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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 16, Slice 7 - "Liquid Gases" to "Logar"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 16, Slice 7 - "Liquid Gases" to "Logar"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE LIQUID GASES: "Another important use of liquid gases is as
      analytic agents, and for this purpose liquid air is becoming an
      almost essential laboratory reagent." 'as' amended from 'an'.

    ARTICLE LIQUOR LAWS: "The proceedings are stricter and more summary
      in the case of a new licence; notice of application must be given
      to the local authorities; ..." 'authorities' amended from
      'authorites'.

    ARTICLE LISBON: "... and the royal national theatre (Teatro de Dona
      Maria Segunda), erected on the site which the Inquisition buildings
      occupied from 1520 to 1836." 'Teatro' amended from 'Theatro'.

    ARTICLE LIVERSEDGE: "... Great Northern, and London & North Western
      railways. Pop. (1901) 13,980." 'Northern' amended from 'Nothern'.

    ARTICLE LOCRI: "... and found in Syracuse a support against
      Rhegium: it was thus an active adversary of Athenian aggrandisement
      in the west." 'of' amended from 'or'.

    ARTICLE LOG: "The Bliss resembles the Rocket log in shape, and is
      secured to the taffrail by a rope or sling." 'sling' amended from
      'slung'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XVI, SLICE VII

            Liquid Gases to Logar



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  LIQUID GASES                      LLANWRTYD WELLS
  LIQUORICE                         LLEWELYN
  LIQUOR LAWS                       LLORENTE, JUAN ANTONIO
  LIRA                              LLOYD, EDWARD
  LIRI                              LLOYD, WILLIAM
  LIROCONITE                        LLOYD, WILLIAM WATKISS
  LISBON                            LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID
  LISBURN                           LLOYD'S
  LISIEUX                           LLWYD, EDWARD
  LISKEARD                          LOACH
  LISLE, ALICE                      LOAD; LODE
  LISMORE (Scottish island)         LOAF
  LISMORE (Australian town)         LOAM
  LISMORE (Irish town)              LOAN
  LISSA (Austrian island)           LOANDA
  LISSA (Prussian town)             LOANGO
  LIST, FRIEDRICH                   LOBACHEVSKIY, NICOLAS IVANOVICH
  LIST                              LOBANOV-ROSTOVSKI, ALEXIS BORISOVICH
  LISTA Y ARAGON, ALBERTO           LÖBAU
  LISTER, JOSEPH LISTER             LOBBY
  LISTER, MARTIN                    LOBBYING
  LISTON, JOHN                      LOBE
  LISTON, ROBERT                    LOBECK, CHRISTIAN AUGUST
  LISZT, FRANZ                      LOBEIRA, JOÃO
  LITANY                            LOBELIA
  LITCHFIELD (Connecticut, U.S.A.)  LOBENSTEIN
  LITCHFIELD (Illinois, U.S.A.)     LOBO, FRANCISCO RODRIGUES
  LITCHI                            LOBO, JERONIMO
  LITERATURE                        LOBSTER
  LITERNUM                          LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  LITHGOW, WILLIAM                  LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD
  LITHGOW                           LOCARNO
  LITHIUM                           LOCH, HENRY BROUGHAM LOCH
  LITHOGRAPHY                       LOCHABER
  LITHOSPHERE                       LOCHES
  LITHUANIANS and LETTS             LOCHGELLY
  LITMUS                            LOCHGILPHEAD
  LITOPTERNA                        LOCHMABEN
  LITOTES                           LOCK, MATTHIAS
  LITTER                            LOCK
  LITTLE FALLS (Minnesota, U.S.A.)  LOCKE, JOHN
  LITTLE FALLS (New York, U.S.A.)   LOCKE, MATTHEW
  LITTLEHAMPTON                     LOCKERBIE
  LITTLE ROCK                       LOCKER-LAMPSON, FREDERICK
  LITTLETON, EDWARD                 LOCKHART, GEORGE
  LITTLETON, SIR THOMAS DE          LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON
  LITTRÉ, MAXIMILIEN PAUL ÉMILE     LOCKHART, SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER
  LITURGY                           LOCK HAVEN
  LITUUS                            LOCKPORT (Illinois, U.S.A.)
  LIUDPRAND                         LOCKPORT (New York, U.S.A.)
  LIVE OAK                          LOCKROY, ÉDOUARD
  LIVER                             LOCKWOOD, SIR FRANK
  LIVERMORE, MARY ASHTON [RICE]     LOCKWOOD, WILTON
  LIVERPOOL, EARLS OF               LOCKYER, SIR JOSEPH NORMAN
  LIVERPOOL                         LOCLE, LE
  LIVERSEDGE                        LOCMARIAQUER
  LIVERY                            LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA
  LIVERY COMPANIES                  LOCO-WEEDS
  LIVIA DRUSILLA                    LOCRI (people of ancient Greece)
  LIVINGSTON, EDWARD                LOCRI (Italian city)
  LIVINGSTON, ROBERT R.             LÖCSE
  LIVINGSTON, WILLIAM               LOCUS
  LIVINGSTONE, DAVID                LOCUST
  LIVINGSTONE MOUNTAINS             LOCUST-TREE
  LIVIUS ANDRONICUS                 LODÈVE
  LIVNO                             LODGE, EDMUND
  LIVONIA                           LODGE, HENRY CABOT
  LIVY                              LODGE, SIR OLIVER JOSEPH
  LIZARD                            LODGE, THOMAS
  LIZARD POINT                      LODGE
  LJUNGGREN, GUSTAF HÅKAN JORDAN    LODGER AND LODGINGS
  LLAMA                             LODI
  LLANBERIS                         LODZ
  LLANDAFF                          LOESS
  LLANDEILO GROUP                   LOFFT, CAPEL
  LLANDILO                          LOFOTEN AND VESTERAALEN
  LLANDOVERY                        LOFT
  LLANDOVERY GROUP                  LOFTUS, ADAM
  LLANDRINDOD                       LOG
  LLANDUDNO                         LOGAN, JOHN (American Indian chief)
  LLANELLY                          LOGAN, JOHN (Scottish poet)
  LLANES                            LOGAN, JOHN ALEXANDER
  LLANGOLLEN                        LOGAN, SIR WILLIAM EDMOND
  LLANQUIHUE                        LOGAN (Utah, U.S.A.)
  LLANTRISANT                       LOGANSPORT
  LLANTWIT MAJOR                    LOGAR



LIQUID GASES.[1] Though Lavoisier remarked that if the earth were
removed to very cold regions of space, such as those of Jupiter or
Saturn, its atmosphere, or at least a portion of its aeriform
constituents, would return to the state of liquid (_Oeuvres_, ii. 805),
the history of the liquefaction of gases may be said to begin with the
observation made by John Dalton in his essay "On the Force of Steam or
Vapour from Water and various other Liquids" (1801): "There can scarcely
be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids
of whatever kind into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting
it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted on the unmixed
gases." It was not, however, till 1823 that the question was
investigated by systematic experiment. In that year Faraday, at the
suggestion of Sir Humphry Davy, exposed hydrate of chlorine to heat
under pressure in the laboratories of the Royal Institution. He placed
the substance at the end of one arm of a bent glass tube, which was then
hermetically sealed, and decomposing it by heating to 100° F., he saw a
yellow liquid distil to the end of the other arm. This liquid he
surmised to be chlorine separated from the water by the heat and
"condensed into a dry fluid by the mere pressure of its own abundant
vapour," and he verified his surmise by compressing chlorine gas, freed
from water by exposure to sulphuric acid, to a pressure of about four
atmospheres, when the same yellow fluid was produced (_Phil. Trans._,
1823, 113, pp. 160-165). He proceeded to experiment with a number of
other gases subjected in sealed tubes to the pressure caused by their
own continuous production by chemical action, and in the course of a few
weeks liquefied sulphurous acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid,
euchlorine, nitrous acid, cyanogen, ammonia and muriatic acid, the last
of which, however, had previously been obtained by Davy. But he failed
with hydrogen, oxygen, fluoboric, fluosilicic and phosphuretted hydrogen
gases (_Phil. Trans._, ib. pp. 189-198). Early in the following year he
published an "Historical statement respecting the liquefaction of gases"
(_Quart. Journ. Sci._, 1824, 16, pp. 229-240), in which he detailed
several recorded cases in which previous experimenters had reduced
certain gases to their liquid state.

In 1835 Thilorier, by acting on bicarbonate of soda with sulphuric acid
in a closed vessel and evacuating the gas thus obtained under pressure
into a second vessel, was able to accumulate large quantities of liquid
carbonic acid, and found that when the liquid was suddenly ejected into
the air a portion of it was solidified into a snow-like substance (_Ann.
chim. phys._, 1835, 60, pp. 427-432). Four years later J. K. Mitchell in
America, by mixing this snow with ether and exhausting it under an air
pump, attained a minimum temperature of 146° below zero F., by the aid
of which he froze sulphurous acid gas to a solid.

Stimulated by Thilorier's results and by considerations arising out of
the work of J. C. Cagniard de la Tour (_Ann. chim. phys._, 1822, 21, pp.
127 and 178, and 1823, 22, p. 410), which appeared to him to indicate
that gases would pass by some simple law into the liquid state, Faraday
returned to the subject about 1844, in the "hope of seeing nitrogen,
oxygen and hydrogen either as liquid or solid bodies, and the latter
probably as a metal" (_Phil. Trans._, 1845, 135, pp. 155-157). On the
basis of Cagniard de la Tour's observation that at a certain temperature
a liquid under sufficient pressure becomes a vapour or gas having the
same bulk as the liquid, he inferred that "at this temperature or one a
little higher, it is not likely that any increase of pressure, except
perhaps one exceedingly great, would convert the gas into a liquid." He
further surmised that the Cagniard de la Tour condition might have its
point of temperature for oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, &c., below that
belonging to the bath of solid carbonic acid and ether, and he realized
that in that case no pressure which any apparatus would be able to bear
would be able to bring those gases into the liquid or solid state, which
would require a still greater degree of cold. To fulfil this condition
he immersed the tubes containing his gases in a bath of solid carbonic
acid and ether, the temperature of which was reduced by exhaustion under
the air pump to -166° F., or a little lower, and at the same time he
subjected the gases to pressures up to 50 atmospheres by the use of two
pumps working in series. In this way he added six substances, usually
gaseous, to the list of those that could be obtained in the liquid
state, and reduced seven, including ammonia, nitrous oxide and
sulphuretted hydrogen, into the solid form, at the same time effecting a
number of valuable determinations of vapour tensions. But he failed to
condense oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen, the original objects of his
pursuit, though he found reason to think that "further diminution of
temperature and improved apparatus for pressure may very well be
expected to give us these bodies in the liquid or solid state." His
surmise that increased pressure alone would not suffice to bring about
change of state in these gases was confirmed by subsequent
investigators, such as M. P. E. Berthelot, who in 1850 compressed oxygen
to 780 atmospheres (_Ann. chim. phys._, 1850, 30, p. 237), and Natterer,
who a few years later subjected the permanent gases to a pressure of
2790 atmospheres, without result; and in 1869 Thomas Andrews (_Phil.
Trans._, 11) by his researches on carbonic acid finally established the
conception of the "critical temperature" as that temperature, differing
for different bodies, above which no gas can be made to assume the
liquid state, no matter what pressure it be subjected to (see
CONDENSATION OF GASES).

About 1877 the problem of liquefying the permanent gases was taken up by
L. P. Cailletet and R. P. Pictet, working almost simultaneously though
independently. The former relied on the cold produced by the sudden
expansion of the gases at high compression. By means of a specially
designed pump he compressed about 100 cc. of oxygen in a narrow glass
tube to about 200 atmospheres, at the same time cooling it to about -29°
C., and on suddenly releasing the pressure he saw momentarily in the
interior of the tube a mist (_brouillard_), from which he inferred the
presence of a vapour very near its point of liquefaction. A few days
later he repeated the experiment with hydrogen, using a pressure of
nearly 300 atmospheres, and observed in his tube an exceedingly fine and
subtle fog which vanished almost instantaneously. At the time when these
experiments were carried out it was generally accepted that the mist or
fog consisted of minute drops of the liquefied gases. Even had this been
the case, the problem would not have been completely solved, for
Cailletet was unable to collect the drops in the form of a true stable
liquid, and at the best obtained a "dynamic" not a "static" liquid, the
gas being reduced to a form that bears the same relation to a true
liquid that the partially condensed steam issuing from the funnel of a
locomotive bears to water standing in a tumbler. But subsequent
knowledge showed that even this proximate liquefaction could not have
taken place, and that the fog could not have consisted of drops of
liquid hydrogen, because the cooling produced by the adiabatic expansion
would give a temperature of only 44° abs., which is certainly above the
critical temperature of hydrogen. Pictet again announced that on opening
the tap of a vessel containing hydrogen at a pressure of 650 atmospheres
and cooled by the cascade method (see CONDENSATION OF GASES) to -140°
C., he saw issuing from the orifice an opaque jet which he assumed to
consist of hydrogen in the liquid form or in the liquid and solid forms
mixed. But he was no more successful than Cailletet in collecting any of
the liquid, which--whatever else it may have been, whether ordinary air
or impurities associated with the hydrogen--cannot have been hydrogen
because the means he employed were insufficient to reduce the gas to
what has subsequently been ascertained to be its critical point, below
which of course liquefaction is impossible. It need scarcely be added
that if the liquefaction of hydrogen be rejected a fortiori Pictet's
claim to have effected its solidification falls to the ground.

After Cailletet and Pictet, the next important names in the history of
the liquefaction of gases are those of Z. F. Wroblewski and K. S.
Olszewski, who for some years worked together at Cracow. In April 1883
the former announced to the French Academy that he had obtained oxygen
in a completely liquid state and (a few days later) that nitrogen at a
temperature of -136° C., reduced suddenly from a pressure of 150
atmospheres to one of 50, had been seen as a liquid which showed a true
meniscus, but disappeared in a few seconds. But with hydrogen treated in
the same way he failed to obtain even the mist reported by Cailletet. At
the beginning of 1884 he performed a more satisfactory experiment.
Cooling hydrogen in a capillary glass tube to the temperature of liquid
oxygen, he expanded it quickly from 100 atmospheres to one, and
obtained the appearance of an instantaneous ebullition. Olszewski
confirmed this result by expanding from a pressure of 190 atmospheres
the gas cooled by liquid oxygen and nitrogen boiling under reduced
pressure, and even announced that he saw it running down the walls of
the tube as a colourless liquid.

Wroblewski, however, was unable to observe this phenomenon, and
Olszewski himself, when seven years later he repeated the experiment in
the more favourable conditions afforded by a larger apparatus, was
unable to produce again the colourless drops he had previously reported:
the phenomenon of the appearance of sudden ebullition indeed lasted
longer, but he failed to perceive any meniscus such as would have been a
certain indication of the presence of a true liquid. Still, though
neither of these investigators succeeded in reaching the goal at which
they aimed, their work was of great value in elucidating the conditions
of the problem and in perfecting the details of the apparatus employed.
Wroblewski in particular devoted the closing years of his life to a most
valuable investigation of the isothermals of hydrogen at low
temperatures. From the data thus obtained he constructed a van der Waals
equation which enabled him to calculate the critical temperature,
pressure and density of hydrogen with very much greater certainty than
had previously been possible. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid
air--the last was first made by Wroblewski in 1885--became something
more than mere curiosities of the laboratory, and by the year 1891 were
produced in such quantities as to be available for the purposes of
scientific research. Still, nothing was added to the general principles
upon which the work of Cailletet and Pictet was based, and the "cascade"
method, together with adiabatic expansion from high compression (see
CONDENSATION OF GASES), remained the only means of procedure at the
disposal of experimenters in this branch of physics.

In some quarters a certain amount of doubt appears to have arisen as to
the sufficiency of these methods for the liquefaction of hydrogen.
Olszewski, for example, in 1895 pointed out that the succession of less
and less condensible gases necessary for the cascade method breaks down
between nitrogen and hydrogen, and he gave as a reason for hydrogen not
having been reduced to the condition of a static liquid the
non-existence of a gas intermediate in volatility between those two. By
1894 attempts had been made in the Royal Institution laboratories to
manufacture an artificial gas of this nature by adding a small
proportion of air to the hydrogen, so as to get a mixture with a
critical point of about -200° C. When such a mixture was cooled to that
temperature and expanded from a high degree of compression into a vacuum
vessel, the result was a white mass of solid air together with a clear
liquid of very low density. This was in all probability hydrogen in the
true liquid state, but it was not found possible to collect it owing to
its extreme volatility. Whether this artificial gas might ultimately
have enabled liquid hydrogen to be collected in open vessels we cannot
say, for experiments with it were abandoned in favour of other measures,
which led finally to a more assured success.

_Vacuum Vessels._--The problem involved in the liquefaction of hydrogen
was in reality a double one. In the first place, the gas had to be
cooled to such a temperature that the change to the liquid state was
rendered possible. In the second, means had to be discovered for
protecting it, when so cooled, from the influx of external heat, and
since the rate at which heat is transferred from one body to another
increases very rapidly with the difference between their temperatures,
the question of efficient heat insulation became at once more difficult
and more urgent in proportion to the degree of cold attained. The second
part of the problem was in fact solved first. Of course packing with
non-conducting materials was an obvious expedient when it was not
necessary that the contents of the apparatus should be visible to the
eye, but in the numerous instances when this was not the case such
measures were out of the question. Attempts were made to secure the
desired end by surrounding the vessel that contained the cooled or
liquid gas with a succession of other vessels, through which was
conducted the vapour given off from the interior one. Such devices
involved awkward complications in the arrangement of the apparatus, and
besides were not as a rule very efficient, although some workers, e.g.
Dr Kamerlingh Onnes, of Leiden, reported some success with their use. In
1892 it occurred to Dewar that the principle of an arrangement he had
used nearly twenty years before for some calorimetric experiments on the
physical constants of hydrogenium, which was a natural deduction from
the work of Dulong and Petit on radiation, might be employed with
advantage as well to protect cold substances from heat as hot ones from
cold. He therefore tried the effect of surrounding his liquefied gas
with a highly exhausted space. The result was entirely successful.
Experiment showed that liquid air contained in a glass vessel with two
walls, the space between which was a high vacuum, evaporated at only one
fifth the rate it did when in an ordinary vessel surrounded with air at
atmospheric pressure, the convective transference of heat by means of
the gas particles being enormously reduced owing to the vacuum. But in
addition these vessels lent themselves to an arrangement by which
radiant heat could still further be cut off, since it was found that
when the inner wall was coated with a bright deposit of silver, the
influx of heat was diminished to one-sixth of the amount existing
without the metallic coating. The total effect, therefore, of the high
vacuum and silvering is to reduce the in-going heat to one-thirtieth
part. In making such vessels a mercurial vacuum has been found very
satisfactory. The vessel in which the vacuum is to be produced is
provided with a small subsidiary vessel joined by a narrow tube with the
main vessel, and connected with a powerful air-pump. A quantity of
mercury having been placed in it, it is heated in an oil- or air-bath to
about 200° C., so as to volatilize the mercury, the vapour of which is
removed by the pump. After the process has gone on for some time, the
pipe leading to the pump is sealed off, the vessel immediately removed
from the bath, and the small subsidiary part immersed in some cooling
agent such as solid carbonic acid or liquid air, whereby the mercury
vapour is condensed in the small vessel and a vacuum of enormous tenuity
left in the large one. The final step is to seal off the tube connecting
the two. In this way a vacuum may be produced having a vapour pressure
of about the hundred-millionth of an atmosphere at 0° C. If, however,
some liquid mercury be left in the space in which the vacuum is
produced, and the containing part of the vessel be filled with liquid
air, the bright mirror of mercury which is deposited on the inside wall
of the bulb is still more effective than silver in protecting the
chamber from the influx of heat, owing to the high refractive index,
which involves great reflecting power, and the bad heat-conducting
powers of mercury.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Metallic Vacuum Vessel.]

With the discovery of the remarkable power of gas absorption possessed
by charcoal cooled to a low temperature (see below), it became possible
to make these vessels of metal. Previously this could not be done with
success, because gas occluded in the metal gradually escaped and
vitiated the vacuum; but now any stray gas may be absorbed by means of
charcoal so placed in a pocket within the vacuous space that it is
cooled by the liquid in the interior of the vessel. Metal vacuum
vessels (fig. 1), of a capacity of from 2 to 20 litres, may be formed of
brass, copper, nickel or tinned iron, with necks of some alloy that is a
bad conductor of heat, silvered glass vacuum cylinders being fitted as
stoppers. Such flasks, when properly constructed, have an efficiency
equal to that of the chemically-silvered glass vacuum vessels now
commonly used in low temperature investigations, and they are obviously
better adapted for transport. The principle of the Dewar vessel is
utilized in the Thermos flasks which are now extensively manufactured
and employed for keeping liquids warm in hospitals, &c.

  _Thermal Transparency at Low Temperatures._--The proposition, once
  enunciated by Pictet, that at low temperatures all substances have
  practically the same thermal transparency, and are equally ineffective
  as non-conductors of heat, is based on erroneous observations. It is
  true that if the space between the two walls of a double-walled vessel
  is packed with substances like carbon, magnesia, or silica, liquid air
  placed in the interior will boil off even more quickly than it will
  when the space merely contains air at atmospheric pressure; but in
  such cases it is not so much the carbon, &c., that bring about the
  transference of heat, as the air contained in their interstices. If
  this air be pumped out such substances are seen to exert a very
  considerable influence in stopping the influx of heat, and a vacuum
  vessel which has the space between its two walls filled with a
  non-conducting material of this kind preserves a liquid gas even
  better than one in which that space is simply exhausted of air. In
  experiments on this point double-walled glass tubes, as nearly
  identical in shape and size as possible, were mounted in sets of three
  on a common stem which communicated with an air-pump, so that the
  degree of exhaustion in each was equal. In two of each three the space
  between the double walls was filled with the powdered material it was
  desired to test, the third being left empty and used as the standard.
  The time required for a certain quantity of liquid air to evaporate
  from the interior of this empty bulb being called 1, in each of the
  eight sets of triple tubes, the times required for the same quantity
  to boil off from the other pairs of tubes were as follows:--

    / Charcoal               5       / Lampblack           5
    \ Magnesia               2       \ Silica              4

    / Graphite               1.3     / Lampblack           4
    \ Alumina                3.3     \ Lycopodium          2.5

    / Calcium carbonate      2.5     / Barium carbonate    1.3
    \ Calcium fluoride       1.25    \ Calcium phosphate   2.7

    / Phosphorus (amorphous) 1        / Lead oxide         2
    \ Mercuric iodide        1.5      \ Bismuth oxide      6

  Other experiments of the same kind made--(a) with similar vacuum
  vessels, but with the powders replaced by metallic and other septa;
  and (b) with vacuum vessels having their walls silvered, yielded the
  following results:--

     /(a) Vacuum space empty      1     / Vacuum space empty        1
    |       Three turns silver         |  Three turns black paper,
    |       paper, bright             <     black outside           3
   <        surface inside        4    |  Three turns black paper,
    |     Three turns silver            \   black inside 3
    |       paper, bright
     \      surfaceoutside        4

     /    Vacuum space empty      1     / Vacuum space empty        1
    |     Three turns gold paper,      |  Three turns, not touching,
    |       gold outside          4   <     of sheet lead           4
   <      Some pieces of goldleaf      |  Three turns, not touching,
    |       put in so as                \   of sheet aluminium      4
    |       to make contact
    |       between walls of
     \      vacuum-tube           0.3

     /(b) Vacuum space empty,          / Empty silvered vacuum      1
    |       silvered on inside        <  Charcoal in silvered
   <        surfaces              1    \   vacuum                   1.25
    |     Silica in silvered
     \      vacuum space          1.1

  It appears from these experiments that silica, charcoal, lampblack,
  and oxide of bismuth all increase the heat insulations to four, five
  and six times that of the empty vacuum space. As the chief
  communication of heat through an exhausted space is by molecular
  bombardment, the fine powders must shorten the free path of the
  gaseous molecules, and the slow conduction of heat through the porous
  mass must make the conveyance of heat-energy more difficult than when
  the gas molecules can impinge upon the relatively hot outer glass
  surface, and then directly on the cold one without interruption. (See
  _Proc. Roy. Inst._ xv. 821-826.)

  _Density of Solids and Coefficients of Expansion at Low
  Temperatures._--The facility with which liquid gases, like oxygen or
  nitrogen, can be guarded from evaporation by the proper use of vacuum
  vessels (now called Dewar vessels), naturally suggests that the
  specific gravities of solid bodies can be got by direct weighing when
  immersed in such fluids. If the density of the liquid gas is
  accurately known, then the loss of weight by fluid displacement gives
  the specific gravity compared to water. The metals and alloys, or
  substances that can be got in large crystals, are the easiest to
  manipulate. If the body is only to be had in small crystals, then it
  must be compressed under strong hydraulic pressure into coherent
  blocks weighing about 40 to 50 grammes. Such an amount of material
  gives a very accurate density of the body about the boiling point of
  air, and a similar density taken in a suitable liquid at the ordinary
  temperature enables the mean coefficient of expansion between +15° C.
  and -185° C. to be determined. One of the most interesting results is
  that the density of ice at the boiling point of air is not more than
  0.93, the mean coefficient of expansion being therefore 0.000081. As
  the value of the same coefficient between 0° C. and -27° C. is
  0.000155, it is clear the rate of contraction is diminished to about
  one-half of what it was above the melting point of the ice. This
  suggests that by no possible cooling at our command is it likely we
  could ever make ice as dense as water at 0° C., far less 4° C. In
  other words, the volume of ice at the zero of temperature would not be
  the minimum volume of the water molecule, though we have every reason
  to believe it would be so in the case of the majority of known
  substances. Another substance of special interest is solid carbonic
  acid. This body has a density of 1.53 at -78° C. and 1.633 at -185°
  C., thus giving a mean coefficient of expansion between these
  temperatures of 0.00057. This value is only about 1/6 of the
  coefficient of expansion of the liquid carbonic acid gas just above
  its melting point, but it is still much greater at the low temperature
  than that of highly expansive solids like sulphur, which at 40° C. has
  a value of 0.00019. The following table gives the densities at the
  temperature of boiling liquid air (-185° C.) and at ordinary
  temperatures (17° C.), together with the mean coefficient of expansion
  between those temperatures, in the case of a number of hydrated salts
  and other substances:

    TABLE I.

    +---------------------------+---------+--------+------------+
    |                           |         |        |    Mean    |
    |                           |         |        | coefficient|
    |                           | Density | Density|of expansion|
    |                           | at -185°| at +17°|   between  |
    |                           |    C.   |    C.  |-185° C. and|
    |                           |         |        |   +17° C.  |
    +---------------------------+---------+--------+------------+
    | Aluminium sulphate (18)*  | 1.7194  | 1.6913 | 0.0000811  |
    | Sodium biborate (10)      | 1.7284  | 1.6937 | 0.0001000  |
    | Calcium chloride (6)      | 1.7187  | 1.6775 | 0.0001191  |
    | Magnesium chloride (6)    | 1.6039  | 1.5693 | 0.0001072  |
    | Potash alum (24)          | 1.6414  | 1.6144 | 0.0000813  |
    | Chrome alum (24)          | 1.7842  | 1.7669 | 0.0000478  |
    | Sodium carbonate (10)     | 1.4926  | 1.4460 | 0.0001563  |
    | Sodium phosphate (12)     | 1.5446  | 1.5200 | 0.0000787  |
    | Sodium thiosulphate (5)   | 1.7635  | 1.7290 | 0.0000969  |
    | Potassium ferrocyanide (3)| 1.8988  | 1.8533 | 0.0001195  |
    | Potassium ferricyanide    | 1.8944  | 1.8109 | 0.0002244  |
    | Sodium nitro-prusside (4) | 1.7196  | 1.6803 | 0.0001138  |
    | Ammonium chloride         | 1.5757  | 1.5188 | 0.0001820  |
    | Oxalic acid (2)           | 1.7024  | 1.6145 | 0.0002643  |
    | Methyl oxalate            | 1.5278  | 1.4260 | 0.0003482  |
    | Paraffin                  | 0.9770  | 0.9103 | 0.0003567  |
    | Naphthalene               | 1.2355  | 1.1589 | 0.0003200  |
    | Chloral hydrate           | 1.9744  | 1.9151 | 0.0001482  |
    | Urea                      | 1.3617  | 1.3190 | 0.0001579  |
    | Iodoform                  | 4.4459  | 4.1955 | 0.0002930  |
    | Iodine                    | 4.8943  | 4.6631 | 0.0002510  |
    | Sulphur                   | 2.0989  | 2.0522 | 0.0001152  |
    | Mercury                   |14.382   |   ..   | 0.0000881**|
    | Sodium                    | 1.0056  | 0.972  | 0.0001810  |
    | Graphite (Cumberland)     | 2.1302  | 2.0990 | 0.0000733  |
    +---------------------------+---------+--------+------------+

    * The figures within parentheses refer to the number of molecules of
      water of crystallization.
    ** -189° to -38.85° C.

  It will be seen from this table that, with the exception of carbonate
  of soda and chrome alum, the hydrated salts have a coefficient of
  expansion that does not differ greatly from that of ice at low
  temperatures. Iodoform is a highly expansive body like iodine, and
  oxalate of methyl has nearly as great a coefficient as paraffin, which
  is a very expansive solid, as are naphthalene and oxalic acid. The
  coefficient of solid mercury is about half that of the liquid metal,
  while that of sodium is about the value of mercury at ordinary
  temperatures. Further details on the subject can be found in the
  _Proc. Roy. Inst._ (1895), and _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (1902).

  _Density of Gases at Low Temperatures._--The ordinary mode of
  determining the density of gases may be followed, provided that the
  glass flask, with its carefully ground stop-cock sealed on, can stand
  an internal pressure of about five atmospheres, and that all the
  necessary corrections for change of volume are made. All that is
  necessary is to immerse the exhausted flask in boiling oxygen, and
  then to allow the second gas to enter from a gasometer by opening the
  stop-cock until the pressure is equalized. The stop-cock being closed,
  the flask is now taken out of the liquid oxygen and left in the
  balance-room until its temperature is equalized. It is then weighed
  against a similar flask used as a counterpoise. Following such a
  method, it has been found that the weight of 1 litre of oxygen vapour
  at its boiling point of 90.5° absolute is 4.420 grammes, and therefore
  the specific volume is 226.25 cc. According to the ordinary gaseous
  laws, the litre ought to weigh 4.313 grammes, and the specific volume
  should be 231.82 cc. In other words, the product of pressure and
  volume at the boiling point is diminished by 2.46%. In a similar way
  the weight of a litre of nitrogen vapour at the boiling point of
  oxygen was found to be 3.90, and the inferred value for 78° absolute,
  or its own boiling point, would be 4.51, giving a specific volume of
  221.3.

_Regenerative Cooling._--One part of the problem being thus solved and a
satisfactory device discovered for warding off heat in such vacuum
vessels, it remained to arrange some practically efficient method for
reducing hydrogen to a temperature sufficiently low for liquefaction. To
gain that end, the idea naturally occurred of using adiabatic expansion,
not intermittently, as when gas is allowed to expand suddenly from a
high compression, but in a continuous process, and an obvious way of
attempting to carry out this condition was to enclose the orifice at
which expansion takes place in a tube, so as to obtain a constant stream
of cooled gas passing over it. But further consideration of this plan
showed that although the gas jet would be cooled near the point of
expansion owing to the conversion of a portion of its sensible heat into
dynamical energy of the moving gas, yet the heat it thus lost would be
restored to it almost immediately by the destruction of this mechanical
energy through friction and its consequent reconversion into heat. Thus
the net result would be _nil_ so far as change of temperature through
the performance of external work was concerned. But the conditions in
such an arrangement resemble that in the experiments of Thomson and
Joule on the thermal changes which occur in a gas when it is forced
under pressure through a porous plug or narrow orifice, and those
experimenters found, as the former of them had predicted, that a change
of temperature does take place, owing to internal work being done by the
attraction of the gas molecules. Hence the effective result obtainable
in practice by such an attempt at continuous adiabatic expansion as that
suggested above is to be measured by the amount of the "Thomson-Joule
effect," which depends entirely on the internal, not the external, work
done by the gas. To Linde belongs the credit of having first seen the
essential importance of this effect in connexion with the liquefaction
of gases by adiabatic expansion, and he was, further, the first to
construct an industrial plant for the production of liquid air based on
the application of this principle.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Laboratory Liquid Air Machine.

  A, Air or oxygen inlet.
  B, Carbon dioxide inlet.
  C, Carbon dioxide valve.
  D, Regenerator coils.
  F, Air or oxygen expansion valve.
  G, Vacuum vessel with liquid air or oxygen.
  H, Carbon dioxide and air outlet.
  O, Air coil.
  O, Carbon dioxide coil.]

The change of temperature due to the Thomson-Joule effect varies in
amount with different gases, or rather with the temperature at which the
operation is conducted. At ordinary temperatures oxygen and carbonic
acid are cooled, while hydrogen is slightly heated. But hydrogen also is
cooled if before being passed through the nozzle or plug it is brought
into a thermal condition comparable to that of other gases at ordinary
temperatures--that is to say, when it is initially cooled to a
temperature having the same ratio to its critical point as their
temperatures have to their critical points--and similarly the more
condensible gases would be heated, and not cooled, by passing through a
nozzle or plug if they were employed at a temperature sufficiently above
their critical points. Each gas has therefore a point of inversion of
the Thomson-Joule effect, and this temperature is, according to the
theory of van der Waals, about 6.75 times the critical temperature of
the body. Olszewski has determined the inversion-point in the case of
hydrogen, and finds it to be 192.5° absolute, the theoretical critical
point being thus about 28.5° absolute. The cooling effect obtained is
small, being for air about ¼° C. per atmosphere difference of pressure
at ordinary temperatures. But the decrement of temperature is
proportional to the difference of pressure and inversely as the absolute
temperature, so that the Thomson-Joule effect increases rapidly by the
combined use of a lower temperature and greater difference of gas
pressure. By means of the "regenerative" method of working, which was
described by C. W. Siemens in 1857, developed and extended by Ernest
Solvay in 1885, and subsequently utilized by numerous experimenters in
the construction of low temperature apparatus, a practicable liquid air
plant was constructed by Linde. The gas which has passed the orifice and
is therefore cooled is made to flow backwards round the tube that leads
to the nozzle; hence that portion of the gas that is just about to pass
through the nozzle has some of its heat abstracted, and in consequence
on expansion is cooled to a lower temperature than the first portion. In
its turn it cools a third portion in the same way, and so the reduction
of temperature goes on progressively until ultimately a portion of the
gas is liquefied. Apparatus based on this principle has been employed
not only by Linde in Germany, but also by Tripler in America and by
Hampson and Dewar in England. The last-named experimenter exhibited in
December 1895 a laboratory machine of this kind (fig. 2), which when
supplied with oxygen initially cooled to -79° C., and at a pressure of
100-150 atmospheres, began to yield liquid in about a quarter of an hour
after starting. The initial cooling is not necessary, but it has the
advantage of reducing the time required for the operation. The
efficiency of the Linde process is small, but it is easily conducted and
only requires plenty of cheap power. When we can work turbines or other
engines at low temperatures, so as to effect cooling through the
performance of external work, then the economy in the production of
liquid air and hydrogen will be greatly increased.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Hydrogen Jet Apparatus. A, Cylinder containing
compressed hydrogen. B and C, Vacuum vessels containing carbonic acid
under exhaustion and liquid air respectively. D, Regenerating coil in
vacuum vessel. F, Valve. G, Pin-hole nozzle.]

This treatment was next extended to hydrogen. For the reason already
explained, it would have been futile to experiment with this substance
at ordinary temperatures, and therefore as a preliminary it was cooled
to the temperature of boiling liquid air, about -190° C. At this
temperature it is still 2½ times above its critical temperature, and
therefore its liquefaction in these circumstances would be comparable to
that of air, taken at +60° C., in an apparatus like that just described.
Dewar showed in 1896 that hydrogen cooled in this way and expanded in a
regenerative coil from a pressure of 200 atmospheres was rapidly reduced
in temperature to such an extent that after the apparatus had been
working a few minutes the issuing jet was seen to contain liquid, which
was sufficiently proved to be liquid hydrogen by the fact that it was so
cold as to freeze liquid air and oxygen into hard white solids. Though
with this apparatus, a diagrammatic representation of which is shown in
fig. 3, it was now found possible at the time to collect the liquid in
an open vessel, owing to its low specific gravity and the rapidity of
the gas-current, still the general type of the arrangement seemed so
promising that in the next two years there was laid down in the
laboratories of the Royal Institution a large plant--it weighs 2 tons
and contains 3000 ft. of pipe--which is designed on precisely the same
principles, although its construction is far more elaborate. The one
important novelty, without which it is practically impossible to
succeed, is the provision of a device to surmount the difficulty of
withdrawing the liquefied hydrogen after it has been made. The
desideratum is really a means of forming an aperture in the bottom of a
vacuum vessel by which the contained liquid may be run out. For this
purpose the lower part of the vacuum vessel (D in fig. 3) containing the
jet is modified as shown in fig. 4; the inner vessel is prolonged in a
fine tube, coiled spirally, which passes through the outer wall of the
vacuum vessel, and thus sufficient elasticity is obtained to enable the
tube to withstand without fracture the great contraction consequent on
the extreme cold to which it is subjected. Such peculiarly shaped vacuum
vessels were made by Dewar's directions in Germany, and have
subsequently been supplied to and employed by other experimenters.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Bottom of Vacuum Vessel.]

With the liquefying plant above referred to liquid hydrogen was for the
first time collected in an open vessel on the 10th of May 1898. The gas
at a pressure of 180 atmospheres was cooled to -205° C. by means of
liquid air boiling _in vacuo_, and was then passed through the nozzle of
the regenerative coil, which was enclosed in vacuum vessels in such a
way as to exclude external heat as perfectly as possible. In this way
some 20 cc. of the liquid had been collected when the experiment came to
a premature end, owing to the nozzle of the apparatus becoming blocked
by a dense solid--air-ice resulting from the congelation of the air
which was present to a minute extent as an impurity in the hydrogen.
This accident exemplifies what is a serious trouble encountered in the
production of liquid hydrogen, the extreme difficulty of obtaining the
gas in a state of sufficient purity, for the presence of 1% of foreign
matters, such as air or oxygen, which are more condensible than
hydrogen, is sufficient to cause complete stoppage, unless the nozzle
valve and jet arrangement is of special construction. In subsequent
experiments the liquid was obtained in larger quantities--on the 13th of
June 1901 five litres of it were successfully conveyed through the
streets of London from the laboratory of the Royal Institution to the
rooms of the Royal Society--and it may be said that it is now possible
to produce it in any desired amount, subject only to the limitations
entailed by expense. Finally, the reduction of hydrogen to a solid state
was successfully undertaken in 1899. A portion of the liquid carefully
isolated in vacuum-jacketed vessels was suddenly transformed into a
white mass resembling frozen foam, when evaporated under an air-pump at
a pressure of 30 or 40 mm., and subsequently hydrogen was obtained as a
clear transparent ice by immersing a tube containing the liquid in this
solid foam.

_Liquefaction of Helium._--The subjection of hydrogen completed the
experimental proof that all gases can be reduced to the liquid and solid
states by the aid of pressure and low temperature, at least so far as
regards those in the hands of the chemist at the beginning of the last
decade of the 19th century. But a year or so before hydrogen was
obtained in the liquid form, a substance known to exist in the sun from
spectroscopic researches carried out by Sir Edward Frankland and Sir J.
Norman Lockyer was shown by Sir William Ramsay to exist on the earth in
small quantities. Helium (q.v.), as this substance was named, was found
by experiment to be a gas much less condensable than hydrogen. Dewar in
1901 expanded it from a pressure of 80-100 atmospheres at the
temperature of solid hydrogen without perceiving the least indication of
liquefaction. Olszewski repeated the experiment in 1905, using the still
higher initial compression of 180 atmospheres, but he equally failed to
find any evidence of liquefaction, and in consequence was inclined to
doubt whether the gas was liquefiable at all, whether in fact it was not
a truly "permanent" gas. Other investigators, however, took a different
and more hopeful view of the matter. Dewar, for instance (_Pres. Address
Brit. Assoc._, 1902), basing his deductions on the laws established by
van der Waals and others from the study of phenomena at much higher
temperatures, anticipated that the boiling-point of the substance would
be about 5° absolute, so that the liquid would be about four times more
volatile than liquid hydrogen, just as liquid hydrogen is four times
more volatile than liquid air; and he expressed the opinion that the gas
would succumb on being subjected to the process that had succeeded with
hydrogen, except that liquid hydrogen, instead of liquid air,
evaporating under exhaustion must be employed as the primary cooling
agent, and must also be used to surround the vacuum vessel in which the
liquid was collected.

Various circumstances combined to prevent Dewar from actually carrying
out the operation thus foreshadowed, but his anticipations were
justified and the sufficiency of the method he indicated practically
proved by Dr H. Kamerlingh Onnes, who, working with the splendid
resources of the Leiden cryogenic laboratory, succeeded in obtaining
helium in the liquid state on the 10th of July 1908. Having prepared 200
litres of the gas (160 litres in reserve) from monazite sand,[2] he
cooled it with exhausted liquid hydrogen to a temperature of 15 or 16°
abs., and expanded it through a regenerative coil under a pressure of 50
to 100 atmospheres, making use of the most elaborate precautions to
prevent influx of heat and securing the absence of less volatile gases
that might freeze and block the tubes of the apparatus by including in
the helium circuit charcoal cooled to the temperature of liquid air.
Operations began at 5.45 in the morning with the preparation of the
necessary liquid hydrogen, of which 20 litres were ready by 1.30. The
circulation of the helium was started at 4.30 in the afternoon and was
continued until the gas had been pumped round the circuit twenty times;
but it was not till 7.30, when the last bottle of liquid hydrogen had
been brought into requisition, that the surface of the liquid was seen,
by reflection of light from below, standing out sharply like the edge of
a knife against the glass wall of the vacuum vessel. Its boiling-point
has been determined as being 4° abs., its critical temperature 5°, and
its critical pressure not more than three atmospheres. The density of
the liquid is found to be 0.015 or about twice that of liquid hydrogen.
It could not be solidified even when exhausted under a pressure of 2
mm., which in all probability corresponds to a temperature of 2° abs.
(see _Communications from the physical laboratory at the University of
Leiden, 1908-1909_).

The following are brief details respecting some of the more important
liquid gases that have become available for study within recent years.
(For argon, neon, krypton, &c., see ARGON.)

  _Oxygen._--Liquid oxygen is a mobile transparent-liquid, possessing a
  faint blue colour. At atmospheric pressure it boils at -181.5° C.;
  under a reduced pressure of 1 cm. of mercury its temperature falls to
  -210° C. At the boiling point it has a density of 1.124 according to
  Olszewski, or of 1.168 according to Wroblewski; Dewar obtained the
  value 1.1375 as the mean of twenty observations by weighing a number
  of solid substances in liquid oxygen, noting the apparent relative
  density of the liquid, and thence calculating its real density,
  Fizeau's values for the coefficients of expansion of the solids being
  employed. The capillarity of liquid oxygen is about one-sixth that of
  water; it is a non-conductor of electricity, and is strongly magnetic.
  By its own evaporation it cannot be reduced to the solid state, but
  exposed to the temperature of liquid hydrogen it is frozen into a
  solid mass, having a pale bluish tint, showing by reflection all the
  absorption bands of the liquid. It is remarkable that the same
  absorption bands occur in the compressed gas. Dewar gives the
  melting-point as 38° absolute, and the density at the boiling-point of
  hydrogen as 1.4526. The refractive index of the liquid for the D
  sodium ray is 1.2236.

  _Ozone._--This gas is easily liquefied by the use of liquid air. The
  liquid obtained is intensely blue, and on allowing the temperature to
  rise, boils and explodes about -120° C. About this temperature it may
  be dissolved in bisulphide of carbon to a faint blue solution. The
  liquid ozone seems to be more magnetic than liquid oxygen.

  _Nitrogen_ forms a transparent colourless liquid, having a density of
  0.8042 at its boiling-point, which is -195.5° C. The refractive index
  for the D line is 1.2053. Evaporated under diminished pressure the
  liquid becomes solid at a temperature of -215° C., melting under a
  pressure of 90 mm. The density of the solid at the boiling-point of
  hydrogen is 1.0265.

  _Air._--Seeing that the boiling-points of nitrogen and oxygen are
  different, it might be expected that on the liquefaction of
  atmospheric air the two elements would appear as two separate liquids.
  Such, however, is not the case; they come down simultaneously as one
  homogeneous liquid. Prepared on a large scale, liquid air may contain
  as much as 50% of oxygen when collected in open vacuum-vessels, but
  since nitrogen is the more volatile it boils off first, and as the
  liquid gradually becomes richer in oxygen the temperature at which it
  boils rises from about -192° C. to about -182° C. At the former
  temperature it has a density of about 0.910. It is a non-conductor of
  electricity. Properly protected from external heat, and subjected to
  high exhaustion, liquid air becomes a stiff transparent jelly-like
  mass, a magma of solid nitrogen containing liquid oxygen, which may
  indeed be extracted from it by means of a magnet, or by rapid rotation
  of the vacuum vessel in imitation of a centrifugal machine. The
  temperature of this solid under a vacuum of about 14 mm. is -216°. At
  the still lower temperatures attainable by the aid of liquid hydrogen
  it becomes a white solid, having, like solid oxygen, a faint blue
  tint. The refractive index of liquid air is 1.2068.

  _Fluorine_, prepared in the free state by Moissan's method of
  electrolysing a solution of potassium fluoride in anhydrous
  hydrofluoric acid, was liquefied in the laboratories of the Royal
  Institution, London, in 1897. Exposed to the temperature of
  quietly-boiling liquid oxygen, the gas did not change its state,
  though it lost much of its chemical activity, and ceased to attack
  glass. But a very small vacuum formed over the oxygen was sufficient
  to determine liquefaction, a result which was also obtained by cooling
  the gas to the temperature of freshly-made liquid air boiling at
  atmospheric pressure. Hence the boiling-point is fixed at about -187°
  C. The liquid is of a clear yellow colour, possessing great mobility.
  Its density is 1.14, and its capillarity rather less than that of
  liquid oxygen. The liquid, when examined in a thickness of 1 cm., does
  not show any absorption bands, and it is not attracted by a magnet.
  Cooled in liquid hydrogen it is frozen to a white solid, melting at
  about 40° abs.

  _Hydrogen._--Liquid hydrogen is the lightest liquid known to the
  chemist, having a density slightly less than 0.07 as compared with
  water, and being six times lighter than liquid marsh-gas, which is
  next in order of lightness. One litre weighs only 70 grammes, and 1
  gramme occupies a volume of 14-15 cc. In spite of its extreme
  lightness, however, it is easily seen, has a well-defined meniscus and
  drops well. At its boiling-point the liquid is only 55 times denser
  than the vapour it is giving off, whereas liquid oxygen in similar
  condition is 258 times denser than its vapour, and nitrogen 177 times.
  Its atomic volume is about 14.3, that of liquid oxygen being 13.7,
  and that of liquid nitrogen 16.6, at their respective boiling-points.
  Its latent heat of vaporization about the boiling-point is about 121
  gramme-calories, and the latent heat of fluidity cannot exceed 16
  units, but may be less. Hydrogen appears to have the same specific
  heat in the liquid as in the gaseous state, about 3.4. Its surface
  tension is exceedingly low, about one-fifth that of liquid air at its
  boiling-point, or one-thirty-fifth that of water at ordinary
  temperatures, and this is the reason that bubbles formed in the liquid
  are so small as to give it an opalescent appearance during ebullition.
  The liquid is without colour, and gives no absorption spectrum.
  Electric sparks taken in the liquid between platinum poles give a
  spectrum showing the hydrogen lines C and F bright on a background of
  continuous spectrum. Its refractive index at the boiling-point has
  theoretically the value 1.11. It was measured by determining the
  relative difference of focus for a parallel beam of light sent through
  a spherical vacuum vessel filled successively with water, liquid
  oxygen and liquid hydrogen; the result obtained was 1.12. Liquid
  hydrogen is a non-conductor of electricity. The precise determination
  of its boiling-point is a matter of some difficulty. The first results
  obtained from the use of a platinum resistance thermometer gave -238°
  C., while a similar thermometer made with an alloy of rhodium-platinum
  indicated a value 8 degrees lower. Later, a gold thermometer indicated
  about -249° C., while with an iron one the result was only -210° C. It
  was thus evident that electrical resistance thermometers are not to be
  trusted at these low temperatures, since the laws correlating
  resistance and temperature are not known for temperatures at and below
  the boiling-point of hydrogen, though they are certainly not the same
  as those which hold good higher up the thermometric scale. The same
  remarks apply to the use of thermo-electric junctions at such
  exceptional temperatures. Recourse was therefore had to a
  constant-volume hydrogen thermometer, working under reduced pressure,
  experiments having shown that such a thermometer, filled with either a
  simple or a compound gas (e.g. oxygen or carbonic acid) at an initial
  pressure somewhat less than one atmosphere, may be relied upon to
  determine temperatures down to the respective boiling-points of the
  gases with which they are filled. The result obtained was -252° C.
  Subsequently various other determinations were carried out in
  thermometers filled with hydrogen derived from different sources, and
  also with helium, the average value given by the experiments being
  -252.5° C. (See "The Boiling Point of Liquid Hydrogen determined by
  Hydrogen and Helium Gas Thermometers," _Proc. Roy. Soc._, 7th February
  1901.) The critical temperature is about 30° absolute (-243° C.), and
  the critical pressure about 15 atmospheres. Hydrogen has not only the
  lowest critical temperature of all the old permanent gases, but it has
  the lowest critical pressure. Given a sufficiently low temperature,
  therefore, it is the easiest gas to liquefy so far as pressure is
  concerned. Solid hydrogen has a temperature about 4° less. By
  exhaustion under reduced pressure a still lower depth of cold may be
  attained, and a steady temperature reached less than 16° above the
  zero of absolute temperature. By the use of high exhaustion, and the
  most stringent precautions to prevent the influx of heat, a
  temperature of 13° absolute (-260° C.) may be reached. This is the
  lowest steady temperature which can be maintained by the evaporation
  of solid hydrogen. At this temperature the solid has a density of
  about 0.077. Solid hydrogen presents no metallic characteristics, such
  as were predicted for it by Faraday, Dumas, Graham and other chemists
  and neither it nor the liquid is magnetic.

_The Approach to the Absolute Zero._--The achievement of Kamerlingh
Onnes has brought about the realization of a temperature removed only 3°
from the absolute zero, and the question naturally suggests itself
whether there is any probability of a still closer approach to that
point. The answer is that if, as is not impossible, there exists a gas,
as yet unisolated, which has an atomic weight one-half that of helium,
that gas, liquefied in turn by the aid of liquid helium, would render
that approach possible, though the experimental difficulties of the
operation would be enormous and perhaps prohibitive. The results of
experiments bearing on this question and of theory based on them are
shown in table II. The third column shows the critical temperature of
the gas which can be liquefied by continuous expansion through a
regenerative cooling apparatus, the operation being started from the
initial temperature shown in the second column, while the fourth column
gives the temperature of the resulting liquid. It will be seen that by
the use of liquid or solid hydrogen as a cooling agent, it should be
possible to liquefy a body having a critical temperature of about 6° to
8° on the absolute scale, and a boiling point of about 4° or 5°, while
with the aid of liquid helium at an initial temperature of 5° we could
liquefy a body having a critical temperature of 2° and a boiling point
of 1°.

  TABLE II.

  +------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
  |                  |   Initial   |  Critical   |Boiling Points.|
  |    Substance.    | Temperature.|Temperature. | Abs. Degrees. |
  |                  |Abs. Degrees.|Abs. Degrees.|               |
  +------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
  | (Low red heat)   |     760     |     304     |   195 (CO2)   |
  | (52° C.)         |     325     |     130     |    86 (Air)   |
  | Liquid air under |             |             |               |
  | exhaustion       |      75     |      30     |    20 (H)     |
  | Liquid hydrogen  |      20     |       8     |     5 (He)    |
  | Solid hydrogen   |      15     |       6     |     4         |
  | Liquid helium    |       5     |       2     |     1         |
  +------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+

It is to be remarked, however, that even so the physicist would not have
attained the absolute zero, and he can scarcely hope ever to do so. It
is true he would only be a very short distance from it, but it must be
remembered that in a thermodynamic sense one degree low down the scale,
say at 10° absolute, is equivalent to 30° at the ordinary temperature,
and as the experimenter gets to lower and lower temperatures, the
difficulties of further advance increase, not in arithmetical but in
geometrical progression. Thus the step between the liquefaction of air
and that of hydrogen is, thermodynamically and practically, greater than
that between the liquefaction of chlorine and that of air, but the
number of degrees of temperature that separates the boiling-points of
the first pair of substances is less than half what it is in the case of
the second pair. But the ratio of the absolute boiling-points in the
first pair of substances is as 1 to 4, whereas in the second pair it is
only 1 to 3, and it is this value that expresses the difficulty of the
transition.

But though Ultima Thule may continue to mock the physicist's efforts, he
will long find ample scope for his energies in the investigation of the
properties of matter at the temperatures placed at his command by liquid
air and liquid and solid hydrogen. Indeed, great as is the sentimental
interest attached to the liquefaction of these refractory gases, the
importance of the achievement lies rather in the fact that it opens out
new fields of research and enormously widens the horizon of physical
science, enabling the natural philosopher to study the properties and
behaviour of matter under entirely novel conditions. We propose to
indicate briefly the general directions in which such inquiries have so
far been carried on, but before doing so will call attention to the
power of absorbing gases possessed by cooled charcoal, which has on that
account proved itself a most valuable agent in low temperature research.

  TABLE III.--_Gas Absorption by Charcoal._

  +---------------------------+-------------+-------------+
  |                           |   Volume    |   Volume    |
  |                           | absorbed at | absorbed at |
  |                           |  0° Cent.   | -185° Cent. |
  +---------------------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Helium                    |      2 cc.  |     15 cc.  |
  | Hydrogen                  |      4      |    135      |
  | Electrolytic gas          |     12      |    150      |
  | Argon                     |     12      |    175      |
  | Nitrogen                  |     15      |    155      |
  | Oxygen                    |     18      |    230      |
  | Carbonic oxide            |     21      |    190      |
  | Carbonic oxide and oxygen |     30      |    195      |
  +---------------------------+-------------+-------------+

_Gas Absorption by Charcoal._--Felix Fontana was apparently the first to
discover that hot charcoal has the power of absorbing gases, and his
observations were confirmed about 1770 by Joseph Priestley, to whom he
had communicated them. A generation later Theodore de Saussure made a
number of experiments on the subject, and noted that at ordinary
temperatures the absorption is accompanied with considerable evolution
of heat. Among subsequent investigators were Thomas Graham and
Stenhouse, Faure and Silberman, and Hunter, the last-named showing that
charcoal made from coco-nut exhibits greater absorptive powers than
other varieties. In 1874 Tait and Dewar for the first time employed
charcoal for the production of high vacua, by using it, heated to a red
heat, to absorb the mercury vapour in a tube exhausted by a mercury
pump; and thirty years afterwards it occurred to the latter investigator
to try how its absorbing powers are affected by cooling it, with the
result that he found them to be greatly enhanced. Some of his earlier
observations are given in table III., but it must be pointed out that
much larger absorptions were obtained subsequently when it was found
that the quality of the charcoal was greatly influenced by the mode in
which it was prepared, the absorptive power being increased by
carbonizing the coco-nut shell slowly at a gradually increasing
temperature. The results in the table were all obtained with the same
specimen of charcoal, and the volumes of the gases absorbed, both at
ordinary and at low temperatures, were measured under standard
conditions--at 0° C., and 760 mm. pressure. It appears that at the lower
temperature there is a remarkable increase of absorption for every gas,
but that the increase is in general smaller as the boiling-points of the
various gases are lower. Helium is conspicuous for the fact that it is
absorbed to a comparatively slight extent at both the higher and the
lower temperature, but in this connexion it must be remembered that,
being the most volatile gas known, it is being treated at a temperature
which is relatively much higher than the other gases. At -185° (= 88°
abs.), while hydrogen is at about 4½ times its boiling-point (20° abs.),
helium is at about 20 times its boiling-point (4.5° abs.), and it might,
therefore, be expected that if it were taken at a temperature
corresponding to that of the hydrogen, i.e. at 4 or 5 times its
boiling-point, or say 20° abs., it would undergo much greater
absorption. This expectation is borne out by the results shown in table
IV., and it may be inferred that charcoal cooled in liquid helium would
absorb helium as freely as charcoal cooled in liquid hydrogen absorbs
hydrogen. It is found that a given specimen of charcoal cooled in liquid
oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen absorbs about equal volumes of those three
gases (about 260 cc. per gramme); and, as the relation between volume
and temperature is nearly lineal at the lowest portions of either the
hydrogen or the helium absorption, it is a legitimate inference that at
a temperature of 5° to 6° abs. helium would be as freely absorbed by
charcoal as hydrogen is at its boiling-point and that the boiling-point
of helium lies at about 5° abs.

  TABLE IV.--_Gas Absorption by Charcoal at Low Temperatures._

  +--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
  |                                            | Helium.| Hydrogen.|
  |                 Temperature.               |Vols. of| Vols. of |
  |                                            |Carbon. |  Carbon. |
  +--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
  | -185° C. (boiling-point of liquid air)     |    2½  |    137   |
  | -210° C. (liquid air under exhaustion)     |    5   |    180   |
  | -252° C. (boiling-point of liquid hydrogen)|  160   |    258   |
  | -258° C. (solid hydrogen)                  |  195   |    ..    |
  +--------------------------------------------+--------+----------+

The rapidity with which air is absorbed by charcoal at -185° C. and
under small pressures is illustrated by table V., which shows the
reductions of pressure effected in a tube of 2000 cc. capacity by means
of 20 grammes of charcoal cooled in liquid air.

  TABLE V.--_Velocity of Absorption._

  +-----------+--------+-----------+---------+
  |  Time of  |Pressure|  Time of  |Pressure |
  |Exhaustion.| in mm. |Exhaustion.| in mm.  |
  +-----------+--------+-----------+---------+
  |   0  sec. |  2.190 |   60 sec. | 0.347   |
  |  10   "   |  1.271 |    2 min. | 0.153   |
  |  20   "   |  0.869 |    5  "   | 0.0274  |
  |  30   "   |  0.632 |   10  "   | 0.00205 |
  |  40   "   |  0.543 |   19  "   | 0.00025 |
  |  50   "   |  0.435 |     ..    |    ..   |
  +-----------+--------+-----------+---------+

  TABLE VI.

  +----------+----------+-----------+
  |  Volume  | Occlusion| Occlusion |
  |  of Gas  | Hydrogen | Nitrogen  |
  | absorbed.| Pressure.| Pressure. |
  +----------+----------+-----------+
  |    cc.   |    mm.   |    mm.    |
  |     0    |  0.00003 |  0.00005  |
  |     5    |  0.0228  |    ..     |
  |    10    |  0.0455  |    ..     |
  |    15    |  0.0645  |    ..     |
  |    20    |  0.0861  |    ..     |
  |    25    |  0.1105  |    ..     |
  |    30    |  0.1339  |  0.00031  |
  |    35    |  0.1623  |    ..     |
  |    40    |  0.1870  |    ..     |
  |   130    |    ..    |  0.00110  |
  |   500    |    ..    |  0.00314  |
  |  1000    |    ..    |  0.01756  |
  |  1500    |    ..    |  0.02920  |
  |  2500    |    ..    |  0.06172  |
  +----------+----------+-----------+


  _Charcoal Occlusion Pressures._--For measuring the gas concentration,
  pressure and temperature, use may be made of an apparatus of the type
  shown in fig. 5. A mass of charcoal, E, immersed in liquid air, is
  employed for the preliminary exhaustion of the McLeod gauge G and of
  the charcoal C, which is to be used in the actual experiments, and is
  then sealed off at S. The bulb C is then placed in a large spherical
  vacuum vessel containing liquid oxygen which can be made to boil at
  any definite temperature under diminished pressure which is measured
  by the manometer R. The volume of gas admitted into the charcoal is
  determined by the burette D and the pipette P, and the corresponding
  occlusion pressure at any concentration and any temperature below 90°
  abs. by the gauge G. In presence of charcoal, and for small
  concentrations, great variations are shown in the relation between the
  pressure and the concentration of different gases, all at the same
  temperature. Table VI. gives the comparison between hydrogen and
  nitrogen at the temperature of liquid air, 25 grammes of charcoal
  being employed. It is seen that 15 cc. of hydrogen produce nearly the
  same pressure (0.0645 mm.) as 2500 cc. of nitrogen (0.06172 mm.). This
  result shows how enormously greater, at the temperature of liquid air,
  is the volatility of hydrogen as compared with that of nitrogen. In
  the same way the concentrations, for the same pressure, vary greatly
  with temperature, as is exemplified by table VII., even though the
  pressures are not quite constant. The temperatures employed were the
  boiling-points of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

    TABLE VII.

    +---------------+---------------+--------+-----------+
    |               | Concentration |Pressure|Temperature|
    |      Gas.     |in cc. per grm.| in mm. | Absolute. |
    |               | of Charcoal.  |        |           |
    +---------------+---------------+--------+-----------+
    | Helium        |       97      |   2.2  |     20°   |
    | Hydrogen      |      397      |   2.2  |     20°   |
    | Hydrogen      |       15      |   2.1  |     90°   |
    | Nitrogen      |      250      |   1.6  |     90°   |
    | Oxygen        |      300      |   1.0  |     90°   |
    | Carbon dioxide|       90      |   3.6  |    195°   |
    +---------------+---------------+--------+-----------+

    TABLE VIII.

    +---------------+-------------+------------+------------+
    |               |Concentration| Molecular  |    Mean    |
    |      Gas.     | cc. per grm.|Latent Heat.|Temperature.|
    |               |             |            |  Absolute. |
    +---------------+-------------+------------+------------+
    | Helium        |      97     |    483.0   |     18°    |
    | Hydrogen      |     390     |    524.4   |     18°    |
    | Hydrogen      |      20     |   2005.6   |     78°    |
    | Nitrogen      |     250     |   3059.0   |     82°    |
    | Oxygen        |     300     |   3146.4   |     82°    |
    | Carbon dioxide|      90     |   6099.6   |    180°    |
    +---------------+-------------+------------+------------+

  _Heat of Occlusion._--In every case when gases are condensed to the
  liquid state there is evolution of heat, and during the absorption of
  a gas in charcoal or any other occluding body, as hydrogen in
  palladium, the amount of heat evolved exceeds that of direct
  liquefaction. From the relation between occlusion-pressure and
  temperature at the same concentration, the reaction being reversible,
  it is possible to calculate this heat evolution. Table VIII. gives the
  mean molecular latent heats of occlusion resulting from Dewar's
  experiments for a number of gases, having concentrations in the
  charcoal as shown. The concentrations were so regulated as to start
  with an initial pressure not exceeding 3 mm. at the respective
  boiling-points of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

_Production of High Vacua._--Exceedingly high vacua can be obtained by
the aid of liquid gases, with or without charcoal. If a vessel
containing liquid hydrogen be freely exposed to the atmosphere, a rain
of snow (solid air) at once begins to fall upon the surface of the
liquid; similarly, if one end of a sealed tube containing ordinary air
be immersed in the liquid, the same thing happens, but since there is
now no new supply to take the place of the air that has been solidified
and has accumulated in the cooled portion of the tube, the pressure is
quickly reduced to something like one-millionth of an atmosphere, and a
vacuum is formed of such tenuity that the electric discharge can be made
to pass only with difficulty. Liquid air can be employed in the same
manner if the tube, before sealing, is filled with some less volatile
gas or vapour, such as sulphurous acid, benzol or water vapour. But if a
charcoal condenser be used in conjunction with the liquid air it becomes
possible to obtain a high vacuum when the tube contains air initially.
For instance, in one experiment, with a bulb having a capacity of 300
cc. and filled with air at a pressure of about 1.7 mm. and at a
temperature of 15° C., when an attached condenser with 5 grammes of
charcoal was cooled in liquid air, the pressure was reduced to 0.0545
mm. of mercury in five minutes, to 0.01032 mm. in ten minutes, to
0.000139 mm. in thirty minutes, and to 0.000047 mm. in sixty minutes.
The condenser then being cooled in liquid hydrogen the pressure fell to
0.0000154 mm. in ten minutes, and to 0.0000058 mm. in a further ten
minutes when solid hydrogen was employed as the cooling agent, and no
doubt, had it not been for the presence of hydrogen and helium in the
air, an even greater reduction could have been effected. Another
illustration of the power of cooled charcoal to produce high vacua is
afforded by a Crookes radiometer. If the instrument be filled with
helium at atmospheric pressure and a charcoal bulb attached to it be
cooled in liquid air, the vanes remain motionless even when exposed to
the concentrated beam of an electric arc lamp; but if liquid hydrogen be
substituted for the liquid air rapid rotation at once sets in. When a
similar radiometer was filled with hydrogen and the attached charcoal
bulb was cooled in liquid air rotation took place, because sufficient of
the gas was absorbed to permit motion. But when the charcoal was cooled
in liquid hydrogen instead of in liquid air, the absorption increased
and consequently the rarefaction became so high that there was no motion
when the light from the arc was directed on the vanes. These experiments
again permit of an inference as to the boiling-point of helium. A fall
of 75% in the temperature of the charcoal bulb, from the boiling-point
of air to the boiling-point of hydrogen, reduced the vanes to rest in
the case of the radiometer filled with hydrogen; hence it might be
inferred that a fall of like amount from the boiling-point of hydrogen
would reduce the vanes of the helium radiometer to rest, and
consequently that the boiling-point of helium would be about 5° abs.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

The vacua obtainable by means of cooled charcoal are so high that it is
difficult to determine the pressures by the McLeod gauge, and the
radiometer experiments referred to above suggested the possibility of
another means of ascertaining such pressures, by determining the
pressures below which the radiometer would not spin. The following
experiment shows how the limit of pressure can be ascertained by
reference to the pressures of mercury vapour which have been very
accurately determined through a wide range of temperature. To a
radiometer (fig. 6) with attached charcoal bulb B was sealed a tube
ending in a small bulb A containing a globule of mercury. The radiometer
and bulb B were heated, exhausted and repeatedly washed out with pure
oxygen gas, and then the mercury was allowed to distil for some time
into the charcoal cooled in liquid air. On exposure to the electric beam
the vanes began to spin, but soon ceased when the bulb A was cooled in
liquid air. When, however, the mercury was warmed by placing the bulb in
liquid water, the vanes began to move again, and in the particular
radiometer used this was found to happen when the temperature of the
mercury had risen to -23° C. corresponding to a pressure of about one
fifty-millionth of an atmosphere.

For washing out the radiometer with oxygen the arrangement shown in fig.
7 is convenient. Here A is a bulb containing perchlorate of potash,
which when heated gives off pure oxygen; C is again the radiometer and B
the charcoal bulb. The side tube E is for the purpose of examining the
gas given off by minerals like thorianite or the gaseous products of the
transformation of radioactive bodies.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

_Analytic Uses._--Another important use of liquid gases is as analytic
agents, and for this purpose liquid air is becoming an almost essential
laboratory reagent. It is one of the most convenient agents for drying
gases and for their purification. If a mixture of gases be subjected to
the temperature of liquid air, it is obvious that all the constituents
that are more condensable than air will be reduced to liquid, while
those that are less condensable will either remain as a gaseous residue
or be dissolved in the liquid obtained. The bodies present in the latter
may be separated by fractional distillation, while the contents of the
gaseous residue may be further differentiated by the air of still lower
temperatures, such as are obtainable by liquid hydrogen. An apparatus
such as the following can be used to separate both the less and the more
volatile gases of the atmosphere, the former being obtained from their
solution in liquid air by fractional distillation at low pressure and
separation of the condensable part of the distillate by cooling in
liquid hydrogen, while the latter are extracted from the residue of
liquid air, after the distillation of the first fraction, by allowing it
to evaporate gradually at a temperature rising only very slowly.

  In fig. 8, A represents a vacuum-jacketed vessel, containing liquid
  air; this can be made to boil at reduced pressure and therefore be
  lowered in temperature by means of an air-pump, which is in
  communication with the vessel through the pipe _s_. The liquid boiled
  away is replenished when necessary from the reservoir C, _p_ being a
  valve, worked by handle _q_, by which the flow along _r_ is regulated.
  The vessel B, immersed in the liquid air of A, communicates with the
  atmosphere by _a_; hence when the temperature of A falls under
  exhaustion below that of liquid air, the contents of B condense, and
  if the stop-cock _m_ is kept open, and _n_ shut, air from the outside
  is continuously sucked in until B is full of liquid, which contains in
  solution the whole of the most volatile gases of the atmosphere which
  have passed in through _a_. At this stage of the operation _m_ is
  closed and _n_ opened, a passage thus being opened along _b_ from A to
  the remainder of the apparatus seen on the left side of the figure.
  Here E is a vacuum vessel containing liquid hydrogen, and _d_ a
  three-way cock by which communication can be established either
  between _b_ and D, between _b_ and _e_, the tube leading to the
  sparking-tube _g_, or between D and _e_. If now _d_ is arranged so
  that there is a free passage from _b_ to D, and the stop-cock _n_ also
  opened, the gas dissolved in the liquid in B, together with some of
  the most volatile part of that liquid, quickly distils over into D,
  which is at a much lower temperature than B, and some of it condenses
  there in the solid state. When a small fraction of the contents of B
  has thus distilled over, _d_ is turned so as to close the passage
  between D and _b_ and open that between D and _e_, with the result
  that the gas in D is pumped out by the mercury-pump, shown
  diagrammatically at _F_, along the tube _e_ (which is immersed in the
  liquid hydrogen in order that any more condensable gas carried along
  by the current may be frozen out) to the sparking-tube or tubes _g_,
  where it can be examined spectroscopically. When the apparatus is used
  to separate the least volatile part of the gases in the atmosphere,
  the vessel E and its contents are omitted, and the tube _b_ made to
  communicate with the pump through a number of sparking-tubes which can
  be sealed off successively. The nitrogen and oxygen which make up the
  bulk of the liquid in B are allowed to evaporate gradually, the
  temperature being kept low so as to check the evaporation of gases
  less volatile than oxygen. When most of the oxygen and nitrogen have
  thus been removed, the stop-cock _n_ is closed, and the tubes
  partially exhausted by the pump; spectroscopic examination is made of
  the gases they contain, and repeated from time to time as more gas is
  allowed to evaporate from B. The general sequence of spectra, apart
  from those of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon compounds, which are never
  eliminated by the process of distillation alone, is as follows: The
  spectrum of argon first appears, followed by the brightest (green and
  yellow) rays of krypton. Then the intensity of the argon spectrum
  wanes and it gives way to that of krypton, until, as Runge observed,
  when a Leyden jar is in the circuit, the capillary part of the
  sparking-tube has a magnificent blue colour, while the wide ends are
  bright pale yellow. Without a jar the tube is nearly white in the
  middle and yellow about the poles. As distillation proceeds, the
  temperature of the vessel containing the residue of liquid air being
  allowed to rise slowly, the brightest (green) rays of xenon begin to
  appear, and the krypton rays soon die out, being superseded by those
  of xenon. At this stage the capillary part of the sparking-tube is,
  with a jar in circuit, a brilliant green, and it remains green, though
  less brilliant, if the jar is removed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--Apparatus for Fractional Distillation.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--Apparatus for continuous Spectroscopic
  Examination.]

  An improved form of apparatus for the fractionation is represented in
  fig. 9. The gases to be separated, that is, the least volatile part of
  atmospheric air, enter the bulb B from a gasholder by the tube _a_
  with stop-cock _c_. B, which is maintained at a low temperature by
  being immersed in liquid hydrogen, A, boiling under reduced pressure,
  in turn communicates through the tube _b_ and stop-cock _d_ with a
  sparking-tube or tubes _f_, and so on through _e_ with a mercurial
  pump. To use the apparatus, stop-cock _d_ is closed and _c_ opened,
  and gas allowed to pass from the gasholder into B, where it is
  condensed in the solid form. Stop-cock _c_ then being closed and _d_
  opened, gas passes into the exhausted tube _f_, where it is examined
  with the spectroscope. The vessel D contains liquid air, in which the
  tube _e_ is immersed in order to condense vapour of mercury which
  would otherwise pass from the pump into the sparking-tube. The success
  of the operation of separating all the gases which occur in air and
  which boil at different temperatures, depends on keeping the
  temperature of B as low as possible, as will be understood from the
  following consideration:--

  The pressure _p_, of a gas G, above the same material in the liquid
  state, at temperature T, is given approximately by the formula

                 B
    log p = A - ---,
                 T

  where A and B are constants for the same material. For some other gas
  G´ the formula will be

                  B1
    log p1 = A1 - ---,
                   T

  and

         p             B1 - B
    log --- = A - A1 + ------,
        p1               T

  Now for argon, krypton and xenon respectively the values of A are
  6.782, 6.972 and 6.963, and those of B are 339, 496.3 and 669.2; so
  that for these substances and many others A - A1 is always a small
  quantity, while (B1 - B)/T is considerable and increases as T
  diminishes. Hence the ratio of _p_ to _p_1 increases rapidly as T
  diminishes, and by evaporating all the gases from the solid state, and
  keeping the solid at as low a temperature as possible, the gas that is
  taken off by the mercurial pump first consists mainly of the substance
  which has the lowest boiling point, in this case nitrogen, and is
  succeeded with comparative abruptness by the gas which has the next
  higher boiling point. Examination of the spectrum in the sparking-tube
  easily reveals the change from one gas to another, and when that is
  observed the reservoirs into which the gases are pumped can be changed
  and the fractions stored separately. Or several sparking-tubes may be
  arranged so as to form parallel communications between _b_ and _e_,
  and can be successively sealed off at the desired stages of
  fractionation.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Analytical operations can often be performed still more conveniently
with the help of charcoal, taking advantage of the selective character
of its absorption, the general law of which is that the more volatile
the gas the less is it absorbed at a given temperature. The following
are some examples of its employment for this purpose. If it be required
to separate the helium which is often found in the gases given off by a
thermal spring, they are subjected to the action of charcoal cooled with
liquid air. The result is the absorption of the less volatile
constituents, i.e. all except hydrogen and helium. The gaseous residue,
with the addition of oxygen, is then sparked, and the water thus formed
is removed together with the excess of oxygen, when helium alone
remains. Or the separation may be effected by a method of fractionation
as described above. To separate the most volatile constituents of the
atmosphere an apparatus such as that shown in fig. 10 may be employed.
In one experiment with this, when 200 c.c. was supplied from the
graduated gas-holder F to the vessel D, containing 15 grammes of
charcoal cooled in liquid air, the residue which passed on unabsorbed to
the sparking-tube AB, which had a small charcoal bulb C attached, showed
the C and F lines of hydrogen, the yellow and some of the orange lines
of neon and the yellow and green of helium. By using a second charcoal
vessel E, with stop-cocks at H, I, J, K and L to facilitate
manipulation, considerable quantities of the most volatile gases can be
collected. After the charcoal in E has been saturated, the stop-cock K
is closed and I and J are opened for a short time, to allow the less
condensable gas in E to be sucked into the second condenser D along with
some portion of air. The condenser E is then taken out of the liquid
air, heated quickly to 15° C. to expel the occluded air and replaced.
More air is then passed in, and by repeating the operation several times
50 litres of air can be treated in a short time, supplying
sparking-tubes which will show the complete spectra of the volatile
constituents of the air.

The less volatile constituents of the atmosphere, krypton and xenon, may
be obtained by leading a current of air, purified by passage through a
series of tubes cooled in liquid air, through a charcoal condenser also
cooled in liquid air. The condenser is then removed and placed in solid
carbon dioxide at -78° C. The gas that comes off is allowed to escape,
but what remains in the charcoal is got out by heating and exhaustion,
the carbon compounds and oxygen are removed and the residue, consisting
of nitrogen with krypton and xenon, is separated into its constituents
by condensation and fractionation. Another method is to cover a few
hundred grammes of charcoal with old liquid air, which is allowed to
evaporate slowly in a silvered vacuum vessel; the gases remaining in the
charcoal are then treated in the manner described above.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

Charcoal enables a mixture containing a high percentage of oxygen to be
extracted from the atmosphere. In one experiment 50 grammes of it, after
being heated and exhausted were allowed to absorb air at -185° C.; some
5 or 6 litres were taken up in ten minutes, and it then presumably
contained air of the composition of the atmosphere, i.e. 20% oxygen and
80% nitrogen, as shown in fig. 11. But when more air was passed over it,
the portion that was not absorbed was found to consist of about 98%
nitrogen, showing that excess of oxygen was being absorbed, and in the
course of a few hours the occluded gas attained a new and apparently
definite composition exhibited in fig. 12. When the charcoal containing
this mixture was transferred to a vacuum vessel and allowed to warm up
slowly, the successive litres of gas when collected and analyzed
separately showed the following composition:--

  1st litre   18.5% oxygen
  2nd litre   20.6%   "
  3rd litre   53.0%   "
  4th litre   72.0%   "
  5th litre   79.0%   "
  6th litre   84.0%   "

  TABLE IX.

  +----------------+--------+--------------+-----------+-------------+
  |                |        | Liquid Volume|           |Volume of Gas|
  |                |Boiling | of 1 gram at |Latent Heat|at 0° C. and |
  |  Liquid Gases. | Point. | Boiling Point|  in gram  | 760 mm. per |
  |                |        |    in c.c.   | Calories. | gram Calorie|
  |                |        |              |           |   in c.c.   |
  +----------------+--------+--------------+-----------+-------------+
  | Sulphurous acid| + 10°C.|  0.7         |    97.0   |      3.6    |
  | Carbonic acid  | - 78.0 |  0.65 (solid)|   142.4   |      3.6    |
  | Ethylene       | -103.0 |  1.7         |   119.0   |      7.0    |
  | Oxygen         | -182.5 |  0.9         |    53.0   |     13.2    |
  | Nitrogen       | -195.6 |  1.3         |    50.0   |     15.9    |
  | Hydrogen       | -252.5 | 14.3         |   125.0   |     88.9    |
  | Helium         | -269.0 |  7.0         |    13.0   |    450.0    |
  +----------------+--------+--------------+-----------+-------------+

_Calorimetry._--Certain liquid gases lend themselves conveniently to the
construction of a calorimeter, in which the heat in weighed quantities
of any substance with which it is desired to experiment may be measured
by the quantity of liquid gas they are able to evaporate. One advantage
of this method is that a great range of temperature is available when
liquid air, oxygen, nitrogen or hydrogen is employed as the
calorimetric substance. Another is the relatively large quantity of gas
yielded by the evaporation, as may be seen from table IX., which shows
the special physical constants of the various gases that are of
importance in calorimetry. In consequence it is easy to detect 1/50 gram
calorie with liquid air and so little as 1/300 gram calorie with liquid
hydrogen.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Calorimetric Apparatus.]

  The apparatus (fig. 13) consists of a large vacuum vessel A, of 2 or 3
  litres' capacity, containing liquid air, in which is inserted a
  smaller vacuum vessel B, of 25-30 c.c. capacity, having sealed to it a
  long narrow tube G that projects above the mouth of A and is held in
  place by some loosely packed cotton wool. To the top of this tube the
  test tube C, containing the material under investigation, is connected
  by a piece of flexible rubber tubing D; this enables C to be tilted so
  as to throw a piece or pieces of the contained material into the
  calorimeter. An improved form of this receptacle, attached to B by a
  flexible tube at D´, is shown at C´. In this P is a wire movable
  through a cork Q and having at its end a hook by which a piece of the
  substance under examination can be pulled up and dropped into B. In
  the absence of other arrangements the substance is at the temperature
  of the room, but when lower initial temperatures are desired a vacuum
  vessel H containing solid carbonic acid, liquid ethylene, air or other
  gas, can be placed to envelop C or C´, or higher temperatures may be
  obtained by filling the surrounding vessel with vapour of water or
  other liquids. The gas volatilized in B is conveyed by a side tube E
  to be collected in a graduated receiver F over water, oil or other
  liquid. If liquid hydrogen is to be used as the calorimetric substance
  the instrument must be so modified as to prevent the ordinary
  atmosphere from entering G, and to that end a current of hydrogen
  supplied from a Kipp apparatus is arranged to flow continuously
  through D and E until the moment of making the experiment, when it is
  cut off by a suitable stop-cock. In this case the outer vessel must
  contain liquid hydrogen instead of liquid air.

    TABLE X.

    +-----------+---------+----------+----------+
    |           |  18° to | -78° to  | -188° to |
    | Substance.| -78° C.,| -188° C.,| -252° C.,|
    |           |  or, at |  or, at  |  or, at  |
    |           | -30° C. | -133° C. | -220° C. |
    +-----------+---------+----------+----------+
    | Diamond   |  0.0794 |  0.0190  |  0.0043  |
    | Graphite  |  0.1341 |  0.0599  |  0.0133  |
    | Ice       |  0.463* |  0.285   |  0.146   |
    +-----------+---------+----------+----------+

    * This is from -18° to -78° in the ice experiment.

Dewar used pure metallic lead for the purpose of conveying definite
amounts of heat to liquid gas calorimeters of this kind, that metal
being selected on the ground of the small variation in its specific heat
at low temperatures. He was thus able to determine the latent heats of
evaporation of liquid oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen directly at their
boiling points, and he also ascertained the specific heats of a large
number of inorganic and organic bodies, and of some gases in the solid
state, such as carbon dioxide, sulphurous acid and ammonia. Perhaps his
most interesting results were those which showed the variation in the
specific heats of diamond, graphite and ice as typical bodies (table
X.). With Professor Curie he used both the liquid oxygen and the liquid
hydrogen calorimeter for preliminary measurements of the rate at which
radium bromide gives out energy at low temperatures. The quantity of the
salt available was 0.42 gram, and the thermal evolutions were as
follows:--

                   Gas evolved      Calories
                    per minute.     per hour.

  Liquid oxygen       5.5 cc.        22.8 \
  Liquid hydrogen    51.0  "         31.6  > Crystals.
  Melting ice           ..           24.1 /
  Liquid oxygen       2.0  "          8.3    After fusion.
  Liquid oxygen       2.5  "         10.3    Emanation condensed.

The apparent increase of heat evolution at the temperature of liquid
hydrogen was probably due to the calorimeter being too small; hydrogen
spray was thus carried away with the gas, making the volume of gas too
great and inferentially also the heat evolved.

Liquid air and liquid hydrogen calorimeters open up an almost unlimited
field of research in the determination of specific heats and other
thermal constants, and are certain to become common laboratory
instruments for such purposes.

_Chemical Action._--By extreme cold chemical action is enormously
reduced, though it may not in all cases be entirely abolished even at
the lowest temperatures yet attained; one reason for this diminution of
activity may doubtless be sought in the fact that in such conditions
most substances are solid, that is, in the state least favourable to
chemical combination. Thus an electric pile of sodium and carbon ceases
to yield a current when immersed in liquid oxygen. Sulphur, iron and
other substances can be made to burn under the surface of liquid oxygen
if the combustion is properly established before the sample is immersed,
and the same is true of a fragment of diamond. Nitric oxide in the
gaseous condition combines instantly with free oxygen, producing the
highly-coloured gas, nitric peroxide, but in the solid condition it may
be placed in contact with liquid oxygen without showing any signs of
chemical action. If the combination of a portion of the mixture is
started by elevation of temperature, then detonation may take place
throughout the cooled mass. The stability of endothermic bodies like
nitric oxide and ozone at low temperatures requires further
investigation. The behaviour of fluorine, which may be regarded as the
most active of the elements, is instructive in this respect. As a gas,
cooled to -180° C. it loses the power of attacking glass; similarly
silicon, borax, carbon, sulphur and phosphorus at the same temperature
do not become incandescent in an atmosphere of the gas. Passed into
liquid oxygen, the gas dissolves and imparts a yellowish tint to the
liquid; if the oxygen has been exposed to the air for some hours, the
fluorine produces a white flocculent precipitate, which if separated by
filtering deflagrates with violence as the temperature rises. It appears
to be a hydrate of fluorine. As a liquid at -210° fluorine attacks
turpentine also cooled to that temperature with explosive force and the
evolution of light, while the direction of a jet of hydrogen upon its
surface is immediately followed by combination and a flash of flame.
Even when the point of a tube containing solid fluorine is broken off
under liquid hydrogen, a violent explosion ensues.

_Photographic Action._--The action of light on photographic plates,
though greatly diminished at -180°, is far from being in abeyance; an
Eastman film, for instance, remains fairly sensitive at -210°. At the
still lower temperature of liquid hydrogen the photographic activity is
reduced to about half what it is at that of liquid air; in other words,
about 10% of the original sensitivity remains. Experiments carried out
with an incandescent lamp, a Röntgen bulb and the ultra-violet spark
from magnesium and cadmium, to discover at what distances from the
source of light the plates must be placed in order to receive an equal
photographic impression, yielded the results shown in table XI.

  TABLE XI.

  +--------------------+---------+----------+--------------+
  |                    | Cooled  | Uncooled |   Ratio of   |
  |  Source of Light.  |  Plate. |   Plate. | Intensities  |
  |                    |         |          |  at Balance. |
  +--------------------+---------+----------+--------------+
  | 16 C.P. lamp       | 20  in. |  50  in. |    1 to 6    |
  | Röntgen bulb       | 10  in. |  24¾ in. |    1 to 6    |
  | Ultra-violet spark | 22½ in. |  90  in. |    1 to 16   |
  +--------------------+---------+----------+--------------+

It appears that the photographic action of both the incandescent lamp
and the Röntgen rays is reduced by the temperature of liquid air to 17%
of that exerted at ordinary temperatures, while ultra-violet radiation
retains only 6%. It is possible that the greater dissipation of the
latter by the photographic film at low temperatures than at ordinary
ones is due to its absorption and subsequent emission as a
phosphorescent glow, and that if the plate could be developed at a low
temperature it would show no effect, the photographic action taking
place subsequently through an internal phosphorescence in the film
during the time it is heating up. With regard to the transparency of
bodies to the Röntgen radiation at low temperatures, small tubes of the
same bore, filled with liquid argon and chlorine, potassium, phosphorus,
aluminium, silicon and sulphur, were exposed at the temperature of
liquid air (in order to keep the argon and chlorine solid), in front of
a photographic plate shielded with a sheet of aluminium, to an X-ray
bulb. The sequence of the elements as mentioned represents the order of
increasing opacity observed in the shadows. Sodium and liquid oxygen and
air, nitrous and nitric oxides, proved much more transparent than
chlorine. Tubes of potassium, argon and liquid chlorine showed no very
marked difference of density on the photographic plates. It appears that
argon is relatively more opaque to the Röntgen radiation than either
oxygen, nitrogen or sodium, and is on a level with potassium, chlorine,
phosphorus, aluminium and sulphur. This fact may be regarded as
supporting the view that the atomic weight of argon is twice its density
relative to hydrogen, since in general the opacity of elements in the
solid state increases with the atomic weight.

_Phosphorescence._--Phosphorescing sulphides of calcium, which are
luminous at ordinary temperatures, and whose emission of light is
increased by heating, cease to be luminous if cooled to -80° C. But
their light energy is merely rendered latent, not destroyed, by such
cold, and they still retain the capacity of taking in light energy at
the low temperature, to be evolved again when they are warmed. At the
temperature of liquid air many bodies become phosphorescent which do not
exhibit the phenomenon at all, or only to a very slight extent, at
ordinary temperatures, e.g. ivory, indiarubber, egg-shells, feathers,
cottonwool, paper, milk, gelatine, white of egg, &c. Of definite
chemical compounds, the platinocyanides among the inorganic bodies seem
to yield the most brilliant effects. Crystals of ammonium
platinocyanide, if stimulated by exposure to the ultra-violet radiation
of the electric arc--or better still of a mercury vapour lamp in
quartz--while kept moistened with liquid air, may be seen in the dark to
glow faintly so long as they are kept cold, but become exceedingly
brilliant when the liquid air evaporates and the temperature rises.
Among organic bodies the phenomenon is particularly well marked with the
ketonic compounds and others of the same type. The chloro-, bromo-,
iodo-, sulpho- and nitro-compounds show very little effect as a rule.
The activity of the alcohols, which is usually considerable, is
destroyed by the addition of a little iodine. Coloured salts, &c., are
mostly inferior in activity to white ones. When the lower temperature of
liquid hydrogen is employed there is a great increase in phosphorescence
under light stimulation as compared with that observed with liquid air.
The radio-active bodies, like radium, which exhibit self-luminosity in
the dark, maintain that luminosity unimpaired when cooled in liquid
hydrogen.

Some crystals become for a time self-luminous when placed in liquid
hydrogen, because the high electric stimulation due to the cooling
causes actual electric discharges between the crystal molecules. This
phenomenon is very pronounced with nitrate of uranium and some
platinocyanides, and cooling such crystals even to the temperature of
liquid air is sufficient to develop marked electrical and luminous
effects, which are again observed, when the crystal is taken out of the
liquid, during its return to normal temperature. Since both liquid
hydrogen and liquid air are good electrical insulators, the fact that
electric discharges take place in them proves that the electric
potential generated by the cooling must be very high. A crystal of
nitrate of uranium indeed gets so highly charged electrically that it
refuses to sink in liquid air, although its density is 2.8 times
greater, but sticks to the side of the vacuum vessel, and requires for
its displacement a distinct pull on the silk thread to which it is
attached. Such a crystal quickly removes cloudiness from liquid air by
attracting all the suspended particles to its surface, just as a fog is
cleared out of air by electrification. It is interesting to observe that
neither fused nitrate of uranium nor its solution in absolute alcohol
shows any of the remarkable effects of the crystalline state on cooling.

_Cohesion._--The physical force known as cohesion is greatly increased
by low temperatures. This fact is of much interest in connexion with two
conflicting theories of matter. Lord Kelvin's view was that the forces
that hold together the ultimate particles of bodies may be accounted for
without assuming any other forces than that of gravitation, or any other
law than the Newtonian. An opposite view is that the phenomena of
cohesion, chemical union, &c., or the general phenomena of the
aggregation of molecules, depend on the molecular vibrations as a
physical cause (Tolver Preston, _Physics of the Ether_, p. 64). Hence at
the zero of absolute temperature, this vibrating energy being in
complete abeyance, the phenomena of cohesion should cease to exist and
matter generally be reduced to an incoherent heap of "cosmic dust." This
second view receives no support from experiment. Atmospheric air, for
instance, frozen at the temperature of liquid hydrogen, is a hard solid,
the strength of which gives no hint that with a further cooling of some
20 degrees it would crumble into powder. On the contrary, the lower the
scale of temperature is descended, the more powerful become the forces
which hold together the particles of matter. A spiral of fusible metal,
which at ordinary temperatures cannot support the weight of an ounce
without being straightened out, will, when cooled to the temperature of
liquid oxygen, and so long as it remains in that cooled condition,
support several pounds and vibrate like a steel spring. Similarly a bell
of fusible metal at -182° C. gives a distinct metallic ring when struck.
Balls of iron, lead, tin, ivory, &c., thus cooled, exhibit an increased
rebound when dropped from a height; an indiarubber ball, on the other
hand, becomes brittle, and is smashed to atoms by a very moderate fall.
Tables XII. and XIII., which give the mean results of a large number of
experiments, show the increased breaking stress gained by metals while
they are cooled to the temperature of liquid oxygen.

  TABLE XII.--_Breaking Stress in Pounds of Metallic Wires 0.098 inch in
  diameter._

                    +15° C.  -182° C.
    Steel (soft)      420      700
    Iron              320      670
    Copper            200      300
    Brass             310      440
    German silver     470      600
    Gold              255      340
    Silver            330      420

  TABLE XIII.--_Breaking Stress in Pounds of Cast Metallic Testpieces;
  diameter of rod 0.2 inch._

                         +15° C.  -182° C.
    Tin                    200      390
    Lead                    77      170
    Zinc                    35       26
    Mercury                  0       31
    Bismuth                 60       30
    Antimony                61       30
    Solder                 300      645
    Fusible, metal (Wood)  140      450

In the second series of experiments the test-pieces were 2 in. long and
were all cast in the same mould. It will be noticed that in the cases of
zinc, bismuth and antimony the results appear to be abnormal, but it may
be pointed out that it is difficult to get uniform castings of
crystalline bodies, and it is probable that by cooling such stresses are
set up in some set of cleavage planes as to render rupture comparatively
easy. In the case of strong steel springs the rigidity modulus does not
appear to be greatly affected by cold, for although a number were
examined, no measurable differences could be detected in their
elongation under repeated additions of the same load. No quantitative
experiments have been made on the cohesive properties of the metals at
the temperature of boiling hydrogen (-252°), owing to the serious cost
that would be involved. A lead wire cooled in liquid hydrogen did not
become brittle, as it could be bent backwards and forwards in the
liquid.

_Electrical Resistivity._--The first experiments on the conductivity of
metals at low temperatures appear to have been made by Wroblewski
(_Comptes rendus_, ci. 160), and by Cailletet and Bouty (_Journ. de
phys._ 1885, p. 297). The former's experiments were undertaken to test
the suggestion made by Clausius that the resistivity of pure metals is
sensibly proportional to the absolute temperature; he worked with copper
having a conductibility of 98%, and carried out measurements at various
temperatures, the lowest of which was that given by liquid nitrogen
boiling under reduced pressure. His general conclusion was that the
resistivity decreases much more quickly than the absolute temperature,
so as to approach zero at a point not far below the temperature of
nitrogen evaporating _in vacuo_. Cailletet and Bouty, using ethylene as
the refrigerant, and experimenting at temperatures ranging from 0° C. to
-100° C. and -123° C., constructed formulae intended to give the
coefficients of variation in electrical resistance for mercury, tin,
silver, magnesium, aluminium, copper, iron and platinum. Between 1892
and 1896 Dewar and Fleming carried out a large number of experiments to
ascertain the changes of conductivity that occur in metals and alloys
cooled in liquid air or oxygen to -200° C. The method employed was to
obtain the material under investigation in the form of a fine regular
wire and to wind it in a small coil; this was then plunged in the liquid
and its resistance determined. The accompanying chart (fig. 14) gives
the results in a compendious form, the temperatures being expressed not
in degrees of the ordinary air-thermometer scale, but in platinum
degrees as given by one particular platinum resistance thermometer which
was used throughout the investigation. A table showing the value of
these degrees in degrees centigrade according to Dickson will be found
in the _Phil. Mag._ for June 1898, p. 527; to give some idea of the
relationship, it may be stated here that -100° of the platinum
thermometer = -94°.2 C., -150° plat. = -140°.78 C., and -200° plat. =
-185°.53 C. In general, the resistance of perfectly pure metals was
greatly decreased by cold--so much so that, to judge by the course of
the curves on the chart, it appeared probable that at the zero of
absolute temperature resistance would vanish altogether and all pure
metals become perfect conductors of electricity. This conclusion,
however, has been rendered very doubtful by subsequent observations by
Dewar, who found that with the still lower temperatures attainable with
liquid hydrogen the increases of conductivity became less for each
decrease of temperature, until a point was reached where the curves bent
sharply round and any further diminution of resistance became very
small; that is, the conductivity remained finite. The reduction in
resistance of some of the metals at the boiling point of hydrogen is
very remarkable. Thus copper has only (1/105)th, gold (1/30)th, platinum
(1/35)th to (1/17)th, silver (1/24)th the resistance at melting ice, but
iron is only reduced to (1/8)th part of the same initial resistance.
Table XIV. shows the progressive decrease of resistance for certain
metals and one alloy as the temperature is lowered from that of boiling
water down to that of liquid hydrogen boiling under reduced pressure; it
also gives the "vanishing temperature," at which the conductivity would
become perfect if the resistance continued to decrease in the same ratio
with still lower temperatures, the values being derived from the
extrapolation curves of the relation between resistance and temperature,
according to Callendar and Dickson. It will be seen that many of the
substances have actually been cooled to a lower temperature than that at
which their resistance ought to vanish.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Chart of the Variation of Electrical Resistance
of Pure Metals and Alloys with Temperature. (Dewar and Fleming.)]

In the case of alloys and impure metals, cold brings about a much
smaller decrease in resistivity, and the continuations of the curves at
no time show any sign of passing through the zero point. The influence
of the presence of impurities in minute quantities is strikingly shown
in the case of bismuth. Various specimens of the metal, prepared with
great care by purely chemical methods, gave in the hands of Dewar and
Fleming some very anomalous results, appearing to reach at -80° C. a
maximum of conductivity, and thereafter to increase in resistivity with
decrease of temperature. But when the determinations were carried out on
a sample of really pure bismuth prepared electrolytically, a normal
curve was obtained corresponding to that given by other pure metals. As
to alloys, there is usually some definite mixture of two pure metals
which has a maximum resistivity, often greater than that of either of
the constituents. It appears too that high, if not the highest,
resistivity corresponds to possible chemical compounds of the two metals
employed, e.g. platinum 33 parts with silver 66 parts = PtAg4; iron 80
with nickel 20 = Fe4Ni; platinum 80 with iridium 20 = IrPt4; and copper
70 with manganese 30 = Cu2Mn. The product obtained by adding a small
quantity of one metal to another has a higher specific resistance than
the predominant constituent, but the curve is parallel to, and therefore
the same in shape as, that of the latter (cf. the curves for various
mixtures of Al and Cu on the chart). The behaviour of carbon and of
insulators like gutta-percha, glass, ebonite, &c., is in complete
contrast to the metals, for their resistivity steadily increases with
cold. The thermo-electric properties of metals at low temperatures are
discussed in the article THERMOELECTRICITY.

  TABLE XIV.

  +-------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+--------+----------+
  |                                     |         |Platinum-|        |        |        |          |
  |                Metals.              |Platinum.| rhodium |  Gold. |Silver. | Copper.|   Iron.  |
  |                                     |         |  Alloy. |        |        |        |          |
  +-------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+--------+----------+
  | Resistance at 100°                  | 39.655  |  36.87  | 16.10  |  8.336 | 11.572 |  4.290   |
  |      "        0° C                  | 28.851  |  31.93  | 11.58  |  5.990 |  8.117 |  2.765   |
  |      "        carbonic acid         | 19.620  |    ..   |   ..   |  ..    |   ..   |    ..    |
  |      "        liquid oxygen         |  7.662  |  22.17  |  3.380 |  1.669 |  1.589 |  0.633   |
  |      "           "   nitrogen       |   ..    |    ..   |   ..   |   ..   |  1.149 |    ..    |
  |      "           "   oxygen         |         |         |        |        |        |          |
  |                     under exhaustion|  4.634  |  20.73  |   ..   |   ..   |   ..   |          |
  |      "           "   hydrogen       |  0.826  |  18.96  |  0.381 |  0.244 |  0.077 |  0.356   |
  |      "           "   hydrogen       |         |         |        |        |        |          |
  |                     under exhaustion|  0.705  |  18.90  |  0.298 |  0.226 |  0.071 |          |
  | Resistance coefficients             | 0.003745| 0.003607|0.003903|0.003917|0.004257| 0.005515 |
  | Vanishing temperatures (Centigrade)/| -244.50°| -543.39°|-257.90°|-252.26°|-225.62°|-258.40°C.|
  |                                    \| -244.15°| -530.32°|-257.8° |-252.25°|-226.04°|-246.80°D.|
  +-------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+--------+----------+

_Magnetic Phenomena._--Low temperatures have very marked effects upon
the magnetic properties of various substances. Oxygen, long known to be
slightly magnetic in the gaseous state, is powerfully attracted in the
liquid condition by a magnet, and the same is true, though to a less
extent, of liquid air, owing to the proportion of liquid oxygen it
contains. A magnet of ordinary carbon steel has its magnetic moment
temporarily increased by cooling, that is, after it has been brought to
a permanent magnetic condition ("aged"). The effect of the first
immersion of such a magnet in liquid air is a large diminution in its
magnetic moment, which decreases still further when it is allowed to
warm up to ordinary temperatures. A second cooling, however, increases
the magnetic moment, which is again decreased by warming, and after a
few repetitions of this cycle of cooling and heating the steel is
brought into a condition such that its magnetic moment at the
temperature of liquid air is greater by a constant percentage than it
is at the ordinary temperature of the air. The increase of magnetic
moment seems then to have reached a limit, because on further cooling to
the temperature of liquid hydrogen hardly any further increase is
observed. The percentage differs with the composition of the steel and
with its physical condition. It is greater, for example, with a specimen
tempered very soft than it is with another specimen of the same steel
tempered glass hard. Aluminium steels show the same kind of phenomena as
carbon ones, and the same may be said of chrome steels in the permanent
condition, though the effect of the first cooling with them is a slight
increase of magnetic moment. Nickel steels present some curious
phenomena. When containing small percentages of nickel (e.g. 0.84 or
3.82), they behave under changes of temperature much like carbon steel.
With a sample containing 7.65%, the phenomena after the permanent state
had been reached were similar, but the first cooling produced a slight
increase in magnetic moment. But steels containing 18.64 and 29% of
nickel behaved very differently. The result of the first cooling was a
reduction of the magnetic moment, to the extent of nearly 50% in the
case of the former. Warming again brought about an increase, and the
final condition was that at the temperature of liquid air the magnetic
moment was always less than at ordinary temperatures. This anomaly is
all the more remarkable in that the behaviour of pure nickel is normal,
as also appears to be generally the case with soft and hard iron.
Silicon, tungsten and manganese steels are also substantially normal in
their behaviour, although there are considerable differences in the
magnitudes of the variations they display (_Proc. Roy. Soc._ lx. 57 et
seq.; also "The Effect of Liquid Air Temperatures on the Mechanical and
other Properties of Iron and its Alloys," by Sir James Dewar and Sir
Robert Hadfield, _Id._ lxxiv. 326-336).

Low temperatures also affect the permeability of iron, i.e. the degree
of magnetization it is capable of acquiring under the influence of a
certain magnetic force. With fine Swedish iron, carefully annealed, the
permeability is slightly reduced by cooling to -185° C. Hard iron,
however, in the same circumstances suffers a large increase of
permeability. Unhardened steel pianoforte wire, again, behaves like soft
annealed iron. As to hysteresis, low temperatures appear to produce no
appreciable effect in soft iron; for hard iron the observations are
undecisive.

_Biological Research._--The effect of cold upon the life of living
organisms is a matter of great intrinsic interest as well as of wide
theoretical importance. Experiment indicates that moderately high
temperatures are much more fatal, at least to the lower forms of life,
than are exceedingly low ones. Professor M'Kendrick froze for an hour at
a temperature of -182° C. samples of meat, milk, &c., in sealed tubes;
when these were opened, after being kept at blood-heat for a few days,
their contents were found to be quite putrid. More recently some more
elaborate tests were carried out at the Jenner (now Lister) Institute of
Preventive Medicine on a series of typical bacteria. These were exposed
to the temperature of liquid air for twenty hours, but their vitality
was not affected, their functional activities remained unimpaired and
the cultures which they yielded were normal in every respect. The same
result was obtained when liquid hydrogen was substituted for air. A
similar persistence of life has been demonstrated in seeds, even at the
lowest temperatures; they were frozen for over 100 hours in liquid air
at the instance of Messrs Brown and Escombe, with no other effect than
to afflict their protoplasm with a certain inertness, from which it
recovered with warmth. Subsequently commercial samples of barley, peas
and vegetable-marrow and mustard seeds were literally steeped for six
hours in liquid hydrogen at the Royal Institution, yet when they were
sown by Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer at Kew in the ordinary way, the
proportion in which germination occurred was no smaller than with other
batches of the same seeds which had suffered no abnormal treatment. Mr
Harold Swithinbank has found that exposure to liquid air has little or
no effect on the vitality of the tubercle bacillus, although by very
prolonged exposures its virulence is modified to some extent; but
alternate exposures to normal and very cold temperatures do have a
decided effect both upon its vitality and its virulence. The suggestion
once put forward by Lord Kelvin, that life may in the first instance
have been conveyed to this planet on a meteorite, has been objected to
on the ground that any living organism would have been killed before
reaching the earth by its passage through the intense cold of
interstellar space; the above experiments on the resistance to cold
offered by seeds and bacteria show that this objection at least is not
fatal to Lord Kelvin's idea.

At the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine liquid air has been
brought into use as an agent in biological research. An inquiry into the
intracellular constituents of the typhoid bacillus, initiated under the
direction of Dr Allan Macfadyen, necessitated the separation of the
cell-plasma of the organism. The method at first adopted for the
disintegration of the bacteria was to mix them with silver-sand and
churn the whole up in a closed vessel in which a series of horizontal
vanes revolved at a high speed. But certain disadvantages attached to
this procedure, and accordingly some means was sought to do away with
the sand and triturate the bacilli _per se_. This was found in liquid
air, which, as had long before been shown at the Royal Institution, has
the power of reducing materials like grass or the leaves of plants to
such a state of brittleness that they can easily be powdered in a
mortar. By its aid a complete trituration of the typhoid bacilli has
been accomplished at the Jenner Institute, and the same process, already
applied with success also to yeast cells and animal cells, is being
extended in other directions.

_Industrial Applications._--While liquid air and liquid hydrogen are
being used in scientific research to an extent which increases every
day, their applications to industrial purposes are not so numerous. The
temperatures they give used as simple refrigerants are much lower than
are generally required industrially, and such cooling as is needed can
be obtained quite satisfactorily, and far more cheaply, by refrigerating
machinery employing more easily condensable gases. Their use as a source
of motive power, again, is impracticable for any ordinary purposes, on
the score of inconvenience and expense. Cases may be conceived of in
which for special reasons it might prove advantageous to use liquid air,
vaporized by heat derived from the surrounding atmosphere, to drive
compressed-air engines, but any advantage so gained would certainly not
be one of cheapness. No doubt the power of a waterfall running to waste
might be temporarily conserved in the shape of liquid air, and thereby
turned to useful effect. But the reduction of air to the liquid state is
a process which involves the expenditure of a very large amount of
energy, and it is not possible even to recover all that expended energy
during the transition of the material back to the gaseous state. Hence
to suggest that by using liquid air in a motor more power can be
developed than was expended in producing the liquid air by which the
motor is worked, is to propound a fallacy worse than perpetual motion,
since such a process would have an efficiency of more than 100%. Still,
in conditions where economy is of no account, liquid air might perhaps,
with effectively isolated storage, be utilized as a motive power, e.g.
to drive the engines of submarine boats and at the same time provide a
supply of oxygen for the crew; even without being used in the engines,
liquid air or oxygen might be found a convenient form in which to store
the air necessary for respiration in such vessels. But a use to which
liquid air machines have already been put to a large extent is for
obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere. Although when air is liquefied the
oxygen and nitrogen are condensed simultaneously, yet owing to its
greater volatility the latter boils off the more quickly of the two, so
that the remaining liquid becomes gradually richer and richer in
oxygen. The fractional distillation of liquid air is the method now
universally adopted for the preparation of oxygen on a commercial scale,
while the nitrogen simultaneously obtained is used for the production of
cyanamide, by its action on carbide of calcium. An interesting though
minor application of liquid oxygen, or liquid air from which most of the
nitrogen has evaporated, depends on the fact that if it be mixed with
powdered charcoal, or finely divided organic bodies, it can be made by
the aid of a detonator to explode with a violence comparable to that of
dynamite. This explosive, which might properly be called an emergency
one, has the disadvantage that it must be prepared on the spot where it
is to be used and must be fired without delay, since the liquid
evaporates in a short time and the explosive power is lost; but, on the
other hand, if a charge fails to go off it has only to be left a few
minutes, when it can be withdrawn without any danger of accidental
explosion.

  For further information the reader may consult W. L. Hardin, _Rise and
  Development of the Liquefaction of Gases_ (New York, 1899), and
  Lefèvre, _La Liquéfaction des gaz et ses applications_; also the
  article CONDENSATION OF GASES. But the literature of liquid gases is
  mostly contained in scientific periodicals and the proceedings of
  learned societies. Papers by Wroblewski and Olszewski on the
  liquefaction of oxygen and nitrogen may be found in the _Comptes
  rendus_, vols, xcvi.-cii., and there are important memoirs by the
  former on the relations between the gaseous and liquid states and on
  the compressibility of hydrogen in _Wien. Akad. Sitzber._ vols. xciv.
  and xcvii.; his pamphlet _Comme l'air a été liquéfié_ (Paris, 1885)
  should also be referred to. For Dewar's work, see _Proc. Roy. Inst._
  from 1878 onwards, including "Solid Hydrogen" (1900); "Liquid Hydrogen
  Calorimetry" (1904); "New Low Temperature Phenomena" (1905); "Liquid
  Air and Charcoal at Low Temperatures" (1906); "Studies in High Vacua
  and Helium at Low Temperatures" (1907); also "The Nadir of Temperature
  and Allied Problems" (Bakerian Lecture), _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (1901), and
  the Presidential Address to the British Association (1902). The
  researches of Fleming and Dewar on the electrical and magnetic
  properties of substances at low temperatures are described in _Proc.
  Roy. Soc._ vol. lx., and _Proc. Roy. Inst._ (1896); see also
  "Electrical Resistance of Pure Metals, Alloys and Non-Metals at the
  Boiling-point of Oxygen," _Phil. Mag._ vol. xxxiv. (1892); "Electrical
  Resistance of Metals and Alloys at Temperatures approaching the
  Absolute Zero," _ibid._ vol. xxxvi. (1893); "Thermoelectric Powers of
  Metals and Alloys between the Temperatures of the Boiling-point of
  Water and the Boiling-point of Liquid Air," _ibid._ vol. xl. (1895);
  and papers on the dielectric constants of various substances at low
  temperatures in _Proc. Roy. Soc._ vols. lxi. and lxii. Optical and
  spectroscopic work by Liveing and Dewar on liquid gases is described
  in _Phil. Mag._ vols. xxxiv. (1892), xxxvi. (1893), xxxviii. (1894)
  and xl. (1895); for papers by the same authors on the separation and
  spectroscopic examination of the most volatile and least volatile
  constituents of atmospheric air, see _Proc. Roy. Soc._ vols. lxiv.,
  lxvii. and lxviii. An account of the influence of very low
  temperatures on the germinative power of seeds is given by H. T. Brown
  and F. Escombe in _Proc. Roy. Soc._ vol. lxii., and by Sir W.
  Thiselton Dyer, _ibid._ vol. lxv., and their effect on bacteria is
  discussed by A. Macfadyen, _ibid._ vols. lxvi. and lxxi.     (J. Dr.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Figs. 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13 in this article are from _Proc.
    Roy. Inst._, by permission.

  [2] It may be noted that now that the commercial production of oxygen
    is effected by the liquefaction of air, with separation of its
    constituents in what is essentially a Coffey still, the chemist has
    at his command large quantities not only of the less volatile
    constituents, krypton and xenon, but also of the more volatile ones,
    neon and helium. Roughly a million volumes of air contain 20 volumes
    of neon and helium, about 15 of the former to 5 of the latter,
    approximately 1 volume of hydrogen being associated with them, so
    that in view of the enormous amounts of oxygen that are produced,
    helium can be obtained in practically any quantity directly from the
    atmosphere.



LIQUORICE. The hard and semi-vitreous sticks of paste, black in colour
and possessed of a sweet somewhat astringent taste, known as liquorice
paste or black sugar, are the inspissated juice of the roots of a
leguminous plant, _Glycyrrhiza glabra_, the _radix glycyrrhizae_ of the
pharmacopoeia. The plant is cultivated throughout the warmer parts of
Europe, especially on the Mediterranean shores, and to some extent in
Louisiana and California. The roots for use are obtained in lengths of 3
or 4 ft., varying in diameter from 1/4 to 1 in.; they are soft, flexible
and fibrous, and internally of a bright yellow colour, with a
characteristic, sweet pleasant taste. To this sweet taste of its root
the plant owes its generic name _Glycyrrhiza_ ([Greek: glykyrrhiza], the
sweet-root), of which the word liquorice is a corruption. The roots
contain grape-sugar, starch, resin, asparagine, malic acid and the
glucoside glycyrrhizin, C^24H36O9, a yellow amorphous powder with an
acid reaction and a distinctive bitter-sweet taste. On hydrolysis,
glycyrrhizin yields glucose and glycyrrhetin.

  Stick liquorice is made by crushing and grinding the roots to a pulp,
  which is boiled in water over an open fire, and the decoction
  separated from the solid residue of the root is evaporated till a
  sufficient degree of concentration is attained, after which, on
  cooling, it is rolled into the form of sticks or other shapes for the
  market. The preparation of the juice is a widely extended industry
  along the Mediterranean coasts; but the quality best appreciated in
  the United Kingdom is made in Calabria, and sold under the names of
  Solazzi and Corigliano juice. Liquorice enters into the composition of
  many cough lozenges and other demulcent preparations; and in the form
  of aromatic syrups and elixirs it has a remarkable effect in masking
  the taste of nauseous medicines.



LIQUOR LAWS. In most Western countries the sale of alcoholic liquor is
regulated by law. The original and principal object is to check the
evils arising from the immoderate use of such liquor, in the interest of
public order, morality and health; a secondary object is to raise
revenue from the traffic. The form and the stringency of the laws passed
for these purposes vary very widely in different countries according to
the habits of the people and the state of public opinion. The evils
which it is desired to check are much greater in some countries than in
others. Generally speaking they are greater in northern countries and
cold and damp climates than in southern and more sunny ones. Climate has
a marked influence on diet for physiological reasons over which we have
no control. The fact is attested by universal experience and is
perfectly natural and inevitable, though usually ignored in those
international comparisons of economic conditions and popular customs
which have become so common. It holds good both of food and drink. The
inhabitants of south Europe are much less given to alcoholic excess than
those of central Europe, who again are more temperate than those of the
north. There is even a difference between localities so near together as
the east and west of Scotland. The chairman of the Prison Commissioners
pointed out before a British royal commission in the year 1897 the
greater prevalence of drunkenness in the western half, and attributed it
in part to the dampness of the climate on the western coast. But race
also has an influence. The British carry the habit of drinking wherever
they go, and their colonial descendants retain it even in hot and dry
climates. The Slav peoples and the Magyars in central Europe are much
more intemperate than the Teutonic and Latin peoples living under
similar climatic conditions. These natural differences lead, in
accordance with the principle discerned and enunciated by Montesquieu,
to the adoption of different laws, which vary with the local conditions.
But social laws of this character also vary with the state of public
opinion, not only in different countries but in the same country at
different times. The result is that the subject is in a state of
incessant flux. There are not only many varieties of liquor laws, but
also frequent changes in them, and new experiments are constantly being
tried. The general tendency is towards increased stringency, not so much
because the evils increase, though that happens in particular places at
particular times, as because public opinion moves broadly towards
increasing condemnation of excess and increasing reliance on legislative
interference. The first is due partly to a general process of refining
manners, partly to medical influence and the growing attention paid to
health; the second to a universal tendency which seems inherent in
democracy.

Liquor laws may be classified in several ways, but the most useful way
for the present purpose will be to take the principal methods of
conducting the traffic as they exist, under four main headings, and
after a brief explanation give some account of the laws in the principal
countries which have adopted them. The four methods are: (1) licensing
or commercial sale for private profit under a legal permit; (2) sale by
authorized bodies not for private profit, commonly known as the
Scandinavian or company system; (3) state monopoly; (4) prohibition. It
is not a scientific classification, because the company system is a form
of licensing and prohibition is no sale at all; but it follows the lines
of popular discussion and is more intelligible than one of a more
technical character would be. All forms of liquor legislation deal
mainly with retail sale, and particularly with the sale for immediate
consumption on the spot.

1. _Licensing._--This is by far the oldest and the most widely adopted
method; it is the one which first suggests itself in the natural course
of things. Men begin by making and selling a thing without let or
hindrance to please themselves. Then objections are raised, and when
they are strong or general enough the law interferes in the public
interest, at first mildly; it says in effect--This must not go on in
this way or to this extent; there must be some control, and permission
will only be given to duly authorized persons. Such persons are licensed
or permitted to carry on the traffic under conditions, and there is
obviously room for infinite gradations of strictness in granting
permission and infinite variety in the conditions imposed. The procedure
may vary from mere notification of the intention to open an
establishment up to a rigid and minutely detailed system of annual
licensing laid down by the law. But in all cases, even when mere
notification is required, the governing authority has the right to
refuse permission or to withdraw it for reasons given, and so it retains
the power of control. At the same time holders of the permission may be
compelled to pay for the privilege and so contribute to the public
revenue. The great merit of the licensing system is its perfect
elasticity, which permits adjustment to all sorts of conditions and to
the varying demands of public opinion. It is in force in the United
Kingdom, which first adopted it, in most European countries, in the
greater part of North America, including both the United States and
Canada, in the other British dominions and elsewhere.

2. _The Scandinavian or Company System._--The principle of this method
is the elimination of private profit on the ground that it removes an
incentive to the encouragement of excessive drinking. A monopoly of the
sale of liquor is entrusted to a body of citizens who have, or are
supposed to have, no personal interest in it, and the profits are
applied to public purposes. The system, which is also called
"disinterested management," is adopted in Sweden and Norway; and the
principle has been applied in a modified form in England and Finland by
the operation of philanthropic societies which, however, have no
monopoly but are on the same legal footing as ordinary traders.

3. _State Monopoly._--As the name implies, this system consists in
retaining the liquor trade in the hands of the state, which thus secures
all the profit and is at the same time able to exercise complete
control. It is adopted in Russia, in certain parts of the United States
and, in regard to the wholesale trade, in Switzerland.

4. _Prohibition._--This may be general or local; in the latter case it
is called "local option" or "local veto." The sale of liquor is made
illegal in the hope of preventing drinking altogether or of diminishing
it by making it more difficult. General prohibition has been tried in
some American states, and is still in force in a few; it is also applied
to native races, under civilized rule, both in Africa and North America.
Local prohibition is widely in force in the United States, Canada and
Australasia, Sweden and Norway. In certain areas in other countries,
including the United Kingdom, the sale of liquor is in a sense
prohibited, not by the law, but by the owners of the property who refuse
to allow any public-houses. Such cases have nothing to do with the law,
but they are mentioned here because reference is often made to them by
advocates of legal prohibition.


THE UNITED KINGDOM

England has had a very much longer experience of liquor legislation than
any other country, and the story forms an introduction necessary to the
intelligent comprehension of liquor legislation in general. England
adopted a licensing system in 1551, and has retained it, with
innumerable modifications, ever since. The English were notorious for
hard drinking for centuries before licensing was adopted, and from time
to time sundry efforts had been made to check it, but what eventually
compelled the interference of the law was the growth of crime and
disorder associated with the public-houses towards the end of the 15th
century. Numbers of men who had previously been engaged in the civil
wars or on the establishment of feudal houses were thrown on the world
and betook themselves to the towns, particularly London, where they
frequented the ale-houses, "dicing and drinking," and lived largely on
violence and crime. An act was passed in 1495 against vagabonds and
unlawful games, whereby justices of the peace were empowered to "put
away common ale-selling in towns and places where they should think
convenient and to take sureties of keepers of ale-houses in their good
behaviour." That was the beginning of statutory control of the trade.
The act clearly recognized a connexion between public disorder and
public-houses. The latter were ale-houses, for at that time ale was the
drink of the people; spirits had not yet come into common use, and wine,
the consumption of which on the premises was prohibited in 1552, was
only drunk by the wealthier classes.

_Early History of Licensing._--The act of 1551-1552, which introduced
licensing, was on the same lines but went further. It confirmed the
power of suppressing common ale-selling, and enacted that no one should
be allowed to keep a common ale-house or "tippling" house without
obtaining the permission of the justices in open session or of two of
their number. It further "directed that the justices should take from
the persons whom they licensed such bond and surety by recognisance as
they should think convenient, and empowered them in quarter session to
inquire into and try breaches by licensed persons of the conditions of
their recognisances and cases of persons keeping ale-houses without
licences and to punish the offenders" (Bonham Carter, Royal Commission
on Liquor Licensing Laws, vol. iii.). This act embodied the whole
principle of licensing, and the object was clearly stated in the
preamble: "For as much as intolerable hurts and troubles to the
commonwealth of this realm doth daily grow and increase through such
abuses and disorders as are had and used in common ale-houses and other
places called tippling houses." The evil was not due merely to the use
of alcoholic liquor but to the fact that these houses, being
public-houses, were the resort of idle and disorderly characters. The
distinction should be borne in mind.

The act seems to have been of some effect, for no further legislation
was attempted for half a century, though there is abundant evidence of
the intemperate habits of all classes. Mr Bonham Carter (loc. cit.)
observes:--

  "The recognisances referred to in the act were valuable instruments
  for controlling the conduct of ale-house keepers. The justices, in
  exercise of their discretion, required the recognisances to contain
  such conditions for the management and good order of the business as
  they thought suitable. In this way a set of regulations came into
  existence, many of which were subsequently embodied in acts of
  Parliament. In some counties general rules were drawn up, which every
  ale-house keeper was bound to observe."

It is interesting to note that among the conditions laid down about this
time were the following: Closing at 9 P.M. and during divine service on
Sunday; in some cases complete closing on Sunday except to travellers;
the licence-holder to notify to the constable all strangers staying for
more than a night and not to permit persons to continue drinking or
tippling; prohibition of unlawful games, receiving stolen goods and
harbouring bad characters; the use of standard measures and prices fixed
by law. There was, however, no uniformity of practice in these respects
until the 17th century, when an attempt was made to establish stricter
and more uniform control by a whole series of acts passed between 1603
and 1627. The evils which it was sought to remedy by these measures were
the existence of unlicensed houses, the use of ale-houses for mere
drinking and the prevalence of disorder. It was declared that the
ancient and proper use of inns and ale-houses was the refreshment and
lodging of travellers, and that they were not meant for "entertainment
and harbouring of lewd and idle people to spend and consume their money
and their time in lewd and drunken manner." Regulations were
strengthened for the suppression of unlicensed houses, licences were
made annual, and the justices were directed to hold a special licensing
meeting once a year (1618). Penalties were imposed on innkeepers for
permitting tippling, and also on tipplers and drunkards (1625). In 1634
licensing was first applied to Ireland. Later in the century heavy
penalties were imposed for adulteration.

The next chapter in the history of licensing has to do with spirits, and
is very instructive. Spirits were not a native product like beer; brandy
was introduced from France, gin from the Netherlands and whisky from
Ireland; but down to the year 1690 the consumption was small. The home
manufacture was strictly limited, and high duties on imported spirits
rendered them too dear for the general public unless smuggled.
Consequently the people had not acquired the taste for them. But in 1690
distilling was thrown open to any one on the payment of very trifling
duties, spirits became extremely cheap and the consumption increased
with great rapidity. Regulation of the retail traffic was soon found to
be necessary, and by an act passed in 1700-1701, the licensing
requirements already existing for ale-house keepers were extended to
persons selling distilled liquors for consumption on the premises. A new
class of public-houses in the shape of spirit bars grew up. In the year
1732 a complete and detailed survey of all the streets and houses in
London was carried out by William Maitland, F.R.S. Out of a total of
95,968 houses he found the following: brew-houses 171, inns 207, taverns
447, ale-houses 5975, brandy-shops 8659; total number of licensed houses
for the retail sale of liquor 15,288, of which considerably more than
one-half were spirit bars. The population was about three-quarters of a
million. About one house in every six was licensed at this time, and
that in spite of attempts made to check the traffic by restrictive acts
passed in 1728-1729. The physical and moral evils caused by the
excessive consumption of spirits were fully recognized; an additional
duty of 5s. a gallon was placed on the distiller, and retailers were
compelled to take out an excise licence of £20 per annum. The object was
to make spirits dearer and therefore less accessible. At the same time,
with a view to lessening the number of houses, the licensing procedure
of the justices was amended by the provision that licences should only
be granted at a general meeting of the justices acting in the division
where the applicant resided, thus abolishing the power conferred by the
original licensing act, of any two justices to grant a licence. This
change, effected in 1729, was a permanent improvement, though it did not
prevent the existence of the prodigious numbers of houses recorded by
Maitland in 1732. The attempt to make spirits dearer by high excise
duties, on the other hand, was adjudged a failure because it led to
illicit trade, and the act of 1728 was repealed in 1732. But the evil
was so glaring that another and more drastic attempt in the same
direction was made in 1736, when the famous Gin Act was passed in
response to a petition presented to parliament by the Middlesex
magistrates, declaring "that the drinking of geneva and other distilled
waters had for some years past greatly increased; that the constant and
excessive use thereof had destroyed thousands of His Majesty's subjects;
that great numbers of others were by its use rendered unfit for useful
labour, debauched in morals and drawn into all manner of vice and
wickedness...." The retailing of spirits in quantities of less than 2
gallons was made subject to a licence costing £50 and the retailer had
also to pay a duty of 20s. on every gallon sold. This experiment in
"high licensing" was a disastrous failure, though energetic attempts
were made to enforce it by wholesale prosecutions and by strengthening
the regulations against evasion. Public opinion was inflamed against it,
and the only results were corruptions of the executive and an enormous
increase of consumption through illicit channels. The consumption of
spirits in England and Wales nearly doubled between 1733 and 1742, and
the state of things was so intolerable that after much controversy the
high duties were repealed in 1742 with the object of bringing the trade
back into authorized channels; the cost of a licence was reduced from
£50 to £1 and the retail duty from 20s. to 1d. a gallon.

This period witnessed the high-water mark of intemperance in England.
From various contemporary descriptions it is abundantly clear that the
state of things was incomparably worse than anything in modern times, and
that women, whose participation in the practice of drinking and
frequenting public-houses is recorded by writers in the previous century,
were affected as well as men. The experience is particularly instructive
because it includes examples of excess and deficiency of opportunities
and the ill effects of both on a people naturally inclined to indulgence
in drink. It was followed by more judicious action, which showed the
adaptability of the licensing system and the advantages of a mean between
laxity and severity. Between 1743 and 1753 acts were passed which
increased control in a moderate way and proved much more successful than
the previous measures. The retail licence duty was moderately raised and
the regulations were amended and made stricter. The class of houses
eligible for licensing was for the first time taken into account, and the
retailing of spirits was only permitted on premises assessed for rates
and, in London, of the annual value of £10; justices having an interest
in the trade were excluded from licensing functions. Another measure
which had an excellent effect made "tippling" debts--that is, small
public-houses debts incurred for spirits--irrecoverable at law. The
result of these measures was that consumption diminished and the class of
houses improved. At the same time (1753) the general licensing provisions
were strengthened and extended. The distinction between new licences and
the renewal of old ones was for the first time recognized; applicants for
new licences in country districts were required to produce a certificate
of character from the clergy, overseers and church-wardens or from three
or four householders. The annual licensing sessions were made statutory,
and the consent of a justice was required for the transfer of a licence
from one person to another during the term for which it was granted.
Penalties for infringing the law were increased, and the licensing system
was extended to Scotland (1755-1756). With regard to wine, it has already
been stated that consumption on the premises was forbidden in 1552, and
at the same time the retail sale was restricted to towns of some
importance and the number of retailers, who had to obtain an appointment
from the corporation or the justices, was strictly limited. In 1660
consumption on the premises was permitted under a Crown (excise) licence,
good for a variable term of years; in 1756 this was changed to an annual
excise licence of fixed amount, and in 1792 wine was brought under the
same jurisdiction of the justices as other liquors.

It is clear from the foregoing that a great deal of legislation occurred
during the 18th century, and that by successive enactments, particularly
about the middle of the century, the licensing system gradually became
adjusted to the requirements of the time and took a settled shape. The
acts then passed still form the basis of the law. In the early part of
the 19th century another period of legislative activity set in. A
parliamentary inquiry into illicit trade in spirits took place in 1821,
and in 1828 important acts were passed amending and consolidating the
laws for England and for Scotland; in 1833 a general Licensing Act was
passed for Ireland. These are still the principal acts, though they have
undergone innumerable amendments and additions. The English act of 1828
introduced certain important changes. A licence from the justices was no
longer required for the sale of liquor for consumption off the premises,
and the power of the justices to suppress public-houses at their
discretion (apart from the annual licensing), which they had possessed
since 1495, was taken away. The removal of this power, which had long
been obsolete, was the natural corollary of the development of the
licensing system, its greater stringency and efficiency and the increase
of duties imposed on the trade. Men on whom these obligations were laid,
and who were freshly authorized to carry on the business every year,
could not remain liable to summary deprivation of the privileges thus
granted and paid for. The justices had absolute discretion to withhold
licences from an applicant whether new or old; but an appeal was allowed
to quarter sessions against refusal and also against conviction for
offences under the act. The main points in the law at this time were the
following. The sale of alcoholic liquors for consumption on the premises
was forbidden under penalties except to persons authorized according to
law by the justices. Licences were granted for one year and had to be
renewed annually. The justices held a general meeting each year at a
specified time for the purpose of granting licences; those peculiarly
interested in the liquor trade were disqualified. The licence contained
various provisions for regulating the conduct of the house and
maintaining order, but closing was only required during the hours of
divine service on Sunday. Applicants for new licences and for the
transfer of old ones (granted at a special sessions of the justices)
were required to give notice to the local authorities and to post up
notices at the parish church and on the house concerned.

_Excise Licences._--It will be convenient at this point to explain the
relation between that part of the licensing system which is concerned
with the conduct of the traffic and lies in the jurisdiction of the
justices and that part which has to do with taxation or revenue. The
former is the earlier and more important branch of legislative
interference; we have traced its history from 1495 down to 1828. Its
object from the beginning was the maintenance of public order and good
conduct, which were impaired by the misuse of public-houses; and all the
successive enactments were directed to that end. They were attempts to
suppress or moderate the evils arising from the traffic by regulating
it. The excise licensing system has nothing to do with public order or
the conduct of the traffic; its object is simply to obtain revenue, and
for a long time the two systems were quite independent. But time and
change gradually brought them into contact and eventually they came to
form two aspects of one unified system. Licensing for revenue was first
introduced in 1660 at the same time as duties on the manufacture of beer
and spirits: but it was of an irregular character and was only applied
to wine, which was not then under the jurisdiction of the justices at
all (see above). In 1710 a small annual tax was imposed on the retailers
of beer and ale and collected by means of a stamp on the justices'
licence. In 1728 an annual excise licence of £20 was imposed on
retailers of spirits, and in 1736 this was raised to £50 (see above).
The object of these particular imposts, however, was rather to check the
sale, as previously explained, than to secure revenue. In 1756 the
previous tax on the retail sale of wine for consumption on the premises
was changed to an annual excise licence, which was in the next year
extended to "made wines" and "sweets" (British wines). Similar licences,
in place of the previous stamps, were temporarily required for beer and
ale between 1725 and 1742 and permanently imposed in 1808. Thus the
system of annual excise licences became gradually applied to all kinds
of liquor. In 1825 the laws relating to them were consolidated and
brought into direct relation with the other licensing laws. It was
enacted that excise licences for the retail of liquor should only be
granted to persons holding a justices' licence or--to use the more
correct term--certificate. The actual permission to sell was obtained on
payment of the proper dues from the excise authorities, but they had no
power to withhold it from persons authorized by the justices. And that
was still the system in 1910.

_Licensing since 1828._--There was no change in the form of the British
licensing system between the consolidation of the law in 1825-1828 and
the time (1910) at which we write; but there were a great many changes
in administrative detail and some changes in principle. Only the most
important can be mentioned. In 1830 a bold experiment was tried in
exempting the sale of beer from the requirement of a justice's licence.
Any householder rated to the parish was entitled, under a bond with
sureties, to take out an excise licence for the sale of beer for
consumption on or off the premises. This measure, which applied to
England and was commonly known as the Duke of Wellington's Act, had two
objects; one was to encourage the consumption of beer in the hope of
weaning the people from spirits; the other was to counteract the
practice of "tieing" public-houses to breweries by creating free ones.
With regard to the first, it was believed that spirit-drinking was
increasing again at the time and was doing a great deal of harm. The
reason appears to have been a great rise in the returns of consumption,
which followed a lowering of the duty on spirits from 11s. 8¼d. to 7s.
a gallon in 1825. The latter step was taken because of the prevalence of
illicit distillation. In 1823 the duty had been lowered for the same
reason in Scotland from 6s. 2d. and in Ireland from 5s. 7d. to a uniform
rate of 2s. 4¾d. a gallon, with so much success in turning the trade
from illegal to legal channels that a similar change was thought
advisable in England, as stated. The legal or apparent consumption rose
at once from 7 to nearly 13 million gallons; but it is doubtful if there
was much or any real increase. According to an official statement, more
than half the spirits consumed in 1820 were illicit. The facts are of
much interest in showing what had already been shown in the 18th
century, that the liquor trade will not bear unlimited taxation; the
traffic is driven underground. It is highly probable that this accounts
for part of the great fall in consumption which followed the raising of
the spirit duty from 11s. to 14s. 9d. under Mr Lloyd George's Budget in
1909. With regard to "tied" houses, this is the original form of
public-house. When beer was first brewed for sale a "tap" for retail
purposes was attached to the brewery, and public-houses may still be
found bearing the name "The Brewery Tap." At the beginning of the 19th
century complaints were made of the increasing number of houses owned or
controlled by breweries and of the dependence of the licence-holders,
and in 1817 a Select Committee inquired into the subject. The Beerhouse
Act does not appear to have checked the practice or to have diminished
the consumption of spirits; but it led to a great increase in the number
of beer-houses. It was modified in 1834 and 1840, but not repealed until
1869, when beer-houses were again brought under the justices.

Most of the other very numerous changes in the law were concerned with
conditions imposed on licence-holders. The hours of closing are the most
important of these. Apart from the ancient regulations of closing during
divine service on Sunday, there were no restrictions in 1828; but after
that at least a dozen successive acts dealt with the point. The first
important measure was applied in London under a Police Act in 1839; it
ordered licensed houses to be closed from midnight on Saturday to
mid-day on Sunday, and produced a wonderful effect on public order. In
1853 a very important act (Forbes Mackenzie) was passed for Scotland, by
which sale on Sunday was wholly forbidden, except to travellers and
lodgers, and was restricted on week days to the hours between 8 A.M. and
11 P.M. This act also introduced a distinction between hotels,
public-houses and grocers licensed to sell liquor, and forbade the sale
to children under 14 years, except as messengers, and to intoxicated
persons. In England, after a series of enactments in the direction of
progressive restriction, uniform regulations as to the hours of opening
and closing for licensed premises were applied in 1874, and are still in
force (see below). In 1878 complete Sunday closing, as in Scotland, was
applied in Ireland, with the exemption of the five largest towns,
Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Limerick and Waterford; and in 1881 the same
provision was extended to Wales.

Other changes worthy of note are the following. In 1860 the free sale of
wine for consumption off the premises was introduced by the Wine and
Refreshment Houses Act, which authorized any shopkeeper to take out an
excise licence for this purpose; the licences so created were
subsequently known as grocers' licences. By the same act refreshment
houses were placed under certain restrictions, but were permitted to
sell wine for consumption on the premises under an excise licence. In
1861 spirit dealers were similarly authorized to sell spirits by the
bottle. The effect of these measures was to exempt a good deal of the
wine and spirit trade from the control of the justices, and the idea was
to wean people from public-house drinking by encouraging them to take
what they wanted at home and in eating-houses.

In 1869 this policy of directing the habits of the people into channels
thought to be preferable, which had been inaugurated in 1830, was
abandoned for one of greater stringency all round, which has since been
maintained. All the beer and wine retail licences were brought under the
discretion of the justices, but they might only refuse "off" licences
and the renewal of previously existing beer-house "on" licences upon
specified grounds, namely (1) unsatisfactory character, (2) disorder,
(3) previous misconduct, (4) insufficient qualification of applicant or
premises. In 1872 an important act further extended the policy of
restriction; new licences had to be confirmed, and the right of appeal
in case of refusal was taken away; penalties for offences were increased
and extended, particularly for public drunkenness, and for permitting
drunkenness; the sale of spirits to persons under 16 was prohibited. In
1876 many of these provisions were extended to Scotland. In 1886 the
sale of liquor for consumption on the premises was forbidden to persons
under 13 years. In 1901 the sale for "off" consumption was prohibited to
persons under 14, except in sealed vessels; this is known as the Child
Messenger Act. These measures for the protection of children were
extended in 1908 by an act which came into operation in April 1909,
excluding children under 14 from the public-house bars altogether. The
progressive protection of children by the law well illustrates the
influence of changing public opinion. The successive measures enumerated
were not due to increasing contamination of children caused by their
frequenting the public-house, but to recognition of the harm they
sustain thereby. The practice of taking and sending children to the
public-house, and of serving them with drink, is an old one in England.
A great deal of evidence on the subject was given before a Select
Committee of the House of Commons in 1834; but it is only in recent
years, when the general concern for children has undergone a remarkable
development in all directions, that attempts have been made to stop it.
In 1902 clubs, which had been increasing, and habitual drunkards, were
brought under the law.

In 1904 a new principle was introduced into the licensing system in
England, and this, too, was due to change in public opinion. Between
1830 and 1869, under the influence of the legislation described above, a
continuous increase in the number of public-houses took place in
England; but after 1869 they began to diminish through stricter control,
and this process has gone on continuously ever since. Reduction of
numbers became a prime object with many licensing benches; they were
reluctant to grant new licences, and made a point of extinguishing old
ones year by year. At first this was easily effected under the new and
stringent provisions of the legislation of 1869-1872, but it gradually
became more difficult as the worst houses disappeared and the remaining
ones were better conducted, and gave less and less excuse for
interference. But the desire for reduction still gained ground, and a
new principle was adopted. Houses against which no ill-conduct was
alleged were said to be "superfluous," and on that ground licences were
taken away. But this, again, offended the general sense of justice; it
was felt that to take away a man's living or a valuable property for no
fault of his own was to inflict a great hardship. To meet the difficulty
the principle of compensation was introduced by the act of 1904. It
provides that compensation shall be paid to a licence-holder (also to
the owner of the premises) whose licence is withdrawn on grounds other
than misconduct of the house or unsuitability of premises or of
character. The compensation is paid out of a fund raised by an annual
charge on the remaining licensed houses. This act has been followed by a
large reduction of licences.

_State of the Law in 1910._--In consequence of the long history and
evolution of legislation in the United Kingdom and of the innumerable
minor changes introduced, only a few of which have been mentioned above,
the law has become excessively complicated. The differences between the
English, Scottish and Irish codes, the distinction between the several
kinds of liquor, between consumption on and off the premises, between
new licences and the renewal of old ones, between premises licensed
before 1869 and those licensed since, between excise and justices'
licences--all these and many other points make the subject exceedingly
intricate; and it is further complicated by the uncertainty of the
courts and a vast body of case-made law. Only a summary of the chief
provisions can be given here.

1. The open sale of intoxicating liquor (spirits, wine, sweets, beer,
cider) by retail is confined to persons holding an excise licence, with
a few unimportant exceptions, including medicine.

2. A condition precedent to obtaining such a licence is permission
granted by the justices who are the licensing authority and called a
justices' licence or certificate. Theatres, passenger boats and
canteens are exempted from this condition; also certain dealers in
spirits and wine.

3. Justices' licences are granted at special annual meetings of the
local justices, called Brewster Sessions. Justices having a pecuniary
interest in the liquor trade of the district, except as railway
shareholders, are disqualified from acting; "bias" due to other
interests may also be a disqualification.

4. Justices' licences are only granted for one year and must be renewed
annually, with the exception of a particular class, created by the act
of 1904 and valid for a term of years. Distinctions are made between
granting a new licence and renewing an old one. The proceedings are
stricter and more summary in the case of a new licence; notice of
application must be given to the local authorities; the premises must be
of a certain annual value; a plan of the premises must be deposited
beforehand in the case of an "on" licence; the justices may impose
conditions and have full discretion to refuse without any right of
appeal; the licence, if granted, must be confirmed by a higher
authority. In the case of old licences on the other hand, no notice is
required; they are renewed to the former holders on application, as a
matter of right; unless there is opposition or objection, which may come
from the police or from outside parties or from the justices themselves.
If there is objection the renewal may be refused, but only on specified
grounds--namely misconduct, unfitness of premises or character,
disqualification; otherwise compensation is payable on the plan
explained above. There is a right of appeal to a higher court against
refusal. In all cases, whether the justices have full discretion or not,
they must exercise their discretion in a judicial manner and not
arbitrarily.

5. Licences may be transferred from one person to another in case of
death, sickness, bankruptcy, change of tenancy, wilful omission to apply
for renewal, forfeiture or disqualification. Licences may also be
transferred from one house to another in certain circumstances.

6. A licence may be forfeited through the conviction of the holder of
certain specified serious offences.

7. Persons may similarly be disqualified from holding a licence.

8. Liquor may only be sold on the premises specified in the licence and
during the following hours:--week-days; London, 5 A.M. to 12.30 P.M.
(Saturday, midnight); large towns 6 A.M. to 11 P.M.; other places 6 A.M.
to 10 P.M.--Sundays; London, 1 P.M. to 3 P.M., 6 P.M. to 11 P.M.; other
places 12.30 P.M. (or 1 P.M.) to 2.30 P.M. (or 3 P.M.), 6 P.M. to 10
P.M.; Christmas Day and Good Friday are counted as Sunday. In Scotland,
Wales and Ireland (except the five chief towns) no sale is permitted on
Sunday. Licence holders may sell during prohibited hours to lodgers
staying in the house and to _bona-fide_ travellers, who must be not less
than 3 m. from the place they slept in on the previous night. Extension
of hours of sale may be granted for special occasions and for special
localities (e.g. early markets).

9. The following proceedings are prohibited in licensed premises:
permitting children under 14 to be in a bar, selling any liquor to
children under 14 for consumption on the premises, selling liquor to
children under 14 as messengers except in corked and sealed vessels,
selling spirits for consumption on the premises to persons under 16;
selling to drunken persons and to habitual drunkards; permitting
drunkenness, permitting disorder, harbouring prostitutes, harbouring
constables, supplying liquor to constables on duty, bribing constables,
permitting betting (persistent) or gaming, permitting premises to be
used as a brothel, harbouring thieves, permitting seditious meetings;
permitting the payment of wagers on premises; permitting premises to be
used for election committee rooms. In and within 20 m. of London music
and dancing are prohibited on licensed premises except under special
licences.

10. The police have the right of entry to licensed premises at any time
for the purpose of preventing or detecting offences.

11. The injurious adulteration of any liquor is prohibited; also the
dilution of beer; but dilution of spirits is not unlawful if the
customer's attention is drawn to the fact.

12. All clubs in which intoxicating liquor is sold must be registered.
If the liquor is the collective property of the members no licence is
required for retail sale, but no liquor can be sold for consumption off
the premises. Clubs run for profit, known as proprietory clubs, are on
the same legal footing as public-houses.

13. Penalties incurred by licence-holders for offences under the
foregoing provisions. For selling any other kind of liquor than that
authorized--first offence, fine not exceeding £50 or one month's
imprisonment; second offence, fine not exceeding £100 or 3 months'
imprisonment with forfeiture of licence and, if ordered, confiscation of
liquor and disqualification for five years; third offence, fine not
exceeding £100 or six months' imprisonment with forfeiture of licence
and, if ordered, confiscation of liquor and unlimited disqualification.
Under the Excise Acts the penalty for selling without a licence is--for
spirits, a fine of £100, confiscation of liquor, forfeiture of licence
and perpetual disqualification; for wine, a fine of £20; for beer or
cider "on" consumption £20, "off" consumption £10. For sale to children;
first offence, fine up to £2, second offence, fine up to £5. Permitting
premises to be used as a brothel, fine of £20, forfeiture of licence and
perpetual disqualification. Other offences, fine up to £10 for first
conviction, up to £20 for second.

14. The following are offences on the part of the public. Being found
drunk on any highway or other public place or on licensed premises;
penalty, fine up to 10s. for first conviction, up to 20s. for second,
and up to 40s. for third. Riotous or disorderly conduct while drunk;
fine up to 40s. Falsely pretending to be a traveller or lodger; fine up
to £5. Causing children to be in a bar or sending them for liquor
contrary to the law; fine up to £2 for first and up to £5 for second
offence. Attempt to obtain liquor by a person notified to the police as
an habitual drunkard; fine up to 20s. for first offence, up to 40s. for
subsequent ones. Giving drunken persons liquor or helping them to get it
on licensed premises; fine up to 40s. or imprisonment for a month.
Causing children under 11 to sing or otherwise perform on licensed
premises, and causing boys under 14 or girls under 16 to do so between 9
P.M. and 6 A.M.; fine up to £25 or three months' imprisonment.

The foregoing statement of the law does not in all respects apply to
Scotland and Ireland, where the administration differs somewhat from
that of England. In Scotland the provost and bailies are the licensing
authority in royal and parliamentary burghs, and elsewhere the justices.
They hold two sessions annually for granting licences and have
considerably more power in some respects than in England. The hours of
opening are from 8 A.M. to 11 P.M. (week days only), but there is a
discretionary power to close at 10 P.M. In Ireland the licensing
authority is divided between quarter sessions and petty sessions.
Public-house licences are granted and transferred at quarter sessions;
renewals and other licences are dealt with at petty sessions. In Dublin,
Belfast, Cork, Londonderry and Galway the licensing jurisdiction of
quarter sessions is exercised by the recorder, elsewhere by the justices
assembled and presided over by the county court judge. The licensing
jurisdiction of petty sessions is exercised by two or more justices, but
in Dublin by one divisional justice.

  +-------------------------------+--------------------+------------------------------+
  |          Licence.             |      Old Duty.     |      New Duty 1909-1910.     |
  +-------------------------------+--------------------+------------------------------+
  |_Manufacturers' Licences_--    |                    |                              |
  |  Distiller (spirits)          |     £10, 10s.      | £10 for first 50,000         |
  |                               |                    |   gallons, £10 for every     |
  |                               |                    |   additional 25,000 gallons. |
  |  Rectifier (spirits)          |     £10, 10s.      | £15, 15s.                    |
  |  Brewer                       |        £1          | £1 for first 100 barrels,    |
  |                               |                    |   12s. for every additional  |
  |                               |                    |   50 barrels.                |
  |  Sweets (British wines)       |        £1          | £5, 5s.                      |
  |                               |                    |                              |
  |_Wholesale Dealers' Licences_--|                    |                              |
  |  Spirits                      |     £10, 10s.      | £15, 15s.                    |
  |  Beer                         |    £3, 6s. 1d.     | £10, 10s.                    |
  |  Wine                         |     £10, 10s.      | No change.                   |
  |  Sweets                       |      £5, 5s.       | No change.                   |
  |                               |                    |                              |
  |_Retail Licences On_--         |                    |                              |
  |  Full or Publican's           |  £4, 10s. to £60   | Half the annual value of     |
  |  (spirits, beer, wine and     |  according to      |   premises, with a fixed     |
  |  cider)                       |  annual value      |   minimum ranging from £5 in |
  |                               |  of premises.      |   places with less than      |
  |                               |                    |   2000 inhabitants to £35 in |
  |                               |                    |   towns having over 100,000  |
  |                               |                    |   inhabitants.               |
  |  Beer-house                   |      £3, 10s.      | One-third of annual value    |
  |                               |                    |   of premises, with a        |
  |                               |                    |   minimum as above ranging   |
  |                               |                    |   from £3, 10s. to £23, 10s. |
  |  Wine (confectioners')        |      £3, 10s.      | From £4, 10s. to £12         |
  |                               |                    |   according to annual value. |
  |  Cider                        |      £1, 5s.       | From £2, 5s. to £6.          |
  |  Sweets                       |      £1, 5s.       | From £2, 5s. to £6.          |
  |                               |                    |                              |
  |_Retail Licences Off_--        |                    |                              |
  |  Spirits                      |      £3, 3s.      /|                              |
  |  Spirits (grocers', Scotland) |    £4, 4s. to    | | From £10 to £50 according to |
  |                               |   £13, 13s. 6d. <  |   annual value.              |
  |  Spirits (grocers', Ireland)  |  £9, 18s. 5d. to | |                              |
  |                               |    £14, 6s. 7d.   \|                              |
  |  Beer (England)               |      £1, 5s.       | £1, 10s. to £10.             |
  |  Beer (grocers', Scotland)    |£2, 10s. and £4, 4s.| £1, 10s. to £10.             |
  |  Wine (grocers')              |    £2, 10s. 0d.    | £2, 10s. to £10.             |
  +-------------------------------+--------------------+------------------------------+

_Excise Licences and Taxation._--The excise licences may be divided into
four classes, (1) manufacturers', (2) wholesale dealers', (3) retail
dealers' for "on" consumption, (4) retail dealers' for "off"
consumption. Only the two last classes come under the jurisdiction of
the justices, as explained above. The total number of different excise
licences is between 30 and 40, but several of them are subvarieties and
unimportant or are peculiar to Scotland or Ireland. The duties charged
on them were greatly changed and increased by the Finance Act of
1909-1910, and it seems desirable to state the changes thus introduced.
The table on the previous page gives the principal kinds of licence with
the old and the new duties.

There are in addition "occasional" licences valid for one or more days,
which come under the jurisdiction of the justices; the duty is 2s. 6d. a
day for the full licence (raised to 10s.) and 1s. for beer or wine only
(raised to 5s.).

The total amount raised by the excise licences in the United Kingdom for
the financial year ending 31st March 1909 was £2,209,928. Of this amount
£1,712,160, or nearly four-fifths, was derived from the full or
publicans' licence, £126,053 from the wholesale spirit licence and
£88,167 from the beer-house licence; the rest are comparatively
unimportant. But the licences only represent a small part of the revenue
derived from liquor. The great bulk of it is collected by means of
duties on manufacture and importation. The total amount for the year
ending March 1909 was £37,428,189, or nearly 30% of the total taxation
revenue of the country. The excise duties on the manufacture of spirits
yielded £17,456,366 and those on beer £12,691,332; customs duties on
importation yielded £5,046,949. The excise duty on spirits was at the
rate of 11s. a gallon, raised at the end of April 1909 to 14s. 9d.; the
corresponding duty on beer is 7s. 9d. a barrel (36 gallons). The
relative taxation of the liquor trade in the United States, which has
become important as a political argument, is discussed below.

_Effects of Legislation._--The only effects which can be stated with
precision and ascribed with certainty to legislation are the increase or
diminution of the number of licences or licensed premises; secondary
effects, such as increase or diminution of consumption and of
drunkenness, are affected by so many causes that only by a very careful,
well-informed and dispassionate examination of the facts can positive
conclusions be drawn with regard to the influence of legislation (see
TEMPERANCE). There is no more prolific ground for fallacious statements
and arguments, whether unconscious or deliberate. The course of
legislation traced above, however, does permit the broad conclusion that
great laxity and the multiplication of facilities tend to increase
drinking and disorder in a country like the United Kingdom, and that
extreme severity produces the same or worse effects by driving the trade
into illicit channels, which escape control, and thus really increasing
facilities while apparently diminishing them. The most successful course
has always been a mean between these extremes in the form of restraint
judiciously applied and adjusted to circumstances. The most salient
feature of the situation as influenced by the law in recent years is the
progressive reduction in the number of licensed houses since 1869.
Previously they had been increasing in England.

The number of public-houses, including beer-houses for "on" consumption,
in 1831 was 82,466; in 1869 it had risen to 118,602; in 1909 it had
fallen again to 94,794. But if the proportion of public-houses to
population be taken there has been a continuous fall since 1831, as the
following table shows:--

  _England and Wales._

  +--------+----------------+---------------+
  |        |     No. of     |  Proportion   |
  |  Year. | "on" Licences. | per 10,000 of |
  |        |                |  Population.  |
  +--------+----------------+---------------+
  |  1831  |     82,466     |      59       |
  |  1871  |    112,886     |      49       |
  |  1901  |    101,940     |      31       |
  |  1909  |     94,794     |      26       |
  +--------+----------------+---------------+

The change may be put in another way. In 1831 there was one public-house
to 168 persons; in 1909 the proportion was 1 to 375. The proportional
reduction goes back to the 18th century. In 1732 there was in London one
public-house to every 50 persons (see above).

In Scotland the number of public-houses has been diminishing since 1829,
when there were 17,713; in 1909 there were only 7065, while the
population had more than doubled. The number in proportion to population
has therefore fallen far more rapidly than in England, thus--1831, 1 to
134 persons; 1909, 1 to 690 persons. In Ireland the story is different.
There has been a fall in the number of public-houses since 1829, when
there were 20,548; but it has not been large or continuous and the
population has been steadily diminishing during the time, so that the
proportion to population has actually increased, thus--1831, 1 to 395
persons; 1909, 1 to 249 persons. As a whole, however, the United Kingdom
shows a large and progressive diminution of public-houses to population;
nor is this counterbalanced by an increase of "off" licences. If we take
the whole number of licences we get the following movement in recent
years:--

  _No. of Retail Licences ("on" and "off") per 10,000 of Population._

  +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+
  |                   | 1893. | 1903. | 1909. |
  +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+
  | England and Wales |  46   |  42   |  37   |
  | Scotland          |  37   |  33   |  30   |
  | Ireland           |  41   |  46   |  45   |
  | United Kingdom    |  45   |  42   |  37   |
  +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+

The diminution in the number of public-houses in England was markedly
accelerated by the act of 1904, which introduced the principle of
compensation. The average annual rate of reduction in the ten years
1894-1904 before the act was 359; in the four years 1905-1908; after the
act it rose to 1388. The average annual number of licences suppressed
with compensation was 1137, and the average annual amount of
compensation paid was £1,096,946, contributed by the trade as explained
above.

The reduction of public-houses has been accompanied in recent years by a
constant increase in the number of clubs. By the act of 1902, which
imposed registration, they were brought under some control and the
number of legal clubs was accurately ascertained. Previously the number
was only estimated from certain _data_ with approximate accuracy. The
following table gives the official figures:--

  _Clubs: England and Wales._

  +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |              | 1887.| 1896.| 1904.| 1905.| 1906.| 1907.| 1908.| 1909.|
  +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  | Number       | 1982 | 3655 | 6371 | 6589 | 6721 | 6907 | 7133 | 7353 |
  | Proportion   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  |   per 10,000 |  0.7 | 1.1  | 1.89 | 1.93 | 1.95 | 1.98 | 2.02 | 2.08 |
  +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

Clubs represent alternative channels to the licensed trade and they are
under much less stringent control; they have no prohibited hours and the
police have not the same right of entry. In so far, therefore, as clubs
replace public-houses the reduction of the latter does not mean
diminished facilities for drinking, but the contrary. In the years
1903-1908 the average number of clubs proceeded against for offences was
74 and the average number struck off the register was 52. The increase
of clubs and the large proportion struck off the register suggest the
need of caution in dealing with the licensed trade; over-stringent
measures defeat their own end.

Persistent attempts have for many years been made to effect radical
changes in the British system of licensing by the introduction of some
of the methods adopted in other countries, and particularly those in the
United States. But it is difficult to engraft new and alien methods,
involving violent change, upon an ancient system consolidated by
successive statutory enactments and confirmed by time and usage. The
course of the law and administration since 1869 has made it particularly
difficult. The stringent conditions imposed on licence-holders have
given those who fulfil them a claim to consideration, and the reduction
of licences, by limiting the market, has enhanced their value. An
expectation of renewal, in the absence of misconduct, has grown up by
usage and been confirmed by the law, which recognizes the distinction
between granting a new licence and renewing an old one, by the treasury
which levies death duties on the assumption that a licence is an
enduring property, by local authorities which assess upon the same
assumption, and by the High Courts of Justice, whose decisions have
repeatedly turned on this point. The consequence of all this is that
very large sums have been invested in licensed property, which has
become part of the settled order of society; and to destroy it by some
sudden innovation would cause a great shock. The position is entirely
different in other countries where no such control has ever been
exercised. It is possible to impose a new system where previously there
was none, but not to replace suddenly an old and settled one for
something entirely different. Only the most convincing proof of the need
and the advantages of the change would justify it; and such proof has
not been forthcoming. The British system has the great merit of
combining adaptability to different circumstances and to changing
customs with continuity and steadiness of administration. The advantages
of abandoning it for some other are more than doubtful, the difficulties
are real and serious. Over a very long period it has been repeatedly
readjusted in conformity with the movement of public opinion and of
national habits; while under it the executive have gradually got the
traffic well in hand, and a great and progressive improvement in order
and conduct has taken place. The process is gradual but sure, and the
record will compare favourably with that of any other comparable
country. Further readjustment will follow and is desirable. The great
defect of the law is its extreme complexity; it needs recasting and
simplification. There are too many kinds of licence, and the
classification does not correspond with the actual conditions of the
traffic. Some licences are obsolete and superfluous; others make no
distinction between branches of the trade which fulfil entirely
different functions and require different treatment. The full or
publican's licence, which is incomparably the most important, places on
the same legal footing hotels, restaurants, village inns and mere
drinking bars, and the lack of distinction is a great stumbling-block.
In the attempt made in 1908 to introduce new legislation it was found
necessary to incorporate distinctions between different classes of
establishment, although that was not contemplated in the original bill.
It will always be found necessary whenever the subject is seriously
approached, because the law has to deal with things as they actually
are. It does not fall within the scope of this article to discuss the
numerous controversial questions which arise in connexion with various
legislative proposals for dealing with the liquor traffic; but an
account of the methods which it has been proposed to adopt from other
countries will be found below.


THE UNITED STATES

The liquor legislation of the United States presents a great contrast to
that of the United Kingdom, but it is not less interesting in an
entirely different way. In place of a single homogeneous system
gradually evolved in the course of centuries it embraces a whole series
of different ones based on the most diverse principles and subject to
sudden changes and frequent experiments. It is not sufficiently
understood in Europe that the legislatures of the several states are
sovereign in regard to internal affairs and make what laws they please
subject to the proviso that they cannot over-ride the Federal law. There
is therefore no uniformity in regard to such matters as liquor
legislation, and it is a mistake to speak of any particular system as
representing the whole country. The United States government only
interferes with the traffic to tax it for revenue, and to regulate the
sale of liquor to Indians, to soldiers, etc. The liquor traffic is
subject--whether in the form of manufacture, wholesale or retail
trade--to a uniform tax of 25 dollars (£5) per annum imposed on every
one engaged in it. Congress, under the constitution, controls interstate
commerce, and the Supreme Court has decided that without its consent no
state can prevent a railway or other carrying agency from bringing
liquor to any point within its borders from outside. Thus no state can
keep out liquor or prevent its consumption, but any state legislature
may make what internal regulations it pleases and may prohibit the
manufacture and sale altogether within its own borders. It may go
further. In 1887 a judgment was delivered by the Supreme Court of the
United States that it is within the discretionary power of a state to
protect public health, safety and morals even by the destruction of
property without compensation, and that the constitution of the United
States is not thereby violated. Use has been made of this power in
Kansas, and it appears therefore that persons who engage in the liquor
trade do so at their own risk. There is in fact no stability at all
except in a few states which have incorporated some principle in their
constitutions, and even that does not ensure continuity of practice, as
means are easily found for evading the law or substituting some other
system which amounts to the same thing. As a whole the control of the
liquor traffic oscillates violently between attempted suppression and
great freedom combined with heavy taxation of licensed houses.

In the great majority of the states some form of licensing exists; it is
the prevailing system and was adopted, no doubt from England, at an
early period. It is exercised in various ways. The licensing authority
may be the municipality or a specially constituted body or the police or
a judicial body. The last, which is the method in Pennsylvania, seems to
be exceptional. According to Mr Fanshawe there is a general tendency,
due to the prevailing corruption, to withdraw from municipal authorities
power over the licensing, and to place this function in the hands of
commissioners, who may be elected or nominated. In New York state the
licensing commissioners used to be nominated in cities by the mayors and
elected elsewhere; but by the Raines law of 1896 the whole
administration was placed under a state commissioner appointed by the
governor with the consent of the Senate. A similar plan is in force in
some important cities in other states. In Boston the licensing is in the
hands of a police board appointed by the governor; in Baltimore and St
Louis the authority is vested in commissioners similarly appointed; and
in Washington the licensing commissioners are appointed by the
president. In Pennsylvania, where the court of quarter sessions is the
authority, the vesting of licensing in a judicial body dates back to
1676 and bears the stamp of English influence. It is noteworthy that in
Philadelphia and Pittsburg (Allegheny county) the judicial court was for
a time given up in favour of commissioners, but the change was a great
failure and abandoned in 1888. The powers of the licensing authority
vary widely; in some cases the only grounds of refusal are conduct and
character, and licences are virtually granted to every applicant; in
others the discretion to refuse is absolute. In Massachusetts the number
of licences allowed bears a fixed ratio to the population, namely 1 to
1000, except in Boston, where it is 1 to 500, but as a rule where
licences are given they are given freely. They are valid for a year and
granted on conditions. The first and most general condition is the
payment of a fee or tax, which varies in amount in different states.
Under the "high licence" system (see below) it generally varies
according to the size of the locality and the class of licence where
different classes are recognized. In Massachusetts there are six
licences; three for consumption on the premises--namely (1) full licence
for all liquors, (2) beer, cider, and light wine, (3) beer and cider;
two for consumption off the premises--namely (1) spirits, (2) other
liquors; the sixth is for druggists. In New York state also there are
six classes of licence, though they are not quite the same; but in many
states there appears to be only one licence, and no distinction between
on and off sale, wholesale or retail. Another condition generally
imposed in addition to the tax is a heavy bond with sureties; it varies
in amount but is usually not less than 2000 dollars (£400) and may be as
high as 6000 dollars (£1200). A condition precedent to the granting of a
licence imposed in some states is the deposit of a petition or
application some time beforehand, which may have to be backed by a
certain number of local residents or tax-payers. In Pennsylvania the
required number is 12, and this is the common practice elsewhere; in
Missouri a majority of tax-payers is required, and the licence may even
then be refused, but if the petition is signed by two-thirds of the
tax-payers the licensing authority is bound to grant it. This seems to
be a sort of genuine local option. Provision is also generally made for
hearing objectors. Another condition sometimes required (Massachusetts
and Iowa) is the consent of owners of adjoining property. In some states
no licences are permitted within a stated distance of certain
institutions; e.g. public parks (Missouri) and schools (Massachusetts).
Regulations imposed on the licensed trade nearly always include
prohibition of sale to minors under 18 and to drunkards, on Sundays,
public holidays and election days, and prohibition of the employment of
barmaids. Sunday closing, which is universal, dates at least from 1816
(Indiana) and is probably much older. The hours of closing on week days
vary considerably but are usually 10 P.M. or 11 P.M. Other things are
often prohibited including indecent pictures, games and music.

_State Prohibition._--In a few states no licences are allowed. State
prohibition was first introduced in 1846 under the influence of a strong
agitation in Maine, and within a few years the example was followed by
the other New England states; by Vermont in 1852, Connecticut in 1854,
New Hampshire in 1855 and later by Massachusetts and Rhode Island. They
have all now after a more or less prolonged trial given it up except
Maine. Other states which have tried and abandoned it are Illinois
(1851-1853), Indiana (1855-1858), Michigan, Iowa, Nebraska, South
Dakota. The great Middle states have either never tried it, as in the
case of New York (where it was enacted in 1855 but declared
unconstitutional), Pennsylvania and New Jersey, or only gave it a
nominal trial, as with Illinois and Indiana. A curious position came
about in Ohio,[1] one of the great industrial states. It did not adopt
prohibition, which forbids the manufacture and sale of liquor; but in
1851 it abandoned licensing, which had been in force since 1792, and
incorporated a provision in the constitution declaring that no licence
should thereafter be granted in the state. The position then was that
retail sale without a licence was illegal and that no licence could be
granted. This singular state of things was changed in 1886 by the "Dow
law," which authorized a tax on the trade and rendered it legal without
expressly sanctioning or licensing it. There were therefore no licences
and no licensing machinery, but the traffic was taxed and conditions
imposed. In effect the Dow law amounted to repeal of prohibition and its
replacement by the freest possible form of licensing. In Iowa, which
early adopted a prohibitory law, still nominally in force, a law, known
as the "mulct law," was passed in 1894 for taxing the trade and
practically legalizing it under conditions. The story of the forty
years' struggle in this state between the prohibition agitation and the
natural appetites of mankind is exceedingly instructive; it is an
extraordinary revelation of political intrigue and tortuous proceedings,
and an impressive warning against the folly of trying to coerce the
personal habits of a large section of the population against their will.
It ended in a sort of compromise, in which the coercive principle is
preserved in one law and personal liberty vindicated by another
contradictory one. The result may be satisfactory, but it might be
attained in a less expensive manner. What suffers is the principle of
law itself, which is brought into disrepute.

State prohibition, abandoned by the populous New England and central
states, has in recent years found a home in more remote regions. In 1907
it was in force in five states--Maine, Kansas, North Dakota, Georgia and
Oklahoma; in January, 1909, it came into operation in Alabama,
Mississippi, and North Carolina; and in July 1909 in Tennessee.

_Local Prohibition._--The limited form of prohibition known as local
veto is much more extensively applied. It is an older plan than state
prohibition, having been adopted by the legislature of Indiana in 1832.
Georgia followed in the next year, and then other states took it up for
several years until the rise of state prohibition in the middle of the
century caused it to fall into neglect for a time. But the states which
adopted and then abandoned general prohibition fell back on the local
form, and a great many others have also adopted it. In 1907 it was in
force in over 30 states, including all the most populous and important,
with one or two exceptions. But the extent to which it is applied varies
very widely and is constantly changing, as different places take it up
and drop it again. Some alternate in an almost regular manner every two
or three years, or even every year; and periodical oscillations of a
general character occur in favour of the plan or against it as the
result of organized agitation followed by reaction. The wide
discrepancies between the practice of different states are shown by some
statistics collected in 1907, when the movement was running favourably
to the adoption of no licence. In Tennessee the whole state was under
prohibition with the exception of 5 municipalities; Arkansas, 56 out of
75 counties; Florida, 35 out of 46 counties; Mississippi, 56 out of 77
counties; North Carolina, 70 out of 97 counties; Vermont, 3 out of 6
cities and 208 out of 241 towns. These appear to be the most prohibitive
states, and they are all of a rural character. At the other end of the
scale were Pennsylvania with 1 county and a few towns ("town" in
America is generally equivalent to "village" in England); Michigan, 1
county and a few towns; California, parts of 8 or 10 counties. New York
had 308 out of 933 towns, Ohio, 480 out of 768 towns, Massachusetts, 19
out of 33 cities and 249 out of 321 towns. At the end of 1909 a strong
reaction against the prohibition policy set in, notably in
Massachusetts.

There is no more uniformity in the mode of procedure than in the extent
of application. At least five methods are distinguished. In the most
complete and regular form a vote is taken every year in all localities
whether there shall be licences or not in the ensuing year and is
decided by a bare majority. A second method of applying the general vote
is to take it at any time, but not oftener than once in four years, on
the demand of one-tenth of the electorate. A third plan is to apply this
principle locally and put the question to the vote, when demanded, in
any locality. A fourth and entirely different system is to invest the
local authority with powers to decide whether there shall be licences or
not; and a fifth is to give residents power to prevent licences by means
of protest or petition. The first two methods are those most widely in
force; but the third plan of taking a local vote by itself is adopted in
some important states, including New York, Ohio and Illinois. Opinions
differ widely with regard to the success of local veto, but all
independent observers agree that it is more successful than state
prohibition, and the preference accorded to it by so many states after
prolonged experience proves that public opinion broadly endorses that
view. Its advantage lies in its adaptability to local circumstances and
local opinion. It prevails mainly in rural districts and small towns; in
the larger towns it is best tolerated where they are in close proximity
to "safety valves" or licensed areas in which liquor can be obtained;
the large cities do not adopt it. On the other hand, it has some serious
disadvantages. The perpetually renewed struggle between the advocates
and opponents of prohibition is a constant cause of social and political
strife; and the alternate shutting up and opening of public houses in
many places makes continuity of administration impossible, prevents the
executive from getting the traffic properly in hand, upsets the habits
of the people, demoralizes the trade and stands in the way of steady
improvement.

_Public Dispensaries._--This entirely different system of controlling
the traffic has been in general operation in one state only, South
Carolina; but it was also applied to certain areas in the neighbouring
states of North Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. The coloured element is
very strong in these states, especially in South Carolina, where the
coloured far exceeds the white population. The dispensary system was
inaugurated there in 1893. It had been preceded by a licensing system
with local veto (adopted in 1882), but a strong agitation for state
prohibition brought matters to a crisis in 1891. The usual violent
political struggle, which is the only constant feature of liquor
legislation in the United States, took place, partly on temperance and
partly on economic grounds; and a way out was found by adopting an idea
from the town of Athens in Georgia, where the liquor trade was run by
the municipality through a public dispensary. A law was passed in 1892
embodying this principle but applying it to the whole state. The measure
was fiercely contested in the courts and the legislature for years and
it underwent numerous amendments, but it survived. Under it the state
became the sole purveyor of liquor, buying wholesale from the
manufacturers and selling retail through dispensaries under public
management and only for consumption off the premises. Many changes were
introduced from time to time without abandoning the principle, but in
1907 the system of state control was replaced by one of county
administration. Local veto is also in force, and thus the localities
have the choice of a dispensary or no sale at all. The regulations are
very strict. The dispensaries are few and only open on week-days and
during the day-time; they close at sunset. Liquor is only sold in
bottles and in not less quantities than half a pint of spirits and a
pint of beer, and it must be taken away; bars are abolished. There is a
general consensus of testimony to the effect of the system in improving
public order especially among the coloured population, who are very
susceptible to drink. The law seems to be well carried out in general,
but Charleston and Columbia, the only two considerable towns, are
honeycombed with illicit drink-shops, as the writer has proved by
personal experience. Columbia is the capital and the seat of cotton
manufactures, as are all the larger towns, with the exception of
Charleston, which is the port and business centre. The population of the
state is predominantly rural, and local prohibition obtains in 18 out of
41 counties.

  The following statistical comparison, extracted from the United States
  Census of 1900 and the Inland Revenue Returns by Mr W. O. Tatum (_New
  Encyclopedia of Social Reform_) and here presented in tabular form, is
  highly instructive. It shows the population and number of liquor
  dealers paying the United States tax in two prohibition states, one
  state under what is considered the best licensing system, and South
  Carolina.

    +-------------------------+-----------+----------+--------+
    |                         |           | Wholesale| Retail |
    |          State.         |Population.|  Liquor  | Liquor |
    |                         |           | Dealers. |Dealers.|
    +-------------------------+-----------+----------+--------+
    | Maine (Prohibition)     |   694,466 |    51    |  1366  |
    | Kansas (Prohibition)    | 1,470,495 |   129    |  3125  |
    | Massachusetts (Licence) | 2,805,346 |   617    |  5092  |
    | S. Carolina (Dispensary)| 1,340,316 |    13    |   534  |
    +-------------------------+-----------+----------+--------+

  This table may be said to epitomize the results of the United States
  restrictive liquor laws. It presents examples of three different
  systems; the proportion of retail liquor sellers to population
  is--under complete prohibition, 1 to 508 and 1 to 475; under licence
  and local prohibition, 1 to 530; under dispensary and local
  prohibition, 1 to 2509. But the remarkable thing is the enormous
  amount of illicit traffic existing under all three systems. It is
  incomparably greatest under complete prohibition because the whole of
  the traffic in these states is illicit. In South Carolina one of the
  wholesale dealers and 388 of the 534 retailers were illicit. In
  Massachusetts the number cannot be stated, but it is very large. If
  the whole state were under licence the total legal number of licences,
  which is limited in proportion to population (see above), would be
  3400; and in that case there would be some 1700 illicit retailers. But
  a large part of the state, probably more than half, is under local
  prohibition, so that the majority of the 5000 retail dealers must be
  illicit. These facts, which are typical and not exceptional, reveal
  the failure of the laws to control the traffic; only partial or
  spasmodic attempts are made to enforce them and to a great extent they
  are ignored by common consent. The illegal trade is carried on so
  openly that the United States revenue officers have no difficulty in
  collecting the federal tax. It is not a satisfactory state of things,
  or one which countries where law is respected would care to imitate.
  The example is a good lesson in what to avoid.

  _Taxation._--Mention has been made above of the federal and state
  taxation imposed on the liquor trade. The former is uniform; the
  latter varies greatly, even in those states which have adopted the
  "high licence." This system is intended to fulfil two purposes; to act
  as an automatic check on the number of licences and to produce
  revenue. It was introduced in Nebraska in 1881, when a tax of 1000
  dollars (£200) was placed on saloons (public houses) in large towns,
  and half that amount in smaller ones. The practice gradually spread
  and has now been adopted by a large number of states, noticeably the
  populous and industrial north-eastern and central states. In
  Massachusetts, where the high licence was adopted in 1874 when the
  state returned to licensing after a trial of prohibition, the fees are
  exceptionally high, the minimum for a fully licensed on and off house
  being 1300 dollars (£260); in Boston the average tax is £310. In New
  York state it ranges from 150 dollars (£30) in sparsely populated
  districts to 1200 dollars (£240), and in Pennsylvania it is much the
  same. In New Jersey, on the other hand, it ranges from £20 to £60; in
  Connecticut from £50 to £90; in Rhode Island from £40 to £80. In
  Missouri, which has a special system of its own and a sort of sliding
  scale, great variations occur and in some cases the tax exceeds £500.
  In Michigan it is uniform at £100. The mean for the large cities is
  £133. The revenue derived from this source is distributed in many
  ways, but is generally divided in varying proportions between the
  state, the county and the municipality; sometimes a proportion goes to
  the relief of the poor, to road-making or some other public purpose.
  The amount levied in the great cities is very large. It will be seen
  from the foregoing that the taxation of licences is much heavier in
  the United States than in the United Kingdom. The total yield was
  ascertained by a special inquiry in 1896 and found to be rather less
  than 12 millions sterling; in the same year the yield from the same
  source in the United Kingdom was just under 2 millions. Allowing for
  difference of population the American rate of taxation was 3¼ times as
  great as the British. It has been inferred that the liquor trade is
  much more highly taxed in the United States and that it would bear
  largely increased taxation in the United Kingdom; that argument was
  brought forward in support of Mr Lloyd George's budget of 1909. But it
  only takes account of the tax on licences and leaves out of account
  the tax on liquor which is the great source of revenue in the United
  Kingdom, as has been shown above. The scales are much lower in the
  United States, especially on spirits, which are only taxed at the
  average rate of 5s. 8d. a gallon against 11s. (raised to 14s. 9d. in
  1909) in the United Kingdom. Mr Frederic Thompson has calculated out
  the effect of the two sets of rates and shown that if British rates
  were applied to the United States the average yield in the three years
  ending 1908 would be raised from 44 millions to 76 millions; and
  conversely if American rates were applied to the United Kingdom the
  average yield would be lowered from 36 millions to 23 millions. Taking
  licences and liquor taxation together he finds that the application of
  the British standards for both would still raise the total yield in
  the United States by 39%; and that even the exceptionally high rates
  prevailing in Massachusetts would, if applied to the United Kingdom,
  produce some 4 millions less revenue than the existing taxation. Other
  calculations based on the consumption and taxation per head lead to
  the same conclusion that the trade is actually taxed at a considerably
  higher rate in the United Kingdom. In the three years ending 1908 the
  average amount paid per head in taxation was 13s. 8¾d. in the United
  States and 17s. 6¾d. in the United Kingdom. It may be added that the
  method of taxing licences heavily has certain disadvantages; it
  stimulates that illicit trade which is the most outstanding feature of
  the traffic in the United States, and combined with the extreme
  insecurity of tenure involved in local option it gives licence-holders
  additional inducements to make as much money as possible by any means
  available, while they have the opportunity, for no compensation is
  ever paid for sudden dispossession. The notion that the trade will
  stand an indefinite amount of taxation is a dangerous and oft-proved
  fallacy.


_European Countries._

With the exception of Sweden, Norway and Russia, which have special
systems of their own, the continental countries of Europe have as yet
paid comparatively little legislative attention to the subject of the
liquor traffic, which is recognized by the law but for the most part
freely permitted with a minimum of interference. Differences exist, but,
generally speaking, establishments may be opened under a very simple
procedure, which amounts to an elementary form of licensing, and the
permission is only withdrawn for some definite and serious offence.
Regulations and conditions are for the most part left to the discretion
of the local authority and the police and are not burdensome. The reason
for such freedom as compared with the elaborate and stringent codes of
the United Kingdom and the United States is not less concern for public
welfare but the simple fact that the traffic gives less trouble and
causes less harm through the abuse of drink; the habits of the people
are different in regard to the character of the drinks consumed, the
mode of consumption and the type of establishment. Cafés, restaurants
and beer-gardens are much more common, and mere pot-houses less so than
in the English-speaking countries. Where trouble arises and engages the
attention of the authorities and the legislature, it is almost
invariably found to be associated with the consumption of spirits. In
several of the wine-producing countries, which are generally marked by
the temperate habits of the people, the widespread havoc among the vines
caused some years ago by the phylloxera led to an increased consumption
of spirits which had a bad effect and aroused considerable anxiety. This
was notably the case in France, where an anti-alcohol congress, held in
1903, marked the rise of public and scientific opinion on the subject.
Temperance societies have become active, and in some countries there is
a movement towards stricter regulations or at least a demand for it; but
in others the present law is a relaxation of earlier ones.

  _France._--The present law governing the licensing of establishments
  where liquor is sold for consumption on the premises was passed in
  1880; it abrogated the previous decree of 1851, by which full
  discretion was vested in the local authorities, and freed the traffic
  from arbitrary restrictions. It provides that any person desiring to
  open a café, cabaret or other place for retailing liquor must give
  notice to the authorities, with details concerning himself, the
  establishment and the proprietor, at least 15 days beforehand; the
  authority in Paris is the préfecture of police and elsewhere the
  mairie. Transfers of proprietorship or management must be notified
  within 15 days, and intended transference of location 8 days
  beforehand. The penalty for infraction is a fine of 16 francs to 100
  francs. Legal minors and persons convicted of certain crimes and
  offences--theft, receiving stolen goods, various forms of swindling,
  offences against morality, the sale of adulterated articles--are
  prohibited; in the case of crimes, forever; in the case of offences,
  for five years. Otherwise permission cannot be refused, subject to
  conditions which the local authority has power to lay down regulating
  the distance of such establishments from churches, cemeteries,
  hospitals, schools and colleges. But persons engaged in the trade, who
  are convicted of the offences mentioned above and of infraction of the
  law for the suppression of public drunkenness, are disabled, as above.
  The law practically amounts to free trade and the number of houses has
  increased under it; in 1900 there was one to every 81 persons. This
  proportion is only exceeded by Belgium. Under the Local Government Act
  of 1884 municipal authorities are empowered, for the maintenance of
  public order, to fix hours of closing, regulate dancing, forbid the
  employment of girls and the harbouring of prostitutes and make other
  regulations. The hours of closing differ considerably but usually they
  are 11 P.M., midnight or 1 A.M. The trade is lightly taxed; retailers
  pay from 15 to 50 francs a year; wholesale dealers, 125 francs;
  breweries the same in most departments, distilleries 25 francs. The
  excise revenue from liquor amounted to £20,000,000 in 1900.

  _Germany._--The German law and practice are broadly similar to the
  French, but the several states vary somewhat in detail. Under the
  imperial law of 1879 inns or hotels and retail trade in spirits for on
  or off consumption may not be carried on without a permit or licence
  from the local authority which, however, can only be refused on the
  ground of character or of unsuitability of premises. This is the
  general law of the empire; but the state governments are empowered to
  make the granting of a licence for retailing spirits dependent on
  proof that it is locally required, and also to impose the same
  condition on inn-keeping and the retailing of other drinks in places
  with less than 15,000 inhabitants and in larger ones which obtain a
  local statute to that effect. Before a licence is granted the opinion
  of the police and other executive officers is to be taken. The
  licensing authority is the mayor in towns and the chairman of the
  district council in rural areas. The provisions with regard to the
  dependence of a licence on local requirements have been adopted by
  Prussia and other states, but apparently little or no use is made of
  them. Permits are very freely granted, and the number of licensed
  houses, though not so great as in France, is very high in proportion
  to population. Three classes of establishment are recognized--(1)
  _Gast-wirthschaft_, (2) _Schank-wirthschaft_, (3) _Klein-handel_.
  _Gast-wirthschaft_ is inn-keeping, or the lodging of strangers in an
  open house for profit, and includes "pensions" of a public character;
  the imperial law provides that a licence may be limited to this
  function and need not include the retailing of liquor.
  _Schank-wirthschaft_ is the retailing for profit of all sorts of
  drinks, including coffee and mineral waters; it corresponds to café in
  France and refreshment house in England; but the mere serving of food
  does not come under the law with which we are here concerned.
  _Klein-handel_ is retail sale either for on or off consumption, and
  the liquor for which a licence is required in this connexion is
  described as _branntwein_ or _spiritus_, and is defined as distilled
  alcoholic liquor, whether by itself or in combination. A licence for
  _Schank-wirthschaft_ includes _Klein-handel_, but not vice-versa; none
  is required for the retail sale of wine which is the seller's own
  produce. Licences may be withdrawn for offences against the law.
  Licensed houses are under the supervision of the police, who fix the
  hours of closing; it is usually 10 P.M., but is commonly extended to
  11 P.M. or midnight in the larger towns and still later in the case of
  particular establishments. Some cafés in Berlin do not close till 3
  A.M. and some never close at all. Persons remaining on the premises in
  forbidden hours after being ordered to leave by the landlord are
  liable to punishment. Serving drunkards and persons of school age is
  forbidden. Drunkards, in addition to fines or imprisonment for
  disorderly conduct, are liable to be deprived of control of their
  affairs and placed under guardianship. For music and dancing special
  permits are required. With regard to taxation, in Prussia all business
  establishments beyond a certain value pay an annual tax and licensed
  houses are on the same footing as the rest. Businesses producing less
  than £75 a year or of less than £150 capital value are free; the rest
  are arranged in four classes on a rising scale. In the three lower
  classes the tax ranges from a minimum of 4s. to a maximum of £24; in
  the highest class, which represents businesses producing £2500 and
  upwards (or a capital value of £50,000 and upwards) the tax is 1% of
  the profits. There is also a stamp duty on the licence ranging from
  1s. 6d. to £5. The latter goes to the local revenue, the business tax
  to the government. Beer and spirits are also subject to an excise tax,
  from which the imperial revenue derived £7,700,000 in 1901; but the
  total taxation of the liquor trade could only be calculated from the
  returns of all the federated states.

  The laws of France and Germany are fairly representative of the
  European states, with some minor variations. In _Holland_ the number
  of licensed spirit retailers is limited in proportion to population (1
  to 500), and the taxation, which is both national and local, ranges
  from 10 to 25% of the annual value.

  In _Austria-Hungary_ and _Rumania_ the licence duty is graduated
  according to the population of the place, as used to be the case in
  Prussia. In 1877 a severe police law was applied to Galicia in order
  to check the excesses of spirit-drinking. The Poles, it may be
  observed, are spirit-drinkers, and the exceptional treatment of this
  part of the Austrian empire is one more illustration of the trouble
  arising from that habit, which forces special attempts to restrain it.
  The law, just mentioned, in Holland is another instance; and the
  particular cases of Russia and Scandinavia, described below, enforce
  the same lesson. Where the drink of the people is confined to wine and
  beer there is comparatively little trouble. In _Switzerland_ the
  manufacture and wholesale sale of spirits has been a federal monopoly
  since 1887, but the retailing is a licensed trade, as elsewhere, and
  is less restricted than formerly. Before federation in 1874 the
  cantons used to direct local authorities to restrict the number of
  licences in proportion to population; but under the new constitution
  the general principle of free trade was laid down, and the Federal
  Council intimated to the cantonal authorities that it was no longer
  lawful to refuse a licence on the ground that it was not needed.

  _Russia._--In 1895 Russia entered upon an experiment in regard to the
  spirit traffic and began to convert the previously existing licence
  system into a state monopoly. The experiment was held to be successful
  and was gradually extended to the whole country. Under this system,
  which to some extent resembles that of South Carolina but is much less
  rigid, the distilleries remain in private hands but their output is
  under government control. The retail sale is confined to government
  shops, which sell only in sealed bottles for consumption off the
  premises, and to commercial establishments which sell on commission
  for the government. Spirit bars are abolished and only in a few high
  class restaurants are spirits sold by the glass; in ordinary
  eating-houses and at railway refreshment rooms they are sold in sealed
  government bottles but may be consumed on the premises. The primary
  object was to check the excesses of spirit-drinking which were very
  great in Russia among the mass of the people. The effect has been a
  very large reduction in the number of liquor shops, which has extended
  also to the licensed beer-houses though they are not directly affected
  as such. Presumably when they could no longer sell spirits it did not
  pay them to take out a licence for beer.

  _Sweden and Norway._--In these countries the celebrated "Gothenburg"
  or company system is in force together with licensing and local veto.
  Like the Russian state monopoly the company system applies only to
  spirits, and for the same reason; spirits are or were the common drink
  of the people and excessive facilities in the early part of the 19th
  century produced the usual result. The story is very similar to that
  of England in the 18th century, given above. From 1774 to 1788
  distilling in Sweden was a crown monopoly, but popular opposition and
  illicit trade compelled the abandonment of this plan in favour of
  general permission granted to farmers, innkeepers and landowners. At
  the beginning of the 19th century the right to distil belonged to
  every owner and cultivator of land on payment of a trifling licence
  duty, and it was further extended to occupiers. In 1829 the number of
  stills paying licence duty was 173,124 or 1 to every 16 persons; the
  practice was in fact universal and the whole population was debauched
  with spirits. The physical and moral results were the same as those
  recorded in England a hundred years before. The supply was somewhat
  restricted by royal ordinance in 1835, but the traffic was not
  effectively dealt with until 1855 when a law was passed which
  practically abolished domestic distilling by fixing a minimum daily
  output of 200 gallons, with a tax of about 10d. a gallon. This turned
  the business into a manufacture and speedily reduced the number of
  stills. At the same time the retail sale was subjected to drastic
  regulations. A licensing system was introduced which gave the local
  authority power to fix the number of licences and put them up to
  auction or to hand over the retail traffic altogether to a company
  formed for the purpose of carrying it on. The latter idea, which is
  the Gothenburg system, was taken from the example of Falun and
  Jönköping which had a few years ago voluntarily adopted the plan. The
  law of 1855 further gave rural districts the power of local veto.
  Four-fifths of the population live in rural districts, and the great
  majority of them immediately took advantage of the provision. The
  company system, on the other hand, was not applied by the towns until
  1865, when Gothenburg adopted it.

  In Norway the course of events was very similar. There, too,
  distilling and spirit-drinking were practically universal in the early
  part of the century under the laws of 1816, but were checked by
  legislation a few years sooner than in Sweden. In 1845 a special
  licensing system was introduced, giving the local authority power to
  fix the number of licences, and in 1848 the small and domestic stills
  were stopped. The Gothenburg system was not adopted in Norway until
  1871 and then with some modification. The essence of this method of
  conducting the retail traffic is that the element of private gain is
  eliminated. A monopoly is granted to a company consisting of a number
  of disinterested citizens of standing with a capital, and they manage
  the sale both for "on" and "off" consumption in the public interest.
  The profits, after payment of 5% on the capital, originally went in
  Sweden mainly to the municipality in relief of rates, in Norway to
  objects of public utility. The latter was considered preferable
  because it offers less temptation to make the profits as high as
  possible. Fault has, however, been found with both methods, and
  payment of profits to the state is now preferred. In 1894 a law was
  passed in Norway providing for the following distribution: 65% to the
  state, 20% to the company, and 15% to the municipality. In 1907 Sweden
  adopted a law in the same direction. The intention is to eliminate
  more completely the motive of gain from the traffic. In 1898 the net
  profits of the companies exceeded half a million sterling in Sweden
  and reached £117,500 in Norway.

  The company system had in 1910 had more than half a century's trial;
  it had gone through some vicissitudes and been subjected to much
  criticism, which was balanced by at least as much eulogy. It had held
  its own in Sweden, where 101 towns had adopted it in 1906. In Norway
  at the same date it was in force in 32 towns while 29 had adopted
  local veto, which was extended from the country districts, where it
  had previously been optional, to the towns by the law of 1894.

  As we have already said, it only applies to spirits. In both countries
  the sale of beer and wine for "on" consumption is carried on in the
  ordinary way under a licensing system; the sale of beer in bottles for
  consumption off the premises is practically free. The beer traffic is
  regarded by some as a "safety valve" and by others as a defect in the
  system. The consumption has greatly increased in Sweden; in Norway it
  increased up to 1900 and has since declined. But other more
  deleterious substitutes for spirits have come into use in the shape of
  concocted "wines" and methylated spirits. The company management has
  had the following effects: it has greatly reduced the number of spirit
  bars, improved their character and conduct, added eating-rooms, where
  good and cheap meals are served, stopped drinking on credit and by
  persons under 18 years of age, shortened the hours of sale, raised the
  price and lowered the strength of spirits. But the restrictions placed
  on the sale for consumption on the premises has stimulated the retail
  bottle trade and home drinking.


  _British Dominions._

  _Canada._--Liquor legislation in Canada has been much influenced by
  the proximity and example of the United States. Licensing, modified by
  local veto, prevails throughout the Dominion except in the Indian
  settlements; but the several provinces have their own laws, which vary
  in stringency. As a whole the licensing system rather resembles the
  American than the British type. The licensing authority is either a
  board of commissioners or the municipality, and there has been the
  same tendency as in the United States to substitute the former for the
  latter. In British Columbia no new hotel licence is granted in cities
  except on the request of two-thirds of the owners and occupiers of the
  adjoining property, but their consent is not necessary for renewal. In
  other provinces the municipal authority has power to limit as well as
  regulate the licensed trade. Sunday closing is the rule; on week-days
  the usual closing hour in the large towns is 11 P.M. The power of
  locally prohibiting licensed houses by vote was introduced by the
  Canada Temperance Act, a federal law passed in 1875 and commonly known
  as the Scott Act. Extensive use has been made of it, especially in the
  maritime provinces, where the temperance sentiment is very strong, but
  in recent years it has rather lost ground. In 1908 it was in force in
  22 counties or cities, of which ten were in Nova Scotia, ten in New
  Brunswick and two in Manitoba; it was nowhere in force in the
  remaining provinces. Three elections were held under the act in
  1907-1908, two in Nova Scotia and one in New Brunswick, and in the
  first two prohibition was defeated. In 1910 Nova Scotia, apparently
  dissatisfied with the progress of local prohibition under the Scott
  Act, passed a prohibitory law for the whole province, exempting
  Halifax, the capital and only considerable town, but making provision
  for its subsequent inclusion by a referendum to the ratepayers. There
  is in Canada the same oscillation of public opinion as in the United
  States, and the same toleration of evasion of the law. The writer has
  stayed in hotels in several prohibition towns, where there was not
  only a regular bar but a printed wine list from which anything could
  be ordered at meals without any concealment at all. The chief
  difference between the conduct of hotels under prohibition and under
  licensing is that under licensing the bar is closed at the legal hour,
  which is usually 11 o'clock, and under prohibition it remains open as
  long as there are any customers to serve. The law is nominally
  respected by imposing a periodical fine. In small towns and rural
  districts local prohibition is much more effective. In short the
  experience of Canada confirms that of the United States. In addition
  to the federal law, the local authorities have power, in Quebec, to
  prohibit as well as to regulate the trade. The high licence system has
  not been adopted in Canada. The total revenue derived by the Dominion
  government in 1908 from taxation of the liquor trade, including duties
  and licence fees, was £1,800,000.

  _Australia._--The licensing laws of Australia are less repressive and
  the practice more resembles the British model. Queensland has adopted
  local prohibition, but it is not applied. New South Wales has a
  limited form of veto applying only to new licences; South Australia
  has the same together with a provision for the optional reduction of
  licences; Victoria, on the other hand, allows an option both ways, for
  reducing or increasing the licences; West Australia and Tasmania
  merely give the local ratepayers the right of protest; in West
  Australia it holds good against new licences only and if a majority
  object the licence is refused; in Tasmania protest may be made against
  renewals and transfers also, but the decision lies with the licensing
  authority. There is practically no prohibition in the Commonwealth.

  _New Zealand._--This state has a licensing system with local option
  provisions of its own. The licensing authority is a local committee,
  and there are seven kinds of licence, of which two are for consumption
  on the premises. The fees range from £1 for a wine licence to £40 for
  a full publican's licence in towns, or £45 for one permitting an
  additional hour's sale at night; the fees go to the revenue of the
  local authority. In 1907 the total number of licences granted was 2179
  and the fees paid amounted to £45,865. Of the whole number, 1367, or 1
  to every 666 persons, were houses licensed for on consumption. The
  closing hour is 10 P.M. except for houses specially licensed to be
  open till 11 P.M. In 1893 local option was introduced by the Alcoholic
  Liquors Sale Control Act, which provided for the taking of a poll on
  the question of licences. The electoral districts for the purpose are
  the same as for the House of Representatives, except that the cities
  of Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin each form a single
  district for the licensing poll. It is taken at the same time as the
  election of members of the House of Representatives, and three
  questions are propounded--(1) continuance of existing licences, (2)
  reduction, (3) no licences. A voter may vote for two proposals but not
  more. An absolute majority of all the votes recorded carries (1); an
  absolute majority of all the votes recorded carries (2), whereupon the
  licensing committee reduces the licences by any number from 5 to 25%
  of the total. But if three-fifths of all the votes cast are in favour
  of no licence then that supersedes (1) and (2). The poll taken in
  December 1905 gave the following results: of the 68 districts 40
  carried no proposal (which is equivalent to continuance of existing
  licences), 18 carried continuance, 4 reduction, 6 no licence,
  including 3 which had previously adopted no licence. Women, it must be
  remembered, vote as well as men. The aggregate vote in favour of no
  licence shows a large proportional increase since the first poll in
  the present system in 1896.

  AUTHORITIES.--Royal Commission on Liquor Licensing Laws 1896-1899,
  Reports and Appendices; Licensing Statistics of England and Wales,
  annual. Canada Year-book; New Zealand Year-book; _Code de Commerce_,
  France; _Gewerbeordnung_, German Empire; Hand-book of Canada (British
  Association); _New Encyclopedia of Social Reform; Brewers' Almanack_;
  Committee of Fifty (New York), _The Liquor Problem in its Legislative
  Aspects_ (F. H. Wines and J. Koren); E. L. Fanshawe, _Liquor
  Legislation in the United States and Canada_; E.R.L. Gould, _The
  Gothenburg System_ (Special Report of the United States Commissioner
  of Labor); E. A. Pratt, _Licensing and Temperance in Sweden, Norway
  and Denmark_; J. Rowntree and A. Sherwell, _The Temperance Problem and
  Social Reform_; _The Taxation of the Liquor Trade_; A. Shadwell,
  _Drink, Temperance and Legislation_; Strauss und Torney,
  _Schanks-Konzessionswesen_; F. W. Thompson, _High Licence_. See also
  TEMPERANCE.     (A. Sl.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1908 local option was adopted in Ohio.



LIRA, the Italian name (Lat. _libra_, pound) for a silver coin, the
Italian unit of value in the Latin Monetary Union, corresponding to the
French, Swiss and Belgian franc (q.v.), and the drachma of Greece, &c.
The name is sometimes used of the Turkish pound, _medjidie_.



LIRI, or GARIGLIANO (anc. _Liris_), a river of central Italy, which
rises at Cappadocia, 7 m. W. of Avezzano, and traverses a beautiful
valley between lofty mountains, running S.S.E. as far as Arce. This
valley is followed by the railway from Avezzano to Roccasecca. At Isola
del Liri are two fine waterfalls. Below Ceprano, the ancient Fregellae,
after it has issued from the mountains, the Liri is joined by the Sacco
(anc. _Trerus_) formed by the union of several torrents between
Palestrina and Segni, and the Melfa from the mountains N.E. of Atina,
and runs E. through a broader valley. It then turns S. again through the
mountains S.W. of the Via Latina (the line of which is followed by the
modern railway to Naples), keeping W. of Rocca Monfina, and falls into
the sea just below Minturnae, after a course of 104 m. It is not
navigable at any point.



LIROCONITE, a rare mineral consisting of hydrous basic copper and
aluminium arsenate, with the probable formula Cu9Al4(OH)15(AsO4)5·20H2O.
It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, forming flattened octahedra
almost lenticular in shape (hence the German name _Linsenkupfer_).
Characteristic is the bright sky-blue colour, though sometimes, possibly
owing to differences in chemical composition, it is verdigris-green. The
colour of the streak or powder is rather paler; hence the name
liroconite, from the Gr. [Greek: leiros], pale, and [Greek: konia],
powder. The hardness is 2½, and the specific gravity 2.95. The mineral
was found at the beginning of the 19th century in the copper mines near
Gwennap in Cornwall, where it was associated with other copper arsenates
in the upper, oxidized portions of the lodes.     (L. J. S.)



LISBON (_Lisboa_), the capital of the kingdom of Portugal and of the
department of Lisbon; on the right bank of the river Tagus, near its
entrance into the Atlantic Ocean, in 38° 42´ 24´´ N. and 9° 11´ 10´´ W.
Pop. (1900) 356,009. Lisbon, the westernmost of European capitals, is
built in a succession of terraces up the sides of a range of low hills,
backed by the granite mountains of Cintra. It fronts the Tagus, and the
view from the river of its white houses, and its numerous parks and
gardens, is comparable in beauty with the approach to Naples or
Constantinople by sea. The lower reaches of the estuary form a channel
(Entrada do Tejo) about 2 m. wide and 8 m. long, which is partially
closed at its mouth by a bar of silt. Owing to the reclamation of the
foreshore on the right, and the consequent narrowing of the waterway,
the current flows very swiftly down this channel, which is the sole
outlet for the immense volume of water accumulated in the Rada de
Lisboa--a tidal lake formed by the broadening of the estuary in its
upper part to fill a basin 11 m. long with an average breadth of nearly
7 m. The southern or left shore of the channel rises sharply from the
water's edge in a line of almost unbroken though not lofty cliffs; the
margin of the lake is flat, marshy and irregular. Lisbon extends for
more than 5 m. along the shores of both channel and lake, and for more
than 3 m. inland. Its suburbs, which generally terminate in a belt of
vineyards, parks or gardens, interspersed with villas and farms, stretch
in some cases beyond the Estrada Militar, or Estrada da Nova
Circumvallação, an inner line of defence 25 m. long, supplementary to
the forts and other military works at the mouth of the Tagus, on the
heights of Cintra and Alverca, and at Caxias, Sacavem, Monsanto and
Ameixoeira. The climate of Lisbon is mild and equable, though somewhat
oppressive in summer. Extreme cold is so rare that in the twenty years
1856-1876 snow fell only thrice; and in the 18th and early 19th
centuries Lisbon was justly esteemed as a winter health-resort. The mean
annual temperature is 60.1° F., the mean for winter 50.9°, the average
rainfall 29.45 in. As in 1906, when no rain fell between April and
September, long periods of drought are not uncommon, although the
proximity of the Atlantic and the frequency of sea-fogs keep the
atmosphere humid; the mean atmospheric moisture is nearly 71 (100 =
saturation). There is a good water supply, conveyed to the city by two
vast aqueducts. The older of these is the Aqueducto das Aguas Livres,
which was built in the first half of the 18th century and starts from a
point near Bellas, 15 m. W.N.W. Its conduits, which are partly
underground, are conveyed across the Alcantara valley through a
magnificent viaduct of thirty-five arches, exceeding 200 ft. in height.
At the Lisbon end of the aqueduct is the Mae d'Agua (i.e. "Mother of
Water"), containing a huge stone hall in the midst of which is the
reservoir. The Alviella aqueduct, opened in 1880, brings water from
Alviella near Pernes, 70 m. N.N.E. Numerous fountains are among the
means of distribution. Sewage is discharged into the Tagus, and the
sanitation of the city is good, except in the older quarters.

_Divisions of the City._--The four municipal districts (_bairros_) into
which Lisbon is divided are the _Alfama_, or old town, in the east; the
_Cidade Baixa_, or lower town, which extends inland from the naval
arsenal and custom house; the _Bairro Alto_, comprising all the high
ground west of the Cidade Baixa; and the _Alcantara_, or westernmost
district, named after the small river Alcantara, which flows down into
the Tagus. Other names commonly used, though unofficial, are "Lisboa
Oriental" as an alternative for Alfama; "Lisboa Occidental" for the
slopes which lead from the Cidade Baixa to the Bairro Alto; "Buenos
Ayres" (originally so named from the number of its South American
residents) for the Bairro Alto S.W. of the Estrella Gardens and E. of
the Necessidades Park; "Campo de Ourique" and "Rato" for the suburbs
respectively N.W. and N.E. of Buenos Ayres.

_The Alfama._--The Alfama, which represents Roman and Moorish Lisbon, is
less rich in archaeological interest than its great antiquity might
suggest, although parts of a Roman temple, baths, &c., have been
disinterred. But as the earthquake of 1755 did comparatively little
damage to this quarter, many of its narrow, steep and winding alleys
retain the medieval aspect which all other parts of the city have lost;
and almost rival the slums of Oporto in picturesque squalor. The most
conspicuous feature of the Alfama is the rocky hill surmounted by the
Castello de São Jorge, a Moorish citadel which has been converted into a
fort and barracks. The Sé Patriarchal, a cathedral founded in 1150 by
Alphonso I., is said by tradition to have been a Moorish mosque. It was
wrecked by an earthquake in 1344 and rebuilt in 1380, but the earthquake
of 1755 shattered the dome, the roof and belfry were subsequently
burned, and after the work of restoration was completed the choir and
façade were the only parts of the 14th-century Gothic church unspoiled.
In one of the side chapels is the tomb of St Vincent (d. 304), patron
saint of Lisbon; a pair of ravens kept within the cathedral precincts
are popularly believed to be the same birds which, according to the
legend, miraculously guided the saint's vessel to the city. The armorial
bearings of Lisbon, representing a ship and two ravens, commemorate the
legend. Other noteworthy buildings in the Alfama are the 12th-century
church of São Vicente de Fóra, originally, as its name implies,
"outside" the city; the 13th-century chapel of Nossa Senhora do Monte;
the 16th-century church of Nossa Senhora da Graça, which contains a
reputed wonder-working statue of Christ and the tomb of Alphonso
d'Albuquerque (1453-1515); and a secularized Augustinian monastery, used
as the archbishop's palace.

_Modern Lisbon._--West of the Alfama the city dates chiefly from the
period after the great earthquake. Its lofty houses, arranged in long
straight streets, its gardens and open spaces, a few of its public
buildings, and almost all its numerous statues and fountains, will bear
comparison with those of any European capital. The centre of social and
commercial activity is the district which comprises the Praça do
Commercio, Rua Augusta, Rocío, and Avenida da Liberdade, streets and
squares occupying the valley of a vanished tributary of the Tagus. The
Praça do Commercio is a spacious square, one side of which faces the
river, while the other three sides are occupied by the arcaded buildings
of the custom house, post office and other government property. In the
midst is a bronze equestrian statue of Joseph I., by J. M. de Castro,
which was erected in 1775 and gives point to the name of "Black Horse
Square" commonly applied to the Praça by the British. A triumphal arch
on the north side leads to Rua Augusta, originally intended to be the
cloth-merchants' street; for the plan upon which Lisbon was rebuilt
after 1755 involved the restriction of each industry to a specified
area. This plan succeeded in the neighbouring Rua Aurea and Rua da
Prata, still, as their names indicate, famous for goldsmiths' and
silversmiths' shops. Rua Augusta terminates on the north in the Rocío or
Praça de Dom Pedro Quarto, a square paved with mosaic of a curious
undulatory pattern and containing two bronze fountains, a lofty pillar
surmounted by a statue of Pedro IV., and the royal national theatre
(Teatro de Dona Maria Segunda), erected on the site which the
Inquisition buildings occupied from 1520 to 1836. The narrow Rua do
Principe, leading past the central railway station, a handsome Mauresque
building, connects the Rocío with the Avenida da Liberdade, one of the
finest avenues in Europe. The central part of the Avenida, a favourite
open-air resort of Lisbon society, is used for riding and driving; on
each side of it are paved double avenues of trees, with flower-beds,
statues, ponds, fountains, &c., and between these and the broad
pavements are two roadways for trams and heavy traffic. Thus the Avenida
has the appearance of three parallel streets, separated by avenues of
trees instead of houses. Its width exceeds 300 ft. It owes its name to
an obelisk 98 ft. high, erected in 1882 at its southern end, to
commemorate the liberation of Portugal from Spanish rule (December,
1640). North and north-east of the Avenida are the Avenida Park, the
Edward VII. Park (so named in memory of a visit paid to Lisbon by the
king of England in 1903), Campo Grande, with its finely wooded walks,
and Campo Pequeno, with the bull-ring. Other noteworthy public gardens
are the Passeio da Estrella, commanding magnificent views of the city
and river, the Largo do Principe Real, planted with bananas and other
tropical trees, the Tapada das Necessidades, originally the park of one
of the royal residences, and the Botanical Gardens of the polytechnic
school, with a fine avenue of palms and collections of tropical and
subtropical flora hardly surpassed in Europe. There are large Portuguese
cemeteries east and west of Lisbon, a German cemetery, and an English
cemetery, known also as _Os Cyprestes_ from the number of its cypresses.
This was laid out in 1717 at the cost of the British and Dutch residents
and contains the graves of Henry Fielding (1707-1754), the novelist, and
Dr Philip Doddridge (1702-1751), the Nonconformist divine.

Lisbon is the seat of an archbishop who since 1716 has borne _ex
officio_ the honorary title of patriarch; he presides over the House of
Peers and is usually appointed a cardinal. The churches of modern Lisbon
are generally built in the Italian style of the 18th century; the
interiors are overlaid with heavy ornament. Perhaps the finest is the
Estrella church, with its white marble dome and twin towers visible for
many miles above the city. The late Renaissance church of São Roque
contains two beautiful chapels dating from the 18th century, one of
which is inlaid with painted tiles, while the other was constructed in
Rome of coloured marbles, and consecrated by the pope before being
shipped to Lisbon. Its mosaics and lapis lazuli pillars are
exceptionally fine. The 14th-century Gothic Igreja do Carmo was
shattered by the great earthquake. Only the apse, pillared aisles and
outer walls remain standing, and the interior has been converted into an
archaeological museum. The church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição has a
magnificent Manoeline façade.

The Palacio das Cortes, in which both Houses of Parliament sit, is a
16th-century Benedictine convent, used for its present purpose since
1834. It contains the national archives, better known as the Torre do
Tombo collection, because in 1375 the archives were first stored in a
tower of that name. The royal palace, or Paço das Necessidades, west of
Buenos Ayres, is a vast 18th-century mansion occupying the site of a
chapel dedicated to Nossa Senhora das Necessidades (i.e. "Our Lady who
helps at need").

  _The Suburbs of Ajuda and Belem._--In the extreme west of Lisbon,
  beyond the Alcantara valley, are Belem (i.e. "Bethlehem"), beside the
  Tagus, and Ajuda, on the heights above. The Paço de Belem, built in
  1700 for the counts of Aveiro, became the chief royal palace under
  John V. (1706-1750). The Torre de Belem, on the foreshore, is a small
  tower of beautiful design, built in 1520 for the protection of
  shipping. The finest ecclesiastical building in Portugal except the
  monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha also fronts the river. It is the
  Convento dos Jeronymos, a Hieronymite convent and church, founded in
  1499 to commemorate the discovery of the sea-route to India by Vasco
  da Gama. It was built of white limestone by João de Castilho (d.
  1581), perhaps the greatest of Manoeline architects. Its cloisters
  form a square with blunted corners, surrounded by a two-storeyed
  arcade, every available portion of which is covered with exquisite
  sculptures. Parts of the building have been restored, but the
  cloisters and the beautiful central gateway remain unspoiled. The
  interior contains many royal tombs, including that of Catherine of
  Braganza (d. 1705), the wife of Charles II. of England. The supposed
  remains of Camoens and Vasco da Gama were interred here in 1880. In
  1834, when the convent was secularized, its buildings were assigned to
  the Casa Pia, an orphanage founded by Maria I. Since 1903 they have
  contained the archaeological collections of the Portuguese
  Ethnological Museum. The royal Ajuda palace, begun (1816-1826) by John
  VI. but left unfinished, derives its name from the chapel of N. S. de
  Ajuda ("Our Lady of Aid"). It contains some fine pictures and
  historical trophies. In the coach-house there is an unsurpassed
  collection of state coaches, the cars upon which figures of saints are
  borne in procession, sedan chairs, old cabriolets and other curious
  vehicles.

  _The Environs of Lisbon._--The administrative district of Lisbon has
  an area of 3065 sq. m., with a population of 709,509 in 1900. It
  comprises the lower parts of the Tagus and Sado; the sea-coast from 5
  m. S. of Cape Carvoeiro to within 3 m. of the bluff called the Escarpa
  do Rojo; and a strip of territory extending inland for a mean distance
  of 30 m. This region corresponds with the southern part of Estremadura
  (q.v.). Its more important towns, Setubal, Cintra, Torres Vedras and
  Mafra, are described in separate articles. Sines, a small seaport on
  Cape Sines, was the birthplace of Vasco da Gama. On the left bank of
  the Tagus, opposite Lisbon, are the small towns of Almada, Barreiro,
  Aldeia Gallega and Seixal, and the hamlet of Trafaria, inhabited by
  fishermen. The beautiful strip of coast west of Oeiras and south of
  Cape Roca is often called the "Portuguese Riviera." Its fine climate,
  mineral springs and sea-bathing attract visitors at all seasons to the
  picturesque fortified bay of Cascaes, or to Estoril, Mont' Estoril and
  São João do Estoril, modern towns consisting chiefly of villas, hotels
  and gardens. The Boca do Inferno ("Mouth of Hell") is a cavity in the
  rocks at Cascaes resembling the Bufador at Peñiscola (q.v.). The
  villages of Carcavellos, Bucellas, Lumiar and Collares produce
  excellent wines; at Carcavellos is the receiving station for cables,
  with a large British staff, and a club and grounds where social and
  athletic meetings are held by the British colony. Alhandra, on the
  right bank of the Tagus, above Lisbon, was the birthplace of
  Albuquerque; fighting bulls for the Lisbon arena are bred in the
  adjacent pastures.

_Railways, Shipping and Commerce._--Lisbon has five railway
stations--the central (Lisboa-Rocío), for the lines to Cintra, northern
and central Portugal, and Madrid via Valencia de Alcántara; the Santa
Apolonia or Caes dos Soldados, at the eastern extremity of the quays,
for the same lines (excluding Cintra) and for southern Portugal and
Andalusia; the Caes do Sodré and Santos, farther west along the quays,
for Cascaes; and the Barreiro, on the left bank of the Tagus, for
southern Portugal. In 1902 the railways north and south of the Tagus
were connected near Lisbon by a bridge. In the previous year an
extensive system of electric tramways replaced the old-fashioned cable
cars and mule trams. Electric and hydraulic lifts are used where the
streets are too steep for trams. Lisbon is lighted by both electricity
and gas; it has an admirable telephone service, and is connected by the
Carcavellos cable-station with Cornwall (England), Vigo in Galicia,
Gibraltar, the Azores and Madeira.

Ships of the largest size can enter the Tagus, and the Barreiro inlet is
navigable at low water by vessels drawing 16 ft. There are extensive
quays along the right bank, with hydraulic cranes, two graving docks, a
slipway, warehouses and lines of railway. The government and private
docks are on the left bank. Loading and discharging are principally
effected by means of lighters. The exports are wines, oil, fruit, tinned
fish, salt, colonial produce, cork, pitwood, leather and wool. The
imports include cotton and woollen goods, linen, ale and porter, butter,
tea, hardware, tin plates, coal, iron, machinery, chemical manure, &c.,
from Great Britain; grain and petroleum from the United States; dried
codfish from Norway and Newfoundland; silks, perfumery and fancy goods
from France; hemp, flax, grain, petroleum and cloth from Russia; linen,
machinery, hardware, sugar, &c., from Germany and Holland, iron, steel,
timber, pitch and salt fish from the Baltic; cocoa, coffee, wax and
rubber from the Portuguese colonies. Towards the close of the 19th
century the tourist traffic from Great Britain and Germany attained
considerable importance, and Lisbon has long been one of the principal
ports of debarcation for passengers from Brazil and of embarcation for
emigrants to South America. Shipbuilding, including the construction of
vessels for the national navy, is a growing industry. The fisheries have
always been important, and in no European fishmarket is the produce more
varied. Sardines and tunny are cured and tinned for export. In addition
to a fleet of about 600 sailing boats, the Tagus is the headquarters of
a small fleet of steam trawlers. The industries of Lisbon include
dyeing, distillation of spirits and manufactures of woollen, cotton,
silk and linen fabrics, of pottery, soap, paper, chemicals, cement,
corks, tobacco, preserved foods and biscuits.

_Education and Charity._--Although the seat of the only university in
Portugal was fixed at Coimbra in 1527, Lisbon is the educational centre
of the Portuguese world, including Brazil. Its chief learned societies
are the Society of Medical Sciences, the Geographical Society, the Royal
Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Royal Conservatory of
Music and the Propaganda de Portugal. The museum of the Academy of Fine
Arts contains the largest collection of pictures and statues by native
and foreign artists in Portugal. The Geographical Society has gained an
international reputation; it possesses a valuable library and museum.
The National Library, founded in 1796, contains over 400,000 printed
books, and upwards of 9000 MSS. There are also colonial, naval,
artillery, natural history and commercial museums, meteorological and
astronomical observatories, zoological gardens and an aquarium. Purely
educational institutions include the medical, polytechnic, military and
naval schools, commercial, agricultural and industrial institutes, a
school of art, a central lyceum, a school for teachers, &c. The English
college for British Roman Catholics dates from 1628. The Irish
Dominicans have a seminary, and Portuguese ecclesiastical schools are
numerous. There are hospitals for women, and for contagious diseases,
almshouses, orphanages, a foundling hospital and a very large quarantine
station on the south bank of the Tagus, founded in 1857 after an
outbreak of yellow fever had devastated the city. Foremost among the
theatres, circuses and other places of amusement is the royal
opera-house of São Carlos, built in 1792-1793 on the model of the Scala
at Milan.

_Population._--The population of Lisbon, 187,404[1] in 1878, rose to
301,206 in 1890 and 356,009 in 1900. It includes a large foreign colony,
composed chiefly of Spaniards, British, Germans, French, Brazilians and
immigrants from the Portuguese colonies, among whom are many
half-castes. The majority of the Spaniards are domestic servants and
labourers from Galicia, whose industry and easily gained knowledge of
the kindred Portuguese language enables them to earn a better livelihood
here than in their own homes. The British, German and French communities
control a large share of the foreign trade. The Brazilians and colonial
immigrants are often merchants and landowners who come to the
mother-country to spend their fortunes in a congenial social
environment.

  The street life of the city is full of interest. The bare-footed,
  ungainly fishwives, dressed in black and bearing flat trays of fish on
  their heads; the Galician water-carriers, with their casks; the
  bakers, bending beneath a hundredweight of bread slung in a huge
  basket from their shoulders; the countrymen, with their sombreros,
  sashes and hardwood quarter-staves, give colour and animation to their
  surroundings; while the bag-pipes played by peasants from the north,
  the whistles of the knife-grinders, and the distinctive calls of the
  vendors of fruit, lottery tickets, or oil and vinegar, contribute a
  babel of sound. For church festivals and holidays the country-folk
  come to town, the women riding on pillions behind the men, adorned in
  shawls, aprons and handkerchiefs of scarlet or other vivid hues, and
  wearing the strings of coins and ornaments of exquisite gold and
  silver filigree which represent their savings or dowries. The costumes
  and manners of all classes may be seen at their best in the great
  bull-ring of Campo Pequeno, a Mauresque building which holds many
  thousands of spectators. A Lisbon bullfight is a really brilliant
  exhibition of athletic skill and horsemanship, in which amateurs often
  take part, and neither horses nor bulls are killed. There is a
  Tauromachic Club solely for amateurs.

_History._--The name Lisbon is a modification of the ancient name
_Olisipo_, also written _Ulyssippo_ under the influence of a mythical
story of a city founded by Odysseus (Ulysses) in Iberia, which, however,
according to Strabo, was placed by ancient tradition rather in the
mountains of Turdetania (the extreme south of Spain). Under the Romans
Olisipo became a _municipium_ with the epithet of _Felicitas Julia_, but
was inferior in importance to the less ancient _Emerita Augusta_
(Mérida). From 407 to 585 it was occupied by Alaric, and thenceforward
by the Visigoths until 711, when it was taken by the Moors. Under the
Moors the town bore in Arabic the name of _Al Oshbuna_ or _Lashbuna_. It
was the first point of Moslem Spain attacked by the Normans in 844. When
Alphonso I. of Portugal took advantage of the decline and fall of the
Almoravid dynasty to incorporate the provinces of Estremadura and
Alemtejo in his new kingdom, Lisbon was the last city of Portugal to
fall into his hands, and yielded only after a siege of several months
(21st October 1147), in which he was aided by English and Flemish
crusaders on their way to Syria. In 1184 the city was again attacked by
the Moslems under the powerful caliph Abu Yakub, but the enterprise
failed. In the reign of Ferdinand I., the greater part of the town was
burned by the Castilian army under Henry II. (1373), and in 1384 the
Castilians again besieged Lisbon, but without success. Lisbon became the
seat of an archbishop in 1390, the seat of government in 1422. During
the 16th century it gained much in wealth and splendour from the
establishment of a Portuguese empire in India and Africa. From 1580 to
1640 Lisbon was a provincial town under Spanish rule, and it was from
this port that the Spanish Armada sailed in 1588. In 1640 the town was
captured by the duke of Braganza, and the independence of the kingdom
restored.

For many centuries the city had suffered from earthquakes, and on the
1st of November 1755 the greater part of it was reduced almost in an
instant to a heap of ruins. A tidal wave at the same time broke over the
quays and wrecked the shipping in the Tagus; fire broke out to complete
the work of destruction; between 30,000 and 40,000 persons lost their
lives; and the value of the property destroyed was about £20,000,000.
The shock was felt from Scotland to Asia Minor. Careful investigation by
Daniel Sharpe, an English geologist, has delimited the area in and near
Lisbon to which its full force was confined. Lisbon is built in a
geological basin of Tertiary formation, the upper portion of which is
loose sand and gravel destitute of organic remains, while below these
are the so-called Almada beds of yellow sand, calcareous sandstone and
blue clay rich in organic remains. The Tertiary deposits, which
altogether cover an area of more than 2000 sq. m., are separated near
Lisbon from rocks of the Secondary epoch by a great sheet of basalt. The
uppermost of these Secondary rocks is the hippurite limestone. It was
found that no building on the blue clay escaped destruction, none on any
of the Tertiary deposits escaped serious injury, and all on the
hippurite limestone and basalt were undamaged. The line at which the
earthquake ceased to be destructive thus corresponded exactly with the
boundary of the Tertiary deposits.

At the beginning of the 19th century the French invasion, followed by
the removal of the court to Rio de Janeiro, the Peninsular War, the loss
of Brazil and a period of revolution and dynastic trouble, resulted in
the utter decadence of Lisbon, from which the city only recovered after
1850 (see PORTUGAL: _History_).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Every book which deals with the topography, trade or
  history of Portugal as a whole necessarily devotes a portion of its
  space to the capital; see PORTUGAL: _Bibliography_. The following
  treat more exclusively of Lisbon: A. Dayot, _Lisbonne_ (No. ix. of the
  "_Capitales du monde_" series) (Paris, 1892); Freire de Oliveira,
  _Elementos para a historia do municipio de Lisboa_ (9 vols., Lisbon,
  1885-1898); J. de Castilho, _Lisboa antiga_ (7 vols., Lisbon, 1890),
  and (by the same author) _A Ribeira de Lisboa_ (Lisbon, 1893).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This figure represents the population of a smaller area than that
    of modern Lisbon, for the civic boundaries were extended by a decree
    dated the 23rd of December 1886.



LISBURN, a market town, and cathedral city of Co. Antrim, Ireland,
situated in a beautiful and fertile district on the Lagan, and on the
Great Northern railway, 8 m. S.S.W. of Belfast. Pop. (1901) 11,461.
Christ Church (1622) which possesses a fine octagonal spire, is the
cathedral church of the united Protestant dioceses of Down, Connor and
Dromore, and contains a monument to Jeremy Taylor, who was bishop of the
see. The public park was presented to the town by Sir Richard Wallace
(d. 1890), and after his death the castle gardens were also given to the
town. The staple manufacture is linen, especially damasks and muslins,
originally introduced by Huguenots. There are also bleaching and dyeing
works, and a considerable agricultural trade. The town is governed by an
urban district council. The ruins of Castle Robin, 2 m. N. of the town,
stand on a summit of the White Mountains, and the building dates from
the time of Queen Elizabeth. At Drumbo, 3½ m. E. of Lisburn, is one of
the finest examples of early fortification in Ireland, known as the
Giant's Ring, with a cromlech in the centre. Here are also a round tower
and the remains of a church ascribed to St Patrick.

In the reign of James I., Lisburn, which was then known as Lisnegarvy
(Gambler's Fort), was an inconsiderable village, but in 1627 it was
granted by Charles I. to Viscount Conway, who erected the castle for his
residence, and laid the foundation of the prosperity of the town by the
introduction of English and Welsh settlers. In November 1641 the town
was taken by the insurgents, who on the approach of superior numbers set
fire to it. The troops of Cromwell gained a victory near the town in
1648, and the castle surrendered to them in 1650. The church was
constituted a cathedral in 1662 by Charles II., from whom the town
received the privilege of returning two members to parliament, but after
the Union it returned only one and in 1885 ceased to be a parliamentary
borough. Lisburn gives the titles of earl and viscount to the family of
Vaughan.



LISIEUX, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Calvados, 30 m. E. of Caen by rail. Pop. (1906)
15,194. Lisieux is prettily situated in the valley of the Touques at its
confluence with the Orbiquet. Towers of the 16th century, relics of the
old fortifications, remain, and some of the streets, bordered throughout
by houses of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, retain their medieval
aspect. The church of St Peter, formerly a cathedral, is reputed to be
the first Gothic church built in Normandy. Begun in the latter half of
the 12th century it was completed in the 13th and 16th centuries. There
is a lantern-tower over the crossing and two towers surmount the west
façade, one only of which has a spire, added towards the end of the 16th
century. In the interior there is a Lady-Chapel, restored in the 15th
century by Bishop Pierre Cauchon, one of the judges of Joan of Arc. The
church of St Jacques (late 15th century) contains beautiful glass of the
Renaissance, some remarkable stalls and old frescoes, and a curious
picture on wood, restored in 1681. The church of St Désir (18th century)
once belonged to a Benedictine abbey. The old episcopal palace near the
cathedral is now used as a court-house, museum, library and prison, and
contains a beautiful hall called the salle dorée. Lisieux is the seat of
a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a
chamber of arts and manufactures, a board of trade arbitrators and a
communal college. Its manufactures of woollens are important, and
bleaching, wool and flax-spinning, tanning, brewing, timber-sawing,
metal-founding, and the manufacture of machinery, hosiery and boots and
shoes are carried on; there is trade in grain, cattle and cheese.

In the time of Caesar, Lisieux, under the name of _Noviomagus_, was the
capital of the Lexovii. Though destroyed by the barbarians, by the 6th
century it had become one of the most important towns of Neustria. Its
bishopric, suppressed in 1802, dates from that period. In 877 it was
pillaged by the Normans; and in 911 was included in the duchy of
Normandy by the treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte. Civil authority was
exercised by the bishop as count of the town. In 1136 Geoffrey
Plantagenet laid siege to Lisieux, which had taken the side of Stephen
of Blois. The town was not reduced till 1141, by which time both it and
the neighbourhood had been brought to the direst extremities of famine.
In 1152 the marriage of Henry II. of England to Eleanor of Guienne,
which added so largely to his dominions, was celebrated in the
cathedral. Thomas à Becket took refuge here, and some vestments used by
him are shown in the hospital chapel. Taken by Philip Augustus and
reunited to France in 1203, the town was a frequent subject of dispute
between the contending parties during the Hundred Years' War, the
religious wars, and those of the League.



LISKEARD, a market town and municipal borough in the Bodmin
parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 15 m. W.N.W. of Plymouth,
on the Great Western and the Liskeard and Looe railways. Pop. (1901)
4010. It lies high, above two small valleys opening to that of the Looe
river, in a hilly, picturesque district. The Perpendicular church of St
Martin, with a tower of earlier date, having a Norman arch, is one of
the largest ecclesiastical buildings in the county. The site of a castle
built by Richard, brother of Henry III. and earl of Cornwall, is
occupied by public gardens. At the grammar school, which formerly
occupied a building in those gardens, Dr John Wolcot, otherwise known as
Peter Pindar, was educated. Liskeard was formerly an important mining
centre. Its manufactures include leather and woollen goods, and there
are iron foundries. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 2704 acres.

Liskeard (Liscarret) was at the time of the Domesday Survey an important
manor with a mill rendering 12d. yearly and a market rendering 4s. By
the Conqueror it had been given to the count of Mortain by whom it was
held in demesne. Ever since that time it has passed with the earldom or
duchy of Cornwall. The fertility of its soil and the river Looe probably
led to early settlement at Liskeard. Richard, king of the Romans,
recognized its natural advantages and built the manor house or castle
and resided there occasionally. In 1240 he constituted Liskeard a free
borough and its burgesses freemen with all the liberties enjoyed by the
burgesses of Launceston and Helston. In 1266 he granted fairs at the
Feasts of the Assumption and St Matthew. His son Edmund earl of Cornwall
in 1275 granted to the burgesses for a yearly rent of £18 (sold by
William III. to Lord Somers) the borough in fee farm with its mills,
tolls, fines and pleas, pleas of the crown excepted. Liskeard was made a
coinage town for tin in 1304. Edward the Black Prince secured to the
burgesses in 1355 immunity from pleas outside their franchise for
trespass done within the borough. Queen Elizabeth granted a charter of
incorporation in 1580 under which there were to be a mayor, recorder and
eight councillors. This charter was surrendered to Charles II. in 1680
and a new one granted by his brother under which the corporation became
a self-elected body. From 1295 to 1832 Liskeard sent two members to the
House of Commons. The parliamentary franchise, at first exercised by the
burgesses, was vested by James' charter in the corporation and freemen.
By determining to admit no new freemen the voters became reduced to
between 30 and 60. Sir Edward Coke was returned for this borough in
1620, and Edward Gibbon the historian in 1774. In 1832 Liskeard was
deprived of one of its members and in 1885 it became merged in the
county.

  Besides the fairs already mentioned a third was added by Elizabeth's
  charter to be held on Ascension Day. These are still among the most
  considerable cattle fairs in the county. The same charter ratified a
  market on Mondays and provided for another on Saturdays. The latter is
  now held weekly, the former twice a month. The flour mill at Lamellion
  mentioned in the charter of 1275, and probably identical with the mill
  of the Domesday Survey, is still driven by water.



LISLE, ALICE (c. 1614-1685), commonly known as Lady Alice Lisle, was
born about 1614. Her father, Sir White Beckenshaw, was descended from an
old Hampshire family; her husband, John Lisle (d. 1664), had been one of
the judges at the trial of Charles I., and was subsequently a member of
Cromwell's House of Lords--hence his wife's courtesy title. Lady Lisle
seems to have leaned to Royalism, but with this attitude she combined a
decided sympathy with religious dissent. On the 20th of July 1685, a
fortnight after the battle of Sedgemoor, the old lady consented to
shelter John Hickes, a well-known Nonconformist minister, at her
residence, Moyles Court, near Ringwood. Hickes, who was a fugitive from
Monmouth's army, brought with him Richard Nelthorpe, also a partizan of
Monmouth, and under sentence of outlawry. The two men passed the night
at Moyles Court, and on the following morning were arrested, and their
hostess, who had denied their presence in the house, was charged with
harbouring traitors. Her case was tried by Judge Jeffreys at the opening
of the "Bloody Assizes" at Winchester. She pleaded that she had no
knowledge that Hickes's offence was anything more serious than illegal
preaching, that she had known nothing previously of Nelthorpe (whose
name was not included in the indictment, but was, nevertheless,
mentioned to strengthen the case for the Crown), and that she had no
sympathy with the rebellion. The jury reluctantly found her guilty, and,
the law recognizing no distinction between principals and accessories in
treason, she was sentenced to be burned. Jeffreys ordered that the
sentence should be carried out that same afternoon, but a few days'
respite was subsequently granted, and James II. allowed beheading to be
substituted for burning. Lady Lisle was executed in Winchester
market-place on the 2nd of September 1685. By many writers her death has
been termed a judicial murder, and one of the first acts of parliament
of William and Mary reversed the attainder on the ground that the
prosecution was irregular and the verdict injuriously extorted by "the
menaces and violences and other illegal practices" of Jeffreys. It is,
however, extremely doubtful whether Jeffreys, for all his gross
brutality, exceeded the strict letter of the existing law.

  See Howell, _State Trials_; H. B. Irving, _Life of Judge Jeffreys_;
  Stephen, _History of the Criminal Law of England_.



LISMORE, an island in the entrance to Loch Linnhe, Argyllshire,
Scotland, 5 m. N.W. of Oban. Pop. (1901) 500. It lies S.W. and N.E., is
9½ m. long and 1¾ m. broad, and has an area of 9600 acres. It divides
the lower end of the loch into two channels, the Lynn of Morvern on the
W. and the Lynn of Lome on the E. The name is derived from the Gaelic
_lios mòr_, "great garden." Several ruined castles stand on the coast,
and the highest point of the island is 500 ft. above the sea. The
inhabitants raise potatoes, oats, cattle and horses, and these, with
dairy produce, form the bulk of the trade. Steamers call at
Auchnacrosan. A Columban monastery was founded in Lismore by St Moluag
about 592. About 1200 the see of Argyll was separated from Dunkeld by
Bishop John, "the Englishman," and Lismore soon afterwards became the
seat of the bishop of Argyll, sometimes called "Episcopus Lismoriensis,"
quite distinct from the bishop of the Isles (Sudreys and Isle of Man),
called "Episcopus Sodoriensis" or "Insularum," whose see was divided in
the 14th century into the English bishopric of Sodor and Man and the
Scottish bishopric of the Isles. The Rev. John Macaulay (d. 1789),
grandfather of Lord Macaulay, the historian, and the Rev. Donald M'Nicol
(1735-1802), who took up the defence of the Highlands against Dr
Johnson, were ministers of Lismore.

  For the _Book of the Dean of Lismore_ see CELT: _Scottish Gaelic
  Literature_.



LISMORE, a town of Rous county, New South Wales, Australia, 320 m.
direct N. by E. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 4378. It is the principal town of
the north coast district, and the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. The
surrounding country is partly pastoral, and partly agricultural, the
soil being very fertile. The town has a cathedral, school of art, and
other public buildings, while its industrial establishments include
saw-mills, sugar-mills, butter factories and an iron foundry. Standing
at the head of navigation of the Richmond river, Lismore has a large
export trade in dairy produce, poultry, pigs, and pine and cedar timber.



LISMORE, a market town and seat of a diocese in Co. Waterford, Ireland,
43 m. W.S.W. of Waterford by the Waterford and Mallow branch of the
Great Southern & Western Railway. Pop. (1901) 1583. It is beautifully
situated on a steep eminence rising abruptly from the Blackwater. At the
verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle,
erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops
till the 14th century. It was besieged in 1641 and 1643, and in 1645 it
was partly destroyed by fire. The present fabric is largely modern;
while the portico was designed by Inigo Jones. To the east, on the
summit of the height, is the cathedral of St Carthagh, of various dates.
There are portions probably of the 12th and 13th centuries, but the bulk
of the building is of the 17th century, and considerable additions,
including the tower and spire, were made in the 19th. There are a
grammar school, a free school and a number of charities. Some trade is
carried on by means of the river, and the town is the centre of a salmon
fishery district.

The original name of Lismore was Maghsciath. A monastery founded here by
St Carthagh in 633 became so celebrated as a seat of learning that it is
said no fewer than twenty churches were erected in its vicinity. The
bishopric, which is said to have originated with this foundation, was
united to that of Waterford in 1363. In the 9th and beginning of the
10th centuries the town was repeatedly plundered by the Danes, and in
978 the town and abbey were burned by the men of Ossory. Henry II.,
after landing at Waterford, received in Lismore castle the allegiance of
the archbishops and bishops of Ireland. In 1518 the manor was granted to
Sir Walter Raleigh, from whom it passed to Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards
earl of Cork. From the earls of Cork it descended by marriage to the
dukes of Devonshire. It was incorporated as a municipal borough in the
time of Charles I., when it also received the privilege of returning
members to parliament, but at the Union in 1800 it was disfranchised and
also ceased to exercise its municipal functions.



LISSA (Serbo-Croation _Vis_; Lat. _Issa_), an island in the Adriatic
sea, forming part of Dalmatia, Austria. Lissa lies 31 m. S. by W. of
Spalato, and is the outermost island of the Dalmatian Archipelago. Its
greatest length is 10½ m.; its greatest breadth 4½ m. In shape it is a
long, roughly drawn parallelogram, surrounded by a wall of rock, which
incloses the fertile central plain, and is broken, on the north, west
and east by natural harbours. Its culminating point is Mount Hum (1942
ft.), on the south-west. The island, which belongs to the administrative
district of Lesina, is divided between two communes, named after the
chief towns, Lissa (_Vis_), on the north, and Comisa (_Komia_), on the
west. Lissa, the capital, has a strongly fortified harbour. It contains
the palace of the old Venetian counts Gariboldi, the former residence of
the English governor, the monastery of the Minorites and at a little
distance to the west the ruins of the ancient city of Issa. The
islanders gain their livelihood by viticulture, for which Issa was once
famous, by sardine fishing and by the distillation of rosemary oil. Pop.
(1900) 9918, of whom 5261 belonged to the town and commune of Lissa, and
4657 to Comisa.

Issa is said to have been settled by people from Lesbos, the Issa of the
Aegean. The Parians, assisted by Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse,
introduced a colony in the 4th century B.C. During the First Punic War
(265-241 B.C.) the Issaeans with their beaked ships helped the Roman
Duilius; and the great republic, having defended their island against
the attacks of Agron of Illyria and his queen Teuta, again found them
serviceable allies in the war with Philip of Macedon (c. 215-211). As
early as 996 the Venetians ruled the island, and, though they retired
for a time before the Ragusans, their power was effectually established
in 1278. Velo Selo, then the chief settlement, was destroyed by
Ferdinand of Naples in 1483 and by the Turks in 1571. The present city
arose shortly afterwards. During the Napoleonic wars, the French held
Lissa until 1811, and during this period the island prospered greatly,
its population increasing from 4000 to 12,000 between 1808 and 1811. In
the latter year the French squadron was defeated by the British (see
below); though in the same year a French fleet, flying British colours,
entered Lissa, and only retired after burning 64 merchantmen.
Thenceforward the island gained a valuable trade in British goods,
which, being excluded from every port under French control, were
smuggled into Dalmatia. In 1812 the British established an
administrative system, under native officials, in Lissa and the
adjoining islands of Curzola and Lagosta. All three were ceded to
Austria in 1815.

_Battles of Lissa._--Two naval actions have been fought in modern times
near this island. The first took place on the 13th of March 1811, and
was fought between a Franco-Venetian squadron, under the command of an
officer named Dubourdieu (of whom little or nothing else is known), and
Captain (afterwards Sir) William Hoste with a small British force. The
Franco-Venetian squadron (Venice was then part of the dominions of the
emperor Napoleon) consisted of six frigates, of which four were of forty
guns, and of five corvettes or small craft. The British squadron was
composed of three frigates, the "Amphion," 32 (Captain William Hoste),
the "Cerberus" (Captain Henry Whitby) and the "Active," 38 (Captain
James A. Gordon). With them was the "Volage," 22 (Captain Phipps
Hornby). The action has a peculiar interest because the French captain
imitated the method of attack employed by Nelson at Trafalgar. He came
down from windward in two lines parallel to one another, and at an angle
to the British squadron. Captain Hoste was not compelled to lie still as
the allies did at Trafalgar. He stood on, and as the two French lines
had to overtake him as he slipped away at an angle to their course, one
of them got in the way of the other. Captain Hoste materially forwarded
the success of his manoeuvre by leading the foremost French ship, the
"Favorite," 40, on to a reef, which was known to himself, but not to the
enemy. Both squadrons then turned, and the Franco-Venetians falling into
great confusion were defeated in spite of the gallant fighting of the
individual ships. Two prizes were taken and Dubourdieu was killed.

The second naval battle of Lissa was fought between the Austrian and
Italian navies on the 20th of July 1866. The island, then in possession
of the Austrians, was attacked by an Italian squadron from Ancona of 12
ironclads and 22 wooden vessels. One of the ironclads was damaged in a
bombardment of the forts, and two were detached on other service, when
an Austrian squadron of 7 ironclads, one unarmoured warship the "Kaiser"
and a number of small craft which had left Fasano under the command of
Admiral Tegethoff came to interrupt their operations. The Italian
admiral Persano arranged his ships in a single long line ahead, which
allowing for the necessary space between them meant that the Italian
formation stretched for more than 2 m. Just before the action began
Admiral Persano shifted his flag from the "Ré d'Italia," the fourth ship
in order from the van, to the ram "Affondatore," the fifth. This made it
necessary for the "Affondatore" and the ships astern to shorten speed,
and, as the leading vessels stood on, a gap was created in the Italian
line. Admiral Tegethoff, who was on the port bow of the Italians,
attacked with his squadron in three divisions formed in obtuse angles.
The Italians opened a very rapid and ill-directed fire at a distance of
1000 yds. The Austrians did not reply till they were at a distance of
300 yds. Under Tegethoff's vigorous leadership, and aided by the
disorder in the Italian line, the Austrians brought on a brief, but to
the Italians destructive, mêlée. They broke through an interval between
the third and fourth Italian ships. The unarmed Austrian ships headed to
attack the unarmed Italians in the rear. At this point an incident
occurred to which an exaggerated importance was given. The Italian
ironclad "Ré di Portogallo" of 5600 tons, in the rear of the line, stood
out to cover the unarmoured squadron by ramming the Austrians. She was
herself rammed by the wooden "Kaiser" (5000 tons), but received little
injury, while the Austrian was much injured. The "Kaiser" and the wooden
vessels then made for the protection of fort San Giorgio on Lissa
unpursued. In the centre, where the action was hottest, the Austrian
flagship "Ferdinand Max" of 5200 tons rammed and sank the "Ré d'Italia."
The Italian "Palestro" of 2000 tons was fired by a shell and blew up. By
midday the Italians were in retreat, and Tegethoff anchored at San
Giorgio. His squadron had suffered very little from the wild fire of the
Italians. The battle of the 20th July was the first fought at sea by
modern ironclad steam fleets, and therefore attracted a great deal of
attention. The sinking of the "Ré d'Italia" and the ramming of the
"Portogallo" by the "Kaiser" gave an immense impulse to the then popular
theory that the ram would be a leading, if not the principal, weapon in
modern sea warfare. This calculation has not been borne out by more
recent experience, and indeed was not justified by the battle itself, in
which the attempts to ram were many and the successes very few. The "Ré
d'Italia" was struck only because she was suddenly and most
injudiciously backed, so that she had no way on when charged by the
"Ferdinand Max."

  For the first battle of Lissa see James's _Naval History_, vol. v.
  (1837). A clear account of the second battle will be found in Sir S.
  Eardley-Wilmot's _Development of Navies_ (London, 1892); see also H.
  W. Wilson's _Ironclads in Action_ (London, 1896).     (D. H.)



LISSA (Polish _Lézno_), a town in the Prussian province of Posen, 25 m.
N.E. from Glogau by rail and at the junction of lines to Breslau, Posen
and Landsberg. Pop. (1905) 16,021. The chief buildings are the handsome
palace, the medieval town-hall, the four churches and the synagogue. Its
manufactures consist chiefly of shoes, machinery, liqueurs and tobacco;
it also possesses a large steam flour-mill, and carries on a brisk trade
in grain and cattle.

Lissa owes its rise to a number of Moravian Brothers who were banished
from Bohemia by the emperor Ferdinand I. in the 16th century and found a
refuge in a village on the estate of the Polish family of Leszczynski.
Their settlement received municipal rights in 1561. During the Thirty
Years' War the population was reinforced by other refugees, and Lissa
became an important commercial town and the chief seat of the Moravian
Brothers in Poland. Johann Amos Comenius was long rector of the
celebrated Moravian school here. In 1656 and 1707 Lissa was burned down.

  See Voigt, _Aus Lissas erster Blütezeit_ (Lissa, 1905), and Sanden,
  _Geschichte der Lissaer Schule_ (Lissa, 1905).



LIST, FRIEDRICH (1789-1846), German economist, was born at Reutlingen,
Württemberg, on the 6th of August 1789. Unwilling to follow the
occupation of his father, who was a prosperous tanner, he became a clerk
in the public service, and by 1816 had risen to the post of ministerial
under-secretary. In 1817 he was appointed professor of administration
and politics at the university of Tübingen, but the fall of the ministry
in 1819 compelled him to resign. As a deputy to the Württemberg chamber,
he was active in advocating administrative reforms. He was eventually
expelled from the chamber and in April 1822 sentenced to ten months'
imprisonment with hard labour in the fortress of Asperg. He escaped to
Alsace, and after visiting France and England returned in 1824 to finish
his sentence, and was released on undertaking to emigrate to America.
There he resided from 1825 to 1832, first engaging in farming and
afterwards in journalism. It was in America that he gathered from a
study of Alexander Hamilton's work the inspiration which made him an
economist of his pronounced "National" views. The discovery of coal on
some land which he had acquired made him financially independent, and he
became United States consul at Leipzig in 1832. He strongly advocated
the extension of the railway system in Germany, and the establishment of
the _Zollverein_ was due largely to his enthusiasm and ardour. His
latter days were darkened by many misfortunes; he lost much of his
American property in a financial crisis, ill-health also overtook him,
and he brought his life to an end by his own hand on the 30th of
November 1846.

List holds historically one of the highest places in economic thought as
applied to practical objects. His principal work is entitled _Das
Nationale System der Politischen Ökonomie_ (1841). Though his practical
conclusions were different from those of Adam Müller (1779-1829), he was
largely influenced not only by Hamilton but also by the general mode of
thinking of that writer, and by his strictures on the doctrine of Adam
Smith. It was particularly against the cosmopolitan principle in the
modern economical system that he protested, and against the absolute
doctrine of free trade, which was in harmony with that principle. He
gave prominence to the national idea, and insisted on the special
requirements of each nation according to its circumstances and
especially to the degree of its development.

  He refused to Smith's system the title of the industrial, which he
  thought more appropriate to the mercantile system, and designated the
  former as "the exchange-value system." He denied the parallelism
  asserted by Smith between the economic conduct proper to an individual
  and to a nation, and held that the immediate private interest of the
  separate members of the community would not lead to the highest good
  of the whole. That the nation was an existence, standing between the
  individual and humanity, and formed into a unity by its language,
  manners, historical development, culture and constitution. That this
  unity must be the first condition of the security, wellbeing, progress
  and civilization of the individual; and private economic interests,
  like all others, must be subordinated to the maintenance, completion
  and strengthening of the nationality. The nation having a continuous
  life, its true wealth must consist--and this is List's fundamental
  doctrine--not in the quantity of exchange-values which it possesses,
  but in the full and many-sided development of its productive powers.
  Its economic education should be more important than the immediate
  production of values, and it might be right that one generation should
  sacrifice its gain and enjoyment to secure the strength and skill of
  the future. In the sound and normal condition of a nation which has
  attained economic maturity, the three productive powers of
  agriculture, manufactures and commerce should be alike developed. But
  the two latter factors are superior in importance, as exercising a
  more effective and fruitful influence on the whole culture of the
  nation, as well as on its independence. Navigation, railways, all
  higher technical arts, connect themselves specially with these
  factors; whilst in a purely agricultural state there is a tendency to
  stagnation. But for the growth of the higher forms of industry all
  countries are not adapted--only those of the temperate zones, whilst
  the torrid regions have a natural monopoly in the production of
  certain raw materials; and thus between these two groups of countries
  a division of labour and confederation of powers spontaneously takes
  place.

  List then goes on to explain his theory of the stages of economic
  development through which the nations of the temperate zone, which are
  furnished with all the necessary conditions, naturally pass, in
  advancing to their normal economic state. These are (1) pastoral life,
  (2) agriculture, (3) agriculture united with manufactures; whilst in
  the final stage agriculture, manufactures and commerce are combined.
  The economic task of the state is to bring into existence through
  legislative and administrative action the conditions required for the
  progress of the nation through these stages. Out of this view arises
  List's scheme of industrial politics. Every nation, according to him,
  should begin with free trade, stimulating and improving its
  agriculture by intercourse with richer and more cultivated nations,
  importing foreign manufactures and exporting raw products. When it is
  economically so far advanced that it can manufacture for itself, then
  a system of protection should be employed to allow the home industries
  to develop themselves fully, and save them from being overpowered in
  their earlier efforts by the competition of more matured foreign
  industries in the home market. When the national industries have grown
  strong enough no longer to dread this competition, then the highest
  stage of progress has been reached; free trade should again become the
  rule, and the nation be thus thoroughly incorporated with the
  universal industrial union. What a nation loses for a time in exchange
  values during the protective period she much more than gains in the
  long run in productive power--the temporary expenditure being strictly
  analogous, when we place ourselves at the point of view of the life of
  the nation, to the cost of the industrial education of the
  individual. The practical conclusion which List drew for Germany was
  that she needed for her economic progress an extended and conveniently
  bounded territory reaching to the sea-coast both on north and south,
  and a vigorous expansion of manufactures and commerce, and that the
  way to the latter lay through judicious protective legislation with a
  customs union comprising all German lands, and a German marine with a
  Navigation Act. The national German spirit, striving after
  independence and power through union, and the national industry,
  awaking from its lethargy and eager to recover lost ground, were
  favourable to the success of List's book, and it produced a great
  sensation. He ably represented the tendencies and demands of his time
  in his own country; his work had the effect of fixing the attention,
  not merely of the speculative and official classes, but of practical
  men generally, on questions of political economy; and his ideas were
  undoubtedly the economic foundation of modern Germany, as applied by
  the practical genius of Bismarck.

  See biographies of List by Goldschmidt (Berlin, 1878) and Jentsch
  (Berlin, 1901), also _Fr. List, ein Vorläufer und ein Opfer für das
  Vaterland_ (Anon., 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1877); M. E. Hirst's _Life of
  Friedrich List_ (London, 1909) contains a bibliography and a reprint
  of List's _Outlines of American Political Economy_ (1827).



LIST (O.E. _liste_, a Teutonic word, cf. Dut. _lijst_, Ger. _Leiste_,
adapted in Ital. _lista_ and Fr. _liste_), properly a border or edging.
The word was thus formerly used of a geographical boundary or frontier
and of the lobe of the ear. In current usage "list" is the term applied
to the "selvage" of a piece of cloth, the edging, i.e. of a web left in
an unfinished state or of different material from the rest of the
fabric, to be torn or cut off when it is made up, or used for forming a
seam. A similar edging prevents unravelling. The material, cut off and
collected, is known as "list," and is used as a soft cheap material for
making slippers, padding cushions, &c. Until the employment of rubber,
list was used to stuff the cushions of billiard tables. The same word
probably appears, in a plural form "lists," applied to the barriers or
palisades enclosing a space of ground set apart for tilting (see
TOURNAMENT). It is thus used of any place of contest, and the phrase "to
enter the lists" is frequently used in the sense of "to challenge." The
word in this application was taken directly from the O. Fr. _lisse_,
modern _lice_, in Med. Lat. _liciae_. This word is usually taken to be a
Romanic adaptation of the Teutonic word. In medieval fortifications the
_lices_ were the palisades forming an outwork in front of the main walls
of a castle or other fortified place, and the word was also used of the
space enclosed between the palisades and the enceinte; this was used for
exercising troops, &c. From a transference of "list," meaning edge or
border, to a "strip" of paper, parchment, &c., containing a "list" of
names, numbers, &c., comes the use of the word for an enumeration of a
series of names of persons or things arranged in order for some specific
purpose. It is the most general word for such an enumeration, other
words, such as "register," "schedule," "inventory," "catalogue," having
usually some particular connotation. The chief early use of list in this
meaning was of the roll containing the names of soldiers; hence to "list
a soldier" meant to enter a recruit's name for service, in modern usage
"to enlist" him. There are numerous particular applications of "list,"
as in "civil list" (q.v.), "active or retired list" in the navy or army.
The term "free list" is used of an enumeration of such commodities as
may at a particular time be exempt from the revenue laws imposing an
import duty.

  The verb "to list," most commonly found in the imperative, meaning
  "hark!" is another form of "listen," and is to be referred, as to its
  ultimate origin, to an Indo-European root _klu_-, seen in Gr. [Greek:
  klyein], to hear, [Greek: kleos], glory, renown, and in the English
  "loud." The same root is seen in Welsh _clûst_ and Irish _clûas_, ear.
  Another word "list," meaning pleasure, delight, or, as a verb, meaning
  "to please, choose," is chiefly found in such phrases as "the wind
  bloweth where it listeth." This is from the O.E. _lystan_, cf. Dut.
  _lusten_, Ger. _lüsten_, to take pleasure in, and is also found in the
  English doublet "lust," now always used in the sense of an evil or
  more particularly sexual desire. It is probably an application of this
  word, in the sense of "inclination," that has given rise to the
  nautical term "list," for the turning over of a ship on to its side.



LISTA Y ARAGON, ALBERTO (1775-1848), Spanish poet and educationalist,
was born at Seville on the 15th of October 1775. He began teaching at
the age of fifteen, and when little over twenty was made professor of
elocution and poetry at Seville university. In 1813 he was exiled, on
political grounds, but pardoned in 1817. He then returned to Spain and,
after teaching for three years at Bilbao, started a critical review at
Madrid. Shortly afterwards he founded the celebrated college of San
Mateo in that city. The liberal character of the San Mateo educational
system was not favoured by the government, and in 1823 the college was
closed. Lista after some time spent in Bayonne, Paris and London was
recalled to Spain in 1833 to edit the official _Madrid Gazette_. He was
one of the founders of the Ateneo, the free university of Madrid, and up
till 1840 was director of a college at Cadiz. All the leading spirits of
the young generation of Spaniards, statesmen, writers, soldiers and
diplomatists came under his influence. He died at Seville on the 5th of
October 1848.



LISTER, JOSEPH LISTER, 1st BARON (1827- ), English surgeon, was born at
Upton, in Essex, on the 5th of April 1827. His father, Joseph Jackson
Lister, F.R.S., was eminent in science, especially in optical science,
his chief claim to remembrance being that by certain improvements in
lenses he raised the compound microscope from the position of a
scientific toy, "distorting as much as it magnified," to its present
place as a powerful engine of research. Other members of Lord Lister's
family were eminent in natural science. In his boyhood Joseph Lister was
educated at Quaker schools; first at Hitchin in Hertfordshire, and
afterwards at Tottenham, near London. In 1844 he entered University
College, London, as a student in arts, and took his B.A. degree at the
University of London in 1847. He continued at University College as a
medical student, and became M.B. and F.R.C.S. in 1852. The keen young
student was not long in bringing his faculties to bear upon pathology
and the practice of medicine. While house-surgeon at University College
Hospital, he had charge of certain cases during an outbreak of hospital
gangrene, and carefully observed the phenomena of the disease and the
effects of treatment upon it. He was thus early led to suspect the
parasitic nature of the disorder, and searched with the microscope the
material of the spreading sore, in the hope of discovering in it some
invading fungus; he soon convinced himself of the cardinal truth that
its causes were purely local. He also minutely investigated cases of
pyaemia, another terrible scourge of hospitals at that time, and made
_camera lucida_ sketches of the appearances revealed by the microscope.

To realize Lister's work it is necessary to remember the condition of
surgical practice at that date. About the middle of the 19th century the
introduction of anaesthetics had relieved the patient of much of the
horror of the knife, and the surgeon of the duty of speed in his work.
The agony of the sufferer had naturally and rightly compelled the public
to demand rapid if not slap-dash surgery, and the surgeon to pride
himself on it. Within decent limits of precision, the quickest craftsman
was the best. With anaesthetics this state of things at any rate was
changed. The pain of the operation itself no longer counted, and the
surgeon was enabled not only to be as cautious and sedulous as
dexterous, but also to venture upon long, profound and intricate
operations which before had been out of the question. Yet unhappily this
new enfranchisement seemed to be but an ironical liberty of Nature, who
with the other hand took away what she had given. Direct healing of
surgical wounds ("by first intention"), far from being the rule, was a
piece of luck too rare to enter into the calculations of the operator;
while of the graver surgical undertakings, however successful
mechanically, the mortality by sepsis was ghastly. Suppuration,
phagedaena and septic poisonings of the system carried away even the
most promising patients and followed even trifling operations. Often,
too, these diseases rose to the height of epidemic pestilences, so that
patients, however extreme their need, dreaded the very name of hospital,
and the most skilful surgeons distrusted their own craft. New hospitals
or new wards were built, yet after a very short time the new became as
pestiferous as the old; and even scrupulous care in ventilation and
housemaids' cleanliness failed to prevent the devastation. Surgery had
enlarged its freedom, but only to find the weight of its new
responsibilities more than it could bear.

When Lister was appointed to the chair of surgery in Glasgow the
infirmary of that city was a hotbed of septic disease; so much so that
his hospital visits evidently distressed him greatly. Windows were
widely opened, piles of clean towels were supplied, but still the
pestilence stalked through the wards. The building stands to-day as it
stood then, with no substantial alteration; but by the genius of Lister
its surgical wards are now as free from septic accidents as the most
modern hospital in the land. James Simpson, early in the 'sixties,
pathetically denounced the awful mortality of operations in hospitals,
and indeed uttered desperate protests against the hospital system
itself; yet, not long afterwards, Lister came to prove that it was not
in the hospital that the causes of that mortality lay hidden, but in the
operator himself, his tools and his assistants. Happily this beneficent
discovery was made in time to preserve the inestimable boon of the
hospital system from the counsels of despair. When Lister took up the
task speculation was on the wrong tack; the oxygen of the air was then
supposed to be the chief cause of the dissolution of the tissues, and to
prevent access of air was impossible. For instance, a simple fracture,
as of a bone of the leg, would do perfectly well, while in the very next
bed a compound fracture--one, that is, where the skin is lacerated, and
access to the seat of injury opened out--would go disastrously wrong. If
the limb were amputated, a large proportion of such cases of amputation
succumbed to septic poisoning.

On graduation as bachelor of medicine, Lister went to Edinburgh, where
he soon afterwards became house-surgeon to Mr Syme; and he was much
impressed by the skill and judgment of this great surgeon, and also by
the superiority of his method of dressing recent wounds with dry lint,
as compared with the "water dressing" in use at University College. Yet
under these more favourable conditions the amelioration was only one of
degree; in most wounds indeed "union by first intention" was rendered
impossible by the presence of the silk ligatures employed for arresting
bleeding, for these could come away only by a process of suppuration. On
the expiry of his house-surgeoncy in Edinburgh, Lister started in that
city an extra-academical course of lectures on surgery; and in
preparation for these he entered on a series of investigations into
inflammation and allied subjects. These researches, which were detailed
fully in three papers in _Phil. Trans._ (1859), and in his Croonian
lecture to the Royal Society in 1863, testified to an earnestness of
purpose, a persevering accuracy of observation and experiment and an
insight of scientific conception which show that if Lister had never
developed the aseptic method of surgery, he would have taken a very high
place in pathology. In his speech in Paris at the Thirteenth
International Congress of Medicine in 1900, Lord Lister said that he had
done no more than seize upon Pasteur's discoveries and apply them to
surgery. But though Lister saw the vast importance of the discoveries of
Pasteur, he saw it because he was watching on the heights; and he was
watching there alone. From Pasteur Lister derived no doubt two fruitful
ideas: first, that decomposition in organic substances is due to living
"germs"; and, secondly, that these lowly and minute forms of vegetable
life spring always, like higher organisms, from parents like themselves,
and cannot arise _de novo_ in the animal body. After his appointment to
the Glasgow chair in 1860, Lister had continued his researches on
inflammation; and he had long been led to suspect that decomposition of
the blood in the wound was the main cause of suppuration. The two great
theories established by Pasteur seemed to Lister to open out the
possibility of what had before appeared hopeless--namely, the prevention
of putrefaction in the wound, and consequently the forestalling of
suppuration. To exclude the oxygen of the air from wounds was
impossible, but it might be practicable to protect them from microbes.

The first attempt to realize this idea was made upon compound fractures;
and the means first employed was carbolic acid, the remarkable efficacy
of which in deodorizing sewage made Lister regard it as a very powerful
germicide. It was applied to the wound undiluted, so as to form with the
blood a dense crust, the surface of which was painted daily with the
acid till all danger had passed. The results, after a first failure,
were in the highest degree satisfactory, so that, as Lister said in his
presidential address to the British Association in Liverpool, he "had
the joy of seeing these formidable injuries follow the same safe and
tranquil course as simple fractures." The caustic property of undiluted
carbolic acid, though insignificant in comparison with the far greater
evils to be avoided in compound fracture, made it unsuited for general
surgery. To make it applicable to the treatment of abscesses and incised
wounds, it was necessary to mitigate its action by blending it with some
inert body; and the endeavour to find the best medium for this purpose,
such as to combine perfect antiseptic efficiency with the least possible
irritation of the tissues, formed the subject of experiments continued
for many years in the laboratory and in the ward. At one stage in these
inquiries an attempt was made to provide an atmosphere free from living
organisms by means of a fine spray of a watery solution of carbolic
acid; for it was then supposed by Lister to be necessary not only to
purify the surgeon's hands and instruments and the skin of the patient
about the seat of operation, but also to wage war with the microbes
which, as Pasteur had shown, people every cubic inch of the air of an
inhabited room. Under the use of the spray better results were obtained
than ever before, and this success encouraged its use. But researches
carried on for several years into the relations of the blood to
micro-organisms led Lister to doubt the harmfulness of the atmospheric
dust. At the London Congress in 1881 he narrated experiments which
proved that the serum of the blood is a very unfavourable soil for the
development of the bacteria diffused through the air, and others which
showed that the cells of an organizing blood-clot have a very remarkable
power of disposing of microbes and of limiting their advance. Hence he
considered it probable that in surgical operations the atmosphere might
be disregarded altogether.[1] As long, however, as this was only a
matter of probability, he did not dare to discard the spray. But at
length, at the Berlin Congress in 1890, he was able to announce that the
certainty he had so long desired had been arrived at. A careful
consideration of the physical constitution of the spray had shown him
that the microbes of the dust involved in its vortex could not possibly
have their vitality destroyed or even impaired by it. Such being the
case, the uniform success obtained when he had trusted the spray
implicitly as an aseptic atmosphere, abandoning completely certain other
precautions which he had before deemed essential, proved conclusively to
his mind that the air might safely be left entirely out of consideration
in operating.[2] Thus he learnt that not the spray only, but all
antiseptic irrigations or washings of the wound also, with their
attendant irritation of the cut surfaces, might be dispensed with--a
great simplification, indirectly due to experiments with the spray. The
spray had also served a very useful purpose by maintaining a pure
condition of the entourage of the operation; not indeed in the way for
which it was devised, but as a very mild form of irrigation. And Lister
took care to emphasize the necessity for redoubled vigilance on the part
of the surgeon and his assistants when this "unconscious caretaker," as
he called it, had been discarded.

The announcement that he had given up the spray was absurdly interpreted
in some quarters to mean that he had virtually abandoned his theory and
his antiseptic methods. The truth is that the spray was only one of many
devices tried for a while in the course of the long-continued endeavour
to apply the antiseptic principle to the best advantage, and abandoned
in favour of something better. Two main objects were always kept
steadily in view by him--during the operation to guard the wound against
septic microbes by such means as existing knowledge indicated, and
afterwards to protect it against their introduction, avoiding at the
same time all needless irritation of the tissues by the antiseptic. Upon
the technical methods of attaining these ends this is not the place to
enlarge; suffice it to say that the endowments and the industry of the
discoverer, as seen in the rapidity and flexibility of mind with which
he seized upon and selected the best means, were little less remarkable
than the activity of the same faculties in his original ideas.

To illustrate this opinion, his work on the ligature may be taken. It
had long been the universal practice of surgeons to employ threads of
silk or flax for tying arteries, long ends being left to provide escape
of the pus (invariably formed during the tedious process of the
separation of the ligature) together with the portion of the arterial
coats included in the knot. Lister hoped that if, by antiseptic means,
the thread were deprived of living microbes, it would no longer cause
suppuration, but might be left with short cut ends to become embedded
permanently among the tissues of the wound, which thus would be allowed
to heal by primary union throughout. A trial of this method upon the
carotid artery of a horse having proved perfectly successful, he applied
it in a case of aneurysm in the human subject; and here again the
immediate results were all that could be desired. But a year later, the
patient having died from other causes, the necropsy showed remnants of
the silk thread incompletely absorbed, with appearances around them
which seemed to indicate that they had been acting as causes of
disturbance. Thus was suggested to him the idea of employing for the
ligature some material susceptible of more speedy absorption; and the
antiseptic treatment of contused wounds having shown that dead tissue,
if protected from putrefaction, is removed by the surrounding structures
without the intervention of suppuration, he resolved to try a thread of
some such nature. Catgut, which is prepared from one of the constituents
of the small intestine of the sheep, after steeping in a solution of
carbolic acid, was used in a preliminary trial upon the carotid artery
of a calf. The animal was killed a month later, when, on dissection, a
very beautiful result was disclosed. The catgut, though removed, had not
been simply absorbed; pari passu with its gradual removal, fibrous
tissue of new formation had been laid down, so that in place of the dead
catgut was seen a living ligature embracing the artery and incorporated
with it. The wound meanwhile had healed without a trace of suppuration.
This success appeared to justify the use of the catgut ligature in the
human subject, and for a while the results were entirely satisfactory.
But though this was the case with the old samples of catgut first
employed, which, as Lister was afterwards led to believe, had been
"seasoned" by long keeping, it was found that when catgut was used fresh
as it comes from the makers, it was unsuited in various ways for
surgical purposes. The attempt by special preparation to obtain an
article in all respects trustworthy engaged his attention from time to
time for years afterwards. To quote the words of Sir Hector Cameron, who
was for several years assistant to Lord Lister, it required "labour and
toilsome investigation and experiment of which few can have any adequate
idea."

In 1869 Lister succeeded his father-in-law, Syme, in the chair of
clinical surgery of Edinburgh. In 1877 he accepted an invitation to the
chair of surgery at King's College, London, in the anticipation that
here he would be more centrally placed for communication with the
surgical world at home and abroad, and might thus exercise his
beneficent mission to more immediate advantage. In 1896 Lister retired
from practice, but not from scientific study. From 1895 to 1900 he was
President of the Royal Society. In 1883 he was created a baronet, and in
1897 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Lister of Lyme Regis. Among
the Coronation honours in 1902, he was nominated an original member of
the new Order of Merit.

In England Lister's teaching was slow in making its way. The leading
surgeons of Germany were among the first to seize upon the new idea with
avidity and practical success; so early as 1875, in the course of a tour
he made on the Continent, great festivals were held in his honour in
Munich and Leipzig. The countrymen of Pasteur did not lag far behind;
and it is no exaggeration to speak of Lister's appearances in foreign
countries at this time as triumphal.

The relation of Semmelweiss to Lister is of historical importance.
Lister's work on the antiseptic system began in 1864; his first
publication on the subject was in March 1867. At this date, and for long
afterwards, Semmelweiss was unknown, or ignored, not only by French and
Germans, but also by his own Hungarian people; and this neglect broke
his heart. The French Academy pronounced against his opinions, and so
did the highest pathological authority in Germany. In England, till long
after his death, probably his name was not so much as mentioned. In the
early 'seventies Lister's method was in full operation in Hungary as
elsewhere, yet none of the surgeons of Budapest ever mentioned
Semmelweiss; not even when, in 1883, they gave a great banquet to
Lister. It was after this occasion that Dr Duka, a Hungarian physician
practising in London, wrote a biography of Semmelweiss, which he sent to
Lister, and thus brought Semmelweiss before him for the first time.
Thenceforth Lister generously regarded Semmelweiss as in some measure
his forerunner; though Semmelweiss was not aware of the microbic origin
of septic poisons, nor were his methods, magnificent as was their
success in lying-in hospitals, suitable for surgical work.

In public Lord Lister's speeches were simple, clear and graceful,
avoiding rhetorical display, earnest for the truth, jealous for his
science and art, forgetful of himself. His writings, in like manner
plain, lucid and forcible, scarcely betray the labour and thought of
their production. With the courtesy and serenity of his carriage he
combined a passionate humanity, so often characteristic of those who
come of the Society of Friends, and a simple love of truth which showed
itself in his generous encouragement of younger workers.     (T. C. A.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See _Trans. of the International Medical Congress_ (1881), vol.
    ii. p. 373.

  [2] See _Verhandlungen des X internationalen Congresses_, Bd. i. p.
    33.



LISTER, MARTIN (c. 1638-1712), English naturalist and physician, was
born at Radclive, near Buckingham. He was nephew of Sir Matthew Lister,
physician to Anne, queen of James I., and to Charles I. He was educated
at St John's College, Cambridge, 1655, graduated in 1658/9, and was
elected a fellow in 1660. He became F.R.S. in 1671. He practised
medicine at York until 1683, when he removed to London. In 1684 he
received the degree of M.D. at Oxford, and in 1687 became F.R.C.P. He
contributed numerous articles on natural history, medicine and
antiquities to the _Philosophical Transactions_. His principal works
were _Historiae animalium Angliae tres tractatus_ (1678); _Historiae
Conchyliorum_ (1685-1692), and _Conchyliorum Bivalvium_ (1696). As a
conchologist he was held in high esteem, but while he recognized the
similarity of fossil mollusca to living forms, he regarded them as
inorganic imitations produced in the rocks. In 1683 he communicated to
the Royal Society (_Phil. Trans._, 1684), _An ingenious proposal for a
new sort of maps of countries; together with tables of sands and clays,
such as are chiefly found in the north parts of England_. In this essay
he suggested the preparation of a soil or mineral map of the country,
and thereby is justly credited with being the first to realize the
importance of a geological survey. He died at Epsom on the 2nd of
February 1712.



LISTON, JOHN (c. 1776-1846), English comedian, was born in London. He
made his public _début_ on the stage at Weymouth as Lord Duberley in
_The Heir-at-law_. After several dismal failures in tragic parts, some
of them in support of Mrs Siddons, he discovered accidentally that his
_forte_ was comedy, especially in the personation of old men and country
boys, in which he displayed a fund of drollery and broad humour. An
introduction to Charles Kemble led to his appearance at the Haymarket on
the 10th of June 1805 as Sheepface in the _Village Lawyer_, and his
association with this theatre continued with few interruptions until
1830. _Paul Pry_, the most famous of all his impersonations, was first
presented on the 13th of September 1825, and soon became, thanks to his
creative genius, a real personage. Liston remained on the stage till
1837; during his last years his mind failed, and he died on the 22nd of
March 1846. He had married in 1807 Miss Tyrer (d. 1854), a singer and
actress.

  Several pictures of Liston in character are in the Garrick Club,
  London, and one as Paul Pry in the South Kensington Museum.



LISTON, ROBERT (1794-1847), Scottish surgeon, was born on the 28th of
October 1794 at Ecclesmachan, Linlithgow, where his father was parish
minister. He began the study of anatomy under Dr John Barclay
(1758-1826) at Edinburgh in 1810, and soon became a skilful anatomist.
After eight years' study, he became a lecturer on anatomy and surgery in
the Edinburgh School or Medicine; and in 1827 he was elected one of the
surgeons to the Royal Infirmary. In 1835 he was chosen professor of
clinical surgery in University College, London, and this appointment he
held until his death, which occurred in London on the 7th of December
1847. Liston was a teacher more by what he did than by what he said. He
taught simplicity in all operative procedures; fertile in expedients, of
great nerve and of powerful frame, he is remembered as an
extraordinarily bold, skilful and rapid operator. He was the author of
_The Elements of Surgery_ (1831-1832) and _Practical Surgery_ (1837),
and made several improvements in methods of amputation, and in the
dressing of wounds.



LISZT, FRANZ (1811-1886), Hungarian pianist and composer, was born on
the 22nd of October 1811, at Raiding, in Hungary. His appeal to
musicians was made in a threefold capacity, and we have, therefore, to
deal with Liszt the unrivalled pianoforte virtuoso (1830-1848); Liszt
the conductor of the "music of the future" at Weimar, the teacher of
Tausig, Bülow and a host of lesser pianists, the eloquent writer on
music and musicians, the champion of Berlioz and Wagner (1848-1861); and
Liszt the prolific composer, who for some five-and-thirty years
continued to put forth pianoforte pieces, songs, symphonic orchestral
pieces, cantatas, masses, psalms and oratorios (1847-1882). As virtuoso
he held his own for the entire period during which he chose to appear in
public; but the militant conductor and prophet of Wagner had a hard
time of it, and the composer's place is still in dispute. Liszt's
father, a clerk to the agent of the Esterhazy estates and an amateur
musician of some attainment, was Hungarian by birth and ancestry, his
mother an Austrian-German. The boy's gifts attracted the attention of
certain Hungarian magnates, who furnished 600 gulden annually for some
years to enable him to study music at Vienna and Paris. At Vienna he had
lessons in pianoforte playing from Carl Czerny of "Velocity" fame, and
from Salieri in harmony and analysis of scores. In his eleventh year he
began to play in public there, and Beethoven came to his second concert
in April 1823. During the three years following he played in Paris, the
French provinces and Switzerland, and paid three visits to England. In
Paris he had composition lessons from Paër, and a six months' course of
lessons in counterpoint from Reicha. In the autumn of 1825 the handsome
and fascinating _enfant gâté_ of the salons and ateliers--"La Neuvième
Merveille du monde"--had the luck to get an operetta (_Don Sancho_)
performed three times at the Académie Royale. The score was accidentally
destroyed by fire, but a set of studies à la Czerny and Cramer,
belonging to 1826 and published at Marseilles as 12 Études, op. i., is
extant, and shows remarkable precocity. After the death of his father in
1828 young Liszt led the life of a teacher of the pianoforte in Paris,
got through a good deal of miscellaneous reading, and felt the influence
of the religious, literary and political aspirations of the time. He
attended the meetings of the Saint-Simonists, lent an ear to the
romantic mysticism of Père Enfantin and later to the teaching of Abbé
Lamennais. He also played Beethoven and Weber in public--a very
courageous thing in those days. The appearance of the violinist Paganini
in Paris, 1831, marks the starting-point of the supreme eminence Liszt
ultimately attained as a virtuoso. Paganini's marvellous technique
inspired him to practise as no pianist had ever practised before. He
tried to find equivalents for Paganini's effects, transcribed his violin
caprices for the piano, and perfected his own technique to an
extraordinary degree. After Paganini he received a fresh impulse from
the playing and the compositions of Chopin, who arrived in 1831, and yet
another impulse of equal force from a performance of Berlioz's
"Symphonie Fantastique, épisode de la vie d'un artiste," in 1832. Liszt
transcribed this work, and its influence ultimately led him to the
composition of his "Poèmes symphoniques" and other examples of
orchestral programme-music.

From 1833 to 1848--when he gave up playing in public--he was greeted with
frantic applause as the prince of pianists. Five years (1835-1840) were
spent in Switzerland and Italy, in semi-retirement in the company of
Madame la comtesse d'Agoult (George Sand's friend and would-be rival,
known in literary circles as "Daniel Stern," by whom Liszt had three
children, one of them afterwards Frau Cosima Wagner): these years were
devoted to further study in playing and composition, and were interrupted
only by occasional appearances at Geneva, Milan, Florence and Rome, and
by annual visits to Paris, when a famous contest with Thalberg took place
in 1837. The enthusiasm aroused by Liszt's playing and his
personality--the two are inseparable--reached a climax at Vienna and
Budapest in 1839-1840, when he received a patent of nobility from the
emperor of Austria, and a sword of honour from the magnates of Hungary in
the name of the nation. During the eight years following he was heard at
all the principalcentres--including London, Leipzig, Berlin, Copenhagen,
St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Constantinople, Lisbon and Madrid. He
gained much money, and gave large sums in charity. His munificence with
regard to the Beethoven statue at Bonn made a great stir. The
subscriptions having come in but sparsely, Liszt took the matter in
hand, and the monument was completed at his expense, and unveiled at a
musical festival conducted by Spohr and himself in 1845. In 1848 he
settled at Weimar with Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein (d. 1887), and remained
there till 1861. During this period he acted as conductor at court
concerts and on special occasions at the theatre, gave lessons to a
number of pianists, wrote articles of permanent value on certain works of
Berlioz and the early operas of Wagner, and produced those orchestral and
choral pieces upon which his reputation as a composer mainly depends. His
ambition to found a school of composers as well as a school of pianists
met with complete success on the one hand and partial failure on the
other. His efforts on behalf of Wagner, who was then an exile in
Switzerland, culminated in the first performance of _Lohengrin_ on the
28th of August 1850, before a special audience assembled from far and
near. Among the works produced for the first time or rehearsed with a
view to the furtherance of musical art were Wagner's _Tannhäuser_, _Der
fliegende Holländer_, _Das Liebesmahl der Apostel_, and _Eine Faust
Overtüre_, Berlioz's _Benvenuto Cellini_, the _Symphonie Fantastique_,
_Harold en Italie_, _Roméo et Juliette_, _La Damnation de Faust_, and
_L'Enfance du Christ_--the last two conducted by the composer--Schumann's
_Genoveva_, _Paradise and the Peri_, the music to _Manfred_ and to
_Faust_, Weber's _Euryanthe_, Schubert's _Alfonso und Estrella_, Raff's
_König Alfred_, Cornelius's _Der Barbier von Baghdad_ and many more. It
was Liszt's habit to recommend novelties to the public by explanatory
articles or essays, which were written in French (some for the _Journal
des débats_ and the _Gazette musicale_ of Paris) and translated for the
journals of Weimar and Leipzig--thus his two masterpieces of sympathetic
criticism, the essays _Lohengrin et Tannhäuser à Weimar_ and _Harold en
Italie_, found many readers and proved very effective. They are now
included, together with articles on Schumann and Schubert, and the
elaborate and rather high-flown essays on Chopin and _Des Bohémiens et de
leur musique en Hongrie_ (the latter certainly, and the former probably,
written in collaboration with Madame de Wittgenstein), in his _Gesammelte
Schriften_ (6 vols., Leipzig). The compositions belonging to the period
of his residence at Weimar comprise two pianoforte concertos, in E flat
and in A, the "Todtentanz," the "Concerto pathétique" for two pianos, the
solo sonata "An Robert Schumann," sundry "Études," fifteen "Rhapsodies
Hongroises," twelve orchestral "Poèmes symphoniques," "Eine Faust
Symphonie," and "Eine Symphonie zu Dante's 'Divina Commedia,'" the "13th
Psalm" for tenor solo, chorus and orchestra, the choruses to Herder's
dramatic scenes "Prometheus," and the "Missa solennis" known as the
"Graner Fest Messe." Liszt retired to Rome in 1861, and joined the
Franciscan order in 1865.[1] From 1869 onwards Abbé Liszt divided his
time between Rome and Weimar, where during the summer months he received
pupils--gratis as formerly--and, from 1876 up to his death at Bayreuth on
the 31st of July 1886, he also taught for several months every year at
the Hungarian Conservatoire of Budapest.

About Liszt's pianoforte technique in general it may be said that it
derives its efficiency from the teaching of Czerny, who brought up his
pupil on Mozart, a little Bach and Beethoven, a good deal of Clementi
and Hummel, and a good deal of his (Czerny's) own work. Classicism in
the shape of solid, respectable Hummel on the one hand, and Carl Czerny,
a trifle flippant, perhaps, and inclined to appeal to the gallery, on
the other, these gave the musical parentage of young Liszt. Then appears
the Parisian Incroyable and grand seigneur--"Monsieur Lits," as the
Parisians called him. Later, we find him imitating Paganini and Chopin,
and at the same time making a really passionate and deep study of
Beethoven, Weber, Schubert, Berlioz. Thus gradually was formed the
master of style--whose command of the instrument was supreme, and who
played like an inspired poet. Liszt's strange musical nature was long in
maturing its fruits. At the pianoforte his achievements culminate in the
two books of studies, twice rewritten, and finally published in 1852 as
_Études d'exécution transcendante_, the _Études de concert_ and the
_Paganini Studies_; the two concertos and the _Todtentanz_, the _Sonata
in B minor_, the _Hungarian Rhapsodies_ and the fine transcriptions of
Beethoven's symphonies (the 9th for two pianofortes as well as solo),
and of Berlioz's _Symphonie fantastique_, and the symphony, _Harold en
Italie_. In his orchestral pieces of Liszt appears--next to Berlioz--as
the most conspicuous and most thorough-going representative of programme
music, i.e. instrumental music expressly contrived to illustrate in
detail some poem or some succession of ideas or pictures. It was Liszt's
aim to bring about a direct alliance or amalgamation of instrumental
music with poetry. To effect this he made use of the means of musical
expression for purposes of illustration, and relied on points of support
outside the pale of music proper. There is always danger of failure
when an attempt is thus made to connect instrumental music with
conceptions not in themselves musical, for the order of the ideas that
serve as a programme is apt to interfere with the order which the
musical exposition naturally assumes--and the result in most cases is
but an amalgam of irreconcilable materials. In pieces such as Liszt's
"Poèmes symphoniques," _Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne_ (1848-1856),
after a poem by Victor Hugo, and _Die Ideale_ (1853-1857), after a poem
by Schiller, the hearer is bewildered by a series of startling
orchestral effects which succeed one another apparently without rhyme or
reason. The music does not conform to any sufficiently definite musical
plan--it is hardly intelligible as music without reference to the
programme. Liszt's masterpiece in orchestral music is the _Dante
Symphony_ (1847-1855), the subject of which was particularly well suited
to his temperament, and offered good chances for the display of his
peculiar powers as a master of instrumental effect. By the side of it
ranks the _Faust Symphony_ (1854-1857), in which the moods of Goethe's
characters--Faust, Gretchen and Mephistopheles--are depicted in three
instrumental movements, with a chorus of male voices, supplying a kind
of comment, by way of close. The method of presentation in both
symphonies is by means of representative themes (_Leitmotif_), and their
combination and interaction. Incidents of the poem or the play are
illustrated or alluded to as may be convenient, and the exigencies of
musical form are not unfrequently disregarded for the sake of special
effects. Of the twelve Poèmes symphoniques, _Orphée_ is the most
consistent from a musical point of view, and is exquisitely scored.
Melodious, effective, readily intelligible, with a dash of the
commonplace, _Les Préludes_, _Tasso_, _Mazeppa_ and _Fest-Klänge_ bid
for popularity. In these pieces, as in almost every production of his,
in lieu of melody Liszt offers fragments of melody--touching and
beautiful, it may be, or passionate, or tinged with triviality; in lieu
of a rational distribution of centres of harmony in accordance with some
definite plan, he presents clever combinations of chords and ingenious
modulations from point to point; in lieu of musical logic and
consistency of design, he is content with rhapsodical improvisation. The
power of persistence seems wanting. The musical growth is spoilt, the
development of the themes is stopped, or prevented, by some reference to
extraneous ideas. Everywhere the programme stands in the way. In much of
Liszt's vocal music, particularly in the songs and choral pieces written
to German words, an annoying discrepancy is felt to exist between the
true sound of the words and the musical accents. The music is generally
emotional, the expression direct and passionate; there is no lack of
melodic charm and originality, yet the total effect is frequently
disappointing. In the choral numbers of the five masses, and in the
oratorios _Die Heilige Elisabeth_ and _Christus_, the rarity of fugal
polyphony acts as a drawback. Its almost complete absence in some of
these works makes for monotony and produces a sense of dullness, which
may not be inherent in all the details of the music, but is none the
less distinctly present.

  Omitting trifles and all publications that have been cancelled, the
  following list of compositions may be taken as fairly comprehensive:--

  _Pianoforte Pieces._--Études d'exécution transcendante; Études de
  concert; Zwei Etuden, Waldesrauschen, Gnomentanz; Ab Irato; Paganini
  Studies; Années de Pélerinage, 3 sets; Harmonies poétiques et
  religieuses, 1-10; Consolations, 1-6; Ave Maria in E; Sonata in B
  minor; Konzert-Solo in E minor; Scherzo und Marsch; Ballades, I. II.;
  Polonaises, I. II.; Apparitions, 1-3; Berceuse; Valse impromptu;
  Mazurka brillant; 3 Caprices Valses; Galop chromatique;
  Mephisto-Walzer, I., II., III. and Polka; Zwei Legenden, "Die
  Vogelpredigt," "Der heilige Franciscus auf den Wogen schreitend"; "Der
  Weihnachtsbaum," 1-12; Sarabande und Chaconne ("Almira"); Elegies, I.,
  II. and III.; La lugubre Gondola; Dem Andenken Petöfi's; Mosonyi's
  Grabgeleit; Romance oubliée; Valses oubliées, 1-3; Liebesträume, 1-3
  (originally songs); Hexameron; Rhapsodies Hongroises, 1-18.

  _Pieces for Two Pianos._--Concerto pathétique (identical with the
  Konzert-Solo in E minor); Dante symphony; Faust symphony; Poèmes
  symphoniques, 1-12; Beethoven's 9th symphony.

  _Pianoforte with Orchestra._--Concertos I. in E flat, II. in A;
  Todtentanz; Fantasie ueber Motif aus Beethoven's "Ruinen von Athen";
  Fantasie ueber Ungarische National Melodien; Schubert's Fantasia in C;
  Weber's Polacca in E.

  _Fantaisies de Concert for Piano Solo._--Don Juan; Norma; Sonnambula;
  I Puritani; Lucia, I., II.; Lucrezia, I., II.; La Juive; Robert le
  Diable; Les Huguenots; Le Prophète, 1-4. _Paraphrases_, Auber,
  Tarantella di bravura (Masaniello); Verdi, Rigoletto, Ernani, Il
  Trovatore; Mendelssohn, "Hochzeitsmarsch und Elfenreigen"; Gounod,
  Valse de Faust, Les Adieux de Roméo et Juliette; Tschaikowsky,
  Polonaise; Dargomiyski, Tarantelle; Cui, Tarantella; Saint-Saëns,
  Danse macabre; Schubert, Soirées de Vienne, Valses caprices, 1-9.

  _Transcriptions._--Beethoven's Nine Symphonies; Berlioz's "Symphonie
  fantastique," "Harold en Italie"; Bénédiction et Serment (Benvenuto
  Cellini); Danse des Sylphes (Damnation de Faust); Weber's overtures,
  Der Freischütz, Euryanthe, Oberon, Jubilee; Beethoven's and Hummel's
  Septets; Schubert's Divertissement à la Hongroise; Beethoven's
  Concertos in C minor, G and E flat (orchestra for a second piano);
  Wagner's Tannhäuser overture, march, romance, chorus of pilgrims;
  Lohengrin, Festzug und Brautlied, Elsa's Brautgang, Elsa's Traum,
  Lohengrin's Verweiss an Elsa; Fliegender Holländer, Spinnlied; Rienzi,
  Gebet; Rheingold, Walhall; Meistersinger, "Am stillen Herd"; Tristan,
  Isolde's Liebestod; Chopin's six Chants Polonais; Meyerbeer's
  Schillermarsch; Bach's six organ Preludes and Fugues; Prelude and
  Fugue in G minor; Beethoven, Adelaide; 6 miscellaneous and 6
  Geistliche Lieder; Liederkreis; Rossini's Les Soirées musicales;
  Schubert, 59 songs; Schumann, 13 songs; Mendelssohn, 8 songs; Robert
  Franz, 13 songs.

  _Organ Pieces._--Missa pro organo; Fantasia and Fugue, "Ad nos, ad
  salutarem undam"; B-A-C-H Fugue; Variations on Bach's Basso continuo,
  "Weinen, Klagen"; Bach's Introduction and Fugue, "Ich hatte viel
  Bekümmerniss"; Bach's Choral Fugue, "Lob und Ehre"; Nicolai's
  Kirchliche Festouvertüre, "Ein feste Burg"; Allegri's Miserere;
  Mozart's Ave Verum; Arcadelt's Ave Maria; Lasso's Regina Coeli.

  _Orchestral Pieces._--Eine Symphonie zu Dante's "Divina Commedia";
  Eine Faust Symphonie; Poèmes symphoniques: 1. "Ce qu'on entend sur la
  montagne"; 2. Tasso; 3. Les Préludes; 4. Orphée; 5. Prométhée; 6.
  Mazeppa; 7. Fest-Klänge; 8. Héroïde funèbre; 9. Hungaria; 10. Hamlet;
  11. Hunnenschlacht; 12. Die Ideale; Zwei Episoden aus Lenau's Faust:
  I. Der nächtliche Zug, II. Der Tanz in der Dorfschenke; Marches,
  Rakoczy, Goethe, Huldigung, "Vom Fels zum Meer" (for a military band);
  Ungarischer, Heroischer and Sturmmarsch; Le Triomphe funèbre du Tasse;
  "Von der Wiege bis zum Grab"; six Hungarian rhapsodies; four marches;
  four songs, and Die Allmacht, by Schubert.

  _Vocal Music._--Oratorios: "Die Legende von der Heiligen Elisabeth,"
  "Christus," "Stanislaus" (unfinished). Masses: Missa solennis for the
  inauguration of the cathedral at Gran; Ungarische Krönungs-messe;
  Missa choralis (with organ); Missa and Requiem for male voices (with
  organ); Psalms, 13, 137, 23 and 18; 12 Kirchen-Chor-Gesänge (with
  organ). Cantatas: Prometheus-chöre; "Beethoven Cantata"; "An die
  Künstler"; Die Glocken des Strassburger Münsters; 12 Chöre für
  Männergesang; Songs, 8 books; Scena, Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher.

  _Melodramatic Pieces for Declamation, with Pianoforte
  Accompaniment._--Leonore (Bürger); Der traurige Mönch (Lenau); Des
  todten Dichter's Liebe (Jokai); Der blinde Sänger (Tolstoy).

  _Editions, Text and Variants._--Beethoven's Sonatas; Weber's
  Concertstück and Sonatas; Schubert Fantasia, 4 Sonatas, Impromptus,
  Valses and Moments musicaux.

  See also L. Ramaun, _Fr. Liszt als Künstler und Mensch_ (1880-1894);
  E. Dannreuther, _Oxford Hist. of Music_, vol. vi.(1905).     (E. Da.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] It is understood that, in point of fact, the Princess
    Wittgenstein was determined to marry Liszt; and as neither he nor her
    family wished their connexion to take this form, Cardinal Hohenlohe
    quietly had him ordained.--[ED. _E.B._].



LITANY. This word ([Greek: litaneia]), like [Greek: litê] (both from
[Greek: litomai]), is used by Eusebius and Chrysostom, commonly in the
plural, in a general sense, to denote a prayer or prayers of any sort,
whether public or private; it is similarly employed in the law of
Arcadius (_Cod. Theod._ xvi. tit. 5, leg. 30), which forbids heretics to
hold assemblies in the city "ad litaniam faciendam." But some trace of a
more technical meaning is found in the epistle (_Ep._ 63) of Basil to
the church of Neocaesarea, in which he argues, against those who were
objecting to certain innovations, that neither were "litanies" used in
the time of Gregory Thaumaturgus. The nature of the recently introduced
litanies, which must be assumed to have been practised at Neocaesarea in
Basil's day, can only be conjectured; probably they had many points in
common with the "rogationes," which, according to Sidonius Apollinaris,
had been coming into occasional use in France about the beginning of the
5th century, especially when rain or fine weather was desired, and, so
far as the three fast days before Ascension were concerned, were first
fixed, for one particular district at least, by Mamertus or Mamercus of
Vienne (A.D. c. 450). We gather that they were penitential and
intercessory prayers offered by the community while going about in
procession, fasting and clothed in sackcloth. In the following century
the manner of making litanies was to some extent regulated for the
entire Eastern empire by one of the _Novels_ of Justinian, which forbade
their celebration without the presence of the bishops and clergy, and
ordered that the crosses which were carried in procession should not be
deposited elsewhere than in churches, nor be carried by any but duly
appointed persons. The first synod of Orleans (A.D. 511) enjoins for all
Gaul that the "litanies" before Ascension be celebrated for three days;
on these days all menials are to be exempt from work, so that every one
may be free to attend divine service. The diet is to be the same as in
Quadragesima; clerks not observing these rogations are to be punished by
the bishop. In A.D. 517 the synod of Gerunda provided for two sets of
"litanies"; the first were to be observed for three days (from Thursday
to Saturday) in the week after Pentecost with fasting, the second for
three days from November 1. The second council of Vaison (529),
consisting of twelve bishops, ordered the _Kyrie eleison_--now first
introduced from the Eastern Church--to be sung at matins, mass and
vespers.

A synod of Paris (573) ordered litanies to be held for three days at the
beginning of Lent, and the fifth synod of Toledo (636) appointed
litanies to be observed throughout the kingdom for three days from
December 14. The first mention of the word litany in connexion with the
Roman Church goes back to the pontificate of Pelagius I. (555), but
implies that the thing was at that time already old. In 590 Gregory I.,
moved by the pestilence which had followed an inundation, ordered a
"litania septiformis," sometimes called _litania major_, that is to say,
a sevenfold procession of clergy, laity, monks, virgins, matrons,
widows, poor and children. It must not be confused with the _litania
septena_ used in church on Easter Even. He is said also to have
appointed the processions or litanies of April 25 (St Mark's day), which
seem to have come in the place of the ceremonies of the old Robigalia.
In 747 the synod of Cloveshoe ordered the litanies or rogations to be
gone about on April 25 "after the manner of the Roman Church," and on
the three days before Ascension "after the manner of our ancestors." The
latter are still known in the English Church as Rogation Days. Games,
horse racing, junkettings were forbidden; and in the litanies the name
of Augustine was to be inserted after that of Gregory. The reforming
synod of Mainz in 813 ordered the major litany to be observed by all for
three days in sackcloth and ashes, and barefoot. The sick only were
exempted.

As regards the form of words prescribed for use in these "litanies" or
"supplications," documentary evidence is defective. Sometimes it would
appear that the "procession" or "litany" did nothing else but chant
_Kyrie eleison_ without variation. There is no reason to doubt that from
an early period the special written litanies of the various churches all
showed the common features which are now regarded as essential to a
litany, in as far as they consisted of (1) invocations, (2)
deprecations, (3) intercessions, (4) supplications. But in details they
must have varied immensely. The offices of the Roman Catholic Church at
present recognize two litanies, the "Litaniae majores" and the "Litaniae
breves," which differ from one another chiefly in respect of the fulness
with which details are entered upon under the heads mentioned above. It
is said that in the time of Charlemagne the angels Orihel, Raguhel,
Tobihel were invoked, but the names were removed by Pope Zacharias as
really belonging to demons. In some medieval litanies there were special
invocations of S. Fides, S. Spes, S. Charitas. The litanies, as given in
the Breviary, are at present appointed to be recited on bended knee,
along with the penitential psalms, in all the six week-days of Lent when
ordinary service is held. Without the psalms they are said on the feast
of Saint Mark and on the three rogation days. A litany is chanted in
procession before mass on Holy Saturday. The "litany" or "general
supplication" of the Church of England, which is appointed "to be sung
or said after morning prayer upon Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and
at other times when it shall be commanded by the ordinary," closely
follows the "Litaniae majores" of the Breviary, the invocations of
saints being of course omitted. A similar German litany will be found in
the works of Luther. In the Roman Church there are a number of special
litanies peculiar to particular localities or orders, such as the
"Litanies of Mary" or the "Litanies of the Sacred Name of Jesus."

There was originally a close connexion between the litany and the
liturgy (q.v.). The ninefold _Kyrie eleison_ at the beginning of the
Roman Mass is a relic of a longer litany of which a specimen may still
be seen in the Stowe missal. In the Ambrosian liturgy, the threefold
_Kyrie eleison_ or Lesser Litany occurs thrice, after the _Gloria in
excelsis_, after the gospel and at the end of Mass; and on the first
five Sundays in Lent a missal litany is placed before the _Oratio super
populum_, and on the same five Sundays in the Mozarabic rite before the
epistle. In Eastern liturgies litanies are a prominent feature, as in
the case of the deacon's litany at the beginning of the _Missa fidelium_
in the Clementine liturgy, immediately before the _Anaphora_ in the
Greek liturgy of St James, &c.     (F. E. W.)



LITCHFIELD, a township and the county-seat of Litchfield county,
Connecticut, U.S.A., about 28 m. W. of Hartford, and including the
borough of the same name. Pop. of the township (1890) 3304; (1900) 3214;
(1910) 3005; of the borough (1890) 1058; (1900) 1120; (1910) 903. Area
of the township, 48.6 sq. m. The borough is served by the New York, New
Haven & Hartford railroad. It is situated on elevated land, and is one
of the most attractive of southern New England summer resorts. The
principal elevation in the township is Mt. Prospect, at the base of
which there is a vein of pyrrhotite, with small quantities of nickel and
copper. On the southern border of the borough is Lake Bantam (about 900
acres, the largest lake in the state) whose falls, at its outlet,
provide water power for factories of carriages and electrical
appliances. Dairying is the most important industry, and in 1899 the
county ranked first among the counties of the state in the value of its
dairy products--$1,373,957, from 3465 farms, the value of the product
for the entire state being $7,090,188.

The lands included in the township of Litchfield (originally called
Bantam) were bought from the Indians in 1715-1716 for £15. the Indians
reserving a certain part for hunting. The township was incorporated in
1719, was named Litchfield, after Lichfield in England, and was settled
by immigrants from Hartford, Windsor, Wethersfield, Farmington and
Lebanon (all within the state) in 1720-1721. In 1751 it became the
county-seat of Litchfield county, and at the same time the borough of
Litchfield (incorporated in 1879) was laid out. From 1776 to 1780 two
depôts for military stores and a workshop for the Continental army were
maintained, and the leaden statue of George III., erected in Bowling
Green, New York City, in 1770, and torn down by citizens on the 9th of
July 1776, was cut up and taken to Litchfield, where, in the house
(still standing) of Oliver Wolcott it was melted into bullets for the
American army by Wolcott's daughter and sister. Aaron Burr, whose only
sister married Tapping Reeve (1744-1823), lived in Litchfield with Reeve
in 1774-1775. In 1784 Reeve established here the Litchfield Law School,
the first institution of its kind in America. In 1798 he associated with
himself James Gould (1770-1838), who, after Reeve's retirement in 1820,
continued the work, with the assistance of Jabez W. Huntington
(1788-1847), until 1833. The school was never incorporated, it had no
buildings, and the lectures were delivered in the law offices of its
instructors, but among its 1000 or more students were many who
afterwards became famous, including John C. Calhoun; Levi Woodbury
(1789-1851), United States senator from New Hampshire in 1825-1831 and
in 1841-1845, secretary of the navy in 1831-1834 and of the treasury in
1834-1841, and a justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1845;
John Y. Mason; John M. Clayton; and Henry Baldwin (1780-1844), a justice
of the United States Supreme Court from 1830. In 1792 Mrs Sarah Pierce
made one of the first efforts toward the higher education of women in
the United States by opening in Litchfield her Female Seminary, which
had an influential career of about forty years, and numbered among its
alumnae Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mrs Marshall O. Roberts, Mrs Cyrus W.
Field and Mrs Hugh McCulloch. Litchfield was the birthplace of Ethan
Allen; of Henry Ward Beecher; of Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose novel,
_Poganuc People_, presents a picture of social conditions in Litchfield
during her girlhood; of Oliver Wolcott, Jr. (1760-1833); of John
Pierpont (1785-1866), the poet, preacher and lecturer; and of Charles
Loring Brace, the philanthropist. It was also the home, during his last
years, of Oliver Wolcott (1726-1797); of Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge
(1774-1835), an officer on the American side in the War of Independence
and later (from 1801 to 1817) a Federalist member of Congress; and of
Lyman Beecher, who was pastor of the First Congregational church of
Litchfield from 1810 to 1826.

  See Payne K. Kilbourne, _Sketches and Chronicles of the Town of
  Litchfield, Connecticut_ (Hartford, Conn., 1859); George C. Boswell,
  _The Litchfield Book of Days_ (Litchfield, 1900); and for an account
  of the Litchfield Female Seminary, Emily N. Vanderpoel, _Chronicles of
  a Pioneer School_ (Cambridge, Mass., 1903).



LITCHFIELD, a city of Montgomery county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 50 m.
N. E. of St Louis, Missouri. Pop. (1900) 5918; (1910) 5971. Its
principal importance is as a railway and manufacturing centre; it is
served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & Alton, the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the
Wabash, and the Litchfield & Madison railways, and by electric lines
connecting with St Louis and the neighbouring towns. In the vicinity are
deposits of bituminous coal, fire-clay and moulding sand. There are
various manufactures in the city. Litchfield was incorporated as a town
in 1856, and was first chartered as a city in 1859.



LITCHI, or LEE-CHEE, the fruit of _Nephelium Litchi_, a small tree,
native of southern China and one of the most important indigenous
fruits. It is also cultivated in India. The tree bears large compound
leaves with two to four pairs of leathery lanceolate pointed leaflets
about 3 in. long, and panicles of small flowers without petals. The
fruits are commonly roundish, about 1½ in. in diameter, with a thin,
brittle, red shell which bears rough protuberances. In the fresh state
they are filled with a sweet white pulp which envelops a large brown
seed, but in the dried condition the pulp forms a blackish fleshy
substance. The pulp is of the nature of an aril, that is, an additional
seed-coat.

  _Nephelium Longana_, the longan tree, also a native of southern China,
  is cultivated in that country, in the Malay Peninsula, India and
  Ceylon for its fruit, which is smaller than that of the litchi, being
  half an inch to an inch in diameter with a nearly smooth
  yellowish-brown brittle skin, and containing a pulpy aril resembling
  that of the litchi in flavour. Another species, _N. lappaceum_, a tall
  tree native of the Malay Peninsula, where it is known under the names
  Rambutan or Rambosteen, is also cultivated for its pleasantly acid
  pulpy aril. The fruit is oval, bright red in colour, about 2 in. long
  and covered with long fleshy hairs.

  _Nephelium_ belongs to the natural order Sapindaceae, and contains
  about twenty-two species.



LITERATURE, a general term which, in default of precise definition, may
stand for the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing.
Its various forms are the result of race peculiarities, or of diverse
individual temperaments, or of political circumstances securing the
predominance of one social class which is thus enabled to propagate its
ideas and sentiments. In early stages of society, the classes which
first attain a distinct literary utterance are priests who compile the
chronicles of tribal religious development, or rhapsodes who celebrate
the prowess of tribal chiefs. As man feels before he reasons, so poetry
generally precedes prose. It embodies more poignantly the sentiment of
unsophisticated man. Hence sacred books and war-songs are everywhere the
earliest literary monuments, and both are essentially poetic
compositions which have received a religious or quasi-religious
sanction. The recitation of the Homeric poems at the Panathenaea
corresponds to the recitation elsewhere of the sacred texts in the
temple; the statement of Phemios (_Odyssey_, xxii. 347) that a god
inspired his soul with all the varied ways of song expresses the
ordinary belief of early historical times. Versicles of the sacred
chronicles, or fragments of epic poems, were learned by heart and
supplied a standard of popular literary taste. The public declamation of
long chosen passages by priests, and still more by contending rhapsodes,
served to evoke the latent sense of literary criticism; and, at a later
stage, the critical spirit was still further stimulated by the
performance of dramatic pieces written by competing poets. The epical
record of the past was supplemented by the lyrical record of
contemporary events, and as the Homeric poets had immortalized the siege
of Troy, so Pindar commemorated Salamis. Prose of any permanent value
would first show itself in the form of oratory, and the insertion of
speeches by early historians indicates a connexion with rhetoric. The
development of abstract reasoning would tend to deprive prose of its
superfluous ornament and to provide a simpler and more accurate
instrument.

No new _genre_ has been invented since the days of Plato. The evolution
of literature is completed in Greece, and there its subdivisions may
best be studied. Epic poetry is represented by the Homeric cycle,
lyrical poetry by Tyrtaeus, dramatic poetry by Aeschylus, history by
Herodotus, oratory by Pericles, philosophy by Plato, and criticism by
Zoilus, the earliest of slashing reviewers; and in each department there
is a long succession of illustrious names. Roughly speaking, all
subsequent literature is imitative. Ennius transplanted Greek methods to
Rome; his contemporary L. Fabius Pictor, the earliest Roman historian,
wrote in Greek; and the later Roman poets from Lucretius to Horace
abound in imitations of Greek originals. The official adoption of
Christianity as the state religion changed the spirit of literature,
which became more and more provincial after the downfall of the empire.
Literature did not perish during the "dark ages" which extend from the
sixth century to the beginning of the 11th, but it was subordinate to
scholarship. The dissolution of Latin was not complete till about the
middle of the 9th century, and the new varieties of Romance did not
become ripe for literary purposes till a hundred years later. Meanwhile,
not a single literary masterpiece was produced in western Europe for
five centuries; by comparison only do Boëthius and Venantius Fortunatus
seem to be luminous points in the prolonged night; the promise of a
literary renaissance at the court of Charlemagne was unfulfilled, and
the task of creating a new literature devolved upon the descendants of
the barbarians who had destroyed the old. The Celtic and Teutonic races
elaborated literary methods of their own; but the fact that the most
popular form of Irish verse is adopted from Latin prosody is conclusive
evidence that the influence of Roman--and therefore of Greek--models
persisted in the literature of the outlying provinces which had attained
political independence. The real service rendered to literature by the
provincials lay in the introduction and diffusion of legends freighted
with a burden of mystery which had disappeared with Pan, and these new
valuable materials went to form the substance of the new poetry.

The home of modern European literature must be sought in France, which
assimilated the best elements in Celtic and Teutonic literature. From
the 11th to the 14th century, France was the centre of intellectual life
in Europe, as Greece and Rome had been before, and as Italy was to be
afterwards. The _chansons de geste_, inspired by the sense of patriotism
and the yearning for religious unity, inculcate feudal and Catholic
doctrine, and as society in the western world was universally committed
to feudalism and Catholicism, these literary expressions of both
theories were widely accepted and copied. The Germanic origin of the
French epic is lost sight of, and imitators are attracted by the French
execution, and by the creative power of the _chansons de geste_. Again,
France takes the stories of the Arthurian court from Welsh texts or from
the lips of Welsh settlers, rehandles the romantic element, and, through
Marie de France and Chrétien de Troyes, imparts to the whole a touch of
personal artistry which is absent from the _chansons de geste_. The
_matière de Bretagne_ goes forth to Italy, Germany and England--later to
Portugal and Spain--bearing the imprint of the French genius. Thus
France internationalizes local subjects, and first assumes a literary
function which, with few interruptions, she has since discharged. She
further gives to Europe models of allegory in the _Roman de la rose_,
founds the school of modern history through Villehardouin, inaugurates
the religious drama and the secular theatre. She never again dominated
the literatures of Europe so absolutely.

The literary sceptre passed from France to Italy during the 14th
century. Brunetto Latini, who wrote in French as well as in Italian, is
the connecting link between the literatures of the two countries; but
Italy owes its eminence not so much to a general diffusion of literary
accomplishment as to the emergence of three great personalities. Dante,
Boccacio and Petrarch created a new art of poetry and of prose. England
yielded to the fascination in the person of Chaucer, Spain in the person
of her chancellor López de Ayala, and France in the person of Charles
d'Orléans, the son of an Italian mother. Petrarch, once ambassador in
France, alleged that there were no poets out of Italy, and indeed there
were no living poets to compare with him elsewhere. But in all countries
he raised up rivals--Chaucer, Marot, Garcilaso de la Vega--as Sannazaro
did a century and a half later. Sannazaro's _Arcadia_ captured the
Portuguese Montemôr, whose pastoral novel the _Diana_, written in
Spanish, inspired d'Urfé no less than Sidney, and, as d'Urfé's _Astrée_
is considered the starting-point of the modern French novel, the
historical importance of the Italian original cannot be exaggerated.
Spain never obtained any intellectual predominance corresponding to that
exercised by France and Italy, or to her political authority during the
16th and 17th centuries. This may be attributed partly to her
geographical position which lies off the main roads of Europe, and
partly to the fact that her literature is essentially local. Cervantes,
indeed, may be said to have influenced all subsequent writers of
fiction, and the influence of Spanish literature is visible in the body
of European picaresque tales; but, apart from Corneille and a few other
dramatists who preceded Molière in France, and apart from the
Restoration drama in England, the influence of the Spanish drama was
relatively small. In some respects it was too original to be imitated
with success. Much the same may be said of England as of Spain. Like
Spain, she lies outside the sphere of continental influence; like Spain,
she has innumerable great names in every province of literature, and, in
both cases, to Europe at large these long remained names and nothing
more; like Spain, she is prone to reproduce borrowed materials in shapes
so transformed and rigid as to be unrecognizable and unadaptable.
Moreover, the Reformation isolated England from literary commerce with
the Latin races, and till the 18th century Germany was little more than
a geographical expression. Even when Germany recovered her literary
independence, Lessing first heard of Shakespeare through Voltaire.
Neither Shakespeare nor Milton was read in France before the 18th
century--the first translated by Ducis, the second by Dupré de
Saint-Maur--and they were read with curiosity rather than with rapture.
On the other hand, Boileau, Rapin and Le Bossu were regarded as oracles
in England, and through them French literature produced the
"correctness" of Queen Anne's reign. Horace Walpole is half a Frenchman,
Hume imitates Montesquieu's cold lucidity, Gibbon adapts Bossuet's
majestic periods to other purposes. On the other hand Voltaire takes
ideas from Locke, but his form is always intensely personal and
inimitably French. After the 16th century English literature, as a
whole, is refractory to external influence. Waves of enthusiasm pass
over England--for Rousseau, for Goethe--but leave no abiding trace on
English literature. During the latter half of the 18th century France
resumed something of her old literary supremacy; the literatures of
Italy and Spain at this period are purely derivative, and French
influence was extended still further on the continent as the result of
the Romantic movement. Since that impulse was exhausted, literature
everywhere has been in a state of flux: it is less national, and yet
fails to be cosmopolitan. All writers of importance, and many of no
importance, are translated into other European languages; the quick
succession of diverse and violent impressions has confused the scheme of
literature. Literature suffers likewise from the competition of the
newspaper press, and as the press has multiplied it has grown less
literary. The diversities of modern interests, the want of leisure for
concentrated thought, suggest that literature may become once more the
pleasure of a small caste. But the desire for the one just form which
always inspires the literary artist visits most men sometimes, and it
cannot be doubted that literature will continue to accommodate itself to
new conditions.     (J. F.-K.)



LITERNUM, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, on the low sandy coast
between Cumae and the mouth of the Volturnus. It was probably once
dependent on Cumae. In 194 B.C. it became a Roman colony. It is mainly
famous as the residence of the elder Scipio, who withdrew from Rome and
died here. His tomb and villa are described by Seneca. Augustus is said
to have conducted here a colony of veterans,[1] but the place never had
any great importance, and the lagoons behind it made it unhealthy,
though the construction of the Via Domitiana through it must have made
it a posting station. It ceased to exist in the 8th century. No remains
are visible.

  See J. Beloch, _Campanien_, ed. ii. (Breslau, 1890), 377.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Mommsen in C.I.L. x. 343 does not accept this statement, but an
    inscription found in 1885 confirms it.



LITHGOW, WILLIAM (1582-? 1650), Scottish traveller and writer, was born
and educated in Lanark. He was caught in a love-adventure, mutilated of
his ears by the brothers of the lady (hence the sobriquet "Cut-lugged
Willie"), and forced to leave Scotland. For nineteen years he travelled,
mostly on foot, through Europe, the Levant, Egypt and northern Africa,
covering, according to his estimate, over 36,000 m. The story of his
adventures may be drawn from _The Totall Discourse of the Rare
Adventures and painfull Peregrinations of long nineteene Yeares_
(London, 1614; fuller edition, 1632, &c.); _A True and Experimentall
Discourse upon the last siege of Breda_ (London, 1637); and a similar
book giving an account of the siege of Newcastle and the battle of
Marston Moor (Edinburgh, 1645). He is the author of a _Present Surveigh
of London_ (London, 1643). He left six poems, written between 1618 and
1640 (reprinted by Maidment, Edinburgh, 1863). Of these "Scotland's
Welcome to King Charles, 1633" has considerable antiquarian interest.
His writing has no literary merit; but its excessively aureate style
deserves notice.

  The best account of Lithgow and his works is by F. Hindes Groome in
  the _Dict. Nat. Biog._ The piece entitled _Scotland's Paraenesis to
  King Charles II._ (1660), ascribed to him in the catalogue of the
  Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, cannot, from internal evidence, be his.



LITHGOW, a town of Cook county, New South Wales, Australia, 96 m. W.N.W.
of Sydney by rail. Pop. (1901) 5268. The town is situated at an altitude
of 3000 ft., in a valley of the Blue Mountains. It has pottery and
terra-cotta works, breweries, a tweed factory, iron-works, saw-mills,
soap-works and brickfields. Coal, kerosene shale, iron ore and building
stone are found in the district.



LITHIUM [symbol Li, atomic weight 7.00 (O = 16)], an alkali metal,
discovered in 1817 by J. A. Arfvedson (_Ann. chim. phys._ 10, p. 82). It
is only found in combination, and is a constituent of the minerals
petalite, triphyline, spodumene and lepidolite or lithia mica. It occurs
in small quantities in sea, river and spring water, and is also widely
but very sparingly distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom. It may
be obtained (in the form of its chloride) by fusing lepidolite with a
mixture of barium carbonate and sulphate, and potassium sulphate (L.
Troost, _Comptes rendus_, 1856, 43, p. 921). The fused mass separates
into two layers, the upper of which contains a mixture of potassium and
lithium sulphates; this is lixiviated with water and converted into the
mixed chlorides by adding barium chloride, the solution evaporated and
the lithium chloride extracted by a mixture of dry alcohol and ether.
The metal may be obtained by heating dry lithium hydroxide with
magnesium (H. N. Warren, _Chem. News_, 1896, 74, p. 6). L. Kahlenberg
(_Jour. phys. Chem_., 3, p. 601) obtained it by electrolysing the
chloride in pyridine solution, a carbon anode and an iron or platinum
cathode being used. O. Ruff and O. Johannsen (_Zeit. elektrochem._,
1906, 55, p. 537) electrolyse a mixture of bromide and chloride which
melts at 520°. It is a soft, silvery-white metal, which readily
tarnishes on exposure. Its specific gravity is 0.59, and it melts at
180° C. It burns on ignition in air, and when strongly heated in an
atmosphere of nitrogen it forms lithium nitride, Li3N. It decomposes
water at ordinary temperature, liberating hydrogen and forming lithium
hydroxide.

  _Lithium hydride_, LiH, obtained by heating the metal in a current of
  hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the metal with ethylene to 700°
  C. (M. Guntz, _Comptes rendus_, 1896, 122, p. 244; 123, p. 1273), is a
  white solid which inflames when heated in chlorine. With alcohol it
  forms lithium ethylate, LiOC2H5, with liberation of hydrogen. _Lithium
  oxide_, Li2O, is obtained by burning the metal in oxygen, or by
  ignition of the nitrate. It is a white powder which readily dissolves
  in water to form the _hydroxide_, LiOH, which is also obtained by
  boiling the carbonate with milk of lime. It forms a white caustic
  mass, resembling sodium hydroxide in appearance. It absorbs carbon
  dioxide, but is not deliquescent. _Lithium chloride_ LiCl, prepared by
  heating the metal in chlorine, or by dissolving the oxide or carbonate
  in hydrochloric acid, is exceedingly deliquescent, melts below a red
  heat, and is very soluble in alcohol. _Lithium carbonate_, Li2CO3,
  obtained as a white amorphous precipitate by adding sodium carbonate
  to a solution of lithium chloride, is sparingly soluble in water.
  _Lithium phosphate_, Li3PO4, obtained by the addition of sodium
  phosphate to a soluble lithium salt in the presence of sodium
  hydroxide, is almost insoluble in water. _Lithium ammonium_, LiNH3, is
  obtained by passing ammonia gas over lithium, the product being heated
  to 70° C. in order to expel any excess of ammonia. It turns brown-red
  on exposure to air, and is inflammable. It is decomposed by water
  evolving hydrogen, and when heated _in vacuo_ at 50°-60° C. it gives
  lithium and ammonia. With ammonia solution it gives hydrogen and
  _lithiamide_, LiNH2 (H. Moissan, _ibid._, 1898, 127, p. 685). _Lithium
  carbide_, Li2C2, obtained by heating lithium carbonate and carbon in
  the electric furnace, forms a transparent crystalline mass of specific
  gravity 1.65, and is readily decomposed by cold water giving acetylene
  (H. Moissan, _ibid._, 1896, 122, p. 362).

  Lithium is detected by the faint yellow line of wave-length 6104, and
  the bright red line of wave-length 6708, shown in its flame spectrum.
  It may be distinguished from sodium and potassium by the sparing
  solubility of its carbonate and phosphate. The atomic weight of
  lithium was determined by J. S. Stas from the analysis of the
  chloride, and also by conversion of the chloride into the nitrate, the
  value obtained being 7.03 (O = 16).

  The preparations of lithium used in medicine are: _Lithii Carbonis_,
  dose 2 to 5 grs.; _Lithii Citras_, dose 5 to 10 grs.; and _Lithii
  Citras effervescens_, a mixture of citric acid, lithium citrate,
  tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate, dose 60 to 120 grs. Lithium
  salts render the urine alkaline and are in virtue of their action
  diuretic. They are much prescribed for acute or chronic gout, and as a
  solvent to uric acid calculi or gravel, but their action as a solvent
  of uric acid has been certainly overrated, as it has been shown that
  the addition of medicinal doses of lithium to the blood serum does not
  increase the solubility of uric acid in it. In concentrated or large
  doses lithium salts cause vomiting and diarrhoea, due to a
  gastro-enteritis set up by their action. In medicinal use they should
  therefore be always freely diluted.



LITHOGRAPHY (Gr. [Greek: lithos], a stone, and [Greek: graphein], to
write), the process of drawing or laying down a design or transfer, on a
specially prepared stone or other suitable surface, in such a way that
impressions may be taken therefrom. The principle on which lithography
is based is the antagonism of grease and water. A chemically pure
surface having been secured on some substance that has an equal affinity
for both grease and water, in a method hereafter to be described, the
parts intended to print are covered with an unctuous composition and the
rest of the surface is moistened, so that when a greasy roller is
applied, the portion that is wet resists the grease and that in which an
affinity for grease has been set up readily accepts it; and from the
surface thus treated it will be seen that it is an easy thing to secure
an impression on paper or other material by applying suitable pressure.

The inventor of lithography was Alois Senefelder (1771-1834); and it is
remarkable what a grip he at once seemed to get of his invention, for
whereas the invention of printing seems almost a matter of evolution,
lithography seems to come upon the scene fully equipped for the battle
of life, so that it would be a bold craftsman at the present day who
would affirm that he knew more of the principles underlying his trade
than Senefelder (q.v.) did within thirty years of its invention. Of
course practice has led to dexterity, and the great volume of trade has
induced many mechanical improvements and facilities, but the principles
have not been taken any further, while some valuable methods have been
allowed to fall into desuetude and would well repay some experimentally
disposed person to revive.

Lithography may be divided into two main branches--that which is drawn
with a greasy crayon (rather illogically called "chalk") on a grained
stone, and that which is drawn in "ink" on a polished stone. Whatever
may be thought in regard to the original work of the artists of various
countries who have used lithography as a means of expression, there can
be little doubt that in the former method the English professed
lithographer has always held the pre-eminence, while French, German and
American artists have surpassed them in the latter.

Chalk lithography subdivides itself into work in which the black
predominates, although it may be supported by 5 or 6 shades of modified
colour--this branch is known as "black and tint" work--and that in which
the black is only used locally like any other colour. Frequently this
latter class of work will require a dozen or more colours, while some of
the finest examples have had some twenty to thirty stones employed in
them. Work of this description is known as chromo-lithography. Each
colour requires a separate stone, and work of the highest quality may
want two or three blues with yellows, reds, greys and browns in
proportion, if it is desired to secure a result that is an approximate
rendering of the original painting or drawing. The question may perhaps
be asked: "If the well-known three-colour process" (see PROCESS) "can
give the full result of the artist's palette, why should it take so many
more colours in lithography to secure the same result?" The answer is
that the stone practically gives but three gradations--the solid, the
half tint and the quarter tint, so that the combination of three very
carefully prepared stones will give a very limited number of
combinations, while a moderate estimate of the shades on a toned block
would be six; so that a very simple mathematical problem will show the
far greater number of combinations that the three blocks will give.
Beyond this, the chromo-lithographer has to exercise very great powers
of colour analysis; but the human mind is quite unable to settle offhand
the exact proportion of red, blue and yellow necessary to produce some
particular class say of grey, and this the camera with the aid of colour
filters does with almost perfect precision.

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, lithography has these strong
points: (1) its utility for small editions on account of its, at
present, smaller prime cost; (2) its suitability for subjects of large
size; (3) its superiority for subjects with outlines, for in such cases
the outline can be done in one colour, whereas to secure this effect by
the admixture of the three colours requires marvellously good
registration, the absence of which would produce a very large proportion
of "waste" or faulty copies; (4) capacity for printing on almost any
paper, whereas, at the time of writing, the tri-colour process is almost
entirely limited to printing on coated papers that are very heavy and
not very enduring.

With regard to the two branches of chalk lithography, the firms that
maintained the English supremacy for black and tint work in the early
days were Hulemandel, Day and Haghe and Maclure, while the best
chromo-lithographic work in the same period was done by Vincent Brooks,
the brothers Hanhart, Thomas Kell and F. Kell. In reference to the
personal work of professed lithographers during the same period, the
names of Louis Haghe, J. D. Harding, J. Needham, C. Baugniet, L. Ghemar,
William Simpson, R. J. Lane, J. H. Lynch, A. Maclure and Rimanozcy stand
for black and tint work; while in chromo-lithography J. M. Carrick, C.
Risdon, William Bunney, W. Long, Samuel Hodson, Edwin Buckman and J.
Lewis have been conspicuous among those who have maintained the standard
of their craft. In the foregoing list will be recognized the names of
several who have had admirable works on the walls of the Royal Academy
and other exhibitions; Mr Lane, who exhibited lithographs from 1824 to
1872, was for many years the doyen of lithographers, and the only one of
their number to attain academic rank, but Lynch and John Cardwell Bacon
were his pupils, and Bacon's son, the painter John H. F. Bacon, was
elected to the Royal Academy in 1903. In the first decade of the 20th
century the number of firms doing high-class work, and the artists who
aided them in doing it, were more numerous than ever, and scarcely less
able, but it would be outside the present purpose to differentiate
between them.

The _raison d'être_ of "stipple" work is its capacity for retransferring
without serious loss of quality, for it can scarcely be contended that
it is as artistic as the methods just described. Retransferring is the
process of pulling impressions from the original stones with a view to
making up a large sheet of one or more small subjects, or where it is
desired to print a very large number without deterioration of the
original or matrix stone. The higher class work in this direction has
been done in France, Germany and the United States, where for many years
superiority has been shown in regard to the excellence and rapidity of
retransferring. To this cause may be attributed the fact that the box
tops and Christmas cards on the English market were so largely done
abroad until quite recent times. The work of producing even a small face
in the finest hand stipple is a lengthy and tedious affair, and the
English craftsman has seldom shown the patience necessary for this work;
but since the American invention known as Ben Day's shading medium was
introduced into England the trade has largely taken it up, and thereby
much of the tedium has been avoided, so that it has been found possible
by its means to introduce a freedom into stipple work that had not
before been found possible, and a very much better class of work has
since been produced in this department.

About the year 1868 grained paper was invented by Maclure, Macdonald &
Co. This method consists in impressing on ordinary Scotch transfer or
other suitable paper a grain closely allied to that of the lithographic
stone. It appears to have been rather an improvement than a new
invention, for drawing paper and even canvas had been coated previously
with a material that adhered to a stone and left on the stone the greasy
drawing that had been placed thereon; but still from this to the
beautifully prepared paper that was placed on the market by the firm of
which the late Andrew Maclure was the head was a great advance, and
although the first use was by the ordinary craftsman it was not long
before artists of eminence saw that a new and convenient mode of
expression was opened up to them.

On the first introduction of lithography the artists of every nation
hastened to avail themselves of it, but soon the cumbrous character of
the stone, and the fact that their subjects had to be drawn backwards in
order that they might appear correctly on the paper, wore down their
newly-born zeal, and it was only when the grained paper system was
perfected, by which they could make their drawings in the comfort of
their studios without reversing, that any serious revival took place.
Although excellent work on grained paper had been done by Andrew
Maclure, Rimanozcy, John Cardwell Bacon, Rudofsky and other craftsmen,
the credit for its furtherance among artists must be given to Thomas Way
and his son T. R. Way, who did much valuable pioneer work in this
direction. The adhesion of such artists of eminence as Whistler, Legros,
Frank Short, Charles Shannon, Fantin Latour, William Strang, Will
Rothenstein, Herbert Railton and Joseph Pennell, did not a little to aid
lithography in resisting the encroachments of other methods into what
may still be considered its sphere. As a means of reproducing effects
which an artist would otherwise get by pencil or crayon, it remains
entirely unequalled, and it is of obvious advantage to art that
twenty-five or fifty copies of an original work should exist, which,
without the aid of lithography, might have only been represented by a
single sketch, perhaps stowed away among the possessions of one private
collector.

In regard to grained paper work, undue stress has often been placed upon
the rapid deterioration of the stone, some contending that only a few
dozen first-class proofs can be taken; this has led to the feeling that
it is unsuited to book illustration, and damage has been done to the
trade of lithography thereby. It may be mentioned that quite recently
about 100 auto-lithographs in black and three colours, the combined work
of Mr and Mrs Herbert Railton, have been treated by the Eberle system of
etching described below, and although an infinitesimal loss of quality
may have arisen, such as occurs when a copper etching is steel faced,
some 2000 to 3000 copies were printed without further deterioration, and
an edition of vignetted sketches was secured, far in advance of anything
that could have been attained from the usual screen or half-toned
blocks.

Grained paper is much used in the ordinary lithographic studio for work
such as the hill shading of maps that can be done without much working
up, but the velvety effects that in the hands of Louis Haghe and his
contemporaries were so conspicuous, cannot be secured by this method.
The effects referred to were obtained by much patient work of a
"tinter," who practically laid a ground on which the more experienced
and artistic craftsman did his work either by scraping or accentuation.
Where fine rich blacks are needed, artists will do well to read the
notes on the "aquatint" and "wash" methods described by Senefelder in
his well-known treatise, and afterwards practised with great skill by
Hulemandel.

Lithography is of great service in educational matters, as its use for
diagrams, wall pictures and maps is very general; nor does the influence
end with schooldays, for in the form of pictures at a moderate price it
brings art into homes and lives that need brightening, and even in the
form of posters on the much-abused hoardings does something for those
who have to spend much of their time in the streets of great cities.

According to the census of 1901, 14,686 people in the United Kingdom
found their occupation within the trade, while according to a Home
Office return (1906), 20,367 persons other than lithographic printers
were employed by the firms carrying on the business. As it may be
assumed that an equal number are employed in France, Germany, the United
States of America and the world at large, it is clear that a vast
industrial army is employed in a trade that, like letterpress printing,
has a very beneficial influence upon those engaged in it.

_Technical Details._--The following description of the various methods
of lithography is such as may be considered of interest to the general
reader, but the serious student who will require formulas and more
precise directions will do well to consult one of the numerous
text-books on the subject.

  _Stone and Stone Substitutes._--The quality of stone first used by
  Alois Senefelder, and discovered by him at the village of Solenhofen
  in Bavaria, still remains unsurpassed. This deposit, which covers a
  very large area and underlies the villages of Solenhofen, Moernsheim
  and Langenaltheim, has often been described, sometimes for interested
  motives, as nearly exhausted; but a visit in 1906 revealed that the
  output--considerable as it had been during a period little short of a
  century--was very unimportant when compared to the great mass of
  carbonaceous limestone existing in the neighbourhood. The strong point
  in favour of this source of supply, in addition to its unrivalled
  quality, is the evenness of its stratification, and the fact that
  after the removal of the surface deposits, which are very thin, the
  stones come out of large size, in thickness of 3 to 5 in., and thus
  just suited for lithographic purposes and needing only to be wrought
  in the vertical direction. Other deposits of suitable stone have been
  found in France, Spain, Italy and Greece, but transit and the absence
  of suitable stratification have restricted them to little more than
  local use. Beyond this, few of the deposits other than in the
  neighbourhood of Solenhofen have been of the exact degree of density
  necessary, and the heavier varieties do not receive the grease with
  sufficient readiness. The desire to find other sources of supply has
  been stimulated by the social conditions existing in southern Bavaria,
  for the quarries are largely owned by peasant proprietors, who have
  very well-defined business habits of their own which make transactions
  difficult. Among other things, they will seldom supply the highest
  grades and the largest sizes to those who will not take their
  proportion of lower quality and smaller sizes; and this, in view of
  the very expensive transit down the Rhine to Rotterdam, with a railway
  journey at one end and a sea journey at the other, is a source of
  difficulty to the importer in other countries.

  The earliest substitute for lithographic stone was zinc, which has
  been used from early days and is now more in demand than ever; it
  requires very careful printing as the grease only penetrates the
  material to a very slight extent, and the same must be said in regard
  to the water. From this cause, when not in experienced hands, trouble
  is likely to arise; and when this has occurred, remedial methods are
  much more difficult than with stones. When put away for storage, a dry
  place is very essential, as corrosion is easily set up. At first the
  plates were quite thick, and almost invariably grained by a zinc
  "muller" and acid; now a bath of acid is more generally used, and the
  operation is known as "passing," while the plates are quite thin,
  which renders them suitable for bending round the cylinders of rotary
  machines.

  So far we have been dealing with plain zinc, but variations are
  caused, either by the oxidization of the surface or by coating the
  plate with a composition closely allied to lithographic stone and
  applied in a form of semi-solution. This class of plate was first
  invented by Messrs C. & E. Layton, and a modification was invented by
  Messrs Wezel and Naumann of Leipzig, who brought its use to a high
  pitch of perfection for transferred work such as Christmas cards. A
  treatment of iron plates by exposing them to a high temperature has
  recently been patented, and has had some measure of success, while the
  Parker printing plate, which is practically a sheet of zinc so treated
  as to secure greater porosity and freedom from oxidization, is rapidly
  securing a good position as a stone substitute.

  _Preparation of the Stones._--In this department the cleanliness so
  necessary right through the lithographic process must be carefully
  observed, and a leading point is to secure a level surface and to
  ensure that the front and back of the stone are strictly parallel,
  i.e. that the stones stand the test of both the straight edge and the
  callipers. A good plan to ensure evenness on the surface is to mark
  the front with two diagonal lines of some non-greasy substance till
  the top stone (which should not be too small, and should be constantly
  revolved on the larger one) has entirely removed them. The application
  of the straight edge from time to time will end in securing the
  desired flatness, on which so much of the future printing quality
  depends. The usual method is to rub out with sand, and then rub with
  pumice and polish with water of Ayr or snake stone. For chalk work,
  the further work of graining has to be done by revolving a small stone
  muller on the surface with exceedingly fine sand or powdered glass.
  Many appliances (some very expensive) have been devised for doing the
  principal part of this work by machine--none more effective than those
  methods by which a disk of about 12 in. is kept revolving on a rod
  attached to the ceiling, guided by hand over all parts of the stone;
  but for large surfaces the ceiling needs to be rather high so as to
  allow of a long expanding rod reaching the surface at a moderate
  angle. When this machine is fitted with friction disk driving, very
  wide variations of speed are possible, and the machine can be driven
  so slowly and evenly as to secure a very fair (but not first class)
  grain, in addition to speedy rubbing out, which is the chief aim of
  the apparatus.

  _Preparing a Subject in Chalk or Chalk and Tints._--This branch of
  work is much less in demand than formerly. A grey stone having been
  selected and finely grained with sand or powdered glass passed through
  a sieve of 80 to 120 meshes to the lineal inch, and the artist having
  made his tracing, this tracing is reversed upon the stone with the
  interposition of a piece of paper coated with red chalk, and the chalk
  side towards the surface; the lines on the tracing are then gone over
  with a tracing point, so that a reproduction in red chalk is left upon
  the stone. It will then be desirable to secure a stock of pointed
  Lemercier chalks of at least two grades, hard and soft: the pointing
  is a matter that requires experience, and is done by the worker
  drawing a sharp pen-knife towards him in a slicing manner as though
  trying to put a point upon a piece of cheese. Care should be taken
  that the falling pieces are gathered into a box, or they may do
  irreparable mischief to the work. The work of outlining is done with
  No. 1 or hard chalk, and until experience is gained it will be well to
  depend chiefly on this grade, securing rich dark effects by tinting or
  going over the stone in various directions and then finishing with
  lithographic ink where absolute blacks are required. This ink
  (Vanhymbeck's or Lemercier's are two good makes) needs careful
  preparation, the method being to warm a saucer and rub the ink dry
  upon it, then add a little distilled water and incorporate with the
  finger. It is of great importance not to use any ink left over for the
  next day, but always to have a fresh daily supply.

  When the drawing is thus completed, it will require what is termed
  etching, by which the parts intended to receive the printing ink, and
  already protected by an acid-resisting grease, will be left above the
  unprotected surface. The acid and gum mixture varies in accordance
  with the quality of the work and the character of the stone. A
  patiently executed specimen will, for instance, stand more etching
  than a hastily drawn one; while a grey stone will require more of the
  nitric acid than a yellow one. This is one of the most important tasks
  that a lithographer has to perform. A proportion of 1.5 parts of acid
  to 100 parts of a strong solution of gum arabic will be found to be
  approximately what is required, but the exact proportion must be
  settled by experience, a safe course being to watch the action that
  occurs when a small quantity is placed on the unused margin of the
  stone. Many put the etching mixture on with a flat camel-hair brush,
  which should be of good width to avoid streaks. The present writer's
  own preference is to pour the mixture on to the stone when it is in a
  slanting position; or it is perhaps better to have an etching trough,
  a strong box lined with pitch, with bearers at the bottom to prevent
  the stone coming in contact with it, and a hole through which the
  diluted acid may pass away for subsequent use. The etching is then
  done with acid and water poured over the stone while in a sloping
  position, and the subsequent pouring of a solution of gum arabic
  completes the preparation. The late Mr William Simpson, whose Crimean
  lithographs are well known, once stated at the Society of Arts that in
  his opinion Mr Louis Haghe's reproduction of David Robert's great
  picture of "The Taking of Jerusalem" was the most important piece of
  chalk lithography ever executed, and that he well remembered that it
  took two years to execute it, and that all the combined talent of
  Messrs Day & Haghe's establishment was utilized in its etching. He
  stated that, notwithstanding every precaution, it was under-etched,
  and that after half a dozen impressions the great beauty and
  brilliancy of the work had departed. This incident indicates
  sufficiently the serious nature of this part of the lithographer's
  work.

  If the chalk drawing has to have tints, it will be necessary to make
  as many dusted offsetts as there are colours to be used; in this class
  of work there are generally only two,--one warm or sandy shade and the
  other a quiet blue--and these, with the black and the neutral colour
  secured by the superposition of the two shades, give an excellent
  result, of which Haghe's sketches in Belgium may be taken as a leading
  example.

  In making such subjects suitable for present-day printing in the
  machine, the paper will require to be of a good "rag" quality, free
  from size and damped before printing. To secure accuracy of register
  the paper must be kept in a damp cloth to prevent the edges drying,
  and other machines should be kept available for each of the tints so
  that all work printed in black in the morning may be completed the
  same night. In this way large editions might be printed of either
  original or retransferred work at prices rendering the prints suitable
  for high-class magazines.

  _Preparing a Chromo Lithograph._--For this purpose the proceedings
  will be much the same as those suggested for the black and tint work,
  but the preliminary tracing will be done in lithographic ink on
  tracing transfer paper or scratched on gelatine, the lines being
  subsequently filled in with transfer ink, and will be used as a "key,"
  a guide stone that will not be printed; and the number of stones
  necessary will probably be much more numerous. The initial point will
  be to consider if the work is to have the edition printed from it, or
  whether it has to be transferred after proving and before printing;
  generally speaking, large subjects such as diagrams or posters will be
  worked direct, while Christmas cards, postcards, handbills or labels,
  will be repeated many times on larger stones. For the former class a
  much wider range of methods is possible, but many of these are
  difficult to transfer, and the deterioration that arises makes it
  desirable to limit their use when transferring is contemplated.
  Therefore, chalk-rubbed tints, varnish tints, stumping, wash, air
  brush, are the methods for original work, while work that has to be
  transferred is limited to ink work in line or stipple on a polished
  stone with the aid of "mediums" as before described, and ink
  "spluttered" on to the stone from a tooth brush. It should be
  mentioned that work done on grained paper is more suitable for
  retransfer than ordinary chalk work, and so is often very useful when
  a chalk effect is desired from a polished stone. In proving, opaque
  colours will be got on first, and it will often be found a good plan
  to put the black on early, for it gives a good idea of how the work is
  proceeding, and the strength of the touches (for the black should
  generally be used sparingly) is often pleasantly softened by the
  semi-opaque colours which should come on next. It is desirable to pull
  impressions of each colour on thoroughly white paper, and beyond this
  in important work there should be a progressive colour pattern that
  will show how the work looked when two, three or more colours were on,
  for this may at the finish be invaluable to show where error has crept
  in, and is in any event an immense aid to the machine minder.

  In regard to paper, a description made of rag or rag and esparto is
  most desirable for all work on grained stones, but for work in ink and
  consequently from polished stone a good coated paper with sufficient
  "size" in it is frequently desirable; this paper is generally called
  "chromo" paper.

  There is at the present time very little encouragement for the high
  class of chromo-lithography that was so much in evidence from 1855 to
  1875, but there is little doubt that the work could be done equally
  well by the present-day craftsmen if the demand revived. Belonging to
  the period mentioned, distinguished examples of chromo-lithography are
  "Blue Lights," after Turner, by Carrick; "Spanish Peasants" and the
  Lumley portrait of Shakespeare, by Risdon; "Queen Victoria receiving
  the Guards," by W. Bunney, after John Gilbert; and the series of
  chromos after John Leech, produced under the general direction of
  Vincent Brooks. A small proportion only of the Arundel Society's
  prints were executed in England, but many reproductions of
  water-colours after Birket Foster, Richardson, Wainwright and others
  were executed by Samuel Hodson, James Lewis and others. Perhaps the
  most consistently good work of modern times has been the reproduction
  of Pellegrini's and Leslie Ward's drawings for _Vanity Fair_, which
  from 1870 to 1906 were with very few exceptions executed by the firm
  of Vincent Brooks, Day & Son.

  _Transfers._--A very large proportion of work is got on to the stone
  by transfer, and there is no more important part of the business
  perhaps at the present time. When there is so much original
  lithography done on grained paper by artists of eminence, the
  transferring of grained paper drawings is the most important. The
  stone most desirable for this purpose will be neither a grey nor a
  light yellow, but one that stands mid-way between the two; it should
  be very carefully polished so as to be quite free from scratches, and
  brought to blood-heat by being gradually heated in an iron cupboard
  prepared with the necessary apparatus. The methods that sometimes
  prevail of pouring boiling water over the stone, heating with the
  flame of an ordinary plumber's lamp, or even heating the surface in
  front of a fire, are ineffective substitutes, for the surface may thus
  become unduly hot and spread the work, and there is no increased
  tendency for the chalk to enter into the stone and thus give the work
  a long life. If there are no colours or registration troubles to be
  considered, it is well to place the transfer in a damping book till
  the composition adheres firmly to the finger, before placing it on the
  stone; it should then be pulled through twice, after which it should
  be damped on the back and pulled through several times; after this has
  again been well damped the paper will be found to peel easily off the
  stone, leaving the work and nearly all the composition attached; the
  latter should then be very gently washed away.

  In cases where the work for some reason must not stretch, such as the
  hills on a map, it will be necessary to keep the transfer dry and put
  it on a wet stone, but a piece of the margin of the paper should be
  tested to see that it is of a class that will adhere to the stone the
  first time it is pulled through. Unless the adhesion is very complete
  it may not be safe to pull it through more than once. For a small
  number of copies a very moderate "etch" is desirable, but for a long
  run, where the object is to secure a good edition rather than a few
  good proofs, the Eberle system may be adopted. This method consists in
  protecting the work with finely powdered resin and then applying the
  flame of an ordinary plumber's lamp; this will melt the protecting
  medium round the base of each grain of work and allow of a very
  vigorous "etch" being applied. As before stated it is not unusual to
  secure 2000 to 3000 good copies in the machine after this treatment;
  but the rollers, the ink and the superintendence must be of the best.

  When the artist who is not a professed lithographer desires to make
  tints to his work, a reversed offset on grained paper should be made
  for each colour; this is done by pulling an impression in the usual
  way on a hard piece of paper, and while it is yet wet this should be
  faced with a piece of grained paper and pulled through again, when the
  grained paper will be found to have received the greater portion of
  the ink; this should be immediately dusted with offset powder of a red
  shade to prevent the grease passing into the paper, and the drawing of
  the tints should then be proceeded with in the usual way. Another
  method of transfer work is to pull impressions from copper or steel
  plates in transfer ink; it is in such way that simple etchings like
  those of Cruikshank, Phiz and others are produced, and nearly all
  commercial work such as maps, bill heads, &c., are prepared in the
  same manner.

  Beyond this, much work is done in lithographic ink on what is called
  writing transfer paper, such as circulars, law writing for abstracts,
  specifications and plans.

  _Machinery._--The chief items are the hand presses and the machines,
  whether flat bed or rotary, the principal places of manufacture being
  Leeds, Otley and Edinburgh. Stimulated by American competition, the
  standard of excellence in the United Kingdom has been very
  considerably raised of late years. The rotary machines have only been
  possible since the more frequent use of aluminium and zinc, but these
  materials are more suitable to receive transfer than for the general
  use of an office, the chief reason being that corrections on stone are
  more easily accomplished and more lasting when done. Preliminary work
  is therefore frequently done on the stone and transferred to plates
  for the machine.

  The question is very frequently asked as to how the necessary
  registration of the colours is secured; it may be stated for the
  benefit of the amateur that in hand printing this is generally done by
  pricking with a pair of needles through printed marks present on each
  stone; but in the machine this has been done in different ways,
  although in quite early days "pointing" or "needling" was done even on
  the machine. On modern machines this registration depends on the
  accurate cutting of the edge of the paper, of which at least one
  corner must be an absolute right angle. The paper is then laid on a
  sloping board in such a way that the longest of the two true edges
  gravitates into the gripper of the machine, the stops of which move
  slightly forward as the gripper closes; simultaneously what is called
  the "side lay" moves forward automatically to a given extent, and in
  this way at the critical moment the sheet is always in the same
  position in regard to the stone, which has already been firmly secured
  in the bed of the machine.

  Quite recently a new method has come into use that is probably
  destined to be a great aid to the craft in its competition with other
  methods. This is known as offset printing; it is more a matter of
  evolution than invention, and proceeds from the method adopted in
  tin-plate decoration so much used for box-making and lasting forms of
  advertisement. It consists in bringing a sheet of rubber into contact
  with the charged stone and then setting-off the impression so obtained
  upon card, paper, pegamoid, cloth or other material, the elasticity of
  the rubber making it possible to print upon rough surfaces that have
  been previously unsuited to lithographic printing. Both flat bed and
  rotary machines are available for this system, the latter being
  restricted to zinc or aluminium plates, but giving a high speed, while
  the former can use both stones and metal plates and may be more
  effective for the highest grade of colour work; by both classes of
  machines the finest engraved note headings can be printed on rough
  paper, and colour work that has for so long been confined to coated or
  burnished papers will be available on surfaces such as the artists
  themselves use.

  The following treatises may be referred to with advantage by those in
  search of more detailed information: _A Complete Course of
  Lithography_, by Alois Senefelder (R. Ackermann, London, 1819); _The
  Grammar of Lithography_, by W. D. Richmond (13th edition, E. Menken,
  London); _Handbook of Lithography_, by David Cumming (London, A. & C.
  Black). The first of these will only be found in libraries of
  importance; the others are present-day text-books.     (F. V. B.)



LITHOSPHERE (Gr. [Greek: lithos], a stone, and [Greek: sphaira], a
sphere), the crust of the earth surrounding the earth's nucleus. The
superficial soil, a layer of loose earthy material from a few feet to a
few hundreds of feet in thickness, lies upon a zone of hard rock many
thousands of feet in thickness but varying in character, and composed
mainly of sandstones, shales, clays, limestones and metamorphic rocks.
These two layers form the lithosphere. All the tectonic movements of the
solid nucleus produce changes in the mobile lithosphere. Volcanic and
seismic activity is manifested, mountains are folded, levels change,
fresh surfaces are exposed to denudation, erosion and deposition. The
crust is thus subject to constant change while retaining its more or
less permanent character.



LITHUANIANS and LETTS, two kindred peoples of Indo-European origin,
which inhabit several western provinces of Russia and the north-eastern
parts of Poland and Prussia, on the shores of the Baltic Sea, and in the
basins of the Niemen and of the Duna. Large colonies of Lithuanian and
Lettic emigrants have been established in the United States. The two
races number about 3,500,000, of whom 1,300,000 are Letts. Little is
known about their origin, and nothing about the time of their appearance
in the country they now inhabit. Ptolemy mentions (iii. 5) two clans,
the Galindae and Sudeni, who probably belonged to the western
subdivision of this racial group, the Borussians. In the 10th century
the Lithuanians were already known under the name of Litva, and,
together with two other branches of the same stem--the Borussians and
the Letts--they occupied the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea from
the Vistula to the Duna, extending north-east towards the Lakes
Vierzi-järvi and Peipus, south-east to the watershed between the
affluents of the Baltic and those of the Black Sea, and south to the
middle course of the Vistula (Brest Litovsk)--a tract bounded by Finnish
tribes in the north, and by Slavs elsewhere.

Inhabiting a forested, marshy country the Lithuanians have been able to
maintain their national character, notwithstanding the vicissitudes of
their history. Their chief priest, _Krive-Kriveyto_ (the judge of the
judges), under whom were seventeen classes of priests and elders,
worshipped in the forests; the Waidelots brought their offerings to the
divinities at the foot of oaks; even now, the veneration of great oaks
is a widely spread custom in the villages of the Lithuanians, and even
of the Letts.

Even in the 10th century the Lithuanian stem was divided into three main
branches:--the _Borussians_ or _Prussians_; the _Letts_ (who call
themselves _Latvis_, whilst the name under which they are known in
Russian chronicles, _Letygola_, is an abbreviation of _Latvin-galas_,
"the confines of Lithuania"); and the _Lithuanians_, or rather
_Lituanians_, _Litva_ or _Letuvininkaï_,--these last being subdivided
into Lithuanians proper, and _Zhmud'_ (_Zmudz_, _Samogitians_ or
_Zemailey_), the "Lowlanders." To these main branches must be added the
_Yatvyags_, or _Yadzvings_, a warlike, black-haired people who inhabited
the forests at the upper tributaries of the Niemen and Bug, and the
survivors of whom are easily distinguishable as a mixture with
White-Russians and Mazurs in some parts of Grodno, Plotsk, Lomza and
Warsaw. Nestor's chronicle distinguishes also the _Zhemgala_, who later
became known under the name of _Semigallia_, and in the 10th century
inhabited the left bank of the Duna. Several authors consider also as
Lithuanians the _Kors_ of Russian chronicles, or _Courons_ of Western
authors, who inhabited the peninsula of Courland, and the _Golad_, a
clan settled on the banks of the Porotva, tributary of the Moskva river,
which seems to have been thrown far from the main stem during its
migration to the north. The _Krivichi_, who inhabited what is now the
government of Smolensk, seem to belong to the same stem. Their name
recalls the Krive-Kriveyto, and their ethnological features recall the
Lithuanians; but they are now as much Slavonic as Lithuanian.

All these peoples are only ethnographical subdivisions, and each of them
was subdivided into numerous independent clans and villages, separated
from one another by forests and marshes; they had no towns or fortified
places. The Lithuanian territory thus lay open to foreign invasions, and
the Russians as well as the German crusaders availed themselves of the
opportunity. The Borussians soon fell under the dominion of Germans, and
ceased to constitute a separate nationality, leaving only their name to
the state which later became Prussia. The Letts were driven farther to
the north, mixing there with Livs and Ehsts, and fell under the dominion
of the Livonian order. Only the Lithuanians proper, together with
Samogitians, succeeded in forming an independent state. The early
history of this state is imperfectly known. During the continuous petty
war carried on against Slavonic invasions, the military chief of one of
the clans, Ryngold, acquired, in the first half of the 13th century, a
certain preponderance over other clans of Lithuania and Black Russia
(Yatvyags), as well as over the republics of Red Russia. At this time,
the invasions of the Livonian order becoming more frequent, and always
extending southward, there was a general feeling of the necessity of
some organization to resist them, and Ryngold's son, Mendowg, availed
himself of this opportunity to pursue the policy of his father. He made
different concessions to the order, ceded to it several parts of
Lithuania, and even agreed to be baptized, in 1250, at Novograd Litovsk,
receiving in exchange a crown from Innocent IV., with which he was
crowned king of Lithuanians. He also ceded the whole of Lithuania to the
order in case he should die without leaving offspring. But he had
accepted Christianity only to increase his influence among other clans;
and, as soon as he had consolidated a union between Lithuanians,
Samogitians and Cours, he relapsed, proclaiming, in 1260, a general
uprising of the Lithuanian people against the Livonian order. The yoke
was shaken off, but internal wars followed, and three years later
Mendowg was killed. About the end of the 13th century a new dynasty of
rulers of Lithuania was founded by Lutuwer, whose second son, Gedymin
(1316-1341), with the aid of fresh forces he organized through his
relations with Red Russia, established something like regular
government; he at the same time extended his dominions over Russian
countries--over Black Russia (Novogrodok, Zditov, Grodno, Slonim and
Volkovysk) and the principalities of Polotsk, Tourovsk, Pinsk, Vitebsk
and Volhynia. He named himself _Rex Lethowinorum et multorum
Ruthenorum_. In 1325 he concluded a treaty with Poland against the
Livonian order, which treaty was the first step towards the union of
both countries realized two centuries later. The seven sons of Gedymin
considered themselves as quite independent; but two of them, Olgierd and
Keistut, soon became the more powerful. They represented two different
tendencies which existed at that time in Lithuania. Olgierd, whose
family relations attracted him towards the south, was the advocate of
union with Russia; rather politician than warrior, he increased his
influence by diplomacy and by organization. His wife and sons being
Christians, he also soon agreed to be baptized in the Greek Church.
Keistut represented the revival of the Lithuanian nationality.
Continually engaged in wars with Livonia, and remaining true to the
national religion, he became the national legendary hero. In 1345 both
brothers agreed to re-establish the great principality of Lithuania,
and, after having taken Vilna, the old sanctuary of the country, all the
brothers recognized the supremacy of Olgierd. His son, Jagiello, who
married the queen of Poland, Yadviga, after having been baptized in the
Latin Church, was crowned, on the 14th of February 1386, king of Poland.
At the beginning of the 15th century Lithuania extended her dominions as
far east as Vyazma on the banks of the Moskva river, the present
government of Kaluga, and Poutivl, and south-east as far as Poltava, the
shores of the Sea of Azov, and Haji-bey (Odessa), thus including Kiev
and Lutsk. The union with Poland remained, however, but nominal until
1569, when Sigismund Augustus was king of Poland. In the 16th century
Lithuania did not extend its power so far east and south-east as two
centuries before, but it constituted a compact state, including Polotsk,
Moghilev, Minsk, Grodno, Kovno, Vilna, Brest, and reaching as far
south-east as Chernigov. From the union with Poland, the history of
Lithuania becomes a part of Poland's history, Lithuanians and
White-Russians partaking of the fate of the Polish kingdom (see POLAND:
_History_). After its three partitions, they fell under the dominion of
the Russian empire. In 1792 Russia took the provinces of Moghilev and
Polotsk, and in 1793 those of Vilna, Troki, Novgorod-Syeversk, Brest and
Vitebsk. In 1797 all these provinces were united together, constituting
the "Lithuanian government" (Litovskaya Gubernia). But the name of
Lithuanian provinces was usually given only to the governments of Vilna
and Kovno, and, though Nicholas I. prohibited the use of this name, it
is still used, even in official documents. In Russia, all the
White-Russian population of the former Polish Lithuania are usually
considered as Lithuanians, the name of Zhmud being restricted to
Lithuanians proper.

The ethnographical limits of the Lithuanians are undefined, and their
number is variously estimated. The Letts occupy a part of the Courland
peninsula of Livonia and of Vitebsk, a few other settlements being
spread also in the governments of Kovno, St Petersburg and Moghilev. The
Lithuanians proper inhabit the governments of Kovno, Vilna, Suvalki and
Grodno; while the Samogitians or Zhmud inhabit the governments of Kovno
and Suvalki. To these must be added about 200,000 Borussians, the whole
number of Lithuanians and Letts in Russia being, according to the census
of 1897, 3,094,469. They are slowly extending towards the south,
especially the Letts; numerous emigrants have penetrated into Slavonic
lands as far as the government of Voronezh.

  The Lithuanians are well built; the face is mostly elongated, the
  features fine; the very fair hair, blue eyes and delicate skin
  distinguish them from Poles and Russians. Their dress is usually plain
  in comparison with that of Poles, and the predominance in it of
  greyish colours has been frequently noticed. Their chief occupation is
  agriculture. The trades in towns are generally carried on by men of
  other races--mostly by Germans, Jews or Poles. The only exception is
  afforded to some extent by the Letts. The Samogitians are good
  hunters, and all Lithuanians are given to apiculture and cattle
  breeding. But the Lithuanians, as well in the Baltic provinces as in
  the central ones, were not until the most recent time proprietors of
  the soil they tilled. They have given a few families to the Russian
  nobility, but the great mass of the people became serfs of foreign
  landowners, German and Polish, who reduced them to the greatest
  misery. Since the Polish insurrection of 1863, the Russian government
  has given to the Lithuanians the land of the Polish proprietors on
  much easier terms than in central Russia; but the allotments of soil
  and the redemption taxes are very unequally distributed; and a not
  insignificant number of peasants (the _chinsheviki_) were even
  deprived of the land they had for centuries considered their own. The
  Letts remain in the same state as before, and are restrained from
  emigrating _en masse_ only by coercive measures.

  The Letts of Courland, with the exception of about 50,000 who belong
  to the Greek Church, are Lutherans. Nearly all can read. Those of the
  government of Vitebsk, who were under Polish dominion, are Roman
  Catholics, as well as the Lithuanians proper, a part of whom, however,
  have returned to the Greek Church, in which they were before the union
  with Poland. The Samogitians are Roman Catholics; they more than other
  Lithuanians have conserved their national features. But all
  Lithuanians have maintained much of their heathen practices and creed;
  the names of pagan divinities, very numerous in the former mythology,
  are continually mentioned in songs, and also in common speech.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Schiemann, _Russland, Polen und Livland bis ins 17te
  Jahrhundert_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1886-1887); S. Daukantas, _Lietuvos
  Istorija_ (Plymouth, Pa., 1893); J. de Brye, _Étude historique sur la
  Lithuanie_ (Paris, 1894); P. D. Bryantsev, _Istorija Litovskago
  Gosudarstva_ (Vilna, 1899).     (P. A. K.)

_Language and Literature._--The Lithuanian, Lettic or Lettish and
Borussian or Old Prussian languages together constitute a distinct
linguistic subdivision, commonly called the Baltic subdivision, within
the Indo-European family. They have many affinities to the Slavonic
languages, and are sometimes included with them in a single linguistic
group, the Balto-Slavic. In their phonology, however, though not in
their structure the Baltic languages appear to be more primitive than
the Slavonic. Lithuanian, for example, retains the archaic diphthongs
which disappear in Slavonic--Lith. _véidas_, "face," Gr. [Greek: eidos],
O.S. _vidu_. Among other noteworthy phonological characteristics of
Lithuanian are the conversion of _k_ into a sibilant, the loss of _h_
and change of all aspirates into tenues and the retention of primitive
consonantal noun-terminations, e.g. the final _s_ in Sans. _Vrkás_,
Lith. _vilkas_, O.S. _vulku_. Lettic is phonologically less archaic than
Lithuanian, although in a few cases it has preserved Indo-European forms
which have been changed in Lithuanian, e.g. the _s_ and _z_ which have
become Lith. _sz_ (_sh_) and _z_ (_zh_). The accent in Lithuanian is
free; in Lettic, and apparently in Old Prussian, it ultimately became
fixed on the first syllable.

  In its morphology Lettic represents a later stage of development than
  Lithuanian, their mutual relationship being analogous to that between
  Old High German and Gothic. Both languages have preserved seven out of
  the eight Indo-European cases; Lithuanian has three numbers, but
  Lettic has lost the dual (except in _diwi_, "two" and _abbi_, "both");
  the neuter gender, which still appears in Lithuanian pronouns, has
  also been entirely lost in Lettic; in Lithuanian there are four simple
  tenses (present, future, imperfect, preterite), but in Lettic the
  imperfect is wanting. In both languages the number of periphrastic
  verb-forms and of diminutives is large; in both there are traces of a
  suffix article; and both have enriched their vocabularies with many
  words of foreign, especially German, Russian and Polish origin. The
  numerous Lithuanian dialects are commonly divided into High or
  Southern, which changes _ty_ and _dy_ into _cz_, _dz_, and Low or
  Northern, which retains _ty_, _dy_. Lettic is divided into High (the
  eastern dialects), Low (spoken in N.W. Courland) and Middle (the
  literary language). Old Prussian ceased to be a spoken language in the
  17th century; its literary remains, consisting chiefly of three
  catechisms and two brief vocabularies, date almost entirely from the
  period 1517-1561 and are insufficient to permit of any thorough
  reconstruction of the grammar.

The literary history of the Lithuanians and Letts dates from the
Reformation and comprises three clearly defined periods. (1) Up to 1700
the chief printed books were of a liturgical character. (2) During the
18th century a vigorous educational movement began; dictionaries,
grammars and other instructive works were compiled, and written poems
began to take the place of songs preserved by oral tradition. (3) The
revival of national sentiment at the beginning of the 19th century
resulted in the establishment of newspapers and the collection and
publication of the national folk-poetry. In both literatures, works of a
religious character predominate, and both are rich in popular ballads,
folk-tales and fables.

The first book printed in Lithuanian was a translation of Luther's
shorter Catechism (Königsberg, 1547); other translations of devotional
or liturgical works followed, and by 1701 59 Lithuanian books had
appeared, the most noteworthy being those of the preacher J. Bretkun
(1535-1602). The spread of Calvinism led to the publication, in 1701, of
a Lithuanian New Testament. The first dictionary was printed in 1749.
But perhaps the most remarkable work of the second period was _The Four
Seasons_, a pastoral poem in hexameters by Christian Donalitius
(1714-1780), which was edited by Nesselmann (Königsberg, 1869) with a
German translation and notes. In the 19th century various collections of
fables and folk-tales were published, and an epic, the _Onikshta Grove_,
was written by Bishop Baranoski. But it was in journalism that the chief
original work of the third period was done. F. Kelch (1801-1877) founded
the first Lithuanian newspaper, and between 1834 and 1895 no fewer than
34 Lithuanian periodicals were published in the United States alone.

Luther's Catechism (Königsberg, 1586) was the first book printed in
Lettic, as in the sister speech. In the 17th century various
translations of psalms, hymns and other religious works were published,
the majority being Calvinistic in tone. The educational movement of the
18th century was inaugurated by G. F. Stender (1714-1796), author of a
Lettic dictionary and grammar, of poems, tales and of a _Book of Wisdom_
which treats of elementary science and history. Much educational work
was subsequently done by the Lettic Literary Society, which publishes a
magazine (_Magazin_, Mitau, from 1827), and by the "Young Letts," who
published various periodicals and translations of foreign classics, and
endeavoured to free their language and thought from German influences.
Somewhat similar tasks were undertaken by the "Young Lithuanians," whose
first magazine the _Auszra_ ("Dawn") was founded in 1883. From 1890 to
1910 the literature of both peoples was marked by an ever-increasing
nationalism; among the names most prominent during this period may be
mentioned those of the dramatist Steperman and the poet Martin Lap, both
of whom wrote in Lettic.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Lithuanian dictionaries: Nesselmann, _Wörterbuch der
  litauischen Sprache_ (Königsberg, 1851); Kurschat, _Wörterbuch der
  litauischen Sprache_ (Halle, 1870-1883); A. Juszkiewicz, _Litovskiy
  Slovar_ (St Petersburg, 1897, &c.); P. Saurusaitis, _An Abridged
  Dictionary of the English-Lithuanian Languages_, 2 pts. (Waterbury,
  Conn., 1899-1900); A. Lalis, _Dictionary of the Lithuanian and English
  Languages_ (Chicago, 1903, &c.). Grammar and Linguistic: Schleicher,
  _Handbuch der litauischen Sprache_ (Prague, 1856-1857); O. Wiedemann,
  _Handbuch der litauischen Sprache_ (Strassburg, 1897); A.
  Bezzenberger, _Beiträge zur Geschichte der litauischen Sprache_
  (Göttingen, 1877); J. Schiekopp, _Gramatyka litewska poczatkowa_
  (Cracow, 1902). Literature: Nesselmann, _Litauische Volkslieder_
  (Berlin, 1853); A. Juszkiewicz, _Lietùwiskos Dajnos Uzrasytos_, &c.
  (Kazan, 1881); A. Leskien and C. Brugman, _Litauische Volkslieder_
  (Strassburg, 1882); C. Bartsch, _Melodieen litauischer Volkslieder_
  (Heidelberg, 1886); A. Juszkiewicz, _Melodje ludowe litewskie_
  (Cracow, 1900, &c.); E. A. Voi'ter, _Litovskaya Khrestomatiya_ (St
  Petersburg, 1901, &c.).

  Lettic dictionaries and grammars: Bielenstein, _Die Lettische Sprache_
  (Berlin, 1863-1864); id., _Lettische Grammatik_ (Mitau, 1863); Ulmann
  and Brasche, _Lettisches Wörterbuch_ (Riga, 1872-1880); A.
  Bezzenberger, _Über die Sprache der preussischen Letten and lettische
  Dialekt-Studien_ (Göttingen, 1885); Bielenstein, _Grenzen des
  lettischen Volksstammes und der lettischen Sprache_ (St Petersburg,
  1892); Literature: Bielenstein _Tausend lettische Räthsel_ (Mitau,
  1881); T. Treuland, _Latyshskiya Narodnyya Skazki_ (Moscow, 1887,
  &c.); K. Baron and H. Wissendorff, _Latwju dainas_ (Mitau, 1894, &c.);
  V. Andreyanov, _Lettische Volkslieder und Mythen_ (Halle, 1896).

  Old Prussian: Nesselmann, _Die Sprache der alten Preussen_ (Berlin,
  1845); id., _Thesaurus linguae prussicae_ (Berlin, 1873); Berneker,
  _Die preussische Sprache_ (Strassburg, 1896); M. Schultze, _Grammatik
  der altpreussischen Sprache_ (Leipzig, 1897).



LITMUS (apparently a corruption of _lacmus_, Dutch _lacmoes_, _lac_,
lac, and _moes_, pulp, due to association with "lit," an obsolete word
for dye, colour; the Ger. equivalent is _Lackmus_, Fr. _tournesol_), a
colouring matter which occurs in commerce in the form of small blue
tablets, which, however, consist mostly, not of the pigment proper, but
of calcium carbonate and sulphate and other matter devoid of tinctorial
value. Litmus is extensively employed by chemists as an indicator for
the detection of free acids and free alkalis. An aqueous infusion of
litmus, when exactly neutralized by an acid, exhibits a violet colour,
which by the least trace of free acid is changed to red, while free
alkali turns it to blue. The reagent is generally used in the form of
test paper--bibulous paper dyed red, purple or blue by the respective
kind of infusion. Litmus is manufactured in Holland from the same kinds
of lichens (species of _Roccella_ and _Lecanora_) as are used for the
preparation of archil (q.v.).



LITOPTERNA, a suborder of South American Tertiary ungulate mammals
typified by _Macrauchenia_, and taking their name ("smooth-heel") from
the presence of a flat facet on the heel-bone, or calcaneum for the
articulation of the fibula. The more typical members of the group were
digitigrade animals, recalling in general build the llamas and horses;
they have small brains, and a facet on the calcaneum for the fibula. The
cheek-dentition approximates more or less to the perissodactyle type.
Both the terminal faces of the cervical vertebrae are flat, the femur
carries a third trochanter, the bones of both the carpus and tarsus are
arranged in linear series, and the number of toes, although commonly
three, varies between one and five, the third or middle digit being
invariably the largest.

Of the two families, the first is the _Proterotheriidae_, which
exhibits, in respect of the reduction of the digits, a curious
parallelism to the equine line among the Perissodactyla; in this
feature, as well as in the reduction of the teeth, it is more
specialized than the second family.

  The molar teeth approximate to the _Palaeotherium_ type, but have a
  more or less strongly developed median longitudinal cleft. The
  three-toed type is represented by _Diadiaphorus_, in which the dental
  formula is i.½, c.(0/1), p.(4/5), m.(3/8), and the feet are very like
  those of _Hipparion_. The cervical vertebrae are of normal form, the
  orbit (as in the second family) is encircled by bone, the last molar
  has a third lobe, the single pair of upper incisors are somewhat
  elongated, and have a gap between and behind them, while the outer
  lower incisors are larger than the inner pair, the canines being
  small. The skull has a short muzzle, with elongated nasals. Remains of
  this and the other representatives of the group are found in the
  Patagonian Miocene. In _Proterotherium_, which includes smaller forms
  having the same, or nearly the same, dental formula, the molar teeth
  differ from those of _Diadiaphorus_ by the deeper median longitudinal
  cleft, which completely divides the crown into an inner and an outer
  moiety, the two cones of the inner half being united. According to the
  description given by Argentine palaeontologists, this genus is also
  three-toed, the single-toed representative of the family being
  _Thoatherium_, in which the lateral metapodials, or splint-bones, are
  even more reduced than in the _Equidae_.

In the second family--_Macraucheniidae_--the dentition is complete
(forty-four) and without a gap, the crowns of nearly all the teeth being
of nearly uniform height, while the upper molars are distinguished from
those of the _Proterotheriidae_ by a peculiar arrangement of their two
inner cones, and the elevation of the antero-posterior portion of the
cingulum so as to form an extra pit on the crown. To describe this
arrangement in detail is impossible here, but it may be stated that the
two inner cones are closely approximated, and separated by a narrow
V-shaped notch on the inner side of the crown. The elongated cervical
vertebrae are peculiar in that the arch is perforated by the artery in
the same manner as in the llamas.

In the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia the family is represented by the
generalized genus _Oxyodontotherium_ (in which _Theosodon_ may
apparently be included). It comprises animals ranging up to the size of
a tapir, in which the nostrils were more or less in the normal anterior
position, and the cheek-teeth short-crowned, with the inner cones of the
upper molars well developed and separated by a notch, and the pits of
moderate depth. The last upper premolar is simpler than the molars, and
the canine, which may be double-rooted, is like the earlier premolars.
The radius and ulna, like the tibia and fibula, are distinct, and the
metapodials rudimentary. On the other hand, in _Macrauchenia_, which was
a much larger llama-like animal, the skull is elongated and narrow, with
rudimentary nasals, and the aperture of the nose placed nearly on the
line of the eyes and directed upwards, the muzzle not improbably
terminating in a short trunk. Deep pits on the forehead probably served
for the attachment of special muscles connected with the latter. Very
curious is the structure of the cheek-teeth, which are high-crowned,
with the two inner cones reduced to mere points, and the pits on the
crown-surface large and funnel-shaped. In fact, the perissodactyle type
is almost lost. The cervical vertebrae and limb-bones are very long, the
radius and ulna being completely, and the tibia and fibula partially,
united. The typical _M. patagonica_ is a Pleistocene form as large as a
camel, ranging from Patagonia to Brazil, but remains of smaller species
have been found in the Pliocene (?) of Bolivia and Argentina.

The imperfectly known _Scalabrinia_ of the Argentine Pliocene appears to
occupy a position intermediate between _Oxyodontotherium_ and
_Macrauchenia_, having the nasal aperture situated in the middle of the
length of the skull, and the crowns of the cheek-teeth nearly as tall as
in the latter, but the lower molars furnished with a projecting process
in the hinder valley, similar to one occurring in those of the former.

In this place may be mentioned another strange ungulate from the Santa
Cruz beds of Patagonia, namely, _Astrapotherium_, sometimes regarded as
typifying a suborder by itself. This huge ungulate had cheek-teeth
singularly like those of a rhinoceros, and an enormous pair of tusk-like
upper incisors, recalling the upper canines of _Machaerodus_ on an
enlarged scale. In the lower jaw are two large tusk-like canines between
which are three pairs of curiously-formed spatulate incisors, and in
both jaws there is a long diastema. The dental formula appears to be
i.(1/3), c.(0/1), p.(2/1), m.(3/3).

  Next _Astrapotherium_ may be provisionally placed the genus
  _Homalodontotherium_, of which the teeth have much lower crowns, and
  are of a less decidedly rhinocerotic type than in _Astrapotherium_,
  and the whole dentition forms an even and unbroken series. The bodies
  of the cervical vertebrae are short, with flattened articular
  surfaces, the humerus has an enormous deltoid crest, suggestive of
  fossorial powers, and the femur is flattened, with a third trochanter.
  According to the Argentine palaeontologists, the carpus is of the
  alternating type, and the terminal phalanges of the pentedactyle feet
  are bifid, and very like those of Edentata. Indeed, this type of foot
  shows many edentate resemblances. The astragalus is square and
  flattened, articulating directly with the navicular, although not with
  the cuboid, and having a slightly convex facet for the tibia. From the
  structure of the above-mentioned type of foot, which is stated to have
  been found in association with the skull, it has been suggested that
  _Homalodontotherium_ should be placed in the _Ancylopoda_ (q.v.), but,
  to say nothing of the different form of the cheek-teeth, all the other
  South American Santa Cruz ungulates are so distinct from those of
  other countries that this seems unlikely. It may be suggested that we
  have rather to deal with an instance of parallelism--a view supported
  by the parallelism to the _Equidae_ presented by certain members of
  the _Proterotheriidae_.     (R. L.*)



LITOTES (Gr. [Greek: litotês], plainness, [Greek: litos], plain, simple,
smooth), a rhetorical figure in which emphasis is secured for a
statement by turning it into a denial of the contrary, e.g. "a citizen
of no mean city," i.e. a citizen of a famous city, "A. is not a man to
be neglected." Litotes is sometimes used for what should be more
strictly called "meiosis" (Gr. [Greek: meiôsis], lessening, diminution,
[Greek: meiôn], lesser), where the expressions used apparently are weak
or understated, but the effect is to intensify.



LITTER (through O. Fr. _litere_ or _litiere_, mod. _litière_ from Med.
Lat. _lectaria_, classical _lectica_, _lectus_, bed, couch), a word used
of a portable couch, shut in by curtains and borne on poles by bearers,
and of a bed of straw or other suitable substance for animals; hence
applied to the number of young produced by an animal at one birth, and
also to any disordered heap of waste material, rubbish, &c. In ancient
Greece, prior to the influence of Asiatic luxury after the Macedonian
conquest, the litter ([Greek: phoreion]) was only used by invalids or by
women. The Romans, when the _lectica_ was introduced, probably about the
latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (Gellius x. 3), used it only for
travelling purposes. Like the Greek or Asiatic litter, it had a roof of
skin (_pellis_) and side curtains (_vela_, _plagae_). Juvenal (iv. 20)
speaks of transparent sides (_latis specularibus_). The slaves who bore
the litter on their shoulders (_succollare_) were termed _lecticarii_,
and it was a sign of luxury and wealth to employ six or even eight
bearers. Under the Empire the litter began to be used in the streets of
Rome, and its use was restricted and granted as a privilege (Suet.
_Claudius_). The travelling _lectica_ must be distinguished from the
much earlier _lectica funebris_ or _feretrum_, the funeral bier on which
the dead were carried to their burial-place.



LITTLE FALLS, a city and the county-seat of Morrison county, Minnesota,
U.S.A., on both banks of the Mississippi river, about 88 m. N.W. of
Minneapolis. Pop. (1890) 2354; (1900) 5774, of whom 1559 were
foreign-born, chiefly Germans and Swedes; (1905) 5856; (1910) 6078. It
is served by the Northern Pacific railway. The city is situated in a
prosperous farming region, and has excellent water-power and various
manufactures. Little Falls was settled about 1850, was chartered as a
city in 1889 and adopted a new charter in 1902. Here was buried the
Chippewa chief, Hole-in-the-Day (_c._ 1827-1868), or Bagwunagijik, who
succeeded his father, also named Hole-in-the-Day, as head chief of the
Chippewas in 1846. Like his father, the younger Hole-in-the-Day led his
tribe against the Sioux, and he is said to have prevented the Chippewas
from joining the Sioux rising in 1862. His body was subsequently removed
by his relatives.



LITTLE FALLS, a city of Herkimer county, New York, U.S.A., on the Mohawk
river, 21 m. E.S.E. of Utica. Pop. (1890) 8783; (1900) 10,381, of whom
1915 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 12,273. It is served by the New
York Central & Hudson River, the West Shore, the Utica & Mohawk Valley
(electric), and the Little Falls & Dolgeville railways (the last named
being 13 m. long and running only to Salisbury Center and by the Erie
canal). The Mohawk river falls here by a series of rapids 45 ft. in less
than a mile, furnishing water power. Among the manufactures are cotton
yarn, hosiery and knit goods, leather, &c. In 1905 the city's factory
products were valued at $4,471,080. The city has one of the largest
cheese-markets in the United States. The manufacture of flour and
grist-mill products was formerly an important industry; a mill burned in
1782 by Tories and Indians had supplied almost the entire Mohawk Valley,
and particularly Forts Herkimer and Dayton. Near the city is the grave
of General Nicholas Herkimer, to whom a monument was erected in 1896.
Little Falls was settled by Germans in 1782, and was almost immediately
destroyed by Indians and Tories. It was resettled in 1790, and was
incorporated as a village in 1811 and as a city in 1895.

  See George A. Hardin, _History of Herkimer County_ (Syracuse, 1893).



LITTLEHAMPTON, a seaport and watering-place in the Chichester
parliamentary division of Sussex, England, at the mouth of the Arun, 62
m. S. by W. from London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway.
Pop. of urban district (1901) 7363. There is a beach of firm sand. The
harbour is easily accessible in all weathers, and has a small general
trade.



LITTLE ROCK, the capital of Arkansas, U.S.A., and the county-seat of
Pulaski county, situated near the centre of the state and on the S. bank
of the Arkansas river, at the E. edge of the Ozark foothills. Pop.
(1890) 25,874; (1900) 38,307, of whom 14,694 were of negro blood, and
2099 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 45,941. Little Rock is served by
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the St Louis South Western, and the
St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways and by river boats. It
occupies a comparatively level site of 11 sq. m. at an altitude of 250
to 400 ft. above sea-level and 50 ft. or more above the river, which is
crossed here by three railway bridges and by a county bridge. The city
derived its name (originally "le Petit Roche" and "The Little Rock")
from a rocky peninsula in the Arkansas, distinguished from the "Big
Rock" (the site of the army post, Fort Logan H. Roots), 1 m. W. of the
city, across the river. The Big Rock is said to have been first
discovered and named "Le Rocher Français" in 1722 by Sieur Bernard de la
Harpe, who was in search of an emerald mountain; the Little Rock is now
used as an abutment for a railway bridge. The state capitol, the state
insane asylum, the state deaf mute institute, the state school for the
blind, a state reform school, the penitentiary, the state library and
the medical and law departments of the state university are at Little
Rock; and the city is also the seat of the United States court for the
eastern district of Arkansas, of a United States land office, of Little
Rock College, of the St Mary's Academy, of a Roman Catholic orphanage
and a Roman Catholic convent, and of two schools for negroes--the
Philander Smith College (Methodist Episcopal, 1877), co-educational, and
the Arkansas Baptist College. The city is the seat of Protestant
Episcopal and Roman Catholic bishops. Little Rock has a Carnegie library
(1908), an old ladies' home, a Florence Crittenton rescue home, a
children's home, St Vincent's infirmary, a city hospital, a Catholic
hospital, a physicians' and surgeons' hospital and the Arkansas hospital
for nervous diseases. A municipal park system includes City, Forest,
Wonderland and West End parks. Immigration from the northern states has
been encouraged, and northern men control much of the business of the
city. In 1905 the value of factory products was $4,689,787, being 38.8%
greater than the value in 1900. Cotton and lumber industries are the
leading interests; the value of cotton-seed oil and cake manufactured in
1905 was $967,043, of planing mill products $835,049, and of lumber and
timber products $342,134. Printing and publishing and the manufacture of
foundry and machine shop products and of furniture are other important
industries. Valuable deposits of bauxite are found in Pulaski county,
and the mines are the most important in the United States.

Originally the site of the city was occupied by the Quapaw Indians. The
earliest permanent settlement by the whites was about 1813-1814; the
county was organized in 1818 while still a part of Missouri Territory;
Little Rock was surveyed in 1821, was incorporated as a town and became
the capital of Arkansas in 1821, and was chartered as a city in 1836. In
1850 its population was only 2167, and in 1860 3727; but in 1870 it was
12,380. Little Rock was enthusiastically anti-Union at the outbreak of
the Civil War. In February 1861, the United States Arsenal was seized by
the state authorities. In September 1863 the Federal generals William
Steele (1819-1885) and John W. Davidson (1824-1881), operating against
General Sterling Price, captured the city, and it remained throughout
the rest of the war under Federal control. Constitutional conventions
met at Little Rock in 1836, 1864, 1868 and 1874, and also the Secession
Convention of 1861. The _Arkansas Gazette_, established at Arkansas Post
in 1819 and soon afterwards removed to the new capital, was the first
newspaper published in Arkansas and one of the first published west of
the Mississippi.



LITTLETON (or LYTTELTON), EDWARD, BARON (1589-1645), son of Sir Edward
Littleton (d. 1621) chief-justice of North Wales, was born at Munslow
in Shropshire; he was educated at Oxford and became a lawyer, succeeding
his father as chief-justice of North Wales. In 1625 he became a member
of parliament and acted in 1628 as chairman of the committee of
grievances upon whose report the Petition of Right was based. As a
member of the party opposed to the arbitrary measures of Charles I.
Littleton had shown more moderation than some of his colleagues, and in
1634, three years after he had been chosen recorder of London, the king
attached him to his own side by appointing him solicitor-general. In the
famous case about ship-money Sir Edward argued against Hampden. In 1640
he was made chief-justice of the common pleas and in 1641 lord keeper of
the great seal, being created a peer as Baron Lyttelton. About this
time, the lord keeper began to display a certain amount of indifference
to the royal cause. In January 1642 he refused to put the great seal to
the proclamation for the arrest of the five members and he also incurred
the displeasure of Charles by voting for the militia ordinance. However,
he assured his friend Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, that he
had only taken this step to allay the suspicions of the parliamentary
party who contemplated depriving him of the seal, and he undertook to
send this to the king. He fulfilled his promise, and in May 1642 he
himself joined Charles at York, but it was some time before he regained
the favour of the king and the custody of the seal. Littleton died at
Oxford on the 27th of August 1645; he left no sons and his barony became
extinct. His only daughter, Anne, married her cousin Sir Thomas
Littleton, Bart. (d. 1681), and their son Sir Thomas Littleton (_c._
1647-1710), was speaker of the House of Commons from 1698 to 1700, and
treasurer of the navy from 1700 to 1710. Macaulay thus sums up the
character of Speaker Littleton and his relations to the Whigs: "He was
one of their ablest, most zealous and most steadfast friends; and had
been, both in the House of Commons and at the board of treasury, an
invaluable second to Montague" (the earl of Halifax).



LITTLETON, SIR THOMAS DE (_c._ 1407-1481), English judge and legal
author, was born, it is supposed, at Frankley Manor House,
Worcestershire, about 1407. Littleton's surname was that of his mother,
who was the sole daughter and heiress of Thomas de Littleton, lord of
Frankley. She married one Thomas Westcote. Thomas was the eldest of four
sons of the marriage, and took the name of Littleton, or, as it seems to
have been more commonly spelt, Luttelton. The date of his birth is
uncertain; a MS. pedigree gives 1422, but it was probably earlier than
this. If, as is generally accepted, he was born at Frankley Manor, it
could not have been before 1407, in which year Littleton's grandfather
recovered the manor from a distant branch of the family. He is said by
Sir E. Coke to have "attended one of the universities," but there is no
corroboration of this statement. He was probably a member of the Inner
Temple, and lectured there on the statute of Westminster II., _De Donis
Conditionalibus_. His name occurs in the Paston Letters (ed. J.
Gairdner, i. 60) about 1445 as that of a well-known counsel and in
1481/2 he received a grant of the manor of Sheriff Hales, Shropshire,
from a Sir William Trussel as a reward for his services as counsel. He
appears to have been recorder of Coventry in 1450; he was made escheator
of Worcestershire, and in 1447/8 was under-sheriff of the same county;
he became serjeant-at-law in 1453 and was afterwards a justice of assize
on the northern circuit. In 1466 he was made a judge of the common
pleas, and in 1475 a knight of the Bath. He died, according to the
inscription on his tomb in Worcester cathedral, on the 23rd of August
1481. He married, about 1444, Joan, widow of Sir Philip Chetwind of
Ingestrie in Staffordshire, and by her had three sons, through whom he
became ancestor of the families holding the peerages of Cobham (formerly
Lyttelton, q.v.) and Hatherton.

His _Treatise on Tenures_ was probably written after he had been
appointed to the bench. It is addressed to his second son Richard, who
went to the bar, and whose name occurs in the year books of the reign of
Henry VII. The book, both historically and from its intrinsic merit, may
be characterized as the first text-book upon the English law of
property. The law of property in Littleton's time was mainly concerned
with rights over land, and it was the law relating to this class of
rights which Littleton set himself to digest and classify. The time was
ripe for the task. Ever since the Conquest regular courts of justice had
been at work administering a law which had grown out of an admixture of
Teutonic custom and of Norman feudalism. Under Henry II. the courts had
been organized, and the practice of keeping regular records of the
proceedings had been carefully observed. The centralizing influence of
the royal courts and of the justices of assize, working steadily through
three centuries, had made the rules governing the law of property
uniform throughout the land; local customs were confined within certain
prescribed limits, and were only recognized as giving rise to certain
well-defined classes of rights, such, for instance, as the security of
tenure acquired by villeins by virtue of the custom of the manor, and
the rights of freeholders, in some towns, to dispose of their land by
will. Thus, by the time of Littleton (Henry VI. and Edward IV.), an
immense mass of material had been acquired and preserved in the rolls of
the various courts. Reports of important cases were published in the
"year books." A glance at Statham's _Abridgment_, the earliest digest of
decided cases, published nearly at the same time as Littleton's
_Tenures_, is sufficient to show the enormous bulk which reported cases
had already attained as materials for the knowledge of English law.

Littleton's treatise was written in that peculiar dialect compounded of
Norman-French and English phrases called law French. Although it had
been provided by a statute of 36 Edward III. that _viva voce_
proceedings in court should no longer be conducted in the French tongue,
"which was much unknown in the realm," the practice of reporting
proceedings in that language, and of using it in legal treatises,
lingered till a much later period, and was at length prohibited by a
statute passed in the time of the Commonwealth in 1650. Unlike the
preceding writers on English law, Glanville, Bracton and the authors of
the treatises known by the names of Britton and Fleta, Littleton borrows
nothing from the sources of Roman law or the commentators. He deals
exclusively with English law.

The book is written on a definite system, and is the first attempt at a
scientific classification of rights over land. Littleton's method is to
begin with a definition, usually clearly and briefly expressed, of the
class of rights with which he is dealing. He then proceeds to illustrate
the various characteristics and incidents of the class by stating
particular instances, some of which refer to decisions which had
actually occurred, but more commonly they are hypothetical cases put by
way of illustration of his principles. He occasionally refers to
reported cases. His book is thus much more than a mere digest of
judicial decisions; to some extent he pursues the method which gave to
Roman law its breadth and consistency of principle. In Roman law this
result was attained through the practice of putting to jurisconsults
hypothetical cases to be solved by them. Littleton, in like manner, is
constantly stating and solving by reference to principles of law cases
which may or may not have occurred in actual practice.

  In dealing with freehold estates Littleton adopts a classification
  which has been followed by all writers who have attempted to
  systematize the English law of land, especially Sir M. Hale and Sir
  William Blackstone. It is indeed the only possible approach to a
  scientific arrangement of the intricate "estates in land" known to
  English law. He classifies estates in land by reference to their
  duration, or in other words by reference to the differences between
  the persons who are entitled to succeed upon the death of the person
  in possession or "tenant." First of all, he describes the
  characteristics of tenancy in fee simple. This is still as it was in
  Littleton's time the largest interest in land known to the law. Next
  in order comes tenancy in fee tail, the various classes of which are
  sketched by Littleton with brevity and accuracy, but he is silent as
  to the important practice, which first received judicial recognition
  shortly before his death, of "suffering a recovery," whereby through a
  series of judicial fictions a tenant in tail was enabled to convert
  his estate tail into a fee simple, thus acquiring full power of
  alienation. After discussing in their logical order other freehold
  interests in land, he passes to interests in land called by later
  writers interests less than freehold, namely, tenancies for terms of
  years and tenancies at will. With the exception of tenancy from year
  to year, now so familiar to us, but which was a judicial creation of a
  date later than the time of Littleton, the first book is a complete
  statement of the principles of the common law, as they for the most
  part still exist, governing and regulating interests in lands. The
  first book concludes with a very interesting chapter on copyhold
  tenures, which marks the exact point at which the tenant by copy of
  court roll, the successor of the villein, who in his turn represented
  the freeman reduced to villenage by the growth of the manorial system,
  acquired security of tenure.

  The second book relates to the reciprocal rights and duties of lord
  and tenant, and is mainly of historical interest to the modern lawyer.
  It contains a complete statement of the law as it stood in Littleton's
  time relating to homage, fealty and escuage, the money compensation to
  be paid to the lord in lieu of military service to be rendered to the
  king, a peculiar characteristic of English as distinguished from
  Continental feudalism.

  Littleton then proceeds to notice the important features of tenure by
  knight's service with its distinguishing incidents of the right of
  wardship of the lands and person of the infant heir or heiress, and
  the right of disposing of the ward in marriage. The non-military
  freehold tenures are next dealt with; we have an account of "socage
  tenure," into which all military tenures were subsequently commuted by
  a now unrecognized act of the Long Parliament in 1650, afterwards
  re-enacted by the well-known statute of Charles II. (1660), and of
  "frankalmoign," or the spiritual tenure by which churchmen held. In
  the description of burgage tenure and tenure in villenage, the life of
  which consists in the validity of ancient customs recognized by law,
  we recognize survivals of a time before the iron rule of feudalism had
  moulded the law of land in the interests of the king and the great
  lords. Finally he deals with the law of rents, discussing the various
  kinds of rents which may be reserved to the grantor upon a grant of
  lands and the remedies for recovery of rent, especially the remedy by
  distress.[1]

  The third and concluding book of Littleton's treatise deals mainly
  with the various ways in which rights over land can be acquired and
  terminated in the case of a single possessor or several possessors.
  This leads him to discuss the various modes in which several persons
  may simultaneously have rights over the same land, as
  parceners:--daughters who are co-heiresses, or sons in gavelkind;
  joint tenants and tenants in common. Next follows an elaborate
  discussion upon what are called estates upon condition--a class of
  interests which occupied a large space in the early common law, giving
  rise on one side to estates tail, on another to mortgages. In
  Littleton's time a mortgage, which he carefully describes, was merely
  a conveyance of land by the tenant to the mortgagee, with a condition
  that, if the tenant paid to the mortgagee a certain sum on a certain
  day, he might re-enter and have the land again. If the condition was
  not fulfilled, the interest of the mortgagee became absolute, and
  Littleton gives no indication of any modification of this strict rule,
  such as was introduced by courts of equity, permitting the debtor to
  redeem his land by payment of all that was due to the mortgagee
  although the day of payment had passed, and his interest had become at
  law indefeasible. The remainder of the work is occupied with an
  exposition of a miscellaneous class of modes of acquiring rights of
  property, the analysis of which would occupy too large a space.

  The work is thus a complete summary of the common law as it stood at
  the time. It is nearly silent as to the remarkable class of rights
  which had already assumed vast practical importance--equitable
  interests in lands. These are only noticed incidentally in the chapter
  on "Releases." But it was already clear in Littleton's time that this
  class of rights would become the most important of all. Littleton's
  own will, which has been preserved, may be adduced in proof of this
  assertion. Although nothing was more opposed to the spirit of Norman
  feudalism than that a tenant of lands should dispose of them by will,
  we find Littleton directing by his will the feoffees of certain
  manors to make estates to the persons named in his will. In other
  words, in order to acquire over lands powers unknown to the common
  law, the lands had been conveyed to "feoffees" who had full right over
  them according to the common law, but who were under a conscientious
  obligation to exercise those rights at the direction and for the
  exclusive benefit of the person to whose "use" the lands were held.
  This conscientious obligation was recognized and enforced by the
  chancellor, and thus arose the class of equitable interests in lands.
  Littleton is the first writer on English law after these rights had
  risen into a prominent position, and it is curious to find to what
  extent they are ignored by him.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The work of Littleton occupies a place in the history
  of typography as well as of law. The earliest printed edition seems to
  be that by John Lettou and William de Machlinia, two printers who
  probably came from the Continent, and carried on their business in
  partnership, as their note to the edition of Littleton states, "in
  civitate Londoniarum, juxta ecclesiam omnium sanctorum." The date of
  this edition is uncertain, but the most probable conjecture, based on
  typographical grounds, places it about the latter part of 1481. The
  next edition is one by Machlinia alone, probably about two or three
  years later than the former. Machlinia was then in business alone
  "juxta pontem quae vulgo dicitur Fleta brigge." Next came the Rohan or
  Rouen edition, erroneously stated by Sir E. Coke to be the earliest,
  and to have been printed about 1533. It was, however, of a much
  earlier date. Tomlins, the latest editor of Littleton, gives reasons
  for thinking that it cannot have been later than 1490. It is stated in
  a note to have been printed at Rouen by William le Tailleur "ad
  instantiam Richardi Pynson." Copies of all these editions are in the
  British Museum. In all these editions the work is styled _Tenores
  Novelli_, probably to distinguish it from the "Old Tenures."

  There are three early MSS. of Littleton in the University Library at
  Cambridge. One of these formerly contained a note on its first page to
  the effect that it was bought in St Paul's Churchyard on July 20,
  1480. It was therefore in circulation in Littleton's lifetime. The
  other two MSS. are of a somewhat later date; but one of them contains
  what seems to be the earliest English translation of the _Tenures_,
  and is probably not later than 1500.

  In the 16th century editions of Littleton followed in rapid succession
  from the presses of Pynson, Redmayne, Berthelet, Tottyl and others.
  The practice of annotating the text caused several additions to be
  introduced, which, however, are easily detected by comparison of the
  earlier copies. In 1581 West divided the text into 746 sections, which
  have ever since been preserved. Many of these editions were printed
  with large margins for purposes of annotation, specimens of which may
  be seen in Lincoln's Inn Library.

  The practice of annotating Littleton was very general, and was adopted
  by many eminent lawyers besides Sir E. Coke, amongst others by Sir M.
  Hale. One commentary of this kind, by an unknown hand of earlier date
  than Sir E. Coke's, was edited by Cary in 1829. Following the general
  practice of dealing with Littleton as the great authority on the law
  of England, "the most perfect and absolute work that ever was written
  in any human science," Sir E. Coke made it in 1628 the text of that
  portion of his work which he calls the first part of the institutes of
  the law of England, in other words, the law of property.

  The first printed English translation of Littleton was by Rastell, who
  seems to have combined the professions of author, printer and
  serjeant-at-law, between 1514 and 1533. Many English editions by
  various editors followed, the best of which is Tottyl's in 1556. Sir
  E. Coke adopted some translation earlier than this, which has since
  gone by the name of Sir E. Coke's translation. He, however, throughout
  comments not on the translation but on the French text; and the
  reputation of the commentary has to some extent obscured the intrinsic
  merit of the original.

  See E. Wambaugh, _Littleton's Tenures in English_ (Washington, D.C.,
  1903).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] These two books are stated, in a note to the table at the
    conclusion of the work, to have been made for the better
    understanding of certain chapters of the _Antient Book of Tenures_.
    This refers to a tract called _The Old Tenures_, said to have been
    written in the reign of Edward III. By way of distinguishing it from
    this work, Littleton's book is called in all the early editions
    "Tenores Novelli."



LITTRÉ, MAXIMILIEN PAUL ÉMILE (1801-1881), French lexicographer and
philosopher, was born in Paris on the 1st of February 1801. His father
had been a gunner, and afterwards sergeant-major of marine artillery, in
the French navy, and was deeply imbued with the revolutionary ideas of
the day. Settling down as a collector of taxes, he married Sophie
Johannot, a free-thinker like himself, and devoted himself to the
education of his son Émile. The boy was sent to the Lycée
Louis-le-Grand, where he had for friends Hachette and Eugène Burnouf.
After he had completed his course at school, he hesitated for a time as
to what profession he should adopt, and meanwhile made himself master,
not only of the English and German languages, but of the classical and
Sanskrit literature and philology. At last he determined to study
medicine, and in 1822 entered his name as a student of medicine. He
passed all his examinations in due course, and had only his thesis to
prepare in order to obtain his degree as doctor when in 1827 his father
died, leaving his mother absolutely without resources. He at once
renounced his degree, and, while attending the lectures of P. F. O.
Rayer and taking a keen interest in medicine, began teaching Latin and
Greek for a livelihood. He carried a musket on the popular side in the
revolution of February 1830, and was one of the national guards who
followed Charles X. to Rambouillet. In 1831 he obtained an introduction
to Armand Carrel, the editor of the _National_, who gave him the task of
reading the English and German papers for excerpts. Carrel by chance, in
1835, discovered the ability of his reader, who from that time became a
constant contributor, and eventually director of the paper. In 1836
Littré began to contribute articles on all sorts of subjects to the
_Revue des deux mondes_; in 1837 he married; and in 1839 appeared the
first volume of his edition of the works of Hippocrates. The value of
this work was recognized by his election the same year into the Académie
des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. At this epoch he came across the
works of Auguste Comte, the reading of which formed, as he himself said,
"the cardinal point of his life," and from this time onward appears the
influence of positivism on his own life, and, what is of more
importance, his influence on positivism, for he gave as much to
positivism as he received from it. He soon became a friend of Comte, and
popularized his ideas in numerous works on the positivist philosophy. At
the same time he continued his edition of Hippocrates, which was not
completed till 1862, published a similar edition of Pliny's _Natural
History_, and after 1844 took Fauriel's place on the committee engaged
on the _Histoire littéraire de la France_, where his knowledge of the
early French language and literature was invaluable.

It was about 1844 that he started working on his great _Dictionnaire de
la langue française_, which was, however, not to be completed till
thirty years after. In the revolution of July 1848 he took part in the
repression of the extreme republican party in June 1849. His essays,
contributed during this period to the _National_, were collected
together and published under the title of _Conservation, révolution et
positivisme_ in 1852, and show a thorough acceptance of all the
doctrines propounded by Comte. However, during the later years of his
master's life, he began to perceive that he could not wholly accept all
the dogmas or the more mystic ideas of his friend and master, but he
concealed his differences of opinion, and Comte failed to perceive that
his pupil had outgrown him, as he himself had outgrown his master
Saint-Simon. Comte's death in 1858 freed Littré from any fear of
embittering his master's later years, and he published his own ideas in
his _Paroles de la philosophie positive_ in 1850, and at still greater
length in his work in _Auguste Comte et la philosophie positive_ in
1863. In this book he traces the origin of Comte's ideas through Turgot,
Kant and Saint-Simon, then eulogizes Comte's own life, his method of
philosophy, his great services to the cause and the effect of his works,
and finally proceeds to show where he himself differs from him. He
approved wholly of Comte's philosophy, his great laws of society and his
philosophical method, which indeed he defended warmly against J. S.
Mill, but declared that, while he believed in a positivist philosophy,
he did not believe in a religion of humanity. About 1863, after
completing his Hippocrates and his Pliny, he set to work in earnest on
his French dictionary. In the same year he was proposed for the Académie
Française, but rejected, owing to the opposition of Mgr. Dupanloup,
bishop of Orleans, who denounced him in his _Avertissement aux pères de
famille_ as the chief of the French materialists. He also at this time
started with G. Wyrouboff the _Philosophie Positive_, a review which was
to embody the views of modern positivists. His life was thus absorbed in
literary work till the overthrow of the empire called on him to take a
part in politics. He felt himself too old to undergo the privations of
the siege of Paris, and retired with his family to Britanny, whence he
was summoned by M. Gambetta to Bordeaux, to lecture on history, and
thence to Versailles to take his seat in the senate to which he had been
chosen by the department of the Seine. In December 1871 he was elected a
member of the Académie Française in spite of the renewed opposition of
Mgr. Dupanloup, who resigned his seat rather than receive him. Littré's
_Dictionary_ was completed in 1873. An authoritative interpretation is
given of the use of each word, based on the various meanings it had held
in the past. In 1875 Littré was elected a life senator. The most notable
of his productions in these years were his political papers attacking
and unveiling the confederacy of the Orleanists and legitimists, and in
favour of the republic, his republication of many of his old articles
and books, among others the _Conservation, révolution et positivisme_ of
1852 (which he reprinted word for word, appending a formal, categorical
renunciation of many of the Comtist doctrines therein contained), and a
little tract _Pour la dernière fois_, in which he maintained his
unalterable belief in materialism. When it became obvious that the old
man could not live much longer, his wife and daughter, who had always
been fervent Catholics, strove to convert him to their religion. He had
long interviews with Père Millériot, a celebrated controversialist, and
was much grieved at his death; but it is hardly probable he would have
ever been really converted. Nevertheless, when on the point of death,
his wife had him baptized, and his funeral was conducted with the rites
of the Catholic Church. He died on the 2nd of June 1881.

  The following are his most important works: his editions of
  Hippocrates (1839-1861), and of Pliny's _Natural History_ (1848-1850);
  his translation of Strauss's _Vie de Jésus_ (1839-1840), and Müller's
  _Manuel de physiologie_ (1851); his edition of the works of Armand
  Carrel, with notes (1854-1858); the _Histoire de la langue française_,
  a collection of magazine articles (1862); and his _Dictionnaire de la
  langue française_ (1863-1872). In the domain of science must be noted
  his edition, with Charles Robin, of Nysten's _Dictionnaire de
  médicine, de chirurgie_, &c. (1855); in that of philosophy, his
  _Analyse raisonnée du cours de philosophie positive de M. A. Comte_
  (1845); _Application de la philosophie positive au gouvernement_
  (1849); _Conservation, révolution et positivisme_ (1852, 2nd ed., with
  supplement, 1879); _Paroles de la philosophie positive_ (1859);
  _Auguste Comte et la philosophie positive_ (1863); _La Science au
  point de vue philosophique_ (1873); _Fragments de philosophie et de
  sociologie contemporaine_ (1876); and his most interesting
  miscellaneous works, his _Études et glanures_ (1880); _La Verité sur
  la mort d'Alexandre le grand_ (1865); _Études sur les barbares et le
  moyen âge_ (1867); _Médecine et médecins_ (1871); _Littérature et
  histoire_ (1875); and _Discours de réception à l'Académie française_
  (1873).

  For his life consult C. A. Sainte-Beuve, _Notice sur M. Littré, sa vie
  et ses travaux_ (1863); and _Nouveaux Lundis_, vol. v.; also the
  notice by M. Durand-Gréville in the _Nouvelle Revue_ of August 1881;
  E. Caro, _Littré et le positivisme_ (1883); Pasteur, _Discours de
  réception_ at the Academy, where he succeeded Littré, and a reply by
  E. Renan.     (H. M. S.)



LITURGY (Low Lat. _liturgia_; Gr. [Greek: leitos], public, and [Greek:
ergon], work; [Greek: leitourgos], a public servant), in the technical
language of the Christian Church, the order for the celebration and
administration of the Eucharist. In Eastern Christendom the Greek word
[Greek: leitourgia] is used in this sense exclusively. But in
English-speaking countries the word "liturgy" has come to be used in a
more popular sense to denote any or all of the various services of the
Church, whether contained in separate volumes or bound up together in
the form of a Book of Common Prayer. In this article the liturgy is
treated in the former and stricter sense. (For the ancient Athenian
[Greek: leitourgiai], as forms of taxation, see FINANCE.)

In order to understand terms and references it will be convenient to
give the tabular form the chief component parts of a liturgy, selecting
the Liturgy of Rome as characteristic of Western, and that of
Constantinople as characteristic of Eastern, Christendom; at the same
time appending an explanation of some of the technical words which must
be employed in enumerating those parts.


  ORDER OF THE ROMAN LITURGY

  _Ordinary of the Mass_.

  1. Introit, or as it is always called in the Sarum rite, "Office," a
  Psalm or part of a Psalm sung at the entry of the priest, or clergy
  and choir.

  2. Kyrie eleison, ninefold, and sometimes lengthily farsed
  representing an older, now obsolete, litany.

  3. Collect, _i.e_. the collect for the day.

  4. Prophetic lection, now obsolete, except on the Wednesday and
  Saturday Ember Days, Good Friday and Easter Even, and Wednesday after
  fourth and sixth Sundays in Lent.

  5. Epistle.

  6. Gradual. A few verses from the Psalms, the shrunken remainder of a
  whole Psalm.

  7. Sequence. A hymn now obsolete except on Feast of the Seven Dolours,
  Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Christi and at Masses for the dead.

  8. Gospel.

  9. Creed.

  10. Collect, now obsolete, though the unanswered invitation, "Let us
  pray," still survives.

  11. Offertory. A verse or verses from the Psalms sung at the offering
  of the elements.

  12. Secret. A prayer or prayers said at the conclusion of the
  Offertory.

  13. Sursum Corda. "Lift up your hearts," with following versicles.

  14. Preface. There are now ten proper or special prefaces and one
  common preface. In older missals they were extremely numerous, almost
  every Sunday and Holy-day having one assigned to it. Many of them were
  very beautiful. In older missals, Nos. 13, 14 and 15 were sometimes
  arranged not as the concluding part of the Ordinary, but as the
  opening part of the Canon of the mass.

  15. Sanctus, or Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn, "Holy, Holy, Holy,"
  &c., ending with the Benedictus, "Blessed is he that cometh," &c.


  _Canon of the Mass._

  1. Introductory prayer for acceptance. Te igitur, &c.

  2. Intercession for the living. Memento, Domine famulorum, &c.

  3. Commemoration of apostles and martyrs. Communicantes et memoriam,
  &c.

  4. Prayer for acceptance and consecration of offering. Hanc igitur
  oblationem, &c.

  5. Recital of words of institution. Qui pridie quam pateretur, &c.

  6. Oblation. Unde et memores, &c.

  7. Invocation. A passage difficult of interpretation, but apparently
  meant to be equivalent to the Eastern Epiklesis or invocation of the
  Holy Ghost. Supplices te rogamus, &c.

  8. Intercession for the dead. Memento etiam, Domine, famulorum, &c.

  9. Lord's Prayer, with a short introduction and the expansion of the
  last petition into a prayer known as the "Embolismus."

  10. Fraction, i.e. breaking of the host into three parts, to symbolize
  the death and passion of Christ.

  11. Commixture, i.e. placing a small portion of the consecrated bread
  into the chalice symbolizing the reunion of Christ's body and soul at
  the resurrection.

  12. Agnus Dei, i.e. a three-fold petition to the Lamb of God.

  13. Pax, i.e. the kiss of peace. The ancient ritual of the Pax has
  become almost obsolete.

  14. Three prayers, accompanying the Pax and preliminary to communion.

  15. Communion of priest and people (if any), a short anthem called
  "Communio" being sung meanwhile.

  16. Ablution of paten and chalice.

  17. Post-communion, i.e. a concluding prayer.

  18. Dismissal.

  The Canon of the Mass strictly ends with No. 9; Nos. 10-18 being an
  appendix to it.


  LITURGY OF CONSTANTINOPLE

  _Mass of the Catechumens. After preparation and vesting._

  1. The Deacon's Litany.

  2. Three Anthems with accompanying prayers.

  3. Little Entrance, i.e. ceremonial bringing in of the Book of the
  Gospels.

  4. The Trisagion, i.e. an anthem with an accompanying prayer different
  from the Latin Sanctus or Tersanctus.

  5. Epistle.

  6. Gospel with a prayer preceding it.

  7. Bidding prayer.

  8. Prayer for catechumens.

  9. Dismissal of catechumens.

  10. Spreading of the corporal.


  _Mass of the Faithful._

  11. Prayers of the faithful.

  12. Cherubic Hymn, "Let us who mystically represent the Cherubim, &c."
  not represented in the Latin liturgy.

  13. Great Entrance, i.e. of the unconsecrated elements with incense
  and singing and intercessions.

  14. Kiss of Peace.

  15. Creed.

  16. The Benediction, i.e. 2 Cor. xiii. 14.

  17. Sursum corda.

  18. Preface.

  19. Sanctus, or Tersanctus, or "Triumphal Hymn."

  20. Recital of Words of Institution, prefaced by recital of the
  Redemption.

  21. The oblation.

  22. The invocation or Epiklesis.

  23. Intercession for the dead.

  24. Intercession for the living.

  25. The Lord's Prayer.

  26. Prayer of humble access (a) for people (b) for priest.

  27. Elevation with the invitation "Holy things to holy people."

  28. Fraction.

  29. Commixture.

  30. Thanksgiving.

  31. Benediction.

  In both these lists many interesting features of ceremonial, the use
  of incense, the infusion of warm water (Byzantine only), &c., have not
  been referred to. The lists must be regarded as skeletons only.

There are six main families or groups of liturgies, four of them being
of Eastern and two of them of Western origin and use. They are known
either by the names of the apostles with whom they are traditionally
connected, or by the names of the countries or cities in which they have
been or are still in use.

Group I. _The Syrian Rite_ (St James).--The principal liturgies to be
enumerated under this group are the Clementine liturgy, so called from
being found in the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, which
claim in their title, though erroneously, to have been compiled by St
Clement, the 1st-century bishop of Rome; the Greek liturgy of St James;
the Syriac liturgy of St James. Sixty-four more liturgies of this group
have existed, the majority being still in existence. Their titles are
given in F. E. Brightman's _Liturgies, Eastern and Western_ (1896), pp.
lviii.-lxi.

Group II. _The Egyptian Rite_ (St Mark).--This group includes the Greek
liturgies of St Mark, St Basil and St Gregory, and the Coptic liturgies
of St Basil, St Gregory, St Cyril or St Mark; together with certain less
known liturgies the titles of which are enumerated by Brightman (_op.
cit._ pp. lxxiii. lxxiv.). The liturgy of the Ethiopian church
ordinances and the liturgy of the Abyssinian Jacobites, known as that of
the Apostles, fall under this group.

Group III. _The Persian Rite_ (SS. Adaeus and Maris).--This Nestorian
rite is represented by the liturgy which bears the names of SS. Adaeus
and Maris together with two others named after Theodore of Mopsuestia
and Nestorius. This group has sometimes been called "East-Syrian." The
titles of three more of its now lost liturgies have been preserved,
namely those of Narses, Barsumas and Diodorus of Tarsus. The liturgy of
the Christians of St Thomas, on the Malabar coast of India, formerly
belonged to this group, but it was almost completely assimilated to the
Roman liturgy by Portuguese Jesuits at the synod of Diamper in 1599.

Group IV. _The Byzantine Rite._--The Greek liturgies of St Chrysostom,
St Basil and St Gregory Dialogus, or The Presanctified, also extant in
other languages, are the living representatives of this rite. The Greek
liturgy of St Peter is classified under this group, but it is merely the
Roman canon of the Mass &c., inserted in a Byzantine framework, and
seems to have been used at one time by some Greek communities in Italy.
To this group also belongs the Armenian liturgy, of which ten different
forms have existed in addition to the liturgy now in general use named
after St Athanasius.

We now come to the two western groups of liturgies, which more nearly
concern the Latin-speaking nations of Europe, and which, therefore, must
be treated of more fully.

Group V. _The Hispano-Gallican Rite_ (St John).--This group of Latin
liturgies, which once prevailed very widely in Western Europe, has been
almost universally superseded by the liturgy of the Church of Rome.
Where it survives, it has been more or less assimilated to the Roman
pattern. It prevailed once throughout Spain, France, northern Italy,
Great Britain and Ireland. The term "Ephesine" has been applied to this
group or family of liturgies, chiefly by English liturgiologists, and
the names of St John and of Ephesus, his place of residence, have been
pressed into service in support of a theory of Ephesine origin, which,
however, lacks proof and may now be regarded as a discarded hypothesis.
Other theories represent the Gallican to be a survival of the original
Roman liturgy, or as an importation into Western Europe from the east
through a Milanese channel. The latter is Duchesne's theory (_Christian
Worship_, London, 1904, 2nd ed., p. 94).

  We must be content with mentioning these theories without attempting
  to discuss them.

  The chief traces of oriental influence and affinity lie in the
  following points:--(1) various proclamations made by the deacon,
  including that of "Silentium facite" before the epistle (Migne, _Pat.
  Lat._ tom. lxxxv. col. 534); (2) the presence of a third lesson
  preceding the epistle, taken from the Old Testament; (3) the
  occasional presence of "preces" a series of short intercessions
  resembling the Greek "Ektené" or deacon's litany; (4) the position of
  the kiss of peace at an early point in the service, before the canon,
  instead of the Roman position after consecration; (5) the exclamation
  "Sancta sanctis" occurring in the Mozarabic rite, being the
  counterpart of the Eastern "[Greek: Ta hagia tois hagiois]," that is
  "holy things to holy people"; (6) traces of the presence of the
  "Epiklesis," that is to say, the invocation of the Holy Spirit, in its
  Eastern position after the words of institution, as in the prayer
  styled the Post-pridie in the Mozarabic service for the second Sunday
  after the octave of the Epiphany: "We beseech thee that thou wouldest
  sanctify this oblation with the permixture of thy Spirit, and conform
  it with full transformation into the body and blood of our Lord Jesus
  Christ." (Migne, _Pat. Lat._ tom. lxxxv. col. 250). On the other hand
  the great variableness of its parts, and the immense number of its
  proper prefaces, ally it to the Western family of liturgies.

We proceed now to give a more detailed account of the chief liturgies of
this group.

1. _The Mozarabic Liturgy.--_This was the national liturgy of the
Spanish church till the close of the 11th century, when the Roman
liturgy was forced upon it. Its use, however, lingered on, till in the
16th century Cardinal Jimenes, anxious to prevent its becoming quite
obsolete, had its books restored and printed, and founded a college of
priests at Toledo to perpetuate its use. It survives now only in several
churches in Toledo and in a chapel at Salamanca, and even there not
without certain Roman modifications of its original text and ritual.

  Its date and origin, like the date and origin of all existing
  liturgies, are uncertain, and enveloped in the mists of antiquity. It
  is not derived from the present Roman liturgy. Its whole structure, as
  well as separate details disprove such a parentage, and therefore it
  is strange to find St Isidore of Seville (_Lib. de Eccles. Offic_. i.
  15) attributing it to St Peter. No proof is adduced, and the only
  value which can be placed upon such an unsupported assertion is that
  it shows that a very high and even apostolic antiquity was claimed for
  it. A theory, originating with Pinius, that it may have been brought
  by the Goths from Constantinople when they invaded Spain, is as
  improbable as it is unproven. It may have been derived from Gaul. The
  Gallican sister stood to it in the relation of twin-sister, if it
  could not claim that of mother. The resemblance was so great that when
  Charles the Bald (843-877) wished to get some idea of the character of
  the already obsolete Gallican rite, he sent to Toledo for some Spanish
  priests to perform Mass according to the Mozarabic rite in his
  presence. But there is no record of the conversion of Spain by
  Gallican missionaries. Christianity existed in Spain from the earliest
  times. Probably St Paul travelled there (Rom. xv. 24). It may be at
  least conjectured that its liturgy was Pauline rather than Petrine or
  Johannine.

2. _Gallican Liturgy._--This was the ancient and national liturgy of the
church in France till the commencement of the 9th century, when it was
suppressed by order of Charlemagne, who directed the Roman missal to be
everywhere substituted in its place. All traces of it seemed for some
time to have been lost until three Gallican sacramentaries were
discovered and published by Thomasius in 1680 under the titles of
_Missale Gothicum_, _Missale Gallicum_ and _Missale Francorum_, and a
fourth was discovered and published by Mabillon in 1687 under the title
of _Missale Gallicanum_. Fragmentary discoveries have been made since.
Mone discovered fragments of eleven Gallican masses and published them
at Carlsruhe in 1850. Other fragments from the library at St Gall have
been published by Bunsen (_Analecta Ante-Nicaena_, iii. 263-266), and
from the Ambrosian library at Milan by Cardinal Mai (_Scriptt. Vet. Vat.
Coll._ iii. 2. 247). A single page was discovered in Gonville and Caius
College, Cambridge, published in _Zeitschrift für Kath. Theologie_, vi.
370.

  These documents, illustrated by early Gallican canons, and by
  allusions in the writings of Sulpicius Severus, Caesarius of Arles,
  Gregory of Tours, Germanus of Paris and other authors, enable us to
  reconstruct the greater part of this liturgy. The previously
  enumerated signs of Eastern origin and influence are found here as
  well as in the Mozarabic liturgy, together with certain other more or
  less minute peculiarities, which would be of interest to professed
  liturgiologists, but which we must not pause to specify here. They are
  the origin of the Ephesine theory that the Gallican liturgy was
  introduced into use by Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons (c. 130-200) who had
  learned it in the East from St Polycarp, the disciple of the apostle
  St John.

3. _Ambrosian Liturgy._--Considerable variety of opinion has existed
among liturgical writers as to the proper classification of the
"Ambrosian" or "Milanese" liturgy. If we are to accept it in its present
form and to make the present position of the great intercession for
quick and dead the test of its _genus_, then we must classify it as
"Petrine" and consider it as a branch of the Roman family. If, on the
other hand, we consider the important variations from the Roman liturgy
which yet exist, and the traces of still more marked variation which
confront us in the older printed and MS. copies of the Ambrosian rite,
we shall detect in it an original member of the Hispano-Gallican group
of liturgies, which for centuries underwent a gradual but
ever-increasing assimilation to Rome. We know this as a matter of
history, as well as a matter of inference from changes in the text
itself. Charlemagne adopted the same policy towards the Milanese as
towards the Gallican church. He carried off all the Ambrosian church
books which he could obtain, with the view of substituting Roman books
in their place, but the completion of his intentions failed, partly
through the attachment of the Lombards to their own rites, partly
through the intercession of a Gallican bishop named Eugenius (Mabillon,
_Mus. Ital._ tom. i. Pars. ii. p. 106). It has been asserted by Joseph
Vicecomes that this is an originally independent liturgy drawn up by St
Barnabas, who first preached the Gospel at Milan (_De Missae_ Rit. 1
capp. xi. xii.), and this tradition is preserved in the title and proper
preface for St Barnabas Day in the Ambrosian missal (Pamelius,
_Liturgicon_, i. 385, 386), but it has never been proved.

  We can trace the following points in which the Ambrosian differs from
  the Roman liturgy, many of them exhibiting traces of Eastern
  influence. Some of them are no longer found in recent Ambrosian
  missals and only survive in earlier MSS. such as those published by
  Pamelius (_Liturgicon_, tom. i. p. 293), Muratori (_Lit. Rom. Vet._ i.
  132) and Ceriani (in his edition, 1881, of an ancient MS. at Milan).
  (a) The prayer entitled "oratio super sindonem" corresponding to the
  prayer after the spreading of the corporal; (b) the proclamation of
  silence by the deacon before the epistle; (c) the litanies said after
  the Ingressa (Introit) on Sundays in Lent, closely resembling the
  Greek Ektené; (d) varying forms of introduction to the Lord's Prayer,
  in Coena Domini (Ceriani p. 116) in Pascha (Ib. p. 129); (e) the
  presence of passages in the prayer of consecration which are not part
  of the Roman canon and one of which at least corresponds in import and
  position though not in words to the Greek Invocation: _Tuum vero, est,
  omnipotens Pater, mittere_, &c. (Ib. p. 116); (f) the survival of a
  distinctly Gallican formula of consecration in the Post-sanctus "in
  Sabbato Sancto." _Vere sanctus, vere benedictus Dominus noster,_ &c.
  (Ib. p. 125); (g) the varying nomenclature of the Sundays after
  Pentecost; (h) the position of the fraction or ritual breaking of
  bread before the Lord's Prayer; (i) the omission of the second
  oblation after the words of institution (Muratori, _Lit. Rom. Vet._ i.
  133); (k) a third lection or _Prophetia_ from the Old Testament
  preceding the epistle and gospel; (l) the lay offering of the
  oblations and the formulae accompanying their reception (Pamelius,
  _Liturgicon_, i. 297); (m) the position of the ablution of the hands
  in the middle of the canon just before the words of institution; (n)
  the position of the "oratio super populum," which corresponds in
  matter but not in name to the collect for the day, before the Gloria
  in Excelsis.

4. _Celtic Liturgy._--We postpone the consideration of this liturgy till
after we have treated of the next main group.

VI. _The Roman Rite_ (St Peter).--There is only one liturgy to be
enumerated under this group, viz. the present liturgy of the Church of
Rome, which, though originally local in character and circumscribed in
use, has come to be nearly co-extensive with the Roman Catholic Church,
sometimes superseding earlier national liturgies, as in Gaul and Spain,
sometimes incorporating more or less of the ancient ritual of a country
into itself and producing from such incorporation a sub-class of
distinct Uses, as in England, France and elsewhere. Even these
subordinate Uses have for the most part become, or are rapidly becoming,
obsolete.

The date, origin and early history of the Roman liturgy are obscure. The
first Christians at Rome were a Greek-speaking community, and their
liturgy must have been Greek, and is possibly represented in the
so-called Clementine liturgy. But the date when such a state of things
ceased, when and by whom the present Latin liturgy was composed, whether
it is an original composition, or, as its structure seems to imply, a
survival of some intermediate form of liturgy--all these are questions
which are waiting for solution.

  One MS. exists which has been claimed to represent the Roman liturgy
  as it existed in the time of Leo I., 440-461. It was discovered at
  Verona by Bianchini in 1735 and assigned by him to the 8th century and
  published under the title of _Sacramentarium Leonianum_; but this
  title was from the first conjectural, and is in the teeth of the
  internal evidence which the MS. itself affords. The question is
  discussed at some length by Muratori (_Lit. Rom. Vet._ tom. i. cap. i.
  col. 16). Assemani published it under the title of _Sacramentarium
  Veronense_ in tom. vi. of his _Codex Liturg. Eccles. Univ_.

  A MS. of the 7th or 8th century was found at Rome by Thomasius and
  published by him in 1680 under the title of _Sacramentarium
  Gelasianum_. But it was written in France and is certainly not a pure
  Gelasian codex; and although there is historical evidence of Pope
  Gelasius I. (492-496) having made some changes in the Roman liturgy,
  and although MSS. have been published by Gerbertus and others,
  claiming the title of Gelasian, we neither have nor are likely to have
  genuine and contemporary MS. evidence of the real state of the liturgy
  in that pope's time. The most modern and the best edition of the
  Gelasian Sacramentary is that by H. A. Wilson (Oxford, 1894).

  The larger number of MSS. of this group are copies of the Gregorian
  Sacramentary, that is to say, MSS. representing or purporting to
  represent, the state of Roman liturgy in the days of Pope Gregory the
  Great. But they cannot be accepted as certain evidence for the
  following reasons: not one of them was written earlier than the 9th
  century, not one of them was written in Italy, but every one north of
  the Alps; every one contains internal evidence of a post-Gregorian
  date in the shape of masses for the repose or for the intercession of
  St Gregory and in various other ways.

The Roman liturgy seems to have been introduced into England in the 7th,
into France in the 9th and into Spain in the 11th century, though no
doubt it was known in both France and Spain to some extent before these
dates. In France certain features of the service and certain points in
the ritual of the ancient national liturgy became interwoven with its
text and formed those many varying medieval Gallican Uses which are
associated with the names of different French sees.

The chief distinguishing characteristics of the Roman rite are these:
(a) the position of the great intercession for quick and dead within the
canon, the commemoration of the living being placed just before and the
commemoration of the departed just after the words of institution; (b)
the absence of an "Epiklesis" or invocation of the Holy Ghost upon the
elements; (c) the position of the "Pax" or "Kiss of Peace after the
consecration" and before the communion, whereas in other liturgies it
occurs at a much earlier point in the service.


_Liturgies of the British Islands._

Period I. _The Celtic Church._--Until recently almost nothing was known
of the character of the liturgical service of the Celtic church which
existed in these islands before the Anglo-Saxon Conquest, and continued
to exist in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall for considerable
though varying periods of time after that event. But in recent times a
good deal of light has been thrown on the subject, partly by the
publication or republication of the few genuine works of Patrick,
Columba, Columbanus, Adamnan and other Celtic saints; partly by the
discovery of liturgical remains in the Scottish _Book of Deer_ and in
the Irish _Books of Dimma and Mulling_ and the _Stowe Missal_, &c.;
partly by the publication of medieval Irish compilations, such as the
_Lebar Brecc_, _Liber Hymnorum_, _Martyrology of Oengus_, &c., which
contain ecclesiastical kalendars, legends, treatises, &c., of
considerable but very varying antiquity. The evidence collected from
these sources is sufficient to prove that the liturgy of the Celtic
church was of the Gallican type. In central England the churches, with
everything belonging to them, were destroyed by the heathen invaders at
the close of the 5th century; but the Celtic church in the remoter parts
of England, as well as in the neighbouring kingdoms of Scotland and
Ireland, retained its independence for centuries afterwards.

An examination of its few extant service-books and fragments of
service-books yields the following evidence of the Gallican origin and
character of the Celtic liturgy: (a) the presence of collects and
anthems which occur in the Gallican or Mozarabic but not in the Roman
liturgy; (b) various formulae of thanksgiving after communion; (c)
frequent biddings or addresses to the people in the form of Gallican
_Praefationes_; (d) the Gallican form of consecration, being a prayer
called "Post-Sanctus" leading up to the words of institution; (e) the
complicated rite of "fraction" or "the breaking of bread," as described
in the Irish treatise at the end of the _Stowe Missal_, finds its only
counterpart in the elaborate ceremonial of the Mozarabic church; (f) the
presence of the Gallican ceremonial of _Pedilavium_ or "Washing of feet"
in the earliest Irish baptismal office.

  For a further description of these and other features which are
  characteristic of or peculiar to the Celtic liturgy the reader is
  referred to F. E. Warren's _Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church_
  (Oxford, 1881).

Period II. _The Anglo-Saxon Church._--We find ourselves here on firmer
ground, and can speak with certainty as to the nature of the liturgy of
the English church after the beginning of the 7th century. Information
is drawn from liturgical allusions in the extant canons of numerous
councils, from the voluminous writings of Bede, Alcuin and many other
ecclesiastical authors of the Anglo-Saxon period, and above all from a
considerable number of service-books written in England before the
Norman Conquest. Three of these books are missals of more or less
completeness: (1) the _Leofric Missal_, a composite 10th- to
11th-century MS. presented to the cathedral of Exeter by Leofric, the
first bishop of that see (1046-1072), now in the Bodleian library at
Oxford; edited by F. E. Warren (Oxford, 1883); (2) the missal of Robert
of Jumièges, archbishop of Canterbury (1051-1052), written probably at
Winchester and presented by Archbishop Robert to his old monastery of
Jumièges in the neighbourhood of Rouen, in the public library of which
it now lies; edited by H. A. Wilson (London, 1896); (3) the _Red Book of
Derby_, a MS. missal of the second half of the 11th century, now in the
library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

A perusal of these volumes proves what we should have expected a priori,
that the Roman liturgy was in use in the Anglo-Saxon church. This was
the case from the very first. That church owed its foundation to a Roman
pontiff, and to Roman missionaries, who brought, as we are told by Bede,
their native liturgical codices with them (_Hist. Eccles_. lib. ii. cap.
28). Accordingly, when we speak of an Anglo-Saxon missal, we mean a
Roman missal only exhibiting one or more of the following features,
which would differentiate it from an Italian missal of the same century.
(a) Rubrics and other entries of a miscellaneous character written in
the vernacular language of the country. (b) The commemoration of
national or local saints in the kalendar, in the canon of the mass and
in the litanies which occur for use on Easter Even and in the baptismal
offices. (c) The presence of a few special masses in honour of those
local saints, together with a certain number of collects of a
necessarily local character, for the rulers of the country, for its
natural produce, &c. (d) The addition of certain peculiarities of
liturgical structure and arrangement interpolated into the otherwise
purely Roman service from an extraneous source. There are two noteworthy
examples of this in Anglo-Saxon service-books. Every Sunday and festival
and almost every votive mass has its proper preface, although the number
of such prefaces in the Gregorian sacramentary of the same period had
been reduced to eight. There was a large but not quite equal number of
triple episcopal benedictions to be pronounced by the bishop after the
Lord's Prayer and before the communion. This custom must either have
been perpetuated from the old Celtic liturgy or directly derived from a
Gallican source.

Period III. _Anglo-Norman Church._--The influx of numerous foreigners,
especially from Normandy and Lorraine, which preceded, accompanied and
followed the Conquest, and the occupation by them of the highest posts
in church as well as state had a distinct effect on the liturgy of the
English church. These foreign ecclesiastics brought over with them a
preference for and a habit of using certain features of the Gallican
liturgy and ritual, which they succeeded in incorporating into the
service-books of the church of England. One of the Norman prelates,
Osmund, count of Séez, earl of Dorset, chancellor of England, and bishop
of Salisbury (1078-1099), is credited with having undertaken the
revision of the English service-books; and the missal which we know as
the _Sarum Missal_, or the _Missal according to the Use of Sarum_,
practically became the liturgy of the English church. It was not only
received into use in the province of Canterbury, but was largely adopted
beyond those limits--in Ireland in the 12th and in various Scottish
dioceses in the 12th and 13th centuries.

It would be beyond our scope here to give a complete list of the
numerous and frequently minute differences between a medieval Sarum and
the earlier Anglo-Saxon or contemporaneous Roman liturgy. They lie
mainly in differences of collects and lections, variations of ritual on
Candlemass, Ash Wednesday and throughout Holy Week; the introduction
into the canon of the mass of certain clauses and usages of Gallican
character or origin; the wording of rubrics in the subjunctive or
imperative tense; the peculiar "Preces in prostratione"; the procession
of Corpus Christi on Palm Sunday; the forms of ejection and
reconciliation of penitents, &c. The varying episcopal benedictions as
used in the Anglo-Saxon church were retained, but the numerous proper
prefaces were discarded, the number being reduced to ten.

Besides the famous and far-spreading Use of Sarum, other Uses, more
local and less known, grew up in various English dioceses. In virtue of
a recognized diocesan independence, bishops were able to regulate or
alter their ritual, and to add special masses or commemorations for use
within the limits of their jurisdiction. The better known and the more
distinctive of these Uses were those of York and Hereford, but we also
find traces of or allusions to the Uses of Bangor, Lichfield, Lincoln,
Ripon, St Asaph, St Paul's, Wells and Winchester.

  _Service-books._--The Eucharistie service was contained in the volume
  called the Missal (_q.v_.), as the ordinary choir offices were
  contained in the volume known as the Breviary (_q.v_.). But besides
  these two volumes there were a large number of other service-books. Mr
  W. Maskell has enumerated and described ninety-one such volumes
  employed by the Western Church only. It must be understood, however,
  that many of these ninety-one names are synonyms (_Mon. Rit. Eccles.
  Anglic_. 1882, vol. i. p. ccxxx.). The list might be increased, but it
  will be possible here only to name and briefly describe a few of the
  more important of them. (1) The _Agenda_ is the same as the Manual,
  for which see below. (2) The _Antiphonary_ contained the antiphons or
  anthems, sung at the canonical hours, and certain other minor parts of
  the service. (3) The _Benedictional_ contained those triple episcopal
  benedictions previously described as used on Sundays and on the chief
  festivals throughout the year. (4) The _Collectarium_ contained the
  collects for the season, together with a few other parts of the day
  offices. It was an inchoate breviary. (5) The _Epistolarium_ contained
  the epistles, and the _Evangelistarium_ the gospels for the year. (7)
  The _Gradual_ contained the introit, gradual, sequences, and the other
  portions of the communion service which were sung by the choir at nigh
  mass. (8) The _Legenda_ contained the lections which were read at
  matins and at other times, and may be taken as a generic term to
  include the _Homiliarium, Passional_ and other volumes. (9) The
  _Manual_ was the name usually employed in England to denote the
  _Ritual_, which contained the baptismal, matrimonial and other offices
  which might be performed by the parish priest. (10) The _Pontifical_
  contained the orders of consecration, ordination, and such other rites
  as could, ordinarily, only be performed by a bishop. To these we must
  add a book which was not strictly a church office book, but a handy
  book for the use of the laity, and which was in very popular use and
  often very highly embellished from the 14th to the 16th century, the
  _Book of Hours_, or _Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis_, also known as the
  _Prymer_ or _Primer_. It contained portions of the canonical hours,
  litanies, the penitential Psalms, and other devotions of a
  miscellaneous and private character. Detailed information about all
  these and other books is to be found in C. Wordsworth and H.
  Littlehales', _The Old Service Books of the English Church_.

  The Eastern Church too possessed and still possesses numerous and
  voluminous service-books, of which the chief are the following: (1)
  The _Euchologian_, containing the liturgy itself with the remaining
  sacramental offices bound up in the same volume. (2) The _Horologion_,
  containing the unvarying portion of the Breviary. (3) The _Menaea_,
  being equivalent to a complete Breviary. (4) The _Menologion_ or
  Martyrology. (5) The _Octoechus_ and (6) The _Paracletice_, containing
  Troparia and answering to the Western antiphonary. (7) The
  _Pentecostarion_, containing the services from Easter Day to All
  Saints' Sunday. (8) The _Triodion_, containing those from Septuagesima
  Sunday to Easter Even. (9) The _Typicum_ is a general book of rubrics
  corresponding to the Ordinale or the Pie of Western Christendom.

Period IV. _The Reformed Church._--The Anglican liturgy of Reformation
and post-Reformation times is described under the heading of PRAYER,
BOOK OF COMMON, but a brief description may be added here of the
liturgies of other reformed churches.

_The Liturgy of the Scottish Episcopal Church._--This liturgy in nearly
its present form was compiled by Scottish bishops in 1636 and
imposed--or, to speak more accurately, attempted to be imposed--upon the
Scottish people by the royal authority of Charles I. in 1637. The
prelates chiefly concerned in it were Spottiswood, bishop of Glasgow;
Maxwell, bishop of Ross; Wedderburn, bishop of Dunblane; and Forbes,
bishop of Edinburgh. Their work was approved and revised by certain
members of the English episcopate, especially Laud, archbishop of
Canterbury; Juxon, bishop of London; and Wren, bishop of Ely. This
liturgy has met with varied fortune and has passed through several
editions. The present Scottish office dates from 1764. It is now used as
an alternative form with the English communion office in the Scottish
Episcopal Church.

The general arrangements of its parts approximates more closely to that
of the first book of Edward VI. than to the present Anglican Book of
Common Prayer. Among its noteworthy features are (a) the retention in
its integrity and in its primitive position after the words of
institution of the invocation of the Holy Spirit. That invocation runs
thus: "And we most humbly beseech thee, O merciful Father, to hear us
and of thy almighty goodness vouchsafe to bless and sanctify with thy
word and Holy Spirit these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine
that they may become the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son"
(edit. 1764). This kind of petition thus placed is found in the Eastern
but not in the Roman or Anglican liturgies. (b) The reservation of the
sacrament is permitted, by traditional usage, for the purpose of
communicating the absent or the sick. (c) The minimum number of
communicants is fixed at one or two instead of three or four.

  For fuller information see Bishop J. Dowden, _The Annotated Scottish
  Communion Service_ (Edinburgh, 1884).

_American Liturgy._--The Prayer Book of "the Protestant Episcopal
Church" in America was adopted by the general convention of the American
church in 1789. It is substantially the same as the English Book of
Common Prayer, but among important variations we may name the following:
(a) The arrangement and wording of the order for Holy Communion rather
resembles that of the Scottish than that of the English liturgy,
especially in the position of the oblation and invocation immediately
after the words of institution. (b) The Magnificat, Nunc dimittis and
greater part of Benedictus were disused; but these were reinstated among
the changes made in the Prayer Book in 1892. (c) Ten selections of
Psalms are appointed for use as alternatives for the Psalms of the day.
(d) _Gloria in excelsis_ is allowed as a substitute for _Gloria Patri_
at the end of the Psalms at morning and evening prayer. In addition to
these there are many more both important and unimportant variations from
the English Book of Common Prayer.

_The Irish Prayer Book._--The Prayer Book in use in the Irish portion
of the United Church of England and Ireland was the Anglican Book of
Common Prayer, but after the disestablishment of the Irish church
several changes were introduced into it by a synod held at Dublin in
1870. These changes included such important points as: (a) the excision
of all lessons from the Apocrypha, (b) of the rubric ordering the
recitation of the Athanasian Creed, (c) of the rubric ordering the
vestments of the second year of Edward VI., (d) of the form of
absolution in the office for the visitation of the sick, (e) the
addition to the Catechism of a question and answer bringing out more
clearly the spiritual character of the real presence.

_The Presbyterian Church._--The Presbyterian churches of Scotland at
present possess no liturgy properly so called. Certain general rules for
the conduct of divine service are contained in the "Directory for the
Public Worship of God" agreed upon by the assembly of divines at
Westminster, with the assistance of commissioners from the Church of
Scotland, approved and established by an act of the general assembly,
and by an act of parliament, both in 1645. In 1554 John Knox had drawn
up an order of liturgy closely modelled on the Genevan pattern for the
use of the English congregation to which he was then ministering at
Frankfort. On his return to Scotland this form of liturgy was adopted by
an act of the general assembly in 1560 and became the established form
of worship in the Presbyterian church until the year 1645, when the
Directory of Public Worship took its place. Herein regulations are laid
down for the conduct of public worship, for the reading of Scripture and
for extempore prayer before and after the sermon, and in the
administration of the sacrament of baptism and the Lord's Supper, for
the solemnization of marriage, visitation of the sick and burial of the
dead, for the observance of days of public fasting and public
thanksgiving, together with a form of ordination and a directory for
family worship. In all these cases, though the general terms of the
prayer are frequently indicated, the wording of it is left to the
discretion of the minister, with these exceptions: At the act of baptism
this formula must be used--"I baptize thee in the name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost"; and for the Lord's Supper these
forms are suggested, but with liberty to the minister to use "other the
like, used by Christ or his apostles upon this occasion"--"According to
the holy institution, command, and example of our blessed Saviour, Jesus
Christ, I take this bread, and having given thanks, break it, and give
it unto you. Take ye, eat ye; this is the body of Christ which is broken
for you; do this in remembrance of him." And again "According to the
institution, command and example of our Lord Jesus Christ, I take this
cup and give it unto you; this cup is the New Testament in the blood of
Christ, which is shed for the remission of the sins of many; drink ye
all of it."

There is also an unvarying form of words directed to be used before the
minister by the man to the woman, and by the woman to the man in the
case of the solemnization of matrimony. The form of words on all other
occasions, including ordination, is left to the discretion of the
officiating minister or of the presbytery.

  _European Protestant Churches. The Calvinistic Churches._--Rather more
  of the liturgical element in the shape of a set form of words enters
  into the service of the French and German Calvinistic Protestants. The
  Sunday morning service as drawn up by Calvin was to open with a
  portion of Holy Scripture and the recitation of the ten commandments.
  Afterwards the minister, inviting the people to accompany him,
  proceeded to a confession of sins and supplication for grace. Then one
  of the Psalms of David was sung. Then came the sermon, prefaced by an
  extempore prayer and concluding with the Lord's Prayer, creed and
  benediction. The communion service began with an exhortation leading
  up to the apostles' creed; then followed a long exhortation, after
  which the bread and wine were distributed to the people, who advanced
  in reverence and order, while a Psalm was being sung, or a suitable
  passage of Scripture was being read. After all had communicated a set
  form of thanksgiving was said by the minister. Then the Song of Simeon
  was sung by the congregation, who were then dismissed with the
  blessing. This form of service has been modified in various ways from
  time to time, but it remains substantially the type of service in use
  among the reformed Calvinistic churches of Germany, Switzerland and
  France.

  _The Lutheran Church._--Luther was far more conservative than the rest
  of the Protestant reformers and his conservatism appeared nowhere more
  than in the service-books which he drew up for the use of the church
  which bears his name. In 1523 he published a treatise _Of the Order of
  the Service in the Congregation_ and in 1526 he published the _German
  Mass_. Except that the vernacular was substituted for the Latin
  language, the old framework and order of the Roman missal were closely
  followed, beginning with the Confiteor, Introit, Kyrie eleison, still
  always sung in Greek, Gloria in excelsis, &c. The text of this and
  other Lutheran services is given in _Agende für christliche Gemeinden
  des Lutherischen Bekenntnisses_ (Nördlingen, 1853). At the same time
  Luther was tolerant and expressed a hope that different portions of
  the Lutheran church would from time to time make such changes or
  adaptations in the order of service as might be found convenient. The
  Lutheran churches of northern Europe have not been slow to avail
  themselves of this advice and permission. Most of them have drawn up
  liturgies for themselves, sometimes following very closely, sometimes
  differing considerably from the original service composed by Luther
  himself. In 1822, on the union of the Lutheran and Reformed
  (Calvinistic) churches of Prussia, a new liturgy was published at
  Berlin. It is used in its entirety in the chapel royal, but great
  liberty as to its use was allowed to the parochical clergy, and
  considerable variations of text appear in the more recent editions of
  this service-book.

  The Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgians) and the Catholic
  Apostolic Church (Irvingites) and other Protestant bodies have drawn
  up liturgies for themselves, but they are hardly of sufficient
  historical importance to be described at length here.

  The Old Catholics, lastly, published a _Rituale_ in 1875 containing
  the occasional offices for baptism, matrimony, burial, &c., and a form
  for reception of Holy Communion, in the German language. This latter
  is for use in the otherwise unaltered service of the mass,
  corresponding in purpose to the order of Communion in English
  published the 8th of March 1548 and in use till Whitsunday 1549.
       (F. E. W.)



LITUUS, the cavalry trumpet of the Romans, said by Macrobius (_Saturn_.
lib. vi.) to have resembled the crooked staff borne by the Augurs. The
lituus consisted of a cylindrical tube 4 or 5 ft. long, having a narrow
bore, and terminating in a conical bell joint turned up in such a manner
as to give the instrument the outline of the letter "J." Unlike the
buccina, cornu and tuba, the other military service instruments of the
Romans, the lituus has not been traced during the middle ages, the
medieval instrument most nearly resembling it being the cromorne or
tournebout, which, however, had lateral holes and was played by means of
a reed mouthpiece. A lituus found in a Roman warrior's tomb at Cervetri
(Etruria) in 1827 is preserved in the Vatican. Victor Mahillon gives its
length as 1 m. 60, and its scale as in unison with that of the trumpet
in G (_Catalogue descriptif_, 1896, pp. 29-30).     (K. S.)



LIUDPRAND (LIUTPRAND, LUITPRAND) (c. 922-972), Italian historian and
author, bishop of Cremona, was born towards the beginning of the 10th
century, of a good Lombard family. In 931 he entered the service of King
Hugo of Italy as page; he afterwards rose to a high position at the
court of Hugo's successor Berengar, having become chancellor, and having
been sent (949) on an embassy to the Byzantine court. Falling into
disgrace with Berengar on his return, he attached himself to the emperor
Otto I., whom in 961 he accompanied into Italy, and by whom in 962 he
was made bishop of Cremona. He was frequently employed in missions to
the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto
(afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor
Nicephorus Phocas. His account of this embassy in the _Relatio de
Legatione Constantinopolitana_ is perhaps the most graphic and lively
piece of writing which has come down to us from the 10th century. The
detailed description of Constantinople and the Byzantine court is a
document of rare value--though highly coloured by his ill reception and
offended dignity. Whether he returned in 971 with the embassy to bring
Theophano or not is uncertain. Liudprand died in 972.

  He wrote (1) _Antapodoseos, seu rerum per Europam gestarum, Libri VI_,
  an historical narrative, relating to the events from 887 to 949,
  compiled with the object of avenging himself upon Berengar and Willa
  his queen; (2) _Historia Ottonis_, a work of greater impartiality and
  merit, unfortunately covering only the years from 960 to 964; and (3)
  the _Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana_ (968-969). All are to
  be found in the _Monum. Germ. Hist_. of Pertz, and in the _Rer. Ital.
  Script_. of Muratori; there is an edition by E. Dümmler (1877), and a
  partial translation into German, with an introduction by W.
  Wattenbach, is given in the second volume of the _Geschichtsschreiber
  der deutschen Vorzeit_ (1853). Compare Wattenbach, _Deutschlands
  Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter_. Three other works, entitled
  _Adversaria, Chronicon, 606-960_, and _Opusculum de vitis Romanorum
  pontificum_, are usually, but wrongly, assigned to Liudprand. An
  English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest
  Henderson's _Select Documents of the Middle Ages_ (Bohn series, 1896).
  A complete bibliography is in A. Potthast's _Bibl. Hist. Medii Aevi_
  (Berlin, 1896).



LIVE OAK, a city and the county-seat of Suwannee county, Florida,
U.S.A., 81 m. by rail W. of Jacksonville. Pop. (1890) 687; (1900) 1659;
(1905) 7200; (1910) 3450. Live Oak is served by the Atlantic Coast Line,
the Seaboard Air Line, the Live Oak, Perry & Gulf and the Florida
railways. There are extensive areas of pine lands in the vicinity, and
large quantities of sea-island cotton are produced in the county. Lumber
and naval stores are also important products. The first settlement on
the site of the city was made in 1865 by John Parshley, of
Massachusetts, who erected a large saw-mill here. Live Oak was first
incorporated as a town in 1874, and in 1903 was chartered as a city.



LIVER (O. Eng. _lifer_; cf. cognate forms, Dutch _lever_, Ger. _Leber_,
Swed. _lefver_, &c.; the O. H. Ger. forms are _libara, lipora_, &c.; the
Teut. word has been connected with Gr. [Greek: hêpar] and Lat. _jecur_),
in anatomy, a large reddish-brown digestive gland situated in the upper
and right part of the abdominal cavity. When hardened _in situ_ its
shape is that of a right-angled, triangular prism showing five
surfaces--superior, anterior, inferior, posterior and right lateral
which represents the base of the prism. It weighs about three pounds or
one-fortieth of the body Weight.

Although the liver is a fairly solid organ, it is plastic, and moulds
itself to even hollow neighbouring viscera rather than they to it. The
superior surface is in contact with the diaphragm, but has peritoneum
between (see COELOM AND SEROUS MEMBRANES). At its posterior margin the
peritoneum of the great sac is reflected on to the diaphragm to form the
anterior layer of the _coronary ligament_. Near the mid line of the
body, and at right angles to the last, another reflection, the
_falciform ligament_, runs forward, and the line of attachment of this
indicates the junction of the _right_ and _left lobes_ of the liver. The
anterior surface is in contact with the diaphragm and the anterior
abdominal wall. The attachment of the falciform ligament is continued
down it. The posterior surface is more complicated (see fig. 1);
starting from the right and working toward the left, a large triangular
area, uncovered by peritoneum and in direct contact with the diaphragm,
is seen. This is bounded on the left by the inferior vena cava, which is
sunk into a deep groove in the liver, and into the upper part of this
the _hepatic veins_ open. Just to the right of this and at the lower
part of the bare area is a triangular depression for the right
suprarenal body. To the left of the vena cava is the _Spigelian lobe_,
which lies in front of the bodies of the tenth and eleventh thoracic
vertebrae, the lesser sac of peritoneum, diaphragm and thoracic aorta
intervening. To the left of this is the fissure for the _ductus
venosus_, and to the left of this again, the left lobe, in which a broad
shallow groove for the oesophagus may usually be seen. Sometimes the
left lobe stretches as far as the left abdominal wall, but more often it
ends below the apex of the heart, which is 3½ in. to the left of the mid
line of the body. The relations of the lower surface can only be
understood if it is realized that it looks backward and to the left as
well as downward (see fig. 1). Again starting from the right side, two
impressions are seen; the anterior one is for the hepatic flexure of the
colon, and the posterior for the upper part of the right kidney. To the
left of the colic impression is a smaller one for the second part of the
duodenum. Next comes the _gall bladder_, a pear-shaped bag, the fundus
of which is in front and below, the neck behind and above. From the neck
passes the _cystic duct_, which is often twisted into the form of an S.
To the left of the gall bladder is the _quadrate lobe_, which is in
contact with the pylorus of the stomach. To the left of this is the
_left lobe_ of the liver, separated from the quadrate lobe by the
umbilical fissure in which lies the _round ligament_ of the liver, the
remains of the umbilical vein of the foetus. Sometimes this fissure is
partly turned into a tunnel by a bridge of liver substance known as the
_pons hepatis_. The under surface of the left lobe is concave for the
interior surface of the stomach (see ALIMENTARY CANAL: _Stomach
Chamber_), while a convexity, known as the _tuber omentale_, fits into
the lesser curvature of that organ. The posterior boundary of the
quadrate lobe is the _transverse fissure_, which is little more than an
inch long and more than half an inch wide. This fissure represents the
hilum of the liver, and contains the right and left hepatic ducts and
the right and left branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein,
together with nerves and lymphatics, the whole being enclosed in some
condensed subperitoneal tissue known as _Glisson's capsule_. Behind the
transverse fissure the lower end of the Spigelian lobe is seen as a knob
called the _tuber papillare_, and from the right of this a narrow bridge
runs forward and to the right to join the Spigelian lobe to the right
lobe and to shut off the transverse fissure from that for the vena cava.
This is the _caudate lobe_. The right surface of the liver is covered
with peritoneum and is in contact with the diaphragm, outside which are
the pleura and lower ribs. From its lower margin the _right lateral
ligament_ is reflected on to the diaphragm. A similar fold passes from
the tip of the left lobe as the _left lateral ligament_, and both these
are the lateral margins of the coronary ligament. Sometimes, especially
in women, a tongue-shaped projection downward of the right lobe is
found, known as _Riedel's lobe_; it is of clinical interest as it may be
mistaken for a tumour or floating kidney (see C. H. Leaf, _Proc. Anat.
Soc_., February 1899; _Journ. Anat. and Phys_. vol. 33, p. ix.). The
right and left _hepatic ducts_, while still in the transverse fissure,
unite into a single duct which joins the cystic duct from the gall
bladder at an acute angle. When these have united the duct is known as
the _common bile duct_, and runs down to the second part of the duodenum
(see ALIMENTARY CANAL).

[Illustration: From A. Birmingham Cunningham's _Text-book of Anatomy_.

FIG. 1.--The Liver from below and behind, showing the whole of the
visceral surface and the posterior area of the parietal surface. The
portal fissure has been slightly opened up to show the vessels passing
through it; the other fissures are represented in their natural
condition--closed. In this liver, which was hardened _in situ_, the
impressions of the sacculations of the colon are distinctly visible at
the colic impression. The round ligament and the remains of the ductus
venosus are hidden in the depths of their fissures.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Transverse section through the hepatic lobules.

  i, i, i, Interlobular veins ending in the intralobular capillaries.
  c, c, Central veins joined by the intralobular capillaries. At a, a
    the capillaries of one lobule communicate with those adjacent to it.]

  _Minute Structure of the Liver._--The liver is made up of an enormous
  number of _lobules_ of a conical form (see fig. 3). If the portal vein
  is followed from the transverse fissure, it will be seen to branch and
  rebranch until minute twigs called _interlobular veins_ (fig. 2, i)
  ramify around the lobules. From these _intralobular capillaries_ run
  toward the centre of the lobule, forming a network among the polygonal
  hepatic cells. On reaching the core of the conical lobule they are
  collected into a central or _intralobular vein_ (fig. 2, c) which
  unites with other similar ones to form a _sublobular vein_ (fig. 3,
  s). These eventually reach the hepatic radicles, and so the blood is
  conducted into the vena cava. In man the lobules are not distinctly
  separated one from the other, but in some animals, e.g. the pig,
  each one has a fibrous sheath derived from Glisson's capsule (fig. 3,
  ct.).

  _Embryology._--The liver first appears as an entodermal hollow
  longitudinal outgrowth from the duodenum into the ventral mesentery.
  The upper part of this forms the future liver, and grows up into the
  _septum transversum_ from which the central part of the diaphragm is
  formed (see DIAPHRAGM). From the cephalic part of this primary
  diverticulum solid rods of cells called the _hepatic cylinders_ grow
  out, and these branch again and again until a cellular network is
  formed surrounding and breaking up the umbilical and vitelline veins.
  The liver cells, therefore, are entodermal, but the supporting
  connective tissue mesodermal from the septum transversum. The lower
  (caudal) part of the furrow-like outgrowth remains hollow and forms
  the gall bladder. At first the liver is embedded in the septum
  transversum, but later the diaphragm and it are constricted off one
  from the other, and soon the liver becomes very large and fills the
  greater part of the abdomen. At birth it is proportionately much
  larger than in the adult, and forms one-eighteenth instead of
  one-fortieth of the body weight, the right and left lobes being nearly
  equal in size.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Vertical section through two hepatic lobules
  of a pig.

    c, c, Central veins receiving the intralobular capillaries.
    s, Sublobular vein.
    ct, Interlobular connective tissue forming the capsules of the
      lobules.
    i, i, Interlobular veins.]

  _Comparative Anatomy._--In the Acrania (Amphioxus) the liver is
  probably represented by a single ventral diverticulum from the
  anterior end of the intestine, which has a hepatic portal circulation
  and secretes digestive fluid. In all the Craniata a solid liver is
  developed. In the adult lamprey among the Cyclostomata the liver
  undergoes retrogression, and the bile ducts and gall bladder
  disappear, though they are present in the larval form (Ammocoetes). In
  fishes and amphibians the organ consists of right and left lobes, and
  a gall-bladder is present. The same description applies to the
  reptiles, but a curious network of cystic ducts is found in snakes and
  to a less extent in crocodiles. In the Varanidae (Monitors) the
  hepatic duct is also retiform (see F. E. Beddard, _Proc. Zool. Soc_.,
  1888, p. 105). In birds two lobes are also present, but in some of
  them, _e.g_. the pigeon, there is no gall-bladder.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Diagrammatic Plan of the Inferior Surface of a
  Multi-lobed Liver of a Mammal. The posterior or attached border is
  uppermost.

    u, Umbilical vein of the foetus, represented by the round ligament
      in the adult, lying in the umbilical fissure.
    dv, The ductus venosus.
    vc, The inferior vena cava.
    p, The vena portae entering the transverse fissure.
    llf, The left lateral fissure.
    rlf, The right lateral fissure.
    cf, The cystic fissure.
    ll, The left lateral lobe.
    lc, The left central lobe.
    rc, The right central lobe.
    rl, The right lateral lobe.
    s, The Spigelian lobe.
    c, The caudate lobe.
    g, The gall bladder.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Human Liver showing a reversion to the
  generalised mammalian type.]

  In mammals Sir William Flower pointed out that a generalized type of
  liver exists, from which that of any mammal may be derived by
  suppression or fusion of lobes. The accompanying diagram of Flower
  (fig. 4) represents an ideal mammalian liver. It will be seen that the
  umbilical fissure (u) divides the organ into right and left halves, as
  in the lower vertebrates, but that the ventral part of each half is
  divided into a central and lateral lobe. Passing from right to left
  there are therefore: right lateral (rl), right central (rc), left
  central (lc), and left lateral (ll) lobes. The gall-bladder (g), when
  it is present, is always situated on the caudal surface or in the
  substance of the right central lobe. The Spigelian (s) and caudate
  lobes (c) belong to the right half of the liver, the latter being
  usually a leaf-shaped lobe attached by its stalk to the Spigelian, and
  having its blade flattened between the right lateral lobe and the
  right kidney. The vena cava (vc) is always found to the right of the
  Spigelian lobe and dorsal to the stalk of the caudate. In tracing the
  lobulation of man's liver back to this generalized type, it is evident
  at once that his quadrate lobe does not correspond to any one
  generalized lobe, but is merely that part of the right central which
  lies between the gall bladder and the umbilical fissure. From a
  careful study of human variations (see A. Thomson, _Journ. Anat. and
  Phys_. vol. 33, p. 546) compared with an Anthropoid liver, such as
  that of the gorilla, depicted by W. H. L. Duckworth (_Morphology and
  Anthropology_, Cambridge, 1904, p. 98), it is fairly clear that the
  human liver is formed, not by a suppression of any of the lobes of the
  generalized type, but by a fusion of those lobes and obliteration of
  certain fissures. This fusion is, probably correctly, attributed by
  Keith to the effect of pressure following the assumption of the erect
  position (Keith, _Proc. Anat. Soc. of Gt. Britain, Journ. Anat. and
  Phys_. vol. 33, p. xii.). The accompanying diagram (fig. 5) shows an
  abnormal human liver in the Anatomical Department of St Thomas's
  Hospital which reproduces the generalized type. In its lobulation it
  is singularly like, in many details, that of the baboon (_Papio
  maimon_) figured by G. Ruge (_Morph. Jahrb_., Bd. 35, p. 197); see F.
  G. Parsons, _Proc. Anat. Soc_., Feb. 1904, _Journ. Anat. and Phys_.
  vol. 33, p. xxiii. Georg Ruge "Die äusseren Formverhältnisse der Leber
  bei den Primaten," (_Morph. Jahrb_., Bd. 29 and 35) gives a critical
  study of the primate liver, and among other things suggests the
  recognition of the Spigelian and caudate lobes as parts of a single
  lobe, for which he proposes the name of lobus venae cavae. This
  doubtless would be an advantage morphologically, though for human
  descriptive a natomy the present nomenclature is not likely to be
  altered.

  The gall-bladder is usually present in mammals, but is wanting in the
  odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla) and Procavia (Hyrax). In the
  giraffe it may be absent or present. The cetacea and a few rodents are
  also without it. In the otter the same curious network of bile ducts
  already recorded in the reptiles is seen (see P. H. Burne, _Proc.
  Anat. Soc., Journ. Anat. and Phys_. vol. 33, p. xi.).     (F. G. P.)

SURGERY OF LIVER AND GALL-BLADDER.--Exposed as it is in the upper part
of the abdomen, and being somewhat friable, the human liver is often
torn or ruptured by blows or kicks, and, the large blood-vessels being
thus laid open, fatal haemorrhage into the belly-cavity may take place.
The individual becomes faint, and the faintness keeps on increasing; and
there are pain and tenderness in the liver-region. The right thing to do
is to open the belly in the middle line, search for a wound in the liver
and treat it by deep sutures, or by plugging it with gauze.

_Cirrhosis of the Liver._--As the result of chronic irritation of the
liver increased supplies of blood pass to it, and if the irritation is
unduly prolonged inflammation is the result. The commonest causes of
this chronic hepatitis are alcoholism and syphilis. The new fibrous
tissue which is developed throughout the liver, as the result of the
chronic inflammation, causes general enlargement of the liver with,
perhaps, nausea, vomiting and jaundice. Later the new fibrous tissue
undergoes contraction and the liver becomes smaller than natural. Blood
then finds difficulty in passing through it, and, as a result, dropsy
occurs in the belly (ascites). This may be relieved by tapping the
cavity with a small hollow needle (Southey's trocar), or by passing into
it a large sharp-pointed tube. This relieves the dropsy, but it does not
cure the condition on which the dropsy depends. A surgical operation is
sometimes undertaken with success for enabling the engorged veins to
empty themselves into the blood-stream in a manner so as to avoid the
liver-route.

_Inflammation of the Liver_ (hepatitis) may also be caused by an attack
of micro-organisms which have reached it through the veins coming from
the large intestine, or through the main arteries. There are, of course,
as the result, pain and tenderness, and there is often jaundice. The
case should be treated by rest in bed, fomentations, calomel and saline
aperients. But when the hepatitis is of septic origin, suppuration is
likely to occur, the result being an hepatic abscess.

_Hepatic Abscess_ is especially common in persons from the East who have
recently undergone an attack of dysentery. In addition to the local
pain and tenderness, there is a high temperature accompanied with
shiverings or occasional rigors, the patient becoming daily more thin
and miserable. Sometimes the abscess declares itself by a bulging at the
surface, but if not an incision should be made through the belly-wall
over the most tender spot, and a direct examination of the surface of
the liver made. A bulging having been found, that part of the liver
which apparently overlies the abscess should be stitched up to the sides
of the opening made in belly-wall, and should then be explored by a
hollow needle. Pus being found, the abscess should be freely opened and
drained. It is inadvisable to explore for a suspected abscess with a
hollow needle without first opening the abdomen, as septic fluid might
thus be enabled to leak out, and infect the general peritoneal cavity.
If an hepatic abscess is injudiciously left to itself it may eventually
discharge into the chest, lungs or belly, or it may establish a
communication with a piece of intestine. The only safe way for an
abscess to evacuate itself is on to the surface of the body.

_Hydatic Cysts_ are often met with in the liver. They are due to a
peculiar development of the eggs of the tape-worm of the dog, which have
been received into the alimentary canal with infected water or uncooked
vegetables, such as watercress. The embryo of the taenia echinococcus
finds its way from the stomach or intestine into a vein passing to the
liver, and, settling itself in the liver, causes so much disturbance
there that a capsule of inflammatory material forms around it. Inside
this wall is the special covering of the embryo which shortly becomes
distended with clear hydatid fluid. The cyst should be treated like a
liver-abscess, by incision through the abdominal or thoracic wall, by
circumferential suturing and by exploration and drainage.

_Tumours of the Liver_ may be innocent or malignant. The most important
of the former is the _gumma_ of tertiary syphilis; this may steadily and
completely disappear under the influence of iodide of potassium. The
commonest form of malignant tumour is the result of the growth of
cancerous elements which have been brought to the liver by the veins
coming up from a primary focus of the large intestine. Active surgical
treatment of such a tumour is out of the question. Fortunately it is, as
a rule, painless.

_The Gall-bladder_ may be ruptured by external violence, and if bile
escapes from the rent in considerable quantities peritonitis will be set
up, whether the bile contains septic germs or not. If, on opening the
abdomen to find out what serious effects some severe injury has caused,
the gall-bladder be found torn, the rent may be sewn up, or, if thought
better, the gall-bladder may be removed. The peritoneal surfaces in the
region of the liver should then be wiped clean, and the abdominal wound
closed, except for the passage through it of a gauze drain.

Biliary concretions, known as _gall stones_, are apt to form in the
gall-bladder. They are composed of crystals of bile-fat, cholesterine.
Sometimes in the course of a _post-mortem_ examination a gall-bladder is
found packed full of gall-stones which during life had caused no
inconvenience and had given rise to no suspicion of their presence. In
other cases gall-stones set up irritation in the gall-bladder which runs
on to inflammation, and the gall-bladder being infected by septic germs
from the intestine (_bacilli coli_) an abscess forms.

_Abscess of the Gall-bladder_ gives rise to a painful, tender swelling
near the cartilage of the ninth rib of the right side. If the abscess is
allowed to take its course, adhesions may form around it and it may
burst into the intestine or on to the surface of the abdomen, a _biliary
fistula_ remaining. Abscess in the gall-bladder being suspected, an
incision should be made down to it, and, its covering having been
stitched to the abdominal wall, the gall-bladder should be opened and
drained. The presence of concretions in the gall-bladder may not only
lead to the formation of abscess but also to invasion of the
gall-bladder by cancer.

Stones in the gall-bladder should be removed by operation, as, if left,
there is a great risk of their trying to escape with the bile into the
intestine and thus causing a blockage of the common bile-duct, and
perhaps a fatal leakage of bile into the peritoneum through a
perforating ulcer of the duct. If before opening the gall-bladder the
surface is stitched to the deepest part of the abdominal wound, the
biliary fistula left as the result of the opening of the abscess will
close in due course.

"Biliary colic" is the name given to the distressing symptoms associated
with the passage of a stone through the narrow bile-duct. The individual
is doubled up with acute pains which, starting from the hepatic region,
spread through the abdomen and radiate to the right shoulder blade.
Inasmuch as the stone is blocking the duct, the bile is unable to flow
into the intestine; so, being absorbed by the blood-vessels, it gives
rise to jaundice. The distress is due to spasmodic muscular contraction,
and it comes on at intervals, each attack increasing the patient's
misery. He breaks out into profuse sweats and may vomit. If the stone
happily finds its way into the intestine the distress suddenly ceases.
In the meanwhile relief may be afforded by fomentations, and by morphia
or chloroform, but if no prospect of the stone escaping into the
intestine appears likely, the surgeon will be called upon to remove it
by an incision through the gall-bladder, or the bile-duct, or through
the intestine at the spot where it is trying to make its escape.
Sometimes a gall-stone which has found its way into the intestine is
large enough to block the bowel and give rise to intestinal obstruction
which demands abdominal section.

  A person who is of what used to be called a "biliary nature" should
  live sparingly and take plenty of exercise. He should avoid fat and
  rich food, butter, pastry and sauces, and should drink no beer or
  wine--unless it be some very light French wine or Moselle. He should
  keep his bowels regular, or even loose, taking every morning a dose of
  sulphate of soda in a glass of hot water. A course at Carlsbad, Vichy
  or Contrexéville, may be helpful. It is doubtful if drugs have any
  direct influence upon gall-stones, such as sulphate of soda, olive oil
  or oleate of soda. No reliance can be placed upon massage in producing
  the onward passage of a gall-stone from the gall-bladder towards the
  intestine. Indeed this treatment might be not only distressing but
  harmful.     (E. O.*)



LIVERMORE, MARY ASHTON [RICE] (1821-1905), American reformer, was born
in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 19th of December 1821. She studied at
the female seminary at Charlestown, Mass.; taught French and Latin
there, taught in a plantation school in southern Virginia; and for
three years conducted a school of her own in Duxbury, Mass. Upon
returning from Virginia she had joined the abolitionists, and she took
an active part in the Washingtonian temperance movement.[1] In 1845 she
married Daniel Parker Livermore (1819-1899), a Universalist clergyman.
In 1857 they removed to Chicago, Illinois, where she assisted her
husband in editing the religious weekly, _The New Covenant_ (1857-1869).
During the Civil War, as an associate member of the United States
Sanitary Commission, and as an agent of its North-western branch, she
organized many aid societies, contributed to the success of the
North-western Sanitary Fair in Chicago in 1863, and visited army posts
and hospitals. After the war she devoted herself to the promotion of
woman's suffrage and to temperance reform, founding in Chicago in 1869
_The Agitator_, which in 1870 was merged into the _Woman's Journal_
(Boston), of which she was an associate editor until 1872. She died in
Melrose, Mass. on the 23rd of May 1905. She had been president of the
Illinois, the Massachusetts and the American woman's suffrage
associations, the Massachusetts Woman's Christian Temperance Union and
the Woman's Congress, and a member of many other societies. She lectured
in the United States, England and Scotland, contributed to magazines and
wrote: _The Children's Army_ (1844), temperance stories; _Thirty Years
Too Late_ (1848), a temperance story; _A Mental Transformation_ (1848);
_Pen Pictures_ (1863), short stories; _What Shall We Do With Our
Daughters? and Other Lectures_ (1883); _My Story of the War_ (1888); and
_The Story of My Life_ (1897). With Frances E. Willard, she edited _A
Woman of the Century: Biographical Sketches of Leading American Women_
(1893).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This movement was started in 1840 by habitués of a Baltimore
    (Md.) tavern, who then founded the Washington Temperance Society
    (named in honour of George Washington). The movement spread rapidly
    in 1841-1843, but by the close of 1843 it had nearly spent its force.
    The members of the Society made a pledge not to drink spirituous or
    malt liquors, wine or cider. Women organized Martha Washington
    Societies as auxiliary organizations.



LIVERPOOL, EARLS OF. CHARLES JENKINSON, 1st earl of Liverpool
(1729-1808), English statesman, eldest son of Colonel Charles Jenkinson
(d. 1750) and grandson of Sir Robert Jenkinson, Bart., of Walcot,
Oxfordshire, was born at Winchester on the 16th of May 1729. The family
was descended from Anthony Jenkinson (d. 1611), sea-captain, merchant
and traveller, the first Englishman to penetrate into Central Asia.
Charles was educated at Charterhouse school and University College,
Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1752. In 1761 he entered parliament
as member for Cockermouth and was made under-secretary of state by Lord
Bute; he won the favour of George III., and when Bute retired Jenkinson
became the leader of the "king's friends" in the House of Commons. In
1763 George Grenville appointed him joint secretary to the treasury; in
1766, after a short retirement, he became a lord of the admiralty and
then a lord of the treasury in the Grafton administration; and from 1778
until the close of Lord North's ministry in 1782 he was
secretary-at-war. From 1786 to 1801 he was president of the board of
trade and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and he was popularly
regarded as enjoying the confidence of the king to a special degree. In
1772 Jenkinson became a privy councillor and vice-treasurer of Ireland,
and in 1775 he purchased the lucrative sinecure of clerk of the pells in
Ireland and became master of the mint. In 1786 he was created Baron
Hawkesbury, and ten years later earl of Liverpool. He died in London on
the 17th of December 1808. Liverpool was twice married: firstly to
Amelia (d. 1770), daughter of William Watts, governor of Fort William,
Bengal, and secondly to Catherine, daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshoff,
Bart., and widow of Sir Charles Cope, Bart.; he had a son by each
marriage. He wrote several political works, but except his _Treatise on
the Coins of the Realm_ (1805) these are without striking merits. They
are, _Dissertation on the establishment of a national and constitutional
force in England independent of a standing army_ (1756); _Discourse on
the conduct of the government of Great Britain respecting neutral
nations_ (1758, new ed., 1837); and _Collection of Treaties between
Great Britain and other Powers 1648-1783_ (1785). His _Coins of the
Realm_ was reprinted by the Bank of England in 1880.

His son, ROBERT BANKS JENKINSON, 2nd earl (1770-1828), was educated at
Charterhouse and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he had George Canning,
afterwards his close political associate, for a contemporary. In 1790 he
entered parliament as member for Appleby; he became master of the mint
in 1799 and foreign secretary in Addington's administration in 1801,
when he conducted the negotiations for the abortive treaty of Amiens. On
the accession of Pitt to power in 1804, he obtained the home office,
having in the previous year been elevated as Baron Hawkesbury to the
House of Lords, where he acted as leader of the government. He declined
the premiership on the death of Pitt in 1806, and remained out of office
until Portland became prime minister in 1807, when he again became
secretary of state for home affairs. In 1808 he succeeded his father as
earl of Liverpool. In the ministry of Spencer Perceval (1809-1812) he
was secretary for war and the colonies. After the assassination of
Perceval in May 1812 he became prime minister, and retained office till
compelled in February 1827 to resign by the illness (paralysis) which
terminated his life on the 4th of December 1828.

The political career of the 2nd Lord Liverpool was of a negative
character so far as legislation was concerned; but he held office in
years of great danger and depression, during which he "kept order among
his colleagues, composed their quarrels, and oiled the wheels to make it
possible for the machinery of government to work" (Spencer Walpole). The
energy of Castlereagh and Canning secured the success of the foreign
policy of his cabinet, but in his home policy he was always retrograde.
The introduction of the bill of pains and penalties against Queen
Caroline greatly increased his unpopularity, originated by the severe
measures of repression employed to quell the general distress, which had
been created by the excessive taxation which followed the Napoleonic
wars. Lord Liverpool was destitute of wide sympathies and of true
political insight, and his resignation of office was followed almost
immediately by the complete and permanent reversal of his domestic
policy. He was twice married but had no children, and he was succeeded
by his half-brother CHARLES CECIL COPE JENKINSON, 3rd earl (1784-1851),
who left three daughters. The baronetcy then passed to a cousin, and the
peerage became extinct. But in 1905 the earldom was revived in the
person of the 3rd earl's grandson, CECIL GEORGE SAVILE FOLJAMBE
(1846-1907), who had been a Liberal member of parliament from 1880 to
1892, and in 1893 was created Baron Hawkesbury. He was succeeded in 1907
by his son, Arthur (b. 1870).

  For the life of the 2nd earl see the anonymous _Memoirs of the Public
  Life and Administration of Liverpool_ (1827); C. D. Yonge, _Life and
  Administration of the 2nd Earl of Liverpool_ (1868); T. E. Kebbel,
  _History of Toryism_ (1886); and Sir S. Walpole, _History of England_,
  vol. ii. (1890).



LIVERPOOL, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and
seaport of Lancashire, England, 201 m. N.W. of London by rail, situated
on the right bank of the estuary of the Mersey, the centre of the city
being about 3 m. from the open sea. The form of the city is that of an
irregular semicircle, having the base line formed by the docks and quays
extending about 9 m. along the east bank of the estuary, which here runs
nearly north and south, and varies in breadth from 1 to 2 m. On the
north the city is partly bounded by the borough of Bootle, along the
shore of which the line of docks is continued. The area of the city is
16,619 acres exclusive of water area. The population at the census of
1901 was 684,958; the estimated population in 1908 was 753,203; the
birth-rate for 1907 was 31.7 and the death-rate 18.3; in 1908 the
rateable value was £4,679,520.

[Illustration: Liverpool Map.]

The city lies on a continuous slope varying in gradient, but in some
districts very steep. Exposed to the western sea breezes, with a dry
subsoil and excellent natural drainage, the site is naturally healthy.
The old borough, lying between the pool, now completely obliterated, and
the river, was a conglomeration of narrow alleys without any regard to
sanitary provisions; and during the 16th and 17th centuries it was
several times visited by plague. When the town expanded beyond its
original limits, and spread up the slopes beyond the pool, a better
state of things began to exist. The older parts of the town have at
successive periods been entirely taken down and renovated. The
commercial part of the city is remarkable for the number of palatial
piles of offices, built chiefly of stone, among which the banks and
insurance offices stand pre-eminent. The demand for cottages about the
beginning of the 19th century led to the construction of what are called
"courts," being narrow _culs de sac_, close packed, with no through
ventilation. This resulted in a high rate of mortality, to contend with
which enormous sums have been expended in sanitary reforms of various
kinds. The more modern cottages and blocks of artisan dwellings have
tended to reduce the rate of mortality.

_Parks._--The earliest public park, the Prince's Park, was laid out in
1843 by private enterprise, and is owned by trustees, but the reversion
has been acquired by the corporation. Sefton Park, the most extensive,
containing 269 acres, was opened in 1872. A large portion of the land
round the margin has been leased for the erection of villas. Wavertree,
Newsham, Sheil and Stanley Parks have also been constructed at the
public expense. Connected with Wavertree Park are the botanic gardens. A
palm house in Sefton Park was opened in 1896 and a conservatory in
Stanley Park in 1900. Since 1882 several of the city churchyards and
burial grounds and many open spaces have been laid out as gardens and
recreation grounds. A playground containing 108 acres in Wavertree was
presented to the city in 1895 by an anonymous donor, and in 1902 the
grounds of a private residence outside the city boundaries containing 94
acres were acquired and are now known as Calderstones Park. In 1906
about 100 acres of land in Roby, also outside the boundaries, was
presented to the city. The total area of the parks and gardens of the
city, not including the two last named, is 881½ acres. A boulevard about
1 m. in length, planted with trees in the centre, leads to the entrance
of Prince's Park.

_Public Buildings._--Scarcely any of the public buildings date from an
earlier period than the 19th century. One of the earliest, and in many
respects the most interesting, is the town-hall in Castle Street. This
was erected from the designs of John Wood of Bath, and was opened in
1754. The building has since undergone considerable alterations and
extensions, but the main features remain. It is a rectangular stone
building in the Corinthian style, with an advanced portico added to the
original building in 1811, and crowned with a lofty dome surmounted by a
seated statue of Britannia, added in 1802. The interior was destroyed by
fire in 1795, and was entirely remodelled in the restoration. In 1900
considerable alterations in the internal structure were made, and the
council chamber extended so as to afford accommodation for the enlarged
council. It contains a splendid suite of apartments, including a
ball-room approached by a noble staircase. The building is occupied by
the mayor as the municipal mansion house. A range of municipal offices
was erected in Dale Street in 1860. The building is in the Palladian
style, with a dominating tower and square pyramidal spire.

The crowning architectural feature of Liverpool is St George's Hall,
completed in 1854. The original intention was to erect a hall suited for
the triennial music festivals which had been held in the town. About the
same time the corporation proposed to erect law-courts for the assizes,
which had been transferred to Liverpool and Manchester. In the
competitive designs, the first prize was gained in both cases by Harvey
Lonsdale Elmes. He was employed to combine the two objects in a new
design, of which the present building is the outcome. It is fortunate in
its situation, occupying the most central position in the town, and
surrounded by an area sufficiently extensive to exhibit its proportions,
an advantage which was accentuated in 1898 by the removal of St John's
church, which previously prevented an uninterrupted view of the west
side. The plan is simple. The centre is occupied by the great hall, 169
ft. in length, and, with the galleries, 87 ft. wide and 74 ft. high,
covered with a solid vault in masonry. Attached to each end, and opening
therefrom, are the law-courts. A corridor runs round the hall and the
courts, communicating with the various accessory rooms. Externally the
east front is faced with a fine portico of sixteen Corinthian columns
about 60 ft. in height. An advanced portico of similar columns fronts
the south end crowned with a pediment filled with sculpture. The style
is Roman, but the refinement of the details is suggestive of the best
period of Grecian art. The great hall is finished with polished granite
columns, marble balustrades and pavements, polished brass doors with
foliated tracery. The fine organ was built by Messrs Willis of London,
from the specification of Dr Samuel Wesley. Elmes having died in 1847
during the progress of the work, the building was completed by C. R.
Cockerell, R.A.

Next to the public buildings belonging to the city, the most important
is the exchange, forming three sides of a quadrangle on the north side
of the town-hall. The town-hall was originally built to combine a
mercantile exchange with municipal offices, but the merchants preferred
to meet in the open street adjoining. This, with other circumstances,
led to the erection of a new exchange, a building of considerable merit,
which was begun in 1803 and opened in 1808. It had scarcely been in use
for more than fifty years when it was found that the wants of commerce
had outstripped the accommodation, and the structure was taken down to
make room for the present building.

The revenue buildings, begun in 1828 on the site of the original
Liverpool dock, formerly combined the customs, inland revenue,
post-office and dock board departments but are now only used by the two
first named. It is a heavy structure, with three advanced porticoes in
the Ilyssus Ionic style. Near by stands the sailors' home, a large
building in the Elizabethan style. The Philharmonic Hall in Hope Street,
with not much pretension externally, is one of the finest music rooms in
the kingdom; it accommodates an audience of about 2500.

The group of buildings forming the county sessions house, the free
public library, museum, central technical school and gallery of art are
finely situated on the slope to the north of St George's Hall. The
library and gallery of art are separate buildings, connected by the
circular reading-room in the middle. The latter possesses some features
in construction worthy of note, having a circular floor 100 ft. in
diameter without columns or any intermediate support, and a lecture-room
underneath, amphitheatrical in form, with grades or benches hewn out of
the solid rock. In 1884 the county sessions house just mentioned,
adjoining the art gallery was opened for public business. In 1899 new
post-office buildings in Victoria Street were completed. In 1907 two
important additions were made to the buildings of Liverpool, the new
offices of the dock board, built on the site of a portion of the Old
George's dock, and the new cotton exchange in Oldhall street. The fine
mass of buildings which constitute the university and the Royal
Infirmary, lying between Brownlow Hill and Pembroke Place, both groups
designed by Alfred Waterhouse, was begun in 1885.

Liverpool cathedral, intended when completed to be the largest in the
country, from designs by G. F. Bodley and G. Gilbert Scott, was begun in
1904, when the foundation stone was laid by King Edward VII. The
foundations were completed in 1906 and the superstructure begun. The
foundation of the chapter-house was laid in that year by the duke of
Connaught, and work was then begun on the Lady chapel, the vestries and
the choir.

  _Railways._--There are three terminal passenger stations in Liverpool,
  the London & North Western at Lime Street, the Lancashire & Yorkshire
  at Exchange and the combined station of the Midland, Great Northern &
  Great Central at Central. By the Mersey tunnel (opened in 1886)
  connexion is made with the Wirral railway, the Great Central, the
  Great Western and the London & North Western, on the Cheshire side of
  the river. The Liverpool electric overhead railway running along the
  line of docks from Seaforth to Dingle was opened in 1893, and in 1905
  a junction was made with the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway by which
  through passenger traffic between Southport and the Dingle has been
  established. In 1895 the Riverside station at the Prince's dock was
  completed, giving direct access from the landing stage to the London
  and North Western system.

  _Water Supply._--The original supply of water was from wells in the
  sandstone rock, but in 1847 an act was passed, under which extensive
  works were constructed at Rivington, about 25 m. distant, and a much
  larger supply was obtained. The vast increase of population led to
  further requirements, and in 1880 another act gave power to impound
  the waters of the Vyrnwy, one of the affluents of the Severn. These
  works were completed in 1892, a temporary supply having been obtained
  a year earlier. The corporation had also, however, obtained power to
  impound the waters of the Conwy and Marchnant rivers, and to bring
  them into Lake Vyrnwy, the main reservoir, by means of tunnels. This
  work was completed and opened by the prince of Wales (George V.) in
  March 1910.

  _Tramways._--The corporation in 1896 purchased the property, rights,
  powers and privileges of the Liverpool Electric Supply Company, and in
  the following year the undertaking of the Liverpool Tramway Company,
  which they formally took over in the autumn of the same year. Since
  that date a large and extended system of electric tramways has been
  laid down, which has led to a very remarkable increase in the receipts
  and the number of passengers carried.

  _Administration of Justice._--The city has quarter-sessions for
  criminal cases, presided over by the recorder, and held eight times in
  the year. At least two police courts sit daily, and more if required.
  One is presided over by the stipendiary magistrate and the others by
  the lay magistrates and the coroner. The court of passage is a very
  ancient institution, possibly dating from the foundation of the
  borough by King John, and intended for cases arising out of the
  imports and exports passing through the town. Its jurisdiction has
  been confirmed and settled by parliament and it is competent to try
  civil cases arising within the city to any amount. The mayor is
  _ex-officio_ the judge, but the presiding judge is an assessor
  appointed by the crown and paid by the corporation. The court sits
  about five times a year. There is a Liverpool district registry of the
  chancery of the County Palatine of Lancaster which has concurrent
  jurisdiction with the high court (chancery division) within the
  hundred of West Derby. The vice-chancellor holds sittings in
  Liverpool. There is a Liverpool district registry of the high court of
  justice with common law, chancery, probate and admiralty jurisdiction,
  under two district registrars. The Liverpool county court has the
  usual limited jurisdiction over a wide local area, together with
  bankruptcy jurisdiction over the county court districts of St Helens,
  Widnes, Ormskirk and Southport, and admiralty jurisdiction over the
  same districts with the addition of Birkenhead, Chester, Runcorn and
  Warrington. There are two judges attached to the court.

  _Ecclesiastical._--The see of Liverpool was created in 1880 under the
  act of 1879, by the authority of the ecclesiastical commissioners, an
  endowment fund of about £100,000 having been subscribed for the
  purpose. The parish, which was separated from Walton-on-the-Hill in
  1699, contained two churches, St Nicholas, the ancient chapel, and St
  Peter's, then built. There were two rectors, the living being held in
  medieties. Of recent years changes have been sanctioned by parliament.
  The living is now held by a single incumbent, and a large number of
  the churches which have since been built have been formed into
  parishes by the ecclesiastical commissioners. St Peter's has been
  constituted the pro-cathedral, pending the erection of the cathedral.
  Besides the two original parish churches, there are 103 others
  belonging to the establishment. The Roman Catholics form a very
  numerous and powerful body in the city, and it is estimated that from
  a third to a fourth of the entire population are Roman Catholics. A
  large part of these are Irish settlers or their descendants, but this
  district of Lancashire has always been a stronghold of Roman
  Catholicism, many of the landed gentry belonging to old Roman Catholic
  families.

  _Charities._--The earliest charitable foundation is the Blue Coat
  hospital, established in 1708, for orphans and fatherless children
  born within the borough. The original building, opened in 1718, is a
  quaint and characteristic specimen of the architecture of the period.
  It now maintains two hundred and fifty boys and one hundred girls. In
  1906 the school was removed to new buildings at Wavertree. There is an
  orphan asylum, established in 1840, for boys, girls and infants, and a
  seamen's orphan asylum, begun in 1869, for boys and girls. The Roman
  Catholics have similar establishments. The Liverpool dispensaries
  founded in 1778 were among the pioneers of medical charity. The Royal
  Infirmary (opened in 1749) had a school of medicine attached, which
  has been very successful, and is now merged in the university. The
  sailors' home, opened in 1852, designed to provide board, lodging and
  medical attendance at a moderate charge for the seamen frequenting the
  port, is one of Liverpool's best-known charities. The David Lewis
  Workmen's Hostel is an effort to solve the difficulty of providing
  accommodation for unmarried men of the artizan class.

  _Literature, Art and Science._--The free library, museum and gallery
  of arts, established and managed by the city council, was originated
  in 1850. The first library building was erected by Sir William Brown.
  The Derby museum, containing the collections of Edward, the 13th earl,
  was presented by his son. The Mayer museum of historical antiquities
  and art was contributed by Mr Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. Sir Andrew Walker
  (d. 1893) erected in 1877 the art gallery which bears his name. Large
  additions were made in 1884, the cost being again defrayed by Sir
  Andrew Walker. An annual exhibition of painting is held in the autumn
  and a permanent collection has been formed, which was augmented in
  1894 when the examples of early Italian art numbering altogether about
  180 pictures, collected at the beginning of the 19th century by
  William Roscoe, were deposited in the gallery. The Picton circular
  reading-room, and the rotunda lecture-room were built by the
  corporation and opened in 1879. Alterations in the museum were
  completed in 1902 by which its size was practically doubled. The
  literary and philosophical society was established in 1812. The Royal
  Institution, established mainly through the efforts of Roscoe in 1817,
  possessed a fine gallery of early art in the Walker Art Gallery, and
  is the centre of the literary institutions of the town.

  _Education._--Sunday schools were founded for poor children in 1784,
  as the result of a town's meeting. These were soon followed by
  day-schools supplied by the various denominations. The first were the
  Old Church schools in Moorfields (1789), the Unitarian schools in
  Mount Pleasant (1790) and Manesty Lane (1792) and the Wesleyan
  Brunswick school (1790). In 1826 the corporation founded two
  elementary schools, one of which, the North Corporation school, was
  erected in part substitution for the grammar school founded by John
  Crosse, rector of St Nicholas Fleshshambles, London, a native of
  Liverpool, in 1515, and carried on by the Corporation until 1815. From
  this date onward the number rapidly increased until the beginning of
  the School Board in 1870, and afterwards. Mention should be made of
  the training ship "Indefatigable" moored in the Mersey for the sons
  and orphans of sailors, and the reformatory institution at Heswall,
  Co. Chester, which has recently replaced the training ship "Akbar"
  formerly moored in the Mersey. Semi-private schools were founded by
  public subscription--the Royal Institution school (1819), the
  Liverpool Institute (1825) and the Liverpool College (1840). The first
  has ceased to exist. The Institute was a development of the Mechanics'
  Institute and was managed by a council of subscribers. It was divided
  into a high school and a commercial school. Under a scheme of the
  Board of Education under the Charitable Trusts Act this school,
  together with the Blackburne House high school for girls, became a
  public secondary school and was handed over to the corporation in
  1905. Liverpool College was formerly divided into three schools,
  upper, middle and lower, for different classes of the community. The
  middle and lower schools passed into the control of the corporation in
  1907. The Sefton Park elementary school and the Pupil Teachers'
  College in Clarence Street were transformed into municipal secondary
  schools for boys and girls in 1907; the corporation has also a
  secondary school for girls at Aigburth. There are several schools
  maintained by the Roman Catholics, two schools of the Girls' Public
  Day School Company and a large number of private schools. A cadet
  ship, the "Conway," for the training of boys intending to become
  officers in the mercantile marine, is moored in the Mersey. There are
  two training colleges for women, one undenominational, and the other
  conducted by the sisters of Notre Dame for Roman Catholic women. The
  central municipal technical school is in the Museum Buildings, and
  there are three branch technical schools. There are also a nautical
  college, a school of cookery and a school of art controlled by the
  Education Committee.

  Liverpool University, as University College, received its charter of
  incorporation in 1881, and in 1884 was admitted as a college of the
  Victoria University. In the same year the medical school of the Royal
  Infirmary became part of the University College. In 1900 a
  supplemental charter extended the powers of self-government and
  brought the college into closer relations with the authorities of the
  city and with local institutions by providing for their fuller
  representation on the court of governors. In 1903 the charter of
  incorporation of the university of Liverpool was received, thus
  constituting it an independent university. The university is governed
  by the king as visitor, by a chancellor, two pro-chancellors, a
  vice-chancellor and a treasurer, by a court of over 300 members
  representing donors and public bodies, a council, senate, faculties
  and convocation. The fine group of buildings is situated on Brownlow
  Hill.

  _Trade and Commerce._--In 1800 the tonnage of ships entering the port
  was 490,060; in 1908 it reached 17,111,814 tons. In 1800 4746 vessels
  entered, averaging 94 tons; in 1908 there were 25,739, averaging 665
  tons. The commerce of Liverpool extends to every part of the world,
  but probably the intercourse with North America stands pre-eminent,
  there being lines of steamers to New York, Philadelphia, Boston,
  Baltimore, Galveston, New Orleans and the Canadian ports. Cotton is
  the great staple import. Grain comes next, American (North and South)
  and Australian wheat and oats occupying a large proportion of the
  market. An enormous trade in American provisions, including live
  cattle, is carried on. Tobacco has always been a leading article of
  import into Liverpool, along with the sugar and rum from the West
  Indies. Timber forms an important part of the imports, the stacking
  yards extending for miles along the northern docks. In regard to
  exports, Liverpool possesses decided advantages; lying so near the
  great manufacturing districts of Lancashire and the West Riding of
  Yorkshire, this port is the natural channel of transmission for their
  goods, although the Manchester ship canal diverts a certain proportion
  of the traffic, while coal and salt are also largely exported.

  _Manufactures._--The manufactures of Liverpool are not extensive.
  Attempts have been repeatedly made to establish cotton mills in and
  near the city, but have resulted in failure. Engineering works,
  especially connected with marine navigation, have grown up on a large
  scale. Shipbuilding, in the early part of the 19th century, was active
  and prosperous, but has practically ceased. During the latter half of
  the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, pottery and china
  manufacture flourished in Liverpool. John Sadler, a Liverpool
  manufacturer, was the inventor of printing on pottery, and during the
  early period of Josiah Wedgwood's career all his goods which required
  printing had to be sent to Liverpool. A large establishment, called
  the Herculaneum Pottery, was founded in a suburb on the bank of the
  Mersey, but the trade has long disappeared. Litherland, the inventor
  of the lever watch, was a Liverpool manufacturer, and Liverpool-made
  watches have always been held in high estimation. There are several
  extensive sugar refineries and corn mills. The confectionery trade has
  developed during recent years, several large works having been built,
  induced by the prospect of obtaining cheap sugar directly from the
  Liverpool quays. The cutting, blending and preparing of crude tobacco
  have led to the erection of factories employing some thousands of
  hands. There are also large mills for oil-pressing and making
  cattle-cake.

_Docks._--The docks of the port of Liverpool on both sides of the Mersey
are owned and managed by the same public trust, the Mersey Docks and
Harbour Board. On the Liverpool side they extend along the margin of the
estuary 6½ m., of which 1¼ m. is in the borough of Bootle. The
Birkenhead docks have not such a frontage, but they extend a long way
backward. The water area of the Liverpool docks and basins is 418 acres,
with a lineal quayage of 27 m. The Birkenhead docks, including the great
float of 120 acres, contain a water area of 165 acres, with a lineal
quayage of 9½ m. The system of enclosed docks was begun by the
corporation in 1709. They constituted from the first a public trust, the
corporation never having derived any direct revenue from them, though
the common council of the borough were the trustees, and in the first
instance formed the committee of management. Gradually the payers of
dock rates on ships and goods acquired influence, and were introduced
into the governing body, and ultimately, by an act of 1857, the
corporation was superseded. The management is vested in the Mersey Docks
and Harbour Board, consisting of twenty-eight members, four of whom are
nominated by the Mersey Conservancy commissioners, who consist of the
first lord of the Admiralty, the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster
and the president of the Board of Trade, and the rest elected by the
payers of rates on ships and goods, of whom a register is kept and
annually revised. The revenue is derived from tonnage rates on ships,
dock rates on goods, town dues on goods, with various minor sources of
income.

Down to 1843 the docks were confined to the Liverpool side of the
Mersey. Several attempts made to establish docks in Cheshire had been
frustrated by the Liverpool corporation, who bought up the land and kept
it in their own hands. In 1843, however, a scheme for docks in
Birkenhead was carried through which ultimately proved unsuccessful, and
the enterprise was acquired in 1855 by Liverpool. The Birkenhead docks
were for many years only partially used, but are now an important
centre for corn-milling, the importation of foreign cattle and export
trade to the East. In addition to the wet docks, there are in Liverpool
fourteen graving docks and three in Birkenhead, besides a gridiron on
the Liverpool side.

The first portion of the great landing stage, known as the Georges'
stage, was constructed in 1847, from the plans of Mr (afterwards Sir)
William Cubitt, F.R.S. This was 500 ft. long. In 1857 the Prince's
stage, 1000 ft. long, was built to the north of the Georges' stage and
distant from it 500 ft. In 1874 the intervening space was filled up and
the Georges' stage reconstructed. The fabric had just been completed,
and was waiting to be inaugurated, when on the 28th of July 1874 it was
destroyed by fire. It was again constructed with improvements. In 1896
it was farther extended to the north, and its length is now 2478 ft. and
its breadth 80 ft. It is supported on floating pontoons about 200 in
number, connected with the river wall by eight bridges, besides a
floating bridge for heavy traffic 550 ft. in length and 35 ft. in width.
The southern half is devoted to the traffic of the Mersey ferries, of
which there are seven--New Brighton, Egremont, Seacombe, Birkenhead,
Rock Ferry, New Ferry and Eastham. The northern half is used by
ocean-going steamers and their tenders. The warehouses for storing
produce form a prominent feature in the commercial part of the city.
Down to 1841 these were entirely in private hands, distributed as chance
might direct, but in that year a determined effort was made to construct
docks with warehouses on the margin of the quays. This met with
considerable opposition from those interested, and led to a municipal
revolution, but the project was ultimately carried out in the
construction of the Albert dock and warehouses, which were opened by
Prince Albert in 1845. For general produce these warehouses are falling
somewhat into disuse, but grain warehouses have been constructed by the
dock board at Liverpool and Birkenhead, with machinery for discharging,
elevating, distributing, drying and delivering. Warehouses for the
storage of tobacco and wool have also been built by the board. The
Stanley tobacco warehouse is the largest of its kind in the world, the
area of its fourteen floors being some 36 acres.

  Dredging operations at the bar of the Queen's channel, in the channel
  itself and at the landing stage enables the largest ocean liners to
  enter the river and approach the stage at practically all states of
  the tide. The dredging at the bar was begun as an experiment in
  September 1890 by two of the board's ordinary hopper barges of 500
  tons capacity each fitted with centrifugal pumps. The result was
  favourable, and larger vessels have been introduced. Before dredging
  was begun the depth of water at dead low water of spring tides on the
  bar was only 11 ft.; now there is about 28 ft. under the same
  conditions. The space over which dredging has been carried on at the
  bar measures about 7000 ft. by 1250 ft., the latter being the average
  width of the buoyed cut or channel through the bar. Dredging has also
  taken place on shoals and projections of sand-banks in the main sea
  channels.

_Municipality._--Under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the boundaries
of the original borough were extended by the annexation of portions of
the surrounding district, while further additions were made in 1895,
1902 and 1905. The city is divided into thirty-five wards with 103
councillors and 34 aldermen. In 1893 the title of mayor was raised to
that of lord mayor. In 1885 the number of members of parliament was
increased to nine by the creation of six new wards. The corporation of
Liverpool has possessed from a very early period considerable landed
property, the first grant having been made by Thomas, earl of Lancaster,
in 1309. This land was originally of value only as a source of supply of
turf for firing, but in modern times its capacity as building land has
been a fruitful source of profit to the town. A large proportion of the
southern district is held in freehold by the corporation and leased to
tenants for terms of seventy-five years, renewable from time to time on
a fixed scale of fines. There was formerly another source of income now
cut off. The fee farm rents and town dues originally belonging to the
crown were purchased from the Molyneux family in 1672 on a long lease,
and subsequently in 1777 converted into a perpetuity. With the growth of
the commerce of the port these dues enormously increased, and became a
cause of great complaint by the shipping interest. In 1856 a bill was
introduced into parliament, and passed, by which the town dues were
transferred to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board on payment of
£1,500,000, which was applied in part to the liquidation of the bonded
debt of the corporation, amounting to £1,150,000.

_History._--During the Norse irruption of the 8th century colonies of
Norsemen settled on both sides of the Mersey, as is indicated by some of
the place-names. After the Conquest, the site of Liverpool formed part
of the fief (inter Ripam et Mersham) granted by the Conqueror to Roger
de Poictou, one of the great family of Montgomery. Although Liverpool is
not named in Domesday it is believed to have been one of the six
berewicks dependent on the manor of West Derby therein mentioned. After
various forfeitures and regrants from the crown, it was handed over by
Henry II. to his falconer Warine. In a deed executed by King John, then
earl of Mortain, about 1191, confirming the grant of this with other
manors to Henry Fitzwarine, son of the former grantee, the name of
Liverpool first occurs. Probably its most plausible derivation is from
the Norse _Hlithar-pollr_, "the pool of the slopes," the pool or inlet
at the mouth of which the village grew up being surrounded by gently
rising slopes. Another possible derivation is from the Prov. E. _lever_,
the yellow flag or rush, A.S. _laefer_.

After the partial conquest of Ireland by Strongbow, earl of Pembroke,
under Henry II., the principal ports of communication were Bristol for
the south and Chester for the north. The gradual silting up of the river
Dee soon so obstructed the navigation as to render Chester unsuitable. A
quay was then constructed at Shotwick, about 8 m. below Chester, with a
castle to protect it from the incursions of the neighbouring Welsh; but
a better site was sought and soon found. Into the tidal waters of the
Mersey a small stream, fed by a peat moss on the elevated land to the
eastward, ran from north-east to south-west, forming at its mouth an
open pool or sea lake, of which many existed on both sides of the river.
The triangular piece of land thus separated formed a promontory of red
sandstone rock, rising in the centre about 50 ft. above the sea-level,
sloping on three sides to the water. The pool was admirably adapted as a
harbour for the vessels of that period, being well protected, and the
tide rising from 15 to 21 ft. King John repurchased the manor from Henry
Fitzwarine, giving him other lands in exchange. Here he founded a
borough, and by letters patent dated at Winchester, 28th of August 1207,
invited his subjects to take up burgages.

From the patent rolls and the sheriff's accounts it appears that
considerable use was made of Liverpool in the 13th century for shipping
stores and reinforcements to Ireland and Wales.

In 1229 a charter was granted by Henry III., authorizing the formation
of a merchants' gild, with hanse and other liberties and free customs,
with freedom from toll throughout the kingdom. Charters were
subsequently granted by successive monarchs down to the reign of William
and Mary, which last was the governing charter to the date of the
Municipal Reform Act (1835). In 1880 when the diocese of Liverpool was
created, the borough was transformed into a city by royal charter.

The crown revenues from the burgage rents and the royal customs were
leased in fee-farm from time to time, sometimes to the corporation, at
other times to private persons. The first lease was from Henry III., in
1229, at £10 per annum. In the same year the borough, with all its
appurtenances, was bestowed with other lands on Ranulf, earl of Chester,
from whom it passed to his brother-in-law William de Ferrers, earl of
Derby, who seems to have built Liverpool castle between 1232 and 1237.
His grandson, Robert de Ferrers, was implicated in the rising of Simon
de Montfort and his lands were confiscated in 1266 when Liverpool passed
into the hands of Edmund, earl of Lancaster. Ultimately Liverpool again
became the property of the crown, when Henry IV. inherited it from his
father John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. In 1628 Charles I., in great
straits for means which were refused by parliament, offered for sale
about a thousand manors, among which Liverpool was included. The portion
containing Liverpool was purchased by certain merchants of London, who,
in 1635, reconveyed the crown rights, including the fee-farm rent of
£14, 6s. 8d., to Sir Richard Molyneux, then recently created Viscount
Molyneux of Maryborough, for the sum of £450. In 1672 all these rights
and interests were acquired by the corporation.

Apart from the national objects for which Liverpool was founded, its
trade developed slowly. From £10 per annum, in the beginning of the 13th
century, the crown revenues had increased towards the end of the 14th
century, to £38; but then they underwent a decline. The black death
passed over Liverpool about 1360, and carried off a large part of the
population. The Wars of the Roses in the 15th century unsettled the
north-western districts and retarded progress for at least a century.
The crown revenues diminished from £38 to less than half that sum, and
were finally leased at £14, 6s. 8d., at which they continued until the
sale by Charles I. It is, however, not safe to conclude that the reduced
fee-farm rent represents an equivalent decline in prosperity; the
privileges conferred by the various leases differed widely and may
account for much of the apparent discrepancy.

Liverpool sent no representatives to Simon de Montfort's parliament in
1264, but to the first royal parliament, summoned in 1295, the borough
sent two members, and again in 1307. The writs of summons were then
suspended for two centuries and a half. In 1547 Liverpool resumed the
privilege of returning members. In 1588 the borough was represented by
Francis Bacon, the philosopher and statesman. During the Civil War the
town was fortified and garrisoned by the parliament. It sustained three
sieges, and in 1644 was escaladed and taken by Prince Rupert with
considerable slaughter.

The true rise of the commerce of Liverpool dates from the Restoration.
Down to that period its population had been either stationary or
retrogressive, probably never exceeding about 1000. Its trade was
chiefly with Ireland, France and Spain, exporting fish and wool to the
continent, and importing wines, iron and other commodities. The rise of
the manufacturing industry of south Lancashire, and the opening of the
American and West Indian trade, gave the first impulse to the progress
which has since continued. By the end of the century the population had
increased to 5000. In 1699 the borough was constituted a parish distinct
from Walton, to which it had previously appertained. In 1709, the small
existing harbour being found insufficient to accommodate the shipping,
several schemes were propounded for its enlargement, which resulted in
the construction of a wet dock closed with flood-gates impounding the
water, so as to keep the vessels floating during the recess of the tide.
This dock was the first of its kind. The name of the engineer was Thomas
Steers.

About this date the merchants of Liverpool entered upon the slave trade,
into which they were led by their connexion with the West Indies. In
1709 a single vessel of 30 tons burden made a venture from Liverpool and
carried fifteen slaves across the Atlantic. In 1730, encouraged by
parliament, Liverpool went heartily into the new trade. In 1751,
fifty-three ships sailed from Liverpool for Africa, of 5334 tons in the
aggregate. The ships sailed first to the west coast of Africa, where
they shipped the slaves, and thence to the West India Islands, where the
slaves were sold and the proceeds brought home in cargoes of sugar and
rum. In 1765 the number of Liverpool slavers had increased to
eighty-six, carrying 24,200 slaves. By the end of the century
five-sixths of the African trade centred in Liverpool. Just before its
abolition in 1807 the number of Liverpool ships engaged in the traffic
was 185, carrying 49,213 slaves in the year.

Another branch of maritime enterprise which attracted the attention of
the merchants of Liverpool was privateering, which, during the latter
half of the 18th century, was a favourite investment. After the outbreak
of the Seven Years' War with France and Spain, in 1756, the commerce of
Liverpool suffered severely, the French having overrun the narrow seas
with privateers, and the premiums for insurance against sea risks rose
to an amount almost prohibitive. The Liverpool merchants took a lesson
from the enemy, and armed and sent out their ships as privateers. Some
of the early expeditions proving very successful, almost the whole
community rushed into privateering, with results of a very chequered
character. When the War of Independence broke out in 1775 American
privateers swarmed about the West India Islands, and crossing the
Atlantic intercepted British commerce in the narrow seas. The Liverpool
merchants again turned their attention to retaliation. Between August
1778 and April 1779, 120 privateers were fitted out in Liverpool,
carrying 1986 guns and 8745 men.

  See W. Enfield, _Hist. of Leverpool_ (1773); J. Aikin, _Forty Miles
  round Manchester_ (1795); T. Troughton, _Hist. of Liverpool_ (1810);
  M. Gregson, _Portfolio of Fragments relating to Hist. of Lancashire_
  (1817); H. Smithers, _Liverpool, its Commerce_, &c. (1825); R. Syers,
  _Hist. of Everton_ (1830); E. Baines, _Hist. of County Palatine of
  Lancaster_, vol. iv. (1836); T. Baines, _Hist. of Commerce and Town of
  Liverpool_ (1852); R. Brooke, _Liverpool during the last quarter of
  18th Century_ (1853); J. A. Picton, _Memorials of Liverpool_ (2 vols.,
  1873); Ramsay Muir and Edith M. Platt, _A History of Municipal
  Government in Liverpool_ (1906); Ramsay Muir, _A History of Liverpool_
  (1907).     (W. F. I.)



LIVERSEDGE, an urban district in the Spen Valley parliamentary division
of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 7 m. S.S.E. of Bradford, on
the Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Northern, and London & North Western
railways. Pop. (1901) 13,980. The industries are chiefly the manufacture
of woollen goods, the making of machinery, chemical manufactures and
coal mining.



LIVERY, originally the provision of food, clothing, &c., to household
servants. The word is an adaptation of the Anglo-French _livrée_, from
_livrer_, to deliver (Late Lat. _liberare_, to set free, to serve, to
give freely), in the special sense of distributing. In the sense of a
fixed allowance of provender for horses, it survives now only in
"livery-stable," _i.e_. an establishment where horses and carriages are
kept or let out for hire. From the meaning of provision of food and
clothing the word is applied to a uniform worn by the retainers and
servants of a household. In the 15th century in England a badge, collar
or other insignia, the "livery," was worn by all those who pledged
themselves to support one of the great barons in return for his promise
of "maintenance," i.e. of protection against enemies; thus arose the
custom of "livery and maintenance," suppressed by Henry VII. The members
of the London city companies wore a distinctive costume or "livery,"
whence the term "livery companies." In law, the term "livery" means
"delivery," the legal handing of property into the possession of
another; for "livery of seisin" see FEOFFMENT.



LIVERY COMPANIES, the name given to particular companies or societies in
the city of London. They belong to a class of institutions which at one
time were universal in Europe. In most other countries they have
disappeared; in England, while their functions have wholly changed, the
organization remains. The origin of the city companies is to be found in
the craftgilds of the middle ages. The absence of a strong central
authority accounts for the tendency of confederation in the beginning of
modern societies. Artificial groups, formed in imitation of the family,
discharged the duties which the family was no longer able, and the state
was not yet able, to undertake. The inhabitants of towns were forced
into the societies known as gild-merchants, which in course of time
monopolized the municipal government, became exclusive, and so caused
the growth of similar societies among excluded citizens. The craftgilds
were such societies, composed of handicraftsmen, which entered upon a
struggle with the earlier gilds and finally defeated them. The
circumstances and results of the struggle were of much the same
character in England and on the continent. In London the victory of the
crafts is decisively marked by the ordinance of the time of Edward II.,
which required every citizen to be a member of some trade or mystery,
and by another ordinance in 1375 which transferred the right of election
of corporate officers (including members of parliament) from the
ward-representatives to the trading companies. Henceforward, and for
many years, the companies engrossed political and municipal power in the
city of London.

The trading fraternities assumed generally the character of corporations
in the reign of Edward III. Many of them had been chartered before, but
their privileges, hitherto exercised only on sufferance and by payment
of their terms, were now confirmed by letters patent. Edward III.
himself became a member of the fraternity of Linen Armourers, or
Merchant Taylors, and other distinguished persons followed his example.
From this time they are called livery companies, "from now generally
assuming a distinctive dress or livery." The origin of the Grocers'
Company is thus described: "Twenty-two persons, carrying on the business
of pepperers in Soper's Lane, Cheapside, agree to meet together, to a
dinner, at the Abbot of Bury's, St Mary Axe, and commit the particulars
of their formation into a trading society to writing. They elect after
dinner two persons of the company so assembled--Roger Osekyn and
Lawrence de Haliwell--as their first governors or wardens, appointing,
at the same time, in conformity with the pious custom of the age, a
priest or chaplain to celebrate divine offices for their souls" (Heath's
"Account of the Grocers' Company," quoted in Herbert's _Twelve Great
Livery Companies_, 1836, i. 43). The religious observances and the
common feasts were characteristic features of those institutions. They
were therefore not merely trade unions in the current meaning of that
phrase, but may rather be described as forms of industrial
self-government, the basis of union being the membership of a common
trade, and the authority of the society extending to the general
welfare, spiritual and temporal, of its members. It must be remembered
that they flourished at a time when the separate interests of master and
servant had not yet been created; and, indeed, when that fundamental
division of interests arose, the companies gradually lost their
functions in the regulation of industry. The fact that the craftsmen
were a homogeneous order will account for the wide authority claimed by
their societies, and the important public powers which were conceded to
them. In the regulation of trade they possessed extensive powers. They
required every one carrying on the trade to join the company. In 1363,
in answer to a remonstrance against the mischief caused by "the
merchants called grocers who engrossed all manner of merchandize
vendable, and who suddenly raised the prices of such merchandize within
the realm," it was enacted "that all artificers and people of mysteries
shall each choose his own mystery[1] before next Candlemas, and that,
having so chosen it, he shall henceforth use no other." L. Brentano (_On
Gilds_) holds that it is wrong to represent such regulations as
monopolistic, inasmuch as there was no question whatever of a monopoly
in that time nor until the degeneration of the craftgilds into limited
corporations of capitalists. In the regulation of trade the right of
search was an important instrument. The wardens of the grocers are to
"assayen weights, powders, confeccions, platers, oyntments and all other
things belonging to the same crafte." The goldsmiths had the assay of
metals, the fishmongers the oversight of fish, the vintners of the
tasting of wine, &c. The companies enforced their regulations on their
members by force. Many of their ordinances looked to the domestic
affairs and private conduct of the members. The grocers ordain "that no
man of the fraternite take his neyghbor's house y^t is of the same
fraternite, or enhaunce the rent against the will of the foresaid
neyghbor." Perjury is to be punished by the wardens and society with
such correction as that other men of the fellowship may be warned
thereby. Members reduced to poverty by adventures on the sea, increased
price of goods, borrowing and pledging, or any other misfortune, are to
be assisted "out of the common money, according to his situation, if he
could not do without."

Following what appears to be the natural law of their being, the
companies gradually lost their industrial character. The course of decay
would seem to have been the following. The capitalists gradually assumed
the lead in the various societies, the richer members engrossed the
power and the companies tended to become hereditary and exclusive.
Persons might be members who had nothing to do with the craft, and the
rise of great capitalists and the development of competition in trade
made the regulation of industry by means of companies no longer
possible. For an account of the "degeneration of craftgilds" a general
reference may be made to Brentano, _On Gilds_ (1870), and C. Gross, _The
Gild Merchant_ (2 vols., 1890). The usurpation of power on the part of
the richer members was not always effected without opposition. Brentano
refers to a pamphlet on the Clothworkers' Company, published in 1649,
which asserts that "the commonalty" in the old charters meant, not the
whole gild, but only the masters, wardens and assistants. Herbert
records a dispute in the Goldsmiths' Company in 1529. The mode of
electing officers, and the system of management generally, was
challenged by three members who called themselves "artificers, poor men
of the craft of goldsmiths." The company, or rather, the wardens, the
assistants and livery presented a petition to the lord mayor, which was
answered by the discontented craftsmen. The dispute was carried into the
court of chancery and the star chamber. The artificers accused the
company of subverting their grants, misappropriating the funds and
changing the constitution of the society, and they complain of this
being done by the usurpation of persons who "were but merchant
goldsmiths, and had but little knowledge in the science." In 1531 the
three complainants were expelled from the company, and then the dispute
seems to have ended. In the last stage of the companies the members have
ceased to have any connexion with the trades, and in most cases their
regulative functions have disappeared. The one characteristic which has
clung to them throughout is that of owners of property and managers of
charitable trusts. The connexion between the companies and the
municipality is shortly as follows. The ordinance of Edward II. required
freemen of the city to be members of one or other of the companies. By
the ordinance of 49 Edw. III. (1375), the trading companies were to
nominate the members of common council, and the persons so nominated
alone were to attend both at common councils and at elections. An
ordinance in 7 Richard II. (1383) restored the elections of common
councilmen to the wards, but corporate officers and representatives in
parliament were elected by a convention summoned by the lord mayor from
the nominees of the companies. An act of common council in 7 Edw. IV.
(1467) appointed the election of mayor, sheriffs, &c., to be in the
common council, together with the masters and wardens of the companies.
By 15 Edw. IV. masters and wardens were ordered to associate with
themselves the honest men of their mysteries, and come in their best
liveries to the elections; that is to say, the franchise was restricted
to the "liverymen" of the companies. At this time the corporation
exercised supreme control over the companies, and the companies were
still genuine associations of the traders and householders of the city.
The delegation of the franchise to the liverymen was thus, in point of
fact, the selection of a superior class of householders to represent the
rest. When the corporation lost its control over the companies, and the
members of the companies ceased to be traders and householders, the
liverymen were no longer a representative class, and some change in the
system became necessary. The Reform Acts of 1832 and 1867 reformed the
representation in several particulars. The liverymen of the companies,
being freemen of the city, have still, however, the exclusive power of
electing the lord mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain and other corporate
officers.

The contributions made by the companies to the public purposes of the
state and the city are interesting points in their early history. Their
wealth and their representative character made them a most appropriate
instrument for the enforcement of irregular taxation. The loan of
£21,263, 6s. 8d. to Henry VIII. for his wars in Scotland, in 1544, is
believed by Herbert to be the first instance of a pecuniary grant to the
crown, but the practice rapidly gained ground. The confiscation of
ecclesiastical property at the time of the Reformation affected many of
the trusts of the companies; and they were compelled to make returns of
their property devoted to religious uses, and to pay over the rents to
the crown. In course of time the taxation of the companies became "a
regular source of supply to government." The historians of the city have
for the most part described these as unjust and tyrannical exactions,
but, looking at the representative and municipal character of the
companies, and the purposes to which their contributions were applied,
we may regard them as a rough but not unfair mode of taxation. The
government, when money was wanted for public works, informed the lord
mayor, who apportioned the sums required among the various societies,
and issued precepts for its payment. Contributions towards setting the
poor to work, erecting the Royal Exchange, cleansing the city ditch,
discovering new countries, furnishing military and naval armaments, for
men, arms and ammunition for the defence of the city, are among what
Herbert calls the sponging expedients of the government. The crown
occasionally interfered in a more unjustifiable manner with the
companies in the exercise of their patronage. The Stuarts made strenuous
efforts to get the control of the companies. Terrified by the
proceedings in the _quo warranto_ case, most of the companies
surrendered their charters to the crown, but such surrenders were
annulled by the act of 2 William and Mary (1690) reserving the judgment
in _quo warranto_ against the city. The livery companies now in
existence are the following:

  Apothecaries.   | Fellowship Porters. | Needlemakers.
  Armourers and   | Feltmakers.         | Painters.
    Brasiers.     | Fishmongers.        | Pattern Makers.
  Bakers.         | Fletchers.          | Pewterers.
  Barbers.        | Founders.           | Plaisterers.
  Basket Makers.  | Framework Knitters. | Playing Card
  Blacksmiths.    | Fruiterers.         |   Makers.
  Bowyers.        | Girdlers.           | Plumbers.
  Brewers.        | Glass Sellers.      | Poulters.
  Broderers.      | Glaziers.           | Saddlers.
  Butchers.       | Glovers.            | Salters.
  Carmen.         | Gold and Silver     | Scriveners.
  Carpenters      |   Wyre-drawers.     | Shipwrights.
  Clockmakers.    | Goldsmiths.         | Silkthrowsters.
  Clothworkers.   | Grocers.            | Skinners.
  Coach and       | Gunmakers.          | Spectacle makers.
    Coach-Harness | Haberdashers        | Stationers.
    Makers.       | Horners.            | Tallow Chandlers.
  Cooks.          | Innholders.         | Tin Plate Workers.
  Coopers.        | Ironmongers.        | Turners.
  Cordwainers.    | Joiners.            | Tylers and
  Curriers.       | Leathersellers.     |   Bricklayers.
  Cutlers.        | Loriners.           | Upholders.
  Distillers.     | Masons.             | Wax Chandlers.
  Drapers.        | Mercers.            | Weavers.
  Dyers.          | Merchant Taylors.   | Wheelwrights.
  Fanmakers.      | Musicians.          | Woolmen.
  Farriers.       |                     |

The following are the twelve great companies in order of civic
precedence: Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishmongers, Goldsmiths,
Skinners, Merchant Taylors, Haberdashers, Salters, Ironmongers,
Vintners, Cloth-workers. The "Irish Society" was incorporated in the 11
James I. as "the governor and assistants of the new plantation in
Ulster, within the realm of Ireland." The twelve companies contributed
in equal portions the sum of £60,000 for the new scheme, by which it was
intended to settle a Protestant colony in the lands forfeited by the
Irish rebels. The companies divided the settlement into twelve nearly
equal parts, assigning one to each, but the separate estates are still
held to be under the paramount jurisdiction of the Irish Society. The
charter of the society was revoked by the court of star chamber in the
reign of Charles I., but a new one was granted by Charles II., under
which the society still acts.

  Most of the companies administer charities of large value. Many of
  them are governors of important schools, _e.g_. the Skinners have the
  Tonbridge Grammar School; the Mercers, St Paul's School; the Merchant
  Taylors, the school bearing their name, &c. The constitution of the
  livery companies usually embraces (a) the court, which includes the
  master and wardens, and is the executive and administrative body; (2)
  the livery or middle class, being the body from which the court is
  recruited; and (3) the general body of freemen, from which the livery
  is recruited. Some companies admit women as freemen. The freedom is
  obtained either by patrimony (by any person over twenty-one years of
  age born in lawful wedlock after the admission of his father to the
  freedom), by servitude (by being bound as an apprentice to a freeman
  of the company) or by redemption. Admission to many of the companies
  is subject to the payment of considerable fees. For example, in the
  Merchant Taylors the fees are--upon taking up the freedom, by
  patrimony or servitude, £1, 3s. 4d.; by redemption, £84; on admission
  to the livery, £80, 8s.; on election to the court of assistants, £115,
  10s. At one time the position of the livery companies was a subject of
  much political discussion. Two parties threatened to attack them--on
  one side those who were anxious for extensive reforms in the municipal
  organization of London; on the other, those who wished to carry
  forward the process of inspection and revision of endowments, which
  had already overtaken the universities, schools and other charities. A
  Royal Commission was appointed in 1880 to inquire into all the livery
  companies, into the circumstances and dates of their foundation, the
  objects for which they were founded, and how far those objects were
  being carried into effect. A very valuable _Report and Appendix_ (4
  vols., 1884) was published, containing, _inter alia_, information on
  the constitution and powers of the governing bodies, the mode of
  admission of members of the companies, the mode of appointment, duties
  and salaries and other emoluments of the servants of the companies,
  the property of, or held in trust for, the companies, its value,
  situation and description. The companies very freely made returns to
  the commission, the only ones not doing so being the Broderers,
  Bowyers, Distillers, Glovers, Tin-Plate Workers and Weavers. The
  Commission estimated the annual income of the companies to be from
  £750,000 to £800,000, about £200,000 of that amount being trust
  income, the balance corporate income.

  AUTHORITIES.--In addition to the _Report_ referred to above the
  following works may be consulted: H. T. Riley, _Memorials of London
  and London Life_ (1868); _Chronicle of London from 1089 to 1483_ (ed.
  by Sir N. H. Nicolas and E. Tyrrel, 1827); _Munimenta Gildhallae
  Londiniensis_, in Rolls Series, ed. by H. T. Riley (4 vols.,
  1859-1862); J. Toulmin Smith, _English Gilds_ (published by Early
  English Text Society), with essay by L. Brentano (1870); W. Herbert,
  _History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies_ (1837); C. Gross, _The
  Gild Merchant_ (2 vols., 1890); W. C. Hazlitt, _The Livery Companies
  of the City of London_ (1892), contains a précis of the Royal
  Commission; P. H. Ditchfield, _The City Companies of London_ (1904);
  G. Unwin, _The Gilds and Companies of London_ (1908).     (T. A. I.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Properly the word should be spelled, as it was originally,
    "mistery;" it comes through the O. Fr. _mestier_, modern _métier_,
    from Lat. _ministerium_, service, employment, and meant a trade or
    craft, and hence the plays acted by craftsmen and members of gilds
    were called "mystery plays" (see DRAMA). For the word meaning a
    hidden or secret rite, with which this has so often been confused,
    see MYSTERY.



LIVIA DRUSILLA (c. 55 B.C.-A.D. 29), Roman empress, was originally the
wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero, by whom she had two sons, Drusus and
Tiberius (afterwards emperor). But she attracted the attention of the
future emperor Augustus, who in 38 compelled her husband to divorce her
and married her himself, having first got rid of his own wife Scribonia.
Her two sons, at their dying father's request, were entrusted to the
guardianship of Augustus, to whom she bore no children. Livia was
suspected of committing various crimes to secure the throne for
Tiberius, whereas Augustus naturally favoured the claims of his
blood-relatives. The premature deaths of his nephew Marcellus (whom he
had at first fixed upon as his successor) and of his grandsons Gaius and
Lucius Caesar, the banishment of his grandson Agrippa Postumus, and
even his own death, were attributed to her. But in any case Augustus's
affection for his wife appears to have suffered no diminution up to the
last; by his will he declared her and Tiberius (whom he had adopted in
A.D. 4) his heirs; Livia inherited a third of his property; she was
adopted into the Julian gens, and henceforth assumed the name of Julia
Augusta. The senate also elected her chief priestess of the college
founded in honour of the deified Augustus. She had now reached the
summit of her ambition, and at first acted as joint-ruler with Tiberius.
Tiberius, however, soon became tired of the maternal yoke; his
retirement to Capreae is said to have been caused by his desire to
escape from her. Livia continued to live quietly at Rome, in the full
enjoyment of authority, until her death at an advanced age. Tiberius
appears to have received the news with indifference, if not with
satisfaction; he absented himself from the funeral, and refused to allow
her apotheosis; her will was suppressed for a long time and only carried
out, and the legacies paid, by Caligula.

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, i. v.; Dio Cassius liii. 33, lv. 14-22, lviii.
  2, lix. 2; Suetonius, _Tiberius_, 50, 51; J. Aschbach, _Livia,
  Gemahlin des Kaisers Augustus_ (1864); V. Gardthausen, _Augustus und
  seine Zeit_, i. 1018 foll., ii. 631 foll.



LIVINGSTON, EDWARD (1764-1836), American jurist and statesman, was born
in Clermont, Columbia county, New York, on the 26th of May 1764. He was
a great-grandson of Robert Livingston, the first of the family to settle
in America (see LIVINGSTON, WILLIAM, below). He graduated at Princeton
in 1781, was admitted to the bar in 1785, and began to practise law in
New York City, rapidly rising to distinction. In 1795-1801 he was a
Republican representative in Congress, where he was one of the leaders
of the opposition to Jay's treaty, introduced the resolution calling
upon President Washington for all papers relating to the treaty, and at
the close of Washington's administration voted with Andrew Jackson and
other radicals against the address to the president. He opposed the
Alien and Sedition Laws, introduced legislation on behalf of American
seamen, and in 1800 attacked the president for permitting the
extradition by the British government of Jonathan Robbins, who had
committed murder on an English frigate, and had then escaped to South
Carolina and falsely claimed to be an American citizen. In the debate on
this question Livingston was opposed by John Marshall. In 1801
Livingston was appointed U.S. district-attorney for the state of New
York, and while retaining that position was in the same year appointed
mayor of New York City. When, in the summer of 1803, the city was
visited with yellow fever, Livingston displayed courage and energy in
his endeavours to prevent the spread of the disease and relieve
distress. He suffered a violent attack of the fever, during which the
people gave many proofs of their attachment to him. On his recovery he
found his private affairs in some confusion, and he was at the same time
deeply indebted to the government for public funds which had been lost
through the mismanagement or dishonesty of a confidential clerk, and for
which he was responsible as district-attorney. He at once surrendered
all his property, resigned his two offices in 1803, and removed early in
1804 to Louisiana. He soon acquired a large law practice in New Orleans,
and in 1826 repaid the government in full, including the interest, which
at that time amounted to more than the original principal.

Almost immediately upon his arrival in Louisiana, where the legal system
had previously been based on Roman, French and Spanish law, and where
trial by jury and other peculiarities of English common law were now
first introduced, he was appointed by the legislature to prepare a
provisional code of judicial procedure, which (in the form of an act
passed in April 1805) was continued in force from 1805 to 1825. In 1807,
after conducting a successful suit on behalf of a client's title to a
part of the batture or alluvial land near New Orleans, Livingston
attempted to improve part of this land (which he had received as his
fee) in the Batture, Ste Marie. Great popular excitement was aroused
against him; his workmen were mobbed; and Governor Claiborne, when
appealed to for protection, referred the question to the Federal
government. Livingston's case was damaged by President Jefferson, who
believed that Livingston had favoured Burr in the presidential election
of 1800, and that he had afterwards been a party to Burr's schemes.
Jefferson made it impossible for Livingston to secure his title, and in
1812 published a pamphlet "for the use of counsel" in the case against
Livingston, to which Livingston published a crushing reply. Livingston's
final victory in the courts brought him little financial profit because
of the heavy expenses of the litigation. During the war with England
from 1812 to 1815 Livingston was active in rousing the mixed population
of New Orleans to resistance. He used his influence to secure amnesty
for Lafitte and his followers upon their offer to fight for the city,
and in 1814-1815 acted as adviser and volunteer aide-de-camp to General
Jackson, who was his personal friend. In 1821, by appointment of the
legislature, of which he had become a member in the preceding year,
Livingston began the preparation of a new code of criminal law and
procedure, afterwards known in Europe and America as the "Livingston
Code." It was prepared in both French and English, as was required by
the necessities of practice in Louisiana, and actually consisted of four
codes--crimes and punishments, procedure, evidence in criminal cases,
reform and prison discipline. Though substantially completed in 1824,
when it was accidentally burned, and again in 1826, it was not printed
entire until 1833. It was never adopted by the state. It was at once
reprinted in England, France and Germany, attracting wide praise by its
remarkable simplicity and vigour, and especially by reason of its
philanthropic provisions in the code of reform and prison discipline,
which noticeably influenced the penal legislation of various countries.
In referring to this code, Sir Henry Maine spoke of Livingston as "the
first legal genius of modern times" (_Cambridge Essays, 1856_, p. 17).
The spirit of Livingston's code was remedial rather than vindictive; it
provided for the abolition of capital punishment and the making of
penitentiary labour not a punishment forced on the prisoner, but a
matter of his choice and a reward for good behaviour, bringing with it
better accommodations. His Code of Reform and Prison Discipline was
adopted by Guatemala. Livingston was the leading member of a commission
appointed to prepare a new civil code,[1] which for the most part the
legislature adopted in 1825, and the most important chapters of which,
including all those on contract, were prepared by Livingston alone.

Livingston was again a representative in Congress during 1823-1829, a
senator in 1829-1831, and for two years (1831-1833) secretary of state
under President Jackson. In this last position he was one of the most
trusted advisers of the president, for whom he prepared a number of
state papers, the most important being the famous anti-nullification
proclamation of the 10th of December 1832. From 1833 to 1835 Livingston
was minister plenipotentiary to France, charged with procuring the
fulfilment by the French government of the treaty negotiated by W. C.
Rives in 1831, by which France had bound herself to pay an indemnity of
twenty-five millions of francs for French spoliations of American
shipping chiefly under the Berlin and Milan decrees, and the United
States in turn agreed to pay to France 1,500,000 francs in satisfaction
of French claims. Livingston's negotiations were conducted with
excellent judgment, but the French Chamber of Deputies refused to make
an appropriation to pay the first instalment due under the treaty in
1833, relations between the two governments became strained, and
Livingston was finally instructed to close the legation and return to
America. He died on the 23rd of May 1836 at Montgomery Place, Dutchess
county, New York, an estate left him by his sister, to which he had
removed in 1831. Livingston was twice married. His first wife, Mary
McEvers, whom he married on the 10th of April 1788, died on the 13th of
March 1801. In June 1805 he married Madame Louise Moreau de Lassy (d.
1860), a widow nineteen years of age, whose maiden name was Davezac de
Castera, and who was a refugee in New Orleans from the revolution in
Santo Domingo. She was a woman of extraordinary beauty and intellect,
and is said to have greatly influenced her husband's public career.

  See C. H. Hunt, _Life of Edward Livingston_ (New York, 1864);
  Livingston's _Works_ (2 vols., New York, 1873); and Louise Livingston
  Hunt, _Memoir of Mrs Edward Livingston_ (New York, 1886).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Preliminary work in the preparation of a new civil code had been
    done by James Brown and Moreau Lislet, who in 1808 reported a "Digest
    of the Civil Laws now in force in the Territory of Orleans with
    Alterations and Amendments adapted to the present Form of
    Government."



LIVINGSTON, ROBERT R. (1746-1813), American statesman, son of Robert R.
Livingston (1718-1775; a justice of the New York supreme court after
1763) and brother of Edward Livingston (see above), was born in New York
City, on the 27th of November 1746. He graduated at King's College, New
York (now Columbia University), in 1765, was admitted to the bar in
1773, and for a short time was a law partner of John Jay. In 1773 he
became recorder of New York City, but soon identified himself with the
Whig or Patriot element there, and was forced to give up this position
in 1775. He was a member of the second, third and fourth Provincial
Congresses of New York (1775-1777), was a delegate from New York to the
Continental Congress in 1775-1777 and again in 1779-1780, and was a
member of the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
He was prevented from signing that document by his absence at the time
to attend a meeting of the fourth New York Provincial Congress, which on
the 10th of July became the Convention of the Representatives of the
state of New York, and by which at Kingston in 1777 the first state
constitution was adopted, Livingston having been a member of the
committee that drafted this instrument. He was the first chancellor of
the state, from 1777 to February 1801, and is best known as "Chancellor"
Livingston. In this capacity he administered the oath of office to
Washington at his first inauguration to the presidency, in New York, on
the 30th of April 1789. Previously, from October 1781 to June 1783, he
had been the first secretary of foreign affairs under the Confederation,
and his European correspondence, especially with Franklin, was of the
utmost value in accomplishing peace with Great Britain. In 1788 he had
been a member of the New York Convention, which ratified for that state
the Federal Constitution. He became an anti-Federalist and in 1798
unsuccessfully opposed John Jay in the New York gubernatorial campaign.
In 1801, having refused an appointment as secretary of the navy, he
became minister to France on President Jefferson's appointment. He had
refused this post when Washington offered it to him in 1794. He arrived
in France in November 1801, and in 1803, in association with James
Monroe, effected on behalf of his government the purchase from France of
what was then known as "Louisiana," the credit for this purchase being
largely his (see LOUISIANA PURCHASE). In 1804 Livingston withdrew from
public life, and after a year of travel in Europe returned to New York,
where he promoted various improvements in agriculture. He did much to
introduce the use of gypsum as a fertilizer, and published an _Essay on
Sheep_ (1809). He was long interested in the problem of steam
navigation; before he went to France he received from the state of New
York a monopoly of steam navigation on the waters of the state and
assisted in the experiments of his brother-in-law, John Stevens; in
Paris he met Robert Fulton, and with him in 1802 made successful trials
on the Seine of a paddle wheel steamboat; in 1803 Livingston (jointly
with Robert Fulton) received a renewal of his monopoly in New York, and
the first successful steam-vessel, which operated on the Hudson in 1807,
was named after Livingston's home, Clermont (N.Y.). He died at Clermont
on the 26th of February 1813.

Livingston and George Clinton were chosen to represent New York state in
Statuary Hall, in the Capitol, at Washington, D.C.; the statue of
Livingston is by E. D. Palmer.

  See Frederick de Peyster, _Biographical Sketch of Robert R.
  Livingston_ (New York, 1876); Robert K. Morton, "Robert R. Livingston:
  Beginnings of American Diplomacy," in _The John P. Branch Historical
  Papers of Randolph-Macon College_, i. 299-324, and ii. 34-46; and J.
  B. Moore, "Robert R. Livingston and the Louisiana Purchase," in
  _Columbia University Quarterly_, v. 6 (1904), pp. 221-229.



LIVINGSTON, WILLIAM (1723-1790), American political leader, was born at
Albany, New York, probably on the 30th of November 1723. He was the son
of Philip Livingston (1686-1749), and grandson of Robert Livingston
(1654-1725), who was born at Ancrum, Scotland, emigrated to America
about 1673, and received grants (beginning in 1686) to "Livingston
Manor" (a tract of land on the Hudson, comprising the greater part of
what are now Dutchess and Columbia counties). This Robert Livingston,
founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the
important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York
Assembly in 1711-1715 and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in
1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should
be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct
governments."

William Livingston graduated at Yale College in 1741, studied law in the
city of New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1748. He served in the
New York legislature (1759-1760), but his political influence was long
exerted chiefly through pamphlets and newspaper articles. The Livingston
family then led the Dissenters, who later became Whigs, and the De
Lancey family represented the Anglican Tory interests. Through the
columns of the _Independent Reflector_, which he established in 1752,
Livingston fought the attempt of the Anglican party to bring the
projected King's College (now Columbia University) under the control of
the Church of England. After the suspension of the _Reflector_ in 1753,
he edited in the _New York Mercury_ the "Watch Tower" section
(1754-1755), which became the recognized organ of the Presbyterian
faction. In opposition to the efforts of the Anglicans to procure the
establishment of an American episcopate, he wrote an open _Letter to the
Right Reverend Father in God, John Lord, Bishop of Llandaff_ (1768), and
edited and in large measure wrote the "American Whig" columns in the
_New York Gazette_ (1768-1769). In 1772 he removed to Elizabeth, New
Jersey, where after 1773 he lived on his estate known as "Liberty Hall."
He represented New Jersey in the first and second Continental Congresses
(1774,1775-1776), but left Philadelphia in June 1776, probably to avoid
voting on the question of adopting the Declaration of Independence,
which he regarded as inexpedient. He was chosen first governor of the
state of New Jersey in 1776, and was regularly re-elected until his
death in 1790. Loyal to American interests and devoted to General
Washington, he was one of the most useful of the state executives during
the War of Independence. While governor he was a frequent contributor to
the _New Jersey Gazette_, and in this way he greatly aided the American
cause during the war by his denunciation of the enemy and appeals to the
patriotism of his countrymen. He was a delegate to the Federal
Constitutional Convention of 1787, and supported the New Jersey
small-state plan. In 1754 he joined with his brother, Philip Livingston,
his brother-in-law, William Alexander ("Lord Stirling") and others in
founding what is now known as the Society Library of New York. With the
help of William Smith (1728-1793), the New York historian, William
Livingston prepared a digest of the laws of New York for the period
1691-1756, which was published in two volumes (1752 and 1762). He died
at Elizabeth, New Jersey, on the 25th of July 1790.

  See Theodore Sedgwick, Jr., _Life of William Livingston_ (New York,
  1833); and E. B. Livingston, _The Livingstons of Livingston Manor_
  (1910).

His brother, PETER VAN BRUGH LIVINGSTON (1710-1792), was a prominent
merchant and a Whig political leader in New York. He was one of the
founders of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), was a
member of the New York Council for some years before the War of
Independence, a member and president of the First Provincial Congress of
New York (1775), and a member of the Second Provincial Congress
(1775-1776).

Another brother, PHILIP LIVINGSTON (1716-1778), was also prominent as a
leader of the New York Whigs or Patriots. He was a member of the New
York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of
1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and
as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in 1777-1778
was a member of the first state senate.

William's son, (HENRY) BROCKHOLST LIVINGSTON (1757-1823), was an officer
in the American War of Independence, and was an able lawyer and judge.
From 1807 until his death he was an associate justice of the United
States Supreme Court, and he wrote political pamphlets under the
pen-name "Decius."



LIVINGSTONE, DAVID (1813-1873), Scottish missionary and explorer in
Africa, was born on the 19th of March 1813, at the village of Blantyre
Works, in Lanarkshire, Scotland. David was the second child of his
parents, Neil Livingston (for so he spelled his name, as did his son for
many years) and Agnes Hunter. His parents were typical examples of all
that is best among the humbler families of Scotland. At the age of ten
years David left the village school for the neighbouring cotton-mill,
and by strenuous efforts qualified himself at the age of twenty-three to
undertake a college curriculum. He attended for two sessions the medical
and the Greek classes in Anderson's College, Glasgow, and also a
theological class. In September 1838 he went up to London, and was
accepted by the London Missionary Society as a candidate. He took his
medical degree in the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow in
November 1840. Livingstone had set his heart on China, and it was a
great disappointment to him that the society finally decided to send him
to Africa. To an exterior in these early years somewhat heavy and
uncouth, he united a manner which, by universal testimony, was
irresistibly winning, with a fund of genuine but simple humour and fun
that would break out on the most unlikely occasions, and in after years
enabled him to overcome difficulties and mellow refractory chiefs when
all other methods failed.

Livingstone sailed from England on the 8th of December 1840. From Algoa
Bay he made direct for Kuruman, Bechuanaland, the mission station, 700
m. north, established by Robert Moffat twenty years before, and there he
arrived on the 31st of July 1841. The next two years Livingstone spent
in travelling about the country to the northwards, in search of a
suitable outpost for settlement. During these two years he became
convinced that the success of the white missionary in a field like
Africa was not to be reckoned by the tale of doubtful conversions he
could send home each year--that the proper work for such men was that of
pioneering, opening up and starting new ground, leaving native agents to
work it out in detail. The whole of his subsequent career was a
development of this idea. He selected the valley of Mabotsa, on one of
the sources of the Limpopo river, 200 m. north-east of Kuruman, as his
first station. Shortly after his settlement here he was attacked by a
lion which crushed his left arm. The arm was imperfectly set, and it was
a source of trouble to him at times throughout his life, and was the
means of identifying his body after his death. To a house, mainly built
by himself at Mabotsa, Livingstone in 1844 brought home his wife, Mary
Moffat, the daughter of Moffat of Kuruman. Here he laboured till 1846,
when he removed to Chonuane, 40 m. farther north, the chief place of the
Bakwain or Bakwena tribe under Sechele. In 1847 he again removed to
Kolobeng, about 40 m. westwards, the whole tribe following their
missionary. With the aid and in the company of two English sportsmen,
William C. Oswell and Mungo Murray, he was able to undertake a journey
to Lake Ngami, which had never yet been seen by a white man. Crossing
the Kalahari Desert, of which Livingstone gave the first detailed
account, they reached the lake on the 1st of August 1849. In April next
year he made an attempt to reach Sebituane, who lived 200 m. beyond the
lake, this time in company with his wife and children, but again got no
farther than the lake, as the children were seized with fever. A year
later, April 1851, Livingstone, again accompanied by his family and
Oswell, set out, this time with the intention of settling among the
Makololo for a period. At last he succeeded, and reached the Chobe
(Kwando), a southern tributary of the Zambezi, and in the end of June
reached the Zambezi itself at the town of Sesheke. Leaving the Chobe on
the 13th of August the party reached Cape Town in April 1852.
Livingstone may now be said to have completed the first period of his
career in Africa, the period in which the work of the missionary had the
greatest prominence. Henceforth he appears more in the character of an
explorer, but it must be remembered that he regarded himself to the last
as a pioneer missionary, whose work was to open up the country to
others.

Having seen his family off to England, Livingstone left Cape Town on the
8th of June 1852, and turning north again reached Linyante, the capital
of the Makololo, on the Chobe, on the 23rd of May 1853, being cordially
received by Sekeletu and his people. His first object was to seek for
some healthy high land in which to plant a station. Ascending the
Zambezi, he, however, found no place free from the tsetse fly, and
therefore resolved to discover a route to the interior from either the
west or east coast. To accompany Livingstone twenty-seven men were
selected from the various tribes under Sekeletu, partly with a view to
open up a trade route between their own country and the coast. The start
was made from Linyante on the 11th of November 1853, and, by ascending
the Liba, Lake Dilolo was reached on the 20th of February 1854. On the
4th of April the Kwango was crossed, and on the 31st of May the town of
Loanda was entered, Livingstone, however, being all but dead from fever,
semi-starvation and dysentery. From Loanda Livingstone sent his
astronomical observations to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape, and an
account of his journey to the Royal Geographical Society, which in May
1855 awarded him its patron's medal. Loanda was left on the 20th of
September 1854, but Livingstone lingered long about the Portuguese
settlements. Making a slight détour to the north to Kabango, the party
reached Lake Dilolo on the 13th of June 1855. Here Livingstone made a
careful study of the hydrography of the country. He "now for the first
time apprehended the true form of the river systems and the continent,"
and the conclusions he came to have been essentially confirmed by
subsequent observations. The return journey from Lake Dilolo was by the
same route as that by which the party came, Linyante being reached in
the beginning of September.

For Livingstone's purposes the route to the west was unavailable, and he
decided to follow the Zambezi to its mouth. With a numerous following,
he left Linyante on the 8th of November 1855. A fortnight afterwards he
discovered the famous "Victoria" falls of the Zambezi. He had already
formed a true idea of the configuration of the continent as a great
hollow or basin-shaped plateau, surrounded by a ring of mountains.
Livingstone reached the Portuguese settlement of Tete on the 2nd of
March 1856, in a very emaciated condition. Here he left his men and
proceeded to Quilimane, where he arrived on the 20th of May, thus having
completed in two years and six months one of the most remarkable and
fruitful journeys on record. The results in geography and in natural
science in all its departments were abundant and accurate; his
observations necessitated a reconstruction of the map of Central Africa.
When Livingstone began his work in Africa the map was virtually a blank
from Kuruman to Timbuktu, and nothing but envy or ignorance can throw
any doubt on the originality of his discoveries.

On the 12th of December he arrived in England, after an absence of
sixteen years, and met everywhere the welcome of a hero. He told his
story in his _Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa_ (1857)
with straightforward simplicity, and with no effort after literary
style, and no apparent consciousness that he had done anything
extraordinary. Its publication brought what he would have considered a
competency had he felt himself at liberty to settle down for life. In
1857 he severed his connexion with the London Missionary Society, with
whom, however, he always remained on the best of terms, and in February
1858 he accepted the appointment of "Her Majesty's consul at Quilimane
for the eastern coast and the independent districts in the interior, and
commander of an expedition for exploring eastern and central Africa."
The Zambezi expedition, of which Livingstone thus became commander,
sailed from Liverpool in H.M.S. "Pearl" on the 10th of March 1858, and
reached the mouth of the Zambezi on the 14th of May. The party, which
included Dr (afterwards Sir) John Kirk and Livingstone's brother
Charles, ascended the river from the Kongone mouth in a steam launch,
the "Ma-Robert"; reaching Tete on the 8th of September. The remainder of
the year was devoted to an examination of the river above Tete, and
especially the Kebrabasa rapids. Most of the year 1859 was spent in the
exploration of the river Shiré and Lake Nyasa, which was discovered in
September; and during a great part of the year 1860 Livingstone was
engaged in fulfilling his promise to take such of the Makololo home as
cared to go. In January of next year arrived Bishop C. F. Mackenzie and
a party of missionaries sent out by the Universities Mission to
establish a station on the upper Shiré.

After exploring the river Rovuma for 30 m. in his new vessel the
"Pioneer," Livingstone and the missionaries proceeded up the Shiré to
Chibisa's; there they found the slave trade rampant. On the 15th of July
Livingstone, accompanied by several native carriers, started to show the
bishop the country. Several bands of slaves whom they met were
liberated, and after seeing the missionary party settled in the
highlands to the south of Lake Chilwa (Shirwa) Livingstone spent from
August to November in exploring Lake Nyasa. While the boat sailed up
the west side of the lake to near the north end, the explorer marched
along the shore. He returned more resolved than ever to do his utmost to
rouse the civilized world to put down the desolating slave-trade. On the
30th of January 1862, at the Zambezi mouth, Livingstone welcomed his
wife and the ladies of the mission, with whom were the sections of the
"Lady Nyassa," a river steamer which Livingstone had had built at his
own expense. When the mission ladies reached the mouth of the Ruo
tributary of the Shiré, they were stunned to hear of the death of the
bishop and one of his companions. This was a sad blow to Livingstone,
seeming to have rendered all his efforts to establish a mission futile.
A still greater loss to him was that of his wife at Shupanga, on the
27th of April 1862.

The "Lady Nyassa" was taken to the Rovuma. Up this river Livingstone
managed to steam 156 m., but farther progress was arrested by rocks.
Returning to the Zambezi in the beginning of 1863, he found that the
desolation caused by the slave trade was more horrible and widespread
than ever. It was clear that the Portuguese officials were themselves at
the bottom of the traffic. Kirk and Charles Livingstone being compelled
to return to England on account of their health, the doctor resolved
once more to visit the lake, and proceeded some distance up the west
side and then north-west as far as the watershed that separates the
Loangwa from the rivers that run into the lake. Meanwhile a letter was
received from Earl Russell recalling the expedition by the end of the
year. In the end of April 1864 Livingstone reached Zanzibar in the "Lady
Nyassa," and on the 23rd of July Livingstone arrived in England. He was
naturally disappointed with the comparative failure of this expedition.
Still the geographical results, though not in extent to be compared to
those of his first and his final expeditions, were of high importance,
as were those in various departments of science, and he had unknowingly
laid the foundations of the British protectorate of Nyasaland. Details
will be found in his _Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its
Tributaries_, published in 1865.

By Sir Roderick Murchison and his other staunch friends Livingstone was
as warmly welcomed as ever. When Murchison proposed to him that he
should go out again, although he seems to have had a desire to spend the
remainder of his days at home, the prospect was too tempting to be
rejected. He was appointed British consul to Central Africa without a
salary, and government contributed only £500 to the expedition. The
chief help came from private friends. During the latter part of the
expedition government granted him £1000, but that, when he learned of
it, was devoted to his great undertaking. The Geographical Society
contributed £500. The two main objects of the expedition were the
suppression of slavery by means of civilizing influences, and the
ascertainment of the watershed in the region between Nyasa and
Tanganyika. At first Livingstone thought the Nile problem had been all
but solved by Speke, Baker and Burton, but the idea grew upon him that
the Nile sources must be sought farther south, and his last journey
became in the end a forlorn hope in search of the "fountains" of
Herodotus. Leaving England in the middle of August 1865, via Bombay,
Livingstone arrived at Zanzibar on the 28th of January 1866. He was
landed at the mouth of the Rovuma on the 22nd of March, and started for
the interior on the 4th of April. His company consisted of thirteen
sepoys, ten Johanna men, nine African boys from Nasik school, Bombay,
and four boys from the Shiré region, besides camels, buffaloes, mules
and donkeys. This imposing outfit soon melted away to four or five boys.
Rounding the south end of Lake Nyasa, Livingstone struck in a
north-north-west direction for the south end of Lake Tanganyika, over
country much of which had not previously been explored. The Loangwa was
crossed on the 15th of December 1866. On Christmas day Livingstone lost
his four goats, a loss which he felt very keenly, and the medicine chest
was stolen in January 1867. Fever came upon him, and for a time was his
almost constant companion; this, with other serious ailments which
subsequently attacked him, and which he had no medicine to counteract,
told on even his iron frame. The Chambezi was crossed on the 28th of
January, and the south end of Tanganyika reached on the 31st of March.
Here, much to his vexation, he got into the company of Arab slave
dealers (among them being Tippoo-Tib) by whom his movements were
hampered; but he succeeded in reaching Lake Mweru (Nov. 1867). After
visiting Lake Mofwa and the Lualaba, which he believed was the upper
part of the Nile, he, on the 18th of July 1868, discovered Lake
Bangweulu. Proceeding up the west coast of Tanganyika, he reached Ujiji
on the 14th of March 1869, "a ruckle of bones." Livingstone recrossed
Tanganyika in July, and passed through the country of the Manyema, but
baffled partly by the natives, partly by the slave hunters, and partly
by his long illnesses it was not till the 29th of March 1871 that he
succeeded in reaching the Lualaba, at the town of Nyangwe, where he
stayed four months, vainly trying to get a canoe to take him across. It
was here that a party of Arab slavers, without warning or provocation,
assembled one day when the market was busiest and commenced shooting
the women, hundreds being killed or drowned in trying to escape.
Livingstone had "the impression that he was in hell," but was helpless,
though his "first impulse was to pistol the murderers." The account of
this scene which he sent home roused indignation in England to such a
degree as to lead to determined and to a considerable extent successful
efforts to get the sultan of Zanzibar to suppress the trade. In sickened
disgust the weary traveller made his way back to Ujiji, which he reached
on the 13th of October. Five days after his arrival in Ujiji he was
inspired with new life by the timely arrival of H. M. Stanley, the
richly laden almoner of Mr Gordon Bennett, of the _New York Herald_.
With Stanley Livingstone explored the north end of Tanganyika, and
proved conclusively that the Rusizi runs into and not out of it. In the
end of the year the two started eastward for Unyamwezi, where Stanley
provided Livingstone with an ample supply of goods, and bade him
farewell. Stanley left on the 15th of March 1872, and after Livingstone
had waited wearily in Unyamwezi for five months, a troop of fifty-seven
men and boys arrived, good and faithful fellows on the whole, selected
by Stanley himself. Thus attended, he started on the 15th of August for
Lake Bangweulu, proceeding along the east side of Tanganyika. His old
enemy dysentery soon found him out. In January 1873 the party got among
the endless spongy jungle on the east of Lake Bangweulu, Livingstone's
object being to go round by the south and away west to find the
"fountains." The doctor got worse and worse, and in the middle of April
he had unwillingly to submit to be carried in a rude litter. On the 29th
of April Chitambo's village on the Lulimala, in Ilala, on the south
shore of the lake, was reached. The last entry in the journal is on the
27th of April: "Knocked up quite, and remain--recover--sent to buy milch
goats. We are on the banks of the Molilamo." On the 30th of April he
with difficulty wound up his watch, and early on the morning of the 1st
of May the boys found "the great master," as they called him, kneeling
by the side of his bed, dead. His faithful men preserved the body in the
sun as well as they could, and, wrapping it carefully up, carried it and
all his papers, instruments and other things across Africa to Zanzibar.
It was borne to England with all honour, and on the 18th of April 1874,
was deposited in Westminster Abbey. His faithfully kept journals during
these seven years' wanderings were published under the title of the
_Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa_, in 1874, edited
by his old friend the Rev. Horace Waller. In Old Chitambo's the time and
place of his death are commemorated by a permanent monument, which
replaced in 1902 the tree on which his native followers had recorded the
event.

In spite of his sufferings and the many compulsory delays, Livingstone's
discoveries during these last years were both extensive and of prime
importance as leading to a solution of African hydrography. No single
African explorer has ever done so much for African geography as
Livingstone during his thirty years' work. His travels covered one-third
of the continent, extending from the Cape to near the equator, and from
the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. Livingstone was no hurried traveller;
he did his journeying leisurely, carefully observing and recording all
that was worthy of note, with rare geographical instinct and the eye of
a trained scientific observer, studying the ways of the people, eating
their food, living in their huts, and sympathizing with their joys and
sorrows. In all the countries through which he travelled his memory is
cherished by the native tribes who, almost without exception, treated
Livingstone as a superior being; his treatment of them was always
tender, gentle and gentlemanly. By the Arab slavers whom he opposed he
was also greatly admired, and was by them styled "the very great
doctor." "In the annals of exploration of the Dark Continent," wrote
Stanley many years after the death of the missionary explorer, "we look
in vain among other nationalities for a name such as Livingstone's. He
stands pre-eminent above all; he unites in himself all the best
qualities of other explorers. ... Britain ... excelled herself even when
she produced the strong and perseverant Scotchman, Livingstone." But the
direct gains to geography and science are perhaps not the greatest
results of Livingstone's journeys. His example and his death acted like
an inspiration, filling Africa with an army of explorers and
missionaries, and raising in Europe so powerful a feeling against the
slave trade that through him it may be considered as having received its
deathblow. Personally Livingstone was a pure and tender-hearted man,
full of humanity and sympathy, simple-minded as a child. The motto of
his life was the advice he gave to some school children in
Scotland--"Fear God, and work hard."

  See, besides his own narratives and W. G. Blaikie's _Life_ (1880), the
  publications of the London Missionary Society from 1840, the _Journal
  and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society_, the despatches to
  the Foreign Office sent home by Livingstone during his last two
  expeditions, and Stanley's _Autobiography_ (1909) and _How I Found
  Livingstone_ (1872).     (J. S. K.)



LIVINGSTONE MOUNTAINS, a band of highlands in German East Africa,
forming the eastern border of the rift-valley of Lake Nyasa, at the
northern end of the lake. In parts these highlands, known also under
their native name of Kinga, present rather the character of a plateau
than of a true mountain range, but the latter name may be justified by
the fact that they form a comparatively narrow belt of country, which
falls considerably to the east as well as to the west. The northern end
is well marked in 8° 50´ S. by an escarpment falling to the Ruaha
valley, which is regarded as a north-eastern branch of the main
rift-valley. Southwards the Livingstone range terminates in the deep
valley of the Ruhuhu in 10° 30´ S., the first decided break in the
highlands that is reached from the north, on the east coast of Nyasa.
Geologically the range is formed on the side of the lake by a zone of
gneiss running in a series of ridges and valleys generally parallel to
its axis. The ridge nearest the lake (which in Mount Jamimbi or
Chamembe, 9° 41´ S., rises to an absolute height of 7870 ft., or 6200
ft. above Nyasa) falls almost sheer to the water, the same steep slope
being continued beneath the surface. Towards the south the range appears
to have a width of some 20 m. only, but northwards it widens out to
about 40 m., though broken here by the depression, drained towards the
Ruaha, of Buanyi, on the south side of which is the highest known summit
of the range (9600 ft.). North and east of Buanyi, as in the eastern
half of the range generally, table-topped mountains occur, composed
above of horizontally bedded quartzites, sandstones and conglomerates.
The uplands are generally clothed in rich grass, forest occurring
principally in the hollows, while the slopes towards the lake are
covered with poor scrub. Native settlements are scattered over the whole
range, and German mission stations have been established at Bulongwa and
Mtandala, a little north of the north end of Nyasa. The climate is here
healthy, and night frosts occur in the cold season. European crops are
raised with success. At the foot of the mountains on Lake Nyasa are the
ports of Wiedhafen, at the mouth of the Ruhuhu, and Old Langenburg, at
the north-east corner of the lake.     (E. He.)



LIVIUS ANDRONICUS (c. 284-204 B.C.), the founder of Roman epic poetry
and drama. His name, in which the Greek [Greek: Andronikos] is combined
with the gentile name of one of the great Roman houses, while indicative
of his own position as a manumitted slave, is also significant of the
influences by which Roman literature was fostered, viz. the culture of
men who were either Greeks or "semi-Graeci" by birth and education, and
the protection and favour bestowed upon them by the more enlightened
members of the Roman aristocracy. He is supposed to have been a native
of Tarentum, and to have been brought, while still a boy, after the
capture of that town in 272, as a slave to Rome. He lived in the
household of a member of the gens Livia, probably M. Livius Salinator.
He determined the course which Roman literature followed for more than a
century after his time. The imitation of Greek comedy, tragedy and epic
poetry, which produced great results in the hands of Naevius, Plautus,
Ennius and their successors, received its first impulse from him. To
judge, however, from the insignificant remains of his writings, and from
the opinions of Cicero and Horace, he can have had no pretension either
to original genius or to artistic accomplishment. His real claim to
distinction was that he was the first great schoolmaster of the Roman
people. We learn from Suetonius that, like Ennius after him, he obtained
his living by teaching Greek and Latin; and it was probably as a
school-book, rather than as a work of literary pretension, that his
translation of the _Odyssey_ into Latin Saturnian verse was executed.
This work was still used in schools in the time of Horace (_Epp._ ii.
1., 69), and, although faultily executed, satisfied a real want by
introducing the Romans to a knowledge of Greek. Such knowledge became
essential to men in a high position as a means of intercourse with
Greeks, while Greek literature stimulated the minds of leading Romans.
Moreover, southern Italy and Sicily afforded many opportunities for
witnessing representations of Greek comedies and tragedies. The Romans
and Italians had an indigenous drama of their own, known by the name of
_Satura_, which prepared them for the reception of the more regular
Greek drama. The distinction between this _Satura_ and the plays of
Euripides or Menander was that it had no regular plot. This the Latin
drama first received from Livius Andronicus; but it did so at the cost
of its originality. In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic
War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is
uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation
marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii. 2). Livius himself
took part in his plays, and in order to spare his voice he introduced
the custom of having the solos (_cantica_) sung by a boy, while he
himself represented the action of the song by dumb show. In his
translation he discarded the native Saturnian metre, and adopted the
iambic, trochaic and cretic metres, to which Latin more easily adapted
itself than either to the hexameter or to the lyrical measures of a
later time. He continued to produce plays for more than thirty years
after this time. The titles of his tragedies--_Achilles_, _Aegisthus_,
_Equus Trojanus_, _Hermione_, _Tereus_--are all suggestive of subjects
which were treated by the later tragic poets of Rome. In the year 207,
when he must have been of a great age, he was appointed to compose a
hymn of thanksgiving, sung by maidens, for the victory of the Metaurus
and an intercessory hymn to the Aventine Juno. As a further tribute of
national recognition the "college" or "gild" of poets and actors was
granted a place of meeting in the temple of Minerva on the Aventine.

  See fragments in L. Müller, _Livi Andronici et Cn. Naevi Fabularum
  Reliquiae_ (1885); also J. Wordsworth, _Fragments and Specimens of
  Early Latin_ (1874); Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_, bk. iii. ch. 14.



LIVNO, a town of Bosnia, situated on the eastern side of the fertile
plain of Livno, at the foot of Mount Krug (6581 ft.). Pop. about 5000.
The Dalmatian border is 7 m. W. Livno had a trade in grain, live-stock
and silver filigree-work up to 1904, when a fire swept away more than
500 of the old Turkish houses, together with the Roman citadel. Remains
prove that Livno occupies the site of a Roman settlement, the name of
which is uncertain. The Roman Catholic convent of Gurici is 6 m. S.



LIVONIA, or LIVLAND (Russian, _Liflandia_), one of the three Baltic
provinces of Russia, bounded W. by the Gulf of Riga, N. by Esthonia, E.
by the governments of St Petersburg, Pskov and Vitebsk, and S. by
Courland. A group of islands (1110 sq. m.) at the entrance of the Gulf
of Riga, of which Oesel, Mohn, Runo and Paternoster are the largest,
belong to this government. It covers an area of 18,160 sq. m., but of
this the part of Lake Peipus which belongs to it occupies 1090. Its
surface is diversified by several plateaus, those of Haanhof and of the
Livonian Aa having an average elevation of 400 to 700 ft., while several
summits reach 800 to 1000 ft. or more. The edges of the plateaus are
gapped by deep valleys; the hilly tract between the Dvina and its
tributary the Livonian Aa has received, from its picturesque narrow
valleys, thick forests and numerous lakes, the name of "Livonian
Switzerland." The plateau of Odenpäh, drained by tributaries of the
Embach river, which flows for 93 m. from Lake Virz-yärvi into Lake
Peipus, occupies an area of 2830 sq. m., and has an average elevation of
500 ft. More than a thousand lakes are scattered over Livonia, of which
that of Virz-yärvi, having a surface of 106 sq. m. (115 ft. above
sea-level), is the largest. Marshes and peat-bogs occupy one-tenth of
the province. Of the numerous rivers, the Dvina, which flows for 90 m.
along its frontier, the Pernau, Salis, Livonian Aa and Embach are
navigable.

The Silurian formation which covers Esthonia, appears in the northern
part of Livonia, the remainder of the province consisting of Devonian
strata. The whole is overlaid with glacial deposits, sometimes 400 ft.
thick. The typical bottom moraine, with erratics from Finland, extends
all over the country. Glacial furrows, striae and elongated troughs are
met with everywhere, running mostly from north-west to south-east, as
well as _asar_ or _eskérs_, which have the same direction. Sand-dunes
cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic. No traces of marine
deposits are found higher than 100 or 150 ft. above the present
sea-level. The soil is not very fertile. Forests cover about two-fifths
of the surface. The climate is rather severe. The mean temperatures are
43° F. at Riga (winter 23°, summer 63°) and 40° at Yuriev. The winds are
very variable; the average number of rainy and snowy days is 146 at Riga
(rainfall 24.1 in.). Fogs are not uncommon.

The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876
in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4% were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts,
7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles. The estimated pop.
in 1906 was 1,411,000. The Livs, who formerly extended east into the
government of Vitebsk, have nearly all passed away. Their native
language, of Finnish origin, is rapidly disappearing, their present
language being a Lettish patois. In 1846 a grammar and dictionary of it
were made with difficulty from the mouths of old people. The Ehsts, who
resemble the Finns of Tavastland, have maintained their ethnic features,
their customs, national traditions, songs and poetry, and their
harmonious language. There is a marked revival of national feeling,
favoured by "Young Esthonia." The prevailing religion is the Lutheran
(79.8%); 14.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; of the Russians,
however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists); the
Roman Catholics amount to 2.3%, and the Jews to 2%. The Russian civil
code was introduced in the Baltic provinces in 1835, and the use of
Russian, instead of German, in official correspondence and in law
courts was ordered in 1867, but not generally brought into practice.

  Nearly all the soil belongs to the nobility, the extent of the
  peasants' estates being only 15% of the entire area of the government.
  Serfdom was abolished in 1819, but the peasants remained under the
  jurisdiction of their landlords. The class of peasant proprietors
  being restricted to a small number of wealthy peasants, the bulk have
  remained tenants at will; they are very miserable, and about
  one-fourth of them are continually wandering in search of work. From
  time to time the emigration takes the shape of a mass movement, which
  the government stops by forcible measures. The average size of the
  landed estates is 9500 to 11,000 acres, far above the general average
  for Russia. Agriculture has reached a high degree of perfection on the
  estates of the landlords. The principal crops are rye, oats, barley,
  flax and potatoes, with some wheat, hemp and buckwheat. Dairy-farming
  and gardening are on the increase. Fishing in Lake Peipus gives
  occupation to nearly 100,000 persons, and is also carried on in the
  Gulf of Riga and in the rivers. Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills,
  steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery
  works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware
  works are among the chief industrial establishments. Livonia carries
  on a large export trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in
  petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax, linseed, hemp, grain, timber and
  wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade.

  Education stands on a much higher level than elsewhere in Russia, no
  less than 87% of the children receiving regular instruction. The
  higher educational institutions include Yuriev (Dorpat) University,
  Riga polytechnic and a high school for the clergy.

  The government is divided into nine districts, the chief towns of
  which, with their populations in 1897, are: Riga, capital of the
  government (282,943); Arensburg, in the island of Oesel (4621); Yuriev
  or Dorpat (42,421); Fellin (7659); Pernau (12,856); Walk (10,139);
  Wenden (6327); Werro (4154); and Wolmar (5124). The capital of the
  government is Riga.

Coins of the time of Alexander the Great, found on the island of Oesel,
show that the coasts of the Baltic were at an early period in commercial
relation with the civilized world. The chronicle of Nestor mentions as
inhabitants of the Baltic coast the Chudes, the Livs, the Narova,
Letgola, Semigallians and Kors. It was probably about the 9th century
that the Chudes became tributary to the Varangian-Russian states. As
they reacquired their independence, Yaroslav I. undertook in 1030 a
campaign against them, and founded Yuriev (Dorpat). The Germans first
penetrated into Livonia in the 11th century, and in 1158 several Lübeck
and Visby merchants landed at the mouth of the Dvina. In 1186 the
emissaries of the archbishop of Bremen began to preach Christianity
among the Ehsts and Letts, and in 1201 the bishop of Livonia established
his residence at Riga. In 1202 or 1204 Innocent III. recognized the
order of Brothers of the Sword, the residence of its grand master being
at Wenden; and the order, spreading the Christian religion by the sword
among the natives, carried on from that time a series of uninterrupted
wars against the Russian republics and Lithuania, as well as a struggle
against the archbishop of Riga, Riga having become a centre for trade,
intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov
and Polotsk. The first active interference of Lithuania in the affairs
of Livonia took place immediately after the great outbreak of the
peasants on Oesel; Olgierd then devastated all southern Livonia. The
order, having purchased the Danish part of Esthonia, in 1347, began a
war against the bishop of Riga, as well as against Lithuania, Poland and
Russia. The wars against those powers were terminated respectively in
1435, 1466 and 1483. About the end of the 15th century the master of the
order, Plettenberg, acquired a position of great importance, and in 1527
he was recognized as a prince of the empire by Charles V. On the other
hand, the authority of the bishops of Riga was soon completely destroyed
(1566). The war of the order with Ivan IV. of Russia in 1558 led to a
division of Livonia, its northern part, Dorpat included, being taken by
Russia, and the southern part falling under the dominion of Poland. From
that time (1561) Livonia formed a subject of dispute between Poland and
Russia, the latter only formally abdicating its rights to the country in
1582. In 1621 it was the theatre of a war between Poland and Sweden, and
was conquered by the latter power, enjoying thus for twenty-five years a
milder rule. In 1654, and again at the beginning of the 18th century, it
became the theatre of war between Poland, Russia and Sweden, and was
finally conquered by Russia. The official concession was confirmed by
the treaty of Nystad in 1721.

  See E. Seraphim, _Geschichte Liv-, Esth-, und Kurlands_ (2nd ed.,
  Revel, 1897-1904) and _Geschichte von Livland_ (Gotha, 1905, &c.).
       (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



LIVY [TITUS LIVIUS] (59 B.C.-A.D. 17), Roman historian, was born at
Patavium (Padua). The ancient connexion between his native city and Rome
helped to turn his attention to the study which became the work of his
life. For Padua claimed, like Rome, a Trojan origin, and Livy is careful
to place its founder Antenor side by side with Aeneas. A more real bond
of union was found in the dangers to which both had been exposed from
the assaults of the Celts (Livy x. 2), and Padua must have been drawn to
Rome as the conqueror of her hereditary foes. Moreover, at the time of
Livy's birth, Padua had long been in possession of the full Roman
franchise, and the historian's family name may have been taken by one of
his ancestors out of compliment to the great Livian gens at Rome, whose
connexion with Cisalpine Gaul is well-established (Suet. _Tib._ 3), and
by one of whom his family may have been enfranchized.

Livy's easy independent life at Rome, and his aristocratic leanings in
politics seem to show that he was the son of well-born and opulent
parents; he was certainly well educated, being widely read in Greek
literature, and a student both of rhetoric and philosophy. We have also
evidence in his writings that he had prepared himself for his great work
by researches into the history of his native town. His youth and early
manhood, spent perhaps chiefly at Padua, were cast in stormy times, and
the impression which they left upon his mind was ineffaceable. In the
Civil War his personal sympathies were with Pompey and the republican
party (Tac. _Ann._ iv. 34); but far more lasting in its effects was his
experience of the licence, anarchy and confusion of these dark days. The
rule of Augustus he seems to have accepted as a necessity, but he could
not, like Horace and Virgil, welcome it as inaugurating a new and
glorious era. He writes of it with despondency as a degenerate and
declining age; and, instead of triumphant prophecies of world-wide rule,
such as we find in Horace, Livy contents himself with pointing out the
dangers which already threatened Rome, and exhorting his contemporaries
to learn, in good time, the lessons which the past history of the state
had to teach.

It was probably about the time of the battle of Actium that Livy
established himself in Rome, and there he seems chiefly to have resided
until his retirement to Padua shortly before his death. We have no
evidence that he travelled much, though he must have paid at least one
visit to Campania (xxxviii. 56), and he never, so far as we know, took
any part in political life. Nor, though he enjoyed the personal
friendship and patronage of Augustus (Tac. _Ann._ iv. 34) and stimulated
the historical zeal of the future emperor Claudius (Suet. _Claud._
xli.), can we detect in him anything of the courtier. There is not in
his history a trace of that rather gross adulation in which even Virgil
does not disdain to indulge. His republican sympathies were freely
expressed, and as freely pardoned by Augustus. We must imagine him
devoted to the great task which he had set himself to perform, with a
mind free from all disturbing cares, and in the enjoyment of all the
facilities for study afforded by the Rome of Augustus, with its liberal
encouragement of letters, its newly-founded libraries and its brilliant
literary circles. As his work went on, the fame which he had never
coveted came to him in ample measure. He is said to have declared in one
volume of his history that he had already won glory enough, and the
younger Pliny (_Epist._ ii. 3) relates that a Spaniard came all the way
from Gades merely to see him, and, this accomplished, at once returned
home satisfied. The accession of Tiberius (A.D. 14) materially altered
for the worse the prospects of literature in Rome, and Livy retired to
Padua, where he died. He had at least one son (Quintil. x. 1. 39), who
also was possibly an author (Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ i. 5. 6), and a
daughter married to a certain L. Magius, a rhetorician of no great merit
(Seneca, _Controv._ x. 29. 2). Nothing further is known of his personal
history.

_Analysis of the History._--For us the interest of Livy's life centres
in the work to which the greater part of it was devoted, the history of
Rome from its foundation down to the death of Drusus (9 B.C.). Its
proper title was _Ab urbe condita libri_ (also called _historiae_ and
_annales_). Various indications point to the period from 27 to 20 B.C.,
as that during which the first decade was written. In the first book
(19. 3) the emperor is called Augustus, a title which he assumed early
in 27 B.C., and in ix. 18 the omission of all reference to the
restoration, in 20 B.C., of the standards taken at Carrhae seems to
justify the inference that the passage was written before that date. In
the epitome of book lix. there is a reference to a law of Augustus which
was passed in 18 B.C. The books dealing with the civil wars must have
been written during Augustus's lifetime, as they were read by him (Tac.
_Ann._ iv. 34), while there is some evidence that the last part, from
book cxxi. onwards, was published after his death A.D. 14.

The work begins with the landing of Aeneas in Italy, and closes with the
death of Drusus, 9 B.C., though it is possible that the author intended
to continue it as far as the death of Augustus. The division into
decades is certainly not due to the author himself, and is first heard
of at the end of the 5th century; on the other hand, the division into
_libri_ or _volumina_ seems to be original. That the books were grouped
and possibly published in sets is rendered probable both by the prefaces
which introduce new divisions of the work (vi. 1, xxi. 1, xxxi. 1) and
by the description in one MS. of books cix.-cxvi. as "bellorum civilium
libri octo." Such arrangement and publication in parts were, moreover,
common with ancient authors, and in the case of a lengthy work almost a
necessity.

Of the 142 _libri_ composing the history, the first 15 carry us down to
the eve of the great struggle with Carthage, a period, as Livy reckons
it, of 488 years (xxxi. 1); 15 more (xvi-xxx.) cover the 63 years of the
two great Punic wars. With the close of book xlv. we reach the conquest
of Macedonia in 167 B.C. Book lviii. described the tribunate of Tiberius
Gracchus, 133 B.C. In book lxxxix. we have the dictatorship of Sulla (81
B.C.), in ciii. Caesar's first consulship (59 B.C.), in cix.-cxvi. the
civil wars to the death of Caesar (44 B.C.), in cxxiv. the defeat of
Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, in cxxxiii. and cxxxiv. the battle of
Actium and the accession of Augustus. The remaining eight books give the
history of the first twenty years of Augustus's reign.

Of this vast work only a small portion has come down to modern times;
only thirty-five books are now extant (i.-x., xxi.-xlv.), and of these
xli. and xliii. are incomplete. The lost books seem to have disappeared
between the 7th century and the revival of letters in the 15th--a fact
sufficiently accounted for by the difficulty of transmitting so
voluminous a work in times when printing was unknown, for the story that
Pope Gregory I. burnt all the copies of Livy he could lay his hands on
rests on no good evidence. Only one important fragment has since been
recovered--the portion of book xci. discovered in the Vatican in 1772,
and edited by Niebuhr in 1820. Very much no doubt of the substance of
the lost books has been preserved both by such writers as Plutarch and
Dio Cassius, and by epitomizers like Florus and Eutropius. But our
knowledge of their contents is chiefly derived from the so-called
_periochae_ or epitomes, of which we have fortunately a nearly complete
series, the epitomes of books cxxxvi. and cxxxvii. being the only ones
missing.[1] These epitomes have been ascribed without sufficient reason
to Florus (2nd century); but, though they are probably of even later
date, and are disappointingly meagre, they may be taken as giving, so
far as they go, a fairly authentic description of the original. They
have been expanded with great ingenuity and learning by Freinsheim in
Drakenborch's edition of Livy.[2] The _Prodigio_ of Julius Obsequens and
the list of consuls in the _Chronica_ of Cassiodorus are taken directly
from Livy, and to that extent reproduce the contents of the lost books.
It is probable that Obsequens, Cassiodorus and the compiler of the
epitomes did not use the original work but an abridgment.

_Historical Standpoint._--If we are to form a correct judgment on the
merits of Livy's history, we must, above all things, bear in mind what
his aim was in writing it, and this he has told us himself in the
celebrated preface. He set himself the task of recording the history of
the Roman people, "the first in the world," from the beginning. The task
was a great one, and the fame to be won by it uncertain, yet it would
be something to have made the attempt, and the labour itself would bring
a welcome relief from the contemplation of present evils; for his
readers, too, this record will, he says, be full of instruction; they
are invited to note especially the moral lessons taught by the story of
Rome, to observe how Rome rose to greatness by the simple virtues and
unselfish devotion of her citizens, and how on the decay of these
qualities followed degeneracy and decline.

He does not, therefore, write, as Polybius wrote, for students of
history. With Polybius the greatness of Rome is a phenomenon to be
critically studied and scientifically explained; the rise of Rome forms
an important chapter in universal history, and must be dealt with, not
as an isolated fact, but in connexion with the general march of events
in the civilized world. Still less has Livy anything in common with the
naïve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his
fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in
origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.

Livy writes as a Roman, to raise a monument worthy of the greatness of
Rome, and to keep alive, for the guidance and the warning of Romans, the
recollection alike of the virtues which had made Rome great and of the
vices which had threatened her with destruction. In so writing he was in
close agreement with the traditions of Roman literature, as well as with
the conception of the nature and objects of history current in his time.
To a large extent Roman literature grew out of pride in Rome, for,
though her earliest authors took the form and often the language of
their writings from Greece, it was the greatness of Rome that inspired
the best of them, and it was from the annals of Rome that their themes
were taken. And this is naturally true in an especial sense of the Roman
historians; the long list of annalists begins at the moment when the
great struggle with Carthage had for the first time brought Rome into
direct connexion with the historic peoples of the ancient world, and
when Romans themselves awoke to the importance of the part reserved for
Rome to play in universal history. To write the annals of Rome became at
once a task worthy of the best of her citizens. Though other forms of
literature might be thought unbecoming to the dignity of a free-born
citizen, this was never so with history. On the contrary, men of high
rank and tried statesmanship were on that very account thought all the
fitter to write the chronicles of the state they had served. And history
in Rome never lost either its social prestige or its intimate and
exclusive connexion with the fortunes of the Roman people. It was well
enough for Greeks to busy themselves with the manners, institutions and
deeds of the "peoples outside." The Roman historians, from Fabius Pictor
to Tacitus, cared for none of these things. This exclusive interest in
Rome was doubtless encouraged by the peculiar characteristics of the
history of the state. The Roman annalist had not, like the Greek, to
deal with the varying fortunes and separate doings of a number of petty
communities, but with the continuous life of a single city. Nor was his
attention drawn from the main lines of political history by the claims
of art, literature and philosophy, for just as the tie which bound
Romans together was that of citizenship, not of race or culture, so the
history of Rome is that of the state, of its political constitution, its
wars and conquests, its military and administrative system.

Livy's own circumstances were all such as to render these views natural
to him. He began to write at a time when, after a century of
disturbance, the mass of men had been contented to purchase peace at the
price of liberty. The present was at least inglorious, the future
doubtful, and many turned gladly to the past for consolation. This
retrospective tendency was favourably regarded by the government. It was
the policy of Augustus to obliterate all traces of recent revolution,
and to connect the new imperial régime as closely as possible with the
ancient traditions and institutions of Rome and Italy. The _Aeneid_ of
Virgil, the _Fasti_ of Ovid, suited well with his own restoration of the
ancient temples, his revival of such ancient ceremonies as the Ludi
Saeculares, his efforts to check the un-Roman luxury of the day, and his
jealous regard for the purity of the Roman stock. And, though we are
nowhere told that Livy undertook his history at the emperor's
suggestion, it is certain that Augustus read parts of it with pleasure,
and even honoured the writer with his assistance and friendship.

Livy was deeply penetrated with a sense of the greatness of Rome. From
first to last its majesty and high destiny are present to his mind.
Aeneas is led to Italy by the Fates that he may be the founder of Rome.
Romulus after his ascension declares it to be the will of heaven that
Rome should be mistress of the world; and Hannibal marches into Italy,
that he may "set free the world" from Roman rule. But, if this
ever-present consciousness often gives dignity and elevation to his
narrative, it is also responsible for some of its defects. It leads him
occasionally into exaggerated language (e.g. xxii. 33, "nullius usquam
terrarum rei cura Romanos effugiebat"), or into such mis-statements as
his explanation of the course taken by the Romans in renewing war with
Carthage, that "it seemed more suitable to the dignity of the Roman
people." Often his jealousy for the honour of Rome makes him unfair and
one-sided. In all her wars not only success but justice is with Rome. To
the same general attitude is also due the omission by Livy of all that
has no direct bearing on the fortunes of the Roman people. "I have
resolved," he says (xxxix. 48), "only to touch on foreign affairs so far
as they are bound up with those of Rome." As the result, we get from
Livy very defective accounts even of the Italic peoples most closely
connected with Rome. Of the past history and the internal condition of
the more distant nations she encountered he tells us little or nothing,
even when he found such details carefully given by Polybius.

Scarcely less strong than his interest in Rome is his interest in the
moral lessons which her history seemed to him so well qualified to
teach. This didactic view of history was a prevalent one in antiquity,
and it was confirmed no doubt by those rhetorical studies which in Rome
as in Greece formed the chief part of education, and which taught men to
look on history as little more than a storehouse of illustrations and
themes for declamation. But it suited also the practical bent of the
Roman mind, with its comparative indifference to abstract speculation or
purely scientific research. It is in the highest degree natural that
Livy should have sought for the secret of the rise of Rome, not in any
large historical causes, but in the moral qualities of the people
themselves, and that he should have looked upon the contemplation of
these as the best remedy for the vices of his own degenerate days. He
dwells with delight on the unselfish patriotism of the old heroes of the
republic. In those times children obeyed their parents, the gods were
still sincerely worshipped, poverty was no disgrace, sceptical
philosophies and foreign fashions in religion and in daily life were
unknown. But this ethical interest is closely bound up with his Roman
sympathies. His moral ideal is no abstract one, and the virtues he
praises are those which in his view made up the truly Roman type of
character. The prominence thus given to the moral aspects of the history
tends to obscure in some degree the true relations and real importance
of the events narrated, but it does so in Livy to a far less extent than
in some other writers. He is much too skilful an artist either to
resolve his history into a mere bundle of examples, or to overload it,
as Tacitus is sometimes inclined to do, with reflections and axioms. The
moral he wishes to enforce is usually either conveyed by the story
itself, with the aid perhaps of a single sentence of comment, or put as
a speech into the mouth of one of his characters (e.g. xxiii. 49; the
devotion of Decius, viii. 10, cf. vii. 40; and the speech of Camillus,
v. 54); and what little his narrative thus loses in accuracy it gains in
dignity and warmth of feeling. In his portraits of the typical Romans of
the old style, such as Q. Fabius Maximus, in his descriptions of the
unshaken firmness and calm courage shown by the fathers of the state in
the hour of trial, Livy is at his best; and he is so largely in virtue
of his genuine appreciation of character as a powerful force in the
affairs of men.

This enthusiasm for Rome and for Roman virtues is, moreover, saved from
degenerating into gross partiality by the genuine candour of Livy's mind
and by his wide sympathies with every thing great and good. Seneca
(_Suasoriae_ vi. 22) and Quintilian (x. 1. 101) bear witness to his
impartiality. Thus, Hasdrubal's devotion and valour at the battle on the
Metaurus are described in terms of eloquent praise; and even in
Hannibal, the lifelong enemy of Rome, he frankly recognizes the great
qualities that balanced his faults. Nor, though his sympathies are
unmistakably with the aristocratic party, does he scruple to censure the
pride, cruelty and selfishness which too often marked their conduct (ii.
54; the speech of Canuleius, iv. 3; of Sextius and Licinius, vi. 36);
and, though he feels acutely that the times are out of joint, and has
apparently little hope of the future, he still believes in justice and
goodness. He is often righteously indignant, but never satirical, and
such a pessimism as that of Tacitus and Juvenal is wholly foreign to his
nature.

Though he studied and even wrote on philosophy (Seneca, _Ep._ 100. 9),
Livy is by no means a philosophic historian. We learn indeed from
incidental notices that he inclined to Stoicism and disliked the
Epicurean system. With the scepticism that despised the gods (x. 40) and
denied that they meddled with the affairs of men (xliii. 13) he has no
sympathy. The immortal gods are everywhere the same; they govern the
world (xxxvii. 45) and reveal the future to men by signs and wonders
(xliii. 13), but only a debased superstition will look for their hand in
every petty incident, or abandon itself to an indiscriminate belief in
the portents and miracles in which popular credulity delights. The
ancient state religion of Rome, with its temples, priests and auguries,
he not only reverences as an integral part of the Roman constitution,
with a sympathy which grows as he studies it, but, like Varro, and in
true Stoic fashion, he regards it as a valuable instrument of government
(i. 19. 21), indispensable in a well-ordered community. As distinctly
Stoical is the doctrine of a fate to which even the gods must yield (ix.
4), which disposes the plans of men (i. 42) and blinds their minds (v.
37), yet leaves their wills free (xxxvii. 45).

But we find no trace in Livy of any systematic application of philosophy
to the facts of history. He is as innocent of the leading ideas which
shaped the work of Polybius as he is of the cheap theorizing which
wearies us in the pages of Dionysius. The events are graphically, if not
always accurately, described; but of the larger causes at work in
producing them, of their subtle action and reaction upon each other, and
of the general conditions amid which the history worked itself out, he
takes no thought at all. Nor has Livy much acquaintance with either the
theory or the practice of politics. He exhibits, it is true, political
sympathies and antipathies. He is on the whole for the nobles and
against the commons; and, though the unfavourable colours in which he
paints the leaders of the latter are possibly reflected from the
authorities he followed, it is evident that he despised and disliked the
multitude. Of monarchy he speaks with a genuine Roman hatred, and we
know that in the last days of the republic his sympathies were wholly
with those who strove in vain to save it. He betrays, too, an insight
into the evils which were destined finally to undermine the imposing
fabric of Roman empire. The decline of the free population, the spread
of slavery (vi. 12, vii. 25), the universal craving for wealth (iii.
26), the employment of foreign mercenaries (xxv. 33), the corruption of
Roman race and Roman manners by mixture with aliens (xxxix. 3), are all
noticed in tones of solemn warning. But his retired life had given him
no wide experience of men and things. It is not surprising, therefore,
to find that he fails altogether to present a clear and coherent picture
of the history and working of the Roman constitution, or that his
handling of intricate questions of policy is weak and inadequate.

_Sources._--If from the general aim and spirit of Livy's history we pass
to consider his method of workmanship, we are struck at once by the very
different measure of success attained by him in the two great
departments of an historian's labour. He is a consummate artist, but an
unskilled and often careless investigator and critic. The materials
which lay ready to his hand may be roughly classed under two heads: (1)
the original evidence of monuments, inscriptions, &c., (2) the written
tradition as found in the works of previous authors. It is on the second
of these two kinds of evidence that Livy almost exclusively relies. Yet
that even for the very early times a certain amount of original evidence
still existed is proved by the use which was made of it by Dionysius,
who mentions at least three important inscriptions, two dating from the
regal period and one from the first years of the republic (iv. 26, iv.
58, x. 32). We know from Livy himself (iv. 20) that the breastplate
dedicated by Aulus Cornelius Cossus (428 B.C.) was to be seen in his own
day in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, nor is there any reason to
suppose that the _libri lintei_, quoted by Licinius Macer, were not
extant when Livy wrote. For more recent times the materials were
plentiful, and a rich field of research lay open to the student in the
long series of laws, decrees of the senate, and official registers,
reaching back, as it probably did, at least to the beginning of the 3rd
century B.C. Nevertheless it seems certain that Livy never realized the
duty of consulting these relics of the past, even in order to verify the
statements of his authorities. Many of them he never mentions; the
others (e.g. the _libri lintei_) he evidently describes at second hand.
Antiquarian studies were popular in his day, but the instances are very
few in which he has turned their results to account. There is no sign
that he had ever read Varro; and he never alludes to Verrius Flaccus.
The haziness and inaccuracy of his topography make it clear that he did
not attempt to familiarize himself with the actual scenes of events even
that took place in Italy. Not only does he confuse Thermon, the capital
of Aetolia, with Thermopylae (xxxiii. 35), but his accounts of the Roman
campaigns against Volsci, Aequi and Samnites swarm with confusions and
difficulties; nor are even his descriptions of Hannibal's movements free
from an occasional vagueness which betrays the absence of an exact
knowledge of localities.

  The consequence of this indifference to original research and patient
  verification might have been less serious had the written tradition on
  which Livy preferred to rely been more trustworthy. But neither the
  materials out of which it was composed, nor the manner in which it had
  been put together, were such as to make it a safe guide. It was indeed
  represented by a long line of respectable names. The majority of the
  Roman annalists were men of high birth and education, with a long
  experience of affairs, and their defects did not arise from seclusion
  of life or ignorance of letters. It is rather in the conditions under
  which they wrote and in the rules and traditions of their craft that
  the causes of their shortcomings must be sought.


    The Annalists.

  It was not until the 6th century from the foundation of the city that
  historical writing began in Rome. The father of Roman history, Q.
  Fabius Pictor, a patrician and a senator, can scarcely have published
  his annals before the close of the Second Punic War, but these annals
  covered the whole period from the arrival of Evander in Italy down at
  least to the battle by Lake Trasimene (217 B.C.). Out of what
  materials, then, did he put together his account of the earlier
  history? Recent criticism has succeeded in answering this question
  with some degree of certainty. A careful examination of the fragments
  of Fabius (see H. Peter, _Historicorum Romanorum Relliquiae_, Leipzig,
  1870; and C. W. Nitzsch, _Röm. Annalistik_, Berlin, 1873) reveals in
  the first place a marked difference between the kingly period and that
  which followed the establishment of the republic. The history of the
  former stretches back into the regions of pure mythology. It is little
  more than a collection of fables told with scarcely any attempt at
  criticism, and with no more regard to chronological sequence than was
  necessary to make the tale run smoothly or to fill up such gaps as
  that between the flight of Aeneas from Troy and the supposed year of
  the foundation of Rome. But from its very commencement the history of
  the republic wears a different aspect. The mass of floating tradition,
  which had come down from early days, with its tales of border raids
  and forays, of valiant chiefs and deeds of patriotism, is now rudely
  fitted into a framework of a wholly different kind. This framework
  consists of short notices of important events, wars, prodigies,
  consecration of temples, &c., all recorded with extreme brevity,
  precisely dated, and couched in a somewhat archaic style. They were
  taken probably from one or more of the state registers, such as the
  annals of the pontiffs, or those kept by the aediles in the temple of
  Ceres. This bare official outline of the past history of his city was
  by Fabius filled in from the rich store of tradition that lay ready to
  his hand. The manner and spirit in which he effected this combination
  were no doubt wholly uncritical. Usually he seems to have transferred
  both annalistic notices and popular traditions to his pages much in
  the shape in which he found them. But he unquestionably gave undue
  prominence to the tales of the prowess and glory of the Fabii, and
  probably also allowed his own strong aristocratic sympathies to colour
  his version of the early political controversies. This fault of
  partiality was, according to Polybius, a conspicuous blot in Fabius's
  account of his own times, which was, we are told, full and in the main
  accurate, and, like the earlier portions, consisted of official
  annalistic notices, supplemented, however, not from tradition, but
  from his own experience and from contemporary sources. But even here
  Polybius charges him with favouring Rome at the expense of Carthage,
  and with the undue exaltation of the great head of his house, Q.
  Fabius Cunctator.

  Nevertheless the comparative fidelity with which Fabius seems to have
  reproduced his materials might have made his annals the starting point
  of a critical history. But unfortunately intelligent criticism was
  exactly what they never received. It is true that in some respects a
  decided advance upon Fabius was made by subsequent annalists. M.
  Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C.) widened the scope of Roman history so as
  to include that of the chief Italian cities, and made the first
  serious attempt to settle the chronology. In his history of the Punic
  wars Caelius Antipater (c. 130 B.C.) added fresh material, drawn
  probably from the works of the Sicilian Greek Silenus, while Licinius
  Macer (70 B.C.) distinguished himself by the use he made of the
  ancient "linen books." No doubt, too, the later annalists, at any rate
  from Caelius Antipater onwards, improved upon Fabius in treatment and
  style. But in more essential points we can discern no progress. One
  annalist after another quietly adopted the established tradition, as
  it had been left by his predecessors, without any serious alterations
  of its main outlines. Of independent research and critical analysis we
  find no trace, and the general agreement upon main facts is to be
  attributed simply to the regularity with which each writer copied the
  one before him. But, had the later annalists contented themselves with
  simply reproducing the earlier ones, we should at least have had the
  old tradition before us in a simple and tolerably genuine form. As it
  was, while they slavishly clung to its substance, they succeeded, as a
  rule, in destroying all traces of its original form and colouring. L.
  Calpurnius Piso, tribune in 149 B.C. and consul in 133 B.C., prided
  himself on reducing the old legends to the level of common sense, and
  importing into them valuable moral lessons for his own generation. By
  Caelius Antipater the methods of rhetoric were first applied to
  history, a disastrous precedent enough. He inserted speeches,
  enlivened his pages with chance tales, and aimed, as Cicero tells us,
  at not merely narrating facts but also at beautifying them. His
  successors carried still farther the practice of dressing up the
  rather bald chronicles of earlier writers with all the ornaments of
  rhetoric. The old traditions were altered, almost beyond the
  possibility of recognition, by exaggerations, interpolations and
  additions. Fresh incidents were inserted, new motives suggested and
  speeches composed in order to infuse the required life and freshness
  into these dry bones of history. At the same time the political bias
  of the writers, and the political ideas of their day were allowed, in
  some cases perhaps half unconsciously, to affect their representations
  of past events. Annalists of the Gracchan age imported into the early
  struggles of patricians and plebeians the economic controversies of
  their own day, and painted the first tribunes in the colours of the
  two Gracchi or of Saturninus. In the next generation they dexterously
  forced the venerable records of the early republic to pronounce in
  favour of the ascendancy of the senate, as established by Sulla. To
  political bias was added family pride, for the gratification of which
  the archives of the great houses, the funeral panegyrics, or the
  imagination of the writer himself supplied an ample store of doubtful
  material. Pedigrees were invented, imaginary consulships and
  fictitious triumphs inserted, and family traditions and family honours
  were formally incorporated with the history of the state.

  Things were not much better even where the annalists were dealing with
  recent or contemporary events. Here, indeed, their materials were
  naturally fuller and more trustworthy, and less room was left for
  fanciful decoration and capricious alteration of the facts. But their
  methods are in the main unchanged. What they found written they
  copied; the gaps they supplied, where personal experience failed, by
  imagination. No better proof of this can be given than a comparison of
  the annalist's version of history with that of Polybius. In the fourth
  and fifth decades of Livy the two appear side by side, and the
  contrast between them is striking. Polybius, for instance, gives the
  number of the slain at Cynoscephalae as 8000; the annalists raise it
  as high as 40,000 (Livy xxxiii. 10). In another case (xxxii. 6)
  Valerius Antias, the chief of sinners in this respect, inserts a
  decisive Roman victory over the Macedonians, in which 12,000 of the
  latter were slain and 2200 taken prisoner, an achievement recorded by
  no other authority.

  Such was the written tradition on which Livy mainly relied. We have
  next to examine the manner in which he used it, and here we are met at
  the outset by the difficulty of determining with exactness what
  authorities he is following at any one time; for of the importance of
  full and accurate references he has no idea, and often for chapters
  together he gives us no clue at all. More often still he contents
  himself with such vague phrases as "they say," "the story goes," "some
  think," or speaks in general terms of "ancient writers" or "my
  authorities." Even where he mentions a writer by name, it is
  frequently clear that the writer named is not the one whose lead he is
  following at the moment, but that he is noticed incidentally as
  differing from Livy's guide for the time being on some point of detail
  (compare the references to Piso in the first decade, i. 55, ii. 32,
  &c.). It is very rarely that Livy explicitly tells us whom he has
  selected as his chief source (e.g. Fabius xxii. 7; Polybius xxxiii.
  10). By a careful analysis, however, of those portions of his work
  which admit of a comparison with the text of his acknowledged
  authorities (e.g. fourth and fifth decades, see H. Nissen,
  _Untersuchungen_, Berlin, 1863), and elsewhere by comparing his
  version with the known fragments of the various annalists, and with
  what we are told of their style and method of treatment, we are able
  to form a general idea of his plan of procedure. As to the first
  decade, it is generally agreed that in the first and second books, at
  any rate, he follows such older and simpler writers as Fabius Pictor
  and Calpurnius Piso (the only ones whom he there refers to by name),
  to whom, so far as the first book is concerned, Niebuhr (_Lectures_,
  p. 33) would add the poet Ennius. With the close of the second book or
  the opening of the third we come upon the first traces of the use of
  later authors. Valerius Antias[3] is first quoted in iii. 5, and signs
  of his handiwork are visible here and there throughout the rest of the
  decade (vii. 36, ix. 27, x. 3-5). In the fourth book the principal
  authority is apparently Licinius Macer, and for the period following
  the sack of Rome by the Gauls Q. Claudius Quadrigarius, whose annals
  began at this point in the history. We have besides a single reference
  (vii. 3) to the antiquarian Cincius, and two (iv. 23, x. 9) to Q.
  Aelius Tubero, one of the last in the list of annalists. Passing to
  the third decade, we find ourselves at once confronted by a question
  which has been long and fully discussed--the relation between Livy and
  Polybius. Did Livy use Polybius at all, and, if so, to what extent?


    Polybius.

  It is conceded on all hands that Livy in this decade makes
  considerable use of other authorities than Polybius (e.g. Fabius xxii.
  7; Caelius Antipater xxi. 38, 46, 47, xxii. 31, &c.), that he only
  once mentions Polybius (xxx. 45), and that, if he used him, he did so
  to a much less extent than in the fourth and fifth decades, and in a
  very different manner. It is also agreed that we can detect in Livy's
  account of the Hannibalic war two distinct elements, derived
  originally, the one from a Roman, the other from a non-Roman source.
  But from these generally accepted premises two opposite conclusions
  have been drawn. On the one hand, it is maintained (e.g. by Lachmann,
  C. Peter, H. Peter, _Hist. Rom. Relliq._) that those parts of Livy's
  narrative which point to a non-Roman authority (e.g. Hannibal's
  movements prior to his invasion of Italy) are taken by Livy directly
  from Polybius, with occasional reference of course to other writers,
  and with the omission (as in the later decades) of all matters
  uninteresting to Livy or his Roman readers, and the addition of
  rhetorical touches and occasional comments. It is urged that Livy, who
  in the fourth and fifth decades shows himself so sensible of the great
  merits of Polybius, is not likely to have ignored him in the third,
  and that his more limited use of him in the latter case is fully
  accounted for by the closer connexion of the history with Rome and
  Roman affairs, and the comparative excellence of the available Roman
  authorities, and, lastly, that the points of agreement with Polybius,
  not only in matter but in expression, can only be explained on the
  theory that Livy is directly following the great Greek historian. On
  the other hand, it is maintained (especially by Schwegler, Nitzsch,
  and K. Böttcher) that the extent and nature of Livy's agreement with
  Polybius in this part of his work point rather to the use by both of a
  common original authority. It is argued that Livy's mode of using his
  authorities is tolerably uniform, and that his mode of using Polybius
  in particular is known with certainty from the later decades.
  Consequently the theory that he used Polybius in the third decade
  requires us to assume that in this one instance he departed widely,
  and without sufficient reason, from his usual course of procedure.
  Moreover, even in the passages where the agreement with Polybius is
  most apparent, there are so many discrepancies and divergencies in
  detail, and so many unaccountable omissions and additions, as to
  render it inconceivable that he had the text of Polybius before him.
  But all these are made intelligible if we suppose Livy to have been
  here following directly or indirectly the same original sources that
  were used by Polybius. The earliest of these original sources was
  probably Silenus, with whom may possibly be placed, for books xxi.
  xxii., Fabius Pictor. The latter Livy certainly used directly for some
  parts of the decade. The former he almost as certainly knew only at
  second hand, the intermediate authority being probably Caelius
  Antipater. This writer, who confined himself to a history of the
  Second Punic War, in seven books, is expressly referred to by Livy
  eleven times in the third decade; and in other passages where his name
  is not mentioned Livy can be shown to have followed him (e.g. xxii. 5,
  49, 50, 51, xxiv. 9). In the latter books of the decade his chief
  authority is possibly Valerius Antias.

  In the fourth and fifth decades the question of Livy's authorities
  presents no great difficulties, and the conclusions arrived at by
  Nissen in his masterly _Untersuchungen_ have met with general
  acceptance. These may be shortly stated as follows. In the portions of
  the history which deal with Greece and the East, Livy follows
  Polybius, and these portions are easily distinguishable from the rest
  by their superior clearness, accuracy and fulness. On the other hand,
  for the history of Italy and western Europe he falls back on Roman
  annalists, especially, it seems, on Claudius Quadrigarius and Valerius
  Antias--a most unfortunate choice--and from them too he takes the
  annalistic mould into which his matter is cast.


    Critical method.

  Livy's general method of using these authorities was certainly not
  such as would be deemed satisfactory in a modern historian. He is
  indeed free from the grosser faults of deliberate injustice and
  falsification, and he resists that temptation to invent, to which "the
  minds of authors are only too much inclined" (xxii. 7). Nor is he
  unconscious of the necessity for some kind of criticism. He
  distinguishes between rumour and the precise statements of recognized
  authorities (cf. xxi. 46, v. 21, vii. 6). The latter he reproduced in
  the main faithfully, but with a certain exercise of discretion. Where
  they disagreed, he calls attention to the fact, occasionally
  pronouncing in favour of one version rather than another (ii. 41, xxi.
  46) though often on no adequate grounds, or attempting to reconcile
  and explain discrepancies (vi. 12, 38). Where he detects or suspects
  the insertion of fabulous matter he has no scruple in saying so. Gross
  exaggerations, such as those in which Valerius Antias indulged, he
  roundly denounces, and with equal plainness of speech he condemns the
  family vanity which had so constantly corrupted and distorted the
  truth. "I suppose," he says (viii. 40), "that the record and memorial
  of these matters hath been depraved and corrupted by these funeral
  orations of praises, ... while every house and family draweth to it
  the honour and renown of noble exploits, martial feats and dignities
  by any untruth and lie, so it be colourable." The legendary character
  of the earliest traditions he frankly admits. "Such things as are
  reported either before or at the foundation of the city, more
  beautiful and set out with poets' fables than grounded upon pure and
  faithful records, I mean neither to aver nor disprove" (_Praef._); and
  of the whole history previous to the sack of Rome by the Gauls (390
  B.C.) he writes that it was obscure "both in regard of exceeding
  antiquity, and also for that in those days there were very few
  writings and monuments, the only faithful safeguard and true
  remembrancers of deeds past; and, besides, whatsoever was registered
  in the commentaries of the priests and in other public or private
  records, the same for the most part, when the city was burned,
  perished withal." Further than this, however, Livy's criticism does
  not go. Where his written authorities are not palpably inconsistent
  with each other or with probability he accepts and transcribes their
  record without any further inquiry, nor does he ever attempt to get
  behind this record in order to discover the original evidence on which
  it rested. His acceptance in any particular case of the version given
  by an annalist by no means implies that he has by careful inquiry
  satisfied himself of its truth. At the most it only presupposes a
  comparison with other versions, equally second-hand, but either less
  generally accepted or less in harmony with his own views of the
  situation; and in many cases the reasons he gives for his preference
  of one account over another are eminently unscientific. Livy's
  history, then, rests on no foundation of original research or even of
  careful verification. It is a compilation, and even as such it leaves
  much to be desired. For we cannot credit Livy with having made such a
  preliminary survey of his authorities as would enable him to determine
  their relations to each other, and fuse their various narratives into
  a consistent whole. It is clear, on the contrary, that his circle of
  authorities for any one decade was a comparatively small one, that of
  these he selected one, and transcribed him with the necessary
  embellishments and other slight modifications until impelled by
  various reasons to drop him. He then, without warning, takes up
  another, whom he follows in the same way. The result is a curious
  mosaic, in which pieces of all colours and dates are found side by
  side, and in which even the great artistic skill displayed throughout
  fails to conceal the lack of internal unity. Thus many of Livy's
  inconsistencies are due to his having pieced together two versions,
  each of which gave a differently coloured account of the same event.
  Mommsen (_Rom. Forschungen_, ii.) has clearly shown that this is what
  has happened in his relation of the legal proceedings against the
  elder Africanus in book xxxviii.; and in the story of the first
  secession, as he tells it, the older version which represented it as
  due to political and the later which explained it by economical
  grievances are found side by side. Similarly a change from one
  authority to another leads him not unfrequently to copy from the
  latter statements inconsistent with those he took from the former, to
  forget what he has previously said, or to treat as known a fact which
  has not been mentioned before (cf. ii. 1, xxxiv. 6, and Weissenborn's
  _Introduction_, p. 37). In other cases where the same event has been
  placed by different annalists in different years, or where their
  versions of it varied, it reappears in Livy as two events. Thus the
  four campaigns against the Volsci (ii. 17 seq.) are, as Schwegler
  (_R.G._ i. 13) rightly says, simply variations of one single
  expedition. Other instances of such "doublettes" are the two single
  combats described in xxiii. 46 and xxv. 18, and the two battles at
  Baecula in Spain (xxvii. 18 and xxviii. 13). Without doubt, too, much
  of the chronological confusion observable throughout Livy is due to
  the fact that he follows now one now another authority, heedless of
  their differences on this head. Thus he vacillates between the
  Catonian and Varronian reckoning of the years of the city, and between
  the chronologies of Polybius and the Roman annalists.

  To these defects in his method must be added the fact that he does not
  always succeed even in accurately reproducing the authority he is for
  the time following. In the case of Polybius, for instance, he allows
  himself great freedom in omitting what strikes him as irrelevant, or
  tedious, or uninteresting to his Roman readers, a process in which
  much valuable matter disappears. In other cases his desire to give a
  vividness and point to what he doubtless considered the rather bald
  and dry style of Polybius leads him into absurdities and inaccuracies.
  Thus by the treaty with Antiochus (188 B.C.) it was provided that the
  Greek communities of Asia Minor "shall settle their mutual differences
  by arbitration," and so far Livy correctly transcribes Polybius, but
  he adds with a rhetorical flourish, "or, if both parties prefer it, by
  war" (xxxviii. 38). Elsewhere his blunders are apparently due to
  haste, or ignorance or sheer carelessness; thus, for instance, when
  Polybius speaks of the Aetolians assembling at their capital Thermon,
  Livy (xxxiii. 35) not only substitutes Thermopylae but gratuitously
  informs his readers that here the Pylaean assemblies were held. Thanks
  partly to carelessness, partly to mistranslation, he makes sad havoc
  (xxxv. 5 seq.) of Polybius's account of the battle of Cynoscephalae.
  Finally, Livy cannot be altogether acquitted on the charge of having
  here and there modified Polybius in the interests of Rome.


    Speeches.

  _Style._--Serious as these defects in Livy's method appear if viewed
  in the light of modern criticism, it is probable that they were easily
  pardoned, if indeed they were ever discovered, by his contemporaries.
  For it was on the artistic rather than on the critical side of history
  that stress was almost universally laid in antiquity, and the thing
  that above all others was expected from the historian was not so much
  a scientific investigation and accurate exposition of the truth, as
  its skilful presentation in such a form as would charm and interest
  the reader. Tried by this standard, Livy deservedly won and held a
  place in the very first rank. Asinius Pollio sneered at his
  Patavinity, and the emperor Caligula denounced him as verbose, but
  with these exceptions the opinion of antiquity was unanimous in
  pronouncing him a consummate literary workman. The classical purity of
  his style, the eloquence of his speeches, the skill with which he
  depicted the play of emotion, and his masterly portraiture of great
  men, are all in turn warmly commended, and in our own day we question
  if any ancient historian is either more readable or more widely read.
  It is true that for us his artistic treatment of history is not
  without its drawbacks. The more trained historical sense of modern
  times is continually shocked by the obvious untruth of his colouring,
  especially in the earlier parts of his history, by the palpable
  unreality of many of the speeches, and by the naïveté with which he
  omits everything, however important, which he thinks will weary his
  readers. But in spite of all this we are forced to acknowledge that,
  as a master of what we may perhaps call "narrative history," he has no
  superior in antiquity; for, inferior as he is to Thucydides, to
  Polybius, and even to Tacitus in philosophic power and breadth of
  view, he is at least their equal in the skill with which he tells his
  story. He is indeed the prince of chroniclers, and in this respect not
  unworthy to be classed even with Herodotus (Quintilian, x. 1. 101).
  Nor is anything more remarkable than the way in which Livy's fine
  taste and sense of proportion, his true poetic feeling and genuine
  enthusiasm, saved him from the besetting faults of the mode of
  treatment which he adopted. The most superficial comparison of his
  account of the earliest days of Rome with that given by Dionysius
  shows from what depths of tediousness he was preserved by these
  qualities. Instead of the wearisome prolixity and the misplaced
  pedantry which make the latter almost unreadable, we find the old
  tales briefly and simply told. Their primitive beauty is not marred by
  any attempt to force them into an historical mould, or disguised
  beneath an accumulation of the insipid inventions of later times. At
  the same time they are not treated as mere tales for children, for
  Livy never forgets the dignity that belongs to them as the prelude to
  the great epic of Rome, and as consecrated by the faith of
  generations. Perhaps an even stronger proof of the skill which enabled
  Livy to avoid dangers which were fatal to weaker men is to be found in
  his speeches. We cannot indeed regard them, with the ancients, as the
  best part of his history, for the majority of them are obviously
  unhistorical, and nearly all savour somewhat too much of the
  rhetorical schools to be perfectly agreeable to modern taste. To
  appreciate them we must take them for what they are, pieces of
  declamation, intended either to enliven the course of the narrative,
  to place vividly before the reader the feelings and aims of the chief
  actors, or more frequently still to enforce some lesson which the
  author himself has at heart. The substance, no doubt, of many of them
  Livy took from his authorities, but their form is his own, and, in
  throwing into them all his own eloquence and enthusiasm, he not only
  acted in conformity with the established traditions of his art, but
  found a welcome outlet for feelings and ideas which the fall of the
  republic had deprived of all other means of expression. To us,
  therefore, they are valuable not only for their eloquence, but still
  more as giving us our clearest insight into Livy's own sentiments, his
  lofty sense of the greatness of Rome, his appreciation of Roman
  courage and firmness, and his reverence for the simple virtues of
  older times. But, freely as Livy uses this privilege of speechmaking,
  his correct taste keeps his rhetoric within reasonable limits. With a
  very few exceptions the speeches are dignified in tone, full of life
  and have at least a dramatic propriety, while of such incongruous and
  laboured absurdities as the speech which Dionysius puts into the mouth
  of Romulus, after the rape of the Sabine women, there are no instances
  in Livy.

  But, if our estimate of the merits of his speeches is moderated by
  doubts as to his right to introduce them at all, no such scruples
  interfere with our admiration for the skill with which he has drawn
  the portraits of the great men who figure in his pages. We may indeed
  doubt whether in all cases they are drawn with perfect accuracy and
  impartiality, but of their life-like vigour and clearness there can be
  no question. With Livy this portrait-painting was a labour of love.
  "To all great men," says Seneca, "he gave their due ungrudgingly," but
  he is at his best in dealing with those who, like Q. Fabius Maximus,
  "the Delayer," were in his eyes the most perfect types of the true
  Roman.

  The general effect of Livy's narrative is no doubt a little spoilt by
  the awkward arrangement, adopted from his authorities, which obliges
  him to group the events by years, and thus to disturb their natural
  relations and continuity. As the result his history has the appearance
  of being rather a series of brilliant pictures loosely strung together
  than a coherent narrative. But it is impossible not to admire the
  copious variety of thought and language, and the evenly flowing style
  which carried him safely through the dreariest periods of his history;
  and still more remarkable is the dramatic power he displays when some
  great crisis or thrilling episode stirs his blood, such as the sack of
  Rome by the Gauls, the battle by the Metaurus and the death of
  Hasdrubal.

  In style and language Livy represents the best period of Latin prose
  writing. He has passed far beyond the bald and meagre diction of the
  early chroniclers. In his hands Latin acquired a flexibility and a
  richness of vocabulary unknown to it before. If he writes with less
  finish and a less perfect rhythm than his favourite model Cicero, he
  excels him in the varied structure of his periods, and their
  adaptation to the subject-matter. It is true that here and there the
  "creamy richness" of his style becomes verbosity, and that he
  occasionally draws too freely on his inexhaustible store of epithets,
  metaphors and turns of speech; but these faults, which did not escape
  the censure even of friendly critics like Quintilian, are
  comparatively rare in the extant parts of his work. From the tendency
  to use a poetic diction in prose, which was so conspicuous a fault in
  the writers of the silver age, Livy is not wholly free. In his earlier
  books especially there are numerous phrases and sentences which have
  an unmistakably poetic ring, recalling sometimes Ennius and more often
  his contemporary Virgil. But in Livy this poetic element is kept
  within bounds, and serves only to give warmth and vividness to the
  narrative. Similarly, though the influence of rhetoric upon his
  language, as well as upon his general treatment, is clearly
  perceptible, he has not the perverted love of antithesis, paradox and
  laboured word-painting which offends us in Tacitus; and, in spite of
  the Venetian richness of his colouring, and the copious flow of his
  words, he is on the whole wonderfully natural and simple.

  These merits, not less than the high tone and easy grace of his
  narrative and the eloquence of his speeches, gave Livy a hold on Roman
  readers such as only Cicero and Virgil besides him ever obtained. His
  history formed the groundwork of nearly all that was afterwards
  written on the subject. Plutarch, writers on rhetoric like the elder
  Seneca, moralists like Valerius Maximus, went to Livy for their stock
  examples. Florus and Eutropius abridged him; Orosius extracted from
  him his proofs of the sinful blindness of the pagan world; and in
  every school Livy was firmly established as a text-book for the Roman
  youth.

  _Text._--The received text of the extant thirty-five books of Livy is
  taken from different sources, and no one of our MSS. contains them
  all. The MSS. of the first decade, some thirty in number, are with one
  exception derived, more or less directly, from a single archetype,
  viz., the recension made in the 4th century by the two Nicomachi,
  Flavianus and Dexter, and by Victorianus. This is proved in the case
  of the older MSS. by written subscriptions to that effect, and in the
  case of the rest by internal evidence. Of all these descendants of the
  Nicomachean recension, the oldest is the Codex Parisinus of the 10th
  century, and the best the Codex Mediceus or Florentinus of the 11th.
  An independent value attaches to the ancient palimpsest of Verona, of
  which the first complete account was given by Mommsen in _Abhandl. der
  preussischen Akad. der Wissenschaften_ (1868). It contains the third,
  fourth, fifth and fragments of the sixth book, and, according to
  Mommsen, whose conclusions are accepted by Madvig (_Emend. Livianae_,
  2nd ed., 1877, p. 37), it is derived, not from the Nicomachean
  recension, but from an older archetype common to both.

  For the third decade our chief authority is the Codex Puteanus, an
  uncial MS. of the 5th century, now at Paris. For the fourth we have
  two leading MSS.--Codex Bambergensis, 11th century, and the slightly
  older Codex Moguntinus, now lost and only known through the Mainz
  edition of 1518-1519. What remains of the fifth decade depends on the
  5th century Laurishamensis or Vindobonensis from the monastery of
  Lorsch, edited at Basel in 1531.

  A bibliography of the various editions of Livy, or of all that has
  been written upon him, cannot be attempted here. The following may be
  consulted for purposes of reference; W. Engelmann, _Scriptores Latini_
  (8th ed., by E. Preuss, 1882); J. E. B. Mayor, _Bibliographical Clue
  to Latin Literature_ (1875); Teuffel-Schwabe, _History of Roman
  Literature_ (Eng. trans.), 256, 257; M. Schanz, _Geschichte der
  römischen Litteratur_. ii. 1 (2nd ed., 1899). The best editions of the
  complete text are those of W. Weissenborn (1858-1862, containing an
  introductory essay on Livy's life and writings; new edition by M.
  Müller, 1902), and J. N. Madvig and J. L. Ussing (1863-1873). The only
  English translation of any merit is by Philemon Holland (1600).
       (H. F. P.; X.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For the fragments of an epitome discovered at Oxyrhynchus see J.
    S. Reid in _Classical Review_ (July, 1904); E. Kornemann, _Die neue
    Livius-Epitome aus Oxyrhynchus_, with text and commentary (Leipzig,
    1904); C. H. Moore, "The Oxyrhynchus Epitome of Livy in relation to
    Obsequens and Cassiodorus," in _American Journal of Philology_
    (1904), 241.

  [2] The various rumours once current of complete copies of Livy in
    Constantinople, Chios and elsewhere, are noticed by B. G. Niebuhr,
    _Lectures on the History of Rome from the first Punic War_ (ed. L.
    Schmitz, 1844), i. 65.

  [3] For Livy's debt to Valerius Antias, see A. A. Howard in _Harvard
    Studies in Classical Philology_, xvii. (1906), pp. 161 sqq.



LIZARD (Lat. _lacerta_[1]), a name originally referred only to the small
European species of four-legged reptiles, but now applied to a whole
order (_Lacertilia_), which is represented by numerous species in all
temperate and tropical regions. Lizards are reptiles which have a
transverse external anal opening (instead of a longitudinal slit as in
Crocodilians and tortoises) and which have the right and left halves of
the mandibles connected by a sutural symphysis. The majority are
distinguished from snakes by the possession of two pairs of limbs, of
external ear-openings and movable eyelids, but since in not a few of the
burrowing, snake-shaped lizards these characters give way entirely, it
is well-nigh impossible to find a diagnosis which should be absolutely
sufficient for the distinction between lizards and snakes. In such
doubtful cases a number of characters have to be resorted to, and, while
each of these may fail when taken singly, their combination decides the
question. It is certain that the snakes have been evolved as a
specialized branch from some Lacertilian stock, and that both "orders"
are intimately related, but it is significant that it is only through
the degraded members of the lizards that recent representatives of the
two great groups seem to run into each other. Such critical characters
are:--

                          Lizards.                    Snakes.

  Limbs             2 pairs, 1 or 0.          0 or vestigial hind-limbs.

  Ear-opening       Usually present.          Always absent.

  Eyelids           Mostly movable.           No movable lids.

  Tongue            Often not retractile.     Always bifid and
                                                retractile into itself.

  Teeth             Pleuro- or acrodont,      Acrodont, anchylosed.
                      not anchylosed.

  Mandibles         Mostly firmly united      Never with suture,
                      suturally.                mostly ligamentous.

  Columella cranii  Mostly present.           Absent.
                    Mostly with bony arches
                      across the temporal     No bony arches.
                      region.
                    Osteoderms common.        No bony arches.
                                              No osteoderms.

The lizards and snakes are the two dominant reptilian orders which are
still on the increase in species, though certainly not in size. As a
moderate estimate, the number of recent species of lizards is about
1700. As a group they are cosmopolitan, their northern limit approaching
that of the permanently frozen subsoil, while in the southern hemisphere
the southern point of Patagonia forms the farthest limit. As we approach
the tropics, the variety of forms and the number of individuals
increase, the most specialized and developed forms, and also the most
degraded, being found in the tropics. In the temperate regions they
hibernate. The majority live on broken ground, with or without much
vegetation; many are arboreal and many are true desert animals, while a
few are more or less aquatic; one, the leguan of the Galapagos,
_Amblyrhynchus_, even enters the sea. Some, like the majority of the
geckos, are nocturnal. In adaptation to these varied surroundings they
exhibit great variety in shape, size and structure. Most of these
modifications are restricted to the skin, limbs, tail or tongue. Most
lizards live on animal food, varying from tiny insects and worms to
lizards, snakes, birds and mammals, while others prefer a mixed or an
entirely vegetable diet. Accordingly, the teeth and the whole digestive
tract are modified. But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing,
running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the
jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in
correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be
procured. Generally the teeth are conical or pointed, more rarely blunt,
grooved or serrated. They are inserted either on the inner side of the
margin of the jaws (_pleurodonta_) or on the edge of the bones
(_acrodonta_). The tongue is generally beset with more or less scaly or
velvety papillae and has always a well-marked posterior margin, while
the anterior portion may or may not be more or less retractile into the
posterior part.

In many lizards the muscles of the segments of the tail are so loosely
connected and the vertebrae are so weak that the tail easily breaks off.
The severed part retains its muscular irritability for a short time,
wriggling as if it were a living creature. A lizard thus mutilated does
not seem to be much affected, and the lost part is slowly reproduced.
This faculty is of advantage to those lizards which lack other means of
escape when pursued by some other animal, which is satisfied with
capturing the detached member.

The motions of most lizards are executed with great but not enduring
rapidity. With the exception of the chameleon, all drag their body over
the ground, the limbs being wide apart, turned outwards and relatively
to the bulk of the body generally weak. But the limbs show with regard
to development great variation, and an uninterrupted transition from the
most perfect condition of two pairs with five separate clawed toes to
their total disappearance; yet even limbless lizards retain bony
vestiges beneath the skin. The motions of these limbless lizards are
similar to those of snakes, which they resemble in their elongate body.

The eggs are elliptical in shape, both poles being equal, and are
covered with a shell which may be thin and leathery or hard and
calcareous. The number of eggs laid is small in comparison with other
reptiles, rarely exceeding a score, and some like the anolids and the
geckos deposit only one or two. The parents leave the eggs to hatch
where they are deposited, in sand or in mould. Many lizards, however,
retain the eggs in the oviducts until the embryo is fully developed;
these species then bring forth living young and are called
ovo-viviparous by purists. Some lizards possess a considerable amount of
intelligence; they play with each other, become very tame, and act
deliberately according to circumstances. As a rule the Iguanids and
Varans are as bright as the Agamas are dull. Many have the power of
changing colour, a faculty which they share only with various frogs,
toads and fishes. Lizards are not poisonous, with the single exception
of _Heloderma_.

  The Lacertilia, or lizards in the wider sense, fall easily into three
  natural groups: geckos (q.v.), chameleons (q.v.) and lizards.

  I. Suborder, GECKONES. Pleurodont lizards with well-developed limbs;
  without temporal bony arches; postthoracic ribs united across the
  abdomen. Tongue, thick and broad, slightly nicked anteriorly. With few
  exceptions they have amphicoelous vertebrae, the parietal bones remain
  separate and they have no eyelids, with very few exceptions.

  1. Family, _Geckonidae._--Amphicoelous; parietals separate; clavicles
  dilated and with a perforation near the ventral end. Cosmopolitan,
  although mainly tropical, with about 270 species (see GECKO).

  Nearly all geckos are nocturnal and the pupil contracts into a
  vertical slit, except in a few diurnal kinds, e.g. _Phelsuma_ of
  islands in the Indian Ocean, and _Lygodactylus_ of Africa.
  _Aelurosaurus_ of Borneo and Australia, and _Ptenopus_ of South
  Africa, have upper and lower movable eyelids. Whilst the skin is
  mostly soft on the back, with little granular tubercles, scales
  (except on the belly) are absent, but they are present in
  _Homopholis_, in _Geckolepis_ of Madagascar, and most fully developed
  in _Teratoscincus scincus_. This peculiar little inhabitant of the
  steppes and desert regions of Turkestan and Persia, by rubbing the
  imbricating scales upon each other, produces a shrill cricket-like
  noise, whilst sitting at night in front of its hole in the ground.
  Furthermore it is so thoroughly adapted to running upon the desert
  sand that its digits are devoid of adhesive lamellae. The same
  beautiful adaptation to the surroundings exists also in _Ptenopus_
  (with fringed toes) and _Stenodactylus_, which are likewise
  deserticolous. _Aeluronyx_ of Madagascar and Seychelles has cat-like
  retractile claws. _Naultinus elegans_ of New Zealand is said to be
  viviparous; the others lay but one rather large egg at a time. Many
  species have a feeble voice which resembles a repeated click of the
  tongue, and their name "gecko" is supposed to be an Indian imitation
  of the sound.

  2. Family, _Uroplatidae._--Amphicoelous; parietals separate; but the
  nasal bones are fused together, and the clavicles are not dilated.
  Genus _Uroplates_, with a few species, e.g. _U. fimbriatus_ in
  Madagascar.

  3. Family, _Eublepharidae._--Procoelous; parietals united; eyelids
  functional; clavicles expanded as in the true geckos which they
  resemble in other respects. The few genera and species are undoubtedly
  a heterogeneous assembly, as indicated by their very scattered
  distribution, but they all agree in their decidedly handsome colour
  pattern, bands of dark brown to maroon upon a light ground.
  _Eublepharis_, with one species each in Panama, Mexico, Texas and
  California; two in India. _Coleonyx elegans_ in forests of Central
  America and Mexico. _Psilodactylus_ in West Africa.

  II. Suborder, CHAMAELEONTES. Acrodont, Old World lizards, with
  laterally compressed body, prehensile tail and well developed limbs
  with the digits arranged in opposing, grasping bundles of two and
  three respectively. The chameleons (q.v.) have many structural
  peculiarities.

  III. Suborder, LACERTAE. Procoelous vertebrae; ventral portions of the
  clavicles not dilated; parietal bones fused into one.

  The general appearance is too misleading for the classification of the
  Lacertae. E. D. Cope (_Proc. Ac. Philad._, 1864, pp. 224 et seq. and
  _Proc. Amer. Ass._ xix., 1871, p. 236, &c.) therefore relied upon more
  fundamental characters, notably the presence or absence of osteoderms,
  the formation of the skull, the teeth and the tongue. G. A. Boulenger
  (_Ann. Nat. Hist._ 5, xiv., 1884, p. 117, &c.) has further improved
  upon the then prevailing arrangements, and has elaborated a
  classification which, used by himself in the three volumes of the
  catalogue of lizards in the British Museum, is followed in the present
  article with slight alterations in the order of treatment of the
  families. In the following diagnoses of the families preference is
  given to such characters as are most easily ascertained.

  The 17 "families" fall into 4 or 5 main groups. Presumably the
  presence of osteoderms and of complete cranial arches are more archaic
  than their absence, just as we conclude that limbless forms have been
  evolved from various groups possessed of fully developed limbs.
  _Zonuridae_ and _Anguidae_ assume a central position, with _Agamidae_
  and _Iguanidae_ as two parallel families (not very different from each
  other) of highest development, one in the Old World, the other in
  America. _Xenosaurus_ seems to be an offshoot intermediate between the
  _Iguanidae_ and the _Anguidae_; a degraded form of latter is perhaps
  _Aniella_ of California, whilst _Heloderma_ and _Lanthanotus_ are also
  specialized and isolated offshoots. A second group is formed by the
  few American _Xantusiidae_, the numerous American _Tejidae_, and the
  burrowing, degraded American and African _Amphisbaenidae_. A third
  group comprises the cosmopolitan _Scincidae_, the African and Malagasy
  _Gerrhosauridae_ which in various features remind us of the
  _Anguidae_, and the African and Eurasian _Lacertidae_ which are the
  highest members of this group. _Anelytropidae_ and perhaps also
  _Dibamidae_ may be degraded Scincoids. The _Varanidae_ stand quite
  alone, in many respects the highest of all lizards, with some, quite
  superficial, Crocodilian resemblances. Lastly there are the few
  _Pygopodidae_ of the Australian region, with still quite obscure
  relationship.

  Family 1. _Agamidae._--Acrodont; tongue broad and thick, not
  protractile; no osteoderms. Old World.

  The agamas have always two pairs of well-developed limbs. The teeth
  are usually differentiated into incisors, canines and molars. The skin
  is devoid of ossifications, but large and numerous cutaneous spines
  are often present, especially on the head and on the tail. The family,
  comprising some 200 species, with about 30 genera, shows great
  diversity of form; the terrestrial members are mostly flat-bodied, the
  arboreal more laterally compressed and often with a very long tail.
  Most of them are insectivorous, but a few are almost entirely
  vegetable feeders. They are an exclusively Old World family; they are
  most numerous in Australia (except New Zealand) and the Indian and
  Malay countries; comparatively few live in Africa (none in Madagascar)
  and in the countries from Asia Minor to India.

  The majority of the ground-agamas, and the most common species of the
  plains, deserts or rocky districts of Africa and Asia, belong to the
  genera _Stellio_ and _Agama_. Their scales are mixed with larger
  prominent spines, which in some species are particularly developed on
  the tail, and disposed in whorls. Nearly all travellers in the north
  of Africa mention the _Hardhón_ of the Arabs (_Agama stellio_), which
  is extremely common, and has drawn upon itself the hatred of the
  Mahommedans by its habit of nodding its head, which they interpret as
  a mockery of their own movements whilst engaged in prayer. In some of
  the Grecian islands they are still called _korkordilos_, just as they
  were in the time of Herodotus. _Uromastix_ is one of the largest of
  ground-agamas, and likewise found in Africa and Asia. The body is
  uniformly covered with granular scales, whilst the short, strong tail
  is armed with powerful spines disposed in whorls. The Indian species
  (_U. hardwicki_) is mainly herbivorous; the African _U. acanthinurus_
  and _U. spinipes_, the Dab of the Arabs, take mixed food.
  _Phrynocephalus_ is typical of the steppes and deserts of Asia.
  _Ceratophora_ and _Lyriocephalus_ scutatus, the latter remarkable for
  its chameleon-like appearance, are Ceylonese. _Calotes_, peculiar to
  Indian countries, comprises many species, e.g. _C. ophiomachus_,
  generally known as the "bloodsucker" on account of the red colour on
  the head and neck displayed during excitement. _Draco_ (see DRAGON) is
  Indo-Malayan. _Physignathus_ is known from Australia to Cochin China.

  Of the Australian agamas no other genus is so numerously represented
  and widely distributed as _Grammatophora_, the species of which grow
  to a length of from 8 to 18 in. Their scales are generally rough and
  spinous; but otherwise they possess no strikingly distinguishing
  peculiarity, unless the loose skin of their throat, which is
  transversely folded and capable of inflation, be regarded as such. On
  the other hand, two other Australian agamoids have attained some
  celebrity by their grotesque appearance, due to the extraordinary
  development of their integuments. One (fig. 1) is the frilled lizard
  (_Chlamydosaurus kingi_), which is restricted to Queensland and the
  north coast, and grows to a length of 3 ft., including the long
  tapering tail. It is provided with a frill-like fold of the skin round
  the neck, which, when erected, resembles a broad collar. This lizard
  when startled rises with the fore-legs off the ground and squats and
  runs on its hind-legs. The other lizard is one which most
  appropriately has been called _Moloch horridus_. It is covered with
  large and small spine-bearing tubercules; the head is small and the
  tail short. It is sluggish in its movements, and so harmless that its
  armature and (to a casual observer) repulsive appearance are its sole
  means of defence. It grows only to a length of 10 in., and is not
  uncommon in the flats of South and West Australia.

  Family 2. _Iguanidae._--Pleurodont; tongue broad and thick, not
  protractile; no osteoderms. America, Madagascar and Fiji Islands.

  According to the very varied habits, their external appearance varies
  within wide limits, there being amongst the 300 species, with 50
  genera, arboreal, terrestrial, burrowing and semi-aquatic forms, and
  even one semi-marine kind. All have well-developed limbs. In their
  general structure the _Iguanidae_ closely resemble the _Agamidae_,
  from which they differ mainly by the pleurodont dentition. Most of
  them are insectivorous. Some, especially _Anolis_ and _Polychrus_, can
  change colour to a remarkable extent. The family ranges all through
  the neotropical region, inclusive of the Galapagos and the Antilles,
  into the southern and western states of North America. Remarkable
  cases of discontinuous distribution are _Chalarodon_ and _Hoplodon_ in
  Madagascar, and _Brachylophus fasciatus_ in the Fiji Islands.
  _Conolophus subcristatus_ and _Amblyrhynchus cristatus_ inhabit the
  Galapagos; the former feeds upon cactus and leaves, the latter is
  semi-marine, diving for the algae which grow below tide-marks. For
  _Basiliscus_ see BASILISK; IGUANA is dealt with under its own heading;
  allied is _Metopoceros cornutus_ of Hayti. _Polychrus_, the
  "chameleon," and _Liolaemus_ are South American; _Ctenosaura_ of
  Central America and Mexico resembles the agamoid _Uromastix_.
  _Corythophanes_ and _Laemanctus_, with only a few species, are rare
  inhabitants of the tropical forests of Central America and Mexico.
  _Sauromalus_, _Crotaphytus_, _Callisaurus_, _Holbrookia_, _Uma_, _Uta_
  are typical Sonoran genera, some ranging from Oregon through Mexico.
  Allied is _Sceloporus_, with about 34 species, the most characteristic
  genus of Mexican lizards; only 4 species live in the United States,
  and only 3 or 4 are found south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and are
  restricted to Central America. The majority are humivagous, while
  others are truly arboreal, e.g. _S. microlepidotus_, a species which,
  moreover, has the greatest possible altitudinal range, from the hot
  country of southern Oaxaca to the upper tree-line of Citlaltepetl,
  about 13,500 ft. elevation; many species are viviparous. _Phrynosoma_,
  with about a dozen species, the "horned toads" of California to Texas,
  and through Mexico. Some of these comical-looking little creatures are
  viviparous, others deposit their eggs in the ground. They are well
  concealed by the colour of their upper parts, which in most cases
  agrees with the prevailing tone of their surroundings, mostly arid,
  stony or sandy localities; the large spikes on the head protect them
  from being swallowed by snakes. The enlarged spiny scales scattered
  over the back look as if it were sprinkled with the dried husks of
  seeds. They are entirely insectivorous, bask on the broiling hot sand
  and then can run fast enough; otherwise they are sluggish, dig
  themselves into the sand by a peculiar shuffling motion of the fringed
  edges of their flattened bodies, and when surprised they feign death.
  The statement, persistently repeated (O. P. Hay, _Proc. U.S. Nat.
  Mus._ xv., 1892, pp. 375-378), that some, e.g. _P. blainvillei_ of
  California, have the power of squirting a blood-red fluid from the
  corner of the eye, still requires renewed investigation.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Frilled Lizard (_Chlamydosaurus kingi_).]

  The smallest lizards of this family belong to the genus _Anolis_,
  extremely numerous as regards species (more than 100) and individuals
  on bushes and trees of tropical America, and especially of the West
  Indies. They offer many points of analogy to the humming birds in
  their distribution, colours and even disposition. Hundreds may be seen
  on a bright day, disporting themselves on trees and fences, and
  entering houses. Like the iguanas, they (at least the males) are
  provided with a large, expansible dewlap at the throat, which is
  brilliantly coloured, and which they display on the slightest
  provocation. This appendage is merely a fold of the skin, ornamental
  and sexual; it has no cavity in its interior, and has no communication
  with the mouth or with the respiratory organs; it is supported by the
  posterior horns of the hyoid bone, and can be erected and spread at
  the will of the animal. The presence of such dewlaps in lizards is
  always a sign of an excitable temper. Many, e.g. _A. carolinensis_,
  the "chameleon," can change colour to an extraordinary degree. They
  are much fed upon by birds and snakes, and have a fragile tail, easily
  reproduced. They bring forth only one large egg at a time, but
  probably breed several times during the season.

  Family 3. _Xenosauridae._--Pleurodont; solid teeth; anterior part of
  tongue slightly emarginate and retractile, and covered with flat
  papillae; no osteoderms. Mexico.

  The only representative of this family is _Xenosaurus grandis_,
  recorded from the mountains of Orizaba, Cordoba and Oaxaca. The
  four-footed creature is less than 1 ft. in length; the body is
  depressed, covered above with minute granules and tubercles; a
  distinct fold of skin extends from the axilla to the groin, reminding
  of the similar fold of some _Anguidae_, to which this singular genus
  seems to be allied.

  Family 4. _Anguidae._--Pleurodont; teeth solid, sometimes
  (_Ophiosaurus_) grooved; anterior part of tongue emarginate and
  retractile into the posterior portion; osteoderms on the body, and
  especially on the head where they are roofing over the temporal fossa;
  entirely zoophagous and ovo-viviparous. America, Europe and India.

  _Gerrhonotus_, 8 species, in mountainous countries, from British
  Columbia to Costa Rica; like _Diploglossus s. Celestus_ of Mexico, the
  Antilles and Central America, with well-developed limbs, but with a
  lateral fold. _Anguis fragilis_ and two species of _Ophiosaurus_ are
  the only members of this family which are not American, and even the
  third species of _Ophiosaurus_, _O. ventralis_, lives in the United
  States. _Ophiosaurus s. Pseudopus_, the glass-snake, from Morocco and
  the Balkan peninsula to Burma and Fokien; also in the U.S.A., with the
  limbs reduced to a pair of tiny spikes near the vent, and a lateral
  fold along the snake-like body. _Anguis_, with its sole species
  fragilis, the slow-worm or blind-worm, is devoid of a lateral fold,
  and the limbs are entirely absent. Europe, Algeria and western Asia.

  Family 5. _Helodermatidae_, with _Heloderma_ of Arizona and Mexico,
  and _Lanthanotus_ of Borneo.--The teeth of _Heloderma_ are recurved,
  with slightly swollen bases, loosely attached to the inner edge of the
  jaws; each tooth is grooved, and those of the lower jaw are in close
  vicinity of the series of labial glands which secrete a poison; the
  only instance among lizards.[2] Limbs well developed. Tongue
  resembling that of the _Anguidae_. The skin of the upper surface is
  granular, with many irregular bony tubercles which give it an ugly
  warty look. _H. horridum_ in Mexico, and _H. suspectum_, the gila
  monster, in the hot and sandy lowlands of the Gila basin. The animal,
  which reaches a length of more than 2 ft., is blackish-brown and
  yellow or orange, and on the thick tail these "warning colours" are
  arranged in alternate rings. Small animals are probably paralyzed or
  killed by the bite, the poison being effective enough to produce
  severe symptoms even in man. The Zapotecs, who call the creature
  Talachini, and other tribes of Mexico have endowed it with fabulous
  properties and fear it more than the most poisonous snakes.
  _Lanthanotus corneensis_, of which only a few specimens are known, is
  apparently closely allied to _Heloderma_, although the teeth are not
  grooved, osteoderms are absent and probably also the poison glands.

  Family 6. _Aniellidae._--One genus, _Aniella_, with a few worm- or
  snake-shaped species in California, which seem to be degraded forms of
  _Anguidae_. The eyes and ears are concealed, the limbs are entirely
  absent, body and tail covered with soft, imbricating scales. The
  tongue is villose, smooth, bifid anteriorly. The few teeth are
  recurved, with swollen bases. The skull is much reduced. Total length
  of _A. pulchra_ up to 8 in.

  Family 7. _Zonuridae._--Pleurodont; tongue short, villose, scarcely
  protractile, feebly nicked at the tip. With osteoderms at least upon
  the skull, where they roof in the temporal region. Africa and
  Madagascar.

  Only 4 genera, with about 15 species. _Zonurus_ of South Africa and
  Madagascar has the whole head, neck, back and tail covered with strong
  bony scales, the horny covering of which forms sharp spikes,
  especially on the tail. They defend themselves by jerking head and
  tail sidewards. _Z. giganteus_ reaches 15 in. in length, and is, like
  the other members of the family, zoophagous. The other genera live in
  southern and in tropical Africa: _Pseudocordylus_, _Platysaurus_ and
  _Chamaesaura_; the latter closely approaches the _Anguidae_ by its
  snake-shaped body, very long tail and much reduced limbs, which in _C.
  macrolepis_ are altogether absent.

  Family 8. _Xantusiidae._--Pleurodont; tongue very short and scaly; no
  osteoderms; supratemporal fossa roofed over by the cranial bones; eyes
  devoid of movable lids; tympanum exposed; femoral pores present; limbs
  and tail well developed. American.

  _Xantusia_ (so named after Xantus, a Hungarian collector), e.g. _X.
  vigilis_ and a few other species from the desert tracts of Nevada and
  California to Lower California. _Lepidophyma flavomaculatum_, Central
  America; and _Cricosaura typica_ in Cuba.

  Family 9. _Tejidae._--Teeth solid, almost acrodont; tongue long and
  narrow, deeply bifid, beset with papillae; no osteoderms; scales of
  the back very small or quite granular; limbs sometimes reduced.
  America.

  This large, typically American family comprises more than 100 species
  which have been arranged in many genera. Some are entirely arboreal,
  dwellers in forests, while others, like _Cnemidophorus_ and _Ameiva_,
  are strictly terrestrial, with great running powers; a few dwell below
  the surface and are transformed into almost limbless worm-shaped
  creatures. The family is essentially neotropical. Of its several dozen
  genera only two extend through and beyond Central America: _Ameiva_
  into the eastern and western Hot-lands of Mexico, _Cnemidophorus_
  (monographed by H. Gadow, _Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1906, pp. 277-375)
  through Mexico into the United States, where _C. sexlineatus_, the
  "swift," has spread over most of the Union. _Tupinambis teguixin_, the
  "teju" of South America and the West Indies, is the largest member of
  the family; it reaches a length of a yard, most of which, however,
  belongs to the strong, whip-like tail. _Teguixin_ is taken from the
  Aztec _teco-ixin_, i.e. rock-lizard, the vernacular name of
  _Sceloporus torquatus_ which is one of the _Iguanidae_ misspelt and
  misapplied. The tejus frequent forests and plantations and are
  carnivorous, eating anything they can overpower. They in turn are much
  hunted for the sake of their delicate flesh. They defend themselves
  not only with their powerful jaws and sharp claws, but also with
  lashing strokes of the long tail. They also use this whip for killing
  snakes which they are said to eat. Their long-oval, hard-shelled eggs
  are deposited in the ground. They retire into self-dug burrows.
  _Cophias_ and _Scolecosaurus_ have very much reduced limbs. In the
  genus _Tejus_ the teeth of the adult become molar-like; and in
  _Dracaena_ they are transformed into large, oval crushers, indicating
  strictly herbivorous habits, while most members of the family live
  upon animal food.

  Family 10. _Amphisbaenidae._--The body is covered with soft skin,
  forming numerous rings with mere vestiges of scales. Worm-shaped,
  without limbs, except _Chirotes_ which has short, clawed fore-limbs.
  Eyes and ears concealed. Tongue slightly elongated, covered with
  scale-like papillae and bifurcating. Tail extremely short. Acrodont or
  pleurodont. America, Mediterranean countries, and Africa with the
  exception of Madagascar.

  _Chirotes canaliculatus_, and two other species; Pacific side of
  Mexico and Lower California. With five, four or three claws on the
  stout little digging fore-limbs. These pink, worm-like creatures live
  in sandy, moist localities, burrowing little tunnels and never
  appearing on the surface. _Amphisbaena_ (q.v.). _Rhinëura_ of Florida,
  and also known from the Oligocene of South Dakota; _Lepidosternum_ of
  South America; and _Anops_ in America and Africa; _Blanus cinereus_,
  Mediterranean countries. _Trogonophis_, _Pachycalamus_ and _Agamodon_
  of Africa are all acrodont; the other genera are pleurodont. In all
  about a dozen genera, with some 60, mostly tropical species.

  Family 11. _Scincidae._--Pleurodont. Tongue scaly, feebly nicked in
  front. Osteoderms on the head and body. Limbs often reduced.
  Cosmopolitan. The temporal region is covered over, as in the
  _Lacertidae_ and _Anguidae_, with strongly developed dermal
  ossifications. Similar osteoderms underlie the scales of the body and
  tail. Femoral pores are absent.

  All the skinks seem to be viviparous, and they prefer dry, sandy
  ground, in which they burrow and move quickly about in search of their
  animal food. This partly subterranean life is correlated with the
  frequent reduction of the limbs which, in closely allied forms, show
  every stage from fully developed, five-clawed limbs to complete
  absence. Some have functional fore-limbs but mere vestiges of
  hind-limbs; in others this condition is reversed. In some
  deserticolous kinds e.g. _Ablepharus_, the lower eyelid is transformed
  into a transparent cover which is fused with the rim of the reduced
  upper lid. The same applies to the limbless little _Ophiopsiseps
  nasutus_ of Australia. This large family contains about 400 species,
  with numerous genera; the greatest diversity in numbers and forms
  occurs in the tropical parts of the Old World, especially in the
  Australian region, inclusive of many of the Pacific islands. New
  Zealand has at least 6 species of _Lygosoma_. America, notably South
  America, has comparatively very few skinks.

  The skink, which has given the name to the whole family, is a small
  lizard (_Scincus officinalis_) of 6 or 8 in. in length, common in arid
  districts of North Africa and Syria. A peculiarly wedge-shaped snout,
  and toes provided with strong fringes, enable this animal to burrow
  rapidly in and under the sand of the desert. In former times large
  quantities of it were imported in a dry state into Europe for
  officinal purposes, the drug having the reputation of being
  efficacious in diseases of the skin and lungs; and even now it may be
  found in apothecaries' shops in the south of Europe, country people
  regarding it as a powerful aphrodisiac for cattle.

  _Mabouia_, with many species, in the whole of Africa, southern Asia
  and in tropical America. _M. (Euprepes) vittata_, the "poisson de
  sable" of Algeria, is semi-aquatic. _Chalcides s. Seps_, of the
  Mediterranean countries and south-western Asia, has a transparent disk
  on the lower eyelid which is movable; limbs very short or reduced to
  mere vestiges. _Lygosoma_ circumtropical; _Eumeces_, also with many
  small species, in America, Africa and Asia. _Cyclodus s. Tiliqua_ of
  Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with
  rounded-off crowns; _C. gigas_ of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is
  the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.;
  the limbs are well developed, as in _Trachysaurus rugosus_ of
  Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales
  and the short, broad, stump-like tail.

  Family 12. _Anelytropidae._--An artificial assembly of a few degraded
  Scincoids. The worm-shaped body is devoid of osteoderms. The tongue is
  short, covered with imbricating papillae and slightly nicked
  anteriorly. Teeth pleurodont. _Anelytropsis papillosus_, of which only
  three specimens are known, from the humus of forests in the state of
  Vera Cruz. Eyes concealed. _Typhlosaurus_ and _Feylinia_ in tropical
  Africa and Madagascar.

  Family 13. _Dibamidae._--_Dibamus novae-Guineae_ of New Guinea, the
  Moluccas, Celebes and the Nicobar Islands. Tongue arrow-shaped,
  covered with curved papillae. The vermiform body is covered with
  cycloid imbricating scales, devoid of osteoderms. Limbs and even their
  arches are absent, excepting a pair of flaps which represent the
  hind-limbs in the males.

  Family 14. _Gerrhosauridae._--Pleurodont. Tongue long, with papillae,
  like that of the _Lacertidae_ but only feebly nicked anteriorly.
  Osteoderms on the head and body, roofing over the temporal region.
  Femoral pores present, also mostly a lateral fold. Limbs sometimes
  reduced to small stumps. Tail long and brittle. The few genera and
  species of this family are restricted to Africa, south of the Sahara
  and Madagascar.

  _Gerrhosaurus_, with lateral fold and complete limbs; _Tetradactylus_
  also with a fold, but with very variable limbs; _Condylosaurus_; all
  in Africa. _Zonosaurus_ and _Tracheloptychus_ in Madagascar.

  Family 15. _Lacertidae._--Pleurodont. Tongue long and bifid, with
  papillae or folds, with osteoderms on the head but not on the body.
  Limbs always well developed. Palaearctic and palaeotropical with the
  exception of Madagascar; not in the Australian region.

  The _Lacertidae_ or true lizards comprise about 20 genera, with some
  100 species, most abundant in Africa; their northern limit coincides
  fairly with that of the permanently frozen subsoil. They all are
  terrestrial and zoophagous. The long, pointed tail is brittle.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Heads of British Lizards. a, _Lacerta
  vivipara_; b, _L. agilis_; c, _L. viridis_.]

  Most of the European lizards with four well developed limbs belong to
  the genus _Lacerta_. Only three species occur in Great Britain (see
  fig. 2). The common lizard (_Lacerta vivipara_) frequents heaths and
  banks in England and Scotland, and is locally met with also in
  Ireland; it is viviparous. Much scarcer is the second species, the
  sand-lizard (_Lacerta agilis_), which is confined to some localities
  in the south of England, the New Forest and its vicinity; it does not
  appear to attain on English soil the same size as on the continent of
  Europe where it abounds, growing sometimes to a length of 9 in.
  Singularly, a snake (_Coronella laevis_), also common on the
  continent, and feeding principally on this lizard, has followed it
  across the British Channel, apparently existing in those localities
  only in which the sand-lizard has settled. This lizard is oviparous.
  The males differ by their brighter green ground colour from the
  females, which are brown, spotted with black. The third British
  species, the green lizard (_Lacerta viridis_), does not occur in
  England proper; it has found a congenial home in the island of
  Guernsey, but is there much less developed as regards size and beauty
  than on the continent. This species is larger than the two preceding;
  it is green, with minute blackish spots. In Germany and France one
  other species only (_Lacerta muralis_) appears; but in the south of
  Europe the species of _Lacerta_ are much more numerous, the largest
  and finest, being _L. ocellata_, which grows to a length of 18 or 20
  in., and is brilliantly green, ornamented with blue eye-like spots on
  the sides. Even the small island-rocks of the Mediterranean, sometimes
  only a few hundred yards in diameter, are occupied by peculiar races
  of lizards, which have attracted much attention from the fact that
  they have assumed under such isolated conditions a more or less dark,
  almost black, coloration. _L. muralis_, with its numerous varieties,
  has been monographed by G. A. Boulenger, _Trans. Zool. Soc._ xvii.
  (1905), pp. 351-422, pl. 22-29.

  Other genera are _Psammodromus_ and _Acanthodactylus_ in south-western
  Europe and northern Africa. _Cabrita_ in India, with transparent lower
  eyelids. _Ophiops_, likewise with transparent but united lids, from
  North Africa to India.

  Family 16. _Varanidae._--Pleurodont. Tongue very long, smooth and
  bifid. Osteoderms absent. Limbs always well developed. Old World.

  This family contains only one genus, _Varanus_, with nearly 30
  species, in Africa, Arabia and southern Asia, and Australia, but not
  in Madagascar. The generic term is derived from the Arabic _Ouaran_,
  which means lizard. Owing to a ridiculous muddle, this Arabic word has
  been taken to mean "warning" lizard, hence the Latin _Monitor_, one of
  the many synonyms of this genus, now often used as the vernacular.
  Many of the "monitors" are semi-aquatic, e.g. _V. niloticus_, and
  these have a laterally compressed tail; others inhabit dry sandy
  districts, e.g. _V. scincus_, the _ouaran el ard_ of North Africa;
  others prefer wooded localities. _V. salvator_ is the largest species,
  reaching a length of 7 ft.; it ranges from Nepal and southern China to
  Cape York; a smaller species, common in New Guinea and Australia, is
  _V. gouldi_. They all are predaceous, powerful creatures, with a
  partiality for eggs. Their own eggs are laid in hollow trees, or
  buried in the sand. The young are prettily spotted with white and
  black ocelli, but the coloration of the adult is mostly very plain.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Monitor of the Nile (_Varanus niloticus_).]

  The following families are much degraded in conformity with their, in
  most cases, subterranean life. They are of doubtful relationships and
  contain each but a few species.

  Family 17. _Pygopodidae._--Pleurodont, snake-shaped, covered with
  roundish, imbricating scales. Tail long and brittle. Fore-limbs
  absent; hind-limbs transformed into a pair of scale-covered flaps.
  Tongue slightly forked. Eyes functional but devoid of movable lids.
  Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea.

  _Pygopus_, e.g. _P. lepidopus_, about 2 ft. long, two-thirds belonging
  to the tail, distributed over the whole of Australia.

  _Lialis burtoni_, of similar size and distribution, has the hind-limbs
  reduced to very small, narrow appendages. The members of this family
  seem to lead a snake-like life, not subterranean, and some are said to
  eat other lizards. _L. jicari_, from the Fly river, has a very
  snake-like appearance, with a long, pointed snout like certain
  tree-snakes, but with an easily visible ear-opening; their eyelids are
  reduced to a ring which is composed of two or three rows of small
  scales.     (H. F. G.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For the etymology of this word, see CROCODILE.

  [2] For anatomical detail and experiments, see R. W. Shufeldt, _P. Z.
    S._ (1890), p. 178; G. A. Boulenger, _ibid._ (1891), p. 109, and C.
    Stewart, _ibid._ (1891), p. 119.



LIZARD POINT, or THE LIZARD, the southernmost point of Great Britain, in
Cornwall, England, in 49° 57´ 30´´ N., 5° 12´ W. It is generally the
first British land sighted by ships bound up the English Channel, and
there are two lighthouses on it. The cliff scenery is magnificent, and
attracts many visitors. The coast is fretted into several small bays,
such as Housel and, most famous of all, Kynance Cove; caves pierce the
cliffs at many points, and bold isolated rocks fringe the shore. The
coloured veining of the serpentine rock is a remarkable feature. The
Lion's Den is a chasm formed by the falling in of a sea-cave in 1847;
the Stags is a dangerous reef stretching southward from the point, and
at Asparagus Island, Kynance Cove, is a natural funnel in which the air
is compressed by the waves and causes a violent ejection of foam. The
principal village is Lizard Town, 10½ m. from Helston, the nearest
railway station.



LJUNGGREN, GUSTAF HÅKAN JORDAN (1823-1905), Swedish man of letters, was
born at Lund on the 6th of March 1823. He was educated at Lund
university, where he was professor of German (1850-1859), of aesthetics
(1859-1889) and rector (1875-1885). He had been a member of the Swedish
Academy for twenty years at the time of his death in September 1905. His
most important work, _Svenska vitterhetens häfder efter Gustav III.'s
död_ (5 vols., Lund., 1873-1895), is a comprehensive study of Swedish
literature in the 19th century. His other works include: _Framställning
af de förnämste estetiska systemerna_ (an exposition of the principal
system of aesthetics; 2 vols., 1856-1860); _Svenska dramat intill slutet
af 17 århundradet_ (a history of the Swedish drama down to the end of
the 17th century, Lund, 1864); an edition (1864) of the _Epistlar_ of
Bellman and Fredman, and a history of the Swedish Academy in the year of
its centenary (1886).

  His scattered writings were collected as _Smärre Skrifter_ (3 vols.,
  1872-1881).



LLAMA, the Spanish modification of the Peruvian name of the larger of
the two domesticated members of the camel-tribe indigenous to South
America. The llama (_Lama huanacus glama_) is a domesticated derivative
of the wild guanaco, which has been bred as a beast of burden. Chiefly
found in southern Peru, it generally attains a larger size than the
guanaco, and is usually white or spotted with brown or black, and
sometimes altogether black. The following account by Augustin de Zarate
was given in 1544:

[Illustration: Llama.]

  "In places where there is no snow, the natives want water, and to
  supply this they fill the skins of sheep with water and make other
  living sheep carry them, for, it must be remarked, these sheep of Peru
  are large enough to serve as beasts of burden. They can carry about
  one hundred pounds or more, and the Spaniards used to ride them, and
  they would go four or five leagues a day. When they are weary they lie
  down upon the ground, and as there are no means of making them get up,
  either by beating or assisting them, the load must of necessity be
  taken off. When there is a man on one of them, if the beast is tired
  and urged to go on, he turns his head round, and discharges his
  saliva, which has an unpleasant odour, into the rider's face. These
  animals are of great use and profit to their masters, for their wool
  is very good and fine, particularly that of the species called pacas,
  which have very long fleeces; and the expense of their food is
  trifling, as a handful of maize suffices them, and they can go four or
  five days without water. Their flesh is as good as that of the fat
  sheep of Castile. There are now public shambles for the sale of their
  flesh in all parts of Peru, which was not the case when the Spaniards
  came first; for when one Indian had killed a sheep his neighbours came
  and took what they wanted, and then another Indian killed a sheep in
  his turn."

The disagreeable habit of spitting is common to all the group.

In a wide sense the term "llama" is used to designate all the South
American _Camelidae_. (See TYLOPODA.)



LLANBERIS, a town of Carnarvonshire, N. Wales, 8½ m. E. by S. of
Carnarvon, by a branch of the London & North-Western railway. Pop.
(1901) 3015. It is finely situated in a valley near the foot of
Snowdon. The valley has two lakes, Llyn Peris and Llyn Padarn, of over 1
m. and 2 m. long respectively, about ¼ m. apart. From Padarn rises the
Seint, called Rothell in its upper part. Dolbadarn Castle is a circular
tower near the foot of Peris lake. Dolbadarn means the "Padarn meadow."
Several Welsh churches are dedicated to Padarn. In the castle Owen Goch
(Owen the Red) was imprisoned from 1254 to 1277, by the last Llewelyn,
whose brother Dafydd held it for some time against Edward I. During the
time of Owen Glendower (_temp._ Henry IV. and Henry V.), the castle
often changed hands. Near is Ceunantmawr waterfall. The Vaenol slate
quarries are here, and hence is the easiest ascent of Snowdon, with a
railway to the summit. From the road over the fine Llanberis pass
towards Capel Curig, a turn to the right leads to Beddgelert, through
Nant Gwynnant ("white" or "happy valley," or "stream"), where Pembroke
and Ieuan ap Robert (for the Lancastrians) had many skirmishes in the
time of Edward IV. Gwynnant Lake is about 1 m. long, by ¼ m. broad, and
below it is the smaller Llyn Dinas.



LLANDAFF, a city of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the Taff Vale railway, 149
m. from London. Pop. (1901) 5777. It is almost entirely within the
parliamentary borough of Cardiff. It is nobly situated on the heights
which slope towards the southern bank of the Taff. Formerly the see of
Llandaff was looked upon as the oldest in the kingdom; but its origin is
obscure, although the first two bishops, St Dubricius and St Teilo,
certainly flourished during the latter half of the 6th century. By the
12th century, when Urban was bishop, the see had acquired great wealth
(as may be seen from the _Book of Llandaff_, a collection of its records
and land-grants compiled probably by Geoffrey of Monmouth), but after
the reign of Henry VIII. Llandaff, largely through the alienations of
its bishops and the depredations of the canons, became impoverished, and
its cathedral was left for more than a century to decay. In the 18th
century a new church, in debased Italian style, was planted amid the
ruins. This was demolished and replaced (1844-1869) by the present
restored cathedral, due chiefly to the energy of Dean Williams. The
oldest remaining portion is the chancel arch, belonging to the Norman
cathedral built by Bishop Urban and opened in 1120. Jasper Tudor, uncle
of Henry VII., was the architect of the north-west tower, portions of
which remain. The cathedral is also the parish church. The palace or
castle built by Urban was destroyed, according to tradition, by Owen
Glendower in 1404, and only a gateway with flanking towers and some
fragments of wall remain. After this, Mathern near Chepstow became the
episcopal residence until about 1690, when it fell into decay, leaving
the diocese without a residence until Llandaff Court was acquired during
Bishop Ollivant's tenure of the see (1849-1882). For over 120 years the
bishops had been non-resident. The ancient stone cross on the green
(restored in 1897) is said to mark the spot on which Archbishop Baldwin,
and his chaplain Giraldus Cambrensis, preached the Crusade in 1187.
Money bequeathed by Thomas Howell, a merchant, who died in Spain in
1540, maintains an intermediate school for girls, managed by the
Drapers' Company, Howell's trustees. There is an Anglican theological
college, removed to Llandaff from Aberdare in 1907. The city is almost
joined to Cardiff, owing to the expansion of that town.

Llandaff Court, already mentioned, was the ancient mansion of the Mathew
family, from which Henry Matthews, 1st Viscount Llandaff (b. 1826), was
descended. Another branch of this family formerly held the earldom of
Llandaff in the Irish peerage. Henry Matthews, a barrister and
Conservative M.P., whose father was a judge in Ceylon, was home
secretary 1886-1892, and was created viscount in 1895.



LLANDEILO GROUP, in geology, the middle subdivision of the British
Ordovician rocks. It was first described and named by Sir. R. I.
Murchison from the neighbourhood of Llandeilo in Carmarthenshire. In the
type area it consists of a series of slaty rocks, shales, calcareous
flagstones and sandstones; the calcareous middle portion is sometimes
termed the "Llandeilo limestone"; and in the upper portion volcanic
rocks are intercalated. A remarkable feature in the history of the
Llandeilo rocks in Britain, more especially in North Wales and
Cumberland, was the outbreak of volcanic action; vast piles of Llandeilo
lava and ashes form such hills as Cader Idris, and the Arenigs in Wales,
and Helvellyn and Scafell in Westmorland and Cumberland. The series is
also found at Builth and in Pembrokeshire. The average thickness in
Wales is about 2000 ft. The group is usually divided in this area into
three subdivisions. In the Corndon district of Shropshire the _Middleton
Series_ represents the Llandeilo group; it includes, in descending
order, the Rorrington black shales, the _Meadowtown limestones_ and
flags, and the western grits and shales. In the Lake District the great
_volcanic series of Borrowdale_, green slates and porphyries, 8000 to
9000 ft. in thickness, lies on this horizon; and in the Cross Fell area
the _Milburn beds_ of the Skiddaw slates (see ARENIG) appear to be of
the same age. In Scotland the Llandeilo group is represented by the
_Glenkiln shales_, black shales and yellowish mudstones with radiolarian
cherts and volcanic tuffs; by the _Barr Series_, including the Benan
conglomerates, Stinchar limestone and Kirkland sandstones; and by the
Glenapp conglomerates and Tappins mudstones and grits south of Stinchar.
Graptolitic shales, similar to those of southern Scotland, are traceable
into the north-east of Ireland.

  The fossils of the Llandeilo group include numerous graptolites,
  _Coenograptus gracilis_ being taken as the zonal fossil of the upper
  portion, _Didymograptus Murchisoni_ of the lower. Other forms are
  _Climacograptus Scharenbergi_ and _Diplograptus foliaceus_. Many
  trilobites are found in these rocks, e.g. _Ogygia Buchi_, _Asaphus
  tyrannus_, _Calymene cambrensis_, _Cheirurus Sedgwickii_. Among the
  brachiopods are _Crania_, _Leptaena_, _Lingula_, _Strophomena_;
  _Cardiola_ and _Modiolopsis_ occur among the Pelecypods; _Euomphalus_,
  _Bellerophon_, _Murchisonia_ among the Gasteropods; _Conularia_ and
  _Hyolithes_ among the Pteropods; the Cephalopods are represented by
  _Orthoceras_ and _Cyrtoceras_. The green roofing slates and plumbago
  (graphite) of the Lake District are obtained from this group of rocks,
  (see ORDOVICIAN).



LLANDILO, or LLANDEILO FAWR, a market town and urban district of
Carmarthenshire, Wales, picturesquely situated above the right bank of
the river Towy. Pop. (1901) 1721. Llandilo is a station on the Mid-Wales
section of the London & North-Western railway, and a terminus of the
Llandilo-Llanelly branch line of the Great Western. The large parish
church of St Teilo has a low embattled Perpendicular tower. Adjoining
the town is the beautiful park of Lord Dynevor, which contains the
ruined keep of Dinefawr Castle and the residence of the Rices (Lords
Dynevor), erected early in the 17th century but modernized in 1858. Some
of the loveliest scenery of South Wales lies within reach of Llandilo,
which stands nearly in the centre of the Vale of Towy.

The name of Llandilo implies the town's early foundation by St Teilo,
the great Celtic missionary of the 6th century, the friend of St David
and reputed founder of the see of Llandaff. The historical interest of
the place centres in its proximity to the castle of Dinefawr, now
commonly called Dynevor, which was originally erected by Rhodri Mawr or
his son Cadell about the year 876 on the steep wooded slopes overhanging
the Towy. From Prince Cadell's days to the death of the Lord Rhys, last
reigning prince of South Wales, in 1196, Dinefawr continued to be the
recognized abode of South Welsh royalty. The castle ruins remain in the
possession of the Rices, Lords Dynevor, heirs and descendants of Prince
Cadell. At one period residence and park became known as New-town, a
name now obsolete. Some personal relics of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap
Thomas, K.G. (1451-1527), are preserved in the modern house. Dinefawr
Castle and its estates were granted away by Henry VIII. on the execution
for high treason of Sir Rhys's grandson, Rhys ap Griffith, but were
restored to the family under Queen Mary.



LLANDOVERY (_Llan-ym-ddyffri_), a market town and ancient municipal
borough of Carmarthenshire, Wales, situated amid hills near the left
bank of the Towy. Pop. (1901) 1809. Llandovery is a station on the
Mid-Wales section of the London & North-Western railway. The
old-fashioned town lies in the parish of Llandingat, and contains the
two churches of Llandingat and Llanfair-ar-y-bryn. The slight remains of
the castle stand on a hillock above the river Brân. The public school
was founded here by Sir Thomas Phillips in 1847.

The place probably owes its Celtic name of Llan-ym-ddyffri (the church
amid the waters) to the proximity of Llandingat church to the streams of
the Towy, Brân and Gwydderig. On account of its commanding position at
the head of the fertile vale of Towy, Llandovery was a strategic site of
some importance in the middle ages. The castle erected here by the
Normans early in the 12th century frequently changed owners during the
course of the Anglo-Welsh wars before 1282. In 1485 the borough of
Llandovery, or Llanymtheverye, was incorporated by a charter from
Richard III., and this king's privileges were subsequently confirmed by
Henry VIII. in 1521, and by Elizabeth in 1590, the Tudor queen's
original charter being still extant and in the possession of the
corporation, which is officially styled "the bailiff and burgesses of
the borough of Llanymtheverye, otherwise Llandovery." The bailiff
likewise holds the office of recorder, but has neither duties nor
emoluments. In the 17th century the vicarage of Llandingat was held by
the celebrated Welsh poet and preacher, Rhys Prichard, commonly called
"the vicar of Llandovery" (d. 1644). In the middle of the 19th century
William Rees of Tonn published at Llandovery many important works
dealing with early Welsh history and archaeology.



LLANDOVERY GROUP, in geology, the lowest division of the Silurian (Upper
Silurian) in Britain. C. Lapworth in 1879 proposed the name _Valentian_
(from the ancient north British province of Valentia) for this group. It
includes in the type area the Tarannon Shales 1000-1500 ft., Upper
Llandovery and May Hill Sandstone 800 ft., Lower Llandovery, 600-1500
ft.

  The _Lower Llandovery_ rocks consist of conglomerates, sandstones and
  slaty beds. At Llandovery they rest unconformably upon Ordovician
  rocks (Bala), but in many other places no unconformity is traceable.
  These rocks occur with a narrow crop in Pembrokeshire, which curves
  round through Llandovery, and in the Rhyader district they attain a
  considerable thickness. Northwards they thin out towards Bala Lake.
  They occur also in Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire in many places
  where they have not been clearly separated from the associated
  Ordovician rocks.

  There is a change in the fauna on leaving the Ordovician and entering
  the Llandovery. Among the graptolites the Diplograptidae begin to be
  replaced by the Monograptidae. Characteristic graptolite zones, in
  descending order, are:--_Monograptus gregarius_,
  _Diplograptusvesiculosus_, _D. acuminatus_. Common trilobites
  are:--_Acidaspis_, _Encrinurus_, _Phacops_, _Proëtus_; among the
  brachiopods are _Orthis elegantula_, _O. testudinaria_, _Meristella
  crassa_ and _Pentamerus_ (_Stricklandinia_) _lens_ (_Pentamerus_ is so
  characteristic that the Llandovery rocks are frequently described as
  the "Pentamerus beds").

  The _Upper Llandovery_, including the May Hill Sandstone of May Hill,
  Gloucestershire, is an arenaceous series generally conglomeratic at
  the base, with local lenticular developments of shelly limestone
  (Norbury, Hollies and Pentamerus limestones). It occurs with a narrow
  outcrop in Carmarthenshire at the base of the Silurian, disappearing
  beneath the Old Red Sandstone westward to reappear in Pembrokeshire;
  north-eastward the outcrop extends to the Longmynd, which the
  conglomerate wraps round. As it is followed along the crop it is found
  to rest unconformably upon the Lower Llandovery, Caradoc, Llandeilo,
  Cambrian and pre-Cambrian rocks. The fossils include the trilobites
  _Phacops caudata_, _Encrinurus punctatus_, _Calymene Blumenbachii_;
  the brachiopods _Pentamerus oblongus_, _Orthis calligramma_, _Atrypa
  reticularis_; the corals _Favosites_, _Lindostroemia_, &c.; and the
  zonal graptolites _Rastrites maximus_ and _Monograptus spinigerus_ and
  others (_Monograptus Sedgwicki_, _M. Clingani_, _M. proteus_,
  _Diplograptus Hughesii_).

  The _Tarannon shales_, grey and blue slates, designated by A. Sedgwick
  the "paste rock," is traceable from Conway into Carmarthenshire; in
  Cardiganshire, besides the slaty facies, gritty beds make their
  appearance; and in the neighbourhood of Builth soft dark shales. The
  group is poor in fossils with the exception of graptolites; of these
  _Cyrtograptus grayae_ and _Monograptus exiguus_ are zonal forms. The
  Tarannon group is represented by the Rhyader Pale Shales in
  Radnorshire; by the Browgill beds, with _Monograptus crispus_ and _M.
  turriculatus_, in the Lake district; in the Moffat Silurian belt in
  south Scotland by a thick development, including the Hawick rocks and
  Ardwell beds, and the Queensberry group or Gala (Grieston shales,
  Buckholm grits and Abbotsford flags); in the Girvan area, by the
  Drumyork flags, Bargany group and Penkill group; and in Ireland by the
  Treveshilly shales of Strangford Lough, and the shales of Salterstown,
  Co. Louth.

  The Upper and Lower Llandovery rocks are represented in descending
  order by the Pale shales, Graptolite shales, Grey slates and Corwen
  grit of Merionethshire and Denbighshire. In the Rhyader district the
  Caban group (Gafalt beds, shales and grits and Caban conglomerate),
  and the Gwastaden group (Gigrin mudstones, Ddol shales, Dyffryn flags,
  Cerig Gwynion grits) lie on this horizon; at Builth also there is a
  series of grits and shales. In the Lake district the lower part of the
  Stockdale shales (Skelgill beds) is of Llandovery age. In south
  Scotland in the central and southern belt of Silurian rocks, which
  extends across the country from Luce Bay to St Abb's Head, the
  Birkhill shales, a highly crumpled series of graptolitic beds,
  represent the Llandovery horizon. In the Girvan area to the north
  their place is taken by the Camregan, Shaugh Hill and Mullock Hill
  groups. In Ireland the Llandovery rocks are represented by the
  Anascaul slates of the Dingle promontory, by the Owenduff and Gowlaun
  grits, Co. Galway, by the Upper Pomeroy beds, by the Uggool and
  Ballaghaderin beds, Co. Mayo, and by rocks of this age in Coalpit Bay
  and Slieve Felim Mountains.

  Economic deposits in Llandovery rocks include slate pencils
  (Teesdale), building stone, flag-stone, road metal and lime. Lead ore
  occurs in Wales. (See SILURIAN.)     (J. A. H.)



LLANDRINDOD, or LLANDRINDOD WELLS, a market town, urban district and
health-resort of Radnorshire, Wales, situated in a lofty and exposed
district near the river Ithon, a tributary of the Wye. Pop. (1901) 1827.
Llandrindod is a station on the Mid-Wales section of the London &
North-Western railway. The town annually receives thousands of visitors,
and lies within easy reach of the beautiful Wye Valley and the wild
district of Radnor Forest. The saline, sulphur and chalybeate springs of
Llandrindod have long been famous. According to a treatise published by
a German physician, Dr Wessel Linden, in 1754, the saline springs at
Ffynon-llwyn-y-gog ("the well in the cuckoos' grove") in the present
parish of Llandrindod had acquired more than a local reputation as early
as the year 1696. In the 18th century both saline and sulphur springs
were largely patronized by numbers of visitors, and about 1749 a Mr
Grosvenor built a hydropathic establishment near the old church, on a
site now covered by a farm-house known as Llandrindod Hall.



LLANDUDNO, a seaside resort in the Arfon parliamentary division of
Carnarvonshire, North Wales, in a detached portion of the county east of
the Conwy, on a strip of sandy soil terminating in the massive limestone
of Great Orme's Head. Pop. of urban district (1901) 9279. The town is
reached by the London & North-Western railway, and lies 227 m. N.W. of
London. A village in 1850, Llandudno is to-day one of the most
flourishing watering-places in North Wales. Sheltered by the Great Orme
on the N.W. and by the Little Orme on the E., it faces a wide bay of the
Irish Sea, and is backed by low sandhills. A Marine Drive encircles the
Great Orme. The Little Orme has caverns and abounds in sea birds and
rare plants. Close to the town are the Gloddaeth woods, open to
visitors. On the Great Orme are old circular buildings, an ancient
fortress, a "rocking-stone" (_cryd Tudno_) and the 7th-century church of
St Tudno, restored in 1885. Druidical and other British antiquities are
numerous in the district. At Deganwy, or Diganwy, 2 m. from Llandudno,
is a castle, Dinas Gonwy (Conwy fort), known to English historians as
Gannoc, dating from the 11th or (according to the Welsh) earlier than
the 9th century.



LLANELLY, a market town, urban district, and seaport of Carmarthenshire,
Wales, situated on the north shore of the broad estuary of the river
Loughor (Llwchwr), known as Burry river, which forms an inlet of
Carmarthen Bay. Pop. (1901) 25,617. Llanelly is a station on the South
Wales section of the Great Western railway. The town is wholly of modern
appearance. The mother-church of St Elliw, or Elli (whence the town
derives its name) has been practically rebuilt (1906), but it retains
its 13th-century tower and other ancient features of the original
fabric. Its situation on a broad estuary and its central position with
regard to a neighbourhood rich in coal, iron and limestone, have
combined to make Llanelly one of the many important industrial towns of
South Wales. Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast
and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and
there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the
manufacture of tin plates.

Llanelly, though an ancient parish and a borough by prescription under a
portreeve and burgesses in the old lordship of Kidwelly, remained
insignificant until the industrial development in South Wales during the
19th century. In 1810 the combined population of Llanelly, with its four
subsidiary hamlets of Berwick, Glyn, Hencoed and Westowe, only amounted
to 2972; in 1840 the inhabitants of the borough hamlet alone had risen
to 4173. Llanelly is now the most populous town in Wales outside the
confines of Glamorganshire. In 1832 Llanelly was added as a contributory
borough to the Carmarthen parliamentary district.



LLANES, a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo, on the
river Carrocedo and the Bay of Biscay. Pop. (1900) 18,684. The streets
are mostly narrow and irregular, and contain some curious old houses.
The principal buildings are a fine Gothic church and an old Augustinian
monastery, which has been converted into a school and meteorological
station. In summer the fine climate, scenery and sea-bathing attract
many visitors. Llanes is a second-class port for light-draught vessels;
but the entrance is narrow, and rather difficult in rough weather. The
trade is chiefly in agricultural produce, timber, butter and fish.



LLANGOLLEN, a picturesque market-town and summer resort of Denbighshire,
N. Wales, in the Dee (_Dyfrdwy_) valley, on a branch of the Great
Western Railway, 9 m. S.W. of Wrexham, 202½ m. from London by rail. Pop.
of urban district (1901) 3303. The Dee is here crossed by a 14th-century
bridge of four arches, "one of the seven wonders of Wales," built by
John Trevor, afterwards bishop of St Asaph (_Llanelwy_). The Anglican
church of St Collen, Norman and Early English, has a monument in the
churchyard to the "Ladies of Llangollen," Lady Eleanor Butler and Hon.
Sarah Ponsonby, of Plas Newydd, (1778 to 1829 and 1831 respectively).
The house is now a museum. Castell Dinas Brân (the castle of the town of
Brân; the mountain stream below is also called Brân), the ruins of a
fortress on a high conical hill about 1 m. from the town, is supposedly
British, of unknown date. "An old ruynous thinge," as the Elizabethan
poet Churchyard calls it even in the 16th century, it was inhabited,
apparently, about 1390, by Myfanwy Fechan of the Tudor Trevor family and
beloved by the bard Howel ab Einion Llygliw, whose ode to her is still
extant. Valle Crucis Abbey (_Llan Egwest_) is a Cistercian ruin at the
foot of Bronfawr hill, some 2 m. N.W. of Llangollen, founded about 1200
by Madoc ab Gruffydd Maelor, lord of Dinas Brân and grandson of Owen
Gwynedd, prince of Wales. Llan Egwest, dissolved in 1535, was given by
James I. to Lord Edward Wootton. In the meadow adjoining, still called
Llwyn y Groes ("grove of the cross"), is "Eliseg's Pillar." Eliseg was
father of Brochmael, prince of Powys, and his grandson, Concen or
Congen, appears to have erected the pillar, which is now broken, with an
illegible inscription; the modern inscription dates only from 1779. At
Llangollen are linen and woollen manufactures, and near are collieries,
lime and iron works. Brewing, malting and slate-quarrying are also
carried on. Within the parish, an aqueduct carries the Ellesmere canal
across the Dee.



LLANQUIHUE (pron. _lan-kè-wa_), a province of southern Chile bordering
on the northern shores of the Gulf and Straits of Chacao, and extending
from the Pacific to the Argentine frontier. The province of Valdivia
lies N. and is separated from it in part by the Bueno river. Pop. (1895)
78,315. Area 45,515 sq. m. It is a region of forests, rivers and lakes,
and the greater part is mountainous. The rainfall is excessive, the
average at Puerto Montt being 104 in. a year, and the temperature is
singularly uniform, the average for the summer being 58½°, of the winter
47½°, and of the year 53° F. There are several large lakes in the
eastern part of the province--Puyehue, on the northern frontier,
Rupanco, Llanquihue and Todos los Santos. Lake Llanquihue is the largest
body of fresh water in Chile, having an extreme length from N. to S., or
from Octai to Varas, of about 33 m., and extreme breadth of nearly the
same. There is a regular steamship service on the lake between Octai and
Varas, and its western shores are well settled. The volcanoes of Calbuco
and Osorno rise from near its eastern shores, the latter to a height of
7382 ft. The outlet of the lake is through Maullin river, the lower
course of which is navigable. The other large rivers of the province are
the Bueno, which receives the waters of Lakes Puyehue and Rupanco, and
the Puelo, which has its rise in a lake of the same name in the
Argentine territory of Chubut. A short tortuous river of this vicinity,
called the Petrohue, affords an outlet for the picturesque lake of Todos
los Santos, and enters the Reloncavi Inlet near the Puelo. The southern
coast of the province is indented by a number of inlets and bays
affording good fishing, but the mouths of the rivers flowing into the
Pacific are more or less obstructed by sand-bars. Apart from the lumber
industry, which is the most important, the productions of Llanquihue
include wheat, barley, potatoes and cattle. The white population is
composed in great part of Germans, who have turned large areas of forest
lands in the northern districts into productive wheat fields. The
capital is Puerto Montt, on a nearly land-locked bay called the
Reloncavi, designed to be the southern terminus of the longitudinal
railway from Tacna, a distance of 2152 m. An important town in the
northern part of the province is Osorno, on the Rahue river, which is
chiefly inhabited by Germans. It exports wheat and other farm produce,
leather, lumber and beer.



LLANTRISANT, a small town and a contributory parliamentary borough of
Glamorganshire, Wales, picturesquely situated with a southern aspect,
commanding a fine view of the vale of Glamorgan, in a pass on the
mountain range which separates that vale from the valley of the Taff.
The population of the parish in 1901 was 10,091 and of the contributory
borough 2057. A branch of the Taff Vale railway running from Pontypridd
to Cowbridge and Aberthaw has a station, Cross Inn, ½ m. below the town,
while nearly 2 m. farther south it passes (near the village of
Pontyclun) through Llantrisant station on the Great Western railway main
line, which is 156¼ m. by rail from London and 11 m. N.W. from Cardiff.
The castle, which according to G. T. Clark was "second only to Cardiff
in military importance," dates from the reign of Henry III. or Edward I.
Of the original building nothing remains, and of a later building only a
tall and slender fragment. It was the head of the lordship of Miskin, a
great part of which was in the hands of native owners, until the last of
them, Howel ap Meredith, was expelled by Richard de Clare (1229-1262).
Since then it has always been in the hands of the lord of Glamorgan. It
was in the near neighbourhood of the town that Edward II. was captured
in 1327. In 1426 the then lord of Glamorgan, Richard, 5th earl of
Warwick, granted to the residents a charter confirming grants made by
his predecessors in 1346, 1397 and 1424. The corporation was abolished
in 1883, and its property (including 284 acres of common land) is
administered by a town trust under a scheme of the charity
commissioners. The "freemen" of the borough, however, still hold a court
leet in the town-hall. The market formerly held here has been
discontinued, but there are four annual fairs. The church was dedicated
to three saints (Illtyd, Gwyno and Tyfodwg), whence the name
Llantrisant. Originally a Norman building, most of the present fabric
belongs to the 15th century. There are numerous chapels. Welsh is still
the predominant language. Oliver Cromwell's forbears were natives of
this parish, as also was Sir Leoline Jenkins, secretary of state under
Charles II. There are tinplate works at Pontyclun and numerous
collieries in the district.



LLANTWIT MAJOR (Welsh _Llan-Illtyd-Fawr_), a small market town in the
southern parliamentary division of Glamorganshire, South Wales, about 1
m. from the Bristol Channel, with a station on the Barry railway, 5 m.
S. of Cowbridge. Pop. (1901) 1113. About 1 m. N.N.W. of the town there
were discovered in 1888 the remains of a large Roman villa within a
square enclosure of about 8 acres, which has been identified as part of
the site of a Roman settlement mentioned in Welsh writings as Caer
Wrgan. The building seemed to have been the scene of a massacre,
possibly the work of Irish pirates in the 5th century, as some
forty-three human skeletons and the remains of three horses were found
within its enclosure. Etymological reasoning have led some to suggest
that the Roman station of Bovium was at Boverton, 1 m. E. of the town,
but it is more likely to have been at Ewenny (2 m. S.E. of Bridgend) or
perhaps at Cowbridge. On the sea coast are two camps, one known as
Castle Ditches, commanding the entrance to the creek of Colhugh, once
the port of Llantwit. In the time of Henry I. a small colony of Flemings
settled in the district. The town and church derive their name from St
Illtyd or Iltutus, styled the "knight," a native of Brittany and a
great-nephew of Germanus of Auxerre. Having come under the influence of
St Cadoc, abbot of Llancarvan, 6 m. E.N.E. of Llantwit, Illtyd
established at the latter place, about A.D. 520, a monastic college
which became famous as a seat of learning. He attracted a number of
scholars to him, especially from Brittany, including Samson, archbishop
of Dol, Maglorius (Samson's successor) and Paul de Leon, while his Welsh
students included David, the patron saint of Wales, Gildas the
historian, Paulinus and Teilo. The college continued to flourish for
several centuries, sending forth a large number of missionaries until,
early in the 12th century, its revenues were appropriated to the abbey
of Tewkesbury by Fitzhamon, the first Norman lord of Glamorgan. A school
seems, however, to have lingered on in the place until it lost all its
emoluments in the reign of Henry VIII. The present church of St Illtyd
is the result of a sequence of churches which have sprung from a
pre-Norman edifice, almost entirely rebuilt and greatly extended in the
13th century and again partially rebuilt late in the 14th century. It
consists of an "eastern" church which (according to Professor Freeman)
belonged probably to the monks, and is the only part now used for
worship, a western one used as a parochial church before the
dissolution, but now disused, and still farther west of this a chantry
with sacristan's house, now in ruins. The western church consists of the
nave of a once cruciform building, while in continuation of it was built
the eastern church, consisting of chancel, nave (of great height and
width but very short), aisles and an embattled western tower built over
the junction of the two naves. A partial restoration was made in 1888,
and a careful and more complete one in 1900-1905. In the church and
churchyard are preserved some early monumental remains of the British
church, dating from the 9th century, and some possibly from an earlier
date. They include two cross-shafts and one cross with inscriptions in
debased Latin (one being to the memory of St Illtyd) and two cylindrical
pillars, most of them being decorated with interlaced work. There are
some good specimens of domestic architecture of the 17th century. The
town is situated in a fertile district and the inhabitants depend almost
entirely on agriculture. Its weekly market is mainly resorted to for its
stock sales. St Donats castle, 2 m. to the west, was for nearly seven
centuries the home of the Stradling family.

  As to the Roman remains, see the _Athenaeum_ for October 20 (1888),
  and the _Antiquary_ for August (1892). As to the church, see the
  _Archaeologia Cambrensis_, 3rd ser. iv. 31 (an article by Professor
  Freeman), 5th ser., v. 409 and xvii. 129, and 6th ser., iii. 56; A. C.
  Fryer, _Llantwit-Major: a Fifth Century University_ (1893).
       (D. Ll. T.)



LLANWRTYD WELLS, an urban district of Breconshire, south Wales, with a
station on the central Wales section of the London & North Western
railway, 231 m. from London. It is situated in the midst of wild
mountain scenery on the river Irfon, a right-bank tributary of the Wye.
The place is chiefly noted for its sulphur and chalybeate springs, the
former being the strongest of the kind in Wales. The medicinal
properties of the sulphur water were discovered, or perhaps
rediscovered, in 1732 by a famous Welsh writer, the Rev. Theophilus
Evans, then vicar of Llangammarch (to which living Llanwrtyd was a
chapelry till 1871). Saline water is obtained daily in the season from
Builth Wells. The Irfon is celebrated as a trout-stream. Out of the
civil parish, which has an area of 10,785 acres and had in 1901 a
population of 854, there was formed in 1907 the urban district,
comprising 1611 acres, and with an estimated population at the date of
formation of 812. Welsh is the predominant language of the district.

Four miles lower down the Irfon valley, at the junction of the Cammarch
and Irfon, and with a station on the London & North Western railway, is
the village of Llangammarch, noted for its barium springs. The ancient
parish of Llangammarch consists of the townships of Penbuallt and
Treflis, the wells being in the former, which comprises 11,152 acres and
had in 1901 a population of only 433. John Penry, the Puritan martyr,
was born at Cefn-brith in this parish. Charles Wesley's wife, Sarah
Gwynne, was of Garth, an old residence just outside the parish.



LLEWELYN, the name of two Welsh princes.

LLEWELYN I., AB IORWERTH (d. 1240), prince of North Wales, was born
after the expulsion of his father, Iorwerth, from the principality. In
1194, while still a youth, Llewelyn recovered the paternal inheritance.
In 1201 he was the greatest prince in Wales. At first he was a friend of
King John, whose illegitimate daughter, Joanna, he took to wife (1201);
but the alliance soon fell through, and in 1211 John reduced Llewelyn to
submission. In the next year Llewelyn recovered all his losses in North
Wales. In 1215 he took Shrewsbury. His rising had been encouraged by the
pope, by France, and by the English barons. His rights were secured by
special clauses in Magna Carta. But he never desisted from his wars with
the Marchers of South Wales, and in the early years of Henry III. he was
several times attacked by English armies. In 1239 he was struck with
paralysis and retired from the active work of government in favour of
his son David. He retired into a Cistercian monastery.

  See the lists of English chronicles for the reigns of John and Henry
  III.; also the Welsh chronicle _Brut y Tywysogion_ (ed. Rolls Series);
  O. M. Edwards, _History of Wales_ (1901); T. F. Tout in the _Political
  History of England_, iii. (1905).

LLEWELYN II., AB GRUFFYDD (d. 1282), prince of North Wales, succeeded
his uncle David in 1246, but was compelled by Henry III. to confine
himself to Snowdon and Anglesey. In 1254 Henry granted Prince Edward the
royal lands in Wales. The steady encroachment of royal officers on
Llewelyn's land began immediately, and in 1256 Llewelyn declared war.
The Barons' War engaged all the forces of England, and he was able to
make himself lord of south and north Wales. Llewelyn also assisted the
barons. By the treaty of Shrewsbury (1265) he was recognized as overlord
of Wales; and in return Simon de Montfort was supplied with Welsh troops
for his last campaign. Llewelyn refused to do homage to Edward I., who
therefore attacked him in 1276. He was besieged in the Snowdon mountains
till hunger made him surrender, and conclude the humiliating treaty of
Conway (1277). He was released, but in 1282 he revolted again, and was
killed in a skirmish with the Mortimers, near Builth in central Wales.

  See C. Bémont, _Simon de Montfort_ (Paris, 1884); T. F. Tout in the
  _Political History of England_, iii. (1905); J. E. Morris in _The
  Welsh Wars of Edward I._ (1901).



LLORENTE, JUAN ANTONIO (1756-1823), Spanish historian, was born on the
30th of March 1756 at Rincon de Soto in Aragon. He studied at the
university of Saragossa, and, having been ordained priest, became
vicar-general to the bishop of Calahorra in 1782. In 1785 he became
commissary of the Holy Office at Logroño, and in 1789 its general
secretary at Madrid. In the crisis of 1808 Llorente identified himself
with the Bonapartists, and was engaged for a few years in superintending
the execution of the decree for the suppression of the monastic orders,
and in examining the archives of the Inquisition. On the return of King
Ferdinand VII. to Spain in 1814 he withdrew to France, where he
published his great work, _Historia critica de la inquisicion de España_
(Paris, 1815-1817). Translated into English, French, German, Dutch and
Italian, it attracted much attention in Europe, and involved its author
in considerable persecution, which, on the publication of his _Portraits
politiques des papes_ in 1822, culminated in a peremptory order to quit
France. He died at Madrid on the 5th of February 1823. Both the personal
character and the literary accuracy of Llorente have been assailed, but
although he was not an exact historian there is no doubt that he made an
honest use of documents relating to the Inquisition which are no longer
extant.

  The English translation of the _Historia_ (London, 1826) is abridged.
  Llorente also wrote _Memorias para la historia de la revolucion
  española_ (Paris, 1814-1816), translated into French (Paris,
  1815-1819); _Noticias historicas sobre las tres provincias vacongadas_
  (Madrid, 1806-1808); an autobiography, _Noticia biografica_ (Paris,
  1818), and other works.



LLOYD, EDWARD (1845-   ), English tenor vocalist, was born in London on
the 7th of March 1845, his father, Richard Lloyd, being vicar choralist
at Westminster Abbey. From 1852 to 1860 he sang in the abbey choir, and
was thoroughly trained in music, eventually becoming solo tenor at the
Chapel Royal. He began singing at concerts in 1867, and in 1871 appeared
at the Gloucester Musical Festival. His fine evenly-produced voice and
pure style at once brought him into notice, and he gradually took the
place of Sims Reeves as the leading English tenor of the day, his
singing of classical music, and especially of Handel, being particularly
admired. At the Handel Festivals after 1888 he was the principal tenor,
and even in the vast auditorium at the Crystal Palace he triumphed over
acoustic difficulties. In 1888, 1890 and 1892 he paid successful visits
to the United States; but by degrees he appeared less frequently in
public, and in 1900 he formally retired from the platform.



LLOYD, WILLIAM (1627-1717), English divine, successively bishop of St
Asaph, of Lichfield and Coventry, and of Worcester, was born at
Tilehurst, Berkshire, in 1627, and was educated at Oriel and Jesus
Colleges, Oxford. He graduated M.A. in 1646. In 1663 he was prebendary
of Ripon, in 1667 prebendary of Salisbury, in 1668 archdeacon of
Merioneth, in 1672 dean of Bangor and prebendary of St Paul's, London,
in 1680 bishop of St Asaph, in 1689 lord-almoner, in 1692 bishop of
Lichfield and Coventry, and in 1699 bishop of Worcester. Lloyd was an
indefatigable opponent of the Roman Catholic tendencies of James II.,
and was one of the seven bishops who for refusing to have the
Declaration of Indulgence read in his diocese was charged with
publishing a seditious libel against the king and acquitted (1688). He
engaged Gilbert Burnet to write _The History of the Reformation of the
Church of England_ and provided him with much material. He was a good
scholar and a keen student of biblical apocalyptic literature and
himself "prophesied" to Queen Anne, Robert Harley, earl of Oxford,
William Whiston, and John Evelyn the diarist. Lloyd was a stanch
supporter of the revolution. His chief publication was _An Historical
Account of Church Government as it was in Great Britain and Ireland when
they first received the Christian Religion_ (London, 1684, reprinted
Oxford, 1842). He died at Hartlebury castle on the 30th of August 1717.



LLOYD, WILLIAM WATKISS (1813-1893), English man of letters, was born at
Homerton, Middlesex, on the 11th of March 1813. He received his early
education at Newcastle-under-Lyme grammar school, and at the age of
fifteen entered a family business in London, with which he was connected
for thirty-five years. He devoted his leisure to the study of art,
architecture, archaeology, Shakespeare, classical and modern languages
and literature. He died in London on the 22nd of December 1893. The work
by which he is best known is _The Age of Pericles_ (1875), characterized
by soundness of scholarship, great learning, and a thorough appreciation
of the period with which it deals, but rendered unattractive by a
difficult and at times obscure style. He wrote also: _Xanthian Marbles_
(1845); _Critical Essays upon Shakespeare's Plays_ (1875); _Christianity
in the Cartoons_ [of Raphael] (1865), which excited considerable
attention from the manner in which theological questions were discussed;
_The History of Sicily to the Athenian War_ (1872); _Panics and their
Panaceas_ (1869); an edition of _Much Ado about Nothing_, "now first
published in fully recovered metrical form" (1884; the author held that
all the plays were originally written in blank verse). A number of
manuscripts still remain unpublished, the most important of which have
been bequeathed to the British Museum, amongst them being: _A Further
History of Greece_; _The Century of Michael Angelo_; _The
Neo-Platonists_.

  See Memoir by Sophia Beale prefixed to Lloyd's (posthumously
  published) _Elijah Fenton: his Poetry and Friends_ (1894), containing
  a list of published and unpublished works.



LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID (1863-   ), British statesman, was born at Manchester
on the 17th of January 1863. His father, William George, a Welshman of
yeoman stock, had left Pembrokeshire for London at an early age and
became a school teacher there, and afterwards in Liverpool and
Haverfordwest, and then headmaster of an elementary school at Pwllheli,
Carnarvonshire, where he married the daughter of David Lloyd, a
neighbouring Baptist minister. Soon afterwards William George became
headmaster of an elementary school in Manchester, but after the birth of
his eldest son David his health failed, and he gave up his post and took
a small farm near Haverfordwest. Two years later he died, leaving his
widow in poor circumstances; a second child, another son, was
posthumously born. Mrs George's brother, Richard Lloyd, a shoemaker at
Llanystumdwy, and pastor of the Campbellite Baptists there, now became
her chief support; it was from him that young David obtained his
earliest views of practical and political life, and also the means of
starting, at the age of fourteen, on the career of a solicitor.

Having passed his law preliminary, he was articled to a firm in
Portmadoc, and in 1884 obtained his final qualifications. In 1888 he
married Margaret, daughter of Richard Owen of Criccieth. From the first
he managed to combine his solicitor's work with politics, becoming
secretary of the South Carnarvonshire Anti-tithe League; and his local
reputation was made by a successful fight, carried to the High Court, in
defence of the right of Nonconformists to burial in the parish
churchyard. In the first county council elections for Carnarvonshire he
played a strenuous part on the Radical side, and was chosen an alderman;
and in 1890, at a by-election for Carnarvon Boroughs, he was returned to
parliament by a majority of 18 over a strong Conservative opponent. He
held his seat successfully at the contests in 1892, 1895 and 1900, his
reputation as a champion of Welsh nationalism, Welsh nonconformity and
extreme Radicalism becoming thoroughly established both in parliament
and in the country. In the House of Commons he was one of the most
prominent guerrilla fighters, conspicuous for his audacity and pungency
of utterance, and his capacity for obstruction while the Conservatives
were in office. During the South African crisis of 1899-1902 he was
specially vehement in opposition to Mr Chamberlain, and took the
"pro-Boer" side so bitterly that he was mobbed in Birmingham during the
1900 election when he attempted to address a meeting at the Town Hall.
But he was again returned for Carnarvon Boroughs; and in the ensuing
parliament he came still more to the front by his resistance to the
Education Act of 1902.

As the leader of the Welsh party, and one of the most dashing
parliamentarians on the Radical side, his appointment to office when Sir
H. Campbell-Bannerman became premier at the end of 1905 was generally
expected; but his elevation direct to the cabinet as president of the
Board of Trade was somewhat of a surprise. The responsibilities of
administration have, however, often converted a political free-lance
into a steady-going official, and the Unionist press did its best to
encourage such a tendency by continual praise of the departmental action
of the new minister. His settlement of the railway dispute in 1906 was
universally applauded; and the bills he introduced and passed for
reorganizing the port of London, dealing with Merchant Shipping, and
enforcing the working in England of patents granted there, and so
increasing the employment of British labour, were greeted with
satisfaction by the tariff-reformers, who congratulated themselves that
a Radical free-trader should thus throw over the policy of _laisser
faire_. The president of the Board of Trade was the chief success of the
ministry, and when Mr Asquith became premier in 1908 and promoted Mr
Lloyd George to the chancellorship of the exchequer, the appointment was
well received even in the City of London. For that year the budget was
already settled, and it was introduced by Mr Asquith himself, the
ex-chancellor; but Mr Lloyd George earned golden opinions, both at the
Treasury and in parliament, by his industry and his handling of the
Finance Bill, especially important for its inclusion of Old Age
Pensions, in the later stages.

It was not till the time came nearer for the introduction of the budget
for 1909-1910 that opinion in financial circles showed the change which
was afterwards to become so marked. A considerable deficit, of about
£16,000,000, was in prospect, and the chancellor of the exchequer
aroused misgivings by alluding in a speech to the difficulty he had in
deciding what "hen roost" to "rob." The government had been losing
ground in the country, and Mr Lloyd George and Mr Winston Churchill were
conspicuously in alliance in advocating the use of the budget for
introducing drastic reforms in regard to licensing and land, which the
resistance of the House of Lords prevented the Radical party from
effecting by ordinary legislation. The well-established doctrine that
the House of Lords could not amend, though it might reject, a
money-bill, coupled with the fact that it never had gone so far as to
reject a budget, was relied on by the extremists as dictating the
obvious party tactics; and before the year 1909 opened, the possibility
of the Lords being driven to compel a dissolution by standing on their
extreme rights as regards the financial provision for the year was
already canvassed in political circles, though it was hardly credited
that the government would precipitate a constitutional crisis of such
magnitude. When Mr Lloyd George, on the 29th of April, introduced his
budget, its revolutionary character, however, created widespread dismay
in the City and among the propertied classes. In a very lengthy speech,
which had to be interrupted for half an hour while he recovered his
voice, he ended by describing it as a "war budget" against poverty,
which he hoped, in the result, would become "as remote to the people of
this country as the wolves which once infested its forests." Some of the
original proposals, which were much criticized, were subsequently
dropped, including the permanent diversion of the Old Sinking Fund to a
National Development Fund (created by a separate bill), and a tax on
"ungotten minerals," for which was substituted a tax on mineral rights.
But the main features of the budget were adhered to, and eventually
passed the House of Commons on the 4th of November, in spite of the
persistent opposition of the scanty Unionist minority. Apart from
certain non-contentious provisions, such as a tax on motorcars, the main
features of the measure were large increases in the spirit and tobacco
duties, license duties, estate, legacy and succession duties, and income
tax, and an elaborate and novel system of duties on land-values
("increment duty," "reversion duty," "undeveloped land duty"), depending
on the setting up of arrangements for valuation of a highly complicated
kind. The discussions on the budget entirely monopolized public
attention for the year, and while the measure was defended by Mr Lloyd
George in parliament with much suavity, and by Mr Asquith, Sir Edward
Grey and Mr Haldane outside the House of Commons with tact and
moderation, the feelings of its opponents were exasperated by a series
of inflammatory public speeches at Limehouse and elsewhere from the
chancellor of the exchequer, who took these opportunities to rouse the
passions of the working-classes against the landed classes and the
peers. When the Finance Bill went up to the House of Lords, Lord
Lansdowne gave notice that on the second reading he would move "that
this House is not justified in giving its consent to this bill until it
has been submitted to the judgment of the country," and on the last day
of November this motion was carried by an overwhelming majority of
peers. The government passed a solemn resolution of protest in the House
of Commons and appealed to the country; and the general election of
January 1910 took place amid unexampled excitement. The Unionists gained
a hundred seats over their previous numbers, but the constitutional
issue undoubtedly helped the government to win a victory, depending
indeed solely on the votes of the Labour members and Irish Nationalists,
which a year before had seemed improbable.

Events had now made Mr Lloyd George and his financial policy the centre
of the Liberal party programme; but party tactics for the moment
prevented the ministry, who remained in office, from simply sending the
budget up again to the Lords and allowing them to pass it. There was no
majority in the Commons for the budget as such, since the Irish
Nationalists only supported it as an engine for destroying the veto of
the Lords and thus preparing the way for Irish Home Rule. Instead,
therefore, of proceeding with the budget, the government allowed the
financial year to end without one, and brought forward resolutions for
curtailing the powers of the Lords, on which, if rejected by them,
another appeal could be made to the people (see PARLIAMENT). Hardly,
however, had the battle been arrayed when the King's death in May upset
all calculations. An immediate continuance of hostilities between the
two Houses was impossible. A truce was called, and a conference arranged
between four leaders from each side--Mr Lloyd George being one--to
consider whether compromise on the constitutional question was not
feasible. The budget for 1909-10 went quietly through, and before the
August adjournment the chancellor introduced his budget for 1910-11,
discussion being postponed till the autumn. It imposed no new taxation,
and left matters precisely as they were.     (H. Ch.)



LLOYD'S, an association of merchants, shipowners, underwriters, and ship
and insurance brokers, having its headquarters in a suite of rooms in
the north-east corner of the Royal Exchange, London. Originally a mere
gathering of merchants for business or gossip in a coffee-house kept by
one Edward Lloyd in Tower Street, London, the earliest notice of which
occurs in the _London Gazette_ of the 18th of February 1688, this
institution has gradually become one of the greatest organizations in
the world in connexion with commerce. The establishment existed in Tower
Street up to 1692, in which year it was removed by the proprietor to
Lombard Street, in the centre of that portion of the city most
frequented by merchants of the highest class. Shortly after this event
Mr Lloyd established a weekly newspaper furnishing commercial and
shipping news, in those days an undertaking of no small difficulty. This
paper took the name of _Lloyd's News_, and, though its life was not
long, it was the precursor of the now ubiquitous _Lloyd's List_, the
oldest existing paper, the _London Gazette_ excepted. In Lombard Street
the business transacted at Lloyd's coffee-house steadily grew, but it
does not appear that throughout the greater part of the 18th century the
merchants and underwriters frequenting the rooms were bound together by
any rules, or acted under any organization. By and by, however, the
increase of marine insurance business made a change of system and
improved accommodation necessary, and after finding a temporary
resting-place in Pope's Head Alley, the underwriters and brokers settled
in the Royal Exchange in March 1774. One of the first improvements in
the mode of effecting marine insurance was the introduction of a printed
form of policy. Hitherto various forms had been in use; and, to avoid
numerous disputes the committee of Lloyd's proposed a general form,
which was adopted by the members on the 12th of January 1779, and
remains in use, with a few slight alterations, to this day. The two most
important events in the history of Lloyd's during the 19th century were
the reorganization of the association in 1811, and the passing of an act
in 1871 granting to Lloyd's all the rights and privileges of a
corporation sanctioned by parliament. According to this act of
incorporation, the three main objects for which the society exists
are--first, the carrying out of the business of marine insurance;
secondly, the protection of the interests of the members of the
association; and thirdly, the collection, publication and diffusion of
intelligence and information with respect to shipping. In the promotion
of the last-named object an intelligence department has been developed
which for wideness of range and efficient working has no parallel among
private enterprises. By Lloyd's Signal Station Act 1888, powers were
conferred on Lloyd's to establish signal stations with telegraphic
communications, and by the Derelict Vessels (Report) Act 1896, masters
of British ships are required to give notice to Lloyd's agents of
derelict vessels, which information is published by Lloyd's.

The rooms at Lloyd's are available only to subscribers and members. The
former pay an annual subscription of five guineas without entrance fee,
but have no voice in the management of the institution. The latter
consist of non-underwriting members, who pay an entrance fee of twelve
guineas, and of underwriting members who pay a fee of £100. Underwriting
members are also required to deposit securities to the value of £5000 to
£10,000, according to circumstances, as a guarantee for their
engagements. The management of the establishment is delegated by the
members to certain of their number selected as a "committee for managing
the affairs of Lloyd's." With this body lies the appointment of all the
officials and agents of the institution, the daily routine of duty being
entrusted to a secretary and a large staff of clerks and other
assistants. The mode employed in effecting an insurance at Lloyd's is
simple. The business is done entirely by brokers, who write upon a slip
of paper the name of the ship and shipmaster, the nature of the voyage,
the subject to be insured, and the amount at which it is valued. If the
risk is accepted, each underwriter subscribes his name and the amount he
agrees to take or underwrite, the insurance being effected as soon as
the total value is made up.

  See F. Martin, _History of Lloyd's and of Marine Insurance in Great
  Britain_ (1876).



LLWYD, EDWARD (1660-1709), British naturalist and antiquary, was born in
Cardiganshire in 1660. He was educated at Jesus College, Oxford, but did
not graduate; he received the degree of M.A. however in 1701. In 1690,
after serving for six years as assistant, he succeeded R. Plot as keeper
of the Ashmolean museum, a position which he retained until 1709. In
1699 he published _Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia_, in which he
described and figured various fossils, personally collected or received
from his friends, and these were arranged in cabinets in the museum.
They were obtained from many parts of England, but mostly from the
neighbourhood of Oxford. A second edition was prepared by Llwyd, but not
published until 1760. He issued in 1707 the first volume of
_Archaeologia Britannica_ (afterwards discontinued). He was elected
F.R.S. in 1708. He died at Oxford on the 30th of June 1709.



LOACH. The fish known as loaches (_Cobitinae_) form a very distinct
subfamily of the _Cyprinidae_, and are even regarded by some authors as
constituting a family. Characters: Barbels, three to six pairs;
pharyngeal teeth in one row, in moderate number; anterior part of the
air-bladder divided into a right and left chamber, separated by a
constriction, and enclosed in a bony capsule, the posterior part free or
absent. They are more or less elongate in form, often eel-shaped, and
naked or covered with minute scales. Most of the species are small, the
largest known measuring 12 (the European _Misgurnus fossilis_), 13 (the
Chinese _Botia variegata_), or 14 in. (the Central Asian _Nemachilus
siluroides_). They mostly live in small streams and ponds, and many are
mountain forms. They are almost entirely confined to Europe and Asia,
but one species (_Nemachilus abyssinicus_) has recently been discovered
in Abyssinia. About 120 species are known, mostly from Central and
South-Eastern Asia. Only two species occur in Great Britain: the common
_Nemachilus barbatulus_ and the rarer and more local _Cobitis taenia_.
The latter extends across Europe and Asia to Japan. Many of these fishes
delight in the mud at the bottom of ponds, in which they move like
eels. In some cases the branchial respiration appears to be
insufficient, and the intestinal tract acts as an accessory breathing
organ. The air-bladder may be so reduced as to lose its hydrostatic
function and become subservient to a sensory organ, its outer exposed
surface being connected with the skin by a meatus between the bands of
muscle, and conveying the thermo-barometrical impressions to the
auditory nerves. Loaches are known in some parts of Germany as
"Wetterfisch."



LOAD; LODE. The O.E. _lád_, from which both these words are derived,
meant "way," "journey," "conveyance," and is cognate with Ger. _Leite_.
The Teutonic root is also seen in the O. Teut. _laidjan_, Ger. _leiten_,
from which comes "to lead." The meanings of the word have been
influenced by a supposed connexion with "lade," O.E. _hladan_, a word
common to many old branches of Teutonic languages in the sense of "to
place," but used in English principally of the placing of cargo in a
ship, hence "bill of lading," and of emptying liquor or fluid out of one
vessel into another; it is from the word in this sense that is derived
"ladle," a large spoon or cup-like pan with a long handle. The two
words, though etymologically one, have been differentiated in meaning,
the influence of the connexion with "lade" being more marked in "load"
than in "lode," a vein of metal ore, in which the original meaning of
"way" is clearly marked. A "load" was originally a "carriage," and its
Latin equivalent in the _Promptorium Parvulorum_ is _vectura_. From that
it passed to that which is laid on an animal or vehicle, and so, as an
amount usually carried, the word was used of a specific quantity of
anything, a unit of weight, varying with the locality and the commodity.
A "load" of wheat = 40 bushels, of hay = 36 trusses. Other meanings of
"load" are: in electricity, the power which an engine or dynamo has to
furnish; and in engineering, the weight to be supported by a structure,
the "permanent load" being the weight of the structure itself, the
"external load" that of anything which may be placed upon it.



LOAF, properly the mass of bread made at one baking, hence the smaller
portions into which the bread is divided for retailing. These are of
uniform size (see BAKING) and are named according to shape ("tin loaf,"
"cottage loaf," &c.), weight ("quartern loaf," &c.), or quality of flour
("brown loaf," &c.). "Loaf," O.E. _hláf_, is a word common to Teutonic
languages; cf. Ger. _Laib_, or _Leib_, Dan. _lev_, Goth, _hlaifs_;
similar words with the same meaning are found in Russian, Finnish and
Lettish, but these may have been adapted from Teutonic. The ultimate
origin is unknown, and it is uncertain whether "bread" (q.v.) or "loaf"
is the earlier in usage. The O.E. _hláf_ is seen in "Lammas" and in
"lord," i.e. _hlaford_ for _hlafweard_, the loaf-keeper, or
"bread-warder"; cf. the O.E. word for a household servant _hláf-æta_,
loaf-eater. The Late Lat. _companio_, one who shares, _panis_, bread,
Eng. "companion," was probably an adaptation of the Goth, _gahlaiba_,
O.H. Ger. _gileipo_, messmate, comrade. The word "loaf" is also used in
sugar manufacture, and is applied to sugar shaped in a mass like a cone,
a "sugar-loaf," and to the small knobs into which refined sugar is cut,
or "loaf-sugar."

  The etymology of the verb "to loaf," i.e. to idle, lounge about, and
  the substantive "loafer," an idler, a lazy vagabond, has been much
  discussed. R. H. Dana (_Two Years before the Mast_, 1840) called the
  word "a newly invented Yankee word." J. R. Lowell (_Biglow Papers_,
  2nd series, Introd.) explains it as German in origin, and connects it
  with _laufen_, to run, and states that the dialectical form _lofen_ is
  used in the sense of "saunter up and down." This explanation has been
  generally accepted. The _New English Dictionary_ rejects it, however,
  and states that _laufen_ is not used in this sense, but points out
  that the German _Landläufer_, the English obsolete word "landlouper,"
  or "landloper," one who wanders about the country, a vagrant or
  vagabond, has a resemblance in meaning. J. S. Farmer and W. E.
  Henley's _Dictionary of Slang and its Analogues_ gives as French
  synonyms of "loafer," _chevalier de la loupe_ and _loupeur_.



LOAM (O.E. _lám_; the word appears in Dut. _leem_ and Ger. _Lehm_; the
ultimate origin is the root _lai_-, meaning "to be sticky," which is
seen in the cognate "lime," Lat. _limus_, mud, clay), a fertile soil
composed of a mixture of sand, clay, and decomposed vegetable matter,
the quantity of sand being sufficient to prevent the clay massing
together. The word is also used of a mixture of sand, clay and straw,
used for making casting-moulds and bricks, and for plastering walls, &c.
(see SOIL).



LOAN (adapted from the Scandinavian form of a word common to Teutonic
languages, cf. Swed. _lån_, Icel. _lán_, Dut. _leen_; the O.E. _laén_
appears in "lend," the ultimate source is seen in the root of Gr.
[Greek: leipein] and Lat. _linquere_, to leave), that which is lent; a
sum of money or something of value lent for a specific or indefinite
period when it or its equivalent is to be repaid or returned, usually at
a specified rate of interest (see USURY and MONEY-LENDING). For public
loans see FINANCE, NATIONAL DEBT, and the various sections on finance
under the names of the various countries.



LOANDA (_São Paulo de Loanda_), a seaport of West Africa, capital of the
Portuguese province of Angola, situated in 8° 48´ S., 13° 7´ E., on a
bay between the rivers Bango and Kwanza. The bay, protected from the
surf by a long narrow island of sand, is backed by a low sandy cliff
which at its southern end sweeps out with a sharp curve and terminates
in a bold point crowned by Fort San Miguel. The depth of water at the
entrance to the bay is 20 fathoms or more. The bay has silted up
considerably, but there is a good anchorage about 1½ m. from the shore
in 7 to 14 fathoms, besides cranage accommodation and a floating dock.
Vessels discharge into lighters, and are rarely delayed on account of
the weather. A part of the town lies on the foreshore, but the more
important buildings--the government offices, the governor's residence,
the palace of the bishop of Angola, and the hospital--are situated on
higher ground. Most of the European houses are large stone buildings of
one storey with red tile roofs. Loanda possesses a meteorological
observatory, public garden, tramways, gas-works, statues to Salvador
Correia de Sá, who wrested Angola from the Dutch, and to Pedro
Alexandrino, a former governor, and is the starting-point of the railway
to Ambaca and Malanje.

Loanda was founded in 1576, and except between 1640 and 1648, when it
was occupied by the Dutch, has always been in Portuguese possession. It
was for over two centuries the chief centre of the slave trade between
Portuguese West Africa and Brazil. During that time the traffic of the
port was of no small account, and after a period of great depression
consequent on the suppression of that trade, more legitimate commerce
was developed. There is a regular service of steamers between the port
and Lisbon, Liverpool and Hamburg. The town has some 15,000 inhabitants,
including a larger European population than any other place on the west
coast of Africa. It is connected by submarine cables with Europe and
South Africa. Fully half the imports and export trade of Angola (q.v.)
passes through Loanda.



LOANGO, a region on the west coast of Africa, extending from the mouth
of the Congo river in 6° S. northwards through about two degrees. At one
time included in the "kingdom of Congo" (see ANGOLA, _History_), Loango
became independent about the close of the 16th century, and was still of
considerable importance in the middle of the 18th century. Buali, the
capital, was situated on the banks of a small river not far from the
port of Loango, where were several European "factories." The country
afterwards became divided into a large number of petty states, while
Portugal and France exercised an intermittent sovereignty over the
coast. Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on
the West African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and
india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce. The Loango coast is
now divided between French Congo and the Portuguese district of Kabinda
(see those articles). The natives, mainly members of the Ba-Kongo group
of Bantu negroes, and often called Ba-Fiot, are in general well-built,
strongly dolichocephalous and very thick of skull, the skin of various
shades of warm brown with the faintest suggestion of purple. Baldness is
unknown, and many of the men wear beards. Physical deformity is
extremely rare. In religious beliefs and in the use of fetishes they
resemble the negroes of Upper Guinea.



LOBACHEVSKIY, NICOLAS IVANOVICH (1793-1856), Russian mathematician, was
born at Makariev, Nizhniy-Novgorod, on the 2nd of November (N.S.) 1793.
His father died about 1800, and his mother, who was left in poor
circumstances, removed to Kazan with her three sons. In 1807 Nicolas,
the second boy, entered as a student in the University of Kazan, then
recently established. Five years later, having completed the curriculum,
he began to take part in the teaching, becoming assistant professor in
1814 and extraordinary professor two years afterwards. In 1823 he
succeeded to the ordinary professorship of mathematics, and retained the
chair until about 1846, when he seems to have fallen into official
disfavour. At that time his connexion with the university to which he
had devoted his life practically came to an end, except that in 1855, at
the celebration of his jubilee, he brought it as a last tribute his
_Pangéométrie_, in which he summarized the results of his geometrical
studies. This work was translated into German by H. Liebmann in 1902. He
died at Kazan on the 24th of February (N.S.) 1856. Lobachevskiy was one
of the first thinkers to apply a critical treatment to the fundamental
axioms of geometry, and he thus became a pioneer of the modern
geometries which deal with space other than as treated by Euclid. His
first contribution to non-Euclidian geometry is believed to have been
given in a lecture at Kazan in 1826, but the subject is treated in many
of his subsequent memoirs, among which may be mentioned the
_Geometrische Untersuchungen zur Theorie der Parallellinien_ (Berlin,
1840, and a new edition in 1887), and the _Pangéométrie_ already
referred to, which in the subtitle is described as a précis of geometry
founded on a general and rigorous theory of parallels. (See GEOMETRY, §
_Non-Euclidean_, and GEOMETRY, § _Axioms of_.) In addition to his
geometrical studies, he made various contributions to other branches of
mathematical science, among them being an elaborate treatise on algebra
(Kazan, 1834). Besides being a geometer of power and originality,
Lobachevskiy was an excellent man of business. Under his administration
the University of Kazan prospered as it had never done before; and he
not only organized the teaching staff to a high degree of efficiency,
but arranged and enriched its library, furnished instruments for its
observatory, collected specimens for its museums and provided it with
proper buildings. In order to be able to supervise the erection of the
last, he studied architecture, with such effect, it is said, that he was
able to carry out the plans at a cost considerably below the original
estimates.

  See F. Engel, _N. I. Lobatchewsky_ (Leipzig, 1899).



LOBANOV-ROSTOVSKI, ALEXIS BORISOVICH, PRINCE (1824-1896), Russian
statesman, was born on the 30th of December 1824, and educated, like
Prince Gorchakov and so many other eminent Russians, at the lyceum of
Tsarskoe Selo. At the age of twenty he entered the diplomatic service,
and became minister at Constantinople in 1859. In 1863 a regrettable
incident in his private life made him retire temporarily from the public
service, but four years later he re-entered it and served for ten years
as _adlatus_ to the minister of the interior. At the close of the
Russo-Turkish war in 1878 he was selected by the emperor to fill the
post of ambassador at Constantinople, and for more than a year he
carried out with great ability the policy of his government, which aimed
at re-establishing tranquillity in the Eastern Question, after the
disturbances produced by the reckless action of his predecessor, Count
Ignatiev. In 1879 he was transferred to London, and in 1882 to Vienna;
and in March 1895 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in
succession to M. de Giers. In this position he displayed much of the
caution of his predecessor, but adopted a more energetic policy in
European affairs generally and especially in the Balkan Peninsula. At
the time of his appointment the attitude of the Russian government
towards the Slav nationalities had been for several years one of extreme
reserve, and he had seemed as ambassador to sympathize with this
attitude. But as soon as he became minister of foreign affairs, Russian
influence in the Balkan Peninsula suddenly revived. Servia received
financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from
St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria
became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris
was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at
Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the
Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians
professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual
hostility. All this seemed to foreshadow the creation of a Balkan
confederation hostile to Turkey, and the sultan had reason to feel
alarmed. In reality Prince Lobanov was merely trying to establish a
strong Russian hegemony among these nationalities, and he had not the
slightest intention of provoking a new crisis in the Eastern Question so
long as the general European situation did not afford Russia a
convenient opportunity for solving it in her own interest without
serious intervention from other powers. Meanwhile he considered that the
integrity and independence of the Ottoman empire must be maintained so
far as these other powers were concerned. Accordingly, when Lord
Salisbury proposed energetic action to protect the Armenians, the
cabinet of St Petersburg suddenly assumed the rôle of protector of the
sultan and vetoed the proposal. At the same time efforts were made to
weaken the Triple Alliance, the principal instrument employed being the
_entente_ with France, which Prince Lobanov helped to convert into a
formal alliance between the two powers. In the Far East he was not less
active, and became the protector of China in the same sense as he had
shown himself the protector of Turkey. Japan was compelled to give up
her conquests on the Chinese mainland, so as not to interfere with the
future action of Russia in Manchuria, and the financial and other
schemes for increasing Russian influence in that part of the world were
vigorously supported. All this activity, though combined with a haughty
tone towards foreign governments and diplomatists, did not produce much
general apprehension, probably because there was a widespread conviction
that he desired to maintain peace, and that his great ability and
strength of character would enable him to control the dangerous forces
which he boldly set in motion. However this may be, before he had time
to mature his schemes, and when he had been the director of Russian
policy for only eighteen months, he died suddenly of heart disease when
travelling with the emperor on the 30th of August 1896. Personally
Prince Lobanov was a _grand seigneur_ of the Russian type, proud of
being descended from the independent princes of Rostov, and at the same
time an amiable man of wide culture, deeply versed in Russian history
and genealogy, and perhaps the first authority of his time in all that
related to the reign of the emperor Paul.     (D. M. W.)



LÖBAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Löbau water,
12 m. S.E. of the town of Bautzen, on the Dresden-Görlitz railway. Pop.
(1905) 10,683. There is a spa, König Albert-Bad, largely frequented
during the summer season. The town has agricultural implement,
pianoforte, sugar, machine-building and button works, and trade in
grain, yarn, linen and stockings. Other industries are spinning,
weaving, dyeing, bleaching and brewing.

Löbau is first mentioned as a town in 1221; it received civic rights
early in the 14th century and, in 1346, became one of the six allied
towns of Lusatia. It suffered severely during the Hussite war and was
deprived of its rights in 1547.

  See Bergmann, _Geschichte der Oberlausitzer Sechsstadt Löbau_
  (Bischofswerda, 1896); and Kretschmer, _Die Stadl Löbau_ (Chemnitz,
  1904).



LOBBY, a corridor or passage, also any apartment serving as an
ante-room, waiting room or entrance hall in a building. The Med. Lat.
_lobia_, _laubia_ or _lobium_, from which the word was directly adapted,
was used in the sense of a cloister, gallery or covered place for
walking attached to a house, as defined by Du Cange (_Gloss. Med. et
Inf. Lat._, s.v. _Lobia_), _porticus operta ad spatiandum idonea,
aedibus adjuncta_. The French form of _lobia_ was _loge_, cf. Ital.
_loggia_, and this gave the Eng. "lodge," which is thus a doublet of
"lobby." The ultimate derivation is given under LODGE. Other familiar
uses of the term "lobby" are its application (1) to the entrance hall of
a parliament house, and (2) to the two corridors known as
"division-lobbies," into which the members of the House of Commons and
other legislative bodies pass on a division, their votes being recorded
according to which "lobby," "aye" or "no," they enter. The entrance
lobby to a legislative building is open to the public, and thus is a
convenient place for interviews between members and their constituents
or with representatives of public bodies, associations and interests,
and the press. The influence and pressure thus brought to bear upon
members of legislative bodies has given rise to the use of "to lobby,"
"lobbying," "lobbyist," &c., with this special significance. The
practice, though not unknown in the British parliament, is most
prevalent in the United States of America, where the use of the term
first arose (see below).



LOBBYING, in America, a general term used to designate the efforts of
persons who are not members of a legislative body to influence the
course of legislation. In addition to the large number of American
private bills which are constantly being introduced in Congress and the
various state legislatures, there are many general measures, such as
proposed changes in the tariff or in the railway or banking laws, which
seriously affect special interests. The people who are most intimately
concerned naturally have a right to appear before the legislature or its
representative, the committee in charge of the bill, and present their
side of the case. Lobbying in this sense is legitimate, and may almost
be regarded as a necessity. Unfortunately, however, all lobbying is not
of this innocent character. The great industrial corporations, insurance
companies, and railway and traction monopolies which have developed in
comparatively recent years are constantly in need of legislative
favours; they are also compelled to protect themselves against
legislation which is unreasonably severe, and against what are known in
the slang of politics as _strikes_ or _hold-ups_.[1] In order that these
objects may be accomplished there are kept at Washington and at the
various state capitals paid agents whose influence is so well recognized
that they are popularly called "the third house." Methods of the most
reprehensible kind have often been employed by them.

Attempts have been made to remedy the evil by constitutional
prohibition, by statute law and by the action of the governor of the
state supported by public opinion. Improper lobbying has been declared a
felony in California, Georgia, Utah, Tennessee, Oregon, Montana and
Arizona, and the constitutions of practically all of the states impose
restrictions upon the enactment of special and private legislation. The
Massachusetts anti-lobbying act of 1890, which has served as a model for
the legislation of Maryland (1900), Wisconsin (1905) and a few of the
other states, is based upon the publicity principle. Counsel and other
legislative agents must register with the sergeant-at-arms giving the
names and addresses of their employers and the date, term and character
of their employment. In 1907 alone laws regulating lobbying were passed
in nine states--Alabama, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Texas.

  See James Bryce, _American Commonwealth_ (New York, ed. 1889), i.
  673-678; Paul S. Reinsch, _American Legislatures and Legislative
  Methods_ (New York, 1907), chaps. viii., ix.; Margaret A. Schaffner,
  "Lobbying," in _Wisconsin Comparative Legislation Bulletins_, No. 2;
  and G. M. Gregory, _The Corrupt Use of Money in Politics and Laws for
  its Prevention_ (Madison, Wis., 1893).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Bills introduced for purposes of blackmail.



LOBE, any round projecting part, specifically the lower part of the
external ear, one of the parts into which the liver is divided, also one
of several parts of the brain, divided by marked fissures (see LIVER and
BRAIN). The Greek [Greek: lobos], from which "lobe" is derived, was
applied to the lobe of the ear and of the liver, and to the pod of a
leguminous plant.



LOBECK, CHRISTIAN AUGUST (1781-1860), German classical scholar, was born
at Naumburg on the 5th of June 1781. After having studied at Jena and
Leipzig, he settled at Wittenberg in 1802 as privat-docent, and in 1810
was appointed to a professorship in the university. Four years later, he
accepted the chair of rhetoric and ancient literature at Königsberg,
which he occupied till within two years of his death (25th of August
1860). His literary activities were devoted to the history of Greek
religion and to the Greek language and literature. His greatest work,
_Aglaophamus_ (1829), is still valuable to students. In this he
maintains, against the views put forward by G. F. Creuzer in his
_Symbolik_ (1810-1823), that the religion of the Greek mysteries
(especially those of Eleusis) did not essentially differ from the
national religion; that it was not esoteric; that the priests as such
neither taught nor possessed any higher knowledge of God; that the
Oriental elements were a later importation. His edition of the _Ajax_ of
Sophocles (1809) had gained him the reputation of a sound scholar and
critic; his Phrynichus (1820) and _Paralipomena grammaticae graecae_
(1837) exhibit the widest acquaintance with Greek literature. He had
little sympathy with comparative philology, holding that it needed a
lifetime to acquire a thorough knowledge of a single language.

  See the article by L. Friedländer in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_;
  C. Bursian's _Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland_
  (1883); Lehrs, _Populäre Aufsätze aus dem Altertum_ (2nd ed., Leipzig,
  1875); Ludwich, _Ausgewählte Briefe von und an Chr. Aug. Lobeck und K.
  Lehrs_ (1894); also J. E. Sandys, _History of Classical Scholarship_,
  i. (1908), 103.



LOBEIRA, JOÃO (c. 1233-1285), a Portuguese troubadour of the time of
King Alphonso III., who is supposed to have been the first to reduce
into prose the story of _Amadis de Gaula_ (q.v.). D. Carolina Michaelis
de Vasconcellos, in her masterly edition of the _Cancioneiro de Ajuda_
(Halle, 1904, vol. i. pp. 523-524), gives some biographical notes on
João Lobeira, who is represented in the Colocci Brancuti _Canzoniere_
(Halle, 1880) by five poems (Nos. 230-235). In number 230, João Lobeira
uses the same _ritournelle_ that Oriana sings in _Amadis de Gaula_, and
this has led to his being generally considered by modern supporters of
the Portuguese case to have been the author of the romance, in
preference to Vasco de Lobeira, to whom the prose original was formerly
ascribed. The folklorist A. Thomas Pires (in his _Vasco de Lobeira_,
Elvas, 1905), following the old tradition, would identify the novelist
with a man of that name who flourished in Elvas at the close of the 14th
and beginning of the 15th century, but the documents he publishes
contain no reference to this Lobeira being a man of letters.



LOBELIA, the typical genus of the tribe _Lobelieae_, of the order
Campanulaceae, named after Matthias de Lobel, a native of Lille,
botanist and physician to James I. It numbers about two hundred species,
natives of nearly all the temperate and warmer regions of the world,
excepting central and eastern Europe as well as western Asia. They are
annual or perennial herbs or under-shrubs, rarely shrubby; remarkable
arborescent forms are the tree-lobelias found at high elevations on the
mountains of tropical Africa. Two species are British, _L. Dortmanna_
(named by Linnaeus after Dortmann, a Dutch druggist), which occurs in
gravelly mountain lakes; and _L. urens_, which is only found on heaths,
&c., in Dorset and Cornwall. The genus is distinguished from _Campanula_
by the irregular corona and completely united anthers, and by the
excessive acridity of the milky juice. The species earliest described
and figured appears to be _L. cardinalis_, under the name _Trachelium
americanum sive cardinalis planta_, "the rich crimson cardinal's
flower"; Parkinson (_Paradisus_, 1629, p. 357) says, "it groweth neere
the riuer of Canada, where the French plantation in America is seated."
It is a native of the eastern United States. This and several other
species are in cultivation as ornamental garden plants, e.g. the dwarf
blue _L. Erinus_, from the Cape, which, with its numerous varieties,
forms a familiar bedding plant. _L. splendens_ and _L. fulgens_, growing
from 1 to 2 ft. high, from Mexico, have scarlet flowers; _L. Tupa_, a
Chilean perennial 6 to 8 ft. high, has reddish or scarlet flowers; _L.
tenuior_ with blue flowers is a recent acquisition to the greenhouse
section, while _L. amaena_, from North America, as well as _L.
syphilitica_ and its hybrids, from Virginia, have also blue flowers. The
last-named was introduced in 1665. The hybrids raised by crossing
_cardinalis_, _fulgens_, _splendens_ and _syphilitica_, constitute a
fine group of fairly hardy and showy garden plants. Queen Victoria is a
well-known variety, but there are now many others.

  The _Lobelia_ is familiar in gardens under two very different forms,
  that of the dwarf-tufted plants used for summer bedding, and that of
  the tall showy perennials. Of the former the best type is _L. Erinus_,
  growing from 4 to 6 in. high, with many slender stems, bearing through
  a long period a profusion of small but bright blue two-lipped flowers.
  The variety _speciosa_ offers the best strain of the dwarf lobelias;
  but the varieties are being constantly superseded by new sorts. A good
  variety will reproduce itself sufficiently true from seed for ordinary
  flower borders, but to secure exact uniformity it is necessary to
  propagate from cuttings.

  The herbaceous lobelias, of which _L. fulgens_ may be taken as the
  type, may be called hardy except in so far as they suffer from damp in
  winter; they throw up a series of short rosette-like suckers round the
  base of the old flowering stem, and these sometimes, despite all the
  care taken of them, rot off during winter. The roots should either be
  taken up in autumn, and planted closely side by side in boxes of dry
  earth or ashes, these being set for the time they are dormant either
  in a cold frame or in any airy place in the greenhouse; or they may be
  left in the ground, in which case a brick or two should be put beside
  the plants, some coal ashes being first placed round them, and slates
  to protect the plants being laid over the bricks, one end resting on
  the earth beyond. About February they should be placed in a warm pit,
  and after a few days shaken out and the suckers parted, and potted
  singly into small pots of light rich earth. After being kept in the
  forcing pit until well established, they should be moved to a more
  airy greenhouse pit, and eventually to a cold frame preparatory to
  planting out. In the more favoured parts of the United Kingdom it is
  unnecessary to go to this trouble, as the plants are perfectly hardy;
  even in the suburbs of London they live for several years without
  protection except in very severe winters. They should have a loamy
  soil, well enriched with manure; and require copious waterings when
  they start into free growth. They may be raised from seeds, which,
  being very fine, require to be sown carefully; but they do not flower
  usually till the second year unless they are sown very early in heat.

  The species _Lobelia inflata_, the "Indian tobacco" of North America,
  is used in medicine, the entire herb, dried and in flower, being
  employed. The species derives its specific name from its
  characteristic inflated capsules. It is somewhat irritant to the
  nostrils, and is possessed of a burning, acrid taste. The chief
  constituent is a volatile liquid alkaloid (cf. nicotine) named
  lobeline, which occurs to the extent of about 30 %. This is a very
  pungent body, with a tobacco-like odour. It occurs in combination with
  lobelic acid and forms solid crystalline salts. The single preparation
  of this plant in the British Pharmacopeia is the _Tinctura Lobeliae
  Ethereae_, composed of five parts of spirits of ether to one of
  lobelia. The dose is 5 to 15 minims. The ether is employed in order to
  add to the efficacy of the drug in asthma, but a simple alcoholic
  tincture would be really preferable.

  Lobelia has certain pharmacological resemblances to tobacco. It has no
  action upon the unbroken skin, but may be absorbed by it under
  suitable conditions. Taken internally in small doses, e.g. 5 minims of
  the tincture, it stimulates the peristaltic movements of the coecum
  and colon. In large doses it is a powerful gastrointestinal irritant,
  closely resembling tobacco, and causing giddiness, headache, nausea,
  vomiting, purging and extreme prostration, with clammy sweats and
  faltering rapid pulse. Its action on the circulation is very decided.
  The cardiac terminals of the vagus nerves are paralysed, the pulse
  being thus accelerated by loss of the normal inhibitory influence, and
  the blood-vessels being relaxed owing to paresis of the vasomotor
  centre. The blood-pressure thus falls very markedly. The respiratory
  centre is similarly depressed, death ensuing from this action. Lobelia
  is thus a typical respiratory poison. In less than toxic doses the
  motor terminals of the vagi in the bronchi and bronchioles are
  paralysed, thus causing relaxation of the bronchial muscles. It is
  doubtful whether lobelia affects the cerebrum directly. It is excreted
  by the kidneys and the skin, both of which it stimulates in its
  passage. In general terms the drug may be said to stimulate
  non-striped muscular fibres in small, and paralyse them in toxic
  doses.

  Five minims of the tincture may be usefully prescribed to be taken
  night and morning in chronic constipation due to inertia of the lower
  part of the alimentary canal. In spasmodic (neurotic) asthma, and also
  in bronchitis accompanied by asthmatic spasm of the bronchioles, the
  tincture may be given in comparatively large doses (e.g. one drachm)
  every fifteen minutes until nausea is produced. Thereafter, whether
  successful or not in relieving the spasm, the administration of the
  drug must be stopped.



LOBENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the principality of Reuss, on the
Lemnitz, situated in a pleasant and fertile country, 25 m. N.W. from Hof
by railway. Pop. (1905) 2990. The town, grouped round a rock, upon which
stand the ruins of the old castle, is exceedingly picturesque. It
contains a spacious parish church, a palace, until 1824 the residence of
the princes of Reuss-Lobenstein-Elersdorf, and a hydropathic
establishment. The manufactures include dyeing, brewing and
cigar-making.

  See Zedler and Schott, _Führer durch Lobenstein und Umgebung_ (2nd
  ed., Lobenstein, 1903).



LOBO, FRANCISCO RODRIGUES (?1575-?1627), Portuguese bucolic writer, a
lineal descendant in the family of letters of Bernardim Ribeiro and
Christovam Falcão. All we know of his life is that he was born of rich
and noble parents at Leiria, and lived at ease in its picturesque
neighbourhood, reading philosophy and poetry and writing of shepherds
and shepherdesses by the rivers Liz and Lena. He studied at the
university of Coimbra and took the degree of licentiate about 1600. He
visited Lisbon from time to time, and tradition has it that he died by
drowning on his way thither as he was descending the Tagus from
Santarem. Though his first book, a little volume of verses (Romances)
published in 1596, and his last, a rhymed welcome to King Philip III.,
published in 1623, are written in Spanish, he composed his eclogues and
prose pastorals entirely in Portuguese, and thereby did a rare service
to his country at a time when, owing to the Spanish domination,
Castilian was the language preferred by polite society and by men of
letters. His _Primavera_, a book that may be compared to the _Diana_ of
Jorge de Montemôr (Montemayor), appeared in 1601, its second part, the
_Pastor Peregrino_, in 1608, and its third, the _Desenganado_, in 1614.
The dullness of these lengthy collections of episodes without plan,
thread or ideas, is relieved by charming and ingenious pastoral songs
named _serranilhas_. His eclogues in endecasyllables are an echo of
those of Camoens, but like his other verses they are inferior to his
_redondilhas_, which show the traditional fount of his inspiration. In
his _Corte na Aldeia_ (1619), a man of letters, a young nobleman, a
student and an old man of easy means, beguile the winter evenings at
Cintra by a series of philosophic and literary discussions in dialogue
which may still be read with pleasure. Lobo is also the author of an
insipid epic in twenty cantos in _ottava rima_ on the Constable D. Nuno
Alvares Pereira, the hero of the war of independence against Spain at
the end of the 14th century. The characteristics of his prose style are
harmony, purity and elegance, and he ranks as one of Portugal's leading
writers. A disciple of the Italian school, his verses are yet free from
imitations of classical models, his descriptions of natural scenery are
unsurpassed in the Portuguese language, and generally his writings
strike a true note and show a sincerity that was rare at the time. Their
popularity may be seen by the fact that the _Primavera_ went through
seven editions in the 17th century and nine in all, a large number for
so limited a market as that of Portugal, while six editions exist of the
_Pastor Peregrino_ and four of the epic poem. An edition of his
collected works was published in one volume in Lisbon in 1723, and
another in four volumes, but less complete, appeared there in 1774.

  See Costa e Silva, _Ensaio biographico critico_, v. 5-112, for a
  critical examination of Lobo's writings; also Bouterwek's _History of
  Portuguese Literature_.     (E. Pr.)



LOBO, JERONIMO (1593-1678), Jesuit missionary, was born in Lisbon, and
entered the Order of Jesus at the age of sixteen. In 1621 he was ordered
as a missionary to India, and in 1622 he arrived at Goa. With the
intention of proceeding to Abyssinia, whose Negus (emperor) Segued had
been converted to Roman Catholicism by Pedro Paez, he left India in
1624. He disembarked on the coast of Mombasa, and attempted to reach his
destination through the Galla country, but was forced to return. In 1625
he set out again, accompanied by Mendez, the patriarch of Ethiopia, and
eight missionaries. The party landed on the coast of the Red Sea, and
Lobo settled in Abyssinia as superintendent of the missions in Tigré. He
remained there until death deprived the Catholics of their protector,
the emperor Segued. Forced by persecution to leave the kingdom, in 1634
Lobo and his companions fell into the hands of the Turks at Massawa, who
sent him to India to procure a ransom for his imprisoned
fellow-missionaries. In this he was successful, but could not induce the
Portuguese viceroy to send an armament against Abyssinia. Intent upon
accomplishing this cherished project, he embarked for Portugal, and
after he had been shipwrecked on the coast of Natal, and captured by
pirates, arrived at Lisbon. Neither at this city, however, nor at Madrid
and Rome, was any countenance given to Lobo's plan. He accordingly
returned to India in 1640, and was elected rector, and afterwards
provincial, of the Jesuits at Goa. After some years he returned to his
native city, and died there on the 29th of January 1678.

  Lobo wrote an account of his travels in Portuguese, which appears
  never to have been printed, but is deposited in the monastery of St
  Roque, Lisbon. Balthazar Telles made large use of the information
  therein in his _Historia geral da Ethiopia a Alta_ (Coimbra, 1660),
  often erroneously attributed to Lobo (see Machado's _Bibliotheca
  Lusitana_). Lobo's own narrative was translated from a MS. copy into
  French in 1728 by the Abbé Joachim le Grand, under the title of
  _Voyage historique d'Abissinie_. In 1669 a translation by Sir Peter
  Wyche of several passages from a MS. account of Lobo's travels was
  published by the Royal Society (translated in M. Thévenot's _Relation
  des voyages_ in 1673). An English abridgment of Le Grand's edition by
  Dr Johnson was published in 1735 (reprinted 1789). In a _Mémoire
  justificatif en réhabilitation des pères Pierre Paez et Jérôme Lobo_,
  Dr C. T. Beke maintains against Bruce the accuracy of Lobo's
  statements as to the source of the Abai branch of the Nile. See A. de
  Backer, _Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus_ (ed. C. Sommervogel,
  iv., 1893).



LOBSTER (O.E. _lopustre_, _lopystre_, a corruption of Lat. _locusta_,
lobster or other marine shell-fish; also a locust), an edible crustacean
found on the coasts of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. The name is
sometimes loosely applied to any of the larger Crustacea of the order
Macrura, especially to such as are used for food.

The true lobsters, forming the family _Homaridae_, are distinguished
from the other Macrura by having the first three pairs of legs
terminating in chelae or pincers. The first pair are large and massive
and are composed of six segments, while the remaining legs are each
composed of seven segments. The sternum of the last thoracic somite is
immovably united with the preceding. This last character, together with
some peculiarities of the branchial system, distinguish the lobsters
from the freshwater crayfishes. The common lobster (_Homarus gammarus_
or _vulgaris_) is found on the European coasts from Norway to the
Mediterranean. The American lobster (_Homarus americanus_), which should
perhaps be ranked as a variety rather than as a distinct species, is
found on the Atlantic coast of North America from Labrador to Cape
Hatteras. A third species, found at the Cape of Good Hope, is of small
size and of no economic importance.

Both in Europe and in America the lobster is the object of an important
fishery. It lives in shallow water, in rocky places, and is usually
captured in traps known as lobster-pots, or creels, made of wickerwork
or of hoops covered with netting, and having funnel-shaped openings
permitting entrance but preventing escape. These traps are baited with
pieces of fish, preferably stale, and are sunk on ground frequented by
lobsters, the place of each being marked by a buoy. In Europe the
lobsters are generally sent to market in the fresh state, but in
America, especially in the northern New England states and in the
maritime provinces of Canada, the canning of lobsters is an important
industry. The European lobster rarely reaches 10 pounds in weight,
though individuals of 14 pounds have been found, and in America there
are authentic records of lobsters weighing 20 to 23 pounds.

The effects of over-fishing have become apparent, especially in America,
rather in the reduced average size of the lobsters caught than in any
diminution of the total yield. The imposition of a close time to protect
the spawning lobsters has been often tried, but as the female carries
the spawn attached to her body for nearly twelve months after spawning
it is impossible to give any effective protection by this means. The
prohibition of the capture of females carrying spawn, or, as it is
termed, "in berry," is difficult to enforce. A minimum size, below which
it is illegal to sell lobsters, is fixed by law in most lobster-fishing
districts, but the value of the protection so given has also been
questioned.

The Norway lobster (_Nephrops norvegicus_) is found, like the common
lobster, from Norway to the Mediterranean. It is a smaller species, with
long and slender claws and is of an orange colour, often beautifully
marked with red and blue. It is found in deeper water and is generally
captured by trawling. It is a curious and unexplained fact that nearly
all the individuals so captured are males. It is less esteemed for food
than the common species. In London it is sold under the name of "Dublin
prawn."

The rock lobster, spiny lobster, or sea-crawfish (_Palinurus vulgaris_)
belongs to the family _Palinuridae_, distinguished from the _Homaridae_
by the fact that the first legs are not provided with chelae or pincers,
and that all the legs possess only six segments. The antennae are very
long and thick. It is found on the southern and western coasts of the
British, Islands and extends to the Mediterranean. It is highly esteemed
for the table, especially in France, where it goes by the name of
_Langouste_. Other species of the same family are used for food in
various parts of the world, especially on the Pacific coast of North
America and in Australia and New Zealand.

In Melbourne and Sydney the name of "Murray lobster" is given to a large
species of crayfish (_Astacopsis spinifer_, formerly known as _Astacus_,
or _Potamobius serratus_) which is much used for food.     (W. T. Ca.)



LOCAL GOVERNMENT, a phrase specially adopted in English usage for the
decentralized or deconcentrated administration, within a state or
national and central government, of local affairs by local authorities.
It is restricted not only in respect of area but also in respect of the
character and extent of the duties assigned to them. It is not to be
confused with local self-government in the wider sense in which the
words are sometimes employed, e.g. for the granting by the crown of
self-government to a colony; the expression, in a general way, may mean
this, but "local government" as technically used in England refers more
narrowly to the system of county or municipal administration, and
English usage transfers it to denote the similar institutions in other
countries. The growth and persistence of this kind of subordinate
government is due practically to the need of relieving the central
authority in the state, and to experience of the failure of a completely
centralized bureaucracy. The degree to which local government is adopted
varies considerably in different countries, and those which are the best
examples of it in modern times--the United Kingdom, the United States,
France and Germany--differ very much in their local institutions, partly
through historical, partly through temperamental, causes. A certain
shifting of ideas from time to time, as to what is local and what is
central, is inevitable, and the same view is not possible in countries
of different configuration, history or political system. The history and
present state of the local government in the various countries are dealt
with in the separate articles on them (ENGLAND, GERMANY, &c.), in the
sections dealing with government and administration, or political
institutions.

  The best recent comparative study of local government is Percy
  Ashley's _Local and Central Government_ (Murray, 1906), an admirable
  account of the evolution and working of the systems in England,
  France, Prussia and United States. Other important works, in addition
  to general works on constitutional law, are J. A. Fairlie's _Municipal
  Administration_, Shaw's _Municipal Government in Continental Europe_,
  Redlich and Hirst's _Local Government in England_, Mr and Mrs Sidney
  Webb's elaborate historical inquiry into English local government
  (1906), and for Germany, Bornhak's _Geschichte des preussischen
  Verwaltungsrechts_.



LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, a department of the administration of the United
Kingdom, constituted in 1871. It is the successor of the General Board
of Health, established in 1848 pursuant to the Public Health Act of that
year. The General Board of Health continued in existence until 1854,
when it was reconstituted. Its existence under its new constitution was
originally limited to one year, but was extended from year to year until
1858, when it was allowed to expire, its powers under the various acts
for the prevention of diseases being transferred to the privy council,
while those which related to the control of local authorities passed to
the secretary of state for the home department, to whose department the
staff of officers and clerks belonging to the board was transferred.
This state of affairs continued until 1871, when the Local Government
Board was created by the Local Government Board Act 1871. It consists of
the lord president of the council, the five principal secretaries of
state, the lord privy seal, the chancellor of the exchequer and a
president appointed by the sovereign. The board itself seldom meets, and
the duties of the department are discharged by the president assisted by
a parliamentary and a permanent secretary and a permanent staff. The
president and one of the secretaries usually have seats in parliament,
and the president is generally a member of the cabinet. The salary of
the president, formerly £2000, was raised in 1910 to £5000 a year. The
board has all the powers of the secretary of state under the Public
Health Act 1848, and the numerous subsequent acts relating to sanitary
matters and the government of sanitary districts; together with all the
powers and duties of the privy council under the acts relating to the
prevention of epidemic disease and to vaccination. The powers and duties
of the board have been largely added to by legislation since its
creation; it may be said that the board exercises a general supervision
over the numerous authorities to whom local government has been
entrusted (see ENGLAND: _Local Government_). A committee presided over
by Lord Jersey in 1904 inquired into the constitution and duties of the
board, but made no recommendation as to any change therein. It
recommended, however, an increase in the salaries of the president and
of the parliamentary and permanent secretaries.



LOCARNO (Ger. _Luggarus_), a small town of Italian appearance in the
Swiss canton of Tessin or Ticino, of which till 1881 it was one of the
three capitals (the others being Bellinzona, q.v., and Lugano, q.v.). It
is built at the north or Swiss end of the Lago Maggiore, not far from
the point at which the Maggia enters that lake, and is by rail 14 m.
S.W. of Bellinzona. Its height above the sea-level is only 682 ft., so
that it is said to be the lowest spot in Switzerland. In 1900 its
population was 3603, mainly Italian-speaking and Romanists. It was taken
from the Milanese in 1512 by the Swiss who ruled it till 1798, when it
became part of the canton of Lugano in the Helvetic Republic, and in
1803 part of that of Tessin or Ticino, then first erected. In 1555 a
number of Protestant inhabitants were expelled for religious reasons,
and going to Zürich founded the silk industry there. Above Locarno is
the romantically situated sanctuary of the Madonna del Sasso (now
rendered easily accessible by a funicular railway) that commands a
glorious view over the lake and the surrounding country.     (W. A. B. C.)



LOCH, HENRY BROUGHAM LOCH, 1ST BARON (1827-1900), British colonial
administrator, son of James Loch, M.P., of Drylaw, Midlothian, was born
on the 23rd of May 1827. He entered the navy, but at the end of two
years quitted it for the East India Company's military service, and in
1842 obtained a commission in the Bengal Light Cavalry. In the Sikh war
in 1845 he was given an appointment on the staff of Sir Hugh Gough, and
served throughout the Sutlej campaign. In 1852 he became second in
command of Skinner's Horse. At the outbreak of the Crimean war in 1854,
Loch severed his connexion with India, and obtained leave to raise a
body of irregular Bulgarian cavalry, which he commanded throughout the
war. In 1857 he was appointed attaché to Lord Elgin's mission to the
East, was present at the taking of Canton, and in 1858 brought home the
treaty of Yedo. In April 1860 he again accompanied Lord Elgin to China,
as secretary of the new embassy sent to secure the execution by China of
her treaty engagements. The embassy was backed up by an allied
Anglo-French force. With Harry S. Parkes he negotiated the surrender of
the Taku forts. During the advance on Peking Loch was chosen with Parkes
to complete the preliminary negotiations for peace at Tungchow. They
were accompanied by a small party of officers and Sikhs. It having been
discovered that the Chinese were planning a treacherous attack on the
British force, Loch rode back and warned the outposts. He then returned
to Parkes and his party under a flag of truce hoping to secure their
safety. They were all, however, made prisoners and taken to Peking,
where the majority died from torture or disease. Parkes and Loch, after
enduring irons and all the horrors of a Chinese prison, were afterwards
more leniently treated. After three weeks' time the negotiations for
their release were successful, but they had only been liberated ten
minutes when orders were received from the Chinese emperor, then a
fugitive in Mongolia, for their immediate execution. Loch never entirely
recovered his health after this experience in a Chinese dungeon.
Returning home he was made C.B., and for a while was private secretary
to Sir George Grey, then at the Home Office. In 1863 he was appointed
lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Man. During his governorship the
House of Keys was transformed into an elective assembly, the first line
of railway was opened, and the influx of tourists began to bring fresh
prosperity to the island. In 1882 Loch, who had become K.C.B. in 1880,
accepted a commissionership of woods and forests, and two years later
was made governor of Victoria, where he won the esteem of all classes.
In June 1889 he succeeded Sir Hercules Robinson as governor of Cape
Colony and high commissioner of South Africa.

As high commissioner his duties called for the exercise of great
judgment and firmness. The Boers were at the same time striving to
frustrate Cecil Rhodes's schemes of northern expansion and planning to
occupy Mashonaland, to secure control of Swaziland and Zululand and to
acquire the adjacent lands up to the ocean. Loch firmly supported
Rhodes, and, by informing President Kruger that troops would be sent to
prevent any invasion of territory under British protection, he
effectually crushed the "Banyailand trek" across the Limpopo (1890-91).
Loch, however, with the approval of the imperial government, concluded
in July-August 1890 a convention with President Kruger respecting
Swaziland, by which, while the Boers withdrew all claims to territory
north of the Transvaal, they were granted an outlet to the sea at Kosi
Bay on condition that the republic entered the South African Customs
Union. This convention was concluded after negotiations conducted with
President Kruger by J. H. Hofmeyr on behalf of the high commissioner,
and was made at a time when the British and Bond parties in Cape Colony
were working in harmony. The Transvaal did not, however, fulfil the
necessary condition, and in view of the increasingly hostile attitude of
the Pretoria administration to Great Britain Loch became a strong
advocate of the annexation by Britain of the territory east of
Swaziland, through which the Boer railway to the sea would have passed.
He at length induced the British government to adopt his view and on the
15th of March 1895 it was announced that these territories
(Amatongaland, &c.), would be annexed by Britain, an announcement
received by Mr Kruger "with the greatest astonishment and regret."
Meantime Loch had been forced to intervene in another matter. When the
commandeering difficulty of 1894 had roused the Uitlanders in the
Transvaal to a dangerous pitch of excitement, he travelled to Pretoria
to use his personal influence with President Kruger, and obtained the
withdrawal of the obnoxious commandeering regulations. In the following
year he entered a strong protest against the new Transvaal franchise
law. Meanwhile, however, the general situation in South Africa was
assuming year by year a more threatening aspect. Cecil Rhodes, then
prime minister of Cape Colony, was strongly in favour of a more
energetic policy than was supported by the Imperial government, and at
the end of March 1895 the high commissioner, finding himself, it is
believed, out of touch with his ministers, returned home a few months
before the expiry of his term of office. In the same year he was raised
to the peerage. When the Anglo-Boer war broke out in 1899 Loch took a
leading part in raising and equipping a body of mounted men, named after
him "Loch's Horse." He died in London on the 20th of June 1900, and was
succeeded as 2nd baron by his son Edward (b. 1873).



LOCHABER, a district of southern Inverness-shire, Scotland, bounded W.
by Loch Linnhe, the river and loch Lochy, N. by the Corryarrick range
and adjoining hills, N.E. and E. by the district of Badenoch, S.E. by
the district of Rannoch and S. by the river and loch Leven. It measures
32 m. from N.E. to S.W. and 25 m. from E. to W., and is remarkable for
wild and romantic scenery, Ben Nevis being the chief mountain. The
district has given its name to a celebrated type of axe, consisting of a
long shaft with a blade like a scythe and a large hook behind it, which,
according to Sir Walter Scott, was introduced into the Highlands and
Ireland from Scandinavia. It was the weapon of the old City Guard of
Edinburgh. The pathetic song of "Lochaber no more" was written by Allan
Ramsay.



LOCHES, a town in France, capital of an arrondissement in the department
of Indre-et-Loire, 29 m. S.E. of Tours by rail, on the left bank of the
Indre. Pop. (1906) 3751. The town, one of the most picturesque in
central France, lies at the foot of the rocky eminence on which stands
the castle of the Anjou family, surrounded by an outer wall 1¼ m. in
circumference, and consisting of the old collegiate church of St Ours,
the royal lodge and the donjon. The church of St Ours dates from the
10th to the 12th centuries; among its distinguishing features are the
huge stone pyramids surmounting the nave and the beautiful carving of
the west door. The royal lodge, built by Charles VII. and used as the
subprefecture, contains the tomb of Agnes Sorel and the oratory of Anne
of Brittany. The donjon includes, besides the ruined keep (12th
century), the Martelet, celebrated as the prison of Lodovico Sforza,
duke of Milan, who died there in 1508, and the Tour Ronde, built by
Louis XI. and containing the famous iron cages in which state prisoners,
including--according to a story now discredited--their inventor Cardinal
Balue, were confined. Loches has an hôtel-de-ville and several houses of
the Renaissance period. It has a tribunal of first instance, a communal
college and a training college. Liqueur-distilling and tanning are
carried on together with trade in farm-produce, wine, wood and
live-stock.

On the right bank of the Loire, opposite the town and practically its
suburb, is the village of Beaulieu-lès-Loches, once the seat of a
barony. Besides the parish church of St Laurent, a beautiful specimen of
12th-century architecture, it contains the remains of the great abbey
church of the Holy Sepulchre founded in the 11th century by Fulk Nerra,
count of Anjou, who is buried in the chancel. This chancel, which with
one of the older transepts now constitutes the church, dates from the
15th century. The Romanesque nave is in ruins, but of the two towers one
survives intact; it is square, crowned with an octagonal steeple of
stone, and is one of the finest extant monuments of Romanesque
architecture.

Loches (the Roman _Leucae_) grew up round a monastery founded about 500
by St Ours and belonged to the counts of Anjou from 886 till 1205. In
the latter year it was seized from King John of England by Philip
Augustus, and from the middle of the 13th century till after the time of
Charles IX. the castle was a residence of the kings of France.



LOCHGELLY, a police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, 7½ m. N.E. of
Dunfermline by the North British railway. Pop. (1901) 5472. The town is
modern and owes its prosperity to the iron-works and collieries in its
immediate vicinity. Loch Gelly, from which the town takes its name,
situated ½ m. S.E., measures ½ m. in length by ¾ m. in breadth, contains
some trout and pike, and has on its west banks Lochgelly House, a seat
of the earl of Minto. The Romans are said to have had a station at Loch
Ore in the parish of Ballingry, 2¼ m. N. by W., which was drained about
the end of the 18th century and then cultivated. To the N.E. rises the
hill of Benarty (1131 ft.). Hallyards, about 2 m. S.E. of Lochgelly, is
a ruined house that once belonged to Sir William Kirkaldy of Grange, who
held Edinburgh Castle for Queen Mary. Here James V. was received after
his defeat at Solway Moss in 1542, and here a few Jacobites used to meet
in 1715.



LOCHGILPHEAD, a municipal and police burgh of Argyllshire, Scotland, at
the head of Loch Gilp, a small arm on the western side of Loch Fyne.
Pop. (1901) 1313. The herring-fishery is the chief industry, but there
is some weaving of woollens and, in summer, a considerable influx of
visitors. Ardrishaig (pop. 1285), a seaport on the west of the mouth of
Loch Gilp, is the east terminus of the Crinan Canal. It is the place of
transhipment from the large Glasgow passenger steamers to the small
craft built for the navigation of the canal. It is an important harbour
in connexion with the Loch Fyne herring-fishery, and there is also a
distillery. During the summer there is a coach service to Ford at the
lower end of Loch Awe.



LOCHMABEN, a royal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, 8 m.
N.E. of Dumfries, with a station on the Caledonian railway company's
branch from Dumfries to Locherbie. Pop. (1901) 1328. It is delightfully
situated, there being eight lakes in the immediate neighbourhood, while
the river Annan, and the Waters of Ae, Kinnel and Dryfe are in the
vicinity. The town hall is a handsome edifice with clock tower. At the
south end of Castle Loch, the chief lake, stand the ruins, a mere shell,
of Lochmaben Castle, dating from the 13th century, where local tradition
declares that Robert Bruce was born--an honour which is also claimed,
however, for Turnberry Castle on the coast of Ayrshire. In the parish
church is a bell said to have been presented to King Robert by the pope
after reconciliation with him. A statue of the king stands in front of
the town hall. Whether it were his birthplace or not, the associations
of Bruce with Lochmaben were intimate. He exempted his followers in the
district from feudal service and their descendants--the "kindly tenants
of Lochmaben"--were confirmed in their tenure by the court of session in
1824. The Castle Loch is the only fresh water in Scotland, and possibly
in the British Isles, where the vendace (_coregonus vandesius_) occurs.
This fish, which is believed to be growing scarcer, is alleged on
doubtful authority to have been introduced by Queen Mary. It is captured
by the sweep-net in August, and is esteemed as a delicacy. The lakes
adjoining the town afford the inhabitants exceptional advantages for the
game of curling. There was once a team of Lochmaben Curlers entirely
composed of shoemakers (souters) who held their own against all comers,
and their prowess added the phrase "to souter" to the vocabulary of the
sport, the word indicating a match in which the winners scored "game" to
their opponents' "love." Lochmaben unites with Annan, Dumfries,
Kirkcudbright and Sanquhar (the Dumfries burghs) in returning one member
to parliament.



LOCK, MATTHIAS, English 18th-century furniture designer and
cabinet-maker. The dates of his birth and death are unknown; but he was
a disciple of Chippendale, and subsequently of the Adams, and was
possibly in partnership with Henry Copeland (q.v.). During the greater
part of his life he belonged to that flamboyant school which derived its
inspiration from Louis XV. models; but when he fell under the influence
of Robert Adam he absorbed his manner so completely that it is often
difficult to distinguish between them, just as it is sometimes easy to
confound Lock's work with the weaker efforts of Chippendale. Thus from
being extravagantly rococo he progressed to a simple ordered classicism.
His published designs are not equal to his original drawings, many of
which are preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington,
while the pieces themselves are often bolder and more solid than is
suggested by the author's representations of them. He was a clever
craftsman and holds a distinct place among the minor furniture designers
of the second half of the 18th century.

  Among his works, some of which were issued in conjunction with
  Copeland, are: _A New Drawing Book of Ornaments_ (n. d.); _A New Book
  of Ornaments_ (1768); _A New Book of Pier Frames, Ovals, Girandoles,
  Tables, &c._ (1769); and _A New Book of Foliage_ (1769).



LOCK (from the O. Eng. _loc._; the word appears, in different forms, in
many Teutonic languages, but with such various meanings as "hole," Ger.
_Loch_, "lid," Swed. _lock_, &c.; probably the original was a root
meaning "to enclose"), a fastening, particularly one which consists of a
bolt held in a certain position by one or more movable parts which
require to be placed in definite positions by the aid of a key or of a
secret arrangement of letters, figures or signs, before the bolt can be
moved. It is with such fastenings that the present article chiefly
deals.

  The word is also used, in the original sense of an enclosure or
  barrier, for a length of water in a river or canal, or at the entrance
  of a dock, enclosed at both ends by gates, the "lock-gates," and
  fitted with sluices, to enable vessels to be raised from a lower to a
  higher level or vice versa (see CANAL and DOCK). In guns and rifles
  the lock is the mechanism which effects the firing of the charge; it
  thus appears in the names of old types of weapons, such as wheel-lock,
  match-lock, flint-lock (see ARMS AND ARMOUR, § _Firearms_; also GUN
  and RIFLE). Lock (Ger. _Locke_) in the sense of a curl or tuft of
  hair, the separate groups in which the hair naturally grows, may be,
  in ultimate origin, connected with the root of the main word. Lockjaw
  is the popular name of the disease known as tetanus (q.v.). The name
  "Lock Hospital" is frequently used in English for a hospital for
  patients suffering from venereal diseases. According to the _New
  English Dictionary_ there was in Southwark as early as 1453 a
  leper-hospital, known as the Lock Lazar House, which later was used
  for the treatment of venereal diseases. The name appears to have
  become used in the present sense as early as the end of the 17th
  century. Lock hospitals were established in London in 1745-1747 and in
  Dublin in 1754-1755.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The forms in which locks are manufactured, such as padlock, rim-lock,
mortise-lock, one-sided or two-sided, &c., are necessarily extremely
numerous; and the variations in the details of construction of any one
of these forms are still more numerous, so that it is impossible to do
more here than describe the main types which have been or are in common
use. Probably the earliest locks were of Chinese origin. Specimens of
these still extant are quite as secure as any locks manufactured in
Europe up to the 18th century, but it is impossible to ascertain the
date of their manufacture. With the exception, in all probability, of
these Chinese examples, the earliest lock of which the construction is
known is the Egyptian, which was used four thousand years ago. In fig.
1, _aa_ is the body of the lock, _bb_ the bolt and _cc_ the key. The
three pins _p, p, p_ drop into three holes in the bolt when it is pushed
in, and so hold it fast; and they are raised again by putting in the key
through the large hole in the bolt and raising it a little, so that the
pins in the key push the locking pins up out of the way of the bolt. It
was evidently to locks and keys of this nature that the prophet alluded:
"And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder" (Isaiah
xxii. 22), the word _muftah_ used in this passage being the common word
for key to this day.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

In the 18th century the European lock was nothing better than a mere
bolt, held in its place, either shut or open, by a spring b (fig. 2),
which pressed it down, and so held it at either one end or the other of
the convex notch _aa_; and the only impediment to opening it was the
wards which the key had to pass before it could turn in the keyhole. But
it was always possible to find the shape of the wards by merely putting
in a blank key covered with wax, and pressing it against them; and when
this had been done it was unnecessary to cut out the key into the
complicated form of the wards (such as fig. 3), because no part of that
key does any work except the edge _bc_ farthest from the pipe a; and so
a key of the form fig. 4 would do just as well. Thus a small collection
of skeleton keys, as they are called, of a few different patterns, was
all the stock in trade that a lock-picker required.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]


  Lever locks.

The common single-tumbler lock (fig. 5) requires two operations instead
of one to open it. The tumbler _at_ turns on a pivot at t, and has a
square pin at a, which drops into a notch in the bolt _bb_, when it is
either quite open or quite shut, and the tumbler must be lifted by the
key before the bolt can be moved again. The tumbler offered little
resistance to picking, as the height to which it might be lifted was not
limited and the bolt would operate provided only that this height was
sufficient; the improvement which formed the foundation of the modern
key lock was the substitution of what is known as the "lever" for the
tumbler, the difference being that the lever must be lifted to _exactly_
the right height to allow the bolt to pass. This improvement, together
with the obvious one of using more than one lever, was introduced in
1778 by Robert Barron, and is illustrated in figs. 6 and 7. Unless the
square pin a (fig. 6) is lifted by the key to the proper height and no
higher, the bolt cannot move. Fig. 8 illustrates the key of such a lock
with four levers, the different distances between the centre of the key
barrel and the edge of the bit being adapted to lift the levers to the
respective heights required. This lock differs from the modern lever
lock only in the fact that Barron made his gating in the bolt and
carried stumps on his levers, instead of having the main stump riveted
into the bolt and the gatings in the levers as is the modern practice.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

A lock operating on exactly the same principle but entirely different in
construction (fig. 9) was invented by Joseph Bramah in 1784. It consists
of an outer barrel _aaaa_, within which is a revolving barrel, _cccc_,
held in place by a steel disk, _dd_, and provided with a pin b fixed
eccentrically for operating the bolt; the barrel is prevented from
turning by sheet metal sliders _ss_, which slide axially in radial
grooves in the barrel and project into slots cut into the steel disk
which is fastened to the case of the lock. Each slider has a gating cut
in its outer edge sufficiently deep to allow it to embrace the inwardly
projecting steel plate and turn on it with the barrel. The key is of
tubular form having slots cut in its end, each of a depth corresponding
to the position of the gating in one of the sliders; so that, on
inserting the key, each slider is pushed in--against a spring--exactly
far enough to bring its slot opposite the steel disk; in this position
the barrel carrying the sliders is turned by the key and actuates the
bolt.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

Up to 1851 it was generally believed that well-made lever locks of all
types were practically unpickable, but at this time Alfred Charles
Hobbs--an American--demonstrated, by picking the locks of Barron, Chubb,
Bramah and others, that this belief was a fallacy. The method of Hobbs
became widely known as the "tickling" or "tentative" method. In the
modern lever lock the bolt carries a projecting piece--the "main
stump"--which, when the levers are all raised to the proper height,
enters the slots--"gatings"--in their faces. If, when the levers are not
in this position, pressure is applied to the bolt, the main stump will
press against the face of the levers; but owing to inaccuracies of
workmanship and other causes the pressure will not be equal on all the
levers. If now, the pressure on the bolt being maintained, each lever in
turn is carefully raised a little, one will be found on which the
pressure of the stump is greatest; this one is lifted till it becomes
easy and then carefully lowered till it is sustained by the pressure of
the stump in a new position. Another lever now bears the greatest
pressure, and this in its turn is similarly treated. By this gradual or
"tentative" process the levers will in time all be raised to the correct
height and the bolt will slip back without, if sufficient care has been
exercised, any of the levers having been raised above its correct
position. Although this method of picking only became generally known in
1851, it is evident that it was not novel, since in 1817 one of Bramah's
workmen, named Russell, invented the use of false notches or gatings,
which were slots similar to the true gating but of small depth cut in
the face of the levers. Similar false gatings were used in Anthony
Radford Strutt's lock in 1819. The only possible object of these
gatings--two of which are shown in each of the sliders of Bramah's
lock--was to prevent the tentative method of picking. They are, however,
not efficient for their purpose although they render the operation more
difficult and tedious.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

The best-known locks up to 1851 were those of Jeremiah Chubb, their
popularity being due to their superior workmanship and probably still
more to their title "detector." His lock, patented in 1818, contained a
device intended to frustrate attempts at picking, and further to detect
if such an attempt had been made. This device, at any rate as far as
detecting was concerned, had been anticipated by the patent of Thomas
Ruxton in 1816. Since the device only comes into operation when any
lever is raised too high, it is not effective against a skilful
application of the tentative method. The original form of this lock is
shown in fig. 10, when the lever DT, which turns on a pin in the middle,
is acted upon at its end T by a spring S, which will evidently allow
some play to the lever on either side of the corner X; but the moment it
is pushed past that point the spring will carry it farther in the same
direction, like what is called in clock-work a jumper. In its proper
position that end always remains above the turning-point; but, if any
one of the tumblers is raised too high, the other end D of the detector,
which reaches over all the levers, is lifted so far that the end T is
sent down below the corner, and the tooth T then falls into a notch in
the bolt, and so prevents it from being drawn back, even though all the
levers are raised properly by the right key. It thus at once becomes
obvious that somebody has been trying to pick the lock. The way to open
it, then, is to turn the key the other way, as if to overlock the bolt;
a short piece of gating near the end of the levers allows the bolt to
advance just far enough to push the tooth of the detector up again by
means of its inclination there, and then the lock can be opened as
usual. To render the mechanism of locks more inaccessible for picking
purposes, two devices, the "curtain" and the "barrel," were in use;
these devices were simply the one a disk and the other a cylinder
carrying a keyhole which revolved with the key and so closed the fixed
keyhole in the case.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  It is to Hobbs himself that we are indebted for the invention of the
  movable stump, since called the safety lever, the only device
  introduced rendering the tentative method of picking inoperative. This
  invention was incorporated in the "protector" locks of Hobbs, Hart &
  Co.; it consists in the employment of a movable main stump which is
  not riveted into the bolt as usual, but is set on the end b of a bent
  lever _abc_ (fig. 11) which lies in a hollow of the bolt A behind it,
  turning on a pivot in the bolt itself, and kept steady by a small
  friction-spring e. The stump comes through a hole in the bolt large
  enough to let it have a little play; and the long end a of the lever
  stands just above the edge of a square pin d, which is fixed in the
  back plate of the lock. When the lock is locked, if the bolt be pushed
  back, no sensible pressure on the levers is produced, but only just
  enough to turn this protector lever, as Hobbs called it, on its pivot
  c, and so bring down its end a in front of the square pin, and then
  the bolt can no more be pushed back than when held by Chubb's
  detector. The protector is set free again by merely pushing the bolt
  forward with the key, without reference to the levers. However, the
  protector could be prevented from acting by a method used by the
  inventor himself for another purpose, viz., by pushing a piece of
  watch-spring through the keyhole, and up behind the bolt, so as to
  reach the protector at a, and keep it up while the bolt was pushed
  back, or, again, by pushing up the watch-spring between any two of the
  levers, and holding the end b of the protector with it, so as to press
  the stump against the levers. Both these devices, however, are
  prevented now by letting in a feather FF in a groove between the bolt
  and the back of the lock, which no watch-spring can pass, and also
  bringing a piece of the feather forward through the front gating of
  the levers just under the stump. In this form the lock is safe against
  any mode of picking known. A lock possessing valuable features was
  invented in 1852 by Sir Edmund Beckett--afterwards Lord
  Grimthorpe--but did not come into general use for commercial reasons.

  All the locks containing many levers so far described have a common
  defect in that the levers are moved in one direction by the key and in
  the other by springs. But it not infrequently happens that dirt or
  grease gets between the levers and causes two or more to stick
  together, in which case one of them is lifted too high and the bolt is
  prevented from operating. To overcome this difficulty locks,
  especially those intended for safes, have been made so that alternate
  levers move in opposite directions, the key having two bits on
  opposite sides. This construction entails that the key enter the body
  of the levers instead of passing below them, an arrangement that had
  previously been in use to reduce the space into which gunpowder could
  be packed through the keyhole.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]


    Key locks.

  The key locks chiefly used in English safes have been the ordinary
  lever lock with 6-8 or 10 levers, Chubb's "detector," Hobbs's
  "protector" or variants of these. In the Yale lock, which reverts in
  some degree to the idea of the ancient Egyptian lock, America has
  produced one key lock which has come into almost universal use in that
  country and is certainly worthy of note. The key of this lock, shown
  full size at _ka_ in fig. 12, is remarkably small, being stamped from
  a piece of flat steel and weighing only a small fraction of an ounce.
  The barrel _abc_ has to turn, as in the Bramah lock, in order to move
  the bolt, which is not shown in the figure. That may be done either as
  in Bramah locks or by a tongue or bit attached to the end _ab_ of the
  barrel as in several other locks. The barrel is prevented from being
  turned, except by the proper key, thus. The (apparently) five plugs
  with spiral springs over them in fig. 12 are really all divided at the
  cross line _bc_, being all now lifted to the proper height by the key.
  Consequently the barrel _abc_ can turn round, as there is no plug
  either projecting from it or projecting into it. But when the key is
  out, all the plugs are pushed down by the springs, and so the upper
  ones descend into the barrel and hold it fast. And again, if any of
  the steps of a false key are too high, some of the lower plugs will be
  pushed up beyond the barrel into the holes above them, and so the
  barrel cannot turn. The bevelled end of the key near a enables it to
  be pushed in under the plugs, though with some friction and
  resistance.

  It is frequently convenient to have a number of different locks so
  arranged that, whilst each has its own individual key, yet one special
  or "master" key will operate any of the series. In warded locks this
  is done by "differing" the wards of the individual locks so that each
  key will only pass its own lock, and then filing away the bit of an
  extra key so that it will pass all the wards; the objection to this
  method is that any of the individual keys can easily be filed away and
  so form a master key. A better method, which meets this objection,
  consists in making all the levers except one--or if need be two--of
  each lock alike and cutting another gating or widening the gating in
  the differing levers, so as to pass the master key which has one--or
  two--special steps.

The growth of safe deposits has called for special locks so that when a
box changes tenants the outgoing tenant's key shall be useless. In some
cases the lock has been taken off and another substituted, but this is a
clumsy makeshift now rarely employed, and has been superseded by the use
of changeable key locks.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

  The first of these, invented by Robert Newell in 1841, was introduced
  into Great Britain from America by Hobbs in 1851. A simpler form, the
  construction of which is clearly shown by fig. 13, was brought out by
  Hobbs, Hart & Co. The bolt of this lock, instead of the ordinary main
  stump, carries a set of sliders, PPS, one corresponding to each lever
  and each carrying a projection S corresponding to a portion of the
  main stump. It will be seen that if any key having steps of certain
  lengths is inserted when the lock is unlocked and the bolt B thrown
  thereby, each slider will be raised to a height corresponding to that
  to which its lever is raised by the key, and the two fixed teeth CC
  will engage two of the teeth in the front of each slider, so that they
  will be held in place ready to enter the lever gatings when the same
  key is inserted.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.]

  A changeable key lock introduced by the Chatwood Safe Co. has no
  gatings in the levers, whose fronts are cut with teeth gearing into
  similar teeth cut in a set of disks carrying the gatings. The disks
  are mounted on a stud which can be moved by a key from the back of the
  lock in such a way that while the main stump is in the
  gatings--keeping the disks in position--the disks are carried forward
  out of gear with the levers; the key can then be removed and another
  having steps of suitable length inserted and turned so as to raise the
  levers, the disks being then brought back into gear.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

  Both the above locks require that the key steps should have certain
  definite lengths corresponding to the teeth, but a later lock
  resembling to some extent that brought out by Hobbs, Hart & Co. has
  been introduced by the Chatwood Co., in which it is sufficient after
  unlocking the lock to file any of the key steps and so alter the
  pattern of the key in any way. In this lock, which is illustrated in
  fig. 14, unlike all those that have been described, the levers are not
  pivoted but slide upon guide stumps; the main stump is divided as in
  Hobbs Hart's lock, the various pieces being clamped together by a
  screw to form a solid stump. The sliders composing the main stump are
  not provided with teeth, the changing being effected as follows: when
  the bolt is partly shot by the correct key, the screw which binds the
  sliders together as it comes opposite an opening in the back of the
  case is loosened, the key is removed and altered--or a fresh key
  substituted--and is inserted so as to lift the levers to their correct
  height and expose the clamping screw at the back, which is then
  tightened. This lock is now commonly used for safe deposits, combined
  with a small lever lock of which the custodian carries the key, and
  which either blocks the bolt of the main lock or covers the keyhole.

  In connexion with changeable key locks requiring key steps of definite
  lengths, much ingenuity has been displayed in designing keys with
  movable bits or steps, as fig. 15, which are useful chiefly as
  duplicates, being built up to match the key from time to time in use,
  and then deposited in some bank or other secure place to be used in
  case of emergency.


  Combination locks.

From the very earliest times secret devices, either to hide keyholes or
to take the place of locks proper, have been in use; these are to-day
only seriously represented by "combination" locks which, whilst
following the same general principles as key locks, differ entirely in
construction. Locks in which the arranging of the internal parts in
their proper positions was secured by the manipulation of external parts
marked with letters or numbers were common in China in very early times,
but their history is unfortunately lost. This form of lock has been
developed to a very high degree of perfection and is, for safes, in
almost universal use to-day in America.

  The American lock consists of a series of disks mounted upon one
  spindle, only one, however--the bolt disk--being fixed thereto, and
  provided each with a gating into which a stump connected with the bolt
  can drop when all the gatings lie upon a given line parallel to the
  axis of the spindle. Each disk is provided with a driving pin so
  arranged that it can impinge on and drive a similar pin in its next
  neighbour; the gating in the bolt disk and the portion of the stump
  which enters it are so formed that the disk can draw the bolt back.
  The spindle is provided on the outside with a knob and graduated
  disk--usually with 100 divisions--surrounded by an annulus on which a
  fixed position is denoted. Each disk, including the bolt disk, is
  provided with a pin projecting from its surface in such a way that the
  pin of one disk comes into contact with that of the next disk and
  drives it round. If, then, the bolt disk being at the back, there are
  three letter disks and the spindle is rotated to the left, the bolt
  disk will in the course of one revolution pick up letter disk No.
  1--counting from the bolt disk--in the second revolution it will pick
  up No. 2, and in the third No. 3, the revolution being continued for
  part of a turn till the number corresponding to the correct position
  of No. 3 is reached. The revolution of the spindle is now reversed.
  The bolt disk leaves No. 1 in the first revolution and picks it up
  again, and the second revolution picks up No. 2. The motion is
  continued for part of a revolution till No. 2 is brought to the
  correct position (No. 3 obviously not being disturbed) and is then
  reversed. No. 1 is again left behind and picked up in the first
  revolution to the left, the motion being continued till the correct
  position of No. 1 is reached, when, on reversal, the gating in the
  bolt disk comes into the correct position, the stump falls and a
  continuance of the motion to the right draws back the bolt. A lock
  constructed in this way would be of little utility, as the combination
  would have to be determined once for all by the maker. The difficulty
  is got over by making the letter disks in two parts, the inner part
  carrying the driving pin and the outer the gating; these two parts are
  locked together by small cams or other devices which come into such a
  position that they can be released with the help of a square key when
  the lock is unlocked. The combination is set by altering the position
  of the inner disks with the driving pins in relation to the outer part
  carrying the gatings which are meanwhile held steady by the square
  key.


  Time locks.

One advantage of the combination lock is that there is no key to be lost
or stolen, but the means adopted by burglars, especially in America, are
such that even this is not a perfect protection, cases having occurred
in which a person has been compelled to disclose the combination. With
key locks the keyhole through the safe door forms a distinct point of
danger, and with combination locks the spindle passing through the door
may be attacked by explosives. To obviate these two risks time locks
were introduced in America and have been used in Europe. Essentially the
time lock consists of a high-class chronometer or watch movement, little
liable to get out of order, driving a disk provided with a gating such
that the bolt can only enter the gating during certain hours; as a rule
two, three or four chronometers are used, any one of which can release
the lock.

  The Yale time lock contains two chronometer movements which revolve
  two dial plates studded with twenty-four pins to represent the
  twenty-four hours of the day. These pins, when pushed in, form a track
  on which run rollers supporting the lever which secures the bolt or
  locking agency, but when they are drawn out the track is broken, the
  rollers fall down and the bolt is released. By pulling out the day
  pins, say from 9 till 4, the door is automatically prepared for
  opening between these hours, and at 4 it again of itself locks up. For
  keeping the repository closed over Sundays and holidays, a subsidiary
  segment or track is brought into play by which a period of twenty-four
  hours is added to the locked interval. Careful provision is made
  against the eventuality of running down or accidental stoppage of the
  clock motion, by which the rightful owner might be as seriously
  incommoded as the burglar. In the Yale lock, just before the
  chronometers run out, a trigger is released which depresses the lever
  by which the bolt is held in position.     (A. B. Ch.)



LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704), English philosopher, was born at Wrington, 10
m. W. of Belluton, in Somersetshire, on the 29th of August 1632, six
years after the death of Bacon, and three months before the birth of
Spinoza. His father was a small landowner and attorney at Pensford, near
the northern boundary of the county, to which neighbourhood the family
had migrated from Dorsetshire early in that century. The elder Locke, a
strict but genial Puritan, by whom the son was carefully educated at
home, was engaged in the military service of the parliamentary party.
"From the time that I knew anything," Locke wrote in 1660, "I found
myself in a storm, which has continued to this time." For fourteen years
his education, more or less interrupted, went on in the rural home at
Belluton, on his father's little estate, half a mile from Pensford, and
6 m. from Bristol. In 1646 he entered Westminster School and remained
there for six years. Westminster was uncongenial to him. Its memories
perhaps encouraged the bias against public schools which afterwards
disturbed his philosophic calm in his _Thoughts on Education_. In 1652
he entered Christ Church, Oxford, then under John Owen, the Puritan dean
and vice-chancellor of the university. Christ Church was Locke's
occasional home for thirty years. For some years after he entered,
Oxford was ruled by the Independents, who, largely through Owen, unlike
the Presbyterians, were among the first in England to advocate genuine
religious toleration. But Locke's hereditary sympathy with the Puritans
was gradually lessened by the intolerance of the Presbyterians and the
fanaticism of the Independents. He had found in his youth, he says, that
"what was called general freedom was general bondage, and that the
popular assertors of liberty were the greatest engrossers of it too, and
not unfitly called its _keepers_." And the influence of the liberal
divines of the Church of England afterwards showed itself in his
spiritual development.

Under Owen scholastic studies were maintained with a formality and
dogmatism unsuited to Locke's free inquisitive temper. The aversion to
them which he expressed showed thus early an innate disposition to rebel
against empty verbal reasoning. He was not, according to his own account
of himself to Lady Masham, a hard student at first. He sought the
company of pleasant and witty men, and thus gained knowledge of life. He
took the ordinary bachelor's degree in 1656, and the master's in 1658.
In December 1660 he was serving as tutor of Christ Church, lecturing in
Greek, rhetoric and philosophy.

At Oxford Locke was nevertheless within reach of liberal intellectual
influence tending to promote self-education and strong individuality.
The metaphysical works of Descartes had appeared a few years before he
went to Oxford, and the _Human Nature_ and _Leviathan_ of Hobbes during
his undergraduate years. It does not seem that Locke read extensively,
but he was attracted by Descartes. The first books, he told Lady Masham,
which gave him a relish for philosophy, were those of this philosopher,
although he very often differed from him. At the Restoration potent
influences were drawing Oxford and England into experimental inquiries.
Experiment in physics became the fashion. The Royal Society was then
founded, and we find Locke experimenting in chemistry in 1663, also in
meteorology, in which he was particularly interested all his life.

The restraints of a professional career were not suited to Locke. There
is a surmise that early in his Oxford career he contemplated taking
orders in the Church of England. His religious disposition attracted him
to theology. Revulsion from the dogmatic temper of the Presbyterians,
and the unreasoning enthusiasm of the Independents favoured sympathy
afterwards with Cambridge Platonists and other liberal Anglican
churchmen. Whichcote was his favourite preacher, and close intimacy with
the Cudworth family cheered his later years. But, though he has a place
among lay theologians, dread of ecclesiastical impediment to free
inquiry, added to strong inclination for scientific investigation, made
him look to medicine as his profession, and before 1666 we find him
practising as a physician in Oxford. Nevertheless, although known among
his friends as "Doctor Locke," he never graduated in medicine. His
health was uncertain, for he suffered through life from chronic
consumption and asthma. A fortunate event soon withdrew him from the
medical profession.

Locke early showed an inclination to politics, as well as to theology
and medicine. As early as 1665 he diverged for a short time from medical
pursuits at Oxford, and was engaged as secretary to Sir Walter Vane on
his mission to the Elector of Brandenburg. Soon after his return in 1666
the incident occurred which determined his career. Lord Ashley,
afterwards first earl of Shaftesbury, had come to Oxford for his health.
Locke was introduced to him by his physician, Dr Thomas. This was the
beginning of a lasting friendship, sustained by common sympathy with
liberty--civil, religious and philosophical. In 1667 Locke moved from
Christ Church to Exeter House, Lord Ashley's London residence, to become
his confidential secretary. Although he retained his studentship at
Christ Church, and occasionally visited Oxford, as well as his patrimony
at Belluton, he found a home and shared fortune with Shaftesbury for
fifteen years.

Locke's commonplace books throw welcome light on the history of his mind
in early life. A paper on the "Roman Commonwealth" which belongs to this
period, expresses convictions about religious liberty and the relations
of religion to the state that were modified and deepened afterwards;
objections to the sacerdotal conception of Christianity appear in
another article; short work is made of ecclesiastical claims to
infallibility in the interpretation of Scripture in a third; a scheme of
utilitarian ethics, wider than that of Hobbes, is suggested in a fourth.
The most significant of those early revelations is the _Essay concerning
Toleration_ (1666), which anticipates conclusions more fully argued
nearly thirty years later.

The Shaftesbury connexion must have helped to save Locke from those
idols of the "Den" to which professional life and narrow experience is
exposed. It brought him into contact with public men, the springs of
political action and the duties of high office. The place he held as
Shaftesbury's adviser is indeed the outstanding circumstance in his
middle life. Exeter House afforded every opportunity for society. He
became intimate among others with the illustrious Sydenham; he joined
the Royal Society and served on its council. The foundation of the
monumental work of his life was laid when he was at Exeter House. He was
led to it in this way. It was his habit to encourage informal reunions
of his intimates, to discuss debatable questions in science and
theology. One of these, in the winter of 1670, is historically
memorable. "Five or six friends," he says, met in his rooms and were
discussing "principles of morality and religion. They found themselves
quickly at a stand by the difficulties that arose on every side." Locke
proposed some criticism of the necessary "limits of human understanding"
as likely to open a way out of their difficulties. He undertook to
attempt this, and fancied that what he had to say might find sufficient
space on "one sheet of paper." What was thus "begun by chance, was
continued by entreaty, written by incoherent parcels, and after long
intervals of neglect resumed again as humour and occasions permitted."
At the end of nearly twenty years the issue was given to the world as
Locke's now famous _Essay Concerning Human Understanding_.

The fall of Shaftesbury in 1675 enabled Locke to escape from English
politics. He found a retreat in France, where he could unite calm
reflection upon the legitimate operations of "human understanding" with
attention to his health. He spent three years partly at Montpellier and
partly in Paris. His journals and commonplace books in these years show
the _Essay_ in preparation. At Paris he met men of science and
letters--Peter Guenellon, the well-known Amsterdam physician; Ole Römer,
the Danish astronomer; Thoynard, the critic; Melchisédech Thévenot, the
traveller; Henri Justel, the jurist; and François Bernier, the expositor
of Gassendi. But there is no mention of Malebranche, whose _Recherche de
la vérité_ had appeared three years before, nor of Arnauld, the
illustrious rival of Malebranche.

Locke returned to London in 1679. Reaction against the court party had
restored Shaftesbury to power. Locke resumed his old confidential
relations, now at Thanet House in Aldersgate. A period of often
interrupted leisure for study followed. It was a time of plots and
counterplots, when England seemed on the brink of another civil war. In
the end Shaftesbury was committed to the Tower, tried and acquitted.
More insurrectionary plots followed in the summer of 1682, after which,
suspected at home, the versatile statesman escaped to Holland, and died
at Amsterdam in January 1683. In these two years Locke was much at
Oxford and in Somerset, for the later movements of Shaftesbury did not
commend themselves to him. Yet the government had their eyes upon him.
"John Locke lives a very cunning unintelligible life here," Prideaux
reported from Oxford in 1682. "I may confidently affirm," wrote John
Fell, the dean of Christ Church, to Lord Sunderland, "there is not any
one in the college who has heard him speak a word against, or so much as
censuring, the government; and, although very frequently, both in public
and private, discourses have been purposely introduced to the
disparagement of his master, the earl of Shaftesbury, he could never be
provoked to take any notice, or discover in word or look the least
concern; so that I believe there is not in the world such a master of
taciturnity and passion." Unpublished correspondence with his Somerset
friend, Edward Clarke of Chipley, describes Locke's life in those
troubled years. It also reveals the opening of his intimate intercourse
with the Cudworth family, who were friends of the Clarkes, and connected
by birth with Somerset. The letters allude to toleration in the state
and comprehension in the church, while they show an indifference to
theological dogma hardly consistent with an exclusive connexion with any
sect.

In his fifty-second year, in the gloomy autumn of 1683, Locke retired to
Holland, then the asylum of eminent persons who were elsewhere denied
liberty of thought. Descartes and Spinoza had speculated there; it had
been the home of Erasmus and Grotius; it was now the refuge of Bayle.
Locke spent more than five years there; but his (unpublished) letters
show that exile sat heavily upon him. Amsterdam was his first Dutch
home, where he lived in the house of Dr Keen, under the assumed name of
Dr Van der Linden. For a time he was in danger of arrest at the instance
of the English government. After months of concealment he escaped; but
he was deprived of his studentship at Christ Church by order of the
king, and Oxford was thus closed against him. Holland introduced him to
new friends. The chief of these was Limborch, the successor of
Episcopius as Remonstrant professor of theology, lucid, learned and
tolerant, the friend of Cudworth, Whichcote and More. By Limborch he was
introduced to Le Clerc, the youthful representative of letters and
philosophy in Limborch's college, who had escaped from Geneva and
Calvinism to the milder atmosphere of Holland and the Remonstrants. The
_Bibliothèque universelle_ of Le Clerc was then the chief organ in
Europe of men of letters. Locke contributed several articles. It was his
first appearance as an author, although he was now fifty-four years of
age. This tardiness in authorship is a significant fact in his life, in
harmony with his tempered wisdom.

In the next fourteen years the world received through his books the
thoughts which had been gradually forming, and were taking final shape
while he was in Holland. The _Essay_ was finished there, and a French
epitome appeared in 1688 in Le Clerc's journal, the forecast of the
larger work. Locke was then at Rotterdam, where he lived for a year in
the house of a Quaker friend, Benjamin Furley, or Furly, a wealthy
merchant and lover of books. At Rotterdam he was a confidant of
political exiles, including Burnet and the famous earl of Peterborough,
and he became known to William, prince of Orange. William landed in
England in November 1688; Locke followed in February 1689, in the ship
which carried the princess Mary.

After his return to England in 1689 Locke emerged through authorship
into European fame. Within a month after he reached London he had
declined an offer of the embassy to Brandenburg, and accepted the modest
office of commissioner of appeals. The two following years, during which
he lived at Dorset Court in London, were memorable for the publication
of his two chief works on social polity, and of the epoch-making book on
modern philosophy which reveals the main principles of his life. The
earliest of these to appear was his defence of religious liberty, in the
_Epistola de Tolerantia_, addressed to Limborch, published at Gouda in
the spring of 1689, and translated into English in autumn by William
Popple, a Unitarian merchant in London. _Two Treatises on Government_,
in defence of the right of ultimate sovereignty in the people, followed
a few months later. The famous _Essay concerning Human Understanding_
saw the light in the spring of 1690. He received £30 for the copyright,
nearly the same as Kant got in 1781 for his _Kritik der reinen
Vernunft_. In the _Essay_ Locke was the critic of the empirical data of
human experience: Kant, as the critic of the intellectual and moral
presuppositions of experience, supplied the complement to the incomplete
and ambiguous answer to its own leading question that was given in
Locke's _Essay_. The _Essay_ was the first book in which its author's
name appeared, for the _Epistola de Tolerantia_ and the _Treatises on
Government_ were anonymous.

Locke's asthma was aggravated by the air of London; and the course of
public affairs disappointed him, for the settlement at the Revolution
fell short of his ideal. In spring, 1691, he took up his residence in
the manor house of Otes in Essex, the country seat of Sir Francis
Masham, between Ongar and Harlow. Lady Masham was the accomplished
daughter of Ralph Cudworth, and was his friend before he went to
Holland. She told Le Clerc that after Locke's return from exile, "by
some considerably long visits, he had made trial of the air of Otes,
which is some 20 m. from London, and he thought that none would be so
suitable for him. His company," she adds, "could not but be very
desirable for us, and he had all the assurances we could give him of
being always welcome; but, to make him easy in living with us, it was
necessary he should do so on his own terms, which Sir Francis at last
assenting to, he then believed himself at home with us, and resolved, if
it pleased God, here to end his days as he did." At Otes he enjoyed for
fourteen years as much domestic peace and literary leisure as was
consistent with broken health, and sometimes anxious visits to London on
public affairs, in which he was still an active adviser. Otes was in
every way his home. In his letters and otherwise we have pleasant
pictures of its inmates and domestic life and the occasional visits of
his friends, among others Lord Peterborough, Lord Shaftesbury of the
_Characteristics_, Sir Isaac Newton, William Molyneux and Anthony
Collins.

At Otes he was busy with his pen. The _Letter on Toleration_ involved
him in controversy. An _Answer_ by Jonas Proast of Queen's College,
Oxford, had drawn forth in 1690 a _Second Letter_. A rejoinder in 1691
was followed by Locke's elaborate _Third Letter on Toleration_ in the
summer of the following year. In 1691 currency and finance were much in
his thoughts, and in the following year he addressed an important letter
to Sir John Somers on the _Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and
Raising the Value of Money_. When he was in Holland he had written
letters to his friend Clarke of Chipley about the education of his
children. These letters formed the substance of the little volume
entitled _Thoughts on Education_ (1693), which still holds its place
among classics in that department. Nor were the "principles of revealed
religion" forgotten. The subtle theological controversies of the 17th
century made him anxious to show how simple after all fundamental
Christianity is. In the _Reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in
the Scriptures_ (anonymous, 1695), Locke sought to separate the divine
essence of Christ's religion from later accretions of dogma, and from
reasonings due to oversight of the necessary limits of human thought.
This intended Eirenicon involved him in controversies that lasted for
years. Angry polemics assailed the book. A certain John Edwards was
conspicuous. Locke's _Vindication_, followed by a _Second Vindication_
in 1697, added fuel to this fire. Above all, the great _Essay_ was
assailed and often misinterpreted by philosophers and divines. Notes of
opposition had been heard almost as soon as it appeared. John Norris,
the metaphysical rector of Bemerton and English disciple of Malebranche,
criticized it in 1690. Locke took no notice at the time, but his second
winter at Otes was partly employed in _An Examination of Malebranche's
Opinion of Seeing all Things in God_, and in _Remarks upon some of Mr
Norris's Books_, tracts which throw light upon his own ambiguous theory
of perception through the senses. These were published after his death.
A second edition of the _Essay_, with a chapter added on "Personal
Identity," and numerous alterations in the chapter on "Power," appeared
in 1694. The third, which was only a reprint, was published in 1695.
Wynne's well-known abridgment helped to make the book known in Oxford,
and his friend William Molyneux introduced it in Dublin. In 1695 a
revival of controversy about the currency diverted Locke's attention.
Events in that year occasioned his _Observations on Silver Money_ and
_Further Considerations on Raising the Value of Money_.

In 1696 Locke was induced to accept a commissionership on the Board of
Trade. This required frequent visits to London. Meantime the _Essay on
Human Understanding_ and the _Reasonableness of Christianity_ were
becoming more involved in a wordy warfare between dogmatists and
latitudinarians, trinitarians and unitarians. The controversy with
Edwards was followed by a more memorable one with Stillingfleet, bishop
of Worcester. John Toland, in his _Christianity not Mysterious_, had
exaggerated doctrines in the _Essay_, and then adopted them as his own.
In the autumn of 1696, Stillingfleet, an argumentative ecclesiastic more
than a religious philosopher, in his _Vindication of the Doctrine of the
Trinity_, charged Locke with disallowing mystery in human knowledge,
especially in his account of the metaphysical idea of "substance." Locke
replied in January 1697. Stillingfleet's rejoinder appeared in May,
followed by a _Second Letter_ from Locke in August, to which the bishop
replied in the following year. Locke's _Third Letter_, in which the
ramifications of this controversy are pursued with a copious expenditure
of acute reasoning and polished irony, was delayed till 1699, in which
year Stillingfleet died. Other critics of the _Essay_ entered the lists.
One of the ablest was John Sergeant, a priest of the Roman Church, in
_Solid Philosophy Asserted Against the Fancies of the Ideists_ (1697).
He was followed by Thomas Burnet and Dean Sherlock. Henry Lee, rector of
Tichmarch, criticized the _Essay_, chapter by chapter in a folio volume
entitled _Anti-Scepticism_ (1702); John Broughton dealt another blow in
his _Psychologia_ (1703); and John Norris returned to the attack, in his
_Theory of the Ideal or Intelligible World_ (1701-1704). On the other
hand Locke was defended with vigour by Samuel Bolde, a Dorsetshire
clergyman. The _Essay_ itself was meanwhile spreading over Europe,
impelled by the name of its author as the chief philosophical defender
of civil and religious liberty. The fourth edition (the last while Locke
was alive) appeared in 1700, with important additional chapters on
"Association of Ideas" and "Enthusiasm." What was originally meant to
form another chapter was withheld. It appeared among Locke's posthumous
writings as _The Conduct of the Understanding_, one of the most
characteristic of his works. The French translation of the _Essay_ by
Pierre Coste, Locke's amanuensis at Otes, was issued almost
simultaneously with the fourth edition. The Latin version by Richard
Burridge of Dublin followed a year after, reprinted in due time at
Amsterdam and at Leipzig.

In 1700 Locke resigned his commission at the Board of Trade, and devoted
himself to Biblical studies and religious meditation. The Gospels had
been carefully studied when he was preparing his _Reasonableness of
Christianity_. He now turned to the Epistles of St Paul, and applied the
spirit of the _Essay_ and the ordinary rules of critical interpretation
to a literature which he venerated as infallible, like the pious
Puritans who surrounded his youth. The work was ready when he died, and
was published two years after. A tract on _Miracles_, written in 1702,
also appeared posthumously. Fresh adverse criticism of the _Essay_ was
reported to him in his last year, and the book was formally condemned by
the authorities at Oxford. "I take what has been done rather as a
recommendation of the book," he wrote to his young friend Anthony
Collins, "and when you and I next meet we shall be merry on the
subject." One attack only moved him. In 1704 his adversary, Jonas
Proast, revived their old controversy. Locke in consequence began a
_Fourth Letter on Toleration_. A few pages, ending in an unfinished
paragraph, exhausted his remaining strength; but the theme which had
employed him at Oxford more than forty years before, and had been a
ruling idea throughout the long interval, was still dominant in the last
days of his life.

All the summer of 1704 he continued to decline, tenderly nursed by Lady
Masham and her step-daughter Esther. On the 28th of October he died,
according to his last recorded words, "in perfect charity with all men,
and in sincere communion with the whole church of Christ, by whatever
names Christ's followers call themselves." His grave is on the south
side of the parish church of High Laver, in which he often worshipped,
near the tombs of the Mashams, and of Damaris, the widow of Cudworth. At
the distance of 1 m. are the garden and park where the manor house of
Otes once stood.

Locke's writings have made his intellectual and moral features familiar.
The reasonableness of taking probability as our guide in life was in the
essence of his philosophy. The desire to see for himself what is true in
the light of reasonable evidence, and that others should do the same,
was his ruling passion, if the term can be applied to one so calm and
judicial. "I can no more know anything by another man's understanding,"
he would say, "than I can see by another man's eyes." This repugnance to
believe blindly what rested on arbitrary authority, as distinguished
from what was seen to be sustained by self-evident reason, or by
demonstration, or by good probable evidence, runs through his life. He
is typically English in his reverence for facts, whether facts of sense
or of living consciousness, in his aversion from abstract speculation
and verbal reasoning, in his suspicion of mysticism, in his calm
reasonableness, and in his ready submission to truth, even when truth
was incapable of being fully reduced to system by man. The delight he
took in exercising reason in regard to everything he did was what his
friend Pierre Coste remarked in Locke's daily life at Otes. "He went
about the most trifling things always with some good reason." Above all
things he loved order; and he had got the way of observing it in
everything with wonderful exactness. As he always kept the useful in his
eye in all his disquisitions, he esteemed the employments of men only in
proportion to the good they were capable of producing; for which cause
he had no great value for the critics who waste their lives in composing
words and phrases in coming to the choice of a various reading, in a
passage that has after all nothing important in it. He cared yet less
for those professed disputants, who, being taken up with the desire of
coming off with victory, justify themselves behind the ambiguity of a
word, to give their adversaries the more trouble. And whenever he had to
deal with this sort of folks, if he did not beforehand take a strong
resolution of keeping his temper, he quickly fell into a passion; for he
was naturally choleric, but his anger never lasted long. If he retained
any resentment it was against himself, for having given way to so
ridiculous a passion; which, as he used to say, "may do a great deal of
harm, but never yet did anyone the least good." Large, "round-about"
common sense, intellectual strength directed by a virtuous purpose, not
subtle or daring speculation sustained by an idealizing faculty, in
which he was deficient, is what we find in Locke. Defect in speculative
imagination appears when he encounters the vast and complex final
problem of the universe in its organic unity.

Locke is apt to be forgotten now, because in his own generation he so
well discharged the intellectual mission of initiating criticism of
human knowledge, and of diffusing the spirit of free inquiry and
universal toleration which has since profoundly affected the civilized
world. He has not bequeathed an imposing system, hardly even a striking
discovery in metaphysics, but he is a signal example in the Anglo-Saxon
world of the love of attainable truth for the sake of truth and
goodness. "If Locke made few discoveries, Socrates made none." But both
are memorable in the record of human progress.

  In the inscription on his tomb, prepared by himself, Locke refers to
  his books as a true representation of what he was. They are concerned
  with _Social Economy_, _Christianity_, _Education_ and _Philosophy_,
  besides _Miscellaneous_ writings.

  I. SOCIAL ECONOMY.--(1) _Epistola de Tolerantia_ (1689, translated
  into English in the same year). (2) _Two Treatises on Government_
  (1690) (the _Patriarcha_ of Filmer, to which the _First Treatise_ was
  a reply, appeared in 1680). (3) _A Second Letter concerning
  Toleration_ (1690). (4) _Some Considerations on the Consequence of
  Lowering the Rate of Interest and Raising the Value of Money_ (1691).
  (5) _A Third Letter for Toleration_ (1692). (6) _Short Observations on
  a printed paper entitled, "For encouraging the Coining of Silver Money
  in England, and after for Keeping it here"_ (1695). (7) _Further
  Considerations concerning Raising the Value of Money_ (1695)
  (occasioned by a _Report_ containing an "Essay for the Amendment of
  Silver Coins," published that year by William Lowndes, secretary for
  the Treasury). (8) _A Fourth Letter for Toleration_ (1706,
  posthumous).

  II. CHRISTIANITY.--(1) _The Reasonableness of Christianity as
  delivered in the Scriptures_ (1695). (2) _A Vindication of the
  Reasonableness of Christianity from Mr Edwards's Reflections_ (1695).
  (3) _A Second Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity_
  (1697). (4) _A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St Paul to the
  Galatians, First and Second Corinthians, Romans and Ephesians. To
  which is prefixed an Essay for the understanding of St Paul's Epistles
  by consulting St Paul himself_ (1705-1707, posthumous). (5) _A
  Discourse of Miracles_ (1716, posthumous).

  III. EDUCATION.--(1) _Some Thoughts concerning Education_ (1693). (2)
  _The Conduct of the Understanding_ (1706, posthumous). (3) _Some
  Thoughts concerning Reading and Study for a Gentleman_ (1706,
  posthumous). (4) _Instructions for the Conduct of a Young Gentleman_
  (1706, posthumous). (5) _Of Study_ (written in France in Locke's
  journal, and published in L. King's _Life of Locke_ in 1830).

  IV. PHILOSOPHY.--(1) _An Essay concerning Human Understanding_, in
  four books (1690). (2) _A Letter to the Bishop of Worcester concerning
  some passages relating to Mr Locke's Essay of Human Understanding in a
  late Discourse of his Lordship's in Vindication of the Trinity_
  (1697). (3) _Mr Locke's Reply to the Bishop of Worcester's Answer to
  his Letter_ (1697). (4) _Mr Locke's Reply to the Bishop of Worcester's
  Answer to his Second Letter_ (1699). (5) _An Examination of Father
  Malebranche's Opinion of Seeing all Things in God_ (1706, posthumous).
  (6) _Remarks upon Some of Mr Norris's Books, wherein he asserts Father
  Malebranche's Opinion of Seeing all Things in God_ (1720, posthumous).

  MISCELLANEOUS.--(1) _A New Method of a Common Place Book_ (1686). This
  was Locke's first article in the _Bibliothèque_ of Le Clerc; his other
  contributions to it are uncertain, except the _Epitome of the Essay_,
  (in 1688). (2) _The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina_ (prepared
  in 1673 when Locke was Lord Shaftesbury's secretary at Exeter House,
  remarkable for recognition of the principle of toleration, published
  in 1706, in the posthumous collection). (3) _Memoirs relating to the
  Life of Anthony, First Earl of Shaftesbury_ (1706). (4) _Elements of
  Natural Philosophy_ (1706). (5) _Observations upon the Growth and
  Culture of Vines and Olives_ (1706). (6) _Rules of a Society which met
  once a Week, for their improvement in Useful Knowledge, and for the
  Promotion of Truth and Christian Charity_ (1706). (7) _A Letter from a
  Person of Quality to his Friend in the Country_, published in 1875
  (included by Des Maizeaux in his _Collection of Several Pieces of Mr
  John Locke's_, 1720), and soon afterwards burned by the common hangman
  by orders from the House of Lords, was disavowed by Locke himself. It
  may have been dictated by Shaftesbury. There are also miscellaneous
  writings of Locke first published in the biographies of Lord King
  (1830) and of Mr Fox Bourne (1876).

  _Letters_ from Locke to Thoynard, Limborch, Le Clerc, Guenellon,
  Molyneux, Collins, Sir Isaac Newton, the first and the third Lord
  Shaftesbury, Lords Peterborough and Pembroke, Clarke of Chipley and
  others are preserved, many of them unpublished, most of them in the
  keeping of Lord Lovelace at Horseley Towers, and of Mr Sanford at
  Nynehead in Somerset, or in the British Museum. They express the
  gracious courtesy and playful humour which were natural to him, and
  his varied interests in human life.

  I. _Social Economy._--It has been truly said that all Locke's
  writings, even the _Essay on Human Understanding_ itself, were
  occasional, and "intended directly to counteract the enemies of reason
  and freedom in his own age." This appears in his works on social
  polity, written at a time when the principles of democracy and
  toleration were struggling with divine right of kings, and when "the
  popular assertors of public liberty were the greatest engrossers of it
  too." "The state" with Locke was the deliberate outcome of free
  contract rather than a natural growth or organism. That the people, in
  the exercise of their sovereignty, have the right to govern themselves
  in the way they judge to be for the common good; and that civil
  government, whatever form it assumes, has no right to interfere with
  religious beliefs that are not inconsistent with civil society, is at
  the foundation of his political philosophy. He rested this sovereignty
  on virtual mutual contract on the part of the people themselves to be
  so governed. But the terms of the contract might be modified by the
  sovereign people themselves, from time to time, in accommodation to
  changing circumstances. He saw that things in this world were in a
  constant flux, so that no society could remain long in the same state,
  and that "the grossest absurdities" must be the issue of "following
  custom when reason has left the custom." He was always disposed to
  liberal ecclesiastical concessions for the sake of peace, and he
  recommended harmonious co-operation with the civil magistrate in all
  matters of worship and government that were not expressly determined
  by Scripture.


    The social contract.

  The attack on Sir Robert Filmer in Locke's _First Treatise on
  Government_ was an anachronism. The democratic principle argued for in
  the _Second Treatise_, while in advance of the practice of his age,
  was in parts anticipated by Aquinas and Bodin, as well as by Grotius
  and Hooker. Its guiding principle is, that civil rulers hold their
  power not absolutely but conditionally, government being essentially a
  moral trust, forfeited if the conditions are not fulfilled by the
  trustees. This presupposes an original and necessary law of nature or
  reason, as insisted on by Hooker. But it points to the constitution of
  civil society in the abstract rather than to the actual origin of
  government as a matter of fact and past history. There is no
  historical proof that power was formally entrusted to rulers by the
  conscious and deliberate action of the ruled. Indeed Locke seems to
  allow that the consent was at first tacit, and by anterior law of
  nature conditional on the beneficial purpose of the trust being
  realized. His _Treatises on Government_ were meant to vindicate the
  Convention parliament and the English revolution, as well as to refute
  the ideas of absolute monarchy held by Hobbes and Filmer. They are
  classics in the library of English constitutional law and polity.


    Religious Toleration.

  Locke's philosophical defence of religious liberty in the four
  _Letters of Toleration_ is the most far-reaching of his contributions
  to social polity. He had a more modest estimate of human resources for
  forming true judgments in religion, and a less pronounced opinion of
  the immorality of religious error, than either the Catholic or the
  Puritan. The toleration which he spent his life in arguing for
  involved a change from the authoritative and absolute to the relative
  point of view, as regards man's means of knowledge and belief. It was
  a protest against those who in theology "peremptorily require
  demonstration and demand certainty where probability only is to be
  had." The practice of universal toleration amidst increasing religious
  differences was an application of the conception of human
  understanding which governs his _Essay_. Once a paradox it is now
  commonplace, and the superabundant argument in the _Letters on
  Toleration_ fatigues the modern reader. The change is due more to
  Locke himself than to anyone else. Free thought and liberty of
  conscience had indeed been pleaded for, on various grounds, in the
  century in which he lived. Chillingworth, Jeremy Taylor, Glanvill and
  other philosophical thinkers in the Church of England urged toleration
  in the state, in conjunction with wide comprehension in the church, on
  the ground of our necessary intellectual limitation and inability to
  reach demonstration in theological debates. Puritans like Owen and
  Goodwin, whose idea of ecclesiastical comprehension was dogmatic and
  narrow, were ready to accept sectarian variety, because it was their
  duty to allow many religions in the nation, but only one form of
  theology within their own sect. The existence of separate
  nationalities, on the other hand, was the justification of national
  churches according to the latitudinarian churchmen with whom Locke
  associated: a national church comprehensive in creed, and thus
  co-extensive with the nation was their ideal. Locke went far to unite
  in a higher principle elements in the broad Anglican and the Puritan
  theories, while he recognized the individual liberty of thought which
  distinguishes the national church of England. A constant sense of the
  limits of human understanding was at the bottom of his arguments for
  tolerance. He had no objection to a national establishment of
  religion, provided that it was comprehensive enough, and was really
  the nation organized to promote goodness; not to protect the
  metaphysical subtleties of sectarian theologians. The recall of the
  national religion to the simplicity of the gospels would, he hoped,
  make toleration of nonconformists unnecessary, as few would then
  remain. To the atheist alone Locke refuses full toleration, on the
  ground that social obligation can have no hold over him, for "the
  taking away of God dissolves all." He argued, too, against full
  toleration of the Church of Rome in England, on the ground of its
  unnational allegiance to a foreign sovereign. The unfitness of
  persecution as a means of propagating truth is copiously insisted on
  by Locke. Persecution can only transform a man into a hypocrite;
  belief is legitimately formed only by discernment of sufficient
  evidence; apart from evidence, a man has no right to control the
  understanding; he cannot determine arbitrarily what his neighbours
  must believe. Thus Locke's pleas for religious toleration resolve at
  last into his philosophical view of the foundation and limits of human
  knowledge.

  II. _The Reasonableness of Christianity._--The principles that
  governed Locke's social polity largely determined his attitude to
  Christianity. His "latitudinarianism" was the result of extraordinary
  reverence for truth, and a perception that knowledge may be sufficient
  for the purposes of human life while it falls infinitely short of
  speculative completeness. He never loses sight of essential
  reasonableness as the only ground on which Christian faith can
  ultimately rest. But Locke accepted Holy Scripture as infallible with
  the reverence of a Puritan. "It has God for its author, salvation for
  its end, and truth without any mixture of error for its matter." Yet
  he did not, like many Puritans, mean Scripture as interpreted by
  himself or by his sect. And faith in its infallibility was combined in
  Locke with deep distrust in "enthusiasm." This predisposed him to
  regard physical miracles as the solid criterion for distinguishing
  reasonable religious conviction from "inclinations, fancies and strong
  assurances." Assent in religion as in everything else he could justify
  only on the ground of its harmony with reason; professed "illumination
  without search, and certainty without proof" was to him a sign of
  absence of the divine spirit in the professor. Confidence that we are
  right, he would say, is in itself no proof that we are right: when God
  asks assent to the truth of a proposition in religion, he either shows
  us its intrinsic rationality by ordinary means, or he offers
  miraculous proof of the reality of which we need reasonable evidence.
  But we must know what we mean by miracle. Reasonableness, in short,
  must always at last be our guide. His own faith in Christianity rested
  on its moral excellence when it is received in its primitive
  simplicity, combined with the miracles which accompanied its original
  promulgation. But "even for those books which have the attestation of
  miracles to confirm their being from God, the miracles," he says, "are
  to be judged by the doctrine, and not the doctrine by the miracles."
  Miracles alone cannot vindicate the divinity of immoral doctrine.
  Locke's _Reasonableness of Christianity_ was an attempt to recall
  religion from the crude speculations of theological sects, destructive
  of peace among Christians, to its original simplicity; but this is apt
  to conceal its transcendent mystery. Those who practically acknowledge
  the supremacy of Jesus as Messiah accept all that is essential to the
  Christianity of Locke. His own Christian belief, sincere and earnest,
  was more the outcome of the common sense which, largely through him,
  moulded the prudential theology of England in the 18th century, than
  of the nobler elements present in More, Cudworth and other religious
  thinkers of the preceding age, or afterwards in Law and Berkeley,
  Coleridge and Schleiermacher.

  III. _Education._--Locke has his place among classic writers on the
  theory and art of Education. His contribution may be taken as either
  an introduction to or an application of the _Essay on Human
  Understanding_. In the _Thoughts on Education_ imaginative sentiment
  is never allowed to weigh against utility; information is subordinate
  to the formation of useful character; the part which habit plays in
  individuals is always kept in view; the dependence of intelligence and
  character, which it is the purpose of education to improve, upon
  health of body is steadily inculcated; to make children happy in
  undergoing education is a favourite precept; accumulating facts
  without exercising thought, and without accustoming the youthful mind
  to look for evidence, is always referred to as a cardinal vice. Wisdom
  more than much learning is what he requires in the teacher. In
  instruction he gives the first place to "that which may direct us to
  heaven," and the second to "the study of prudence, or discreet
  conduct, and management of ourselves in the several occurrences of our
  lives, which most assists our quiet prosperous passage through this
  present life." The infinity of real existence, in contrast with the
  necessary finitude of human understanding and experience, is always in
  his thoughts. This "disproportionateness" between the human mind and
  the universe of reality imposes deliberation in the selection of
  studies, and disregard for those which lie out of the way of a wise
  man. Knowledge of what other men have thought is perhaps of too little
  account with Locke. "It is an idle and useless thing to make it one's
  business to study what have been other men's sentiments in matters
  where only reason is to be judge." In his _Conduct of the
  Understanding_ the pupil is invited to occupy the point at which "a
  full view of all that relates to a question" is to be had, and at
  which alone a rational discernment of truth is possible. The
  uneducated mass of mankind, he complains, either "seldom reason at
  all," or "put passion in the place of reason," or "for want of large,
  sound, round-about sense" they direct their minds only to one part of
  the evidence, "converse with one sort of men, read but one sort of
  books, and will not come in the hearing of but one sort of notions,
  and so carve out to themselves a little Goshen in the intellectual
  world, where light shines, and, as they conclude, day blesses them;
  but the rest of the vast expansion they give up to night and darkness,
  and avoid coming near it." Hasty judgment, bias, absence of an a
  priori "indifference" to what the evidence may in the end require us
  to conclude, undue regard for authority, excessive love for custom and
  antiquity, indolence and sceptical despair are among the states of
  mind marked by him as most apt to interfere with the formation of
  beliefs in harmony with the Universal Reason that is active in the
  universe.

  IV. _Philosophy._--The _Essay Concerning Human Understanding_ embodies
  Locke's philosophy. It was the first attempt on a great scale, and in
  the Baconian spirit, to estimate critically the certainty and the
  adequacy of human knowledge, when confronted with God and the
  universe.

  The "Introduction" to the _Essay_ is the keynote to the whole. The
  ill-fortune of men in their past endeavours to comprehend themselves
  and their environment is attributed in a great measure to their
  disposition to extend their inquiries into matters beyond the reach of
  human understanding. To inquire with critical care into "the original,
  certainty and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and
  degrees of belief, opinion and assent," is accordingly Locke's design
  in this _Essay_. Excluding from his enquiry "the physical
  consideration of the mind," he sought to make a faithful report, based
  on an introspective study of consciousness, as to how far a human
  understanding of the universe can reach. Although his report might
  show that our knowledge at its highest must be far short of a
  "universal or perfect comprehension of whatsoever is," it might still
  be "sufficient" for us, because "suited to our individual state." The
  "light of reason," the "candle of the Lord," that is set up in us may
  be found to shine bright enough for all _our_ purposes. If human
  understanding cannot fully solve the infinite problem of the universe,
  man may at least see that at no stage of his finite experience is he
  necessarily the sport of chance, and that he can practically secure
  his own wellbeing.

  The last book of the _Essay_, which treats of Knowledge and
  Probability, is concerned more directly than the three preceding ones
  with Locke's professed design. It has been suggested that Locke may
  have begun with this book. It contains few references to the foregoing
  parts of the _Essay_, and it might have appeared separately without
  being much less intelligible than it is. The other books, concerned
  chiefly with ideas and words, are more abstract, and may have opened
  gradually on his mind as he studied more closely the subject treated
  in the fourth book. For Locke saw that the ultimate questions about
  our knowledge and its extent _presuppose_ questions about ideas.
  Without ideas knowledge is impossible. "Idea" is thus a leading term
  in the _Essay_. It is used in a way peculiar to himself--"the term
  which, I think, stands best for whatsoever is the object of the
  understanding when a man thinks" or "whatever it is which the mind can
  be employed about." But ideas themselves are, he reminds us, "neither
  true nor false, being nothing but bare appearances," phenomena as we
  might call them. Truth and falsehood belong only to assertions or
  denials concerning ideas, that is, to our interpretations of our ideas
  according to their mutual relations.


    Innate ideas.

  That none of our ideas are "innate" is the argument contained in the
  first book. This means that the human mind, before any ideas are
  present to it, is a _tabula rasa_: it needs the quickening of ideas to
  become intellectually alive. The inward purpose of this famous
  argument is apt to be overlooked. It has been criticized as if it was
  a speculative controversy between empiricism and intellectualism. For
  this Locke himself is partly to blame. It is not easy to determine the
  antagonist he had in view. Lord Herbert is referred to as a defender
  of innateness. Locke was perhaps too little read in the literature of
  philosophy to do full justice to those more subtle thinkers who, from
  Plato downwards, have recognized the need for categories of the
  understanding and presuppositions of reason in the constitution of
  knowledge. "Innate," Lord Shaftesbury says, "is a word Mr Locke poorly
  plays on." For the real question is not about the _time_ when ideas
  entered the mind, but "whether the constitution of man be such that,
  being adult and grown up, the ideas of order and administration of a
  God will not infallibly and necessarily spring up in him." This Locke
  himself sometimes seems to allow. "That there are certain
  propositions," we find him saying, "which, though the soul from the
  beginning, or when a man is born, does not know, yet, by assistance
  from the outward senses, and the help of some previous cultivation, it
  may afterwards come certainly to know the truth of, is no more than
  what I have affirmed in my first book" ("Epistle to Reader," in second
  edition). And much of our knowledge, as he shows in the fourth book,
  is rational insight, immediate or else demonstrable, and thus
  intellectually necessary in its constitution.

  What Locke really objects to is, that any of our supposed knowledge
  should claim immunity from free criticism. He argues in the first book
  against the innateness of our knowledge of God and of morality; yet in
  the fourth book he finds that the existence of God is demonstrable,
  being supported by causal necessity, without which there can be no
  knowledge; and he also maintains that morality is as demonstrable as
  pure mathematics. The positions are not inconsistent. The demonstrable
  rational necessity, instead of being innate, or conscious from our
  birth, may lie latent or subconscious in the individual mind; but for
  all that, when we gradually become more awake intellectually, such
  truths are seen to "carry their own evidence along with them." Even in
  the first book he appeals to the common reason, which he calls "common
  sense." "He would be thought void of common sense who asked, on the
  one side, or, on the other, went to give a reason, _why_ 'it is
  impossible for the same thing to be and not to be.' It carries its own
  light and evidence with it, and needs no other proof: he that
  understands the terms assents to it for its own sake, or else nothing
  else will ever be able to prevail with him to do it" (bk. i. chap. 3,
  § 4).

  The truth is that neither Locke, on the one hand, nor the
  intellectualists of the 17th century, on the other, expressed their
  meaning with enough of precision; if they had, Locke's argument would
  probably have taken a form less open to the charge of mere empiricism.
  Locke believed that in attacking "innate principles" he was pleading
  for universal reasonableness instead of blind reliance on authority,
  and was thus, as he says, not "pulling up the foundations of
  knowledge," but "laying those foundations surer." When men heard that
  there were propositions that could not be doubted, it was a short and
  easy way to assume that what are only arbitrary prejudices are
  "innate" certainties, and therefore must be accepted unconditionally.
  This "eased the lazy from the pains of search, stopped the inquiry of
  the doubtful, concerning all that was once styled innate. It was no
  small advantage to those who affected to be masters and teachers to
  make this the principle of principles--that principles must not be
  questioned." The assumption that they were "innate" was enough "to
  take men off the use of their own reason and judgment, and to put them
  upon believing and taking upon trust without further examination....
  Nor is it a small power it gives one man over another to have the
  authority to make a man swallow that for an innate principle which may
  serve his purpose who teacheth them" (bk. i. chap. 4, § 24).


    Genesis of ideas.

  The second book proposes a hypothesis regarding the genesis of our
  ideas and closes after an elaborate endeavour to verify it. The
  hypothesis is, that all human ideas, even the most complex and
  abstract and sublime, ultimately depend upon "experience." Otherwise,
  what we take to be ideas are only empty words. Here the important
  point is what human "experience" involves. Locke says that our "ideas"
  all come, either from the five senses or from reflective
  consciousness; and he proposes to show that even those concerned with
  the Infinite depend at last on one or other of these two sources: our
  "complex ideas" are all made up of "simple ideas," either from without
  or from within. The "verification" of this hypothesis, offered in the
  thirteenth and following chapters of the second book, goes to show in
  detail that even those ideas which are "most abstruse," how remote
  soever they may seem from original data of outward sense, or of inner
  consciousness, "are only such as the understanding frames to itself by
  repeating and joining together simple ideas that it had at first,
  either from perceiving objects of sense, or from reflection upon its
  own operations."

  To prove this, our thoughts of space, time, infinity, power,
  substance, personal identity, causality, and others which "seem most
  remote from the supposed original" are examined in a "plain historical
  method," and shown to depend either on (a) perception of things
  external, through the five senses, or on (b) reflection upon
  operations of the mind within. Reflection, "though it be not sense, as
  having nothing to do with external objects," is yet, he says, "very
  like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense." But the
  suggestion that "sense" might designate _both_ the springs of
  experience is misleading, when we find in the sequel how much Locke
  tacitly credits "reflection" with. The ambiguity of his language makes
  opposite interpretations of this cardinal part of the Essay possible;
  the best we can do is to compare one part with another, and in
  doubtful cases to give him the benefit of the doubt.

  Although the second book is a sort of inventory of our ideas, as
  distinguished from the certainty and boundaries of our knowledge,
  Locke even here makes the assumption that the "simple ideas" of the
  five senses are practically qualities of things which exist without
  us, and that the mental "operations" discovered by "reflection" are
  those of a person continuously existing. He thus relieves himself of
  the difficulty of having at the outset to explain _how_ the immediate
  data of outward sense and reflection are accepted as "qualities" of
  things and persons. He takes this as a fact.

  Such, according to Locke, are the only simple ideas which can appear
  even in the sublimest human speculations. But the mind, in becoming
  gradually stored with its "simple ideas" is able to elaborate them in
  numberless modes and relations; although it is not in the power of the
  most exalted wit or enlarged understanding to invent or frame any new
  simple idea, not taken in in one or the other of these two ways. All
  that man can imagine about the universe or about God is necessarily
  confined to them. For proof of this Locke would have any one try to
  fancy a taste which had never affected his palate, or to frame the
  idea of a scent he had never felt, or an operation of mind, divine or
  human, foreign to all human consciousness.


    Qualities of matter.

  The contrast and correlation of these two data of experience is
  suggested in the chapter on the "qualities of matter" in which we are
  introduced to a noteworthy vein of speculation (bk. ii. chap. 8). This
  chapter, on "things and their qualities," looks like an interpolation
  in an analysis of mere "ideas." Locke here treats simple ideas of the
  five senses as qualities of outward things. And the sense data are, he
  finds, partly (a) revelations of external things themselves in their
  mathematical relations, and partly (b) sensations, boundless in
  variety, which are somehow awakened in us through contact and
  collision with things relatively to their mathematical relations.
  Locke calls the former sort "primary, original or essential qualities
  of matter," and the others "secondary or derived qualities." The
  primary, which are quantities rather than qualities, are inseparable
  from matter, and virtually identical with the ideas we have of them.
  On the other hand, there is nothing perceived in the mathematical
  relations of bodies which in the least resembles their secondary
  qualities. If there were no sentient beings in existence, the
  secondary qualities would cease to exist, "except perhaps as unknown
  modes of the primary, or, if not, as something still more obscure." On
  the other hand, "solidity, extension, figure and motion would," he
  assumes, "be really in the world as they are, whether there were any
  sensible being to perceive them or not."


    Matter.

  Thus far the outcome of what Locke teaches about matter is, that it is
  Something capable of being expressed in terms of mathematical
  quantity, and also in terms of our own sensations. A further step was
  to suggest the ultimate dependence of the secondary qualities of
  bodies upon "the bulk, figures, number, situation and motions of the
  solid parts of which the bodies consist," these mathematical or
  primary qualities "existing as we think of them whether or not they
  are perceived." This Locke proposes in a hesitating way. For we, "not
  knowing what particular size, figure and texture of parts they are on
  which depend, and from which result, those qualities which make our
  complex idea, for example, of gold, it is impossible we should know
  what other qualities result from, or are incompatible with, the same
  constitution of the insensible parts of gold; and so consequently must
  always coexist with that complex idea we have of it, or else are
  inconsistent with it."

  Some of the most remarkable chapters in the second book concern what
  may be called "crucial instances" in verification of its fundamental
  hypothesis of the dependence of human knowledge upon the simple ideas
  presented in our dual experience (bk. ii. ch. 13-28). They carry us
  towards the ultimate mysteries which attract meditative minds. The
  hypothesis, that even our most profound and sublime speculations are
  all limited to data of the senses and of reflection, is crucially
  tested by the "modes" and "substances" and "relations" under which, in
  various degrees of complexity, we somehow find ourselves obliged to
  conceive those simple phenomena. Such are modes of quantity in space,
  and time and number, under which Locke reports that we find ourselves
  mentally impelled towards immensity, eternity and the innumerable--in
  a word, towards Infinity which seems to transcend quantity; then there
  is the complex thought of Substance, to which we find ourselves
  mysteriously impelled, when the simple phenomena of the senses come to
  be regarded as qualities of "something"; again there is the obscure
  idea of the identity of persons, notwithstanding their constant
  changes of state; and there is, above all, the inevitable tendency we
  somehow have to refund a change into what we call its "Cause," with
  the associated idea of active power. Locke begins with our complex
  ideas of Space, Succession or Time, and Number.


    Immensity and endlessness and infinity.

  Space, he says, appears when we use our senses of sight and touch;
  succession he finds "suggested" by all the changing phenomena of
  sense, and by "what passes in our minds"; number is "suggested by
  every object of our senses, and every thought of our minds, by
  everything that either doth exist or can be imagined." The
  modifications of which these are susceptible he reports to be
  "inexhaustible and truly infinite, extension alone affording a
  boundless field to the mathematicians." But the mystery latent in our
  ideas of space and time is, that "something in the mind" irresistibly
  hinders us from allowing the possibility of any limit to either. We
  find ourselves, when we try, compelled to lose our positive ideas of
  finite spaces in the negative idea of Immensity or Boundlessness, and
  our positive ideas of finite times in the negative thought of
  Endlessness. We have never seen, and we cannot imagine, an object
  whose extent is boundless. Yet we find when we reflect that something
  forces us to think that space and time must be unlimited. Thus Locke
  seems by implication to acknowledge something added by the mind to the
  original "simple ideas" of extension and succession; though he finds
  that what is added is not positively conceivable. When we reflect on
  immensity and eternity, we find them negations of all that is
  imaginable; and that whether we try infinite addition or infinite
  subdivision. He accepts this fact; he does not inquire why mind finds
  itself obliged to add without limit and to divide without limit. He
  simply reports that immensity and eternity are inevitable negative
  ideas, and also that every endeavour to realize them in positive
  images must be an attempt to represent as quantity what is beyond
  quantity. After all our additions we are as far from the infinite idea
  as we were at the beginning.


    Substance and personality.

  Locke is too faithful to facts to overlook the ultimate mysteries in
  human experience. This is further illustrated in his acknowledgment of
  the inconceivable that is at the root of our idea of Substance. He
  tries to phenomenalize it, and thus resolve it into simple ideas; but
  he finds that it cannot be phenomenalized, and yet that we cannot
  dispense with it. An unsubstantiated succession of phenomena, without
  a centre of unity to which they are referable as qualities, is
  unintelligible: we cannot have a language of adjectives without nouns.
  Locke had some apprehension of this transcendent intellectual
  obligation. According to his report, "the mind" always obliges us to
  suppose Something beyond positive phenomena to which the phenomena
  must be attributed; but he was perplexed by this "confused negative"
  idea. So for him the word substance means "only an uncertain
  supposition of we know not what." If one were to ask him what the
  substance is in which this colour and that taste or smell inhere, "he
  would find himself in a difficulty like that of the Indian, who, after
  saying that the world rested on an elephant, and the elephant on a
  broad-backed tortoise, could only suppose the tortoise to rest on
  'Something, I know not what.'" The attempt to conceive it is like the
  attempt positively to conceive immensity or eternity: we are involved
  in an endless, ultimately incomprehensible, regress. We fail when we
  try either positively to phenomenalize substance or to dispense with
  the superphenomenal abstraction. Our only positive idea is of an
  aggregate of phenomena. And it is only thus, he says, that we can
  approach a positive conception of God, namely by "enlarging
  indefinitely some of the simple ideas we received from reflection."
  Why man must remain in this mental predicament, Locke did not inquire.
  He only reported the fact. He likewise struggled bravely to be
  faithful to fact in his report of the state in which we find ourselves
  when we try to conceive continued personal identity. The paradoxes in
  which he here gets involved illustrate this (bk. ii. ch. 27).


    Causality.

  Locke's thoughts about Causality and Active Power are especially
  noteworthy, for he rests our knowledge of God and of the external
  universe on those ultimate ideas. The intellectual demand for "the
  cause" of an event is what we find we cannot help having; yet it is a
  demand for what in the end the mind cannot fully grasp. Locke is
  content to trace the idea of "cause and effect," as far as mere
  natural science goes, to our "constant observation" that "qualities
  and finite substances begin to exist, and receive their existence from
  other beings which produce them." We find that this connexion is what
  gives intelligibility to ceaseless and what seemed chaotic changes,
  converting them into the divinely concatenated system which we call
  "the universe." Locke seems hardly to realize all that is implied in
  scientific prevision or expectation of change. Anything, as far as
  "constant observation" tells us, might a priori have been the natural
  cause of anything; and no finite number of "observed" sequences, _per
  se_, can guarantee universality and necessity. The idea of power, or
  _active_ causation, on the other hand, "is got," he acknowledges, not
  through the senses, but "through our consciousness of our own
  voluntary agency, and therefore through reflection" (bk. ii. ch. 21).
  In bodies we observe no active agency, only a sustained natural order
  in the succession of passive sensuous phenomena. The true source of
  change in the material world must be analogous to what we are
  conscious of when we exert volition. Locke here unconsciously
  approaches the spiritual view of active power in the physical universe
  afterwards taken by Berkeley, forming the constructive principle of
  his philosophy.


    Ideas and words.

  Locke's book about Ideas leads naturally to his Third Book which is
  concerned with Words, or the sensible signs of ideas. Here he analyses
  "abstract ideas," and instructively illustrates the confusion apt to
  be produced in them by the inevitable imperfection of words. He
  unfolds the relations between verbal signs and the several sorts of
  ideas; words being the means for enabling us to treat ideas as
  typical, abstract and general. "Some parts of this third book,"
  concerning Words, Locke tells his friend Molyneux, "though the
  thoughts were easy and clear enough, yet cost me more pains to express
  than all the rest of my _Essay_. And therefore I should not much
  wonder, if there be in some places of it obscurity and doubtfulness."


    Theory of knowledge.

  The Fourth Book, about Knowledge proper and Probability, closes the
  _Essay_. Knowledge, he says, is perception of relations among ideas;
  it is expressed in our affirmations and negations; and real knowledge
  is discernment of the relations of ideas to what is real. In the
  foregoing part of the _Essay_ he had dealt with "ideas" and "simple
  apprehension," here he is concerned with intuitive "judgment" and
  demonstrative "reasoning," also with judgments and reasonings about
  matters of fact. At the end of this patient search among our ideas, he
  supposes the reader apt to complain that he has been "all this while
  only building a castle in the air," and to ask what the purpose of all
  this stir is, if we are not thereby carried beyond mere ideas. "If it
  be true that knowledge lies only in the agreement or disagreement of
  ideas, the visions of an enthusiast and the reasonings of a sober man
  will be equally certain. It is no matter how things themselves are"
  (bk. iv. 4). This gives the keynote to the fourth book. It does not,
  however, carry him into a critical analysis of the rational
  constitution of knowledge, like Kant. Hume had not yet shown the
  sceptical objections against conclusions which Locke accepted without
  criticism. The subtle agnostic, who doubted reason because reason
  could not be supported in the end by empirical evidence, was less in
  his view than persons blindly resting on authority or prejudice. Total
  scepticism he would probably have regarded as unworthy of the serious
  attention of a wise man. "Where we perceive the agreement or
  disagreement of any of our ideas there is certain knowledge; and
  wherever we are sure these ideas agree with the reality of things,
  there is certain _real_ knowledge" (bk. iv. ch. 4).


    Four sorts of knowable relations.

  Locke's report about human knowledge and its narrow extent forms the
  first thirteen chapters of the fourth book. The remainder of the book
  is concerned for the most part with the probabilities on which human
  life practically turns, as he and Butler are fond of reminding us. As
  regards kinds of knowledge, he finds that "all knowledge we are
  capable of" must be assertion or denial of some one of three sorts of
  relation among our ideas themselves, or else of relations between our
  ideas and reality that exists independently of us and our ideas.
  Accordingly, knowledge is concerned either with (a) relations of
  identity and difference among ideas, as when we say that "blue is not
  yellow"; or (b) with mathematical relations, as that "two triangles
  upon equal bases between two parallels must be equal"; or (c) in
  assertions that one quality does or does not coexist with another in
  the same substance, as that "iron is susceptible of magnetical
  impressions, or that ice is not hot"; or (d) with ontological reality,
  independent of our perceptions, as that "God exists" or "I exist" or
  "the universe exists." The first sort is analytical; mathematical and
  ethical knowledge represents the second; physical science forms the
  third; real knowledge of self, God and the world constitutes the
  fourth.


    Intuition and demonstration.

  Locke found important differences in the way in which knowledge of any
  sort is reached. In some instances the known relation is self-evident,
  as when we judge intuitively that a circle cannot be a triangle, or
  that three must be more than two. In other cases the known relation is
  perceived to be intellectually necessary through the medium of
  premisses, as in a mathematical demonstration. All that is strictly
  knowledge is reached in these two ways. But there is a third sort,
  namely sense-perception, which hardly deserves the name. For "our
  perceptions of the particular existence of finite beings without us"
  go beyond mere probability, yet they are not purely rational. There is
  nothing self-contradictory in the supposition that our perceptions of
  things external are illusions, although we are somehow unable to doubt
  them. We find ourselves inevitably "conscious of a different sort of
  perception," when we actually see the sun by day and when we only
  imagine the sun at night.

  Locke next inquired to what extent knowledge--in the way either of
  intuitive certainty, demonstrative certainty, or sense perception--is
  possible, in regard to each of the four (already mentioned) sorts of
  knowable relation. There is only one of the four in which our
  knowledge is co-extensive with our ideas. It is that of "identity and
  diversity": we cannot be conscious at all without distinguishing, and
  every affirmation necessarily implies negation. The second sort of
  knowable relation is sometimes intuitively and sometimes demonstrably
  discernible. Morality, Locke thinks, as well as mathematical quantity,
  is capable of being demonstrated. "Where there is no property there is
  no injustice," is an example of a proposition "as certain as any
  demonstration in Euclid." Only we are more apt to be biassed, and thus
  to leave reason in abeyance, in dealing with questions of morality
  than in dealing with problems in mathematics.

  Turning from abstract mathematical and moral relations to concrete
  relations of coexistence and succession among phenomena--the third
  sort of knowable relation--Locke finds the light of pure reason
  disappear; although these relations form "the greatest and most
  important part of what we desire to know." Of these, including as they
  do all inductive science, he reports that demonstrable knowledge "is
  very short, if indeed we have any at all"; and are not thrown wholly
  on presumptions of probability, or else left in ignorance. Man cannot
  attain perfect and infallible science of bodies. For natural science
  depends, he thinks, on knowledge of the relations between their
  secondary qualities on the one hand, and the mathematical qualities of
  their atoms on the other, or else "on something yet more remote from
  our comprehension." Now, as perception of these atoms and their
  relations is beyond us, we must be satisfied with inductive
  presumptions, for which "experimental verification" affords, after
  all, only conclusions that wider experience may prove to be
  inadequate. But this moral venture Locke accepts as "sufficient for
  our purposes."


    Real existence.

  Our knowledge under Locke's fourth category of relations--real
  existence--includes (a) intuitive perceptions of our own existence;
  (b) demonstrable certainty of the existence of God; and (c) actual
  perception of the existence of surrounding things, as long as, but
  only as long as the things are present to sense. "If I doubt all other
  things, that very doubt makes me perceive my own existence, and will
  not suffer me to doubt of that" (iv. 9. 3). Faith in the existence of
  God is virtually with Locke an expression of faith in the principle of
  active causality in its ultimate universality. Each person knows that
  he now exists, and is convinced that he had a beginning; with not less
  intuitive certainty he knows that "_nothing_ can no more produce any
  real being than it can be equal to two right angles." His final
  conclusion is that there must be eternally "a most powerful and most
  knowing Being, in which, as the origin of all, must be contained all
  the perfections that can ever after exist," and out of which can come
  only what it has already in itself; so that as the cause of my mind,
  it must be Mind. There is thus causal necessity for Eternal Mind, or
  what we call "God." This is cautiously qualified thus in a letter to
  Anthony Collins, written by Locke a few months before he died: "Though
  I call the thinking faculty in me 'mind,' yet I cannot, because of
  that name, equal it in anything to that infinite and incomprehensible
  Being, which, for want of right and distinct conceptions, is called
  'Mind' also." But the immanence of God in the things and persons that
  compose the universal order, with what this implies, is a conception
  foreign to Locke, whose habitual conception was of an extra-mundane
  deity, the dominant conception in the 18th century.


    Knowledge of the external world.

  Turning from our knowledge of Spirit to our knowledge of Matter,
  nearly all that one can affirm or deny about "things external is,"
  according to Locke, not knowledge but venture or presumptive trust. We
  have, strictly speaking, no "knowledge" of real beings beyond our own
  self-conscious existence, the existence of God, and the existence of
  objects of sense as long as they are actually present to sense. "When
  I see an external object at a distance, a man for instance, I cannot
  but be satisfied of his existence while I am looking at him. (Locke
  might have added that when one only 'sees a man' it is merely his
  _visible_ qualities that are perceived; his other qualities are as
  little 'actual present sensations' as if he were out of the range of
  sense.) But when the man leaves me alone, I cannot be certain that he
  still exists." "There is no necessary connexion between his existence
  a minute since (when he was present to any sense of sight) and his
  existence now (when he is absent from all my senses); by a thousand
  ways he may have ceased to be. I have not that certainty of his
  continued existence which we call knowledge; though the great
  likelihood of it puts it past doubt. But this is but probability and
  not knowledge" (chap. 11, § 9). Accordingly, purely rational science
  of external Nature is, according to Locke, impossible. All our
  "interpretations of nature" are inadequate; only reasonable
  probabilities, not final rational certainties. This boundless region
  affords at the best probabilities, ultimately grounded on moral faith,
  all beyond lies within the veil. Such is Locke's "plain,
  matter-of-fact" account of the knowledge of the Real that is open to
  man.


    The rationale of probability.

  We learn little from Locke as to the rationale of the probabilities on
  which man thus depends when he deals with the past, the distant or the
  future. The concluding chapters of the fourth book contain wise advice
  to those whose lives are passed in an ever-changing environment, for
  avoiding the frequent risk of error in their conclusions, with or
  without the help of syllogism, the office of which, as a means of
  discovery, is here critically considered.


    Locke and Hume.

  Investigation of the foundation of inductive inference was resumed by
  Hume where Locke left it. With a still humbler view of human reason
  than Locke's, Hume proposed as "a subject worthy of curiosity," to
  inquire into "the nature of that evidence which assures us of any real
  existence and matter of fact, _beyond_ the present testimony of our
  senses and the records of our memory; a part of philosophy that has
  been little cultivated either by the ancients or the moderns." Hume
  argues that custom is a sufficient practical explanation of this
  gradual enlargement of our objective experience, and that no deeper
  explanation is open to man. All beyond each present transitory
  "impression" and the stores of memory is therefore reached blindly,
  through custom or habitual association. Associative tendency,
  individual or inherited, has since been the favourite constructive
  factor of human experience in Empirical Philosophy. This factor is not
  prominent in Locke's _Essay_. A short chapter on "association of
  ideas" was added to the second book in the fourth edition. And the
  tendency to associate is there presented, not as the fundamental
  factor of human knowledge, but as a chief cause of human error.


    Locke and Kant.

  Kant's critical analysis of pure reason is more foreign to Locke than
  the attempts of 18th- and 19th-century associationists and
  evolutionists to explain experience and science. Kant's aim was to
  show the necessary rational constitution of experience. Locke's design
  was less profound. It was his distinction to present to the modern
  world, in his own "historical plain method," perhaps the largest
  assortment ever made by any individual of facts characteristic of
  human understanding. Criticism of the presuppositions implied in those
  facts--by Kant and his successors, and in Britain more unpretentiously
  by Reid, all under the stimulus of Hume's sceptical criticism--has
  employed philosophers since the author of the _Essay on Human
  Understanding_ collected materials that raised deeper philosophical
  problems than he tried to solve. Locke's mission was to initiate
  modern criticism of the foundation and limits of our knowledge. Hume
  negatively, and the German and Scottish schools constructively,
  continued what it was Locke's glory to have begun.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The _Essay concerning Human Understanding_ has passed
  through more editions than any classic in modern philosophical
  literature. Before the middle of the 18th century it had reached
  thirteen, and it has now passed through some forty editions, besides
  being translated into Latin, French, Dutch, German and modern Greek.
  There are also several abridgments. In addition to those criticisms
  which appeared when Locke was alive, among the most important are
  Leibnitz's _Nouveaux Essais sur l'entendement humain_--written about
  1700 and published in 1765, in which each chapter of the _Essay_ of
  Locke is examined in a corresponding chapter by Leibnitz; Cousin's
  "École sensualiste: système de Locke," in his _Histoire de la
  philosophie au XVIII^e siècle_ (1829); and the criticisms in T. H.
  Green's Introduction to the _Philosophical Works of Hume_ (1874). The
  _Essay, with Prolegomena, biographical, critical and historical_,
  edited by Professor Campbell Fraser and published by the Oxford
  Clarendon Press in 1894, is the only annotated edition, unless the
  _Nouveaux Essais_ of Leibnitz may be reduced to this category.

  The _Letters on Toleration_, _Thoughts on Education_ and _The_
  _Reasonableness of Christianity_ have also gone through many editions,
  and been translated into different languages.

  The first collected edition of Locke's _Works_ was in 1714, in three
  folio volumes. The best is that by Bishop Law, in four quartos (1777).
  The one most commonly known is in ten volumes (1812).

  The _Éloge_ of Jean le Clerc (_Bibliothèque choisie_, 1705) has been
  the basis of the memoirs of Locke prefixed to the successive editions
  of his _Works_, or contained in biographical dictionaries. In 1829 a
  _Life of Locke_ (2nd ed. in two volumes, with considerable additions,
  1830), was produced by Peter, 7th Baron King, a descendant of Locke's
  cousin, Anne Locke. This adds a good deal to what was previously
  known, as Lord King was able to draw from the mass of correspondence,
  journals and commonplace books of Locke in his possession. In the same
  year Dr Thomas Foster published some interesting letters from Locke to
  Benjamin Furly. The most copious account of the life is contained in
  the two volumes by H. R. Fox-Bourne (1876), the results of laborious
  research among the Shaftesbury Papers, Locke MSS. in the British
  Museum, the Public Record Office, the Lambeth, Christ Church and
  Bodleian libraries, and in the Remonstrants' library at Amsterdam.
  Monographs on Locke by T. H. Fowler in 1880, in "English Men of
  Letters," and by Fraser, in 1890, in Blackwood's "Philosophical
  Classics" may be mentioned; also addresses by Sir F. Pollock and
  Fraser at the bicentenary commemoration by the British Academy of
  Locke's death, published in the _Proceedings_ of the Academy (1904).
  See also C. Bastide, _John Locke; ses théories politiques et leur
  influence en Angleterre_ (Paris, 1907); H. Ollion, _La Philosophie
  générale de J. L._ (1909).     (A. C. F.)



LOCKE, MATTHEW (c. 1630-1677), English musician, perhaps the earliest
English writer for the stage, was born at Exeter, where he became a
chorister in the cathedral. His music, written with Christopher Gibbons
(son of Orlando Gibbons), for Shirley's masque _Cupid and Death_, was
performed in London in 1653. He wrote some music for Davenant's _Siege
of Rhodes_ in 1656; and in 1661 was appointed composer in ordinary to
Charles II. During the following years he wrote a number of anthems for
the Chapel Royal, and excited some criticism on the score of novelty, to
which he replied with considerable heat (_Modern Church Music;
pre-accused, censured and obstructed in its Performance before His
Majesty, April 1st, 1666, &c._; copies in the Fitzwilliam Museum,
Cambridge, and the Royal College of Music). A good deal of music for the
theatre followed, the most important being for Davenant's productions of
_The Tempest_ (1667) and of _Macbeth_ (1672), but some doubt as to this
latter has arisen, Purcell, Eccles or Leveridge, being also credited
with it. He also composed various songs and instrumental pieces, and
published some curious works on musical theory. He died in August 1677,
an elegy being written by Purcell.



LOCKERBIE, a municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in
the district of Annandale, 14½ m. E.N.E. of Dumfries by the Caledonian
railway. Pop. (1901) 2358. It has long been famous for its cattle and
sheep sales, but more particularly for the great August lamb fair, the
largest in Scotland, at which as many as 126,000 lambs have been sold.
The town hall and Easton institute are in the Scottish Baronial style.
The police station is partly accommodated in an ancient square tower,
once the stronghold of the Johnstones, for a long period the ruling
family under whose protection the town gradually grew up. At Dryfe
Sands, about 2 m. to the W., a bloody encounter took place in 1593
between the Johnstones and Maxwells. The Maxwells were pursued into
Lockerbie and almost exterminated; hence "Lockerbie Lick" became a
proverbial expression, signifying an overwhelming defeat.



LOCKER-LAMPSON, FREDERICK (1821-1895), English man of letters, was born,
on the 29th of May 1821, at Greenwich Hospital. His father, who was
Civil Commissioner of the Hospital, was Edward Hawke Locker, youngest
son of that Captain William Locker who gave Nelson the memorable advice
"to lay a Frenchman close, and beat him." His mother, Eleanor Mary
Elizabeth Boucher, was a daughter of the Rev. Jonathan Boucher, vicar of
Epsom and friend of George Washington. After a desultory education,
Frederick Locker began life in a colonial broker's office. Soon
deserting this uncongenial calling, he obtained a clerkship in Somerset
House, whence he was transferred to Lord Haddington's private office at
the Admiralty. Here he became deputy-reader and _précis_ writer. In 1850
he married Lady Charlotte Bruce, daughter of the Lord Elgin who brought
the famous marbles to England, and sister of Lady Augusta Stanley. After
his marriage he left the Civil Service, in consequence of ill-health. In
1857 he published _London Lyrics_, a slender volume of 90 pages, which,
with subsequent extensions, constitutes his poetical legacy. _Lyra
Elegantiarum_ (1867), an anthology of light and familiar verse, and
_Patchwork_ (1879), a book of extracts, were his only other
publications. In 1872 Lady Charlotte Locker died. Two years later Locker
married Miss Hannah Jane Lampson, the only daughter of Sir Curtis
Miranda Lampson, Bart., of Rowfant, Sussex, and in 1885 took his wife's
surname. At Rowfant he died on the 30th of May 1895. Chronic ill-health
debarred Locker from any active part in life, but it did not prevent his
delighting a wide circle of friends by his gifts as a host and
_raconteur_, and from accumulating many treasures as a connoisseur. His
books are catalogued in the volume called the _Rowfant Library_ (1886),
to which an appendix (1900) was added, after his death, under the
superintendence of his eldest son. As a poet, Locker belongs to the
choir who deal with the gay rather than the grave in verse--with the
polished and witty rather than the lofty or emotional. His good taste
kept him as far from the broadly comic on the one side as his kind heart
saved him from the purely cynical on the other. To something of Prior,
of Praed and of Hood he added qualities of his own which lent his work
distinction--a distinction in no wise diminished by his unwearied
endeavour after directness and simplicity.

  A posthumous volume of Memoirs, entitled _My Confidences_ (1896), and
  edited by his son-in-law, Mr Augustine Birrell, gives an interesting
  idea of his personality and a too modest estimate of his gifts as a
  poet.     (A. D.)



LOCKHART, GEORGE (1673-1731), of Carnwath, Scottish writer and
politician, was a member of a Lanarkshire family tracing descent from
Sir Simon Locard (the name being originally territorial, de Loch Ard),
who is said to have accompanied Sir James Douglas on his expedition to
the East with the heart of Bruce, which relic, according to Froissart,
Locard brought home from Spain when Douglas fell in battle against the
Moors, and buried in Melrose Abbey; this incident was the origin of the
"man's heart within a fetterlock" borne on the Lockhart shield, which in
turn perhaps led to the altered spelling of the surname. George
Lockhart's grandfather was Sir James Lockhart of Lee (d. 1674), a lord
of the court of session with the title of Lord Lee, who commanded a
regiment at the battle of Preston. Lord Lee's eldest son, Sir William
Lockhart of Lee (1621-1675), after fighting on the king's side in the
Civil War, attached himself to Oliver Cromwell, whose niece he married,
and by whom he was appointed commissioner for the administration of
justice in Scotland in 1652, and English ambassador at the French court
in 1656, where he greatly distinguished himself by his successful
diplomacy. Lord Lee's second son, Sir George Lockhart (c. 1630-1689),
was lord-advocate in Cromwell's time, and was celebrated for his
persuasive eloquence; in 1674, when he was disbarred for alleged
disrespect to the court of session in advising an appeal to parliament,
fifty barristers showed their sympathy for him by withdrawing from
practice. Lockhart was readmitted in 1676, and became the leading
advocate in political trials, in which he usually appeared for the
defence. He was appointed lord-president of the court of session in
1685; and was shot in the streets of Edinburgh on the 31st of March 1689
by John Chiesley, against whom the lord-president had adjudicated a
cause. Sir George Lockhart purchased the extensive estates of the earls
of Carnwath in Lanarkshire, which were inherited by his eldest son,
George, whose mother was Philadelphia, daughter of Lord Wharton.

George Lockhart, who was member for the city of Edinburgh in the
Scottish parliament, was appointed a commissioner for arranging the
union with England in 1705. After the union he continued to represent
Edinburgh, and later the Wigton burghs. His sympathies were with the
Jacobites, whom he kept informed of all the negotiations for the union;
in 1713 he took part in an abortive movement aiming at the repeal of the
union. He was deeply implicated in the rising of 1715, the preparations
for which he assisted at Carnwath and at Dryden, his Edinburgh
residence. He was imprisoned in Edinburgh castle, but probably, through
the favour of the duke of Argyll, he was released without being brought
to trial; but his brother Philip was taken prisoner at the battle of
Preston and condemned to be shot, the sentence being executed on the 2nd
of December 1715. After his liberation Lockhart became a secret agent of
the Pretender; but his correspondence with the prince fell into the
hands of the government in 1727, compelling him to go into concealment
at Durham until he was able to escape abroad. Argyll's influence was
again exerted in Lockhart's behalf, and in 1728 he was permitted to
return to Scotland, where he lived in retirement till his death in a
duel on the 17th of December 1731. Lockhart was the author of _Memoirs
of the Affairs of Scotland_, dealing with the reign of Queen Anne till
the union with England, first published in 1714. These _Memoirs_,
together with Lockhart's correspondence with the Pretender, and one or
two papers of minor importance, were published in two volumes in 1817,
forming the well-known "Lockhart Papers," which are a valuable authority
for the history of the Jacobites.

Lockhart married Eupheme Montgomerie, daughter of Alexander, 9th earl of
Eglinton, by whom he had a large family. His grandson James, who assumed
his mother's name of Wishart in addition to that of Lockhart, was in the
Austrian service during the Seven Years' War, and was created a baron
and count of the Holy Roman Empire. He succeeded to the estates of Lee
as well as of Carnwath, both of which properties passed, on the death of
his son Charles without issue in 1802, to his nephew Alexander, who was
created a baronet in 1806.

  See _The Lockhart Papers_ (2 vols., London, 1817); Andrew Lang,
  _History of Scotland_ (4 vols., London, 1900). For the story of Sir
  Simon Lockhart's adventures with the heart of the Bruce, see Sir
  Walter Scott's _The Talisman_.     (R. J. M.)



LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON (1794-1854), Scottish writer and editor, was born
on the 14th of July 1794 in the manse of Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire,
where his father, Dr John Lockhart, transferred in 1796 to Glasgow, was
minister. His mother, who was the daughter of the Rev. John Gibson, of
Edinburgh, was a woman of considerable intellectual gifts. He was sent
to the Glasgow high school, where he showed himself clever rather than
industrious. He fell into ill-health, and had to be removed from school
before he was twelve; but on his recovery he was sent at this early age
to Glasgow University, and displayed so much precocious learning,
especially in Greek, that he was offered a Snell exhibition at Oxford.
He was not fourteen when he entered Balliol College, where he acquired a
great store of knowledge outside the regular curriculum. He read French,
Italian, German and Spanish, was interested in classical and British
antiquities, and became versed in heraldic and genealogical lore. In
1813 he took a first class in classics in the final schools. For two
years after leaving Oxford he lived chiefly in Glasgow before settling
to the study of Scottish law in Edinburgh, where he was called to the
bar in 1816. A tour on the continent in 1817, when he visited Goethe at
Weimar, was made possible by the kindness of the publisher Blackwood,
who advanced money for a promised translation of Schlegel's _Lectures on
the History of Literature_, which was not published until 1838.
Edinburgh was then the stronghold of the Whig party, whose organ was the
_Edinburgh Review_, and it was not till 1817 that the Scottish Tories
found a means of expression in _Blackwood's Magazine_. After a somewhat
hum-drum opening, _Blackwood_ suddenly electrified the Edinburgh world
by an outburst of brilliant criticism. John Wilson (Christopher North)
and Lockhart had joined its staff in 1817. Lockhart no doubt took his
share in the caustic and aggressive articles which marked the early
years of _Blackwood_; but his biographer, Mr Andrew Lang, brings
evidence to show that he was not responsible for the virulent articles
on Coleridge and on "The Cockney School of Poetry," that is on Leigh
Hunt, Keats and their friends. He has been persistently accused of the
later _Blackwood_ article (August 1818) on Keats, but he showed at any
rate a real appreciation of Coleridge and Wordsworth. He contributed to
_Blackwood_ many spirited translations of Spanish ballads, which in 1823
were published separately. In 1818 the brilliant and handsome young man
attracted the notice of Sir Walter Scott, and the acquaintance soon
ripened into an intimacy which resulted in a marriage between Lockhart
and Scott's eldest daughter Sophia, in April 1820. Five years of
domestic happiness followed, with winters spent in Edinburgh and summers
at a cottage at Chiefswood, near Abbotsford, where Lockhart's two eldest
children, John Hugh and Charlotte, were born; a second son, Walter, was
born later at Brighton. In 1820 John Scott, the editor of the _London
Magazine_, wrote a series of articles attacking the conduct of
_Blackwood's Magazine_, and making Lockhart chiefly responsible for its
extravagances. A correspondence followed, in which a meeting between
Lockhart and John Scott was proposed, with Jonathan Henry Christie and
Horace Smith as seconds. A series of delays and complicated negotiations
resulted early in 1821 in a duel between Christie and John Scott, in
which Scott was killed. This unhappy affair, which has been the subject
of much misrepresentation, is fully discussed in Mr Lang's book on
Lockhart.

Between 1818 and 1825 Lockhart worked indefatigably. In 1819 _Peter's
Letters to his Kinsfolk_ appeared, and in 1822 he edited Peter Motteux's
edition of _Don Quixote_, to which he prefixed a life of Cervantes. Four
novels followed: _Valerius_ in 1821, _Some Passages in the Life of Adam
Blair_, _Minister of Gospel at Cross Meikle_ in 1822, _Reginald Dalton_
in 1823 and _Matthew Wald_ in 1824. But his strength did not lie in
novel writing, although the vigorous quality of _Adam Blair_ has been
recognized by modern critics. In 1825 Lockhart accepted the editorship
of the _Quarterly Review_, which had been in the hands of Sir John
Taylor Coleridge since Gifford's resignation in 1824. He had now
established his literary position, and, as the next heir to his
unmarried half-brother's property in Scotland, Milton Lockhart, he was
sufficiently independent, though he had abandoned the legal profession.
In London he had great social success, and was recognized as a brilliant
editor. He contributed largely to the _Quarterly Review_ himself, his
biographical articles being especially admirable. He showed the old
railing spirit in an amusing but violent article in the _Quarterly_ on
Tennyson's _Poems_ of 1833, in which he failed to discover the mark of
genius. He continued to write for _Blackwood_; he produced for
_Constable's Miscellany_ in 1828 what remains the most charming of the
biographies of Burns; and he undertook the superintendence of the series
called "Murray's Family Library," which he opened in 1829 with a
_History of Napoleon_. But his chief work was the _Life of Sir Walter
Scott_ (7 vols., 1837-1838; 2nd ed., 10 vols., 1839). There were not
wanting those in Scotland who taxed Lockhart with ungenerous exposure of
his subject, but to most healthy minds the impression conveyed by the
biography was, and is, quite the opposite. Carlyle did justice to many
of its excellencies in a criticism contributed to the _London and
Westminster Review_ (1837). Lockhart's account of the transactions
between Scott and the Ballantynes and Constable caused great outcry; and
in the discussion that followed he showed unfortunate bitterness by his
pamphlet, "The Ballantyne Humbug handled." The _Life of Scott_ has been
called, after Boswell's _Johnson_, the most admirable biography in the
English language. The proceeds, which were considerable, Lockhart
resigned for the benefit of Scott's creditors.

The close of Lockhart's life was saddened by family bereavement,
resulting in his own breakdown in health and spirits. His eldest boy
(the suffering "Hugh Littlejohn" of Scott's _Tales of a Grandfather_)
died in 1831; Scott himself in 1832; Mrs Lockhart in 1837; and the
surviving son, Walter Lockhart, in 1852. Resigning the editorship of the
_Quarterly Review_ in 1853, he spent the next winter in Rome, but
returned to England without recovering his health; and being taken to
Abbotsford by his daughter Charlotte, who had become Mrs James Robert
Hope-Scott, he died there on the 25th of November 1854. He was buried in
Dryburgh Abbey, near Sir Walter Scott.

  Lockhart's _Life_ (2 vols., London and New York, 1897) was written by
  Andrew Lang. A. W. Pollard's edition of the _Life of Scott_ (1900) is
  the best.



LOCKHART, SIR WILLIAM STEPHEN ALEXANDER (1841-1900), British general,
was born in Scotland on the 2nd of September 1841, his father being a
Lanarkshire clergyman. He entered the Indian army in 1858, in the Bengal
native infantry. He served in the Indian Mutiny, the Bhutan campaign
(1864-66), the Abyssinian expedition (1867-68; mentioned in despatches),
the Hazara Black Mountain expedition (1868-69; mentioned in despatches).
From 1869 to 1879 he acted as deputy-assistant and assistant
quartermaster-general in Bengal. In 1877 he was military attaché with
the Dutch army in Acheen. He served in the Afghan War of 1878-80, was
mentioned in despatches and made a C.B., and from 1880 to 1885 was
D.Q.G. in the intelligence branch at headquarters. He commanded a
brigade in the Third Burmese War (1886-87), and was made K.C.B., C.S.I.,
and received the thanks of the government. An attack of fever brought
him to England, where he was employed as assistant military secretary
for Indian affairs; but in 1890 he returned to India to take command of
the Punjab frontier force, and for five years was engaged in various
expeditions against the hill tribes. After the Waziristan campaign in
1894-95 he was made K.C.S.I. He became full general in 1896, and in 1897
he was given the command against the Afridis and Mohmands, and conducted
the difficult Tirah campaign with great skill. He was made G.C.B., and
in 1898 became commander-in-chief in India. He died on the 18th of March
1900. Sir William Lockhart was not only a first-rate soldier, but also
had a great gift for dealing with the native tribesmen. Among the latter
he had the _sobriquet_ of Amir Sahib, on account of their respect and
affection for him.



LOCK HAVEN, a city and the county-seat of Clinton county, Pennsylvania,
U.S.A., on the west branch of the Susquehanna river, near the mouth of
Bald Eagle Creek, about 70 m. N.N.W. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1900) 7210
(618 foreign-born and 122 negroes); (1910) 7772. It is served by
branches of the Pennsylvania and the New York Central & Hudson River
railways and by electric interurban railways. The city is pleasantly
situated in an agricultural region, and there are large deposits of
cement and of fire-brick clay in the vicinity. Lock Haven is the seat of
the Central State Normal School (opened 1877), and has a public library
and a hospital. There are various manufactures. The municipality owns
and operates the water-works. The locality was settled in 1769. A town
was founded in 1833, the Pennsylvania Canal (no longer in use here) was
completed to this point in 1834, and the name of the place was suggested
by two canal locks and the harbour, or haven, for rafts in the river.
Lock Haven was made the county-seat immediately after the erection of
Clinton county in 1839, was incorporated as a borough in 1840, and first
chartered as a city in 1870.



LOCKPORT, a city of Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Des Plaines
river and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and the terminus of the Chicago
Sanitary District Drainage Canal, about 33 m. S.W. of Chicago and 4 m.
N.N.E. of Joliet. Pop. (1900) 2659 (552 being foreign-born and 130
negroes); (1910) 2555. Lockport is served by the Chicago & Alton, and
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé railways, and by the Chicago & Joliet
Electric railway. It is in a picturesque farming country, and there are
good limestone quarries in the valley of the Des Plaines river. It has
manufactures and a considerable trade, especially in grain. A settlement
was made here about 1827; in 1837 the site was chosen as headquarters
for the Illinois & Michigan Canal and a village was laid out; it was
incorporated in 1853, and was chartered as a city in 1904. In 1892 work
was begun on the Chicago Drainage Canal, whose controlling works are
here and whose plant, developing 40,000 h.p. from the 40 ft. fall
between Joliet and Lockport, supplies Lockport with cheap power and has
made it a manufacturing rather than a commercial city.



LOCKPORT, a city and the county-seat of Niagara county, New York,
U.S.A., on the Erie Canal, 26 m. by rail N. by E. of Buffalo and 56 m.
W. of Rochester. Pop. (1900) 16,581, of whom 2036 were foreign-born and
160 were negroes; (1910 census) 17,970. It is served by the New York
Central & Hudson River and the Erie railways, by the International
railway (electric interurban), and by the Erie Canal. The city owes its
name to the five double locks of the canal, which here falls 66 ft.
(over a continuation of the Niagara escarpment locally known as
"Mountain Ridge") from the level of Lake Erie to that of the Genesee
river. In 1909 a scheme was on foot to replace these five locks by a
huge lift lock and to construct a large harbour immediately W. of the
city. The surplus water from Tonawanda Creek, long claimed both by the
Canal and by the Lockport manufacturers, after supplying the canal
furnishes water-power, and electric power is derived from Niagara. The
factory products, mostly paper and wood-pulp, flour and cereal foods,
and foundry and machine-shop products, were valued in 1905 at
$5,807,980. Lockport lies in a rich farming and fruit (especially apple
and pear) country, containing extensive sandstone and Niagara limestone
quarries, and is a shipping point for the fruits and grains and the
limestone and sandstone of the surrounding country. Many buildings in
the business part of the city are heated by the Holly distributing
system, which pipes steam from a central station or plant, and
originated in Lockport. The city owns and operates the water-works, long
operated under the Holly system, which, as well as the Holly
distributing system, was devised by Birdsill Holly, a civil engineer of
Lockport. In 1909 a new system was virtually completed, water being
taken from the Niagara river at Tonawanda and pumped thence to a
stand-pipe in Lockport.

The site, that of the most easterly village in New York state held by
the Neutral Nation of Indians, was part of the tract bought by the
Holland Company in 1792-1793. Subsequently most of the land on which the
city stands was bought from the Holland Company by Esek Brown, the
proprietor of a local tavern, and fourteen others, but there were few
settlers until after 1820. In 1822 the place was made the county-seat,
and in 1823 it was much enlarged by the settlement here of workmen on
the Erie Canal, and was the headquarters for a time of the canal
contractors. It was incorporated as a village in 1829, was reached by
the Erie railway in 1852, and in 1865 was chartered as a city.



LOCKROY, ÉDOUARD (1838-   ), French politician, son of Joseph Philippe
Simon (1803-1891), an actor and dramatist who took the name of Lockroy,
was born in Paris on the 18th of July 1838. He had begun by studying
art, but in 1860 enlisted as a volunteer under Garibaldi. The next three
years were spent in Syria as secretary to Ernest Renan, and on his
return to Paris he embarked in militant journalism against the second
empire in the _Figaro_, the _Diable à quatre_, and eventually in the
_Rappel_, with which his name was thenceforward intimately connected. He
commanded a battalion during the siege of Paris, and in February 1871
was elected deputy to the National Assembly where he sat on the extreme
left and protested against the preliminaries of peace. In March he
signed the proclamation for the election of the Commune, and resigned
his seat as deputy. Arrested at Vanves he remained a prisoner at
Versailles and Chartres until June when he was released without being
tried. He was more than once imprisoned for violent articles in the
press, and in 1872 for a duel with Paul de Cassagnac. He was returned to
the Chamber in 1873 as Radical deputy for Bouches-du-Rhône in 1876, 1877
and 1881 for Aix, and in 1881 he was also elected in the 11th
arrondissement of Paris. He elected to sit for Paris, and was repeatedly
re-elected. During the elections of 1893 he was shot at by a cab-driver
poet named Moore, but was not seriously inju