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Title: History of Linn County Iowa - From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time (1911)
Author: Brewer, Luther A., Wick, Barthinius L.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of Linn County Iowa - From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time (1911)" ***

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History of Linn County Iowa


[Illustration: Luther A. Brewer]



History

of

Linn County Iowa


From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time

BY

LUTHER A. BREWER

AND

BARTHINIUS L. WICK

_Members Historical Society of Linn County, Iowa_

[Illustration]

CEDAR RAPIDS

THE TORCH PRESS

1911


COPYRIGHT 1911 BY
LUTHER A. BREWER

THE TORCH PRESS
CEDAR RAPIDS
IOWA



TO THE MEMORY OF OUR
HONORED PIONEERS



INTRODUCTION


The history of Linn county is covered by the events of only a few
years, if compared with the history of communities east of the
Mississippi. The space of one life-time embraces all that has happened
here since the first white man looked upon our goodly heritage. True,
that life has been prolonged beyond the scriptural three score and ten
years. Robert Ellis, who came to this community more than seventy years
ago, and who was one of the very early settlers, yet lives in a hale
and vigorous age on land he "claimed" at that time.

But if the history of the county does not cover many years, it yet is a
history crowded with happenings of interest, some of the incidents
being more or less stirring.

History is defined as a record of the past. It does not concern itself
with the present. It has been the purpose of the editors of this volume
to treat somewhat at length of the early days in the county. Those
conversant with events occurring prior to the Civil war are rapidly
moving on, and it is high time that their recollections of beginnings
here were gathered and put in permanent form.

This has been attempted--how imperfectly done no one realizes more
keenly than we realize it. But like little Mary Wood of the story, we
have done the best we could in the few months given us to prepare the
pages which follow. We have done some things which need not be done
again by any one who follows us. We have made definite some things in
our history as a county that heretofore have been matters of
uncertainty. It is felt that the present volume will make an excellent
starting point for some future chronicler.

The task of the historian has been an arduous one--far more arduous
than can be imagined by any save those who have done similar work.
Withal the task has been one of pleasure and of inspiration. The
pursuit of knowledge in this instance has really been a delight.

We have been taught many things by our work that add to the sum of the
pleasures of living in a day crowded with all the conveniences of the
twentieth century. Our respect for the courageous pioneer men and the
equally courageous and self-sacrificing pioneer women of our county has
been placed high. Nobly did they suffer, enduring privations now
undreamed of, and never complaining that theirs was a hard lot. We
stand with uncovered heads and with a reverent feeling in their
presence.

It is not possible to make due acknowledgments to all those who aided
in gathering the material in this volume. Many who came here in the
early years of the county have been consulted, and always with profit.
The drudgery of the work of making this book has been greatly lessened
by their courtesy and their help. We thank them all. Some of them have
been credited with their assistance in the narrative itself. In
addition to the names mentioned in the text we desire to give thanks
for aid and counsel to N. E. Brown, perhaps the best posted man in
Cedar Rapids on the early history of the city; to Ed. M. Scott, for
most valuable aid in the preparation of the chapter on banks and
banking; to Capt. J. O. Stewart and Col. W. G. Dows for appreciated
assistance in the writing of the chapter on our military history; to
Carle D. Brown, of the Commercial Art Press, who gathered most of the
illustrations for the volume; to W. F. Stahl, for aid in giving the
history of the United Brethren church in the county. Robert Ellis, Mrs.
Susan Mekeel, Mrs. Susan Shields, Mrs. Elizabeth Hrdlicka, Augustus
Abbe, J. H. Preston, C. G. Greene, J. S. Ely, Wm. Smyth, C. F. Butler,
L. W. Mansfield, and many others have assisted in gathering much
valuable material concerning the lives of the pioneers.

Much that has been gathered concerning times far removed from the
present, is from "hearsay," hence it has been difficult to be certain
as to the correct facts in some instances. Inaccuracies may be found,
but these are due to unavoidable omissions, largely on the part of
those who have related these happenings and not from any sense of bias
or prejudice.

All prior county histories have been consulted as well as the early
state gazetteers, Andreas' _Atlas_, Carroll's _History_, _History of
Crescent Lodge_, _History of the Bench and Bar of Iowa_, _History of
the Courts and Legal Profession_, _Proceedings_ of the Linn County
Historical Society; and the files of the newspapers published in the
county in an early day. It is needless to add that the early city
directories have been largely used with reference to the business men
of Cedar Rapids in the early days.

References to persons have been confined to mere statements of facts
and have been free from undue flattery on the one hand and from
anything derogatory on the other. The members of the legal and medical
professions have been referred to at some length for the reason that
the lawyers and doctors were important factors in pioneer days, both in
the organization of the county and in the promotion of the various
enterprises in our towns.

Trusting that this history may be of some value in preserving material
which ere long would pass beyond reach of preservation, this work is
respectfully dedicated to the early pioneers of the county, whose lives
and careers the authors have attempted to describe in the following
pages.

                                                 LUTHER A. BREWER
                                               BARTHINIUS L. WICK



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I THE BIRTH OF IOWA                                        1

CHAPTER II THE FIRST INHABITANTS                                   3

CHAPTER III IOWA HISTORICALLY                                     13

CHAPTER IV IOWA AND HER PEOPLE                                    17

CHAPTER V THE GEOLOGY OF LINN COUNTY                              24

CHAPTER VI BEGINNINGS IN LINN COUNTY                              31

CHAPTER VII WILLIAM ABBE, FIRST SETTLER                           51

CHAPTER VIII COUNTY SEAT CONTESTS--FIRST RAILROAD IN COUNTY       57

CHAPTER IX THE OLD SETTLERS' ASSOCIATION                          66

CHAPTER X POSTOFFICES AND POLITICS                                82

CHAPTER XI THE PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY                           86

CHAPTER XII THE MATERIAL GROWTH OF THE COUNTY                     92

CHAPTER XIII RURAL LIFE                                           98

CHAPTER XIV A HERO OF THE CANADIAN REBELLION                     101

CHAPTER XV THE NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY                          106

CHAPTER XVI THE BOHEMIAN ELEMENT IN THE COUNTY                   121

CHAPTER XVII THE EARLY MARRIAGE RECORD                           127

CHAPTER XVIII HISTORIC ROADS AND OTHER MONUMENTS                 142

CHAPTER XIX SOME OF THE OLD SETTLERS                             145

CHAPTER XX EARLY LINN COUNTY LAWYERS AND COURTS                  169

CHAPTER XXI CHATTY MENTION OF BENCH AND BAR                      177

CHAPTER XXII THE SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY                           194

CHAPTER XXIII HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CORNELL COLLEGE               201

CHAPTER XXIV HISTORY OF COE COLLEGE                              215

CHAPTER XXV THE OLD BLAIR BUILDING                               232

CHAPTER XXVI SOME OF THE OLD CEMETERIES                          242

CHAPTER XXVII EARLY EXPERIENCES IN STAGE AND EXPRESS             244

CHAPTER XXVIII LINN COUNTY LIBRARIES                             248

CHAPTER XXIX WAGES AND PRICES IN COUNTY FROM 1846 TO 1856        253

CHAPTER XXX SOME OF THE FIRST THINGS IN CEDAR RAPIDS AND LINN
COUNTY                                                           256

CHAPTER XXXI SOCIETY IN THE EARLY DAYS                           261

CHAPTER XXXII SOUTHERN INFLUENCE                                 267

CHAPTER XXXIII SOME TOWNSHIP HISTORY                             270

CHAPTER XXXIV LISBON AND THE UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH              291

CHAPTER XXXV COUNTY AND DISTRICT POLITICS                        298

CHAPTER XXXVI CEDAR RAPIDS                                       307

CHAPTER XXXVII BEGINNINGS OF CHURCHES AND FRATERNITIES
IN CEDAR RAPIDS                                                  395

CHAPTER XXXVIII CATHOLICISM IN LINN COUNTY                       401

CHAPTER XXXIX LINN COUNTY STATISTICS                             416

CHAPTER XL THE BRIDGES ACROSS THE CEDAR AT CEDAR RAPIDS
AND EARLY STEAMBOATING ON THE CEDAR RIVER                        420

CHAPTER XLI BANKS AND BANKING IN LINN COUNTY                     435

CHAPTER XLII ROSTER OF COUNTY OFFICERS                           451

CHAPTER XLIII HISTORY OF MARION, THE COUNTY SEAT                 460

CHAPTER XLIV LINN COUNTY IN WAR                                  470

CHAPTER XLV ODDS AND ENDS OF HISTORY AND REMINISCENCE            479

    FOOTNOTES                                        End of document


ILLUSTRATIONS

LUTHER A. BREWER                                       _Frontispiece_

B. L. WICK                                                         4

LEWIS FIELD LINN                                                   8

A SCENE ON THE CEDAR RIVER AT CEDAR RAPIDS IN THE FIFTIES         12

RESIDENCE OF ISAAC CARROLL IN 1839                                12

AN EARLY LAND DEED                                                16

SHEPHERD'S TAVERN                                                 20

GEOLOGICAL ILLUSTRATIONS                                          24

THE ASTOR HOUSE                                                   28

DOUBLE LOG CABIN BUILT BY WILLIAM ABBE                            32

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN CEDAR RAPIDS IN 1851                 36

RESIDENCE OF WILLISTON JONES                                      36

DANIEL SEWARD HAHN                                                40

LINN COUNTY SCENES                                                44

GOING SHOPPING                                                    48

INDIAN SCENES                                                     48

FORMER PASTORS UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON                     52

SAMUEL W. DURHAM                                                  56

SOME EARLY MEMBERS UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON                 60

PRESENT DAY SCENE                                                 64

AN OLD LAND RECEIPT                                               64

STEAMBOAT ON CEDAR, 1887                                          64

DR. JOHN F. ELY                                                   68

JOHN A. KEARNS                                                    72

A. J. REID                                                        72

C. S. HOWARD                                                      72

WILLIAM STICK                                                     72

THE VARDY HOUSE, CEDAR RAPIDS                                     76

FRANKLIN BLOCK AND RESIDENCE OF P. W. EARLE                       76

THE LISTEBARGER CABIN, CEDAR RAPIDS                               76

MR. AND MRS. GODFREY QUASS                                        80

MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM GIDDINGS                                     80

MR. AND MRS. ISAAC MILLBURN                                       80

MR. AND MRS. W. A. LACOCK                                         80

J. P. GLASS                                                       80

F. A. HELBIG                                                      80

PROF. H. H. FREER                                                 84

REV. GEO. B. BOWMAN                                               84

JOSEPH MEKOTA                                                     84

W. F. SEVERA                                                      84

DR. J. S. LOVE                                                    88

J. H. VOSMEK                                                      92

FR. T. J. SULLIVAN                                                92

DR. E. L. MANSFIELD                                               92

HON. JAMES URE                                                    96

JUDGE J. H. ROTHROCK                                              96

J. J. DANIELS                                                     96

L. J. PALDA                                                       96

BRIDGE AT THE PALISADES                                          101

THE PALISADES OF THE CEDAR                                       101

BARNEY MCSHANE CABIN                                             104

CABIN IN "CRACKER SETTLEMENT"                                    104

UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON                                   108

MAIN STREET, MOUNT VERNON                                        108

ALEXANDER LAURANCE                                               112

OLD M. E. CHURCH, MOUNT VERNON                                   116

STREET SCENE IN LISBON                                           116

SCHOOL AT FAIRFAX                                                120

METHODIST CHURCH AT FAIRFAX                                      120

THE CHAPEL, CORNELL COLLEGE                                      124

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, MOUNT VERNON                                   124

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT SCOTCH GROVE                       128

WOOD-BURNING ENGINE, 1879                                        128

MAIN BUILDING, CORNELL COLLEGE                                   132

SOUTH-HALL, CORNELL COLLEGE                                      132

HENRY BRUCE HOUSE, SPRINGVILLE                                   136

FIRST SPRINGVILLE BAND                                           136

THE "OLD SEM" CORNELL COLLEGE                                    140

BOWMAN HALL, CORNELL COLLEGE                                     140

BUTLER PARK AT SPRINGVILLE                                       144

BUSINESS DISTRICT AT SPRINGVILLE                                 144

PICNIC AT HOME OF GEO. L. DURNO, SPRINGVILLE, IN 1884            148

ILLINOIS CENTRAL DEPOT, CENTRAL CITY                             148

METHODIST CHURCH, CENTER POINT                                   152

SOUTH MAIN STREET, TROY MILLS                                    152

M. E. CHURCH, TROY MILLS                                         156

MILL AT PRAIRIEBURG                                              156

AT OLD SETTLERS' REUNION, MARION                                 160

A PARK SCENE IN MARION                                           160

COURT HOUSE, MARION                                              164

WAPSIE RIVER AND MILL AT CENTRAL CITY                            164

ISAAC BUTLER                                                     168

PUBLIC SCHOOL AT SPRINGVILLE                                     172

METHODIST CHURCH, SPRINGVILLE                                    176

HOME OF J. F. BUTLER, SPRINGVILLE                                176

METHODIST CHURCH AT PALO                                         180

SCENE AT SPRINGVILLE                                             180

EARLY VIEW OF SPRINGVILLE                                        184

FIRST STORE IN SPRINGVILLE                                       184

LUTHERAN CHURCH, LISBON                                          188

MAIN STREET, LISBON                                              188

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT SPRINGVILLE                               192

THE BUTLER FARM AT SPRINGVILLE                                   192

CORNELL COLLEGE IN 1865                                          200

A STREET SCENE IN MARION                                         204

THE DANIELS HOTEL, MARION                                        204

REV. SAMUEL M. FELLOWS, A. M.                                    208

COMMERCIAL HOTEL, CENTER POINT                                   212

BRIDGE OVER THE CEDAR AT CENTER POINT                            212

W. F. KING, LL. D.                                               216

MAIN STREET FROM THE NORTH, FAIRFAX                              220

MAIN STREET LOOKING WEST, CENTRAL CITY                           220

AN OLD GRAVE AT SPRINGVILLE                                      224

REV. J. B. ALBROOK, D. D.                                        224

PROF. HARRIETTE J. COOK                                          224

MRS. MARGARET MCKELL KING                                        224

BAPTIST CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY                                     228

OLD BARN AT CENTRAL CITY                                         228

JAMES E. HARLAN, LL. D.                                          232

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY                              236

CHRISTIAN CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY                                   236

SCENE AT TROY MILLS                                              240

MILL AND DAM AT COGGON                                           240

HIGH SCHOOL, CENTRAL CITY                                        244

BRIDGE OVER WAPSIE AT CENTRAL CITY                               244

T. S. PARVIN                                                     248

WEST ROWLEY STREET, WALKER                                       253

MAIN STREET, PRAIRIEBURG                                         253

MAIN STREET, SPRINGVILLE                                         256

QUAKER MEETING HOUSE AT WHITTIER                                 256

WHITTIER                                                         256

MAIN STREET, CENTRAL CITY, FROM THE SOUTH                        261

GENERAL STORE AT COVINGTON                                       261

UPPER WAGON BRIDGE, CENTRAL CITY                                 264

HENDERSON BRIDGE, CENTRAL CITY                                   264

BAPTIST CHURCH, PRAIRIEBURG                                      268

MILWAUKEE BRIDGE, COVINGTON                                      268

THE "OLD SCHOOL," COGGON                                         272

SOUTH SIDE MAIN STREET, COGGON                                   272

SCENE ON THE CEDAR AT CEDAR RAPIDS                               276

BIRDSEYE VIEW LOOKING EAST, CEDAR RAPIDS                         276

CEDAR RIVER DAM, CEDAR RAPIDS                                    276

QUAKER OATS PLANT, CEDAR RAPIDS                                  280

STREET RAILWAY STATION AT BEVER PARK, CEDAR RAPIDS               280

VIEW OF CEDAR RAPIDS FROM THE ISLAND                             288

RAILROAD YARDS AT CEDAR RAPIDS                                   288

FATHER FLYNN, CEDAR RAPIDS                                       296

PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN CEDAR RAPIDS, 1910            300

BIRDSEYE VIEW OF CEDAR RAPIDS IN 1868                            304

FATHER SVRDLIK, CEDAR RAPIDS                                     307

BIRDSEYE VIEW OF CEDAR RAPIDS IN 1889                            312

FEDERAL BUILDING, CEDAR RAPIDS                                   320

AUDITORIUM, CEDAR RAPIDS                                         320

PART OF ZOO IN BEVER PARK, CEDAR RAPIDS                          328

A SCENE IN BEVER PARK, CEDAR RAPIDS                              328

SIXTEENTH AVENUE BRIDGE, CEDAR RAPIDS                            336

FIRST STREET, CORNER SECOND AVENUE, IN 1869                      336

FIRST U. B. CHURCH WEST OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER                     344

COE COLLEGE BUILDINGS                                            352

SINCLAIR PACKING PLANT, CEDAR RAPIDS                             360

BLACK HAWK                                                       366

A WINNEBAGO INDIAN                                               366

THE SLAVE DANCE OF THE SAC AND FOX                               366

CEDAR RAPIDS COUNTRY CLUB HOUSE                                  368

GEORGE GREENE SQUARE                                             368

RIVERSIDE PARK, CEDAR RAPIDS                                     368

CEDAR RAPIDS IN 1856                                             369

THE OLD BLAIR BUILDING                                           371

MONTROSE HOTEL, CEDAR RAPIDS                                     376

S. C. BEVER                                                      384

THOMAS GAINER                                                    384

E. D. WALN                                                       384

REV. ELIAS SKINNER                                               384

J. M. MAY                                                        392

CAPT. A. BOWMAN                                                  392

E. M. CROW                                                       392

FATHER LOWRY                                                     401

ST. WENCESLAUS CHURCH, CEDAR RAPIDS                              404

ST. WENCESLAUS SCHOOL, CEDAR RAPIDS                              404

THE LATE VERY REVEREND DEAN GUNN                                 408

QUAKER OATS TRAIN                                                412

SCENE ON CEDAR RIVER                                             412

ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH, CEDAR RAPIDS                               412

MERCY HOSPITAL, CEDAR RAPIDS                                     416

JUDGE N. M. HUBBARD                                              422

VIEWS ALONG THE CEDAR RIVER                                      424

PARK VIEWS IN CEDAR RAPIDS                                       432

IN AND AROUND MT. VERNON                                         436

R. D. STEPHENS                                                   440

ADDISON DANIELS                                                  440

J. B. YOUNG                                                      440

I. M. PRESTON                                                    440

S. S. JOHNSON                                                    444

THOS. J. MCKEAN                                                  448

N. W. ISBELL                                                     448

WILLIAM GREENE                                                   448

O. S. BOWLING                                                    448

INDEPENDENT HOSE COMPANY, CEDAR RAPIDS, 1875                     452

CITY RESIDENCES, CEDAR RAPIDS                                    456

VIEW OF MARION, 1868                                             460

JAMES E. BROMWELL, SR.                                           464

T. M. SINCLAIR                                                   468

J. O. STEWART                                                    468

COL. T. Z. COOK                                                  472

SOME EARLY CURRENCY                                              476

STREET VIEWS IN CEDAR RAPIDS, IN 1910                            480


MAPS

LINN COUNTY                                                        1

SHOWING BLACK HAWK PURCHASE                                      184

SHOWING DES MOINES COUNTY SUBDIVIDED                             185

AFTER THE SAC AND FOX CESSIONS OF 1837                           190

LATE DIVISION OF BLACK HAWK PURCHASE                             191

SHOWING THE TWO CESSIONS AS AT PRESENT DIVIDED                   197

REPRODUCTION OF THE FIRST MAP OF CEDAR RAPIDS (Part 1)           316

REPRODUCTION OF THE FIRST MAP OF CEDAR RAPIDS (Part 2)           316


[Illustration: MAP OF LINN COUNTY]



CHAPTER I

_The Birth of Iowa_


Iowa is known as a prairie state. Prairie is a French word and
signifies meadow. It was the name first applied to the great treeless
plains of North America by the French missionaries who were the first
white men to explore these regions.

As yet scientists have not been able to explain the origin of the
prairies. Different theories have been advanced, but the interesting
problem is without satisfactory and conclusive solution.

Agassiz, the scientist, maintained that America is not the "new world."
"Hers was the first dry land lifted out of the waters," he wrote; "hers
the first shores washed by the ocean that enveloped all the earth
besides; and while Europe was represented only by islands rising here
and there above the sea, America already stretched one unbroken line of
land from Nova Scotia to the far West."

Iowa, also, was born, had a beginning sometime. Just how many years ago
this interesting event took place it is difficult to approximate. Prof.
Samuel Calvin, state geologist, says that "geological records,
untampered with, and unimpeachable, declare that for uncounted years
Iowa, together with the great valley of the Mississippi, lay beneath
the level of the sea. So far as it was inhabited at all, marine forms
of animals and plants were its only occupants."

The soils of the state were produced by the action of the ice in what
is known as the glacial period. We are told how by Professor Calvin:

     "Glaciers and glacial action have contributed in a very
     large degree to the making of our magnificent State. What
     Iowa would have been had it never suffered from the effects
     of the ponderous ice sheets that successively overflowed its
     surface, is illustrated, but not perfectly, in the driftless
     area. Here we have an area that was not invaded by glaciers.
     Allamakee, parts of Jackson, Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, and
     Winneshiek counties belong to the driftless area. During the
     last two decades deep wells have been bored through the
     loose surface deposit, and down into the underlying rocks.
     The record of these wells shows that the rock surface is
     very uneven. Before the glacial drift which now mantles
     nearly the whole of Iowa was deposited, the surface had been
     carved into an intricate system of hills and valleys. There
     were narrow gorges hundreds of feet in depth, and there were
     rugged, rocky cliffs, and isolated buttes corresponding in
     height with the depth of the valleys.

     "To a person passing from the drift-covered to the driftless
     part of the state, the topography presents a series of
     surprises. The principal drainage streams flow in valleys
     that measure, from the summits of the divides, six hundred
     or more in depth. The Oneota, or Upper Iowa River, in
     Allamakee county, for example, flows between picturesque
     cliffs that rise almost vertically from three to four
     hundred feet, while from the summit of the cliffs the land
     rises gradually to the crest of the divide, three, four or
     five miles back from the stream. Tributary streams cut the
     lateral slopes and canyon walls at intervals. These again
     have tributaries of the second order. In such a region a
     quarter section of level land would be a curiosity. This is
     a fair sample of what Iowa would have been had it not been
     planed down by the leveling effects of the glaciers. Soils
     of uniform excellence would have been impossible in a
     non-glacial Iowa. The soils of Iowa have a value equal to
     all of the silver and gold mines of the world combined.

     "And for this rich heritage of soils we are indebted to
     great rivers of ice that overflowed Iowa from the north and
     northwest. The glaciers in their long journey ground up the
     rocks over which they moved and mingled the fresh rock flour
     from granites of British America and northern Minnesota with
     pulverized limestones and shales of more southern regions,
     and used these rich materials in covering up the bald rocks
     and leveling the irregular surface of preglacial Iowa. The
     materials are in places hundreds of feet in depth. They are
     not oxidized or leached, but retain the carbonates and other
     soluble constituents that contribute so largely to the
     growth of plants. The physical condition of the materials is
     ideal, rendering the soil porous, facilitating the
     distribution of moisture, and offering unmatched
     opportunities for the employment of improved machinery in
     all of the processes connected with cultivation. Even the
     driftless area received great benefit from the action of
     glaciers, for although the area was not invaded by ice, it
     was yet to a large extent covered by a peculiar deposit
     called loess, which is generally connected with one of the
     later sheets of drift. The loess is a porous clay, rich in
     carbonate of lime. Throughout the driftless area it has
     covered up many spots that would otherwise have been bare
     rocks. It covered the stiff intractable clays that would
     otherwise have been the only soils of the region. It in
     itself constitutes a soil of great fertility. Every part of
     Iowa is debtor in some way to the great ice sheets of the
     glacial period.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "Soils are everywhere the product of rock disintegration,
     and so the quality of the soils in a given locality must
     necessarily be determined in large measure by the kind of
     rock from which they were derived.

     "From this point of view, therefore, the history of Iowa's
     superb soils begins with first steps in rock making. The
     very oldest rocks of the Mississippi Valley have contributed
     something to making our soils what they are, and every later
     formation laid down over the surface of Iowa, or regions
     north of it, has furnished its quota of materials to the
     same end. The history of Iowa's soils, therefore, embraces
     the whole sweep of geologic times.

     "The chief agents concerned in modifying the surface
     throughout most of Iowa since the disappearance of the
     latest glaciers have been organic, although the physical and
     chemical influences of air and water have not been without
     marked effect. The growth and decay of a long series of
     generations of plants have contributed certain organic
     constituents to the soil. Earth worms bring up fine material
     from considerable depths and place it in position to be
     spread out upon the surface. They drag leaves and any
     manageable portion of plants into their burrows, and much of
     the material so taken down into the ground decays and
     enriches the ground to a depth of several inches. The pocket
     gopher has done much to furnish a surface layer of loose,
     mellow, easily cultivated and highly productive soil. Like
     the earth worm, the gopher for century after century has
     been bringing up to the surface fine material, to the amount
     of several tons annually to the acre, avoiding necessarily
     the pebbles, cobbles and coarser constituents. The burrows
     collapse, the undermined boulders and large fragments sink
     downwards, rains and winds spread out the gopher hills and
     worm castings, and the next year, and the next, the process
     is repeated; and so it has been for all the years making up
     the centuries since the close of the glacial epoch. Organic
     agents in the form of plants and burrowing animals have
     worked unremittingly through many centuries, and
     accomplished a work of incalculable value in pulverizing,
     mellowing and enriching the superficial stratum, and
     bringing it to the ideal condition in which it was found by
     the explorers and pioneers from whose advent dates the
     historical period of our matchless Iowa."

The last invasion, we are informed, was from 100,000 to 170,000 years
ago--somewhat prior to the recollection of the "oldest inhabitant."



CHAPTER II

_The First Inhabitants_


Who were Iowa's first inhabitants is a question of some interest.
Archeologists tell us that there have been found in the Mississippi
Valley the remains of two distinct prehistoric races. The first human
skulls discovered resemble those of the gorilla. These skulls indicate
a low degree of intelligence. The first inhabitants were but a grade
above the lower animals. They were small in body, and brute-like in
appearance.

Next came the "mound builders." There are evidences that these had some
degree of intelligence. Copper and stone implements have been found in
the mounds. Whether they built towns and cities or tilled the soil is
not known. Pieces of cloth discovered in the mounds would indicate some
knowledge of the arts. Their number, their size, color, customs--all
are lost to us. We know they existed, and that is all. Several of these
mounds have been explored in Iowa. They are found in the eastern parts
of the state from Dubuque to Burlington. Many interesting articles have
been found in them--sea shells, copper axes and spools, stone knives,
pottery, pipes carved with effigies of animals and birds. Skeletons and
altars of stone were unearthed a few years ago in some of these mounds,
and in one were discovered hieroglyphics representing letters and
figures of trees, people and animals.

These mounds have also been discovered in the central part of the
state, the valley of the Des Moines river being especially rich in
them. Sometimes they are in groups, as though built for defense. It has
been suggested that probably the conquerors of the mound builders were
the immediate ancestors of the Indians.

When on June 25, 1673, Marquette and Joliet fastened their frail craft
to the west bank of the Mississippi river where the Iowa enters it in
Louisa county,[A] the only people living in what is now Iowa were the
American Indians. When these venturesome explorers came ashore and
ascended a slight eminence they beheld a scene of rare beauty. As far
as the eye could carry they looked over an expanse covered with green
grass waving in the gentle wind like the billows of the sea, with here
and there a grove of oak, elm, walnut, maple, and sycamore. All was
peaceful, calm, and restful; the stillness of the desert prevailed.
That the country was inhabited was indicated by a thin column of smoke
which arose some few miles inland from a small grove. The travelers
soon reached the spot. There they found a small company of Indians in a
village on the banks of the stream. The Indians were probably the more
astonished of the two parties. They looked with wonder upon the strange
beings who had come among them so unceremoniously and unannounced. It
was probably their first view of the white man. Recovering somewhat
from their astonishment, they made overtures of friendship by offering
the pipe of peace.

It was soon discovered that the band was a portion of the Illinois
tribe. Marquette had enough acquaintance with the language of this
tribe to enable him to hold an intelligent conversation with his hosts.
He told the Indians who their visitors were, and why they were there.
He expressed the great pleasure he and his companions took at meeting
some of the inhabitants of that beautiful country. They in turn were
given a cordial welcome by the Indians, one of the chiefs thus
addressing them:

     "I thank the Black Gown Chief [Marquette] and his friend
     [Joliet] for taking so much pains to come and visit us.
     Never before has the earth been so beautiful, nor the sun so
     bright as now. Never has the river been so calm or free from
     rocks which your canoes have removed as they passed down.
     Never has the tobacco had so fine a flavor, nor our corn
     appeared so beautiful as we behold it today. Ask the Great
     Spirit to give us life and health, and come ye and dwell
     with us."

This was an eloquent speech and demonstrated the sincerity of the
welcome.

Marquette and Joliet were then invited to a feast which meanwhile had
been made ready by the squaws. Afterwards Marquette wrote a description
of this banquet, and it is of interest to reproduce it here:

     "It consisted of four courses. First there was a large
     wooden bowl filled with a preparation of corn meal boiled in
     water and seasoned with oil. The Indian conducting the
     ceremonies had a large wooden spoon with which he dipped up
     the mixture (called by the Indians _tagamity_), passing it
     in turn into the mouths of the different members of the
     party. The second course consisted of fish nicely cooked,
     which was separated from the bones and placed in the mouths
     of the guests. The third course was a roasted dog, which our
     explorers declined with thanks, when it was at once removed
     from sight. The last course was a roast of buffalo, the
     fattest pieces of which were passed the Frenchmen, who found
     it to be most excellent meat."

The Frenchmen were so delighted with the beauty of the country and the
hospitality of the Indians that they remained with their friends six
days. They explored the valleys, hunted and fished and feasted on the
choice game they captured. The natives did all they could to make their
stay one gay round of pleasure. They welcomed the coming guests with
genuine hospitality, and when they could keep them no longer speeded
them on their way in the true spirit. Six hundred of them escorted
Marquette and Joliet to their boats and wished them bon voyage.

This discovery attracted but little attention at the time in Europe,
and many years passed before what is now known as Iowa appears in
history.


THE MOUND BUILDERS

The Mound Builders, from what information we have been able to obtain,
must have lived in the Mississippi valley and at one time or another
way back in some remote age they must have resided on what later became
Iowa. Chronology is not definite as to when or how the Mound Builders
arrived in the new world. It is merely speculation when one says that
traditions point to a time two or three thousand years ago when the
Mound Builders resided in the Mississippi valley and lived in villages
and towns. It is true, that in various parts of the old world records
have been found of other races which have preceded the races of which
history has any definite record. As the North American Indians had no
written language prior to the arrival of the Europeans, their
traditions, consequently, go back but a short time at best.

It is true that there have been found on the American continent various
bones of animals which no longer exist, and there have been found
relics of a race of men who were far different from the Indians as the
whites found them on their arrival. In North America these pre-historic
races have been called Mound Builders, and they have been the first
inhabitants of the vast plains of what later became the United States.
Still, it may be possible that the Mound Builders may have driven out
or exterminated some other preceding race of people, who had dwelt in
this country for ages before the Mound Builders made their entrance
into what is known as the New World. Who knows?

[Illustration: B. L. WICK]

In Johnson's _Encyclopedia_, Vol. 1, page 125, one finds the following:
"Remains of the Mound Builders are spread over a vast extent of
country. They are found on the sources of the Alleghany, in the western
part of the state of New York, and in nearly all the western states,
including Michigan and Iowa. They were observed by Lewis and Clark on
the Missouri a thousand miles above its junction with the Mississippi.
They lined the shores of the Gulf of Mexico from Texas to Florida,
whence they extended through Alabama and Georgia into South Carolina.
They are especially numerous in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin,
Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Texas. Many of these remnants were
evidently designed as works of defense or as large towers in war. No
inconsiderable number appear to have been formed as sepulchre monuments
or as places of burial for the dead, while others seemed obviously to
have been constructed as temples or places of worship or sacrifice."

While Linn county and Iowa have not as many mounds of as much interest
as, for example, the Circle Mound in Ohio, still there are a number of
mounds found in eastern Iowa and a number in Linn county which would
appear to have been constructed by Mound Builders, or, at least, by
some pre-historic race long since extinct. Some mounds found near Palo
would indicate that they must have been constructed a long time ago,
for even trees of large dimensions have been found growing on top and
around these mounds. The remnants certainly give evidence in places as
though they had been constructed for religious purposes, which
evidently is true of nearly all such remnants which have recently been
discovered in Yucatan and Mexico.

Some stone implements and ornaments have been found in some of these
mounds. These implements are all flint spear and arrow heads and have
been worked with much care and skill. Some pottery has also been
discovered, at times ornamented and at other times very coarse. Some
copper implements have been found of a kind and quality as discovered
in the copper region of Lake Superior, which, undoubtedly, have been
worked by the Indians and perhaps by the Mound Builders. No bones have
so far been discovered to indicate that the Mound Builders had the use
of any domestic animals. Very seldom have human skeletons been found,
which might attest to the fact that these had been dug ages and ages
ago. No tablets of any kind have been discovered, which might indicate
that the Mound Builders had at no time a written language.

Science has held that the Mound Builders were an agricultural people
and compared with the Indians much more civilized, and that the
Mississippi valley was densely populated until the arrival of the
Indians. Whether the Indians exterminated them or they were driven
away, or they voluntarily removed from this part of the country is
still a debatable question.

     "If it is really true that there were pre-historic peoples,
     then the oldest continent would be, in all probability, the
     first inhabited; and as this is the oldest continent in the
     formations of the geological period, and as there are found
     relics of man in England in identically the same strata as
     are shown in Linn county, why may we not reasonably expect
     to find relics of man--relics as old as any--in Linn county?
     If man once existed here, why may he not have always existed
     here? It is certainly unreasonable to think young Europe
     should alone have early relics of man.

     "What place the Mound Builders are entitled to in the
     world's history, since they have left no relics but mounds
     of earth, which mounds are probably funeral pyres or places
     of sepulchre, we can simply conjecture. We believe some rude
     carvings on slabs have been exhumed at Grand Traverse,
     Michigan, Davenport, Iowa, and Rockford, Illinois. These
     carvings may have reference to the sun, moon and stars; we
     believe the savants favor such an interpretation. As to
     where he lived, careful geological study of his mound may
     some day determine. He was a link in the chain of man's
     existence; tracing it to its source we may discover some
     hitherto unknown facts regarding man's origin, or the
     ancient history of America. This continent may have been
     more intimately connected with Asia than is at present
     considered....

     "Compare the average life of these nations with the age of
     the Cedar valley; compare historic age with Cedar valley,
     whose channel has been cut down through the rocks between
     one and two hundred feet. Look at these old Devonian rocks,
     with their fossils as fresh as of yesterday. Look at the
     clay soil that overlies the rocks. Has it been changed in
     fourteen hundred or in six thousand years? Now look at those
     mounds that are on the crests of so many ridges, and say how
     old they are! Forests of giant trees have come and gone over
     them, how many times? Those mounds were built by the people
     known as the Mound Builders. What of their life? What of
     their age? What of their history? We have the mounds, and
     substantially the mounds only. But these mounds are an
     interesting study of themselves. We have not observed these
     mounds only in the valley of the Cedar river, above and
     below Cedar Rapids; our observations find them in positions
     as follows:

     "LOCATION OF MOUNDS NEAR CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA

                                                          Number
                                                            of
     No.      Location            Sec.   Twp.   Range     Mounds

     1   N. W. 1/4 S. W. 1/4       35     83      7         11
     2   S. 1/2 S. E. 1/4          16     83      7         14
     3   S. 1/2 N. W. 1/4          16     83      7         11
     4   N. W. 1/4 N. E. 1/4       17     83      7          3
     5   N. 1/2 N. W. 1/4          20     83      7         11
     6   E. 1/2                    18     83      7         11
     7   W. 1/2                    18     83      7         11
     8   N. W. 1/4 N. W. 1/4       24     83      7         12
                                                          ------
               Total                                        84

     "No. 1 has eleven mounds, situated on the crest of a divide.
     The general direction of locations is from north to south,
     or south to north. The correct location, I believe, is from
     south to north; that is, they point to the north. These
     mounds are now raised about three feet above the level, and
     are uniformly thirty feet in diameter. Counting from the
     south, the sixth and seventh are generally within a few
     feet--come very near touching each other; the others are as
     near as, may be, two diameters apart. These remarks will
     apply to No. 2, No. 3, No. 5 and No. 6. No. 2 has eleven in
     a line (as No. 1,) and then three mounds to the east appear
     to be parallel, and may have had the remaining eight removed
     by cultivation. No. 4 is on the bottom--second bench land;
     are a little larger in size; the others, to make out the
     eleven, may have been destroyed by cultivation. No. 7 has
     eight in position, and then a valley intervenes, and the
     three additional, making the eleven, are on the ridge next
     to the north. No. 8 has twelve. They are on the crest of a
     divide which passes around the head of a deep ravine, and
     follow the divide at the angle. Most of these mounds (No. 8)
     have been lately opened, but we think no relics were found.
     We have been careful to find the place that the earth
     composing the mounds was taken from. Generally, the banks
     of a near ravine indicate, by their shape, the place. Under
     the strongest sunlight, in a mound cut through the center,
     we could detect no indication or difference in the clay to
     show that it had been removed or disturbed, or that there
     had been any remains in it to discolor the clay in their
     decomposition.

     "Let it be observed that the mounds are substantially north
     and south in line of location. They are eleven in number,
     uniform in size, and, I believe, cover every ridge in the
     vicinity of the rapids of the Cedar having the direction
     sufficient in length on which the mounds could be placed.
     They are built in the locality the least likely to be
     disturbed, and in the shape and of the material the most
     enduring. There certainly was intelligence displayed in
     their location and in the selection of the material of which
     they are constructed, as well as in the design of their form
     and positions. There may have been more mounds than these,
     but these are all that are left--all that are left of that
     race which might have sent from their number emigrants to
     people the new land, to the far west, the last continent,
     fresh and vigorous from the ocean, the newest born, the best
     then adapted for man's material and mental
     development."--_History of Linn County_, 1878, p. 319.

J. S. Newberry, in Johnson's _Cyclopedia_, says:

     "From all the facts before us, we can at present say little
     more than this, that the valley of the Mississippi and the
     Atlantic coast were once densely populated by a sedentary,
     agricultural and partially civilized race, quite different
     from the modern nomadic Indians, though, possibly, the
     progenitors of some of the Indian tribes; and that, after
     many centuries of occupation, they disappeared from our
     country at least one thousand, perhaps many thousands of
     years, before the advent of the Europeans. The pre-historic
     remains found so abundantly in Arizona appear to be related
     to the civilization of Mexico; and the remains of
     semi-civilized Indian tribes now found there are, perhaps,
     descendants of the ancient builders of the great houses and
     cities whose ruins are found there."

Researches concerning ancient mounds have been carried on in a most
scientific manner by Dr. Cyrus Thomas. His chief work and research have
been embodied in a monograph of over 700 pages and found the 12th
Report of the government publications.

Major J. W. Powell, whose studies of this subject have been considered
authoritative, in his _Pre-historic Man in America_ has the following
to say:

     "Widely scattered throughout the United States ...
     artificial mounds are discovered which may be enumerated by
     thousands and hundreds of thousands. They vary greatly in
     size. Some are small so that half a dozen laborers with
     shovels might construct one of them in a day, while others
     cover acres and are scores of feet in height. These mounds
     were observed by the early explorers and pioneers of the
     country.... Pseud-archeologists descanted on the Mound
     Builders, that once inhabited the land, and they told of
     swarming populations who had reached a high condition of
     culture, erecting temples, practicing arts in metals and
     using hieroglyphics.... It is enough to say that the Mound
     Builders were the Indian tribes discovered by the white men.
     It may well be that some of the mounds were erected by
     tribes extinct when Columbus first saw the shores, but they
     were kindred in culture to the peoples that still
     existed.... Pre-Columbian culture was indigenous, it began
     at the lowest stage of savagery and developed to the highest
     and was in many places passing into barbarism when the good
     queen sold her jewels."--J. W. Powell, quoted in _Larned_,
     Vol. I, p. 45.

Thus scientists do not agree whether or not the Mound Builders were
closely akin to the Indians. However recent investigators seem to agree
with Thomas and Powell that the early inhabitants were much like the
later denizens of the American prairies in their mode of life and means
of subsistence, in their weapons, arts, usages, and customs, in their
institutions and physical characteristics, they were the same people in
different stages of advancement.

John Fiske, one of the scholarly writers on American history, has the
following to say on the early races in the United States:

     "Whether the Indians are descended from this ancient
     population or not, is a question with which we have as yet
     no satisfactory method of dealing. It is not unlikely that
     these glacial men may have perished from off the face of the
     earth, having been crushed and supplanted by stronger races.
     There may have been several successive waves of migration of
     which the Indians were the latest."--Fiske's _Discovery of
     America_, Vol. I, p. 15.

     "The aboriginal American, as we know him with his language
     and legends, his physical and mental peculiarities, his
     social observance and customs, is most emphatically a native
     and not an imported article. He belongs to the American
     continent as strictly as its opossums and armadillo, its
     maize and its golden rods, or any number of its aboriginal
     fauna and flora belong to it."--_Ibid._, p. 20.

An Iowa investigator, C. L. Webster, some years ago examined several
mounds on the banks of the Cedar river near Charles City and "found the
skulls small which would show an extremely low grade of mental
intelligence."--_American Naturalist_, Vol. 23, p. 1888.

This may go to show that the early inhabitants were different from the
nomadic Indians that the first whites saw as they landed on the bleak
shores of New England in the eleventh century.

Most writers on this subject are led to believe that we have conclusive
evidence that man existed before the time of the glaciers and that from
primitive conditions he has lived here and developed through the same
stages which may correspond to the development of primitive man in
Europe and Asia. Whether the first settlers in Iowa then, were Mound
Builders, or Indians, or some other race may never be known, for a
certainty. It is enough to say, that man existed and lived on what has
become known as Iowa many, many centuries ago, and he left few if any
remains which can testify to his stage of development or to his mode of
living. This is no doubt true, that man existed in Linn county
countless ages ago, but whether it was a different race, or simply the
Indian race at a different stage of development may never be known and
thus will always remain a mystery.


INDIANS

When the first white settlers located in Linn county the Red Men still
occupied the land, and even after treaties had been fully ratified,
Indians were slow to give up these choice hunting places along the Red
Cedar and the Wapsie. It is needless to say that the rights of Indians
were not protected and they invariably were set aside and driven away
as fast as possible. Still nearly all of the early settlers were very
friendly toward the Red Men, and in return received many favors from
their hands. Of course, the Red Men were jealous of the whites, who
gradually kept coming in and drove the Indians away. The Indians who
most frequented this part of Iowa after the settlement by whites were
the Sac and Fox and Winnebagoes. The Winnebagoes were a remnant of a
warlike tribe, and at one time in Wisconsin were very powerful. These
joined with the Sac and Fox in the Black Hawk war and were driven
across the Mississippi river after the signing of the treaty of peace.

[Illustration: LEWIS FIELD LINN]

The pioneers in this county from necessity had to be friendly with the
Indians. Many of the early settlers were able to speak the Winnebago
language, such as the family of William Abbe, the Edgertons, the Usher
family, the Crows, and many others. The Winnebagoes lingered around in
this part of Iowa in the thirties and forties, when they were finally
removed to Minnesota, much against their own wishes. But the Indians,
rightly in this respect as in many others, were not considered, for the
white men ruled and looked out for their own selfish interests and did
not consider the side of mercy, justice or the rights of the weak as
against those of the strong.

The Winnebagoes were considered a hardy race and respected by the
whites, who showed them many favors. While the Winnebagoes had fought
in the war of 1812 under Tecumseh and had sided with Black Hawk,
perhaps reluctantly, in the war of 1832, they were rather friendly
toward the whites, although they very much objected to disposing of all
their lands east of the Mississippi river by the treaties of 1825 and
1837, when they were removed to Iowa. In Linn county they remained for
a longer or shorter period of time along the rivers such as the Cedar
and the Wapsie, and especially around Cedar Lake, along the Palisades,
in Linn Grove, Scotch Grove west of Cedar Rapids, and in other places
where there was much timber. While they were at times heartless and
cruel, their relations on the whole with the early settlers in Linn
county were those of friendship, and they showed the whites many favors
in the early days when the scattered pioneer families were unable to
acquire sufficient food during the winter months to subsist upon. The
Indians always helped the whites, and frequently went out hunting,
bringing back a deer, fowls, or prairie chickens, which they divided
among their own people and the whites. They early became fond of the
dishes made by the white women, such as hominy, honey cakes, johnny
cakes, and other delicious dishes found in the homes of the early
settlers on the frontier. In no instance has it been reported that any
white woman was ever assaulted by any Indian in this county. In many of
the cabins of the early settlers there could be found only women and
children, the husbands having left for the river towns to bring back
provisions, and this fact was frequently known to the Indians. The
early pioneer women used to say that they feared the rough border
ruffian more than they did these traveling bands of Indians, who never
assaulted anyone or ever carried away property by stealth, as the
border ruffians were frequently accused of doing.

The story of the Winnebago tribe of Indians can not be passed without
some notice. The name Winnebago is said to mean "the turbid water
people," and they are closely related to the Iowas, Otoes, and the
Missouri tribes. They used to call themselves the Hochangara, meaning
"the people using the parent tongue," thus, perhaps, intending to
convey that they were the original people from whom others sprang. They
are first mentioned in the Jesuit Relations of 1636 and 1640. It is
said that they were nearly annihilated by the Illinois tribes in early
days and that the survivors fled back to Green Bay in 1737 and that
they resided on the banks of Lake Superior but once more drifted back
to Green Bay and towards Lake Winnebago, stretching southwest towards
the Mississippi river. On one of the islands in the lake which bears
their name they made their abiding place for a number of years and here
they buried their dead and dwelt in peace around their fire places.

In 1825 the population was estimated to be 6,000. By the treaties of
1825 and 1832 they were compelled to cede their lands to the
government, certain tracts of land being reserved on the Mississippi
river near what is now known as La Crosse. Here they suffered from
several visitations of smallpox, which plague is said to have carried
off nearly one-fourth of their number.

From 1834-35 they were removed to Iowa and lived along the many rivers
in the northeastern part of the Territory as far as the banks of the
Cedar and the Wapsie rivers. White settlers came in, driving the Red
Men out: hunting became poor and the Indians could not subsist and
they were again removed to the Blue Earth reservation in Minnesota in
1848. On account of the Indian outbreaks in 1863, committed by the
Sioux tribe, and in which the Winnebagoes took no part, they were again
removed to the Dakotas, where several hundred perished from cold and
hunger. There are now only about 1,200 under the Omaha and Winnebago
agency in Nebraska, and about 1,500 in the state of Wisconsin.

The Sac and Fox were also the early neighbors of the whites in this
county. The Fox was an Algonkian tribe, first found on the lakes, and
who were driven south by the Ojibwa where, for self protection, they
united with the Sacs and have been since known as Sacs and Foxes. They
were always friendly to the British, joining them in the Revolution as
well as in the war of 1812. After the Black Hawk war they were removed
to Iowa and from here removed again to the Indian Territory from
1842-46. Many of the tribes kept coming back to their old hunting
ground and finally they were permitted to remain on the Iowa river and
provision for them was made by the legislature. About 400, known as the
Muskwaki, are still found, survivors of some of the early wanderers in
eastern Iowa in the early thirties. The Sacs and Foxes and the
Winnebagoes were always on friendly terms with the whites and were
sworn enemies of the Sioux.

Mrs. Susan Shields, a daughter of William Abbe, was on intimate terms
with the Winnebago Indians, who used to gather at her father's home on
Abbe's creek frequently. She learned to speak the Winnebago language,
and remembered seeing many wigwams, or tepees as they were called, at
the lower end of what is now Cedar Rapids. She speaks of the Indians as
being kind to her and that her first playmates were Indian girls of her
own age. Her brothers also played with the Indian boys and they learned
to ride Indian ponies and to shoot with bows and arrows. No trouble
ever arose among the young of both races in these days; rather the
white boys were envious to see the liberties granted the Indian boys
and how they were permitted to roam any place at pleasure, never having
any chores to do.

Robert Ellis understood more or less of the Indian jargon, and still
speaks of his many escapades among the Sioux, the Winnebago, and the
Sac and Fox. At one time, about 1839, some 300 Winnebagoes were camped
on what is known as McCloud's Run. It was late in the fall and very
cold; word came in the night that the Sioux were coming to exterminate
the tribe. At once they broke camp and forded the river near the mill
dam, first getting the women and children across. The white settlers
were frightened. By nine o'clock the next morning the camps were up on
the west side of the river and the gay young bucks had brought in
thirty-eight deer which had been shot during the early morning, which
were served to the hungry lot who had worked all night. While the Sioux
had been in the neighborhood no attack was made upon the Winnebagoes at
this time.

Mr. Ellis also relates that he and two friends camped one night on the
Cedar above Waterloo, where they were hunting. One morning in
mid-winter a party of Sioux came to the cabin. They could do nothing
but invite the Red Men in and offer them provisions and anything they
had. While the Indians kicked against the whites killing their game,
the friendliness of the whites seemed to satisfy them, and they left
their new found friends in possession of their camps. After this
discovery by the Sioux Mr. Ellis and his friends made a hasty retreat,
not wanting to meet their dusky companions again when they might return
in larger numbers.

Mr. Ellis relates another incident of his life among the Indians. He
came to an Indian camp near Quasqueton on his way to Ft. Atkinson and
had to spend the night in the camp. Unfortunately nearly all of the
Indians were drunk and insisted on killing every one. The squaws, who
were sober, and a few of the old men, got Mr. Ellis to help, and all
the drunken bucks were tied so they could scarcely move. Mr. Ellis then
retired, and in the morning all were sober and untied, and then the
squaws and the old men who had been sober started in to get gloriously
drunk. Mr. Ellis wanted to hire an Indian to show him the way to West
Union, but the Indian shrugged his shoulders and replied, "wolf eaty
you." Mr. Ellis started out alone afoot over the snow covered prairie
on a cold winter day and finally reached a cabin late at night, nearly
overcome from cold. He still believes he would have perished if it had
not been for the words of the old Indian which kept ringing in his ears
all day and which added courage to his exhausted spirits.

At one time a large number of Muskwaki Indians were camping near Indian
creek, and as the winter was severe and snow deep the Indians were out
of food. They came to the home of Susan Doty, who gave them the best
and only thing she had--hominy--which she warmed on the fire and gave
to the Red Men, who expressed their thanks by grunting and continually
asking for more, till the entire supply was exhausted. From that time,
when the Indians returned from the hunt with a deer or two Mrs. Doty
was always remembered with a good share of game.

When the Indians lost ponies they would go to the old settlers like
Usher, N. B. Brown, the Hunters, Oxleys, or Dotys, asking them to
assist in catching the thieves. One day Usher and Brown came to Doty's
with an Indian chief who had lost his pony. Hunter was also called in,
and off the party started in pursuit of the horsethief, who was caught
near Viola and who made himself scarce at once, for he was branded as
an outlaw by the Indians, who would shoot him at sight. The Indian was
more than happy in getting back his pony. These men who were willing to
help the Indians were sure to get anything they cared for which could
be procured by the red brother. A white man who would help an Indian to
recover stolen property was forever a friend of the Indians of the
tribe.

The Indians in Linn county during the thirties and forties dressed in
skins, lived in tepees, and owned ponies; all wore government blankets
and had guns, also procured from the government. The men and women
dressed much the same. The women carried home the game, looked after
the tepee, made maple sugar, which was traded to the whites for sugar,
flour, and woolen goods. Flour especially was much relished by the
Indians. The localities much frequented by the Indians were along the
Red Cedar and Wapsie rivers, Cedar lake, Indian creek, the Palisades,
Linn Grove, Scotch Grove, and Prairie creek. In these places they would
remain for weeks at a time, when they would all pull up and leave on
some hunting trip, not returning till in the fall or spring of the
year. Where they went to no one knew, and where they came from no one
inquired. But the Red Men in early days in this county were all treated
with due courtesy by the whites, who, in turn, were spared by the
Indians. The best of feeling always existed among the whites and
Indians.

The Sioux very seldom came into this part of Iowa. William Abbe and
Robert Ellis were the agents for the government in supplying the
Winnebago Indians at Ft. Atkinson with food, thus these men were well
acquainted with the Winnebagoes, who, in turn, were on terms of
friendship with the Sacs and Foxes. The Winnebagoes, like the other
tribes, became addicted to the use of fire water to such an extent that
they would sell their guns and ammunition for whiskey. One of the early
experiences of W. H. Merritt as a young store keeper at Ivanhoe was to
clean out the store single-handed of a crowd of drunken Indians who
intended to take possession of the store for a sufficient length of
time at least till they could consume the large quantity of whiskey
stored therein, but they had not figured on the courage of the young
man who later distinguished himself during the Civil war. Young Mr.
Merritt drove out the intruders and saved the store, as well as the
property of the company for which he worked.

Many of the old settlers tell stories of the quantity and variety of
food these wandering tribes of Indians were capable of consuming, which
seemed to be beyond the comprehension of the white man. Mr. Ellis
relates how he and William Abbe were notified to forthwith procure beef
cattle for an Indian conference at Ft. Atkinson. These men promptly
drove a large number of young cattle to Ft. Atkinson from Linn county,
and the Indians consumed in a very short time rations which were
expected to have lasted for several weeks.

Others have left records of straggling bands of Indians who were fed at
some pioneer cabin and consumed quantities of food at a sitting several
times more than the ordinary white man could eat in a week. But then it
must be remembered that these Indians did not have their regular meals
three times a day, by any means. They seemed to go for days and for a
week without eating much of anything, and when a feast was set before
them they did full justice to the repast.

The Indians had an abnormal fondness for sweets. The making of maple
sugar, especially in Wisconsin, had been one of the industries of the
aborigines; a little was always made in Iowa. The season for sugar
making came when the first crow appeared; this occurred about the first
of March, while there was yet snow on the ground. As a substitute for
sugar the Indians were very fond of honey, and it was said by the early
settlers that the squaws could smell a bee tree further than anyone
else. These bee trees were claimed by the Indians, and woe to the white
man's son who by stealth or otherwise would encroach upon the Indian's
rights in this regard.

While the Indians were called cruel and merciless during the Black Hawk
war and later, the pioneers of Linn county found them friendly,
hospitable, devoted and loyal friends. Many instances have been cited
how the Red Men risked their own lives even to assist their white
friends. While they never forgave an injury, they never forgot a deed
of kindness.

[Illustration: A SCENE ON THE CEDAR RIVER AT CEDAR RAPIDS IN THE
FIFTIES]

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF ISAAC CARROLL IN 1839]



CHAPTER III

_Iowa Historically_


We take the liberty of quoting here a chapter from "The Louisiana
Purchase," by C. M. Geer, in _The History of North America_, Vol. VIII,
edited by Guy Carleton Lee, and published by George Barrie & Sons,
Philadelphia, 1904. It gives in brief space the more important
historical facts connected with the formation of the State.

     "The governmental experiences of Iowa before its admission
     into the Union as a State were many and varied. Its
     discoverers were the missionary priest Jacques Marquette and
     the explorer Louis Joliet, who were living at St. Mary's,
     the oldest settlement in the present State of Michigan. On
     May 13, 1673, with five Canadian boatmen, these two men left
     on an exploring expedition, and on June 25, 1673, landed
     near the mouth of Des Moines River.[B] By right of discovery
     France claimed jurisdiction over the country thus visited
     until 1763, when the Territory was ceded to Spain. On
     October 1, 1800, it was ceded with the rest of Louisiana
     Territory from Spain back to France. On the 30th of April,
     1803, it was in turn ceded to the United States by France as
     a part of the Louisiana Purchase.

     "These changes of government had little effect upon what was
     to constitute the future State of Iowa, because the Indians
     remained in almost undisputed possession. Although
     discovered and claimed by France in 1673, no attempt at
     settlement was made until 1788, when Julian Dubuque, a
     Canadian, obtained from Blondeau and two other Indian chiefs
     a grant of lands. This claim was twenty-one miles long and
     extended from the Mississippi westward nine miles. The grant
     was confirmed, in a qualified way, by Carondelet, Spanish
     governor at New Orleans. Dubuque engaged in mining and
     trading with the Indians, making his headquarters at the
     place which now bears his name. The question of the validity
     of his claim to this great tract of land came before the
     United States Supreme Court in 1854, and the decision of
     that body was that his grant was only a temporary license to
     dig ore.

     "In 1799, a trading post was established on the Mississippi
     within the present territory of Iowa. This settlement and
     the one at Dubuque were abandoned, so that Iowa was
     practically an unknown and undesired country at the time
     when it came under the control of the United States in 1803.
     It was at that time Indian territory, occupied by the Sacs,
     Foxes, and Iowas, with the still more warlike Sioux on the
     north and east.

     "On the 31st of October, 1803, a temporary government was
     authorized for the recently acquired territory. By Act of
     Congress, approved March 26, 1803, Louisiana was erected
     into two Territories and provision made for the
     administration of each. The upper part was known as the
     District of Louisiana and included Arkansas, Missouri, and
     Iowa. This was placed temporarily under the jurisdiction of
     the Territory of Indiana. On July 4, 1805, all this northern
     district became the Territory of Louisiana, with a separate
     Territorial government. The legislative power was vested in
     the governor and three judges to be appointed by the
     President and Senate. This condition continued until
     December 7, 1812, when the Territory of Louisiana became the
     Territory of Missouri. In 1821, Missouri was admitted into
     the Union, and this admission of Missouri carried with it
     the abolition of the government of Missouri Territory, so
     that for a time Iowa was without any government. It is a
     question how much law remained in force in Iowa after the
     admission of Missouri. It is probable that the only civil
     law in force was the proviso of the Missouri bill, which
     prohibited slavery north of thirty-six degrees thirty
     minutes north latitude. No provision was made for that
     portion of the Territory of Missouri until June 28, 1834,
     when Congress attached the present State of Iowa, together
     with other territory, to the Territory of Michigan.

     "On July 3, 1836, it was included in the newly organized
     Territory of Wisconsin. On June 12, 1838, the Territory of
     Iowa was constituted by Act of Congress. This Territory
     included 'all that part of the present Territory of
     Wisconsin which lies west of Mississippi River and west of a
     line due north from the sources or headwaters of the
     Mississippi to the territorial line.'

     "From the time of the purchase in 1803 up to the date of the
     organization of the Territory in 1838 there had been a
     gradual increase in the knowledge of this land and a growing
     appreciation of its value. There had been parties of hunters
     and trappers who made temporary settlements on the banks of
     the Mississippi in the period from 1820 to 1830. It was not
     till steam navigation was established on the Mississippi
     that there grew up a demand for Iowa lands. Southeastern
     Illinois and northwestern Missouri were settled and the
     pioneers naturally looked to the equally desirable lands in
     Iowa. Various exploring expeditions also contributed to a
     desire to settle in the territory. Lewis and Clark added to
     the knowledge of its western borders by their expedition in
     1805. Pike in the same year traversed another part of the
     Territory, and these explorers brought back accounts of its
     great fertility and of its desirability for settlement.

     "The government established a broad strip of neutral ground
     between the Sioux in the north and the Sacs and Foxes in the
     south to keep these tribes at peace, and in 1830 acquired
     lands on the Missouri to be used as Indian reservations.
     Here and there in the Iowa Territory were white men who had
     gained the friendship of the Indians and lived with them.
     There were trading posts of the American Fur Company and
     miners at Dubuque, who were licensed by the government to
     work at that point. Iowa remained the home of the Indians
     until the close of the Black Hawk War, when General Winfield
     Scott, on September 15, 1832, concluded a treaty of peace
     with the Sacs and Foxes, by which the Indian title was
     extinguished to that part of land known as the Black Hawk
     Purchase. This was the eastern part of Iowa and extended
     along the Mississippi, from Missouri on the south to the
     'Neutral Grounds' on the north, and westward a distance of
     fifty miles. It contained about six million acres and was to
     be surrendered by the Indians on June 1, 1833. This gave the
     first opportunity for the legal settlement of Iowa by
     citizens of the United States.

     "June 1, 1833, was fixed as the day on which the Indians
     were to be removed from the Black Hawk Purchase and the
     lands opened for settlement. The would-be settlers came in
     large numbers to the banks of the Mississippi, ready to
     cross and get the choice of the land. United States troops
     kept guard on the western shore of the river and prevented
     any persons from entering the Purchase before the appointed
     time. At precisely twelve o'clock, midnight, June 1st, there
     was a wild rush of settlers from East and South and the
     settlement of Iowa was begun.

     "There was a rapid increase in population until the separate
     Territorial government was established, June 12, 1838. The
     first capital was Burlington, and the place of meeting of
     the legislature was in a church. Robert Lucas was appointed
     Territorial Governor, and William B. Conway, Secretary. The
     Territorial Legislature met on November 12, 1838.
     Burlington continued to be the seat of Territorial
     government till 1841, when Iowa City became the capital.

     "The Territory of Iowa had a heated dispute with the State
     of Missouri over the boundary line between the two.
     Missouri's northern boundary was the parallel of latitude
     passing through the rapids of the river Des Moines. There
     were two rapids, eight or ten miles apart, and the dispute
     was as to which of these was meant, Missouri insisting upon
     the northern and Iowa on the southern one. Each government
     tried to enforce its authority. In the attempt to do this,
     Governor Boggs, of Missouri, called out the militia; then
     Governor Lucas, of Iowa, called out his soldiers. Five
     hundred men were under arms. On the petitions of Iowa and
     Missouri, Congress authorized a suit to settle the
     controversy, which resulted in a decision favorable to Iowa.

     "Further treaties were made with the Indians by which
     additional land was gained for settlement. A large tract of
     land was opened to settlers on May 1, 1843, and on the
     preceding night there was a rush of land seekers similar to
     that which had occurred ten years before; over a thousand
     families settled in the newly opened lands within twelve
     hours.

     "The very rapid increase in population led to a demand for
     statehood. On July 31, 1840, the Territorial Legislature
     passed an Act by which it called for a vote of the people on
     the question of assembling a constitutional convention. In
     August the vote was taken, resulting in the defeat of the
     proposition by a vote of two thousand nine hundred and seven
     to nine hundred and thirty-seven. Another vote was taken in
     1842, resulting in the same way, but on February 12, 1844,
     the suggestion of a constitutional convention met the
     approval of the majority of the electors, and without
     waiting for a Federal Enabling Act a Constitution was
     adopted by a convention which met at Iowa City, October 7,
     1844, and finished its work November 1st of the same year.
     This Constitution was submitted to Congress by the
     Territorial delegate.

     "Here again there was the effort to balance a northern and
     southern State. Maine had been admitted into the Union in
     1820, and Missouri in 1821; Arkansas in 1836, and Michigan
     in the next year. Now, it was proposed to admit Florida with
     Iowa. At this time Florida was much below the required
     population. The Congressional debate on the subject was a
     long and interesting one and brought out clearly the growing
     jealousy between North and South. This feeling was
     especially strong at this time because of the probability
     that several southern slaveholding States might be formed
     from Texas.

     "There was furthermore a dispute of considerable importance
     over the general boundary of Iowa. The Constitution
     submitted to Congress by the Territorial delegate provided
     that the boundary should be as follows: 'Beginning in the
     middle of the main channel of Mississippi River opposite the
     mouth of Des Moines River; thence up the said River Des
     Moines in the middle of the main channel thereof, to a point
     where it is intersected by the old Indian boundary line, or
     line run by John C. Sullivan in the year 1816; thence
     westwardly along said line to the old northwest corner of
     Missouri; thence due west to the middle of the main channel
     of Missouri River; thence up in the middle of the main
     channel of the river last mentioned to the mouth of Sioux or
     Calumet River; thence in a direct line to the middle of the
     main channel of St. Peter's River, where Watonwan River
     (according to Nicollet's map) enters the same; thence down
     the middle of the main channel of said river to the middle
     to the main channel of Mississippi River; thence down the
     middle of the main channel of said river to the place of
     beginning.'

     "An amendment was proposed in Congress which substituted the
     following in place of the boundary as given above:
     'Beginning in the middle of St. Peter's River, at the
     junction of Watonwan or Blue Earth River; with the said
     River St. Peter's running thence due east to the boundary
     line of the Territory of Wisconsin in the middle of
     Mississippi River; thence down the middle of the last-named
     river with the boundary line of the Territory of Wisconsin
     and state of Illinois to the northeast corner of the state
     of Missouri in the said River Mississippi; thence westwardly
     with the boundary line of said State of Missouri to a point
     due south from the place of beginning; thence due north to
     the place of beginning in said St. Peter's River.'

     "Of especial interest was the attitude taken by Samuel F.
     Vinton, representative from Ohio, in regard to the admission
     of Iowa. He believed that the Western States should be small
     in area in order that the West might not be deprived of its
     share in the government of the nation. It seemed to him that
     the policy so far pursued in the West had been wrong because
     the States were so large that they were sure to contain two
     or three times as large a population as the Atlantic States.
     There was at the time a provision under consideration that
     Florida might be divided, when either East or West Florida
     should contain a population of thirty-five thousand. Vinton
     contended that if Florida was to be divided, there should be
     a provision for dividing Iowa, because it was safer to give
     political power to the West than to the Atlantic States, for
     the West was the great conservative power of the Union. He
     stated that though the spirit of disunion might exist in the
     North and in the South, it could not live in the West,
     because the interests of the West were inseparably connected
     with both, and it would hold the two sections together,
     because it had no prejudice against either North or South
     and, what was of greater importance, the West was a grain
     growing country, and so must look equally to the
     manufacturing North and the cotton growing South for its
     market. Therefore the West must be conservative whether it
     wished to be or not. Vinton believed that instead of five
     there should have been at least twelve States in the old
     Northwest, and that to partly offset this injustice, small
     States should be formed west of the Mississippi. After
     considerable debate in the House, the bill for the admission
     of Iowa passed that body and was transmitted to the Senate,
     which it passed March 3, 1845.

     "After a vote for admission, the constitution was submitted
     to the people of Iowa, who made serious objections to it.
     One objection was directed against the small salaries to be
     paid, which, it was feared, would result in getting only
     inferior men for official positions. The restrictions on
     banks and corporations proved an unpopular feature. The
     limitation placed upon the extent of territory claimed by
     Iowa was unsatisfactory to many, though the State would
     still have an area of forty-four thousand three hundred
     square miles. This reduction of area was the greatest
     objection, so that when the vote was taken many who were in
     favor of statehood voted against forming a state of such
     reduced area, and the Constitution was rejected by a vote of
     seven thousand and nineteen to six thousand and
     twenty-three.

     "The governor called a special session of the legislature,
     and a bill for the re-submission of the constitution was
     passed over his veto. This was defeated by the people in
     August, 1845. On January 17, 1846, an Act was passed which
     provided for a new constitutional convention. This body came
     together in May and adopted a new constitution which did not
     differ greatly from the earlier instrument. The boundaries
     given in it were a compromise between those originally asked
     by the people and those granted by Congress. The matter was
     actively discussed in Congress when the new constitution
     with the changed boundaries came before that body, but the
     arguments were essentially the same as those previously
     advanced. An exciting campaign followed in Iowa, and the
     constitution was adopted, August 3, 1846, by a small
     majority. On the 4th of August the president signed the bill
     which settled the boundary question in accordance with the
     second constitution, and an Act was passed December 28,
     1846, by which Iowa was admitted into the Union."

[Illustration: AN EARLY LAND DEED FROM THE U. S. GOVERNMENT]



CHAPTER IV

_Iowa and Her People_


"In all that is good Iowa affords the best."

Thus a few years ago wrote one of our state's most distinguished
citizens.[C]

And his utterance found a ready response in the hearts of the men and
women of our fair land, so that today the expression is an axiom. Every
Iowan believes firmly in its truth.

There is no fairer land under the benevolent sun. Here plenty reigns,
and prosperity has her home. Cheerful industry has redeemed the land
that once was the home of wild animals and untamed savages. Iowa's
waving corn fields; her meadows of luxuriant grass; her hills dotted
with magnificent houses and barns; her landscape made more picturesque
by the presence of fattening herds; her school houses and higher
centers of learning on almost every hill; the smoke from the busy
industries of her thriving cities and villages; her soil the most
fertile of any known; her waste land less than that of any other equal
area; her percentage of illiteracy the lowest; her mineral resources
abundant; her numerous streams affording water power inferior to
none--all these things and more rightly tend to make Iowans proud of
their State.

Now, as a half century ago, Iowa offers "to the lawloving and the
temperate; to the enterprising, the vigorous, the ambitious, a home and
a field worthy of their noblest efforts."[D] She throws open to the
world her exhaustless stores of wealth, her golden opportunities, and
says: "Behold your reward."

N. H. Parker, writing more than a half century ago, drew this glowing
picture of the future Iowa:

     "As the immigrant mother leads her sons and daughters into
     the undeveloped paths of wealth--as civilization elevates a
     race out of the sloughs of semi-barbarism--as national
     prosperity exalts a land--or as science raises the human
     intellect from darkness into dazzling light--thus Iowa, with
     rapid strides, ascends the precipitious sides of
     prosperity's mountain range, bearing her sons and daughters
     to loftier, and still loftier peaks, and revealing to their
     gaze still wider and richer vistas. And the summit of this
     range she will never reach; for her onward progress cannot
     be stayed, until her arterial streams are dry--until the
     agricultural life-blood in her veins has ceased to flow,
     until her great metallic heart has been emptied. Upon the
     topmost summit, then, Iowa will never stand, for through
     countless ages yet to come, her progress--that must be
     forever onward--must be upward also."[E]

The people of Iowa do not stand still. Not satisfied with present
achievements, they go forward, doing well to-day the tasks that
are theirs, and striving earnestly to make the future better and
more glorious than the past.

We can not do better here than by quoting a toast to the future of Iowa
given some years ago by O. J. Laylander, a loyal son of the state:

     "In the few minutes allotted to this toast scant justice may
     be awarded so worthy a theme. We love you, O Iowa, lusty
     child, resting in the mighty arms of the Missouri and the
     Father of Waters, laughing beneath the warm kisses and the
     love tears of gentle May; crying aloud to all the world:
     'See how I grow! How strong I am! How happy and healthy and
     beautiful!'

     "Iowa is glorious now. The great, green carpets, fresh from
     the springtime cleaning, shimmer in the glorious sun. The
     broad, black belts of loam await with open pockets the
     hiding of the golden grain. Living, glowing mines of gold
     stud the prairies' endless velvet folds. The countless
     castles of the farm are bound into great bundles by the
     sounding wire. Above every door that opens upon honest toil
     is inscribed in letters of gold the motto, 'Rich, rich,
     rich.'

     "Such is Iowa today in its wealth of land and stock. Each
     year the unfailing field fills the bins to bursting and
     grows the meat for millions.

     "Material Iowa, with great leaps, has gone forward in the
     world's race. Manifest destiny was misread by even the
     wisest of our grandfathers. Even thirty years ago no prophet
     dared choose the gorgeous hues necessary to a true picture
     of the Iowa of to-day.

     "Yet not alone in industrial lines has Iowa set the pace for
     the states. In politics she has crowded New England off the
     stage, and bold Ohio sits quietly at her feet. In literature
     and in arts she stands unashamed. Comfort and culture walk
     hand in hand, and happiness is a perennial contagion.

     "Some fifty years ago there came to Iowa a sturdy boy. Today
     he calls his own one thousand billowy acres which have risen
     in value in steps of ten until one hundred thousand dollars
     would not tempt him to yield his title. One June afternoon
     he sat on his piazza in sweet reverie. He reviewed the
     wonderful development of the grand old state, and sent his
     imagination in search of greater possibilities. From the
     hedge the thrush poured forth a song of love. The humming
     bees thrust their honeyed tongues into the flowers on the
     trellis at his side. The south wind was heavy with fragrance
     brushed from the blooming bushes. All nature conspired to
     steal the old man's senses and soon reverie gave way to
     sleep and dreams, and this, they say, was the dream: He
     dreamed that it was the year nineteen hundred and forty-one,
     and he was celebrating his hundredth birthday. He had seen
     comfort and culture become as common as the summer sun.
     Literature and art had countless country devotees. People
     had ceased to hurry, and worry was unknown: and then he
     dreamed that he died, and sought admission at the golden
     gate. To his amazement he was halted and informed that he
     was at the wrong place. Greatly grieved, he parleyed with
     the guard: 'I never wittingly did a human soul a wrong. I
     was rich, but it was not my fault. Why must I, who have
     always tried to do my duty, go to hell?' 'No one said
     anything about hell,' was the reply. 'To the annex--the
     second gate to the right. You Iowa people complain so much
     about celestial conditions and make so many comparisons with
     Iowa that we have concluded to colonize you a few thousand
     years and send you all back to Iowa.'

     "That the future of Iowa shall be such that if you shall not
     wish to come back, you shall at least wish to stay as long
     as possible, is my sincere desire."[F]

Calhoun made the assertion on the floor of the United States Senate
that he had been told that "the Iowa country has been seized upon by a
lawless body of armed men." Senator Ewing, of Ohio, and Senator Clay,
of Kentucky, had received similar information, the former asserting
that he would in no way object to giving each rascal who crossed the
Mississippi to the westward one thousand dollars if by that means he
might get rid of him. And these distinguished statesmen were not alone
in this view. To many in the east the first comers to the territory
were "land robbers," "idle and profligate characters," "fugitives from
justice," "lawless intruders," and worse. They were squatters "who
feared neither the laws of God nor man."

Doubtless those who made these assertions were honest and sincere. They
believed that only the most desperate characters, the outcasts of
decent communities, had the hardihood to explore this _terra
incognita_. They could not comprehend how persons living in settled
communities, and surrounded with many of the comforts of life, could be
so fool-hardy as to leave all these things for the sake of making a new
home in a wilderness inhabited only by wild animals and wilder and more
dangerous Indians.

But there is another side to the picture. Personal observation is
always more to be depended upon than hearsay testimony. One of the most
trust-worthy of the early writers on Iowa is Lieut. Albert Miller Lea.
He had spent some years in the "Ioway District"; he had made a tour of
observation across the state; he had most excellent opportunities for
observing and studying the character of our first settlers. His
testimony cannot be impeached, for he was a man far above the practice
of deceit. In his _Notes on the Wisconsin Territory_, particularly with
reference to the Iowa District or Black Hawk Purchase, published in
1836, he gives this vivid and truthful picture of our early
inhabitants:

     "The character of this population is such as is rarely to be
     found in our newly acquired territories. With very few
     exceptions, there is not a more orderly, industrious,
     active, pains-taking population west of the Alleghenies,
     than is this of the Iowa District. Those who have been
     accustomed to associate the name of _Squatter_ with the idea
     of idleness and recklessness, would be quite surprised to
     see the systematic manner in which every thing is here
     conducted. For intelligence, I boldly assert that they are
     not surpassed, as a body, by an equal number of citizens of
     any country in the world.

     "It is a matter of surprise that, about the Mining Region,
     there should be so little of the recklessness that is usual
     in that sort of life.... This regularity and propriety is to
     be attributed to the preponderance of well informed and
     well-intentioned gentlemen among them, as well as to the
     disposition of the mass of the people."[G]

Two years later another personal observer says: "He who supposes that
settlers ... who are now building upon, fencing and cultivating the
lands of the government are lawless depredators, devoid of the sense of
moral honesty, or that they are not in every sense as estimable
citizens, with as much intelligence, regard for law and social order,
for public justice and private rights ... as the farmers and yeomen of
New York and Pennsylvania ... has been led astray by vague and
unfounded notions, or by positively false information."[H]

These people knew the pioneers, and their testimony is entitled to
credence. As a class even the "Squatters" were not idle, or vicious, or
ignorant. They were young men, strong and hardy, full of courage and
adventure. "There was not a better population on the face of the
earth," is the testimony of Senator Benton. "They made roads," says
Prof. B. F. Shambaugh, superintendent of the Iowa State Historical
Society, "built bridges and mills, cleared the forests, broke the
prairies, erected houses and barns, and defended the settled country
against hostile Indians. They were distinguished especially for their
general intelligence, their hospitality, their independence and bold
enterprise. They had schools and school houses, erected churches, and
observed the Sabbath.... The pioneers were religious, but not
ecclesiastical. They lived in the open and looked upon the relations of
man to nature with an open mind. To be sure their thoughts were more on
'getting along' in this world than upon the 'immortal crown' of the
Puritan. And yet in the silent forest, in the broad prairie, in the
deep blue sky, in the sentinels of the night, in the sunshine and in
the storm, in the rosy dawn, in the golden sunset, and in the daily
trials and battles of frontier life, they too must have seen and felt
the Infinite."[I]

No greater tribute has ever been paid to the pioneers of our state than
that given by a distinguished native of the state, Hon. Robert G.
Cousins, on Iowa Day at the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha on
Sept. 21, 1898. The following extracts from that masterly oration are
worthy of preservation here:

     "I have asked five of the ablest and most noted Americans
     what they regard as the chief thing or leading feature of
     the Trans-Mississippi region and they have invariably
     answered, 'Its men and women.' The other day I met one of
     the oldest settlers of eastern Iowa--one of those original,
     rugged characters whose wit and wisdom have lightened the
     settlers' hearts and homes for many a toilsome year--one of
     those interesting characters who never bores you and whom
     one always likes to meet--a man whose head is silvered and
     whose countenance is kind--and I asked him what he regarded
     as the principal feature of our Trans-Mississippi country,
     and he replied: 'Well, I'm no scholar, but I've been round
     here nigh onto sixty years and I reckon 'bout the most
     important thing is the folks and the farms.'

     "Iowa became a separate territory, with the capital at
     Burlington, in 1838, and was admitted into the Union in
     1846, and has been in it ever since. It makes little
     difference whether it was first settled by the whites at
     Dubuque for mining purposes in 1788, or, for trading
     purposes, at Montrose, in 1799, or opposite Prairie du
     Chien, in 1804 or 5, or in Lee county at Sandusky in 1820,
     or on the lower rapids at what is now known as Nashville, in
     1829; or whether the first settlements for general purposes
     were made at Burlington and Davenport in 1832. The main fact
     is that it was well settled--not by dyspeptic tourists nor
     by invalids who had come west out of curiosity and New
     Jersey, nor by climate seeking dilettanti with two servants
     and one lung--but by the best bone and sinew of the middle
     states, New England and the old world. I do not know that
     there were any dukes or lords or marquises or duchesses, but
     there were Dutch and Irish and Scotch and Scotch-Irish and
     English and Americans, and they had home rule right from the
     start--at least they had it in the first school which I
     attended. The men and women who settled the Hawkeye state
     were not those who expected to go back 'in the fall,' or as
     soon as they could prove up on their claims. They were
     stayers. They were not men to be discouraged by winter or by
     work. They were men who knew that nobody ever amounted to
     much in this world unless he had to. Most of them began
     simply with the capital of honesty, good health and their
     inherent qualities of character. They built their cabins in
     the clearings and, watching the smoke curl up in the great,
     wide sky, felt just as patriotic for their humble rustic
     homes as e'er did princes for their castles or millionaires
     for mansions grand.

     "To build a home is a great thing. It doesn't matter so much
     about the dimensions. 'Kings have lived in cottages and
     pygmies dwelt in palaces,' but the walls of a home always
     add something to inherent character. In the formation of
     character there are always two elements, the inherent and
     the adventitious--that which we bring with us into the world
     and that which our surroundings give us. Somebody said
     'there is only a small portion of the earth that produces
     splendid people.' Our pioneers got into a good place. They
     had left doubt sitting on a boulder in the east and packed
     their things and started for the west. Rivers had to be
     forded, trees to be felled, cabins had to be built--the
     rifle must be kept loaded--so much the better, there was
     self-reliance. Corn and coffee had to be ground, and on the
     same mill--so much the better, there was ingenuity. Teeth
     had to be filled, and there was no painless dentistry.
     Disease and injury must be dealt with, and the doctor fifty
     miles away. Life must be lightened, lonely hearts must be
     cheered, and the old friends and comrades far back in the
     states or maybe away in fatherland, and the cheering letter
     tarrying with the belated stage coach--hold fast, thou
     sturdy denizen and gentle helpmate of the rich and wondrous
     empire, infinite goodness guards thee and the fertile fields
     are ready to reward.

[Illustration: SHEPHERD'S TAVERN Erected in 1838, Looking West. The
First House in Cedar Rapids. Present Site of Y. M. C. A. COURTESY
CARROLL'S HISTORY]

     "Ah, pampered people of the later generations, when you
     imagine modern hardships, think of the courage and the
     trials and the ingenuity of pioneers when there were no
     conveniences but the forest and the axe, the wide rolling
     prairie and the ox team, the great blue sky, the unsolved
     future and the annual ague! Complain of markets in these
     modern times and then think of your grandmother when she was
     a blooming bride, listening through the toilsome days and
     anxious nights for the wagon bringing home the husband from
     a distant market with calico and jeans purchased with
     dressed pork sold at a dollar and a half a hundred, and
     maybe bringing home a little money, worth far less per yard
     than either calico or jeans. Maybe it is all for the best,
     human character was being formed for the development of a
     great and loyal and progressive state to shine forever among
     the stars of the federal union....

     "Civil government in Iowa proceeded with its rapid
     settlement. The pioneer became a model citizen. He knew the
     necessity for the laws that were enacted. He did not feel
     oppressed by government. He had experienced the losses of
     robbery and larceny and knew something of the embarrassment
     and inconvenience of being scalped. There was no hysteria
     about trusts and combines because they had practiced
     combinations themselves for mutual protection. If any one
     would learn the true genius and exemplification and
     philosophy of self-government, government of and for and by
     the people, let him study the records of pioneer life, the
     institutional beginnings, and the evolution of their laws.
     It would be worth our while on some suitable occasion when
     time permitted to talk over the interesting incidents
     attending the administration of justice in the early days of
     Iowa, the incidents of its territorial legislatures, the
     birth and growth of its statehood and the character of its
     officials. But the greatness of our state is not contained
     in any name. Its official history is the exponent of its
     industrial life and character. Its greatness is the sum
     total of its citizenship. In order to be just, John Jones,
     the average citizen, must be mentioned along with our most
     illustrious officials. Somebody said that the history of a
     nation is the history of its great men, but there is an
     unwritten history which that averment overlooks. The growth
     of a state is the progress of its average citizen. The
     credit of a commonwealth is the thrift of its John Jones and
     its William Smith, and the character, prosperity and
     patriotism of the individual citizen is the history of Iowa.

     "The population of 97,000 which she had when admitted into
     the union had increased to 754,699 at the close of the Civil
     war. Of these about 70,000, almost one-tenth of the
     population, were in the war--a number equal to nearly
     one-half of the voters of the state. Who made the history of
     Iowa during that great struggle of our nation's life? John
     Jones, the average citizen, whether he carried a musket
     helping to put the scattered stars of state back into the
     constellation of the Union, or whether he toiled from early
     dawn to lingering twilight in the fields or in the shop. The
     best civilization is that which maintains the highest
     standard of life for its average citizen.

     "Since the Civil war the state of Iowa has increased in
     population to almost 2,225,000 of people, and most of the
     time has had the least illiteracy of any state in the Union.
     Doubtless for that we are indebted to many of the older
     states, whose enterprising and courageous citizens
     constitute so large a portion of our population. With but a
     century of statehood and with an area of but 55,475 square
     miles, the state of Iowa produces the greatest quantity of
     cereals of any state in the Union. As long ago as the last
     federal census, taken in 1890, it produced more corn, more
     oats, more beef, more pork than any state in the Union. Not
     long since I was introduced to a gentleman from New York
     city. He said, 'Oh, from Iowa--ah--let me see, that's
     out--ah--you see, I'm not very well posted on the geography
     of the west.' 'Yes,' I said, 'it's out there just across the
     Mississippi river. You can leave New York about noon and get
     your supper in Iowa the next evening. It might be worth your
     while to look it up. It's the state which produces more of
     the things which people eat than any other state in the
     Union. It has more miles of railroads than your state of New
     York, more than Mexico, more than Brazil and more than all
     the New England states combined.'

     "The value of Iowa's agricultural products and live stock in
     round numbers for the year 1892 was $407,000,000, to say
     nothing of her other great and various industries and
     enterprises. She produced that year 160,000,000 pounds of
     the best butter on earth of the value of $32,000,000. The
     Hawkeye butter ladle has achieved a cunning that challenges
     all Columbia. The Iowa cow has slowly and painfully yet
     gradually and grandly worked her way upward to a shining
     eminence in the eyes of the world. The state of Iowa has on
     her soil today, if nothing ill befalls it, ninety million
     dollars' worth of corn. The permanent value of land is
     estimated by its corn-producing qualities. Of all the
     products of the earth, corn is king and it reigns in Iowa.

     "Industry and nature have made the state of Iowa a creditor.
     Her soil has always been solvent and her system of farming
     does not tend to pauperize. She is a constant seller and
     therefore wants the evidence of the transaction to be
     unimpeachable. She has more school teachers than any other
     state except the Empire state and only three and six-tenths
     per cent of her population are illiterates. The state of
     Iowa has yielded the greatest dividends on her educational
     investments. She has become illustrious on account of her
     enlightenment. She has progressed further from 'primitive
     indifferent tissue' than the land even of Darwin himself,
     and in her escape from protoplasm and prejudice she is
     practically out of danger. Marked out in the beginning by
     the hand of God, bounded on the east and west by the two
     great rivers of the continent, purified and stimulated by
     the snows of winter, blessed with copious rainfall in the
     growing season, with generous soil and stately forests
     interspersed, no wonder that the dusky aborigines exclaimed
     when they crossed the Father of Waters, 'Iowa, this is the
     place!' Not only did the red men give our state its
     beautiful and poetic name, but Indian nomenclature runs like
     a romance throughout the counties and communities. What
     infinite meaning, what tokens of joy and sadness, of triumph
     and of tears, of valor and of vanquishment, of life and love
     and song there may be in these weird, strange words that
     name to-day so many of our towns and streams and counties:
     Allamakee, Chickasaw, Dakota City, Sioux, Pocahontas,
     Winneshiek, Keosauqua, Sac, Winnebago, Tama, Nodawa,
     Competine, Chariton, Comanche, Cherokee, Waukon,
     Muchakinock, Washta, Monona, Waupeton, Onawa, Keota,
     Waudina, Ioka, Ottumwa, Oneska, Waukee, Waucoma,
     Nishnabotna, Keokuk, Decorah, Wapello, Muscatine, Maquoketa,
     Mahaska, Ocheyedan, Mississippi, Appanoose, Missouri,
     Quasqueton, Anamosa, Poweshiek, Pottawattamie, Osceola,
     Oskaloosa, Wapsipinicon.

     "Ere long some westland genius, moved by the mystic
     inspiration of the rich and wondrous heritage of Iowa
     nativity, may sing the song of our legends and traditions,
     may voice in verse the wondrous story of his illustrious
     state. Maybe somewhere among the humble homes where blood
     and bone and brain grow pure and strong, where simple food
     with frugal ways feeds wondering minds and drives them
     craving into nature's secrets and her songs--somewhere along
     the settler's pathway or by the Indian trail where now the
     country churchyards grown with uncut grasses hide the forms
     of sturdy ancestors sleeping all in peaceful ignorance of
     wayward sons or wondrous progeny--somewhere where rising sun
     beholds the peasantry at early toil and leaves them in the
     mystic twilight ere their tasks are done, where odors of the
     corn and new-mown hay and vine-clad hedges by the shadowy
     roadside linger long into the night-time, as a sweet and
     sacred balm for tired hearts--somewhere, sometime the song
     of Iowa shall rise and live, and it will not omit the
     thought of that gifted son who said: 'Iowa, the affections
     of her people, like the rivers of her borders, flow to an
     inseparable union.'"



CHAPTER V

_The Geology of Linn County_

BY WILLIAM HARMON NORTON, PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY IN CORNELL COLLEGE


It is said that a certain county in Kentucky, underlain by limestone,
always goes democratic; while a county adjacent, underlain by
sandstone, is as invariably republican. Certain it is that a deal of
politics, economics, and history depends at last analysis more or less
upon the processes past and present which belong to geology and
physiography. The rocks, the minerals they contain, and the water they
store, the hills and valleys into which they have been carved, and the
soils to which they weather, largely control the industries, locate the
cities, and outcrop even in the social, intellectual, and moral life of
the people. The metropolis of Linn county, for example, owes its name
and place to the rapids of the Cedar, and the rapids find ultimate
cause in the fact that some millions of years ago nature stopped laying
a softer rock upon the ocean bed and deposited upon it one of more
resistant texture. In the eastern part of the county the Chicago &
Northwestern Railway runs for very good and sufficient reasons where
once rested the edge of a long tongue of glacial ice, and west of Cedar
Rapids its route is determined by the course taken by the turbid floods
issuing from the melting glaciers. The streets of Mount Vernon and
several of the main highways of the county do not lie with the points
of the compass but follow the direction of flow of ancient ice-streams.
The distribution of forest and prairie is due to geologic causes. The
values of farm lands are markedly affected by the same influences, and
we can even point out a little area which differs from its surroundings
in its inhabitants and in their literacy, language, architecture,
manners, and morals, primarily because it belongs to what geologists
classify as the deeply dissected loess-covered Kansan drift sheet.

The inductive history of Linn county, reasoned out from what we have
learned of the lie of the land, the shapes of hills and valleys, the
soils and subsoils, and the underlying rocks, is a wonderfully long
one. The first chapter that has been opened to inspection in the
geologic record of our area is that of the deepest rocks probed by the
first deep well drilled at Cedar Rapids. At a depth of 2,150 feet from
the surface--1,417 feet below the level of the sea--the drill
encountered a hard red siliceous rock which may be taken as the
equivalent of the _Sioux Quartzite_, which comes to the surface at
Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and at Baraboo, Wisconsin. This well known
building stone is used in a number of the business blocks and private
residences of Cedar Rapids, as for example in the old office building
of the _Republican_. Belonging to the Algonkian, an era so remote that
its age must be reckoned in scores if not in hundreds of millions of
years, the quartzite at the bottom of the deep well tells of time
inconceivably remote when Linn county was part of a wide sea floor on
which red sands were washed to and fro and finally laid to rest in
thick deposits of sandstone. Tilted and folded and hardened by
pressure, the Algonkian rocks were uplifted from the sea to form dry
land of mountainous heights. After the lapse of ages the old land sunk
beneath the sea, and again and again with intervals of uplift and
subaerial erosion there were laid upon it sea muds, impure limestones,
and thick sandstones during a long succession of geologic aeons.
Samples of these deposits can be seen in the well drillings preserved
in the Y. M. C. A. at Cedar Rapids and in the collections of Cornell
College. For many millions of years Linn county was thus sometimes land
and sometimes sea, but neither land nor sea was tenanted by aught but
the humblest of living creatures. These ancient deposits concern us
because they are the aqueducts by which artesian waters of purest
quality are brought to our doors from their sources far to the
northward in other states.

[Illustration: INDEPENDENCE SHALES on C., R. I. & P. Ry. below Cedar
Rapids]

[Illustration: BLUFF AT KENWOOD PARK]

[Illustration: EXPOSURE OF BRECCIATED LIMESTONE IN MILWAUKEE CUT AT
LINN JUNCTION]

[Illustration: "THE BLOW OUT," PALISADES]

[Illustration: A FIRST SETTLER, NEAR MT. VERNON]

[Illustration: PALISADES]

The most recent of the formations which are pierced by the drill, but
which do not come to the surface within the limits of the county, is
the _Maquoketa shale_, reached in the eastern townships at a depth of
somewhat more than 300 feet. This impervious bed of altered clay stops
the descent of ground water, which thus is stored in large quantities
in the overlying limestones and supplies some of the important wells of
the county such as that of the town of Mount Vernon. At the time when
these sea clays were laid, eastern Iowa was under sea, but so near was
the low lying land to the north and east that vast quantities of mud
were brought in by its rivers forming deposits nearly 300 feet in
thickness.


THE SILURIAN

With the lapse of ages physical conditions changed and Linn County was
covered with a warm shallow coral sea in which were laid the massive
limestones which now form the country rock in the eastern tier of
townships. In some of the quarries one may see the ripple marks into
which these coral sands were heaped by the pulse of the waves, and one
may pick out of the rocks casts and moulds of ancient sea shells,
corals, and trilobites, which formed the highest forms of life then
tenanting the Iowa seas.

The lowest beds of the Silurian belong to the _Hopkinton stage_, and
are exposed along the Buffalo. At Hill's mill and at Nugent's quarries
some layers are crowded with a characteristic fossil--a plump bivalve
shell as large as a walnut, which goes by the name of _Pentamerus
Oblongus_. The _Gower_ stage of the Silurian rests upon the Hopkinton
and embraces two types of rocks distinct in their appearance and uses.
The _LeClaire phase_ of the Gower is a hard, brittle, crystalline,
magnesian limestone, or dolomite. Normally blue-gray in color, it is
often oxidised to buff. It is well exposed at Viola and on the Cedar
river from the Cedar County line to a mile or so beyond the Upper
Palisades, southwest of Bertram. The LeClaire forms mounds in places
reaching fifty and even eighty or ninety feet in height in which little
semblance of bedding structures are to be seen. Here and there the rock
is conglomeratic, consisting of rounded masses of the rock cemented by
a less resistent matrix. The cavernous recess in the rock wall of the
Palisades, misnamed the Blowout, is due to the solution of the weaker
matrix and the dislodgement of the rounded masses. The rock may consist
also of angular broken blue-gray fragments in the matrix of a buff and
friable limestone sand. Again, the mounds, at least in part, may be
made up of massive limestone with little trace of structure of any
sort. On the sides of the mounds and merging into the conglomeratic or
other structures the rock of the LeClaire often is stratified and the
layers dip outward at angles surprisingly high. In places these tilted
layers may show sharp folds. The rock of all structures is
fossiliferous. Even the broken fragments of breccia are porous with
moulds of minute fossils which have been removed by solution. The
massive rock is largely made up in places of stems of crinoids--stone
lilies which grew in the greatest profusion in these quiet waters--and
the tilted layers may be made of casts and moulds of unbroken shells of
little bivalves. Occasionally the saucer shaped tail and head-shields
of a characteristic trilobite are found piled together and unbroken.
Coral are very common in this ancient reef rock, a form resembling
honeycomb being especially noticeable. And as one floats down stream
at the base of the cliffs he can hardly fail to notice large tapering
segmented shells, either straight or slightly curved, representatives
of the cephalopod mollusks.

The picturesque rock walls of the Palisades, which rise perpendicular
for as much as ninety feet from the water's edge, are due primarily to
the great resistance of the LeClaire rock, due to its chemical
composition--for dolomite weathers far less rapidly than a
non-magnesian limestone--and to the fewness of those planes of weakness
called joint-planes. The joints of the LeClaire are distant and
vertical. The stone breaks down, therefore, in immense blocks where
undercut by the river which leave for ages the scarp behind them as a
vertical wall.

Because of its qualities the LeClaire is one of the best lime rocks in
the country. The impurities of the clay, the iron and silica which it
contains, may run as low as one-third of one per cent. The large per
cent of carbonate of magnesia present makes it a cool lime, slow to
slack and slow to set, and it is to such limes that architects, masons,
and plasterers now invariably give preference over the so-called hot
limes burned from non-magnesian limestones. The hardness and durability
of mortars made from the LeClaire rock limes approaches that of cement,
and after thirty-five or forty years of weathering, joints in mason
work seem almost as fresh as when first struck.

The extreme hardness of the rock and the slowness with which it
weathers make it specially valuable for crushing for macadam and
ballast.

The _Anamosa phase_ of the Gower limestone is typically exposed in the
large quarries at Anamosa and Stone City, Mount Vernon and Waubeek. It
is a light buff or yellow limestone, with constant, parallel, and
horizontal or gently inclined laminated layers. The limestone is soft
to work but hardens on exposure. The saw encounters no obdurate
materials and the chisel finds the fracture even and regular. Bedding
planes are so even and smooth as to be at once ready for the mortar
with little or no dressing. Much of the stone can be split horizontally
to any desired thickness, while the distant joints permit the quarrying
of blocks beyond the facilities of transportation or any possible use.
Many layers are so homogenous that they can be wrought into fine
carvings.

As a dolomite the stone is far more resistant than a purer limestone.
In the Mount Vernon cemetery tombstones of this material, whose dates
run back to the forties and early fifties, have been so little affected
by superficial decay that the tool marks are almost as fresh as when
the chisel left them; while marbles of half their age have broken down
into ruin.

The Silurian rocks of the county measure about 300 feet in thickness.
They are confined pretty closely to the townships of the eastern tier,
but extend beyond their limits up the valleys of the Cedar and
Wapsipinicon.


THE BERTRAM LIMESTONE

As the Silurian limestones sink below the surface because of the
westward dip, they are succeeded by a bed of rock, named from its
outcrop at Bertram, and found along Big Creek as far north as Paralta
and Springville. This is a heavily bedded gray rock which weathers
almost white. At a number of places along Big Creek it forms
picturesque cliffs, and hillsides covered with huge boulders of
disintegration. At one point it is seen to overlie the Anamosa beds of
the Silurian, and several exposures are known where it is succeeded by
the Otis limestones of the Devonian. But as it contains no fossils, so
far as is now known, it can not be said to which of the two ages it
belongs.


THE OTIS LIMESTONES

The lower beds of the Otis, as exposed at the base of the Otis
quarries, along the Cedar south of Cedar Rapids, at Springville, and at
Coggon, consist of soft magnesian limestones, fossiliferous with many
moulds of small bivalve shells of Devonian age. These pass upward into
drab non-magnesian limestones carrying the principal fossil of the
magnesian beds in considerable numbers. The upper limestones of the
Otis differ within rather wide limits. The most common type is seen at
the base of the high cliff at Kenwood on the right bank of Indian
Creek--a hard, brittle ringing and thinly laminated limestone. Often it
has been subjected to strains under which it has broken, and has been
re-cemented with little displacement of the parts. Occasionally it is
brown, and highly crystalline.


THE INDEPENDENCE

At the Kenwood cliff the eight feet of the Otis at the base is
succeeded by thirty feet of buff shale and clayey limestones--a
formation known as the _Independence_ from its discovery in a shaft
sunk at that city. The Independence is exposed at many points near
Cedar Rapids both on Indian Creek and on the Cedar. On the Wapsipinicon
it is well seen at Cedar Bluff (sec. 24 Spring Grove Tp.), at the
"Wolf's Den" a mile up valley, and again in the railway cut north of
Coggon. In the long cut of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway
west of Linn Junction the Independence is seen in one place as a blue
clay shale carrying a number of fossils characteristic of the shaft at
Independence, but elsewhere the formation is unfossiliferous in the
natural exposures so far studied.

Wherever found the Independence contains nodules of silica, which may
reach a foot in diameter, and often angular fragments of the same
material which may be as fine as sand. The formation is marked by
irregularities of deposition, channel cutting by drift currents, lenses
of calcerous material, and rapid lateral change in the form and
constituents of the rock. All of these characteristics point to the
deposition of this formation in a shallow sea near shore.

Indeed, some of the beds were apparently laid in marshes such as are
now found along low ocean shores. Thin seams of coal formed in the
Independence were once peaty deposits preserved by the presence of
water from the decay which returns dead vegetable matter to the air. In
1871 such a seam of coal, not exceeding an inch in thickness, was found
at a depth of ninety feet in a well on the farm of Mrs. C. Hemphill,
near LaFayette. Pieces of the coal were taken to Cedar Rapids and
Marion. A mining company was formed, and without seeking for any expert
advice from geologist or mining engineer, and without any tests of the
extent and thickness of the seam, a shaft was sunk after the precious
fuel. Water was encountered in such quantities that expensive pumping
machinery was used, and in all several thousand dollars were wasted in
a search which any competent geologist could have told was foredoomed
to failure.


THE DAVENPORT LIMESTONES

The sea over eastern Iowa deepened after the deposition of the
Independence, for there was now deposited upon its floor limestones in
place of shales. The lowest of these, known as the _lower Davenport_
beds, are hard, compact, and of finest grain, and so far as known are
unfossiliferous. The _upper Davenport_ is a tough, gray,
semi-crystalline limestone which contains an assemblage of fossils of
many species. Highest of these are the first vertebrates to appear in
Iowa so far as our records go. Fishes which swam over our area left to
be imbedded in the limestones their hard enameled teeth and fin spines.
The most common of the Devonian fishes was a small shark.

In several other counties the lower and the upper Davenport limestones
retain the attitude of their deposition. But everywhere in Linn county
they have been broken into bits and re-cemented, forming breccia. These
brittle rocks could hardly give way to such immense stresses without
causing sharp and violent vibrations to run through the crust of the
earth, and we may therefore list great earthquakes as a part of the
history of our area in Devonian times.

The best exposure of the breccia beds is that of the cut of the
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway west of Linn Junction. The
brittle lower Davenport has here been broken and rebroken into a mass
of small sharp-edged fragments, while the tough heavily bedded upper
Davenport ledges have been fractured to large blocks, which sliding on
each other have smoothed and grooved their sides. The breccia beds may
be seen in the upper eleven feet of the Kenwood cliff, at Troy Mills,
and in the cliffs along the Wapsipinicon valley as far down as near to
Central City.


THE CEDAR VALLEY LIMESTONES

The Otis, Independence, and Davenport limestones form a group called
the Wapsipinicon, from its outcrop along the river of that name in Linn
county. The remaining limestones of the Devonian are grouped together
under the name of the Cedar Valley. These consist of limestones of
various types, sometimes crowded with fossils, and sometimes destitute
of any trace of ancient life. They occupy the western townships of the
county.


THE CARBONIFEROUS

At the close of the Cedar Valley stage the sea retreated westward from
our area, and Linn county became dry land. For long ages its rocks were
covered with rich soils supporting a luxuriant vegetation, probably
tropical in its aspect. We know that running water channelled this
ancient land, for when at last in _Pennsylvanian_ (Coal measure) time
the land sunk slowly beneath the sea, there were deposited in such
channels clays and sandstones, which perhaps are only remnants of wide
sheets of similar deposits now removed by denudation. A mile and a half
south of Marion (southeast quarter of section 12, Rapids township) a
well twenty-three feet deep penetrated a bed of dark shale which
carried leaf impressions of a number of ferns characteristic of the
undergrowth of the Carboniferous forests. A third of a mile southeast
of Lisbon, and again about two miles south of the same village, at
Bertram at the east end of the railway bridge, and on the old county
road between Cedar Rapids and Marion, are exposures of sandstone which
in some instances contain fragments of the logs drifted from perhaps
distant uplands and water-logged and sunk in these ancient sand beds.
The Bertram outlier contains many rolled coral fragments and worn bits
of shells of the Devonian, included in Carboniferous deposits, much as
the same fossils may now be found in the river deposits of the present
age in the sand bars of the Cedar.


MESOZOIC AND TERTIARY

For a succession of geologic ages our county, in common with eastern
Iowa, seems to have remained dry land, for no deposits of the sea are
found upon it. On both sides of the continent mountain ranges of Alpine
height were uplifted, and during the immeasurable years worn down,
grain by grain, to flat and featureless plains. But no deformations are
recorded in our county history and the lands seems to have remained so
low that little erosion was possible. We are permitted to conceive that
over our savannas in Mesozoic times there roamed monstrous reptiles of
strange shapes, such as are known to have existed in adjacent states.
In the later ages of this era it is not impossible that during the
great submergence which brought the Cretaceous sea over the Great
Plains from the Arctic to the Gulf, including western Iowa, our area
also may have been inundated and huge swimming reptiles such as are
found in the deposits of Kansas and Nebraska may have disported
themselves where now our rich farm lands lie open to the sun, while in
the air featherless cold-blooded creatures larger than any bird winged
their way on leathery pinions.

[Illustration: THE ASTOR HOUSE Erected by John Young in 1839, Looking
South The Second House in Cedar Rapids COURTESY CARROLL'S HISTORY]

During the millions of years which are included in the Tertiary ages
Linn county was undoubtedly dry land. On our grass lands pastured a
succession of strange and uncouth mammals evolving into higher and
higher forms. Among these denizens of the county were probably herds of
pig-like creatures, three toed horses little bigger than foxes, and
ancestral monkeys swarming in the trees, for such are known to have
existed in other states. But these chapters in the history of the
county can not be written from any local records.


THE GLACIAL EPOCH

The warm climate of Tertiary times changed slowly to one of arctic
cold. The winters lengthened and the summers becoming ever cooler and
yet cooler failed at last to melt the winter snows. Vast sheets of
glacial ice, such as that which shrouds Greenland today, covered much
of the continent. The geologic panorama thus presents our area as
buried beneath one after another of slow-moving glaciers hundreds of
feet thick. The proofs of their existence are found in almost every
cutting which goes below the soil. Any quarry will show the rock deeply
rotted and pitted by long preglacial decay. Here and there upon its
surface will be found remnants of the deep red residual clays, the
subsoils of preglacial times. Upon these clays formed from the decaying
rock rest stony clays in which clay, sand, and stones faceted as only
glacier ice can facet, are mingled pell-mell together, as only glacier
ice can mingle. Occasionally is found the unmistakable track of the
glacier left on the underlying rock scraped smooth and marked with
parallel scorings, as at the north end of the cut of the Chicago,
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway at Linn Junction.

The glaciers also brought from ledges of granite and other crystalline
rocks in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Canada the boulders which form a
conspicuous feature in some of our prairie landscapes. These, the
"first settlers," traveled to their destinations far more leisurely
than any ox carts of the immigrant pioneers; for the glaciers can not
have moved faster at most than fifty feet a day, and probably at less
than a tenth that rate, judging by the rates of motion of present
glaciers.

The ice sheets of the glacial epoch plastered the county thick with the
stony clays which they dragged along in their basal layers. The
thickness of these glacial deposits probably averages from fifty to one
hundred feet. Old valleys cut in rock by Tertiary rivers were buried
wholly from view, as, for example, one extending north from
Prairieburg; and the farmer now plows his corn in fields which lie two
and three hundred feet above the channels of ancient rivers. In places
the old valleys were left to be re-occupied by the rivers. Such are the
reaches of wide valley of the Cedar south of Center Point. In other
places the rivers were diverted wholly from their ancient beds and made
to flow in new channels which they have not yet had time to widen and
deepen to their ancient measures. Such are the narrow rock bound
valleys of the Wapsipinicon south of Troy Mills and of the Cedar at the
Palisades.

On the final retreat of the glaciers waters from the melting ice swept
over the county, leaving deposits of sand on the lower lands and in the
valleys. Since the glacial epoch the rivers have cut their beds a score
of feet and more below the deposits of glacial floods and in many
places, as near the Ivanhoe bridge, remnants of these ancient flood
plains are left as terraces or "benches" or "second bottoms." At
Bertram the sands deposited by glacial waters near the mouth of Big
Creek stand about fifty feet above the level of the river.


THE LOESS

A large part of the county is covered with a deposit of fine yellow
silt called loess. Dry, it crumbles into powder at a finger touch; wet,
it is somewhat plastic and can be moulded into brick and tile. On the
hill and uplands the loess is thickly spread, adding in places at least
forty feet to their elevation. Over the lowlands it is thin or absent.
This yellow earth has been and is to be of greater value than mines of
yellow gold. It is of inexhaustible fertility. It contains abundant
mineral plant foods, partly constituent, and partly brought up into it
by ground water; and these foods are so finely pulverized as to be of
readiest solution and absorption by the roots. In wet weather the loess
mantle absorbs the rainfall like a sponge; in months of desert drouth,
like those of the summer of 1910, it returns the water to the surface,
like a wick, to preserve the crops from failure.

A disadvantage of the loess lies in the readiness with which it washes.
The forest which once covered nearly all the uplands protected the soil
from wash by means of its mattress of roots and the thick prairie sod
was equally efficient where hill slopes were grassed over. But where
forests have been thoughtlessly cut down, and steep slopes turned to
plow land, it is but a few years until the brown top-soil is all washed
away and the fields in spring when freshly plowed are as yellow as a
deep cut in road or brick yard. The foot path in the pasture or the
furrow of the plow becomes a gully in a single heavy rain, and unless
checked soon becomes a gulch scores of feet in width.

By accenting the height of the ridges the loess also adds to the
scenery of the county. Our area lies in a part of east central Iowa
where the stony clays deposited by ancient glaciers accumulated in long
ridges and belts of upland rising many feet above the intervening
undulating plains. Because of the alternation of ridge and lowland no
part of the state except the valley of the Upper Mississippi has so
beautiful and wide and varied prospects. Over more or less of their
course the rivers of the county have cut their channels lengthwise in
the ridges, thus giving rise to the bold scenery of the Wapsipinicon
above Central City, and of the Cedar near Mount Vernon. Some of these
picturesque reaches of river and cliff and forest slope should surely
be converted into county parks in the near future and preserved for the
gratification of all coming generations. Unless this is done we may
expect that the forests will be cut down and the hill slopes gashed
with countless gullies; while the lichened rocks of the river cliffs
fringed with fern and tamarisk will give place to unsightly quarries.

While Linn county was sheeted with glacier ice, no life of any sort was
possible within its limits. But during the long interglacial epochs
which intervened between the ice invasions, forests grew and animals
now extinct roamed over our hills and plains. Among these early
inhabitants may be mentioned extinct horses and the giant
proboscidians, the mammoth, and the mastodon. These returned to the
area after the final retreat of the ice and their remains are found in
the peat bogs and river gravels. In the earliest of the interglacial
epochs it is quite probable that some of the gigantic groundsloths of
South America made their home here, since they are known to have done
so in the western counties of the state. No traces of man have been
found in the glacial deposits of Iowa, nor have any indubitable
evidences of his presence in glacial times been found in North America.
Sometime, we know not when, roving tribes of Indians set foot within
our area, and geology gives place to archeology. And when the white man
appeared, inductive history ends and there begins the history of
tradition and written records.



CHAPTER VI

_Beginnings in Linn County_


The Black Hawk war, though confined to the state of Illinois, made an
epoch in the history of Iowa. It was the last of the many Indian wars,
and was concluded by a cession of much of the valuable lands of Iowa to
the government. Reports of the war had stirred up more or less
enthusiasm as to the future of the west, and settlers began to come
soon after the war had ended. Many of the officers, and others who had
taken part in the war, became the government agents and officials in
various capacities in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa. The government
also, through its representatives in congress, planned great things for
the west in opening canals and roads, while rivers were made navigable
and steamship traffic opened up.

One must not be led to believe that Iowa was the only part of the west
which grew so rapidly. The growth was general, it is true, but Iowa
seems to have grown more rapidly than any other of the territories
between 1836 and 1846.

Illinois was admitted as a state in 1818; Missouri three years later;
next came Iowa in 1846, while Wisconsin, which had been explored in
1639, was not admitted to statehood till 1848; and Minnesota, settled
as early as 1680, and having a fort built in 1820, was not admitted to
statehood till 1858. Thus, it would appear, that Iowa remained a
territory for a shorter period of time than any other of the western
states located in the Mississippi valley, but, of course, there is
reason for this. It was a prairie state, in the first instance, and on
the east was bounded by a great waterway and by a state teeming with an
aggressive population, many of whose people soon crossed the borderland
even before the government had made proper surveys and thrown the land
open to settlement.

Henry Dodge was appointed governor of the new Territory of Wisconsin in
1836, Iowa at that time being a part of Wisconsin. With the exception
of a few settlements of white people along Lake Michigan and in the
mining region around Dubuque there were few, if any, white settlers.
Governor Dodge's work was largely with the Indians, in making contracts
and ceding lands to the government. Settlers were coming in constantly
and a demand for a survey of the lands was made from time to time.
Survey of the public lands in Iowa was begun in the fall of 1836. Great
preparations for the land sales were made. These were to take place in
Dubuque and Burlington in November, 1838. The settlers who had arrived
on these lands for some time prior to its survey arranged among
themselves to select an arbitration association, each township making a
register of all claims, and choosing one representative to attend the
land sales, giving him authority to bid off the lands selected by each
claimant.

A. C. Dodge was appointed the first registrar of the land office at
Burlington, and George W. Jones the first surveyor-general of Iowa. One
of the surveyors-general in the early '40s was no other than Judge
James Wilson, of Keene, New Hampshire, a son of a Revolutionary
soldier, and himself a lawyer of more than ordinary ability, a judge,
and at one time a member of congress. He was appointed by General
Harrison, an old friend.

At the first convention which met at Burlington in November, 1837, for
the purpose of organizing a separate territory of Iowa, were the
following delegates from Dubuque county, which, at that time, included
a part of what later became Linn county: P. H. Engle, J. I. Fales, G.
W. Harris, W. A. Warren, W. B. Watts, A. F. Russell, W. H. Patton, J.
W. Parker, J. D. Bell and J. H. Rose. The convention in its petition to
congress asserted that there were 25,000 people in that portion of
Wisconsin Territory known as "The Iowa District;" that houses had been
erected; that farms were cultivated, and still people could not obtain
title to their lands, and asking that the part west of the river be set
aside as a separate territory. This was one of the most important
conventions held on what became Iowa soil, and congress at once took
action to make such provisions as were thought wise and expedient.

Linn county was established by an act of the legislature of the
Territory of Wisconsin approved on December 21, 1837. The county was
regular in shape, but four townships larger than its neighbors on the
north and east, which were created at the same time. The boundaries
received at this time have not been altered. The spelling of the name
was Lynn, although it was spelled in the body of the act itself Linn;
it took its name from Dr. Louis F. Linn, United States senator from
Missouri, who was appointed to that office in 1833 and who was a friend
and admirer of President Jackson, and much interested in the
development of the west.

The eastern part of Linn county, perhaps one-third, had been part of
the original county of Dubuque since 1834, the boundary line running
from the southeast corner of the county in a northwesterly line a
little to the west of the middle in the northern part of the county.
Linn county then embraces within its limits two Indian land cessions.
The eastern part was acquired from the Sac and Fox Indians by the
treaty of September 21, 1832, known as the Black Hawk Purchase; the
western part, or the other two-thirds, was acquired by treaty of
October 21, 1837. The fourteen counties created by an act sub-dividing
Dubuque county into new counties, which was approved October 21, 1837,
were as follows: Dubuque, Clayton, Jackson, Benton, Linn, Jones,
Clinton, Johnson, Scott, Delaware, Buchanan, Cedar, Fayette, and
Keokuk. While most of these counties were established outright the
wording of the act relating to Dubuque county implies that it was
looked upon as the former county reduced in size, which was not
correct, as this land from which these counties were laid out also
included much of the Sac and Fox cession made after Dubuque county had
been formed and laid out, and which county had not been ceded to the
United States government.

These boundary lines were reduced in size later; however the boundaries
of Dubuque, Delaware, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Clinton, Cedar, and Scott
have remained as they were laid out at the time. The Territory of Iowa
was created by an act of congress approved June 12, 1838.

Among the bills passed by the first legislature, which met during the
winter of 1838 and 1839, was the following: "An Act to Organize the
County of Linn, and establish the Seat of Justice thereof.

     "Section 1. Be it enacted by the Council and House of
     Representatives of the Territory of Iowa, that the county of
     Linn be and the same is hereby organized from and after the
     10th of June next, and the inhabitants of said county be
     entitled to all the rights and privileges to which, by law,
     the inhabitants of other organized counties of this
     Territory are entitled, and the said county shall be a part
     of the Third Judicial District, and the District Court shall
     be held at the seat of justice of said county, or such other
     place as may be provided until the seat of justice is
     established.

     "Section 2. That Richard Knott, Lyman Dillon and Benjamin
     Nye be and they are hereby appointed Commissioners to locate
     the seat of justice in said county, and shall meet at the
     house of William Abbe, on the first Monday of March next, in
     said county, and shall proceed forthwith to examine and
     locate a suitable place for the seat of justice of said
     county, having particular reference to the convenience of
     the county and healthfulness of the location.

[Illustration: DOUBLE LOG CABIN Built by Wm. Abbe, Linn County's First
Settler]

     "Section 3. The Commissioners, or a majority of them, shall,
     within ten days after their meeting at the aforesaid place,
     make out and certify to the Governor of this Territory,
     under their hands and seals, a certificate containing a
     particular description of the situation of the location
     selected for the aforesaid county seat; and on the receipt
     of such certificate, the Governor shall issue his
     proclamation affirming and declaring the said location to be
     the seat of justice of said county of Linn.

     "Section 4. The Commissioners aforesaid shall, before they
     enter upon their duties, severally take and subscribe an
     oath before some person legally authorized to administer the
     same, viz: I, ............, do solemnly swear (or affirm)
     that I am not, either directly or indirectly, interested in
     the location of the seat of justice of Linn County, nor do I
     own any property in lands, or any claims, within the said
     county of Linn. So help me God. (Signed) A. B., etc.

     "Section 5. If, at any time within one year thereafter, it
     shall be shown that the said Commissioners, or any of them,
     received any present, gratuity, fee or reward in any form
     other than that allowed by law, or before the expiration of
     six months after the Governor's proclamation, declaring the
     said seat of justice permanent, become interested in said
     town or any lands in its immediate vicinity, the
     Commissioner or Commissioners shall, upon conviction thereof
     by indictment in the District Court of the county in which
     he or they may reside, be guilty of a high misdemeanor, and
     be forever disqualified to vote at any election or to hold
     any office of trust or profit within this Territory.

     "Section 6. The Commissioners aforesaid shall receive, upon
     making out their certificate of the location of the seat of
     justice of said county, each two dollars per day, and also
     three dollars for every twenty miles going and returning
     from their respective homes. Approved January 15, 1839."

Two of the Commissioners named in the act, Richard Knott and Benjamin
Nye, accepted the trust, meeting at the house of William Abbe, two and
one-half miles west of what is now Mount Vernon.

The Commissioners located the county seat in the middle of the county
and named it "Marion," in honor of one of the Revolutionary generals.
The Commissioners reported to the governor of the territory the
completion of their work, and Governor Robert Lucas proclaimed the
county of Linn duly established.

For election purposes Linn county was attached to Cedar, Johnson, and
Jones, the first polling precinct being located at Westport, which had
been laid out by Israel Mitchell with the expectation that this would
be the county seat, Mr. Mitchell believing that the county seat should
be located on the river, and that that location would be near enough
the center for all practical purposes.

In October, 1838, the entire county composed one precinct, and
thirty-two ballots were cast for candidates for the legislature.
Charles Whittlesey was chosen for the senate and Robert G. Roberts for
the house. The first county election was held in August, 1839, when
three commissioners were selected at Westport--L. M. Strong, Peter
McRoberts, and Samuel C. Stewart. This body had the same powers as was
later conferred upon the county supervisors. This commission first sat
as a body officially September 9, 1839, in the log house of James W.
Willis. Hosea W. Gray was sheriff and acted as clerk of the court until
a clerk was duly appointed.

The minutes state:

     "The Board proceeded to the appointment of a Clerk.
     Thereupon it was ordered that John C. Berry be and is hereby
     appointed to the office of Clerk of the Board of Linn County
     Commissioners.

     "Ordered. That the county seat of Linn County be and is
     hereby called and shall hereafter be known and designated by
     the name of Marion."

At this session W. H. Smith and Andrew J. McKean were appointed
constables for the county. Jonas Martin was appointed road supervisor,
his district embracing all the land east of Marion and west of Big
creek and east on the Marion and Davenport roads crossing Big creek.
"It was also authorized that as Linn County had no safe place for the
keeping of criminals that Sheriff Gray contract with the Sheriff of
Muscatine County for the keeping of one Samuel Clews, and that the
Sheriff borrow funds to pay for the support and keeping of said Clews
while in confinement."

It seems that the board met monthly and the county was divided into
three voting precincts as follows: One at William Abbe's, known as
Sugar Grove Precinct, with the following judges: William Abbe, John
Cole, and John McAfferty; one at Marion, with James W. Bassett, Henry
Thompson, and Rufus H. Lucore, judges; one at Michael Greene's, with
Michael Greene, James Cummings, and Bartimeas McGonigle, judges.

At this time Ross McCloud was appointed county surveyor and was ordered
to make the survey of the county seat and report, which he did, and
also to lay out additions, which was done. A county jail was also
ordered erected in January, 1840, and the contract for the building of
the same was let to William Abbe and Asher Edgerton for the sum of
$635.00; the first money raised by sale of lots in Marion was applied
on the contract for the erection of the jail.


THE FIRST SURVEY

The first survey was made in 1838, being all of Jones county and
townships 84, 85, and 86 north, in range 5, west, in Linn county. This
was made public in the newspapers and many settlers came in, taking the
best lands that had been surveyed and squatting on the other land which
they knew would soon be open for settlement. Linn Grove was an ideal
place, and here in an early day a large number settled. The sale of
lands in the county was advertised to take place in January, 1840. On
account of the difficulties of transportation, the settlers petitioned
to have the same postponed until the summer of that year, which
petition was granted. George Greene, who had been a school teacher near
Ivanhoe and even at that time was a man of no ordinary ability, was
asked to see what could be done in changing the place from Dubuque to
Marion. Mr. Greene volunteered to go to Washington and lay the matter
before congress, or the men in charge of the land department. After
some time he succeeded in his mission and won the grateful respect of
his fellow pioneers, saving them a great deal of money. Thus, for a
time, Marion was a United States land office, and the people of Linn
county who had little money to spend could claim their lands without
much trouble.


THE FIRST COURT HOUSE IN THE COUNTY

The first court house built in the county was a log structure for the
use of the pioneers. This structure was erected during the years 1840
and 1841. As there was no money in the county treasury and as the court
house was needed, the settlers donated their labor. They cut the logs,
hauled them to Marion, and constructed the building, the roof being of
shakes and the floor of puncheons. Among those who helped erect this
first seat of justice were James and John Hunter, the Stambaugh
brothers, James and Elias Doty, and others. The first case, it is said,
tried in this court house was one brought against James Doty for
jumping a claim on the west side of the river, adjoining the claim of
Robert Ellis, the question being whether or not a man erecting a bark
building and claiming the land had complied with the law. The jury was
impaneled and a trial had which lasted for some time. When the case
went to the jury the judge and all vacated so that the jury could use
the small room in arriving at a decision. The jury was out the
afternoon and all night, and at ten o'clock the next morning they
reported that they were unable to agree. During all this time they had
had nothing to eat, and the water they had to drink was very poor. Upon
this jury sat James Hunter, one of the first settlers of the county,
who was the only stubborn one to hold out in favor of Doty. He used to
tell later that he felt that he could never look James Doty in the face
if he should consent to such a verdict as the other eleven had framed
up against him. The case was tried at a subsequent term when the jury
decided in favor of Doty, to the effect that while he was later than
the claimant in making his claim he was a _bona fide_ settler with the
intention of becoming a permanent settler.

The next court house built in Marion was a frame structure still
standing just west of the present brick building, and now used as a
hotel. The present brick court house was erected by George W. Gray, the
brick superstructure being built by Peter D. Harman, of Bertram, father
of Warren Harman, of Cedar Rapids. Much of the carpenter work was done
by that old pioneer, recently deceased, William Patterson, father of W.
D. Patterson, of Cedar Rapids.

The first jail was erected in January, 1840, the contract for the
building being awarded to William Abbe and Asher Edgerton for $635.00.
The building was finished by May 1st of the same year. The first moneys
raised by sale of lands were applied on this contract.

At the July session, 1849, the county was divided into three districts
as follows: the townships of Washington and Fayette composed District
No. 1; Franklin and Brown composed District No. 2; and Marion and
Putnam District No. 3. At the July session, 1840, the board of
commissioners began to discuss the question of township organizations.
A vote of the county was ordered at the next election to determine the
voice of the people; the election took place in August of that year and
resulted in favor of the proposition.

Lists of townships are as follows: Marion, Franklin, Washington,
Fayette, Putnam, and Brown established in 1841; Linn and Rapids, 1843;
Otter Creek, 1844; Buffalo and Maine, 1848; Monroe, 1849; Spring Grove,
1853; Clinton, 1854; Jackson, 1855; College, Bertram, Boulder, and
Fairfax, 1858; Grant, 1872; and Cedar, 1906.


THE JUDICIARY

The first records of the district court held in Linn county are dated
Monday, October 26, 1840, Iowa Territory, Linn county. Pursuant to an
act of the legislature of the territory, approved July, 1840, the
district court of the United States and also for the Territory of Iowa
met at Marion in said county on Monday, October 26, 1840. Present: The
Hon. Jos. D. Williams, judge of the second judicial district for the
territory; W. G. Woodward, district attorney of the United States for
the district of Iowa; R. P. Lowe, prosecuting attorney for the second
judicial district; H. W. Gray, sheriff of the county of Linn; S. H.
Tryon, clerk of the district court; Lawrence Maloney for the marshal of
the territory.

The following grand jurors were among the best known settlers: Aaron
Usher, Samuel Ross, James Leverich, D. W. King, Israel Mitchell, W. H.
Chambers, William Donahoo, Dan Curtis, W. T. Gilberts, G. A. Patterson,
Isaac Butler, John Goudy, J. A. Gibson, Joe Barnett, Asher Edgerton,
William Chambers, O. L. Bolling, Dan J. Doty, and Joseph Warford. As
bailiff of the grand jury served Perry Oxley, one of the best known
settlers.

The petit jurors were: D. A. Woodbridge, Isaac Carroll, G. W. Gray, B.
McGonegal, John McCloud, Thomas Goudy, J. W. Willis, John Long, J. W.
Margrove, Ira Simmons, John Crow, Joe Carroway, Steve Osborn, H. B.
Mason, O. R. Gregory, John Nation, Thomas Maxwell, and George Yiesly.

One of the early cases of record is that of A. Moriarty vs. N. G.
Niece. One of the early jury trials was that of H. C. Dill vs. John
Barnett: one of the first criminal cases was that of Territory vs. W.
K. Farnsworth, indicted for starting a prairie fire; the jury returned
a verdict of "not guilty."

The probate docket is a very small volume but is filled with entries of
much historical interest concerning the old citizens of the territory.
Among a number of entries can be found the following: In the estate of
A. Coles, claim filed and allowed November 8, 1842; in the estate of
Thomas Gray, claims allowed in 1844; in the estate of J. Barnett,
claims allowed in 1843 in favor of Israel Mitchell in the amount of
$4.50; in the estate of John Crow, claims allowed 1842, as well as
against the estate of Elias Doty, administered upon in 1843 by M. J.
Doty and Jos. Crain, administrators. The estate of A. L. Ely takes up a
number of pages.

The first default case seems to be listed for the October term, 1840,
that of James D. Stockton vs. Stephen Osborn, et al, the claim being
assigned by John O. Gray to plaintiff. The next case was that of Thomas
W. Campbell and Perry Oxley vs. John Barnett, which was a transcript
from J. G. Cole, a justice of the peace. R. P. Lowe acted as district
attorney, while Isaac Butler was foreman of the grand jury.

The first entry made by a native of a foreign country to become a
citizen of the United States was made by Peter Garron, stating that he
was then a resident of Linn county and that he was formerly a subject
of Scotland of the United Kingdom of England and Ireland, and that it
was his intention to renounce allegiance to Queen Victoria and become a
faithful citizen of the United States.

The first divorce action was brought by Dyer Usher against Mary Usher
at the October term, 1842, but it seems that the notice of publication
was not served as ordered and no decree was granted.

The first decree of divorce granted was that on the petition of Mrs.
Parthena C. Hewitt vs. Abraham Hewitt, rendered at the March term,
1844.


CIRCUIT COURT

Pursuant to an act of the legislature of Iowa, approved April 3, 1868,
the county of Linn became part of the second circuit of the eighth
judicial district, the circuit consisting of Cedar, Linn, and Jones
counties, Hon. S. Yates, of Cedar, being elected judge.

The first term was held at Marion January, 1869, when W. G. Thompson
appeared as prosecuting attorney and A. J. McKean as clerk.

The legislature in a few years changed the boundaries of this circuit,
making it composed of Cedar, Linn, Johnson, Jones, Iowa, Tama, and
Benton counties. It was known as the eighth district of the circuit and
district courts. John McKean was judge of the circuit court and John
Shane, of Vinton, judge of the district court.

By an act of the legislature the circuit court was abolished and Linn
county was incorporated into a district composed of Linn, Cedar, and
Jones counties with three judges.


NOTED AND EXCITING TRIALS

Linn county has had its share of noted trials, and many are the pages
which may be gleaned from its musty records to show how treachery,
cowardice, and selfishness have here, as in many other places, played
their parts. It is not best to uncover many of these pages, as it would
perhaps add nothing to the general information or be of any value
except as historical relics of a former age.

One of the first murder cases in the county, at least as far as known,
was that of Nathan Carnagy who was brutally assaulted by James Reed in
Marion in 1847. Reed had been drinking heavily and got into a quarrel
with Carnagy about some old trouble. Reed was arrested, tried before a
jury, and acquitted.

Another case was that of the killing of Pat O'Connell by Samuel Butler
in 1865, the affair growing out of a dispute over some property
interests. The parties met on a public highway, a quarrel ensued with
disastrous results. The jury in this case also returned a verdict of
"not guilty."

[Illustration: FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, CEDAR RAPIDS, COMPLETED IN
1851]

[Illustration: RESIDENCE OF WILLISTON JONES, WHERE COE COLLEGE WAS BORN
FROM CARROLL'S HISTORY]

John Akers was murdered in a saloon in Cedar Rapids in 1864 by one
Decklots; the jury returned a verdict of "guilty." This sad affair was
due to liquor, both parties being more or less under its influence at
the time the quarrel began.

There are a number of murder cases of an appalling nature on record;
sometimes a conviction and sometimes an acquittal resulted.

On the civil side of the calendar can be found many cases attracting
attention, sometimes on account of the charges made, at other times on
account of the large amounts of money involved. In this forum
magnificent addresses were heard, and no lawyer practicing at the Linn
county bar was ever a miser of his eccentricities, whatever they might
have been. Most of them had the thread of the attorney in their nature
and took to oratory like a duck to water, and most of them in these
early pioneer days went in to win the jury at all hazards, possessing
the power to stir the heart and to make their personality felt.


THE ERA OF THE OUTLAW

Along the American frontier were always found the outlaws; sometimes
they outnumbered the honest settler and sometimes not, depending more
or less upon conditions. Outlaws preferred to hover on the frontier
where courts of justice were unknown and where the sons of toil, busy
with making a living, had no time to defend themselves against
outlawry. Some of these outlaws had committed theft and robbery and
were living upon this borderland of civilization, knowing that it would
be perfectly safe under assumed names. Others came here for the special
purpose, knowing it was easier to make a living by theft than by honest
toil. Thus, the Linn county frontier at an early date was infested with
this class of people, and for a number of years the rights of the
people had to be protected by associations organized for this purpose,
and made up of the best class in the community, until such a time as
law and order could be enforced by decrees of court and by penitentiary
sentences.

When the first white settler came into the Red Cedar valley there were
only two counties fully organized west of the Mississippi, with the
exception of the state of Missouri. These counties were Dubuque and Des
Moines. They extended from a flag station at Fort Armstrong back into
the country forty miles, and from the Missouri line to a line running
westward from Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin. It was a large tract of
country, and offered secure hiding places for law violators. In this
wild country, along rivers where the timber was thick, hiding places
for the outlaw were offered, and when settlers did come in the outlaw
did not like to remove, and, consequently tormented the actual settler
and frequently took by stealth or force such personal property as he
wanted.

In the early day the country bordering on the Cedar river was flooded
with counterfeiters, and it is stated that this counterfeit money was
so well made that it was difficult to tell which was the good money and
which the bad and, in fact, at times it seems that the good money was a
scarce article. No one was able to tell where this counterfeit money
came from, but it is supposed very little, if any, was made here but
that it was imported from other places and distributed by "healers" on
a percentage basis. While a cry was raised against counterfeit money,
only the government could handle such cases and very little was done to
start proceedings. Now and then the government attorney would bring a
case or two, but as a rule the defendants were generally released by a
jury, many of whom were friends of the parties accused.

It was not until horse stealing became prevalent that the people arose
in arms against the outlaw and formed associations called "anti-horse
thief" associations. It was a difficult thing at first to prosecute,
as the gang was well organized and had a perfect system of stations,
agents, signs, and signals. The members of these gangs which infested
Cedar, Jones, and Linn counties in the early days dressed better than
the honest farmer, were more charitable, and in the day time, at least,
were looked upon as the most respectable persons in the community. They
were shrewd and cunning in their business transactions, and hedged
themselves in such a way as to escape detection and exposure for a long
time. These "free booters" and plunderers would move from county to
county and from community to community if things got a little hot and
they feared exposure. In counties where they were in the majority they
would intimidate and scare the actual settlers, even if these knew
positively that depredations had been made. And frequently the honest
settler who attacked and complained was forced to leave the country
instead of the outlaw who had many friends who came to his rescue. Many
a man who was known to make a complaint before a grand jury, to a
prosecuting attorney, or judge would be trailed by a company of
outlaws, threatening letters would be written against himself and
members of his family, that his buildings would be destroyed by fire if
he persisted in bringing suits or attempted to file an information of
any kind against any members of the band.

A few of these men who were at least accused of being members of these
various gangs of counterfeiters, horse thieves and other desperadoes
may be mentioned.

Perhaps the most noted ones were the members of the Brodie gang,
composed of John Brodie, and his four sons--John, Jr., Stephen,
William, and Hugh--who came into Linn county in 1839 and were among the
first settlers in this county. They were natives of Ohio. Some had
lived in Michigan for a time, and before coming here had commenced
their career of villainy. On account of some misdemeanor they were
driven from Clear Ford on the Mohican river in what is now Ashland
county, Ohio, in 1830 or 1831, and sought refuge for a time in Steuben
county, Indiana. Here they remained for a couple of years when they
became so notorious as to arouse the country against them, and they
fled westward in about 1835 and found their way into what was known as
the Rock river country, or Brodie's Grove, Dement township, Ogle
county, Illinois. In this part of Illinois at this time the country was
completely under the control of outlaws and desperadoes, and here the
Brodies found congenial companionship.

Early in 1839 the Brodies gang were driven out by an organized society
called the "regulators," composed of law abiding people who insisted
upon law enforcement. They then drifted westward and located in Linn
county. From this time on for a number of years there was scarcely a
term of court but that one or more members of this family was arraigned
for trial on some criminal charge or other.

Sam Leterel, Christian Gove, James Case, also known as Jim Stoutenberg,
McConlogue, Squires, McBroom, and others were members of this gang.
McConlogue resided for a time at Cedar Bluffs, later removing into
Johnson county where Morse is now located. Stoutenberg resided at times
with McConlogue and at times with Squires. A number of others
associated with the gang and lived on the borders of Linn and adjoining
counties and went by various names. Where they came from no one knew
and they dropped out of sight if there was any danger of arrest and
conviction.

In 1839 John Goudy and his son-in-law, Thomas McElheny, and a son
settled in Linn county, and it was noised abroad that the family was
very wealthy. To ascertain whether or not they had money, some time in
April, 1840, a man by the name of Switzer was sent to visit the Goudys
under the pretense of wanting to borrow money, the real object being to
ascertain whether or not the parties kept money and whether or not he
could obtain a pretended loan. The loan was declined for some reason or
other, but it is supposed that Switzer learned enough in his talk with
the Goudy family to know that they had money and there would be a
chance to make a good haul. The gang went up along the Cedar river on
the west side and crossed the river about where Goudy's home was. Here
McConlogue had some conversation with a person who knew him. About
midnight of a day in April the door of the Goudy cabin was forced open
and the inmates awoke to find themselves surrounded by five burglars
who threatened their lives if they did not give up their money. Old Mr.
Goudy replied that he had but little money, only $40.00, and that they
could find that in his vest pocket. The vest was searched and the money
found. They insisted that he had more and demanded it. The old man
persisted that it was every dollar he had, or that was about the house.
The leader of the gang then ordered the house to be searched and
directed the occupants of the beds to cover their heads at once. In the
shuffle for places Mrs. McElheny, a daughter of Goudy, recognized
Switzer, who had been there to borrow the money a few days before, and
also another member of the gang who was well known by the family. In
the search for money a purse containing $120.00 belonging to a
daughter, Hannah, was found by the burglars. In an old leather belt
used by Mr. Goudy there was also a $100.00 bill which the robbers
overlooked or could not find in their hurry to search the house.

They became very angry at not finding any more money, having expected
to find $9,000.00 which Mr. Goudy was reported to have had in the house
at the time. The robbers on leaving the house cursed every member of
the family, and seemed much put out at the haul they had made. Captain
Thomas H. Goudy, a married son, lived near his father's cabin. He had
been a captain of militia in Ohio and his uniform was hanging upon the
wall. The robbers seeing this remarked "a military officer must be a
rich man," and his money was demanded, but they received nothing, and
after turning over everything in the house and finding only some
provisions, they left Goudy and went to the cabin of William F.
Gilbert, another prominent settler in the neighborhood, who was also
supposed to have considerable money. On the night in question Gilbert
had stopping with him three men, the mail carrier who operated a stage
between Dubuque and Iowa City, and two others. In the Gilbert house, as
in the other house, the cabin consisted of only one room with several
beds, and on this night Mrs. Goudy and her children occupied one bed,
the strangers another bed, while Goudy and the mail carrier slept on
the floor by the fire. The entrance of the robbers was so sudden that
before the occupants knew what was going on they were covered with guns
and clubs, and their money was demanded. Goudy rallied to defend his
home, and so did the mail carrier who slept near the door. Both men
were knocked down and the cheek bone on one side of the mail carrier's
face was smashed completely by a blow from a club wielded by one of the
robbers.

The house was thoroughly searched and the drawer of a box which was
supposed to be opened by a secret spring known to no one but members of
the family was forced and a $50.00 bill and some $30.00 or $40.00 in
change were found and taken. While all the older members were
frightened Mr. Goudy's son, during the plundering, arose in bed and
recognized a neighbor--one Goodrich, who lived but a half mile
distant--as one of the robbers. This neighbor had up to this time been
looked upon as a respectable man. It was he who opened the drawer as
quickly as though he was one of the family. The robbers secured as
their share of the booty this night about $240.00. A young daughter of
Mr. Goudy, who remembered well that night, was later married to Judge
John Shane, of Vinton, a well known jurist and a most excellent judge.

This wholesale robbery stirred the whole country, and Captain Thomas
Goudy especially, being a military man, insisted that now it was high
time for the people to arouse themselves and if the officers of the law
refused to do anything then the settlers would take the law into their
own hands and start something going. Thomas and his father went to J.
W. Tallman at Antwerp and Colonel Prior Scott at Pioneer Grove for
advice and counsel, and especially to apprehend one Wallace who was
implicated in this robbery. Colonel Scott went among his people and
organized a "mutual protective association," the settlers hunted up
their rifles and shot guns, and the organization was ready to begin
work. Wallace had fled, but pursuers were on his track and he was
apprehended in Illinois City in Illinois, ten miles above Muscatine, by
a citizen named Coleman and turned over to Thomas Goudy and his party.
Coleman's reputation in the vicinity was not the best and he had been
suspected of harboring outlaws, but it was stated on account of some
difficulty in the division of spoils he and Wallace had had a falling
out and hence Wallace's easy capture.

A warrant was taken out for the arrest of Switzer, and when Wallace was
returned Switzer was also arrested and a preliminary examination was
held before John G. Cole, one of the first justices of the peace in
Linn county. Both of the parties were held to bail. Their cases came on
for trial at Tipton at the October term, 1841, of the district court.

James W. Tallman, a resident of Antwerp, accompanied by several
neighbors, started out to arrest Switzer, a large man and an ugly one.
Switzer resided near Halderman's mill. At two o'clock in the morning a
posse surrounded Switzer's home. He refused to open the door and they
waited till daylight before he was taken in custody. Switzer's cabin
was a perfect arsenal, there being guns, pistols, and ugly knives
scattered all around.

Later James Stoutenberg, also known as Jim Case, was arrested at
McConlogue's as an accomplice and member of the gang. He was taken into
the woods near McConlogue's and examined in the court of "Judge Lynch"
in order to obtain a confession from him, and he was finally tied to a
tree and severely flogged. He was never seen alive again. Some assert
that he left the country, and others that members of the party carried
him to the Cedar river, tied him to a stone raft and left him to his
fate.

McConlogue was also arrested as being a member of the gang in the
robbery, but he established an alibi. Being satisfied that he was
guilty of helping to plan the robbery, the pioneer settlers, duly
aroused, tried him by rules not known in the ordinary law court. He was
sentenced to be hanged, but finally it was agreed that this sentence
should be changed to whipping, and that each one of the citizens should
give him five lashes on the bare back, and if that failed to bring a
confession as to the particulars of the robbery and the extent and
names of the gang, then he should be whipped the second time until he
died. Blows continued to fall upon his quivering and bleeding back
until he implored for mercy and promised to reveal all he knew about
the robbery and the operations of the "free booters." He admitted
having knowledge of the Goudy robbery and that he received as his share
of the booty $25.00. He also admitted that Wallace was the leader of
the gang at this time and that Switzer was another member of the gang
of five men who perpetrated the robbery. The members of the association
after this confession let him go, but first applied a solution of salt
on his lacerated flesh, followed by an application of slippery elm bark
to remind him of the ordeal he had recently passed through, and which
he never forgot. At this time McConlogue was under indictment in
Johnson county for assaulting a man named Brown with intent to rob him;
on this charge he was tried and sent to the penitentiary.

Goodrich, a neighbor of the Gilberts, who had taken part in the robbery
and who had been recognized by the latter's son, was also horse whipped
and gagged at the same time but he refused to answer any questions and
denied having taken part in the robbery. Soon after this he removed
from the county and was never heard of afterwards.

McConlogue's admission implicated McBroom, who had been known for some
time previously as one of the brightest men of the gang, and who was
also supposed to be a lawyer. He was also caught and whipped nearly to
death near what is known as Scott's mill, without making any
confession, but with threat that if anything more was heard of any
attempted robbery of any kind by any member of the gang everyone,
including himself, would be swung up to the first oak tree. It is
needless to say that he immediately left the country and was never
heard of again.

[Illustration: DANIEL SEWARD HAHN One of the First Settlers in Linn
County]

William Stretch, an old settler, many years afterwards made a trip down
the Mississippi and there in one of the river cities, either New
Orleans or Memphis, he met and recognized McBroom who had been so
severely flogged on the banks of the Cedar river. McBroom claimed that
he had lived an honest life since removing from the Cedar river and he
begged Stretch not to say anything about it, at least in his new home.
Stretch agreed to this, but investigated to ascertain whether or not
McBroom had told the facts, and found that he was a respectable
citizen, one of the leaders in that city, and had accumulated a
fortune--between forty and fifty thousand dollars.

Another member of the gang, a cousin of the Brodie boys, and in many
ways a bad fellow, was overtaken in Washington township, this county,
while driving and there shot by a band of what was known as
"regulators" or members of the "anti-horse thief association."
Seventeen bullets had penetrated his body. Who had a hand in this act
is not known, although the members are said to have belonged to some of
the first families of the county. When Wilson was caught he was passing
through the county with a team of stolen horses which had been brought
from the eastern part of the state.

The trial of Switzer, who had been indicted for burglary in 1840, was
transferred on a change of venue from Linn to Cedar county. It came up
at the October term of the district court, Joseph Williams presiding.
George McCoy was sheriff and William Knott was his deputy. The
following named persons, all well known settlers, sat on this jury: C.
Kline, William Morgan, Elias Epperson, Abe Kiser, Porter McKinstry, P.
Wilkinson, J. S. Lewis, John Lewis, William Denny, W. H. Bolton, Peter
Diltz, and Samuel Gilliland.

Considerable excitement prevailed at this trial. Switzer was
represented by able counsel who put up a great defense. Mrs. McElheny
and other members of the family unmistakably identified Switzer as the
person who had been there before to borrow the money and who was one of
the leaders on the night of the robbery. Switzer tried to prove an
alibi, and had a number of people who swore that he had been at another
place on the night of the robbery. It is said that the jury was out two
days and two nights and during this deliberation Switzer tried to
approach Knott by saying that he wanted help and that as soon as Knott
found out the jury had found him guilty he asked him to give him some
sign by taking a handkerchief out of his pocket. What he would have
attempted then is not known. Knott refused, the jury disagreed, eleven
standing for conviction and one for acquittal.

During the trial a large grey horse was hitched in front of the
building used as a court house, for what purpose no one ever
understood, nor did any one know who was the owner of the horse.
Switzer had a number of friends who hung around the jury and around the
court house during the trial. As the jury came out one of the jurors
had a handkerchief protruding from the side pocket of his coat. Switzer
recognized the signal. With the nimbleness and quickness of a bare back
rider he jumped on to the horse and darted away like a cyclone. Knowing
the proposition Switzer made to Knott there seems to be some reason to
believe that this member of the jury had given Switzer the sign. When
the jury reported they were unable to agree, Switzer's friends started
out to find and convey to him the result, but could not find him until
the day following, when they found him concealed among some of the
timber along Sugar creek.

Another warrant was issued for his arrest, but there was some delay in
serving this notice and in the meantime he made his escape. In 1852
William Knott was in California and there met Switzer at Carson river
in Nevada territory and had a conversation with him. Switzer admitted
that he had been in a very tight place when he was under arrest in
Cedar county, and he asked Knott to convey his best wishes to the juror
who had hung out in his favor. Mr. Knott ascertained that Switzer's
morals had not changed any on account of his removal. In 1874 Judge
John Shane and his wife visited California, and upon inquiry at Vallejo
ascertained that Switzer lived in that vicinity, and although a very
dissolute and reckless man and feared by all, he had accumulated a
handsome fortune. He also discovered that the sons were following in
the footsteps of their father, and that one of them was under
indictment for having killed a man.

At the time of the Switzer arrest and trial for the Gilbert robbery a
civil suit had also been brought against him for the recovery of the
money and a judgment was obtained. Judge Shane consulted an attorney
and tried to get a transcript of his judgment in order to collect the
same, but for some reason the records could not be found and the
judgment could not be transcripted. Switzer died in California in 1877.

One of Switzer's best friends and a hanger-on at the court, a
desperado, surrounded by a number of fellows of the same type, was
Christopher Burns. He carried revolvers and bowie knives and wore a
gentleman's cloak of the old style thrown loosely about his shoulders.
The sheriff, his deputy, and a number of men surrounding them also
carried arms, and in case the jury had returned a verdict of "guilty"
it was Burns's intention, no doubt, to rescue his friend and a bloody
battle would have taken place. Burns left the country immediately and
was shot by a neighbor in a quarrel on the upper Missouri river in
1845.

The whipping of McBroom, Case, and others, and the arrest of Switzer
and his flight put a stop to these outrages, so from 1841 to 1855,
while many suspicious persons still lived in the community, they were
more guarded in their movements than before, and these desperate acts
did not take place, although for many years after this a good horse was
not always safe property to keep in the country.


EARLY SETTLEMENT

From _History of Linn County_, 1878

It seems that the first store was located at Westport where there was a
barter trade carried on with Indians. W. H. Merritt ran a store at
Ivanhoe in 1838, which was located on the government road. John Henry
seems to have operated the store at Westport, but whether he bought
this from Wilbert Stone is uncertain. It is stated that William, or
Wilbert, Stone, sold his store or had one at Westport about 1837 where
he did some trading with the Indians. He must have been there as early
as 1837 because he sold out his interest to John Henry and removed
further up to what became Cedar Rapids, and had been living there for
some time when Robert Ellis found him on the west side of the river
upon his arrival in May, 1838.

None of the land at that time had been surveyed, so all the rights the
people had were known as "squatter" rights, which they sold as any
other land, and which would give them the privilege of filing on it
when the land would get into the market. Much of this land was handled
that way. The southeastern and eastern part of the county were first
settled, and then settlements were made along the Cedar river, which
would be natural for the reason that people had to use the river more
or less in keeping in communication with other places.

It would be impossible to give the names of all the early settlers for
the reason that some only remained a short time and moved away again
and the names of these have been lost. A few only can be mentioned to
give the reader an idea of where and how certain towns were staked out
and buildings commenced. The Linn county lands first came into the
market in March, 1843, and not till then, did the settlers come in any
large numbers. All were anxious to get free lands. The town sites were
laid out as follows, though they were only squatter's rights: Westport
in July, 1838, by Israel Mitchell; Columbus (Cedar Rapids), September,
1838, by William [or Wilbert] Stone; Ivanhoe, October, 1838, by Anson
Cowles; while the town site of Cedar Rapids was laid out by N. B. Brown
and others August 4, 1841. The first plat, however, recorded was by the
father of Elias Doty. This was recorded after the land had come into
market, when Westport was re-named Newark, and was filed November 12,
1844.

The tide of civilization gradually flowed westward from the Mississippi
river. The regular chain of progress is clearly shown, and forms a
portion of the history of Linn county. Young men pushed bravely ahead,
claiming rights to unsurveyed lands, expecting in a short time a rise
in values and big money in their holdings. Many of these men were
single and never intended to make this, or any other community, their
permanent home. All they wanted was to pick out the best claims, erect
shacks, hold them down until men with families came, who had a little
money and were willing to pay so as to get a home at once. Many of
these young venturesome spirits frequently in six months or a year
would pick up from $500.00 to a couple of thousand for a claim,
depending somewhat upon the improvements made. At times these squatters
would erect fairly good log houses and stables, and dig a well or two,
and would also put in a little garden stuff--potatoes and the like--so
as to keep the family partly, at least, over winter. Crops and all
improvements would go with the bargain. Many of these men drifted
farther westward and undoubtedly lived nearly all their lives on what
might be known as the border land of civilization. They preferred this
kind of life, and whenever a community was settled up it lost all
interest for the original pioneer; he wanted and preferred to live
among frontier ruffians; would fight if he had to, and would always
defend himself against any intruder. These men enjoyed this kind of a
life and thrived upon it, and all they cared for was a little money,
good times, and the freedom they so much craved and which the frontier
afforded.

"While it is true that those who located in this county in the years
1837 and 1838 came from the east, it is also certain that this section
would not have been reached so early in this century had the lands
immediately west of the Mississippi been unselected. It was, and still
is, the desire of genuine pioneers to find a spot beyond the confines
of civilization, no matter how crude the outlying stations may be."

The first settlement of whites in Iowa had been at Dubuque, where
Dubuque and his followers worked the mines at that place. This at one
time was a great center of attraction, but as the government restricted
settlers from coming in, they were driven back until treaty
arrangements were made with the Indians, who were the owners of the
land upon which the mines were located. These men who first came as
miners early saw the exceeding beauty and fertility of the Iowa lands,
and thus news was spread among the people of the east before the Iowa
lands were thrown open for settlement. Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were
by this time pretty much settled up, and so was Missouri and nearly all
the land adjoining the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Thus it was that as
soon as the word came from the government that part of Iowa was thrown
open to settlement adventurous men and brave women soon began to cross
the Mississippi and to settle in various parts of what was then so well
known as the Black Hawk land. There were no roads in those days, not
even trails, and consequently a person did not dare to venture out on
the prairie, but he generally followed some stream so that he could
find his way back to the starting place, at least.

Most of the people who came west to settle had no idea of where to
locate or of the condition of the Iowa lands. They were bold, fearless,
and determined, as well as resolute, and they pushed on until they
found a locality which suited their fancy and here they pitched their
tents and lived in their wagons until suitable log cabins were erected.

Prior to 1829 there was not even a ferry established at any regular
point on which to cross the river into Iowa; even the miner, Dubuque,
when he wanted to re-cross to the Illinois side had to borrow an Indian
canoe. The familiar Du Bois, who came early into Illinois in Joe Davies
county, trading with the Indians, had no other means of crossing the
river than in Indian canoes. By the latter part of 1829 one John Barrel
was commissioned to maintain a ferry at Rock Island, which at that time
was within the confines of Joe Davies county, which extended for miles
and miles along the river, like Dubuque county on the west side of the
river. Col. George Davenport also obtained a permit to run a ferry from
Davenport across the river, the ferry charges being fixed by the
commissioners so that there could be no hold-up. The following charges
were made, which must have been pretty high for the people of small
means in those days:

     Man and horse                                       $25.00
     Horses or cattle, per head, other than cattle yoke     .37-1/2
     Road wagon                                            1.00
     For each horse hitched to said wagon                   .25
     Each two-horse wagon                                   .75
     Each two-wheeled carriage or cart                     1.00
     One-horse wagon                                        .75
     Each hundred weight of mdse., etc.                     .06

To avoid paying this ferry charge a great many of the settlers started
early in the spring and would cross the river on the ice and thus save
this additional expense. William Abbe and his family, and many others
who settled in Linn county, at least those who were familiar with the
ferry charges, crossed on the ice.

George Davenport established a trading post as early as 1831 at the
mouth of Rock creek, and another on the east side of Cedar river just
above Rochester a short time later. Thus, gradually, there extended a
system of small stores in the bayous, creeks, and rivers where trading
was carried on mainly with the Indians. The settlers who came generally
followed these trails and would be helped and advised where to go and
where to find the best roads, and also as to whether or not the Indians
in the immediate vicinity of the stores were hostile or friendly.

Block houses had also been erected near these frontier stores for
protection in case of Indian outbreaks.

Another trading point was that of Rockingham which was laid out as
early as 1835, and in the early forties considered one of the best
villages in the territory. It was to this place the early settlers came
up to 1841-42 to trade, as well as to Muscatine and Davenport.

The settlers who came late during the summer of 1838-39 were
unfortunate in case they were unable to get enough hay for their stock,
for the winters were very cold and there were no provisions or food to
be purchased, and many a family along the Cedar river in Linn and Cedar
counties during these years endured some severe trials. Money was
scarce, provisions of all kinds high, and no trading posts nearer than
those at Davenport, Muscatine, and Rockingham. It is said that Robert
Ellis and Philip Hull came to William Abbe's on their way to Muscatine
to get provisions in the fall of 1838. William Abbe gave them
$15.00--all the money he had--and with tears in his eyes told them to
buy what they could, for that he did not know what would become of his
wife and children when that was gone, for it was all the money he had
in the world. They were absent about two weeks, and brought back as
much provisions as they could buy with what money they had, and by
hunting during the winter they got along and helped William Abbe. In
the forties William Abbe secured government contracts, and then became
a well-to-do man. Robert Ellis was a partner with Abbe many times in
supplying the outposts with provisions.

[Illustration: LINN COUNTY SCENES]

Many families during the latter thirties and the early forties
experienced some hard times in Iowa. To make the situation and
surroundings still more difficult the creeks and sloughs between the
settlements were treacherous quagmires in which wagons going for or
returning with provisions were sure to settle in up to the hubs, and
when once in the mud there was no way to get them out except by
unloading or by going to the nearest store for help, which would be
many miles away. Sometimes the assistance of two or three additional
yoke of oxen was secured to pull out the wagon.

The winters of 1837-38-39 and 40 began early, snow falling to the
extent of a foot or two as early as the latter part of October, and it
increased as the winter advanced. There was no thaw in January, and the
settlers were completely shut in until about the middle of April. Then
the snow all melted away and the streams were swollen so as to be
impassable. Thus it was impossible to get to any place for food or for
provisions until way into the summer. Consequently the settlers
experienced many hardships, and much of the stock died from sheer
starvation. As early as possible in the spring the settlers would unite
and start off for Muscatine, Dubuque, or Rockingham for provisions, and
on their return would help the needy settlers who had no opportunity to
get away. Sometimes these journeys were undertaken on foot, when two or
three would start off with knapsacks to get the necessary foods and
medicines, and would return as soon as possible.

It is wonderful what the old settlers endured--how they walked a
distance of 100 miles in less than two days. Robert Ellis walked from
Michigan to Iowa; he walked to Dubuque, Muscatine, Davenport, and
Burlington many times, while it is said of William Abbe that he walked
easily 60 miles a day without being very much exhausted. Then, again,
when roads were impassable for wheeled vehicles they would ride
horseback, leading sometimes one horse to be used as a pack horse to
bring back provisions.

To show with how much difficulty the early settlers toiled to get a
foothold in Linn county, it might be well to state the story of the
life of Edward M. Crow, who, as a young man, in 1837 came into the
county to a place near where is now located Viola. He was only 21 years
of age, and came west from Chicago, having previously come from
Indiana. He stopped first in Illinois and having heard of Iowa, came
here in search of cheap land. He was accompanied by James Dawson and
James Gillilan, the latter owning a team of horses. They constructed
ferry boats of their own on which to cross the river. The other two
parties got tired and left. Crow later found Dawson in Illinois. They
travelled over much of Iowa, back and forth, mostly on foot; sometimes
together, sometimes setting out in different directions alone. Finally,
both Dawson and Crow united in Jones county, staking out a claim in
Linn county in July, 1837. Returning to Fox river, Illinois, again in
quest of provisions, they did not come back to Linn county until in
August of that year, when Ed and Garrison Crow and James Dawson began
their settlement, erected a cabin and cut some hay for the winter. They
were without food, and had to make another trip to the borders of
civilization for provisions for the winter. The monotonous months of
winter rolled by, Crow's party subsisting by hunting as best they
could.

A number of settlers came into Brown township during the early years,
such as Jacob Mann, David Mann, his brother, William P. Earle, Asa
Farnsworth, and many others. John Crow, father of Ed Crow, John Lynn,
O. Bennett, Charles Pickney, Benj. Simmons, Solomon Peckham, and
Alexander Rhotan were emigrants who settled here in 1838. All those who
came that year and have been definitely corroborated, or who were
there as real settlers, were the following: Samuel C. Stewart, Peter
McRoberts, John Afferty, William Abbe, Israel Mitchell, Will Gilbert,
J. G. Cole, Hiram Thomas, Joseph Carraway, Jacob Leabo, John Henry, J.
Wilbert Stone, Osgood Shepherd, wife, father and several children,
Robert Ellis, O. S. Bolling, Mr. Ashmore, W. K. Farnsworth, Robert
Osborn, Thomas Campbell, Perry Oxley, Will Vineyard, James Hunter, J.
J. Gibson, Robert Deem, Michael Donahoo, William Chamberlain, Mr.
Williams, Mr. Evans, J. B. Sargent, John Sargent, A. J. McKean, John
Scott, H. W. Gray, S. H. Tryon, Anson Coles, Andrew Safely, Rev.
Christian Troup, D. S. Hahn, Hiram Bales, Asher Edgerton, Peter Roland,
John Stewart, J. E. Boyd, Philip Hull, John Young, Mr. Granger, L. H.
Powell, John McCloud, Mr. Kemp, Listebarger brothers, and many others.

The Hoosier Grove settlement was made in 1838, being in Putnam
township; Isaac and Abner Cox and John Holler, and several others,
settled here that year.

During the year 1839 Otter Creek was settled by Stevens, Michael
Greene, Bart McGonigle, Henry Nelson, William Chamberlain, Dr. J.
Cummings, Will Sullivan and Perry Oliphant.

Dyer Usher and Joel Howard ferried people across the Mississippi near
Muscatine in the summer of 1839. These men died near Covington a few
years ago. Usher always claimed that he was on the site of Cedar Rapids
as early as 1836 and located west of the river two years later. The
young men could make no money in a new country, and while they took
claims they frequently left for civilization to earn a little money. So
it might have been that Usher was a bona fide resident of Linn county,
while he could get no employment nearer than Muscatine.

A number of persons settled early around Cedar Rapids in the timber a
few miles from town. William Knowles located on what is known as Mound
Farm in 1839 and gave this up to the Brodie family, consisting of
parents, five sons and three daughters. The names of the sons were
Hugh, John, William, Steven, and Jesse. Rev George R. Carroll speaks of
the family as having an unsavory reputation. The family removed further
north when some of them at least were accused of being notorious horse
thieves.

Joel Leverich next became the owner of Mound Farm, a person who had
somewhat of a history in the early days of politics in the county. In
1843-44 this property was purchased by George Greene.

A number of people lived along the trail between Marion and Cedar
Rapids. Among those well known not already mentioned may be named
Ambrose Harlan, Dave Woodbridge, J. E. Bromwell, J. P. Glass, Rufus
Lucore, John and Will Hunter, Thomas Hare, Will Willis, and many
others.

       *       *       *       *       *

We quote the following from directories and gazeteers published years
ago. These statements may not be correct in some details, but the facts
were obtained from some who were doubtless familiar with them.

Thus Wolfe in his Cedar Rapids and Kingston directory of 1869 speaks of
John Mann, of Pine Grove, as the first settler in Linn county, he
coming in 1838, and of the first marriage in the county as that of
Sarah Haines to Richard Osborne, in 1839, and the first death as that
of Mrs. Haines, an elderly lady who died from an accident in July,
1838.

He further speaks of the first store in Westport as that of Albert
[should be John] Henry in 1838. It is thought that Stone also carried
on some store or trade with the Indians before this. He speaks of the
second store as being operated by W. H. Merritt in 1839. This should be
1838, as is seen from Merritt's letter to S. W. Durham, found in
another portion of this volume.

The first claim of land in Cedar Rapids was made by William Stone, in
1838, who built a cabin on the banks of the river on Commercial street,
now First street. Is this the Shepherd cabin, and was this so-called
first tavern erected and occupied by Stone, who later was compelled to
vacate it and give up his claim? Mr. Wolfe also speaks of the first saw
and grist mill built by Brown in 1842, the second flour mill built by
Alex Ely in 1845, and the first woolen factory erected by Brown in
1845. Miss Legare built a saw mill in 1851.

As late as 1869 Wolfe speaks of eight flour and saw mills being
operated in and around Cedar Rapids. He speaks further of two woolen
factories and the steam bakery of I. H. Shaver & Co., and of the Fish
paper mill, manufacturing 300 tons of paper annually. The directory
speaks of the American Express Company having an office here as early
as 1859, with W. B. Mack as the first local agent.

The editor also mentions that the learned professions were represented
by ten clergymen, thirteen doctors, and about fifteen lawyers.

He also mentions J. Bell's stage line running daily between Iowa City,
Solon, Western, and Cedar Rapids, and also of a line to Vinton.

The following as seen by a traveller may be of interest. It is from _A
Glimpse of Iowa in 1846_, by J. B. Newhall, Burlington, Iowa, _W. D.
Skillman_, publisher, 1846:

     "Linn county has become proverbial for the excellence of its
     soil, its salubrity of climate, abundance and admirable
     adaption of woodlands to the wants and convenience of the
     settler. The prairies are remarkably fertile, and of
     moderate extent; the timber equally and amply apportioned,
     generally of full growth, consisting, principally, of red
     and white oak, black and white walnut, linn, sugar, maple,
     etc. Linn county is famous for its extensive sugar orchards,
     from some of which 500 to 1,000 weight have been annually
     made. It is well watered by the Red Cedar and its
     tributaries, affording abundance of mill power, much of
     which is already improved.

     "Marion, the seat of justice, is located near the center of
     the county, about four miles east of the Cedar, at the edge
     of a beautiful grove, on a gentle prairie roll. It contains
     several stores, a commodious hotel, postoffice, various
     mechanical establishments, and is a place of considerable
     importance."

The modern traveler speaks of broad meadows, of rich corn fields, and
of large manufacturing interests. This traveler of sixty-five years ago
speaks of timber which has disappeared and of maple sugar orchards
which makes us wonder what they were like.

From Bailey & Hair's _Iowa State Gazetteer_, 1865, we gather these
facts:

     "The county of Linn is so named in honor of a distinguished
     senator of the United States, the Hon. Louis F. Linn, of
     Missouri. It is situated centrally in the eastern half of
     the state, and from fifty to sixty miles west of the
     Mississippi river.

     "It was defined by act of the Territorial Legislature of
     Wisconsin, at its session of 1837 and '38; that Territory
     then including the whole of Iowa within its jurisdiction.
     The county limits were the same as they now remain,
     consisting of twenty Congressional townships, containing an
     area of 720 square miles. It is bounded on the north by
     Buchanan and Delaware counties, east by Jones and Cedar,
     south by Johnson and west by Benton. It is now divided into
     nineteen civil townships, as follows: Bertram, Boulder,
     Brown, Buffalo, Clinton, College, Fairfax, Franklin,
     Fayette, Jackson, Linn, Marion, Maine, Monroe, Otter Creek,
     Putnam, Rapids, Spring Grove, and Washington.

     "The county was duly organized by the Board of County
     Commissioners at their first session held September 9th,
     1839, at the farm house of Mr. James W. Willis, one-half
     mile north of the present town of Marion. The board
     consisted of Samuel C. Stewart, President, Peter McRoberts,
     and Luman M. Strong, Commissioners; Hosea W. Gray, Sheriff;
     and John C. Berry, Clerk.

     "This Board also approved the selection of the county seat,
     which they ordered to be called Marion; divided the county
     into election and road districts; and appointed Andrew J.
     McKean and William H. Smith, Constables. Of the officers and
     persons above named, but two, Messrs. Gray and McKean,
     remain residents of the county, the latter being the present
     Clerk of the District Court.

       *       *       *       *       *

     "The first white settler in this county was John Mann, who
     erected his cabin on Upper Big Creek, in Linn Grove, in the
     month of February, A. D., 1838. He was an emigrant from the
     mountainous region of southwestern Pennsylvania. He was an
     honest, industrious, unlettered, rude sort of man.
     Subsequently he built a small flouring mill. A great flood
     in the spring of 1851 carried away his mill and himself
     together. The unfortunate man was drowned, and his body
     recovered only after several days had elapsed. The flood was
     unprecedented, and was thought to have been caused by a
     water spout. The Little Creek is said to have risen twenty
     feet in about as many minutes.

     "The next permanent settler was John Crow, a North
     Carolinian, who made his home near the east line of the
     county on the Wapsipinicon river, in April, 1838. He was a
     very gentlemanly person, of more than ordinary intelligence,
     wealth and enterprise. He died about five years afterwards,
     much respected. His son, Edward Crow, Esq., now a member of
     the Board of Supervisors of this County, and other
     descendants remain. During the summer of 1838 the
     settlements gradually extended in the east part of the
     county. The only persons now recollected, of that early
     period, as remaining, are John Gibson, of Mount Vernon, and
     Andrew J. McKean, and Hosea W. Gray, of Marion. The first
     family west of Big Creek was that of Jacob Leabo, from
     Kentucky. The first west of Indian Creek was that of James
     W. Bassett, from Vermont. The first Justice of the Peace was
     John McAfferty, commissioned in 1838. The first Judge of
     Probate was Israel Mitchell, a Tennesseean, now residing in
     Oregon. The first Sheriff was Hosea W. Gray. The first Clerk
     of the District Court was Joseph Williams, a Pennsylvanian:
     now said to be in the military service at Memphis,
     Tennessee.

     "The first officiating minister was the Rev. Christian
     Troup, a German Lutheran, who preached regularly in his own
     cabin near the mouth of Spring Creek every Sunday during the
     latter part of the summer of 1838. The first marriage was
     that of Richard Osborn and Sarah Haines, in the spring of
     1839. The first birth was that of a daughter of Mrs. Samuel
     McCartney, in July, 1838. The first death was that of Mrs.
     Haines, an invalid elderly lady, who died from the effects
     of an accidental fall in July, 1838. The second was that of
     James Logan, an Irishman, who was killed by the caving in of
     a well which he was excavating in Marion, July, 1840.

     "The first selected town site was called Westport, of which
     Israel Mitchell was proprietor. It was near the present site
     of the village of Bertram, and was selected in July, 1838.
     This was afterwards abandoned. The next in order of time,
     was called Columbus, built by William Stone, in September,
     1838. He abandoned his town the next spring, there being
     only a single log cabin. The site was that occupied by the
     present city of Cedar Rapids. The next was Ivanhoe, by Anson
     Cowles, in October, 1838, since vacated. The fourth was
     Marion, the present county seat, in April, 1839.

     "The first election was held at Westport in October, 1838,
     that being the only poll opened for the county. The only
     candidates were for members of the Assembly; thirty-two
     votes were cast. The first member of the General Assembly
     elected from this county was the Hon. George Greene, member
     of the Legislative Council, elected in 1840. The first store
     opened was at Westport, by Albert [John] Henry, in the fall
     of 1838. The second at Ivanhoe, in the spring of 1839, by
     Col. William H. Merritt.

[Illustration: GOING SHOPPING IN THE EARLY DAYS FROM CARROLLS'S PIONEER
HISTORY]

[Illustration: INDIAN BOYS]

[Illustration: INDIAN TEPEE]

[Illustration: LATER INDIAN HOUSE]

[Illustration: INDIAN GRAVE]

     "The first celebration was on the 4th of July, 1839, at
     Westport, Judge Mitchell, Orator. There was a dinner,
     toasts, and a ball, whereof William H. Smith, Andrew J.
     McKean and H. W. Gray, were managers.

     "The fifth decennial census of the United States was taken
     in 1840, in this county, by H. W. Gray, Deputy Marshal. The
     population was 1,342. The influx of settlers for the next
     three years was quite rapid, during which time the
     population reached probably three thousand. The largest
     proportion of the emigration was of Southern origin. The
     early settlers were plain, honest, hospitable people, not
     much accustomed to legal restraints, and rather impatient of
     the slow process and technicalities of the law. As usual, in
     all new countries, they were annoyed by vagabonds, who
     flocked into the settlements, calculating on impunity in
     their depredations, on account of the inefficiency of the
     police regulations. A rude justice was not unfrequently
     meted out to offenders without recourse to legal forms, or
     the intervention of courts.

     "In common with all frontier settlements, the first settlers
     here were poor; they were obliged to transport their produce
     in wagons mostly, to the Mississippi River, at points sixty
     or seventy miles distant. When reached at such disadvantage
     the markets were very low, consequently the accretions of
     wealth were slow, and were mainly invested in the homestead
     of the farmer. The discovery of gold in California with the
     resulting emigration, opened a good market for the farmers
     at home. Afterwards, eastern emigration, with the building
     of railroads, connecting the people with eastern markets,
     greatly accelerated the prosperity of this county as well as
     all other parts of the west. The financial crisis of 1857
     interposed a check to this onward career of prosperity. It
     was but temporary, however, and the people had fully
     regained their former standing when the rebellion commenced.

     "It is felt that a county which contributed one general, and
     fifteen field officers, with more than two thousand
     volunteers in defense of the Union, without draft or
     conscription, and without seriously lessening its productive
     energies, has an assured basis of future greatness and
     prosperity. A basis which nothing short of the entire
     upheaval and destruction of the foundations of human society
     shall be able to disturb."

In _Guide, Gazetteer and Directory of the Dubuque & Sioux City
Railroad_, Dubuque, _Bailey & Wolfe_, 1868, we read of Cedar Rapids:

     "The first settlement here was made in the year 1838 by
     William Stone, who erected a log cabin on the bank of the
     river in the rear of No. 1 North Commercial street. The same
     year Osgood Shepherd, a supposed leader of a band of
     outlaws, jumped Stone's claim and took possession of the
     cabin, and held it until the year 1841, when he sold
     three-fourths of his interest to N. B. Brown and George
     Greene, H. W. Gray, A. L. Roach, and S. H. Tryon, for the
     sum of $3,000.

     "In 1842 he sold the remainder and soon after disappeared
     from the country. N. B. Brown came here in 1840, when Mr.
     Brown and Judge George Greene became proprietors of the
     water power.

     "In 1841 the town was laid out and named from the rapids in
     the river. The first frame dwelling was erected by John
     Vardy and is still standing at 62 Brown street, corner of
     South Adams. The building known as the Old Postoffice
     Building, North Washington street, was built for a store by
     N. B. Brown, the same year. P. W. Earle's residence, 29 Iowa
     Avenue, was the first brick building, and was erected by Mr.
     Earle in 1849. Wm. Dwyer built the first hotel in 1847. This
     was destroyed by fire in January, 1865.

     "The work of constructing a dam across the river, was
     commenced by N. B. Brown, July 4th, 1842, though much of the
     material had been prepared prior to that date. Mr. Brown
     commenced the erection of a saw mill, and also of a grist
     mill the same year, and both were completed the year
     following. A second saw mill was built in 1851.

     "The second flouring mill was built by Alexander Ely in
     1844-5. The first woolen factory was also built by N. B.
     Brown in 1847. In 1855 a city charter was obtained, and at
     the first charter election, Isaac N. Whittam was elected
     Mayor. Railroad communication with the Mississippi was
     opened in 1859, from which time the growth of the city in
     wealth and population has been rapid and constant.

     "A superior water power has attracted a large interest in
     manufactures of various kinds. As early as 1840 one of the
     first settlers determined to apply his energies to the
     improvement of the water power, and soon after a dam was
     thrown across the river, a saw mill built, and other
     improvements followed, till now there are located here five
     flouring and custom mills, one saw mill, one paper mill, two
     woolen mills, and one fanning mill and separator
     manufactory."



CHAPTER VII

_William Abbe, the First Settler in the County_


William Abbe, we believe, was the first white settler to locate a claim
within the boundaries of Linn county. He came as early as the summer of
1836, from near Elyria, Lorain county, Ohio, seeking a location, coming
via Rock Island. He followed the Red Cedar river as far as the present
site of Mount Vernon, where he staked out a claim adjoining a little
creek, which to this day goes by the name of "Abbe's Creek." He
returned to his home in Ohio and in the winter of 1837 he again crossed
the Mississippi with his family on the ice as early as February of that
year, according to his daughter's statement, and in April reached the
location he had selected the previous year on Abbe's creek. Here he
erected one of the first cabins in the county, being about 12×14 feet
square, and covered with birch bark, having no floor. In this little
cabin the family lived all summer. In the fall he erected a large
double log house with three large rooms and an upstairs which was
reached by a ladder from within. On this creek the family lived for
five years where Mr. Abbe owned four hundred acres. He disposed of this
farm and removed a short distance south of Marion where he purchased
another farm where he lived till he removed to Marion.

William Abbe was born in Connecticut April 19, 1800, being of English
descent. When a young boy he removed to the state of New York. He was
married to Olive Greene in 1824 and by her had four children: Lucy,
Lois, Andrew, and Susan. Lois Abbe died young, Lucy Abbe died many
years ago, Andrew Abbe passed away at San Juan, California, in 1902,
and Susan Abbe-Shields now resides at Hollister, California.

William Abbe brought his wife and children to Linn county in 1837; his
wife died in 1839 and was buried in a cemetery located near the farm on
which he settled, about two miles northwest of Mount Vernon. He married
a second time on September 13, 1840, his wife being Mary Wolcott, also
from Ohio, and by her he had two sons, born at Marion: Augustus Wolcott
Abbe and William Alden Abbe. William Alden Abbe died several years ago;
his widow and one child, a daughter, reside in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Augustus Wolcott Abbe, an old soldier, resides in Toledo, Iowa, and has
a family of eight children.

Mrs. Susan Shields was born in 1830 and was about seven years of age
when she came to Linn county. She was married to John Harman March 16,
1848, who died shortly afterwards, and she later married John Shields,
a resident of Vinton, Iowa. In an interesting letter on early Linn
county days she writes as follows:

     "There were no white people for a long time after we landed
     in Linn county; when they did come my mother used to let
     them come and stay there until they would find a place to
     suit them; it was always a free home for the immigrants.
     When we first went there I was but a child seven years old.
     The men I remember most were Robert Ellis, one of our first
     acquaintances, and Asher Edgerton, the former being with us
     a long time when the country was new. Of course we had men
     come in, such as horse thieves, and my father had some of
     them chained up in one of our rooms for safe keeping until
     they could be tried, as there was no jail for some time in
     Linn county.

     "I went with my father to Marion, a little place then with
     one or two houses and a jail. We carried an iron trap door
     for the jail; it was in two rooms, one upstairs and one
     downstairs. There were two men in the dungeon at the time;
     we took the door for this jail. My father was a justice of
     the peace for awhile; he was also a member of the state
     legislature when the capital was located at Iowa City. Later
     father sold our place on Abbe's Creek and purchased another
     on the old Marion road, of about three hundred acres,
     further north; there was a lovely creek, a grove of maple
     trees was on one side and a boundless prairie on the other
     side. The Indians used to come in the spring of the year to
     camp and make sugar; I have seen as many as five or six
     hundred at a time camped near our house in the timber; they
     always made it a camping ground at our place and they seemed
     to be very fond of my father, who was kind to them and who
     spoke and understood the Winnebago language.

     "I remember well the first time I went to Cedar Rapids with
     my father; this was in the early '40s; there were five
     hundred Winnebago Indians camped there at the time. I had
     played with the Indians so much that I could talk the Indian
     language as well as themselves, so they had me to talk for
     them. There were only one or two white settlers there at the
     time. By the way, I was the first school teacher they had in
     Cedar Rapids; I think it was about in 1846; I still have the
     certificate issued to me by Alexander Ely, who was
     superintendent at the time. After residing on this place a
     short time my father disposed of his farm and removed to
     Marion; he also lived for some time at Dubuque where he held
     a government position in the Land Office, I think. The
     breaking out of the gold fever in 1849 caused him to get
     excited and he left for California, leaving the family at
     Marion.

     "My father was a born pioneer; although born in Connecticut
     he went to New York when the country was new, and then to
     Ohio, and later came to Iowa. In California he never mined
     gold, but teamed and speculated; he was there about two
     years, returning to Iowa in 1851, remaining in Iowa only a
     short time when he returned to California with his son,
     Andrew. My father died in Sacramento, California, February
     15, 1854, when about to go to Iowa to bring his family to
     California, and he is buried in Sacramento."

This interesting letter from a real Linn county pioneer more than
seventy years of age gives only an idea of the hardships of pioneer
life, and what this woman has endured as a daughter and wife of the
first settlers.

William Abbe's widow, Mary Wolcott, continued to reside in Marion with
her family until August 27, 1861, when she died, universally respected
by all who knew her.

Mr. Abbe was an old time democrat and as such was in the state senate
session, having the honor to appoint Robert Ellis postmaster of the
senate, as a reward of friendship and good will. Mr. Abbe also was a
justice of the peace for some time, was appointed commissioner to
locate state roads, had the contract for the erection of the first jail
at Marion, and was otherwise a very useful citizen. He was also master
of the first Masonic lodge at Marion, and one of the best known and
best educated men in Linn county up to the time of his removal to
California. For a number of years Mr. Abbe was the only person in the
county having ready money, loaning the same to his friends for the
purchase of their claims. He held government contracts for the delivery
of meat and provisions to the Winnebago agency at Fort Atkinson and to
the troops at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, and at other places, and
thus was acquainted with many of the military officers in the Black
Hawk war and with the Indian chiefs and braves of the Winnebago tribe,
as well as the Sac and Fox Indians. It is said that William Abbe
conversed freely with the Winnebago Indians, and frequently acted as an
interpreter when matters of importance came up between members of the
tribe and the white settlers; he was always a friend and protector of
the Indians and frequently helped them in securing their just rights
when they had been robbed by the white free-booters, hunters and
trappers.

[Illustration: FORMER PASTORS UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON]

William Abbe was a kind and generous man, and his home was always open
to the people who came into Linn county at an early day to seek homes.
It is also said that Mrs. Abbe was an excellent cook and many of the
old surveyors would ride several miles out of their way to get a meal
at the Abbe homestead, for the latch string of the Abbe home was always
out.

Mr. Abbe rode horseback a great deal and would be gone for weeks at a
time, and while he was away the family lived quietly at home awaiting
for days for his return when provisions were frequently scarce and when
the snow drifts generally were large. During the first two seasons
there were very few crops grown, and consequently the father was kept
busy earning a livelihood, the family subsisting mostly on the chase.
He traded provisions with the Indians, at times bringing home large
quantities of honey which was used as sugar in sweetening black coffee
as well as in place of butter on the hard johnny cake.

His son, Augustus Abbe, born on Abbe's creek in 1841, later a member of
the 9th Iowa Infantry, now a retired farmer residing at Toledo, Iowa,
tells the following of his father's life and history:

     "There was not a time in my life when I do not remember the
     Indian children. I played with them constantly. Those were
     my only playmates in the early days. I learned a little of
     the Winnebago language, and got along very well. My half
     sister, Susan, spoke it fluently, as well as my father. I
     remember when I was about five or six years old a number of
     Indians were gathered in our house and I climbed a post,
     sitting on the same to watch the redskins race their horses.
     One of the chiefs, one that had the most gaudy clothing on,
     rode by very fast and picked me off the post and put me in
     front on his saddle, going at full gallop; he rode a long
     ways down through the prairie and my mother expressed much
     anxiety, but my father came out and stood there and watched
     for me to return. After awhile the Indian came back and put
     me safely down in front of the house, to my mother's joy--I,
     all the time laughing, thinking that I had had a good time.
     The Indian said to my father, 'papoose no 'fraid.' That pony
     ride I shall remember as long as I live.

     "I also remember my father going away for two or three weeks
     at a time, and my mother fixing up his lunch for the
     journey. He had a pair of saddle bags filled with papers and
     other articles. I still remember when he put on moccasins,
     overshoes, and a buffalo overcoat of some kind; he would
     bundle up securely, kiss us good-bye and start off across
     the prairie at full speed. Many a time I cried, as I wanted
     to go along, but on these long journeys I was refused this
     pleasure for my father would not neglect business even for
     the sake of pleasing his son whom he loved dearly.

     "I also remember Robert Ellis, the Ashertons, Willitts,
     Clarks, and many others who came to our house and talked way
     into the night about trips they had taken over the wide
     prairies of Iowa. Our cabin was full of people most of the
     time; they would come in late in the night and in the
     morning, much to my surprise, I would find a number of
     people at breakfast, I not knowing when they came during the
     night. I never knew or heard of my mother making any charge
     for keeping anyone over night, whether they were strangers
     or acquaintances, whether they were poor or rich made no
     difference; whatever she had she would divide with a
     traveller or other stranger who came to her hospitable home.

     "I do not know that my mother understood much of the Indian
     language, but she was kind to them and the squaws used to
     sit on our door steps more than once. She gave them food
     that she had prepared, sweetened with honey which they liked
     very much.

     "I remember going to Marion with my father many times when
     it was a very small village with a jail which my father
     always pointed out as having built. He also taught me that I
     must do right or else I might have to stay in that jail or
     some other jail if I did not. These lessons were certainly
     deeply impressed on me for life. I remember, also, when we
     removed from Marion to Dubuque. I think that was in 1847,
     and we remained there for some time, but I think less than a
     year, when we removed back to Marion. My father held a
     government position there in the land office, I think.

     "My two uncles, Charles and Eliezar Abbe, resided in Ohio,
     one later removing to Michigan. The latter visited my father
     frequently. He was related, also, on his wife's side, to Ed
     Clark, an early settler in Linn county. These men were much
     taken up with the country and we had hoped that they would
     come here to locate, but they did not.

     "I also, with my father, visited Cedar Rapids many times,
     and I do not believe I was more than five or six years of
     age, hardly that, when I first saw Cedar Rapids, where I was
     much interested in the dam and the mills. The town then
     consisted of a few log houses along the east bank of the
     river. The remainder of the town was a mass of sand burrs,
     weeds, and timber, and along Cedar Lake and along the river
     large numbers of Indians were camped, especially up along
     the Cedar Lake and along what is now known as McCloud's
     Springs. In this locality several hundred Indians would camp
     in the winter and spring of the year, trapping, hunting, and
     trading skins with the whites for red clothing, guns, and
     ammunition. They would hang around the flour mills during
     the day time where there were always a lot of people
     gathered.

     "My mother was a member of the Lutheran church, which church
     she now and then attended, but there were not many churches
     in that day. My father was not a church member.

     "I remember my sister, Susan, teaching one of the first
     schools in Cedar Rapids, much to the satisfaction of the
     members of our family. In politics my father was a stanch
     democrat and an admirer of Andrew Jackson. He also became
     acquainted with most of the officers who remained in the
     west after the close of the Black Hawk war, on account of
     his government employment in which he was engaged. He was
     also personally acquainted with the persons who had charge
     of the Winnebago school, as well as those in charge of Fort
     Atkinson. Nearly all the people who rode horseback from Iowa
     City to Dubuque came by way of Mount Vernon, and would
     generally stop over night at our home. I remember my father
     and the strangers talking over politics until way into the
     night, and still remember many of these discussions as to
     the future of Iowa and as to the political aspirations of
     the various parties. My father took a lively interest in
     politics, as well as in the development of the west, and
     when it was settled up he had a longing for starting another
     pioneer settlement. He used to say when the land was pretty
     much taken that it was too close, he had to get away, as he
     wanted more room. By training and environment he was a true
     pioneer and full of enthusiasm for the upbuilding of a
     pioneer country.

     "When he was away in California we were much interested in
     his letters and we all wanted to go. When our father
     returned we asked him all sorts of questions about the gold
     camps of the west, and what he had experienced, and we spent
     whole evenings listening to his conversations. He did not
     take us at that time, but wanted to seek out an ideal
     location and get settled before he took us out there. But
     the day never came, and we never saw him again when he left
     on his second trip to California in 1852. All that we knew
     was that my mother received a letter from a Masonic order in
     Sacramento that the order had taken care of him in his
     sickness and had seen that he received a suitable burial. He
     was sick only a short time and none of his old friends was
     with him when he died. Robert Ellis came to Sacramento
     looking for his old neighbor and heard to his sorrow that
     his friend had died only a week before. He came into
     Sacramento from the camps on the American river.

     "After my father's death my mother resided in Marion with
     her family where she died August 27, 1861, at the age of
     fifty-eight years. As I felt downhearted at the time I
     joined the army and went to the front. November 29, 1865, I
     was joined in marriage to Cynthia Walker, daughter of an old
     Linn county pioneer.

     "My father was also sheriff of Linn county. However, of this
     there does not seem to be any record, as I have been
     informed. He may have been appointed sheriff to fill a
     vacancy, or he may have been a deputy, I am not certain
     about that, but I know he was acting, at least, in the
     capacity of sheriff and caused the arrest of a number of
     horse thieves and other alleged criminals. My father was
     over six feet tall, straight as an arrow, rather slender,
     but very active, and I never saw a horse that he could not
     mount and ride at any time without the least effort.

     "We used cattle for plowing, but generally kept also several
     horses, but these were used to drive and ride and not to
     work very much.

     "I believe that among the early settlers of the '30s and
     '40s my father had the good will of all law-abiding
     citizens. He was affable to strangers and true as steel to
     his friends, and was universally respected."

William Abbe will be remembered as one of the most prominent of his day
and generation in Linn county, for his kindness, his uprightness, his
never wavering from the path of right. Whether amid the influences of
the home circle or surrounded by the temptations of the mining camp, he
was always the same sturdy, upright citizen, wanting to do right and
helping his fellow men who were more unfortunate than himself.

One of his old and true friends, speaking of his long deceased friend,
expressed words of deepest feeling which can be only expressed in the
well known stanzas:

     "Green be the turf above thee,
       Friend of my better days,
     None knew thee but to love thee,
       None named thee but to praise."

While a great many are now of the opinion that William Abbe was the
first actual settler within the confines of Linn county, a number are
still of the opinion that Daniel Seward Hahn was the first settler. He
came here, accompanied by his wife, Parmelia Epperson Hahn. John J.
Daniels, an old settler in Linn county, and a son of Jeremiah Daniels,
who came to Linn county in 1844, was pretty good authority on the
subject of the early settlers. In a number of conversations had with
him on this subject and from what he wrote for the _Annals of Iowa_,
Vol. VI, p. 581, and for the Iowa _Atlas_, 1907, it is gathered that he
was of the opinion that Daniel Hahn was the first actual settler, at
least the members of the Hahn family, of whom there are a number still
living in Linn and adjoining counties, claim that their ancestor,
Daniel Hahn, should be awarded the honor. In the _Annals of Iowa_ Mr.
Daniels has the following:

     "Daniel Hahn and his brother-in-law, Charles Moberly, came
     to Linn county in the spring of 1837, made a claim and built
     a cabin upon it, did some breaking, and in August removed
     with wife and five children from Mercer county, Illinois. At
     this time there was no house in Linn county to his
     knowledge."

This, Mr. Daniels says, was the statement made to him and others in the
lifetime of Daniel Hahn.

This may be true, that in the early day very little, if any, social
intercourse was had among the early settlers and no one paid any
attention to time or place, and it might be that Mr. Abbe, Mr. Hahn,
and Mr. Crow might have settled at the same time, one never having
known that the others had located here.

Quoting from Mr. Daniels's articles, the following might be stated:

     "Edward M. Crow came to the county in July, 1837, in company
     with his brother, locating near Viola where they made a
     claim and erected a shanty; they remained there only a few
     days, returning to Fox river to obtain provisions, having
     decided to locate in the county. In the latter part of
     August Edward Crow and his brother and James Dawson began to
     work on their new possessions; about this time there came
     also two other pioneers by the name of Joslyn and Russell;
     they remained in the crude cabin during the winter and their
     time was spent mostly in hunting, tanning pelts and trading
     with the Indians. Their cabin was erected at the edge of
     what was known as the 'Big Woods' in Brown township."

Thus it would seem that William Abbe in point of time was the first
actual white settler to locate a claim and later to settle on this
claim with his family, within the confines of Linn county. True,
hunters and trappers may have been here earlier, but no actual _bona
fide_ settler, as far as we have been able to ascertain. The testimony
of Mrs. Susan Shields, a daughter still living, would seem to suffice
as to the time when the great river was crossed and as to the time the
family came to Linn county.

[Illustration: HON. SAMUEL W. DURHAM Honored Pioneer]



CHAPTER VIII

_The County Seat Contests--First Railroad in the County_


The county seat of Linn county was established at Marion by a board of
commissioners consisting of Lyman Dillon, Ben Nye, and Richard Knott.
As the years rolled by the question arose as to the removal of the
county seat to Cedar Rapids, where it seems that it was needed, being
what was then known as the commercial metropolis of the county. The
people of Marion insisted that that city was the center. While there
was more or less feeling in the county over the county seat fight, the
legislature of Iowa in 1850-51 created the office of county judge,
which was designed to and did succeed the former legislative bodies of
the several counties of the state. The judge had the same powers
possessed by the board of supervisors which controlled the affairs of
the county later. Among the rights and privileges peculiar to the
office was that most important one of submitting to the people the
question of raising money for the purpose of repairing and erecting
buildings for the use of the county officers. (See Code of 1851.)

In 1855 James M. Berry was county judge, and a shrewd fellow he was. In
pursuance of the law, and what he thought his duty, Judge Berry took
steps to erect a jail and a fireproof building for the use of the
county officers. These buildings were contracted for by a firm at Mt.
Vernon, Ohio, in the spring of that year. Then the people arose in arms
as to the high-handed methods of Judge Berry. Political questions were
lost sight of in the court house struggle. Speakers were employed pro
and con. Judge Berry's term of office expired January 1, 1856, and a
successor was to be elected in August of 1855. Marion put up Judge
Berry for re-election, while Cedar Rapids put up Rev. Elias Skinner, a
well known Methodist preacher who had traveled about the county and who
was well known by everyone as an aggressive fighter and a man who
believed in what he did and would have things his way if possible. The
canvass was in the aggregate with Judge Berry at 1,233 votes, while
Skinner showed up with 993 votes, the judge being re-elected by a
majority of 240 votes, thereby affirming by a referendum vote his
policy.

Reverend Skinner is still living at Waterloo, and not long ago the
writer had a conversation with him about this the most famous fight
that has ever occurred in Linn county over the removal of the court
house. Mr. Skinner just laughed and said he put up a good fight, but
the other fellow had the votes.

In 1871 another court house fight was had, but the board held that
because of many names of voters being on both petitions these petitions
were defective.

In the spring of 1872 another petition was brought out for the
re-location of the court house and an endless number of names were
again filed pro and con. Much money was spent on both sides; again the
Cedar Rapids faction was beaten, some preliminary steps were taken for
an appeal but the appeal was stricken from the docket.

Another attempt was made by Cedar Rapids for a change of location of
the court house a few years ago, and again the petitioners lost out,
and that case has been pending on the court docket but no action has
been taken, so that it has for the fourth time been lost, much to the
surprise of the citizens of Cedar Rapids and to the satisfaction of the
people of Marion and a large portion of the northern part of the county
who have always stood out for Marion in the fights on the re-location
of the county seat.


THE FIRST RAILROAD IN LINN COUNTY

While it may have been charged at times that Iowa was slow in getting
in touch with railway builders, it must be borne in mind that the first
railroad to be built in the United States upon which a steam engine was
used was constructed in 1829; but very little was done until about
1833-34. By 1835 there were not over 100 miles of road in active
operation within the confines of the entire country. Up to 1841 not a
mile of track had been laid in any of the following states: Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan. By the end of 1848 there were only
twenty-two miles of tracks laid in Illinois, eighty-six in Indiana, and
none in Wisconsin or Missouri.

Traffic so far had been exclusively by river, lake, canal, or in
wagons. Much money had been expended in opening up rivers for steamboat
traffic and more or less had been voted to build roads and dig canals.
But over such a large stretch of country it was impossible for the
nation to do much.

As early as 1837 many citizens of Iowa and others began to agitate for
a transcontinental line of railroad to run from the Atlantic states to
the Pacific, and for a grant of land by congress for this purpose. Asa
Whitney, of New York, an able and public spirited man, had written much
in the papers proposing such a project. There was of course at that
time more or less speculation as to just where such proposed railroad
might pass. The southern senators proposed a road through St. Louis and
across Missouri to Kansas. There was a spirit of rivalry at this time.
When Chicago began to get its growth the far-sighted people of that
city saw that it would be in the interests of Chicago to have the line
go directly west and through Iowa, and thus cut out a dangerous rival.

The Chicago press henceforth always favored a direct route through
Iowa. As early as 1838 G. W. Jones, then delegate in congress from
Wisconsin, secured an appropriation of $10,000, which was expended in
making a survey from Lake Michigan through southern Wisconsin.

Now the people of Iowa became active. They wanted a railroad from the
lakes west, and this could only be secured by public or state aid. The
legislature of 1844 joined in a petition to congress asking a grant of
public land to the Territory of Iowa to aid in the construction of a
railroad from Dubuque to Keokuk. The grant was to consist of alternate
sections extending five miles in width on each of the proposed roads or
its equivalent in adjacent government lands.

During the winter of 1844-45 a convention was held at Iowa City where
nearly all the counties of the territory were represented by wide-awake
young men in the interest of this railway promotion. Several proposed
lines were agitated and as some of these lines did not start at any
place and went to no place many of these projects failed.

The first grant of public lands in Iowa for transportation was not for
railroads but for improving navigation on the Des Moines river. It was
made in 1846. Strong then was the prejudice against railway promotion,
and little faith did the public men in congress put in this so-called
wild speculation.

The people of Iowa were so enthusiastic in the way of railway building
and in the promotion of enterprises that they even ignored old
political standards. It would appear that when the subject of the
training of the candidates was looked into it, it depended more on what
use such person would be for the work of getting a railway grant than
how he would vote on the tariff or on the rights of South Carolina.

The following letter, written May 28, 1848, by W. H. Merritt to S. W.
Durham, an old friend and fellow democrat, shows plainly the attitude
of one of the leading men of the party, then living at Dubuque, but who
had formerly resided at Ivanhoe and hence was one of the early men in
Linn county. He mentions Preston (Colonel Isaac Preston), and gives his
reasons for not wanting him. The Leffingwell mentioned was the
well-known W. E. Leffingwell, who formerly resided at Muscatine, then
Bloomington, and later removed to Clinton county. He was an eloquent
lawyer and a popular man. He was later defeated by William Smyth for
congress in this district. Bates and Folsom were both prominent Iowa
City men, and well known in political circles for many years. Judge
Grant was the noted jurist of Davenport, and was a well-known railroad
promoter who had much influence in early years in Iowa.

In this letter Mr. Merritt suggests George Greene as a candidate from
Linn county. There is no doubt that if at this time Mr. Greene had been
selected, he would have carried the district and made an enviable
record as a statesman, and no doubt on account of his judgment and his
keenness in business, he would have obtained from congress such favors
as would have amounted to much good for Iowa in the first stages of her
statehood. The letter does not show whether or not Mr. Greene had
consented or would consent to such a course, although it has been
stated that he most likely would have consented to have made the
canvass. For congress the whigs nominated this year, 1848, D. F. Miller
for the first district and Tim Davis for the second district. The
democrats nominated for the first district William Thompson, and for
the second district Shepherd Leffler. The whigs were strong, the total
vote for president at the November elections being, Cass, democrat,
12,093; Taylor, whig, 11,144; Van Buren, free soiler, 1,126.

Leffler was elected, and Miller on a close vote contested the election
of Thompson before congress. The committee on elections declared the
seat vacant. Leffler, who was elected after an exciting canvass, was a
native of Pennsylvania, who came to Iowa Territory in 1835. He sat in
the first constitutional convention in 1844, and two years later was
elected to congress by the state at large, and hence in 1848 he had the
inside track. In 1856 he was again a candidate but was defeated by Tim
Davis, his old whig opponent of 1848. In 1875 he was a candidate for
governor against S. J. Kirkwood, and was defeated. He died at
Burlington in 1879. He had been one of the trusted leaders of his party
for many years.

The letters from W. H. Merritt and George Greene show what interest
these men had in the railroad enterprise.

LETTER FROM MERRITT

     "Strictly confidential.
                                      Dubuque, May 28, 1848.
     "Friend Durham:

     "Having retired from the editorial tripod I find more time
     to devote to my friends in the reflective and agreeable
     exercise of correspondence than formerly. Since my second
     return to Iowa it would have been highly gratifying to my
     feelings had I been so situated in business as to have
     employed a portion of my time in personal communication with
     my friends, in viewing scenes connected with the early
     settlement of Iowa, and in witnessing the numerous monuments
     reared to attest the prevailing, the restless and resistless
     enterprise of the Anglo-American. In 1838, when I first
     pitched my tent at Ivanhoe, Linn county had but few white
     inhabitants, possessed but few attractions for one
     accustomed to the society of one of the old Federal
     colonies, and was entirely destitute of political or
     judicial organization. Everything that the eye could behold
     appeared in a rude state of nature. Vast prairies which
     extended for miles presented no evidences of civilization,
     no familiar sound like that of the woodman's axe appeared to
     interrupt the solemn stillness of an uninhabited wilderness.
     The marks of wild beasts and wild men were now and then
     visible and the similitude was striking between the two, as
     though both were born to the same sphere of action and
     subject to the same laws of being. A sort of wildness and
     sacred stillness seemed to pervade the whole atmosphere.
     Reclining upon a buffalo robe in my tent, reflecting upon
     the varied scenery without and quietly listening to the
     solemn murmurs of the Cedar, I thought I could perceive
     visions of earthly happiness for the man of true genius
     nowhere else to be found. The longer I remained upon the
     spot, the more it endeared itself to my affections, and the
     less I thought of cultivated society and the dazzling
     beauties of wealth, and its primeval companion, aristocracy.
     Nature seemed to be decked in her nuptial dress and wild
     beasts danced to and fro with a festive heart to the
     harmonious notes of a troop of forest birds.

     "Circumstances forced me to leave that consecrated spot
     after a year's residence, and once more become a victim to
     the cold restraints and relentless laws of civilization. For
     five years was I bound by stern necessity to a habitation
     worse than a prison, and associated with men as little to be
     admired for their social qualities of character as the
     cannibals of old. To be engaged in merchandising among a
     people whose only article of faith was 'cheat and grow
     rich,' and whose friendship could be secured only by
     corrupting the morals and lacerating the heart of the
     innocent, was a pursuit little to be desired by one whose
     heart had been consecrated to a different field of
     enterprise and nourished by the sacred impulses of the West.
     Be assured I escaped from this thralldom as soon as I could,
     and never to this hour has my mind enjoyed that repose that
     it did when seated upon the banks of the Cedar and
     surrounded by the beautiful scenery of Ivanhoe. I
     experienced a kind of maternal affection for the spot, a
     mystic tie instinctively chains my mind to its early
     history, and a magic like that which bound Blennerhasset to
     his favorite island in the Ohio seems to pervade every
     recollection connected with its name and its founder.

     "But I must abandon this subject, or I shall trespass upon
     the time and space designed for another, and convert what
     was intended for a political letter into a literary bore. As
     you manifested a friendly solicitude when here that I should
     take up my residence in Linn county when my studies were
     finished, I thought it not out of place to remind you where
     my inclination would lead me.

     "I would speak privately to you upon the subject of a
     candidate for congress in this district. I understand that
     Mr. Preston of Linn is to be a candidate; that Leffler will
     be a candidate; Leffingwell of Bloomington and Bates and
     Folsom of Iowa City. Leffler I do not believe can be
     nominated. I think he has acted in bad faith with his
     constituents. Leffingwell has no chance, although he has the
     untiring vigilance of S. C. Hastings to support him. Preston
     I fear has no chance. He is deceived by Hastings and I fear
     erroneously counts upon the delegation from Dubuque. We have
     appointed eight delegates. I am one. I have spoken to them
     all and find that every man is in favor of giving the
     nomination to Linn County for the reason that the interest
     of Linn is identical with that of Dubuque in properly
     agitating and ultimately constructing the Railroad from this
     to Keokuk, but they will not support Preston because they
     have no confidence in his ability.

     "One thing is very certain, Friend Durham, and that is that
     we must elect a man who is identified with this great
     railroad improvement. Preston would no doubt do all in his
     power, but he fails to unite that confidence in his favor
     necessary to give him the nomination. Leffler would no doubt
     do what he has done, give Davenport the preference.
     Leffingwell as a matter of course would feel but little
     personal interest in a railroad running through the interior
     of the state and forty or fifty miles removed from his
     immediate constituency, to whom he is more nearly allied and
     intimately associated in political friendship. All residing
     upon the banks of the Mississippi and in its immediate
     vicinity, except those at Keokuk and this point, are opposed
     to any grant by Congress for this railroad, and I can hardly
     conceive that it reflects any dishonor upon them as a
     community or as private individuals, for they are no doubt
     influenced like all men from natural and selfish impulses.
     But with Mr. Leffler the case is far different. He was
     elected to represent the wishes and interests of one entire
     community of people, eight-tenths of whom have a direct and
     vital interest in the success of this enterprise. He is
     requested and repeatedly urged by petition and memorial to
     give it his earnest support. But he pays no regard to their
     solicitations until a scheme in which he is more directly
     interested is matured, forwarded to him, and he puts it upon
     its passage through Congress. At least six weeks before a
     single step was taken in aid of the Davenport road in this
     state, petitions were forwarded to Mr. Leffler for the
     Dubuque and Keokuk road. In truth no move was made for the
     Davenport road until Judge Grant returned from Washington
     City, which was some twelve days after the Legislature had
     convened, and after the petition had gone from this place,
     Cascade, from your town, a memorial from the legislature,
     and the convention had been held at Iowa City, at which, if
     I mistake not, you were present. Under this state of facts I
     cannot but regard Mr. Leffler as hostile to this road, in
     which case our delegation cannot support his claim.

[Illustration: SOME EARLY MEMBERS UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON]

     "As to Bates and Folsom of Iowa City, we regard them as
     feeling an equal interest in both roads, both proposing to
     pass through Iowa City. Under these circumstances what
     policy does it become us to adopt? Emphatically to select a
     candidate upon the proposed line of road. Can you not bring
     forward some man besides Preston? Mr. Boothe and some three
     or four of our leading men have suggested to me that if Linn
     county should bring forward G. G. [George Greene], he would
     get the nomination and be elected by an overwhelming
     majority. Mr. G. is absent and I know not whether it would
     suit him if conferred. He is in feeling and interest
     emphatically a Linn County man, but whether such a proposal
     would strike him favorably or meet with his sanction are
     questions which I am unable to solve. I think if sent to
     Congress he would be a working man and would be very active
     towards procuring an appropriation for the said road. He
     feels, as does every Linn county man, a very deep interest
     in the enterprise. I wish you would give this subject a
     candid investigation and then write me upon the subject.

     "I have been solicited to become a candidate for the
     Legislature. I have peremptorily declined. I feel no
     particular aspirations for office. I desire to give my time
     to the study of the law. You will recollect that I have
     introduced the name of Mr. Greene to your notice without his
     knowledge and entirely upon my own responsibility.

     "Our families are all well. Mr. Greene has been absent
     between three and four weeks. Remember me to all friends and
     believe me, your obedient servant and faithful friend,

                                        WM. H. MERRITT.

     "P. S.--Will you be so kind as to inform Wm. Greene that Mr.
     Bonson is anxiously waiting for that two yoke of oxen, which
     George contracted with him for. He wants them immediately.

                                 Respectfully yours,
                                      "WM. H. MERRITT."

Mr. Merritt was a man of ability and prominent in the democratic party
up to the time of his death. As candidate for governor in 1861, against
S. J. Kirkwood, with four other candidates claiming to run on the
democratic platform, Mr. Merritt received 43,245 votes out of a total
vote cast of 108,700. This testifies to Mr. Merritt's popularity among
the people of Iowa.

LETTER FROM GEORGE GREENE

                                 "Dubuque, March 3, 1847.

     "Dear Durham:

     "I find that I cannot without great injury to my business
     here, leave until next week; but still I am very anxious to
     see the work go on. If you like my suggestion of finishing
     Jo's [Joseph Greene] contract first in order to expedite the
     arrival of the money it will be as well to have Wm. [Greene]
     send Andrew or some other person out to bring the field
     notes in. I propose the finishing of Jo's first because it
     can be done soonest. It will not require so long to plat the
     work in the S. G.'s office, and it will not interfere with
     the operations of Mr. Ross, who will take the field at the
     time, or soon after, you do. He wrote Mr. Wiltse that he
     should return to the work as soon as the snow decayed
     sufficient to justify. If any, he has done but very little
     in the T.s south of the one you have to correct. You may get
     any one you please to go out in my or Jo's place at our
     expense. The weather may not suffer you to start out before
     I come down, which I think will be early next week. You will
     take my horse, wagon, or anything else of mine that you may
     need. Mr. Wiltse thinks you had better make all your
     calculations before going upon the ground. He thinks you can
     do it more correctly and with a great saving of time and
     expense.

     "If you should consider it necessary you can employ Major
     McKean to go in our place; though I should think Andrew or
     some other good hand will do as well. If you should see fit
     to adopt my plan I will be at Cedar Rapids at the time the
     notes reach there and will bring them on immediately to
     Dubuque. Out of the money first received we will of course
     pay off the balance of the expenses of the surveys. You can
     show this to Wm. and Jos.

                                 "Yours truly
                                       GEO. GREENE.

     "S. W. Durham, Esq.,
         "Marion,
             "Linn Co.,
                 "Iowa."


The following is a report of the railroad meeting held at Marion in
1850 in which nearly all the public-spirited men of the city took part:

RAILROAD MEETING, MARION, NOVEMBER 30, 1850

     Meeting called to order by appointing P. W. Earle chairman
     and J. Green, secretary.

     On motion of W. Smythe, Esq., Resolved that a committee be
     appointed to report names of delegates to attend the State
     Rail Road Convention to be held at Iowa City on the
     .......... day of December next.

     Committee appointed by chair, H. W. Gray, Sausman, Dr. Ely,
     Hill of Putnam, Ashlock, Griffin, Mills of Marion.

     Maj. McKean was called for to address the meeting. He
     proceeded to do so in an appropriate address.

     On motion of Hon. G. Greene, Resolved that the delegates
     appointed to attend the State Rail Road Convention form
     themselves into a Rail Road Association and draft articles of
     said association for the advancement of the Dubuque & Keokuk
     Rail Road.

     The committee appointed to report names of delegates to
     attend State Convention through H. W. Gray report the names
     of the following persons as delegates:

     T. J. McKean, Hon. G. Greene, Dr. Jacob Williams, W. P.
     Harman, Esq., Ed. Railsback, Mr. Steadman, E. D. Waln,
     Freeman Smythe, J. J. Nugent, E. Jordan, Dr. Brice, Col. I.
     Butler, Robert Robinson, Jas. M. Berry, Isaac Cook, Esq.,
     John C. Berry, A. R. Sausman, N. W. Isbel, Esq., P. W. Earle,
     Esq., William Smythe, Esq., Dr. J. F. Ely, Dr. Carpenter,
     Hon. S. W. Durham.

     Which report was by substituting the name of H. W. Gray in
     place of W. Smythe, Esq., adopted.

     On motion of I. Cook, Esq., If any fail to attend they
     appoint a substitute.

     On motion of Dr. Carpenter, Resolved that the secretary
     inform absent delegates of their appointment.

     On motion of Hon. G. Greene, Resolved that the delegates
     shall assemble in a separate convention if they shall deem
     expedient after the action of the State Convention to advance
     the interest of the Dubuque & Keokuk Rail Road.

     Messrs. Cook, Esq., and Hon. G. Greene being called for,
     addressed the meeting in appropriate addresses.

     On motion the meeting adjourned.

                                       J. GREENE, Secretary.

The getting of a railroad into Cedar Rapids then was the much talked of
scheme, and many people believed that this would also end in failure as
many other paper railroads had ended before. But the men at the head of
this company were men who had a standing in the financial world and
were in touch with the big banks of the country. They did not rely on
the taxes voted or on empty promises, for if these failed they would
still go on with the work. It is needless to add that this company,
like all others, got as much tax as possible and changed the location
of the route according to the amounts of bonuses offered. When the road
entered Cedar Rapids it was the beginning and the end in the long
struggle for railroad supremacy in the county, and decided for all
times the supremacy of the river city over the county seat. The latter
without a railway could do nothing more than sit down and wait till
such a time as some company saw fit to extend a line across the state
through other points.

For the air line known as the Iowa Central Air Line, the citizens of
Linn county voted in June, 1853, the sum of $200,000 to aid in the
construction of the road. In 1856 congress voted a grant of land to the
state of Iowa to aid in the construction of four roads across it,
including one on the line of this company. The legislature in extra
session conferred the land on this road in case it was completed. A
contract was let to a New York concern to complete the road to Marion,
a distance of eighty miles. On account of the financial crash in 1857
the contractors failed to raise the money and to go on with the work.
While the people were sore over this failure another company began
building from Clinton west and had completed forty miles during the
year 1858. It came as far as Lisbon by the end of this year, and this
was the first railroad station within the borders of Linn county.

The Dubuque and Southwestern was extended through to Cedar Rapids in
1865, just six years after the Northwestern road had laid its track to
the river and had trains running. This caused Cedar Rapids to become at
that early day a sort of railway center, and opened up a new territory
towards Dubuque. It was not a success financially till it was absorbed
by the Milwaukee road in May, 1878.

The following letter from one of the first employes will be of interest
in this connection:

                                 "Lamar, Mo., Sept. 5, 1910.

     "The Dubuque and Southwestern track was laid to Springville
     in the year 1859 or 1860. Mr. Jessup was president, and J.
     P. Farley, superintendent and manager. Mr. McConnell was
     road master. He owned a farm near Langworthy. I remember the
     first regular train was composed of one mail, express and
     baggage car combined, and one flat-top coach. The engine
     pulling the string was named 'Prairie King,' a little 14 by
     16 or 18 inch cylinder. The track was laid with about 50
     pound English T rail. The road had at this time three
     engines besides the 'Prairie King,' viz: the 'Prairie
     Queen,' still smaller than the King, the 'Anamosa,' and the
     'Monticello,' which was of the Rogers make of engines, the
     other three being of Mason manufacture. The conductor,
     Archie Cox, engineer, Ace Owens, and Baggagemaster Watson
     came to our house for supper and boarded with our folks
     until they could get accommodations at the Bruce house, and
     I went the next day on the train as the first newsboy. I
     was still newsboy when Vicksburg was taken. I then went to
     the army and stayed until after the war closed. I went on
     the road again after the war as fireman, brakeman, and
     baggageman. About 1870 I was promoted to conductor and
     stayed with the company until 1875. After Archie Cox quit
     the road Frank Farley took his place, and when the road was
     extended to Cedar Rapids, two or three years later, they put
     another train on, one leaving Cedar Rapids in the morning
     and one leaving Farley Junction in the morning. After they
     put on the second train Charley Farley was conductor of that
     train and George Farley was agent at the station at Cedar
     Rapids. Pat Cunningham was roadmaster for several years, and
     James Rollo was master mechanic and engineer for ten or
     twelve years. Our first stock cars were flat cars and when
     we got an order for a stock car we would take a flat car to
     the shop and put stakes and slats on in order to hold the
     stock while in transit.

                                         C. H. BRANCH."

One of the most important occurrences in the county was when on June
15, 1859, the first railroad made its entrance into Cedar Rapids and
once and for all made the town the chief city in this part of the
state.

This was accomplished after many failures and after much money had been
expended for surveys and in other ways. The following from men still
living, who remember the affair, will give the reader an idea as to how
jubilant all were on the day of this celebration:

George C. Haman was at that time running a drug store at about the same
location he has now. The corner of First avenue and First street was
then occupied by what was called Greene's hotel, and Mr. Haman occupied
a store room in the south side of the building. He remembers distinctly
the big celebration held in honor of the first train to arrive.

Mr. Haman said, as near as he could remember, that the town of Cedar
Rapids had a population of about 1,500 people at that time and a big
celebration was inaugurated and carried out. People from the
surrounding country came to town to see the train come in, and the
Indians on the reservation at Tama almost turned out enmasse to see the
great piece of machinery that they had heard so much about but had
never seen. The day was a great holiday, much of the regular business
being suspended and the people turned out in their best clothes to
celebrate what was to them the greatest day in the history of the city.

The train pulled into the city to the tune of hundreds of voices, that
contained but little harmony but plenty of volume. Arms, hats and
handkerchiefs were waved in accompaniment, displaying a due
appreciation for the beginning of what was to make Cedar Rapids the
beautiful and prosperous city that it is. A railroad was what was
needed and it was now theirs.

The terminal of the road was about where the packing house is now
located, and it was a couple of years before an extension was made, the
track being laid as far as the location of the cereal mills, which at
that time was an enterprise yet to come.

Mr. Haman says that one incident is fixed indelibly on his memory, and
that was the big dance that was held that night. He was obliged to
remain at the store during the day and did not get to see the train
come in, but he attended the dance which continued until sunrise the
next morning. He was a single man and as was the custom had his lady
friend with him and was obliged to send her home in an omnibus, the
then prevailing means of transportation about the city, as it was time
to open the store and he did not have time to accompany her home. The
dance was held in what was known as Daniels hall, located where the
Masonic Temple now stands.

Another who has recollections of the great event is Emery Brown and it
was in conversation between Mr. Haman and Emery Brown that these facts
were collected. The road was extended to Cedar Rapids from Clinton,
where connection was made to Chicago. There was no bridge across the
Mississippi river at that time and the trains were ferried across the
river by means of a large, flat ferry boat.

[Illustration: A PRESENT DAY SCENE IN LINN COUNTY COPYRIGHT BY BAYLIS]

[Illustration: AN OLD LAND RECEIPT]

[Illustration: STEAMBOAT ON THE CEDAR, 1887]

In order to secure the railroad the town was obliged to give $100,000
to the railroad company. Stock was issued in payment. James L. Bever
was another man in business here at that time and he made it a point to
purchase all this city stock he could, which proved to be to his
advantage. The road was later leased by the Northwestern and finally
purchased.

With reference to this road a Linn county biography offers the
following:

     "The organization under which this line came into Cedar
     Rapids was the Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska Railroad company,
     which was organized at Clinton in January, 1856. There were
     several railroad prospects about this time formulating in
     Clinton, or in places having a close proximity to the
     Mississippi. Finally all the railroad enterprises extending
     westward from the river united in the Chicago, Iowa and
     Nebraska railroad. When that company commenced their
     operations, it was expected it would have the co-operation
     of the Galena company. Failing to receive this it pressed
     forward its work unaided, and by the latter part of 1857 had
     the track laid as far as the Wapsipinicon river, a distance
     of thirty-six miles. In July, 1858, it was laid as far as
     Clarence, Cedar county, and in December, the same year, the
     road was completed to Lisbon, sixty-four miles from Clinton.
     The following June (1859) the locomotive steamed into Cedar
     Rapids, a distance of eighty-two miles from the Mississippi.
     There was great rejoicing here and the event was duly
     celebrated.

     "It was a most important event to Cedar Rapids for it was
     the termination of a struggle for railroad supremacy in the
     county.

     "In 1862 the road was leased to the Chicago and Northwestern
     company, and before the lease expired it had secured control
     of it. Work was resumed on the extension (for which the
     Cedar Rapids and Missouri Railroad company was organized),
     and pushed with vigor. It was completed across the great
     state of Iowa to Council Bluffs in 1867, where it made
     connections with the Union Pacific."



CHAPTER IX

_The Old Settlers' Association_


A vigorous Old Settlers' Association has been maintained for several
years, the meeting being held at Marion. Following are lists of the
officers since its beginning in 1891 to date, of the members and the
death roll:


OFFICERS

1891

Chas. Weare, president, Cedar Rapids
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1892

I. P. Bowdish, president, Waubeek
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1893

Wm. Cook, president, Marion
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1894

Wm. Cook, president, Marion
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1895

Robert Ellis, President, Cedar Rapids
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1896

J. S. Butler, president, Springville
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1897

John Lanning, president, Lafayette
Z. V. Elsberry, secretary, Marion
A. J. McKean, treasurer, Marion

1898

John J. Daniels, president, Bertram
J. C. Davis, secretary, Marion
E. A. Vaughn, treasurer, Marion

1899

John Ashlock, president, Center Point
Z. V. Elsberry, secretary, Marion
E. A. Vaughn, treasurer, Marion

1900

E. A. Vaughn, president, Marion
Z. V. Elsberry, secretary, Marion
James Oxley, treasurer, Marion

1901

M. P. Smith, president, Cedar Rapids
John Cone, secretary, Marion
James Oxley, treasurer, Marion

1902

Chas. Kepler, president, Mt. Vernon
Fred Knowlton, secretary, Marion
James Oxley, treasurer, Marion

1903

P. G. Henderson, president, Central C'y
Jas. W. Bowman, sec. and treas., Marion

1904

J. C. Davis, president, Marion
M. W. Courtney, sec. and treas., Marion

1905

J. C. Davis, president, Marion
M. W. Courtney, sec. and treas., Marion

1906

M. P. Smith, president, Cedar Rapids
J. C. Davis, sec. and treas., Marion

1907

A. B. Dumont, president, Marion
J. C. Davis, sec. and treas., Marion

1908


Garry Treat, president, Marion
J. C. Davis, sec. and treas., Marion
Ben R. Reichard, acting sec, Marion

1909

A. M. Secrist, president, Marion
T. J. Davis, sec. and treas., Marion

1910

Alex Torrance, president, Springville
F. J. Cleveland, sec. and treas., Marion

1911

Marshall Oxley, president, Marion
F. J. Cleveland, sec. and treas., Marion


MEMBERS

Names preceded by a star note those who have died since joining the
association.

1837

*Crow, Edward M., Anamosa
Ellison, Mary, Mt. Vernon
*Hahn, Daniel S., Mt. Vernon
McKee, Daniel, Kenwood

1838

Clark, Edwin, Marion
*Clark, Luther, Mt. Vernon
*Clark, David, Martelle
Elson, Melissa T., Marion
Ellis, Robert, Cedar Rapids
*McKean, A. J., Marion
McCoy, J. F., Center Point
McManus, Jennie, Springville
White, Rebecca, Bertram

1839

Baker, Mary J., Cedar Rapids
Barber, Orpha, Marion
*Beall, Dorcas, Marion
*Beeler, Fred, Marion
*Beeler, Nancy, Marion
Beeler, Sarah, Marion
Brockman, Rizpah L., Marion
*Bromwell, J. E., Sr., Marion
*Busenbark, Agnes, Mt. Vernon
Barret, Amelia, Waubeek
*Brown, Horace N., Springville
*Brown, Mrs. H. N., Springville
*Burge, Jeremiah, Mt. Vernon
Corbley, Sarah, Paralta
Carroll, I. W., Cedar Rapids
*Carroll, Geo. R., Cedar Rapids
*Clark, Ormus, Marion
*Cone, Byron, Marion
Cone, Geo. W., Marion
*Cone, Oliver B., Marion
Cronk, Amy, Robins
*Dill, Thomas, Ely
*Gray, G. A., Marion
*Hare, Thomas, Marion
*Higgins, Anna E., Central City
Hogland, Francis, Center Point
Ives, Elihu, Marion
*Ives, John, Marion
*Kramer, Andrew, Marion
Kramer, Isaac, Marion
Kramer, Lewis, Marion
Kramer, Wm. D., Cedar Rapids
*Lewis, L. D., Mt. Vernon
*Lewis, Thomas, Palo
*Lucore, Sarah A., Marion
*Lutz, Ann M., Marion
*Lutz, Barnette, Cedar Rapids
*Manley, Nancy, Linn County
Martin, Giles R., Marion
Martin, James A., Jesup
*McElhinney, Robert, Lisbon
Mentzer, Charlotte I., Marion
*Oliphant, Edward, Center Point
*Patterson, Geo. A., Marion
*Perkins, Geo. C. Anamosa
Railsback, John, Palo
*Strong, Christena L., Kenwood Park
Torrence, Caroline N., Cedar Rapids
*Usher, Dyer, Covington
Usher, Henry A., Covington
Usher, Hiram, Covington
Usher, Rosanna, Covington
*Webber, Sarah, Lisbon
White, L. C., Alburnette
*Wilson, Ira G., Marion
*Yeisley, Geo., Mt. Vernon
Yeisley, Oliver, Mt. Vernon

1840

Anderson, James C., Bertram
Ashlock, John M., Center Point
*Bardwell, T. S., Marion
Boxley, Jno. S., Cedar Rapids
*Bishop, J. H., Springville
*Brazelton, Samuel C., Coggon
*Butler, J. S., Springville
Butler, Mrs. J. S., Springville
*Carnegy, John, Marion
Clark, Barbary E., Mt. Vernon
*Clark, Oliver, Mt. Vernon
*Darr, Mary Jane, Cedar Rapids
*Dodd, Silas W., Randolph
Dodd, C. M., Randolph
Dunlap, A. T., Springville
*Durham, Samuel W., Marion
*Gray, John W., Marion
*Gray, Richard, Marion
Gray, W. W., Marion
*Hagerman, Mrs. A., Toddville
Hemphill, Rachel, Alice
*Ives, Hannah, Marion
Jordan, Mrs. L. E., Kenwood
McBride, Kenwood
*McElhinney, Clara, Lisbon
McKinney, Mose E., Waubeek
McIntyre, Elizabeth, Lisbon
McDonald, Mrs. M. H., Cedar Rapids
Oliphant, John, Toddville
Osborn, John H., Center Point
*Oxley, Joseph M., Marion
*Patterson, Wm. J., Cedar Rapids
*Reynolds, Nathan, Marion
*Smyth, Robert, Mt. Vernon
Speake, J. B., Walker
*Squires, Milton, Center Point
Stambaugh, Rachel, Bertram
Stewart, Mrs. M. M., Cedar Rapids
Thomas, Richard, Marion
Thompson, Samuel D., Marion
*Thompson, Lucretia, Marion
Williams, Mary J., Marion

1841

Bardwell, Eliza A., Marion
*Beall, Jeremiah, Marion
Clark, Cyrial H., Central City
*Cone, John, Marion
Courtney, Joel M., Marion
Doty, Elias, Bertram
Dutton, Louisa, Marion
*Durham, Mrs. E., Marion
Elson, Mrs. Andrew, Fairfax
Glover, Mary, Marion
*Gray, Mrs. Emeline, Marion
Harvey, Edna A., Marion
*Hemphill, Johnson, Alice
Hemphill, N., Alice
*Hunter, J. G., Cedar Rapids
Kearns, Catherine, Springville
Larrabee, W., Kenwood
Listebarger, Maria, Cedar Rapids
McQueen, J. C., Prairieburg
McKee, Sarah, Kenwood
*Mentzer, Joseph, Tacoma, Wash.
*Oxley, Albert, Marion
Oxley, James, Marion
Plumley, Susan, Waubeek
Pletcher, Catherine, Robins
Pletcher, Catherine, Marion
Preston, Edmond C., Cedar Rapids
Preston, J. H., Cedar Rapids
*Rhoten, Sarah J., Viola
Richards, Daniel, Palo
*Richardson, D. M., Mt. Vernon
*Ristine, Henry, Cedar Rapids
Snyder, Mary B., Cedar Rapids
*Ure, William, Fairfax
*Vaughn, E. A., Marion
*Waln, E. D., Mt. Vernon
*Waln, Mary J., Mt. Vernon
Ward, George, Center Point
Willard, Mrs. L. L., Center Point

1842

Alexander, J. S., Marion
Bardwell, L. P., Mt. Auburn, Cal.
Blackmar, Mrs. E. E., Marion
*Brockman, James A., Marion
Brockman, J. L., Missouri
*Cheadle, Dean, Marion
Combs, Wm. H., Cedar Rapids
*Combs, Harriet F., Cedar Rapids
Gillilan, N. C., Central City
*Goudy, J. C., Mt. Vernon
*Goudy, W. H., Mt. Vernon
*Greer, John M., Marion
*Greer, Mary, Marion
Grove, Jennie R., Mt. Vernon
*Harmon, Peter D., Cedar Rapids
Harmon, Speare, Bertram
*Higley, M. A., Cedar Rapids
*Higley, W. W., Cedar Rapids
Hollenbeck, C. W., Cedar Rapids
Holmes, Geo. W., Cedar Rapids
Holmes, Mrs. Eliza, Marion
Howard, Matilda, Cedar Rapids
*Hunter, John, Marion
*Hunter, William, Cedar Rapids
Irish, Mary, Springville
King, Rebecca, Marion
Knapp, G. W., Bertram
McDowell, Catherine, Cedar Rapids
*McCall, David, Martelle
*Parks, Mrs. L., Cedar Rapids
Powers, Eliza J., Elmont
*Reinheimer, Valentine, Marion
Robins, John W., Robins
Williams, Mary J., Cedar Rapids

[Illustration: DR. JNO. F. ELY An Early Pioneer in Cedar Rapids]

Winter, Clarissa D., Marion
*Woodcox, Newman, Mt. Vernon

1843

*Breed, R. A., Martelle
Daniels, Mary A., Marion
Fleming, Sarah E., Alburnett
*Fuhrmeister, A. J., Ely
Gray, W. O., Jewel City, Kan.
Hall, Oliver S., Marion
Haas, Wm., Central City
*Hollan, Samuel, Cedar Rapids
Hollan, Susan, Cedar Rapids
*Howard, Paine, Cedar Rapids
*John, Mrs. L. J., Mt. Vernon
Kemp, Zenophon, Marion
*Knapp, John F., Bertram
*Lillie, Eulalia L., Marion
Mann, Alva, Paralta
McKinnie, Lovina, Waubeek
Metcalf, H. S., Cedar Rapids
Morrison, J. B., Cedar Rapids
Parkhurst, Mrs. L. K., Marion
Peet, W. R., Viola
Rench, Melinda, Center Point
Snyder, Sarah A., Bertram

1844

Anderson, Mary E., Palo
Birch, Victoria A., Marion
Clark, Geo., Covington
Clarke, George, Cedar Rapids
Combs, Mrs. H. E., Cedar Rapids
Cone, Caroline, Marion
Cooper, Mrs. Chloe, Marion
*Cordes, Mrs. C., Mt. Vernon
*Daniels, John J., Bertram
*Emmons, Emeline, Bertram
Gray, James M., Marion
*Harris, Wm. M., Marion
Hoffman, John, Lisbon
*Johnson, John, Mt. Vernon
*Jordan, Chandler, Waubeek
Kepler, Chas. W., Mt. Vernon
*Kepler, Conrad, Mt. Vernon
*Kepler, John W., Mt. Vernon
Kershner, F., Ely
Knapp, Asa P., Cedar Rapids
Lacock, Mrs. C. A., Mt. Vernon
Miller, C. L., Cedar Rapids
*Oxley, James M., Springville
Penrose, Lewis, Shellsburg
*Pisel, Susanna, Marion
Porter, Mrs. R. H., Robins
Robertson, P. P., Marion
Secrist, Mrs. A. M., Marion
Snyder, Sarah A., Bertram
Stinger, F. B., Marion
*Stinger, Philip, Mt. Vernon
Thompson, W. C., Marion
Waterhouse, M. J., Coggon

1845

*Becker, Francis, Marion
*Beckner, Elizabeth, Marion
*Beckner, John, Marion
Beckner, Miss Rebecca, Marion
*Beall, Elizabeth, Marion
*Beall, Sarah J., Cedar Rapids
Bice, Mary C., Troy Mills
*Black, Isaac, Marion
Courtney, Mary A., Marion
*Cooper, Joseph, Marion
Cooper, Polly P., Marion
Cumberland, M. E., Alice
*Dumont, A. B., Marion
*Dumont, Julia A., Marion
Fernow, Ann, Marion
*Glass, John P., Cedar Rapids
Gray, Sarah M., Marion
Hale, Mary S., Cedar Rapids
Howard, William, Cedar Rapids
Hopkins, A. C., Cedar Rapids
Heaton, Peter A., Central City
*Leffingwell, Mrs. B., Marion
Marshall, L. S., Central City
Marshall, Warren S., Central City
McKean, Sarah P., Marion
McLaughlin, Cassa, Marion
*McShane, John, Springville
Murphy, M. F., Cedar Rapids
Nott, Lydia L., Marion
*Nuckolls, Susanna, Viola
*Ovington, T. S., Marion
Ovington, Mrs. T. S., Marion
Oxley, Sarah, Marion
*Paul, Alexander, Marion
Paul, George, Springville
Perry, Sarah E., Central City
Pugh, John, Troy Mills
*Robins, Isabella, Marion
Smith, Mary A., Cedar Rapids
*Stone, Sarah J., Springville
*Stone, Zephny, Springville
Wightman, Joanna, Marion

1846

*Albaugh, Daniel, Robins
Alexander, Lenora, Marion
Baker, Elmira, Marion
Beeler, J. M., Marion
*Bigger, Francis, Marion
*Clark, Sabra G., Mt. Vernon
Coffits, John, Cedar Rapids
*Daniels, Martha R., Bertram
*Daniels, Preston, Marion
Daniels, Samuel, Marion
Gillette, Charles A., Lisbon
*Gott, Willis S., Marion
*Guzzle, Daniel, Marion
Hein, A. A., Marion
Harman, Warren, Cedar Rapids
Hart, Geo. B., Viola
Hayes, Mrs. L. C., Marion
Hayes, J. B., Marion
Huffman, James M., Marion
Jordan, Geo. L., Springville
Keenan, H. G., Marion
Martin, Sarah, Center Point
McShane, Frank, Springville
Minehart, Mrs. John, Central City
Palmer, Mary, Marion
Sigworth, Mrs. M. P., Anamosa
Smyth, Margaret, Mt. Vernon
Starbuck, Laura, Marion
Stentz, Esther, Paralta
*Thomas, James, Lafayette
Wood, Wm. W., Viola

1847

Ackley, DeWitt C., Viola
Bascom, Lizzie, Lisbon
Bennets, Susan, Paralta
*Brenneman, A., Marion
*Charles, J. F., Cedar Rapids
Dicken, Isaac, Toddville
*Ely, John F., Cedar Rapids
Floyd, Elizabeth, Lisbon
*Gillilan, Elizabeth, Viola
*Hoover, Jonathan, Lisbon
Hershey, Henry, Lafayette
Hurshey, Margaret, Viola
*Johnson, S. S., Cedar Rapids
Keithley, J. W., Prairieburg
Kurtz, C. H., Marion
*McManus, Joseph, Palo
Miller, Samuel, Robins
Moors, Mrs. C., Viola
Neidig, Nancy, Mt. Vernon
Newton, Geo. W., California
Oxley, Perry, Marion
Perkins, Elizabeth, Anamosa
Ristine, John M., Cedar Rapids
Ringer, B. H., Lisbon
Shields, Mattie E., Cedar Rapids
*Stewart, Wm., Cedar Rapids
*Stone, J. D., Springville
Torrance, Alexander, Springville
*Wickham, S. J., Troy Mills
Wickham, Mrs. S. J., Troy Mills

1848

*Adams, Fannie, Lafayette
Blair, Elizabeth, Cedar Rapids
Blessing, Wm., Cedar Rapids
*Busenbark, John, Marion
Burch, Leroy, Cedar Rapids
Burch, Mrs. M. V., Cedar Rapids
Cook, Letita, Marion
Cone, Mrs. John, Marion
Clark, W. O., Mt. Vernon
*Glass, I. O., Cedar Rapids
*Gray, Mattie Jane, Marion
*Granger, Amelia, Marion
*Howe, Joseph A., Marion
Hazzlerigg, Francis, Viola
Hemphill, Barbara, Lafayette
Hastings, W., Marion
Johnson, William, Cedar Rapids
*Jones, Harriett, Springville
*Jones, Pierson, Springville
Kinley, D. R., Marion
Kennedy, C. B., Cedar Rapids
Klenknecht, Laura, Mt. Vernon
Kurtz, D. H., Cedar Rapids
Morrison, Louisa, Cedar Rapids
McCleary, Margaret, Marion
Oxley, Henry C., Marion
*Patmore, Mary J., Mt. Vernon
Reynolds, Jap, Marion
Rickard, W. S., Cedar Rapids
Russell, Geo. W., Walker
Scott, David, Mt. Vernon
Strite, Mary C., Springville
*Thomas, Jeremiah, Mt. Vernon
*Travis, Daniel, Mt. Vernon
*Wallace, D. R., Marion
Wallace, John C., Marion
*Wilson, John, Marion
*Weare, Charles, Cedar Rapids
Wilson, Mrs. C. M., Troy Mills

1849

*Anderson, J. S., Cedar Rapids
*Bolton, A., Paralta
Bryan, Mrs. Louisa, Center Point
Clark, Margaret J., Marion
*Cooper, Wm., Marion
*Dean, Preston S., Marion
*Dorwart, David, Cedar Rapids
Ford, E. P., Central City
*Fullerton, Geo. E., Marion
*Gillilan, D. C., Central City
Grove, S. N., Marion
Hence, Mary, Lafayette
Hahn, E., Mt. Vernon
James, Mehitable, Viola
Jordan, Mrs. E. A., Springville
Keyes, A. J., Marion
Kyle, Isaac, Mt. Vernon
*Kyle, John, Mt. Vernon
*Kyle, L. B., Mt. Vernon
Langsdale, Wm. I., Center Point
Langsdale, Julia A., Center Point
*Martin, Almira, St. Paul
Milner, Sarah A., Marion
Miller, Mrs. C. L., Cedar Rapids
McFarland, J. G., Mt. Vernon
Null, Mary E., Cedar Rapids
*Nugent, J. J., Coggon
*Oxley, Wm., Delta, Idaho
Parker, Mrs. B. F., Cedar Rapids
Quass, Barbara, Cedar Rapids
Quass, Godfried, Cedar Rapids
Shanklin, Mary A., Viola
Swan, John P., Marion
Taylor, John, Toddville
Taylor, M. V., Marion
*Vannote, B., Cedar Rapids
White, Elizabeth, Springville
*White, Hosea, Springville
*Wickham, B. P., Marion
Wilson, Mrs. Eva, Marion

1850

*Andrews, C. C., Marion
*Andrews, Geo. H., Coggon
*Alderman, E. B., Riverside, Calif.
Beall, Mrs. James M., Cedar Rapids
Beall, Wm. E., Marion
*Blessing, Henry, Lisbon
Biggs, E. W., Marion
*Booze, Geo., Robins
*Brown, John, Central City
Bressler, A. P., Cedar Rapids
*Carbee, John P., Springville
Daniels, A. L., Marion
Dunn, Amelia, Springville
Ellison, Wm. G., Mt. Vernon
Enders, Fred, Cedar Rapids
Esgate, D. W., Mt. Vernon
Evans, Buel, Central City
Fitzgerald, Geo., Center Point
*Floyd, Martin, Lisbon
Furstenmaker, N., Prairieburg
*Gardner, Amanda, Marion
Goodyear, Anna B., Mt. Vernon
Garretson, Mrs. Angela W., Marion
*Henderson, Mrs. P. G., Central City
Graham, Josiah, Cedar Rapids
Holland, I. W., Center Point
Hoover, Mary, Lisbon
Kramer, Valinda, Marion
*Kelsey, J. C., Cedar Rapids
Lacock, Nira, Martelle
Minehart, John, Central City
Oxley, J. T., Marion
Piper, Martha A., Cedar Rapids
Parmenter, Mrs. Lyda, Marion
Reinheimer, Jacob, Marion
Rollins, Rachel, Viola
Rundall, G. W., Viola
Scott, James R., Marion
*Smith, C. E., Marion
Smith, Daniel, Central City
Smith, Joseph, Central City
Stewart, J. O., Cedar Rapids
Stookey, Mary E., Bertram
*Taylor, Ernestine, Marion
*Wagner, Wm., Central City
*Wilson, Dr. E. D., Troy Mills
Wilson, Rebecca J., Lafayette
Willard, Mary G., Marion

1851

Arnold, Sarah, Cedar Rapids
Baker, J. A., Ely
Baker, John, Marion
*Barnard, Asher, Springville
*Berry, Robert, Bertram
*Breed, Ira, Martelle
*Breed, C. W., Martelle
Carbee, Mrs. J. P., Springville
Cardis, Christian, Mt. Vernon
Clarke, Caroline, Covington
Cook, Mary C., Marion
*Cook, Wm., Marion
Cumberland, H. C., Alice
*Dunlap, John, Springville
Evans, James, Paris
Fernow, C. G., Marion
Finson, Ida, Central City
Fitzgerald, Jas. B., Cedar Rapids
Fleming, James, Marion
Hale, Mary S., Cedar Rapids
Hall, Mrs. Ida, Marion
Hall, J. J., Cedar Rapids
Hazeltine, E. D., Center Point
Hendryxson, F. M., Marion
Hill, Mrs. A. T., Cedar Rapids
Shinn, Joab R., Marion
Slife, James, Martelle
Smith, Wm. A., Mt. Vernon
*Smith, C. G., Springville
Smyth, Wm., Cedar Rapids
Sprague, Mrs. R. C., Cedar Rapids
Stinger, Eliza E., Mt. Vernon
Strawn, N. P., Shellsburg
Stuart, Geo. W., Cedar Rapids
Taylor, Mrs. S. V., Marion
*Thompson, H. J., Marion
Thompson, Christina, Marion
*Torrance, H. F., Mt. Vernon
White, John R., Bertram
Wilson, R. J., Lafayette
Wilson, W. M., Lafayette
Wright, George J., Waubeek

1852

*Anderson, G. H., Waubeek
Anderson, Gerselda, Waubeek
Andrews, Elizabeth, Waubeek
Ashlock, G. W., Lafayette
Bever, James L., Cedar Rapids
*Beechley, Jesse, Mt. Vernon
Biggs, E. F., Troy Mills
*Bixby, Jesse C., Marion
*Black, John, Marion
Black, Mrs. John, Marion
Bromwell, M. E., Marion
Brown, John B., Marion
Brown, T. C., Mt. Vernon
Brown, F., Prairieburg
Burns, Hannah, Robins
Buchanan, George, Cedar Rapids
*Bunting, Eli, Marion
Clark, Francis M., Mt. Vernon
Coleman, Martha, Marion
Coenen, Sophia, Marion
*Cone, Mary A., Marion
*Crosby, Alice G., Central City
*Dance, L. F., Lafayette
*Denny, John Q., Waubeek
Denny, Mrs. John Q., Waubeek
Dutton, J. Q. A., Marion
Evans, Adam, Paris
Evans, James, Paris
Freeman, John, Paris
Gilblaith, John, Fairfax
Hall, Mary A., Coggon
*Hansell, Hannah, Marion
*Hansell, Jos. A., Marion
Helbig, F. A., Lafayette
Hill, Deborial, Cedar Rapids
Hill, James, Cedar Rapids
Holloway, John C., Marion
Houver, Sadie E., Marion
Hogland, P., Center Point
Houston, A. P., Coggon
*Irish, Joel S., Springville
Ives, Lawson L., Marion
Keller, John, Cedar Rapids
*Kendall, W. J., Marion
Lanning, John, Lafayette
Legore, John, Cedar Rapids
*Legore, James E., Cedar Rapids
Leigh, John B., Mt. Vernon
Lincoln, Fannie A., Cedar Rapids
Listebarger, I. C., Cedar Rapids
Listebarger, Maggie, Cedar Rapids
McArthur, M. E., Palo
*McShane, Jacob, Paralta
Miller, Acquilla, Cedar Rapids
*Mills, Mahlon, Central City
Perkins, Chas. E., Anamosa
Paul, Arthur, Springville
Pifer, Martha A., Center Point
*Reinheimer, Paulina, Marion
*Reece, David, Troy Mills
Rhoten, John H., Portland
Riger, J. C., Lisbon
*Rose, R. P., Lisbon
Shaver, Margaret, Fairfax
Jordan, Geo. E., Marion
Knapp, Henry, Bertram
Lanning, Margaret J., Lafayette
*Long, David P., Paris
Mills, Julie L., Central City
*Mills, Mrs. Lucy, Central City
Manahan, A., Center Point
Manahan, Mrs. A., Center Point
Maudsley, Mrs. S. M., Cedar Rapids
Morse, Mary E., Riverside, Calif.
McShane, Geo., Springville
Newlin, Geo., Viola
*Nott, B. H., Marion
Nott, J. H., Marion
*Nott, R. H., Marion
Oxley, R. S., Marion
Oxley, Margaret, Marion
Pletcher, Amos, Marion
Paul, Mrs. M. J., Springville
Post, Geo. W., Viola
*Pollock, John, Springville
Rhoten, Rilla, Portland, Ore.
Rundall, S. W., Marion
Shanklin, A. T., Waubeek
Shanklin, F. M., Viola
Sherwood, Jos. B., Viola
Smith, Caroline, Marion

[Illustration: JOHN A. KEARNS Came Here in 1853]

[Illustration: A. J. REID Who Came Here in 1852]

[Illustration: C. S. HOWARD Came in 1843]

[Illustration: WILLIAM STICK Came in 1853]

*Smith, Darwin, Marion
Smith, Rachel M., Marion
Smith, Louisa, Cedar Rapids
*Snouffer, J. J., Cedar Rapids
Snyder, Marion D., Bertram
Tathwell, Josie, Marion
Webb, Alice A., Marion
Webb, Milas, Marion
Webb, Sophia, Marion
West, Mrs. J. B., Marion
White, Augustus, Cedar Rapids
*Whitenack, J. W., Marion
Whitenack, Mrs. J., Kenwood Park
*Wilson, John, Marion
Wilson, Jno. M., Cedar Rapids
Young, Lewis, Lisbon

1853

*Anderson, J. S., Cedar Rapids
Benedict, L. D., Cedar Rapids
Berry, Nancy, Bertram
Beechley, N. K., Cedar Rapids
*Bishop, Seth, Central City
*Bolton, Susan, Paralta
Booth, L. G., Marion
Breneman, Mrs. S. A., Marion
*Brown, W. H., Springville
Brown, Mrs. W. H., Springville
Bruner, Emma, Cedar Rapids
Burt, Mrs. L. W., Cedar Rapids
Buttolph, Edwin, Cedar Rapids
Calvert, Amanda J., Springville
Certain, Wilson, Marion
*Cornell, J. D., Springville
Cory, Abel L., Marion
*Cory, Daniel M., Marion
Cory, Samuel E., Cedar Rapids
Coulter, John, Cedar Rapids
Crawford, Geo. E., Cedar Rapids
Crogan, Thomas, Cedar Rapids
Crowl, Jacob, Marion
Dixon, Mrs. Harriett, Cedar Rapids
Evans, Hattie, Central City
Fawley, Hannah, Springville
Fawley, Samuel, Springville
*Fitzgarrald, W. F., Marion
Fleming, Julia, Alburnett
Floyd, Jacob, Center Point
*Forsythe, H. M., Cedar Rapids
Forsythe, Mrs. H. M., Cedar Rapids
Goudy, Mrs. L. A., Marion
Goldsberry, W. N., Central City
*Graul, Daniel, Lisbon
*Harris, Richard, Marion
*Hayden, Z. L., Cedar Rapids
*Henderson, J. W., Cedar Rapids
Hendrickson, F. M., Center Point
Hall, O. S., Marion
Hunter, Harriet E., Marion
Johnston, Mary, Mt. Vernon
*Kearns, John A., Springville
Kyle, W. H., Mt. Vernon
King, Wm., Cedar Rapids
Lamson, Eva, Marion
Lathrop, Virgil A., Marion
*Lockhart, Robert, Cedar Rapids
Lord, Clara, Fairfax
Marsh, Harriett, Robins
*McAfee, D. T., Marion
*Mentz, Michael, Cedar Rapids
Mentzer, Samuel, Center Point
Metcalf, Mrs. C. P., Cedar Rapids
Mohler, Mary S., Lafayette
Moreland, John, Central City
McCrelles, Z., Central City
Myers, W. H., Cedar Rapids
Oliphant, Permelia, Toddville
Oxley, Marshall, Marion
Pennington, J. M., Alburnette
Phelps, Sarah B., Covington
Rickard, C., Cedar Rapids
Ring, W. C., Center Point
Schultz, Chas., Marion
Scott, T. W., Marion
*Smith, John T., Cedar Rapids
Smith, Dr. J. H., Cedar Rapids
Smyth, Jay J., Marion
*Stark, Laurance, Marion
*Stentz, Peter A., Springville
Stick, Wm., Lafayette
Stockberger, John R., Marion
Thompson, Wm. G., Marion
Thoring, Samuel, Bertram
Treat, Mrs. D. J., Marion
*Wagner, Geo., Toddville
Ware, Mary E., Coggon
Weed, Egbert, Marion
*White, Crawford, Marion
Whitenack, Sarah J., Marion
*Wilson, Polly, Marion
White, James F., Alburnette
White, N. J., Marion
Wilson, John H., Marion
*Yount, Broxton, Mt. Vernon

1854

Adams, Margaret, Marion
*Armstrong, W. B., Marion
Austin, Wm. A., Marion
Bartleson, J. M., Center Point
Bauman, Simon H., Mt. Vernon
Bombardner, Mrs. C., Cedar Rapids
Beach, B. F., Mt. Vernon
Bedell, Elwood T., Springville
Bice, Isaac, Troy Mills
Bice, James, West Prairie
*Bishop, Henry O., Waubeek
*Blackmar, Augustus, Marion
Blodgett, Simpson, Central City
*Braska, Louise, Marion
Braska, C. W., Marion
*Busby, Geo., Marion
Busby, B. C., Marion
Butcher, A. P., Paralta
Cadwell, Edwin, Cedar Rapids
*Cadwell, Mary, Covington
Cairns, W. A., Ely
*Camburn, J. H., Cedar Rapids
Caraway, John S., Bertram
Carlin, Geo. W., Cedar Rapids
Carpenter, Mary A., Cedar Rapids
*Carsner, Mathias, Marion
*Conklin, Chauncey, Prairieburg
Cornell, Amy, Springville
Cory, James, Robins
Cutler, Eva G., Central City
*Davis, Geo. A., Jr., Central City
*Davis, J. C., Marion
Davis, Jas. H., Central City
Dawley, Darius, Cedar Rapids
Dawley, John, Marshalltown
*DeWitt, J. V., Martelle
Edgerly, Geo. C., Central City
Elrod, Jonathan, Marion
Ellis, Martha, Cedar Rapids
Ellis, Levi, Springville
Fay, H. H., Troy Mills
Fitzgerrald, Mary A., Cedar Rapids
*Floyd, Geo. W., Marion
*Ford, B. S., Marion
Ford, Margaret, Marion
Fowler, S. J., Marion
Goodlove, W. H., Marion
*Goldsberry, Mrs. A. M., Marion
Groll, Geo. F., Marion
*Gitchell, Chas. G., Waubeek
Heaton, Mary A., Central City
Heaton, Olive, Cedar Rapids
*Heaton, Samuel, Cedar Rapids
Henderson, Henry, Coggon
Henderson, P. G., Central City
*Hess, Abraham, Marion
*Heer, Mary, Marion
*Hollis, Elizabeth C., Marion
Huston, Chas. A., Waubeek
Huston, James M., Waubeek
Johnson, Wm., Marion
*Jones, Wm., Marion
Kaiser, John L., Marion
Kennedy, C. B., Marion
Kennedy, Mrs. C. B., Marion
Kimball, Emma J., Springville
Kinkead, Alexander, Springville
*Kleinknecht, Geo., Mt. Vernon
Klumph, V. G., Marion
Knowlton, Fred, Seattle, Wash.
Knickerbocker, W. B., Cedar Rapids
*Lacock, Joab, Mt. Vernon
Lacock, Wm. A., Martelle
*Lillie, Mary, Marion
Lord, Clara, Fairfax
Lord, Lydia, Cedar Rapids
Lord, Robert, Cedar Rapids
Lutz, John E., Kenwood
Manson, Dwight, Marion
*Marshall, S. H., Viola
*Marshall, Mrs. S. H., Viola
*Martin, F. M., Center Point
Mason, Edwin R., Marion
McIntyre, Z., Mound City, Kans.
McKay, John M., Cedar Rapids
*McFarlin, J. J., Mt. Vernon
McLord, Maggie, Central City
Melton, Nancy, Marion
Melton, P. T., Marion
*Moody, Philip, Cedar Rapids
Mentzer, B. F., Marion
Mentzer, Mrs. B. F., Marion
*Mentzer, C. C., Marion
Miles, L. W., Marion
*Miles, Geo., Robins
Moles, Robert M., Paris
*Myers, J. V., Mt. Vernon
Neff, M. K., Mt. Vernon
Nye, John W., Cedar Rapids
Odell, Lewis H., Mt. Vernon
Oxley, Mrs. H. C., Marion
Palmer, H. G., Marion
Parr, Geo., Cedar Rapids
*Pearson, Geo., Springville
Pearson, Hanna K., Springville
Pearson, Mary, Springville
Pearson, O. J., Springville
*Pearson, Thomas, Springville
*Pearson, Wm., Springville
Pearson, Margaret A., Viola
*Penn, Rebecca T., Viola
Penn, R. R., Viola
*Penn, S. J., Central City
Penn, Wm. B., Central City
Platner, Henry C., Mt. Vernon
Plumly, Chas. O., Waubeek
*Reece, Henry, Troy Mills
Reece, Lucia, Troy Mills
Rhoten, Chas. W., Viola
Rich, Allie, Marion
*Richard, D. H., Cedar Rapids
Riley, Allie, Marion
*Ross, James G., Marion
*Reynolds, J. W., Center Point
Rogers, Mary C., Cedar Rapids
Runkle, Abraham, Lisbon
Runkle, A. J., Cedar Rapids
*Samson, E. L., Marion
*Samson, Catherine, Marion
*Scott, J. B., Marion
*Scott, Mary E., Marion
Secrist, Alice, Marion
*Simpson, S., Marion
Sawyer, Ebner, Central City
Sheets, Geo. W., Palo
Smith, John, Cedar Rapids
Smith, S. G., Cedar Rapids
Swollom, M., Solon
Snyder, Elias, Cedar Rapids
Snyder, Michael, Mt. Vernon
*Snyder, Thos. G., Robins
Stentz, Peter, Paralta
*Staddon, James, Marion
Stratford, John, Palo
Strite, Levi, Anamosa
*Stowe, Leonard, Marion
Swan, Emma, Marion
Taylor, D. C., Central City
*Thomas, O. E., Cedar Rapids
Treat, Garry, Marion
*Vance, Willis, Cedar Rapids
Walser, John, Marion
Weeks, W. H., Coggon
Whitcomb, Mary E., Marion
Withers, Caroline, Marion
*Williams, Mrs. M. C., Marion
Wilson, Thomas R., Waterloo
*Wiggin, Geo. W., Waubeek
*Wink, Samuel, Lisbon
Wilson, Wm., Lafayette
Winsor, James R., Walker
*Yearick, Dr. S. W., Cedar Rapids

1855

Adams, A., Lafayette
Adams, Hudson, Marion
*Ashlock, Geo. W., Center Point
Ashlock, J. M., Center Point
Ashlock, Margaret J., Center Point
Basset, Thomas, Cedar Rapids
Beall, Della N., Marion
*Becks, John, Marion
*Beatty, Andrew, Mt. Vernon
Bever, Rachel F., Viola
Beechley, N. K., Cedar Rapids
Biggs, E. J., Troy Mills
Bigsby, Mary A., Marion
Black, Mrs. John, Marion
Blodgett, Austin, Central City
Blodgett, Maria L., Central City
Blodgett, Sarah F., Waubeek
Bowdish, Sarah F., Waubeek
Brown, W. L., Viola
*Buck, Daniel, Cedar Rapids
Burchell, Sarah M., Marion
*Burtis, Wm., Marion
Burroughs, N. E., Marion
Busenbark, Alfred, Marion
*Burtis, Elizabeth B., Paris
*Bumgardner, Geo., Cedar Rapids
Cain, Sallie, Palo
Cain, S. W., Palo
Chambers, Mrs. J. M., Cedar Rapids
*Collin, Henry A., Mt. Vernon
Cone, Sarah E., Marion
*Cook, Geo., Marion
Cook, Mrs. Geo., Marion
Crosby, A. T., Central City
Davis, L. L., Cedar Rapids
Davis, Minnie C., Marion
Dean, Rachel M., Marion
*Dix, A. W., Coggon
*Dix, Sylvanus, Coggon
*Dunn, Pheobe C., Marion
*Dunn, Wm., Marion
*Elrod, Kate, Marion
*Ellsberry, Z. V., Marion
Emmons, Wm., Marion
*Elrod, F. M., Bertram
Evans, Adam, Paris
Evans, E. H., Marion
*Fairchilds, J. H., Coggon
Finson, Lee R., Central City
Ford, Frank, Central City
Glover, Agnes, Marion
Glover, Wm. C., Marion
*Granger, Earl, Marion
*Gray, Martha J., Marion
Grant, John, Marion
Gray, S. E., Marion
Goodyear, A. E., Mt. Vernon
*Hahn, Elias S., Lisbon
*Harkness, Margaret, Marion
Hale, E. S., Cedar Rapids
*Hale, Josiah, Cedar Rapids
Hale, John P., Cedar Rapids
*Hawk, John, Marion
Helbig, Fred A., Lafayette
Hayden, Elma Jane, Bertram
Henry, Lizzie, Robins
*Houver, Sadie C., Marion
Hunter, W. H., Cedar Rapids
Inks, Mrs. L. A., Mt. Vernon
Inks, M. L., Mt. Vernon
Ives, John J., Marion
*Jackson, J. W., Springville
Jeffries, A., Troy Mills
Jeffries, Elizabeth, Troy Mills
Johnson, James, Cedar Rapids
Kearn, Joseph, Marion
Kettering, A., Marion
Kinkead, Geo., Springville
Kinkead, Mary J., Springville
Knapp, Henry J., Bertram
Lewis, T. J., Cedar Rapids
Lamson, Wm. H., Marion
Lewis, Chas., Orange City
Lilly, Joseph, Cedar Rapids
Marshall, Lucretia, Central City
Martin, Rilla H., Troy Mills
Martin, Thos. C., Robins
Mason, F. P., Toddville
McFarland, Wm., Mt. Vernon
McDowle, W. K., Cedar Rapids
McKean, Allen B., Marion
Milner, Wm. T., Marion
Mills, Sylvester N., Marion
Mitchell, Mrs. Eliza, Marion
Moorhead, James, Marion
*Moorhead, Joseph, Marion
*Myers, John A., Lisbon
Morrow, L. E., Marion
Newlin, Geo., Viola
Neff, A. G., Mt. Vernon
North, G., Mt. Vernon
*Oakley, M. M., Marion
Oakley, Susan M., Marion
Oxley, John C., Troy Mills
Oxley, Marguerite, Marion
*Parmenter, M., Marion
Parmenter, S. A., Marion
Paul, Mrs. Alex, Marion
Patmore, Henry, Marion
*Pfeiffer, Christopher, Marion
Potter, Mary A., Marion
Petty, Chas. H., Mt. Vernon
Porter, H. G., Central City
Potter, Charlotte, Walker
Potter, J. B., Marion
Ray, John H., Palo
Robins, J. D., Robins
Rogers, Mary C., Cedar Rapids
Schafer, Jacob, Fairfax
Schultz, Henry, Marion
Sisam, Henry, Walker
Smith, Martha G., Cedar Rapids
Smith, Milo P., Cedar Rapids
Smith, Rebecca, Central City
*Smith, Robert, Mt. Vernon
Smyth, Robert, Marion
*Snyder, A., Center Point
Stark, Andrew, Cedar Rapids
Stark, Mary, Cedar Rapids
*Stephens, Louisa, Chicago
*Stookey, Levi S., Marion
*Sutzin, Elizabeth, Marion
*Sutzin, Henry, Marion
Tordoff, Geo., Marion
*Tomlinson, Joe, Cedar Rapids
Van Fossen, J. R., Marion
*Vosburg, Eva, Marion
Ware, E. L., Coggon
Webb, Alice A., Marion
Whitcomb, Calvin, Marion
*Whitenack, Joseph, Marion
Whitenack, Mary J., Marion
*Whitney, Joseph, Prairieburg
Wiggins, James, Waubeek
*Wilson, John, Marion
Wilson, L. L., Center Point
*Willis, A. L., Coggon
*Winsor, F. E., Marion
Winter, Stillman L., Marion
Winans, H. W., Springville
*Yost, C. A., Center Point
Yost, F. M., Center Point
Young, Louis, Minneapolis
Young, Mrs. J. B., Minneapolis
*Young, S. K., Mt. Vernon
*Yuill, James, Cedar Rapids

1856

*Alexander, Anna A., Marion
*Ayers, Lyman M., Cedar Rapids
*Allen, M. B., Marion
Bailey, Anna C., Springville
Barrett, T. M., Waubeek
Barry, W. H., Bertram
Beach, Lucy, Mt. Vernon
Berryhill, Kate M., Marion
Bishop, Louise, Waubeek
Blackford, John, Marion
Boudinot, E. V., Western College
*Bowman, Benjamin, Marion
Bowman, Eliza, Marion
Bowdish, I. P., Waubeek
Bowdish, J. W., Des Moines
Bowdish, Sarah A., Waubeek

[Illustration: THE VARDY HOUSE, CEDAR RAPIDS]

[Illustration: FRANKLIN BLOCK AND RESIDENCE OF P. W. EARLE First Brick
House in Cedar Rapids]

[Illustration: THE LISTEBARGER CABIN, CEDAR RAPIDS Showing
Semi-Centennial Exercises in 1906]

Bowdish, S. L., Waubeek
Bowdish, S. L., Central City
Booze, Leander, Cedar Rapids
Brown, R. C., Marion
Brock, R. G., Cedar Rapids
Brundt, Rosalia, Waubeek
Bunting, M. E., Marion
Bunting, C., Marion
Busby, Cora C., Marion
*Byram, Seth, Paris
Cottle, Eliza, Marion
*Cronk, J. T., Marion
*Davis, Wm. C., Martelle
Dawson, Daniel K., Marion
*Dingman, D. A., Cedar Rapids
Dripps, Geo., Martelle
*Elliott, J. J., Marion
Elliott, M. L., Grand Rapids, Mich.
Elsberry, Sarah J., Marion
*Emberson, Andrew, Marion
*Emberson, John, Marion
*English, Josie P., Waubeek
Etzel, Levi, Alburnette
Everhart, S. S., Mt. Vernon
Fordyce, C., Cedar Rapids
Fordyce, Kate, Cedar Rapids
Gibson, B. W., Marion
Gibson, James, Springville
*Gibson, J. K., Marion
*Gibson, Lewis, Marion
*Gill, Jacob A., Marion
*Gilchrist, C., Walker
*Giffen, James D., Marion
*Giffen, Thomas M., Marion
*Giffen, Wm. M., Central City
Gooley, Mrs. F. E., Central City
*Grauel, John, Marion
Halstead, W. C., Prairieburg
Harvey, Mrs. A., Cedar Rapids
*Hatch, E. K., Central City
*Hays, J. D., Palo
Hoentz, Philip, Marion
Howe, M. W., Marion
Huffman, James M., Marion
*Huffman, Mrs. J. M., Marion
Johnson, O. S., Springville
Jones, Mrs. L. E., Marion
Jones, Mrs. M. B., Marion
Knickerbocker, E. H., Fairfax
Kerns, Valentine, Paralta
*Kettering, J. H., Lisbon
*Kinkead, James, Springville
Kelsey, H. M., Cedar Rapids
*Kirkpatrick, James, Mt. Vernon
Kramer, W. S., Marion
Lake, Mrs. E., Marion
Leonard, John, Kenwood
*Lapham, H. M., Cedar Rapids
Lentz, Lucia A., Cedar Rapids
Lillie, Ida L., Marion
Lord, Thomas, Fairfax
*Lyons, Amos, Alburnette
*Mack, Mrs. W. B., Cedar Rapids
Maier, Jacob, Lafayette
*Marshall, Alex S., Marion
Martin, Electa, Marion
Mason, Mary E., Marion
*Mathes, Anna, Marion
*Mathes, Ben, Marion
McCalley, Luncinda, Marion
*McConahy, F. A., Marion
McCalley, Marshall, Marion
McKean, E. W., Marion
McKean, Mrs. General, Marion
McKean, Phebe L., Marion
*McKeel, A. M., Fairfax
*Mefford, Sarah, Cedar Rapids
Meeker, Henry, Central City
Meeker, Henry R., Central City
Miner, Samuel, Cedar Rapids
Mobey, F. B., Palo
Moles, John D., Central City
Moore, C. R., Viola
Moore, Wm., Viola
Moore, Wm. K., Springville
Nash, Isaac, Springville
Newlin, H. N., Viola
*Needles, Geo. H., Kenwood
*Null, J. M., Cedar Rapids
*Owen, Luther P., Marion
Owen, Rachel, Waubeek
Parkhurst, Mary E., Marion
Perkins, Mary C., Marion
Pearson, L. H., Viola
Pherrin, M. C., Springville
Pherrin, Will H., Springville
Platner, Henry C., Mt. Vernon
Plummer, Talbert, Marion
Post, M. C., Viola
*Rahn, B. G., Marion
*Rahn, Rebecca, Marion
*Rathbun, Nelson, Marion
Reichard, Ben R., Marion
*Reichard, J. G., Marion
Richard, Emma T., Cedar Rapids
Robertson, Frank B., Viola
*Rogers, W. H., Covington
*Runkle, Adam, Lisbon
Sanborn, J. W., Center Point
*Schrimper, Fred, Cedar Rapids
Schadle, Jacob, Springville
Schadle, Mrs. Jacob, Springville
Scott, H. A., Marion
*Shakespear, A. B., Springville
Schantz, Geo. W., Cedar Rapids
*Shaver, I. H., Cedar Rapids
Smith, A. W., Cedar Rapids
Smith, Henry B., Cedar Rapids
Spencer, Ellen J., Cedar Rapids
Stilson, Luther, Cedar Rapids
Stilson, Eleanor, Cedar Rapids
Stinger, Harriet, Marion
Stinson, E. B., Marion
Tanner, T. C., Palo
Taylor, E. P., Marion
Thomas, James, Marion
Thomas, Wm. A., Cedar Rapids
Thompson, Augusta, Martelle
Thompson, Geo., Mt. Vernon
*Thompson, Geo. W., Mt. Vernon
Thorn, Wm. A., Cedar Rapids
Travis, Mrs. R. J., Marion
Usher, J. P., Cedar Rapids
*Wallace, Leroy, Cedar Rapids
Ware, A. J., Coggon
*Waterhouse, Henry S., Coggon
Webb, S., Center Point
Winsor, H. C., Walker
Wright, Charles, Paralta
Wynn, Geo. W., Cedar Rapids
Wood, Chas. C., Paralta

1857

Atwood, John E., Troy Mills
Barrett, Philip, Central City
Bennett, Clara Waubeek
Berry, Almanda R., Bertram
Bowdish, Laura E., Waubeek
Burnett, A. C., Alburnett
*Carpenter, Nancy M., Marion
Davis, A. F., Central City
Davis, H. E., Central City
Chesmore, Mrs. E. E., Coggon
*Gritman, John F., Springville
Gritman, J. C., Springville
Gritman, Hannah B., Springville
Henderson, Hannah, Coggon
Henderson, Geo., Cedar Rapids
Heller, Chas., Lisbon
*Hickey, John, Marion
Ingham, E. A., Marion
Kirkpatrick, R., Mt. Vernon
*Leach, A. P., Marion
*Leach, Harriet, Marion
Listerbarger, Frank, Marion
Lutz, George, Kenwood
Manahan, E. G., Kenwood
Mentzer, Geo. W., Robins
Mentzer, S. W., Robins
Mentzer, B. W., Robins
Marshall, C. H., Marion
Newman, C. R., Cedar Rapids
Patterson, U. L., Central City
Pearsole, C., Walker
Phelps, H. H., Covington
Phillips, F. M., Coggon
Powers, Mary E., Paris
*Rawlins, Samuel, Viola
Richards, Mrs. E., Cedar Rapids
Robbins, Anna, Martelle
*Robinson, John, Marion
Rundall, J. C., Viola
*Simkins, Allen G., Marion
Simkins, James T., Marion
Snyder, Jacob, Alburnette
*Snyder, Martha, Mt. Vernon
Stoneking, J. R., Marion
Stoneking, T. C., Marion
Ubel, F., Cedar Rapids
Vaughn, Elizabeth P., Marion
Vaughn, L. P., Marion
*Warner, E. A., Waubeek
Warner, Laura, Waubeek
Webb, Chas., Center Point
White, Editha, Marion
Whitney, G. F., Prairieburg
Withers, Frank B., Marion
Williams, T. T., Marion
Wilson, DeWitt C., Viola
Witter, F. E., Mt. Vernon

1858

Bromwell, J. E., Marion
*Brubaker, Hattie A., Cedar Rapids
Chrisman, Mary J., Alburnett
*Coenen, Joseph, Marion
Collin, Alonzo, Mt. Vernon
Grauel, Sarah, Marion
Gibson, J. W., Marion
Good, Henry, Kenwood
Kemp, E. L., Marion
Lake, C. S., Marion
*Love, J. S., Springville
*Mack, Walter B., Cedar Rapids
*McKean, J. B., Marion
Minehart, L. E., Central City
Moore, Jos., Cedar Rapids
Rudolph, S. L., Cedar Rapids
Strite, Mrs. Mary E., Springville
Stoneking, M. E., Marion
Ware, Milo L., Coggon
Whitenack, E. P., Robins

1859

Blakely, I. M., Paris
Breed, M., Des Moines
Cline, Isaac, Anamosa
Fleming, Wm., Alburnett
Forest, R. D., Central City
Greer, Annetta, Marion
*Hood, John B., Waubeek
King, Mary A., Cedar Rapids
McCorkle, C. A., Toddville
Owens, Carl N., Marion
*Vanlst, M., Toddville
Vanote, M., Toddville
Vaughn, Laura, Marion
*Wilson, Jas. B., Marion
West, I. N., Mt. Vernon
Yount, D. W., Marion

1860

Applegate, W. H., Marion
Cline, M. M., Olin
Cline, E. B., Springville
Dows, Col. W. G., Cedar Rapids
Everhart, Ida E., Mt. Vernon
Johnson, I. V., Marion
Knapp, J. W., Marion
*Lillie, Geo. A., Marion
Mann, Mrs. Alice, Springville
Mann, Lucy, Springville
Matheny, T., Toddville
O'Herron, Mrs. Maggie, Marion
Parker, Emma Murray, Marion
*Secrist, Chas. V., Marion
Seaton, B. F., Marion

1861

*Burns, Abbie, Central City
*Burnside, Geo. W., Coggon
*Freisinger, D., Marion
Garnett, J. C., Marion
*Hollis, C. M., Marion
Hartley, S. H., Cedar Rapids
McDowle, E. E., Cedar Rapids
Kinknead, Margaret, Springville
Petticord, Sarah, Mt. Vernon
Scott, Ed M., Cedar Rapids
Secrist, Albert M., Marion
*Secrist, Susan B., Marion
Tathwell, E. E., Cedar Rapids
Thomas, Mary J., Marion
Winter, W. S., Marion

1862

Goodlove, Mrs. S., Central City
Smith, Mrs. Olive, Marion
Torrence, Nellie B., Marion
Weis, H. J., Marion
Wickham, W. F., Waubeek

1863

Cherry, Jos., Walker
Cherry, Susan, Walker
Christman, L. B., Springville
Daniels, J. F., Cedar Rapids
Davis, W. L., Cedar Rapids
Deacon, C. J., Cedar Rapids
Freer, H. H., Mt. Vernon
Gibson, Mary L., Marion
Gill, Chas., Marion
Hagerman, R. H., Toddville
Newland, H. N., Marion
Oxley, Mrs. James, Marion
*Palmer, Wm. A., Paralta
Palmer, E. E., Cedar Rapids
Spencer, Chas. H., Cedar Rapids

1864

*Aldrich, Mrs. Hannah, Cedar Rapids
Carpenter, Claude, Marion
Carpenter, W. B., Marion
Doolittle, E., Central City
*Dodge, G. F., Fairfax
Fernow, Owen S., Marion
Fishell, P. H., Marion
Garrison, Edwin, Marion
Hindman, D. R., Marion
*Hindman, Mrs. M. J., Marion
Hall, S. M., Cedar Rapids
Horton, W. R., Marion
Horn, W. R., Cedar Rapids
Horn, F. M., Marion
Horn, J. W., Cedar Rapids
*McClain, W. H., Marion
Murray, S. G., Marion
Shumack, V. G., Marion
Snyder, Geo. L., Marion
Travis, Jas. B., Marion
Weis, Louis, Marion

1865

Booth, John M., Marion
Burns, S. C., Marion
Burns, G. W., Marion
Burke, Mary, Marion
Faulk, Jonathan, Marion
Gilmore, David, Marion
Horn, Jennie, Cedar Rapids
Hunter, Mrs. Samuel, Robins
Karmody, Wm., Springville
Kearns, Mrs. E. E., Springville
Mann, J. H., Marion
Perry, W. J., Central City
Searls, J. M., Cedar Rapids
Searls, Mrs. J. M., Cedar Rapids
Savage, Mack, Coggon
Starbuck, J. A., Marion
Sternberger, Mary, Lisbon
*Voss, Christian, Marion
Tanner, Addie, Palo
Wilson, A. H., Springville
White, L. E., Marion
Wiltsey, M., Center Point
Wiltsey, Mrs. C. V., Center Point

1866

Armstrong, S. G., Cedar Rapids
Baird, M. O., Palo
Birdsall, C. H., Marion
Calder, C. A., Cedar Rapids
*Coquillette, A. C., Coggon
Good, Jas. W., Cedar Rapids
Isaacs, J., Walker
Johnson, Adelade L., Marion
Johnson, Oliver S., Marion
Lessard, Clara A., Heber, Ark.
Malone, Mrs. Fannie, Springville
McAllister, John, Cedar Rapids
*Powers, E. D., Elmont
Redmond, John, Cedar Rapids
Scott, H. A., Marion
Teeters, M. J., Marion
Todd, Geo. W., Marion
Ward, F. K., Cedar Rapids
Ward, Mary E., Cedar Rapids
*Weller, W. L., Cedar Rapids
Witwer, B. H., Cedar Rapids
Wolf, G. P., Cedar Rapids

1867

Anderson, Lew W., Cedar Rapids
Cleveland, F. J., Marion
Coquillette, A. W., Coggon
Graves, J. G., Cedar Rapids
Healey, L. M., Cedar Rapids
Howard, T. C., Cedar Rapids
Kassler, Mrs. Peter, Marion
Lopata, Ernest, Mt. Vernon
Minor, R. L., Marion
Nagle, Jacob, Marion
Plummer, Amos, Springville
Taylor, H. N., Marion
Wing, Martha, Cedar Rapids
Yapels, J. C., Sutton, Neb.
Yapels, Mrs. R. C., Sutton, Neb.

1868

Foster, E. F., Cedar Rapids
Francis, Mrs. P. H., Cedar Rapids
Hamilton, J. T., Cedar Rapids
Jenkins, Mrs. C. P., Cedar Rapids
*Jenkins, L. E., Cedar Rapids
Kubias, Frank, Cedar Rapids
Michel, J. B., Marion
Robinson, J. D., Marion
Watt, John R., Cedar Rapids
Wild, David, Springville
Wild, Mary A., Springville
Wenig, Geo. K., Cedar Rapids

1869

*Barnhill, Joseph, Marion
Barnhill, Sarah E., Marion
Benley, Charity, Viola
Biggs, C. W., Marion
*Bourne, N. P., Cedar Rapids
Clogston, Anna M., Marion
*Clogston, T. P., Marion
Fernow, F. P., Marion
Hart, T. J., Center Point
*Rowe, J. D., Marion
*Rowe, Mrs. J. D., Marion
Sailor, Geo. D., Springville
Shellhammer, D. W., Springville

1870

Anderson, John B., Cedar Rapids
Donnan, W. J., Cedar Rapids
Emerson, C. P., Cedar Rapids
Fitzgerald, R. N., Marion
Plattenburger, P. L., Lisbon
*Powell, J. J., Cedar Rapids
Ring, H. C., Marion

1871

Senninger, P. W., Marion
Yocum, Edd, Springville

1872

Beck, C. C., Marion
Berry, J. C., Fairfax
Emmerson, J. W., Cedar Rapids
Holsinger, J. B., Marion
Maudsley, Mrs. John W., Palo
Plummer, Mrs. C. C., Mt. Vernon
Parker, Mary E., Marion
Reiter, A. J., Marion
Rubek, Joseph, Marion
Scott, Bently, Marion
Scott, Chas. M., Marion
Stark, Eliza J., Marion
Swem, Edd L., Cedar Rapids

1873

Coenen, Wm., Marion
Courtney, Marlin W., Marion
Carroll, C. D., Marion
Healy, E. T., Cedar Rapids
Holmes, Frank, Marion
Scott, Sadie J., Marion
Johnson, Edward, Cedar Rapids
Johnson, Maggie, Cedar Rapids

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. GODFREY QUASS Came in 1849]

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. WM. GIDDINGS Came in 1852]

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. ISAAC MILLBURN Early Settlers]

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. W. A. LACOCK Came in 1854]

[Illustration: J. P. GLASS Early Pioneer]

[Illustration: F. A. HELBIG Came in 1853]

1875 and Later

*Bach, Mrs. C., Marion
Busby, Geo. E., Marion
Buzza, Geo., Marion
Coenen, Ben, Marion
Davis, T. J., Marion
Dennis, A. Z., Walker
Dennis, Mary L., Walker
Gates, Elizabeth, Marion
Gates, W. A., Marion
Hall, J. E., Marion
Jellison, Ernest C., Marion
Johnson, M. F., Marion
Kassler, Peter, Marion
LaGrange, Dr. J. W., Marion
Love, Richard, Marion
Mercer, B. H., Marion
Parker, Edd Jr., Marion
Parsons, Effie, Marion
Perrin, Ruth G., Springville
Rathbun, D. W., Marion
Sargeant, D. E., Marion
*Sergeant, Harriett M., Marion
Sikora, Otto, Cedar Rapids
Taylor, Mrs. J. S., Cedar Rapids
Unangst, J. H., Marion
Vannote, W. A., Cedar Rapids
Webber, Thos., Marion
White, Mary Alice, Marion

Recent Members Enrolled

Allen, Geo. W., Bertram
Bailey, J. M., Marion
Burgess, Martin, Marion
Busby, Fred K., Marion
Canedy, Leroy, Marion
Careir, J. E., Marion
Clark, P. O., Marion
Cunningham, Mrs. F. A., Marion
Daniels, J. D., Springville
Deacon, Syloid M., Cedar Rapids
Dill, Isabelle, Cedar Rapids
Grommon, Chas., Marion
Heir, A. A., Marion
Hess, J. T., Marion
Holland, J. W., Center Point
Holland, Mrs. R. A., Center Point
King, J. E., Marion
Maddo, Wm., Marion
Maudsley, J. W., Palo
Miller, Thos., Marion
Mitchell, C. E., Marion
Mitchell, John, Jr., Marion
Murray, Mrs. R. C., Marion
Nihill, Lizzie, Cedar Rapids
Schultz, P. F., Marion
Straley, A. W., Marion
Temow, E. L., Marion
Temow, Mrs. E. L., Marion
Turner, John B., Cedar Rapids
Turner, Mary B., Cedar Rapids
Van Tossen, Mrs. A. L., Central City



CHAPTER X

_Postoffices and Politics_


The following may be of some interest, especially as to the names of
the persons mentioned by S. W. Durham as proper persons with whom to
consult on matters bearing upon the political issues of the day. It
also shows how they fought for postoffices then as they do now, and how
careful and shrewd these old fellows were in getting in touch with
their constituents. According to a letter from the assistant
postmaster-general, Dr. Brice is not deserving of the office, and
George Melton is recommended. This was referred to S. W. Durham, as
well as the change of the name of the postoffice from Lindon to
Springville. It was signed by fifty-eight citizens of Springville. A.
C. Dodge was born in 1812, the son of Henry Dodge. He was in congress
until the territory became a state, and with G. W. Jones became one of
the first two senators from Iowa. Mr. Dodge remained in congress till
1855 when the democratic party lost control of the state and a union of
all the other parties elected James Harlan to succeed him. Senator
Dodge was later minister to Spain. He died in 1883, having won the
respect and confidence of all political parties. The letters show how
carefully the friends of Dodge kept him in touch with political
conditions in every township in his district.

The assembly met at Iowa City on December 4, 1848. G. W. Jones was a
candidate against Judge T. S. Wilson, who lost by a majority of one.
Dodge had no opposition in his own party and received the unanimous
nomination. The democratic party in this session had a majority on
joint ballot. He no doubt had been busy, and had his friends keep him
posted on the course of events. This list no doubt was furnished him
for the purpose of keeping in touch with the electors and to give him
an opportunity to select postmasters in accordance with services
rendered. The letters give some the name whig, which would go to show
that all the remainder could be relied upon as democratic in their
beliefs.

The list has names of a number of men who later became noted lawyers,
doctors, and shrewd business men.

The Marion postoffice was not always a plum to fight over, as it has
been of late. It was first established in 1839 at the home of L. M.
Strong, a farmer and tavern-keeper within the present confines of the
county seat. L. Daniels came in 1840 to start the first store, and he
in turn became the postmaster for a time till he gave it up to John
Zunro, who with Mr. Hoops started a grocery store and wanted the
postoffice so as to have people coming in now and then.

               Marion, Linn County, Iowa, December 30, 1848.

     HON. A. C. DODGE,

     Dear Sir: In compliance with your request I have the
     pleasure to forward the following names of suitable persons
     in this county to be addressed by you:

     Center Point P. O.: Jonathan Osborne, William B. Davis,
     James Downs, Samuel C. Stewart, Thomas G. Lockhart, James
     Chambers, E. B. Spencer, W. A. Thomas, Dr. S. M. Brice
     (Whig).

     Lafayette P. O.: Samuel Hendrickson (Co. Com.), Nathan
     Reynolds, Duff Barrows, Smith Mounce, Perry Oliphant (Whig),
     John Wisehart, Abel E. Skinner, William Hunt, William
     Chamberlain, Paddock Cheadle.

     Marion P. O.: And. D. Bottorff, Esq., V. Beall, Alpheus
     Brown, Esq., Richard Thomas, Perry Oxley, Wm. H. Chambers,
     Nathan Wickham, Wm. L. Winters, Wm. M. Harris, Albert
     Kendall, Elihu Ives, Iram Wilson, Jno. Millner, Seth
     Stinson, Wm. Smythe, Frederick Beeler, Elisha Moore, Robert
     Jones, J. P. Brown, Orlando Gray, Daniel Harris, Jno. S.
     Torrence, Jno. Riley, James M. Berry, Thomas S. Bardwell,
     Wm. Hunter, Geo. A. Patterson, Captain Benj. Waterhouse, L.
     D. Jordan, Chandler Jordan, M. E. McKenney, Jos. Clark,
     Samuel Powell.

     Springville P. O.: Col. Isaac Butler, Horace N. Brown, Jos.
     Butler, Ezekiel Cox, Esq., Wm. Brohard, Squire Rob, Geo.
     Perkins, Jas. Butler, Geo. House, Harvey Stone, Wm. Evans,
     Edward Crow, John Johnson.

     Ivanhoe P. O.: Robt. Smythe, Mr. Bunker, Dan'l Hahn, Henry
     Kepler, And. J. McKean, J. Briney, ---- Hoover, Hersia
     Moore, And. R. Sausman, A. I. Willits, C. C. Haskins, ----
     Cook, Jos. Robeson, Dr. Jno. Evans, John Stewart, ----
     Mason, Thos. McLelland.

     St. Julian P. O.: And. Safely, Esq., (Co. Com.), ----
     McShane, Jas. Scott, Preston Scott, Jno. Scott, Jos. Conway,
     Geo. Hunter, David McCall, John Emmons.

     Hollenback P. O.: Edward Railsback, Jno. Cue, Doctor
     Williams, Dan'l Richards, Thomas Lewis, Geo. Slonecker,
     Lawrence Hollenback.

     Cedar Rapids P. O.: Jos. Greene, Jno. L. Shearer, C. R.
     Mulford, Jno. Hunter, Esq., Joel Leverich, ---- Klump, E. T.
     Lewis, N. B. Brown, David W. King, Jason C. Bartholomew,
     Stephen L. Pollock, ---- Nelson, Dr. Ely, Jno. Weare, Sen.,
     Jos. McKee, Thos. Railsback, Abel Eddy, Mr. Simms.

Post Office Department
Appointment Office, Aug. 9, 1854.

     Sir:

     S. M. Brice, the Postmaster at Center Point, County of Linn,
     State of Iowa, is said not to have deserved the appointment.
     The late P. M. recommends George Melton.

     Before submitting this case to the Postmaster General, I
     have to request the favor of any information you may
     possess, or be able conveniently to obtain, respecting it.

                  I have the honor to be,
                       Very respectfully, &c.

                                          HORATIO KING,

                              First Assistant Postmaster General.

     HON. A. C. DODGE,
         U. S. Senator.

     Endorsed:
         (Private)

     Dear Friend:

     Please enquire into the matter herein referred to & let me
     know the result & greatly oblige,

                       Truly your friend,
                                           A. C. DODGE.

     S. W. Durham, Esq.

Dr. S. M. Brice was located in Center Point about 1840-41, going there
from Cedar Rapids. He remained but a short time. Dr. Brice was a whig
in politics, and Center Point had always been strongly democratic. He
was the first postmaster of the village.

The objections set out in the letter must have been political for he
was considered a wide-awake and estimable man in every particular.

Post Office Department,
Appointment Office, July 22, 1854.

     Sir:

     A. P. Risley, the Postmaster at Springville, County of Linn,
     State of Iowa, with 58 citizens, recommends the change of
     site and name of the office to Lindon.

     Before submitting this case to the Postmaster General, I
     have to request the favor of any information you may
     possess, or be able conveniently to obtain, respecting it.

                  I have the honor to be,
                       Very respectfully, etc.,

                                          HORATIO KING,
                              First Assistant Postmaster General.

     HON. A. C. DODGE,
         U. S. Senator.
             Endorsed, The same of this, etc.,
                 greatly
                     oblige
                         Yours truly,
                             A. C. DODGE.

             S. W. Durham, Esq.

In 1842 the first postoffice was established in the township known as
Brown by Isaac Butler. It was the third postoffice in the county and
was known as Springville. Mail was received on horseback weekly. A. P.
Risley opened a store in 1845 and became postmaster. He is the person
referred to in the letter of Senator Dodge. Mr. Risley sold out and
removed a mile east of the town, and with A. E. Sampson laid out a new
town called Lindon. A postoffice was secured though not without a
fight, and the town of New Lindon assumed the airs of city life. A
hotel and blacksmith shop also kept the town alive for the time, but it
died like other towns when the railroad was secured by Springville, and
the booming town of Lindon has been for many years a good corn field
and a rich pasture. Sterling became postmaster at Springville after
Risley. He was succeeded by John Hoffman.


THE CEDAR RAPIDS POSTOFFICE

While Joseph Greene was postmaster he also acted as the first
storekeeper of the town, and it is related of him that he carried his
mail in his hat. The following, written by J. L. Enos, in the _Cedar
Valley Times_, may give the reader an idea of the postoffice situation
up to the close of the Civil war. He writes as follows:

     "The postoffice was established in 1847 and Joseph Greene
     appointed postmaster. Mr. Greene was removed on a change of
     administration, and L. Daniels appointed to succeed him.
     Homer Bishop was the third incumbent and held the office
     through a succession of years, giving very general
     satisfaction. At the commencement of Lincoln's
     administration Mr. Bishop was removed, and in accordance
     with a mistaken and dangerous policy which promotes men of a
     particular class or profession in places of trust, without
     regard to their moral or any other qualifications--J. G.
     Davenport, until then the editor of the _Cedar Valley
     Times_, was appointed.

     "Those acquainted with Davenport did not suppose he would be
     able to present satisfactory bonds but after some little
     delay he succeeded in procuring them and in due course of
     time took possession of the office. (Though a republican in
     politics, Mr. Davenport had to appeal to democratic friends
     for these bonds. J. J. Snouffer was one of them and shared
     in the subsequent loss.)

[Illustration: PROF. H. H. FREER Mt. Vernon]

[Illustration: REV. GEO. B. BOWMAN, D. D. Founder of Cornell College]

[Illustration: JOSEPH MEKOTA Cedar Rapids]

[Illustration: W. F. SEVERA Cedar Rapids]

     "A large number of clerks (?) was found necessary and it
     became evident that the office was managed with great
     recklessness. Money was lost through the mail when sent to
     the nearest postoffice on the route, and money sent to
     persons in the city from adjacent offices never came to
     hand. Postage stamps were borrowed from neighboring offices
     and return payment obtained with great difficulty, and in
     some cases there was a refusal to pay--because as he
     (Davenport) said, he had already paid the amount borrowed.
     He was at last removed, and on settling up the affairs of
     the office, there was found to be a shortage to the amount
     of fifteen hundred dollars. His bondsmen went to work and
     finally succeeded in effecting a credit on a part of the
     amount and had the satisfaction of paying about one thousand
     dollars, which had been stolen from the government by this
     arch swindler. After minor swindling operations he
     absconded, thus relieving the city of the most bare-faced
     falsifier and swindler that has infested the city since the
     time of Shepard & Co., in the early day.

     "George M. Howlett, the present incumbent, was appointed his
     successor and makes an efficient officer. In the spring of
     1865 Cedar Rapids was designated as a money order office,
     commencing operations as such on the 3d of July following.
     This enlarges the responsibility of the office and great
     care is necessary to keep all things right--though the
     blanks furnished make the work simple in honest hands."

       *       *       *       *       *

L. Daniels was another of the early postmasters. He, also, was a
merchant, and so was Homer Bishop, his successor in office. It was not
until J. G. Davenport became postmaster that the postoffice got into
politics. In fact it was no plum worth having till about the time of
the Civil war. A number of prominent men have since that time held the
postoffice--such as Captain W. W. Smith, Charles Weare, Alex. Charles,
Geo. A. Lincoln, W. R. Boyd, and W. G. Haskell, the present incumbent.

A. C. Taylor relates how, when he came to Cedar Rapids, he carried on
his jewelry store in the postoffice building, his store being located
on the alley, in the rear of where the Masonic Temple now stands. The
postoffice at Cedar Rapids soon outgrew the first government building,
erected in the '90s, and the second was completed in 1909 at a cost of
$250,000.

If a person asked for his mail in the olden days more than once a month
he was considered too important, and the postmaster would gently remind
him that he had no legal right to bother a man more than once a month,
at least, about such a small matter as a letter. The postoffice during
the past sixty-three years has grown to enormous proportions, till it
now takes the entire time of a score of people to expedite the handling
of the mails.



CHAPTER XI

_The Physicians of the County_

BY FREDERICK G. MURRAY


Among the first doctors who located in and around Marion should be
mentioned S. H. Tryon, F. W. Tailor, and James Cummings. These men came
before 1840. They were followed by T. S. Bardwell and L. W. Phelps. Dr.
Tryon at least came as early as 1838 and was for many years a
well-known public character. He acted as county clerk and held many
posts of honor.

Dr. J. K. Rickey bought John Young's claim in Cedar Rapids as early as
1841 and must have been located in that vicinity at that time. What
became of him is not known, and whether or not he engaged in the
practice extensively is doubtful. There were not many whites there in
those early days and it is a question if any had the time or
inclination to be very sick. In case they were it was no doubt
homesickness, for which a doctor has so far been unable to offer any
permanent cure.

The first doctor who came to Cedar Rapids was inclined to blow his own
horn. J. L. Enos, the editor of the _Cedar Valley Times_, has the
following to say: "Once when he had returned from Muscatine he claimed
to have lost forty pounds of quinine in one of the streams below the
Cedar. Constable Lewis once called on him with an execution to secure a
judgment. The doctor threw off his coat and prepared for a fight. The
constable seeing his opportunity seized the coat and made away with it
and found therein sufficient money to satisfy the debt."

Profiting by the example, later comers have avoided fights and have
tried to pay their debts.

In the correspondence between S. W. Durham and A. C. Dodge in December,
1848, the following named doctors are referred to: S. M. Brice (whig),
Center Point; Ivanhoe, Jno. Evans; Hollenback P. O., Dr. Williams;
Cedar Rapids P. O., J. F. Ely.

Thus during 1848 the above named persons must have been residents and
practicing physicians in their respective localities. Dr. Brice was the
second doctor in Cedar Rapids. Later he moved to Center Point. These
men were no doubt slated as candidates for postmasters. Dr. Brice later
acted as postmaster at Center Point.

A history of the medical profession in Linn county must be largely made
up of a list of names, as the intrinsic work of the medical
practitioner is scarcely a fit subject matter for the casual reader.

What seems to be the earliest date in connection with which there is
mention of a physician in the county annals is 1841, in which year Dr.
Magnus Holmes came to the town of Marion from Crawfordsville, Indiana.
Promising to be of great value to the community, Dr. Holmes passed away
a short time after his arrival. Dr. Henry M. Ristine, father of Dr. J.
M. Ristine, of Cedar Rapids, was a brother-in-law of Dr. Holmes, and
came to Marion from Indiana in 1842. Another of the very earliest
practitioners was Dr. Sam Grafton, who was located on the Cedar river
at Ivanhoe bridge, on the old military road from Dubuque to Iowa City.
Just when he came is not known; this was one of the earliest
settlements in the county and he had practiced there for some four
years previous to 1847, in which year he fell a victim to a typhoid
epidemic. Dr. Amos Witter was one of the first physicians in Mt.
Vernon. He passed away in 1862 at the age of fifty-five, having been
several years a member of the legislature. In 1886 there was still
living in Viola a Dr. S. S. Matson, who had practiced there since 1845.
He graduated from the University of Vermont in 1832, the same year in
which Dr. Elisha W. Lake, an early Marion physician, graduated from the
Ohio Medical College. These two men are in point of graduation the
oldest men the county has had. In northeastern Linn the first physician
was Dr. Stacy, who lived on the Anamosa and Quasqueton road near
Boulder church. He was a brother to the late Judge Stacy, the pioneer
promoter of the Dubuque & Southwestern Railroad. Some of the other
early practitioners were Dr. E. L. Mansfield, who came to Cedar Rapids
or Kingston in 1847; Dr. J. M. Traer, who made Cedar Rapids his home
from 1847-51; Dr. J. F. Ely, who came to the same place in 1848; and
Dr. S. D. Carpenter, who came in 1849.

Dr. Shattuck, of Green's Mills, now Coggon, Drs. Lannin and Byam, of
Paris, Drs. Patterson and Mitchell, of Clark's Ford, now Central City,
and Dr. Young, of Prairieburg, were all pioneer doctors in their
respective communities. Dr. T. S. Bardwell, who became a leading
physician of Marion, settled on a farm in that vicinity in 1840, making
his residence in the county date back farther than that of any other
medical man except S. H. Tryon.

A rather incomplete business directory of Cedar Rapids in 1856 gives
the following as physicians: S. C. Koontz, J. H. Camburn, W. D.
Barclay, J. W. Edes, Smith & Larrabee, R. R. Taylor.

A complete city directory published in 1869 gives the names of the
following: C. F. Bullen, J. H. Camburn, G. P. Carpenter, J. P. Coulter,
J. W. Edes, Mansfield & Smith, Freeman McClelland, John North, Israel
Snyder, C. H. Thompson, W. Bollinger, J. C. May. Of these, Dr. Camburn
and Dr. Edes were prominent in their profession for many years. Dr. R.
R. Taylor was a Virginian, who went to reside in Philadelphia about the
time of the Civil war. Dr. J. C. May was a druggist as well as a very
popular physician. He was a brother of the late Major May, of island
fame.

A medical and surgical directory of Iowa for 1876 gives the first
authentic list of doctors in Linn county to which access has been had.
A list of fifty is given as in active practice in the county at that
time. Only six of these remain: Dr. George P. Carpenter, dean of the
profession in Cedar Rapids; Dr. G. R. Skinner, of Cedar Rapids; Dr. T.
S. Kepler, of Mt. Vernon; Dr. Hindman, of Marion; Dr. Edwin Burd, of
Lisbon; and Dr. F. M. Yost, of Center Point. The last of these, Dr.
Yost, class of 1853 University of Pennsylvania, is the oldest living
practitioner in the county. His two sons are now associated with him in
his work. One other, Dr. J. H. Smith, of Cedar Rapids, has not been in
practice for many years but preserves a close relation to his old
calling through his presidency of the board of directors of St. Luke's
Hospital. The two Doctors Sigworth are still living near their old
neighborhood, having retired to Anamosa.

A registry of all physicians practicing in the county was begun in the
county clerk's office in 1880-1881. It started with sixty-four names,
probably the full number of those in active practice at the time. Since
then about 230 additional doctors have been registered, and of this
total of nearly 300 about 125 are now practicing in the county.

At Western some of the early physicians were Dr. Crouse, Dr. W. B.
Wagner, Dr. Miller, all of whom preceded Dr. J. C. Schrader who removed
to Iowa City. Dr. J. C. Hanshay located here in 1863 and Dr. Favour in
1877. Dr. Patterson was the first doctor in Bertram, in 1857. Dr. J.
Stricklippe was an early doctor and druggist at Palo, and Dr. J. W.
Firkin was the second doctor at Vanderbilt, later known as Fairfax. His
son, Edgar Firkin, is now a popular druggist there. Dr. U. C. Roe came
to Fairfax in 1864 for the practice of medicine. He also sold drugs.
The business finally drifted into a grocery store, as it seems that the
settlers preferred sugar and prunes to pills and quinine.

Among names of note in the early history of these parts are those of
several medical doctors whose prominence came along lines outside of
their professional work. Dr. John P. Ely's name is prominently
connected with the early business enterprises and later growth of Cedar
Rapids. The doctor was called in the year he finished his medical
studies in New York to the management of commercial and manufacturing
interests in this county. The growth of these drew him gradually from
the excellent practice for which he at first found time. To the close
of his life, however, Dr. Ely kept himself well informed on the
progress of scientific medicine. Perhaps the first autopsy in this
locality was performed by Dr. Ely in the interests of both science and
sobriety, if early annals are authentic, the subject having been in
life notorious for his potations.

Dr. Eber L. Mansfield along with a large medical practice found time to
build up successful business and real estate interests on both sides of
the river at Cedar Rapids.

Dr. Seymour D. Carpenter left the practice after the Civil war and
became active and highly successful in the building and financing of
railroads in this state and further south. Dr. Carpenter is still
living in a hale old age in Chicago.

Dr. Freeman McClelland, a talented graduate of Jefferson Medical
College, won for himself enviable popularity and influence through his
editorship of the Cedar Rapids _Times_. The flavor of his writings and
rare personality are an enduring remembrance with all who knew him.

Dr. J. T. Headley, the eminent platform lecturer, at present living
retired in Philadelphia, is said to have first hung out his "shingle"
in Cedar Rapids.

Dr. G. W. Holmes, son of Dr. Magnus Holmes, of Marion, after finishing
at Bellevue, went as a medical missionary of the American Board to
Persia, where in addition to his other work he became royal physician
to the Crown Prince, afterwards Shah of Persia. Dr. Holmes passed away
in June, 1910.

Linn county sent a number of doctors to the army during the Civil war.
The following list is as nearly accurate as to men and organizations as
it was possible to make it:

Dr. H. M. Ristine, surgeon 20th Iowa Infantry.

Dr. J. F. Ely, surgeon 24th Iowa.

Dr. J. H. Camburn, surgeon 16th Iowa Infantry, also 6th Iowa Cavalry.

Dr. Freeman McClelland, surgeon 16th Iowa Infantry.

Dr. H. M. Lyons, surgeon 16th Iowa Infantry.

Dr. John F. Smith, assistant surgeon 65th Illinois Infantry.

Dr. G. L. Carhardt, surgeon 31st Iowa.

Dr. J. C. Shrader went from near Western College, this county, with the
22d Iowa Infantry as captain and later as surgeon.

Dr. Amos Witter, surgeon 7th Iowa Infantry.

Dr. T. S. Bardwell served as first assistant surgeon with the 6th Iowa
Cavalry, Col. Carskadden of Marion, notably in an expedition against
the Indians who were threatening the Nebraska and Dakota frontier, the
male portion of the settlers there being largely absent in the Union
army.

Dr. Seth Byam, of Jackson township, was surgeon in the U. S. army.

Dr. Seymour D. Carpenter, surgeon U. S. A., during the four years of
the war.

Of those who served otherwise than as surgeons, Dr. J. P. Coulter was
lieutenant colonel of the 12th Iowa Infantry. He afterwards was active
in city and county politics and held several official positions, and
distantly related to him was the late Dr. A. B. Coulter, in whose
untimely passing away the community lost one of its most promising
professional men.

Dr. G. R. Skinner, who came to Cedar Rapids in 1871, spent four years
in the Civil war, leaving the service with a captain's commission.

[Illustration: THE LATE DR. J. S. LOVE, SPRINGVILLE]

Dr. W. H. French served through the war in the 89th Illinois Infantry.

Of those men whose distinctly professional work brought them especial
esteem, space will allow for the mention of only a few.

Perhaps for no other one of their brethren did the Linn county
profession award so universal preference as to Dr. Henry Ristine.
Pioneer, patriot, and public-spirited citizen, he was first and before
all a doctor, combining in generous measure the traits and faculties
that make an eminently successful surgeon, with culture and genial
sympathies. It could be truly said of him that he adorned his
profession. His portrait hangs in St. Luke's Hospital along with that
of the late Judge Greene, whom he ably seconded in the work of founding
that institution. Jurist and surgeon alike believed in the hospital as
the workshop without which the doctor could not do his best work, and
their efforts accomplished much toward the establishment of medical and
surgical justice to the physically afflicted, a form of service that
deserves more and more public recognition in every community where
moral justice to the criminally accused is so amply facilitated by the
courts of law.

Among other well remembered physicians were Dr. J. S. Love, of
Springville, Dr. James Carson, of Mt. Vernon, Dr. D. McClenahan, of
Cedar Rapids, and Dr. G. L. Carhardt, of Marion. Beginning at an early
date and devoting themselves exclusively to their practice till
advancing age forced retirement, they all four typically exemplified in
their respective communities the life of the family physician. They
were, none of them, modern doctors, but they lived not only to see but
to rejoice in the day of modern medicine. Long after they had ceased
from practice they kept up attendance at medical society meetings,
keenly alive to the advancements of medical art and scientific research
there discussed. They were resourceful men, and they had labored
faithfully and well with the art available in their day, how often
futilely none felt more keenly than themselves. The realization that
modern methods promised control of much that had baffled them seemed to
lighten the burden of their declining years. Their abiding interest and
faith in the future things of medicine was an inspiration to their
successors.

Of medical organizations in Linn county the oldest is the Union Medical
Society, founded as the Linn County Medical Society at Mt. Vernon in
1859 by Drs. Love, Ely, Ristine, Carson, and Lyon. Dormant during the
war, it resumed in 1866 and ran till 1873, when its name was changed to
the Iowa Union and it became a district society, taking its membership
from half a dozen or more counties and centering in Linn and Johnson
counties. It still meets twice a year at Cedar Rapids, occasionally at
Iowa City for scientific work. Its officers now are: president, C. W.
Baker, Stanwood; secretary, F. G. Murray, Cedar Rapids; treasurer, C.
P. Carpenter, Cedar Rapids.

The present Linn County Society was organized in Cedar Rapids in 1903.
It holds meetings twice a year and is the unit of the State and
American Medical Associations. One of its members, Dr. G. E. Crawford,
is the outgoing president of the Iowa State Medical Society. Its
present officers are: president, Dr. A. B. Poore; secretary, Dr. H. W.
Bender; treasurer, Frank S. Skinner.

There are other local organizations at Mt. Vernon and Cedar Rapids. The
Practitioners' Club of the latter place meets once a month for
discussion and action upon medical subjects of special interest to the
members. Its officers are: Dr. H. S. Raymer, president; H. E. Pfeiffer,
secretary; G. P. Carpenter, treasurer.

St. Luke's Hospital at Cedar Rapids has already been mentioned. It was
founded in 1883. On its consulting staff are Drs. G. P. Carpenter, J.
M. Ristine, G. R. Skinner, G. E. Crawford, A. B. Poore, and A. H.
Johnson. It has an attending staff of younger men. The hospital has
seventy-five beds, having recently added a new and completely appointed
maternity department. Mercy Hospital, ninety beds, founded at Cedar
Rapids in 1902 and housed in its spacious new building in 1904, is
under the care of the Sisters of Mercy. These finely equipped
institutions serve Cedar Rapids, Marion, the railroad systems and their
contributing territory with facilities for the best of medical,
surgical and maternity work. Few realize the large amount of free
humanitarian work they accomplish every year. Together with Linn
county's own excellent infirmary north of Marion they represent in a
material and public way the present status of medical art, science, and
humanitarianism in the county. Personally and privately these are
represented by the 125 active practitioners of medicine.

It will be noted that the names of only a few of these have been
mentioned and then only incidentally. The scope of this sketch does not
allow adequate individual reference to the remainder. Nor is this the
place to record contemporary progress. The lives of all the present
members of the profession belong not to the past but to the future
history of medicine in Linn county. The attached list gives the names
of the practicing physicians in Linn county in 1910:

     Adams, Ernest, Central City
     Anderson, P. O., Cedar Rapids
     Bailey, F. W., Cedar Rapids
     Bailey, H. H., Cedar Rapids
     Beardsley, D. E., Cedar Rapids
     Bender, H. W., Cedar Rapids
     Bliss, C. S., Cedar Rapids
     Bradley, W. J., Cedar Rapids
     Brown, C. T., Cedar Rapids
     Burd, Edwin, Lisbon
     Busta, Chas., Cedar Rapids
     Byerly, A. J., Coggon
     Carhart, Wm. G., Marion
     Carpenter, G. P., Cedar Rapids
     Carroll, Frank, Cedar Rapids
     Carson, Geo. A., Mt. Vernon
     Childs, Edward P., Cedar Rapids
     Cogswell, C. H., Cedar Rapids
     Cogswell, C. H., Jr., Cedar Rapids
     Crawford, A., Mt. Vernon
     Crawford, G. E., Cedar Rapids
     Crawford, J. L., Cedar Rapids
     Crew, Arthur E., Marion
     Dando, G. A., Marion
     Davis, J. L., Alburnette
     Downs, J. W., Paris
     Dvorak, Jos. F., Fairfax
     Ebersole, F. F., Mt. Vernon
     Eilers, Paul G., Alburnette
     Fisher, C., Central City
     Fitzgerald, Wm., Cedar Rapids
     French, Chas. H., Cedar Rapids
     French, W. H., Cedar Rapids
     Gardner, Jno. R., Lisbon
     Gearheart, G. W., Springville
     Graham, J. DeWitt, Springville
     Groff, H., Cedar Rapids
     Gross, H. G., Cedar Rapids
     Hamilton, John, Cedar Rapids
     Hayes, L. C., Cedar Rapids
     Hasner, C. T., Cedar Rapids
     Heald, Clarence, Cedar Rapids
     Hill, M. W., Mt. Vernon
     Hindman, D. R., Marion
     Hogle, Geo., Mt. Vernon
     Hogle, Kate Mason, Mt. Vernon
     Houser, Cass T., Palo
     Hubbard, W. A., Cedar Rapids
     Hubbell, S., Cedar Rapids
     Ivins, H. M., Cedar Rapids
     Jicinsky, J. Rudis, Cedar Rapids
     Johnson, A. H., Cedar Rapids
     Johnson, B. R., Cedar Rapids
     Kegley, E. A., Cedar Rapids
     Keppler, T. S., Mt. Vernon
     King, W. S., Cedar Rapids
     Knox, J. M., Cedar Rapids
     Krause, Chas. S., Cedar Rapids
     Kresja, Oldrich, Cedar Rapids
     Keech, Roy K., Cedar Rapids
     Ladd, F. G., Cedar Rapids
     La Grange, J. W., Marion
     Lee, J. A., Lisbon
     Lindley, Thos. H., Cedar Rapids
     Lindsey, Harry A., Walker
     Lord, Richard, Cedar Rapids
     Lowrey, N. J., Ely
     Loy, J., Cedar Rapids
     Manahan, Chas. A., Center Point
     Mantz, R. L., Cedar Rapids
     Martinitz, S. V., Cedar Rapids
     McConkie, Jas. J., Cedar Rapids
     McConkie, W. A., Cedar Rapids
     Meythaler, A. J., Coggon
     Miller, W. B., Center Point
     Moorehead, Jas., Marion
     Morrison, Wesley J., Cedar Rapids
     Munden, R. E., Cedar Rapids
     Muirhead, Geo. S., Marion
     Murphy, Jas. J., Cedar Rapids
     Murray, F. G., Cedar Rapids
     Nash, E. A., Troy Mills
     Neal, Emma J., Cedar Rapids
     Netolicky, W. J., Cedar Rapids
     Neuzil, W. J., Cedar Rapids
     Newland, M. A., Center Point
     Owen, W. E., Cedar Rapids
     Petrovitsky, J. C., Cedar Rapids
     Pfieffer, H. E., Cedar Rapids
     Poore, A. B., Cedar Rapids
     Raymer, H. S., Cedar Rapids
     Richardson, E. F., Cedar Rapids
     Richardson, J. F., Cedar Rapids
     Ristine, J. M., Cedar Rapids
     Robinson, J. B., Mt. Vernon
     Ross, Alice I., Whittier
     Ruml, W., Cedar Rapids
     Safley, Agnes Isabel, Cedar Rapids
     Sheldon, B. L., Cedar Rapids
     Skinner, Frank S., Marion
     Skinner, Geo. C., Cedar Rapids
     Skinner, G. R., Cedar Rapids
     Spencer, W. H., Cedar Rapids
     Spicer, S. S., Cedar Rapids
     Stansbury, G. W., Western, C. Rapids
     Sherman, D. F., Cedar Rapids
     Swab, C. C., Cedar Rapids
     Swett, P. W., Cedar Rapids
     Tiffany, D. E., Cedar Rapids
     Van Duzer, F. H., Cedar Rapids
     Walk, F. D., Walker
     Walker, H. L., Cedar Rapids
     Ward, J. A., Waubeek
     Webb, Sula M., Cedar Rapids
     Whitmore, Clara B., Cedar Rapids
     Wilkinson, L. J., Prairieburg
     Wolf, John M., Mt. Vernon
     Wolf, Thos. L., Mt. Vernon
     Woodbridge, Ward, Central City
     Woodruff, L. F., Cedar Rapids
     York, N. A., Lisbon
     Yost, C. G., Center Point
     Yost, B. B., Center Point
     Yost, F. R., Center Point



CHAPTER XII

_The Material Growth of the County_


In scarcely any locality has the material growth been so fast and
substantial during the past seventy years as in Linn county. Old
residents who have returned after a period of twenty-five to thirty
years mention this fact, and what is true of the cities and towns is
perhaps much more true of the rural districts in general.

William Abbe erected a bark cabin for the use of his family the first
summer, after he came here, and built a log house that fall for his
winter abode. Ed Crow, C. C. Haskins, and others also erected very
frail cabins during the first year they lived within the confines of
the county. John Henry, it is said, built a small store-building facing
the river in the squatter town of Westport in 1838. It was a frame
building about 14 x 18, scarcely high enough for any of the Oxley
Brothers (who were very tall men) to enter. He also erected a small
dwelling house near the store-building, which, if anything, was smaller
than the store-building. All the lumber in these buildings, except the
window frames and the sills, were cut in the timber adjoining the
river; even the roof was cut out of rough boards, with a broad saw. The
nails used were brought from Muscatine, as well as a few hinges, and
the windows. These buildings were torn down in 1860. The Shepherd
Tavern was also a rude log building, as was the John Young house, which
was afterwards used as a hotel, with additions added later.

G. R. Carroll, in his _Pioneer Life_, mentions the first cabin erected
by his father, Isaac Carroll, in 1839. It took about ten days to erect
an ordinary cabin. "It stood on the east side of the road near Mr.
Bower's nursery on the boulevard one and a half miles from the river.
It was a very primitive looking structure, 16 x 18 perhaps, with what
we called a cob roof, made of clapboards with logs on top to hold them
in place. It was quite an agreeable change from our tent and wagons
when we entered this new cabin, although there was not a great deal of
room to spare after our goods were unloaded and the nine members of the
family were gathered within its walls. When the table was spread there
was no passing from one side to the other, except as we got upon our
hands and knees and crawled under."

Mr. Carroll also speaks of the second house, which was erected the same
fall on the same premises. "It was, however, not to be a common kind of
a cabin, it was to be a somewhat ambitious structure for the time, in
fact it was to be the best house in Linn county, and when completed, it
enjoyed that distinction. It was said, that there was nothing in the
county that equalled it. The dimensions of this house were 14 x 16, a
story and a half high. There were in the walls of this house between
fifty and sixty white oak logs, most of them quite straight and free
from knots. The ends of the logs were cut off square and the corners
were laid up like square blocks, care being taken to cut off enough at
the ends to allow the logs to come as close together as possible so as
to leave but little space for chinking and plastering when it came to
the finishing up. The only boards about the entire building were in the
door which I think were brought with us on top of our wagon-box, which
was of extra height. The joists above and below were made of logs, the
upper ones squared with a broadax. The casings of doors and windows,
and the floors above and below, were made out of bass wood puncheons.
Slabs were spread out of the logs and then hewn out with a broad axe
and the edges were made straight by the use of the chalk line. The
gable ends were sided up with clapboard rived out of oak timber three
or four feet long, and then shaved off smooth like siding. The rafters
were made of hickory poles trimmed off straight on the upper side, and
strips three or four inches wide were nailed on the sheeting. Upon
these strips shingles made of oak eighteen inches long and nicely
shaven, were laid. The logs of the walls in the inside were hewn off
flat, and the interstices between were shingled and plastered with lime
mortar, the lime being burned by my father on Indian Creek. There were
three windows below of twelve lights each, with glass 7 x 9, and a
window in each of the gable ends of nine lights, which furnished light
for the room above. The fire place was built up of logs on the outside
and lined with stone within, and the chimney was built of sticks split
out about the size of laths and plastered with clay, both inside and
outside."

[Illustration: J. H. VOSMEK Cedar Rapids]

[Illustration: FATHER T. J. SULLIVAN Cedar Rapids]

[Illustration: DR. E. L. MANSFIELD An Early Cedar Rapids Physician]

The description of this house gives the reader an idea of one of the
most up-to-date houses built before the year 1840. During the past
sixty years many commodious farm houses have been erected, having all
the modern conveniences installed, such as heating, lighting, together
with bath privileges connected with sanitary plumbing. It is said that
the late S. C. Bever installed the first furnace in a dwelling house in
Linn county, and many people came from over the county to see such a
furnace work. Now, not only cities and towns, but farm residences have
installed furnaces and other kinds of heating plants, so that which was
a novelty fifty years ago is very ordinary today.

The farmers in Linn county early began to invest their surplus money in
farm machinery. William Ure drove an ox team to Chicago and brought
back a McCormick reaper, which was the first reaper brought into the
county, as far as is known. At least it was the first reaper used and
operated in and around Scotch Grove. The neighbors said that Ure was
foolish and it would surely break him up, but inside of one season it
paid for itself. In and around Stoney Point one of the first threshing
machines was used; a very small machine which was staked fast on the
ground, without a straw-carrier, and operated by horsepower, which was
placed on the ground loose and had to be hauled from place to place on
a truck. In Linn Grove, Brown township, Washington township, and in
other localities, many of these crude reapers and crude threshing
machines and corn shellers were seen in operation during the season.
Frequently the people who purchased these early machines lost money.
The machinery was not always recommended, and sometimes the farmers
were not mechanics skilled enough to make repairs when needed. A number
got fooled on the first wire-binders and on the check-rowers, as well
as on some of the early mowing machines, and many lost heavily in early
days on thoroughbred horses and full-blooded cattle. But after all, the
spirit of progress was abroad in the community, and in spite of
failures, it did a great thing for the people who became interested.
The advent of the reaper no doubt changed farming methods in this
country. It is said that "the struggle for bread ceased when the reaper
was put on the market." At least it placed the struggle for existence
on a higher level. Certainly when a machine was invented that could do
the work of five or six men and be depended upon, such a machine was
worth having, and it soon paid for itself.

The manufacturing of farm machinery in Linn county was not a financial
success, as is shown by the failure of the Williams Harvester Works,
the Ogden Plow Works, the Star Wagon Works, and many other enterprises,
but the spirit displayed by those who were willing to put their money
into these untried enterprises, showed the mettle and the ingenuity
that many of these early settlers had. People profited by these
failures, made a study of the subject, and in course of time these men
who lost at times on some investment or purchased machinery which was
not suitable to the country, became owners of magnificent farms and
up-to-date farmers by long experience.

The early corn cribs and granaries were generally built of rails, the
kinks filled in with straw or hay. They of course had to be rebuilt
every fall, and more or less grain was wasted. The rail corn crib was
superseded by long board cribs generally built on the ground without
any foundation. These cribs, when empty, were generally blown about the
premises and had to be hauled back and propped up before they could be
used in the fall. The farmers of Linn county frequently visited in
Illinois, and there found models for economical corn cribs. They also
read the farm journals, and it was not long until our farmers erected
the modern corn crib and granary with gasoline engines, dumps, and
elevators. These cribs were substantially built on cement foundations
with cement floors, and with a driveway large enough and wide enough to
house several wagons and three or four buggies at one time. The early
corn crib, it is true, cost little or nothing, but they were a source
of expense and annoyance, and much grain was wasted. The modern corn
crib, as now erected, is built for a life time, but at a cost of from
two thousand to three thousand dollars, which would have been a sum
impossible to raise by the early settler, who generally paid the
government price on his land by disposing of skins which he prepared
during the winter, and who went barefooted in summer for the reason
that he had no money to buy shoes and no time to make moccasins for
himself or his children.

Thus the early farmer housed his horses and cattle in straw stacks
during the winter and in the timber during the summer. Sometime a hay
thatched stable was erected for the use of the horses. He milked his
cows out on the snow in winter, and expected them to yield a fair
supply of milk on a diet of slough hay and dry corn stalks, and would
drive them to water to some creek or river once a day, using an ax with
which to cut a hole in the ice. These stables would leak in spring and
summer and had to be rebuilt nearly every fall. All hay was stacked
outside and nearly half of it would rot during the rainy season. But
hay was cheaper than lumber and for that reason a man had to figure on
putting up enough hay during the summer, and take into account the
waste. It was not till after the Civil war that many barns were built,
and then only the rich farmer could afford them. Not till the '70s and
'80s did the craze for barn building come, and now nearly every farm of
any size, and nearly every farmer of any financial standing, has a good
substantial barn, as well as machine sheds, all of which improvements
may cost from three thousand to ten thousand dollars.

In the early days many farmers were fooled or taken in on the creamery
proposition, as many of these small country creameries failed. The
people then began to study the cow and the cost of producing milk and
butter. True the first attempts were not a success, but the butter and
milk of Linn county have during the past twenty-five years made many of
the farmers wealthy. It used to be, that if the cows could keep down
the grocery bill that was well done, but now, many a farmer gets a
monthly milk check of from fifty to seventy-five dollars, which not
only pays the grocery bill, but generally the hired man as well. But
then the price of butter has increased from six cents to thirty, which
makes a difference. The butter has also gradually become a better
quality, and is really worth more. It is taken care of now, while in
the pioneer days the cream was left out doors during the hot summer and
the rancid butter was placed in a shallow slough well so as to be kept
cool. It was generally not fit to use and was traded at the store for
dried prunes, brown sugar, and dried herring. Thus, while the farmer
may not have given the merchant much, the merchant certainly did not
give the farmer anything of much value in return for his farm produce.

During the past twenty years no class of people have fared better
financially than the farmers, and no class of people have become more
enlightened on the subject in which they are engaged than the farmers.
This may be due to several reasons. The farm journals have no doubt
done much in stirring up a local pride in the vocation of farming. The
farm journal has taught the farmer not to be ashamed of his calling;
that while he may be called a "Rube" in some localities, he is an
intelligent, up-to-date, wide-awake man, who knows what is going on in
the country; is familiar with political questions and interested in the
welfare of the country and of the state in which he resides. During the
past twenty years the farmer, especially in Linn county, has traveled
much. He has attended the county and state fairs where he has seen the
latest inventions in machinery. He has attended nearly all of the
exhibitions held in the country from Chicago to Seattle, and has come
in contact with farmers from other sections of the country as well as
with financiers and men of affairs. He has traveled much on land
excursions and has learned to study and understand the nature of the
soil. While it is true, that these various journeys have taken some
time and money, yet they have made the farmer an up-to-date man,
familiar with all sides of human life, and he has discovered, after
all, that he is one of the most fortunate men in the country, and
financially better off than many a city brother who may wear broadcloth
and a boiled shirt, but whose bank account is generally depleted. The
Linn county farmer has learned during the past twenty-five years to
know himself and to understand and respect the class to which he
belongs. No one can become a successful person in any line of business
unless he is proud of the line of work in which he is engaged. The
farmer has learned this secret, and he is not ashamed to tell anyone,
that he is a Hawkeye farmer, owning his own farm and caring for his own
property. The Iowa farmer has kept up with the procession, and he
certainly is as intelligent, as wide-awake, and as shrewd and keen as
the merchant, the banker, and the professional man in his business
dealings. But he came to Iowa at the proper time, and for that reason
he had the advantage of the old settlers who came to New England or to
Jamestown. These men came ahead of their time and before things were
ripe for such settlement. The bread tools of the Virginia pioneer were
the same as those of the Indians whom they despised and wanted to drive
out. The first settlers of Iowa came with the advent of the reaper,
when a boy fifteen years of age could cut the grain with ease, which
several sturdy men had to do before with the sickle and the scythe.

We seem to think that we have had the modern inventions for ages, but
the first white settlers in Linn county, whoever they may have been,
knew nothing of matches; of stoves as we know them; of the telegraph or
the telephone or electric lights. They did not have modern corn
cultivators or stirring plows. All these so-called modern appliances
have been invented since the advent of the first settler in this
county. But it was not long after these inventions came into use, until
some enterprising individual or firm introduced them into Linn county.
It is said that it was at a Shriner meeting on the old State Fair
Ground, which is now Central Park, Cedar Rapids, that electricity was
first used in this county, and people came for many miles to watch this
peculiar light, which some thought could only be accounted for on the
ground that the operator was in close connection with the Evil One.
Barnum, with his show, also exhibited electric lights to the
consternation of the vast crowds that came to see his circus, and it
was one of the chief attractions during the first year. People came
many miles to listen and talk through a telephone, and now every
up-to-date farmer has an instrument installed in his own house.

In a material way the settlers in Linn county have succeeded beyond the
expectation of the most sanguine. Thrift and prosperity can be seen on
every hand. The various farmers' alliances, elevator companies, banking
companies, creamery companies, old settlers' unions, and all these have
brought the men over the county in closer touch with each other and the
farmers of the whole county have learned to appreciate the marvelous
benefits derived from social intercourse. It has made them broader and
more liberal minded toward one another.

The first real census of the county was made in 1840 by H. W. Gray, who
found 1,373 men, women, and children here. There were no less than 200
people who celebrated the 4th of July at Westport in 1838, but these
may not all have belonged to the county. There was a rapid influx of
people, and by 1845 it has been estimated that no less than 4,000 had
declared Linn county their permanent home. The men who came here in the
early days knew nothing of luxuries, for it is said that there were not
over twenty buggies in the county and not to exceed two pianos. The
gold excitement took many of the bright young men away, most of whom
never returned. The census of 1850 shows that there were 5,444 people
in the county, further demonstrating that the land seekers were still
coming despite the fact that many residents must have left for the gold
fields of California. By 1860 fully 19,000 residents claimed the county
as their home. At the first election in the county 39 votes were cast.
In 1875 there were more than 7,000 voters, and this number has
gradually increased till the votes cast in 1908 were 6,558 republican,
5,008 democratic, 220 prohibition, and 121 scattering, making a total
vote of 11,900. Long ago the farming districts were filled up and the
country portions have not grown in population. The demand for pioneers
has ceased, and the growth henceforth will be in the cities and towns,
and not in the country until such a time as the cities will be
compelled to expand or the people congregating therein will be enabled
to seek the country to make a living. There may also come a time when
the large farms will be divided up among members of the family and when
it will pay better to farm on a small rather than on a large scale. If
the land can be subdivided into small tracts, as in many parts of
Europe, Iowa and Linn county will be able to feed a much larger
population and at greater ease than can the exhausted lands of the old
countries.

The soil in Iowa is as rich today and will if well cared for produce
more today than it did some forty years ago. The farmers will now
devote more of their time to make the farms yield more and not in the
purchase of more lands as heretofore. What the modern farmer is now up
against is better markets, cheaper freight charges, more local
manufacturing, and increased commercial conveniences.

For many years after the lands were taken up and cultivated the farmers
were unable to get rid of their products. There were no other markets
than the local ones. Robert Ellis had tried the experiment of running
flat boats down the river and had returned without any profits. Holmes,
the Higley Brothers, Daniels, and others built flat boats at Ivanhoe
and shipped wheat in the early spring down the Cedar and made a little
money. But there was more or less risk, and much labor was expended,
and the returns were not always satisfactory. Many teamed and hauled
dressed pork, wheat, and barley to the Mississippi river, mostly to
Muscatine, but after the driver returned and figured up his expenses
and the cost of a few groceries and a calico dress for the wife, he had
little left with which to pay interest and tax on the land.

The farmer was kept busy in paying taxes and breaking up and fencing
more land. To do these things and keep his family was all he could hope
to accomplish. The business man who had come here was without funds,
and interest rates were high. He could not borrow enough to carry out
his scheme of factory building, as he had expected. Saw mills and grist
mills were erected so as to supply the local trade with enough
materials for building, and enough food to live on, but that was all.
The cost of transportation was high, and the cost of anything like
luxuries was so great that it was out of the question to purchase any.
As late as 1855 there were no markets and no means to ship anything out
except by flat boats early in the spring of the year when the water was
high. N. B. Brown started the first woolen mill as early as 1848. This
was later disposed of to the Bryan family, but the mill never was a
real success. There was no demand for the goods and the expense was too
high to ship the raw products in and the finished products out. To haul
any amount in a farm wagon a hundred miles over poor roads, subject to
all kinds of weather, is not a success to the hauler nor to the man who
hires him.

[Illustration: HON. JAMES URE A Fairfax Pioneer]

[Illustration: JUDGE JAMES H. ROTHROCK]

[Illustration: J. J. DANIELS Early Linn County Official]

[Illustration: L. J. PALDA Cedar Rapids]

Even after the railroad was brought to Cedar Rapids the people did not
realize that there was any other but a local market for any product.
During the early years of the war, from 1862-3, the people awoke to a
realization that it would pay to get in touch with a larger market, and
the Chicago prices on stuff began to be quoted. R. D. Stephens built an
elevator at Marion and began sending corn to the river. Cattle and hogs
began to go up in price, and soon the people realized that the railroad
was not built to carry passengers only, but freight as well, and that
on a large scale.

In 1866 the number of acres assessed was 452,486, and the land,
exclusive of towns and villages, amounted to $3,012,754. The assessment
for Linn county in 1878 was 449,774 acres, $5,127,133. The actual
valuation in 1855 was about three and one-half millions, while in 1900
the taxable valuation of the county was something over twelve millions.

Butter and cheese making were at one time businesses which made the
farmers much money, but not till they learned how to prepare good
butter and get a market established for it. Soon agents came to Iowa
looking over the crops, and presently few towns were without local
agents who handled stock and grain on a commission basis.

Henceforth it was the Chicago market and not the local market that
governed, and the railroads were loaded down many seasons of the year
in hauling train load after train load of corn and wheat and cattle and
hogs, the property of the Iowa farmers. Iowa became in a short time the
food producing state in the Mississippi Valley and has so remained till
this day.

It was the productiveness of the soil, the manner in which the soil was
prepared and the prices for farm products that made the land valuable.
And it was the outside market that made farm produce worth the price it
was for a local market cannot do this. The Chicago market has become
the world market on many commodities, and lucky is the person who owns
lands within a safe radius of such a market.



CHAPTER XIII

_Rural Life_


The rural life of the pioneers in Linn county was much the same as it
was in any of the adjoining counties in eastern Iowa. The settlers were
intelligent, young, active, and enthusiastic, believing in the future
of the new State. The men were able to do nearly all kinds of
mechanical work without any help or assistance, while the women were
equally dextrous in spinning, weaving, and doing all kinds of house
work. They were all clad in homespun and no false standards were
maintained by the so-called well-to-do.

Wheat was the product for many years until the pest took it, and Indian
corn was grown. It was soon found that wheat was expensive to raise, as
seed was high, the cost of harvesting expensive, and frequently a
shower or a storm when the wheat was ripe destroyed a great deal of it,
so the farmer's summer work at times would be entirely gone. It cost
less to raise corn, and in course of time a market was found for it,
although it scarcely ever sold for more than 30 cents a bushel.

"In ye olden times" master and servant had no trouble. They ate at the
same table, worked side by side during the day, and it was a sort of
partnership affair throughout the season from the early spring until
the crops were gathered in the fall. During the entire season the hired
man had handled scarcely a dollar and he had taken up at the village
store on credit in the master's name goods that would not exceed in
value ten or fifteen dollars. While it has been often stated that in
the pioneer days the men were overworked and underpaid, which might be
true in part, still during these formative years, when everything was
new, and there were no classes, all settlers were on the same
level--socially and financially. It was not long until the hired man
had worked long enough to get sufficient money to make a first payment
on a farm, and in a few years the renter became a land owner and well
fixed.

The scattered settlers during the early years of their residence in
Linn county relied on their own ingenuity for everything they needed;
thus, they were their own blacksmiths, cabinet makers, carpenters,
tanners, stone masons, and shoe makers. They would tan their own
leather, shoe their own horses and oxen, make their own crude harness,
and get along and be satisfied. While they would depend on the village
blacksmith and on the wagon maker, roads were impassable in the spring
of the year and a yoke of oxen was not the swiftest means of getting to
and from a town twenty-five or thirty miles away. Hence a farmer who
had any ingenuity at all, would rather do his own work in a crude way,
than have to go to town to get anything repaired which was broken.

Much amusement was also had in the early days in the various
communities where men and women enjoyed meeting together at social
functions. There were quilting bees, spelling schools, barn raisings,
log rolling, debating schools, singing schools, and many other
gatherings which frequently ended with a barn dance or a house warming
supper, provided by the host and hostess.

The winter season in "ye olden times" was not an easy time of it by any
means, for the pioneers went to the timber early in the morning and
would stay all day and until late at night, cutting wood, making rails
and getting big logs to the saw mills. It mattered not what was the
kind of weather, the young man would start off to the timber with the
thermometer frequently at from twenty-five to thirty below zero.
Sometimes it would be pleasant in the morning when they started out,
but frequently a severe blizzard would come up before night, and many
were the frozen hands and ears they would bring home to thaw out late
at night, having been out all day in the most severe weather. But as
soon as it was over it was forgotten, and the next day or the next week
the young man would again repeat the same performance.

While the men were strong, active, and hardworking, the women were
equally active, persevering and industrious. The girls always took care
of the milk and butter; the straining of the milk was done by the
slough well or in a dark mud cellar, with no stone in it, and which
always kept caving in until the entire house had to be put on pillars.
The wife frequently had the family washing out by sunrise and the hired
girl, if the family could afford one, would work side by side with her
mistress and would do both inside and outside work if needed. No one
was afraid to work: in fact they were all proud of what they had
accomplished.

There were not many varieties of dishes on the table in pioneer days,
and still the settlers had plenty of good, wholesome food, and were
always hungry. Salt pork, johnny cake, honey, and game were the
customary foods of the farmer in ye olden times. They scarcely ever
tasted fresh meat from spring until fall, unless some of the boys shot
a little game now and then. The settlers were companionable, good
natured, and contented. They traded cattle, horses, mules, and at times
farms, only now and then would trouble arise as one would accuse
another of smart dealings, and a lawsuit would ensue. It is related of
an itinerant preacher who purchased a yoke of oxen from one of the
deacons in the church, that while he was testing the oxen on a hot
Sunday driving to church with his family, the yoke squatted down in a
mud hole and remained there and it was impossible to move them at all.
The preacher spied the deacon coming to church and was not slow in
telling him what he thought of him as well as the oxen he had sold him.
The deacon was not at all worried but replied, "parson, you must not
forget to swear at 'em, that is the only thing they know," and drove on
as though not at all offended by the remarks of the preacher.

In the early days the farmers had no cisterns, no wind mills, no deep
wells. Rain water was gathered in barrels which dried up in summer and
froze solid in winter, so the house wife had scarcely any rain water
either summer or winter. The well was generally a ten foot shallow well
dug down by the slough, poorly planked, and frequently it caved in;
another well was dug much in the same manner as the old one, the new
well soon meeting with the same ending as the former one.

There were few, if any, barns in the olden times and straw thatched
sheds and stables were universally used. These stables were moved
frequently for the reason that the farmers failed to haul out the
manure which accumulated, finding that it was easier and cheaper to
move the stable than to haul away the manure. Nearly all of the hay was
stacked out doors and had to be cut and hauled away in order to be fed
to the cattle.

The farmers were slow and backward in many things. They possessed no
spirit of restlessness and took things coolly, relying, it seems, on
the old adage which says that "he who drives with oxen also gets
there." While they early built fairly good houses, they were slow in
erecting buildings and comfortable places for their horses and cattle,
and it was many years before they began to erect sheds and buildings
for their machinery. Wagons without spring seats sold at from $100.00
to $125.00; reapers and mowing machines were very expensive and they
were generally only a few of these in each neighborhood. The household
furniture was cheap and simple; there were no such things as furnaces
or hard coal burners. Mostly old stoves were in use for the burning of
wood, and these perhaps were second hand, or at least had seen better
days.

The young man in pioneer days generally started out in life with an ox
team, a breaking plow, and a wagon. The wages for breaking were from
$1.00 to $2.00 an acre, and when he was not breaking he would often be
running a threshing machine or working in the saw mill or in the timber
getting out logs. When ox teams were used for breaking, it took one to
drive and one to hold the plow in the ground. A person generally broke
more land than he could fence, and it was no use to sow wheat and not
fence, for in those days the law permitted cattle and horses to run at
large.

Corn was not cultivated on the new ground to any extent, except that
each one raised enough corn for his own use but no more. The corn was
generally put in by hand, plowed only once or twice with a single
shovel plow pulled by one old nag.

In the early days all the cooking was done by the open fireplace; such
an article as a stove was not much known. Corn bread and pork, with rye
coffee, formed the average bill of fare at the wayside inn and at the
farm house. The boarders actually preferred pork to venison; they got
tired of game--it was so plentiful. Many a pioneer farmer could shoot
from five to ten deer near his door before breakfast.

In ye olden times nearly everyone would attend church, especially in
summer. While many did not belong to any church, yet they were all
interested in it. They supported the churches to the best of their
ability. The influence of the country church did much in making this a
county which still shows the effect of the early training and of the
efforts of itinerant preachers and laymen who went from place to place
visiting the scattered congregations. Such preachers as Troup, Searles,
Ingham, J. Hodges, Hayden, Twing, Maxin, Dudley, Rankin, Boal,
Cunningham, Keeler, Phelps, Roberts, Jones, Elias Skinner, Father
Emmons and many of the early itinerant ministers did much to build up
churches in this county. Then there were a number of laymen in various
denominations who maintained in part some of the associations
themselves, such as Tom Lewis, Levi Lewis, Chandler Jordan, Henry
Rogers, and the Kurtzes, Runkles, Shueys, and many of the early
settlers in and around Lisbon. The community around Mt. Vernon was also
much influenced by the college atmosphere and by the itinerant
preachers who visited the scattered members in Franklin township. These
are only a few of many such communities where an interest was kept up
in the small country churches where large congregations gathered weekly
for meditation and for prayer. Many old pioneer families did much to
help the church.

One can converse with the old pioneer now, and he still loves to recall
the old times, the old haunts and the wayside places. It was by some
rail fence that a rural maiden had whispered to him as a young man,
that the pain in her heart no human touch but his own could heal. It
was here loved ones had spoken as they chattered away in childish
whispers, when he came home from ended labors, and it was here that he
took his family on Sunday to the little church where they all bowed
silently in prayer, full of the faith and the hope which made his heart
strong and his footsteps light. The simple mode of living in Linn
county in an early date made strong men and courageous women. They were
brought up to withstand the temptations of life and to despise the
false veneer of a later generation. They lived up to the ideals of
their way of thinking, and left sturdy families who grew up in the
simple ways of the pioneer, themselves dutiful sons and daughters of
the old settlers who came here in any early day to make homes for
themselves and their descendants.

Truly, the pioneers should be remembered for what they accomplished,
for well might they sing with the poet:

     "Fading away like the stars of the morning,
       Losing our light in the rising sun;
     Thus would we pass from the earth and its toiling
       Only remembered by what we have done."

[Illustration: BRIDGE AT THE PALISADES]

[Illustration: THE PALISADES OF THE CEDAR]



CHAPTER XIV

_A Hero of the Canadian Rebellion_


What promised to have been a war to death in Linn county in the early
'40s terminated because one of our old settlers, then a young man, said
what he knew to be the fact and was willing to back it up with force.
The interesting story is as follows: Political dissension had prevailed
in Canada since 1820, and an open rebellion broke out in 1837. In lower
Canada it began among the French settlers who wanted equality and their
rights as Frenchmen, while in upper Canada it was brought about by
leaders of the radical party insisting on a democratic form of
government. The rebellion was lead by Lyon Mackenzie, a native of
Scotland who had taken up journalism in Canada. The spirit of rebellion
extended also into the United States, and many so-called filibusters
joined the insurrectionists from a spirit of adventure. The papers
mentioned in lengthy articles these so-called leaders, one especially
being given much notoriety, one William Johnson, who, after the
rebellion was put down, lived on one of the Thousand Islands in the St.
Lawrence and evaded capture. His daughter, Kate, it was said, brought
him food and the soldiers were unable to locate the hiding place of
this rebel who defied the government militia.

Robert Ellis met this so-called Bill Johnson at Prairie du Chien,
Wisconsin, in 1842. Johnson asserted with a great deal of gusto that he
had escaped from the Islands and was going to make his home among the
free people out on the borders. He was accompanied by a woman he
claimed to be his daughter who received as much attention as the
valiant soldier himself. Johnson drifted into Ft. Atkinson and finally
located on a claim two miles above Quasqueton, on the north bank of the
Wapsie river. Here he became a sort of feudal lord, told exaggerated
stories about his valor, and was surrounded by a number of frontier
soldiers who claimed to have fought in the war of 1812, as well as in
the Canadian rebellion. For a time Captain Bill Johnson was idolized as
no other person in this part of Iowa, and it is certain that his
daughter Kate was laid siege to by more than one border hero under the
guise of suitor.

It was not long until the arrogant ways of Captain Bill Johnson, who
jumped a claim, offended an old settler by the name of Henry Bennett,
who resided near Quasqueton, and who was one of the first settlers in
that community. Attempted arrests were made pro and con, but the
Bennett party was successful and they drove Captain Johnson out of the
community, after a sound flogging. He drifted into Marion and put up at
the Phillips Hotel, telling stories of Bennett's abuse, how his
property had been taken, and how he had been driven out of the county
like a criminal. He wanted redress. The good people of Marion believed
these stories, and soon a company was organized and provided with
weapons of war to surround Bennett and demand restitution. A number of
the old settlers of Marion were mustered into this company, such as
George Patterson, Col. Durham, and others of the well known residents.
It was in the winter of 1843, but that did not keep any of the company
away from a forced march to Quasqueton. Bennett had friends and
admirers also, and being made aware of the proposed attack he fortified
his camp, laid in a supply of food, and had his guns ready. The
attacking party demanded restitution, but the old man shook his head
and told them to come on. The besiegers had to camp out, while
Bennett's followers were well housed and warm. Finally the attacking
army ran out of provisions, and after a council of war in which the
peace loving spirit prevailed, they decided to return to the quiet
haunts of Marion.

Johnson still kept up his abuse of Bennett and his friends, and when
that did not satisfy would resort to tales of his wonderful escapades
on the St. Lawrence and how he had evaded the British officers with the
assistance of his daughter, Kate. The good people at first entertained
him as a guest, and he was always willing to accept of their
hospitality, but stories were circulated that this so-called daughter,
Kate, was not his daughter at all. But Bill Johnson still remained,
having a number of supporters.

One night Robert Ellis entered the Phillips Hotel while Johnson was
heaping abuse on the Bennett party and on the courts of Iowa, telling
Gen. James Wilson, who was surveyor-general of the territory, the story
of his abuse. He said, that the day before he and his crowd had tracked
Bennett as far as Delhi where the party escaped, being assisted by
William Abbe, a prominent settler of Linn county. This was too much for
Ellis, and he replied as follows: "That is not true, as Wm. Abbe drove
from Ft. Atkinson with me, and we arrived in Marion today, and we were
together all of the time." Johnson was full of "wrath and cabbage." He
arose and in a much injured manner said, "You might as well call me a
liar as to say that," to which Ellis replied, "If that suits you any
better I can call you a liar, because that is what you are, if you want
us to believe what you have been saying here tonight. You have been
telling lies about my friend Abbe." Johnson pulled off his coat and was
about to strike him, when Mr. Ellis spied a hickory stick in the wood
box. With that he went after Johnson, who quietly retreated, put on his
coat, engaged in conversation with Wilson, and the matter for the time
dropped. The story leaked out that this Canadian boaster was nothing
but a coward, and there were grave doubts as to whether or not he was
the person he claimed to be. Finally so much opposition arose against
him that he left Marion--much to the satisfaction of the people of the
county for they had seen and heard things which reflected against
Johnson's relations with his so-called daughter.

In 1849 Robert Ellis drifted into the gold camps of Sacramento Valley
on the American river, and who should he find out there but the
daughter of Bill Johnson, now the wife of one of the miners. He learned
that Bill Johnson had drifted into Southern Iowa and Missouri, where he
assumed his old attitude, expecting free board and considerable
consideration, but the pioneers in that community had to be "shown" and
cared not much for what Johnson had been; the question was what he was
then. A suitor in Mahaska county came to see his alleged daughter, but
Bogus Johnson opposed and threatened him with dire disaster if he came
within shooting distance. The suitor was not at all scared, having
lived on the frontier longer than Johnson. The woman may have regretted
the double life she had been living, and perhaps with her
assistance--no one knows--Johnson was killed in a quarrel by the
suitor, it was alleged, and prosecutions followed. The suitor and Kate
after a long trial then drifted to California, and there Robert Ellis
found them and heard the story that Captain Bill Johnson, once the
terror of this part of Iowa, was a bogus Bill Johnson, and the light
haired Kate was not the Kate of story and fiction at all. If it had not
been for the obstreperous Bennett on the Wapsie and for the hickory
stick in the hands of Robert Ellis bogus Bill Johnson might have
terrorized this community much longer than he did.

Another story was also told shortly after Johnson left by one of
Johnson's henchmen, an old soldier, which shows the bad character and
disposition of Johnson. William Abbe, one of the early settlers, and at
one time a member of the legislature of Iowa, being in the employ of
the government, having a contract to deliver provisions at Ft.
Atkinson, was about to return to his home in Linn Grove, which fact was
known to Johnson. The soldier related after Johnson's hasty departure
that he and Johnson had entered into an agreement to blackmail Abbe and
get some money out of him by inviting Abbe to remain in the Johnson
cabin over night and then to threaten Abbe that he had assaulted the
daughter of Johnson while accepting of his hospitality. Johnson was to
remain in hiding while the soldier was set out on the trail to watch
for Abbe and invite him to the cabin. This was done and the soldier sat
out in the timber watching for Abbe during the afternoon and evening,
but fortunately Abbe failed to make his appearance as expected and the
deep laid plan fell through.

Bill Johnson, whatever he may have been, was certainly an expert in his
line and seemed to ingratiate himself into the good graces of many
prominent people. He obtained the assistance and help of Governor
Chambers, as well as Surveyor-General James Wilson, and many others in
the various law suits which he had with the members of the Bennett
party. General Wilson, as is well known, was a native of New Hampshire
and on account of the personal friendship of Daniel Webster had been
appointed to this office by President Harrison. Webster had intended to
slate his friend Wilson for Governor of Iowa, but Harrison had
appointed his private secretary and former aide-de camp, Colonel John
Chambers. Thus General Wilson had to accept the only vacancy left, that
of surveyor-general. On his trip over Iowa, General Wilson was
accompanied by his daughter, Mary E. Wilson, better known as Mrs. John
Sherwood, who later became one of the best known writers and society
women on two continents. It was at Marion, according to the report of
Robert Ellis, that Johnson first met General Wilson and that the
friendship sprang up between them, and it seemed as though Johnson had
known a number of Wilson's relatives and a great many of the prominent
men in New England. It is thought, of course, that Johnson imposed upon
General Wilson and no doubt used the names of parties he had known of
in some way to further his own selfish purposes.

The following may be quoted from the _History of Washington County_.
Vol. I, p. 326, as told by H. A. Burrell:

     "A Mahaska county murder case of Job Peck, the murderer of
     Wm. Johnson, came here on a change of venue September 9,
     1843; it was a melodrama: A cultivated Canadian
     revolutionist, a beautiful girl Kit claiming to be his
     daughter, horsethieves, etc., being the personæ dramatis, an
     elopement and kidnapping constituting the action of the
     piece. The Canuck was shot in his cabin and a lover of Kit
     was held for the crime. Kit was spirited to Pittsburg, Pa.,
     and the lover proved an alibi; he had married Kit near
     Fairfield. While in jail here he did not know his bride's
     whereabouts nor for several months after, but he finally
     found her with fine people. They lived near Oskaloosa for
     years when they went to California. Who she was, was never
     known; she denied that Johnson was her father; he may have
     been her husband. After Peck's death she married again and
     had a noble family and was called the Queen of the Thousand
     Isles--in oil business. Johnson was the subject of state
     correspondence between the United States and England. A
     British subject, he revolted, turned renegade and spy in
     1812, and robbed the mails to get information. Both
     countries offered a reward for him and he fled to the
     Isles."

How much truth there is in the above it is difficult to say. It is at
least based on hearsay. Colonel Durham knew Johnson well and was one of
his friends in the Quasqueton affair, and Robert Ellis also knew him,
as well as the members of the Abbe family. Whether Johnson was a
Canadian or a citizen of the United States or had anything to do with
the war of 1812 is uncertain. At least in Linn county he claimed to be
the Bill Johnson of Canadian fame. For that reason he introduced this
young woman as his daughter to carry out the story, as the original
Johnson did have a daughter who carried news as well as food to him in
his hiding.

To supplement the above account may be mentioned the following from the
"Early History of Dubuque," as written by L. H. Langworthy, and printed
in the _Iowa Journal of History and Politics_, July, 1910:

     "In 1843 a most ludicrous affair occurred. A villainous
     fellow palmed himself upon the people of Buchanan county as
     the renowned patriot and celebrated hero of the Thousand
     Isles, Bill Johnson. This man, with his daughter Miss Kate
     Johnson, was suspected, it seems, of being any other than
     the far-famed Canadian patriot, by the citizens of Buchanan
     county, who thought fit to take Johnson out in the night,
     tie him to a tree and whip him severely with fifty lashes on
     his naked back. The offenders were arraigned before Judge
     Wilson. The court house was crowded by hundreds of eager
     spectators who listened with intense interest to the
     proceedings: all anxious to see the laws of our country
     administered faithfully. The prisoners' names were Evans,
     Spencer, Parrish, and Rowley, charged with burglary and
     riot. It appeared that these defendants accompanied by
     several other white men and five or six Indians after
     lynching Johnson, ordered him and his daughter to pack up
     their goods and be off in two hours, and not to return at
     the peril of their lives. Great sympathy was felt for this
     Johnson and the two tender females of his household, who
     were thrown out in the depth of winter and obliged to travel
     twenty-five miles over a cold and bleak prairie; so cold
     that it froze one of the lynchers themselves to death,
     another lost his feet, and several others were severely
     frozen. The citizens here declared that Johnson looked as if
     he was born to command, and betokened in every action that
     he was the same old Bill Johnson, the hero of the Thousand
     Isles, the Canadian patriot, and the great friend of human
     liberty and republican institutions; while all the young
     bloods of the town declared that Miss Kate Johnson was a
     very intelligent and interesting young lady, with rare
     accomplishments, agreeable manners and the worthy daughter
     of a gallant sire. The case was conducted on the part of the
     prosecution by James Crawford and General James Wilson; on
     the part of the defense by James Churchman and I. M.
     Preston: the counsel on both sides in their speeches were
     truly eloquent, they were fine efforts of legal talent, and
     so great was the interest taken in this trial that the
     ladies attended in goodly numbers until a late hour at
     night, determined to hear all the proceedings and speeches
     to which the occasion gave rise. Miss Kate Johnson received
     great attention and unequalled admiration as the celebrated
     heroine and daughter of the renowned patriot of the Thousand
     Isles. The jury after being out a short time returned a
     verdict of guilty; one was sentenced to the penitentiary for
     two years and the others to a fine of two hundred dollars,
     which imprisonment and fines however were afterwards
     remitted; for lo, and behold! the next thing we hear of the
     hero of the isles, is that he has grossly imposed himself
     upon the citizens of the place, he being a different man
     altogether from the Bill Johnson whom he represented, of a
     different name and style of character, a great thief and
     scoundrel. Letters were received showing these facts. The
     next news received from him by our crestfallen beaux of
     Dubuque, was that a Mr. Peck, a respectable man in Mahaska
     county, the place to which the family had removed, fell in
     love with Johnson's daughter, the heroic Kate, who returned
     his love. But old Bill would not give his consent to the
     marriage. So the two turtles fled to an adjoining county
     where they were united in bonds matrimonial. It was some
     time before the reputed father knew where his reputed
     daughter had gone. But as soon as he did, he pursued her and
     entered the house of Peck with pistol in hand and took her
     away unmolested. But a few days afterwards while Johnson was
     sitting in his own house he was shot through the heart with
     a rifle ball from between the chinks of the logs. Peck was
     arrested, but on trial acquitted. The lineage of the heroine
     was traced back to an obscure family in Ohio, her history
     and romance closing alike in contempt and infamy.

[Illustration: BARNEY McSHANE CABIN Built in 1847 Near Springville]

[Illustration: CABIN IN "CRACKER SETTLEMENT" NEAR MT. VERNON]

     "The young swains, and especially the editorial gallants,
     who were so greatly enamored with the charms of Miss
     Katherine Johnson while in our city, often rallied each
     other afterwards on the subject; and some who appeared from
     their newspaper eulogies to be the most moon-struck while
     the romance lasted, and had written the largest amount of
     very soft poetry on the lovely daughter of the hero of the
     Thousand Isles, were the first to forget the object of their
     adoration. Alas for the fickleness of man's affection and
     the mutability of his attachments."

The above tells the story of how much trouble the various communities
in Iowa had with bogus Bill Johnson and the various interpretations of
the life and character of the outlaw and his alleged daughter. Mr.
Ellis still insists that his interpretation of the life and character
of this outlaw is as he tells it and no one perhaps knew the principal
characters better than he did. Mr. Ellis was the first one who met
Johnson in Wisconsin as he was about to emigrate into Iowa. He was one
of the actors in the occurrence at the Phillips House in Marion, he was
the old friend and companion of William Abbe and knew most of the men
in the Bennett party, such as Evans, Parrish, Rowley, and others, and
he met in California many years afterwards the heroine who had become
the wife of Peck and there had a conversation with both of them. Mr.
Ellis is of the opinion that when Johnson suddenly left Marion he went,
to Missouri and later drifted back into Mahaska county, Iowa, where he
was murdered. It was thought that Kate knew more about the murder than
she let on, but living a life as she had lived it would not be best for
her to tell all she knew of the various transactions with her so-called
father. So far as Mr. Ellis ascertained Kate had reformed and carried
herself in goodly repute among the miners of the far west where she was
then known, it is said, at times as the Queen of the Thousand Isles.
Her husband, it is stated, was a reputable person and had always stood
well in the community up to the time of the Johnson murder, and what
part, if any, he took in that no one ever knew.

Bogus Bill Johnson is said to be buried in an unknown grave in Mahaska
county and no stone has ever been found that marked his last resting
place.

Kate, Queen of the Thousand Isles, sleeps in one of the mountain
valleys of the Sierras on the Pacific slope and no one knows just when
she died or where she was buried. The dual lives of the characters in
this drama ended as all such lives do end, in infamy and disgrace.



CHAPTER XV

_The Newspapers of the County_

BY FREDERICK J. LAZELL


From the days of the early settlers until now the newspapers of Linn
county have been among the most potent factors in the upbuilding of the
community. They have been, as a rule, constructive newspapers. Their
mission has been to build up, to help their communities grow in wealth
and influence. The newspapers of the county have been noted for their
sagacity and their breadth of vision, their conservatism and their
tolerance. They have exerted a strong and a wholesome influence upon
this and adjoining counties. In the state at large their influence for
good has not been small.

The old adage that the good die young has not been true of Linn
county's newspapers. The best papers today are those which were started
in the earliest days of the various towns in this county. They have
prospered as their respective communities have prospered. Their
publishers and editors have been, for the most part, men with personal
and property interests in their respective communities. That is why
they have been builders and boosters. Linn county's proud position
among the counties of the state, commercially, intellectually, and
politically, is largely due to the fact that men of ability and
integrity have worked and written and fought for the things they knew
would be helpful to their constituents. And this is as true of the
weekly newspapers as it is of the daily press. Very few counties in the
state have had such an able corps of newspaper writers.

There were some weaklings, papers which were born and soon died. There
have been a few freak newspapers. But not many. There have also been
many able, brilliant young newspaper men who did good work in the Linn
county editorial and newspaper offices for awhile and then left for
larger fields of labor. Some of the county's ablest politicians and
some of its most prominent business men have occasionally dabbled in
newspapering, for the sake of some party or some pet project they were
anxious to push through. That was in the earlier days. There has been
very little of it in the county of late years.

In the main the newspaper men of the county have been men to the manner
born, with a knowledge of the business from the ground up, men to whom
the smell of printer's ink is as essential to their enjoyment of life
as the scent of the sea to a sailor. If, as Elbert Hubbard tells us,
art is the expression of man's joy in his work, then nine-tenths of the
newspaper men of Linn county have been real artists, for they have
stuck to their papers when they might have made heaps more money in
some other line of business. But this love of the work so
characteristic among the brethren of the Linn county press doubtless
has something to do with the fact that their readable papers are read
and quoted by the readers of other papers, from one end of the state to
the other.

No chronological list of the newspapers of Linn county has been
published, but it is interesting and instructive, and worthy of
preservation in permanent form:

     1851 _The Progressive Era_, started by D. O. Finch, in Cedar
     Rapids.

     1852 _The Prairie Star_, started at Marion by A. Hoyt. Same
     year the name was changed to the _Linn County Register_, by
     J. H. and G. H. Jennison.

     1854 Name of the _Progressive Era_ changed to the _Cedar
     Valley Times_. J. L. Enos assumes control.

     1856 _Cedar Valley Farmer_ started in Cedar Rapids by J. L.
     Enos. This was a monthly agricultural paper.

     _Cedar Rapids Democrat_, started at Cedar Rapids by W. W.
     Perkins & Co.

     1857 _The Voice of Iowa_, started at Cedar Rapids by J. L.
     Enos. Later this was called the _School Journal_.

     1863 _Linn County Register_ bought by A. G. Lucas, who
     changes its name to the _Linn County Patriot_.

     1864 _Linn County Patriot_ bought by Captain S. W. Rathbun,
     who changes its name to the _Marion Register_.

     1865 The _Franklin Record_, started at Mt. Vernon by J. T.
     and J. S. Rice.

     1866 The name of the _Franklin Record_ changed to the _Mt.
     Vernon Citizen_; passes into the hands of H. S. Bradshaw.

     1867 The _Cedar Rapids Atlas_, started by A. G. Lucas.
     Lasted three months.

     1868 _Western World_, started at Cedar Rapids. Republican in
     politics. J. L. Enos, editor.

     _Linn County Signal_, started in Marion by F. H. Williams.

     _Cedar Valley Times_ changes its name to the _Cedar Rapids
     Times_.

     1869 The _Slovan-Ameriky_, started in Cedar Rapids by J. B.
     Letovsky.

     _Linn County Signal_ moves to Cedar Rapids.

     The _Daily Observer_, started in Cedar Rapids by J. L. Enos
     and T. G. Newman, father of A. H. Newman.

     _Linn County Hawk-Eye_, started at Mt. Vernon by J. T. Rice.
     Purchased the same year by S. H. Bauman, and its name
     changed to the _Mt. Vernon Hawk-Eye_.

     1870 The _Daily Observer_, which had been started as a
     democratic paper, changes its name to the _Cedar Rapids
     Republican_, and changes its politics to correspond.

     1871 The _Linn County Pilot_, started by C. W. Kepler at Mt.
     Vernon.

     1872 Name of the _Cedar Rapids Republican_ changed to the
     _Daily Republican_.

     _Linn County Signal_ becomes the _Linn County Liberal_.

     1873 The _Lotus_, started at Center Point by J. F. Wilson &
     Co.

     1874 The _Linn County Pilot_ moved from Mt. Vernon to Marion
     by A. Beatty.

     The _Linn County Liberal_ moves from Marion to Cedar Rapids
     and takes the name of the _Standard_.

     The _Sun_ started at Lisbon by J. W. Zeigenfus.

     1876 The _Center Point Mirror_, started at Center Point by
     T. J. Metcalf and S. M. Dunlap.

     1879 The _Iowa Staats-Zeitung_, started at Cedar Rapids by
     A. Hunt.

     The _Iowa Farmer_, started at Cedar Rapids by Alex Charles.

     The _Independent_, started at Springville, editions also
     being printed for Prairieburg and Central City.

     The _Stylus_, started at Cedar Rapids by Ralph Van Vechten.

     1882 The _People_, started at Cedar Rapids by A. J. Huss.

     The _New Era_, started at Springville by J. F. Butler,
     passing the same year into the hands of C. S. Shanklin.

     1883 The _Walker News_, started at Walker by David Brant.

     The _Daily Gazette_, started in Cedar Rapids by Otis & Post.

     1884 The Gazette Company organized in March and takes over
     the _Daily Gazette_. In July all the stock purchased by Fred
     W. Faulkes and Clarence L. Miller.

     The _Saturday Evening Chat_, started in Cedar Rapids by A.
     J. Huss.

     The _Linn County Pilot_ becomes the _Marion Pilot_, Rev. J.
     W. Chaffee, editor.

     1886 The _Linn County Independent_ removes to Marion.

     1888 _Kvinden og Hjemmet_, monthly illustrated magazine for
     the Norwegian and Danish women in America, with a Swedish
     edition, _Quinnan och Hemmet_, started at Cedar Rapids by N.
     Fr. Hansen.

     The _News-Letter_, started at Central City.

     1889 _Town Topics_, started in Cedar Rapids by Ernest A.
     Sherman.

     The _Monitor_, started at Coggon.

     1891 _Saturday Record_, started in Cedar Rapids by Sherman &
     Hatmaker.

     1894 The _Herald_, started at Lisbon by W. F. Stahl.

     1893 The _Record_, started at Mt. Vernon by Lloyd
     McCutcheon.

     1902 _Iowa Post_ brought to Cedar Rapids from Iowa City by
     Henry Gundling.

     1903 The _Tribune_, established by the Cedar Rapids
     Federation of Labor.

     1906 The _Cedar Rapidske Liste_, Bohemian humorous weekly.

     The _Optimus_, started at Cedar Rapids by E. C. Barber.

     1909 _West Side Enterprise_, started December 30th by W. I.
     Endicott, owner and publisher.

Much of the early history of Linn county, and more especially of Cedar
Rapids, is interwoven with the history of the _Progressive Era_, which
afterwards became the _Cedar Rapids Times_. The _Progressive Era_ was
established by D. O. Finch in 1851. It was democratic in politics and
claimed to be devoted to the interests of Cedar Rapids and Linn county.
It was a seven column, four page paper, and rather a credit to the town
at that time. Worse papers have been published since.

It was but a short time until Mr. Finch had all the newspaper
experience he wanted. Joseph Greene then purchased the paper and ran it
until 1854. During this time Ezra Van Metre, James J. Child, Esq., and
James L. Enos were successively its editors.

James L. Enos had something to do with nearly every paper that was
started during the early days of Linn county. He loved the smell of
printer's ink. The types had a fascination for him. He delighted to see
his thoughts reproduced in print. In September, 1854, he and F.
Augustus Williams purchased Mr. Greene's interest in the _Progressive
Era_. They changed the name to the _Cedar Valley Times_. They changed
the politics of the paper from democratic to the new Americanism of
that time. Then came the organization of the republican party. Like
other adherents to the American party living in the north, the editors
of the _Times_ cast in their lot with the new republican party and
warmly advocated and defended the principles on which it was founded.

One J. G. Davenport figures also in the early history of the _Times_.
He had acquired an interest in the paper, and during the campaign he
was its nominal editor, although there were not wanting those who
declared that he had not the ability to write a three line notice of a
church supper, let alone an editorial. Anyway, he made the _Times_ his
stepping stone into the postmaster's seat, and his conduct of that
office was such that an investigation of his shortages followed. His
bondsmen, one of whom was the late J. J. Snouffer, made good the loss,
and shortly afterwards Davenport, after some more operations of a minor
character and similar nature, left Cedar Rapids.

They were rare old political fighters in those days. Politics, rather
than news, was the chief end and aim of the owner of a newspaper. When
Greene, Merritt & Co. closed out Davenport, having held a bill of sale
on the _Times_ office, the Times was made the personal organ of Colonel
William H. Merritt in his campaign against Kirkwood. To do this it had
to change from republicanism to democracy, but it waged a hot fight,
Colonel Merritt being its editor. However, Kirkwood was elected and in
1862 C. M. Hollis purchased the _Times_ and he made great success of it
up to 1866 when he disposed of the paper to Ayers and McClelland.

[Illustration: UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, LISBON]

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, MT. VERNON]

Much might be written about some of the old printers who helped to
publish those early Linn county newspapers. There has been a host of
them and they have included some notable men. One was no less a
personage than Mr. Rosewater, of the Omaha Bee, who once worked as a
journeyman printer in the office of the _Slovan-Americky_. It was when
he was on his way to the west. Some of the old printers have long since
passed away. One of the latest of them was Stephen M. Jones, who died
at Hampton four years ago. Concerning his work here in Cedar Rapids,
Captain J. O. Stewart, himself one of the veteran printers of the
state, writes interestingly as follows:

     "Stephen Jones commenced to learn the trade in the
     _Progressive Era_ office in this city, in the year 1851,
     serving a four years' apprenticeship, at the end of which
     time he went to Vinton and worked in the _Eagle_ office, at
     that time conducted by Fred Layman, I believe. The office of
     the _Progressive Era_ was located on the corner of First
     street and Third avenue, where the Warfield-Pratt-Howell
     wholesale building now stands, and was the first paper
     published in Cedar Rapids. It was an old frame building
     erected by the Greene brothers and formerly used as a store
     room. At the time of this story the lower floor front was
     used on Sundays by the Episcopal church for service, the
     printing office was overhead and the back part, three
     stories, including basement, was used as a store room for
     dressed hogs. 'Steve,' as he was called, and your
     correspondent were what was known as 'printer's devils.'
     After some years residence in Vinton Steve got about a
     wheelbarrow load of material and started his paper in
     Hampton and christened it the _Hampton Chronicle_, which is
     still among the live, able newspapers in Iowa. He was later
     appointed postmaster of Hampton, which position he held for
     twelve years.

     "There is one other who would rank with us if he is still
     living, and he was a few years ago, on his farm near Lone
     Tree in Johnson county. His name is Dan Shaffer. Dan, with a
     Mr. Foster, whose first name I have forgotten, were employed
     in the office doing the work on the Iowa Supreme Court
     Reports by Justice George Greene, formerly of this city.
     This was a book of some 600 or more pages and an edition of
     500 volumes. This book can be found on the shelves of many
     of the Iowa lawyers, especially the older practitioners.
     This work was all done on a Washington hand press and 500
     impressions was considered a good day's work. Steve's
     principal business, until he was relieved by the writer, was
     to ink the forms from which the impressions were made. This
     was done by passing over the type forms two large rollers
     made of glue and molasses, leaving and returning onto a
     large wooden roller revolved by a crank at one end, which
     process equally distributed the ink which was applied to the
     two rollers by a still smaller one and designated the
     'brayer'--old printers will recognize the article. For
     nearly two years this was the principal part of the writer's
     duties, interspersed with hunting up and down the banks of
     the river dragging out floating slabs that got away from the
     saw mills up at the dam, for fuel for the office, the
     proprietors being too poor to buy cordwood at $1.75 per
     cord. The paper was published by Dan O. Finch who later
     became distinguished as a lawyer of high ability. The last I
     knew of him, a few years ago, he was still living, making
     his home with a son some place on the Pacific
     coast,--Seattle, I believe. The other publisher was William
     Williams, son of Chief Justice Williams of this state. The
     material was owned by the Greene brothers. Some time later
     the _Era_ office was moved to the building that stood on the
     corner where the Rudolph store now is. The proprietors
     changed hands pretty often, and finally the paper came into
     the hands of Robert and LeRoy McCabe, older brothers of the
     famous Chaplain Charles C. McCabe, who then clerked for
     Greene Bros. in their store under the printing office. The
     Masonic lodge room was in the third story of this building.
     While the McCabe brothers conducted the paper your
     correspondent graduated and started out as a full fledged
     journeyman printer. It may be of interest to the craft of
     the day to give your correspondent's salary. The first year
     he was to receive $35, second $50, third $75, and the fourth
     the princely sum of $100. Out of this he was supposed to
     pay his board and furnish his clothing. The first job he
     secured after his apprenticeship was $10 per week and pay
     his own board. This was in the year 1856.

     "The tramping jour. printers of those days, like Bret
     Harte's Heathen Chinee, were peculiar. As a class they were
     the best of workmen; bright and intelligent, knowing the
     'art preservative' thoroughly, but possessed of that roving
     disposition so common to all printers of that time, and many
     of them given to drink. They would work for a time and get a
     little ahead and then get on a 'toot' and seek newer fields.
     They often resorted to peculiar methods to procure a job. I
     recall an incident while I was yet the 'devil' of the _Era_
     office. It was on the day we were moving the office to the
     new quarters. The heavy press and material had to be skidded
     from the second floor to the ground through a large door in
     the front of the building. When the heavier part of the
     press was partly down a rather tall, strong built,
     intelligent looking man put in an appearance. He watched the
     process for a short time not saying a word. Finally he took
     from his pocket a slip of dirty paper and wrote on it 'don't
     you need some help?' and handed it to the proprietor, Mr.
     Robert McCabe. He was asked if he could talk. His reply was
     simply by signs indicating that he was deaf and dumb. He
     proved an excellent help and stayed for more than three
     months, never indicating that he could speak. He was a
     skilled printer, but cross and particular, and often we
     'devils' called him hard names to his face. But his time had
     come and he must have his periodical, and he did. He threw
     his money to the kids on the streets and had a jolly time,
     never once indicating he could speak. About the third day he
     came into the office and took Mr. McCabe to the lodge room
     above and wrote: 'What will they do to me if I talk?' Being
     assured that he would not be harmed and to the astonishment
     of the boss he reached out his hand and exclaimed, 'How are
     you, Bob?' The same surprise was waiting for the rest of us,
     and you may be assured we 'devils,' who had been giving him
     such choice names, were looking for a chance to hide. He
     soon left and I never heard of him again.

     "As I have said, the publishers changed often, and for some
     time after the McCabe brothers left the paper it was hard to
     tell just who did manage the paper, the Greenes owning the
     material. After many vicissitudes, which all the papers of
     that early day had to pass through, it fell into the hands
     of Joseph Davenport, a practical printer who associated with
     him James L. Enos, well known and well remembered by the
     earlier settlers, who changed the name of the paper and
     re-christened it the _Cedar Valley Times_. Later it was
     changed to the _Cedar Rapids Times_, and was, after changing
     hands many times, finally owned by Dr. McClelland and L. M.
     Ayers, who published it for years, when it finally died of
     old age, owned and published by Dr. McClelland. The old
     _Progressive Era_ was the original progenitor of your
     present _Daily Times_."

Full of interest are those old files of the _Times_ which deal with the
beginning of the war period in the history of Linn county. There is the
description of a "democratic field day" in Cedar Rapids, October 10,
1860, when Stephen A. Douglas came over from Iowa City and spoke to the
multitude. Bands came from Vinton and Mt. Vernon; drum corps from
Bertram and Cedar Rapids. A local merchant bought a barrel of good
whiskey, diluted it sufficiently to accommodate the capacity of the six
thousand who made up the audience, sold all of it and counted the
meeting as the best thing which ever had happened in Cedar Rapids.
There was a parade of the "Wide-awakes" that night, and the visiting
bands remained over to furnish a part of the inspiration. There were
big posters, beginning with the couplet

     "O, dinna ye hear the slogan, boys?
     'Tis Douglas and his men."

That gave the editor of the _Times_ an opportunity to write the first
scare head which ever appeared in a Cedar Rapids newspaper. With the
true newspaper instinct he remembered that slogan and used it for a
sting at the end of the headline. This was the headline the week of the
election:

     "ELECTION OVER

     ABRAHAM LINCOLN IS PRESIDENT-ELECT

     Shout the Glad Tidings, Exultingly Sing; Old Abe is Elected
     and Cotton Ain't King--Secession Rebuked--Popular
     Sovereignty Now Here--Fusion Worse Confounded--The Bell
     Tolling for the Dead--Union Preserved--Dinna Ye Hear the
     Slogan."

Mr. C. M. Hollis, who was editor of the _Cedar Valley Times_ from 1862
to 1866, gives an illuminating insight into the history of Linn county
during the early days of the war:

     "My office in Cedar Rapids was naturally the meeting place
     of politicians. There the men who controlled or sought to
     control got together and talked plainly. And the plain talk
     of politicians is very different from the phrasings which
     they use in public speeches. It was thus that our Linn
     county leaders reasoned. 'This war is becoming something in
     which the whole people have intense interest. They will
     judge of men from the fact of participation or opposition.
     When the struggle is over the men who control in politics
     will be those who have been soldiers.' And so these men went
     after commissions. They were wise and far-seeing and reaped
     reward of their prudence as well as of their valor. I saw
     the commission of one Linn county man made out for the
     majoralty in an Iowa regiment, not only before the regiment
     had been organized, but even before a single company had
     been raised. I saw another for a colonelcy, fixed out ahead
     in the same way, by reason of political grace and pull. Not
     but what these men, and others, made good officers. I am
     only explaining the reasoning which prompted some of them to
     enter service, and the means which were most efficacious in
     securing prominent places.

     "And after a time it was considered that to get a high
     commission was tantamount to drawing a big political prize.
     Men were thus rewarded for their assistance given to
     successful candidates, and opponents found their way to army
     prominence beset with many obstacles. You know that a
     movement was started in Linn county to defeat Kirkwood for
     governor for the second term. This developed considerable
     strength, and a ticket was nominated with William H. Merritt
     of Cedar Rapids at its head. Merritt had been
     lieutenant-colonel of the First Iowa, and his was known as
     the 'fusion' ticket. It was an attempt to combine 'war
     democrats' and some elements of the republican party.
     Kirkwood was successful, and those men who had sought his
     defeat were, naturally, persona non grata with the state
     government. When commissions were going they were not
     remembered. Seymour D. Carpenter was one of these. But he
     did finally become surgeon of a regiment, because there was
     crying need for surgeons. Then when he was away from
     gubernatorial influence promotion was rapid, and the doctor
     was given a position as medical director of a department.
     Ellsworth N. Bates was another who suffered because of
     participation in the anti-Kirkwood movement. Mr. Bates
     persisted, however, and his merits and standing could not be
     ignored. He was elected captain of a company. With his
     regiment he served with more than usual credit, until he
     sickened and came home to die. There were others in Cedar
     Rapids and in Linn county who had similar experiences. Some
     of those who are still living, if they would but give full
     statements, would verify my remark that the proportion of
     politics mixed with the patriotism of those times was
     greater than is generally known.

     "Speaking of Ellsworth N. Bates recalls to mind one whose
     name deserves to be remembered in Cedar Rapids and in Linn
     county. He came to the town fresh from college. He was a
     real scholar and a man of rare natural abilities. He had the
     art of making friends--of gaining and retaining esteem of
     all who knew him. He was one of the very best public
     speakers I have ever heard--quick to respond to varying
     occasion, with ready thought and a phenomenal command of
     language. His choice of words and use of appropriate imagery
     made his addresses models of their kind. As a lawyer he met
     with instant success. He represented Linn county in the
     legislature, and was acknowledged as a strong man among the
     law-makers. He made a splendid fight for the state
     senatorship candidacy, against H. G. Angle. He was assistant
     secretary of the second constitutional convention of Iowa.
     When the war broke out he was one of those who did much to
     rouse sentiment for support of the government. Then he
     raised Company A of the Twentieth, and proved himself a real
     soldier in camp and field. When he came home, near to death,
     he had lost none of his old enthusiasm. He and I were
     intimate friends, and to me he told his plans for the
     future. Had E. N. Bates lived, I know that he would have
     ranked among the real statesmen of Iowa. As it was he
     accomplished more and had greater influence upon
     contemporaneous affairs than many whose deeds are very
     carefully preserved."

Mr. Hollis also tells us how newspapers were made in that awful period
of the nation's history:

     "We were not sensationalists in those days. The events that
     we had to chronicle needed no trickery of headlines or large
     type to command attention. Here are the lists of dead and
     wounded in an Iowa regiment at the battle of Winchester,"
     and the old editor opened a file of the _Times_ for 1864-65.
     "Do you think it needed a flaming poster effect to secure
     reading of that column? There are the names of friends and
     neighbors. To some of the readers of that paper those names
     represented their dearest ones. Those who had brothers or
     fathers, or sons or sweethearts in that regiment read over
     the battle lists with a fearful anxiety. We were giving
     weekly chronicle of facts--they have not yet been arranged
     into the order of definite history. When we wrote editorials
     it was not pretended that we understood all there was to the
     struggle. Only when and where we caught the partial views or
     grasped the immediate meaning of some development we gave
     our opinions. These may have been prejudiced by our personal
     sentiments or our political affiliations, but I believe, as
     a rule, the editorial utterances of those years were from
     the souls of the writers and had the ring of sincerity. And,
     with but few exceptions, the newspapers of Iowa were loyal.
     They directed or seconded loyal sentiment on all occasions.
     Few of the editors of those weeklies gained wealth or
     distinction, but they deserve to be remembered for a
     splendid work. They, too, are among 'the forgotten
     worthies.' It cost money to run even a weekly paper during
     the war years. When I began as publisher of the _Times_
     print paper cost $6 a bundle; before the war was over I was
     paying $16 for the same quality and amount. And wages ran up
     and up, as printers were more difficult to secure; until I
     was paying double what I had first found necessary."

At the close of the war the newspapers of the county began to turn
their attention to other evils. A wave of temperance sentiment swept
the county, and some of the editors were foremost among the fighters.
The county was aroused by the great amount of crime. Much of it
emanated from Cedar Rapids. "Can we expect," asked one writer in Cedar
Rapids, "peace and quiet in a place of 3,000 inhabitants which supports
not fewer than nineteen liquor establishments and several houses of ill
fame and does not support a single reading room nor a public library?"

[Illustration: ALEXANDER LAURANCE Long Prominent in Cedar Rapids]

Then, as now, the newspapers were the best "boosters" of their
respective communities. They were the first to point out the advantages
in each community and to suggest ways in which natural advantages might
lead to commercial growth and civic prosperity. Thus a writer in a
Cedar Rapids paper, after enumerating and commending the progress made
by the town since its organization, dwelt upon the value of the water
power, pointed out how the woolen mills then in operation might be made
more effective. There was an abundance of timber around Cedar Rapids at
that time and he advocated the establishment of saw mills in the city.
He saw no reason why staves should be brought all the way from Michigan
to Cedar Rapids, when they might as well be manufactured here at home.
He advocated that a packing house be established in this city, instead
of shipping the hogs from Cedar Rapids to Chicago and then shipping the
meat back. "This is only one item that would keep thousands of dollars
in our town that now go out," he argued. He wanted a hub and a spoke
factory, a fanning mill factory, and as for a "paper mill there is no
better point in the state."

History moves in ever repeating cycles and some of the things for which
this old editor fought are still needed today in Cedar Rapids and in
other towns of Linn county. But each cycle is better than the last.
Proof of this is seen in the dispute which was waged over freight rates
less than a decade after the Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska Railway had been
built into this city. The grain rates from Cedar Rapids to Chicago were
thirty cents a hundred pounds and the noise of protest which was made
then was quite similar to the noise which is sometimes


THE NEWSPAPER GRAVEYARD

The newspaper graveyard was established very early in the history of
the county and it is still claiming its victims. Among its early
victims was the _Cedar Rapids Democrat_. It was issued by W. W. Perkins
& Co. Somehow or other, democracy never flourished greatly in the Linn
county newspaper field, and the early democratic editors had not
learned the art of switching to a "progressive" side. So their papers
died. The _Democrat_ lived a year and a half. It deserved a better
fate, for it was well edited and printed.

In 1853 a monthly agricultural paper called the _Cedar Valley Farmer_
was commenced by James L. Enos. It lived through the first volume, but
a grave was opened for it before it had reached the tender age of two
years.

The _Voice of Iowa_ was commenced in January, 1857, under the auspices
of the Iowa Teachers and Phonetic associations, James L. Enos
editor-in-chief, assisted by a board of corresponding editors. It was
continued through two volumes and was then merged with another journal.

In the autumn of 1864 A. G. Lucas & Co. commenced the publication of
the _Cedar Rapids Atlas_. In January, 1865, it was changed to a weekly.
Then it was enlarged. Its place in the newspaper graveyard was prepared
a few weeks later. The editor and publisher had gone to study the
geography of other fields, but he did not take his debts with him. The
office was sold to satisfy them. This so weakened the shoulders of the
_Atlas_ that it was not strong enough to hold up.

The _Western World_ was born into a cold and unresponsive world, and
soon it joined the ranks of the dear departed.

Then came the _Linn County Signal_ which its authors hoped would be a
signal success. But its signals became tangled and it failed to kick
over the goal of success. It kicked the bucket instead. T. G. Newman,
the father of A. H. Newman of the Cedar Rapids Candy Company, purchased
the remains. From them he made the office of the _Daily Observer_,
with J. L. Enos as editor. From the _Observer_ came the _Cedar Rapids
Republican_. This was in 1870. In 1902 there was re-born the _Cedar
Rapids Times_. The father _Republican_ and the strong and lusty son
_Times_ are both in the full vigor of their powers, and this evolution
of the two powerful dailies from the amoeba-like weakly _Signal_ is the
most conspicuous example of newspaper evolution and the survival of the
fittest on record.

The present _Cedar Rapids Times_ is not to be confounded with the
_Cedar Rapids Weekly Times_ which had such a long and prosperous growth
under the management of Editor Hollis, and later of the good Doctor
McClelland. The _Weekly Times_ lived until the death of Doctor
McClelland, and it was a power for good. Then came two gentlemen from
Milwaukee who converted it into a daily. They had a great run as long
as their cash and their credit held out. And they were good newspaper
men, too. But they drew nearer and nearer the gateway to the great and
yawning newspaper graveyard. There were many mourners in Cedar Rapids
when the _Times_ was buried. It had been purified before its death by
its conspicuous work in a great tent revival conducted by an
evangelist, M. B. Williams. This revival the other dailies refused even
to mention. The _Times_ had a great deal of broadcloth endorsement. But
the eulogies proved to be its premature obituaries. Cash came slowly.
Advertising was coy. With the fall of the leaves came the death of the
_Times_. The _Gazette_ bought up the household furnishings, the
subscription lists and the good will. But the _Times_ was buried, and
the ghost of competition which had haunted the _Gazette_ office was
laid until the owners of the present _Evening Times_ resurrected the
name amid a riot of red ink during the strenuous municipal campaign of
1902.


STANDARD HAD A LONG LIFE

The _Cedar Rapids Standard_, like the _Cedar Valley Times_, had a long
life. It was first established in Marion in 1868, as the _Linn County
Signal_, by F. H. Williams. The following year it was removed to Cedar
Rapids, and Thomas G. Newman became the owner. In 1872 the name was
changed to the _Linn County Liberal_, and the office was moved back to
Marion. In 1873 James T. Simpkins became editor. The following year the
plant made a final trip to Cedar Rapids and was changed to the
_Standard_. For a long time it flourished, having a number of owners
and editors. Among them were Thomas G. Newman, C. E. Heath, A. H.
Newman, D. H. Ogden, H. A. Cook, Frank L. Millar, and in June, 1880,
Charles H. Playter, of the Des Moines _Daily Leader_, came to town and
bought a half interest of Mr. Millar. The firm name became Millar &
Playter. This partnership continued until the fall of 1885, when Mr.
Playter bought out his partner and became the sole owner. In the fall
of 1886 Mr. Playter sold the _Standard_ to S. B. Ayers, who conducted
it through the triumphal period of Iowa democracy, when Horace Boies
sat in the gubernatorial chair. It was a strong democratic paper and
had a large patronage in Linn county at that time. Later L. S. Saner
became the editor. But the hard times came. Rightly or wrongly they
were blamed on the democratic party. Republicanism triumphed; McKinley
was elected. The _Standard_ of the democratic party was trailed in the
dust. It soon died and took its place in the Cedar Rapids journalistic
graveyard.

The _Marion Pilot_ was established in 1871 at Mt. Vernon, as the _Linn
County Pilot_, and C. W. Kepler was editor. In 1874 the office was
removed to Marion and the paper was owned by Beatty & Whittits. It
continued under this management for several years and was one of the
strong republican papers of the county. In 1884 it was purchased by the
Rev. J. W. Chaffee and its name was changed to the _Marion Pilot_. He
built up a good paper, putting it in the front rank of the weekly
papers of the state. But with his passing from the editorial chair and
the rapid rise of the daily press in Cedar Rapids and its rival county
seat newspapers its power and prestige waned. In 1906 it yielded up
the ghost and was assigned to an honored place among those that have
passed on.


_The Good Ones Which Remain_

THE DAILY REPUBLICAN AND THE EVENING TIMES

As narrated above, the _Daily Republican_ is the outgrowth of the daily
_Observer_. In 1872 the _Observer_ was transferred to the Republican
Printing Company, and the name, which at first was the _Cedar Rapids
Republican_, was changed to the _Daily Republican_, the present name of
the paper.

A daily and weekly issue was published and the paper grew rapidly. For
a time it was edited by William B. Leach. In 1877 it passed into the
hands of the Republican Printing Company, who put in a great amount of
capital and enlarged the office. There were many editors during this
period. In March, 1881, the office was leased to J. R. Sage and D. G.
Goodrich, with an option of sale within a year. During this period the
paper was changed from an evening to a morning issue and an Associated
Press franchise was secured, giving the paper full news service.

Before the lease had expired Messrs. Sage and Goodrich had exercised
their right to purchase the plant. On March 1, 1882, it was transferred
to J. R. Sage, Johnson Brigham, Fred Benzinger, and H. P. Keyes. This
quartette reorganized the old Republican Printing Company, with J. R.
Sage as president. Nearly two years later Mr. Sage transferred his
interest to Mr. Brigham, and later on Messrs. Keyes and Benzinger
transferred their interest to L. S. Merchant. Messrs. Brigham and
Merchant conducted the paper, Mr. Merchant as business manager and Mr.
Brigham as editor, until 1892, when Mr. Brigham sold his interest and
went to Des Moines to start the first Iowa literary magazine, the
_Midland Monthly_. Mr. Sage had previously gone to Des Moines to become
the director of the Iowa weather and crop service.

Mr. Brigham's interest was purchased by Luther A. Brewer, who had been
assistant business manager, W. R. Boyd, who had done some editorial
work for the paper while living at home in Cedar county, and by L. S.
Merchant. The paper was at the beginning of what seemed to be an
uninterrupted period of ownership and prosperity when death suddenly
claimed Mr. Merchant in 1894. Mrs. Merchant retained her husband's
interest and the paper went on as before and waged a fight against free
silver in the campaign of 1896 which made it nationally prominent. Mr.
Brewer in the meantime had built up a very large job printing and book
binding department.

In 1898 the entire plant was sold to H. G. McMillan, of Rock Rapids, at
that time United States district attorney, and Cyrenus Cole, who had
for many years been associate editor of the _Iowa State Register_. Mr.
Boyd became postmaster at Cedar Rapids, but Mr. Brewer remained with
the paper as its business manager for some time. An evening edition,
the _Evening Times_, was started in 1902, and made a rapid growth. It
now has the largest circulation of any daily paper in Cedar Rapids.

In 1907 Mr. Brewer left the business and opened up a big book-making
plant of his own known as The Torch Press. In July of the same year
however, The Torch Press bought out the interest of Mr. McMillan and
the _Daily Republican_ and the _Evening Times_ have since been owned
and published by Messrs. Brewer and Cole. The substantial building on
Second avenue which had been erected during the regime of Messrs.
Brigham and Merchant proved far too small and the property was sold. A
large and modern newspaper and book-making building, four stories high,
was erected at the corner of Fourth avenue and Third street, the
present home of the _Daily Republican_, the _Evening Times_, The Torch
Press Printery and Bindery, and The Torch Press Book-shop, which
latter is managed by William Harvey Miner and is the biggest and most
largely patronized book shop west of Chicago.


THE EVENING GAZETTE

There is not a great deal of "history" concerning the Cedar Rapids
_Evening Gazette_, which has been one of the conspicuous successes
among Iowa daily newspapers since it was started in 1883. On June 10 of
that year, the daily _Gazette_ was founded by Messrs. Otis and Post. A
weekly issue of the paper was started at the same time. In March, 1884,
the Gazette Company was organized, and in July of that year the entire
stock was purchased by Messrs. Fred W. Faulkes and Clarence L. Miller.
The paper has had the same ownership ever since that time. The late
editor Faulkes was a pungent and versatile writer, and under his
editorial management the _Gazette_ rapidly rose to a commanding
position in the Iowa newspaper field. It began as a republican
newspaper. But after the memorable Frank D. Jackson campaign in 1893
Editor Faulkes became estranged from Governor Jackson and some of the
other leaders of the republican party. Thereafter he was inclined to
espouse the cause of democracy and the _Gazette_ came to be regarded as
the democratic newspaper of Linn county. Still later it grew more
independent, in matters of politics.

Since the death of Fred Faulkes the _Gazette_ has been published under
the supervision of its business manager Clarence L. Miller. Like the
other dailies of the city it has abandoned the weekly field.


THE SATURDAY RECORD

The _Saturday Record_ is the outgrowth of a little amateur paper
started away back in 1879 by Ralph Van Vechten, at present
vice-president of the Continental and Commercial National Bank of
Chicago. He was then a student with a taste for printer's ink and he
started a little literary paper, known as the _Stylus_. Soon after that
he was joined by Arthur J. Huss, and the two of them ran the _Stylus_.
In the spring of 1882 Mr. Van Vechten went into his uncle's bank. The
paper passed into the hands of A. J. Mallahan, and after a little time
was temporarily discontinued. But Mr. Huss gained new courage and
perhaps new capital. September 10, 1882, he started the _Cedar Rapids
People_. It continued as a seven column folio until March, 1884, when
it was bought by Fred Benzinger and R. Baer and its name changed to the
_Saturday Evening Chat_. July 1, 1887, Fred Benzinger bought out Mr.
Baer's interest and ran the paper for a number of years until he went
to Chicago, where for a time he was one of the prominent figures on the
old Chicago _Times-Herald_. Then the paper was acquired by B. R.
Hatmaker, forever famous because of the sobriquet for Cedar Rapids
which flashed into his mind one dreamful day--"The Parlor City."

In 1889 Ernest A. Sherman came to this city and was city editor of the
morning _Republican_ for a while. In February. 1891, he started _Town
Topics_. He ran it until late in the spring of that year and then he
consolidated with Hatmaker's _Saturday Record_. He became the editor,
and Hatmaker was business manager until 1892 when Mr. Sherman bought
the whole business. Since that time the _Record_ has been a permanent
feature in Cedar Rapids, the largest and neatest of the weeklies, being
printed in quarto form on book paper with many illustrations and spicy
comment on "mentionable matters" of Cedar Rapids, with all the local
news well edited.


THE IOWA POST

The _Iowa Post_ was founded in April, 1881, at Iowa City. After passing
through the hands of several owners, it was purchased in March, 1902,
by Henry Gundling of Chicago and brought to this city. Mr. Gundling
changed the paper from a weekly to a semi-weekly and in an incredibly
short time he had trebled the number of his subscribers. Mr. Gundling
had a high school education in Germany, followed by an apprenticeship
there of three years. He had sixteen years experience in Chicago and he
has travelled extensively on three continents. He is, therefore,
thoroughly equipped as an editor and this accounts for the high
standard of his paper which is eagerly read by a very large
constituency in this and adjoining counties and especially at the
colony of Amana.

[Illustration: OLD M. E. CHURCH, MT. VERNON]

[Illustration: STREET SCENE IN LISBON]


THE WEST SIDE ENTERPRISE

The _West Side Enterprise_ is one of the latest newspapers in the Linn
county field, having been started December 30, 1909. But it is one of
the liveliest as well as one of the latest. W. I. Endicott is the owner
and publisher, and he is a whole newspaper force in himself. Every
issue of the _Enterprise_ contains something which makes somebody sit
up and take notice. It is a paper devoted to the work of booming the
west side; but it is read on both sides of the river by an ever
increasing number of readers.


IOWA STAATS-ZEITUNG

The _Iowa Staats-Zeitung_ was established in the year 1879 by A. Hunt,
who continued as publisher and editor for many years--until he retired
from the newspaper business. The paper was then bought by John Young
and afterwards sold to the Charles Stoudt Printing Company, who came
from Des Moines to Cedar Rapids to make their home. The company
consists of Charles Stoudt, the publisher, and E. J. Stoudt, editor.
The paper is one of the largest German weeklies in the state,
publishing from twelve to twenty-four pages each issue and going all
over the state. It guarantees to have the largest circulation of any
German paper published in Iowa.


OTHER CEDAR RAPIDS PAPERS

Several other Cedar Rapids newspapers ought to be mentioned. The _Cedar
Rapids Listy_, a Bohemian humorous paper, was established in 1906. Fr.
Hradecky is its editor and publisher. The _Optimus_ is a republican
weekly edited by E. C. Barber, and is a most uncompromising foe of
democracy in all its form. It was established in 1906. The
_Slovan-Ameriky_ is a democratic Bohemian paper, one of the oldest, for
it was established in 1869 and has held the even tenor of its way since
that time through the sunshine and storm of democracy. John B. Letovsky
& Sons are the editors and publishers, and they have been putting out a
good paper week in and week out, year after year.

The _Tribune_ is the organ of the Federation of Labor in Cedar Rapids.
It was started in 1903 and has had a remarkable success. Its first
editor was G. F. Taylor who gave the paper a great start and it is now
edited by R. G. Stewart, who fills its columns full of gingery stuff
week after week and shines best when there is a big political scrap on
hand.


THE MARION REGISTER

In 1852 one A. Hoyt came all the way from New York to blaze the way of
modern journalism on the prairies of Iowa. He established a paper
called the _Prairie Star_. But the _Star_ didn't shine long. Mr. Hoyt
found Iowa so different from old New York. Like the wise men of the
east, after he had let go of most of the treasures he brought with him
he retraced his steps to the east and the paper passed into the hands
of J. H. and G. H. Jennison. They were Whigs with a big W and they
renamed the _Star_ as the _Linn County Register_.

When the republican party was organized, the _Linn County Register_
became one of its most able and enthusiastic advocates in the county.
The late Judge N. M. Hubbard was in active politics at that time and
during that memorable campaign he conducted the _Register_. Ah, "thim
were the days." The judge was a past master in the art of "skinning" an
opponent. That was the method of political fighting in those days and
no editor ever had a sharper knife than Judge Hubbard. He used to say
in later years that it was one of the most enjoyable periods of his
whole life.

"I made the paper grow," he said. "Everybody wanted to get it to see
whose hide was put on the fence that week."

The judge lived to tell the tale, but after the fun was all over and
the battle had been won he decided that railroad law practice was more
profitable than editing a newspaper. The _Register_ passed back into
the editorship of J. H. Jennison. The next year Robert Holmes became
its editor and subsequently its proprietor. He held this position for
five years and it was five years of the most important period in the
history of the county. Mr. Holmes successfully conducted the paper
through the great struggle of the Civil war, and up till 1863 when he
sold it to A. G. Lucas. Its name was then changed to the _Linn County
Patriot_.

In September, 1864, there came from Cedar county, a young
soldier-lawyer, S. W. Rathbun. He purchased the plant and changed the
name of the paper to the _Marion Register_. He has been editor of the
_Register_ ever since that time. He has a few more gray hairs, a few
more wrinkles, and a bit more avoirdupois than he had then, but he
still wields a trenchant pen, still makes the _Register_ a readable and
interesting paper. It has been one of the most influential papers among
the weekly press of Linn county, and has always been firmly republican.


THE MARION SENTINEL

The _Marion Sentinel_ was originally called the _Springville
Independent_, being established at Springville in the year 1879 by Fred
Chamberlain, who afterwards served as county superintendent of the
schools of Linn county. It was a seven-column folio, independent in
politics, the forerunner of the independent papers of the county. It
grew rapidly, and by 1884 had increased to a twelve-page paper. An
edition was also published for Prairieburg, and one for Central City.
In 1885 it had a circulation of 1600. It met with some reverses in 1886
and on July 1 of that year it was moved to Marion and its name changed
to the _Linn County Independent_. Mr. Chamberlain made a big success of
it in Marion. The name of the paper was then changed to the _Marion
Sentinel_. Later O. M. Smith was taken into partnership. The paper then
changed from an independent to a democratic paper, and has remained
democratic until the present time, the only simon pure democratic paper
in Linn county at the present time.

In July, 1891, Mr. Smith sold the paper to Mr. J. J. Galliven, at that
time employed as train dispatcher for the Milwaukee railroad. He
conducted it for less than three months, selling it on September 19,
1891, to its present owner, T. T. Williams. During the greater part of
the time since then C. S. Shanklin, one of the ablest political writers
of the state, has been in charge of the _Sentinel's_ editorial page.
The paper is one of the brightest and newsiest in the county.


THE MT. VERNON HAWKEYE

That splendid Linn county paper, the _Mt. Vernon Hawkeye_, was
established January 1, 1869, by J. T. Rice, as the _Linn County
Hawk-Eye_. Mr. Rice was well known in the early history of the county,
and in late years was a resident of Denver, Colorado, where he died
within the past year.

The _Hawk-Eye_ was bought by S. H. Bauman on June 1, 1869, within five
months after the paper was established, and its name was changed to the
_Mount Vernon Hawk-Eye_. Mr. S. H. Bauman continued the business and
was joined in partnership by his son, A. A. Bauman, January 1, 1892. On
July 1, 1899, S. H. Bauman retired entirely, and the paper was then
conducted by his sons, A. A. and Fred A. Bauman. This partnership was
dissolved November 17, 1909, since which time the paper has been
published by A. A. Bauman.

The paper has always been republican in politics and has never been
shaken by the winds of temporary popular prejudice or passion. It has
had an abiding conviction of political honesty and integrity and it has
been conducted on a high plane. It has rendered good service in the
building up of Mt. Vernon and the county generally.


THE WALKER NEWS

The _Walker News_ was established as a seven-column folio in February,
1883, by David Brant, at present the owner and editor of the Iowa City
_Daily Republican_. He continued as owner and editor for seven years,
and then the paper passed to the hands of Charles A. Durno, Mr. Brant
going to Cedar Rapids to become city editor of the _Gazette_.

In July, 1891, Mr. Durno sold a half interest in the business to C. O.
and J. Barry, who, in January, 1892, acquired the remaining half
interest, Mr. Durno retiring. Mr. Durno was later appointed to a
position in the government printing office at Washington, D. C, and
died in that city a few years ago. The Barrys are still in possession
of the _News_, which is one of the brightest and most influential
newspapers in the county.


THE CENTER POINT JOURNAL

The _Center Point Journal_ is a republican weekly, owned and edited by
J. A. Mahuran, one of the ablest of the Linn county newspaper men. The
paper has had its ups and downs and for a time it was chiefly noted for
its ardent campaign for a fishway in the dam across the Cedar river at
Cedar Rapids. That was during the days of Editor Barber.

The Journal grew out of the _Lotus_ which was started at Center Point,
May 15, 1873, by J. F. Wilson & Co. T. J. Metcalf was its first editor,
and he filled the leaves of the _Lotus_ with spice and sweetness until
1874 when W. T. Baker took charge and subsequently committed suicide.
But that was not the fault of the _Lotus_. The office was then sold to
H. A. Cook, of Cedar Rapids.

In 1876 T. J. Metcalf and S. M. Dunlap purchased the plant and changed
the name of the paper to the _Center Point Mirror_, the first issue
appearing November 18. Then Mr. Metcalf bought out Mr. Dunlap's
interest, and afterwards G. L. Wilson became the owner, changing its
name to the _Courier-Journal_. M. A. Oxley and Charles F. Floyd
afterwards bought the paper and it finally reached the hands of its
present owner.


THE SPRINGVILLE NEW ERA

Springville is one of the best of the Linn county towns and it has one
of the best of the Linn county papers, the Springville _New Era_. Its
first issue appeared August 9, 1882. It was a six-column folio,
independent in politics, and was established by J. B. F. Butler. In
November, 1882, C. S. Shanklin became its editor. At this time it was
changed to a six-column quarto. It became a democratic paper but lately
grew towards independence in politics, a growing tendency among modern
newspapers. There were some more changes of ownership and finally the
paper was purchased by O. E. Crane, its present publisher and editor,
under whom it has risen to a popularity and prosperity never before
attained.


THE LISBON HERALD

Lisbon has one good weekly, the _Herald_. The _Sun_ was the first paper
having been started August 27, 1874, by J. W. Zeigenfus. It was not a
success at the start, or at least it did not bring in the coin of the
realm rapidly enough to suit its proprietor, and he soon sold it to C.
J. Weatherbee. He held it for a few weeks and sold it to W. T. Baker.
Baker managed it admirably for a time but he later shot himself through
the head in his office and for a time the paper was conducted by W. L.
Davis for his widow. Then the Rev. Dewalt S. Fouse became its editor
and did some good work upon it. So did A. M. Floyd, one of the best of
Linn county's newspaper men. But finally the _Sun_ went down.

The _Herald_ has been vigorous and active and prosperous since it was
established in 1894 and it was never so prosperous as now. Under the
able management of Will F. Stahl the paper has grown in size and in
circulation and every issue is filled with up-to-date news and
interesting comment. It is a paper of which Lisbon should be proud.


CENTRAL CITY NEWS-LETTER

Situated in a valley of entrancing beauty, the valley of the Wapsie
river, Central City is one of the most beautiful towns in Iowa and it
certainly is one of the most up-to-date. Much of its growth and its
prestige is due to the fact that for many years it has had a
first-class newspaper. The _Central City News-Letter_, which was
started in 1888, has had a line of able men as its editors and they
have all done their best to make the city grow. None of them ever
worked harder at it than E. S. Weatherbee, who is the owner and the
editor of the paper, the postmaster, the mayor, and an all-around
booster for his town.


THE COGGON MONITOR

Since 1889 Coggon has had a newspaper, the _Coggon Monitor_. It has had
a number of owners, but it is established on a firm basis. Clarence
Cole was the editor until April of this year, when he sold the paper to
William Crosier.


THE MT. VERNON RECORD

In 1893, the _Mount Vernon Record_ was established and it has had a
successful and gratifying growth under the management of Lloyd
McCutcheon, its publisher and editor. Advertising came slowly at
first, as it always does to a new paper, but at present the merchants
of Mt. Vernon are giving it good support. The paper has been
"progressive"--strongly progressive in its editorial policies and
there are many progressives in that neighborhood who have backed it.

[Illustration: SCHOOL, FAIRFAX]

[Illustration: METHODIST CHURCH AND PARSONAGE, FAIRFAX]



CHAPTER XVI

_The Bohemian Element in the County_


It is not the purpose of this history to note in especial manner all
the different nationalities that have entered into the making of our
cosmopolitan population. America is peopled by sturdy men and women who
have come to this land of opportunity and freedom from all the
civilized nations of the world. It is the amalgamation of these
different races and peoples that has done much to give us our sturdy
citizenship. Driven from their old homes by persecutions or the desire
to better their condition, they have come to America and have helped
populate our prairies and develope our cities. They have needed the
opportunities here given them, and we have needed them in our work of
erecting on this continent a nation that shall be an example to all the
nations.

By far the largest and most important element of foreign extraction
represented in Linn county is the Bohemian. Some of our townships are
almost entirely populated by these progressive immigrants and their
descendants, and a goodly percentage of the residents of Cedar Rapids
trace back their Slav ancestry to old Bohemia. These people have always
made good citizens. They possess the desirable faculty of adapting
themselves readily to new environments. Without destroying their own
vigorous vitality, they grasp quickly the best there is in our thought
and mode of life. They have borne nobly their share of the burdens
incident to the establishment of new centers of civilization and of
progress. They have acted their part in our civic life. They have
adapted themselves to and have adopted our institutions. They have
helped and are helping to make the county and the city centers of
growth and prosperity. Trained through the years in habits of economy,
and forced through necessity to keep up these habits, their life here
has often been an incentive to others to go and do likewise. Lovers of
the home, their ambition is to possess their own abiding place, and
that as quickly as possible. The Bohemians are not renters. They are a
class of home owners, and nothing is so potent for stability in any
community as this trait on the part of its people. They are indeed a
thrifty people, such as every state and county and city gladly welcome.
Their buildings, though many of them may be small, are substantial in
their character. The gardens and the grounds surrounding the dwellings
in the towns and cities are neatly kept and attractive to the eye.
Their farms are well tilled and as a result grow rapidly in
productiveness and value.

Our Bohemian citizens bear their part in the administration of public
affairs. And they always make good in the positions in which they are
placed. They have helped make our city councils; they have been men of
ability and of influence on our school boards. They are numbered among
our successful merchants and bankers. Indeed, there is scarce a line of
human endeavor in which they have not been represented by men of
capacity and of worth.

At the request of the editors of this history Joseph Mekota, himself a
splendid representative of a splendid people, contributes the following
sketch of the Bohemian people to this volume:

The history of the Bohemian people in Linn county does not differ
greatly from the general history of this people in our country. Driven
from their native land, on account of political persecution and
official oppression, they sought America as the haven of liberty and
opportunity. They brought with them an abundance of patience, industry,
perseverance, and hope. Their beginning was full of hardships,
privations, and obstacles. Their chief capital was their health and
willingness to toil, and their ability to stand hardship. These were
their native heritage. Coming to this country poor, unacquainted with
its customs, its language, and its laws, their beginning had but few
silver linings.

Despite these inauspicious surroundings these early pioneers were
contented and happy. Physical and material hardships and trials were
cheerfully borne for the joys and sweetness of political and religious
liberty. Under the broad and clear skies of the religious, political,
and intellectual tolerance of America they felt the realization of the
unfulfilled dreams of the glorious but unsuccessful struggles of their
ancestors a century ago. Such a fine spirit towards the highest ideals
in life and civilization, combined with inexhaustible energy and
patience in industrial pursuits, has made this people loyal to our
institutions and useful to the development and progress of our country.

The early settlers came to this county with teams and wagons. At that
time there were no railroads west of the Mississippi river. Many of
them came from Caledonia, Wisconsin, with ox teams. Others came by
railroad as far as the Mississippi river. One member of a family who
came here in 1855 said: "They dumped us out at Muscatine and from there
we hired teams and conveyances to take us to Cedar Rapids. We moved
south of the city and lived under a tree that summer. When we wanted to
buy anything we took a sample of the article in one hand and the amount
of money we wished to expend in the other and would show that to our
neighbors and make them understand what we wanted."

These early settlers devoted themselves to agricultural pursuits. Most
of them located on or near timber lands so that they would have plenty
of fuel. Fuel was very scarce in their native land, and it was easier
to build their sheds if they were in the timber. The prairies at that
time were not desirable for location. A large portion of College
township, which is now the best farming country in the state of Iowa,
at that time was full of marshes, and high grass, and strong winds
prevailed so that the early settlers avoided the prairies and located
in timber districts.

The early Bohemian settlers came to Linn county about the years 1852
and 1853. So far as known, the following families were among the early
pioneers: The Ligr family about the year 1852 settled east of Ely. John
Posler, in the year 1853, also located about eight miles southeast of
the city. In 1854 or earlier, Paul Korab and his family settled about
one mile east of the present town of Western, where also settled at
that time John Witousek. The Korab family came here with an ox team
from the state of Wisconsin by way of Dubuque. That year, 1854, Jacob
Polak located about ten miles southeast of Cedar Rapids, and with him
was Joseph Sosel. These families also came with teams from the state of
Wisconsin. Anton Sulek located in the north part of Johnson county in
1854, and he afterwards lived near Hoosier Grove in this county on a
beautiful, elevated spot called "Hradek," and meaning "Little Castle."
Many other families came in 1855 and settled along the border line
between Johnson and Linn counties, in College and Putnam townships. The
numbers that came were not great, and it was not until after the Civil
war that large numbers of these people came to this county.

Among these people Joseph Sosel was a character of distinction. His
scholarly attainments combined with his love of intellectual and
political freedom easily made him the leader among his people. He was a
political exile. He took an active part in the uprising of Bohemian
students in the year 1848. This movement was for more political rights
and broader freedom for the people in Bohemia. The uprising did not
meet with success, and for his patriotic activity a price was set upon
his head by the Austrian government. With many other students, who
were in the same predicament, he escaped to this country. With him came
Karel Jonas, who afterwards became lieutenant-governor of the state of
Wisconsin; and with them also came Vojtech Naprstek, who left a name in
Bohemian history that is known to every Bohemian.

In this locality Mr. Sosel rendered many valuable services to his
countrymen; being able to talk the English language, he became their
legal and business adviser. He was loyal to his countrymen, and at all
times insisted that they should learn and observe the customs of their
new country. He served faithfully the interests of his people, and his
memory will forever be kindly remembered by them for the many and
useful services which he faithfully rendered.

Up to the time of the Civil war, the Bohemian immigration was slow, but
from those that were here quite a number enlisted from this county to
preserve the integrity of their new country. Among those known who
enlisted were the following: J. F. Bednar, Frank Renchin, Frank
Peremsky, Joseph Wencel, Joseph Podhajsky, John Maly, Joseph Zahradnik,
Charles Bednar, Joseph Horak, Wesley Horak, Frank Dolezal, Joseph
Dolezal.

After the Civil war Cedar Rapids became a prominent center of Bohemian
population. Many came direct from their own country, others came from
neighboring states, and still others came from the surrounding country
in this state. So that at all times this city always had a large
percentage of people of Bohemian origin, larger than any other city of
its size in the state of Iowa. In the county they settled in Putnam,
College and Franklin townships. From the year 1866, after the Prussian
war in Austria, to 1880 were perhaps the banner years of Bohemian
emigration to this country. These people all located in the city or
southeast of the city. There are today in Cedar Rapids about 8,500
inhabitants of this nationality and about 2,500 more in other parts of
the county. They are now scattered all over the county, but large and
heavy settlements are in Putnam and College townships, these being
almost exclusively settled by Bohemians. There is a large settlement in
Fairfax township, and there are settlements in Franklin, Bertram,
Boulder, and Grant townships.

In agriculture they are successful farmers. No better improved farms,
no better buildings, no better systems of farming exist in any other
part of the state than in the communities settled by these people. They
are progressive and up to date in all matters. They are hard working
people and devoted to the interests of their farms.

In Cedar Rapids they have also played an important part. A large
majority came to this country very lightly endowed with worldly goods,
but they were strong in health and body and not afraid to work. A very
large percentage of these people belong to the laboring class. The
women in the families worked as hard, if not harder, than the men. The
first ambition of these people after their arrival in this country was
to own a home. The father would work, the mother would work, and the
children would work in order to buy and pay for a home. A great many of
them bought vacant lots and improved them by erecting neat and
comfortable dwellings. At times it was claimed they took their children
out of school too early in order that they might work. In the early
times there existed circumstances which could not very well avoid this
situation. The wages were low; families as a rule were large and in
order to pay for a home and in order that the debts be paid, and to
meet expenses, it was necessary in many cases to press the children
into service. This custom became somewhat contagious among the men,
women, and children. One family was bound to earn and make as much
money as its neighbors, and therefore had to have as many members of
the family working. It is a source of congratulation that this custom,
which had been one of necessity, is now losing ground among the ranks
of this nationality and their children are kept in school as long as
any children among other American people.

The Bohemian people from the very first held tenaciously to their
mother tongue. While they were loyal to our public schools and other
institutions, they took steps to preserve and cultivate the mother
tongue among themselves and their children. As early as 1868 a society
called the "Reading Society" was organized. The purpose of this society
was to cultivate the Bohemian language; give aid to Bohemian schools;
furnish the best books of Bohemian literature to the people of our
city, and in every way possible to promote and awaken the love for
Bohemian language and history among the people. It was a center of
national life and spirit. In this laudable purpose the Reading Society
of Cedar Rapids has met with unparalleled success.

The society today owns a fine library of nearly 3,000 volumes of the
best works of history, art, and literature in the Bohemian tongue.
Besides this, the Reading Society has always been helpful, and largely
instrumental in starting, promoting, and encouraging other
organizations of national character.

The Bohemian people are fond of the theatre and theatrical
performances. At about the time that the Reading Society was organized,
they started an association for the purpose of giving theatrical
performances in the Bohemian tongue. The plays given were popular and
successful, and on many occasions there was displayed splendid
histrionic talent among the members of this dramatic club. Their
performances were always clean, instructive, and educational. Today we
have in Cedar Rapids two large dramatic associations whose performances
are a credit to our city and its people.

In the matter of education, the Bohemian people always took an active
part. Besides having their children attend the public schools, they
took opportunity to have them taught in the Bohemian language during
their vacations and sometimes on Sundays. This was so from their
earliest settlement. At first one or two rooms in a public school
building were used. Later on a building costing over $8000.00 was
erected for this purpose. The building stands on the corner of Second
street and Tenth avenue. This building has the honored distinction of
being the only building in our whole country built and used exclusively
as a Bohemian school.

Another institution that has brought fame and favor to our city in
educational circles, is the Council of Higher Education. This was
founded here in 1902. It is an organization whose object it is to
furnish honor loans without interest to poor but promising boys and
girls of Bohemian origin to secure a college education. Since its
organization this institution has aided many young men and women who
were without sufficient means to secure a college education. Last year
it had sixteen students it was aiding in the various state universities
and colleges. Its operation is nation wide. It has students in New
York, Michigan, Illinois, Texas, Nebraska, and Iowa. The funds of the
institution are gathered by popular subscriptions among individuals and
societies. Its scope covers every state in the Union where there is a
Bohemian settlement. The institution has achieved wonders in
encouraging young men and women of Bohemian nationality to attend
universities and colleges.

In musical circles the Bohemian people have distinguished themselves
from early times. In the beginning when the Bohemian settlers came to
this city they organized a musical society. This formed a nucleus for
one of the most famous musical bands in the state. Kouba's National
Band achieved state wide reputation; this band has always been composed
of a large percentage of Bohemian musicians.

In the material development of Cedar Rapids the Bohemian people have
done their full share. In the ranks of labor they are known as honest,
industrious, peaceable, and orderly. They are very largely employed in
all the big industrial institutions of our city. They command the
confidence and respect of their employers. This nationality is also
well represented in every line of business in our city. All the
professions are represented. When we consider that less than two
generations ago their ancestors came here with bare hands and not
knowing the English language and unacquainted with the customs and
without any particular advantages, except those of honesty and
willingness to work, it is remarkable that such strides forward have
been made by this nationality in the realms of labor, business, and the
professions.

[Illustration: THE CHAPEL, CORNELL COLLEGE]

[Illustration: CARNEGIE LIBRARY AND SPEER MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, MT.
VERNON]

In religious work the Bohemian people of Linn county have accomplished
splendid results. With the first settlers in this county, the Catholics
of this city had a place of worship. From its modest beginning there
grew one of the largest congregations in the city. And what
enthusiastic and untiring workers this church has! The congregation
consists very largely of the laboring class, but they have accomplished
wonderful results. A splendid church building; a large parochial
school; an assembly hall and a new parsonage are the reward of the
patience and perseverance among the members of this congregation. St.
Wenceslaus church of Cedar Rapids with its manifold work and influence
is a great honor to the people of Linn county.

Way back in the late sixties, on a beautiful and secluded spot on
Hoosier Creek, about one-half the distance between the present site of
Ely and Western, there was erected a small church of the Reformed
Evangelical denomination. There a band of devout men and women met to
worship in the simple manner of the Moravian brothers. Their leader and
minister was a man of grace, of purity of character and rare and
scholarly attainments. His name was Frank Kun. He was a great preacher
and a great teacher. For a time he held the chair of Greek and Latin at
Western College, but as his congregation increased he devoted all his
time to his people. His congregation was entirely of the rural class.
He loved his people and in turn was loved by them. His congregation was
one of the best Bohemian congregations in the United States; his
sermons were masterpieces of art and beauty, full of religious fervor,
stately dignity and depth. His memory will forever be revered by the
people of Linn county. This church is still there; broadening its
sphere of work it now has two branches, one in Johnson county, and one
in Linn county, the last being the old Baptist church in Putnam
township.

In Cedar Rapids the Bohemian people have three protestant churches: the
Fourth Presbyterian, the Bohemian Methodist, and the Reformed church;
all three are prosperous. All of them have large and substantial
memberships and all of them are fortunate in having strong, capable,
and popular men as ministers. Under the wise and liberal policies of
these leaders these churches are doing excellent work among the
Bohemian people.

There is a large, respectable element of the Bohemian population that
does not belong to any church organization. They are not opposed to
churches, nor to religion, but do not affiliate with any church
organization. They believe that every one should be permitted to think
and believe as he pleases in matters of faith. In the Bohemian language
they are called "Svobodamysli." This word does not mean Free Thinkers.
"This Bohemian word is made up of two words 'Liberty' and 'Mind,' and
it means the broadest toleration for the religious beliefs and opinions
of others; and further it means that you should give the widest
latitude to the religious beliefs and forms of worship of your
neighbors, and that they should do the same to you; and it further
means that you should honor and respect the religious views and
professions of your neighbors and they should do the same by you."

No sketch of the Bohemian people in Cedar Rapids and Linn county would
be complete without referring to the Sokols. This is a society whose
purpose is physical culture. The society is well represented in Cedar
Rapids, and has among its members some of the best all around athletes
in this country. In 1909 a team of six men of this organization
captured the first prize at the National Contest in New York city of
the Bohemian Sokols Society in the United States. The society owns a
fine building and gymnasium here. It is an old organization, dating
back to about the time when the Reading Society was organized, at that
time being a branch fostered by the Reading Society. The society has
several instructors of physical culture and gives to boys and girls,
and young men and young women, a thorough course in gymnastics.

The Bohemian people of this city are thoroughly and actively interested
in the principle of modern fraternalism. Among this element the
fraternal orders and societies find much favor and popularity. There
are very few men and women of this nationality who do not belong to at
least one fraternal order, and there are many who belong to a half
dozen fraternal orders. In fact the Bohemian element in the city of
Cedar Rapids is honey-combed with lodges, orders, and societies of
fraternal character. The Reading Society, already mentioned, was the
nucleus, from which, as time went on, manifold ramifications sprang,
finally developing into an extraordinary number of fraternal societies
and lodges.

At first these societies were more of a national spirit and character,
but later the insurance feature became an important part. The Bohemian
people have great faith in fraternal insurance. The next thing after a
home is acquired, fraternal insurance is provided. Some of the
societies are exclusively for men, and some are exclusively for women,
but the tendency of the last ten years is to permit both sexes to
become members of the same lodge. This too has its advantages, and if
fraternal orders are to be more than mere insurance companies, a
greater diversity of membership, greater benefits and advantages will
flow from them. All the orders and lodges are in a prosperous
condition. Three fine and capacious halls have been built and there is
need and place for them all.

The C. S. P. S. hall was built in 1891, the Z. C. B. J. hall was built
in 1908, and the Sokol hall in 1908. There is a Bohemian hall in Ely,
Iowa. The Z. C. B. J. is a large and flourishing fraternal order whose
supreme lodge has been located in Cedar Rapids since its organization
in 1897. This in English is called the Western Bohemian Fraternal
Association, and it is doing business in ten or twelve states in the
Union.

In 1885 there was an Odd Fellows lodge instituted, whose members are
all Bohemians, and whose rituals and work are in the Bohemian language.
This lodge has the distinction of being the only Bohemian Odd Fellows
lodge west of the Mississippi river. The spirit of fraternalism has had
a remarkably good influence upon the character and intelligence of the
Bohemian people. The financial benefits to the widows and children
flowing from these societies may be great, but the moral, intellectual,
and educational benefits to the members are immeasurably greater.

In the United States there are many Bohemian communities and
settlements. In some of the eastern cities the settlements are very
large, for instance in Chicago there are 100,000 Bohemians; in New York
about 40,000; in Cleveland about 40,000; and there are very large
settlements throughout Minnesota, the two Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas,
and Texas.

In intelligence and educational advancement, in the broad scope and
high ideals of modern fraternalism, in social progress and in business
and industrial enterprise, and in the professions, the Bohemian people
of Linn county and Cedar Rapids rank foremost among all the Bohemian
communities in the United States. This is a recognized fact among other
Bohemian communities and cities in our country. We are proud of the
fact that our city has won the beautiful title of "Parlor City," but
more proud should we be of the fact that in all the Bohemian
communities and large centers of Bohemian population from New York to
California, Cedar Rapids is known as "The Bohemian Athens of America."



CHAPTER XVII

_The Early Marriage Record_


An interesting book in the office of the county clerk at Marion is the
first marriage record kept in the county. Through the courtesy of
County Clerk William Dennis we are enabled to give below a record of
marriages that took place in the county from 1841 to 1855. The names
and the dates have been transcribed with care, though it is possible
some names here printed are not correct in every particular, due to the
inability to read the writing in the record. As a rule the penmanship
of our early clerks was distinct and readable. This is true in especial
manner of the incumbency of Hosea W. Gray, who was clerk during most of
the years covered by this transcript.

The book consulted in the preparation of this chapter contains both the
licenses granted and the returns of the marriages. In a few instances
the names in the licenses are different from those given in the
returns.

A thing to be noted in this early marriage record is the youth of many
of the parties. In many instances the records show the marriage of
young girls of 15 and 16 years.

A number of licenses are recorded, but there is no evidence in the book
that the marriages were ever celebrated, due doubtless to the failure
of the officiating clergyman or justice to make the proper returns.

Many names familiar in the early days appear in this record. And it is
valuable not only because it lists those pioneers who here set up their
household gods soon after they arrived in the county, but also because
it gives the names of the early ministers and justices of the peace in
Linn county.

In this record book are recorded the licenses of the ministers of the
gospel who were authorized to perform the marriage ceremony. Here are
some of the names, many of them doubtless familiar to the survivors of
that time:

Reverends John Hodges, Michael Summer, John Stocker, William C. Rankin,
Israel C. Clark, F. R. S. Byrd, James L. Thompson, Warren B. Morey,
Salmon Cowles, Isaac Searles, Henry Reed, Christian Troup, John
Hindman, Allen Johnson, Uriah Ferree, James M. Fanning, Peter Robinson,
Joel B. Taylor, Daniel Worthington, Luther McVay, S. H. Greenup, Duff
C. Barrows, Absalom A. Sellers, Charles D. Gray, John S. Brown, John
Walker, Edward R. Twining, Jacob Miller, Joshua B. Hardy, James S.
Fullerton, Robert Miller, Stephen Porter, Solomon T. Vail, Abner
Corbin, Richard Swearingen, George B. Bowman, David Wanerich, Nelson
Rathbern, Almiron R. Gardner, John Hayden, J. N. Seeley, J. H.
Harrison, Danforth B. Nicholas, John W. Boal, Isaac Whittimore, Bennet
Roberts, E. D. Olmsted, Wesley R. Blake, Nelson A. McConnel, Elder Noah
Willson, Deacon Pliny B. Yates, William Sayler, John Williams, Solomon
Kern, Charles N. Morbeley, John Demoss, George P. Smith, Lucas C.
Woodford, Alexander Colwell, Samuel Farlow, Williston Jones.

Here is the record of marriages covering the period noted:

1841

July 25, Joseph Crane to Agnes Bogard, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
August 26, James E. Bromwell to Catherine Gray, by Rev. J. M. Hummer.
October 18, John Hunter to Hannah Barbary Hines, by Calvin W. Phelps, J. P.
October 30, John Mann to Mary Mann, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
November 3, A. Safely to Margaret Hunter, by John Stewart, J. P.
December 1, Julias Allen Peet to Ester Ann Crow, by Rev. Thomas P. Emerson.
December 7, Aaron Moriarty to Hannah Ross, by Thomas Goudy, J. P.
Dec. 12, Samuel Ross to Mary Vaughn, by John Stocker.
----, Charles Roe to Phebe Putnam, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.


1842

January 16, James Cummings to Mary Ann Dorsey, by D. W. King, J. P.
January 18, Nathan Cochran to Eliza Ann Nichols, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
February 19, James Leverich to Hannah Brody, by Aaron Usher, J. P.
March 8, William B. Hampton to Mary Ann Van Zant, by John Stewart, J. P.
April 3, Jacob Minton to Charlotte Lewis, by Aaron Usher, J. P.
April 17, Alfred Williams to Elizabeth Oliphant, by James M. Denison, J. P.
April 18, Franklin Kimble to Lidia Bristol, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
April 24, David Rickey to Mary Coon, by Rev. John Stocker.
May 22, Harvey Dwyer to Elizabeth Bartlett, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
May 29, Robert C. Cregg to Mary E. Dowing, by Rev. Wm. C. Rankin.
August 25, David Willson to Mercy Brody, by C. W. Phelps, J. P.
September 22, Casper Nick to Christena Briney, by John Stewart, J. P.
October 9, James Huntington to Aurilla Archer, by Thomas Goudy, J. P.
November 21, John Henderson to Manilla N. Howard, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
December 1, William B. Harrison to Emma Osborn, by Thomas Lockhart, J. P.
December 24, Andrew Jackson McKean to Abah Day, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.
December 27, Joseph Jackman to Mary Ann Hall, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.


1843

January 1, Daniel Morland Peet to Sally Eliza Tryon, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.
January 11, Wm. Stephen Trimble to Martha Drunnin, by Joseph Hale, J. P.
January 20, Mark Jostin to Elizabeth Hale, by Rev. Thos. P. Emmerson.
February 8, Edward L. Hays to Mary Elizabeth Kramer, by Rev. John Stocker.
February 26, Joseph Mounts to Maria Christian Shoe, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.
March 2, Hugh Brody to Joanna Osborn, by James M. Denison, J. P.
March 12, Charles Pinckney to Amanda Brown, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.
March 21, Edwin Birdwell Spencer to Martha Davis, by James M. Denison, J. P.
April 17, Harry Oliver to Elizabeth Jane Bigger, by John Hunter, J. P.
April 18, John King to Martha Matilda Torrence, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
April 23, Philip Steinbaugh to Elizabeth Frileigh, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
April 27, James M. Denison to Mary Jewel, by Hartsell Hittle, J. P.
April 30, John Robbins to Margaret Ann Fagg, by Rev. Jesse L. Bennett.
May 7, Gamaliel Walker to Sarah Catharine Winton, by Rev. Israel L. Clark.
May 16, Nathaniel McBride to Christeen Kramer, by Rev. Wm. C. Rankin.
June 1, Nelson Crow to Eliza Lane, by Isaac Butlar, J. P.
June 26, Solomon Peckham to Harriet Brown, by James Gilliland, J. P.
June 26, Edward R. Birney to Catharine Cummings, by John Wolf, J. P.
July 9, Samuel Brazelton to Martha Freeman, by David W. King, J. P.
July 16, Lyman D. Bardwell to Sarah Kinsinger, by David W. King, J. P.
August 22, Hugh Simmons to Hannah Simmons, by Rev. Wm. C. Rankin.
September 5, Hiram Joslin to Sarah Jane Hale, by Thomas Goudy, J. P.
September 14, Chambers Thompson to Rachael Barr, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
October 8, Thomas Hose to Eliza Jane Willis, by Rev. Isaac Searles.
October 12, Thomas Lewis to Elizabeth Davis, by Hartsell Hittle, J. P.
October 20, Alexander F. Camp to Mary Wilcox, by John Wolf, J. P.
November 16, Seth Baker to Prudence Higley, by Warren E. Morey.
November 19, Thomas Gainer to Catharine Lewis, by David W. King, J. P.
November 21, John Corey to Margaret Smyth, by Rev. Salmon Cowles.
December 7, Calvin W. Phelps to Mrs. Mary Stall, by A. Simmons, J. P.
December 8, John McD. Bromwell to Rebecca Milner, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
December 13, Samuel W. Durham to Ellen Wallcott, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
December 25, William Brazzleton to Ruth Minton, by L. Lewis, J. P.
December 26, Samuel W. D. Cone to Mary Dodd, by L. M. Strong, J. P.

[Illustration: UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, SCOTCH GROVE]

[Illustration: C. &. N. W. WOOD BURNING ENGINE, 1879]

1844

January 1, William Williams to Mary Angeline Nordyke, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
January 25, Oliver Vanderwork to Maria S. Elliott, by Thomas Goudy, J. P.
February 7, N. B. Brown to Catharine Craigo, by L. Lewis, J. P.
February 22, Thomas S. Downing to Caroline A. Keys, by James L. Thompson.
February 29, Horace Metcalf to Mary Jane Hollenbeck, by L. M. Strong, J. P.
March 28, Bral Dorsey to Eliza Jane Railsback, by David W. King, J. P.
April 7, James Ely to Lavina Beeks, by Horace N. Brown, J. P.
April 17, William Heaton to Elizabeth Sutton, by Horace N. Brown, J. P.
April 18, Garrison Crow to Mary A. Simmons, by Freeman Smith, J. P.
April 23, Hiram Deem to Helen Mary Barnett, by John David, J. P.
April 26, William Cress to Jane Cumming, by John David, J. P.
April 28, George A. Patterson to Eliza Jane Emmons, by John David, J. P.
May 19, George Cantonwine to Mary Malinda Lewis, by Isaac Searles.
May 20, Timothy Stivers to Elizabeth Baugh, by Nelson Rathbun, M. M. C.
May 30, Alonzo Heaton to Rebecca Heaton, by John Davis, J. P.
July 21, John F. Cumbertin to Rilla Oliphant, by John Hunter, J. P.
July 25, John L. Berry to Mary Williams, by David W. King, J. P.
August 7, Joseph E. Boyd to Elizabeth Smith, by John David, J. P.
August 8, Joseph Usher to Lydia Mariah Williams, by John Hunter, J. P.
August 27, William A. Corson to Cynthia Vaughn, by Jesse N. Seeley.
September 5, William A. Waller to Adaline A. Shipman, by John Hayden, G.M.
Sept. 27, William Hamilton to Agnes Matilda Hunter, by John Hunter, J. P.
October 3, Charles Hinkley to Mary Helms, by Perry Oliphant, J. P.
October 10, Joseph Derbin to Melissa Kirkpatrick, by Daniel Rogers, J. P.
November 28, William Greene to Louisa M. Higley, by John M. Baals.
December 8, John S. Cully to Nancy Mounts, by John Hayden, M. G.

1845

January 13, Joseph T. Berryhill to Jane Butler, by John Hunter, J. P.
January 15, Alexander Thompson to Marion Davis, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
February 2, Amariah Hagerman to Angeline Gray, by John David, J. P.
February 18, Joseph Lichteberger to Mary K. Holeman, by John Hayden, M.G.
February 19, Joseph R. Strawn to Tabitha Lewis, by D. B. Nichols, P. G.
February 27, Joseph Williams to Mary M. Lucore, by Rev. J. Hayden.
Feb. 27, Ferdinand Kershner to Elizabeth Rogers, by Rev. Isaac Whittemore.
March 2, John Eicher to Hannah Cox, by Rev. Israel Clark.
March 6, Orlando N. Gray to Rosina Pratt, by Rev. Isaac Whittemore.
March 16, Claiborn G. Worrall to Mrs. Ellen Connor, by John David, J. P.
March 20, Chauncy Leverich to Marilla Usher, by John Hunter, J. P.
March 31, John S. Torrence to Cephina Wilson, by John David, J. P.
April 10, Daniel Robbins to Pricilla Gray, by Rev. John Hayden.
April 17, Lister W. Hays to Anna Gritton, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
April 20, George W. Utley to Maria Jane Sawyer, by Henry Weare, J. P.
May 4, George Cochran to Susan Gunn, by Elijah Evans, J. P.
July 3, James M. Burge to Sarah A. E. McRoberts, by Nelson Rathbun, M. M. C.
July 16, Michael Zimmerman to Sarah Barclay, by Elias Rogers, J. P.
July 20, David Mann to Mary Ann Whitlatch, by Thomas Goudy, J. P.
July 31, Robert M. Forsyth to Amanda McCartney, by E. Evans, J. P.
July 31, William N. Downing to Armena Applebee, by E. Evans, J. P.
August 21, James Bell to Dorcas Martin, by Rev. John Hayden.
August 27, Henry Rea to Martha L. Miller, by Rev. S. W. Ingham.
September 4, Thomas McClelland to Ruth Ann Baugh, by Elijah D. Waln, J. P.
September 7, Caleb S. Hendrix to Mary Hemphill, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
September 7, Robert Fairly to Sarah Thomas, by John Hindman, J. P.
September 9, James A. Dyer to Elizabeth Minton, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
October 8, William R. Lewis to Mary I. Cofman, by Rev. John Hayden.
October 8, Wilbert L. Lewis to Emily Cofman, by Rev. John Hayden.
November 6, Thomas Craig to Martha Smyth, by Solomon Cowles, D. D. M.
November 6, Frederick Jordan to Mrs. Adaline Firkins, by Uriah Ferrie.
December 9, Michael Hine to Mrs. Catharine Hack, by Uriah Ferrie.
December 25, Joseph A. Secrest to Sarah Osbourn, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
December 28, John B. Cutler to Martha Heaton, by John David, J. P.

1846

January 1, O. P. Weeks to Margaret Archer, by John Hindman.
January 1, Joseph Moulin to Sarah Goudy, by Uriah Ferrie.
January 4, William M. Stockton to Ann Eliza Gilbreath, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
January 25, Luke Taylor to Nancy Ann Dawson, by Rev. James M. Fanning.
February 2, John Hindman to Emily Weeks, by Rev. A. W. Johnson.
February 15, Thomas Jones to Jane Antrim, by Rev. A. W. Johnson.
February 25, Benjamine Cobb to Sarah Holman, by Rev. A. W. Johnson.
March 11, John C. Van Allman to Nancy Holler, by J. Kirkpatrick, J. P.
March 12, William Hunt to Nancy Maria McLaughlin, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
April 2, Hezekiah Starbuck to Mrs. Villamina Rice, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
April 4, Asa White to Amanda F. Davidson, by Peter Robinson.
April 12, Silvester P. Lyon to America Campbell, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
April 14, Harrison Usher to Lucy Bevens, by John Hunter, J. P.
April 30, Milton Squires to Eliza J. Mounts, by A. E. Skinner, J. P.
May 9, Hiram Usher to Lucinda Williams, by John Hunter, J. P.
June 14, Elmyrrh Howard to Elizabeth Boyle, by Ezekiel Cox, J. P.
June 20, Thomas Donahoo to Sintha M. McClelland, by Rev. A. W. Johnson.
June 21, William J. Berry to Violet Wagoner, by H. W. Gray, J. P.
June 27, William Potter to Jane Elizabeth Fowler, by John Hunter, J. P.
July 26, John Evans to Mrs. Christiana Nick, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
August 9, George W. Metcalf to Mary Howard, by Elijah Evans, J. P.
September 3, Jacob Harris to Betsy Staats, by John L. Shearer, J. P.
September 3, Elijah Staats to Sarah Ann Cox, by John L. Shearer, J. P.
September 15, George White Gray to Zernah Williams, by H. W. Gray, J. P.
October 25, Alexander F. Camp to Mrs. Catharine Knapp, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
November 5, Walter L. Brockman to Margaret Cummings, by E. D. Wain, J. P.
November 8, Horace N. Brown to Sarah Jane Lewis, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
November 25, James Robb to Mary Patteson, by Rev. Burnett Roberts.
November 26, John Harris to Elizabeth Cox, by John L. Shearer, J. P.
December 25, Joel White to Sarah A. Garretson, by William Chamberlin, J. P.
December 26, Richard Miller to Elizabeth Sargent, by Wm. Chambers, J. P.

1847

Jan. 3, Ephraim T. Lewis to Margaret G. McKinney, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
January 21, Samuel L. Wallace to Elizabeth Coffman, by Rev. A. W. Johnson.
January 29, Isaac McCoffen to Rebeckah Beeler, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
February 14, Hiram Heaton to Susannah Nealy, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
March 18, Stephen L. Pollock to Marilla Lucore, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
March 24, Joel B. Taylor to Mary S. Ferree, by Rev. Henry W. Reed.
March 25, Barney Riley to Kesiah Ramsey, by John Hunter, J. P.
March 25, Phillip Beamer to Harriet Ramsey, by John Hunter, J. P.
April 1, William Gardner to Mrs. Sarah Gritten, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
April 1, Laurence Hollenbeck to Delila Lewis, by E. Evans, J. P.
April 4, William A. Skinner to Mariette B. Hendricson, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
April 5, John Rath to Wilhelmina Reinheimer, by John Hunter, J. P.
April 15, Hugh Martin to Sarah E. Blakesly, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
April 22, Norman W. Isbell to Elizabeth Pinch, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
May 2, William Davy to Charlotte Willis, by B. S. Knight, J. P.
May 3, Robert P. Stuart to Asenith B. Soesbee, by Rev. John Himman.
May 26, John Zumbra to Angeline Eggleston, by Rev. John B. Taylor.
May 27, James B. Thomas to Elizabeth Neighbour, by Wm. Chamberlin, J. P.
June 2, Chandler Jordan to Sarah D. Waterhouse, by L. S. Jordan, J. P.
June 8, Levi H. Mason to Eunice Ann Smith, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 1, Warrington G. Conden to Margaret E. Shaw, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
July 10, Abel E. Skinner to Mary Marshall, by Rev. John Walker.
July 12, Jonathan R. Peatt to Omina Gray, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 19, Aquilla Campbell to Rachael Daniels, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
July 27, Dyer Usher to Rosannah Harris, by John L. Shearer, J. P.
August 12, Andrew F. Brockman to Pernetta A. Gott, by Rev. Bennett Roberts.
August 15, James Berry to Sarah Pattison, by Rev. Joel B. Taylor.
August 26, John S. Dolerhide to Harriet Cooper, by Rev. Bennett Roberts.
August 17, William M. Stuart to Phebe Ross, by Rev. Bennett Roberts.
August 29, Thomas Dill to Nancy Seargeant, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
September 16, John Mason to Hannah B. Railsback, by John Cue, J. P.
September 23, William G. Darr to Mary E. Arford, by B. L. Night, J. P.
October 4, Stephen Cook to Sarah Ann Isham, by Andrew J. McKean, J. P.
October 7, Andrew Hollenbeck to Susannah Yates, by Rev. D. Worthington.
October 7, Henry H. Baker to Lavina Crosberry, by H. W. Gray, J. P.
October 9, Noah Wilson to Mary House, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
October 9, John Cress to Lydia Neighbour, by Thomas Lewis, J. P.
October 14, Christopher Amose to Sarah Tee, by Hartzell Hittle, J. P.
October 18, David M. Richardson to Eliza J. Goudy, by Andrew J. McKean, J. P.
October 19, John Bomgardner to Lucy Mariah Davis, by W. Chamberlin, J. P.
October 19, Oliver Clark, Jr. to Barbary Ellen Brice, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
November 1, Joseph Bigger to Frances Runner, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
November 16, Harmon Boyd to Issabella Grafton, by Rev. Bennett Roberts.
November 19, John Shane to Hannah P. Goudy, by Rev. D. Worthington.
November 18, James Scott to Hulda Newton, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
December 21, Jacob B. Romine to Mrs. Jaurespa Harris, by Rev. Jas Fanning.
December 23, William L. Waln to Frances Burge, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
December 30, Peter Moriarty to Sarah Osborn, by Rev. Jas. M. Fanning.

1848

January 1, Josephas Stites to Sarah Burnett, by Ezekial Cox, J. P.
January 9, Henry Hunter to Roann Beckner, by Hosea W. Gray, J. P.
January 9, George A. Patterson to Hazeah Jones, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
January 9, Joseph Usher to Harriet Williams, by John Hunter, J. P.
January 19, Nelson Usher to Pheba Vinson, by John Hunter, J. P.
February 4, Martin Bennett to Sabitha Conrad, by W. Chamberlin, J. P.
February 12, Benjamin Dewit to Hannah Ann Boid, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
February 20, Henry Tee to Rachel Stuart, by Rev. Duff C. Barrows.
February 22, Asa White to Ann Eliza Stone, by Rev. D. Worthington.
March 16, John Harmon to Susan A. Abbee, by Hosea W. Gray, J. P.
March 18, Valentine Wrath to Mariah Jane Utley, by John Hunter, J. P.
March 30, James L. Stevens to Minerva Andrews, by Rev. D. Worthington.
March 30, Daniel Carlan to Eliza Ann Shaw, by Rev. D. Worthington.
March 31, Joseph Waln to Ann Kinly, by Rev. John Hindman.
March 31, Alexander Paul to Aurilla Rood, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
April 10, Henry Cress to Elizabeth Skinner, by Rev. Jno. Walker.
May 4, Henry Hemphill to Emaline Wickum, by Rev. D. Worthington.
May 6, Amos D. Morse to Mrs. Bethany Campbell, by Salmon Cowles, V. D.
May 11, Jeremiah Burge, Jr., to Sarah Ann Archer, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
May 16, George Smith to Sarah Torrence, by Hosea M. Gray, J. P.
May 18, Conrad G. Darr to Bethira Ellen Hill, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
May 29, John Rundall to Sarah Ann Storm, by Rev. S. H. Greenup.
June 1, Isa Helm to Margaret J. Campbell, by Rev. Duff C. Barrows.
June 4, James Knuckles to Susannah Heaton, by Rev. S. H. Greenup.
June 8, Samuel Yule to Sarepta E. Clark, by Lemuel D. Jordan, J. P.
June 20, Geo. Washington Gray to Prudence M. Berry, by Rev. D. Worthington.
June 25, John Burge to Harriet Harless, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 8, Luther McShane to Hester Willyard, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
July 16, John Wood to Elizabeth Jane Jaquett, by Ezekiel Cox, J. P.
July 16, John G. McLoud to Martha Jane Vardy, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
August 17, Carmi Marshall to Mary E. Hazelrigg, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
August 20, Benjamine Hoover to Sarah Ann Bressler, by Elder A. A. Sellers.
August 31, David McCall to Eliza Jane Boxwell, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
August 30, Abel Grove to Catharine Knoflock, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
September 5, Thomas J. McKean to Sarah A. Gray, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
September 15, Wm. A. Thomas to Sarah A. Campbell, by Rev. Duff C. Barrows.
September 28, James Nelson Howe to Margaret Hemphill, by L. Myers, J. P.
October 5, James Poyner to Sarah Scott, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
October 5, Godfrey Heine to Lucy Barter, by Rev. D. Worthington.
October 9, Darius M. Ross to Eliza Jane Stewart, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
October 26, William S. Rolff to Anna M. Wolf, by Andrew J. McKean, J. P.
November 12, Henry Bressler to Mary Ann Seimiller, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
Nov. 13, Edw. Crow to Mrs. Narcissa E. Bowman, by Rev. Lucas C. Woodford.
Nov. 14, Lawrence Hollenbeck to Mrs. Prudence Millburn, by John Hunter, J. P.
November 30, Turner McIntire to Elizabeth Gray, by Rev. D. Worthington.
November 30, John C. Goudy to Amelia Jordan, by Rev. Lucas C. Woodford.
December 14, Robison Conwell to Caroline Butler, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
December 21, Dennis Tryon to Huldah Clark, by Andrew J. McKean, J. P.
December 25, Alfred A. Holman to Lavinia J. Smith, by Rev. D. Worthington.

[Illustration: MAIN BUILDING, CORNELL COLLEGE]

[Illustration: SOUTH HALL, CORNELL COLLEGE]

1849

January 4, John Stanley to Ann Maria Freeman, by Rev. D. Worthington.
January 9, H. Austin to Mrs. Sarah Sutton, by L. D. Jordan. J. P.
January 16, Henry D. Rogers to Lucinda K. McRoberts, by Rev. Alex Caldwell.
January 18, Aaron Van Dorn to Elizabeth Boylan, by Rev. D. Worthington.
January 18, John M. Robb to Permelia V. Axtell, by Rev. Bennett Roberts.
January 18, Greenbury Doss to Elizabeth Cook, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
January 21, Abraham T. Darr to Mary Jane Hill, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
Feb. 1, Samuel D. McCally to Bartheba McClelland, by Rev. Alex Caldwell.
February 4, Abel E. Skinner to Mrs. Mary A. Nation, by A. J. Ward, J. P.
February 11, Samuel D. Thompson to Lucetta Wilson, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
February 12, Preston Daniels to Mary Ann Keys, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
February 15, Barney Riley to Elizabeth Nation, by Abraham J. Ward, J. P.
February 17, Thomas M. Rose to Turza Ann Knapp, by E. D. Waln, J. P.
March 1, Orson Lewis to Elizabeth Nicholls, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
March 1, William W. Hastings to Elizabeth A. Vankirk, by John Hunter, J. P.
March 11, Simeon D. Loveless to Sarah Weiser, by Rev. J. M. Westfall.
March 27, Joseph C. Tilton to Harriet C. Eggleston, by Rev. D. Worthington.
March 28, John Barkley to Elizabeth J. Barkley, by Rev. Lucas C. Woodford.
April 2, Lyman Wordan to Elizabeth McGaflick, by Rev. Williston Jones.
April 3, William Clark to Sarah House, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
April 5, Ebenezer Hull to Mehitable Jacques, by Thomas Lewis, J. P.
April 5, Francis M. Leabo to Harriet Bryant, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
April 8, Wm. W. Woods to Polly Whitlatch, by Ezekiel Cox, J. P.
April 10, John Perkins to Christiana Forsyth, by Rev. D. Worthington.
April 19, Jeremiah Beall to Mrs. Elizabeth Whitely, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
April 22, Jonathan Kees to Rebecca Wickham, by A. J. Ward, J. P.
April 29, Wm. M. C. Kirkpatrick to Elizabeth Irons, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
April 29, Nathan Chapman to Margaret House, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
April 30, David Barrows to Susan Jane Rhodes, by Duff C. Barrows.
May 1, Joseph Current to Margaret Hunter, by Lewis Meyers, J. P.
May 6, Samuel F. Hook to Sarah Jane Kennedy, by Rev. W. Jones.
May 6, Janus Martindale to Ann Myers, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
May 14, Wm. H. Harland to Sarah E. Leffingwell, by Rev. D. Worthington.
May 27, Richard Barber to Orphia Clark, by Rev. Samuel Farlow.
May 27, John Craig to Frances Burge, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
June 10, Joseph Mentzer to Maria Hollenback, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
June 11, Ira P. Aldrich to Martha Maria Leverich, by Geo. P. Smith.
June 14, Edw. H. Oliphant to Samantha A. Ankrom, by Rev. D. Worthington.
June 20, James C. Alexander to Susan Smyth, by Rev. A. M. Stewart.
June 21, Thomas Baldwin to Jane Ann McClelland, by Hosea W. Gray, clerk.
July 1, Abel Groves to Abigail Miller, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 1, James Dill to Martha Harbert, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
July 1, Joshua S. F. Briney to Rhoda M. Wolfe, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 4, Luther Abbe to Permelia Edson, by Rev. D. Worthington.
July 5, Chauncey Blodgett to Phebe Doty, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 8, Calvin Newman to Mary Ann Howard, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
July 12, Benjamine Wisner to Mary J. McKnight, by Salmon Cowles, V.D.M.
July 28, Homer Bishop to Elizabeth Smith, by Rev. D. Worthington.
August 7, James W. Fee to Tabitha Osborn, by Samuel M. Brice, J. P.
August 13, Buonaparte Stansberry to Nancy Jane Johns, by Lewis Myers, J. P.
August 14, Joshua Morford to Elize Jane Gibson, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
August 16, Wm. P. Henderson to Lydia Cox, by Wiley Fitz, J. P.
August 19, Samuel Heaton to Rebecca Heaton, by Rev. Samuel Farlow.
August 27, John Vardy to Mrs. Nancy A. Praigg, by Rev. Williston Jones.
September 6, Richard Gray to Martha Jane Scott, by Rev. J. B. Hardy.
September 7, Wm. Cahoon to Miranda Cook, by Frederick Kindley, J. P.
October 4, Robert Holmes to Eliza Keys, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
October 4, Dean Cheedle to Ruth Ives, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
October 8, Frederick Fisher to Joanna Henrietta Ruhl, by Rev. Williston Jones.
October 18, Otho S. Bowland to Adalina Frazee, by Rev. R. Swearengen.
October 25, Samuel Bressler to Isabella Seimiller, by Rev. John S. Brown.
November 1, Joseph B. Kyle to Sarah Samantha Goudy, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
November 2, Geo. Washington Roberts to Polly A. Cue, by Thomas Lewis, J. P.
November 4, James C. Traer to Marcia W. Ferguson, by Rev. J. B. Hardy.
November 5, Edw. L. Pierce to Romelia Peet, by Frederick Kindley, J. P.
November 15, Henry C. Oliphant to Martha Jane Moore, by Duff C. Barrows.
November 18, Raphael Cheedle to Evaline R. Ankrom, by Rev. J. B. Hardy.
November 22, Wm. Hunter to Nancy McRoberts, by Rev. Charles D. Gray.
November 29, Wm. I. Burge to Sarah Ann Burge, by Lewis Myers, J. P.
December 6, George Ives to Hannah Jones, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
December 20, Samuel Miller to Hannah L. Howe, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
December 27, Geo. D. McLaughlin to Capa Morford, by A. J. McKean, J. P.

1850

January 3, Walter L. Brockman to Ellen Worrell, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
January 24, James M. Oxley to Mary Jane Reneau, by Rev. J. B. Hardy.
January 24, Solomon Moriarty to Jane Osborn, by A. D. Battorff. J. P.
February 21, Wm. F. Howe to Barbara Miller, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
February 28, David N. Glass to Polly Johns, by Rev. R. Swearengen.
March 7, Andrew Moffatt to Catharine Smith, by James S. Fullerton.
March 12, Wm. V. Lagorgne to Elizabeth B. Austin, by Rev. S. T. Vail.
March 16, Albert Russell to Climena J. Gray, by Rev. J. B. Hardy.
March 17, Samuel Stony to Sarah T. Robinson, by Lewis Myers, J. P.
March 30, Volney Carpenter to Susan M. Usher, by John Hunter, J. P.
April 9, Morgan S. Parks to Lydia Gentry, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
April 12, Asa L. Harrow to Sarah Ann Troup, by Rev. John S. Brown.
April 12, Nathan M. Donahoo to Susan Shafer, by Rev. John S. Brown.
April 15, Levi W. Johnson to Ann Maria Kirkpatrick, by Rev. R. Swearengen.
April 25, John Harris to Mrs. Elizabeth Harris, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
May 14, John Heilman to Mrs. Mary Ann Carman, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
May 28, John B. Ives to Hannah Jane Wallace, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
June 4, Joseph S. Carson to Phebe Vaughn, by James S. Fullerton.
June 23, David Hunter to Luray Ann Reynolds, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
June 24, Harry G. Thomas to Alvira M. Andrews, by A. D. Battorff, J. P.
July 4, Christian Neidig to Nancy Huber, by Rev. Jacob Miller.
July 4, George Bayley to Sarah J. Goudy, by James S. Fullerton.
July 6, Seymour D. Carpenter to Sarah L. Weare, by Rev. Williston Jones.
August 15, Charles D. Gray to Candace Smith, by Rev. Robert Miller.
August 22, Miron Bunce to Elizabeth McAfferty, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
August 22, David Myers to Elizabeth Carbley, by John Emmons, J. P.
August 26, Bartley Openchain to Nancy Morse, by J. M. Williams, J. P.
August 27, Gilman Wells to Catharine Priest, by Wm. L. Winter. J. P.
August 29, Henry Seimiller to Deborah A. Falkingburg, by Rev. D. Wenerich.
August 29, Wm. Jordan to Margaret Montgomery, by Rev. J. Williams.
August 30, Nathaniel A. Abbott to Margaret J. G. Stewart, by J. S. Fullerton.
September 2, Joseph Robinson to Hannah Sanders, by Wm. L. Winter, J. P.
September 5, Henry Cummins to Mary Ann Hamilton, by Rev. Williston Jones.
September 7, Seneca Townsend to Nancy Fussle, by Henry Wagner. J. P.
September 19, James Jennings to Emily Gash, by Daniel Albaugh. J. P.
September 21, Hiram Ross to Eliza M. Palmer, by Rev. J. Williams.
September 27, Daniel Cory to Elizabeth Morford, by James McClelland, J. P.
October 12, Ira G. Wilson to Eve Montgomery, by Rev. J. Williams.
October 17, Samuel Veach to Mariah Jane Parks, by Rev. Duff C. Barrows.
October 24, Wm. Stewart to Eliza Lucore, by Rev. Williston Jones.
October 30, Win. M. Stewart to Mary C. Watkins, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
November 6, John Bozenbareck to Lucy S. Martin, by Rev. Edw. M. Twineing.
November 7, Harvey G. Higley to Anna Bishop, by Rev. Bennet Roberts.
November 10, G. W. Bressler to Hadessa Thompson, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
November 17, Joseph Thomas to Isabel Johnson, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
November 21, Benjamine Lapham to Ann E. Evans, by Wm. Cooper, J. P.
November 30, Michael C. Paul to Nancy Wiekam, by Rev. Stephen Porter.
December 10, Alfred Thomas to Elizabeth Lewis, by J. M. Williams. J. P.
December 10, Alfred Thomas to Elizabeth Lewis, by J. W. Williams, J. P.
December 14, Isaac Grimes to Eliza A. Cox, by Adam Berry, J. P.
December 19, Wm. M. Torrence to Jane L. Commons, by James S. Fullerton.
December 26, Richard Abbott to Phebe Reonalds, by Wm. L. Wenter, J. P.
December 30, Edwin Rogers to Emily J. Williams, by N. C. Gage, J. P.

1851

January 1, David Brooks to Jane Morgan, by Daniel Albaugh. J. P.
January 9, William Anderson to Rachel Harvey, by J. M. Williams, J. P.
January 12, Orsemas Lebo to Catharine Daniels, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
January 14, Hiram Brooks to Martha Hendrickson, by Rev. J. Porter.
January 14, George W. Gray to Harriet Stone, by Rev. Williston Jones.
January 14, Willis S. Gott to Elinor Carr, by James B. Thomas, J. P.
February 6, Walter Hilton to Sophia Frager, by N. C. Gagesby, J. P.
February 16, Orlin S. Harding to Margaret Morehouse, by Fred. Kindley. J. P.
February 18, Wm. S. Reed to Jane E. Gagesby, by Rev. John Williams, Jr.
March 7, Charles Robinson to Elizabeth T. Runels, by Jas. B. Thomas. J. P.
March 21, N. W. Matson to Sarah Romine, by Rev. N. D. McConnell.
March 24, Warren Payne to Catharine Freeland, by Rev. Jas. Keeler.
March 25, Wm. H. Carpenter to Mrs. Susannah Wilsey, by John Cue, J. P.
March 31, John Lash to Harriette Belt, by James McElhenna, J. P.
April 3, John Nicholas to Anna Lewis, by Daniel Albaugh, J. P.
April 6, Joel S. Austin to Elizabeth Metcalf, by J. H. Walton, J. P.
April 9, Nathan M. Day to Hannah Bearly, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
April 16, Charles H. Johnson to Lucy Clark, by John Cue. J. P.
April 27, Oran J. Draper to Elizabeth Haddon, by C. N. Moberly, S. B. P.
May 4, John Daniels to Martha Rindley, by Frederick Rindley, J. P.
May 4, Jonathan J. Nugent to Roxina E. Ford, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
May 6, Wm. H. Bristol to Mariett Jones, by Rev. Williston Jones.
May 9, Simon Roll to Catharine Keller, by Rev. Sol. Kern.
May 10, M. S. Oxley to Nancy Poyner, by John Emmons, J. P.
May 11, Joseph Brison to Elizabeth Remington, by John R. Speake, J. P.
May 15, William Lutz to Dulybella Sedwick, by Rev. Zenas Covil.
May 25, James W. Gaeby to Cynthia A. Hobart, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
June 1, Samuel Soesbe to Mary A. Chapman, by A. J. McKean. J. P.
June 23, T. J. Speak to Mary Chambers, by Wm. A. Thomas. J. P.
June 24, John Boxwell to Elizabeth Houston, by A. J. McKean. J. P.
June 28, Jacob Pugh to Harriet Dollerhide, by Wm. Cooper, J. P.
July 3, John Ellison to Rachel Curtis, by A. J. McKean. J. P.
July 3, James Curtis to Mary Johnson, by A. J. McKean. J. P.
July 8, George Henderson to Jannet Thomas, by Rev. John A. Vance.
June 8, Jacob Hogland to Harriet Hollenbeek, by J. M. Williams, J. P.
July 10, Jeremiah Campstock to Mary B. Johnson, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
July 10, John F. Rogers to Martha W. Elliott, by Andrew Perry. J. P.
July 13, Nathan C. Gillilan to Mary Heaton, by L. D. Jordan, J. P.
July 24, Johnson Gardner to Esther A. Tolman, by W. A. Thomas, J. P.
August 14, Wm. Freeman to Nancy Jane Plant, by Rev. A. J. McConnell.
August 14, Daniel M. Funk to Barbary Blessing, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
August 17, Samuel Justin to Mrs. Lydia Servenson, by Jas. B. Thomas, J. P.
August 19, Jas. McAfferty to Alma Jane Willcox, by Rev. Geo. B. Bowman.
August 28, N. B. Batterson to Emma L. Akers, by James S. Fullerton.
August 31, Jonathan B. Keys to Hariet A. Smith, by Wm. Cooper, J. P.
September 1, Alpheus McIntire to Cordelia M. Phelps, by Rev. Wm. Philips.
September 2, Sylvester McKean to Mary Ann Kyle, by James S. Fullerton.
September 10, Edwin White to Emily Edkins, by Rev. J. W. Williams.
September 14, John Manley to Susanna Kirkpatrick, by Adam Perry, J. P.
September 16, Daniel O. Finch to Ellen M. Calder, by Rev. James Keller.
September 16, Joseph Green to Eliza Denison Harvey, by Rev. James Keller.
September 18, Irvin Wilcox to Eliza McClelland, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
September 18, George R. Peet to Sarah A. Parsons, by Rev. J. Williams.
September 24, James Bliss to Lutitia Osborn, by James S. Fullerton.
October 2, Thos. Jacobson to Sarah M. Heaton, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
October 2, Fielden Travis to Patsa Campbell, by John Emmons. J. P.
October 12, Thomas Newel to Frances A. Allensworth, by Rev. D. C. Barrows.
October 12, John W. McDaniel to Miranda Willson, by John Emmons, J. P.
October 15, Sam'l H. Minear to Lucy Davis, by John Emmons. J. P.
October 17, John McCartney to Eliza J. Caldwell, by N. W. Isbelle, co. judge.
October 30, John Brison to Elizabeth Speaks, by Rev. Edw. W. Twining.
November 19, Parson Jones to Harriet Phelps, by Fredk. Rinley. J. P.
December 14, Joseph S. West to Susannah Hawn, by J. E. Kurtz, J. P.

[Illustration: HENRY BRUCE HOUSE Springville, Built in 1855]

[Illustration: FIRST SPRINGVILLE BAND]

1852

January 1, Peter Betzer to Catherine Gibson, by Rev. S. W. Kern.
January 4, Isaac B. Reed to Mariah Vanderwork, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
January 4, D. S. Brown to Amanda M. Hunt, by David Albaugh, J. P.
January 20, Thomas Milborn to Levisa Gower, by Wiley Fitz, J. P.
January 23, Alexander Renfaw to Amanda Andrews, by Rev. Solomon W. Kern
February 12, Emerson E. Barter to Esther McKnight, by Rev. J. S. Fullerton.
February 15, Jesse Turner to Matilda Grandon, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
February 18, Jonathan Hess to Nancy Mann, by Isaac Butler, J. P.
February 24, Hannibal B. Davis to Elizabeth Acres, by Rev. J. S. Fullerton.
February 27, Horatio P. Smith to Mary Severson, by J. M. Williams, J. P.
March 16, J. C. McConnell to Sophronia Harrington, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
March 23, Samuel Craig to Miranda Cheedle, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
March 25, John Hemphill to Elizabeth Thompson, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
March 25, Oran Strewn to Emil A. Doolittle, by Rev. Williston Jones.
March 25, Wm. F. Travis to Mary P. Willson, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
April 1, Hiram Beals to Catharine Stinger, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
April 7, Eber L. Mansfield to Lucy A. Warriner, by Rev. John Williams.
April 7, Milo Bunce to Mary Ann Carnahan, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
April 15, Wm. Kellernan to Elizabeth Allensworth, by John R. Speak, J. P.
April 18, Isaac Robinson to Mary J. Daugherty, by Daniel Albaugh, J. P.
May 1, John Rundall to Lydia Gregg, by Rev. Orlin Harding.
May 6, George W. Harvey to Sarah R. Wolfe, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
May 11, Horatio Morse to Miranda Smith, by John Palmer, J. P.
May 11, Jacob Lanning to Sarah A. Yambret, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
May 12, Thomas Allbones to Elizabeth Kirby, by N. C. Gagely, J. P.
May 13, Abraham Ward to Nancy J. Lanning, by Rev. E. Skinner.
May 13, Abraham Ward to Nancy Jane Lanning, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
May 30, Luther H. Keys to Frances Nelson, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
May 31, Alexander McKinnon to Martha Mathews, by James B. Forsythe.
June 2, James McFarland to Hannah J. R. Walton, by Rev. O. S. Harding.
June 10, Alex Glover to Susanna Frager, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
June 10, Joseph Myers to Sarah Dickall, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
June 22, Albert Sytezman to Julia Ann Walker, by W. A. Thomas, J. P.
June 24, Morris Neighbor to Laura Ann Hollenbeck, by Wm. A. Thomas, J. P.
July 4, Clark Draper to Barbary Hesberger, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
July 6, John Carnes to Dorcas Robinson, by John Palmer, J. P.
July 15, Richard M. Jones to Mary E. Tyler, by John Palmer, J. P.
July 25, John Winter to Christina Martin, by Rev. John H. Yambert.
August 14, Gordon B. Parish to Laura S. Hughes, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
August 19, Albert Taylor to Martha Hampton, by Rev. N. Rathburn.
August 31, Samuel Worthan to Polly Frager, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
September 1, Hiram Jenkins to Elizabeth Sawyer, by Rev. E. W. Twining.
September 2, Cephas Dood to Catharine Swan, by Rev. J. S. Fullerton.
September 5, Wm. McLelland to Sally Ann Shanklin, by Rev. O. S. Harding.
September 9, David Eckley to Mary Nihart, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
September 15, M. H. E. Higley to H. E. Emery, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
September 26, Frederick Enders to Rachel M. Carnes, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
September 30, Absalom Lanning to Nancy Hemphill, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
October 14, Thomas Hill to Mary L. Connay, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
October 18, Wm. Prosser to Cirena Bickerstaff, by Rev. O. S. Harding.
October 21, William Oxly to Henrietta Benham, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
October 26, Samuel Cole to Mary Shaffer, by Daniel Runkle.
November 14, James Johnson to Silvie Bliss, by Rev. John C. Ward.
November 16, John Walser to Hannah Metcalf, by N. C. Gageby. J. P.
November 21, Nelson Van Nott to Susanna McAfferty, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
November 28, Wm. J. Lewis to Joanna Blackburn, by Thomas Lewis, J. P.
November 30, Joel Courtney to Mary Ann Keynon, by John Emmons, J. P.
December 7, Washington R. Given to Emaline Chester, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
December 23, John Chambers to Emeline Reynolds, by W. A. Thomas, J. P.
December 26, Jacob Shanklin to Sarah Bollinghouse, by Rev. Orlin S. Harding.

1853

January 27, Jonathan Pipes to Mary Laughrey, by N. O. Gageby, J. P.
February 3, Edward Pugh to Ester Mann, by N. W. Isbell, county judge.
February 10, John Busenbark to Agnes Martin, by Rev. G. N. Jannison.
February 14, Amos Nicholas to Ruth Ransen, by Thomas Taylor, J. P.
February 20, Simon S. Wickham to Hannah Conner, by Rev. E. D. Olmsted.
February 24, John McArthur to Julia A. Straley, by Rev. Williston Jones.
February 27, Wm. H. Warren to Rosina Neel, by E. F. Williams. J. P.
March 9, Lysander Jones to Mary Straley, by Rev. Williston Jones.
March 12, Jos. N. Kirby to Mary Ann Remington, by Alfred Wright.
March 13, Waller C. Brooks to Martha Brooks, by Benj. Harris. J. P.
March 24, Joseph Carnahan to Susan A. McLaughlin, by A. J. McKean. J. P.
March 27, Daniel Smith to Anna M. Bruner, by Rev. David Winrich.
March 27, Janus Ship to Rebecca Barkly, by Rev. James B. Burch.
March 31, David Giger to Margaret J. Montgomery, by John C. Ward.
March 31, Lewis House to Elizabeth Clymour, by Rev. Williston Jones.
March 31, Daniel A. Newman to Lucinda Ennis, by Daniel Albaugh. J. P.
April 19, James Holman to Phebe Blodgett, by G. H. Jennison.
April 21, John W. Gray to Emeline Oxley, by Rev. G. H. Jennison.
April 27, John Barr to Syntha Ann White, by Rev. John C. Ward.
May 5, David Blakely to Julia A. Carroll, by Rev. Williston Jones.
May 5, Mathias Kirshner to Irene Arrasmith, by Philip Smith, J. P.
May 8, Henry Eaton to Sophia Hollister, by David W. Ring, J. P.
May 12, Moses Albaugh to Sarah Wilyard, by Daniel Albaugh, J. P.
May 15, Christopher Foremaster to Caroline Rhinehamer, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
May 15, John W. Courtney to Margaret Runan, by Rev. James B. Burch.
May 22, Henry Busenbarreck to Judith Scott, by Rev. G. H. Jennison.
May 25, Nathaniel Harris to Matilda Allis, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
May 26, Wm. B. Torrance to Nancy Rozel, by Rev. Hiram J. Burley.
May 26, Fra A. Steadman to Eliza J. Foster, by Philip Smith, J. P.
May 30, Joseph Parker to Rachel More, by Wm. L. Winter, J. P.
June 9, Gabriel Carpenter to Mariah Clifton, by Rev. Charles A. Gray.
June 12, John Carbie to Sarah G. Hampton, by Jos. Leonard. J. P.
June 19, Wm. Lineback to Margaret A. Hutchison, by Rev. D. Runkle.
June 23, Ezra P. Morehouse to Rachel Jordan, by Rev. J. H. Jennison.
June 23, Joseph Brown to Susan C. Snow, by Benj. Harris, J. P.
June 25, James W. Freeman to Jerusha Jones, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
June 29, Joal A. Doty to Mary E. Rollfe, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
June 29, Oradon Lebo to Amanda Newton, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
June 30, John Millse to Lucy A. E. Coleman, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
August 17, George Clark to Syrena Taylor, by Wm. Phelps, M. G.
August 25, Frederick G. Mason to Mary McAferty, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
September 4, Lanty Johnson to Narcissa Davis, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
September 13, Hiram Deem to Sarah Jane Vandorn, by Rev. Williston Jones.
September 13, Jos. Morford to Barbary A. Welshimer, by Rev. J. R. Marshon.
September 26, Lorenz P. Warren to Elizabeth Hamilton, by N. C. Gagely, J. P.
September 29, Richard Wood to Effy Putnam, by Isaiah Booth, J. P.
October 2, David Bedell to Minerva Holler, by Isaiah Booth, J. P.
October 4, Jackson Quick to Nancy Ann Shanklin, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
October 20, John C. Summers to Mary Smith, by Benjamin Harris, J. P.
November 1, Havir B. Sawyer to Permelia Andrews, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
November 4, Orrin H. Smith to Eliza Pisel, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
November 13, Robt. T. Holman to Mary E. Kepler, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
December 6, John Minehart to Rachel Slife, by Wm. Wagner, J. P.
December 8, Simon Tuttle to Margaret Elliott, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
December 22, John Miller to Emily Callahan, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
December 28, Miron N. Nickerson to Sophia L. Snow, by Rev. John C. Ward.
December 29, Isaac D. Worrall to Nancy A. Thompson, by Rev. G. H. Jennison.

1854

January 1, John C. Mackey to Sarah Grubis, by Wm. A. Thomas, J. P.
January 4, Luther Stinson to Elinor Coleman, by N. C. Gageby, J. P.
January 17, Wm. Neely to H. Louisa Roberts, by Rev. Jas. R. Marshon.
January 19, Madison Fee to Phebe M. Wright, by J. K. Speake. J. P.
January 19, George Booze to Elizabeth Straley, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
January 31, Thomas Flathers to Meralda McMillan, by Joseph Leonard, J. P.
February 1, Philip Hoglan to Mary J. Cress, by John Carr, J. P.
February 4, Henry Philips to Mary J. Harless, by Rev. J. K. Young.
February 5, Geo. W. Harron to Margaret E. Schoonover, by Wm. Wagner, J.P.
February 7, Abraham McAfee to Elizabeth J. Glison, by Rev. John T. Tate.
February 26, Massom Metcalf to Augusta Egleston, by N. C. Gageby. J. P.
March 2, Joseph W. Baker to Mary Jane Davy, by Rev. Josiah Jackson.
March 2, Jesse Tryon to Mary L. Cron, by John Carr, J. P.
March 9, Jacob Grey to Catherine Leabo, by Rev. E. Skinner.
March 9, Martin Floyd to Elizabeth Hoover, by Rev. Jacob Newman.
March 9, Chesley L. Brockman to Rizpah Lucore, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
March 12, Truman J. Peet to Mary Ann Connis, by Rev. J. F. Tiry.
March 13, David Morgan to Charlott West, by Benj. Harris, J. P.
March 16, Edwin Clark to Charlotte Thomas, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
March 16, Henry B. Hollenbeck to Emily C. Smith, by Rev. H. J. Busby.
March 19, Martin Perrigo to Arvilla Griffin, by Benj. Harris.
March 22, Wm. P. Hazlett to Margaret W. Kyle, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
March 22, George C. McCorckle to Ardelia Yates, by Rev. H. I. Burley.
March 26, Milton Monroe to Elizabeth Terrill, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
March 29, Chas. E. Pollard to Fanny M. Hakes, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
April 2, Simeon Burge to Elizabeth Archer, by Rev. S. K. Young.
April 13, Alexander Noble to Rebecca McFarland, by Rev. O. S. Harding.
April 16, Julius Griffing to Mary D. Ellis, by Wm. P. Gardner, J. P.
April 16, Alfred Davis to Maria Palmer, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
April 19, John G. Tennant to Esther Hill, by Benj. Harris, J. P.
April 23, Volney Leverich to Elizabeth Griffin, by Wm. J. Gardner, J. P.
April 25, Robert Berry to Nancy Thorington, by Rev. E. Skinner.
May 3, Richard Aucutt to Louie Homer, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
May 4, Addison Stewart to Cyrena Axtell, by Rev. James S. Fullerton.
May 4, Walker Terrill to Jane T. Crue, by N. W. Isbell, by County Judge.
May 12, Jacob McShane to Mary Milyard, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
May 14, Spencer C. Coleman to Belinda Kairns, by James Coleman. J. P.
May 18, David Berry to Phebe McVay, by John Cue, J. P.
May 25, Charles Cooper to Mary White, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
May 30, John Plummer to Mary Harshenberger, by James W. McKnight, J. P.
May 30, Samuel Berry to Louisa Biggs, by Rev. Williston Jones.
June 1, Absalom Sims to Mary L. Wadsworth, by Rev. E. Skinner.
June 2, Daniel Myers to Matilda Burly, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
June 8, Wm. D. Letzenberg to Lydia Crawford, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
June 8, Charles S. Kabler to Saloma Crawford, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
June 10, Taylor H. Tedford to Colesta Morris, by Benj. Harris, J. P.
June 11, Henry Sutser to Emily Kelly, by T. J. Speake, J. P.
June 28, Hugh Torrance to Rhoda Dyke, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.
June 28, A. B. Mason to Mary Cone, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
June 29, John T. Hollenbeck to Mary Hepker, by John Cue. J. P.
July 2, Henry Chamberling to Fanny Stine, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 2, James H. Swain to Priscilla Walker, by John Plummer, J. P.
July 4, Joseph S. Butler to Mariah Renau, by A. P. Risley, J. P.
July 9, Frederick Helbig to Anna Hilman, by Daniel Albaugh, J. P.
July 13, Daniel Bigler to Catharine Mikesell, by John Weare, J. P.
July 19, Joseph B. Limback to Lucy A. Donahoo, by A. J. McKean, J. P.
July 27, John M. Bailey to Emily Stoddard, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
July 28, William Lockhart to Catharine Miller, by Thos. G. Lockhart, J. P.
August 2, George W. Osborn to Mary E. Rucker, by Rev. S. W. Kern.
August 3, Benjamin Hampton to Caroline Shipman, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
August 6, James S. Carpenter to Mary E. Klumph, by Rev. Williston Jones.
August 12, E. D. Hazeltine to Mary Mitchell, by Thomas G. Lockhart. J. P.
August 17, Enoch White to Adaline A. Waller, by Jas. M. Berry, Co. Judge.
August 24, Francis Smart to Louisa Williams, by J. W. McKnight, J. P.
August 29, Frederick to Joanna Bryan, by Rev. Jas. S. Fullerton.
August 31, Christian Martin to Mary Barrer, by Jas. McKnight, J. P.
September 7, Uriah Rumbaugh to Mary Ann Sutton, by Rev. John P. Fay.
September 12, John Thompson to Mary Rogers, by Rev. E. Skinner.
September 17, John Ringer to Barbary Hershey, by Rev. S. K. Young.
September 17, Wm. B. Penn to Elizabeth S. Pearson, by Rev. Orlin S. Harding.
September 28, George Howard to Lovinia I. Grigg, by Joseph Leonard, J. P.
September 28, James Pennington to Elizabeth Pence, by Rev. A. Manson.
September 30, Isaac Kinley to Mary A. Houghton, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
October 5, Ira Neal to Mary Fink, by Francis McShane, J. P.
October 8, John T. Stewart to Charlotte L. Barter, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
October 8, Wm. Reynolds to Lucretia Vannote, by Rev. Asher Cattrell.
October 10, Lowell Daniels to Harriet S. Weare, by Rev. A. Manson.
October 12, James W. McAfee to Rachel Beerley, by Rev. A. Manson.
October 12, Richard Scott to Priscilla Cox, by Rev. John P. Fay.
October 13, Thos. W. Stephens to Sarah E. Fenlaw, by Rev. John Hindman.
October 17, James Vanness to Nancy A. Whipple, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
October 22, John N. Smith to Charlotte Smith, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
October 23, Cyrus Ross to Mary A. Stoddard, by Rev. A. Manson.
October 24, Charles Cameron to Mary Pardee, by James M. Berry, Co. Judge.
November 2, Morgan L. Parsons to Sarah Beckner, by Rev. A. Manson.
November 2, John Pugh to Charlotte Thurston, by Daniel Albaugh, J. P.
November 2, Samuel M. W. Hindman to Jane McAlester, by J. Shanklin, J. P.
November 5, John B. Leigh to Elizabeth A. Leigh, by Rev. Alfred Peek.
November 7, Killion Lichteberger to Martha Gidons, by Rev. Williston Jones.
November 8, Elson Ford to Mary McQueen, by John B. McQueen, J. P.
November 9, Harvey Cook to Sarah Carnaga, by Rev. J. V. Dewitt.
November 9, Samuel H. McClure to Ellen Fay, by A. J. Ward, J. P.
November 9, Charles Cary to Christina Whitmire, by John Weare, J. P.
November 12, Charles Hahn to Almira Wolfe, by Rev. Asher Cattrell.
November 19, Manley Morgan to Sarah Barber, by Wm. P. Gordon, J. P.
November 20, John Holman to Rebecca Tarlow, by Rev. E. Skinner.
November 21, Geo. K. Mifford to Eunice A. Austin, by J. M. Berry, co. judge.
November 22, Peter Fritz to Barbary Kale, by James Coleman, J. P.
November 23, Elijah W. Gregg to Polly A. Barkley, by A. P. Risley, J. P.
November 23, Thomas W. Wells to Martha I. Combs, by Rev. N. A. McConnell.
November 28, John Morrison to Ellen Tedford, by Benj. Harris, J. P.
November 29, Orrin E. Thomas to Irene Nuckolls, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
December 7, Edw. Bedell to Mary Hampton, by Joseph Leonard, J. P.
December 7, Robert Rogers to Mary Jane Thompson, by Rev. E. Skinner.
December 12, Wm. H. Coombs to Harriet A. Brown, by J. M. Berry, co. judge.
December 19, Sidney Williams to Celia Oxley, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
December 25, Daniel Cavin to Mary H. Ellsworth, by Rev. Samuel Goodale.
December 28, Geo. W. Garretson to Almira Corporan, by W. P. Gardner, J. P.
Dec. 31, Wm. H. H. Flemming to Ann E. Eliza Eastman, by Thos. Taylor, J. P.
---- Jesse Beechley to Harriet Craig, by Rev. G. B. Bowman.

[Illustration: THE "OLD SEM", CORNELL COLLEGE]

[Illustration: BOWMAN HALL, CORNELL COLLEGE]

1855

January 3, John O. White to Mary A. Metkeff, by Levi H. Mason, J. P.
January 3, Enoch Irish to Rhoda J. Dodd, by Rev. J. S. Fullerton.
January 4, David Stambaugh to Sophia Boyce, by Thomas G. Lockhart, J. P.
Jan. 9, Ladurnia Larrabee to Amanda S. Renfrew, by Rev. Williston Jones.
January 24, Greenberry Daniels to Susan Doty, by Rev. Elias Skinner.
January 25, Jonathan Simpson to Isabella McCaughey, by Rev. Daniel Runkle.
January 27, Wm. Croghan to Cornelia Ellis, by Wm. P. Gardner, J. P.
January 28, Thomas Skales to Lucy Serton, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
January 31, Henry Ogan to Charlotte Cress, by Thomas Taylor, J. P.
February 19, Jas. Richardson to Elmira Blanchard, by J. M. Berry, co. judge.
March 1, Wm. Wilson to Jane Thompson, by Rev. Daniel Runkle.
March 9, Jacob Cress to Lucy Ann Porter, by Thomas Taylor, J. P.
---- Wm. Winsor to Rachel Leatherman, by John Plummer, J. P.
---- George Justin to Sarah Chandler, by John Plummer, J. P.
---- A. I. Allen to Ann Eliza Kaufman, by Rev. J. T. Tate.
---- James Biggs to Margaret Mitchell, by Rev. Rufus Ricker.
---- Byron Rice to Hannah C. Colder, by Rev. C. C. Townsend.



CHAPTER XVIII

_Historic Roads and Other Monuments_


In the early days it was essential to establish means of communication
between points. Where there were no navigable rivers the legislatures,
and even congress, passed certain acts establishing roads. The
Territorial legislature which met in Burlington in 1838 and 1839 among
many other road laws approved the following passed January 25, 1839:

     "That Isaac [Israel] Mitchell, of Linn county, Iowa, John G.
     Fay, of Cedar county, and Jonathan Pettibone, of Muscatine
     county, be and are hereby appointed commissioners to lay out
     a road commencing at Bloomington, Muscatine county, thence to
     Rochester and Cedar county and thence to the county seat of
     Linn county. That said commissioners, or a majority of them,
     shall meet at Burlington on the first Monday of May next to
     discharge their duties."--Section 3, p. 461, Laws of Iowa.

     "It is further enacted that Alfred Carter, Warren Stiles and
     A. F. Russell, of Scott county, be and are hereby appointed
     commissioners to lay out a territorial road commencing at
     Davenport, Scott county, thence to Hickory Grove, thence to
     Poston's Grove, thence to Red Oak Grove, thence to Pioneer
     Grove, thence to Big Linn Grove, thence to the seat of
     justice of Linn county, said commissioners to meet, or a
     majority of them, to discharge their duties at Davenport on
     the first Monday of May next."--Section 8, p. 462, Laws of
     Iowa.

A number of these laws were passed laying out what were known as
"territorial and state roads." For example, there was the well known
Dubuque-Iowa City road passing through Anamosa, Springville, and Mount
Vernon. Then there were the two well known roads passing through
Marion, one known as the Toledo road running nearly directly west of
Cedar Rapids to Toledo, and a road much travelled in the early day; the
other road branched from the Toledo road about four miles west of the
city and was an angling road known in this county as the Marengo road,
the State road, as well as the Des Moines road, which also was laid out
over high ground in nearly a straight angling line to Marengo, and then
west through Brooklyn, Grinnell, and Newton to Des Moines. This road
was used much by the forty-niners crossing the state for the gold
fields of California, and now and then some farmer has picked out of
his field where the old road has been changed little horse shoes, shoes
used for oxen, hammers and hatchets, and other utensils which had been
left or lost by the early gold seekers.

There were two roads between Cedar Rapids and Marion well known in the
early days, one called the old Marion road and the other running about
where the street railway now runs.

Another road which was much used in the early days was known as the
Cedar Rapids and Center Point road. It was much travelled by all people
from the north part of the county.

Another road was the Marion-Mt. Vernon road, as well as the Western
road, and the Mt. Vernon-Ivanhoe Bridge road leading to Iowa City.

The Code of 1851, referring to the State roads, directs that these
roads shall be maintained by the respective counties but that such
State roads shall not be discontinued or diminished in size.--Sections
557, 558, Code of Iowa, 1851.

At this time roads were under the supervision of the county court.
Later they came under the supervision of the county supervisors.

For many years it was believed that a certain hill overgrown by trees
near the Milwaukee tracks in the edge of Kenwood had been a
fortification erected by the United States government in the early days
for defending the settlers from Indian attacks.

A school house was later erected on or near this locality and was known
as "Ft. George School House." Many of the old settlers remembered this
locality and called it the old fort. An investigation was made and the
following letter written by Samuel W. Durham explains itself:

     "The house was built by a man by the name of George, of
     German descent, and afterwards bought and occupied by
     Ambrose Harland who gave the little irregular tract and
     house the name of Ft. George in honor of its first owner and
     its having the appearance of being constructed to resist,
     not Indians, but cold winds as they swept up Indian creek.
     Harland was a character, born in Kentucky, removed to
     Crawfordsville, Indiana, and was the sheriff of that county.
     This was the home of Lew Wallace, the author of Ben Hur, and
     also the home of Henry S. Lane who first named Abraham
     Lincoln as president in a convention in Chicago in 1860.
     Harland moved to Linn county succeeding Hosea W. Gray as
     sheriff, and was succeeded by me in that office. He was a
     six-footer and large and would fight, but once fell heavily
     before Perry Oxley's huge fist."

The person who erected the house which appeared like a fort was no
other than George Hesing, who owned the land and was a peculiar
character in his day. He did plant cottonwood trees around the house
and also scraped up dirt so as to keep out the wind and snows as much
as possible from his yard. In a few years the trees grew up and the
rubbish accumulated, and they gave the place the appearance and made it
look like an old abandoned fortification. It is said that a certain Mr.
Willard having charge of the erection of a school house near this
location named it the "Ft. George School House," which name it bore as
long as it stood there.

A number of plats have been filed in the recorder's office at Marion,
and these have again been transcripted for public use, but before towns
could be platted a number of towns were staked out before the land was
laid out and surveyed by the government; of these plats we have no
record. The first plat was, no doubt, that of Westport, located on the
banks of the Cedar river and near Bertram. This was staked out by
Israel Mitchell July 4, 1838. Ivanhoe was laid out some distance below
at the present Ivanhoe bridge in the same year. Another town was staked
out by J. Wilbert Stone along the Cedar river at the lower rapids
within the corporate limits of the present Cedar Rapids. There is no
record of any plat of this town. In 1844 Westport was again platted as
Newark by James M. Doty. This is the first recorded plat and seems to
have been filed November 21, 1844, by John Zinbar, recorder. (See Vol.
A, p. 301, Lands.) This is now a corn field and has long since been
vacated.

New Linden was another town platted in the early days; this plat was
filed by P. S. Embree, surveyor, April 15, 1853, being property owned
by A. E. Simpson and A. P. Risley and located on sections 27 and 28,
township 84, range 5, Brown township. This, also, now is nothing but a
corn field.

Another was the plat of New Buffalo in the town of New Buffalo which is
filed in Vol. 4, p. 217, of the Land Records of Linn county; this has
also been vacated.

The plat of the town of Mayfield was made by J. M. May and filed for
record in Vol. 143, p. 624. It bordered on the Cedar river and embraced
lot 4 and part of section 34, township 83, range 7. It also has been
abandoned, although May's twenty-five additions, re-plats, etc., made
by Major May, are still parts of additions to Cedar Rapids. Major May
was a man of enthusiasm, and speculated, believing, with Colonel
Sellers, that in every enterprise he undertook there would be millions,
but he died a poor, unknown and disappointed man.

Many of the old town sites have been vacated, and many of the old
postoffices and country stores which one found throughout the county in
the early fifties can no longer be found on the map. From _Iowa as It
Is_, published in 1855, at page 153 we find the following notices
concerning Linn county towns and postoffices: Spring Grove, Boulder,
Central Point, Cedar Oak, Newark, St. Julien, Ivanhoe, and Hoosier
Grove, besides such towns as Cedar Rapids, Palo, Marion, and Mount
Vernon. The book also mentions Iowa Conference Seminary, with a three
story building, and with Rev. S. N. Fellows as superintendent.

N. H. Parker in his _Handbook of Iowa_, issued in 1856, mentions a few
more new towns not mentioned in the previous list, as follows: Fairfax,
Lisbon, Lafayette, Mon Diu, Necot, Oak Grove, Prospect Hill, St. Mary,
Springville, and Valley Farm. This author also speaks of the newspapers
published in the county, the _Register_ at Marion, and the _Times_, the
_Farmer_, and the _Democrat_ at Cedar Rapids.

Another handbook of the state, published by J. G. Mills, of New York,
in 1857, mentions the towns set out in the handbook of a year previous
and adds the new town of much promise by the high-toned name of Paris,
located in Jackson township, near the present town of Coggon.

Few, if any, today can locate those villages and towns which sprang up
from time to time over the county, and which long since have passed out
of history and memory.

Of the newspapers published at that time only the Marion _Register_ has
continued to be issued. The others have passed away and one does not
now know who were the editors and publishers of these early attempts at
journalism in the pioneer days. These newspapers, no doubt, did much in
keeping open the spirit of the people and in advertising the state.

[Illustration: BUTLER PARK AT SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: BUSINESS DISTRICT OF SPRINGVILLE]



CHAPTER XIX

_Some of the Old Settlers_


It is, perhaps, impossible to say even now with any degree of
certainty, who was the first actual settler in Linn county. However, it
is not very difficult to mention at least some of the early settlers.
It is said that Dyer Usher and James Ames came up the Cedar river as
far as the rapids on a hunting expedition as early as the spring of
1836; how long these men remained in what later became Linn county is
not known, but it is not likely that they stayed very long. We have
pretty good evidence that later during the summer came Daniel C. Doty,
his two sons, James, and Elias, and nephew, Jacob Crane, as far as
Bertram and viewed the country expecting to locate when land was thrown
open for settlement. Mr. Doty was born in Essex county, New Jersey, in
1764, had early drifted west to Cincinnati, and by boat had come down
the Ohio and up the Mississippi, landing at what is now Muscatine. His
children were born in Ohio. They followed the Cedar river until they
struck what became later Linn county to locate claims. There were no
settlers here, and they found no people with whom to converse, but
figured that here would be a good location to get cheap land when this
land was opened for settlement. They returned to Ohio for their
families, expecting to return the following spring, but they did not,
in fact, return for three years on account of the financial depression.
Israel Mitchell staked out the town first called Westport in July,
1838, which town was later called Newark, named in honor of Newark, New
Jersey, where the family originally came from. Here Elias Doty, Jr.,
was born in October, 1841. Elias Doty, Sr., erected the first sawmill
on Big creek in 1841, in the erection of which mill he was killed in
the raising of the timbers. Daniel Doty, Sr., had the following sons,
to-wit: James, Elias, John, and Daniel, all young men who early drifted
west. Daniel C. Doty, the father of these sons, was never a resident of
this county, but simply came here to find homes for his children. He
died in Ohio in 1849; the widow died in Ohio in 1863 at the advanced
age of ninety-eight.

James Doty, born in 1809, was the first real pottery maker in Iowa. He
had learned the trade in Ohio. This crude pottery building was standing
on the old homestead up to within a few years ago. At the time of his
death, January 17, 1847, he had over three hundred jars, jugs, crocks,
etc., ready for delivery. In this early day there was great demand for
such merchandise as it was something every farmer had to have, and it
could only be obtained in a few places and at high prices on account of
the transportation.

Another Linn county pioneer well known in the early days was Israel
Mitchell, who staked out the town of Westport in 1838. Mr. Mitchell was
born in Kentucky, January 15, 1796, the son of Moses Mitchell, of
Scotch descent, and on the mother's side, Elizabeth Grant, of Welsh
descent, and a near relative of Daniel Boone, the Indian fighter. As a
young man Israel Mitchell attended a Kentucky college and graduated
therefrom. He studied for the ministry, but gave that up on account of
his voice, and later took a course in medicine, but gave up the
practice, as his step-daughter, Mrs. Slavin, writes, "because he was
too tender hearted." He had studied law as well as surveying. After his
marriage he removed to Ohio in the early '20s with his wife and two
children, viz: Angeline and John Mitchell. He soon drifted into
Indiana, and from there he removed to Wisconsin, working in the lead
mines near Apple river in the southwest part of the state as surveyor.
From Wisconsin he came by way of Dubuque to Linn county in the spring
of 1838 in company with John, James, and Chamber Hunter, and Jacob
Leabo. They all settled on the banks of the Cedar river in sections 32
and 33, township 83, range 6. Mr. Mitchell was a widower at this time
and he and his children stayed with the Leabo family. At Marion he
married Mrs. Mary Ross, nee Mary Arnold, a native of Princeton, New
Jersey, on November 7, 1845, Esquire Goudy, one of the first justices
of the peace, performing the marriage ceremony according to the
territorial laws of Iowa. Of this marriage were born five children:
Luther H., Caroline, Israel, Boone, and Maris Morton. By her first
marriage Mrs. Ross had four children. She died in Oregon in 1858.

Mr. Mitchell sat on the first grand jury summoned in the county, was
one of the first justices of the peace in the county, and was also the
first probate judge. He acted as a frontier lawyer, did more or less
surveying, at which he was an expert, and in many ways was a most
useful man to the community. Mr. Mitchell was a true southerner, his
home was always open, and he did much entertaining. He spent much of
his time interesting his friends and acquaintances in new enterprises,
and in various ways tried to build up a great town on the banks of the
Cedar river. Whether it was due to the failure of his new town to
materialize or the western fever that got hold of him, we do not know,
but just at a time when he should have remained he saw fit to emigrate,
going with oxen overland with his family in 1847, locating about eight
miles southwest of Portland, Oregon. Here he tilled the soil and became
a noted surveyor. In 1873 he returned to Linn county to visit his old
friends, giving glowing descriptions of the far west and especially of
the Spokane country. On his return by way of San Francisco to Portland
he fell in one of the gangways on the steamer, and received injuries
from which he died a few days later after reaching home. Mr. Mitchell
was a member of the Presbyterian church and affiliated with the
democratic party. J. J. Daniels, his old friend, described Judge
Mitchell as follows: "He was truly an educated man, and in early life
had learned the science of surveying, and this was the work he was
particularly called for; when not engaged in this occupation he farmed
and kept a ferry. When the writer became acquainted with him on the
Cedar river he was an active man on foot and could swim almost equal to
a duck; bathing in the Cedar in warm weather was his usual custom. He
was a medium sized man and stood very straight and erect, having black
hair a little tinged with grey, large blue eyes, a high, round
forehead, and in appearance resembled Edgar A. Poe, and was equally as
brilliant a poet as Poe, having enough manuscript to make a book of
poems. He was truly a Christian man in many acts of kindness, and
verified his profession of faith in a true Christian religion."

Robert Ellis, Linn county's oldest living settler, was born in
Westmoreland, county, Pennsylvania, January 20, 1817, emigrated to Ohio
in 1837, later to Michigan, and started on foot to Iowa Territory in
the winter of 1838. He remained for a few weeks in Cedar county and
started again on foot looking for a claim in the timber near some
river. Coming to the present site of Cedar Rapids the first man he
found was a man by the name of Hull, who held down a claim where the T.
M. Sinclair Company packing house is now located; coming further up
along the river he found the tavern of Osgood Shepherd. Mr. Ellis liked
the place and staked out his claim on his present location near what is
known as Ellis Park. He was at work there cutting wood one day when
Shepherd came along with another man, and insisted that this claim
belonged to him. Ellis was not easily frightened, and as Shepherd was
going to attack him, Ellis raised his ax and threatened to chop his
head in two if he took another step. This threatening attitude on the
part of Ellis frightened Shepherd and he and his companion retreated,
Ellis never being disturbed afterwards. Shepherd never referred to the
matter. The next summer when Shepherd's father died Ellis and
Lichtebarger made the coffin and assisted at the burial, when Shepherd
seemed to be very much touched by the kindness of these two men and
thanked them profusely.

Ellis became a friend of the Lichtebarger boys and also of O. S.
Bolling. Bolling and Ellis assisted Tom Lewis, the old pioneer, to get
his wagon and cattle across the river when he came west to locate, on
what became later known as "Lewis Bottoms." Ellis worked for awhile at
the Winnebago Mission at Ft. Atkinson, Iowa, where he met a number of
military men who later became known in the Mexican war, as well as in
the Civil war.

As he was frequently in company with men who took newspapers and who
had travelled about the country, he heard of the gold excitement in
California and at once crossed the country to Marion wanting to go
west. At Marion he met Dan Mentzer, a man by the name of Harvey, and
another person by the name of Green. They purchased an outfit and
started for California in April, 1849, arriving at the diggings in that
state the same summer after many hard experiences. He remained for
several years digging gold as a placer miner and keeping a grocery
store, and for a time he ran a stage between Georgetown and Coloma,
earning express, passengers, and the mail. Here he met and associated
with Sutter, the old German who discovered the first gold diggings, as
well as his partner, saw Fair, Huntington, Mackey, and the boisterous
Stewart, some of them "running saloons today and owning mines
tomorrow." After remaining in California for seven years he returned
home by way of the Nicaragua route and there met and talked with
General Walker, the famous filibusterer.

Philip Hull, according to Robert Ellis, had arrived in what became
Cedar Rapids just a very few weeks before he came. He says: "Hull was
of my age and I took a liking to him. He weighed about 170 pounds, was
about five feet eight inches tall, had dark hair and was stoop
shouldered. He was a native of Ohio, and returned to Illinois or Ohio
in 1840 to get married, as he was very lonesome out here on the
prairies of Iowa. Hull never returned to Cedar Rapids. Mr. Hull and I
walked to William Abbe's and bought four yoke of oxen, a wagon, and a
breaking plow. We had but little money so we agreed that in payment for
this property we should break 75 acres of land and cut and split 10,000
rails, which we did. It took two men to break, one to handle the cattle
and one to hold the plow. It was no easy job on a hot day when the oxen
would pull for a pond with all their might if not closely watched, and
many were the times they would give us the slip and would lie down in
the pond and we could do nothing but wait till the air cooled and night
came on. Neither one of us made anything, and I saw nothing of Mr. Hull
till I met him at Sacramento, California, where he had preceded me by
several months. We often talked over our lives in Linn county, neither
one at the time even believing that Cedar Rapids had any future. Hull
was an agreeable companion, a splendid fellow and square in all his
dealings. He preferred frontier life and would be content in no other
locality except on the frontier."

Ellis says further of Wm. Abbe:

     "Abbe and I were in partnership in dealing with the
     government. Abbe made the deals with the government and I
     made most of the purchases from the settlers. At one time
     Abbe and I had just completed a contract with the government
     for provisions, and then Indian Agent Harvey in St. Louis
     insisted that we must also furnish 100 cattle within six
     days at Ft. Atkinson. This was rather a difficult task but
     Abbe said we had to do it and we rode away in a hurry back
     home to buy up cattle and drive them back to be there in
     time. We worked day and night and had the cattle at Ft.
     Atkinson on time. As Abbe had to go to Prairie du Chien I
     was ordered to return home with $1,000.00 in gold which had
     been paid for the cattle. I did not like to go alone over
     the open prairie with the money but there was no way out of
     it and so I started bright and early. That night I reached
     Quasqueton and stayed over night at a small tavern where
     there were all kinds of people hanging about. The next day I
     set out again and got down in the neighborhood of Center
     Point and there spied a deer. I got off my horse and loaded
     my gun, aimed, and fired. The horse shied and off it started
     on a dead run with the gold in the saddle bags. I next
     wanted to shoot the horse for it was worth much less than
     the money, but before I could reload the horse was out of
     range. I ran as fast as I could and in an hour found the
     horse tied to a tree in the timber with the gold safe in the
     saddle bags."

Asked how about the deer, Mr. Ellis replied, "Well, I never took time
to see whether I killed that deer or not. I was so excited about that
gold and that horse that I forgot the deer at that time and never
turned around to look."

Since his return home Mr. Ellis has lived quietly on his claim, which
now for the most part has been platted into city lots. Mr. Ellis is the
only person now living who can remember when he saw one cabin here
become a city of 34,000 inhabitants.

John J. Daniels, the son of Jeremiah Daniels, came to Bertram township
in the spring of 1844, his father entering land on what is known as
Indian creek, erecting a log house and barn thereon. J. J. Daniels was
one of the first school teachers in the county. He held many township
offices, and was for a time county recorder. Jerry Daniels died in
1882, and John J. Daniels a short time ago.

James Bassitt and wife came to Linn county in March, 1839, and Mrs.
Bassitt is supposed to have been the first white woman to cross Indian
creek, a stream which empties into the Cedar river below Cedar Rapids.
A short time afterwards Rufus H. and Sarah Ann Lucore came from
Pennsylvania and stopped with the Bassitts. On the first day of April,
1839, arrived Joseph H. and John Lichtebarger, locating on what became
Kingston or West Cedar Rapids; later a brother, Isaac, also arrived.
These brothers erected one of the first cabins, in May of that year, on
the west side of the river. It is still standing.

At what became Central City arrived in August, 1839, Joseph Clark and
family; this place was for a long time known as Clark's Ford. Here Mr.
Clark erected a primitive grist mill by selecting a hollow gum and
placing in the trunk of the tree a stone; upon this was placed another
stone which was operated by a long sweep and turned on a pivot; in this
rude manner enough meal was ground out to supply the family.

Joel and James Leverich arrived in this county some time in 1839, and
chose for their home what became later known as "Mound Farm." Ira
Leverich jumped a claim which had been staked out in April of this year
by Rufus Lucore and after more or less trouble, in which the settlers
took Lucore's part, Leverich had to yield and give up his pretended
right. Joel was a noted character. He is described as a man of
commanding presence. For a number of years he controlled the elections
and it was told that "as Joel Leverich went so went Linn county." Dr.
S. D. Carpenter, who arrived in 1849, has the following to say about
Joel Leverich: "I had hardly got settled until I was interviewed by old
Joel Leverich, the noted character of Linn county of that day. He was
known as the 'bogus coon' because, as was alleged, he had to do with
counterfeiters. He was a power in politics and was the kind of a man
from which the modern boss has evoluted. Joel looked me over, asked
where I was from, where I was going, and what my business was, etc. I
was somewhat indignant and tried to be sarcastic, but Joel in
terminating his interview with me squelched me by remarking, 'Young
man, a fellow who wears such a hat as you may pass in this country, but
I consider it d--d doubtful.' I, unfortunately, wore a black plug hat
which was not the style in Iowa at that time. In after years Joe and I
became fast friends and I became quite convinced that the shady stories
told of him were the talk of enemies who were jealous of him because he
was smarter than the greater majority of them. I was with him when he
died and although he was a free thinker he passed away with all the
calmness of a stoic philosopher." When on his death bed some one said
to Leverich, "Joe, you have burned the candle at both ends." "Yes," he
replied, "and now it burns me in the middle."

[Illustration: PICNIC AT HOME OF GEO. L. DURNO, SPRINGVILLE, 1884]

[Illustration: ILLINOIS CENTRAL DEPOT, CENTRAL CITY]

George R. Carroll in his _Pioneer History_, speaking of Leverich, says:
"The Mound Farm did not remain long in the possession of Broady,
possibly a year and a half, when it came into possession of the
notorious Joel Leverich; everybody knew him and everybody dreaded him,
especially when he was under the influence of liquor, which was often
the case. Even his best friends then felt it to be prudent to give him
a wide berth, not knowing what instant he would take it into his head
to knock them down. Whiskey seemed to make a demon of him, and to
attempt to reason with him while under its influence would have been as
futile as to try to reason with a cyclone. His poor wife, a most
patient and estimable Christian woman, would sometimes hide away from
him for days lest in his fits of uncontrol and uncontrollable passion
he might take her life. And yet old Joe, as he was popularly called,
had a good deal of influence in the community. He was a strong partisan
politician, and whoever arrayed himself against him was sure to have a
hard battle to fight and in the end would very likely meet with defeat.
He was as keen and cunning and wily as the old serpent himself, and it
was very hard to circumvent him in his plans. He was accused of
harboring horse thieves and of making counterfeit money; as to whether
he ever did either or not I could not say."

While T. S. Parvin was United States attorney at Muscatine Joel
Leverich was tried for counterfeiting, and while Parvin had said some
hard things about Joel's mode of making a living he had also said some
very nice things about Joel's wife. Later Leverich called on Parvin at
the hotel, insisting upon speaking with him. Parvin's friends warned
him not to do so as Joe would likely kill him, but Mr. Parvin thought
he would take his chance and Joe did see him. Leverich said, "Ain't you
afraid of me?" "No," replied Parvin, "you can kill me if you want to
but you cannot scare me." "Well," replied Joe, "I admire your grit; I
came not to scare you or to hurt you but to tell you that you did tell
the truth about my wife." Some time after that Parvin passed where
Leverich lived and accepted of Mr. Leverich's hospitality.

Joel Leverich's brother, James, was a saloonkeeper in Cedar Rapids and
when he ascertained that Joel's death was due to his dissipation,
causing a serious stomach trouble, he quit the business. Joel Leverich
sold his claim in 1843 to Judge Greene. He resided near the McCloud Run
for a short time and then moved to town, dying in the '40s.

One of the most unique characters in Cedar Rapids, and a person we know
the least about, was Osgood Shepherd, who was a hunter and trapper and
who is said to have erected the first log cabin on the banks of the
Cedar river where the Y. M. C. A. building now stands, unless Wilbert
Stone's claim is correct that he was first. When Robert Ellis came to
the Shepherd tavern in April or May, 1838, Shepherd had lived here for
some time. He had a wife and his father was living with him at that
time, and he also had a number of men who hung about his place, but
what their business was no one knew. The log house was about 16×20,
covered with clapboards which were held in place by logs on top with
ends protruding at the gables. There were also in the family three
children, who made things lively about the house. This small cabin was
known as Shepherd's Tavern. From Mr. Ellis's description of Shepherd,
he was more than six feet tall, of a sandy or reddish complexion, was
good natured as a rule and was an accommodating and agreeable landlord.
He was accused of being a horse thief, but Mr. Ellis does not know that
he ever engaged in this kind of business. However, this is true, that
his morals were not of the highest order and it is believed that he
harbored horse thieves who, in fact, were his special favorites. On the
various islands in the river they secreted their stolen goods. It was
also stated that in Wisconsin he was convicted of horse stealing and
sent to the penitentiary, but how true this is no one knows. His father
and one or two children died here and were buried on top of the hill
where the Cedar Rapids Candy Company's large building has since been
erected. Mr. Ellis says that Shepherd told him he was from New York
state and for some time had been a sailor on the lakes before coming
west. He held all the land as a squatter, and when N. B. Brown, Addison
Daniels, H. G. Angle, and others came they had to buy Shepherd off in
order to get title to this property. The patent to this land was dated
December 1, 1845, although quit claim deeds and prior rights were dated
in 1843, Addison Daniels and Nicholas B. Brown being the patentees. The
patents included grants in the amount of two hundred and sixty-nine
acres, and showed that they had paid the amount due at the land office
at Marion according to the provisions of Act of Congress of April 24,
1820.

Osgood Shepherd had a friend named Bill Fisher, who always stuck by
him, and of whom Shepherd's father used to say, "that when he moved
something was going to happen, but it was not very often that he
moved." He was a slow-going, lazy sort of an individual, and what
Shepherd saw in Fisher, Ellis never knew. Nothing is known of Fisher
and what became of him. In the fall of 1841 Shepherd removed to
Wisconsin and was later killed in a railway accident. His widow married
a person by the name of Carpenter and removed to Linn county, residing
near Center Point. What became of the Shepherd family no one has been
able to learn.

Osgood Shepherd and the pioneer settlers with whom he associated were
perhaps no worse or no better than the average frontiersmen. They had
been trained in hardship and sordid poverty, and the women bore the
stamp of the early pioneers, devoted to their families, shirking no
hardships, ever willing to move westward on account of the freedom
gained and the opportunities offered.

Of a different type of mankind was the progressive, enterprising and
enthusiastic Nicholas B. Brown, who purchased Shepherd's claim, the
most prominent figure in the history of the early days of Cedar Rapids.
Mr. Brown arrived in 1840, purchasing the rights of Shepherd with
Addison Daniels and others. On August 4, 1841, he began surveying what
was then known as Rapids City. He improved the water power which Brown
early foresaw would make the town. A saw mill was completed in 1842 and
the waters of the Cedar began to make its machinery hum; this was the
first real enterprise of which the town could be proud. A woolen
factory was also erected by Brown, which was later disposed of to the
Bryan family. In 1846 and 1847 a grist mill was also added. On account
of his many enterprises in which he had to depend on others Mr. Brown
was involved in much litigation, but he was a born fighter for whatever
he thought was right and accumulated a fortune because he had the
tenacity of purpose to hold on to what he had purchased. As a pioneer
he did some excellent work and certainly was one of the shrewdest
business men of Cedar Rapids in his day and generation.

Mr. Brown was born in the state of New Jersey in 1814, removing as a
young man to the state of Kentucky. His first wife was Catherine Craig,
daughter of Thomas Craig, one of the pioneers. She lived only a few
years. His second wife was Susan Emery, daughter of one of the early
settlers of this city. Mr. Brown died in 1880, one of the most honored
and respected men in the community, survived by his widow and two sons,
Emery Brown and Harry Brown. The widow died in 1909, one of the best
known and most respected in the city, having personally known nearly
all of the settlers in the '50s and '60s.

Dyer Usher is said to have hunted and trapped in Linn county as early
as 1836 in company with one Jim Ames; how true this is cannot be
ascertained, but he did come to locate in 1838. He came of a sturdy
family, was born in Ohio, and at the age of eighteen in 1832 he crossed
the Mississippi, being one of the first white settlers to step upon
Iowa soil. Mr. Usher brought the first divorce suit in Linn county.
This business has grown by leaps and bounds since that time. He
attended for a number of years the old settlers meetings and was a well
known figure in the early days in this county. Mr. Usher was thrifty,
honest, and fair in his dealings. He died December 11, 1894, at the age
of eighty years. His widow, Rosanna Harris, died in 1909 at Covington
at the age of seventy-nine. She was born June 6, 1829, in London,
Canada, and with her parents emigrated to Iowa in 1845. She was united
in marriage to Dyer Usher July 29, 1847. To this union were born twelve
children, of whom five survived her: Willard R., of Alberta, Canada,
Mrs. Alice Harris, of Estherville, Mrs. A. H. Miller, of Cedar Rapids,
Mrs. Ray Lockhart, of Shellsburg, and Dyer N. Usher, of Covington. She
had been a resident of Linn county for sixty-three years.

It is still a disputed question as to who was the first actual settler
on what later became Cedar Rapids. It is true that Shepherd ran a sort
of hotel or tavern and was the best known man in this part of the
country in that early date, but it is not likely that he was the first
man to build a log cabin here. Philip Hull had been located in the
lower end, when Ellis arrived in 1838, and Ellis also found William or
Wilbert Stone in possession of the land on the west side of the river,
and he was the one who staked out what he called "Columbus" in 1838,
having previously staked out Westport and sold his claim to John Henry.

Information as regards William Stone has lately been discovered through
a daughter residing at North Liberty. She states that her father's name
was James Wilbert Stone, but he was commonly called William or Billy;
that he was born in the state of Rhode Island and drifted west into
Iowa in 1832 or 1833, and that he always asserted that he built the
first cabin on land which later became Cedar Rapids. It is said that he
drifted west by way of Muscatine or Rock Island and followed the Cedar
river as far as Ivanhoe, later coming to the rapids of the Cedar river.
Mr. Ellis says that he knew William Stone very well; that he was a
quiet, congenial, splendid fellow, and at this time resided on the west
side, having a claim along the river extending northward to the bluff,
and that a Mr. Galloway claimed south of a large cottonwood tree on the
same side of the river. Stone and Galloway were on good terms and owned
the adjoining claims. John Young and a man by the name of Granger, O.
Shepherd, and Philip Hull were the owners or claimants of the land on
the east side of the river. The daughter of Stone asserts that her
father always said that he first located his claim on the east side of
the river. It may be that Stone may have moved across the river after
Shepherd erected his tavern, and made claim to the land near and
adjoining the rapids. It is intimated by Ellis that Stone and Shepherd
were not on the best of terms and Shepherd, being a large, pompous kind
of a person, he might have driven the more quiet and less assertive new
neighbor across the river. The daughter of William Stone, or James
Wilbert Stone, Mrs. Elizabeth Hrdlicka, states that her father bought
goods and traded with the Indians for furs for some years, and that the
last time her father talked to her he told her that he was sorry he
ever gave up the town of Cedar Rapids but did not think then that it
would amount to anything. In 1843 he removed from what was Cedar Rapids
to the Iowa river and married Elizabeth G. Brown and settled in Oxford
township, Johnson county. To this union were born two girls: one, the
eldest, died and the second girl, Elizabeth, now Mrs. Hrdlicka, was
taken by her grandfather, Joseph Brown, on her mother's death when the
daughter was only four weeks old. After the death of his wife Stone
removed to Hudson, St. Croix county, Wisconsin. He returned to see his
daughter about once a year. He died at the age of forty-eight years in
the state of Wisconsin.

It seems from the story of the daughter of Stone, who is still living,
that James Wilbert Stone was undoubtedly the first actual settler on
the site which later became Cedar Rapids. From investigation it seems
that Shepherd may have jumped Stone's claim and for that reason Stone
removed across the river.

In Bailey & Hair's _Gazetteer_, 1865, the following mention is made of
William Stone: "The next [town site] in order of time was called
Columbus, built by William Stone, in September, 1838. He abandoned his
town the next spring, then being a single log cabin. The site was that
occupied by the present city of Cedar Rapids."

Mr. Stone was a speculator and a trader and had made some money trading
with the Indians prior to the advent of Shepherd. This is true, that
Stone did not harbor any people of unsavory reputations, and his whole
life bears the imprint that he was a gentleman even on the frontier.
Such a person people would not remember as well as a frontier character
like Shepherd. Shepherd, on the other hand, whatever may have been his
failings, was a man of a big heart, who attracted people to him. He had
the love of adventure, and it is not any secret but that he harbored
thieves and gave them more or less encouragement. Mr. Stone, on the
other hand, was an honest, quiet man, the opposite of his neighbor, and
it is not to be wondered at that they did not get along.

Another settler who came here at an early date was O. S. Bowling, or
Bolling, who came in the summer of 1838 making a claim on the west side
of the river and in whose honor Bowling's Hill in the south part of the
town was named. Mr. Bowling was a quiet man, a good neighbor, and one
universally loved by the old settlers.

In June, 1839, came Thomas Gainor and David W. King. These gentlemen
found Wilbert Stone, the Lichtebarger brothers, and the claims of
Young, Hull, Ellis, and Bowling. It is said that Mrs. Rosanna Gainer,
wife of Thomas Gainer, was the first white woman to locate on the west
bank of the river and consequently would be the second woman to locate
in what became Cedar Rapids, Mrs. Osgood Shepherd being the first. Mrs.
Gainer did not reside long in Cedar Rapids, as she died June 8, 1840,
giving birth to a daughter who also died the same summer.

David W. King became one of the most enterprising of the men of that
early day. He ran a ferry, platted the town of Kingston, and died, the
owner of much land, in the autumn of 1854. His death caused much sorrow
in Cedar Rapids.

In July, 1839, arrived Isaac Carroll and family, consisting of nine
persons, all of whom were well known by the early settlers. A son, Rev.
George R. Carroll, has written interestingly of the Carrolls, Weares,
and others of the early settlers in his _Pioneer Life in and Around
Cedar Rapids from 1839 to 1849_.

Another early character was John Vardy, who arrived in July 1841, and
built, it is stated, the first frame house at the corner of Third
street and Sixth avenue, during the summer of 1842. Mr. Vardy was a
cabinet maker and an all-round person in the use of tools. He removed
to Texas in 1856 where he died in the fall of 1878.

Another of the old settlers was Thomas Downing, a native of Posey
county, Indiana, and a tailor by trade who at the age of nineteen
drifted into Iowa and in the early '40s came to Linn county. He was a
clerk in the Daniels Company store, removing in 1855 to Waverly to
conduct a business for Greene Bros., of Cedar Rapids. He died in
Waverly in 1896.

Samuel F. Hook was another of the residents of Cedar Rapids who came in
1845 at the age of twenty-one, a native of the state of Virginia. He
died in 1848, and it is thought he was one of the first, if not the
first, real store keeper within the boundaries of what became Cedar
Rapids.

J. H. Kelsey was born in New York state in 1819, and arrived in Cedar
Rapids in 1848. He was a carpenter by trade. He removed to Vinton in
1863, going later to Nebraska where he passed away some time ago.

[Illustration: METHODIST CHURCH, CENTER POINT]

[Illustration: SOUTH MAIN STREET, TROY MILLS]

Steve L. Pollock, a native of Pennsylvania, arrived in Cedar Rapids in
the early '40s and married Marilla Lucore, a daughter of one of the
early settlers, in March, 1844. He was the pioneer blacksmith and is
supposed to have built the third or fourth house in the city. Harrison
Campbell, it is stated, was the owner of the first blacksmith shop, in
1843. Mr. Pollock emigrated west in 1865 and died in Hood River,
Oregon, in 1902. He was a brother-in-law of William Stewart, one of the
old settlers of this city, both of them well and favorably known among
the early pioneers of Cedar Rapids.

Hiram Deem was a native of Ohio and at the age of twenty-eight or
twenty-nine located at Cedar Rapids and hired out to N. B. Brown. He
helped to build the dam across the river, erected saw mills, and
otherwise was a very useful man in a town with the boom spirit that
Cedar Rapids had at that time. He was also one of the first justices of
the peace and many a scrap was settled in his house, which stood on
First street on the west side. He entered the army and died from
exposure in a hospital boat in January, 1863.

What later became known as "Time Check" was first entered by Farnum
Colby, who came here in 1839 and made his claim along the river about a
mile northwest of the First avenue bridge near Robert Ellis's claim. He
was a native of Pennsylvania and a very useful, hard-working man. From
here he removed to Olin, Jones county, where he died some years ago.

In the early '40s also came Charles R. Mulford from Hoboken, New
Jersey, and at once began as a town merchant, opening a store in the
Vardy house on Third street and Sixth avenue. He was one of the most
wide-awake business men of that day and had a good business, but was
caught with the gold fever and emigrated in 1849 to California, where
he died.

One of the best known men in the state in an early date was Col.
William H. Merritt. Mr. Merritt was born in New York city September 12,
1820, and received a fair education at Lima Seminary. At the age of
eighteen he was compelled to rely on his own resources and sought the
west, settling in Rock Island, Illinois, where he obtained a clerkship.
Through government officials and others he was sent to Ivanhoe on the
Red Cedar river in 1839 to take charge of an Indian trading depot.
Ivanhoe was a squatter town, being staked out in October, 1838, by
Anson Cowles. To this place, which was expected to become a large
trading center, came also at the same time George Greene, who taught
school in the vicinity during the winter of 1839. Mr. Merritt ran the
store with considerable ability, and long before the Civil war showed
his presence of mind and bravery. At this time, like in all other
stores of its kind, whiskey, tobacco, and groceries were sold over the
same counter, and one day a number of Indians came, insisting on buying
"goody toss," designated in English as whiskey. Mr. Merritt refused, as
he had such orders from his employers, but the Indians insisted and
began to take possession of the store, and intended to drive the young
clerk out. A few pioneer hangers-on fled, but not so the young clerk in
charge of the goods and the store. He got hold of an axe and with this
he cleaned out single handed a whole squad of Indians, who left as
quickly as they had made their appearance, much to the surprise of the
white settlers, who up to this time had always fled when the redskins
outnumbered them ten to one.

Mr. Merritt was related to George Greene by marriage, and the two men
were much together from this time on. Mr. Merritt became clerk in the
Assembly at Burlington in 1841 and in company with George Greene edited
the _Miners' Express_ at Dubuque. Later he was caught with the gold
fever rush and emigrated to California, returning in 1851, becoming
once more editor and part owner of the old paper. In 1855 he removed to
Ft. Dodge, being appointed registrar of the land office at that place.
He returned once more to Cedar Rapids and founded a banking house under
the style of Greene, Merritt & Co., which firm later disposed of their
banking interests to Sampson C. Bever. He was nominated for governor
on the democratic ticket in 1861 but was defeated by Samuel J.
Kirkwood. Later he enlisted and served with distinction during the
Civil war.

After the war Colonel Merritt became editor of the _Statesman_, one of
the leading democratic papers of the state. He died at his home in Des
Moines in 1891, mourned by a large circle of friends all over the
state. Colonel Merritt was for half a century one of the most all-round
men in Iowa and a leader of his party.

The Weare family arrived here in 1848 and for more than fifty years
were prominent factors in the upbuilding of Cedar Rapids. John Weare
became a noted banker and railroad promoter. Charles Weare became
engaged in constructing railroads and took charge of large contracts,
was mayor of Cedar Rapids, postmaster, and consul in foreign countries.
He was also connected with the First National Bank of Cedar Rapids, as
well as with the Cedar Rapids Water Company. George Weare became a
noted banker in Sioux City, and P. B. Weare and Ely E. Weare promoters
and members of the board of trade in the city of Chicago. Later they
promoted steamboat traffic in the Yukon country at the time of the gold
fever rush. All these were sons of John Weare, Sr., who removed here
from Michigan in the spring of 1845 in order to be with his children
who had previously emigrated. Mr. Weare, Sr., held the office of
justice of the peace up to the time of his death in 1856.

William Stewart, a native of Pennsylvania, located in Cedar Rapids in
1847 and entered the blacksmith shop of Pollock, later putting up his
own shop, and besides operating a large farm. Mr. Stewart removed to
California and died there in 1891, having acquired a fortune in Cedar
Rapids real estate.

Samuel S. Johnson was another Pennsylvanian who came to Cedar Rapids in
1847. He was a carpenter and joiner by trade but gave that up for
farming on arriving in Linn county. Mr. Johnson lived to the grand old
age of eighty-five, and passed away at the home of his daughter, Mrs.
Robert Taylor.

One of the most enterprising, active business men who located in Cedar
Rapids in 1849 was Dr. Seymour D. Carpenter, who was then twenty-three
years of age, and had ostensibly come out here to practice medicine,
but he later turned his attention to land speculations, politics, and
other enterprises. Dr. Carpenter is still residing in Chicago, enjoying
a hale and hearty old age.

In order to give the reader an impression of Cedar Rapids as it was at
that time we shall quote Carpenter's splendid article contained in the
_History of Crescent Lodge_, by J. E. Morcombe, as follows:

     "I turned north and went to Ottumwa where I met Judge
     Greene, then a member of the Supreme Bench of Iowa; he
     persuaded me that Cedar Rapids was in the near future to
     become a metropolis and I decided to go there. After four
     days' hard riding and swimming several swollen streams, I
     struck the town on the afternoon of June 14, 1849; I crossed
     the river on a rope ferry operated by David King, who lived
     in a cabin on the west side; on the other side of the river
     stood a cabin, once the home of a man named Shepherd, and
     said to be the resort of thieves in an early day. I can not
     say that I was very favorably impressed by the thirty or
     forty small one-story unpainted houses that were scattered
     about near the river. There seemed to be a great deal of
     sand, and the houses were so situated that there was no sign
     of a street. There were three two-story houses, one on the
     river near the foot of what is now Third avenue called the
     'Park House' in which the Greenes had their store, one on
     Second street in which John Coffman kept a hotel, and one on
     Third avenue back of the Dows & Ely block, also a hotel. I
     was discouraged and would have travelled further but only
     had about $10.00 left and from necessity had to stop. I put
     up at the Coffman hotel which, as I have said, was a
     two-story structure with a wing; it had been built of
     unseasoned oak lumber and was not plastered; the whole of
     the second story of the main building was in one room and
     contained eight or ten beds and was the common sleeping room
     of the guests. The lumber had shrunk and there could be no
     complaint as to ventilation, however short the
     accommodations might be in other respects....

     "Within a week I made the acquaintance of all the people of
     the town. Among the leading persons were William and Joseph
     Greene, brothers of the Judge, Lowell and Lawson Daniels,
     Homer Bishop and John Weare, all of whom were merchants. The
     three stores of which they were the proprietors would not
     compare well with the department stores of today, but all
     the same they were department stores and in their
     miscellaneous stocks the customer could find all he
     wanted--from castor oil to broad axes.

     "Pollack and Stewart were the blacksmiths, and the
     carpenters and wagon makers were represented, but I can not
     recall their names. There was also a saloon kept by James
     Leverich, a brother of Joe, a respectable man and a good
     Mason. The inhabitants were mostly young people, John Weare,
     Sr., Deacon Kennedy and Porter Earl being the exceptions. I
     found three doctors already located, Dr. Mansfield, Dr.
     Traer and Dr. Larabee, the latter being what was called a
     'steam doctor.' Isaac Cook and Henry Harmon represented the
     law.

     "The town was by no means dull; emigrants were coming daily,
     and the saw mill operated by John Weare, Jr., was kept busy
     cutting lumber for the new houses that were going up. There
     was no church building, but Parson Jones preached in the
     school house, as did preachers of other denominations, and
     Sunday schools and Bible classes were in full blast.

     "On the Fourth of July a grand ball was given at the Coffman
     Hotel, to which flocked young people from Marion and all the
     surrounding country; there were at least fifty couples. The
     beds were removed from our common sleeping quarters, which,
     decorated with green boughs, became a ball room. Every part
     of the house was crowded and the fun was fast and furious.
     Only one mishap slightly marred the festivities; near a
     stove pipe hole at one end of the room the floor was
     defective, and a husky reveler of more than ordinary weight
     while executing the double shuffle broke through and fell
     upon the heads below; no injury was done and the dance went
     on.

     "Dr. Mansfield took me as a partner and in company with
     Judge Cook we had a room 10×16 in a small one-story building
     opposite the mill, the other part being occupied by S. L.
     Pollock and family; his blacksmith shop was nearby. Our
     medicines were kept on a shelf and a store box made a table;
     our bunks occupied one side and a few stools and two split
     bottom chairs made up our furniture. We took our meals at
     the Coffman Hotel; our field of practice embraced the
     settlers, not numerous, in the valleys of the Cedar and Iowa
     rivers and their tributaries; we made very long rides. I was
     called to see a patient two miles above the present town of
     Vinton not yet begun; I got lost in the night and waited for
     daylight under a tree on the bank of the river at the very
     place where Vinton now stands. Bilious fever and ague were
     the prevailing diseases, all the newcomers having to undergo
     one or both....

     "We had mail three times a week from Dubuque and Iowa City;
     the Higley brothers did the service in a two-horse hack; I
     think Joseph Greene was postmaster. John Weare, Sr., was
     justice of the peace; he was a very original character, fond
     of company and full of interesting reminiscences extending
     back to the war of 1812 in which he had lost a leg. His
     small office was in the rear of Mrs. Ely's residence which
     stood on the ground where the Dows and Ely block now is. He
     gave 'nicknames' to many people and places which stuck to
     them like burrs; the First Presbyterian church building was
     begun that summer and as the walls were built of cement, Old
     Mr. Weare named it 'The Muddy,' which it retained to the
     last day of its existence."

Dr. Carpenter states how they tried to promote a railway from Cascade
to Fairfield, held meetings concerning railway extensions, and
appointed delegates from various counties to these conventions to
discuss the matter fully and to authorize the government to donate land
and have eastern people furnish the money. He says:

     "Dr. J. F. Ely and myself were selected to go to Fairfield;
     we left Cedar Rapids on December 3 and after a three days'
     hard and cold travel reached Fairfield; Marion sent Col. I.
     M. Preston and Dr. Ristine. The convention met in a small
     school house; all the counties were represented; the Hon. C.
     W. Slagle, of Fairfield, then a very young man, was chosen
     president, and I was chosen secretary....

     "We departed for our various homes thinking the work half
     done, but sad to relate Cedar Rapids had to wait ten years
     longer for a locomotive. These two meetings were, I think,
     the first railroad conventions held in the interior of the
     state. Soon opposition claims were started for east and west
     lines and our project was ignominiously called the 'Ram's
     Horn.' The next year was quite a stirring one; new people
     were coming in great numbers and many were leaving, for the
     California gold fever had broken out. Several outfits left
     Cedar Rapids, with one of them Dr. Mansfield, my partner,
     whose place was taken by Dr. S. C. Koontz, a cousin of mine,
     well known to the old citizens.

     "That year the first brick buildings were erected; a
     dwelling on Iowa avenue, near Greene's opera house, and a
     three-story building on Commercial street by Judge Greene,
     which for a long time was the show building of the town; we
     began to put on airs.

     "In the spring of 1852 a steamboat came to Cedar Rapids; it
     was a great event and attracted people from near and far;
     she brought a cargo of freight, among which were the
     household effects of Mr. Bever and my father, both of whom
     from that time forward became citizens of the town. This
     year, also, came Mr. Daniel O. Finch with a printing press
     and forthwith started the _Progressive Era_, the first paper
     in the Cedar valley. [The _Era_ was established in 1851.]
     Ezra Van Metre, a talented young lawyer from Circleville,
     Ohio, also came that year. Everyone was rejoiced that we had
     an organ and the editor was overwhelmed with original
     matter. There were at least a dozen young fellows in the
     town, myself among the rest, who thought they 'knew it all,'
     and anxiously rushed into print. The paper changed hands in
     a year or two, and became the _Cedar Valley Times_, and
     continued until a few years ago."

Dr. Carpenter sold his practice to Dr. Koontz and went into the land
business and in politics. Again we must quote what he has to say about
the county seat fight which commenced the first few years he was here:

     "Cedar Rapids claimed that she was to be the commercial
     metropolis and therefore ought to be the political center.
     The question was brought to an issue by the county
     commissioners ordering a new court house at Marion, subject
     to the approval of the voters of the county. Cedar Rapids
     opposed the measure, believing that the building would
     insure the permanent location of the county seat. Then
     ensued a most bitter canvass. The voters were deluged with
     oratory. Marion put on the stump Judge Isbell, I. M.
     Preston, Col. William Smyth, N. M. Hubbard, W. G. Thompson,
     and R. D. Stephens, against whom Cedar Rapids opposed Jas.
     J. Child, Ezra Van Metre, Donald McIntosh, A. S. Belt, E. N.
     Bates, I. N. Whittam and others. Every school district was
     canvassed and much bitter feeling engendered. The Marion
     people were more adroit politicians and carried the
     election, but the result did not discourage our citizens,
     who asserted that no election could affect 'manifest
     destiny.'

[Illustration: M. E. CHURCH, TROY MILLS]

[Illustration: MILL AT PRAIRIEBURG]

     "About 1852 Major J. M. May came to Cedar Rapids from
     Janesville, Wisconsin. The Major was a stirring man with a
     head full of schemes. He said that Cedar Rapids was a place
     of immense possibilities and only wanted enterprise to make
     it the great town of Iowa. He bought land at the lower part
     of town adjoining that owned by my father, and land on the
     west side adjoining the river and below that owned by David
     King. He platted out town lots on both sides of the river,
     and induced my father and King to do the same, which were
     the first additions made to the original town. He also
     surveyed the island, sent a plat to the general government
     and took possession of it, much to the chagrin and surprise
     of the old settlers. Then he began to agitate the question
     of a free bridge. Everyone wanted a free bridge but were
     undecided as to the location. The Major induced my father to
     subscribe $1500.00, and he gave $1000.00, which with sums
     contributed by others in the lower end of the town secured
     the location below the island at the narrowest place in the
     river. The bridge was completed and thrown open to the
     public, I think, in the late fall of 1852, and proved a
     great convenience. The construction was defective and when
     the ice broke up in the spring, the heavy cakes knocked down
     two of the piers, and destroyed the greater part of the
     bridge. All the people of the town were collected on the
     bank of the river watching the event, and two young women
     who were crossing went down with the structure and were
     drowned. This was the first bridge built at Cedar Rapids.
     The next was a bridge of boats at the foot of Iowa avenue
     which I believe was also swept away by ice."

Dr. Carpenter speaks next of the formation of the real company who had
money and who meant business in the formation of what was then known as
the "Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska Railway," which built from Clinton to
Cedar Rapids and to the Missouri river. "Cedar Rapids was given first
directors as follows: Geo. Greene, John Weare, H. G. Angle, S. C. Bever
and S. D. Carpenter, which positions we held till the road was built to
Cedar Rapids."

In speaking of the amount of money put up by these men in order to get
this railway it is said that $200,000.00 was pledged by Cedar Rapids,
which amount was raised as follows: $100,000.00 by private subscription
and $100,000.00 by city bonds. Greene & Weare, then bankers, subscribed
$10,000.00; George Greene, $5,000.00; John Weare, $5,000.00; N. B.
Brown, $5,000.00; S. C. Bever, $5,000.00; Gabriel Carpenter, $5,000.00,
and numerous other smaller sums to make up the amount. Then a city
election was had and the $100,000.00 voted by an overwhelming majority.
Surveys of the route were begun at once, and from Mount Vernon and
Cedar Rapids two lines were seen; one by the way of Marion, and the
other by the river. It was ascertained that the latter route would be
the shorter and cheaper by $100,000.00 than the former, but the company
proposed to adopt the Marion route if she would subscribe $100,000.00.
This she declined to do, and the river line was chosen. Work progressed
slowly and the first year found the rails no further west than De Witt,
Clinton county.

Dr. Carpenter speaks of another railroad venture when a company was
formed known as the "Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad Company"
with L. B. Crocker, of New York, as president, and with Major Bodfish
and a number of Cedar Rapids men as directors.

     "When the legislature assembled in 1859 and 1860 we invaded
     the capital, and established our headquarters in an old
     hotel near the river, the name of which I have forgotten.
     Major Bodfish was the commissary of the body. We had no
     money to expend, but determined to be hospitable. The Major
     laid in a barrel of old rye whiskey; as it was before the
     war, whiskey was cheap; also several boxes of cigars. One of
     our strongest henchmen was J. W. Woodbury, a leading man
     from Marshalltown, and with him Peter Hepburn, now an
     honored congressman, then a very stripling, but showing
     evident signs of what was in him. John A. Kasson was then a
     young lawyer in Des Moines, and we secured him as our
     attorney....

     "The lawmakers were not in a hurry, but towards the last of
     the session they passed our bill, and you may be sure there
     was great rejoicing in Cedar Rapids. On our return the
     citizens gave us a grand banquet in Greene's Hotel, and we
     felt that we had at last secured a substantial victory for
     our city, as in fact it was, for thenceforth Marion could no
     longer be our rival. The cars came to Cedar Rapids in the
     summer of 1859, just ten years after we had our first
     railroad meeting, and we felt at last that hope had ended in
     fruition. An immense concourse greeted their arrival from
     all parts of the surrounding country. General D. N. Sprague,
     then mayor, welcomed the guests, and the citizens threw open
     hospitable doors to all comers. From that time forward Cedar
     Rapids assumed metropolitan airs as the leading town of the
     Cedar valley."

On politics Dr. Carpenter speaks as follows:

     "From the first, on my arrival at Cedar Rapids, I became an
     active partisan. General A. J. McKean of Marion was the
     acknowledged leader, but the following was small. At the
     state convention in 1851, held in Iowa City, I was the sole
     representative from Linn county, and there were not more
     than fifty delegates from the whole state. State officers
     were nominated and also a candidate for congress. Colonel
     Henderson, the father of J. W. Henderson of Cedar Rapids,
     was named for congress, and without much opposition I
     secured the nomination for secretary of state for my friend,
     Isaac Cook, who up to that time was entirely unknown. I well
     remember with what surprise he received the news. Although
     there was no chance for his election it was the beginning
     with him of a long and useful career in many offices of
     trust, alike honorable to him and his constituents. As time
     rolled on and our population of immigrants from the north
     and especially from the New England states, and with the
     bearing of the whig party towards slavery, they became more
     hopeful, and by the year 1853 or 1854, the whigs carried the
     county, electing both members of the legislature and the
     county officers. John P. Conkey was the first member of the
     legislature living in Cedar Rapids, and at the same election
     Isaac Cook was chosen for a county office.

     "About this time Charles Weare, Isaac Cook and many others
     cut loose from their old convictions and became ardent free
     soilers."

Dr. Carpenter speaks of how he abandoned medicine, how he opened a
banking house in 1855, and became a land owner, having at one time as
much as 1,600 acres of land near where the town of Norway now stands.
He was first connected with Lehman & Kreider, later forming the
partnership of Carpenter, Stibbs & Company, the firm doing business
until 1861. Dr. Carpenter attended the convention at Chicago that
nominated Lincoln and was one of the first to enlist in the Civil war
as a surgeon. He was mustered out in 1865.

Henry E., Harvey G., Wellington W., and Major M. A. Higley were for a
generation merchants, financiers, and leaders in many enterprises in
Cedar Rapids. They were born in the state of Connecticut, coming to
this county in the early '40s. Henry and Harvey Higley for some time
operated a line of stages from Dubuque to Iowa City, and for that
reason knew personally nearly all the prominent men of Iowa in the '40s
and '50s. Iowa City being the capital and Dubuque the most enterprising
city in the territory and state, the public men frequently travelled to
and from these cities. Harvey Higley "got caught" with the gold fever
and went to California, returning in a few years to Cedar Rapids. The
Higley brothers made large fortunes in real estate which have descended
to their children.

The brothers, C. J. and Jacob A. Hart, natives of Maryland, came to
Cedar Rapids in the early '50s, and for a generation were two of the
most successful lumber dealers in Cedar Rapids.

Alexander L. Ely was one of the early millers, who died in the '40s.
His brother, Dr. J. F. Ely, came later to look after the business
interests of his deceased brother, and for some fifteen or twenty years
was a successful practitioner in Cedar Rapids. He and his wife for a
generation were leaders of the business and social life of this city.

Homer Bishop was an old-time merchant, arriving in the early '40s, and
for eight years was postmaster of Cedar Rapids. He was a congenial
person, well known, and an enterprising and free-hearted man who did
his best to build up a city on what was then thought to be the western
frontier.

No doubt the first Scandinavian settler to locate within the confines
of Linn county was Nels C. Boye, a native of Denmark, who emigrated to
the United States in 1827 and arrived in Muscatine in 1837 and located
in the vicinity of Lisbon in 1838 where he purchased land and engaged
in farming. Being brought up as a merchant he removed with his family
to Iowa City in 1843 and for a time operated one of the most up-to-date
stores in the new capital. On a business trip to St. Louis in 1849 he
fell a victim to the cholera and died there on June 23. A number of his
children continued to reside in Linn county, and a number of relations
are still residents of this county.

One of the old settlers of Ivanhoe was Dr. S. Grafton, who arrived
there in 1843 and travelled horseback up and down the Cedar and Iowa
river valleys as far as Jones or as far northeast as half way to
Dubuque in the practice of his profession. He was born in Ohio in 1800,
and died during the typhoid epidemic in 1845 and 1847. He was one of
the best known of the early physicians, a gentleman, a scholar, and a
man who did, perhaps, more during the few years of his practice to help
the poor and the needy than any other of the early settlers. He was
married to Isabelle Patterson, also a resident for many years of East
Liverpool, Ohio, but born in Pennsylvania. After the death of Dr.
Grafton she married Herman Boye, a son of Nels C. Boye. Mr. Boye was a
cabinet maker and farmer. He got caught with the gold fever and
emigrated to California in 1850, returning to Ivanhoe within a few
years. It is said that he made more money in California seining for
fish, which he had learned in Denmark, than he did in digging gold. He
died in 1880 at the age of sixty-two years. The widow died January 11,
1897, at the advanced age of eighty years, and is buried at Mount
Vernon.

Another of the old settlers of Bertram may be mentioned--Joseph Crane,
a cousin of James Doty, who has the honor, at least, of obtaining the
first license to marry within the Territory, viz: in 1840 when he was
married to Agnes Boghart.

The first settlers seem to have been William Abbe, Daniel Hahn, C. C.
Haskins, and Edward M. Crow. Which one of these men actually was the
first settler within the confines of the county may ever remain a
disputed question. We have the record when they entered lands, but this
does not at all indicate that they did not live on these lands for
several years before actual entry was made. The first settler in the
vicinity of what became Mount Vernon was, no doubt, Charles Haskins,
who located about a mile and a half east of the village in the summer
of 1837. He was at least one of the first to locate in that vicinity.
It is said that Daniel Hahn came in the spring of 1837, made a claim
and built a log cabin, his wife assisting him in building the house.
Edward M. Crow has been supposed to have been the first settler, but it
seems that he came in July, 1837, in company with his brother, and
located near what later became known as Viola, where he made a claim
and erected a small shanty. He returned to the Fox river settlement for
provisions and did not come back until in August, when he was
accompanied by his brother and by James Dawson. About this time also
came Joselyn and Russell. Their cabins were located in the back woods
in Brown township and was called "The Settlement" for some time.

Later in the fall of 1837 arrived Jacob Mann, having resided previously
in Jones county. He located on what was known as "Big Creek" in Linn
county, but he did not take possession of his rude cabin or claim until
in February, 1838, when he and his daughter, Sarah, moved onto the
claim and began housekeeping. He afterward built a grist mill on Big
creek or purchased one built by John Oxley which was swept away in the
spring of 1851, when Mann lost his life, refusing to leave his mill
which, he said, "was dearer to him than his own life."

Sally Mann is supposed to have been, if not the first white woman in
the county, at least one of the first, and many are the stories told of
Sally, or rather Sarah, Mann. She was more masculine than feminine in
her make-up and knew few of the customs and manners of good society.
She raised cats for a living and used to sell these at fancy prices to
the pioneer settlers. There was nothing attractive about Sally, for she
was noted more for her strength and endurance than for grace and
beauty. But even though Sally had very little to recommend her, women
were scarce in those days and the settlers were, perhaps, not so
particular as they later became, and on July 21, 1840, Sally Mann and
Aaron Haynes were duly married by John Crow, a justice of the peace.
Sally Haynes nee Mann, had many good traits of character. No one was
turned away from her door hungry and she would help neighbors with any
kind of work if necessary. The western life appealed to her, as it had
to the members of her family, and when settlers came thick and fast she
and her husband left for the far west in order, it was said, that they
could breathe the pure air of the frontier. It was always thus.

     "'Tis not the fairest form that holds
       The mildest, purest soul within;
     'Tis not the richest plant that holds
       The sweetest fragrance in."

Gabriel Carpenter, a native of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was born in
1801. He arrived in Cedar Rapids in 1852 and invested all his funds in
500 acres of land in what has now become the heart of the city. Various
additions in this city have been named in honor of this early real
estate owner, who devoted all his time in the upbuilding of this city
until his death in 1881. Mr. Carpenter saw many hardships in his early
career in life, but with great perseverance overcame all. The first
lumber he used was hauled by oxen from Muscatine. He became early
interested in various enterprises in the city. He always gave liberally
of his means to all worthy objects and assisted in advancing all public
enterprises which he believed would prove a benefit to the city. His
widow, Mrs. Maria Carpenter, born in 1820, is still living and resides
in this city, honored and respected by all.

Dr. S. D. Carpenter was born in 1826, and is a son of Gabriel
Carpenter. In the early fifties he came to Cedar Rapids and located
here for the practice of medicine. He soon gave up medicine for the
more exciting and more lucrative vocation of railway building, banking,
and handling of real estate. He now resides in Chicago.

John E. Kurtz was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1817,
emigrated to Iowa in 1847, and became one of the founders of Lisbon. He
was for more than half a century a well known farmer, merchant, and
miller. In early life Mr. Kurtz was a whig in politics, later going
over to the republican party. A large number of his descendants still
reside in this county.

Peter D. Harman was a native of Adams county, Pennsylvania, where he
was born in 1816. In 1840 he came to Iowa City, locating in Linn county
two years later. Mr. Harman assisted in the building of the state
capitol at Iowa City, and also in the erection of the first court house
in Linn county. In his day and generation Mr. Harman was considered one
of the most skillful stone and brick masons in this part of the
country. He died in Bertram township in 1896, and is survived by a
number of children who are residents of this county.

[Illustration: AT OLD SETTLERS' REUNION, MARION]

[Illustration: A PARK SCENE IN MARION]

Barnett Lutz came to Linn county in 1839 and was one of the best known
of the old settlers. At the time of his death in 1901 he was one of the
oldest pioneers in the county. Mr. Lutz was a true pioneer, and did
much in building up the new country.

C. J. Ives was not a pioneer settler in Linn county, but he was a
pioneer in developing railway properties in the state. Mr. Ives was a
native of New England, coming to Lee county in 1847, drifting into
mining in Colorado, and not till 1862 did he turn his attention to
railroading. He was for a number of years president of the B., C. R. &
N. railway, which he developed into one of the best paying railway
properties in the west. He resigned when that road was absorbed by the
Rock Island system. Mr. Ives during his long residence in Linn county
was deeply interested in the welfare of his employees, and in the
upbuilding of Cedar Rapids. He was also interested in banks, electric
light companies, and other large enterprises. He was a practical
business man, capable and forceful, with a mind ever active in planning
and executing great things. He was universally respected by his
employees, and never forgot in word, act, or deed that he was only an
associate and not a superior. No railway official at the time of his
death a few years ago had more friends among the railroad men than Mr.
Ives.

David W. King, the founder of Kingston, settled in Linn county in 1839
when Indians were numerous and the white settlers scattered. Mr. King
was a native of Westmorland county, Pennsylvania, who went to Michigan
early and from there drove an ox team across the country to Iowa,
entering land on the west side of the river, which land is now a part
of Cedar Rapids. Mr. King operated the first ferry across the Cedar
river and had to obtain his material for the erection of the same from
Dubuque and Muscatine, all of which was hauled in wagons across the
country. The cable used in operating the ferry was of wire, which was
brought from Dubuque on horseback. The town of Kingston he platted in
1850. Mr. King was a real promoter, who early comprehended the future
of Cedar Rapids. In order to induce people to locate on the west side
of the river he was liberal and public-spirited, giving away many lots
for factory sites and other enterprises. He passed away in 1854 at the
age of forty-six, just at a time when he had attained to a prominent
place as one of the leading citizens of the town, in the promotion of
which he had devoted all his time and versatile talents.

Robert Smyth, who died in 1898 at his home at Mount Vernon, was in many
respects one of the most enterprising men in Linn county. Born in
Ireland in 1814, and emigrating to America in 1834, he drifted into
Linn county in 1840 and soon became an extensive dealer in real estate,
as well as a banker, and during all his life took an active part in
politics. He was a member of the Sixth Territorial legislature in
1843-44, a member of the state legislature in 1846-48. Mr. Smyth was
also paymaster of the United States army, disbursing more than
$10,000,000.00 during his term of office. In 1868 he was once more
returned to the state senate where he served for four years, and in
1884 served another term in the house. He was also delegate to many
state conventions, and outside of the late Charles Weare knew more of
the public men of Iowa than any other man in Linn county. Mr. Smyth was
a brother of William Smyth, the well known jurist, who died a member of
congress from this district.

Edward M. Crow, by some people believed to be the first actual white
settler in the county, was born in Orange county, Indiana, in 1816 of
ancestors who had previously emigrated from North Carolina. John Crow,
the father, came to Linn county to the neighborhood of Viola in 1838,
and there he died in March, 1841. It is thought that Ed Crow crossed
the Mississippi river in 1837 and on July 4th laid claim to a tract of
land on section 13 in Brown township. Thus, it would seem, that Abbe
preceded him by several months. In company with Crow at that time there
came Harrison Crow, a brother, as well as James Dawson, who built
cabins on what is now known as Crow's creek near Viola. They also put
up a little hay that fall. Thus, while these were among the first
settlers, it must be conceded that they did not precede Abbe, Haskins,
or Hahn in locating in Linn county. Ed Crow, it is true, was one of the
early settlers and well known, a typical pioneer, but he was not the
first settler, although he arrived in the historic year of 1837, when
the white settlers were beginning to move into the territory not yet
vacated by the red men.

In mentioning the men who were factors in the upbuilding of Iowa,
Theodore S. Parvin should not be omitted. During his residence in Linn
county he devoted most of his time to the upbuilding of a unique
Masonic library. He was known throughout the United States as one of
the leaders of that order. Mr. Parvin's love of collecting together
many things was only one of the many sidedness of a remarkable
personage. Mr. Parvin was born in Cedarville, New Jersey. Educated in
the east, he drifted west to Cincinnati and there met Robert Lucas,
recently appointed governor of Iowa Territory. Mr. Parvin had been a
teacher and had been admitted to the bar so he was well qualified for
his mission as secretary to the governor. After coming to Burlington
Mr. Parvin was United States attorney, clerk of the federal court,
registrar of the state land office, and for many years professor and
regent of the State University of Iowa. During all these years he
lectured and wrote much. He died June 28, 1901, one of the most widely
known and most honored men in the state. "Steadfast in faith, without
trace of cant, he walked the ways of life with simple trust in the
Infinite wisdom and passed to his death relying on the guidance of an
unseen hand," says his biographer.

Julius E. Sanford was one of the platters of the city of Cedar Rapids,
and was a wide-awake, enterprising young man who for a while was in
partnership with N. W. Isbell. Mr. Sanford was a native of Connecticut
and was well educated on coming west where he took up the practice of
the law and engaged in real estate. He removed to Dubuque in 1845,
where he died in 1847, leaving a widow, Henrietta E. Sanford, who in
1848 married David Wilson. She died in 1898. Perit Sanford, who figures
in early real estate transfers, was the father of Julius Sanford, and
heir of the estate, as the son died without children.

Thomas Craig was an old settler in Linn county, and one of the best
known men in the community. Mr. Craig was odd in some ways. He wore a
white overcoat and had a fondness for horses. He was a stanch
Methodist, and at times would be reprimanded, for he refused to lead in
prayer. Mr. Craig died many years ago, respected and honored by all
with whom he had come in contact. One of his daughters was married to
N. B. Brown and another to Jesse Beechly, who recently died in his old
homestead in Franklin township.

Dr. Eber L. Mansfield was born in Canaan, Ohio, in 1821. He received a
classical education and also took a medical course later. On leaving
home his father gave him a horse, saddle-bags, and an outfit, and he
started out for himself. He taught school in Kentucky and then came
overland on horseback to Iowa in 1847, crossing the Cedar river near
the lower bridge. He was assisted by W. W. and M. A. Higley, two young
men who later became his friends and fellow workers in the upbuilding
of Cedar Rapids. The gold fever of 1850 took the doctor away from his
practice, and by August, 1850, he had arrived at the gold diggings. On
the way he had made money, as he doctored a great many who were sick
with fevers. He purchased two teams and did teaming from Sacramento to
Shaw's Flats for about two years when he got tired and sold out,
returning by way of Panama and New Orleans. He came back to Cedar
Rapids, which city remained his home until his death. Dr. Mansfield was
one of the best known and most successful physicians of his day and
generation. He invested in city real estate, in bank stock, and was
stockholder in insurance companies. His was a rugged, strong character.
He early saw the possibilities of the city, and was one of the first to
invest in its real estate. He erected brick buildings in the heart of
the city which are now owned by his children, and are very valuable.

William Rogers, a native of Ohio, where he was born in 1830, came to
Linn county and settled in Rogers Grove in the early forties. Mr.
Rogers was an enterprising man and was one of the first to erect a saw
mill and to raft lumber down the river to Muscatine in order to find a
market for it. In an age when straw sheds were common he went to work
and erected one of the best and largest barns in the country. In this
barn he stacked his grain and threshed it by walking the horses over
it, the wheat dropping through the floor to a floor below where it was
cleaned. Mr. Rogers died many years ago, one of the best known men in
southern Linn county. His widow, Elizabeth McNie, is still living,
making her home with her son, James M. Rogers, of Fairfax township.

Chandler Jordan, born in 1820 in the state of Maine, came to Linn
county in 1844, where he made his home until his death a short time
ago. Mr. Jordan was a lifelong member of the Baptist church, which he
supported and in which he was an active worker all his life. He was
interested in the public schools, and in public affairs in general.
Jordan's Grove is named in honor of this sturdy old pioneer.

G. W. Matsell, for many years a resident of Buffalo township, where he
owned some 2,000 acres of land which he purchased at an early day, was
a well known character in New York city in the old days of Tammany
Hall. He was chief of police and a prominent politician for many years
till the breaking up of the party with which he was closely associated.
Then he came here where his family still resides. Mr. Matsell of course
spent much time in New York, where he had financial interests, but he
liked the west and enjoyed the summers in Iowa. He was a democrat of
the old school, but never entered into the game of politics after
coming west, having had his fill of it in the New York political ring
for many years.

The Matsell home was a hospitable one and many were the people George
Matsell entertained during his residence in Iowa. Visitors came from
all over the country, for he was well known. Mr. Matsell entertained
royally and knew how to entertain. The history of New York city cannot
be written without the mention of G. W. Matsell, police chief, a member
of the Committee of Seventy, and a well known character for many years
during the stormy days of the Civil war. His son still resides on the
old homestead.

Robert Safely was a native of Scotland. He emigrated to New York at the
age of fourteen. He saw the first engine to run with steam in the state
of New York. For many years Mr. Safely was master mechanic for the old
B., C. R. & N. system, and was a familiar figure on the streets of
Cedar Rapids up to the time of his death, a short time ago. Mr. Safely
was an expert mechanic and up to the time of his death was interested
in everything pertaining to mechanical science.

Many of our earlier citizens only remained here for a shorter or longer
time and left for other parts where they later attained to prominence.
Who does not remember W. H. Ingham, one of Kossuth county's pioneers,
who lived in this county in 1850 and for five years was engaged in
surveying and locating lands for early settlers? Judge Thomas Burke, a
noted character of Seattle and now wealthy, tried his luck at the law
here waiting for clients who never came. When Mr. Burke was picked up
by J. J. Hill on the coast then every one wanted this once briefless
barrister as his legal adviser. Bishop C. C. McCabe lived here for a
number of years, and no one had any idea that the rollicky, fun-making,
joking young beardless lad in the employ of Judge Greene and others
would develop into a great lecturer and a Methodist bishop. Dr. J. T.
Headley, of lecture fame, practiced medicine here in the late sixties,
and was a quiet, unassuming man, who minded his own business and
devoted days and nights to books and science. Here lived for some years
the eloquent divine, Rev. Fawcett, a person of great eloquence and
force of character who left Cedar Rapids better for having lived in it.
One cannot forget Rev. Elias Skinner, now living in Waterloo, also a
Methodist minister of force and eloquence who at various times lived in
Linn county. Rev. Skinner, despite his eighty-three years, is well and
hearty and can relate many things which occurred in this county in the
fifties and sixties. He writes as follows:

     "I think Linn county is about the very best county in Iowa.
     Five different times I had my home in old Linn. I never did
     anything worthy of special mention at either time. In each
     of the four places where I lived I blundered into doing
     things which I would rather not have recalled. So please
     excuse me. I write with pencil because I can't guide a pen.

                                  "Yours,

                                                E. SKINNER."


COL. DURHAM TO THE OLD SETTLERS--ADDRESS BEFORE ASSOCIATION.
AUGUST 1902

_Ladies and Gentlemen of the Old Settlers' Society_: In calling this
assemblage to order I wish to say to you all, to the new-comers, the
strangers who honor us with their presence, that, in the name of our
society, we bid you a most hearty welcome and say as a good hostess
would, come again.

Many of you I knew in territorial times, when we were seeking and
establishing new homes, in the far new country beyond the Mississippi,
and aiding in our humble way to lay the foundation of the present
famous commonwealth of Iowa. The first settlements were made along and
near the Mississippi river. There were but two counties, Dubuque and
Des Moines, and the country was called the Black Hawk Purchase. The
purchase negotiated with the Sac and Fox Indians, by General Scott and
Governor Reynolds, at the close of the Black Hawk war, consisted of a
strip averaging about fifty miles wide, beginning in the northeastern
part of the state and running to the north boundary of Missouri, though
not on a straight line, at a point fifty miles west of the river. It
was under the jurisdiction of the territory of Michigan, and was
represented in congress, as a territorial delegate, by George Wallace
Jones.

In 1837 a few townships in the northwestern part of this county were
surveyed by a surveyor general deputy named Haight. And soon thereafter
Edward Crow and a few other adventurers came. Their only roads were
fragments of Indian trails. They were delighted with the country and
the smooth, polished surface of the unbroken prairie in all the
grandeur and sublimity of its primeval state. Sages have sung of the
charms seen in the face of such solitudes and I would say that I never
felt nearer the great Creator and Ruler of the universe than when in
regions before untrod by civilized man, where the forces of nature
reigned supreme, and no sounds broke the silence except the hoo-hooing
of owls, the drumming of pheasants, the bugle notes of the swan, the
quacking of smaller fowls, the barking of prairie wolves, and in a
timbered country, the hungry, desolate howl of the large wolf, and
sometimes, though seldom, the piteous wail of the panther. It's no
wonder that Moses retired to the top of a distant mountain with the
roar of thunder and the flashes of lightning beneath him to talk with
God.

In 1838 another strip of country was acquired from the Indians,
embracing the remainder of Linn county. Possession was given in 1839,
when a continuous immigration commenced, which dates back to the coming
of many of the families represented here today, our respected secretary
among them, and not long after that our treasurer. Previous to its
organization in 1839, Linn county was, with Jones county, attached for
judicial, revenue, and election purposes to Jackson county. In 1838 the
territory of Iowa was struck off from Wisconsin, Robert Lucas was
appointed governor by President Van Buren, and William Wallace Chapman
was elected first delegate to congress, with both of whom I was
acquainted in the constitutional convention in 1844. Governor Lucas was
a Virginian by birth, though raised in Ohio, where he had served as
governor. He was one of nature's noblemen, not for pomposity and fine
equipage, but for all the traits that make up true manhood--modesty,
courage, honesty, integrity, patriotism, and morality.

[Illustration: COURT HOUSE, MARION]

[Illustration: WAPSIE RIVER AND MILL Built in the '50s at Central
City]

Soon after the organization of the territory the Missouri war began.
This related to the boundary line between the two states. It lasted
some time, but like the Ohio and Michigan war, was bloodless, though a
good deal of patriotism and red tape and military titles were shed. The
trouble was finally settled by the surveyors and the courts.

In 1839 Linn county was organized. The first officers were John C.
Berry, commissioner's clerk or auditor; Hosea W. Gray, sheriff; Dr.
Tryon, clerk of the court; Luman W. Strong, Samuel C. Stewart, and
Peter McRoberts, county commissioners. Squire Strong was a potential
factor in all Linn county affairs. Mr. Stewart was distinguished for
his piety. His wife was a sister of those sturdy pioneers, the Scott
brothers. In 1840 the territory contained 43,000 inhabitants; Augustus
C. Dodge was elected delegate to congress, and George Greene a member
of the territorial council, or senate, to represent Cedar, Linn, and
Jones counties. In 1841 the remainder of Linn county was surveyed by
the United States deputies, with all of whom I was acquainted and in
their camps--but chiefly with Mr. Welden.

After these surveys were made, claim-making and improving and trading
became very lively, and the ratio of immigration increased all the
time. There was more disturbance and trouble and fighting about claims
than from all other causes put together. I will give only a few
instances of the many with which I am acquainted. A man by the name of
Wolcott, near Mount Vernon, had his claim entered. He reported it to
the claim association. They sent a committee of three men to the
intruder and demanded that he should release and cancel his purchase,
which he refused to do. Whereupon they procured a conveyance and told
him that he must go to Dubuque with them. Knowing the settler's law was
against him, he made no further resistance, but went before the
register and receiver, cancelled his entry, and his money was returned
to him. The matter came up shortly after that before the grand jury at
Marion on the charge of coercion and kidnapping. Samuel Hunter, Sr., of
Hunter's Cross Roads, was one of the jury, Joseph Williams was judge,
P. W. Earle, clerk, and Nathan Peddycord, of Yankee Grove, was another
juryman, and I was foreman. William Abbe and Squire Waln of Mount
Vernon were witnesses. Robert Smith was secretary of the claim
association and Oliver Day or Allison Willits president. No bill was
found and the matter stopped and never reached the supreme court.

Another claim case originated in the Dry Creek country, and came to a
climax in a rather exciting way. There were a number of us attending an
Indian banquet and pow-wow at a place called Wick-i-up Hollow, near the
Cedar river, two or three miles south of the Oliphant and Ashlock
neighborhood. The regular guests were seated in a semi-circle in the
wick-i-up; we were only callers. The exercises consisted of short
talks, chants and choruses, each keeping time with a deer's bladder
dried and filled with air and some buckshot in it to make it rattle,
all accompanied with the music of a sort of home made fife. The banquet
or dinner to follow was being cooked by the women. It consisted, as far
as I could see, of dried venison, stewed dog meat, beans, and pancakes.
Before the dinner was ready some of our party went outside and renewed
a quarrel that had been pending for some time about their claims.
Pretty soon the lie was passed, and it was immediately followed by a
blow, and directly five or six were in the fight all at once. The
struggle and angry shouts of the combatants frightened some of the
Indian women who were near and they ran screaming away. This broke up
the exercise in the wick-i-up and the braves rushed out, thinking that
their women were being misused, for a brave man will always resent an
insult to his wife. The fight so disrupted everything that we left
without waiting for dinner, especially as some had to withdraw for
repairs. The Chambers were in it. William Garrison and some of the
Nations were in it, but not Carrie with her little hatchet. John Hunter
and, I think, Dyer Usher, were there, but not in the fight. The case
came up before his honor, Aaron Usher, a justice of the peace, who
fined some of the participants $1.00 each, which ended the litigation
and the claim dispute.

The last claim case I will mention was of much greater magnitude, and
out of it originated the Bill Johnson war, in which several lives were
lost, including one Indian. It began in Buchanan county. William
Bennett and a man purporting to be Bill Johnson of the Canadian patriot
war were the principles in the extensive trouble. Bennett was an
enterprising, public-spirited man and had a quantity of workmen and
retainers helping build the first grist mill at Quasqueton, on the
Wapsipinicon river. He was a man of sturdy muscular frame, swarthy
complexion, dark eyes, strong jaws, a man who would be a good friend or
a bad enemy. Johnson was older, tall and angular, with black bushy
hair, on whose lips shone no smile, under whose brow lurked treason,
stratagem, and spoil. I became acquainted with Johnson in a rather
romantic way, which you will excuse me for relating, as it shows some
of the perils and hardships incident to the settling of a new country.
On the 12th of November, 1842, a deep snow fell and remained till the
next April, with additions during the winter. It has always since been
called the hard winter of 1842 and '43.

During the winter my friend, Anderson Chambers, later a prosperous
business man of Muscatine, and I had been up in the country between the
Wapsipinicon and the Volga. The snow drifts were so deep and the day so
dark that night overtook us several hours ride from any human
habitation. Before dark we went into a little scattering timber on a
small stream and under the bluff hitched our horses to a bush. We found
some dry poles and got some dry rotten wood out of a tree, scraped away
the snow with our feet, and with the aid of a flint and some tow and
powder, we managed to start a little fire. Matches were not then in
use. We cut some brush and laid it on the ground, spread one horse
blanket on that to lie on, and with another to cover us and our saddles
for pillows, we slept through the long night until daylight, when we
resumed our ride. About the middle of the forenoon we came in sight of
an improvement in the edge of the timber, and I knew by the smoke that
so gracefully curled that a frontiersman's log cabin was there. We went
into the house, which was neat and clean, and told them of our hard
experience during the preceding night and day. They kindly sympathized
with us and soon made us comfortable. It proved to be Bill Johnson's
place. Kate Johnson and another young lady, Miss Kelso of Davenport,
were there. They busied themselves about setting us up a fresh, warm,
ten o'clock breakfast. I relished it more than any other breakfast I
ever ate, the zest of which was no doubt heightened by being served by
so charming a hostess, and me a susceptible bachelor, too.

Johnson explained his being there in this wild region by saying that he
had participated actively in the Canadian patriot war against the
Dominion of Canada, that the attempted revolution had failed, that he
had lost all his property by it, and had been driven and chased all
through and among the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence river in his
boat with his daughter Kate, that a reward had been offered for him,
that he had given up all hope of success and determined to seek safety
and quietude by coming to this country. All this seemed plausible, as I
heard the brave deeds of the patriots rehearsed in song and poetry. But
in escaping that trouble he ran into the jaws of another at the outset.
It seemed that in coming into a strange neighborhood, instead of making
the people his friends by conciliation and prudent conduct, he got into
trouble at the start by taking possession of the claim of one of the
Bennett party. They remonstrated and he promised to pay for the claim,
but never did, though Johnson claimed that the trouble was about the
location of the county seat. Not long after I was at his place, after
giving him notice, they determined to oust him. They took him out in
the brush and gave him a very severe flogging, loaded him and all his
belongings into sleds and sent him out of the country. He applied for
aid at Marion and Dubuque, and Surveyor General Wilson, a New Hampshire
man, took him and his daughter Kate to Iowa City, in his fine Boston
made sleigh, to interest Governor Chambers in his behalf. When the
hostilities came to an end, the result was disastrous to both parties.
Bennett became a fugitive and his mill building was stopped. Johnson
was shot. Kate found her a loving, trusting husband. Hosea Gray made
considerable money out of it; Ormus Clark, the first permanent settler
of Central City, spent a lot of money for defense, and Colonel Preston
laid the foundation of his splendid fame and fortune as an attorney
from it.

The public land sales had been advertised for this winter and the
people were illy prepared to go to Dubuque to enter their claims on
account of the deep snow, some for scarcity of clothing, and all for
scarcity of money. Many had saved their last 12-1/2 and 6-1/2 cent
silver coins and their 5-franc pieces to make up the necessary sums. In
view of the difficulties in the way, a mass meeting was held, and
George Greene was appointed a special agent to go to Washington City
for the purpose of having the land office removed to Marion. He went
and saw the commissioner of public lands; he saw Stephen A. Douglas,
chairman of the committee on public lands, and President Tyler, and
came back with an order for the temporary removal in his pocket, which
I doubt if any other man could have done. He stood luminous among all
the bright men who first settled in Linn county, or the territory
either. The people of Linn county, and of Cedar Rapids especially,
should ever remember his labors and efforts in those early days which
brought them prominence and prosperity. All now acknowledge Linn county
to be without a peer and Cedar Rapids is the best interior city in the
state, except Des Moines with its immense coal beds.

The land office was located in the first, and then only brick house in
Marion. Judge Berry afterwards dispensed boundless hospitality in it.
It was built and owned by William H. Woodbridge, or "Democ Woodbridge,"
a very enterprising young man. He was one of five from this county who
enlisted in the Mexican war. He was with Scott's army of invasion and
the Mexicans "welcomed him with bloody hands to a hospitable grave."
Another of the five, Major McKean, as he was then known, who was a
member of the first constitutional convention in 1844, and later a
brigadier general in the union army, lies buried in the Marion
cemetery. Another of the five, Captain Sausman, who gallantly bore the
flag at Chepultepec, died in California. Captain Gray is alone, and
alive and likely to be, as you would think if you could see him running
an intricate surveyor's line through a section. The fifth one, Samuel
D. Thompson, is with us amply provided for in his declining years by a
munificent government, in recognition of his military service in nearly
all the wars since the time of Anthony Wayne, and as the old song says:

     "There is no more work for brave old Joe.
     He's gone to the place where all good soldiers go."

The land sales drew large numbers from all the surrounding country, and
made lively times here. Joseph F. Chapman and Oliver S. Hall, Sr.,
hotel keepers, flourished. Those who had the money got titles to their
lands, and those who had not still held their claims until such time as
they could enter them at private sale. In the spring the land office
was moved back to Dubuque.

In 1844 the first constitutional convention was held at Iowa City. The
constitution failed of ratification. In 1846 another convention was
held and the state fully admitted under that with our present
boundaries. Iowa was then the most western state, and a line drawn
south from Sioux City, its western limit, would have run further west
than any other state or territory, except Texas, which was annexed the
year before. It now occupies a conspicuous central position in the
American union, and a leading one in agricultural productions. It is
honored with two members of the president's cabinet and the most
influential member of the American senate.

After our acquisition of California the waves of emigration westward
began, sweeping over the great American desert, as it had been called,
planting agriculture and industry in its path, forcing its way through
the mountain passes and over the sun-dried plains, to the Pacific ocean
at the Golden Gate, where floats the commerce of oriental Asia.

     "No pent up Utica contracts our powers;
     The whole of this boundless domain is ours."

When I look in the faces of this multitude I see before me but few who
were men and women grown when I first came here. Some of you
gray-haired ladies and gentlemen were then, as the Indians called them,
petite squaws or skinneways. Your fathers were Niseshin Shomoko men.
But I think scarcely more than a dozen are now living in this county
who were then men and women. And

     "I feel like one who treads alone
       A banquet hall deserted,
     Whose music is hushed, whose guests are gone,
       And all but me departed."

[Illustration: ISAAC BUTLER Pioneer Resident of Springville]



CHAPTER XX

_Early Linn County Lawyers and Courts_

BY JUDGE MILO P. SMITH


Fifty years ago the judiciary of this county, as well as of the entire
country, was quite different from what it now is. There were but two
terms of court in a county, and Linn being a large county, terms here
lasted about two or three weeks. In the smaller counties, one week or
less was sufficient for the transaction of all the business. The grand
jury was composed of fifteen men instead of five or seven, as at
present, and twelve out of the fifteen had to concur in order to find a
bill of indictment. At present the concurrence of a less number than
the whole is sufficient. The members of the grand jury selected their
own clerk from their own number. They had no authority to act on the
minutes of the examining magistrate, but it was obligatory on them to
have the witnesses before them, and to examine them personally.

There was no official shorthand reporter to take down the evidence on
the trial of cases in court. If the attorneys desired to perpetuate the
testimony, or any part of it, they either wrote it down in long hand
themselves, or selected some outside person to do it; generally some
young lawyer. And sometimes the judge would make the only minutes of
the trial that were kept. From these imperfect notes, however taken,
the judge was required to determine what should go to the supreme court
when he came to settle the bill of exceptions: no easy task. When court
opened on the first day of the term--which was done with great
outcry--the judge at once empaneled the grand jury, and then proceeded
to make what was called a "preliminary" call of the calendar, at which
cases that were not for trial were dismissed, continued, marked
settled, or otherwise disposed of. When that call was completed, he
then made the "peremptory" call, and all cases that were for trial were
then disposed of as they were reached. There was no assignment of cases
for trial as now practiced, but the lawyers had to be ready in each
case when reached.

Court week was generally regarded by the people as a sort of a picnic
or holiday, and they came in from the country for several miles around
to hear the lawyers spar with each other, and catch the "rulings of the
court." The court room was generally packed with listeners. Then
political meetings were generally held during that week when everybody
was there and lawyers ready to do the speaking; and they furnished fine
entertainments indeed.

The bar of Linn county in the early fifties was an unusually strong
one, said by some to be the strongest in the state. There were Judge N.
W. Isbell, Judge Isaac Cook, Judge George Greene, Judge William Smyth,
and Col. I. M. Preston. A little in the rear of the above worthies were
N. M. Hubbard, R. D. Stephens, Wm. G. Thompson, J. H. Young, Thomas
Corbett, and J. W. Dudley. Except Judge Greene and J. W. Dudley, all of
these persons lived in Marion.

N. W. Isbell, the first county judge in this county, was selected by
the legislature in 1855 as a member of the supreme court, and filled
the position with honor and credit to himself and the state for several
years, and was afterwards appointed judge of the district court during
the Civil war, but resigned both positions on account of ill health. He
was a very learned man and a profound lawyer. He greatly enjoyed the
investigation of legal questions, possessed an acute and analytical
mind, and one richly stored with the results of historical and general
reading. In the practice he was not partial to jury trials, much
preferring the presentation of legal questions to the court. He had
quite an aptitude for affairs, and became successful as an enterprising
railroad builder, projecting the old "Air Line" Railroad, the pioneer
of the present route of the C., M. & St. P. Railway across the state.
He left a comfortable estate to his family, dying about the year 1865.
He was of small stature and insignificant in appearance, but with a
large head, though small features. Indeed he very much resembled the
Hon. Wm. H. Seward in face, head, and stature. He was rather of an
irascible temperament and consequently easily thrown off his
balance--but no member of the bar was more highly respected than was
Judge Isbell for uprightness, honesty of purpose, general intelligence,
deep reading in general literature as well as in the law; and his
blameless life made him a beloved citizen.

I omit further mention of Judge Greene as there is elsewhere in this
work a lengthy sketch of him.

Isaac Cook was born and raised in eastern Pennsylvania and became the
possessor of a sound education as a basis for the legal studies he
afterward pursued. He served quite a while on the district bench, and
was there noted for the care, time, and fairness he devoted to the
cases he was called on to hear and decide. His mind was not so quick or
rapid in its movements as some others, but it was very accurate in its
conclusions. He was a fine chancery and corporation lawyer, and no
better pleader ever drew a petition than Judge Cook. He was for many
years toward the close of his life general counsel for the predecessors
of the C. & N. W. Railway Company and the Iowa Railroad Land Company in
the state of Iowa. Though he had an office first in Marion and then in
Cedar Rapids, he always lived on his farm just south of the former
place, in a plain, comfortable brick house. He was a broad shouldered,
stock-built man of a dark complexion, and chewed an immense quantity of
tobacco. He had, we believe, more practice in the supreme court of the
United States than any other lawyer in Iowa in his day.

William Smyth, first county attorney of Linn county, was appointed
judge of the district court to succeed Judge J. P. Carleton about the
year 1854, when he was but thirty years of age. He was regarded as an
ideal judge. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and had received a
thorough education when young. His education was perhaps more thorough
than broad, owing no doubt to his early surroundings. His legal lore
was as near exact and profound as was possible, and covered completely
the whole circle of legal learning. One who knew him well said, that in
commercial law, the law of real estate, and in pleading, he had no
superiors and but few equals in the state. He was a trial lawyer in the
fullest sense of that term. Careful in the preparation of his cases,
methodical in the introduction of his testimony; and in his
presentation of his client's cause to a jury, his arguments were close
and convincing, logical if not eloquent. He was, perhaps, after his
retirement from the district bench, generally regarded as the head of
the bar of the county. His knowledge of the affairs of the nation, and
the principles of our government was most exact and comprehensive. For
wealth of general information, profundity of legal learning, and
urbanity of manner and dignity of deportment, he was not surpassed by
any man in the state. Indeed he was early recognized as one of the
leaders in affairs as well as of the bar of the state. He and the firm
of which he was a member had the largest practice and the best
clientage in the county. His practice extended to many of the
neighboring counties, such as Benton, Tama, and Iowa, where he had
local partners, and where he attended the terms of court. He was a
valuable member of the committee that revised the laws of the state as
embodied in the Revision of 1860. He was offered a place on the supreme
court bench but declined it. He was a delegate to the Republican
National Convention at Chicago in 1860--having been a democrat before
the slavery question gave rise to the republican party, he naturally
sided with Governor Chase, whose political path led in the same
direction as his own, and gave that statesman his earnest and
persistent support in the convention, voting for him to the last as his
choice for president. He was a formidable competitor of Governor James
W. Grimes when the latter was elected to the United States senate in
1858. In 1868 he was elected to congress from this district and died
while such member in 1870, at the early age of forty-six. Of all that
goes to make up a first rate man and citizen--intelligence, ability,
industry, perseverance, honesty, and morality, he was in full
possession, and enjoyed the confidence of the people to a greater
degree than any other citizen in the county. He was patriotic and brave
and served during the war of the rebellion as colonel of an Iowa
regiment, and while so serving, he contracted the disease that caused
his early death. He was the fortunate possessor of a splendid frame,
being nearly six feet in height, and had a large, well formed head--his
carriage erect and movements stately and deliberate. He was a model
christian gentleman, courtly and polite, with a winning personality. He
too was a man of affairs and left a comfortable estate to his family.

Colonel I. M. Preston, born in 1813, was in many respects a remarkable
man. Thrown on his own resources when quite young, he learned the trade
of carpenter and joiner, but read law while working at his trade, was
admitted when about thirty years of age, came to Marion, opened an
office, and at once took a position in the front rank of trial lawyers.
He was particularly successful as a criminal lawyer. He possessed a
very quick, subtle, and keen mind, and was remarkably resourceful in
expedients in the trial of cases. Some lawyers were better pleaders
others more learned in the law, but none more apt in furnishing the
facts to fit the case, and but few, if any, excelled him in marshalling
those facts in his presentation to the jury. In time he acquired great
fame throughout the state as a lawyer and public speaker. He was early
appointed district attorney for the district in which he lived, and in
1846 was commissioned by Governor Clark colonel of an Iowa regiment of
militia. He also served as county judge of Linn county, and at
different times served in both branches of the legislature. He was the
father of Judge J. H. Preston and E. C. Preston, both members of the
bar, and residents of the city of Cedar Rapids.

N. M. Hubbard, later known as Judge Hubbard, was certainly the most
brilliant and noted lawyer that ever lived in or graced the bar of this
county. He was appointed in 1865 judge of the district court, and
served till January 1, 1867. With a mind keen, bright and luminous, a
sound understanding, a rich store of observation, an unparalleled
command of language, a readiness in repartee, and unlimited power of
invective, he was unsurpassed by any man in the state, and by but few
in the nation. He was for thirty years general attorney for the C. & N.
W. Railway Company in Iowa, and upon his death left a generous estate.

Hubbard's early partner, R. D. Stephens, while a good lawyer, was
certainly a past master in finance, and was better known as a banker
than lawyer. He established the First National Bank at Marion, and the
Merchants National Bank in Cedar Rapids. He died several years ago,
quite wealthy. Both Hubbard and Stephens came to Linn county from the
state of New York in 1854. In the political campaign of 1856, Hubbard
edited the _Linn County Register_, predecessor to the _Marion
Register_.

Major J. B. Young was probably the possessor of the best education of
any of the lawyers of his time, and was a well read lawyer, a strong
advocate, careful and painstaking, but unfortunately possessed an
irritableness and quickness of temper that was not calculated to
advance the cause of his client in a law suit. He died when
comparatively young, when on his way home from California where he had
gone on account of his failing health.

W. G. Thompson, better known as Major Thompson or Judge Thompson, still
resides here at the ripe old age of eighty-one. But few of the present
generation know all there is about Judge Thompson. Born and reared in
the state of Pennsylvania of Scotch parentage, with a fair academical
education, admitted to the bar when a little past twenty-one, he came
to Linn county in 1853, and at once leaped into prominence as a lawyer
and politician. In quickness of mind, versatility in extremity,
readiness of retort, flashings of wit, volubility of speech, touches of
pathos, flights of eloquence, and geniality of disposition, and
popularity with the masses, he had no superior in eastern Iowa, if he
had an equal. It has been said of him that he could sit down to a trial
table in a case of which he had never before heard, and try it just as
well as though he had had months of preparation. He has been county
attorney, state senator, presidential elector, major of the Twentieth
Iowa Volunteer Infantry, district attorney, chief justice of Idaho,
member of the legislature, member of congress, and judge of the
district court. And in filling all of these positions, he has served
the people faithfully and well. And in private life and as a
practitioner he has surely been "a man without a model and without a
shadow."

J. W. Dudley lived in Cedar Rapids as Thomas Corbett did in Marion.
They were both careful, pains-taking, and judicious lawyers, not
particularly noted in any special respect, but safe, sound, and
trustworthy. They have both been long since dead.

J. J. Child and I. N. Whittam were also members of the bar in the early
'50s. They both lived in Cedar Rapids. Judge Whittam was noted for his
industry, care and patience in regard to any matter in which he became
engaged. He did not claim to be a man of mark or a great lawyer, but
certainly acquired and retained the confidence as an advisor of many of
the best citizens in Cedar Rapids and vicinity.

J. J. Child, long since dead, was said by those who knew him best to be
one of the best lawyers in the state. Though not an advocate, his
learning in law was wide and deep, and no client ever made a mistake in
following his advice. Unfortunately his habits of life seriously
impeded the good results that could have flowed from such a prolific
source.

After these, came others to fill their places, but the most of them are
here now, and have received special reference and personal mention in
these pages.

The entire state in 1857 was divided into twelve judicial districts,
with one judge in each district. Accompanying the act was the
constitutional provision that new districts could not be created
oftener than one new district in four years. Within about ten years the
business in court became so congested that relief was necessary and was
sought in all directions. Finally, in 1868, the legislature passed a
circuit court bill, which by its terms divided every district into two
circuits and provided a judge for each circuit. The circuit court had
concurrent jurisdiction with the district court in all cases at law and
in equity, and sole jurisdiction in probate matters and in appeals from
justices of the peace, but it did not have jurisdiction in criminal
cases. The same legislature abolished the county court that formerly
had jurisdiction of probate matters. In further defining the duties and
powers of this court, the law created what was called a general term,
to which all appeals from, and application for the correction of errors
by the district and circuit courts would lie. The personnel of that
court consisted of the judge of the district and the two circuit
judges, and it sat twice a year. In this district one of the sessions
was held in Marion and the other in Iowa City. The district comprised
the counties of Jones, Cedar, Linn, Johnson, Benton, Iowa, and Tama.
The first three counties constituted one circuit, and the latter four
the other one. The limitation of the right to appeal when the amount in
controversy was less than one hundred dollars was then passed. An
appeal finally lay from the decision to the general term of the supreme
court. When a case was decided at the general term, the judge to whom
it was referred for a decision wrote out the decision in an opinion as
the supreme court judges do, but the opinions were not reported in the
books.

[Illustration: PUBLIC SCHOOL AT SPRINGVILLE]

The next legislature materially changed the law. It abolished the
general term and consolidated the two circuits, cutting out one of the
judges--each court retaining the jurisdiction it had--and provided for
appeals directly to the supreme court.

Then in 1886, the constitution of the state was radically changed by a
vote of the people so that the limitation on the number of judicial
districts and number of judges was removed. The circuit court was
abolished, the office of district attorney was abolished, and that of
county attorney created. There was a prosecuting attorney for each
district before. The legislature then created as many districts as was
thought necessary, and as many judges to a district as were deemed
sufficient to transact the business. This law is still in force. This
became the new eighteenth judicial district, composed of the counties
of Linn, Cedar, and Jones, with three judges.

The first district judge for Linn county after the adoption of the new
constitution in 1857, was Hon. William E. Miller, of Iowa City, and
Isaac L. Allen, of Toledo, was elected district attorney--this in 1858.
Allen was afterwards attorney general of the state.

Judge Miller was well equipped for the position. With a thorough common
school education, and having been a practical machinist when young, and
with strong common sense, he had a naturally good judicial mind that
had been improved by careful study and years of practice in the law. He
came to the bench an intelligent, fair, and courteous judge. He
resigned in 1862 and entered the Union army as colonel of the
Twenty-eighth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He afterwards served as circuit
judge and finally as supreme judge of the state. From the resignation
of Judge Miller till January 1, 1867, the district bench was graced in
its occupancy by Judge N. W. Isbell, C. H. Conklin, and N. M. Hubbard.

Judge Miller was a broad-shouldered, short, squatty fellow, and though
a good lawyer and jurist, he was an indifferent advocate, and not
particularly strong as a trial lawyer.

Judge Conklin was probably the most scholarly, accomplished and
profound lawyer that ever sat on the district bench in this part of the
state. His home was in Vinton, and while he lived among the people
there he did not seem to be of them. He was a strong, tall, raw-boned
man, always carefully dressed, with a most marked intellectual face,
and he was certainly one of the most eloquent advocates that ever stood
before a jury in eastern Iowa.

Judge James H. Rothrock, of Tipton, was elected judge in 1866, and
served on the district bench till in February, 1876, when he was, by
the governor, appointed to a seat on the supreme bench, which position
he filled for over twenty years, when he voluntarily declined a further
renomination. He, too, entered the Union army in 1862 as lieutenant
colonel of the Thirty-fifth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and served with
credit till sickness compelled him to resign and come home. Judge
Rothrock was not a learned man in the sense of having a college
education or having possessed an extensive breadth of general reading
in history or science, nor was he fluent of speech, or particularly
adroit as a practitioner, but he possessed naturally good judgment, a
most thorough common English education, a good knowledge of the law and
its basic principles, a sound understanding, with an innate sense of
justice. He was patient and even tempered, dignified, and kind. He made
a splendid _nisi prius_ judge. His opinions were always plain, couched
in good strong Anglo-Saxon, terse and sound, and will long bear the
close and sharp criticism of posterity. Whenever he announced a
principle of law, it was accepted without dispute as the law on the
point involved. Judge Rothrock was a large man of fine physique,
impressible presence, and very genial when off the bench.

The Hon. John Shane, of Vinton, succeeded Judge Rothrock on the bench
of this district in 1876 and served till 1882, when he resigned on
account of ill health. He possessed a much better education than did
Judge Rothrock, and the scope of his general reading was not only
broad, but judiciously directed. He loved the law for the very sake of
it and never tired of investigating its ofttimes hidden mysteries. He
was well liked as a judge, was convivial and sociable to a degree.

The judges who have filled the position on the district bench since
Judge Shane's retirement are many and able, but can scarcely be said to
belong to the olden time.

Of the few circuit judges that held court in this county, we can say
that they graced the position they filled with ease, but they belong
rather to the present time than to the past age. But Judges Yates,
McKean, and Hedges will long be remembered by the older inhabitants as
capable, learned, and upright judges.

In the palmy days of the lawyers and judges described, the law
libraries were meagre and the books few. There are probably now a dozen
law libraries in the county, any one of which contains more books than
were in the county in 1860, and there are some that contain twice or
three times as many. The practicing attorney was then thrown more upon
his own resources, and compelled to depend more on his own power of
analysis and discrimination than at the present time, which doubtless
made them stronger, more self-reliant, and resourceful. And the judges
were called upon to decide rather how the law should be than how it had
been pronounced to be by some other tribunal, which was no doubt
strengthening to them.



CHAPTER XXI

_Chatty Mention of Bench and Bar_


The history of any community is not complete without a sketch of the
members of the bar, for in the Temple of Justice every phase of human
life is seen. "Here one hears the cry for vengeance and also the kind
pleadings for mercy." The members of the bar, especially in the early
day, understood public opinion and discovered what men truly were and
not what they were reputed to be. At this early day the lawyers were
the tribunes of the people. They were men of brilliant intellect and of
intense passions, and in trials which created universal interest in the
sparsely settled community they swayed the minds and hearts of their
hearers in a remarkable degree. It was an age of oratory, and Linn
county in that day had its quota of brilliant intellects who remained
here for a shorter or longer period of time and in no small degree
assisted in the upbuilding of the county and the state.

In order to make this sketch as brief as possible, and in an endeavor
to picture the men as they were, we shall attempt to give a little of
the humorous side of their characters and follow in the footsteps of
Channing who said "anecdotes are worth pages of biographies."

Many of the early members of the bar were men of education and
refinement, possessing a snappy humor that set courts and juries
roaring. Many a long day's trial was brightened by some sally of native
wit fresh from the frontier. These men were active in politics, were
promoters of steamboat lines, stage companies, and paper railroads,
who, in course of time, became legislatures, judges, and financiers.
They all labored for the upbuilding of the infant state, where they had
invested all their surplus means, having faith in Iowa's future. In
every way possible they tried to upbuild its infant industries.

Linn county was set off by act of legislature in 1837, while Iowa was
then a part of Wisconsin Territory. In August Governor Lucas set off
Johnson, Cedar, Jones and Linn counties in one legislative district.
The attorneys from Linn county who appeared at Iowa City at the July
term, A. D. 1847, were Isaac M. Preston, John David and William Smythe,
all of whom became noted lawyers before that body later. The judges on
the bench at this time were three well known Iowa jurists: Williams,
Wilson, and Kinney.

The first court was held at Marion October 26, 1840, presided over by
Joseph Williams, who had been appointed to the judgeship July 25, 1838.
At this term of court, according to the records, there were present
District Attorney W. G. Woodward for the federal government, R. P.
Lowe, prosecuting attorney, H. W. Gray, sheriff, T. H. Tryon, clerk,
and L. Mallory, marshal of the district. On the first grand jury sat
Israel Mitchell, founder of Westport, who had been appointed probate
judge on January 16 of the previous year. The first justices in the
county were: H. B. Burnap, John G. Cole, John M. Afferty, John Crow,
William Abbe, and Israel Mitchell. Some of the first county judges
were: Norman Isbell, Dan Lothian, J. Elliott, A. H. Dumont, and J. M.
Berry.

During these early days there were two terms of court, one in January,
and the other in June. The cases brought involved small amounts, but
for the number of inhabitants of the county there was a great deal more
litigation then than now. Some of the early lawyers in Marion and Cedar
Rapids were: I. M. Preston, J. E. Sanford, N. W. Isbell, Isaac Cook,
Henry Harman, William Smyth, J. J. Child, Joe B. Young, Dan Lothian,
C. M. Hollis, J. David. N. M. Hubbard, R. D. Stephens, Tom Corbett,
George Greene, Israel Mitchell, D. O. Finch, A. S. Belt, John Mitchell,
G. A. Gray, and C. L. Murray.

Among the attorneys in practice during the early '50s in Cedar Rapids
were the following: Henry Lehman, E. M. Bates, C. V. Tousley, J. J.
Child, R. G. Welcher, D. M. McIntosh, T. J. Dudley, Jr., A. Sidney
Belt, and Dan O. Finch, the latter being also editor of the
_Progressive Era_. In 1861 came J. Munger and N. R. Graham, and during
the next year Edward Stark, who formed a partnership with A. S. Belt.
In 1862 came W. A. Dodge. During the early '60s George Greene and I. M.
Preston were in partnership, Greene having an office in Cedar Rapids
and Preston in Marion. Hubbard and Stephens were in partnership in
Marion in the early '60s, Stephens running the law business while
Hubbard went to "the front."

The attorneys locating here in the '50s and '60s were engaged in
railway promotion, in politics, and in booming towns, although they did
not neglect banking and fire insurance. There were towns which had two
or three lawyers in the early day which have none now, which would
indicate that litigation in the early days was more profitable than
later. In conversation with a number of the old lawyers this has been
told, that the land business was the best paying law business during
the pioneer days. It is also stated that much of the litigation in the
early days was to defend horse thieves and other criminals. How true
this is the writer does not know.

In the early days there was a class of people called "Terrorists"
causing the settlers much annoyance and trouble. They were a band of
looters who came along to scare people by reporting threatened Indian
attacks, and when the settlers had fled to a place of safety others of
the band came along and looted the abandoned houses. The "Copperhead"
movement also extended into this county during the early period of the
war, and more or less litigation grew out of this excitement.

Among some of the well known lawyers of the pioneer days of this county
who have played a more or less prominent part at the bar, in politics,
and otherwise, may be mentioned John David and J. E. Sanford, who came
to Iowa in 1840. They were both bright men and had an exceptionally
large practice in land titles. Any examiner of abstracts in this county
will find Sanford's name frequently as holding much of this land, also
that of H. W. Sanford, a relative. Thomas Corbett came from the east in
an early day, was one of the characters at Marion, and became a well
known attorney, removing from Iowa in a short time on account of his
health. He became a hero soon after he married a well known lady in
Marion whose people were well to do. As Corbett had nothing but brains
for assets, one of the brothers of the bride did not like this marriage
and came to the house of a friend just after the wedding with a party
of young fellows to horsewhip the groom, who was not a very large man,
but an active one. The groom was not at all backward about meeting his
antagonist and gave him a thrashing to such an extent that he had no
cause to forget it very soon, much to the enjoyment of the crowd who
all took Corbett's side. It was not long until Corbett displayed great
ability as an attorney, and became financially successful as well.

Norman W. Isbell located in Marion in 1842, being a native of Ohio. He
served as county judge, in which position he rendered excellent
service. In politics he was a whig, but when the slavery issue sent
that neutral party out of existence, Judge Isbell became a republican.
In 1854 he became a partner of N. M. Hubbard, which partnership
continued up to about 1860, with the exception of the time when he held
office. In 1855 he was elected supreme judge of the state, resigning in
1856 on account of failing health. In September, 1862, upon the
resignation of Judge William E. Miller, Governor Kirkwood appointed
Judge Isbell to fill the vacancy on the supreme bench. He was elected
at the expiration of the term, but resigned in 1864, removing to
California on account of illness, where he died of consumption the
following year at the age of forty-six. All the members of the bar
proclaim Judge Isbell one of the keenest lawyers who ever practiced in
this county, at least in that day. His applications of legal principles
were sound and his illustrations apt and catchy. He was not a great
jury lawyer in the true sense of the word, and perhaps not as well
known among the masses as many others, but among the legal fraternity
Judge Isbell was looked up to as a safe lawyer and most excellent
judge, who by hard study had attained to high rank among the jurists of
this state. His son, N. G. Isbell, practiced a short time here, but
removed to Michigan where he died many years ago, before reaching
middle age.

[Illustration: METHODIST CHURCH, SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: HOME OF J. F. BUTLER, SPRINGVILLE]

Another lawyer of much ability and universally respected was Isaac
Cook, a native of Chester county, Pennsylvania, who located in Palmyra,
Missouri, in 1844, and later practiced law in Dubuque, and also in
Marion, removing to Cedar Rapids in 1848. He was elected to the bench
in 1857. Judge Cook was of a quiet turn of mind, a man who never gave a
sidewalk advice which he had to take back. He was elected the first
city attorney in Cedar Rapids in 1850, and was tendered a banquet upon
his resignation from the bench in 1858. He was also the first president
of a republican club organized in Linn county. Judge Cook died in 1878,
honored and respected by all who knew him.

John Mitchell came from Maine in 1853, entered Judge Isbell's office,
and was admitted to the bar in 1857. He was later a partner of Judge
Smythe and Judge Lothian. Mitchell died a few years ago, one of the
oldest practitioners in the county.

R. D. Stephens was born in New York in 1829, and came to Marion in 1855
without means, but with a splendid training and with a lively interest
for business. He entered the law office of Isbell & Hubbard, later
becoming a partner of Judge Hubbard. Mr. Stephens at an early date
became interested in politics, and later became famous as a commercial
lawyer and financier. He died in Cedar Rapids as president of the
Merchants National Bank, and was rated one of the wealthiest men in the
county. His son, R. D. Stephens. Jr., is now a practicing attorney in
Chicago.

Joe B. Young was born in 1832 in Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the
bar at Iowa City in 1853. He located in Marion and was prosecuting
attorney in Linn county, a member of the legislature, and later a
member of the state senate, and for a time pension agent for the state
of Iowa. Joe Young was cross and crabbed in the court, frequently
opposed the judge, as well as the opposing counsel, and displayed on
many occasions bad temper, not to such an extent, however, that he ever
lost sight of his client's interest or his case. He was a stubborn
legal fighter and was recognized as a great lawyer who never gave up
until he had exhausted all his resources. He died in 1876, one of the
best known attorneys in eastern Iowa, universally acknowledged the
greatest wit and the most sarcastic in retort of any man who practiced
at the bar. He saw only one side of a case and that was his side and he
always maintained that, backed up by proof, there was no other side.
Even in church matters he differed with the majority, and organized a
new church, paying for it himself, so as to have things his own way. He
was a most signal man in his profession, always a student, and seemed
to know everything which would likely reveal where motives start and
where the secret springs of conscience were in a long drawn out law
suit.

D. M. McIntosh was a native of South Carolina, and located in Cedar
Rapids in the '40s. He was small of stature, with a ruddy face and long
hair, making an imposing figure in the court room. He possessed
considerable legal ability, had many friends, and was one of the best
known men in Cedar Rapids. He died in 1859, mourned by a large circle
of friends, who for years remembered how this brilliant son of the
south had on many occasions lighted up the dull path of the law with a
glow of fancy and spiced his remarks by the charm of frontier oratory.

Colonel J. M. May was another attorney who was well known in Cedar
Rapids, and who located here at an early date, and after him May's
Island is named. He was erratic and wasted a large fortune in
litigation with his relatives and neighbors over rights of various
kinds. He died in Cedar Rapids a short time ago.

I. N. Whittam was another of the pioneer lawyers who died a few years
ago, having located in Cedar Rapids in 1854. He assisted Judge Greene
in getting out "Greene's Reports of Iowa." He was in continuous
practice up to the time of his death.

Ellsworth N. Bates, coming to Linn county in the early fifties, was
quickly known as the silver tongued orator of the Cedar Valley. He was
the first city attorney, appointed in 1856, at $20.00 a year. He served
till 1860. Mr. Bates won fame and honor as a lawyer and editor, and
being a person of tact and force of character, he won many friends. His
glowing tribute to the men who built the railway, at the June
celebration in 1859, gave him prestige as a great orator. Mr. Bates
enlisted in the Civil war and died from exposure a short time
afterwards.

George Greene, who died in 1880 at the age of sixty-three, was one of
the best known men in Iowa at the time of his death. Born in England,
Mr. Greene educated himself in Buffalo, studying with George P. Baker.
In 1838 he came to Davenport and began to make a geological survey of
Iowa. After he had worked for six months at this kind of work, which
was not at all congenial, he located in Ivanhoe, Linn county, and
taught the first term of school in that vicinity. In 1840 he was
admitted to the bar at Iowa City, locating later at Marion, where he
began the practice of law. The next year he was sent to the
legislature. Here he became acquainted with the prominent men of the
state, and as the law business was not flourishing he removed in 1845
to Dubuque, and while nominally in the practice he became editor of the
_Miner's Express_, which was then one of the nourishing papers of the
territory. Three years later he formed a partnership for the practice
of law with J. J. Dyer. In October, 1847, Judge Wilson resigned his
office of associate justice and the governor filled the vacancy by
appointing George Greene, who from that day to the day of his death
became a figure of importance in politics as well as in financial
affairs in Iowa. Judge Greene was a man of marked ability, having had
excellent opportunities and being possessed of untiring industry. In
1848 he was elected one of the supreme court judges by the joint vote
of the two houses of the General Assembly and served for six years from
January 15, 1849. During his term of office he reported the decisions
of the court. These decisions were published in four volumes and are
known as "Greene's Reports of Iowa." In 1851 Judge Greene removed to
Cedar Rapids, where he engaged in banking and where he was one of the
most active citizens in persuading manufacturers to come to this city.
He was instrumental in securing the Chicago & Northwestern, and the
Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Railways to pass through Cedar
Rapids. In politics Judge Greene was a democrat until the Greely
campaign, when he became a republican. Few, if any, have done so much
among the early settlers in securing capital to be invested in Iowa.
Judge Greene travelled much and personally knew many financiers in this
country and in England, many of whom invested much funds in farm lands,
town lots, in bonds, and stocks, in Linn and adjoining counties. After
locating in Cedar Rapids Judge Greene had a number of partners. While
he, himself, did not devote himself actively to the law business, the
firm generally had a large practice. He was in partnership with Judge
Hubbard, Cyrus Benley, A. S. Belt, and with Judge Dudley.

A. Sidney Belt was a southerner by birth, a person of much ability, of
engaging manners, and well known in his day throughout Linn and
adjoining counties.

Colonel Isaac M. Preston was born in Bennington, Vermont, in 1813, the
son of a revolutionary soldier. He learned the trade of cabinet-making.
At an early age he drifted west, remained for awhile in Ohio, and
finally located in Marion in 1842, where he began the practice of law.
Three years later he was appointed district attorney, serving two
years. In February, 1846, he was commissioned colonel to organize
troops for the Mexican war. He served as probate judge of Linn county
for four years. He was appointed by President Polk, United States
attorney for Iowa in 1847. In 1850 he was elected to the house of the
Third General Assembly, and after serving one term was elected to the
state senate where, during four years in the Fourth and Fifth General
Assemblies, he was one of the most prominent legislators of that body
and took an active part in the enactment of the Code of 1851. Colonel
Preston had more litigation in his day and generation than any one
person in this and adjoining counties. He was strong before a court,
tactful and invincible before a jury, and especially in the defense of
criminal cases he had no superior. The bar of Linn county during the
early days was one of the strongest in the state, and Colonel Preston
during his long and active practice before the supreme court, held a
high place and was recognized as one of the leading attorneys of
eastern Iowa, a position to which he early attained and which he
continuously held up to the time of his death.

William Smythe was born in Tyrone county, Ireland, in 1824. He
emigrated with his parents at the age of fifteen to America and located
in Linn county in 1840. He studied law at Iowa City, and in 1848 opened
an office in Marion. In 1853 he was appointed judge of the fourth
judicial district, serving four years. In 1858 he was chosen by the
Seventh General Assembly one of the three commissioners to revise and
codify the laws of the state. This work was accepted by the legislature
and became what is known as the "Code of 1860." Judge Smythe was also
appointed upon a commission of legal inquiry, and was one of the
commissioners to negotiate bonds by the state to provide a war defense
fund. He served two years in the army as colonel of the Thirty-first
Iowa Infantry. In politics Judge Smythe was a republican, and from the
beginning of his legal career he took more or less interest in
politics. In 1868 he and Judge Hubbard were the republican candidates
for congress, a campaign which was waged with much bitterness, so much
so that friend turned against friend and neighbor against neighbor. It
is said that a few days after Hubbard's defeat he met a shoe-maker on
the street who had been a former friend but who had been persuaded to
vote for Smythe, and Hubbard said to him, "Jack, you will not need to
buy any bristles any more, just reach your hand over your shoulder and
you can pull them out of your back, for there is nothing about you but
a hog anyway."

After Judge Smythe's nomination William Leffingwell was put up by the
democrats to beat him, Leffingwell being one of the noted orators of
the state, but Judge Smythe was victorious. He attained to a high place
as lawyer and as a constructive statesman. He possessed a profound
intellect, was popular among the masses, and a just and honorable man.
He passed away when he had just reached middle life, one of the ablest
and most versatile men in Linn county at the time of his untimely
death.

Judge N. M. Hubbard, who was a unique character and one of the best
known men in Iowa for many years, was born in Oswego, New York, in
1829, the son of a Methodist minister. He was reared on a farm and
began life as a blacksmith, although later he obtained a university
education. Judge Hubbard located in Marion for the practice of his
profession in 1854, later removing to Cedar Rapids. In February, 1856,
he was a delegate to the state convention which met at Iowa City, where
he helped to organize the republican party. During the war he assisted
in organizing the Twentieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, in which he was
chosen a captain, serving under General F. J. Herron. In March, 1863,
he was promoted to judge advocate and served in the army until he was
breveted major in 1865. This year he was appointed district judge,
resigning after having served a year, to accept the position of general
attorney for the Northwestern railroad in the state of Iowa.

The sayings of Judge Hubbard would fill a book of many pages, but many
of them would need to be sterilized before put into type. Many of these
witty remarks are still repeated during a lull in the court room when
stories take the place of dry facts. He was truly an original
character, not only as a political manager of a great political party,
but as railway counsel, and as a person who filled a large place in the
political arena of Iowa for many years. A few of these sayings may give
the reader an idea of the man as he really appeared during these years
of his political and legal career in Iowa.

At one time being asked how a new assistant behaved who had been
appointed local attorney for the railroad of which Hubbard had charge,
he replied, "Tim is a real bull in a china shop; what he don't smash he
dirties."

Speaking at one time of a technical lawyer, he added, "here is my
friend J, he is so technical that he will fall all over a crowbar to
hunt for a pin and not even see the crowbar, mind you."

While judge on the bench, some pompous doctor who was a witness asked
leave to go home to look after his patients, and the judge quietly
replied. "You had better stay here so as to give your patients a chance
to get well."

At another time an attorney who had formerly been governor got the
worst of it in Hubbard's court, and he appealed to him as a man and
friend, saying that the judge evidently must have forgotten that he
held his position due to his appointment while governor. Judge Hubbard
coolly replied, "Yes, I remember that very well as being the only
decent act of your term of office," and went on ruling against him as
he had before.

On a hot June day Hubbard was trying a case against John Weare, one of
the old pioneer bankers of this county. There was a lull in the
proceedings, and as the jury was walking out of the court room Weare
pulled out a large red handkerchief to wipe the sweat from his brow,
when Hubbard in his peculiar articulation, for which he was noted,
piped out, "John, it makes you sweat to tell the truth, don't it?" The
crowd laughed, and the cutting sarcasm was never forgotten or forgiven
by the aged banker, who was at the mercy of his old antagonist.

During one of the many political campaigns a Des Moines paper accused
Hubbard of giving away five hundred tickets to delegates. He was asked
by a friend about this and Hubbard replied. "That is a lie, I gave away
eleven hundred tickets this year, that is all."

During the Parrott fight for the governorship of Iowa, Hubbard at first
supported his old friend, but when he saw the turn affairs were taking
he suggested that Parrott withdraw, but the candidate refused, adding
that he had so many delegates pledged, and furthermore felt that he had
Providence on his side. Hubbard simply replied, "Well, you can take to
Providence and I will take to Shaw."

While arguing a case before the supreme court, the opposing counsel had
pounded the table a great deal during his lengthy argument. When he
concluded, Judge Hubbard arose to reply in the following little speech:
"I am strong. I can pound this oak table to pieces for I have been a
blacksmith in my time, and I will pound this table into splinters if
you say and if it will help me to win this suit." He went on in this
manner until the members of the court laughed, and even the opposing
counsel saw the ridiculousness of his performance.

[Illustration: METHODIST CHURCH, PALO]

[Illustration: SCENE AT SPRINGVILLE]

During one of his last appearances in court he was called by the
opposing counsel an "old mossback who might have been a great lawyer,
but that was many years ago." When the lawyer concluded all eyes were
turned on the old judge. As he arose to reply he said: "True. I am old
and not what I used to be, and I suppose I am fast getting to be an old
mossback." Then he went on telling of the old lawyers he had known at
the bar in Iowa in the early day. He spoke of the methods of the old
advocates, and of their bitter political fights, then added, "They
never tried to bolster up a witness, defraud an antagonist, or
blackmail a client as they do now, and if the real up-to-date lawyer
must do such a thing in order to become great and prominent, then I
thank God I am an old fogy of a lawyer and belong to the former
generation."

Judge Hubbard at one time abused Bill Harper most unmercifully in a
suit, and Bill Harper threatened that he would maul Hubbard into a dish
of jelly at sight. The judge one day appeared in court shortly after
the trouble, when Major Thompson said, "Judge, Bill Harper is looking
for you." The judge looked around, for he feared Harper, and not seeing
him, replied in somewhat of a gusto, "I saw him in the park and if he
had done anything to me, he would never have been Bill Harper at all,
he would have been dead."

At another time while the judge was defending a railroad company in a
damage suit involving a large amount of money a colored man had sworn
positively to facts in a case which everyone thought he knew nothing
about. In the trial of the case the judge turned to an old friend, and
a "Copperhead," saying, "I am glad there are some Copperheads here; I
fought to free the nigger. I stood up to be shot at, now, by gosh, I am
a Copperhead. A man who will swear in court like that nigger did today
ought to be a slave and should never be free."

Judge James H. Rothrock was a native of Pennsylvania, and as a mere lad
removed to Ohio where he acquired his education at Parker's Academy and
at the Franklin University. He was admitted to the bar at Greenfield,
Ohio, removing to Tipton, Iowa, in 1860. He was elected to the house of
representatives in 1861 and was elected speaker pro tem. He entered the
army as lieutenant, and upon his return from the army formed a
partnership with Judge W. P. Wolf, which lasted until he was nominated
for judge of the eighth judicial district in 1866. He performed
services as judge in that district with ability and impartiality. He
was serving his third term when he was appointed to the bench of the
supreme court.

A few stories may be related of Judge Rothrock which in a way
illustrate his wit and exemplary character:

Judge Rothrock had been trained in the general principles of law and
did not go much on statute law. At one time he was one of a committee
to examine a number of persons for admission to the bar, and a young,
bright fellow seemed to have committed to memory much of the statute
law of the state, but knew nothing of general principles. The judge
quietly said to the young man. "You surely are in a bad way, my friend,
because the legislature might in a night repeal all the law that you
know."

At another time he was on the bench in Linn county when George W.
Wilson, as receiver, brought in a wagon load of books to prove up a
certain assignment. Judge Rothrock asked why all these books were
brought in, and Wilson replied, "To show up the receivership in the
case, your honor." The judge smiled and said. "Don't you think this
failure was due to too much bookkeeping?"

At one time as he was assigning cases, and not being familiar with some
of the members of the bar, Tom Corbett appeared in a case assigned for
trial. The judge quietly asked Mr. Corbett's name and as Mr. Corbett
arose to speak Judge Hubbard blurted out. "Jot him down plain Tom, that
is enough." Mr. Corbett blushed crimson, whispering to another attorney
that he would get even some day. Judge Hubbard many times afterwards
became the prey to Corbett's heartless raillery, his sharp retorts, and
pungent wit.

At one time there were a number of lawyers engaged in a hotly contested
will matter where Judge Rothrock presided, and as the attorneys talked
back and forth across the table and there was more or less disturbance
in the court room, the judge leaned quietly over, saying in a very
pleasant manner to one of the lawyers who had done most of the
quarreling, that he did not see why he was sitting there. The attorney
quick as a flash replied, "You've got me now, Judge, I don't know."

After his retirement from the bench Judge Rothrock was frequently
called in to assist other attorneys in the trials of equity cases. It
became a standing joke among the members of the bar that when they
found cases in which Judge Rothrock had written the opinion which held
just the opposite of what he was contending for, they were certain to
rub it in, much to the judge's embarrassment.

While Judge Rothrock resided at Tipton he came up to Marion to preside
over a term of court and as there were but few persons around he asked
the bystanders if there was anything doing this term of court, to which
they replied that they did not know. He said, "Is Doty here," and they
replied that he was. Then he asked, "Is Harper here?" and they said he
had been present for the past day or so. Then he said, "Bailiff, take
my grip and coat, there will be something doing this term of court; I
guess I will stay awhile."

It was Judge Rothrock who made the famous entry of record in several
cases after Doty and Harper had fought for thirty years, "settled by
agreement, each party to pay his own costs, peace declared, the same
being duly ratified by the court." During these years Harper had lost
everything he had, and Doty was content to have his lawyer share the
income out of an eighty acre tract of land and thus felt that he came
out about even. He figured that the lawyer got the better half of the
income of this farm during all the years the litigation continued.

In 1876 Rothrock was appointed member of the supreme court. He removed
to Cedar Rapids, where he resided until his death in 1899. For thirty
years he was a member of that body and materially assisted in laying
down many sound legal principles which courts in the west have since
followed.

Judge Rothrock was not known as a brilliant judge, but was profound,
and a man endowed by nature with the judicial temperament which so well
fitted him for the bench. His opinions have always been known for
clearness of apprehension, tempered by integrity and impartiality.

J. J. Child, a native of the state of New Jersey, drifted into Cedar
Rapids in 1854 for the practice of his profession. He was a large man,
somewhat stooped, of scholarly attainments, and besides had more than
ordinary native ability. Few, if any, excelled Mr. Child in knowledge
of legal principles and their application to existing facts, although
many excelled him in the court room and before juries.

J. J. Child, J. J. Snouffer, and I. N. Whittam were instrumental in
obtaining the special charter for Cedar Rapids in 1856. In the
municipal affairs of Cedar Rapids Mr. Child held many offices up to the
time of his death in 1889. He possessed talents of a very high order,
but his mode of life lessened his influence in the community. Capable
of most any position, he achieved little or no success, and died poor
and unknown, because the baneful influences of drink sapped his
vitality and ruined a brilliant intellect.

One of the most original characters in the '70s was Jerry Lynch, who
had practiced law in Benton county before coming to Cedar Rapids. Mr.
Lynch was resourceful as a lawyer, had a keen sense of humor, and
possessed a great deal of ability. It is said that when Jerry had two
glasses to the wind he was in his element, especially in defending a
criminal, for it is said of him that "he always denied everything and
asked for proof." At one time he was prosecuting certain persons and
realized that he had no proof. The rain was pouring down, and as he
looked out of the window he said with all the dignity of a judge, "Your
Honor, on account of the inclemency of the weather I dismiss the
case."

At another time he was opposed by several lawyers who made fun of his
partner's military record. There is nothing that so touches the
Irishman's heart as an exhibit of disloyalty, and Jerry arose to reply,
saying, "My friend on the other side laughs at my co-counsel's military
record. Let me tell you what he did during the war. He sat on top of
the northern mountain peak of Vermont with his breeches padded ready to
slide into Canada at the first intimation of the draft." There were a
number of soldiers on that jury and it is needless to say that Jerry
won his ease, regardless of the legal questions involved.

Mr. Lynch at one time defended a saloonkeeper, and was waiting his turn
as Judge Shane passed sentence of "guilty" upon one after another.
Jerry arose to speak for his client saying, "It is an unpleasant duty I
am called upon to perform. I defend the worst saloonkeeper in Cedar
Rapids. He runs the worst hole-in-the-wall in Cedar Rapids, and I have
been in there myself and I am ashamed to tell your honor that it is so.
I am not defending my client, for he is a law-breaker and everybody
knows it." And he went on telling about the depraved individual who ran
the saloon, and then he began: "I am not defending the saloon, I would
not be here for that, but that man has a wife and children, and as nice
children you ever did see." Then he went on telling about the kindness
of that wife who was mistreated by a drunken brute of a husband till
tears came into many eyes in that room. The sympathies of the judge
were aroused and Jerry's client was duly acquitted.

Frank Hormel came to Cedar Rapids as a young man, from Ohio, possessing
education and courteous manners. It might be well said of him, that
from nothing he attained to an income of $10,000.00 a year. Mr. Hormel
was lank and lean in appearance; was a student who devoted his nights
to old "Father Antics," the law. He argued to the court with much
success and was discreet and dexterous before a jury. He was kind
hearted and generous to a fault, and attracted friends by the
brilliancy of his conversation.

Mr. Hormel has been declared by the older members of the bar as a
remarkable man for adroitness in a law suit and for knowledge at every
stage of the case. He was a person of many parts and varied culture,
who just before he had turned fifty was literally worn out on account
of the strenuous life he had been living. He set his stakes high and
paid the penalty.

Just after the Civil war a number of young men drifted into Linn
county, a number of whom had seen service and who later became lawyers,
doctors, and bankers in this and adjoining counties.

Among a number of attorneys who located here during the '60s these may
be mentioned: Mason P. Mills, John J. Powell, Charles B. Keeler, Frank
Hormel, Judge Leach, Judge Spangler, T. J. Dudley, Jr., A. R. West, H.
G. Bowman, D. L. Palmer, J. C. Davis, J. W. Bull, A. V. Eastman, Henry
Rickel, C. M. Hollis, C. S. Lake, Judge J. D. Giffin, Colonel Charles
A. Clark, B. F. Heins, and many others. These were all young men and
all became more or less noted in the legal profession, as well as
socially and politically.

Mase Mills was a business getter, but not a sound lawyer. He neither
had the ability nor inclination for discrimination. He said of himself
that in his native place when a boy, when a medicine faker threw out
peanuts for the boys to fight over, he always got his share. In the
rough and tumble of law suits he was fairly successful for the reason
that he always associated himself with lawyers of ability. He was a
jolly good fellow, a great mixer, and knew men.

Mr. Powell had been in the army, was a college graduate, and soon took
a leading place among the attorneys at the bar in this county. He
passed away in January, 1908, one of the best known and most highly
respected citizens of the city of Cedar Rapids.

Benjamin Franklin Heins was in his day and generation a much talked of
man. Of Ben Heins many stories may be told. He was noted for getting
his English mixed and his penmanship conformed to no rule, while
Murray's grammar had never come under his notice. A wag once demurred
to Ben's petition as follows: To count one, for the reason that it
could not be read; to count two, because it was unintelligible, and the
demur was sustained. Ben ran for alderman and gave up a day or two
before election, as he had one hundred votes to the good. The day after
election his friends met at his office to ascertain the cause of his
defeat, when Ben broke out, "Well, gentlemen, I did not know till today
that there were two hundred liars in my ward."

[Illustration: THE BLACK HAWK PURCHASE (map)]

[Illustration: VIEW OF SPRINGVILLE SOON AFTER TOWN WAS FOUNDED]

[Illustration: FIRST STORE IN SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: SHOWING DES MOINES COUNTY SUBDIVIDED (map)]

Ben was not a great lawyer, but he had much business. During the Texas
oil speculation one of the oil boomers came to Ben and offered him
fabulous wages to take him around among his German clients to sell oil
stock. Ben soon saw the trick and replied to the boomer as follows: "My
enemies won't bite on this proposition, and I do not wish to soak my
friends in this way. You better look for some other sucker."

Mills & Keeler were in partnership a number of years, mostly engaged in
railway litigation. Mr. Keeler became known outside the confines of the
state, and died scarcely past middle life at the head of the legal
department of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, with offices
in Chicago. Mr. Keeler was short of stature, with black hair and beard,
and in a law suit very nervous. It is said that during the Bever will
trial Colonel Clark, in the midst of the trial, said to Keeler, "If you
will only put a feather in your hair, Charley, you would make an ideal
Mephistopheles without any further makeup." Mr. Keeler was a shrewd,
wide-awake lawyer, whose mental constitution peculiarly fitted him for
the practice of law, who possessed the faculty of crowding the salient
features of a case in a few words, and who knew better than most
lawyers what the law ought to be if he could not cite a case in point.
He was cold-blooded and had few warm friends, but everyone acknowledged
his abilities. His restless brain simply burnt up his tissues long
before his time.

Mr. Bowman excelled as a brilliant jury lawyer, who by his magnetic
personality knew how to handle a jury and to obtain a favorable
verdict, especially on the defense in a criminal suit where he could
appeal to the sympathies of the jury. Mr. Bowman possessed the magnetic
quality to attract persons to him, and was one of the most resourceful
lawyers at the bar.

Of the early practitioners at the bar all have passed away or have
retired except Judge J. H. Preston, a son of Colonel Preston, still in
practice in Cedar Rapids, and Major William G. Thompson.

Major Thompson must be given space in this sketch. He was an associate
of Hubbard, Isbell, Cook, Stephens, Corbett, Young, McIntosh, Mitchell,
Sanford, David, and Greene. Judge Thompson is a native of Butler
county, Pennsylvania, where he was born in 1830. He was reared on a
farm, received his early education in a log school house and became a
teacher. He attended an academy where he remained two years, when he
began the study of law, supporting himself by working for his
employers. At twenty-five he was admitted to the bar, and in 1853
located in Marion for the practice of his profession. He was a member
of the state convention at Iowa City in 1856 when the republican party
was organized. In this year he was also chosen a member of the state
senate, serving in the Sixth and Seventh General Assemblies. In 1864 he
was one of the presidential electors, and was elected district
attorney, serving six years. The office of general justice of the
territory of Idaho was offered him in 1879 which he accepted, but was
elected to congress from the fifth district the same year to fill a
vacancy and was re-elected for the next regular term. In 1885 he was
elected to the Twenty-first General Assembly and was an important
factor in the impeachment proceedings against Auditor Brown. In 1894
Judge Thompson was appointed judge of the eighteenth judicial district
and served in that capacity until he retired a few years ago on account
of advanced age.

A few stories may be told about Major Thompson to give the reader an
idea of the man and of the times. Tall, spare, and of commanding
stature, with a wonderful command of language, he would convulse a
witness or magnetize a jury with his quaint sayings, and in a minute
would melt them into tears with his pathos or arouse them to
indignation by his denunciations of what he believed was wrong.

In the Bever will case, in which Thompson appeared for the contestants,
he was to open the case to the jury, when Hubbard who had full charge
of the case, said that he wanted Thompson to speak at least two days.
The major replied, "Great God man, what shall I say to that jury except
that here is the will and there are the girls, they should have part of
this estate?" He made the longest jury argument he ever made in his
life, which did not exceed forty minutes, but he won the case.

Another incident in the Bever will case might be mentioned. After the
case had gone to the highest court the parties agreed to compromise.
They objected to fees which were very large. Sheriff Dan Kinley had a
fee bill of $1,000.00, which the parties contested. The motion was set
down for hearing, when Kinley stepped up and wanted his matter disposed
of. Judge Wolf was on the bench and asked if the sheriff had any
lawyer. He replied, "No, I asked several lawyers and they all claimed
they were retained on one side or the other." The judge looked down
upon an array of lawyers, counting about fifteen, and said, "All right,
go ahead gentlemen." As the long string of lawyers came out after the
hearing Major Smith came along and said to the judge, who came out with
Kinley, "How about that motion for fees, Judge, which you have been
hearing?" "Well," replied Wolf, "there were twenty lawyers on the other
side, and after lengthy arguments Dan and I managed to beat them."

When Judge Thompson was on the bench he used to sentence criminals like
this: "You deserve just ten years in the pen, or as long as the law
allows. You should stay there. I never heard any good you ever did. But
I see your wife here. She looks like a good woman: I'll give you thirty
days in jail."

At one time a woman came to Thompson to get a divorce from her husband.
The judge heard her story. She stated that when the husband came home
and the meals were not ready he would simply rave. "How does he act
when you do have the meals ready?" "Oh, he acts all right then,"
replied the woman. "Well," said the judge, "I advise you to go home and
feed the brute, and you will have no trouble."

On the stump the judge was often accused of waving the "bloody shirt,"
and he used to reply to his opponents that "he knew what he was waving,
because he had been there." When in congress the major was a member of
the committee to try the contested election cases. Colonel R. G.
Ingersoll was one of the attorneys frequently employed by the
contestants and he became very friendly with the members of this
committee. One morning as the colonel entered and found the major
looking over some of the records, the great orator, looking at the Iowa
congressman, said, "Major, I like you." Thompson looked up and
inquired, "Why so, Colonel?" "Well," replied the magnetic orator,
"because if I can establish the fact that my client is running on the
republican ticket I have won my case with you, but it takes a great
deal more to convince the other members of your committee."

George W. Wilson was an old character at the bar of Linn county, and
many are the cases on our county records with the words, G. W. Wilson
_per se_. He brought more worthless cases than any other firm or
individual and was the owner of more tax titles than any other
individual in this or any other county in Iowa. His tax titles were so
clouded that the court intimated in a certain execution "that they
would never fasten on anything in particular."

Linn county has had its share of "constant litigants." The dam across
the river has been a constant eyesore, with rights vested and
otherwise. There has not been a time since the franchise was granted by
the state for dams up to the present time that some suit has not been
pending in the district or supreme court involving some phase of the
property rights of the respective owners in common. The so-called legal
ownership of the dam is now supposed to be vested in the city of Cedar
Rapids, and fees are no longer forthcoming, so during the past few
years there has been a lull in this branch of litigation.

William Harper, J. W. Traer, J. P. Glass, John Weare, W. S. Cooper, N.
B. Brown, Colonel J. M. May, J. J. Snouffer, G. W. Wilson, Theresa
O'Connell, Doc Paul, and Lewis & Mason kept the legal mill grinding for
many years. However, by common consent, Elias Doty, son of one of the
first settlers, seems to have held the trump card for litigation in the
number of suits that he has brought and defended. He is something like
Micawber in this particular that "he has become acquainted with the law
by being made a party so often." It is said that Doty started his
litigation by taking a law book in a horse trade, from which he got a
smattering of law, which volume was cited in many trials until some
up-to-date lawyer ruled the book out before a justice because it had
been printed in England.

The Bever will case was one of the most hotly contested cases in the
county on account of the large interests at stake and the prominence of
the interested parties as well as the prominence and standing of the
attorneys employed.

Many have questioned whether the lawyer of the future will occupy the
same position in the community as the pioneer lawyers. The legal
business is rapidly changing, and before many years the successful
lawyer will be one who renders legal opinions as to what the law is
before suit is brought, and there will be less and less of great
speeches delivered "amid full houses and loud cheers." The pioneer
lawyer arose to distinction and political preferment by force of his
native ability. It is doubtful if we shall in the future have a class
of attorneys who will play such an important part in the upbuilding of
the county and of the state. It is doubtful if we ever shall look upon
their kind again.

The practicing attorneys of Linn county at this time are as follows:

F. B. Armstrong, E. C. Barber, A. R. Berry, U. C. Blake. Charles W.
Bingham, Don Barnes, Fred A. Bowman, George F. Buresh, Frank C. Byers,
C. M. Brown, Charles A. Clark, Frank G. Clark, C. F. Clark, William G.
Clark, A. T. Cooper, W. L. Crissman, J. C. Cook, J. H. Crosby, W. L.
Cron, William Chamberlain, H. R. Churchill, F. F. Dawley, F. J. Dawley,
C. J. Deacon, Vincel Drahos, L. D. Dennis, M. J. Donnelly, O. J.
Felton, E. A. Fordyce, Elmer Green, J. W. Good, J. M. Grimm, W. J.
Grunewald, T. M. Giberson, E. W. Griffiths, S. M. Hall, Warren Harman,
G. J. Hedges, J. N. Hughes, C. D. Harrison, Louis Heins, F. W. Hann,
Frank A. Heald, J. W. Jamison, E. C. Johnson, L. M. Kratz, J. C.
Leonard, J. J. Lenehan, G. P. Linville, Fred Luberger, Joseph Mekota,
R. A. Moses, Matt J. Miles, Stephen Novotny, E. C. Preston, J. H.
Preston, Thomas B. Powell, M. I. Parter, Frank H. Randall, Mac J.
Randall, John M. Redmond, John A. Reed, C. B. Robbins, Henry Rickel, H.
C. Ring, C. S. Smith, M. P. Smith, William Smythe, W. E. Steele, John
D. Stewart, A. H. Sargent, Roland Shaver, H. E. Spangler, C. R.
Sutherland, L. J. Storey, G. R. Taylor, P. W. Tourtellot, J. H. Trewin,
J. M. Tallman, C. G. Watkins, Charles E. Wheeler, B. L. Wick, J. U.
Yessler, Cedar Rapids; H. C. Printy, Center Point, Iowa; Thomas Davis,
Central City, Iowa; E. A. Johnson, B. J. Laucamp, Lisbon; F. L.
Anderson, James E. Bromwell, M. W. Courtney, W. S. Griffiths, James M.
Gray, Charles J. Haas, B. P. Harding, C. S. Lake, William G. Thompson,
J. M. Thompson, D. E. Voris, Marion; C. W. Kepler, Louis H. Kepler, G.
M. Wilson, F. T. Davis, William Glenn, Mt. Vernon; D. D. Stevens,
Paralta, Iowa; Thomas Ware, Troy Mills; A. W. Fisher, Walker; Homer
James, Springville.

[Illustration: LUTHERAN CHURCH, LISBON]

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, LISBON]


LINN COUNTY JUSTICES

In pioneer days the township justice played an important part in the
growth and progress of the community. He acted as the safe counsellor
and the family adviser. He drew up all sorts of legal papers, settled
strifes, legalized marriages. It was in the justice court that the new
lawyer would show off his ability. It was an age when "wit and whiskey
were the principal things at the bar," and the early lawyers by nature
possessed the one and frequently partook of the other.

Before these country tribunals these young fellows at the bar were not
miserly of their eccentricities by any means. The justice courts in
olden times were held under the oaks in summer and in blacksmith shops
and grist mills in colder weather, and here when law was not made, the
politics and gossip of the day were often discussed. The justice was
always a leader in his community, and he led in many ways. The story
frequently went "as goes the justice so goes the township." The voter
placed faith in the judgment of the justice and he ruled the community
sometimes with an iron hand. However, the dictatorial justice soon lost
caste and some one else would be chosen at the next election. Much good
work was done by the frontier justice as peace maker, for often where
quarrels arose involving a whole neighborhood he would fix it up in
some way, asserting with all the powers at his command that "it was a
dirty suit" which must be settled.

They were as a rule men of character and of influence, and fearless
when it came to dealing out justice to offenders and those who openly
violated the law. Of course they were backed by the sturdy farming
population who could be depended upon to stand up for the rules as laid
down by the justice.

Many stories may be told at the expense of the country justice. It is
related of an old New Englander in Monroe township that when a case
came before him as to certain offenses and the attorney for the
defendant saw that the feelings of the justice were against him he made
a motion that the guilt or innocence of the victim be put to a vote of
the house. While he thought this was a little strange, still his sense
of justice and his New England training asserted itself and the crowd
voted that the party should go free, against the protest of the
attorney for the state.

Dr. J. H. Camburn was an able justice. The way he would take things in
hand and decide matters were worth going a distance to see and hear.
Dr. Camburn was decidedly practical and had good sense. It is said that
John Weare made a better justice than Dave King, for King had friends
at times whom he wanted to help while Weare had no friends.

Justice Snyder, of Putnam township, sentenced a poor fellow at one time
to the penitentiary for stealing a bee tree when a tree of that kind
and a whole acre of land on which it grew would not be worth more than
$5.00. The constable marched the poor fellow across the country to the
sheriff's office, awaiting further instructions. The sheriff sent the
constable home and told the prisoner to go home, as the justice had
exceeded his authority. The scare at least made the poor fellow forever
afterwards an ideal citizen and the justice always thought that he had
done a good job after all even though he had exceeded his authority.

Many of the fathers and grandfathers of the present generation look
back with pride upon the work accomplished by their ancestors who held
down the justice's office in some of the townships of the county. Who
does not remember such names as J. G. Cole, Isaac Butler, Bob Hodgin,
Ed Crow, William Abbe, Burnett, Coquillette, Knickerbocker, L. L.
Davis, Israel Mitchell, Wm. Ure, R. M. Gunnison, Wm. Cooper, J. S.
Anderson, John Stewart, C. W. Phelps, Aaron Mohr, Thos. Goudy, J. M.
Afftery, J. W. Babbitt, W. H. Hunter, H. B. Burnapp, J. Shearer, Geo.
Greene, and scores of others.

[Illustration: AFTER THE SAC AND FOX CESSION OF 1837 (map)]

[Illustration: LATE DIVISION OF THE BLACK HAWK PURCHASE (map)]

These frontier justices were many of them men of culture and education,
such as Mitchell and Judge Greene. Many of them were shrewd, as Wm.
Ure, Gunnison, Butler, Nugent and many others. These men saw into
schemes which were frequently played upon men of the community and woe
unto the man who got caught in such a game in the new community where
all stood by the justice and the justice's rule was the supreme law in
those days. But the country justice, whatever his ability, always
decided on the side of justice and mercy.

The country justice was a self made man of sound judgment and by fair
dealings was the arbiter of the fortunes of the county in an early day.
He is worthy of mention as a type of the pioneer who took an active
interest in the upbuilding of the county and in preserving order and
enforcing law.

The following items show the importance of the justices in "ye olden
time." These were found by a member of the S. H. Tryon family and
presented to the Linn County Historical Society.

Linn County,
Iowa Territory,

     To any Justice of the Peace for Linn County, or minister of
     the Gospel, These in the name of the United States are to
     authorize you to join in matrimony Mr. James Hunter and Miss
     Mary Rogers and fail not to make due return. March 10, 1840.

                                            S. H. Tryon. C. D. C.

Executed by the undersigned on the 14th day of March, 1840.

                                           Israel Mitchell, J. P.

Iowa Territory,
Linn County,

     To any Justice of the Peace or Minister of the Gospel in the
     name of the United States of America, These are to authorize
     you to join in matrimony Mr. Joseph Barnett and Miss Mary
     Libo.

     Given under my hand and seal of office this 20th day of
     June, 1840.

                                              S. H. Tryon, (seal)
                                                  District Clerk.

Territory of Iowa,
Linn County,

     To any Justice of the Peace or Minister of the Gospel in the
     name of the United States of America; these are to authorize
     you to join in matrimony Mr. Henry Donahoo and Miss Sarah
     Ann Burgess.

     Given under the temporary seal of said County.

                           S. H. Tryon, Clerk C. C., L. C., I. T.

C. W. Phelps, Justice of the Peace, married David Mann and Sally Lewis
April 16, 1842, William Adair and Sabrina Williams on the 17th day of
December, 1840, George Adair and Elizabeth Ellen Smith on the 6th day
of January, 1841, and Mr. John Leverich and Miss Lucy Ann Smith on the
25th day of February, 1841.

John Stewart, Justice of the Peace, married James R. Briney and Mary
Stamberg on the 10th day of March, 1841; and married Mr. Andrew Arnett
and Miss Jane Johnson on the 8th day of June, 1841.

Aaron Moher, Justice of the Peace, on the 4th day of July, 1841,
married John Dwyer and Miss Minerva Plant.

John G. Cole, Justice of the Peace, married David Hunter and Sarah Jane
Rogers on the 23rd day of July, 1840.

[Illustration: PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: THE BUTLER FARM AT SPRINGVILLE]

William Abbe, Justice of the Peace, on the 10th day of June, 1840,
married Mr. Asher Edgerton and Miss Julia Deale.

John Cron, Justice of the Peace, married Mr. Aaron Haynes and Miss
Sally Mann, on the 21st day of July, 1840.

Thomas Goudy, Justice of the Peace, on the 3rd day of November, 1840,
married Hosea W. Gray and Miss Nancy Smith.

Jno. Hoddes, a Minister of the Gospel, married Mr. John Riley and Miss
Mary Ellen Bigger on the 22nd day of July, 1841.

J. P. Stuart, a Minister of the Gospel, married Mr. Robert Cunningham
Shinn and Miss Martha Marcissa Willis on the 8th day of September,
1840.

John M. Afferty, Justice of the Peace, married Elisha Freeman Williams
and Julian Clark on the 4th day of July, 1840.

James W. Bapitt, Justice of the Peace, married Mr. Mark Morris and
Julia Ann Carpenter on the 4th day of July, 1840; he also married
Frederick Grambow and Miss Martha Harris on the 1st day of September,
1840.

Israel Mitchell, Justice of the Peace, married Mr. James Hunter and
Miss Mary Rogers on the 14th day of March, 1840; he also married Mr.
Joseph Barnett and Miss Mary Libo on the 21st day of June, 1840; also
Mr. Henry Donahoo and Miss Sarah Ann Rogers were married by the same
party on the 2nd day of August, 1840.

The above named clerk who issued the licenses was Dr. Socrates H.
Tryon, who was appointed clerk of the Third Judicial District of which
Joseph Williams was judge. He was also the first physician to locate
within the boundaries of Linn county.

George Greene acted as deputy clerk during the year 1841, and he issued
also several licenses to marry well known Linn county people, some of
whom were: Sarah Rogers to Wiley Fitz during January, 1841, and Mary
Stambaugh to James R. Briney in March, of the same year.

On March 2, 1841, Sally Hanes makes a sale of one red cow, two sows and
eight shoats for $20.00 to Jacob Mann, which fact is attested to by
Isaac Butler and that the goods were delivered in person and money
paid.

In Otter Creek township before W. H. Hunts, J. P., on August 30, 1852,
the following case was docketed: "State of Iowa vs. Orin Draper,
Felony," charged by William Garretson, attempted to poison his family
and himself; that he is in fear of the defendant and dare not leave his
home and follow his occupation. That William Cress duly brought the
defendant into Court; that defendant denied that he was guilty and
asked for trial. J. Hunt appeared for the State; defendant pleaded his
own case; that after examination of witnesses separately and arguments
made, the testimony all being understood by the court, thereupon it is
considered that defendant go free without day or date.



CHAPTER XXII

_The Schools of the County_


Schools in Linn county came into existence almost as early as the first
settlers arrived here. Most of the pioneers came from homes of culture
and refinement and hence appreciated the value of an education. There
were no public schools at first. Teachers were employed by private
subscription. Lessons were taught in the settler's cabin, fitted up
with rough boards or puncheons, and of course the attendance was small.

The organic law which provided for the division of Wisconsin and Iowa
makes no provision for education, and no reference to it. On January
15, 1839, an act was passed by the Council and House of Representatives
of the Territory of Iowa, providing for "grants of property made for
the encouragement of education." This act has no bearing whatever on
our present school system. It deals expressly with donations and gifts
for educational purposes.

The real beginning of our present school system is embodied in "An Act
to Establish a System of Common Schools," approved by the Council and
House of Representatives of the Territory of Iowa, January 16, 1840.

There are many surprises in this bill when one compares it to our
present school laws; in fact, many of our school laws have not been
materially changed since the enactments of 1840. It is interesting to
note that according to the provisions of this bill, the school library
is not a new idea, but it was provided for. In Section thirteen,
paragraph five, the qualified voters in each district were given power
to "impose a tax sufficient for the purchase of a suitable library
case, also a sum not exceeding ten dollars annually, for the purchase
of books to be selected by a vote of the district, by the district
board, when so directed." Paragraph six of the same section designates
"the place where the library shall be kept, and the person by whom it
shall be kept;" and states that "the superintendent of public
instruction shall establish the necessary rules for the regulation of
the library." Section fifteen provides that "every person elected to
any one of the above offices who, without sufficient cause, shall
neglect or refuse to serve shall forfeit to the district for the use of
the library the sum of ten dollars, to be recovered in an action of
debt by the assessor before any court of competent jurisdiction."

Another interesting item is the fact that school inspectors instead of
school directors at that time had charge of the schools. In Section
twenty-three, these inspectors are provided for in the following words:
"There shall be chosen at each annual township meeting, three school
inspectors in the same manner as other township officers are chosen,
who shall hold their office until others are chosen."

It was the duty of these inspectors, according to Section twenty-nine
of this Act, to examine closely all persons presenting themselves as
candidates for teaching in their township, and although a certificate
may have been issued to a teacher, if the inspectors became
dissatisfied, under Section thirty, they might again require the
teacher to be re-examined, and if in their opinion the teacher was
found wanting the requisite qualifications, their certificates might be
annulled by giving the teacher ten days' notice, and filing the same
with the clerk of the township.

Judge Milo P. Smith when entering upon the duties of his school at
Wire's Corners, just east of Springville, was examined by this method,
and it is quite interesting to hear him tell his early experiences in
the schools of Linn county. Quite vividly does he bring to one's mind
the sparsely settled condition of the neighborhood around Springville
and Viola, when relating an incident regarding his trip from this
school house to a party where he had been invited to spend the evening.
After arranging his records and outlining the lessons for the next day,
the Judge states that he started for his destination, and about ten
o'clock at night realized that he was completely lost. Evidently he
must have traveled in a circle, for he states that about two or three
o'clock the next morning he saw a gleam of light flash out of a door.
Starting immediately in that direction, he arrived at the place where
the party was held, just in time to ride home with the young folks.

At the same session, a law was passed regarding the sale of the school
lands, and this law was approved January 17, 1840.

On February 17, 1842, a bill was passed creating the office of
Superintendent of Public Instruction. The duties of this officer at
this time was very limited; they being of a clerical nature instead of
those of a supervisor. Of course there could be no school districts or
anything of that nature organized in the county until after some county
organization. The bill calling for the organization of Linn county was
not passed until 1840. It is quite interesting to know that it was at
this time that the Commissioner or rather what is known to-day as the
Supervisor Districts were laid out. The bill reads as follows:

     "Section 1. Be it enacted by the Council and House of
     Representatives of the Territory of Iowa, That the board of
     county commissioners in and for the county of Linn, be and
     they are hereby authorized and required to lay off the
     county aforesaid into three county commissioners' districts,
     prior to the first day of August, A. D. eighteen hundred and
     forty-one, making the division as nearly as possible in
     proportion to the population of said county; and the
     districts shall be classified by said commissioners as
     districts number one, number two, and number three.

     "SEC. 2. That at the next general election there shall be
     elected from district number one one county commissioner;
     and alternately thereafter there shall be elected from each
     district one county commissioner annually, in accordance
     with the provisions of an act organizing a board of county
     commissioners in each county in this Territory, approved
     December 14th, A. D. eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, in
     like manner as though the county had been divided under the
     provisions of said act.

     "Approved, December 31, 1840."

This is especially interesting, inasmuch as there has been a great deal
of discussion of late regarding the number of supervisors in Linn
county. The districts as laid out at that time remain today.

By an act of the same Assembly, approved June 13, 1841, Marion was
established as a seat of justice of Linn county, and the commissioners
of Linn county were authorized to employ agents to sell lots.

The office of the superintendent of public instruction seemed to have
been short-lived, for on February 17, 1842, an act was passed by the
territorial legislature which repealed the act of creating the office
of superintendent of public instruction.

In 1846 an act was passed January 15th, which in some respects amended
an act "To Establish a System of Common Schools," which was passed in
1840. This bill (the one of 1845) really made what is now known as the
county auditor, the educational head of the schools, and provided a tax
for their support.

In chapter 99, page 127, of the Territorial Statutes of 1847, there is
an act relating to the common schools. In section 36, page 134, it
provides that at the next annual township election (which evidently
must have been held in the spring) there was to be elected a school
fund commissioner. This commissioner is what is now known as the county
superintendent of schools, and his duties were many and varied.

In the election book it is shown that in April, 1852, out of the six
hundred and ninety-one votes cast, Alpheus Brown received five hundred
and seventy-three, and was declared elected. In the formation and
alteration of school districts, the records of the county go back as
far as 1849, in which records Mr. Brown signed as school fund
commissioner. However, this may be attributed to the fact that previous
to 1852, Mr. Brown was clerk of the county board of commissioners, and
the duties of the school fund commissioner devolved upon that office at
that time; consequently the presumption is that when he entered upon
his duties as school fund commissioner, and began to make up his
records, he naturally took from the records of the clerk of the board
of county commissioners the things which belonged to the office.

Mr. Brown held this office for three full terms, also about six or
eight months additional time, although Albert A. Mason was elected and
qualified as county superintendent of schools in the election of April,
1858. Mr. Brown served until January, 1859, as school fund
commissioner. This came from the fact that the county superintendent
was provided for by the Statute of '58, the election taking place on
the first Monday in April, but at this time some of the duties devolved
upon the county superintendent. By chapter 36 of the Statutes of 1858,
section 1, the office of the school fund commissioner was continued
until the county treasurer was elected. The presumption is, therefore,
that for about six months we had both a school fund commissioner and a
county superintendent of schools in this county.

It is possible, also, that Mr. Brown served as a sort of triumvirate,
as he was school fund commissioner by election, for the simple reason
that Mr. Mason may not have qualified until three or four days after
the time set; he was also school fund commissioner by the extension
Statute, and county superintendent of schools from the fact that his
successor had not qualified; in fact in some of the school reports, he
signed as both school fund commissioner and county superintendent.
However, Mr. Mason entered upon his duties and served as superintendent
of schools for one term, when Ira G. Fairbanks (who by the way, still
lives in Mount Vernon) was elected as his successor.

It is a difficult matter to state who was the first school teacher in
the county. In 1839 several schools were in operation. In July of that
year Elizabeth Bennett taught in Linn Grove, and later that same year
Judge Greene taught at Ivanhoe. One of the noted schools of the early
day was the one known as the "Buckskin School," in Linn Grove, so named
because teacher and scholars alike attended clad in buckskin suits.

The first school district was formed in 1840 with Marion as its center.
After that school houses sprang up in every direction. The buildings
were constructed out of logs; the seats were benches hewn from slabs or
logs, and so were the desks.

Colleges early sprung up in the county. Of the three that flourished
here more or less at one time, the history of two--Cornell and Coe--are
given at length. These institutions are now in splendid condition.

The third institution that in its day was a power for excellence in
educational lines was Western, founded in 1856 on the borders of
Johnson county at the little town of Western, in College township. Of
this institution the late Jesse A. Runkle, some years ago, wrote as
follows:

     "In January, 1856, Iowa City became the western terminus of
     the only railroad in the state, and no other was built
     within a couple of years. The fine country surrounding
     Western, would easily lead one to believe that the early
     plan was feasible, to make the school an industrial one,
     where deserving young men could make their way through
     school by devoting some of their time to agricultural work.
     But Western was unfortunate in two things: First, none of
     the railroads that were built in Iowa, ever came near the
     town. It seems as if a Nemesis had brooded over the place,
     for even the interurban now being built between Cedar Rapids
     and Iowa City swerves from a direct line, and misses both
     Western and Shueyville by about a mile. Second, the
     surrounding country began to be possessed by a population
     that in the main had little or no sympathy with religious
     education, and the older generations were alien in thought
     and temper to our American institutions. These things made
     the task of maintaining the college at that point a most
     heroic and arduous work."

[Illustration: SHOWING THE TWO CESSIONS AS AT PRESENT DIVIDED (map)]

After some years of struggle, the college was removed to Toledo, where
it now wields an influence second to none in the state.

One of the early educational centers in Linn county was the private
school established in 1850 in the Greene Bros. block, which stood on
the corner of First street and First avenue, Cedar Rapids, where now
stands the building owned by Sunshine Mission. It was founded by Miss
Elizabeth Calder, a native of New York, and who in 1855 married R. C.
Rock, the first hardware dealer in the city, who came here from
Burlington and whose place of business was located on First street a
few doors south of the corner of First avenue. This school prospered
and was conducted by Miss Calder for four years when it was
discontinued.

One of the first, if not the very first, teacher in Cedar Rapids was
Miss Susan Abbe, daughter of the old pioneer. She taught in this city
in 1846, the superintendent being Alexander Ely.

Miss Emma J. Fordyce, at present a teacher in the Cedar Rapids high
school, contributes to this work the following sketch of early schools
in the county, and more particularly in the city of Cedar Rapids:

     "It is not often in this changing country that a person
     lives a lifetime in one community and sees the schools grow
     from their beginning. This has happened to me. Of the early
     country schools but two memories remain: a visit in the
     summer, and one in the winter. There remains an impression
     of very homely school houses, equally homely surroundings,
     and very little comfort without or within. It is a standing
     wonder that even now an Iowa farmer is much more likely to
     provide an up-to-date fine building for his cattle than a
     beautiful, well-ordered school-house for the education of
     his children. A little has been done, but by far too little.

     "Early Cedar Rapids was a little village surrounded by
     groves of oaks, crab-apple, plum, and everywhere the
     climbing wild grape. Between these groves were the sand
     hills on which grew vast quantities of sand-burs. Where the
     Methodist church now stands was a hill which sloped toward
     the railroad. Where the old Presbyterian church was, the
     children coasted down 'Pepper Grass Hill;' and where Mr.
     Crozer's florist establishment is, was a deep and wide pond
     which, on occasions of heavy rain, furnished water for rafts
     made from bits of sidewalk.

     "The earliest school was on the site of the present Granby
     building, but of that school I have no personal knowledge.
     The first school building in my memory was the three-story
     one which was erected in 1856. It had a white cupola, white
     trimmings to the windows, with a high, solid board fence,
     painted red, surrounding it. An iron pump at the side
     furnished refreshment to the spirit and ammunition for the
     wetting of people. On the lower floor on the side next the
     railroad, Miss Elizabeth Shearer taught the children. She
     was a woman of fine family, fine attainments, and of great
     patience of spirit. Superintendent Ingalls was in charge of
     the school at that time. C. W. Burton followed him the next
     year. His school board was A. C. Churchill, president;
     Benjamin Harrison, treasurer; J. W. Henderson,
     vice-president; D. A. Bradley, secretary. These were
     assisted by three directors, J. F. Charles, W. W. Smith, E.
     E. Leach. Mr. Harrison had a unique way of collecting taxes
     from the delinquent foreign citizens to whom our system of
     collecting them was a dark puzzle; when they refused to pay,
     he notified them that on a certain day if the taxes were not
     forthcoming, he would sell everything they had and apply the
     proceeds to tax payment. The auction was often begun, but
     never finished, as the taxes were always forthcoming.

     "Mrs. E. J. Lund was one of the earliest of Cedar Rapids
     teachers. For many years her inspiring example and her
     patient work developed good children out of bad, and she
     finished her life's work by taking care of all the poor and
     unfortunate of the county. The Cedar Rapids superintendents
     were Professor Humphrey, 1861-4, Professor Ingalls, 1864-5,
     C. W. Burton, 1865-70, J. E. Harlan, now president of
     Cornell, 1870-5, F. H. Smith, the latter part of 1875, J. W.
     Akers, 1875-81, W. M. Friesner, 1881-5, L. T. Weld, 1885-6,
     J. P. Hendricks, 1886-90, J. T. Merrill, 1890-1901, J. J.
     McConnell, 1901--, twelve men in thirty-four years. The list
     shows plainly the growing tendency to keep a superintendent
     for long periods at a time.

     "The high school principals show the same tendency; A.
     Wetherby, from 1870-1, E. C. Ebersole, 1872-73, W. A.
     Olmsted, 1871-2, Miss Mary A. Robinson, 1873-86, Miss A. S.
     Abbott, 1886--.

     "The original high school building contained four rooms. In
     1876 it had a corps of three teachers: Miss M. A. Robinson,
     Miss E. J. Meade, Miss Estella Verden, and had an attendance
     of 106 pupils; it now has twenty teachers with an attendance
     of 838 pupils. In 1876 there were five buildings in the
     city; there are now sixteen. Of the teachers thirty-one in
     number in 1876, there are two left: Miss Emma Forsythe and
     Miss Emma J. Fordyce. In 1876 the total number of pupils
     handled by thirty-one teachers was 1,752. In 1911, with 181
     teachers, there are 6,122 pupils, not quite six times as
     many teachers, but showing a smaller average number to each
     teacher. Evidently the school-houses have always been
     crowded, since the superintendent's report of 1876 says: 'We
     have in the school district five school buildings, and these
     are taxed to their utmost to accommodate the pupils already
     enrolled.' He also remarks pensively: 'In your wisdom for
     the coming year, you have reduced the salaries of your
     teachers, and in some cases the reduction has been such that
     some of your best teachers have been compelled to seek
     employment elsewhere.' Since no following superintendent
     makes the same complaint, it is evident that school boards
     do improve. As to salaries, the salary of the superintendent
     in 1883 is given as $1,000; in 1911 as $3,000, which means
     the magnificent increase of $42 a year; not a great
     temptation. The salaries of the teachers increase in the
     same period about $25 a year. Comment is unnecessary.

     "As to the high school, the graduates of 1873 to 1885 were
     but eleven pupils, with nine times as many in 1908. Amongst
     the older and pioneer high school teachers were Mr.
     Wetherbee, Miss Ella Meade, and Miss Ada Sherman, who
     afterward decided to doctor bodies instead of minds, as it
     paid much better. Mr. Olmsted, the principal of 1872, who
     left Cedar Rapids in 1873 to found a business in Chicago,
     died a hero. He lost his life in his burning building trying
     to save his bookkeeper.

     "The tendencies in school work are shown by the fact that
     the reports of the early superintendents are largely lists
     of members of the school board, while the later reports give
     large tabulations of expense. It is to be regretted that
     Iowa has not adopted a series of uniform reports, giving
     items almost impossible to discover as these reports are at
     present made out. The older schools report seventy-two
     pupils to a primary teacher. The newer reports are silent on
     the subject. Since efficiency comes in handling the right
     number of pupils, it would certainly be wise to keep a
     careful account of this item.

     "The courses of the schools show the growth in public
     service. The courses of the high school in 1876 are twenty;
     those of the high school in 1910, eighty-three. All of the
     older and more prominent citizens served as school directors
     at one time or another. In 1858 J. L. Enos was president of
     the board, Freeman Smith, secretary, W. W. Smith,
     vice-president, J. T. Walker, treasurer, W. W. Walker,
     director. In 1859 the names of R. C. Rock, E. H. Stedman, J.
     P. Coulter, and J. M. Chambers appear. In 1860, S. C.
     Koontz, Henry Church, William Stewart, J. H. Camburn, and
     William Richmond served. In 1861, W. W. Smith, George M.
     Howlett, Henry Church, William H. Merritt, A. C. Churchill,
     and S. L. Pollock directed affairs. In 1862 E. G. Brown, A.
     C. Churchill, J. F. Ely, George M. Howlett elected Mr.
     Humphrey superintendent of schools. His reputation seems to
     have been that of a man of great strength and the bad big
     boys stood in awe of him accordingly. C. W. Burton, the
     superintendent of 1865, was noted for his cleverness in
     mathematics, and his deep interest in horticulture.

     "All of these early directors, superintendents, and teachers
     were hard workers and great optimists. History has confirmed
     that optimism, and from the services of these men developed
     a race of ambitious, energetic, moral citizens to whom the
     present Cedar Rapids owes a great debt of gratitude."

Through the courtesy of County Superintendent Alderman we are enabled
to give below some interesting data regarding our schools:

In 1873 the number of school corporations in the county was 42,
increased to 87 in 1909. The number of ungraded schools in the former
year was 178, and 166 in the latter year. The average number of months
the schools were in session has increased from 6.6 in 1873 to 8.9 in
1909, and the average compensation from $39.78 to $73.50 for males, and
from $26.33 to $50.85 for females. The number of female teachers
employed in 1873 was 244, and in 1909, 503. The number of male teachers
was 90 and 40 respectively.

In the matter of attendance there has been a vast betterment. In 1873
there were 460 boys and 544 girls between the ages of seven and
fourteen not in school. In 1909 these numbers were 29 and 17.

The value of school property in 1873 was $240,105; in 1909, $814,300.
The value of school apparatus was $2,309.50 in 1873, and in 1909,
$20,035.25. There were in 1873 in the school libraries 482 volumes,
which was increased to 17,079 in 1909.

There are now between twenty-five and thirty fine school buildings in
the country districts. They are modern in all respects, being supplied
with slate blackboards, hardwood floors, ventilators, cloak rooms,
bookcases and cupboards. Several have furnaces and cloak rooms in the
basements. Some of the buildings are supplied with telephones, making
it possible for the county superintendent and patrons to communicate
direct with the school.

The plans and specifications for these buildings are owned by the
county, and are furnished gratis to the school districts wishing to
build. All of these school-houses except two or three are not only
provided with libraries, cloak rooms, etc., but are also provided with
a good organ.

This year there is being installed a hot air ventilating system which
keeps the warm air pure, the cold air being taken directly from the
outside and passed through the hot air radiators before being allowed
to enter the school room.

[Illustration: CORNELL COLLEGE IN 1865]



CHAPTER XXIII

_Historical Sketch of Cornell College_

BY WILLIAM HARMON NORTON, ALUMNI PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY, CORNELL COLLEGE


Linn county may well take pride in the history of her oldest school of
higher education, founded in 1853, when the county held but 6,000
people. But the beginnings of Cornell College are of more than local
interest; they are thoroughly typical of America and of the West.
Cornell was founded in much the same way as were hundreds of American
colleges along the ever advancing frontier of civilization from
Massachusetts to California--a way which the world had never seen
before and will never see again.


THE FOUNDATION AND THE FOUNDER

Cornell owes its inception to a Methodist circuit rider, the Rev.
George B. Bowman, a North Carolinian by birth, who came to Iowa from
Missouri in 1841, three years after the territorial organization of the
commonwealth. This heroic pioneer, resourceful, far seeing, and
sanguine of the future, eminent in initiative and in the power of
compelling others to his plans, was one of those rare men to whom the
task of building states is intrusted. He was not himself a college man,
but with him education was a passion. To found institutions of higher
education he considered his special mission. Hardly had he been
appointed as pastor of the church at Iowa City in 1841 when he
undertook the building of a church school, called Iowa City College. In
1845 Rev. James Harlan, a local preacher of Indiana, was chosen
president, and with one assistant opened the school in 1846. The next
year Mr. Harlan was elected state superintendent of public instruction,
and the college was closed never to be re-opened. It had at least
served to bring to the state one of its most distinguished citizens,
afterward to be honored with the United States senatorship and the
secretaryship of the interior. Meanwhile Mr. Bowman had been appointed
presiding elder of the Dubuque district, which then included much of
east-central Iowa. The failure of the premature attempt at Iowa City
had not discouraged him; he awaited the favorable opportunity he still
looked for--suitable local conditions for a Christian college in the
state. It is a long-told legend, even if it be nothing more than
legend, that when Elder Bowman came riding on horseback to the Linn
Grove circuit, he stopped on the crest of the lonely hill on which
Mount Vernon now stands. From its commanding summit vistas of virgin
prairie and primeval forest stretched for ten and twenty miles away.
Here there fell upon him, the circuit preacher, the trance and vision
of the prophet. He saw the far-off future; he heard the tramp of the
multitudes to come. Dismounting, he kneeled down in the rank prairie
grass and in prayer to Almighty God consecrated this hill for all time
to the cause of Christian education. And it is a matter of authentic
history that in the spring of 1851 Elder Bowman and Rev. Dr. A. J.
Kynett, in the parsonage at Mount Vernon, planned together for the
early founding and upbuilding of a Christian college on this site.

With the characteristic initiative of the Iowa pioneer, Bowman did not
wait for authority to be given him by anybody, for articles of
incorporation to be drawn up, or even for a title deed to the land on
which the college was to stand. Early in 1852 he laid his plans for the
launching of the school. On the Fourth of July of this year an
educational celebration was held at Mount Vernon, which drew the
farmers for miles about the town, and other friends of the new
enterprise from Marion and Cedar Rapids, Anamosa, Dubuque, and
Burlington. The oration of the day was delivered by State
Superintendent Harlan on the theme of Education, and at its close
ground was broken formally for the first building of the college. A
month later a deed was obtained for the land and the following
September the guardianship of the infant school was accepted under the
name of the Iowa Conference Seminary, by the Methodist Episcopal
church.

In this highly democratic manner Cornell College was founded by the
people as an institution of higher learning, which should ever be of
the people and for the people. It was born on the anniversary of the
nation's natal day, and was to remain one of the highest expressions of
patriotism and civic life. Christened by the head of the educational
interests of the young commonwealth, supported by its citizens,
protected by a charter from the state, and exempt as a beneficent
institution of the state from contributing by taxation to the support
of other institutions, the college was thus begun as a state school in
a very real sense.

One can not read the early archives of the college without the
profoundest admiration for the pioneers, its founders. Avid of
education to a degree pathetic, they depended on no beaurocracy of
church or state; they waited for no foreign philanthropy to supply
their educational needs. They laid the foundations of their colleges
with the same free, independent, self-sufficing spirit with which they
laid their hearthstones, and they laid both at the same time.


THE IOWA CONFERENCE SEMINARY

In January, 1853, the first meeting of the board of trustees was held,
and in the fall of the same year the school was opened in the old
Methodist church at Mount Vernon. Before the end of the term a new
edifice on the campus was so far completed that it was available for
school purposes and "on the morning of November 14, 1853, the school
met for the last time in the old church and after singing and prayer
the students were formed in line and walked in procession with banners
flying, led by the teachers, through the village, and took formal
possession of what was then declared to be a large and commodious
building."[J]

The first catalog--a little time-stained pamphlet of fifteen
pages--lists the following faculty:

Rev. Samuel M. Fellows, A. M., professor of mental and moral science
and belle lettres.

Rev. David H. Wheeler, professor of languages.

Miss Catherine A. Fortner, preceptress.

Miss Sarah L. Matson, assistant.

Mrs. Olive P. Fellows, teacher of painting and embroidery.

Mrs. Sophia E. Wheeler, teacher of instrumental music.

The first board of trustees is also noteworthy:

Rev. George B. Bowman, president, Mount Vernon; E. D. Waln, Esq.,
secretary, Mount Vernon; Rev. H. W. Reed, Centerville; Rev. E. W.
Twining, Iowa City; Rev. J. B. Taylor, Mount Vernon; Jesse Holman,
North Sugar Grove; Henry Kepler, North Sugar Grove; William Hayzlett,
Mount Vernon; A. I. Willits, Mount Vernon.

The roster of students enrolls 104 gentlemen, and 57 ladies. Among them
are familiar and honored names, some of which are to reappear in all
later catalogs of the school, either as students of the second and
third generation, or as trustees and members of faculty. Four Rigbys,
for example, were students in 1853. In 1910 the catalog lists three
Rigbys, one a student and two members of the faculty. The first catalog
contains the names of no less than nine Keplers as students, six
stalwart young men from North Sugar Grove and their three sisters. Four
Walns are enrolled from Mount Vernon, two Farleys from Dubuque and two
Reeders from Red Oak.

In 1853 the population of the entire state was only about 300,000. Not
a railway had been projected west of the Mississippi river. And yet the
scattered settlements sent across the unbroken prairie and the
unbridged rivers no less than 161 students to the young school on this
the first year of its existence. The most important route to Mount
Vernon was the military road extending from Dubuque to Iowa City. Both
towns contributed their quota of students, Dubuque sending no less than
twelve, although the entire population of Dubuque county was then, less
than 16,000. Considering the difficulty of communications, the poverty
of the pioneers, the wide extent of the sphere of influence of the
school is remarkable. Students were drawn this first year from as far
to the northeast as Elkader and Garnavillo. They came from Dyersville
and Independence, from Quasqueton and Vinton, from Marengo, Columbus
City, West Liberty, and Burlington. Muscatine alone sent seven
students. This town was at the time the point of supply for Mount
Vernon, and the materials for the first building of the college except
such as local saw mills and brick kilns could supply were hauled from
that river port.[K] Students came also from Davenport, Le Claire,
Princeton, and Blue Grass in Scott county, from Comanche, and from the
pioneer settlements of La Motte and Canton in Jackson county. The eight
hundred students of Cornell today reach the school from all parts of
the state and the adjacent portions of our neighboring states by a few
hours swift and comfortable ride by rail. But who shall picture in
detail the long and adventurous journeys in ox cart and pioneer wagon
and perchance often on foot of the boys and girls of 1853--the climbing
of steep hills, the fording of rivers, the miring in abysmal sloughs,
the succession of mile after mile of undulating treeless prairie
carpeted with gorgeous flowers stretching unbroken to the horizon, the
camp at night illuminated by distant prairie fires, until at last a
boat shaped hill surmounted by a lonely red brick building lifts itself
above the horizon, and the goal of the long journey is in view!

No doubt there were other hardships awaiting these students after their
arrival. Rule No. 1 of the new school compelled their rising at five
o'clock in the morning. They were expected to furnish their own beds,
lights, mirrors, etc., when boarding in Seminary Hall. It is
interesting to note that they paid for tuition $4.00 and $5.00 per
quarter, and for board from $1.50 to $1.75 per week. The next year the
steward's petition to the board of trustees that he be allowed to put
three students in each of the little rooms was granted with the proviso
"that he furnish suitable bunks for the same." The catalog's statement
regarding apparatus is a guarded one: "The Institution is furnished
with apparatus for illustrating some of the most important principles
of Natural Science. As the wants of school demand, additions will be
made to this apparatus." And that regarding the library is wholly
prophetic: "It is intended to procure a good selection of _readable_
and _instructive_ books, by the commencement of the next academic year,
to which the students will have access at a trifling expense. With
these books as a nucleus, a good library will be accumulated as rapidly
as possible. Donations of _good_ books are solicited from friends of
the institution." In the next catalog it is stated that "a small but
good selection of _readable_ and _instructive_ books has been
procured," the remainder of the statement being the same as that of
the first year. This statement appeared without change in all
succeeding catalogs during the remainder of the first decade.


THE FIRST DECADE

As early as 1855 the articles of incorporation were amended changing
the name of the institution to Cornell College, in honor of W. W.
Cornell and his brother J. B. Cornell, of New York City, men prominent
in business and widely known for their benevolences to various
enterprises of the church. It will be noted that Cornell College was
thus named several years before the founding by Ezra Cornell, of
Cornell University at Ithaca, N. Y.

The first year of the school under the new collegiate régime was that
of 1857-1858. Rev. R. W. Keeler of the Upper Iowa Conference was made
president, Principal Fellows of the Seminary taking the professorship
of Latin. Two years later President Keeler reentered the more congenial
work of the ministry, and Principal Fellows was elected president of
the college, a position which he held most acceptably until his death
on the day after commencement June 26, 1863, thus completing a full
decade of years of service in the school.

President Fellows had come to Cornell from the Rock River Seminary at
Mount Morris. His character and the quality of his work left lasting
impressions on his pupils at both institutions. Thus Hon. Robert R.
Hitt, of Illinois, writes of him as follows: "He was a diligent, acute,
and active student, and his personal character was admirable. It is the
fortune of few men to exercise so wide and prominent an influence from
a position which, to the ambitious, is not considered eminent." And
Senator Shelby M. Cullom has written: "I regard Professor Fellows as
one of the best men I ever knew. I said it when I was under him at
school, and now that I am over seventy years of age, I say it now. He
was strong, honest-hearted, full of kindness, and a splendid teacher."

His colleague at Cornell, Dr. David H. Wheeler, described him as "a man
sweet-spirited, pure-minded, of fine executive ability, a rarely
qualified teacher, a patient sufferer, a tireless worker, a model
friend."

A word may be said as to the members of President Fellows's faculty:

Miss Catharine A. Fortner, a graduate of Cazenovia Seminary, N. Y., was
sent out in 1851 by Governor Slade, of Vermont, as a missionary teacher
to Iowa. Her success near Tipton was so marked that she was chosen as
the first preceptress of the institution. In 1857 she resigned to marry
Rev. Rufus Ricker, of the Upper Iowa Conference.

Wm. H. Barnes, professor of languages in 1854-1855, resigned to accept
a professorship in Baldwin University, Ohio, and is known as author of
several works in history and politics.

His successor, Rev. B. W. Smith, after leaving the school in 1857
became pastor of several of the largest churches in northern Indiana,
and president of Valparaiso College.

Dr. David H. Wheeler, professor of languages in 1853-1854, and
professor of Greek from 1857 to 1861, when he was appointed U. S.
consul to Genoa, was a brilliant and versatile man, author of a number
of books, professor for eight years at Northwestern University, editor
for eight years of the New York Methodist, and for nine years president
of Allegheny College.

The brother of President Fellows, Dr. Stephen N. Fellows, has a large
place in the educational history of Iowa. He assisted his brother in
laying the foundation of Cornell College, being professor of
mathematics from 1854 to 1860, and later occupied the chair of mental
and moral science and didactics at the State University of Iowa for
twenty years.

On account of her long connection with the college, from 1857 to 1890,
Miss Harriette J. Cooke exerted a more potent influence on the
institution than any of her colleagues of the first decade. Miss Cooke
came to Cornell from Hopkinton, Massachusetts, and brought the best
culture for women which New England then afforded, as well as an
exceptionally forceful personality, and rare natural aptitudes for her
profession. From 1860 to the time of her resignation she was dean of
women, and her influence for good on the thousands of young women under
her care is incalculable. After long service as an instructor she was
made a full professor in 1871, the first woman in America, it has been
said, to be thus honored. Her chair for fifteen years was history and
German, and after 1886 history and the science of government. On
leaving the college she studied the methods of deaconess work in
England, wrote a book upon the subject, and returning to her native
land became one of the leaders in this new department of social
service. For many years she has been closely connected with the
University Settlement of Boston. On the recent celebration of her
eightieth birthday she received hundreds of letters of loving
congratulation from her former students of Cornell, and each of these
letters was answered by her painstakingly and at length.

[Illustration: A STREET SCENE IN MARION]

[Illustration: THE DANIELS HOTEL, MARION]

The first ten years of the institution were marked by a singularly
rapid growth, considering the fact that they included the darkest days
of the Civil war, when nearly every male student was drawn from the
college halls to the service of his country. At the end of the decade
the faculty numbered eight professors and instructors, and 375 students
were enrolled, fifty-one of whom were in college classes, the largest
enrollment of collegiate students in the state, unless at the State
University. The assets of the institution amounted to $50,000 in notes
and pledges, a campus of fifteen acres, and two brick buildings which
compared not unfavorably with other college buildings in the west and
with the earlier halls of Harvard.

In a large measure this exceptional growth was due to Elder Bowman, to
his initiative and wide and powerful influence. The chief problem then
as now was one of sustenance, and as a college beggar Bowman was
incomparable. He travelled over the settled portions of the state,
winning men to his cause by a singular personal charm, and enticing
even out of poverty money, promissory notes at altitudinous rates of
interest, farm produce, live stock and poultry, household furniture and
jewelry. His barnyard at Mount Vernon was continually stocked with
horses, cattle, and chickens--votive offerings to the cause of higher
education. A citizen of the town once told me how under some mesmeric
influence he bought at high price from Elder Bowman an old book case
and coal scuttle, begged somewhere for the school. This prince of
college beggars once returned from Dubuque with a silver watch which he
had plundered off the person of an eminent minister of that city.


FROM 1863 TO 1910--GROWTH IN RESOURCES

Nothing is so tame as the history of a college once the interesting
period of its childhood is over, and the history of Cornell is
exceptionally uneventful among colleges. No building has been destroyed
by fire or tornado. No famous lawsuit against the school has been
defended by some Webster among the alumni. None of the faculty has won
notoriety by sensational speech or erratic morals.

The salient feature of the forty-seven years since 1863 is a marvelous
growth unparalleled in some respects in the history of education. The
campus has been enlarged by addition after addition until now it
measures sixty acres, including the larger part of the long hill and
wide athletic fields along its northern base. To the two first
buildings, still used, one for the chemical, biological and physical
laboratories and the other for class rooms and society halls, there
have been added South Hall, built in 1873 and now used for the
engineering and geological laboratories; the Chapel, completed in 1882,
a stately Gothic structure of stone, containing the auditorium, seating
about 1,500, a smaller audience room, the museum, and several music
rooms; Bowman Hall, built in 1885, as the well appointed home of
ninety-two young women; the library dedicated in 1905, the gift of
Andrew Carnegie; the alumni gymnasium in Ash Park, built in 1909, a
noble structure, one of the largest of the kind in the state, besides
several minor buildings used for allied schools and professors's
residences.

The material equipment has made a phenomenal growth, until several of
the scientific laboratories are reckoned among the best in the Central
West, and the library, numbering 35,000 volumes, ranks as third in size
among the university and college libraries in the state, and second to
but one of the city libraries of Iowa. The museum includes several
collections which rank among the largest in the west: the Kendig
collection of minerals, the Norton collection of fossils, and the
Powers collection in American anthropology.


GROWTH IN ATTENDANCE

From the beginning Cornell has been a relatively large school measured
by the number of its students, and its growth the last decades forbids
it longer to be called a small college. Indeed, for many years it has
maintained its place as the largest denominational college, or among
the two or three largest, in the United States west of the Great Lakes,
reckoned by the number of students of collegiate rank. The attendance
has steadily risen until, in 1909-1910, 741 students were enrolled, 450
of them being in the college of liberal arts. The steady growth in
numbers of collegiate students evidences the satisfaction which the
school has given to its patrons, and an ever widening influence and
power. Moreover, it has increased the efficiency of the school by the
inspiration of numbers and the intensity of competition in all
departments of college life. By bringing together students from all
parts of the state and scores from other states, some with the polish
of the city and others with the sturdy strength of the country, it has
escaped the narrowness of the provincial and has attained something
akin to cosmopolitanism.

To make Cornell an institution state-wide in its patronage and
influence was the evident purpose of its founders. Nothing was further
from their minds than a local college for the students of a town or
county, or one drawing its patronage from a few contiguous counties.
The trustees have been chosen widely over the state and the attendance
from all parts of Iowa has been surprisingly large, considering the
many excellent colleges the state supports. In an investigation made a
few years since of the geographic distribution of the students it was
found that 41 per cent of the collegiate students came from beyond the
borders of the patronizing conference, and the counties west and south
of the Des Moines river furnished 20 per cent of the students in
attendance from the state. The college has thus grown to have a
state-wide field.


THE STRATEGIC POSITION

In explaining the growth of Cornell college we must recognize, of
course, that it has grown up with the country. We must relate the
growth of the school directly to the material prosperity of this land
of corn and swine, to the marvelously fertile soil and to the era of
expansion in which our history falls. The fact remains, however, that
the college has obtained somehow a good deal more than its due share in
the general advance. While the population of the state increased 330
per cent from 1860 to 1900, the collegiate attendance at Cornell
increased 720 per cent. The college has grown more than twice as fast
as has the state, and that notwithstanding the numerous good schools
which have sprung up to share its patronage.

We can not doubt that much of the success of the school has been due to
its strategic position. It is located in a suburban town of the chief
railway center of eastern Iowa. From Cedar Rapids long iron ways, like
the spokes of a wheel, reach in all directions to the limits of the
state and beyond, and bring every portion of the commonwealth and the
adjacent parts of our neighboring states within a few hours ride of
Cornell college. It is located also in east Central Iowa, an area of
the state the first to be settled and developed, an area surpassed by
none in the fertility of its soils, and the wealth which has been
produced from them. To these geographic factors, advantages shared in
like degree by none of the early competitors of the school, we may
assign a place similar to that given such factors in explaining the
growth of New York city and of Pittsburg.

While the college had thus had the city's advantages of communication
and markets because of its nearness to Cedar Rapids, it has retained
all the peculiar advantages which inhere in a location in a village.
Like Bowdoin, Dartmouth, and Oberlin, Cornell has found in the small
town, rather than in the city, an ideal college environment. It has
never permitted the presence of saloon or other haunt of vice. The
citizens with whom the students have made their homes have been people
of culture drawn to the town by its educational advantages. In all that
makes for the intellectual life, in libraries and collections, in
lectures and good music, and church privileges, Mount Vernon has had
more to offer than perhaps any city of the state; while the temptations
and distractions, the round of low amusements offered by the city, have
been fortunately absent.


THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

More than geographic location, it is great men and great plans that
make great schools. Let us give much credit therefore to the men who
have administered the college as members of its board of trustees. Our
debt to them is like that of Michigan University to its board of
regents whose wise plans pushed it early to the fore among the state
universities of the west and far in advance of the place to which
geographic causes alone would have assigned it. Some of these were
pioneers of only local fame, such as Elijah D. Waln, Henry D. Albright,
William Hayzlett, Jesse Holman, Noah McKean, and Dr. G. L. Carhart, men
whose memory will ever be cherished in Mount Vernon. Others were men of
note in the early history of the state, such as Hon. Hiram Price, of
Davenport, Jesse Farley, of Dubuque, and A. P. Hosford and W. H. Lunt,
of Clinton. Especially to be noted is the long service which the
trustees have given to the school. Of the members of the executive
committee Col. Robert Smyth, sturdy Scotch Presbyterian, was a member
for twenty-eight years until his death in 1896. On the same committee
Hon. W. F. Johnston, of Toledo, long president of the board, has
already served for thirty-three years. Col. H. H. Rood, another of the
members of the executive committee, has served continuously as trustee
since 1867, and Capt. E. B. Soper, of Emmetsburg, since 1878. Captain
Soper has long been one of the most influential members of the
governing board, and it is to his initiative and faith that the alumni
gymnasium is due. Dr. J. B. Allbrook has served since 1874. H. A.
Collin was treasurer of the college from 1860 to his death in 1892.
Hon. D. N. Cooley, of Dubuque, served as trustee for twenty-four years,
and Hon. W. J. Young, of Clinton, for twenty-six years, their terms of
office being terminated only by death. Of the present board of trustees
there may be named as among those longest in service, F. H. Armstrong,
of Chicago; Hon. W. C. Stuckslager, of Lisbon; E. J. Esgate, of Marion;
Maj. E. B. Hayward, of Davenport; Hon. Eugene Secor, of Forest City;
Dr. Edward T. Devine, of New York; T. J. B. Robinson, of Hampton; John
H. Blair, of Des Moines; Rev. W. W. Carlton, of Mason City; Rev. E. J.
Lockwood and John H. Taft, of Cedar Rapids; Hon. Leslie M. Shaw, of
Philadelphia; R. J. Alexander, of Waukon; E. B. Willix, of Mount
Vernon; Senator Edgar T. Brackett, of Saratoga, N. Y.; O. P. Miller, of
Rock Rapids; Rev. Homer C. Stuntz, of Madison, N. J. and N. G. Van
Sant, of Sterling, Ill.

Among the eminent men who have served the college we must give special
mention to Rev. Alpha J. Kynett, one of the pioneers of Methodism west
of the Mississippi, who served on the board from 1865 to his death in
1899. Dr. Kynett was the founder of the great Church Extension society
and for many years was its chief executive. In this capacity he
probably built more churches than any man who has ever lived. For a
third of a century he was a close friend and adviser of the college,
and all his wide experience and his ability as an organizer and
financier were always at its service.


THE ADMINISTRATION

In 1863 occurred the sad death of President Fellows, under whose
superintendence the school had been organized. He was succeeded in
office by William Fletcher King, a graduate of the Ohio Wesleyan
University and a member of its faculty, who thus brought to Cornell an
acquaintance with the scope and methods of one of the best colleges of
the middle west. At the time of his election to the presidency Dr. King
was professor of Latin and Greek at Cornell, and thus for the second
time a president was chosen from the ranks of those actively engaged in
the work of higher education rather than, as was then almost
universally the custom, from those of another profession. In 1908 Dr.
King resigned his office after a term of service of forty-five years.
For a number of years he had thus been the oldest college president in
the United States in the duration of his office. His administration was
essentially a business administration, with little talk but much of
doing. There was in it nothing spectacular, and no pretense, or sham.
No discourteous act ever strained friendly relations with other
schools. Dr. King made no enemies and no mistakes. He was ever tactful,
poised, discreet, far-seeing, winning men to the support of his wise
and well-laid plans but never forcing their acceptance. The college
itself is a monument to this successful business administration. For
Cornell does not owe its success to any munificent gifts. Like John
Harvard, W. W. Cornell and his brother left the college which
perpetuates their memories little more than a good name and a few good
books. No donation of more than $25,000 was received until more than
forty years of the history of the college had elapsed. Whatever
excellence the college has attained is due to the skill and patience of
its builders and not to any unlimited or even large funds at their
disposal.

On the resignation of Dr. King, the presidency passed to his logical
successor, Dr. James Elliott Harlan, who had served as vice president
of the college since 1881. He had long had the management and
investment of the large funds of the college and the administration of
the school in its immediate relations with the students. Just,
sympathetic, patient, he had won the esteem of all connected with the
college, and to him was largely due the exceptional tranquillity which
the college had enjoyed in all its intimate relations. Dr. Harlan was
graduated from Cornell College in 1869. For three years he was
superintendent of the schools of Cedar Rapids, and for one year he held
a similar place at Sterling, Ill. From here he was called to the alumni
professorship of mathematics in Cornell College. The larger part of his
life has thus been bound up inextricably with the school. He knows and
is known and loved by all the alumni and old students. The first year
of his administration was signalized by the erection of the new alumni
gymnasium, and the second by the conditional gift by the general
educational board of $100,000.00 to its endowment funds.

[Illustration: REV. SAMUEL M. FELLOWS, A. M. First President Cornell
College]

The dean of the college since 1902 has been Professor H. H. Freer, a
graduate of the school of the class of 1869, and a member of the
faculty since 1870. Dean Freer was one of the first men in Iowa to see
the need of schools of education in connection with colleges and
universities and was placed at the head of such a school--the normal
department of Cornell--early in the '70s. As has recently been said
of him by Pres. H. H. Seerley, of Iowa Teachers College, "his
connection with teacher education is probably unexcelled in Iowa
educational history and no tribute that can be paid could do justice to
his faithful endeavors." Dean Freer has been most intimately connected
with the administration for many years. In 1873 he organized the
alumni, with the help of Rev. Dr. J. B. Albrook, for the endowment of a
professorship. At that time there were but 108 living graduates,
forty-seven of whom were women. Of the men, only thirty-eight had been
out of college more than three years. Yet this audacious enterprise was
carried through to complete success and was followed by the endowment
of a second alumni chair. In all of the great financial campaigns Dean
Freer has been indispensible, and the moneys he has secured to the
college amount to hundreds of thousands of dollars. More than this, by
his wide acquaintance throughout the state and by his cordial
friendship with all old students, he has been one of the chief
representatives of the college around whom its friends have ever
rallied. Since 1887 he has been professor of political economy in the
college, and now occupies the David Joyce chair of economics and
sociology.


THE FACULTY

Of the nearly 300 teachers who have been enrolled in the faculties of
the college there is space for the mention of but few names: Dr. Alonzo
Collin, who began by teaching all the sciences and mathematics in the
young school in 1860, and resigned in 1906 as professor of physics; Dr.
Hugh Boyd, professor of Latin from 1871 to 1906; Prof. S. N. Williams,
head of the school of civil engineering since 1873; Prof. George O.
Curme, professor of German from 1884 to 1897, now a member of the
faculty of Northwestern University; Dr. W. S. Ebersole, professor of
Greek since 1892; Dr. James A. James, professor of history from 1893 to
1897, now teaching in Northwestern University; Prof. H. M. Kelley,
professor of biology since 1894; Dr. Thomas Nicholson, professor of the
English Bible from 1894 to 1904, now general educational secretary of
the M. E. church; Dr. F. A. Wood, professor of German from 1897 to
1903, now member of the faculty of University of Chicago; Prof. Mary
Burr Norton, alumni professor of mathematics, whose connection with the
faculty dates from 1877; Dr. H. C. Stanclift, professor of history
since 1899; Dr. Nicholas Knight, professor of chemistry since 1899; Dr.
George H. Betts, psychology, who entered the faculty in 1902; Prof. C.
D. Stevens, English literature, since 1903; Prof. C. R. Keyes, German,
since 1903; Miss Mary L. McLeod, dean of women, since 1900; Prof. John
E. Stout, education, since 1903.

The continuity, the long terms of service of the administrative
officers and the professors, can hardly be too strongly emphasized as a
potent factor in the growth of the college. If the history of the
school had seen a rapid succession of different presidents and frequent
changes of faculty, if there had been changes in plans and purposes,
factions and struggles, and the loss of friends which such struggles
entail, if the power of the machinery had been wasted in internal
friction we may be sure that the story of the college would have been
far other than it is.


THE ALUMNI

The graduates of Cornell now number 1,446. This small army of educated
men and women have scattered widely over all the states of the union
and to many foreign countries. They have entered many vocations. The
profession receiving the largest number is teaching. Of the 1,139
graduates including the class of 1905, reported in the catalog of 1908,
ninety-seven have been engaged in teaching in colleges and
universities, and 165 in secondary and normal schools. One hundred and
forty-nine have entered the law, and 139 have entered the ministry.
Business and banking were the employments of 113. Medicine has been the
choice of forty-nine, and engineering and architecture of fifty-two.
The foreign missionary field has claimed thirty-four, and social
service in charity organization societies, deaconess work, social
settlements, and the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. have engaged
twenty-six. Thirty-two have engaged in farming, and twenty-six in
newspaper work. The women graduates of the school very largely have
been induced to enter the profession of matrimony. Up to 1876, for
example, ninety per cent of the alumnae had married. Of later years the
larger opportunities for professional service, opening for women, and
no doubt other general causes, have decreased the percentage, but of
all women graduates up to the year 1900, seventy per cent have married.
Of these forty-two per cent have married graduates of the college. The
common error that college education lessens the opportunities of woman
for her natural vocation is disproved, at least so far as Cornell
college is concerned. The marriages of the graduates of Cornell have
been singularly fortunate. Among the more than 1,400 alumni, there has
been so far as known but two divorces. Considering the high percentages
of divorce in the states of the Union, rising as high in some states as
one divorce to every six marriages, the divorceless history of the
Cornell alumni witnesses the sociologic value of the Christian
co-educational college.

In numbers the graduating classes have steadily increased. The first
class, that of 1858, consisted of two members, Mr. and Mrs. Matthew
Cavanaugh, of Iowa City. Classes remained small, never exceeding five,
until the close of the Civil war when the young men who had entered the
service of their country, and who survived the war, returned to school.
In 1867 eleven were graduated, and in 1869 the class numbered
twenty-two. The last decade the graduating class from the college of
liberal arts has averaged sixty.


CORNELL AND THE WAR FOR THE UNION

President Charles W. Elliot, in one of his educational addresses, after
enumerating what the community must do for the college, asks, "And what
will the college do for the community? It will make rich returns of
learning, of poetry, and of piety, and of that fine sense of civic duty
without which republics are impossible." That Cornell has made all
these returns in ample measure is shown by the roster of the alumni
with its many eminent names in the service of state and church. More
than fifteen thousand young men and women have left the college halls
carrying with them for the enrichment of the community stores of
learning, poetic ideals of life, and vital piety. The fine sense of
civic duty which the college breeds finds special illustration in the
crisis of the Civil war, and here we may quote the eloquent words of
Colonel Harry H. Rood in an address delivered at the Semi-Centennial of
the college in 1904:

     "The first seven and a half years in the history of this
     college was a period of struggle and embarrassment. The
     spring of 1861 seemed to be the beginning of brighter days.
     A railway had brought it in touch with the outer world, and
     the effects of the great financial panic of 1857 were
     passing, enabling the sons and daughters of the pioneers to
     enter its halls to secure the education they so greatly
     desired. The sky of hope was quickly overcast, and the storm
     cloud of the Civil war, which had been gathering for half a
     century, burst over the land. The students of Cornell were
     not surprised or alarmed. The winter preceding they had
     organized a mock congress with every state represented, in
     which all the issues of the coming conflict were fully
     discussed and understood.... The first regiment the young
     state sent out to preserve the Union had in its ranks a
     company from this county--_one-third of the names upon its
     muster rolls were students from this school. The first full
     company to go from this township into the three years
     service had one-third of its membership from this college,
     and the second full company from the township, in 1862, also
     had an equal number of Cornell's patriotic sons._ In the
     great crisis of 1864, when President Lincoln asked for men
     to relieve the veteran regiments and permit them to go to
     the front, _almost a full company were college men_. In the
     class of 1861 only two men were graduated and both entered
     the service.... The record shows that from 1853 to 1871
     fifty-four men were graduated from the college, and of these
     thirty had worn the blue."

During the war the college had much the aspect of a female seminary to
which a few young boys and cripples had been admitted by courtesy. In
1863 but twelve male students were registered in college classes, and
at the commencement of this year all upon the program were women except
a delicate youth unfit for war and a boy of sixteen years. This
commencement was unique in the history of the college. On commencement
day the audience of peaceful folk seated in the grove quietly listening
to the student orations was suddenly transformed to an infuriated mob,
when one girl visitor attempted to snatch from another a copperhead pin
she was wearing. So strong was the excitement, that the college
buildings were guarded by night for some time afterward for fear that
they might be burned in revenge by sympathisers with the south.[L]

Near the close of the war it was seen that many of the soldier students
of the college would be unable to complete their education because of
the sacrifices they had made in the service of their country. A fund of
fourteen thousand dollars was therefore contributed by patriot friends
at home and in part by Iowa regiments in the field for the education of
disabled soldiers and soldiers' orphans. No gift to the school has ever
been more useful than this foundation, which aided in the support of
hundreds of the most worthy students of the college.

Two of the students of Cornell were enrolled in the armies of the
Confederacy. Of these one became a lieutenant in a Texas regiment. At
one time learning that one of his prisoners was a Cornell boy and a
member of his own literary society, the Texas lieutenant found Cornell
loyalty a stronger motive than official duty. He took his prisoner
several miles from camp, gave him a horse and started him for the Union
lines.


THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

From the beginning Cornell college has been coëducational. In the
earliest years of her history some concessions were made in the courses
of study to the supposed weakness of woman's intellect, and "ornamental
branches," such as "Grecian painting," which seems to have been a sort
of transfer work, "ornamental hair work and wax flowers" were grafted
on the curriculum for her special benefit--branches which soon were
pruned away.

Woman's presence seems to have been regarded in these early years as a
menace to the social order, safely permitted only under the most
rigorous restrictions. So late as 1869 Rule Number Twelve appeared in
the catalog--"_The escorting of young ladies by young gentlemen is not
allowed_." This was a weak and degenerate offspring of the stern edict
of President Keeler's administration:

"_Young ladies and gentlemen will not associate together in walking or
riding nor stand conversing together in the halls or public rooms of
the buildings, but when necessary they can see the persons they desire
by permission._"

For many years these blue laws have been abrogated, and the only
restrictions found needful are those ordinarily imposed by good
society. The association and competition of young men and women in all
college activities--an association necessarily devoid of all romance
and glamour--has been found sane and helpful to both sexes, and no
policy of segregation in any form has ever been as much as suggested.

The social life of the college has always been under the leadership of
the literary societies. They are now eight in number: The Amphictyon,
Adelphian, Miltonian and Star for men and the Philomathean, Aesthesian,
Alethean and Aonian for women. The students of the Academy also sustain
four flourishing societies, the Irving and Gladstone, Clionian and
King.

These societies meet in large and rather luxuriously furnished halls in
which they entertain their friends each week with literary and musical
programs, followed by short socials. Business meetings offer thorough
drill in parliamentary practice and often give place to impromptu
debates which give facility in extemporaneous speaking. The societies
also give banquets and less formal receptions from time to time and in
general have charge of the social life of the school. Members are
chosen by election and the rushing of the incoming freshman class is a
fast and furious campaign, occupying a week or so of the first
half-year. However it may affect studies, it certainly develops
friendships and promotes the rapid assimilation of the large number of
new students in the body social of the school.

The societies have always been in effect fraternities and sororities so
far as social advantages are concerned, and they have performed the
function of the best fraternities in the intellectual and moral
supervision which they have given their members. But the literary
societies have been more than fraternities, and under their supervision
the social life of the college has been lived on a distinctly higher
plane than had its organization been purely social and for recreation
only. They have also been markedly distinguished from fraternities in
their democratic character. Instead of excluding fifty or even seventy
or eighty per cent of the students from their privileges, they have
given their inestimable social advantages to practically all who cared
to join them. They have thus prevented the growth of a leisured class
of students whose sole interest in college is found in its recreations
and who have been allowed the control of the college social life.
Indeed, so valuable in the history of the college has this social
organization proved that students have suggested that it be extended to
other colleges by means of affiliated chapters.


ENDOWMENTS

During the earlier years of its history the college received few
notable gifts. It was largely sustained by innumerable small
contributions to its current expenses and endowment funds made by
devoted friends whose generosity and self sacrifice deserve the praise
bestowed upon the widow who cast her mite into the treasury of the
temple. The larger gifts which have been made in endowing chairs, with
the amounts and dates of the foundation and names of the donors, are as
follows:

     1859 Hamline Professorship of Greek Language and Literature,
     $25,000, by Bishop L. L. Hamline.

     1873 D. N. Cooley Professorship of Civil and Sanitary
     Engineering, $10,000, by Hon. D. N. Cooley, Dubuque, and
     Oliver Hoyt.

     1873 Alumni Professorship of Mathematics, $50,000, by The
     Alumni.

     1885 W. F. Johnston Professorship of Physics, $50,000, by
     Hon. W. F. Johnston, Toledo.

     1902 Edgar Truman Brackett, Jr., Professorship of History
     and Politics, $30,000, by Hon. Edgar T. Brackett, Saratoga,
     N. Y.

     1904 David Joyce Professorship of Political Economy and
     Sociology, $50,000, by David Joyce, Clinton.

[Illustration: COMMERCIAL HOTEL, CENTER POINT]

[Illustration: BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER AT CENTER POINT]

     1904 Lucy Hayes King Foundation, now in support of the
     presidency, by ex-president Wm. F. King, $50,000.

     1910 Alumni Professorship of Geology, $50,000, by The
     Alumni.

Among the other notable gifts to the college must be mentioned that by
the Hon. Andrew Carnegie, of $50,000 for the erection of the Carnegie
library, dedicated in 1905.

The largest donations to the college have been those of its president
emeritus, William Fletcher King. Most valuable of all have been the
long years of service, but besides these he has given from time to time
many financial gifts to meet current needs and near the end of his term
of office, he crowned his benefactions not only with the endowment of
the professorship just mentioned, but with the munificent gift of
$100,000 to found 100 scholarships in memory of Margaret Fletcher King.
At the unveiling of the bronze tablet in her memory, in 1904, Hon. L.
M. Shaw spoke these fitting words: "It is my privilege to witness the
unveiling of a tablet erected in memory of a saintly woman who came in
bridal clothes and left in cerements, and who spent the entire
thirty-eight years of her married life wedded as completely to Cornell
college as to William F. King, and who served both with equal
faithfulness and with unfaltering devotion. Words are inadequate to
measure the influence of a Christian woman's life spent amid
surroundings such as have existed here for a generation. Neither does
bronze suffice to prophesy the lift toward righteousness and higher
citizenship of what is here done by the bereaved husband in the name of
Margaret McKell King.... The tablet so thoughtfully erected to her
memory and the endowment of scholarships so generously made by Dr. King
guarantee the perpetuation of the sweet influence of a noble life and
extend the benison of Christian education to one hundred students per
annum, on and on, far beyond the ken of those who knew her and knowing
loved her."

In 1910 the general education board made a conditional gift to the
college of $100,000 for endowment, and of the $300,000 to be secured to
meet the conditions nearly half has already been promised in sums among
the largest ever given to the school.


THE CURRICULUM

In the fifties Cornell college was a very simple organization. In the
first year of the college as distinct from the seminary, six teachers
taught the entire round of the college course, which then included but
forty subjects, each pursued for but three months. Besides Latin, Greek
and mathematics, there were offered six terms in science and seven in
the following subjects: Natural Theology, Evidences of Christianity,
Moral Science, Butler's Analogy, Mental Philosophy, Rhetoric, and
Elements of Criticism. This simple curriculum was stated by the catalog
to embrace "the course of study in Mathematics, Languages, Sciences,
and Belle Lettres which is prescribed in the best colleges and
universities. It is thorough, extensive and systematic." All the same,
both Cornell and "the best colleges and universities" have found that
college courses could be made more "thorough and extensive" if not
"more systematic." Latin, for example, at Cornell now offers eleven
half-year courses instead of nine third-year courses as in 1857-1858.
Sciences, which then offered six terms, now offer thirty-seven
half-years and form five strong departments with their own professors
and assistants. In 1875 the department of English Literature was
organized, and the same year special teachers were employed for the
first time in public speaking, although the School of Oratory was not
organized until 1891. History and Politics became a distinct department
in 1886. Courses in the English Bible were offered in 1894, and in
Sociology in 1900. In all, the last catalog lists more than two hundred
half-year collegiate courses of study.

The college has been among the foremost in the west in adapting and
enlarging its courses to meet changing ideals. As early as 1873 the
department of Civil and Sanitary Engineering was organized, in which
hundreds of young men have received a valuable equipment for the work
of life. One of the earliest recognitions of education as a collegiate
subject was when courses in this science were offered at Cornell in
1872--the beginning of the present strong school of education. In 1900
and 1901 special directors of Physical Training for both men and women
were first employed.


SPIRIT AND INFLUENCE

During all these changing years since 1853 the spirit of Cornell has
remained essentially the same. It has made for scholarship--a
scholarship honest, tireless, and fearless in the search for truth; it
has cherished culture; it has fitted for service and has sent forth its
students to perform, in the words of Milton, "justly, skilfully, and
magnanimously all the duties both public and private of peace and war."
It has ever been a religious spirit, too, this spirit of Cornell, and
kindling in thousands of young hearts has inspired them to purer,
stronger, and more helpful living.

The influence of Cornell may be summarized by a quotation from an
editorial in the Cedar Rapids _Republican_ in 1904, reviewing the
history of the college:

     "Fifty years of college work and college building; what does
     it mean? What is it these men, about whom we have been
     writing, have done? The half can not be told. No research,
     however painstaking, could discover it all, for only a
     portion of such work is ever seen of men. For fifty years a
     constant stream of beneficent influences has been flowing
     out from this institution. The pure water which gushes from
     a spring on the hillsides, who can trace? A certain portion
     will refresh those who dwell near its source. The remainder
     flows away to form a brooklet that 'joins brimming river'
     which carries ships, waters cities, and finally augments an
     ocean current that washes illimitable shores. But for these
     springs the everlasting ocean would dry up. The stream of
     beneficent influences which has been flowing from this
     institution on the hillside down yonder, has been carried
     around the world--into countless fields of human activity
     and high endeavor--into homes where mothers teach their
     children to avoid those things that are of the earth
     earthy--into business establishments where the golden rule
     is not always turned toward the wall--into legislative halls
     where statesmen and patriots are needed--into the judiciary
     of state and nation--into the cabinet of the president of
     the United States--into all callings and all
     professions--into all countries and all climes. May it flow
     on forever and forever!"



CHAPTER XXIV

_History of Coe College_

BY REV. E. R. BURKHALTER, D. D.


There is an interest, and a charm peculiarly its own in tracing a
stream that has grown to be a river back to its head waters in some
lake or mountain spring. And when instead of a river we trace backward
a college to its source and fountain head, this interest and charm come
to possess a sacred value and are full of hallowed associations. And
the charm and interest become complete when this matter is pursued by
one who is not only a historian but also a participant in the
transactions which cover years of time and call up many holy and tender
memories of scenes and places, and yet more, of persons who were
fellow-workers in the good cause and the most of whom have passed from
earth.

The fountain head of Coe College, whose history it is now proposed to
record, is to be sought and found in the mind and heart of the Rev.
Williston Jones, the pioneer pastor of Cedar Rapids, who for the years
between 1849 and 1856 was the minister of the First Presbyterian church
of this city. Mr. Jones was a most zealous servant of his Divine
Master, and labored zealously for His cause, not only in the local
field, which was then so newly opened for settlement, but in the whole
outlying region. His heart felt the needs of this entire middle west,
which, as a fertile wilderness, was offering such inducements for the
pioneer settler, and he longed to do his part to the utmost in
assisting to provide this region with a gospel ministry. To this end,
he opened a School of the Prophets in his own home.

We now avail ourselves at this early point of our history of the
valuable contributions furnished by the words of the Rev. George R.
Carroll, in his most interesting little volume entitled _Pioneer Life
in and Around Cedar Rapids, 1839-1849_.

     "Mr. Jones had persuaded one young man, the writer of this
     sketch, to devote his life to the gospel ministry. But there
     was no school here in which he could begin his studies. At
     last the zealous pastor decided to undertake himself the
     task of preparing that young man for college. Meantime,
     other young men heard of the arrangement, and persuaded Mr.
     Jones to admit them also to the same privileges. The result
     was the formation of a class of sixteen or eighteen young
     men who occupied the unfurnished parlor in the pastor's
     house, which was temporarily fitted up for the purpose. One
     of the number was chosen to act as monitor each week, and
     Mr. and Mrs. Jones came in at different hours of the day to
     hear the recitations in the various branches of study
     pursued. The branches studied were reading, writing,
     geography, arithmetic, Latin and Greek. This school
     continued its regular sessions for about six months, and was
     successfully wound up with a public exhibition under the
     shade trees in front of the pastor's residence on the hill
     near the Milwaukee depot. The following young men were among
     the students of that first school: George Weare, John Stony,
     Cyrus E. Ferguson, Murry S. D. Davis, Amos Ferguson, Isaac
     W. Carroll, Mortimer A. Higley, William E. Earl, William J.
     Wood, Edwin Kennedy, George R. Carroll, James L. Bever, and
     George W. Bever."

We also avail ourselves of an extract from the _Fortieth Anniversary
First Presbyterian Church, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1887_, on which occasion
Mr. Carroll in his biographical sketch of the Rev. Williston Jones, our
first pastor, used the following language:

     "Mr. Jones was deeply interested in the subject of raising
     up a native ministry. That is to say, he believed that it
     was important that we should seek out young men from among
     the people of the west to labor in the west. It was,
     therefore, his constant aim wherever he met a Christian
     young man of any promise, to lay before him the claims of
     the gospel ministry, and urge him prayerfully to consider
     the question as to whether or not God had called him to the
     sacred office. This fact, of course, led him to take a great
     interest in the subject of education. There were no schools
     at that time where a young man could even begin a course of
     study for the ministry. He felt the embarrassment of the
     situation. He had at last found one young man who had
     decided to study for the ministry, but there was no school
     in Cedar Rapids where he could make a beginning of the study
     of Latin or Greek or any of the higher branches of study. At
     last he decided to undertake himself the task of preparing
     that young man for college. In a short time, a dozen or
     fifteen more, hearing of this arrangement, begged the
     privilege of joining that lone student in studying under Mr.
     Jones, and before he was aware of it, he found himself at
     the head of a school for young men. This was in the autumn
     of 1851. He had erected for himself, meantime, a house of
     the same material of the old church, cement. It still stands
     on the hill north of the Milwaukee depot. The parlor of that
     house was at that time unfinished. It was lathed but not
     plastered. Mr. Jones said to the young men, if they would
     get one coat of plastering put onto that room, and put in
     some temporary seats made of slabs, they could have the use
     of it for a school room. The offer was promptly accepted,
     and, in due time, the school began in good earnest. One of
     the number would act as monitor in the school-room for a
     week, and then another, until the honor had been enjoyed by
     all. Mr. and Mrs. Jones were the first professors of the
     institution, coming in at regular hours to hear recitations.
     The branches of study pursued in the new academy were
     reading, writing, geography, arithmetic, algebra, grammar,
     Latin and Greek. Due attention was also given to
     composition, declamation, and vocal music. For six months
     that school continued in perfect harmony and marked success.
     The term closed sometime in June, I think 1852, with public
     exercises appropriate to the occasion. The place of meeting
     was in a grove immediately in front of the school-room. The
     order of exercises, as nearly as I can remember, consisted
     in singing and prayer of course, recitations, reading of
     essays, and declamations. Everything passed off pleasantly
     and satisfactorily, and I believe the school was pronounced
     a success. This effort convinced Mr. Jones more than ever of
     the need of a permanent school of a higher order. He
     therefore wrote on to Knox college, I think to Professor
     Blanchard, to see if one of the graduates could not come and
     take charge of the school. The result was that Mr. David
     Blakely, then a recent graduate of Knox college, came in the
     fall of 1852 and opened the school in the church. The school
     then assumed the name of the Cedar Rapids Collegiate
     Institute. Mr. Blakely held the position of principal of
     that school for two years, and then resigned his position to
     enter the active work of the gospel ministry, in which he is
     still engaged. During all this time the school was kept up
     with unabated interest, many students coming in from the
     country round about, and several from remote parts of the
     state. At least three of the members of that school entered
     the ministry, and are still engaged in the active duties of
     the sacred calling: one. Rev. Hiram Hill, in California;
     another, Rev. William Campbell, in Kansas; and the third in
     this state. It was during the spring of 1853, I think, that
     Mr. Jones was sent as a commissioner to the General Assembly
     (N. S.) which met in Buffalo, N. Y. During his absence the
     school at home occupied his thoughts and called out all the
     energies of his ardent nature. He determined if possible to
     secure aid in the east by which to place the school upon a
     permanent basis, having for its chief end the education of
     indigent young men for the gospel ministry. He was not
     disappointed in his purpose. Guided no doubt by an all-wise
     Providence, he met Mr. Daniel Coe, who listened to his
     earnest appeal, and gave him the money with which the eighty
     acres of ground, where the college now stands, and these two
     lots now occupied by this church and chapel, and a lot now
     occupied by the M. E. church, were secured, Dr. J. F. Ely
     making the purchase. You will see then, that out of the
     little school, started in the first pastor's house, has
     grown Coe college, and Rev. Williston Jones was its
     founder."

[Illustration: W. F. KING, LL. D. Long President Cornell College]

It can thus be easily seen that the yearning of Mr. Jones to see a
school provided in Cedar Rapids was a fire in his bones. And so, when
in the providence of God, he was in attendance at a meeting of the
General Assembly of the Presbyterian church (New School) which was held
in May, 1853, in the city of Buffalo, N. Y., he sought to interest
everyone whom he met in the cause of Christian education in the west.
At that same session of the General Assembly was a minister of the
Presbyterian church from the Catskill mountain region of New York
state. He said to Mr. Jones, in substance. "I cannot help you myself,
but I believe I know a man in my section of the country who can and
will, and if you come home with me to Durham, Greene county, New York,
I will introduce you to him." The man alluded to was Mr. Daniel Coe, an
elder of the church, already deeply interested in the cause of
Christian education and preparing to help according to his ability when
the suitable opportunity was afforded.

Mr. Jones went to Durham and met Mr. Coe, and presenting to him the
matter nearest to his heart, the founding of a school of christian
learning in the new world beyond the Mississippi. Mr. Coe gladly
consented to assist in the enterprise. The sum promised, $1,500, would
be considered in these days a very meagre one, but in 1853, and in
Iowa, it must have seemed like $15,000 or more would seem now to us,
and Mr. Jones must have welcomed the proffered aid with delight.

When he returned to his home in Cedar Rapids and to his brethren of the
Presbytery of Iowa City, of which he was a member, he made such
encouraging statements concerning the treatment he had received at the
General Assembly, and especially concerning the offer of Mr. Coe, that
there was formed in Cedar Rapids a corporation by the name of the Cedar
Rapids Collegiate Institute, which prepared articles and filed them for
record August 9, 1853. All persons owning one share of stock each in
the Institute became thereby members of the corporation, each share of
stock being of the value of $25.00. Article twelve of the fourteen
articles of corporation reads as follows:

"The Iowa City Presbytery in consideration of five scholarships for the
first five years, and of ten scholarships thereafter, shall have the
right to nominate all teachers of the Institute, subject, however, to
confirmation by the Board of Directors, but this right shall be
forfeited if said consideration should at any time fail."

There is no reason to suppose from the records that this consideration
was ever fulfilled.

Article thirteen gives the names of the directors: Williston Jones,
John F. Ely, W. W. Smith, Seymour D. Carpenter, Addison Daniels, Isaac
Cook, William Greene, John L. Shearer, and Aaron Van Dorn; and the
following persons as officers of the board: George Greene, president;
Samson C. Bever, treasurer; David Blakely, secretary.

It is very interesting to note that of these persons there is one who
survives to this day, Mr. W. W. Smith, who at a very advanced age still
lives at Minneapolis.

The first meeting of this board of directors was held July 18, 1853,
and it was at that meeting that Mr. Jones presented the instrument of
writing signed by Daniel Coe, of the county of Greene, in the state of
New York, making a conditional donation to the Institute of the sum of
$1,500, of which the following is a copy:

"CONDITIONAL DONATION TO CEDAR RAPIDS COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE

     "Know all men by these presents that I, Daniel Coe, of the
     town of Durham, County of Greene, and State of New York, in
     view of the educational wants of the great and growing West,
     and in expectation of its resulting in the establishment of
     a permanent institution of learning, do hereby engage to
     give in behalf of Iowa City Presbytery, connected with the
     constitutional General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church
     which met at Buffalo, May 19th, 1853, to Cedar Rapids
     Collegiate Institute the following sums for the object
     hereinafter specified, to-wit: Four Hundred and twenty-five
     Dollars ($425.00) for the purchase of as large and suitable
     tract of land as practicable as a site for the location of
     the institute. And Seventy-five Dollars ($75.00) for fencing
     of the same. Also One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) to be
     appropriated in the best manner for a farm contiguous to the
     site, the avails of which are to be appropriated to the best
     advantage for the benefit of such students as may need to
     assist themselves by manual labor. Of these two sums the
     first mentioned, consisting of Five Hundred Dollars
     ($500.00), can be secured to the Institute as a part of its
     property by the erection upon its site thus purchased of a
     building costing at least Two Thousand Dollars ($2000.00),
     and the last mentioned One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) can
     be thus secured by bringing the Institute into successful
     operation. _Provided_ that if these conditions fail, or if
     the Institute be removed or diverted from its original
     design, either or both of these donations shall be
     forfeited, and the land purchased shall revert back to the
     said Daniel Coe, his heirs, executors, or administrators.

     "Dr. John F. Ely, Hon. George Greene, Dr. S. D. Carpenter,
     Isaac Cook, Esq., James Ferguson, and Williston Jones are
     hereby authorized to act for me in the selection and
     purchasing for said Institute the above mentioned site and
     farm, and are to draw on me for the money; of which sum
     Seven Hundred Dollars ($700.00) can be drawn at any time,
     and the remaining Eight Hundred Dollars ($800.00) one year
     from the date of this engagement.

     "It is my strong desire that this Institute should be made
     available for the education of females as well as males."

It is evidently to be seen that it was the purpose of Mr. Coe to enable
the directors of the Cedar Rapids Collegiate Institute to maintain a
school of learning to be conducted in a building within easy access to
the town, and at the same time aid such students as needed assistance
through the products of the farm purchased on the edge of the town.
Steps were taken at once to procure two sites, one for the school
building, the other for the farm. And after considerable inquiry and
debate, two sites were chosen and purchased: the one for the school
building consisting of the two lots on which the First Presbyterian
church of this city now stands and has stood since 1869; the other for
the farm, consisting of a plot of eighty acres, of which the present
campus of Coe College of ten acres, is the southwestern extremity.

The town lots were purchased for $275.00. The eighty acres were bought
for $1000.00. These eighty acres were obtained from Mr. Otho S. Bowling
by Dr. John F. Ely, who bought them with Mr. Coe's money for the Cedar
Rapids Collegiate Institute. The date of the purchase is December 5,
1853. Mr. Bowling had obtained the land at the price of $820.00 from
the executors of the estate of Mr. Joshua Phillips, of Franklin county,
Pennsylvania. Mr. Phillips had died at his residence in Pennsylvania
at some time between the 15th of December, 1852, and the 4th of
January, 1853, and he had himself obtained the property in Cedar Rapids
by patent from the United States government May 1, 1848. So that the
plot of ground which figures in such a vital manner in the history of
Coe College had passed through but two hands before being transferred
to the Collegiate Institute from the government which had obtained it
from the Indians.

It has also appeared that it was the wish of Mr. Coe and the design of
the directors of the school that the building to cost $2000.00 should
be erected as soon as practicable upon the town lots. But the erection
of this building was delayed for various causes and especially in
consequence of the lack of funds. Meanwhile, a school of very
elementary character was maintained in the building used as their house
of worship by the First Presbyterian church, and Mr. David Blakely was
obtained as principal at a salary of $400.00 per annum, payable
quarterly.

As time went on it was found to be more difficult than seemed probable
in the beginning, to obtain subscriptions for the erection of the
building of a school of just the character that seemed within the
feeble means of the directors. And it became even more difficult, if
not impossible, to maintain the school in the building occupied by the
Presbyterian church. For it would appear that this community of Cedar
Rapids was in process of organizing a general public school system, and
no place seemed to exist for a parochial school of the elementary
character that was then being conducted by the Cedar Rapids Collegiate
Institute, at least in so small a community and one so feebly provided
with material funds.

Therefore, through the want of proper sustenance, everyone connected
with the Institute and notably the principal upon whom the chief burden
fell became wholly discouraged and the Presbytery of Iowa City, that
had a certain relationship to the school and interest in its success,
proposed to put the school on wheels and offer it to the highest
bidder, naming several localities among which were: Vinton, Waterloo,
Lyons, Cedar Falls, Newton, and Iowa City.[M]

It will surely be of interest to learn [See _Minutes Iowa City
Presbytery_, Mt. Vernon, February 4, 1857] that the citizens and
proprietors of Comanche offered a site and subscriptions to the amount
of $10,000, or $200.00 more than any other town, for the location of
the Collegiate Institute of the Presbytery. Vinton also made a strong
bid for the school and hoped to capture it, and might have done so had
it not been that the eighty acre plot of ground, which was the only
financial asset of the institution, was securely fastened down in Cedar
Rapids, and Mr. Coe hesitated as to the propositions for the removal of
the school.

But these internal and external discussions acted in a very unfavorable
manner upon the Institute, and led to the winding up of its affairs,
for there is no record of any meeting of its board of directors
subsequent to July 26, 1859.

Meanwhile, a new star of hope arose in the heavens, and for several
years at least it was a star of considerable brilliancy. It was made
known, namely, that the will of Mr. Lewis Baldwin Parsons, a benefactor
and philanthropist, and who died in Detroit, Michigan, December 21,
1855, after a successful life as a manufacturer in Buffalo, N. Y.,
contained a bequest setting aside a very considerable amount of money
to found a Presbyterian college in Iowa. It could not be a matter of
surprise, therefore, that the brethren in Cedar Rapids, who had
struggled so hard to found a college with Mr. Coe's donation, and who
had been so sorely disappointed, should now with enthusiasm welcome the
thought that the Parsons legacy might be located here and be added to
the Coe donation, and thus become the foundation of a strong college in
Iowa in connection with the Presbyterian church. Accordingly, steps
were taken to incorporate a new body of stockholders into an
organization to be known as Parsons Seminary. The date of the first
meeting with this end in view is November 10, 1866, and the following
persons were chosen to serve as officers until the annual meeting in
December: Rev. James Knox, president; Hon. George Greene,
vice-president; Dr. John F. Ely, secretary; and Mr. S. C. Bever,
treasurer.

At the annual meeting, December 3, 1866, the following officers were
chosen: George Greene, president; James Knox, vice-president; John F.
Ely, secretary; W. W. Walker, treasurer.

It was resolved immediately that Mr. Coe should be requested to deed to
the new organization the eighty acres of land already donated by him to
the Cedar Rapids Collegiate Institute, and at a meeting of the board of
trustees of Parsons Seminary, held January 4, 1867, Judge Greene,
president of the board, reported that he had visited Mr. Daniel Coe at
his home in Durham, N. Y., and had procured from him the deed to
Parsons Seminary of the land in question.

This most generous act of Mr. Coe reveals the large and unselfish
character of the man and declares the nobility of his motive to promote
the cause of high christian education in the west.

This act of Mr. Coe also gave great encouragement to the board of
trustees of the seminary to proceed in their work, and they proceeded
vigorously to raise what must in those days have been a considerable
sum of money, for the purpose of erecting a suitable building for
college purposes upon the edge of the eighty acre plot nearest to the
town. The two town lots which had originally been purchased for the
location of the school building were sold to the trustees of the First
Presbyterian church, to become the site of a house of worship, which
building was erected by them in 1869, and still stands a substantial
edifice of stone, facing the public square long known as Washington
Park, now George Greene Square.

The ways and means and plans for this new building occupied the
attention of the board for many meetings during the years 1867 and
1868, and the work was pushed with all vigor to enable the trustees to
open their seminary in the new building in the fall of 1868.

Meanwhile, the school work was inaugurated, pending the erection of the
building on the college grounds, in the Wadsworth block, a row of
unpretentious buildings resembling a barracks, on Second street and
Fifth avenue, in the school year 1867-8. The principal of this school
was the Rev. A. B. Goodale, a Presbyterian clergyman who survived in
southern California until a few years ago.

Mr. Charles J. Deacon, our highly esteemed and greatly respected fellow
citizen, who has spent a long and useful life among us, as an attorney,
and who has been for several years a most valuable trustee of Coe
College, was one of the first students of Parsons Seminary, and he has
furnished us the following reminiscences which we gladly incorporate in
this historical sketch:

     "I came to Cedar Rapids and enrolled as a student in Parsons
     Seminary early in September, 1868. The school had been in
     progress under that name for a year previous, but then for
     the first time entered into the new building, now the west
     half of the main building of Coe college. This school was
     then prosperous and the body of students very enthusiastic.
     Dr. A. B. Goodale was the principal and Prof. Augustus
     Maasburg was the professor of Latin, Greek, French, and
     German. Miss A. D. Kelsey, a graduate of Mt. Holyoke, and a
     most estimable lady, had charge of the primary department,
     and also taught many of the classes in mathematics, and had
     charge of the botany class. Miss Lindsay, a sister of Mrs.
     Goodale, taught painting and drawing. A few weeks after the
     school opened, Professor and Madame Masurier came, and
     Professor Masurier took charge of the music, and Mme.
     Masurier was given the care of the French class. I remember
     also that Miss Addie Goodell, now Mrs. Birdsall, of Lake
     City, Iowa, was a student in the seminary, and it became
     necessary to have an assistant in the primary department,
     and she was employed in that capacity.

[Illustration: MAIN STREET FROM THE NORTH, FAIRFAX]

[Illustration: MAIN STREET LOOKING WEST, CENTRAL CITY]

     "At the beginning of the year 1868-1869 the school numbered
     over one hundred students. They were, of course, largely
     from the city of Cedar Rapids, but they came also from the
     surrounding towns of Fairfax, Springville, Center Point,
     Central City, and some from the farms within a few miles of
     the city. They came also from Vinton and Marengo, and some
     from more distant portions of the state, and I remember two
     from the state of Illinois, and one from Nebraska.

     "The school year was divided into four terms of ten weeks
     each, the tuition being $7.50 per term. I remember there was
     some falling off in the attendance at the close of the
     second term in mid-winter. In the spring we were told that
     Dr. Goodale would have an assistant in the person of Mr. J.
     W. Stephens. When he came he was introduced to us by Dr.
     Goodale as his assistant, but it soon developed that he was
     the principal of the seminary, Doctor Goodale having about
     that time accepted the pastorate of the Presbyterian church
     at Marshalltown. The attendance at the spring term under the
     conduct of Dr. Stephens was much smaller than in the fall,
     but the school continued until the 20th of June, when it
     closed for the summer vacation. It issued a catalogue as it
     had the previous year and announced the opening for the
     following September.

     "I returned to the school in the fall when it opened for the
     third year, being the second year in the new building, and
     found many of the old students. The school, however, was
     much smaller than at the opening of the previous year. It
     also dwindled very much during the year, and when we closed
     in June, 1870, my recollection is that it numbered about
     forty students. Mr. Stephens announced that it would be
     continued, however, and the school opened again in the
     September following. I did not return to the school, but
     went to the State University of Iowa. Mr. Stephens continued
     the school until the following spring, and then closed it.
     [We understand that Mr. Stephens is still living in
     connection with Park College, Mo.]

     "One thing that is quite clearly impressed upon my memory is
     the meeting of the Synod of Iowa, North, in this city in the
     late winter or early spring of 1869. The application of the
     Parsons legacy and the endowment of the college was then a
     very prominent question in Presbyterian circles. Cedar
     Rapids was a most prominent applicant for the location of
     the college to be thus endowed, and the seminary had been
     named Parsons Seminary with a view to attracting that legacy
     here. A large representation of the synod visited the
     college at the time I speak of and addressed the students.
     Amongst others, I remember Doctor Spees, then of Dubuque;
     the Rev. Samuel Howe, and Mr. Alexander Danskin, of Marengo.
     They said to us that we were now a college, that whereas
     yesterday we were a seminary, today we were a college. There
     was much enthusiasm manifested among us by this statement,
     and we all felt satisfied that the matter had been
     practically settled. Subsequent facts proved that their
     statement was a little premature.

     "Another thing that comes to my recollection is the visit of
     the committee to locate the Parsons legacy in the spring of
     1870. This committee was headed by Doctor Craig, then pastor
     of the church at Keokuk, now of McCormick Seminary, Chicago.
     The committee made a very thorough examination of the
     buildings and of the grounds and of the location generally.
     I distinctly recall their walking over the grounds. The
     trustees of the seminary, being informed in advance of the
     coming of this committee, were preparing to create a good
     impression. A few days before their expected arrival, the
     ground, which had been leveled off in front of the college,
     and which consisted of coarse sand, was ornamented by some
     fifty or sixty evergreen trees, and a large amount of black
     dirt was hauled in upon the sand with the expectation of
     spreading it over the sand to present a surface of good soil
     with a large number of evergreen trees set out in an
     ornamental order. Unfortunately, however, the committee
     arrived earlier than was anticipated and the black dirt had
     not been spread over the sand. To render the situation still
     worse, a high wind was blowing the day the committee were
     here and the sand was drifting over the dirt piles and
     filling up against the lower board of the fence. What the
     effect of this was upon the committee I have no means of
     judging. It is, however, interesting to notice that the
     Parsons legacy never came to Cedar Rapids.

     "I could mention many names of Cedar Rapids citizens who as
     boys attended school at Parsons Seminary during those early
     years. Mr. C. C. Greene, Mr. John S. Ely, Mr. George B.
     Douglas, were all there with me. Mr. George W. Winn, also a
     trustee, used to go there for private lessons in German from
     Professor Maasburg. Mr. C. L. Miller, of the _Gazette_,
     Emery and Harry Brown, and Elmer Higley are names that also
     occur to me readily. I could mention, likewise, many ladies
     who studied there in those early years. The Rev. Alexander
     Danskin, editor of one of our church papers at Detroit,
     Michigan, was a student there at that time, afterwards
     graduating from Wabash College; also the Rev. R. M. L.
     Braden, who likewise went to Wabash College.

     "These are a few of the things that come to my mind as I
     review my two years in Parsons Seminary."

It can easily be read between the lines of Mr. Deacon's reminiscences
that Parsons Seminary, however enthusiastic its support was at the
beginning, did not continue by any means to be an entire success. We
must look for the explanation of this very largely to its lack of
financial resources. It was living largely on hopes, and hopes that
were not destined to be realized. Mr. Coe's donation, lying in the
eighty acres of land, was utterly unproductive of a revenue, and the
Parsons legacy, which consisted of four thousand acres of wild lands in
various counties in Iowa, had not yet been located in Cedar Rapids, but
was hovering in the air as a glittering object which several localities
in the state were reaching out to obtain.

It would be an interesting and instructive pursuit to trace the history
of this legacy both within the Presbyterian synod of Iowa and within
the various cities of the state which made bids for its attainment. The
story, as far as Cedar Rapids is concerned, is one of bright hopes,
earnest aspiration, valiant endeavor and achievement, to be followed by
severe disappointment and bitter regret. The citizens of this city went
heroically to work to raise the sum of $75,000 to be subscribed and
added to the Parsons legacy [then estimated to be of the value of
$50,000], and this again to be added to the Coe donation of eighty
acres of land, which were continually increasing in value through the
growth of the city of Cedar Rapids. These three sums, when added
together, would furnish, it was intelligently felt, a very substantial
endowment as the beginning of a college. We have often been told that
when this campaign for the raising of the $75,000 had been successfully
completed, there was such a general jubilee in our city that
instinctively in demonstration thereof the whistles of the locomotives
and manufacturing establishments were merrily blown. But all these
plans went agley. Although committees from the synods of Iowa had
presented unanimous reports recommending that the Parsons legacy be
located at Cedar Rapids, it was eventually taken to Fairfield to found
Parsons College. The fund of $75,000 which was raised in Cedar Rapids
fell to the ground because of the failure to meet its vital condition
of the bringing of the Parsons legacy here, and so, once more, all that
was left for us was Mr. Coe's donation of the eighty acre plot and the
indomitable spirit of a few of the citizens of Cedar Rapids to plant in
our city an institution of higher learning in connection with the
Presbyterian church.

It is idle at this late date to discuss the wisdom or the folly of
those men in the synod who were responsible for this result. It were
wholly unproductive to speculate what might have been accomplished by
the union of all our educational forces here in Cedar Rapids. What is
written is written, what is done is an accomplished fact. Presbyterians
are not in the habit of quarreling with Divine Providence, but are the
rather given to rejoicing in the sovereignty of God. It is quite
conceivable that results already visible can give occasion for
gratitude that we have now the two colleges, Coe and Parsons, instead
of but one, as was once so ardently hoped for here at Cedar Rapids. If
anyone in the years between 1870 and 1873 made an error in judgment in
objecting to the merger, the only way to rectify it now is by pressing
all the more for the promoting of the endowment and the buildings of
both the colleges, the one at Fairfield, and the one at Cedar Rapids.

But the facts are that through the force of circumstances, the school
at Cedar Rapids was obliged to suspend its work, and little or nothing
was done in the building erected in 1868 from 1871 to 1875. Then for
the third time, and under new auspices, was the work begun afresh, and
it took place on this wise: On the 26th of April, 1875, the trustees of
Parsons Seminary held a meeting, at which meeting a committee of the
Presbytery of Cedar Rapids was present for the purpose of consulting
with the board to the end that the seminary building and the Coe legacy
located at Cedar Rapids might be made available for the establishment
of a school of a high order under the care of the said Presbytery. This
committee had been appointed by the Presbytery at its session at
Anamosa April 24, 1875, and they presented to the board of trustees of
Parsons Seminary a formal report in writing, which expressed the
readiness of the Presbytery to undertake the care of the school at
Cedar Rapids on condition that all its debts be cancelled, and its
charter be so amended as to give to the Presbytery the power to appoint
its board of trustees. The Presbytery also pledged itself to do all in
its power to maintain the school and open it in the school building by
the 1st of October, 1875. The board of trustees consented to the
proposition of the Presbytery and resolved to change the name of the
institution from Parsons Seminary to Coe Collegiate Institute. The
articles of incorporation of Parsons Seminary, which had been adopted
October 30, 1866, were amended May 11, 1875, to meet the new
conditions. The board of trustees was fixed at the number of eighteen,
and the power to elect them was vested in the Presbytery of Cedar
Rapids, or in the synod of Iowa North, if the said synod shall assume
such power with the consent of said Presbytery. The first election was
appointed to take place in the fall of the year 1876.

Mr. Daniel Coe had passed from earth in the interval between December
23, 1866, when he deeded the eighty acres of land in Cedar Rapids to
Parsons Seminary, and this date in 1875, when these new relations with
the seminary were entered into. He left a daughter, an only child, who
had become the wife of Mr. J. E. Jewell. This daughter, Mr. Coe's sole
heir at law, with her husband, entered in a very friendly manner and
measure into the new plans of the institution, and nobly agreed to
permit the school to avail itself under certain conditions well
understood and agreed to, of the advantages accruing from the revenues
of the property.

On the 21st of September, 1875, it was announced at a meeting of the
trustees of Coe Collegiate Institute that correspondence had been
conducted with the Rev. R. A. Condit with a view to his being made
principal of the school. Mr. Condit was then elected to that office.
This event marks the entrance into the work of Coe College of a
personality of rare value in himself and of rare value to the
institution of learning which he served most faithfully for a period of
thirty years after his appointment in 1875. Robert Aaron Condit was a
man of sweet spirit and gentle demeanor; he was a Christian and a
scholar. No one ever doubted his piety or his moral integrity. The
students who for a whole generation passed under his care all loved him
because he loved them, and was himself so lovable. His influence upon
them was mild, but effective, and we venture to say without fear of
contradiction, that all the alumni of Coe College who knew him as their
preceptor recognize the fact with gratitude that they are better
persons for having known him. In the weak and struggling days of Coe
Collegiate Institute before it emerged into its present larger,
stronger growth, as Coe College, Robert Condit was a factor peculiarly
fitted for the task providentially laid upon him, and his full value to
the college can scarcely be over-estimated or even stated sufficiently.

On the 8th of March, 1876, Prof. J. W. McLaury was employed to assist
Mr. Condit in the school, his salary being raised by voluntary
subscriptions. Mr. McLaury's services, though valuable, were not long
retained by the institution.

At the meeting of the board held December 28, 1876, the report of the
election of the trustees by the Presbytery October 4, 1876, was made,
as directed by the charter. And at the same meeting the following
officers of the board were chosen: Hon. George Greene, president;
Thomas M. Sinclair, vice president; D. W. C. Rowley, secretary; George
W. Winn, treasurer. It was at this meeting that the present writer took
his seat with his brethren for the first time as an officially
accredited member of the board. And it is a matter of grateful, tender
recollection to him, that he has remained to this day in unbroken
relation with the institution in all possible varieties of official
position and duties upon its manifold committees. And it is a solemn
recollection with him that he alone remains on the board of all those
who have served with him for thirty-four years.

He can well remember the tone and atmosphere of the meetings of the
board, which he was then called upon to attend. It was truly a day of
small things. The meetings were frequent and they were often lengthy,
and we must truly say they were usually dreary, and we went from them
with depressed hearts. For the questions for discussion were mostly,
not how to promote high christian learning, but how to pay the debts of
Parsons Seminary. And the problem was, how to pay something with
nothing. There were notes at two of the leading banks of the city,
notes which were increasing fearfully by the compounding of interest at
ten per cent, and there were notes held by individuals who had loaned
money to the seminary, there were mechanic's liens of sums unpaid in
the erection of the building put up in 1867-8, and to meet these
obligations there was nothing in sight. For all moneys that found their
way into the treasury were needed, and more than needed, to pay current
bills to teachers, heating and lighting bills and such minor fees. We
remember that our treasurer was once garnisheed by the brother of one
of our teachers for the payment of his sister's salary, and some sort
of compromise settlement was effected.

We have not a thought or word of disparagement concerning any member of
the board at that time. But it would have required men of heroic mold
and prophetic vision to face those problems. The president of the
board, the Hon. George Greene, a name never to be mentioned in this
city without a tribute of respect, was deeply immersed in his own
private interests and was compelled to be absent from home a great part
of the time. Soon after the date of which we speak, he insisted upon
pressing his resignation as president of the board. Other prominent
business and professional men on the board were also engrossed in large
personal interests. The ministers on the board, however valuable though
they may have been for counsel concerning educational questions, were
quite helpless in grappling with the financial problems which from
necessity were uppermost.

The Rev. James Knox had passed from earth October 10, 1875, after
having contributed valuable services to the college during the eleven
years of his pastorate in this city. We here insert the following
tribute to Mr. Knox, which was presented at a meeting of the board of
trustees March 8, 1876, and was adopted, all the members present
standing:

     "In the providence of God the Rev. James Knox, former vice
     president of this board, having been removed by death we
     take this opportunity to record our testimony to his
     exceeding worth as a man and his wisdom and faithfulness as
     a minister of the gospel, and to his great devotion and
     usefulness to this institution, having been connected with
     it from its earliest days, and having given to it his best
     strength and ability for many years, and his very latest
     prayers. We feel that his place cannot easily be filled and
     that in him the college has lost one of its truest and best
     friends."

[Illustration: AN OLD GRAVE AT SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: REV. J. B. ALBROOK, D. D.]

[Illustration: PROF. HARRIETTE J. COOK]

[Illustration: MRS. MARGARET McKELL KING]

There was one notable exception to all these. One personality stands
out from the midst of his brethren and to him more than to any other
element at this critical period of the history of Coe College do we
attribute the fact that we have a college today, and one with such
promise and potency. We refer to Mr. Thomas M. Sinclair. Mr. Sinclair
had come to Cedar Rapids in 1871 a young man not quite thirty years of
age. He was pursuing a large manufacturing business, that of pork
packing, with rare energy and intelligence, and with great success. He
was making money, and his great desire and single aim was to use this
money with a keen sense of responsibility to God and usefulness to his
fellow men. He was a man of rare christian character, one among ten
thousand. It may truly be said of him that he walked with God. Coming
into this young country from the older world, he took a most keenly
active interest in all things that pertained to its welfare, and it was
a fortunate thing for Coe College that he came to Cedar Rapids at such
a time as he did. The cause of christian education was one of his most
treasured conceptions of opportunity, and he identified himself with
the representative of that cause which he providentially found to his
hand in this struggling institution.

Seeing the imperative need of relief from debt which Coe Collegiate
Institute manifested, he determined in the nobility of his heart that
he would pay out of his own pocket such obligations, principal and
interest, as lay against the institution, although they amounted to
several thousand dollars. And this he gladly did in all such cases as
he could not induce those who owned these obligations to cancel them
themselves. And thus it came about one happy day that he could declare
the college was actually free from all such incumbrances. Then he and
several of his colleagues, inspired with new hope and courage, and
determined to launch the institution upon broader and deeper waters,
went before the synod of Iowa North, which met at Waterloo, Iowa, in
October, 1880, and asked the synod to assume the care and control of
the Institute, free from debt, and possessed of a building, and of
eighty acres of land in the city of Cedar Rapids. The synod accepted
the proposition, and steps were taken at once to frame articles of
incorporation of a new organization to be called Coe College. The
articles were filed for record on the 16th day of April, 1881. Proper
deeds were drawn and filed for record which conveyed to Coe College all
the properties owned by Cedar Rapids Collegiate Institute, Parsons
Seminary, and Coe Collegiate Institute, and thus the line of
inheritance and descent was duly established. In these negotiations
relating to the transference of the property through the hands of Mr.
and Mrs. Jewell, negotiations which required great care in the
handling, the valuable services of Mr. A. V. Eastman should be
mentioned. Mr. Eastman served the college most valuably for several
years at this period as its secretary. He subsequently removed from
Cedar Rapids to St. Paul, Minn., and still later to St. Charles, La.,
where he died most suddenly several years ago.

We have now emerged with our history from the intricacies of a somewhat
tortuous channel, and we have passed out from shoals and shallows to
enter upon clearer, deeper, broader waters. Henceforth we are to pursue
the story of the institution known as Coe College, which, with devious
fortunes, but with perceptibly increasing volume, has been filling its
place and doing its work under the charter prepared in 1881. Certain
changes have been made to this charter, more or less important, but
Coe College is the same institution, conducted by the same
incorporation from 1881 to the present time.

The first item which we are called upon to record at this period of the
history of our college, is the lamentable death of Mr. Thomas M.
Sinclair, which occurred on the 24th day of March, 1881. The
circumstances were peculiarly startling. By an accident he fell through
an open hatchway in his own packing house and never recovered
consciousness, although he continued to breathe for several hours. We
can never forget our emotions over this event. It was truly an
inscrutable Providence. Mr. Sinclair was at that time a young man, full
of vigor and energy. He was a pillar of strength upon whom many leaned.
He had done so much to bring the college up to this point of its new
beginning that both he and we were looking forward with desire and
delight to what might be accomplished through his co-operation. But it
was willed otherwise. We cannot interpret the event, but may we not
even now at this comparatively far removed time from its occurrence use
it in memory of him for the greater glory of God and increase of the
college. "He being dead, yet speaketh."

Dr. Stephen Phelps, then the pastor of the Presbyterian church at
Vinton, had been very prominently connected with the college ever since
its reconstruction as Coe Collegiate Institute in 1875. And now, when
it became Coe College, under the care of the synod, he was invited to
become its president. He was by nature and grace a pastor greatly
beloved by his people, and very useful in the community at Vinton. It
was a great request to make of him to ask him to lay down his pastoral
office and undertake the new and untried work of a college president.
And this was made especially significant because he was asked to
preside not over an institution already well endowed, richly equipped
with buildings, and possessed of the prestige of a generation, but over
an institution still in the process of formation, without any endowment
or equipment or faculty or history. He paused to consider his duty, and
decided to come to the college and with the help of God to undertake
the task.

He was a man of many gifts; an eloquent preacher and lovable pastor who
attracted young people to him, and a man of consecration and singleness
of aim. His pure spirit and untiring energy were rewarded with much
success in spite of the many difficulties which resulted from the
limitations of the new situation. He remained in the presidency of the
college six years, when he resigned his office to go back to his loved
work in the pastorate, to which he felt called of God. He became the
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Council Bluffs, and has
subsequently served other churches, until at the present time he is in
charge of the church at Bellevue, Nebraska, where he lives enjoying the
respect and affection of all who know him. He will ever be cherished as
the first president of Coe College.

Another figure that rises very prominently and pleasantly before us, as
we go back to this period of our history, is that of the first
treasurer of Coe College, Mr. John C. Broeksmit. Mr. Broeksmit became
the treasurer of Coe Collegiate Institute in 1878, and passed on into
the new administration in 1881, and continued in the exercise of his
duties as treasurer until he was made treasurer emeritus in 1903, when
Mr. John M. Dinwiddie, our present very efficient treasurer, assumed
the duties of the office which Mr. Broeksmit laid down. In the
formative period of our college history it was very important that the
charge of our slender funds should be placed in hands which were
trustworthy, not only because of honesty, but also because of business
ability and experience. Mr. Broeksmit possessed ideal qualities for a
treasurer. As auditor of the B., C. R. & N. R. R. he was accustomed to
the handling and careful accounting of the funds of that corporation,
and he brought his knowledge, judgment, and integrity to bear upon the
financial affairs of the college. We always felt secure in placing
these affairs in his hands, and we were not disappointed. Besides his
services as treasurer, he also rendered valuable services as a
trustee, always faithful in attendance, and giving his full and entire
interest to the matters in hand; wise in counsel, kind and genial in
manner, and friendly in attitude, he was a peculiarly attractive
co-laborer. He should be written down as one who loved his fellow men.
His decease in March, 1907, at the age of 82, was universally lamented.

We note the fact that Williston Hall was completed as a boarding hall
and dormitory for young ladies in 1881-1882, and the college building,
which had been occupied more or less since September, 1868, for school
room purposes, was enlarged in 1884 by an addition which simply
duplicated the original building.

In 1882 the Rev. E. H. Avery, D. D., who had succeeded Dr. Phelps in
the pastoral charge at Vinton when Dr. Phelps came to Cedar Rapids to
be president of Coe College, came into the board of trustees, and was
elected president of the board. He remained in this office until 1899,
when he removed to California where he subsequently died. Dr. Avery's
long administration of seventeen years was marked by his qualities of
cool, calm judgment, enlightened understanding, and zealous attention
to educational interests. He was punctual in attendance at the many
meetings of the board, and of the executive committee, coming down from
Vinton many times at much sacrifice of personal comfort and the laying
aside of his pastoral work, and during that long and eventful period,
marked by so many changes from 1882-1899, it was fortunate that we had
so wise and safe a president of our board as Eugene H. Avery.

On the 13th of May, 1887, the Rev. James Marshall, D. D., was elected
president of the College to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation
of Dr. Phelps. Dr. Marshall was an alumnus of Yale University and had
spent several years in New York City in city missionary work. He
entered upon the duties of his office in September, 1887. He brought
with him to these duties a mind matured and well rounded, a culture
produced by wide reading and considerable foreign travel and residence,
and an intelligent appreciation of college work. He had a strong sense
of the value of discipline in college life. He was much assisted by his
cultured wife, whose attractive personality won for her a valued place
in the hearts of the students. Mrs. Marshall died in Cedar Rapids after
a brief illness in November, 1892, leaving her husband sadly alone, for
there were no children in the household. Dr. Marshall labored on
bravely in his work until September, 1896, when, just at the opening of
the college year, he was stricken down with pneumonia, and his death
occurred after a few days amidst circumstances of peculiar solitude.
His funeral services were conducted at the First Presbyterian church of
this city, September 13, 1896, and the address on that occasion was
given by Dr. J. Milton Greene, then of Ft. Dodge, Iowa, now of Havana,
Cuba, and a life long friend of the deceased. Dr. Marshall is the only
one of the presidents of our college who has departed this life, and he
died literally in the harness. In summing up his life and work we avail
ourselves of the words which it was our privilege to report to the
board at their meeting October 13, 1896:

     "He was a man of power, the power that is born of the
     possession of a high ideal and consecrated purpose and
     unusual faculty to organize, and an unflagging zeal to
     execute and perform. He never spared himself. He forgot
     himself, but he never forgot the college. His works do
     follow him. These works which remain with us are the strong
     and united faculty which he organized, and which he inspired
     with his own high ideals, the noble standard of scholarship
     to which he elevated the curriculum, the beautiful campus,
     which is a wonder of improvement when we contrast it with
     what it was when his hands first touched it, and the example
     of industry and energy which his life has furnished. It
     seems pathetic that he should have passed away without
     seeing the fulfillment of the hopes he so dearly cherished,
     and the plans be so wisely formulated. But it is a common
     thing in this world that one should sow and another reap.
     One conceives the building of the house, but leaves it to
     another to build it. Yet no one ever thinks that the former
     lives in vain."

The college pursued its work in the year 1896-7 without a president,
and it is a happiness to note the fact that owing to the harmonious
cooperation of a devoted faculty and a sympathetic body of students,
the year passed with much smoothness and prosperity.

On the 5th of August, 1897, the Rev. Samuel B. McCormick, D. D., was
called to the presidency of the college from the pastoral charge of the
Presbyterian church of Omaha, Neb. He entered upon the duties of his
office with the opening of the college year 1897. He soon made it
manifest that a man of great vigor was directing its affairs. He went
at his work with a spirit almost fierce, and he kept at it with a
persistency that compelled things to come his way. His energy was
contagious, and his colleagues in the faculty and on the board of
trustees felt it from the day he came among us until the day he left.
The pace he kept was not always pleasurable, but it was always
fruitful. It was during the seven years of his administration that
great growth of the college was experienced in the size of the faculty,
the number of the student body and increase of college buildings. The
financial campaign that was undertaken to secure the $25,000 promised
by Mr. Ralph Vorhees, of New Jersey, on condition of our raising
$125,000 additional, was successfully conducted when Dr. McCormick was
president. It was he who brought to Coe College the Rev. H. H. Maynard
as field secretary, and the two men worked together with congenial
vehemence and brought things to pass. Among the things which were
brought to pass was the present college gymnasium a very useful and
attractive asset.

In the summer of 1904 Doctor McCormick was invited back to his old home
in western Pennsylvania to become the chancellor of the Western
University of Pennsylvania, located at Pittsburg, and which is now
called the University of Pittsburg. This invitation was attractive to
him chiefly because it seemed evidently to offer him unusual
opportunity of enlarged usefulness in the educational field to which he
had devoted his life. Yet it plainly caused him a struggle to sever his
connection with Coe College, and with Cedar Rapids as a city. For in
the seven years of his life here, he had become strongly attached to
his friends and to the community which were strongly attached to him.
He also left this portion of our country, the Mississippi Valley which
was to his mind so full of hope and promise, with great reluctance. Yet
it was clear to him that he ought to go, and we parted from him with
much regret September 15, 1904.

Marshall Hall and the Athletic Field House were erected in the summer
of 1900, the latter the gift of Mr. C. B. Soutter. The College
Gymnasium was completed in 1904.

During the year following the departure of Doctor McCormick the duties
of the presidency were discharged by Dr. Stephen W. Stookey. Dr.
Stookey was an alumnus of Coe of the class of 1884, the first class to
be graduated after Coe became a college. He was always from the
beginning greatly attached to the college, and after teaching a while
in the schools of Manchester, Iowa, he returned to his alma mater in
1892 to become professor of the natural sciences. From that time onward
he filled a place of very distinguished usefulness in the institution,
commanding the high respect of his fellow workers in the faculty, the
student body, and the board of trustees, until 1908 when he left Coe to
assume the office of the presidency of Bellevue College, Nebraska, a
position which he still occupies very much to the benefit of that
school of learning.

[Illustration: BAPTIST CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY]

[Illustration: OLD BARN BUILT IN THE '50s AT CENTRAL CITY Now Used as a
Store and Post Office]

At this point of our story we note the fact that at the October meeting
of the board of trustees in 1899, Mr. C. B. Soutter was made the
president of the board. Mr. Soutter had been a resident of Cedar Rapids
since 1881 when he came from New York city to fill the very responsible
place in the business house of T. M. Sinclair & Company made vacant
by the death of Mr. Sinclair. The duties of the management of the large
packing house were very onerous and responsible, yet Mr. Soutter was
able, besides fulfilling them, to give much of his valuable time to his
duties as a trustee of the college, to which he was called in 1883. He
had already, therefore, for many years, shown marked interest in
college work and adaptation for it by taste and culture when in 1899 he
was felt to be the logical successor to Dr. Avery in the presidency. He
entered at once with zeal and intelligence upon his new and enlarged
duties. He was unintermitting in his attention to them until he
resigned his office in October, 1907, and, greatly to the regret of his
brethren, withdrew from the board of trustees.

On the 23rd of December, 1904, Dr. William Wilberforce Smith was chosen
president of the college to succeed Doctor McCormick. Doctor Smith was
not a clergyman as his predecessors had been and as hitherto has been
usual with American colleges in their selection of a president. He had
studied at Princeton Theological Seminary, and had been graduated
therefrom, but he had never been ordained to the ministry. He had
followed the vocation of a teacher, and was called to the presidency of
Coe from the Berkely School in New York city, a school of high grade
for boys. He entered upon his duties as president of Coe College at the
opening of the college year 1905, and remained with the college for
three years. He is now occupying the very honorable position of head of
the School of Commerce and Finance in the James Millikin University,
Decatur, Illinois.

His administration was marked by three notable events, all of which
indicate stages of great progress in the history of the college: First,
the successful launching of the plans to put the college on the list of
the accepted colleges of the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of
teaching. This took place near the close of the year 1908. Second, the
attainment of the Science Hall, given by Mr. Carnegie at the cost to
him of $63,500 upon the condition that the college raise $45,000 for
its maintenance. Third, the successful completion of a financial
campaign whereby a conditional grant of $50,000 was obtained from the
General Board of Education [John D. Rockefeller Foundation] on the
condition that the college pay all its debts and raise in various funds
the sum of $200,000 additional for endowment and buildings. This
campaign increased the assets of the college by $293,000.

It was during this campaign that the services of the Rev. Dr. H. H.
Maynard, field secretary of the college, were so peculiarly strenuous
and so uniquely valuable. Dr. Maynard merits most honorable mention for
his bold conceptions and his heroic execution of them, wherein the word
"fail" was expunged from his dictionary. Dr. Maynard left Coe College
in the summer of 1908 and has become the vice president and field
secretary of the University of Omaha, Nebraska.

In the year 1908-9 which followed the resignation of Dr. Smith, the
college was governed by a commission of four members of the faculty,
who distributed among themselves the duties of administration. The
result was a smooth and prosperous year, although at the end of it all
parties concerned were looking very wishfully towards a filling of the
vacant office of the presidency. At length, on the 7th of September,
1909, Rev. Dr. John Abner Marquis, pastor of the Presbyterian church at
Beaver, Pa., was chosen to be the head of the college. After due
deliberation he decided to accept the call, and on the 12th of October,
1909, he was presented to the students and friends of the college as
the president-elect. He returned to Beaver to sever his relations with
the church there, with the Presbytery and synod, and he came in
December and entered upon his duties. On the 13th of June, 1910, in
connection with the exercises of commencement week, Doctor Marquis was
formally inaugurated president of Coe College. This was the first time
in which formal exercises of this character were observed in connection
with setting a president over the institution, and the occasion was
greeted accordingly with peculiar pleasure, and large use was made of
it to perfect a relationship which it is believed augurs great things
to the advantage of the college. Doctor Marquis has been so short a
time in his office that it would be too soon to speak of what he has
done, but it is not too soon to say that in the brief period in which
he has been president of the college, he has already awakened the
fondest hopes and most steadfast convictions that under his
administration the institution over which he presides is destined to
move forward to a future which will far surpass any measure of size and
value that it ever attained in the past.

On the same week in last June in the midst of the commencement season
which witnessed the inauguration of Doctor Marquis, ground was broken
on the college campus by Mr. Robert S. Sinclair for a chapel in memory
of his father, Mr. Thomas M. Sinclair. This memorial chapel was
prepared for almost thirty years ago very soon after Mr. Sinclair's
death, but the execution of the purpose has been long delayed. But now
at last we see our thoughts and wishes about to be realized in the
erection of a building which shall from its beauty and the purposes
which it is destined to fulfill be a worthy monument to keep in
perpetual remembrance a man, who, in his life-time, did so much to make
it possible for us to have a college at all.

       *       *       *       *       *

We have now accomplished the purpose for which we set out. We have, to
the best of our ability, traced the history of Coe College from its
beginnings to the present time. We have followed the Institution from
its fountain head in the heart and home of the Rev. Williston Jones,
when a handful of young men gathered in his parlor for such elementary
instruction as could be given by the zealous pastor and his wife, down
to the present day, when more than three-hundred students, young men
and maidens, gather in the halls of buildings erected and equipped for
college purposes, and one of these buildings at least prepared and
provided along the most progressive modern lines, the equal of any in
the land. Today the faculty of thirty-two persons conducts the teaching
of a curriculum which embraces every department of learning that is
recognized as belonging to a liberal education. And these teachers have
been prepared for their work by special training and selection.

The endowment also has grown from the paltry sum of $1,500, furnished
in 1853 by Daniel Coe, to the sum of $450,000, and the total amount of
money invested in the plant known as Coe College must exceed $750,000,
which is surely no mean aggregate.

In the course of our history, we have seen a feeble rivulet sink at
least twice in the sands only to reappear with new volume and freshness
further down the bed of the stream. And we see it now a river of such
dimension that it cannot disappear again. We have seen the work of the
heroic men who have nobly spent upon the college in the days when it
sorely needed their help. Such men were not wanting in the days of
emergency but were sent from God. They could not have known as we now
can plainly see what they were doing. They wrought in faith what it is
now given us to possess in sight. They sowed in weakness what we now
reap in power. Surely the lesson is plain and impressive; surely the
teaching of this historical sketch is to the purport that we with our
larger resources should enrich the institution which they sustained and
promoted in their poverty.

They could not see how much worth their while it was to give and labor
for Cedar Rapids Collegiate Institute, for Parsons Seminary, for Coe
Collegiate Institute, for the institution was then but a tender, feeble
shoot, whose future development was an uncertainty. We now can plainly
see that it is well worth our while to give and labor for Coe College,
for it is now one of the most potent and promising of all the colleges
in this Mississippi valley. And every intelligent mind who has any
powers of observation and has any experience of college work, knows
full well that as colleges grow and prosper they need more financial
help. It would be the extreme of selfishness and folly to take the
view that Coe College is now strong enough and rich enough to advance
on its present assets to meet its future.

Its needs are greater than ever. But it presents itself not as a beggar
or a suppliant, but as a splendid opportunity for investment. It
presents itself as the finest possible place to locate something to be
spent in buildings, equipment, and endowment whereby in the course of
the years, and we may even say the centuries to come, this money can go
on yielding the richest conceivable dividends in the preparation for
life and leadership of those of our choicest young men and women who
shall come hither from near and far to enjoy the privileges of a
college education. And thus as we close, our history becomes really an
appeal.



CHAPTER XXV

_The Old Blair Building_


The Kimball building in Cedar Rapids stands on the site of an old
landmark--the Blair building. This building, with the land and railroad
companies it housed from time to time, was the center of much history
in the development of Iowa, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. It is difficult
for us to realize now what an immense influence these companies in the
early days had in the settling up of the central west. A debt of
gratitude is due the men who risked their fortunes in this developing
work that many of us now are too apt to forget. Had it not been for the
railroads these early patriots projected into the unsettled portions of
these states the development of the west would have been greatly
retarded. Immigration would have been slow, for people are never eager
to settle in farming communities where there is lack of transportation
facilities to get the produce of the farms to market.

It is felt that a brief account of the influences that went out from
this center is entirely appropriate here. In fact it is needed as a
part of this history of Linn county. Greatly to our regret the
gentleman responsible for the historical data given below wishes his
name withheld, but through modesty only. What is here printed was
furnished by one who knows whereof he speaks, for as Virgil once wrote,
"of it he was a great part."


THE BLAIR BUILDING

John I. Blair, of Blairstown, New Jersey, being then the president of
several railroad companies having their general offices and official
headquarters at Cedar Rapids, erected a building to furnish adequate
room for the business of these companies and for the First National
Bank of Cedar Rapids, in which he was heavily interested. This building
was known as the "Blair Building." In its time it was much the most
pretentious structure in the city. It was located at the corner of
Eagle and Adams streets--now Third street and Second avenue--was two
stories in heighth with a high mansard roof, and set above and back
from the street. The plans for this building were made by W. W.
Boyington, then the most prominent architect in Chicago. It was what
might be termed of the "court house" style, having more the appearance
of a public building than one erected for commercial purposes.

On May 23, 1868, Mrs. Mary A. Ely purchased of A. C. Churchill, for Mr.
Blair, lots 6, 7, and 8 in block 15, including the brick dwelling house
thereon, for the sum of $10,000. Mrs. Ely afterwards conveyed this land
to Mr. Blair, who deeded it to himself and Oakes Ames as trustees for
the several companies who contributed to the cost of the land and the
buildings.

The work of construction began in the autumn of 1868. The building was
completed and occupied in the spring or early summer of 1869. The total
cost of the land, the new building, and the overhauling of the dwelling
house was $54,418, which was paid by the Cedar Rapids and Missouri
River Railroad Company, The Iowa Rail Road Land Company, the Iowa Falls
and Sioux City Railroad Company, the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad
Company, and the First National Bank of Cedar Rapids.

[Illustration: JAMES E. HARLAN, LL. D. President Cornell College]

In 1870 the dwelling house and the land lying southwesterly of the wall
of the Blair building was sold to John F. Ely for $11,000. In 1884 the
First National Bank conveyed its interest to the Iowa Falls and Sioux
City Railroad Company, and thereafter, until the liquidation of the
bank in 1886, occupied the banking room as a tenant. When the bank had
gone out of business, the railroads had been sold and the offices moved
away, and the real estate holdings of the companies very largely
reduced, the owners having no use for the space for their own purposes,
and the building being so constructed as not to be useful for
commercial purposes, it was decided to sell the property. It was
advertised for sale. A customer not being found at private sale, it was
sold at public auction on May 2, 1888, to David P. Kimball, of Boston,
Massachusetts, for $25,000.

Mr. Kimball, together with his brother L. C. Kimball, of Boston, J. Van
Deventer, then of Clinton but later of Knoxville, Tennessee, J. E.
Ainsworth, then of Council Bluffs but later of Williamstown, Vermont,
and P. E. Hall and Henry V. Ferguson of Cedar Rapids, organized the
Kimball Building Company, to whom the property was conveyed.

During the year 1888 the Kimball Building Company rebuilt the Blair
Building, extending its exterior walls out to the street line and added
a new portion so as to cover the entire lot, making the building when
so completed 76 feet on Second avenue and 140 feet on Third street,
four stories high, and thereafter known as the "Kimball Building."

In addition to being the president of all of these railroad companies,
Mr. Blair after 1862 gave personal attention to their construction and
was in absolute control of their affairs in the west. These railroads
came to be called the "Blair Roads," and were so generally spoken of in
the public prints. From this people generally came to think that he was
nearly the sole owner of all, or at least personally owned a
controlling interest in the whole group. This, however, was not the
fact. Mr. Blair's individual ownership averaged about one-sixth, about
another sixth being owned by his associates in the Lackawana Iron &
Coal Company of Pennsylvania, among which were Joseph H. Scranton, of
Scranton, Pa.; Moses Taylor, of New York, and William E. Dodge, D.
Willis James, and James Stokes, who then comprised the firm of Phelps,
Dodge & Company.

The controlling interest was always owned by a group of New England
capitalists and their associates, who were at the same time the
controlling stockholders in the Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska Railroad
Company--the line already constructed from Clinton to Cedar Rapids.
Among these latter were Oakes and Oliver Ames, of North Easton, Mass.;
John Bertram, of Salem, Mass.; Charles A. Lambard, of Maine and later
of New York; William T. Glidden, David P. Kimball, Joseph and Frederic
Nickerson, of Boston, and Horace Williams, of Clinton, Iowa.


THE CEDAR RAPIDS AND MISSOURI RIVER RAILROAD

In May, 1856, congress passed what was then called "The Iowa Land
Bill," making grants of land to the state of Iowa to aid in the
construction of four lines of railway across the state, one of which
was to be from Lyons City, thence "northwesterly to a point of
intersection with the main line of the Iowa Central Railroad near
Maquoketa, thence on said main line running as near as practicable to
the 42nd parallel across the state of Iowa to the Missouri River." The
general assembly of the state by an act approved July 14, 1856, granted
the land inuring to the state for the construction of this line to the
Iowa Central Air Line Railroad Company upon certain conditions
contained in said act. That company began the construction of the road
in the year 1856, considerable grading was done at different points
along the line as far west us Anamosa, but the panic of 1857 coming on
the work was stopped and never again resumed by the Iowa Central Air
Line Company.

It being quite probable that at the next legislative session the state
would resume this land grant and forfeit the rights of the Iowa Central
Company, and pass the grant over to some other company who would
undertake the construction of the road; for the purpose of obtaining
this grant, the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad Company was
organized on June 14, 1859, by the prominent eastern stockholders in
the Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska Railroad, together with John Weare and
John P. Ely, of Cedar Rapids, and G. M. Woodbury, of Marshalltown,
Iowa.

In March, 1860, the state resumed the land grant from the Iowa Central
Company and made it over to the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River
Railroad. Work was begun on the line west from Cedar Rapids in 1860.
The bridge over the Cedar river was built in the winter of 1860-61, and
forty miles of track completed to Otter Creek Station (now Chelsea)
during the year 1861, and to Marshalltown in December, 1862. Milo
Smith, of Clinton, Iowa, was the chief engineer and had charge of the
construction of the road until it reached Marshalltown.

In 1861 John I. Blair became largely interested in this enterprise, and
thereafter took control of the construction beyond Marshalltown. After
1862 W. W. Walker was chief engineer until the road was finished. Track
was laid to State Center in 1863, and on July 4, 1864, to Nevada, and
to Boone in December, 1864, but the road was not surfaced up, finished
and put in operation from Nevada to Boone until the succeeding year.

In July, 1864, congress made an additional grant of land to the Cedar
Rapids and Missouri River Railroad, and authorized it to change its
line of road so as to connect with the Union Pacific Railroad at
Council Bluffs. Work beyond Boone began in December, 1865, the track
was laid into Council Bluffs in January, 1867, but regular service
between Woodbine and Council Bluffs was not instituted until April of
that year.

In July, 1862, the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad was leased
in perpetuity to the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad Company, which
company then owned the line from Chicago west to the Mississippi River
opposite Clinton, Iowa, and operated the Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska
Railroad under lease. The lease covered not only the portion of the
Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad then built, but the entire
line to the Missouri river when the same should be completed.

On June 2, 1864, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad Company was
consolidated with the Chicago and North-Western Railway, and from that
time the operation of the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad
under the lease was by the Chicago and North-Western Railway Company.

L. B. Crocker, of Oswego, N. Y., was the first president of the Cedar
Rapids and Missouri River Railroad, and until 1866. Mr. Crocker during
this period was active in the financial affairs of the company, and
especially in obtaining the land grant from the state and the
supplemental grant direct from the United States. While not a man of
large means, he was possessed of great energy and foresight.

John I. Blair was president from 1866 to 1871, when he was succeeded by
Horace Williams, who remained the president until the company went out
of existence in 1884.

In 1884 the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad was sold to the
Chicago and North-Western Railway. It was in fact a consolidation, but
for convenience in handling the transaction it was made a sale, the
Cedar Rapids Company deeding its railroad and all rights and franchises
pertaining thereto to the Chicago and North-Western Railway Company,
receiving its pay in the stock of the latter company, which stock was
distributed pro rata to the stockholders of the Cedar Rapids and
Missouri River Company, after which the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River
Railroad Company closed up its affairs and went out of business.


THE SIOUX CITY AND PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY

An act of congress passed in 1862 authorized and required the Union
Pacific Railroad Company to construct a railroad and telegraph line
from Sioux City to a connection with the Iowa branch of the Union
Pacific Railroad, whenever there should be a line of railroad completed
through Minnesota or Iowa to Sioux City, Iowa. On July 2, 1864, the
original Union Pacific act was amended, and among other things it was
provided that the Union Pacific Railroad was released from the
construction of said branch, and such company as should be organized
under the laws of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota or Nebraska, and be by the
president of the United States designated and approved for that
purpose, was authorized to construct said branch and receive therefor
lands and subsidy bonds to the same extent that the Union Pacific
Railroad would have done under the act of 1862. It was further provided
that if a railroad should not be completed to Sioux City across Iowa or
Minnesota within eighteen months after the passage of said act, then
the company which should have been so designated might commence,
continue and complete the construction of said Sioux City branch.

The Sioux City and Pacific Railroad Company was organized in August,
1864, to construct this branch line and was by the president of the
United States designated and approved for that purpose. The corporators
and first board of directors were Platt Smith, L. B. Crocker, M. K.
Jesup, James F. Wilson, A. W. Hubbard, Charles A. Lambard, Frederick
Schuchardt, William B. Allison, and John I. Blair. Soon afterwards the
Sioux City and Pacific Company passed under the control of Mr. Blair
and his associates in the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad. The
necessary money to build and equip the Sioux City and Pacific was
principally furnished by them. The general offices of the company were
first at Dubuque, but on the passing of the control to the Cedar Rapids
people headquarters were moved to Cedar Rapids.

Construction was begun in the spring of 1867. The Cedar Rapids and
Missouri River Company built six and a half miles of railroad from
Missouri Valley Junction to California Junction, where it connected
with the line of the Sioux City and Pacific. These six and a half miles
were turned over to the latter company. Track laying began at
California Junction in September, 1867. Thirty-six miles were completed
by the first day of December, 1867, and the line to Sioux City in
February, 1868. Early in 1869 the entire line was completed and in
operation between Missouri Valley Junction and Sioux City and to
Fremont, Nebraska, where connection was made with the Union Pacific
Railroad. The cars were ferried across the Missouri river during the
summer months, and crossed on a temporary bridge during the winter
months up to the fall of 1883, when the bridge across the river was
completed and opened up for business. L. Burnett was the engineer in
charge of construction of this railroad and superintendent in its
operation until January 1, 1878.

This company received from the United States a grant of land comprising
the alternate sections within twenty miles on either side of the line
of the railroad. But as nearly all of the government land within these
limits had already been disposed of, and where the grant of this
company lapped over the grant to the Union Pacific Railroad, each
company received half, so this congressional grant only amounted to
about 42,500 acres. There was acquired through a consolidation with the
Nebraska Air Line Railroad a state land grant of 46,000 acres. The
company received from the United States a loan of six per cent bonds to
the extent of $16,000 per mile of road constructed between Sioux City
and Fremont, and issued its own first mortgage bonds to an equal
amount.

This company up to August, 1884, operated its own road and also leased
and operated the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley road, as the same
was from time to time extended. The earnings of the railroad were never
sufficient to pay the interest on the first mortgage bonds. The avails
of the two land grants and the proceeds of the sales of the town lots
along the line up to 1875 (when the remaining land assets were sold to
the Missouri Valley Land Company) were used to make up the deficiency.
After these assets were exhausted the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River,
and Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska Railroad companies, through loans and
other methods of assistance, made up the deficit until the sale of all
of these roads in 1884.

In 1880 the Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska, and the Cedar Rapids and
Missouri River companies by purchase from the individual stockholders
acquired over ninety per cent of the capital stock of the Sioux City
Company. This stock was in the treasury of these railroads at the time
of their purchase by the Chicago and North-Western Railway Company in
1884. Through and under that purchase the Chicago and North-Western
Railway Company became the controlling owner of the Sioux City and
Pacific and moved its general and operating offices away from Cedar
Rapids.

John I. Blair was the first president of the Sioux City and Pacific
Railroad Company and was succeeded by Horace Williams in 1871. Mr.
Williams was president until the fall of 1877, when he resigned and was
succeeded by Oliver Ames. Mr. Ames remained president until the control
of the railroad passed into the Chicago and North-Western Railway
Company.


THE IOWA FALLS AND SIOUX CITY RAILROAD COMPANY

In the Iowa Land Bill of 1856 a grant was made to aid the construction
of a line of railroad from Dubuque to Sioux City on the same terms as
fixed for the other three trunk lines across the state, viz: a grant of
every odd numbered section within six miles on either side of the
railroad, and where such odd numbered sections had already been
disposed of by the United States, the railroads were authorized to
select an equal number of acres from the odd numbered sections within
fifteen miles of the line of the railroad. This grant was given over by
the state of Iowa to the Dubuque and Pacific Railroad Company, which
company began the work of construction but afterwards failed and was
reorganized as the Dubuque and Sioux City Railroad Company. This last
named company continued from time to time to extend the line
westwardly, so that in 1867 it was completed and in operation to Iowa
Falls.

Considerable right-of-way had been acquired between Iowa Falls and Fort
Dodge and the grading already commenced when a sale and transfer of the
right-of-way, the uncompleted work and the portion of the land grant
belonging to the line west of Iowa Falls, was made to John I. Blair and
his associates. The Iowa Falls and Sioux City Railroad Company was
organized on October 1, 1867, and on January 7, 1868, by a contract of
that date, took over from the Dubuque and Sioux City Company all the
right-of-way west of Iowa Falls and the work already done, also the
proportion of the land grant inuring to the line west of Iowa Falls and
all of the rights and franchises of the Dubuque & Sioux City Company
pertaining to that portion of the line.

Prior to this date, viz: on September 13, 1867, the Dubuque and Sioux
City Railroad Company leased to the Illinois Central Railroad Company
the portion of its road already constructed to Iowa Falls and also the
line to be thereafter built from Iowa Falls to Sioux City. This lease
was for twenty years or in perpetuity at the option of the Illinois
Central Railroad Company. The legislature of the state of Iowa on April
7, 1868, passed an act ratifying the said sale by the Dubuque and Sioux
City Company and vesting the land grant in the Iowa Falls Company.

[Illustration: CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY]

[Illustration: CHRISTIAN CHURCH, CENTRAL CITY]

The work begun by the Dubuque and Sioux City Company was vigorously
prosecuted so that the road was completed and in operation to Fort
Dodge early in 1869. In the fall of 1870 it was finished through to
Sioux City and the entire line turned over to the Illinois Central
Railroad Company for operation under the lease. J. E. Ainsworth was
superintendent of construction. In the original articles of
incorporation the principal place of business of this company was fixed
at Dubuque, Iowa, but in October, 1869, the articles were amended and
the main office of the company moved to Cedar Rapids. John I. Blair was
the first president. He was succeeded in 1871 by Horace Williams, who
remained at the head of the affairs of the company until the control of
the same passed into the hands of the Illinois Central Railroad.

In March, 1887, the Iowa Falls and Sioux City Railroad Company sold to
the Iowa Rail Road Land Company the remaining acres of its land grant
and all assets accruing from land transactions. At that time all of the
individual stockholders of the railroad company sold their shares to
the Illinois Central Railroad Company, who moved the offices of the
corporation from Cedar Rapids to Dubuque, and afterwards consolidated
the company with the Dubuque and Sioux City Railroad Company.


THE FREMONT, ELKHORN AND MISSOURI VALLEY RAILROAD COMPANY

This company, while a Nebraska corporation, soon after its organization
and up to 1884 kept its general offices and accounting department in
the Blair building in Cedar Rapids. It was organized at Fremont,
Nebraska, in January, 1869, to construct a line of railroad up the
Elkhorn Valley, in Nebraska, and obtained a land grant from the state
of Nebraska amounting to about 100,000 acres, also some county bonds
from Dodge and Cuming counties, Nebraska. In 1869 John I. Blair and his
associates in the Sioux City and Pacific, and the Cedar Rapids and
Missouri River enterprises obtained control of the company, and
undertook the construction of the railroad. Ten miles of track north
from Fremont were laid late in the season of 1869. In 1870 the road was
finished to West Point, and leased to the Sioux City and Pacific
Company, which company from that time on continued to operate (under
said lease) the several extensions of the Elkhorn road up to August,
1884. In 1871 the road was extended to Wisner, a distance of fifty-one
miles from Fremont, where the terminus remained until 1879, in which
year the main line was built to Oakdale, and six miles of track laid on
the Creighton branch north from Norfolk. In 1880 the main line was
extended from Oakdale to Neligh, and the Creighton branch finished to
Plainview. In 1881 the main line was extended to Long Pine, and the
Creighton branch finished to Creighton. In 1882 the main line was
extended to Thatcher, and in 1883 to Valentine. In August, 1884--at the
time of the purchase of the Iowa roads by the Chicago &
Northwestern--this last named company acquired all the stock in the
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and thereafter the work of
extension was pushed vigorously.

In the two succeeding years a line was built into the Black Hills
country and the main line of the road extended to the eastern boundary
of the state of Wyoming. Between 1884 and 1888 several lines of
railroad in the south Platte country of Nebraska were constructed by
the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Company. L. Burnett, was
engineer in charge of location and construction until the road was
completed to Wisner. From 1879 to 1889--during which period the main
line from Wisner to the west line of the state, the Black Hills branch
as far as Whitewood, and the South Platte lines were built--P. E. Hall
was superintendent of construction and J. E. Ainsworth chief engineer.
John I. Blair was the president from 1869 to 1872, Prince S. Crowell,
of East Dennis, Massachusetts, from 1872 to 1876, and James Blair, of
Scranton, Pennsylvania, from 1876 to 1883, when he was succeeded by
Horace Williams, who remained the president of the company until the
control was taken by the Chicago & North-Western Railway Company in
1884.


THE MAPLE RIVER RAILROAD

The major portion of the land grant to the Cedar Rapids and Missouri
River Railroad--transferred to The Iowa Rail Road Land Company--was
situated north of the main line of the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River
Railroad. In 1876 a large portion of several counties was vacant and
still the property of the land company, so the stockholders interested
in the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad and The Iowa Rail Road
Land Company decided to build branch lines north from the main line to
the end that purchasers might be found for the land and thus settle up
the country, and furnish business for the main line. The Maple River
Railroad Company was organized in that year to build these lines. The
money for the building of the same was furnished by the stockholders in
the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River, and Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska
companies, they taking the stock and bonds of the Maple River Railroad
Company issued for construction. The road was leased to the Chicago &
North-Western Railway Company in advance of construction. Work was
begun in the fall of 1876, and in 1877 the line was completed from
Maple River Junction to Mapleton, a distance of about sixty miles.

In 1879 a branch was built from Wall Lake Junction to Sac City. This
Sac City branch was extended to Holstein in 1882, and in 1883 to
Kingsley. The building of the above lines was under control of P. E.
Hall, vice president. J. E. Ainsworth was the chief engineer. In 1884
when the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River, Chicago, Iowa and Nebraska,
and Sioux City and Pacific roads were purchased by the Chicago &
North-Western, the Maple River Railroad was included in the sale, and
from that time on became a part of the Chicago & North-Western Railway,
which company has since extended the branch line from Kingsley to
Sargeants Bluffs, thus making another through line from the east into
Sioux City, and also extended the main line from Mapleton to Onawa.


THE MISSOURI VALLEY AND BLAIR RAILWAY & BRIDGE COMPANY

In 1882 congress granted to the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad Company
the right to build a bridge across the Missouri river to connect the
Iowa and Nebraska portions of its railway at the point where the line
crosses the river between Missouri Valley, Iowa, and Blair, Nebraska.
The Sioux City & Pacific Company not being financially able to
undertake the work, assigned its rights under said act to the Missouri
Valley and Blair Railway & Bridge Company, which company was organized
in 1882 for the purpose of building the bridge and its approaches. The
capital stock of the bridge company was subscribed for by the several
railroad companies whose roads made up the through line from Fremont to
Chicago, viz: the Sioux City and Pacific, Cedar Rapids and Missouri
River, Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska, and the Chicago & North-Western
companies, each taking stock in proportion to its mileage in the
through line between Fremont and Chicago. The money for the
construction of the bridge was raised principally by the sale of bonds,
which bonds were guaranteed--both principal and interest--by the
several railroad companies who were stockholders in the bridge company.
Work was begun early in the summer of 1882 and the bridge completed and
opened for traffic in November, 1883.

When the bridge was opened for business it had cost about $1,300,000,
of which $400,000 was for the bridge proper across the channel of the
river and the other $900,000 for the approaches and protection work.
Several hundred thousand dollars have since been expended in protecting
the river banks so as to hold the channel of the river under the
bridge. After its completion the bridge was operated by the Sioux City
and Pacific Railroad Company under a contract.

Horace Williams was the president of the bridge company from the date
of organization to the time when the control passed to the Chicago &
North-Western Railway. P. E. Hall was vice president and in general
charge of construction. George S. Morrison was the engineer who made
the plans and directed the building of the bridge. When the Chicago &
North-Western Railway Company took over the Cedar Rapids and Missouri
River and the other roads in 1884, it became the owner of the entire
capital stock of the bridge company and moved the accounting offices
away from Cedar Rapids.

The total grants of lands to these companies by the United States, the
state of Nebraska, and several counties in Iowa, amounted in the
aggregate to about one million, nine hundred and ninety thousand acres.
As the several railroads were projected it was the policy of the
companies to acquire land around the stations and plat and sell town
lots. For convenience in distribution of the proceeds to the
stockholders, and in handling the real estate, land and town lot
companies were organized from time to time to take over and dispose of
not only the land grant lands but of the purchased lands and town lots.


THE IOWA RAIL ROAD LAND COMPANY

This company was organized in 1869 and its capital stock distributed
pro rata among the stockholders of the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River
Railroad. The land grant of that railroad company was conveyed to the
land company on September 15, 1869. In 1887 the Iowa Rail Road Land
Company bought from the Iowa Falls and Sioux City Railroad Company for
cash, all of its remaining unsold lands and the bills receivable, and
other assets resulting from previous sales.

From time to time thereafter, through consolidation and purchase, all
of the remaining real estate and bills receivable of these several land
and town lot companies and of the Moingona Coal Company, which were
under common control, passed to the ownership of The Iowa Rail Road
Land Company.

The Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad was finished in 1867, and
the land grant completely earned then. From that time on the officers
of the railroad company and of its successor, the land company, for
thirty-five years persistently and continuously worked to have this
land grant finally adjusted so that the tracts actually granted might
be definitely known and the companies receive evidence of title
thereto. Their efforts were finally successful in 1902.

John I. Blair was the first president of this company. Horace Williams
was president from 1871 to 1872. In 1872 J. Van Deventer, then of
Clinton, Iowa, and later of Knoxville, Tennessee, was elected president
and remained so until 1889, since which time P. E. Hall has been the
president of this company.

Henry V. Ferguson, now vice president of this company, came into the
employ of these companies in 1868, and has been continuously in their
service since that time. P. E. Hall has been an officer of The Iowa
Rail Road Land Company since 1871.


THE TOWN LOT COMPANIES

The Blair Town Lot and Land Company was organized in June, 1871, and
took over the unsold town lots and purchased lands along the line of
the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad, and also the avails from
previous sales. It was consolidated with The Iowa Rail Road Land
Company in 1888.

The Sioux City and Iowa Falls Town Lot and Land Company, organized in
1871 to dispose of the town lots and purchased lands along the Iowa
Falls and Sioux City railroad between Iowa Falls and Sioux City, was
consolidated with The Iowa Rail Road Land Company in 1888.

The Elkhorn Land and Town Lot Company was organized under the laws of
the state of Nebraska in February, 1871. There was conveyed to this
company the land grant made to the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley
road, also the purchased lands and town lots at the several stations
between Fremont and Wisner. This company was consolidated with The Iowa
Rail Road Land Company in 1899.

The capital stock of these three companies was issued pro rata to the
stockholders of the respective railroad companies along the lines of
which these town lot companies respectively operated.

The Missouri Valley Land Company was organized in May, 1875, and
purchased for cash the remaining unsold portion of the land grant of
the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad Company, as well as the unsold town
lots and purchased lands belonging to that company. This company was
consolidated with The Iowa Rail Road Land Company on May 3, 1901.


THE MOINGONA COAL COMPANY

When the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad was extended west
from Boone there was purchased for account of the stockholders of that
company certain timber and coal lands at and near Moingona--where the
line of railroad crosses the Des Moines river. The Moingona Coal
Company was organized in June, 1866. These coal and timber lands were
conveyed to that company, and its shares of capital stock ultimately
allotted pro rata to those stockholders in the Cedar Rapids and
Missouri River Railroad, who had furnished the money for the
construction of the line west of Boone--known as the third division of
the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad. The town of Moingona was
platted and put upon the market and coal mines opened at that point,
which mines were operated continuously for about twenty years. In 1899
mining operations had ceased and the personal property of the coal
company having been closed out, the remaining real estate was turned
over to The Iowa Rail Road Land Company.

The aggregate sales up to 1910 made by these railroads, land and town
lot companies and this coal company, including land grant lands,
purchased lands, and town lots, amount to sixteen million, six hundred
and sixteen thousand dollars. The taxes paid by said companies on said
real estate while held by them amount to two million, seven hundred and
forty-seven thousand dollars.

For many years it has been fashionable for magazine writers and a
certain class of politicians to severely criticise and condemn the
public men of that day for their action in making land grants to
railroad companies. The members of congress have been characterized as
imbecile and corrupt, and the recipients of land grants denounced as
thieves and robbers. While it is quite probable that in some cases
sufficient care was not exercised, and that such grants sometimes have
been a little too liberal, looking at the situation as it was in those
days and the subsequent results, there can be no doubt whatever that
the policy was a sound one and the action of congress in most of the
cases exactly right.

A large portion of what is now known as "the middle west" then
consisted of vast unbroken stretches of prairie land, impossible of
settlement because of the want of timber for fuel and building
purposes. This territory could not support a population until
transportation facilities were provided for carrying in the necessary
lumber, fuel, and supplies, and carrying away the agricultural products
as the land should become cultivated. The price of the land at private
entry was then $1.25 per acre. The government gave half of the lands
within the land grant limits to the railroads and immediately advanced
the price on the even sections to $2.50 per acre, not only getting the
same amount of money for the same acreage, but making sales of the
government land much more rapidly.

[Illustration: SCENE AT TROY MILLS]

[Illustration: MILL AND DAM, COGGON]

Soon after the first of these grants was made it became the policy of
the government to give away its public lands to actual settlers. Until
the railroads were built through these vast bodies of vacant lands it
had not been possible for the United States to even give away its
lands, but after the construction of such roads the whole of this vast
territory was in a few years occupied by actual settlers. This
settlement and the growth in population and wealth resulting therefrom
have more than any one thing contributed to the present greatness of
this United States.

The land grant railroads taken as a whole have not been a source of
much profit to the original stock and bond holders. In many cases the
companies have been forced into extensive and costly litigation to
protect their rights; taxing authorities--both county and state--have
regarded these land grant companies as legitimate prey. The fact that
these several lines of road were built in advance of settlement and
civilization in almost every instance, made the first earnings of the
roads insufficient to pay interest on bonds issued for construction,
let alone dividends to stockholders, so that quite often a large
portion of the avails of the sales of these lands had to be used to pay
interest on the bonds.

A majority of the land grant railroads have gone through reorganization
and foreclosure, some of them several times. In the cases where there
has been a profit to the original investors, it has been no greater
than it ought to have been considering the risks run.



CHAPTER XXVI

_Some of the Old Cemeteries_


The father of Osgood Shepherd, who died in the summer of 1839, was
interred at the top of the hill above the tracks on A avenue in Cedar
Rapids where the Cedar Rapids Candy Company has erected a building.
During the excavation several other graves were found, but it is not
known who were buried there.

Another cemetery where a number of old settlers were buried was on
Fifth avenue and Eighth street where W. W. Higley later settled; these
bodies were removed when Oak Hill Cemetery was laid out. At Linwood
burials were made at an early date. One of the first cemeteries was
known as Craig's cemetery on section 7 in Franklin township about three
miles west of Mt. Vernon. Elias Doty was buried here in 1841 and James
Doty in 1847. Members of the Craig family and many others of the first
settlers were also buried here. This cemetery is not now kept up and it
is not even surrounded by a fence.

Campbell's cemetery was set off by Samuel Campbell, who donated an acre
for cemetery purposes. Here Samuel Craig was buried in 1840, members of
the Oxley family, the Hunter family, and of the John Paul family, also
of the Smith, Berry, Snyder, Blaine, and Darr families, names familiar
to all who have a knowledge of early Linn county history.

The Rogers cemetery, laid out by old Dan Rogers, is on the west side of
the river near Ivanhoe. Here, also, are buried many of the first
settlers who lived on the west side of the river.

A little to the north of Cedar Rapids near the Illinois Central track
the relic hunter can find some ruins of what is known as "McCloud's
Run." Only a few crumbling ruins remain of what used to be an old mill
known to all the old settlers in the county. Through this picturesque
valley runs a winding brook known as "Cold Stream," a beautiful rivulet
whose clear transparent water plays sonorous music as it runs swiftly
over the pebbles as if hastening to join its forces with the Cedar. The
surrounding hills have in a good measure been shorn of their beauty by
cutting down the timber, and now only the naked clay hills remain,
offering a poor pasture for cattle. West of this stream on top of the
hill overlooking the city can be found a few broken headstones and some
mounds, but no flowers and no evergreens can be seen, not even a fence
of any kind, for this little space, like all the surrounding hills, is
given up to the pasturing of cattle. There in the vicinity of the city
are more than ninety mounds showing that Linn county was from the
earliest time a fit abode for man. Who these first settlers were we do
not know; they have left us no other relics but these mounds; their
funeral pyres and a few carvings indicate that they were Sun and Star
worshippers, but whether they belonged to our Indian race has never
been ascertained; however, the mound builder serves as a chain in man's
existence.

On the top of this hill is located the family cemetery of the McCloud
family. John McCloud came here in 1838, and for a number of years was
one of the prominent men of this county. From an examination of the
small marble slabs thrown about in confusion, scratched by the hand of
vandals, are to be found the following inscriptions: "Departed this
life June 6, 1846, Hester, consort of John Vardy, age 37 years; in life
beloved; in death lamented." "Angelia, died August 30, 1852." "Grant,
died March 29, 1852." "Alpheus, died December 28, 1861." "Eliza Jane,
died January 11, 1862." "Ester Ann, died January 11, 1861, 15 years."
All were children of John G. and J. McCloud. "John McCloud, died
November 10, 1863, age 61 years 7 months and 29 days."

Mrs. John Vardy died in 1846 and was buried in this cemetery. Many of
these places are neglected, and weeds grow in profusion and the head
stones are marred and weather beaten so that the names, dates and
deaths of many pioneer men and women have been effaced. This is the
history of many neglected burial places in various parts of this
county.

Owners of land on which these small places are located think more of
their value for corn lands than they do as places for a cemetery, and
in many localities these cemeteries have been changed into pastures and
corn fields and not even a headstone can be found to tell where some
dear father or mother was buried in the long ago.

The Egyptians, Jews, Greeks, and Romans all protected the burial places
of their dead, and after a lapse of 2,000 years we can still go back
and find something as to how the dead were cared for, and the very
place in which they were buried venerated by succeeding generations,
while out here in Iowa after a lapse of only half a century many of
these places have been neglected and ignored and now some descendant
returning to the home of his fathers may be unable to find any trace of
where they were buried. Certainly some protection should be offered by
the county or the state so that these sacred places may be preserved
and the memory of the old settlers duly honored for what they
accomplished during the pioneer days in Linn county.

Spring Grove cemetery, near Palo, is one of the oldest cemeteries west
of the river. Many of the early settlers have been interred in this
lot.

A few of them are: Dyer and Hiram Usher, Charles Dickey, John Garrison,
Peter Davis Burt, Thomas Spencer, George Mathew, J. Z. Drake,
Caldwells, the Rawson and Tweed families, F. Klumph, Mrs. Dyer Usher,
and many others.

Dyer Usher as well as the other members of the Usher families was
always friendly with the Indians and in return shared the good will of
the various Indian tribes. In an early day one of the chieftains died
and was buried in the cemetery lot of the whites according to the
Indian customs. This brave was interred with bows and arrows as well as
with the dead carcass of a horse or Indian pony. Here the Indian brave
has slept for many moons, ready at the final day to join the good
Indians on a fleet charger for the happy hunting ground in the by and
by.

In the Wilcox cemetery, near Viola, Edward M. Crow and his two wives,
many old pioneers as well as old soldiers are laid to rest.

Shiloh cemetery, in Rapids township, has been the burial place for many
years of the old settlers in that part of the township.

Scotch Grove cemetery, near Fairfax, has also been used for many years
and here are interred most of the old settlers who died in that part of
the county.

The Marion cemetery, the Lisbon cemetery, the Center Point cemetery,
where is interred a Revolutionary soldier, as well as the Oak Hill
cemetery in Cedar Rapids are all places where a large number of the old
settlers have been buried during the past fifty years.

The town cemeteries seem to be kept up while the country cemeteries are
neglected.



CHAPTER XXVII

_Early Experiences in Stage and Express_


One way to learn of the history of a city is by studying its
developments and the men who were its leaders in progressive
enterprises and in things political. It is another phase of the matter,
none the less important, to study the lives of the men who did the
persistent everyday work three hundred and sixty-five days in the year
and sometimes, it seemed, almost twenty-four hours in a day. Cedar
Rapids was fortunate in having a large number of both classes of these
pioneers.

Among the latter class who worked steadily and everlastingly from the
time Cedar Rapids was a straggling little village to a city of its
present size and who aided materially in its upbuilding is W. Fred
Reiner, in the early fifties a stage driver out of this city, and for
many years after a messenger of the American Express company. It may be
safe to assume that Mr. Reiner handled as much money and bullion in
pioneer days as did any man in Linn county. His experiences were common
to the stage driver and express messenger of the early day. How he
overcame one difficulty after another, escaped highwaymen, pulled
himself out of mud-holes, etc., as he interestingly relates, is what
was the life of the real pioneer of the early fifties and sixties. The
events which are most vivid in Mr. Reiner's mind are those which
occurred after he became an express messenger for the American Express
company.

We are indebted to the _Republican_ for the following interesting
account of the experiences of Mr. Reiner in the stage and express
business:

It is fifty-three years since Mr. Reiner, at the age of eighteen, left
his home in Germany to risk his future in America. Coming west, he
settled for one year at Columbus, Ohio, then pushing still farther
west, he came to Iowa City in 1854. Here for a little while he did
teaming and other work, then began driving stage between Marengo and
Iowa City. Soon he was driving for the Western Stage Company. In 1857,
while in the employ of his company, he drove the first stage from
Calamus, near Dewitt, at that time the terminus of the Chicago and
Northwestern Railroad, to this city. It was while on this route running
to Calamus that Mr. Reiner first became acquainted with Conductor
Holten, now of Des Moines, and well known all over Iowa as the oldest
conductor in the employ of the Chicago and Northwestern.

After working in this capacity for a while Mr. Reiner returned to Cedar
county and took up farming. Soon coming back to Iowa City, he went to
the stage company's office and was immediately given a stage between
that place and Cedar Rapids.

One day while on his route he met at Solon the proprietor of the stage
company coming from Iowa City with a four-horse stage. The new stage
drew up along where Mr. Reiner was, and the proprietor called, "Fred, I
want you and your team." Wondering what was going to happen, Mr. Reiner
immediately unhitched his horses, and the driver of the leadhorses on
the other stage had also unhitched his. Mr. Reiner's team was put on as
the leadhorses, and he was told to get on the stage. While coming on
into this city the proprietor informed him that he was to run the new
stage from this city to Springville, at that time the end of the
Dubuque and Southwestern railroad.

[Illustration: HIGH SCHOOL, CENTRAL CITY]

[Illustration: BRIDGE OVER WAPSIE AT CENTRAL CITY]

As the railroad was pushed nearer and nearer Marion, the stage route
became shorter and shorter, until it was finally between Cedar Rapids
and the county seat. It was while driving between this city and Marion
that he began to carry express, and that in an unusual way. One of the
express messengers who ran into the county seat and whose home was at
that place, had to accompany the express down to this city each night
on the stage. There being no return stage until morning, he was
compelled to spend the night in Cedar Rapids. He would very often ask
Mr. Reiner to take charge of the express at Marion and bring it to this
city. The express messenger was Dr. J. M. Ristine of this city, now one
of the best known physicians in the state.

One day Supt. Thomas Adams, of the American Express company, was at
Marion. He opened a conversation with Mr. Reiner in the course of which
he asked him if he would be willing to take a position as express
messenger on the western end of the Northwestern, at that time nearing
the city of Boone. Mr. Reiner took the matter under advisement, and
later accepted the position.

Going to Boone, Mr. Reiner was given the first express route from that
city through to Omaha. With the railroad stopping at Boone, and nothing
more than a mere trail to follow, with a few stopping places, this
route on to the Nebraska city was everything but pleasant. Nevertheless
Mr. Reiner took hold of the work, and on November 7, 1865, after
forty-eight hours of almost continuous riding, he carried the first
express ever hauled by the American Express company into the city of
Omaha.

Early in the morning of the last day a stop had been made at Council
Bluffs for breakfast, and when Mr. Reiner was ready to continue the
regular stage had gone. The local agent hustled around and found a
carriage which he turned over to Mr. Reiner, so that the first express
which the American Express ever took into Omaha did not go by stage,
but by carriage.

There was nothing delicate or easy in the route assigned to the new
messenger. He left Boone on Tuesday afternoon. The stage, by changing
horses at regular intervals, went steadily on during the afternoon and
night, and all the next day and night. Early Thursday morning it would
pull into Council Bluffs, where a stop for breakfast was made. The trip
was then continued to Omaha, which was reached during the forenoon.
Leaving Omaha that same afternoon at four o'clock, the return trip was
commenced and kept up until Boone was reached at nine o'clock Saturday
morning. As Mr. Reiner had previously driven stage he was nearly always
found upon the seat with the driver. Thus he was exposed the same as
the driver was. Through all kinds of weather, the blizzards of winter
and stifling heat of the summer, these trips were made with greatest
regularity. Gradually, however, the railroad was worked farther and
farther westward, and the stage driver's route shortened accordingly.

During this period of his life Mr. Reiner had many trying and sometimes
exciting experiences. Although he is modest about relating them, those
which he told a reporter illustrate what the messengers of that period
had to contend with.

"I remember one time," said Mr. Reiner, "it was in the spring of the
year and the roads were in terrible condition. From Panora to Boone
there was one slough after another. We were driving along one night. I
was on the box with the driver, when we came to a wide slough. There
were tracks where others had driven through, but of course, we could
not go across in the same place for fear of cutting through. But the
slough looked all right, so we started in a new place. We had got into
the center when suddenly the wheels cut through the sod and the stage
sank into the water-soaked ground clear up to the axles. The four
horses began floundering around in a most dangerous manner. Both the
driver and I jumped from our seats down into the mud and water, and as
soon as possible unhitched the horses.

"There we were, stuck in the middle of the slough with nine passengers
on the inside of the coach, one of them a woman. They, of course, had
been aroused by the disturbance, and now called loudly to know what
they should do. There was but one thing that could be done, and that
was to get out and wade to shore. This they did, one of the gentlemen
carrying the woman on his shoulders. They were told that if they would
follow the road for three miles they could find lodging for the night.
A spring snow was on the ground, and the air was cold, but they started
on their way. The driver, capturing one of the horses, jumped on it and
rode for help.

"I was left there alone. In the stage coach was my express containing
some very valuable property which I did not dare to leave under any
circumstances. There was but one thing for me to do, and that was to
wade back to the stage coach and climb in and stay there until help
should arrive. This I did. I wrapped myself in my buffalo robe which
was the best I could do, but it was far from comfortable.

"In the morning help came and we were pulled out of the mud hole. A
fresh set of horses was hitched to the stage and we were soon at the
next stop. Here we met all the passengers. They had had good beds to
sleep in and warm breakfasts, so were anxious to be off. I hastily
swallowed a cup of coffee, and still in my wet clothes, climbed up on
the box seat, and rode all that day and the next night without a rest.
This was but one of the experiences which were familiar to stage
drivers and express messengers of that time."

Although during his twenty-five years of service for the American
Express company Mr. Reiner never lost a penny which had been placed in
his charge, it was not because he did not have his opportunities to do
so.

"There was one experience," he remarked, "that I remember well, and
which came as near being a hold-up as I ever had. It was the same week
that an additional express messenger had been put on the route between
Boone and Omaha, and our routes had been altered accordingly. The stage
left Boone on a Monday afternoon and was in the neighborhood of
Denison. It was a bright night and the horses were jogging along at a
good gait.

"Suddenly ahead the driver saw two men crouched by the roadside. As we
drew near they both sprang out into the road and began firing at us
rapidly. One of the first shots struck and killed the rear horse on the
left hand side. The other three animals sprang forward with such force
that they fairly jerked the harness off from the animal which had been
shot. They circled to the right and the wheels of the coach ran over
the fallen animal. The animals continued their circling until they
completely reversed the coach, then they turned and ran down the road
along which we had just come. It was always believed that the
highwaymen did not know of this change, and thought the stage carried
express as before. But the fact was I had left Boone on Monday instead
of Tuesday.

"The driver, according to the story he told me afterwards, was cussed
most roundly for not stopping the team, but he insisted that the
shooting the robbers had done so frightened the horses that they had
become unmanageable. Although the highwaymen were far from satisfied
with the explanation they made the best of a bad matter, and began to
search the driver to see what they could find. He gave them his
pocketbook, which, he said, contained forty dollars. That, by the way,
is more money than I ever saw him have at one time, and considerably
more than stage drivers usually carried. The hold-up men took the money
and gave the pocketbook back to him, as it contained some papers he
wished to save and which were of no value to the robbers.

"Soon after this incident, while going over my route one cold night the
driver stopped the team and called to me. I sat in a seat on the inside
with my revolvers lying beside me. Getting out of the door, the driver
told me there was a man crouched down in the road ahead of us. We were
out on the prairie some miles from a station. I went forward, with no
feeling of pleasure, to investigate. The man came forward also and I
recognized him as a fellow who had been lying around one of the
stations for several days. I asked him what he wanted and he replied
that he wished to get in and ride for a ways. Although the night was
cold I could not let him in for fear that he had companions farther up
the road and was only getting inside to get the lay of the land. The
express was unusually valuable that night. The fellow ran along behind
the coach for some time, but the horses gradually outdistanced him, and
that was the last we ever saw of him."

After the completion of the railroad, Mr. Reiner was given a position
as express messenger on one of the trains. "Many times," said the
veteran express messenger, "I have literally had the car floor paved
with gold and silver, over which I walked in doing my work. We had
carried lots of gold and silver bars east from Virginia City, in
Nevada. In order that, the weight should be evenly distributed the bars
were spread like paving bricks all over the car floor. The following
description, written by a reporter from one of the Council Bluffs
papers while Mr. Reiner was yet at Boone, gives a description of the
work of carrying the bullion:

"While viewing the scenes at the transfer yesterday afternoon, we
boarded W. F. Reiner's Northwestern express car and beheld a scene that
caused our hump of inquisitiveness to jump. Mr. Reiner is a messenger
of the American Merchants Union Express company, and will have served
in his present position and on his present route seven years in
November next. He lives in Boone. On the floor of his car were
sixty-seven gold and silver bricks. That is, each brick was composed of
gold and silver in compound. In some of them, silver predominated--in
value. They resemble silver almost entirely in color. They are of
somewhat irregular sizes, though nearly every one of them weighs more
than one hundred pounds. Some of them were much more refined than the
others. The amount of gold and silver in each one is stamped on the
face or top, in different lines, and the total value of the brick is
added in a third line. The value of each metal is marked, even to a
cent. How those values can be so accurately determined in a compound
brick is beyond our knowledge. Fifty-seven of those bricks which we
yesterday saw, were worth $101,950.80. The remaining eleven were worth
$15,077.57. They were mostly from Virginia City and are being taken to
New York. Mr. Reiner informed us also that these bricks are carried
only by the Northwestern and Rock Island roads. On some days he has had
as many as 160 of them in his car. They are taken east nearly every
day."

For ten years Mr. Reiner lived in Boone, then a redivision of the road
brought him back to this city. For the next fifteen years he continued
to run out of this city and do active service. Thirteen years ago the
terrible strain he had undergone in the earlier years of service for
the company began to tell upon him and he broke down in health. Then,
if a private company ever did a good and wise thing, the American
Express company did it. They said they realized the value that Mr.
Reiner had been to them when they were getting established in Iowa and
running their route through to Omaha, and they would not forget his
efficient services now that he was getting old.



CHAPTER XXVIII

_Linn County Libraries_


THE IOWA MASONIC LIBRARY

BY HELEN R. DONNAN

The Iowa Masonic Library, "unique in idea and unapproachable in scope,"
is an institution of which Cedar Rapids is proud, and to which the
Masons of Iowa point as a satisfactory answer to those who would
question the purposes of the fraternity.

As early as 1844 the late T. S. Parvin, grand secretary and librarian
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, A. F. & A. M., from its organization until
his death in 1901, began the collection of books which today is world
famous. With rare discernment and infinite patience this vast wealth of
treasures has been gathered together and placed at the disposal of all
students.

The library, for years housed at Muscatine, later in the Burtis Opera
House at Davenport, was removed to Iowa City in the year 1867, where it
remained in rooms rented for that purpose until 1883 when it had so far
outgrown its quarters that a new and more permanent home was needed. At
the annual session of 1883, the Grand Lodge set aside $20,000.00 for a
fireproof building, and, the citizens of Cedar Rapids having offered to
donate a lot and $10,000.00, it was decided to build in that city. The
site selected was ideal, fronting on one of the most beautiful avenues,
in the residence district, yet within a few blocks of the business
portion of the city. The front of the building, which is of red pressed
brick trimmed with sandstone, consists of two stories and an attic,
while the rear part is two stories, and under all is a basement, well
lighted and ventilated by a wide area-way. Surrounded by a well kept
lawn and beautiful shade trees, it presents a very attractive
appearance.

So rapidly did the library grow that in 1901 the trustees were
authorized to purchase the adjoining corner lot on which was a fine
brick residence. This has since been used as a general reference
library and reading room, known as the Annex. Both buildings have
recently been improved and re-decorated until today one entering either
one finds "a place of quiet and beauty, where sightseeing is a delight,
and study an absolute pleasure." On the right of the main entrance is
the Grand Master's room, furnished in dark and massive oak, thoroughly
in keeping with the dignity of the fraternity. On the left, a lighter
treatment in decoration and the mahogany furniture make the reception
room a delightful apartment in which the friends gather and are made
welcome. The fireproof doors at the end of the entrance hall open into
the library proper, filled with book cases on every side, and in the
center of the room are large glass cases containing thousands of rare
and interesting curios. The upper floor of this hall is a gallery
guarded by an iron railing and lighted by the skylight above. This,
too, is filled to overflowing with books and display cases. On the
walls of both rooms hang pictures of the long line of Grand Masters who
have ruled the craft in Iowa from 1844 to the present time.

[Illustration: T. S. PARVIN Long Grand Secretary Iowa Masons]

The leading feature of this library is naturally the Masonic
department. Here in cases adorned with meaning symbols are to be found
all the standard works of the fraternity and those which later
scholarship has contributed to the history, philosophy and ceremonial
of Masonry, together with the proceedings of all Grand Lodges,
Chapters, Commanderies, Councils, Shrines, Chapters of the Order of
Eastern Star, and all Masonic organizations of the world. This
department also contains the constitutions, by-laws, monitors, and
rituals of all Masonic bodies, both American and foreign. Masonic
periodicals and magazines from all parts of the globe are on the
shelves in perhaps more complete sets than can be found in any other
library. Many rare and costly works have been added, some few of which
are unique, no other copy being known to exist.

The early history of Freemasonry shows traces of the influence of other
secret societies, and it in turn has influenced almost every other
secret organization. A Masonic library would therefore be incomplete
without the history, literature and ceremonies of these associations.
This semi-Masonic department includes all works bearing upon the secret
societies of the American revolution, the early secret societies of the
middle ages and France, works pertaining to the history of the
Nestorians, Dervishes, Thugs, Druids, Rosicrucians, the Guilds, etc.

As Masonry is closely linked with art, archaeology, mythology, and
religion, a large collection of this class of material finds place in
the general reference library, now housed in the Annex. The French and
German books, comprising some four thousand volumes, the government
publications, and a large number of proceedings have been removed to
the basement, while the attic is crowded with duplicate proceedings,
magazines, and pamphlets without number.

Another interesting feature is the Iowa department containing works by
Iowa authors, as well as all works pertaining to the history of the
state.

In order to make this collection of the greatest possible benefit to
its patrons, it has been classified and a card catalog of the books has
been made in accordance with approved library methods.

For the casual visitor the principal attraction is the museum, which
contains archaeological, mineralogical, and geological specimens from
all parts of the country. Here the relics of ancient American races and
tribes give evidence of prehistoric culture, while the ruder
implements, weapons and pottery of the aborigines make a notable
collection. One large case contains only weapons of warfare; another is
filled with Iowa birds. An unusual collection is the one of shoes from
China, Japan, India, Burma, Siam, and several other foreign lands. The
case of colonial relics is especially interesting to older visitors.
The book lover finds the case devoted to rare and beautifully bound
books the supreme attraction, while the small boy enjoys the stamp
collection, the post card display, the birds, and the "freaks" of
nature exhibited here. Masonic badges, medals, coins, old diplomas,
charters, manuscripts, aprons, and other old lodge paraphernalia are
artistically displayed in the various glass cases. Scattered throughout
both buildings are many pictures, fine art pieces in bronze, bisque,
and marble, antique vases, jars, pitchers, and various pieces of modern
pottery, all donated by friends of the library.

In the autograph letter department are three large double cases each
having one hundred and forty glass covered drawers devoted exclusively
to this material. Here may be found the signatures of noted literary
men, the presidents of the United States, governors of Iowa, and others
prominently identified with the history of the state as well as noted
men of the fraternity.

In 1901, upon the death of T. S. Parvin, the founder of the
institution, his son, Newton R. Parvin, was elected Grand Secretary and
librarian. He is peculiarly fitted for this responsible position,
having served as deputy to his father for twenty-five years, and, like
his father, is giving to the building up of this splendid library the
"enthusiasm and energy of a single-purposed life."

N. R. Parvin being Grand Secretary as well as librarian, the
headquarters of the Grand Lodge are in the library building, and in the
three splendidly equipped vaults are stored many valuable papers and
records. A card index giving the record of every member in the state
has recently been completed and placed in one of the vaults.

The entire expense of maintaining the library is met by an annual tax
of ten cents for each member in the state. All expenditures are under
the supervision of a board of three trustees appointed by the Grand
Master for a term of six years. Those composing the present board are
W. S. Gardner of Clinton, W. L. Eaton of Osage, and Crom Bowen of Des
Moines.


FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF CEDAR RAPIDS

BY JOANNA HAGEY

The people of Cedar Rapids had felt the need of a public library. In
the seventies a subscription library was founded but it was forced to
discontinue from lack of funds and the books were given to the Y. M. C.
A. The City Federation of Ladies' Literary Clubs, and especially the
president, Mrs. C. D. Van Vechten, should be given the credit for
creating a sentiment that resulted in a vote of the people on March 2,
1896, to establish a library.

The council appointed a library board in June. In October the first tax
levy was made, and they began the formation and organization of the new
library which was opened to the public January 15, 1897, in rooms in
the Granby block.

The work prospered and the patronage increased so that additional space
was needed, and in 1900 the library was moved to the Dows Auditorium.

Again larger quarters were demanded and it was deemed best for the city
to own the library building. Mr. Andrew Carnegie generously gave
$75,000, which was used for the erection of the beautiful and
commodious building on the corner of Fifth street and Third avenue. The
new building was dedicated June 23, 1905.

Some idea of the growth of the library can be gained from the following
comparisons: When the library was opened there were 1,325 volumes on
the shelves. December 31, 1909, there were 19,505 volumes; 29,730 books
were circulated the first year, and 94,078 books last year; the
receipts the first year were $4,471.52; last year they amounted to
$11,049.14.

Mrs. C D. Van Vechten, Mrs. Charles A. Clark, Mrs. N. M. Hubbard, Sr.,
Miss Emma J. Fordyce, F. F. Dawley, A. T. Cooper, V. A. Jung, L. W.
Anderson, and Luther A. Brewer constituted the first board of trustees.
The following are the present board: Mrs. Mary Ziek Andre, Mrs. Kate
Terry Loomis, Miss Emma J. Fordyce, Miss Elizabeth Cock, B. L. Wick, L.
W. Anderson, Frank Filip, C. M. Doan, and Sandford Kerr. Others who
have served as trustees are: Miss Meta Aussieker, Mrs. Ida M. Ballheim,
Mrs. Channie J. Redmond, H. H. Troy, Joseph Mekota, John Vosmek, J. M.
Terry, J. T. Hamilton, W. I. Endicott, Jomes A. Molony, Robert Palmer,
John W. Barry, and Theodore Schauwecker.

Miss Virginia Dodge was librarian from 1896-1899, Miss Harriet L.
McCrory from 1899-1903, and Miss Harriet A. Wood from 1903-1910. The
present librarian is Miss E. Joanna Hagey.


COE COLLEGE LIBRARY

Coe College at an early date owned a well selected text-book library.
It was generally conducted by one of the students. Many donations have
been made, mostly by men connected with the Presbyterian ministry. The
large library of Rev. James Knox was one of the early additions made.
Later the Rev. George R. Carroll presented his valuable collection of
books to the college. Many valuable books have been donated from time
to time by members of the faculty, by students, and persons interested
in the growth of the college.

Miss Ida Dodd and Miss Cornelia Shelley served as librarians for some
years. Miss Mary Irene Amidon, by the assistance of several helpers,
has placed the library on a sound basis by a system of cataloguing
which before had been neglected.


COLLEGE AND PUBLIC LIBRARY, MOUNT VERNON

No definite data can be given for the beginning of the library at Mount
Vernon, though in the catalogue of the Iowa Conference Seminary for
1855 the statement is made that "a small but good selection of books
has been procured to which students will have access." There seems to
have been a hesitancy about giving any number of volumes, till in the
catalogue of 1864-5 we read that "the college library has about 600
volumes."

From this early beginning the library very gradually grew in strength
and helpfulness under the direction of various members of the college
faculty. The professors who served as librarians were: S. N. Fellows,
1857-60, A. Collin, 1860-70, H. H. Freer, 1870-73, S. N. Williams,
1873-91, W. C. Webster, 1891-93.

In 1891 Miss May L. Fairbanks was appointed assistant librarian, and in
1893 she was elected librarian, which position she still holds.

A gift of $50,000 was obtained from Andrew Carnegie for a library
building for the town and college. In June, 1904, the corner stone of
the new building was laid, and in August, 1905, the college library,
consisting of 25,548 volumes, was moved into the new building.

December 1, 1905, the library board of trustees was formally organized
with Dr. James E. Harlan as president. Prof. W. H. Norton, Col. H. H.
Rood, E. B. Willix, W. E. Platner, Prof. H. M. Kelly, Dr. A. Crawford,
A. A. Bauman, J. B. Leigh.

There has been no change in the library board. The annual income is
$5,000.

The library now consists of 33,900 volumes and many hundred pamphlets
that have not been numbered. The administration of the library
resembles that of a college more than a public library, and no list of
borrowers is kept.


MARION FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY

Marion free public library dates from 1903. Miss Adaliza Daniels first
began her work as early as 1902, to agitate for a Carnegie library. She
and Mrs. C. N. Owen then began to solicit funds for a building site and
collected $3,775 for that purpose. The first board consisted of the
following: Messrs. Alderman, Alexander, Bowman, Treat, Mrs. Dobson,
Mrs. Busby, Mrs. Owen, Miss Tyler, and Miss Daniels. The present board
consists of J. W. Bowman, president, Dr. J. Morehead, vice-president,
Mrs. C. N. Owen, secretary, Mr. Wood, Miss Marshall, Mrs. B. C. Busby,
Mrs. Millen, and Mrs. Parkhurst.

The income of the library has varied from $1,100 to $1,350. There are
800 card holders and more than 3,550 volumes in the library. The
librarians have been Miss Mary Parkhurst and Miss Mabel Alexander.


THE BOHEMIAN READING SOCIETY

The Bohemian Reading Society was organized November 22, 1868, at Cedar
Rapids, and some of the charter members who are still living are:
Anthony Soukup, Frank Soukup, John Pichner, and John Safranek.

Many of the pioneer settlers contributed from time to time largely of
their means for the purchase of Bohemian books and tried to inculcate
in their children a desire for the reading of books printed in their
own tongue. Many foreign newspapers and magazines were also taken in
order to keep up with the times and to create in the minds of the young
a love of the land of their fathers.

The average number of books loaned has been about 3,000 volumes a year.
The library being open to the members at stated times, much reading is
done in the library building, where a librarian is in charge. The
number of bound books for circulation has been from 2,000 to 2,500
volumes. The expense of running the library outside of room rent, heat,
etc., has been from $200 to $300. Many donations of books and magazines
are constantly being made.

A few of the librarians have been the following named persons: Mrs.
Kabasa, Neibert and Stolba, Frank Kurka. The present librarian has
served continuously for the past sixteen years.

[Illustration: WEST ROWLEY STREET, WALKER]

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, PRAIRIEBURG]



CHAPTER XXIX

_Wages and Prices in the County from 1846 to 1856_


During the decade from 1846 to 1856 land was very cheap in Linn county,
and everything else was in proportion. Wages were low, and what the
farmer raised on his premises he could find no market for, and,
consequently, outside of wheat it was pretty much worthless. The panic
of 1857 was a severe one in the county, and many of the bankers and
business people met with severe reverses from which some never
recovered. No one had any foreboding of the financial storm and all
were caught short to such an extent that they lost nearly everything,
even their homes which had been mortgaged. Many a business man with
good credit, possessed of considerable means, became swamped in the
crash. It mattered not what a man had in property, if it was not in
gold it had no price, and there was no market for anything except on a
cash basis.

From N. B. Brown's account book we glean the following as to prices for
eatables in Cedar Rapids in 1846: Beef, 2-1/2c per pound, flour, 2c per
pound (1-1/2c in 1847), beans, 75c per bushel, veal, 3c per pound,
coffee, 14c per pound, sugar, 16-1/2c per pound, tea, $1.25 per pound,
wheat 37-1/2c per bushel, corn meal, 25c per bushel, buckwheat flour,
1-1/4c per pound. This interesting book is in the possession of Emery
Brown, one of the sons.

During the decade mentioned a horse sold at from fifty to sixty
dollars, and a yoke of oxen could be had for the price of one good
horse. As many of the pioneer farmers had not the means to purchase a
team of horses, they did the next best thing and invested in a yoke of
oxen and thus managed to get along and weather the storm. A good wagon
with spring seat cost from one hundred to one hundred and twenty-five
dollars, and a log chain from two dollars and a half to five dollars.
Ordinary stirring plows sold at from ten to fifteen dollars. Mowers and
reapers were not common in those days, the scythe and the cradle being
the tools with which the young boy earned some of his first spending
money. It was surprising how much hay and grain a good farm hand could
cut in a season in this way.

The people dealt in log houses in those days like we do in second hand
furniture today. These houses were bought and sold at from fifty to
seventy-five dollars each and moved at leisure in the winter time from
one part of the township to another; at times a log house was moved
from ten to fifteen miles and everyone chipped in and helped to move. A
jug of whiskey, some hot coffee, and a good dinner were all they
expected in the way of remuneration for their labor. The young folks at
times insisted on a free for all dance and a free fiddler for the
assistance they had rendered in moving and fixing up the house. If the
young married couple who were to occupy the house did not dance or
believe in dancing, a party or two were given, ending up with a
midnight supper.

While the prices of government land was one dollar and twenty-five
cents an acre, the speculator land generally sold at from five to ten
dollars and as high as twelve dollars and fifty cents an acre. Wages
were very low, from fifty to seventy-five cents a day being the average
price paid a good farm hand. In town a person generally received from
seventy-five cents to a dollar a day and then boarded himself.

Oats sold at fifteen cents a bushel, corn at ten cents, wheat at from
forty-five to sixty cents. Hogs sold at one dollar and fifty cents a
hundred. Potatoes were considered high at ten cents a bushel, while
quail sold at thirty cents a dozen. Butter brought from five to six
cents a pound, and eggs six to eight cents a dozen.

While prices for farm products were quite low the prices paid for the
necessaries of life were high on account of lack of transportation
facilities. Coffee sold at ten cents a pound, sugar at from eleven to
twelve cents, tea retailed at eighty-five cents. Calico sold at forty
cents a yard--and a poor quality at that. Salt in the early days sold
at ten dollars a barrel, the price coming down in Cedar Rapids to five
dollars when W. B. Mack brought his first cargo of salt by steamer from
Ohio to Cedar Rapids.

Nearly all worked on shares, land was rented on shares, grist mills
operated on shares, as well as saw mills. Masons and carpenters had to
take their wages out frequently in form of property, and, while they
were hard up and needed the money, this property in time made many of
them wealthy men by their retaining what had been turned over to them
in the form of wages. Old Thomas McGregor relates how he worked for a
contractor by the name of Robinson and was offered lots where the mills
of the Quaker Oats Company now stand at ten dollars a lot to apply on
his wages, and when the writer inquired why he did not take these lots
he replied: "My wages were seventy-five cents a day, on which I had to
keep a wife and children, and they were more to me than corner lots."
Old James Cleghorn worked for the Greene Bros. in the saw mill and was
offered corner lots, and finally obtained in trade a forty acre tract
of land in Scotch Grove for his summer's work. Old Elias Skinner, the
well known Methodist preacher, in the early fifties traded a team,
harness and wagon for a forty acre tract on what is now the location of
the town of Norway, and at the time thought that the man who got the
team had the best of the bargain, as there was no market for land and
no income from it, while with a team of horses a man could make
something and always could trade it for something else if he wanted to.
Money was a scarce article in those days, while labor was cheap and the
days were long. It was generally work from sun up to sun down and
sometimes until way after dark, and no one was heard to complain,
because if a person did complain there were always plenty of others
willing to take the place of the man who wanted to quit.

There were not many varieties of food in the good old days, but the
people were healthy, they worked hard and everything tasted good. The
ordinary dishes were Indian corn, corn bread, hominy, corn dodgers,
bacon, venison, and prairie chickens. The cooking was done by an open
fireplace, stoves in those days being few. Rye coffee was used
frequently instead of the ordinary coffee and tasted good after a long
day's hard labor in the timber. Many a thrifty housewife worked for
weeks to dry corn in the fall of the year, as well as to dry apples;
hominy was also made at home. All these delicacies--so-called--tasted
good during the winter months and no one was known to be afflicted with
ptomaine poisoning.

Before the days of grist mills coffee mills were used for the grinding
of corn and wheat. In some instances a few of the early settlers used
the Indian stones, turned by hand; later horse mills were erected,
which the early settlers thought were great inventions. These mills
consisted merely of an enclosure of logs with a large wheel in the
middle around which a leather belt was placed, which was also attached
to a smaller wheel which turned the mill stones and ground the corn.
The pioneers would come several miles to such a mill and sometimes had
to wait a day or more in order to get their grist ground. They would
help run the mill, would sleep in the wagon at night and live on
parched corn on the trip; if a cup of coffee could be obtained at the
stopping place the settler would be more than gratified.

While the settlers raised almost all their provisions, they also made
most of what they had to wear. In a very cheap sort of a way they
tanned their own leather and made their own shoes; in short, relied on
their own ingenuity for nearly all the comforts of life.

The women folks were as handy as the men, if not more so, for they were
all spinsters, dressmakers and tailors; they made the blue hunting
shirts with fringes, adorned the buckskin belt which was worn around
the waist, and also cut out the tight fitting cotton blouses worn by
the boys, and even made moccasins and a coarse kind of brogan shoes.
They were furriers as well, for they made some excellent fitting wolf
skin caps for the men and some neat looking gingham bonnets, well
starched, for themselves. While the shoes were at times heavy and ill
fitting, they were only worn on Sundays and during the winter, for as
soon as spring came nearly everyone went barefoot, about the house at
least, for the sake of economy as well as for comfort.

During these pioneer years in the forties and fifties our ancestors did
not have an easy time of it by any means. They endured the hardships of
pioneer life and were subject to fevers, as well as homesickness, and
frequently during the winter months they were exposed to the severity
of the early Iowa winters when the log houses were both small and
uncomfortable, but they were men and women of iron nerve, full of push
and energy and perseverance. They had taken up a tedious battle for
existence out on the barren prairies of Iowa, far away from home and
kindred, and, at times, surrounded by wild frontiersmen, freebooters
and ruffians who were making a last stand in these parts of Iowa until
the opening up of the vast barren tracts west of the Missouri river. It
was not until after the Civil war that the people of Linn county
became, so to speak, comfortably well fixed and had some of the
comforts which they had so long looked for during the early years.



CHAPTER XXX

_Some of the First Things in Cedar Rapids and Linn County_


The first log cabin was erected on the site of what became Cedar
Rapids, by Osgood Shepherd or Wilbert Stone in 1838. The first frame
house was erected by John Vardy in 1842, and the first brick building
was erected by Porter W. Earle at the corner of First avenue and Second
street in 1844.

P. J. Upton, of the Star Wagon Company, received a carload of freight
on the first freight train that ever came to Cedar Rapids; this was in
1859. W. B. Mack received the first cargo of salt on the steamboat
"Cedar Rapids" in 1855, bringing down the price of salt from $10.00 to
$5.00 a barrel.

The first steamboat company, incorporated for $20,000.00, was organized
in 1855, some of the incorporators being Alex. Ely, Dr. S. D.
Carpenter, the Greenes, and other business men of Cedar Rapids.

The first grist mill was built by N. B. Brown in 1843. Isaac Cook was
the first lawyer locating in Cedar Rapids; John Shearer was the first
justice of the peace, and James Lewis was the first constable. The
first general store was opened by George and Joseph Greene in 1842.
Judge George Greene taught one of the first schools near Ivanhoe in
1839 and 1840. Alexander Ely, George Greene, and N. B. Brown, with
others, erected the first school house in 1847 in Cedar Rapids, later
selling it to the school district.

Joseph Greene was the first postmaster in Cedar Rapids and carried the
mail in his plug hat and distributed the same as he happened to meet
the people to whom the letters were addressed.

Dr. S. H. Tryon was the first physician in Linn county. Dr. E. L.
Mansfield was one of the first physicians locating in Cedar Rapids, in
1847. H. W. Gray was the first sheriff of Linn county, being appointed
by Governor Lucas in 1838. The first county fair was held in October,
1855. The first hotel was built in 1847, called the Union House, James
Dyer being landlord; this building was destroyed by fire in 1865.

In 1855 W. D. Watrous, W. W. Smith, and J. J. Snouffer built the
steamer "Blackhawk" for the purpose of navigating the Cedar river. It
ran between Cedar Rapids and Waterloo for two years. It was later
purchased by the government and used for a supply boat on the lower
Mississippi. In the '40s and '50s Mississippi steamboats made regular
trips to Cedar Rapids. The first railroad reached Cedar Rapids in 1859;
it is now known as the Chicago & Northwestern.

The first fire company was organized in Cedar Rapids in 1869. In 1871
the Cedar Rapids Gas Light Company was organized. The first mayor of
Cedar Rapids was Martin L. Barber.

The first steam mill in the county was built by J. P. Glass in 1845.
The first hand-raking reaper brought into Linn county was by William
Ure, of Fairfax township, who hauled it from Chicago by oxen in the
summer of 1847.

The first newspaper in Cedar Rapids was the _Progressive Era_,
published in 1851 by D. O. Finch; the first newspaper in Marion was the
_Prairie Star_, published by A. Hoyt in 1852; the first daily newspaper
published in Linn county was called the _Morning Observer_, the first
number being issued on September 1, 1870, and edited by Thomas G.
Newman and Z. Enos.

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, SPRINGVILLE]

[Illustration: QUAKER MEETING HOUSE, WHITTIER]

[Illustration: WHITTIER]

N. B. Brown erected the first flour mill in 1844; the first woolen mill
was erected in 1848. The first judge of probate in the county was
Israel Mitchell, appointed in 1838. He was also one of the justices.

The first bridge erected across the Cedar river in Cedar Rapids was in
1856 at what is now Seventh avenue. The oldest settler now living in
the county is Robert Ellis, who arrived in 1838.

The first marriage in Linn county was that of Preston Scott and Miss
Betsey Martin, which occurred in July, 1839.

The first white male born in Linn county was George Cone, who first saw
light at Marion, April 12, 1839.

The first death in the county was that of Mr. Williams, who died
January 15, 1839. He was buried in the Campbell cemetery near Bertram.
The inscription on his tombstone is yet visible.

The first mill was erected by John S. Oxley in 1842-43 on Big creek. It
was later purchased by Jacob Mann.

The first citizen to become naturalized was Peter Garren who, during
the October term of court, 1840, as a native of Scotland, renounced all
allegiance to the queen of Great Britain.

James E. Bromwell, who came to Linn county in 1839, will always be
remembered by the residents of Marion. He helped lay out the county
seat. He made the first coffin for the first interment in its cemetery,
assisted in the erection of the first residence in the town, as well as
in the erection of the first store buildings, besides taking time
enough to procure the second marriage license issued in the county for
his marriage to Catherine Gray, on August 26, 1841.

Elizabeth Bennett, a native of Syracuse, New York, who had been reared
in Canada and married to Edward Crow, November 14, 1839, is supposed to
have been the first school teacher in the county. She died in Buffalo
township February 5, 1844.

The first white child born within the confines of Linn county was Maria
Osborn, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Osborn, and was born in
September, 1838. This statement has often been disputed and cannot be
proved with certainty.


THE FIRST GRIST MILL

There has been more or less controversy as to the name of the man who
erected the first grist mill in Linn county. Marshall Oxley insists
that the first mill of this kind was built by John S. Oxley in 1842-43.
It was located in the northwest corner of Linn township on Big creek.
The material used was grown in the immediate vicinity. The dimension
lumber was hewn out of the forest and the roofing was made of
clapboard, then the primitive material used by the pioneers in covering
their buildings. The machinery was purchased in Davenport and
transported by wagon across the prairies. Before the erection of this
mill the early settlers were compelled to take their grists to what was
known as the Catfish mill near Dubuque. Frequently it required several
days to go to the mill and to return home with the flour. Sometimes the
good housewives ran short of flour while the meal was being ground. In
such cases they would grind a little corn in the coffee mills, mix it
with salt and water, cook it, and thank Providence that they lived in a
land flowing with hoe cake, milk and honey.

After the mill had been in successful operation some time two well
dressed gentlemen called at the home of the owner and asked to be given
entertainment for the night. Their request was cheerfully complied
with. Next morning they strolled down to the mill and looked it over.
After they had been hospitably entertained and were about to depart
they represented that one was a patentee and the other a lawyer and
that the owner was using an infringement on their patent. They told him
that if he did not pay them forty dollars they would prosecute him to
the full extent of the law. He paid them the sum asked but remarked
afterwards that he guessed he should have given them a charge of shot.

The mill was operated in successful manner by the miller, Jacob Mann,
until August 15, 1848, when he purchased the property for $500. He
continued to operate it until it was swept away by the flood of 1851,
Mann at this time losing his life in the flood.


A FEW OF THE EARLY ENTRIES TO LAND

A number of people resided in the county and were, so to speak,
"squatters" before the land was opened for settlement and entry could
be made. A few of the following names and locations will give the
reader an idea of some of the old settlers who came here, some of whom
resided on their respective claims before entry could be made.

Peter Kepler entered land in section 1-82-5 June 15, 1842; A. M. McCoy,
James Huntington, Edward Isham, Horatio Sanford entered land in section
2-82-5 from May 17, 1844, to November 3, 1845.

Mary Ann Doty entered part of section 4-82-5 November 29, 1844; Abner
Doty entered land March 11, 1845, in section 3-82-5; William Abbe
entered land in section 5-82-5 in 1844; Henry Kepler entered land in
the same section two years previously. Jesse H. Holman entered a forty
acre tract in section 6 in the same township and range October 12,
1842. During the year 1845 Horatio Sanford, William Abbe and William
Johnson entered considerable land in the same locality; also Allison I.
Willits and Fred Kinley as early as 1842. James, Joe and Robert Boyd
entered considerable land from February, 1843 to 1844 in section 8,
while entries were made in section 10 from 1842 to 1844 by John I.
Gibson, Oliver Day, Oakley Parker, and Robert Stinson.

During the same period the following entries were made in section 11,
to-wit: by Simeon Archer, Oliver Day, John I. Gibson, Nathan Peddycord,
and James Kelsey.

In section 13 the following entries were made from February, 1843, to
1845, viz: by Saul Elliott, Gabe Archer, James Bartley, and G. B.
Bowman.

In section 14 entries were made from 1843 to 1844 as follows: by James
Kelsey, Leonard Platner, John Donahoo, Joe Smith, Ackley Parker, and
Reuben Ash.

In section 15 entries were made from February 22, 1843, to September
18, 1844, by Dan Hahn and James Muckalls; and in section 17 by John
Stewart and John McLaughlin.

In section 18 during the same period entries were made by Nate P.
Wilcox, Meron C. Barnes, and A. J. McKean; George Greene entered a
tract in section 29 February 21, 1843. Nearly all of the above
described sections seem to have been picked up between the years 1842
and 1844.

A few names appear in various localities as having entered lands in
smaller or larger tracts, viz: Hugh Downey, J. G. Berryhill, John J.
Gibson, H. W. Sanford, William Abbe, A. J. Willits, and Morgan Reno; a
number of those men were not residents of the county at any time as far
as is known, with the exception of William Abbe.

In Linn Grove township 83, range 5, the following entries were made:

In sections 1 and 2 by Cyrell M. Webster, Morgan Reno, and William
Smythe during the years 1852 and 1853.

In sections 4 and 5 Benjamin Simons, David E. Fussel, Joe S. Butler,
and John S. Oxley made entries from 1843 to 1844. In sections 6, 7 and
8 the following entries were made during the years 1842 and 1843: John
Milner, Le Grand Byington, Socrates H. Tryon, Jesse Tryon, Dennis
Tryon, Alexander Paul, Jacob Mann, John Safely, Jane Safely, Jacob
Safely, and Adam Safely.

In section 9 and 11 entries were made during 1844 and 1845 by Ann
Whitlatch, Alonzo B. Clark, Morgan Reno, Matt Lynch, Dan I. Finch, and
Seward Kyles.

In sections 15, 17, 21 and 22 the following entries were made during
the years 1842 and 1844: James S. Varner, Levi Lewis, S. A. Yeisley,
John, Thomas and Will Goudy.

In sections 25 to 29 the following entries were made: by John and
Andrew Safely, Sam Ellison, John Goudy, George Krow, and Lewis Fink
during the years 1843 to 1844. Dan Peet made entry to certain tract of
land in section 14 at the same time.

In section 1-85-5 and 6 the following entries were made from 1852 to
1856: by Stephen Conover, Barnett Cole, Nancy H. Hunt, and others.
Richard Barber made the first entry in section 4 in 1848, while in
section 6 Philip Coffits made entry in June, 1847, and John Smith in
November, 1849.

In section 7 Chandler, Ebenezer and Moses C. Jordan entered land from
1846 to 1848. Richard Barber makes an entry in section 9 in 1848. In
section 14 Edward Crew, or Crow, enters land in November, 1840 to
January, 1845. In section 15 Jacob Mann enters land in May, 1845,
followed by another entry made by George Paddington in February, 1846.

In section 23 Absalom Cain makes an entry February, 1846, and in
section 25 George C. Perkins and Morton Claypool enters land in 1845.
John Peet enters land in section 36 in 1844, and Joseph and Ormus Clark
enters land in section 3 in 1844 and 1845.

In section 44, range 5, some of the early entries are by John Peet,
Harvey Stone, and Nelson Crow from 1842 to 1845. Sam Kelly enters
eighty acres in section 11 in 1840, and about the same time John
Gillilan enters land in section 12. John Crow enters one hundred and
sixty acres in 1840 in section 13.

Charles Pinkney makes an entry in section 28 in 1840; also another
entry in section 29 the same date. In section 32 on August 5, 1840,
Nathan Brown, G. H. Robinson, Thomas Sammis, and William Styles make
entries. The first entry made in section 33 was made by Benjamin Simons
and Abel M. Butler. Charles E. Haskins makes several entries from 1843
to 1848 in section 12-82-5, as well as in sections 1 and 2, Peter
Kepler also making entries in January, 1842.

William Abbe made several entries of land in sections 5 and 6 from 1842
to 1843, while Thomas Craig made entries in sections 6 and 7 from 1843
to 1846, as well as Daniel Hahn in section 15.

Israel Mitchell and James Hunter enter land in sections 4 and 5 in
1844, and Herman, or Harman, Boye made several entries in 1854 in
sections 24 and 28. In sections 1 and 2-82-2 entries are found as of
1843 and 1844 made by Thomas Craig, Elizabeth D. Waln, Robert Smythe,
and Samuel Littrell. In sections 7, 8 and 9 Thomas Crabtree, Abe
Stotts, and James Hunter make entries from 1844 to 1846.

Daniel, William, Henry and Elias Rogers make numerous entries in
section 14 in 1849; William Davey, Mary S. Legare, Edgar G. Stoney, J.
G. Berryhill, and Thomas J. Cox entered this land from 1849 to 1850 in
sections 2 and 5-82-7. In section 12-83-7 entries were made in 1843 by
S. H. Tryon, J. H. Blackman, M. Mitchell, and E. T. Lewis. In sections
14 and 15 J. Stambaugh, N. and D. Chapman, Ambrose Harlan, H. Weare,
Isaac Carroll, George Greene made entries from March 4, 1843, to June,
1844.

John G. McCloud makes an entry in section 16 in December, 1846. In
section 17 Robert Ellis entered land July 19, and August 8, 1843, and
John Lichtebarger in July of the same year. In section 18 the heirs of
Dan Potter convey, and Thomas Gainer and Isaac Lichtebarger about the
same time.

In section 21-83-7 Addison Daniels and N. B. Brown entered land March
31, 1843, and George Greene makes entry of land July 13, 1847 and
October 31, 1848. From 1843 to 1847 entries were made in section 22 by
A. Daniels, N. B. Brown, John G. Cole, Levi Lewis, Joshua Phillips,
and Ambrose Harlan. In section 27 Otho S. Bolling, Levi Lewis, and
Jason C. Bartholomew made entries from 1843 to 1845. In section 28
entries were made by David W. King, Tom Gainer, and J. M. May from
March, 1843, to 1859.

The entries are made earlier in the eastern and southeastern part of
the county, and later on the west side of the river and toward the west
and northwest; the most entries were made from 1852 to 1859, when there
seems to have been a wholesale tide of emigration.


ORGANIZATION OF DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN THE COUNTY

Copy of a paper given the Linn County Historical Society by Miss Mary
Durham, daughter of Hon. Samuel W. Durham.

Marion, April 27, 1843

     Committee of organization met at Marion, Linn county, Iowa.

     Resolved, that a sufficient number of gentlemen in each
     township be appointed to act as a committee of organization.

     Franklin Township--C. C. Haskins, S. Elliott, Robt. Smyth,
     A. M. Artz, Jno. Wolfe, Jas. Stewart, Benj. De Witt, Henry
     Kepler.

     Linn Township--William T. Gilbert, Sam'l C. Stewart, Ira
     Sammons, And. Safely, Jno. Scott.

     Brown Township--Geo. Perkins, Jas. V. Hill, Isaac Butler,
     Horace N. Brown, Sam'l Kelly.

     Washington Township--Bart Magonigle, Sam'l Lockhart, Ben D.
     Springer, Wm. B. Davis, Thos. Lockhart, Sr., A. Moats, Wm.
     Cress, Wm. B. Harrison.

     Lafayette--Gilman Clark, Chas. Cantonwine, Daniel Richards,
     Sam'l Brazier, Jacob Cress.

     Putnam--Jno. Barnet, Jno. Hile, Alex Cox.

     Marion--M. Strong, Geo. Greene, Iram Wilson, Prior Scott,
     Perry Oxley, S. H. Tryon, Joel Leverich, John Hunter, Thos.
     Railsback, S. W. Durham.

     Rapids--N. B. Brown, P. W. Earle, Baker, Gainor, Justus
     Wells, John G. McLoud.

     Resolved, that each township send one delegate to Linn
     convention and those having 100 votes, 2, and 1 for every
     additional 50.

     Resolved, that with order to an organization of the
     democratic party in Linn County the committee in each
     township be requested to give due notice to the democratic
     citizens of their respective townships by written
     advertisement or otherwise, to meet at some convenient place
     in their said townships on the first Saturday of June next
     at 2 o'clock P. M., for the purpose of choosing delegates to
     attend the Territorial Convention at Iowa City on the 4th
     Monday in June, and also to appoint delegates to a District
     Convention, to be held at William L. Gilbert's at such time
     as may hereafter be agreed upon by the corresponding
     committees in the counties composing the 8th electoral
     district, to nominate candidates for Representatives to the
     Legislature to be supported by the democratic party at the
     annual election in October next.

     Resolved, that a committee of three be appointed.

L. M. STRONG, Prest.

SAM'L W. DURHAM, Sec.

[Illustration: MAIN STREET, CENTRAL CITY, FROM THE SOUTH]

[Illustration: GENERAL STORE AT COVINGTON]



CHAPTER XXXI

_Society in the Early Days_


The early settlers in Linn county were intelligent and cultured. They
did not come to the county because communities in the east were glad to
be rid of them. It was for far different reasons our pioneer men and
women made their homes here. They looked upon this as a goodly land,
one filled with opportunity, and they entered in and occupied it.

Mrs. R. C. Rock, now in her 83d year, has vivid recollections of
beginnings in Linn county. She came overland from Dubuque in 1850, and
ever since has called Cedar Rapids her home. She says in her first
years here the people took the best magazines of the day, passing them
around so that all might read them. In 1852 there was organized a
literary circle of ladies and gentlemen. This circle met once a week at
the homes of the members. Original papers were read at these meetings,
the subjects being assigned in advance. Occasionally distinguished
lecturers from abroad were obtained. On one occasion Oliver Wendell
Holmes was here, giving an entertaining talk to a large audience on the
"Great Pyramids." Judge Williams, of Muscatine, one of the original
members of the supreme court of the state, was also a lecturer here.
From time to time Dr. J. F. Ely, Judge Greene, and other local men read
papers or made addresses, "and they were always of a high order," says
Mrs. Rock.

Occasionally there were formal parties, as in these days. There was a
greater amount of entertaining a half century or more ago here than
there is now. There were no special distinctions of class, all the
citizens were welcomed. Some of the most hospitable homes were those of
the southern colony, mentioned in another chapter in this book. Dr. and
Mrs. Ely entertained a great deal in their home located where now
stands the old Post Office building. Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Bever were
always hospitable, and the Greenes did their share. Mrs. Rock says
nothing as to her own entertaining in these days, but her home was
recognized as one of most cordial hospitality, refinement and culture.
Col. W. H. Merritt, Gabriel Carpenter, William Greene, Lawson Daniels
and their wives were also pleasant and hospitable entertainers.

Mrs. George C. Haman, whose husband by the way is the oldest business
man in this city--oldest in point of continuous service--wrote in 1906
quite interestingly for the _Republican_ her recollections of society
in Cedar Rapids in the early days. We take the liberty of reproducing
the same here. It is a vivid picture of social doings a half century
and more ago.

     Society in the early days had one pleasant feature that we
     do not have at the present time. There was only one social
     circle and there was not so much society to the square inch
     as there is now. It was before the days of parties with the
     men left out and before the days of clubs and cliques. A
     large social function meant all the social people in town,
     and was thoroughly enjoyed by all, and nothing but sickness
     or death kept any away. The first social affair I attended
     was in '57. Even then Cedar Rapids enjoyed a social
     reputation equal to any town in the state and it soon took
     the lead with such families for social leaders as those of
     Judge Greene, Dr. J. F. Ely, S. C. Bever, Gabriel Carpenter,
     Colonel Merritt, William Greene, Lawson Daniels and a few
     others, who believed that money-getting should not be the
     only aim in life, and believed in a high standard of social
     and literary enjoyment as well.

     The social, literary and religious foundation laid by these
     far-seeing men and women is what gave Cedar Rapids the
     prestige it enjoys among the sister cities of the state. Of
     course in the forties and fifties most of the entertainments
     were simple, but there were red letter days. The first large
     social affair I attended was a wedding, and the first
     wedding I ever attended. It was the marriage of Miss
     Carpenter, daughter of Gabriel Carpenter, to Mr. George
     Weare, brother of the late John Weare and Mr. Charles Weare.
     The bride was lovely. The groom was a young business man of
     Sioux City, where they have lived ever since. The wedding
     banquet was a feast of all the good things that a good
     housewife could prepare, and Mrs. Carpenter was famous for
     her culinary achievements. Her turkey dinners brought joy to
     many friends. She is now in her eighties, and lives a
     retired life.

     While writing the account of this wedding I received a paper
     giving the account of the wedding of a granddaughter of this
     bride and groom.

     The second social affair that stands out prominently in my
     memory is a large party given by Dr. and Mrs. Ely. The
     social functions given at this hospitable home were always
     delightful. The genial personality of the host and hostess
     pervaded every corner of the home, and when one entered its
     portals one knew that Dr. and Mrs. Ely would give a cordial
     welcome. It was a home where all of the new-comers were
     always entertained, the latch-string always being out. Mrs.
     Ely was a very philanthropic woman, was the leader of all of
     the charitable works for many years. Under her leadership
     many of the philanthropic women of today received their
     early training. Her noble works gave them their incentive.
     There were not so many spacious homes as now, but those who
     had them dispensed hospitality most generously and in a way
     not surpassed in these days.

     The home of S. C. Bever, for many years the largest, stood
     where the Rock Island offices now stand. This home was where
     the bishops and other clergy of the Episcopal church were
     always entertained while in town. This home, with its large
     family of young people that drew like spirits, was the
     source of many gaieties. Mr. and Mrs. Bever's hospitality
     many times won financial success for Cedar Rapids. They
     entertained strangers who came to spy out the land. One
     occasion of this kind was in '55, when Judge Greene, Dr.
     Ely, John Weare, Lowell Daniels, W. W. Walker, S. D.
     Carpenter and S. C. Bever all went to Chicago to attend a
     national republican convention. All being business men, ever
     ready to build up Cedar Rapids, at this convention they made
     it their business to meet men from New York and Boston and
     to talk up the advantages of Iowa and what a railroad could
     do, until Mr. Ames of Boston, Crocker, Bertram and others
     came back with the Cedar Rapids delegation, and were taken
     in conveyance through central Iowa. While the men were
     working the eastern capitalists for a railroad the women all
     got busy and prepared for a reception and dance at the home
     of S. C. Bever. Some baked cakes, others prepared meats,
     others the bread and others the ice cream. The whole town
     was invited, so when the eastern men returned, they were won
     completely over and the project of the first railroad into
     Cedar Rapids was laid then and there.

     Homes were often called upon to open their doors to
     strangers in town, who often were induced by the warm
     hospitality and good fellowship to invest their money and
     join hands and build up Cedar Rapids. When a large function
     was given all the friends assisted. Dishes and table linen
     and services were offered. We could not hire a caterer to
     come and prepare refreshments and serve a company. Our
     friends were the helpers.

     The home of William Greene was also one with open doors. It
     stood on the corner of Third street and B avenue. It was not
     a large house, but a very hospitable one. Later William
     Greene built a beautiful house in the block where A. C.
     Taylor, Dr. Ruml and Dr. Kegley now live. The grounds
     covered the whole block and were laid out with landscape
     effect. It was a beautiful place, and many fine
     entertainments were given there.

     The Higley brothers, Harvey, Wellington, Mort and Henry, in
     the early days, lived in small homes, but that did not deter
     them from keeping up their end of social life. Lucy and
     Jennie Higley were fine cooks and charming hostesses. Mort
     and Wellington were jolly good fellows and every one knew
     they were sure of a pleasant time when invited to their
     homes, no matter whether it was to a church social, or a big
     "standup" party as they were called in those days.

     S. L. Dows' first home was like those of the rest of the
     pioneers, small, but hearts were large and no one extended a
     more cordial welcome to their friends than Mr. and Mrs.
     Dows. After they built their new home on First avenue, many
     brilliant affairs were given by them.

     The home of George C. Haman, on the corner of A avenue and
     Fifth street, is an old land mark. Mr. and Mrs. Haman have
     lived there for over forty years. Their children were born
     and brought up there, and like many pioneer homes, it has
     been the scene of many festivities and good times.

     The home of the late John Weare, with its large family of
     young people, will always be remembered by the old settlers.

     The home of Mr. and Mrs. Belt, now owned by Mrs. George W.
     Bever, was the scene of many enjoyable house parties.
     Friends from eastern cities and prominent people throughout
     Iowa were entertained there. Mrs. Belt loved to entertain
     the clergy.

     The entertainments given by Judge and Mrs. Greene were the
     crowning social events of early days. The home and estate
     were outside of town, but that was no obstacle to their
     entertaining. Judge Greene was ready for every emergency and
     the home was characteristic of the man. He was broadminded,
     warm hearted, foresighted, generous and philanthropic, and
     his home was conducted on these plans. His first house on
     his beautiful estate, Mound Farm, was not large, but he
     always found a way to entertain his friends and visitors to
     Cedar Rapids. For example, he had a house party of friends
     and wished Cedar Rapids people to meet them. He was at the
     time building some buildings to shelter his sheep, of which
     he had a great many. So he put floors in the building
     preparatory to entertaining his guests and friends. He found
     on short notice that if he expected to have the only good
     music in town he must take it next day. He and Mrs. Greene
     talked the matter over and decided to have the party. They
     sent word to the other members of the Greene family and
     intimate friends what they expected to do and they all came
     to their assistance. Early in the morning Mrs. Belt made out
     the list and the family delivered the invitations. Mrs. Belt
     and Mrs. William Greene baked all the cakes. I don't know
     just how many picked strawberries, but Mrs. Greene told me
     that eighty quarts were picked and hulled that day. Mrs.
     Greene superintended the making of the ice cream and the
     decorating of the building. Special train service over the
     Dubuque and Southwestern was arranged to bring the guests
     from a central point to the sheep pens. All was in readiness
     and the host and hostess ready to receive their guests at
     eight o'clock. It was a most enjoyable event, and is still
     recalled with pleasure by the old settlers. It is safe to
     say that with the conveniences of today, such a social
     affair could not be gotten up in one day. Later when Judge
     Greene built his large house on the crowning point of Mound
     Farm, in the center of the beautiful grounds which he had
     been ten or more years preparing, Mr. Paddington, an English
     gardener, had it in charge. Every kind of shrub and tree
     that could be grown in Iowa was planted. The place for
     situation and beauty could not be equaled in Iowa, and the
     grounds were the most beautiful. When Judge Greene had the
     walls up and ready to roof, a tornado tore them down. But
     notwithstanding this discouragement, his house was built
     and furnished with the richest furnishings of those days.
     Three thousand dollars worth of oil paintings hung on the
     walls. All the furnishings were bought in New York City.
     When all was complete, he opened it with a most brilliant
     house warming. As Judge Greene always considered Cedar
     Rapids and her citizens in whatever he did, all were bidden,
     as were many of his friends throughout the state, to the
     opening of his new house. The beautiful impression of the
     illuminated grounds and house and the cordial hand-clasp of
     welcome from host and hostess that thrilled each guest with
     good fellowship and heartfelt appreciation were never
     forgotten. Indeed it was an evening of rare pleasure.

     There were a few years when fancy dress parties were all the
     rage. The first one given was in the home of Colonel Merritt
     and was novel and beautiful. Colonel and Mrs. Merritt were
     charming entertainers. Colonel Merritt built the house where
     Dr. J. H. Smith now lives. It was bought by John W.
     Henderson. He and his handsome and cordial wife entertained
     hospitably. After Dr. Smith owned the house, he and his wife
     dispensed hospitality lavishly and state politicians were
     often their guests.

     The Daniels home was another of the hospitable homes, where
     many large parties were given especially for the pleasure of
     the younger set.

     The home of Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Cook was for several years
     the largest and most modern in the city. Mrs. Cook, with her
     charming daughters, gave many elegant parties. The house was
     built by I. N. Isham. He only occupied it for a few years
     and sold it to H. G. Angle, who lived there one year. J. S.
     Cook then bought it and lived there many years. Now it is
     used for the National hotel annex.

     In the home of Mr. and Mrs. A. R. West, children as well as
     their older friends, found a warm welcome. The little folks
     loved to congregate there and entertainment and refreshments
     were always provided for them. "Papa and Mama West," as the
     children called them, were never too busy to answer all the
     questions asked by their young friends, who were always made
     to feel thoroughly at home.

     The home of Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Rock was one of hospitality
     and of culture and refinement, as well. No woman ever did so
     much toward the education of the young people in early days
     as Mrs. Rock. She was also a great worker in the church and
     is the only living charter member of Grace Episcopal church.

     The first church wedding was in the little Second
     Presbyterian church. It was the marriage of Mr. George C.
     Haman and Miss Louise Wolf. It was at five o'clock in the
     morning, and the wedding breakfast was at 4 o'clock. The
     reason for having the wedding at this unseemly hour was that
     the bride and groom were going east and there was only one
     train a day left town, and that was at six in the morning.
     The attendants at the wedding were Mrs. M. P. Mills, nee
     Coulter; Mrs. Portus B. Weare nee Risley; Mrs. Taylor, nee
     Earl, and Miss Carpenter, bridesmaids. The groomsmen were
     Mr. James L. Bever, Mr. Carter Berkley, Mr. Mortimer A.
     Higley and Dr. Lions.

     The first large public affair in Cedar Rapids that gathered
     together all the people of the town, all in the state who
     could get here and some from Chicago and the east, was in
     June, '59. The occasion was the completion of the first
     railroad into Cedar Rapids. It was the Chicago, Iowa and
     Nebraska, now the Chicago & Northwestern. The citizens had
     looked forward to this for many years, and it was a
     financial struggle to get it through, but when it was
     completed there was great rejoicing. A great celebration was
     given. The tables for the banquet were spread where now
     stands the Masonic Library, and the George B. Douglas home.
     The women prepared all the edibles and with the assistance
     of the young men and girls, served the banquet. The men took
     charge of the speeches, parade and music. The depot was then
     in the lower end of town, about Twelfth avenue and Fourth
     street. The speeches were made there. At the finish the
     marshals of the day formed all in line and marched to the
     grove where the banquet was spread, and it is needless to
     say the feast was enjoyed. I fear there were not twelve
     baskets full left. The climax of the occasion was a ball
     given at Daniels's hall, that stood where the Masonic Temple
     now stands. It was a brilliant affair and the dancers tipped
     the light fantastic toe until the rosy dawn was breaking.
     The weary dancers wended their way home on foot, the girls
     in tarlatan gowns and white kid slippers. Public carriages
     were scarce, and the new and only bus had gone to meet the
     early train. Thus ended the largest public social event up
     to that time.

[Illustration: UPPER WAGON BRIDGE, CENTRAL CITY]

[Illustration: HENDERSON BRIDGE AT CENTRAL CITY]

     The years from '61 to '65 were years of great anxiety and
     all the entertainments given were to gather the forces to
     make all we could to get delicacies for our soldiers who
     were fighting in the Civil war. The women, as always, did
     their part. Mrs. Ely, with her loving heart and her capable
     leadership, directed the younger women. Dramatic
     entertainments were given by the young people. I recall some
     of those who took part: The Misses Carrie and Kate Ely, Dr.
     Lions, William Berkley, J. H. Haman, Miss Laura Weare, the
     Misses Coulter, Miss Earl, Miss Risley, Mrs. Dr. May,
     William Baker, Mr. and Mrs. Haman, Hall, Wood, Stibbs, and
     Carroll. The rest of the men had all gone to the war and
     most of these finally went. Sociables and fairs were then
     held to raise money. There were days and nights of sewing
     and packing barrels to be sent to the seat of war. These
     were the days when all personal sacrifice was a pleasure.
     When the war was over and the pall of horror was lifted, the
     first joyful events were given in honor of fathers,
     husbands, brothers and lovers home from the war. Days and
     nights were spent making flags and banners, twining arches
     that were placed over the street, cooking of good things.
     Nothing was too good for the soldier boys. When the tables
     were spread in the grove the returned soldiers, led by
     Colonel T. Z. Cook, Colonel Merritt, Colonel Coulter, and
     General Jack Stibbs marched up the street. Many were scarred
     and lame and with emaciated faces. The bullet-riddled flags
     were carried at half mast for those who fell in the battle
     or died in southern hospitals. Our tears of joy were mingled
     with tears of sorrow. For a year or two afterwards all
     entertainments were given to raise money for soldiers'
     widows and orphans. Parties and fairs of every description
     were given.

     A colonial ball was given in '59, in which Colonel T. Z.
     Cook and Colonel Merritt and General Jack Stibbs came in
     military costume. All three were handsome men with soldierly
     bearing. All who attended this ball were in colonial dress.
     To me it was the most beautiful social function of those
     days. There were a number of beautiful women and handsome
     men who looked well in colonial style of dress.

     This party was given at Carpenter's hall Tuesday evening,
     March 1, 1859, and was for the benefit of the Mount Vernon
     fund. The patronesses were Mesdames Wm. H. Merritt, H. G.
     Angle, S. C. Koontz, Wm. Greene, J. G. Graves, W. B. Mack,
     C. B. Rowley, H. W. Perkins, S. D. Carpenter.

     The committee on arrangements was composed of Wm. H.
     Merritt, H. G. Angle, R. R. Taylor, W. B. Mack, D. M.
     McIntosh, Lawson Daniels, Edward J. Smith, Hon. Geo. Greene,
     S. D. Carpenter, Wm. Greene, John G. Graves, T. Z. Cook, H.
     B. Stibbs, T. S. McIntosh, Wm. Berkley.

     In '69 and '70 there was a fine course of lectures by Bayard
     Taylor, Henry Ward Beecher, Barnum, J. G. Saxe and other
     noted lecturers. The money raised was used to fit up a small
     public library which was in circulation for a number of
     years.

     Judge Greene built a fine opera house and always gave the
     use of it for entertainments for charity and the ladies gave
     a great many affairs. It was not unusual for them to make
     one thousand dollars at one entertainment, for everything
     was donated and people attended entertainments of that sort
     better then than they do at the present day. Years ago towns
     in the vicinity of twenty miles returned social courtesies.
     In the winter of '68 Iowa City and Cedar Rapids got very
     friendly. A party of young people were invited to a ball
     given at the Kirkwood in Iowa City. The weather was cold,
     the snow deep; but bob sleds were rigged up with buffalo
     robes. This party started out early, but owing to the deep
     snow and an upset or two, it was late when they arrived. But
     they had a pleasant time and returned late next day.

     Marion and Cedar Rapids were very cordial to each other.
     When the homes of I. N. Preston, Mr. Twogood, and Preston
     Daniels were opened with social events a number of Cedar
     Rapids people were invited and these families gave beautiful
     parties.



CHAPTER XXXII

_Southern Influence_


In every frontier community we gauge the settlement by the influences
which predominate. Thus we have the Buckeye, the Hoosier, and New
England elements in certain states and communities, making these local
influences more or less marked traits of character, according to the
size of the settlements, and also the temperaments of the settlers. In
an early day there arrived in Linn county a number of people from South
Carolina, who located here and influenced the social side of this
frontier settlement in a marked degree. These families settled here in
1849: The Legare, Bryan, McIntosh, Stoney, and other families. The
Legare family came from John's Island, about ten miles from Charleston,
where they had lived for several centuries, being of an old French
Huguenot family, which had removed to England and from there emigrated
to America. It was here, or rather in Charleston, that Hugh Swinton
Legare was born in 1789, the mother being of Scotch descent and related
to Sir Walter Scott. Hugh Legare first obtained a private education
from a Catholic priest, later graduating from the University of South
Carolina. He embarked in 1818 for France, later taking up studies in
Edinburgh and on the continent. After a stay of two years he returned
to America to take charge of his mother's plantation. Not until 1822
did he begin the practice of law in Charleston; he also edited the
_Southern Review_, and in this journal advocated views opposed to
nullification. His attitude on this question brought him into
prominence, and he was elected attorney general of the state. While in
Washington he met Livingstone, then secretary of state, who offered him
a position as minister to Belgium, which he accepted. After his return
to America he was elected to congress in 1836, but was defeated for
re-election in 1840 on account of his opposition to the sub-treasury
bill. He was rewarded by President Tyler with a place in the cabinet as
attorney general, and for a time acted as secretary of state. He died
in 1843, one of the best known public men of his time.

His sister, Margaret Swinton Legare, who had been her brother's
travelling companion and most intimate friend, in 1849 brought a
fortune to Cedar Rapids. She was accompanied by her nephews, B. S.
Bryan, Hugh L. Bryan, and Michael Bryan. It is said that nearly $80,000
in cash were at one time invested in property in this county by this
family alone. A large part of this amount was invested in lands and in
a woolen mill, which was located near what is now known as the Cooper
mills.

Michael Bryan was married to a Miss Dwight, a distant relative of
General Marion. She was also wealthy in her own name. A bank was
started by the Bryans and the Wards in the early fifties known as Ward,
Bryan & Co.'s Bank. This bank failed in the panic of 1857, Colonel I.
M. Preston becoming receiver.

Donald M. McIntosh, Mrs. Rutledge, and her sisters, Joanna and Harley,
came about the same time and were related to the other families. Many
other less prominent southern people during these years came to Cedar
Rapids which could boast of a true southern society. Mr. McIntosh
erected one of the first brick dwellings in the city and held various
public offices. Michael Bryan was alderman in 1851, while B. S. Bryan
was elected city recorder. The Bryans were not outspoken in politics,
but McIntosh was a democrat, the aunt, Miss Legare, held to the whig
tenets of her illustrious brother, whose speeches and works she
edited. She was also interested in church work, as well as in the
education of women.

Michael Bryan erected a fine residence where the old N. B. Brown
homestead is now located. At this house social affairs of the little
town were conducted in true southern style, and fortunate was the
person who was favored with an invitation to visit in the Bryan home.
Michael Bryan died here, and the widow with her family returned to
South Carolina just preceding the Civil war. B. S. Bryan removed to the
coast and is still living in Seattle.

Miss Legare organized a ladies' seminary, and was an artist of
considerable talent. She was also an accomplished musician. It is said
that she brought the first piano to the county. However, this claim has
been disputed as it is said that the J. P. Glass family brought a
musical instrument here in 1846.

In the '50s Miss Legare became the wife of Lowell Bullen, an uncle of
the Daniels brothers, whose home was in North Brookfield,
Massachusetts. They resided at Marion until Mr. Bullen's death in 1869,
when the widow returned to her old home in South Carolina, surviving
her husband a number of years.

Nearly all the members of the southern society were members of the
Presbyterian church, and took an active part in the religious and
social work of that people. Mrs. Bullen was kind and considerate. Her
dignified presence was enough to give her entrance into any home. She
took an active interest in the poor, and was interested in education in
general. She loved and revered the memory of her statesman brother, and
never forgot what place he held at one time in the affairs of the
nation. During the rebellion she felt that her heart would break as she
thought of friends and relatives fighting on both sides in that
terrible struggle for the preservation of the Union.

A letter received lately from Bryan & Bryan, attorneys of Charleston,
South Carolina, throws some light on this subject:

     "In reply to your letter of the 10th instant, we beg to say
     that H. S. and B. S. (Benjamin Simons) and Michael Bryan, of
     whom you speak, were the sons of Col. John Bryan, a planter
     of this section.

     "He (Col. John Bryan) married a sister of Hugh Legare, the
     writer and statesman, and attorney general of the United
     States. These sons went to Cedar Rapids before 1860.

     "Michael Bryan married Harriet Dwight, a sister of my
     mother, Rebecca Dwight.

     "It happened strangely enough, that my father, George S.
     Bryan, who married Rebecca Dwight, was no relation to
     Michael Bryan, who married Harriet Dwight. (In other words,
     the two Bryans being no relation, married two sisters.)

     "Michael Bryan had several children, the survivors are Emily
     Bryan, married ---- Andrews, now living in Abbeville county,
     South Carolina, with a number of children, her husband being
     a planter; and William Bryan, whose residence is unknown to
     the writer.

     "Michael Bryan's nephew, Edward Bryan, is also living on one
     of our Sea Islands, in the vicinity of Charleston, and is a
     planter. As far as we can ascertain, B. S. Bryan of whom you
     speak, was engaged in banking in Cedar Rapids, and Michael
     Bryan was engaged in real estate, having built up a portion
     of Cedar Rapids. He died in Cedar Rapids before 1860, and
     his family removed back to South Carolina. They were not
     Quakers, but Presbyterians, and attended the Circular
     church, Meeting street, in Charleston, S. C., which was a
     branch of the Presbyterian church."

[Illustration: BAPTIST CHURCH, PRAIRIEBURG]

[Illustration: MILWAUKEE BRIDGE, AT COVINGTON]

In addition to the above mentioned, a large number of cultured and
educated people came from Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Who does not remember the aristocratic and learned A. Sidney Belt, the
robust, courtly old gentleman, Colonel S. W. Durham, the versatile
and polite Judge Israel Mitchell, the genial Oxley brothers, and scores
of other southern men and women?

The members of the Legare, Bryan, McIntosh, Durham, Oxley, Belt,
Mitchell, and other southern families who located in Linn county did
much in changing the manners of this somewhat cosmopolitan community.
These families pursued education. The members had traveled much. They
were descended from some of the most cultured families in this country.
They were social, interesting, and entertained much, and it is needless
to add that the citizens of the county were not slow in receiving the
southern settlers into their homes. The presence of such an influence
in the formative period of the county's history wielded an influence
which has not been entirely effaced after a period of half a century.

Some time later came the Hart brothers, Jacob A. and Caspar J., and for
years the influence of these sturdy men was a power for good in the
city and the county. It will be many years before these splendid
representatives of the southland will be forgotten. The home of Mr. and
Mrs. Jacob A. Hart was a most hospitable one. It was always open to the
new settler from the south, and especially to those who came from
Maryland, their old home. Their commodious brick dwelling that stood so
long at the corner of Second street and Fifth avenue, was a center for
long years of true and genuine hospitality. Its doors were never locked
against a Marylander, and all these felt free to "come early and stay
late." To many a young son of the south Mother Hart was ever the best
of mothers, caring for the sick lads, satisfying their hunger with
fried chicken and Maryland biscuits--oh, who that once was welcomed
there will ever lose the memory of it! Mrs. Hart is yet a resident of
this city, spending a ripe old age in dispensing the same
well-remembered hospitality, going about doing the deeds of kindness.

Mrs. R. C. Rock, herself a pioneer of 1850, has vivid recollections of
beginnings in Cedar Rapids. She knew the Bryans intimately, and also
the Legares. She says they were people of culture. Mr. Stoney, the
husband of Miss Bryan, was educated abroad, and came to Cedar Rapids in
1852 or 1853. These people were led to locate in the city through the
influence of Judge Greene, whom they met in Washington. Mrs. Rock
states that at this day it is impossible to estimate what Judge Greene
meant to the young city. Through his influence people of means,
culture, and learning were induced to come to the city and county. He
traveled a great deal, and something good for Cedar Rapids always
resulted.

J. J. Snouffer was another Marylander who came to Cedar Rapids in 1850,
and for nearly a half century his was a powerful influence in the
community. He was prominent in business and political affairs, and was
ever a loyal citizen.

Dr. Robert Taylor, one of the prominent early physicians, came from
Virginia in 1851. After remaining here a few years he removed to
Philadelphia.



CHAPTER XXXIII

_Some Township History_


BERTRAM TOWNSHIP

In the history of Linn county Bertram township has played a conspicuous
part, and was at various times about to be the township in which were
located some of the most enterprising towns in the county. Ivanhoe,
Westport, also known as Newark, and other places are well known names
among the early settlers. Their locations have been wiped off the map,
so to speak, on account of changed conditions. The following sketch is
taken largely from manuscripts and articles written by the late John J.
Daniels, one of the old citizens of Linn county, one of the early
county recorders, for many years a justice of the peace, and a well
known and enterprising citizen, who was always interested in the old
settlers and in the development of historical research in the county in
early days. Mr. Daniels says:

     "In the early settlement of Linn county the territory now
     forming Bertram township was selected by the early settlers
     for very prominent reasons, it having good mill streams,
     good water, and plenty of good timber near at hand, which
     was so much needed by the early settlers for building and
     fencing. Two of the early pioneers were Thomas W. and Sarah
     Campbell, of Dearborn county, Indiana. They came in the fall
     of 1838 and settled on the northeast quarter of section 27,
     and obtained a patent from the United States March 7, 1844.
     Mr. Campbell was elected the first county treasurer in 1839,
     and in 1840 his first collection of county taxes for
     licenses, ferries, and lands was $985.85. He died February
     22, 1876.

     "Perry and Catherine Campbell Oxley, of Montgomery county,
     Indiana, first located in Linn township, but in the fall of
     1838 came here and took up a claim on the southwest quarter
     of section 22 and built their cabin in the grove near the
     east line. Mr. Oxley was the first constable elected in the
     county in 1839, and was bailiff of the grand jury of the
     county. He was the best shot in the county. He died
     September 30, 1886, universally mourned.

     "Norris and Ann Cone, of Connecticut, came in February,
     1839, and settled on section 21. Mr. Cone later removed to
     Marion. George Cone, their son, claims the honor of being
     the first child born in the township in 1839.

     "James and Elizabeth Leabo and Israel Mitchell, natives of
     Kentucky, in 1838 left the mining regions near Dubuque and
     settled on claims in this township on the north side of the
     river. Mrs. Leabo died September, 1852, and James Leabo
     removed to Oregon, where he died.

     "Mr. Mitchell was a graduate of a Kentucky college and
     celebrated the first 4th of July at Westport in 1838, Judge
     Mitchell being the orator.

     "The first and only election of the county that year was
     held there, thirty-two votes being cast. The first store
     opened in the county was at Westport, by Albert Henry in the
     fall of 1838.

     "James and Mary Scott, of Indiana, came in 1838 or 1839. Mr.
     Scott was an enterprising farmer. He purchased a saw mill on
     Big creek and early built a large flouring mill during the
     fifties. On account of the failure of crops the mill was not
     a success. He died in 1894 in Marion township.

     "Elias Doty, of Ohio, came in 1838 or '39, and in 1840
     commenced the building of a saw mill on Big creek, but was
     accidentally killed at its raising. The mill property later
     passed into the hands of James R. Briney.

     "James Hunter, a native of Ireland, came in 1838 and took a
     claim; he died May 14, 1888, at the age of sixty-nine.

     "Everett Oxley, a native of Kentucky, born in 1812, at the
     age of fifteen removed to Indiana where he married Catherine
     Milner, also a native of Kentucky, coming to Linn county in
     1840. Mr. Oxley died in 1887. Several of the Oxley family
     emigrated to Linn county.

     "Jeremiah Daniels arrived in the spring of 1844 with a stock
     of dry goods, trading for wheat in the fall, shipping same
     by flat-boat to St. Louis. In the fall of 1847-8 he built a
     saw mill on Indian creek and a few years later located a
     flour mill on Big creek. Mr. Daniels died in 1882."

Mr. Daniels further states that some of the early settlers were the
following:

     "Michael and Peter McRoberts, Peter D. Harman, Ben and John
     Dewitt, John, Joseph, and Nancy Gourly, Andrew and Thomas
     Dill, Isaac, Lawrence, Elijah, and Joseph Wain, Louis
     Lafore, Perry and Ann Knapp, Ada J. James, Steve, Charles,
     Daniel, George, Theresa, and Ann Rose, Sylvester Lyons,
     Thomas Rose, James and Thomas Piner, James M. and Susan
     Doty, Abraham Darr, John Arford, Hiram and Mary Leabo-Deem,
     Sam and Rachel Stambaugh, Jonathan and Dorcas Paul, John
     Bromwell, Michael Cox, Louis Kramer, Dr. Grove, Dave
     Stambaugh, James Briney, Leonard Speckelmeyer, James Berry,
     James Anderson, Caleb Dyer, Joseph Caraway, John and Mary
     Scott, and Samuel Durham."

Some of the Bertram justices have been William S. Darr, Frank Allen, W.
B. Plummer, E. Doty, J. C. Anderson.

Bertram township has been the location of a number of squatter towns.
William Stone first staked out a squatter town and called it Westport.
He sold out his right to Albert Henry and then staked out Columbus
where Cedar Rapids is now located. Henry, it is stated, erected two of
the first frame buildings in this town, and in fact in this part of the
county. The only sawed lumber in the entire buildings were the window
frames and the casings. The siding was what was known as shaved lumber.
These buildings were torn down in 1861 by Elias and Daniel Doty. One of
these buildings was used by James Doty for his pottery shop up to the
time of his death. Perry Oxley bought Albert Henry's squatter claim and
he later sold his right, title, and interest in the town as well as in
about 117 acres of land at $2.50 an acre. Now for the first time James
Doty thought he would comply with the law, and on November 12, 1844,
filed a plat in accordance with the law and called the town Newark,
from Newark, New Jersey, his birthplace. Ivanhoe was never platted, but
was only a squatter town founded by Cowles. Colonel Merritt kept the
first store at Ivanhoe for parties in Rock Island. This town had better
prospects of becoming a great city than any other town in the county.
It had a good river frontage, a rich country around it, plenty of
timber and good water, and had the government road besides. For some
unknown cause the place seems to have been ignored when Marion and
Cedar Rapids began to flourish. This is true, that Ivanhoe and Westport
were laid out expecting the river to be the means of communicating with
the outside world. The railroads, mills, dams and other things changed
conditions, and the Indian trading villages came to naught.


FAIRFAX TOWNSHIP

Fairfax township lies in the extreme southwest portion of Linn county.
Prairie creek, at times an unruly stream, drains this part of the
county. In the early day this portion of Linn county had more or less
timber, especially in what is known as Scotch Grove, northeast of the
town of Fairfax. This timber has, for the most part, been cut off.

The first settlers, as far as is known, who came to this part of the
county were Robert and Jane Ure with their family of grown children, in
the spring of 1841. The children were John, Margaret, James, William,
Robert, Walter, and David. The family had emigrated from Scotland in
1838 and gone west, locating in Ohio for a short time, removing to Iowa
territory in search of land. They located in the northwestern part of
the township in the grove which has since been called "Scotch Grove."
The Ures wrote back to Scotland to their friends, and for many years
emigrants came who located in and around Scotch Grove in Linn and
Benton counties. Later came the McDowell family, the Listebargers, the
McKinnons, the Mitchells, Giddings, Knickerbockers, Flahertys,
Ferriters, Henrys, Cahills, Hines, McFarlands, and many others.

A cemetery was established in Scotch Grove where a number of the early
settlers are buried. The cemetery near Fairfax is now the one in use,
and also the Catholic cemetery southwest of Fairfax.

One of the first school teachers in the township was Mrs. Keziah
McDowell, who taught in a private house. The first school building was
erected in 1855 on the place where the Elm Grove school now stands. The
first teacher who taught in a school building was a Mr. Eckerman, who
boarded around. The families who had children attending school at that
time were the McKinnons, the Listebargers, and the Hodges.

The first reaping machine in this part of the county was purchased by
William Ure at Chicago in the summer of 1847, and was a hand-raking
machine. Mr. Ure drove with an ox team to Chicago and returned with a
machine in time for cutting the grain that summer. After he got started
all the neighbors helped and the machine was run night and day until
the season was over and the grain harvested.

The Scotch families were United Presbyterians, and for many years
attended church in Cedar Rapids. In May, 1858, the Presbyterian church
was organized and established in Scotch Grove. The fiftieth anniversary
of the establishment of this church was celebrated in 1908, and the
paper read by Miss Jennie G. Mitchell, daughter of James Mitchell, now
residing in Cedar Rapids, gives a full history of the church and of
many of the old settlers of this county, and is herewith inserted in
full:

"THE ORIGIN OF FAIRFAX U. P. CHURCH

     "The first settlers in this part of Linn county, Iowa, were
     Robert and Jane Ure, who, with a family of grown children,
     came here in the spring or summer of 1841. The children were
     John, Margaret, James, William, Jane, Robert, Walter, and
     David. The family had emigrated from Scotland in 1838 and
     spent the intervening years near Springfield, Ohio. But land
     was high in the old settlements and they came 'west' where
     they could enter government land, settling, or at first
     camping, on the same ground where this church is built. Log
     houses were soon erected and some land entered and a few
     years later a brick house was built, the first in this part
     of the country. The brick was made by the boys and the
     entire house erected without the assistance of any expert,
     the lime being hauled all the way from Muscatine. The Ure
     family did not leave their religion in the Auld Kirk in the
     Homeland, but during all their travels, whether they tarried
     or camped for only the night, the morning and evening
     sacrifice of family prayer was offered; and on Sabbath at
     noon the family were gathered and God's word read, followed
     by praise and prayer. Thus they kept God's holy day and
     worshiped in their own home until preaching could be
     obtained, and by searching the records of the First United
     Presbyterian church of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, we find that on
     the 9th day of September, 1850, a meeting was held and a
     petition forwarded to the Associate Presbytery of Iowa,
     asking for a supply of preaching, and in 1851 the
     congregation in Cedar Rapids was organized, the Ure family
     uniting with them.

[Illustration: THE "OLD SCHOOL" COGGON]

[Illustration: SOUTH SIDE MAIN STREET, COGGON]

     "The cheap land and plenty of timber attracted others, and
     in the early fifties the McKinnon family came from Scotland
     and settled in Linn county near Scotch Grove. In 1852 Samuel
     and Sarah Hall, with their large family, settled at Sisley's
     Grove, and in 1854 James Cleghorn, Sr., with his two
     children and John and Agnes Anderson. James Cleghorn and
     Agnes Anderson were brother and sister. James Cleghorn, Jr.,
     is still living near where they located and built their
     first home. Robert Brownlie and family now reside where the
     Anderson home was built. This same year (1854) Joseph and
     Margaret Humphrey and family came and settled south of
     Prairie Creek, and in the spring of 1855, James and John
     Mitchell with their wives and families, and later Walter
     Mitchell and John and Jane McGregor with their families of
     sons and daughters, and a few years later Moses Mitchell,
     all finding homes in and around Scotch Grove.

     "The Ure family, thus re-inforced, soon after began an
     effort to secure preaching at Scotch Grove. But who first
     proposed asking for preaching, or where the meeting was
     held, is not on record and can not be recalled, but a minute
     on the records of the Cedar Rapids church, dated May 25,
     1856, reads thus: 'The people of Scotch Grove presented a
     petition and were granted one-fourth of the pastor's time.'
     But by whom this petition was presented is not recorded.
     Another record reads: 'At a meeting of the United
     Presbyterian church of Kingston, held on Tuesday afternoon
     at four o'clock, July 6, 1858, the following paper was
     adopted: Action of the United Presbyterian congregation of
     Kingston in relation to the organization of a church at
     Scotch Grove, Linn County, Iowa. _Resolved_: that we approve
     of the organization with the understanding that they
     continue in connection with us as the same pastoral charge
     until otherwise ordered by the Presbytery.' But the name of
     the Presbytery is not mentioned. It is supposed that Joseph
     Humphrey carried the petition to Presbytery. The
     organization was granted and on the 12th day of August,
     1858, a meeting was held in the home of James and Mary Ure,
     a sermon preached and the congregation organized by Rev.
     Hugh Sturgeon. There were fifteen charter members, and the
     name given the congregation was 'Fairfax.' The names of all
     present can not be recalled, but we remember that John
     Beatty, who later with his family came to the neighborhood,
     brought Mr. Sturgeon and was present at this meeting. Three
     elders were elected, Joseph Humphrey, Alexander Johnson and
     James Mitchell. James Mitchell did not accept the office and
     at a later meeting James Ure was elected and with the other
     two, ordained and installed. Thus organized and equipped
     they began the work with high hopes and willing hands, if
     not much ready money. There being no public building which
     could be used for religious meetings, they were held in
     homes, most of the time in the home of Miss Margaret Ure.
     Rev. Sturgeon did not long remain and others came. Revs.
     Douthett, A. J. Allen, Sawhill, Fulton, and others. Doctor
     Roberts of the Covenanter faith preached a few times. One
     occasion is remembered when he was to preach in the home of
     Mr. Wadsworth, where Mr. and Mrs. William Russell now live.
     Heavy rains had fallen during the week and Prairie creek was
     over its banks, with the bridge either washed away or
     overflowed. Several families lived on the other side who
     must attend the service on the Sabbath, no thought of the
     high water being an excuse for staying at home. They wished
     to attend and were needed to assist with the singing. The
     names of three families are remembered: Dixon, Junk, and
     Humphrey. Among other plans some one suggested building a
     raft, whom we do not remember, but superintended by Andrew
     Mitchell the work was begun, and finished Saturday
     afternoon. Sabbath afternoon the families came in their
     wagons as far as the creek, where they were met by neighbors
     on this side, ferried across by Andrew Mitchell, and
     conveyed to the home of Mr. Wadsworth. After the service
     they were brought back to the place of crossing and again
     ferried over, all in a quiet way becoming the day and
     occasion. Thus obstacles were met and overcome with the
     persistent determination of people who retained some of the
     spirit of their invincible John Knox. But a school house was
     erected in the early sixties, known as the James Ure school
     house, and religious meetings were held here. If possible,
     preaching, if not, Sabbath school and prayer meeting until
     their first pastor, Rev. J. T. Torrence, came among them.

     "Shall we ask: Did the work prosper? How well, vines
     transplanted from the Scotch Grove church in Nebraska,
     Kansas, Colorado, Idaho and far-off California will testify.

     "Is it possible to over-estimate the courage and
     perseverance of our fathers and mothers, who began the work
     in this new country under the great difficulties and
     privations, and whose faith, as well as strength of arm, has
     made possible the privileges we, their children, enjoy? We
     trust we shall not forget, but to succeeding generations
     tell the heroism of the daily strife and the earnestness and
     value of the twice daily prayer, 'All honor to the builders
     of this Church.'

         'The world may sound no trumpets--ring no bells,
         The book of life the shining record tells.'

     "THE CHARTER MEMBERS

     "Fifty years is a longer time than the memory of most of
     those living runs. The span of life is not always, in fact
     not usually, lengthened to include events so wide apart in
     space of time.

     "Fifty years ago, the great Civil war had not been fought,
     and it was the hopes of those who held the welfare of their
     country nearest to their hearts that such a calamity might
     be averted. Fifty years ago, the memory of those two great
     national characters, Webster and Clay, whose eloquence and
     zeal postponed that great contest a decade, was fresh to the
     little band that bound themselves together here at Scotch
     Grove that they might have the privileges of a church home.

     "In May of 1858, the United Presbyterian church was formed
     by the union of the Associate Presbyterians and Associate
     Reform Presbyterian churches. In the fall of that same year,
     fifteen devoted Christian citizens organized the new
     congregation and called it the United Presbyterian Church of
     Fairfax, Iowa.

     "It is interesting to note that while these fifteen early
     pioneers were planning for the organization, Abraham Lincoln
     was debating with Douglas the merits of the Dred Scott
     decision.

     "These fifteen charter members were:

          "Samuel Hall and wife, Sarah Hall.
          "Joseph Humphrey and wife, Margaret Humphrey.
          "Alexander Johnson and wife, Janet McKinnon Johnson.
          "James Mitchell and wife, Margaret McArthur Mitchell.
          "John Mitchell and wife, Margaret Mitchell.
          "William McKinnon and wife, Janet McKinnon.
          "James Ure and wife, Mary Ure, and
          "Miss Margaret Ure.

     "Associated with these fifteen charter members in word and
     work were John McGregor and wife, Jane Robertson McGregor,
     who later became members of the new organization.

     "Of these persons, there are three still living--Mr. and
     Mrs. James Ure, who live at Denver, Colorado, and Mr. James
     Mitchell, who lives at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. [Mr. and Mrs. Ure
     are now deceased, 1910].

     "James and Margaret Ure were among the very earliest
     settlers in this community. They, with their parents, had
     come to Iowa in 1841, five years before the territory was
     admitted to statehood. Both were born in Scotland and came
     to America in 1838, settling near Springfield, Ohio, where
     they lived till they came west. In 1857 James Ure was
     married to Mary Kerr. She was born in March, 1835, in
     Mercer, Pennsylvania, where she spent her early childhood,
     later removing with her parents to Dubuque, Iowa. They began
     housekeeping on their farm just east of the grove, where
     they lived till April, 1892, when they moved to Denver,
     Colorado.

     "In September, 1879, Mr. Ure asked for his certificate of
     admission, which was granted. He was one of the ruling
     elders elected at the time of the organization.

     "Margaret Ure was born in Scotland in 1821. After coming to
     Scotch Grove she resided on the Ure homestead, now owned by
     Jas. Rogers. She was a woman of great abilities and was
     always liberal in giving of her time and means to the work
     of the church. The church building was not erected for some
     years after the organization of the congregation and her
     home was always open for the holding of services during this
     time. The pulpit furniture now in use was a gift of hers.
     She removed to Cedar Rapids in 1884, where she died. She was
     buried in the Fairfax cemetery.

     "James Mitchell, one of the three surviving charter members,
     and who now resides at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was born March 3,
     1821, in Buchlyvie, Stirlingshire, Scotland. He came to
     America in 1851 and settled in New York state. July 8, 1853,
     he was married to Margaret McArthur and in July, 1855, came
     to Linn county, Iowa. Mrs. Mitchell was born June 8, 1823,
     and died June 20, 1904, at the age of 81 years and 12 days.

     "At the time Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell came west, in 1855, the
     railroad ran no farther west than to Rock Island. At this
     point they, in company with Margaret and William Ure, were
     compelled to cross the Mississippi river on the ice. It was
     here that they received their first initiation into the life
     of hardship and peril that fell to the life of the early
     pioneer. While crossing the river, the wheels of their dray
     began to cut through the ice. There was danger of the ice
     giving way and all being drowned, but by means of levers and
     props they were able to reach the Iowa shore in safety.

     "When Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell reached Scotch Grove, they took
     for their home a small log house some five or six rods
     southwest from the present church building, and with the
     munificent sum of ten dollars with which to furnish their
     home, started to carve out their career in the new country.
     With Mrs. Mitchell there was little thought of what her
     spring hat would be like, or what she should serve when it
     came her turn to give a Kensington to the ladies of the
     community. It would probably be some days before any money
     would find its way into the family purse, and those ten
     dollars must be guarded with jealous care. True, potatoes
     could be had, and Mr. Ure and his family had proven that the
     potato could be used as the sole article of diet for at
     least three months.

     "In 1898 they removed to Cedar Rapids, where four years ago
     Mrs. Mitchell died. She was buried at Fairfax cemetery. Mr.
     Mitchell is now eighty-seven years of age. He was elected to
     the office of ruling elder in December, 1879, which he
     filled till the time he removed to Cedar Rapids. July 8,
     1903, Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell celebrated their golden wedding.

     "John Mitchell came to America in 1853. Margaret McGregor
     Mitchell was born in Sterlingshire, Scotland, September 8,
     1831. In 1852 she came to America with her parents, settling
     in New York state. The following year she was married to
     Mr. John Mitchell and in 1855 came to Scotch Grove. Here
     they settled in a small log house near the present church
     lot. Robert Ure, father of James and Margaret Ure, had,
     during the time of the gold excitement in California, built
     three of these houses, the first being erected without the
     use of a nail.

     "Mr. Mitchell entered forty acres of land west of where the
     Conley school house now stands. After the school house was
     built, preaching services and Sabbath school were held
     there, and Mr. Mitchell was one of the most active in
     lending help and maintaining the services. He died January
     17, 1896, at Norway; she February 3, 1892. Both were buried
     in the Fairfax cemetery.

     "Alexander Johnson was born in Pennsylvania, his father
     coming to America from Ireland. On coming to Iowa he lived
     at Cedar Rapids for a time, where he teamed. Here he lost
     his first wife and was later married to Janet McKinnon, who
     was born in Bo'ness, Scotland, and came to America in 1845.

     "Mrs. Johnson owned some land at Que's Grove, now known as
     Quam's Grove. This she bought from the government. Mr.
     Johnson had money with which to build a house and they thus
     moved on the land, where they lived till the time of his
     death.

     "Mr. Johnson was elected to the office of ruling elder when
     the congregation was organized, and was at all times an
     active and persistent worker in the church. He had become
     attached to his early church home and was reluctant to
     leave. It may seem strange, but yet it is true, that the
     place where a person spends the best years of his life,
     where he has toiled and labored to make a home, becomes in
     old age, after he is compelled to lay down his labors, the
     spot that is dearest to him. He had seen the community grow
     and develop, and as it had grown, his hopes had opened.

     "Some time prior to his death, the members of his family
     wanted to remove to Washington, Iowa. He could not entertain
     the thought of leaving his old home community, whose growth
     and development had meant so much to him, and in a
     conversation with a member of the congregation remarked that
     he had said, 'If they take me away from here, it will be in
     my coffin, but now I have given my consent to go.'

     "He was not permitted to make the change. During the latter
     part of his life he was confined to his bed. He died at
     Norway, having reached the age of eighty-four years. Mrs.
     Johnson died three years ago at Washington, Iowa.

     "Joseph Humphrey was born in New York state, January 19,
     1816, and when quite young his parents removed to Butler
     county, Pennsylvania. In 1836 he was married to Margaret
     Gill. She was born May 30, 1818, in Butler county,
     Pennsylvania. They came to Iowa May 5, 1855, and settled
     near Norway.

     "In the church he occupied the highest office to which a
     private member can be called by the voice of the
     congregation, that of ruling elder, being chosen elder at
     the organization of the congregation. He had a high sense of
     the responsibility of his office, viewing it as one of
     divine authority. It was his study, as a steward of God, to
     fulfill its duties and maintain its authority. He was
     punctual and regular in attendance at all the meetings of
     the congregation and gave largely of his means and time in
     forwarding its interests. He believed that the minister was
     worthy of his hire, and rather than neglect this duty he
     would let his boys go barefooted to church. He died