 335.
  497   Embroidering standards, 335. changed to  Embroidering
        standards, 336.
  498   French chicken pie, 85. changed to French chicken pie, 89.
  498   Green custard, 131. changed to Green custard, 130.
  498   Ham toast, 87. changed to Ham toast, 86.
  499   Indian pudding, (fine,) 115. changed to Indian pudding,
        (fine,) 116.
  499   Jam, (damson,) 174. changed to Jam, (damson,) 175.
  499   look like new, 302. changed to look like new, 301.
  499   Lip salve, red, 287. changed to Lip salve, red, 289.
  499   Maccaroni blanc-mange, 149. changed to Maccaroon blanc-mange,
        149.
  499   Muffins, (bread,) 188--229. changed to Muffins, (bread,)
        188, 229.
  500   Notions, 235. changed to Notions, 217.
  500   Opodeldoc, 270. changed to Opodeldoc, 290.
  500   Orange tarts, 14. changed to Orange tarts, 141.
  500   and turkey,) 62. changed to and turkey,) 63.
  500   (very fine,) 179. changed to (very fine,) 177.
  500   Perpetual paste, 251. changed to Perpetual paste, 257.
  501   Pudding, lady’s, 127. changed to Pudding, lady’s, 128.
  501   Putting away woollens, 309. changed to Putting away woollens, 310.
  501   Red lip-salve, 284. changed to Red lip-salve, 289.
  501   Rennets, 63. changed to Rennets, 163.
  501   Rhubarb cups, 147 changed to Rhubarb cups, 147.
  501   Rice-flour bread, 196. changed to Rice-flour bread, 190.
  501   Rolls, (long,) 19. changed to Rolls, (long,) 191.
  502   Soup, spring, 3. changed to Soup, spring, 7.
  502   Soup, summer, 4. changed to Soup, summer, 8.
  502   Soup, winter, 5. changed to Soup, winter, 9.
  502   Soup-meat, 17. changed to Soup-meat, 16.
  502   Spinach, (French way,) 48. changed to Spinach, (French way,) 45.
  502   Sweetmeat dumplings, 248. changed to  Sweetmeat dumplings, 133.
  502   Sweetmeat fritters, 133. changed to Sweetmeat fritters, 135.
  503   always new, 302. changed to always new, 301.
  503   Tokay wine, (domestic,) 333. changed to Tokay wine, (domestic,)
        233.
  503   cravats, &c., 309. changed to cravats, &c., 300.
  503   Water-ice, (cherry, changed to Water-ice, (cherry,)
  503   Winter soup, 5. changed to Winter soup, 9.
  503   Woollens, to put away, 309. changed to Woollens, to put away,
        310.
  503   for walls, 264. changed to for walls, 263.
  504   home-made,) 456. changed to Yeast, home-made,) 458.
  505   Bed-rooms, to changed to Bed-rooms, (to
  507   (varnished mahogany changed to (varnished mahogany,
  509   to extract from a dress changed to (to extract from a dress
  509   Mattrasses changed to Mattresses
  512   Washing white clothes, 22 changed to Washing white clothes, 22.


The following words were inconsistently spelled.

  A-la-mode / Alamode
  band-boxes / bandboxes
  Blanc-mange / Blancmange
  BLANC-MANGE / BLANCMANGE
  brick-dust / brickdust
  butter-milk / buttermilk
  chesnut / chestnut
  force-meat / forcemeat
  goose-berries / gooseberries
  Indian / indian
  madeira / Madeira
  moor-fowl / moorfowl
  nasturtian / nasturtion
  parboil / par-boil
  parboiling / par-boiling
  paste-board / pasteboard
  pearlash / pearl-ash
  salt-petre / saltpetre
  saucepan / sauce-pan
  soufflé / soufflée
  sweet-meat / sweetmeat
  sweet-meats / sweet-meats
  teacup / tea-cup
  teacupful / tea-cupful / tea-cupfull / teacup-full / teacupful
  tomato / tomatoe / tomata
  tomatoes / tomatas
  tea-cups / teacups
  tea-spoon / teaspoon
  tea-spoonful / teaspoonful
  tea-spoonfuls / teaspoonfuls
  tomato / tomata / tomatoe
  under-done / underdone
  white-wash / whitewash
  white-washing / whitewashing





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