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Title: The Articles of Faith - A Series of Lectures on the Principal Doctrines of the - Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
Author: Talmage, James E. (James Edward), 1862-1933
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note:

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

Text enclosed by = is in bold (=bold=).

Small capital text has been replaced with all capitals.

Variations in spelling, punctuation and hyphenation have been retained
except in obvious cases of typographical error.

Page vi. The transcriber has changed the page number in the table of
contents for "LECTURE VIII, ARTICLE 4" from 160 to 164 to match the
actual beginning page of the section.

Page 51: The close quote mark has been added: sacrificed by being laid
in the heated arms and burned".

Page 234: The open quote mark has been added: by the authority of
"Beelzebub the prince of devils."[727]

Page 245: "Then, a century later, Malachi,[747] the last of the
prophets"--A footnote anchor was missing and has been inserted by the
transcriber.

Page 306: 7. follows "5. Mexican Tradition concerning the Savior." The
book has no number 6.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: coverpage]

[Illustration: titlepage]

  THE

  ARTICLES OF FAITH

  A SERIES OF LECTURES ON THE
  PRINCIPAL DOCTRINES OF

  THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF
  LATTER-DAY SAINTS

  BY

  JAMES E. TALMAGE,
  One of the Twelve Apostles of the Church


  Eleventh Edition in English
  INCLUDING THE FIFTY-SECOND THOUSAND

  THE DESERET NEWS,
  SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.
  1919



  ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS
  IN THE YEAR 1890,
  BY JAMES E. TALMAGE,
  IN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN OF
  CONGRESS, AT WASHINGTON.

  COPYRIGHT 1913
  BY JOSEPH F. SMITH
  TRUSTEE-IN-TRUST FOR THE CHURCH OF
  JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS.



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.


The lectures herewith presented have been prepared in accordance with
the request and appointment of the First Presidency of the Church. The
greater number of the addresses were delivered before the Theology
Class of the Church University; and, after the close of the class
sessions, the lectures were continued before other Church
organizations engaged in the study of theology. To meet the desire
expressed by the Church authorities,--that the lectures be published
for use in the various educational institutions of the Church,--the
matter has been revised, and is now presented in this form.

In anticipation of probable question or criticism regarding the
disparity of length of the several lectures, it may be stated that
each of the addresses occupied two or more class sessions, and that
the present arrangement of the matter in separate lectures is rather
one of compilation than of original presentation.

The author's thanks are due and are heartily rendered to the members
of the committee appointed by the First Presidency, whose painstaking
and efficient examination of the manuscript prior to the delivery of
the lectures, has inspired some approach to confidence in the
prospective value of the book among members of the Church. The
committee here referred to consisted of Elders Francis M. Lyman,
Abraham H. Cannon, and Anthon H. Lund, of the Quorum of the Twelve
Apostles; Elder George Reynolds, one of the Presidents of the
Presiding Quorum of Seventy; Elder John Nicholson, and Dr. Karl G.
Maeser.

The lectures are now published by the Church, and with them goes the
hope of the author that they may prove of some service to the many
students of the scriptures among our people, and to other earnest
inquirers into the doctrines and practices of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints.

  JAMES E. TALMAGE.

Salt Lake City, Utah, April 3, 1899.


PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION.

This issue of "The Articles of Faith" presents some departures from
the earlier imprints in wording, in the substitution of several
rewritten paragraphs, and in the introduction of numerous additions to
the notes and references. This entire edition is printed on India
paper. Since the issuance of the last preceding edition, translations
of the work have been published in Dutch and Japanese.

  JAMES E. TALMAGE.

Salt Lake City, Utah, February, 1917.


PUBLISHERS' NOTE TO ELEVENTH EDITION

This edition of Dr. James E. Talmage's valuable work "The Articles of
Faith" is printed from the electrotype plates used for the last
preceding edition, which was the first India paper issue.

Salt Lake City Utah, October, 1919.



CONTENTS.



  LECTURE I.

  Introductory.

  Importance of theological study.--What is Theology?--Extent
    of the Science.--Theology and religion.--Origin of the
    "Articles of Faith."--Standard works of the Church.--Joseph
    Smith, the Prophet.--His parentage and youth.--His search
    for truth and the result.--First vision.--Angelic
    visitations.--Later developments, the martyrdom.--
    Authenticity of his mission                                   1-26


  LECTURE II, ARTICLE 1.

  God and the Godhead.

  The existence of God.--Attested by general assent of
    humanity.--Evidence of history and tradition.--Evidence
    supplied by human reason.--Evidence of direct
    revelation.--The Godhead, a Trinity.--Unity of the
    Godhead.--Unauthorized dogmas refuted.--Personality of
    each member of the Godhead.--Some of the Divine
    attributes.--Idolatry and atheism.--Immaterialism a
    variety of atheism.--God in nature                           27-53


  LECTURE III, ARTICLE 2.

  Transgression and the Fall.

  Man's free agency recognized by the Lord.--Man's
    responsibility.--Sin.--Sins committed in ignorance.--
    Punishment for sin natural and necessary.--Duration of
    punishment.--Refutation of the false doctrine of unending
    torment.--Satan, his former position and his fall.--Our
    first parents in Eden.--The temptation and the Fall.--Adam's
    wise choice.--The expulsion from the Garden.--The Tree of
    Life guarded.--Results of the Fall.--The Fall fore-ordained
    and essential.--The blessed heritage of mortality            54-75


  LECTURE IV, ARTICLE 3.

  The Atonement, and Salvation.

  Nature of the Atonement.--Reconciliation.--A vicarious
    sacrifice.--Voluntary and love-inspired.--The atonement
    fore-ordained and fore-told.--Extent of the atonement.--
    General salvation.--Individual salvation.--Salvation and
    exaltation.--Degrees of glory.--Celestial, Terrestrial,
    and Telestial kingdoms                                       76-97


  LECTURE V, ARTICLE 4.

  Faith and Repentance.

  Nature of faith.--Faith, belief, and knowledge compared.--
    Belief among the devils.--The foundation of faith.--Faith a
    principle of power.--A condition of living faith.--Faith
    essential to salvation.--A gift from God.--Faith and
    works.--Nature of repentance.--Conditions for securing
    forgiveness.--Repentance essential to salvation.--Repentance
    a gift from God.--Not always possible to repent.--Perils
    of procrastinating the day of repentance.--Repentance
    beyond the grave.                                           98-121


  LECTURE VI, ARTICLE 4.

  Baptism.

  Nature of the ordinance.--Its establishment.--The baptism of
    Adam.--The special purpose of baptism.--Fit candidates.--
    Infant Baptism.--History of this erratic practice.--
    Pedo-baptism unsupported by the Bible, and forbidden by
    other scriptures.--Baptism essential to salvation.--The
    baptism of Christ.--"To fulfil all righteousness"          122-138


  LECTURE VII, ARTICLE 4.

  Baptism.--Continued.

  Importance of proper method in administering the ordinance.--
    Derivation of the word "baptize," and early usage of the
    original.--Immersion the only true mode.--The sacred
    symbolism of the rite is preserved in no other mode.--
    Immersion the only mode practised in early days.--Baptism
    by immersion among the Nephites.--Modern baptism.--
    "Re-baptism" not a distinct ordinance.--"Re-baptisms"
    recorded in scripture are few and exceptional.--Baptism for
    the dead.--Christ's ministry among the departed.--The
    spirits in prison.--Vicarious work of the living for the
    dead.--Elijah's heavenly message.--Temples, ancient and
    modern                                                     139-161


  LECTURE VIII, ARTICLE 4.

  The Holy Ghost.

  The promised Comforter.--The Holy Ghost a Member of the
    Godhead.--His distinct personality.--His powers.--His
    office in ministering to mankind.--To whom given.--
    Exceptional instances of His visitation before baptism.--
    The ordinance of bestowal.--Power of the priesthood
    requisite.--Gifts of the Spirit.--Laying on of hands
    characteristic of sacred ordinances                        162-174


  LECTURE IX, IN CONNECTION WITH ARTICLE 4.

  The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper.

  Meaning of the term Sacrament.--The Lord's Supper.--
    Institution of the ordinance among the Jews.--Also
    among the Nephites.--Fit partakers of the sacrament.--
    Purpose of the ordinance, and associated promises.--
    The sacramental emblems.--Manner of administration.--
    The Passover and the Sacrament.--Errors concerning the
    Sacrament                                                  175-183


  LECTURE X, ARTICLE 5.

  Authority in the Ministry.

  Men called of God.--Scriptural examples.--Ordination to the
    ministry.--The authorized imposition of hands.--Sacrilege
    of attempted ministrations without authority.--Instances
    of Divine wrath.--Teachers, true and false.--Divine
    authority in the present dispensation.--Restoration of the
    Aaronic Priesthood by John the Baptist.--And of the
    Melchizedek Priesthood by Peter, James, and John.--
    Fore-ordination of men to special callings.--Christ's
    fore-ordination.--Pre-existence of spirits.--Our primeval
    childhood                                                  184-200


  LECTURE XI, ARTICLE 6.

  The Church and its Plan of Organization.

  The Church In former and latter days.--The Primitive
    Church.--Apostasy from the Primitive Church.--The great
    apostasy was foretold.--Restoration of the Church in
    the dispensation of the Fulness of Times.--Plan of
    Government in the restored Church.--Orders and offices in
    the priesthood.--The Aaronic, including the Levitical.--The
    Melchizedek order.--Specific offices in the priesthood.--
    Deacons, Teachers, Priests.--Elders, Seventies, High
    Priests.--Patriarchs, or Evangelists.--Apostles.--The
    First Presidency.--The Twelve Apostles.--The Presiding
    Quorum of Seventy.--The Presiding Bishopric.--Local
    organizations, Stakes and Wards.--Stake Presidency.--High
    Council.--Ward Bishopric.--Helps in Government             201-218


  LECTURE XII, ARTICLE 7.

  Spiritual Gifts.

  Spiritual gifts characteristic of the Church.--Nature
    of these gifts.--Miracles.--Partial enumeration of
    the gifts.--Tongues and Interpretation.--Healing.--
    Visions and Dreams.--Prophecy.--Revelation.--The
    testimony of miracles not an infallible guide.--
    Imitations of spiritual gifts.--Miracles wrought by
    evil powers.--Devils working miracles.--Spiritual
    gifts to-day                                               219-239


  LECTURE XIII, ARTICLE 8.

  The Bible.

  The first of our standard works.--The name "Bible."--The
    Old Testament.--Its origin and growth.--Language of the
    Old Testament.--The Septuagint.--Pentateuch.--Historical
    books.--Poetical books.--Books of the prophets.--
    Apocrypha.--The New Testament.--Its origin and
    authenticity.--Classification of its books.--Early
    versions of the Bible.--Modern versions.--Genuineness
    and authenticity.--Book of Mormon testimony concerning
    Bible                                                      240-260


  LECTURE XIV, ARTICLE 8.

  The Book of Mormon.

  Description and origin.--Moroni's visit to Joseph Smith.--
    The inspired title-page.--The Nephite nation.--The
    Jaredites.--The ancient plates.--Mormon's abridgment of
    the plates of Nephi.--The translation of the record.--
    Classification and arrangement of the books.--Genuineness
    of the Book of Mormon.--Testimony of the witnesses.--
    Theories of its origin.--"The Spaulding Story"             261-280


  LECTURE XV, ARTICLE 8.

  The Book of Mormon.--Continued.

  Authenticity of the Book of Mormon.--The Book of Mormon and
    the Bible.--Ancient prophecy fulfilled in the coming forth
    of the Book of Mormon.--Consistency of the book.--Its
    contained prophecies.--External evidence.--Archeological
    evidence of the early occupation of America.--Israelitish
    origin of the American aborigines.--Common origin of all
    the native "races."--Language of the Book of Mormon
    compared with the language of the ancient Americans.--
    Survival of the Egyptian and the Hebrew.--Testimony of
    investigators                                              281-307


  LECTURE XVI, ARTICLE 9.

  Revelation, past, present, and future.

  What is revelation?--Revelation and inspiration.--God's
  means of communication.--Ancient revelators.--Christ, a
  Revelator.--Doctrine of continual revelation.--
  Well-established, scriptural, and reasonable.--Alleged
  scriptural objections met and answered.--Modern
  revelation.--Without revelation there can be no true
  Church.--Revelation yet awaited                              308-325


  LECTURE XVII, ARTICLE 10.

  The Dispersion of Israel.

  Israel.--Brief History of the nation.--Dispersion
  fore-told.--Biblical prophecies.--Book of Mormon
  predictions.--Fulfillment of these dire prophecies.--
  Fate of the kingdom of Israel.--Scattering of Judah.--
  The lost Tribes                                              326-340


  LECTURE XVIII, ARTICLE 10.

  The Gathering of Israel.

  Predictions of the gathering.--Prophecies in Bible and
  Book of Mormon.--Modern revelation concerning the
  gathering.--Extent and purpose of the gathering.--Israel
  a chosen people.--All nations blessed through Israel.--
  Restoration of the Ten Tribes.--Zion to be first
  established.--Gathering now in progress                      341-355


  LECTURE XIX, ARTICLE 10.

  Zion.

  Two gathering places designated.--Jerusalem and the New
    Jerusalem.--Meaning of "Zion."--The Zion of Enoch.--The
    Lord's definition of "Zion."--Modern revelation concerning
    Zion.--Establishment delayed.--Center-place in Missouri.--
    The founding of Zion in the last days                      356-366


  LECTURE XX, ARTICLE 10.

  Christ's Reign on Earth.

  Christ's first and second advents compared.--Predictions of
    His second coming.--Signs described.--Modern revelation on
    the matter.--Precise time not known.--Christ's reign.--The
    Kingdom of God.--The Kingdom of Heaven.--Kingdom and
    Churh.--Millennium.--Satan's power to be curtailed         367-383


  LECTURE XXI, ARTICLE 10.

  Regeneration and Resurrection.

  The earth under the curse.--Regeneration of the earth.--The
    earth during and after the Millennium.--Absence of evidence
    from science.--Resurrection of the body.--Predictions.--Two
    general resurrections, first and final.--Resurrection of the
    just.--And that of the unjust.--Christ's resurrection and
    that immediately following.--Resurrection at Christ's second
    coming.--The heathen in the first resurrection.--Resurrection
    after Millennium                                           384-405


  LECTURE XXII, ARTICLE 11.

  Religious Liberty and Toleration.

  What is worship?--Freedom in worship an inalienable
    right.--Religious intolerance sinful.--Toleration
    does not imply acceptance.--Man's accountability.--
    Results of his acts.--Degrees of glory provided.--
    The Celestial glory.--The Terrestrial.--The Telestial.--
    Gradation within the Kingdoms.--The Sons of Perdition      406-423


  LECTURE XXIII, ARTICLE 12.

  Submission to Secular Authority.

  Scriptural recognition of secular powers.--Examples set by
    Christ and His apostles.--Apostolic teachings.--Modern
    revelation regarding duty to laws of the land.--People
    of God are of necessity law abiding.--Teachings of the
    Church to-day                                              424-440


  LECTURE XXIV, ARTICLE 13.

  Practical Religion.

  Religion has to do with daily life.--Comprehensiveness of
    our faith.--Benevolence enjoined.--Free-will offerings.--
    Fast-offerings.--Tithing.--Consecration and stewardship.--
    The United Order.--Social order within the Church.--
    Marriage.--Celestial marriage.--Unlawful association of
    the sexes.--The sanctity of the body                       441-461

  APPENDIX: Outline for class review of the Lectures           463-477

  INDEX                                                        479-485



THE ARTICLES OF FAITH

OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS.


1. We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus
Christ, and in the Holy Ghost.

2. We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not
for Adam's transgression.

3. We believe that through the atonement of Christ, all mankind may be
saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel.

4. We believe that the first principles and ordinances of the Gospel
are:--(1) Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; (2) Repentance; (3) Baptism
by immersion for the remission of sins; (4) Laying on of Hands for the
Gift of the Holy Ghost.

5. We believe that a man must be called of God, by prophecy, and by
the laying on of hands, by those who are in authority, to preach the
Gospel and administer in the ordinances thereof.

6. We believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive
Church, viz.: apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, etc.

7. We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions,
healing, interpretation of tongues, etc.

8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is
translated correctly; We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the
word of God.

9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal,
and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things
pertaining to the Kingdom of God.

10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the
restoration of the Ten Tribes; that Zion will be built upon this [the
American] continent; That Christ will reign personally upon the earth;
and, That the earth will be renewed and receive its paradisiacal
glory.

11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God according to the
dictates of our own conscience, and allow all men the same privilege,
let them worship how, where or what they may.

12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and
magistrates, in obeying, honoring, and sustaining the law.

13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous,
and in doing good to all men; indeed, we may say that we follow the
admonition of Paul. We believe all things, we hope all things, we have
endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If
there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praiseworthy,
we seek after these things.--Joseph Smith.



LECTURES

ON

THE ARTICLES OF FAITH

OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS.



LECTURE I.

INTRODUCTORY.


=1. Importance of Theological Study.=--In the short period of time
that measures the span of mortal existence, it is not possible for man
to explore any considerable portion of the vast realm of knowledge; it
becomes, therefore, the part of wisdom to select for study the
branches that promise to prove of the greatest worth. All truth is of
value--above price indeed in its place; yet with respect to their
possible application, some truths are of incomparably greater worth
than are others. A knowledge of the principles of trade is essential
to the success of the merchant; an acquaintance with the laws of
navigation is demanded of the mariner; familiarity with the relation
of soil and crops is indispensable to the farmer; an understanding of
the profound principles of mathematics is necessary to the engineer
and the astronomer; so too is a practical knowledge of God essential
to the salvation of every human soul that has attained to powers of
judgment and discretion. The value of theological knowledge,
therefore, ought not to be under-rated; it is doubtful if its
importance can in any way be over-estimated.

=2. What is Theology?=--The word "theology" is of Greek origin; it
comes to us from _Theos_, meaning God, and _logos_--a treatise, or
discourse, signifying by derivation, therefore, collated knowledge of
Divinity, or the science that teaches us of God, implying also the
relation existing between the Supreme Being and His creatures. The
term is of very ancient usage, and may be traced to pagan sources.
Plato and Aristotle speak of theology as the doctrine of Deity and
divine things. Concisely defined, theology "is that revealed science
which treats of the being and attributes of God, His relations to us,
the dispensations of His providence, His will with respect to our
actions, and His purposes with respect to our end."[1]

  [1] See Doc. & Cov. supplement to Lecture I on Faith; Buck's
  Theological Dictionary, p. 582.

=3.= It has been held by some as a truth, that theological knowledge
is not properly a subject for analytical and otherwise scientific
treatment on the part of man; that inasmuch as a true conception of
Deity, with which theology has primarily to deal, must necessarily be
based upon revelation from the source divine, we can but receive such
knowledge as it is graciously given; and that to attempt critical
investigation thereof by the fallible powers of human judgment would
be to apply as a measure of the doings of God the utterly inadequate
wisdom of man. Many truths are beyond the scope of unaided human
reason, and theological facts have been declared to be above reason;
this is true so far as the same remark might be applied to any other
kind of truth; for all truth, being eternal, is superior to reason in
the sense of being manifest to reason, but not a creation of reason;
nevertheless truths are to be estimated and compared by the exercise
of reason.

=4. The Extent of Theology.=--Who can survey the boundaries of this
science? It deals with Deity--the fountain of knowledge, the source of
wisdom; with the proofs of the existence of a Supreme Being, and of
other supernatural personalities; with the conditions under which, and
the means by which, divine revelation is imparted; with the eternal
principles governing the creation of worlds; with the laws of nature
in all their varied manifestations. Primarily, theology is the science
of God and religion; it seeks to present "the systematic exhibition of
revealed truth, the science of Christian faith and life." But in a
more general sense, theology has to do with other truths than those
which are specifically called spiritual; its domain is co-extensive
with that of truth.

=5.= The industrial pursuits that benefit mankind, the arts that
please and refine, the sciences that enlarge and exalt the mind, are
but fragments of the great though yet uncompleted volume of truth that
has come to earth from a source of eternal and infinite supply. The
comprehensive study of theology, therefore, would embrace all known
truths. God has constituted Himself as the great teacher;[2] by
personal manifestations or through the ministrations of His appointed
servants, He instructs His mortal children. To Adam He introduced the
art of agriculture,[3] and even taught by example that of
tailoring;[4] to Noah and Nephi He gave instructions in ship
building;[5] Lehi and Nephi were taught of Him in the arts of
navigation;[6] and for their guidance on the water, as in their
journeyings on land, He prepared for them the Liahona.[7] a compass
operated by a force more effective than that of terrestrial
magnetism; furthermore, Moses received divine instructions in
architecture.[8]

  [2] See Key to Theology, by Parley P. Pratt, chap. i.

  [3] Gen. ii, 8; Pearl of Great Price: Moses iii, 15.

  [4] Gen. iii, 21; Pearl of Great Price: Moses iv, 27.

  [5] Gen. vi, 14: I Nephi xvii, 8; xviii, 1-4.

  [6] I Nephi xviii, 12, 21.

  [7] I Nephi xvi, 10, 16, 26-30; xviii, 12, 21; Alma xxxvii, 38.

  [8] Exo. xxv, xxvi, xxvii.

=6. Theology and Religion=, though closely related, are by no means
identical. A person may be deeply versed in theological lore, and yet
be lacking in religious, and even in moral traits. Theology may be
compared to theory, while religion represents practice; if theology be
precept, then religion is example. Each should be the complement of
the other; theological knowledge should strengthen religious faith and
practice. As accepted by the Latter-day Saints, theology comprehends
the whole plan of the gospel. "Theology is ordered knowledge,
representing in the region of the intellect what religion represents
in the heart and life of man."[9] Knowledge may have to do with the
intellect only, and however sublime its import, it may fail to affect
the hardened heart.

  [9] W. E. Gladstone.

=7. The "Articles of Faith."=--The beliefs and prescribed practices of
most religious sects are usually set forth in formal creeds. The
Latter-day Saints announce no creed as a complete code of their faith;
for while they hold that the precepts of eternal life are
unchangeable, they accept the principle of continuous revelation as a
characteristic feature of their belief. However, when asked for a
concise presentation of the principal religious views of his people,
Joseph Smith, the first prophet of the Church in the present
dispensation, announced as a declaration of belief the "Articles of
Faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." These
include the more essential and characteristic features of the gospel
as accepted by this Church; but they are not complete as an exposition
of our belief, for by one of the Articles it is declared, "We believe
all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we
believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things
pertaining to the Kingdom of God." From the time of their first
promulgation, the Articles of Faith have been accepted by the
people,[10] and on October 6, 1890, the Latter-day Saints, in general
conference assembled, re-adopted the Articles as part of their guide
in faith and conduct. As these Articles of Faith present the leading
tenets of the Church in systematic order, they suggest themselves as a
convenient outline for our plan of study.

  [10] See Note 1.

=8. The Standard Works of the Church= form our written authority in
doctrine; but they are by no means our only sources of information and
instruction on the theology of the Church. We believe that God is as
willing to-day as He ever has been to reveal His mind and will to man,
and that He does so through chosen and appointed channels. We rely
therefore on the teachings of the living oracles of God as of equal
validity with the doctrines of the written word, the men in chief
authority being acknowledged and accepted by the Church as prophets
and revelators, and as being in possession of the power of the holy
Priesthood. The written works adopted by the vote of the Church as
authoritative guides in faith and doctrine are four,--the Bible, the
Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great
Price. Other works have been and are being issued by officers and
members of the Church, and many such books are unreservedly sanctioned
by the people and their ecclesiastical authorities; but the four
publications named are the only regularly constituted standard works
of the Church. Of the doctrine treated in the authorized standards,
the Articles of Faith may be regarded as a fair, though necessarily
but an incomplete epitome.


JOSEPH SMITH, THE PROPHET.

=9. Joseph Smith=, whose name is appended to the Articles of Faith,
was the prophet through whom the Lord restored to earth in these the
last days the Gospel, and this in accordance with predictions made in
previous dispensations. The question of the divine authenticity of
this man's mission is an all-important one to earnest investigators of
Latter-day Saint doctrines. If his claims to a God-given appointment
be false, forming, as they do, the foundation of the Church in the
last dispensation, the superstructure cannot be stable; if, however,
his purported ordination under the hands of heavenly personages be a
fact, one need search no further for the cause of the phenomenal
strength and growing power of the restored Church. The circumstances
of the divine dealings with Joseph Smith, the marvelous development of
the work instituted by this modern prophet, the fulfilment through his
instrumentality of many of the grandest predictions of old, and his
own prophetic utterances with their literal realizations, will yet be
widely acknowledged as proof conclusive of the validity of his
ministry.[11] The exalted claims maintained for him and his life's
work, the fame that has made his name known for good or evil among
most of the civilized nations of the earth, the vitality and growing
strength of the religious and social systems which owe their origin as
nineteenth-century establishments to the ministrations of this man,
give to him an individual importance warranting at least a passing
consideration.

  [11] See Note 3.

=10. His Parentage and Youth.=--Joseph Smith, the third son and fourth
child in a family of ten, was born December 23d, 1805, at Sharon,
Windsor County, Vermont. He was the son of Joseph and Lucy Mack
Smith--a worthy couple, who though in poverty lived happily amid
their home scenes of industry and frugality. When the boy, Joseph, was
ten years old, the family left Vermont and settled in the State of New
York, first at Palmyra, and later at Manchester, Ontario County. At
the place last named, the future prophet spent most of his boyhood
days. In common with his brothers and sisters, he had but little
schooling; and for the simple rudiments of an education, which by
earnest application he was able to gain, he was mostly indebted to his
parents, who followed the rule of devoting a portion of their limited
leisure to the teaching of the younger members of the household.

=11.= In their religious inclinations, the family favored the
Presbyterian church, the mother and three or four of the children
having united themselves with that sect; but Joseph, while at one time
favorably impressed by the Methodist creed, kept himself free from all
sectarian membership, being greatly perplexed over the strife and
dissensions manifesting themselves among the churches of the time. He
had a right to expect that in the Church of Christ there would be
unity and harmony; yet in place of such he saw among the wrangling
sects only confusion. When Joseph was in his fifteenth year, the
region of his home was visited by a storm of fierce religious
excitement, which, beginning with the Methodists, soon became general
among all the sects; there were revivals and protracted meetings, and
the manifestations of sectarian rivalry were many and varied. These
conditions added much to the distress of the young searcher after
truth.

=12. His Search for Truth and the Result.=--Here is Joseph's own
account of his course of action:--

     "In the midst of this war of words and tumult of opinions, I
     often said to myself, what is to be done? who of all these
     parties are right? or, are they all wrong together? If any one
     of them be right, which is it, and how shall I know it?

     "While I was laboring under the extreme difficulties caused by
     the contests of these parties of religionists, I was one day
     reading the Epistle of James, first chapter and fifth verse,
     which reads, '_If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God,
     that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it
     shall be given him._'[12] Never did any passage of scripture come
     with more power to the heart of man than did this at this time to
     mine. It seemed to enter with great force into every feeling of
     my heart. I reflected on it again and again, knowing that if any
     person needed wisdom from God, I did; for how to act I did not
     know, and unless I could get more wisdom than I then had, would
     never know, for the teachers of religion of the different sects
     understood the same passage so differently as to destroy all
     confidence in settling the question by an appeal to the Bible. At
     length I came to the conclusion that I must either remain in
     darkness and confusion, or else I must do as James directs, that
     is, ask of God. I at length came to the determination to ask of
     God, concluding that if He gave wisdom to them that lacked
     wisdom, and would give liberally and not upbraid, I might
     venture. So, in accordance with this my determination to ask of
     God, I retired to the woods to make the attempt. It was on the
     morning of a beautiful clear day, early in the spring of 1820. It
     was the first time in my life that I had made such an attempt,
     for amidst all my anxieties I had never as yet made the attempt
     to pray vocally.

  [12] James i, 5.

"After I had retired to the place where I had previously designed to
go, having looked around me and finding myself alone, I kneeled down
and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. I had scarcely
done so, when immediately I was seized upon by some power which
entirely overcame me, and had such astonishing influence over me as to
bind my tongue so that I could not speak. Thick darkness gathered
around me, and it seemed to me, for a time, as if I were doomed to
sudden destruction. But, exerting all my powers to call upon God to
deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me,
and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and
abandon myself to destruction, not to an imaginary ruin, but to the
power of some actual being from the unseen world, who had such a
marvelous power as I had never before felt in any being; just at this
moment of great alarm, I saw a pillar of light exactly above my head,
above the brightness of the sun, which descended gradually until it
fell upon me. It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from
the enemy which held me bound. When the light rested upon me, I saw
two personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description,
standing above me in the air. One of them spake unto me calling me by
name, and said (pointing to the other), '_This is my beloved Son, hear
Him._'"[13]

  [13] Pearl of Great Price: Extr. Hist. of Jos. Smith, 10-17.

=13.= In answer to his prayer for guidance as to which of the sects
was right, he was told to join none of them, for all were wrong, with
their creeds which are an abomination in the sight of God, and their
professors who are corrupt, in that they draw near with their lips
while their hearts are far from the Lord, teaching for doctrine the
commandments of men, having a form of godliness while denying the
power thereof.

=14.= Such knowledge as has been communicated in this unprecedented
revelation was not to be held secret within the heart of the youth. He
hesitated not to impart the glorious truths, first to the members of
his family, who received his testimony with reverence, and then to the
sectarian ministers, who had labored so diligently to convert him to
their several creeds. To his surprise, these professed teachers of
Christ treated his statements with the utmost contempt, declaring that
the day of revelation from God had long since passed away; and that
the manifestation, if indeed he had received any such at all, was
surely from Satan. Nevertheless, the ministers exerted themselves,
with a unity of purpose strangely at variance with their former
hostility toward one another, to ridicule the young man, and to
denounce his testimony. The neighborhood was aroused; persecution,
bitter and vindictive, was waged against him and his family; he was
actually fired upon by a would-be assassin: yet through it all he was
preserved from bodily injury; and in spite of increasing opposition he
remained faithfully steadfast to his testimony of the heavenly
visitation.[14] In this condition of trial, he continued without
further manifestation for three years, constantly expecting, but never
receiving the additional light and added instructions for which he
yearned. He was keenly sensitive of his own frailty and conscious of
human weaknesses. He pleaded before the Lord, acknowledging his errors
and craving help.

  [14] See Note 2.

=15. Angelic Visitations.=--On the night of September 21st, 1823,
while praying for forgiveness of sins and for guidance as to his
future course, he was blessed with another heavenly manifestation.
There appeared in his room a brilliant light, in the midst of which
stood a personage clothed in white, and with a countenance of radiant
purity and loveliness. The celestial visitor announced himself as
Moroni, a messenger sent from the presence of God; and then he
proceeded to instruct the youth as to some of the Divine purposes in
which Joseph was to take a most important part. The angel said that
through Joseph as the earthly instrument the true Church would be
again established upon the earth; that his name would be known among
all nations and tongues, honored by the good, reviled by the wicked;
that a record, engraven on plates of gold, giving a history of the
nations that had formerly lived upon the western continent and an
account of the Savior's ministrations among the people on this land,
was hidden in a hill near by; that with the plates were two sacred
stones, known as Urim and Thummim, by the use of which, men in olden
times had become seers, and that through those instruments God would
enable Joseph to translate the record engraved on the plates.

=16.= The angelic messenger then repeated several prophecies which are
recorded in the ancient scriptures; some of the quotations were given
with variations from our Bible readings. Of the words of Malachi the
following were quoted: "For behold, the day cometh that shall burn as
an oven, and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall burn
as stubble, for they that come shall burn them, saith the Lord of
Hosts, and it shall leave them neither root nor branch."[15] And
further:--"Behold, I will reveal unto you the Priesthood by the hand
of Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day
of the Lord. And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the
promises made to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall
turn to their fathers; if it were not so, the whole earth would be
utterly wasted at his coming."[16] Among other scriptures, Moroni
cited the prophecies of Isaiah relating to the restoration of
scattered Israel, and the promised reign of righteousness on
earth,[17] saying that the predictions were about to be fulfilled;
also the words of Peter to the Jews, concerning the prophet who Moses
said would be raised up, explaining that the prophet referred to was
Christ, and that the day was near at hand when all who rejected the
words of the Savior would be cut off from among the people.[18]

  [15] Compare Malachi iv, 1.

  [16] Compare Malachi iv, 5-6.

  [17] See Isaiah xi.

  [18] Compare Acts iii, 22-23.

17. Having delivered his message, the angel departed, the light in the
room seeming to condense about his person, and disappearing with him.
But the heavenly visitant returned a second and a third time during
the night, each time repeating the instructions, with additional
admonitions as to the requirements, and warnings regarding temptations
that would assail the youthful seer. On the following day, Moroni
appeared to Joseph again, reciting anew the instructions and cautions
of the preceding night, and telling him to acquaint his father with
all he had heard and seen. This the boy did, and the father promptly
testified that the communications were from God.

=18.= Joseph soon repaired to the hill described to him in the vision.
He recognized the spot indicated by the angel, and with some labor
laid bare a stone box containing the plates and other things spoken of
by Moroni. The heavenly messenger again stood beside him, and forbade
the removal of the contents at that time, saying that four years were
to elapse before the plates would be committed to his care, and that
it would be his duty to visit the spot at yearly intervals. On the
occasion of each of these visits the angel instructed the young man
more fully regarding the great work awaiting him.

=19.= It is not the purpose of the present lecture to review in detail
the life and ministry of Joseph Smith;[19] so much attention has been
given to the opening scenes of his divinely-appointed mission, in view
of the unusual importance associated with the ushering in of the
modern or new dispensation of God's providence. The bringing forth of
the plates from their resting-place of centuries, their translation by
divine power, and the publication of the record as the Book of Mormon,
shall receive attention on a later occasion; for the present it is
sufficient to say that the ancient record has been translated; that
the Book of Mormon has been given to the world; and that the volume is
accepted as scripture by the Latter-day Saints.

  [19] See Note 5.

=20. Later Developments: the Martyrdom.=--In due time, the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized, the Priesthood having
been restored through the ordination of Joseph Smith by those who had
held the keys of that authority in former dispensations. From an
initial membership of but six persons, the Church grew to include
thousands during the life-time of the Prophet Joseph; and the growth
has continued with phenomenal rapidity and stability until the present
time. One by one the powers and authorities possessed by the Church of
old were restored through the man who was chosen and ordained to be
the first elder of the latter-day dispensation. With the spread of the
Church, persecution increased, and the effect of evil opposition
reached a climax in the cruel martyrdom of the prophet, and his
brother Hyrum, then patriarch of the Church, June 27, 1844. The
incidents leading up to and culminating in the foul murder of these
men at Carthage, Illinois, are matters of common history. Suffice it
to say that prophet and patriarch gave the sacred seal of their life's
blood to the testimony of the truth, which they had valiantly
maintained in the face of intolerant persecution for nearly a quarter
of a century.[20]

  [20] See Note 4.

=21. Authenticity of Joseph Smith's Mission.=--The evidence of divine
authority in the work established by Joseph Smith, and of the
justification of the claims made by and for the man, may be summarized
as follows:

I. Ancient prophecy has been fulfilled in the restoration of the
gospel and the re-establishment of the Church upon the earth through
his instrumentality.

II. He received by direct ordination and appointment, at the hands of
those who held the power in former dispensations, the authority to
minister in the various ordinances of the gospel.

III. His possession of the power of true prophecy, and of other
spiritual gifts, is shown by the results of his ministry.

IV. His doctrines are both true and scriptural.

Each of these classes of evidence will receive attention and find
ample demonstration in the course of our study of the Articles of
Faith; and a detailed consideration will not be attempted at this
stage of our investigation; a few illustrations, briefly stated,
however, may not be out of place.

=22. I. The Fulfilment of Prophecy=, wrought through the life work of
Joseph Smith, is abundantly shown. John the Revelator, from his
prophetic vision of the latter-day dispensation, understood and
predicted that the gospel would be again sent from the heavens, and be
restored to the earth through the direct ministration of an
angel:--"And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having
the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth,
and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people."[21] A
partial fulfilment of this prediction is claimed in the manifestation
of the angel Moroni to Joseph Smith, as already described, whereby the
restoration of the gospel was announced, and the speedy realization of
other ancient prophecies was promised; and a record, described in part
as containing "the fulness of the everlasting gospel," was committed
to his care for translation and publication among all nations,
kindred, and tongues. The remainder of John's fateful utterance,
regarding the authorized call for repentance and the execution of
God's judgment preparatory to the awful scenes of the last days, is
now in process of rapid and literal fulfilment.

  [21] Rev. xiv, 6. See Note 9.

=23.= Malachi predicted the coming of Elijah specially commissioned
with power to inaugurate the work of co-operation between the fathers
and the children, and announced this mission as a necessary
preliminary to the advent of "the great and dreadful day of the
Lord."[22] The angel Moroni confirmed the truth and significance of
this prediction in an emphatic reiteration.[23] Joseph Smith and his
associate in the ministry, Oliver Cowdery, solemnly testify that they
were visited by Elijah the prophet, in the temple at Kirtland, Ohio,
on the third day of April, 1836; on which occasion the heavenly
messenger declared that the day spoken of by Malachi had fully come;
"Therefore," continued he, "the keys of this dispensation are
committed into your hands, and by this ye may know that the great and
dreadful day of the Lord is near, even at the doors."[24] The
particular nature of the union of the fathers and the children, upon
which both Malachi and Moroni laid great stress, has been explained as
consisting in the work of vicarious ordinances, including baptism for
the dead who have passed from earth without a knowledge of the gospel.
In teaching this doctrine, and in complying with its behests, the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints stands to-day alone
amongst all the sects professing Christianity.

  [22] Mal. iv, 5-6.

  [23] See page 11.

  [24] Doc. & Cov. cx, 13-16.

=24.= The ancient scriptures are teeming with prophecies concerning
the restoration of Israel in the last days, and the gathering of the
chosen people from among the nations and from the lands into which
they have been led or driven as a penalty for their waywardness and
sin.[25] Such prominence and importance are attached to this work of
gathering, in the predictions of olden times, that from the days of
Israel's exodus, the last days have been characterized in sacred writ
as a gathering dispensation. The return of the tribes after their long
and wide dispersion is made a preliminary work to the establishment of
the predicted reign of righteousness with Christ on the throne of the
world; and its accomplishment is given as a sure precursor of the
millennium. Jerusalem is to be re-established as the City of the Great
King on the eastern Hemisphere; and Zion, or the New Jerusalem, is to
be built on the western continent; the Ten Tribes are to be brought
back from their hiding place in the north; and the curse is to be
removed from Israel.[26] From the early days of Joseph Smith's
ministry, he taught the doctrine of the gathering as imposing a
present duty upon the Church; and this phase of the Latter-day Saint
labor is one of its most characteristic features. Joseph Smith and
Oliver Cowdery declare that the authority for prosecuting this work
was committed to the Church through them by Moses, who held the keys
of authority as Israel's leader in former times. Their testimony is
thus stated, in the description given of manifestations in the
Kirtland Temple, April 3, 1836:--"Moses appeared before us, and
committed unto us the keys of the gathering of Israel from the four
parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of
the north."[27] As to the earnestness with which this labor has been
begun, and the fair progress already made therein, consider the
hundreds of thousands belonging to the families of Israel already
gathered in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains, about the house of the
Lord, now established; and hear the hymn of the chosen seed among the
nations, chanted to the accompaniment of effective deeds, "Come, and
let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God
of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His
paths; for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord
from Jerusalem."[28]

  [25] See Lectures on Article 10, pp. 326-366.

  [26] See pp. 326-383.

  [27] Doc. & Cov. cx, 11.

  [28] Micah iv, 1-2.

=25.= The bringing forth of the Book of Mormon is held by the
Latter-day Saints to be a direct fulfilment of prophecy.[29] In
predicting the humiliation of Israel, to whom had been committed the
power of the priesthood in early days, Isaiah gave voice to the word
of the Lord in this wise:--"And thou shalt be brought down, and shalt
speak out of the ground, and thy speech shall be low out of the dust,
and thy voice shall be, as of one that hath a familiar spirit, out of
the ground, and thy speech shall whisper out of the dust."[30] The
Book of Mormon is verily the voice of a people brought low, speaking
from the dust, for from the dust the book was literally taken. The
volume professes to be the history of but a small division of the
house of Israel,--a part of the family of Joseph indeed, who were led
by a miraculous power to the western continent six centuries prior to
the Christian era. Of the record of Joseph, and its coming forth as a
parallel testimony to that of Judah, or the Bible in part, the Lord
thus spake through the prophet Ezekiel:--"Moreover, thou son of man,
take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the
children of Israel his companions: then take another stick, and write
upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of
Israel his companions: And join them one to another into one stick;
and they shall become one in thine hand. And when the children of thy
people shall speak unto thee, saying, Wilt thou not show us what thou
meanest by these? Say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I
will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and
the tribes of Israel his fellows, and will put them with him, even
with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be
one in mine hand."[31] The succeeding verses declare that the
gathering and restoration of Israel would immediately follow the
united testimony of the records of Judah and Joseph. The two records
are before the world, a unit in their testimony of the everlasting
Gospel; and the work of gathering is in effective progress.

  [29] See Lectures on "Book of Mormon," Article 8, pp. 261-307.

  [30] Isa. xxix, 4; see also II Nephi iii, 19.

  [31] Ezek. xxxvii, 16-19.

=26.= It is further evident from the scriptures, that the dispensation
of the Gospel in the latter days is to be one of restoration and
restitution, a "dispensation of the fulness of times" in very truth.
Paul declares it to be the good pleasure of the Lord, "That in the
dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one
all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on
earth; even in him."[32] This prediction finds a parallel in an
utterance of the prophet Nephi:--"Wherefore all things which have been
revealed unto the children of men, shall at that day be revealed."[33]
And in accord with this is the teaching of Peter: "Repent ye
therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when
the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; And
he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: Whom
the heavens must receive until the times of restitution of all things,
which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the
world began."[34] Now comes Joseph Smith with the declaration that
unto him has been given the authority to open up this, the
dispensation of fulness, restitution, and restoration; and that
through him the Church has been endowed with all the keys and powers
of the priesthood, held and exercised in earlier periods: Unto the
Church "is the power of this priesthood given, for the last days, and
for the last time, in the which is the dispensation of the fulness of
times, which power you hold in connection with all those who have
received a dispensation at any time from the beginning of
creation."[35] The actual possession of these combined and unified
powers is sufficiently proved by the comprehensive work of the Church
in its present scope of operation.

  [32] Eph. i, 9-10.

  [33] II Nephi xxx, 18.

  [34] Acts iii, 19-21.

  [35] Doc. & Cov. cxii, 30-32.

=27. II. Joseph Smith's Authority= was conferred upon him by direct
ministrations of heavenly beings, each of whom had once exercised the
same power upon the earth. We have already seen how the angel Moroni,
formerly a mortal prophet among the Nephites, transmitted to Joseph
the appointment to bring forth the record which he, Moroni, had buried
in the earth over fourteen hundred years before. We learn further,
that on the 15th of May, 1829, the lesser or Aaronic Priesthood was
conferred upon Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery by the hand of John the
Baptist,[36] who came in his immortalized state with that particular
order of priesthood which comprises the keys of the ministrations of
angels, the doctrine of repentance and of baptism for the remission of
sins. This was the same John who, with the voice of one crying in the
wilderness, had preached the self-same doctrine, and had administered
the same ordinance in Judea as the immediate forerunner of the
Messiah. In delivering his message, John the Baptist stated that he
was acting under the direction of Peter, James, and John, apostles of
the Lord, in whose hands reposed the keys of the higher or Melchizedek
Priesthood, which in time would also be given. This promise was
fulfilled a month or so later, when the apostles named manifested
themselves to Joseph and Oliver, ordaining them to the apostleship,[37]
which comprises all the offices of the higher order of priesthood,
and which carries authority to minister in all the established
ordinances of the Gospel.

  [36] Doc. & Cov. xiii.

  [37] Doc. & Cov. xxvii, 12.

=28.= Then, some time after the Church had been duly organized,
authority for certain special functions was given, the appointing
messenger being in each case the one whose right it was so to
officiate by virtue of the commission which he had held in the days of
his mortality. Thus, as has been seen, Moses conferred the authority
to prosecute the work of gathering; and Elijah, who, not having tasted
death, held a peculiar relation to both the living and the dead,
delivered the authority of vicarious ministry for the departed. To
these appointments by heavenly authority should be added that given by
Elias, who appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, and "committed
the dispensation of the gospel of Abraham," saying as was said of the
Father of the Faithful and his descendants in olden times, that in
them and in their seed should all succeeding generations be
blessed.[38]

  [38] Doc. & Cov. cx, 12.

=29.= It is evident, then, that the claims made by the Church with
respect to its authority are complete and consistent as to the source
of the powers professed, and the channels through which such have been
delivered again to earth. Scripture and revelation, both ancient and
modern, support as an unalterable law the principle that no one can
delegate to another an authority which the giver does not possess.

=30. III. Joseph Smith was himself a true Prophet.=--This statement,
if fully substantiated, would be of itself sufficient proof of the
validity of the claims of this modern prophet, and the test is not
difficult of application. In the days of ancient Israel, an effective
method of trying the claims of a professed prophet was prescribed:--
"When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow
not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not
spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously; thou shalt not
be afraid of him."[39] Conversely, if the words of the prophet are
made good by fulfilment, there is at least proof presumptive of his
genuineness. Of the many predictions uttered by Joseph Smith and
already fulfilled or awaiting the set time of their realization, a few
citations will suffice for our present purpose.

  [39] Deut. xviii, 22.

=31.= One of the earliest prophecies declared by him, which, while not
his independent utterance but that of the angel Moroni, was
nevertheless given to the world by Joseph Smith, had special reference
to the Book of Mormon, of which the angel said: "The knowledge that
this record contains will go to every nation, and kindred, and tongue,
and people, under the whole heaven."[40] This declaration was made
four years before the work of translation was begun, and fourteen
years before the elders of the Church began their missionary labor in
foreign lands. Since that time the Book of Mormon has been translated
into seventeen foreign languages, and is published in fifteen tongues;
and the work is still in progress.

  [40] Times and Seasons, Vol. II, No. 13.

=32.= In August, 1842, while the Church was suffering persecution in
Illinois, and when the western part of the continent was but little
known and only as the territory of an alien nation, Joseph Smith
prophesied "that the Saints would continue to suffer much affliction,
and would be driven to the Rocky Mountains," and that while many then
professing allegiance to the Church would apostatize, and others,
faithful to their testimony, would meet the martyr's fate, some would
live to "assist in making settlements and build cities and see the
Saints become a mighty people in the midst of the Rocky
Mountains."[41] The literal fulfilment of this prediction, uttered in
1842, and it may be added, foreshadowed by an earlier prophecy in
1831,[42] the one five, the other sixteen years before the migration
of the Church to the West, is attested by the common history of the
settlement and development of this once inhospitable region. Even the
skeptic and the pronounced opponents of the Church admit the miracle
of the establishment of a mighty commonwealth in the valleys of the
Rocky Mountains.

  [41] Millennial Star, Vol. XIX, p. 630. Also Hist. of the Ch.,
  Vol. V, p. 85.

  [42] Doc. and Cov. xlix, 24-25.

=33.= A most remarkable prediction regarding national affairs was
uttered by Joseph Smith, December 25th, 1832; it was soon thereafter
promulgated among the members of the Church, and was preached by the
elders, but did not appear in print until 1851.[43] The revelation
reads in part as follows:--"Verily thus saith the Lord, concerning the
wars that will shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebellion of
South Carolina, which will eventually terminate in the death and
misery of many souls. The days will come that war will be poured out
upon all nations, beginning at that place; For, behold, the Southern
States shall be divided against the Northern States, and the Southern
States will call on other nations, even the nation of Great
Britain; ... And it shall come to pass, after many days, slaves shall
rise up against their masters, who shall be marshalled and disciplined
for war." Every student of United States history is acquainted with
the facts establishing a complete fulfilment, even to the minutest
detail, of this astounding prophecy. In 1861, more than twenty-eight
years after the foregoing prediction was recorded, and ten years after
its publication in England, the Civil War broke out, beginning in
South Carolina. The ghastly records of that fratricidal strife sadly
support the prediction concerning "the death and misery of many
souls." It is well known that slaves deserted the South and were
marshalled in the armies of the North, and that the Confederate States
solicited aid of Great Britain. While no open alliance between the
Southern States and England was effected, the British government gave
indirect assistance and substantial encouragement to the South, and
this in such a way as to produce serious international complications.
Vessels were built and equipped at British ports in the interests of
the Confederacy; and the results of this violation of the laws of
neutrality cost Great Britain the sum of fifteen and a half millions
of dollars, which sum was awarded the United States at the Geneva
arbitration in settlement of the "Alabama claims." The Confederacy
appointed commissioners to Great Britain and France; these appointees
were forcibly taken by United States officers from the British steamer
on which they had embarked. This act, which the United States
government had to admit as overt, threatened for a time to precipitate
a war between this nation and Great Britain.

  [43] See Pearl of Great Price, British edition of 1851, and
  Millennial Star, Vol. XLIX, p. 396. The prophecy is now a part of
  the Doctrine and Covenants, see section lxxxvii.

=34.= The revelation cited, as given through Joseph Smith, contained
other predictions, some of which are yet awaiting fulfilment.[44] The
evidence presented is sufficient to prove that Joseph Smith is
prominent among men by reason of his instrumentality in fulfilling
prophecies uttered by the Lord's representatives in former times, and
that his own claim to the rank of prophet is abundantly vindicated.
But the endowment of prophecy so richly bestowed upon this Elias of
the last days, and so freely yet unerringly exercised by him, is but
one of the many spiritual gifts by which he, in common with a host of
others who have received the priesthood from him, was distinguished.
The scriptures declare that certain signs shall attend the Church of
Christ, among them the gifts of tongues, healing, immunity from
threatening death, and the power to control evil spirits.[45] The
exercise of these powers, resulting in what are ordinarily termed
miracles, is by no means an infallible proof of divine authority; for
many true prophets have wrought no such wonders, and men have been
known to work miracles at the instigation of evil spirits.[46]
Nevertheless, the possession of the power implied by the working of
miracles is an essential characteristic of the Church; and when such
acts are wrought in the accomplishment of holy purposes, they serve as
confirmatory evidence of divine authority. Therefore we may expect to
find, as find we do, in the ministry of Joseph Smith and in that of
the Church in general, the attested record of miracles, comprising
manifestations of all the promised gifts of the Spirit. This subject
will be further considered on another occasion.[47]

  [44] See Doc. and Cov. lxxxvii, 5-7.

  [45] Mark xvi, 16-18; Luke x, 19, etc.; Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv,
  65-72.

  [46] Exo. vii, 11, 22: viii, 7, 18; Rev. xiii, 13-15: xvi, 13-14.

  [47] See Lecture on Article 7, pp. 219-239.

=35. IV. The Doctrines Taught by Joseph Smith= and by the Church
to-day are true and scriptural. To sustain this statement we must
examine the principal teachings of the Church in separate order. The
Articles of Faith furnish us a convenient summary of many of the
doctrines pertaining to the latter-day work; and these we will proceed
to study in the course of the lectures that are to follow.


NOTES.

     =1. The "Articles of Faith"= date from March 1, 1841. They
     constitute a portion of a letter from the Prophet Joseph Smith to
     a Mr. Wentworth, of Chicago. The "Articles" were published in the
     History of Joseph Smith: (See _Millennial Star_, vol. XIX, p.
     120; also _Times and Seasons_, vol. III, p. 709.) As stated
     elsewhere, the Articles have been formally adopted by the Church
     as an authorized summary of its principal doctrines.

     =2. Joseph Smith's Early Persecution.=--The Prophet wrote as
     follows concerning the persecution of his boyhood days, which
     dated from the time of his first mention of his vision of the
     Father and the Son:--"It has often caused me serious reflection,
     both then and since, how very strange it was that an obscure boy,
     a little over fourteen years of age, and one too who was doomed
     to the necessity of obtaining a scanty maintenance by his daily
     labor, should be thought a character of sufficient importance to
     attract the attention of the great ones of the most popular sects
     of the day, so as to create in them a spirit of the hottest
     persecution and reviling. But strange or not, so it was, and was
     often cause of great sorrow to myself. However, it was,
     nevertheless, a fact that I had had a vision. I have thought
     since that I felt much like Paul when he made his defense before
     King Agrippa, and related the account of the vision he had when
     he saw a light and heard a voice, but still there were but a few
     who believed him; some said he was dishonest, others said he was
     mad, and he was ridiculed and reviled; but all this did not
     destroy the reality of his vision. He had seen a vision, he knew
     he had, and all the persecution under heaven could not make it
     otherwise; ... So it was with me; I had actually seen a light,
     and in the midst of that light I saw two personages, and they did
     in reality speak unto me, or one of them did; and though I was
     hated and persecuted for saying that I had seen a vision, yet it
     was true; and while they were persecuting me, reviling me, and
     speaking all manner of evil against me, falsely, for so saying, I
     was led to say in my heart, Why persecute for telling the truth?
     I had actually seen a vision, and who am I that I can withstand
     God?" _Pearl of Great Price_:--Extracts from the History of
     Joseph Smith: 23-25.

     =3. Tribute to Joseph Smith.=--While few people outside the
     Church have had much to say in commendation of this modern
     prophet, it is interesting to note that there are some honorable
     exceptions to the rule. Josiah Quincy, a prominent American, made
     the acquaintance of Joseph Smith a short time before the latter's
     martyrdom; and after the tragic event he wrote: "It is by no
     means improbable that some future text-book, for the use of
     generations yet unborn, will contain a question something like
     this: What historical American of the nineteenth century has
     exerted the most powerful influence upon the destinies of his
     countrymen? And it is by no means impossible that the answer to
     that interrogatory may be thus written: _Joseph Smith, the Mormon
     Prophet_. And the reply, absurd as it doubtless seems to most men
     now, may be an obvious commonplace to their descendants. History
     deals in surprises and paradoxes quite as startling as this. The
     man who establishes a religion in this age of free debate, who
     was and is today accepted by hundreds of thousands as a direct
     emissary from the Most High,--such a rare human being is not to
     be disposed of by pelting his memory with unsavory epithets....
     The most vital questions Americans are asking each other today
     have to do with this man and what he has left us.... Burning
     questions they are, which must give a prominent place in the
     history of the country to that sturdy self-asserter whom I
     visited at Nauvoo, Joseph Smith, claiming to be an inspired
     teacher, faced adversity, such as few men have been called to
     meet, enjoyed a brief season of prosperity, such as few men have
     ever attained, and, finally, forty-three days after I saw him,
     went cheerfully to a martyr's death. When he surrendered his
     person to Governor Ford, in order to prevent the shedding of
     blood, the Prophet had a presentiment of what was before him. 'I
     am going like a lamb to the slaughter,' he is reported to have
     said, 'but I am as calm as a summer's morning. I have a
     conscience void of offence, and shall die innocent.'" _Figures of
     the Past_ by Josiah Quincy, p. 376.

     =4. The Seal of Martyrdom.=--"The highest evidence of sincerity
     that a man can give his fellow-men,--the highest proof that he
     has spoken the truth in any given case--is that he perseveres in
     it unto death, and seals his testimony with his blood.... So
     important did such a testimony become in the estimation of Paul,
     that he said 'Where a testament is there must also of necessity
     be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after
     men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the
     testator liveth.' (Heb. ix, 16-17.) In the light of this
     principle, and when the importance of the great testimony which
     he bore to the world is taken into account, it is not to be
     wondered at that Joseph Smith was called upon to affix the broad
     seal of martyrdom to his life's work. Something of
     incompleteness in his work would likely have been complained of
     had this been lacking; but now, not so; his character of prophet
     was rounded out to complete fulness by his falling a martyr under
     the murderous fire of a mob at Carthage in the State of
     Illinois."--Elder B. H. Roberts, in "_A New Witness for God_,"
     pp. 477-478.

     =5. Joseph Smith; Further References.=--For biography, see "_The
     Life of Joseph Smith, the Prophet_," by Pres. George Q. Cannon.
     See also "_Divine Authority, or the question, Was Joseph Smith
     Sent of God?_" a pamphlet by Apostle Orson Pratt; "_Joseph
     Smith's Prophetic Calling_;" _Millennial Star_, Vol. XLII, pp.
     164, 187, 195, 227. _Letters_, by Elder Orson Spencer to Rev. Wm.
     Crowell; No. 1; "_A New Witness for God_," by Elder B. H.
     Roberts.

     =6. Joseph Smith's Descent.=--"Joseph Smith was of humble birth.
     His parents and their progenitors were toilers, but their
     characters were godly and their names unstained. Near the middle
     of the seventeenth century Robert Smith, a sturdy yeoman of
     England, emigrated to the New World, the land of promise. With
     his wife, Mary, he settled in Essex, Massachusetts. The numerous
     descendants of these worthy people intermarried with many of the
     staunchest and most industrious families of New England. Samuel,
     the son of Robert and Mary, born January 26th, 1666, wedded
     Rebecca Curtis, January 25th, 1707. Their son, the second Samuel,
     was born January 26th, 1714; he married Priscilla Gould, and was
     the father of Asael, born March 1st, 1744. Asael Smith took to
     wife Mary Duty, and their son Joseph was born July 12th, 1771. On
     the 24th of January, 1796, Joseph married Lucy Mack at Tunbridge
     in the State of Vermont. She was born July 8th, 1776, and was the
     daughter of Solomon and Lydia Mack, and was the granddaughter of
     Ebenezer Mack."--_The Life of Joseph Smith, the Prophet_, by
     George Q. Cannon; Chapter I. Joseph the Prophet was the third son
     and fourth child of Joseph and Lucy (Mack) Smith; he was born at
     Sharon, Vermont, December 23d, 1805.

     =7. The Standard Works of the Church.=--The Bible and the Book of
     Mormon--the first two of the standard works of the Church--are to
     receive attention in later lectures (see pp. 240-307). The
     Doctrine and Covenants is a compilation of modern revelations as
     given to the Church in the present dispensation. The _Pearl of
     Great Price_ comprises the visions and writings of Moses as
     revealed to Joseph Smith, the Book of Abraham--a translation by
     Joseph Smith from certain ancient papyri--and some of the
     writings of Joseph Smith.

     =8. History of the Restored Church.=--Further information
     regarding the life work of Joseph Smith, and the growth of the
     Church of Jesus Christ as restored to earth through his
     instrumentality, may be found in the "History of the Church of
     Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," Salt Lake City, Utah. For a
     brief synopsis of Church history see "The Story of Mormonism," by
     James E. Talmage, Liverpool, 1907; Salt Lake City, 1910.

     =9. Restoration of the Gospel.=--Plainly the vision-prophecy of
     John (Rev. xiv, 6, 7), relating to the restoration of the gospel
     to earth, could not refer to the gospel record preserved in the
     Holy Bible, for that record has remained in the possession of
     mankind. As stated in our text (page 14) a partial fulfilment is
     found in the visitation of Moroni and the restoration of the Book
     of Mormon, which is to us of modern times a new scripture, and
     one containing a fuller record of "the everlasting gospel."
     However, a record of the gospel is not the gospel itself.
     Authority to administer in the saving ordinances of the gospel is
     essential to the effective preaching and administration thereof;
     this was restored through John the Baptist, who brought the
     Aaronic Priesthood, and through Peter, James, and John who
     brought again to earth the Melchizedek Priesthood (see pp. 193,
     194 herein). For commentary on Rev. xiv, 6, 7, see "The Great
     Apostasy," p. 168.



LECTURE II.

GOD AND THE GODHEAD.

     =Article 1.=--We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His
     Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost.


=1. The Existence of God.=--Since faith in God constitutes the
foundation of religious belief and practice, and inasmuch as a
knowledge of the attributes and character of Deity is essential to an
intelligent exercise of faith in Him, this subject claims first place
in our study of the doctrines of the Church.

=2.= The existence of God is scarcely a question of rational dispute;
nor does it call for proof by the feeble demonstrations of man's
logic, for the fact is admitted by the human family practically
without question, and the consciousness of subjection to a supreme
power is an inborn quality of mankind. The early scriptures are in no
sense devoted to a primary demonstration of God's existence, nor to
attacks on the sophistries of atheism; and from this fact we may infer
that the errors of doubt developed in some period later than the
first. The universal assent of mankind to the existence of God is at
least a strongly corroborative truth. There is a filial passion within
human nature which flames toward heaven. Every nation, every tribe,
every individual, yearns for some object of reverence. It is natural
for man to worship; his soul is unsatisfied till it finds a deity.
When men through transgression first fell into darkness concerning the
true and living God, they established for themselves other deities;
and so arose the abominations of idolatry. And yet, terrible as these
practices are, even the most revolting idolatries testify to the
existence of a God by declaring man's hereditary passion for worship.
Plutarch has wisely remarked of ancient conditions: "If you search the
world, you may find cities without walls, without letters, without
kings, without money; but no one ever saw a city without a deity,
without a temple, or without prayers." This general assent to a belief
in the existence of Deity is testimony of a high order; and in this
connection the words of Aristotle may be applied:--"What seems true to
some wise men is somewhat probable; what seems true to most or all
wise men is very probable; what most men, both wise and unwise, assent
to, still more resembles truth; but what men generally consent in has
the highest probability, and approaches so near to demonstrated truth,
that it may pass for ridiculous arrogance and self-conceitedness, or
for intolerable obstinacy and perverseness, to decry it."[48]

  [48] See Notes 1, 2, and 3.

=3.= The multiplicity of evidence upon which mankind rest their
conviction regarding the existence of a Supreme Being, may be
classified, for convenience of consideration, under the three
following heads:

I. The evidence of history and tradition.

II. The evidence furnished by the exercise of human reason.

III. The conclusive evidence of direct revelation from God Himself.

=4. I. History and Tradition.=--History as written by man, and
tradition as transmitted from generation to generation prior to the
date of any written record now extant, give evidence of the actuality
of Deity, and of close and personal dealings between God and man in
the first epochs of human existence. One of the most ancient records
known, the Bible, names God as the Creator of all things,[49] and
moreover, declares that He revealed Himself to our first earthly
parents and to many other holy personages in the early days of the
world. Adam and Eve heard His voice[50] in the Garden, and even after
their transgression they continued to call upon God and to sacrifice
to Him. It is plain, therefore, that they carried with them from the
Garden a knowledge of God. After their expulsion they heard "the voice
of the Lord from the way toward the Garden of Eden," though they saw
Him not; and He gave unto them commandments, which they obeyed. Then
came to Adam an angelic messenger, and the Holy Ghost inspired the man
and bare record of the Father and the Son.[51]

  [49] Genesis i; see also Pearl of Great Price, Moses ii, 1.

  [50] Genesis iii, 8; and Pearl of Great Price, Moses iv, 14.

  [51] Pearl of Great Price, Moses v, 6-9.

=5.= Cain and Abel learned of God from the teachings of their parents,
as well as from personal ministrations. After the acceptance of Abel's
offering, and the rejection of that of Cain followed by Cain's
terrible crime of fratricide, the Lord talked with Cain, and Cain
answered the Lord.[52] Cain must, therefore, have taken a personal
knowledge of God from Eden into the land where he went to dwell.[53]
Adam lived to be nine hundred and thirty years old and many children
were born unto him. Them he instructed in the fear of God, and many of
them received direct ministrations. Of Adam's descendants, Seth, Enos,
Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, and Lamech the father of
Noah, each representing a distinct generation, were all living during
Adam's lifetime. Noah was born but a hundred and twenty-six years
after the time of Adam's death, and moreover lived nearly six hundred
years with his father Lamech, by whom he was doubtless instructed in
the traditions concerning God's personal manifestations, which Lamech
had learned from the lips of Adam. Through the medium of Noah and his
family, a knowledge of God by direct tradition was carried beyond the
flood; and Noah held direct communication with God,[54] and lived to
instruct ten generations of his descendants. Then followed Abraham,
who also enjoyed direct communion with the Creator,[55] and after him
Isaac, and Jacob or Israel, among whose descendants the Lord wrought
such wonders through the instrumentality of Moses. Thus, had there
been no written records, tradition would have preserved and
transmitted a knowledge of God.

  [52] Genesis iv, 9-16; Pearl of Great Price, Moses v, 22, 34-40.

  [53] Genesis iv, 16; Pearl of Great Price, Moses v, 41.

  [54] Genesis vi, 13, and succeeding chapter.

  [55] Genesis xii, and succeeding chapters.

=6.= But even if the accounts of the earliest of man's personal
communion with God had become dimmed with time, and therefore weakened
in effect, they could but give place to other traditions founded on
later manifestations of the Divine personality. Unto Moses the Lord
made Himself known, not alone from behind the curtain of fire and the
screen of clouds,[56] but by direct face to face communication,
whereby the chosen high-priest beheld even "the similitude" of his
God.[57] This account of direct communion between Moses and God, in
part of which the people were permitted to share,[58] as far as their
faith and purity permitted, has been preserved by Israel through all
the generations of the past. And from Israel the traditions of God's
existence have spread throughout the world; so that we find traces of
this ancient knowledge even in the most fanciful and perverted
mythologies of heathen nations.

  [56] Exo. iii, 4; xix, 18; Numb. xii, 5.

  [57] Numb. xii, 8; see also Pearl of Great Price, Moses i, 1-2.

  [58] Exo. xix, 9, 11, 17-20.

=7. II. Human Reason=, operating upon observations of the things of
nature, strongly declares the existence of God. The mind, already
imbued with the historical truths of the Divine existence and its
close relationship with man, will find confirmatory evidence in nature
on every side; and even to him who rejects the testimony of the past,
and assumes to set up his own judgment as superior to the common
belief of ages, the multifarious evidences of design in nature appeal.
Every observer must be impressed by the proofs of order and system
among created things, and by the absence of superfluities in nature.
He notes the regular succession of day and night providing alternate
periods of work and rest for man, animals, and vegetables; the
sequence of the seasons, each with its longer periods of labor and
recuperation, the mutual dependence of animals and plants, the
circulation of water from sea to cloud, from cloud to earth again,
sustaining the fertility of the soil. As man proceeds to the closer
examination of things, he finds that by study and scientific
investigation these proofs are multiplied many fold. He may learn of
the laws by which earth and its associated worlds are governed in
their orbits; by which satellites are held subordinate to planets, and
planets to suns; he may behold the marvels of vegetable and animal
anatomy, and the surpassing mechanism of his own body; and with such
appeals to his reason increasing at every step, his wonder as to who
made all this gives place to inexpressible admiration for the Creator
whose presence and power are thus so forcibly proclaimed; and the
observer becomes a worshiper.

=8.= Everywhere in nature is the evidence of cause and effect; on
every side is the demonstration of means adapted to end. But such
adaptations, says a thoughtful writer, "indicate contrivance for a
given purpose, and contrivance is the evidence of intelligence, and
intelligence is the attribute of mind, and the intelligent mind that
built the stupendous universe is God."[59] To admit the existence of
a designer in the evidence of design, to say there must be a contriver
in a world of intelligent contrivance, to believe in an adapter when
man's life is directly dependent upon the most perfect adaptations
conceivable, is but to accept self-evident truths. These axioms of
nature ought to require no demonstration; the burden of proof as to
the non-existence of a God ought to be placed upon him who questions
the solemn truth. "Every house is builded by some man, but he that
built all things is God." So spake the Apostle of old,[60] and plain
as is the truth expressed in these simple words, there are among men a
few who profess to doubt the evidence of reason, and who deny the
Author of their own being. Strange, is it not, that here and there
one, who finds in the contrivance exhibited by the ant in building her
house, in the architecture of the honey-comb, and in the myriad
instances of orderly instinct among the least of living things, a
proof of intelligence from which man may learn and be wise, will yet
question the operation of intelligence in the creation of worlds and
in the constitution of the universe?[61]

  [59] Cassell's Bible Dictionary, p. 481.

  [60] Paul in Heb. iii, 4.

  [61] See Note 4.

=9.= Man's inborn consciousness tells him of his own existence; his
ordinary powers of observation prove the existence of others of his
kind, and of uncounted orders of organized beings; from this he
concludes that something must have existed always, for had there been
a time of no existence, a period of nothingness, existence could never
have begun, for from nothing, nothing can be derived. The eternal
existence of something, then, is a fact beyond dispute; and the
question requiring answer is, what is that eternal something--that
existence which is without beginning and without end? The skeptic may
answer, "Nature; matter has always existed, and the universe is but a
manifestation of matter organized by forces operating upon it;
however, Nature is not God." But matter is neither vital nor active,
nor is force intelligent; yet vitality and ceaseless activity are
characteristic of created things, and the effects of intelligence are
universally present. True, nature is not God; and to mistake the one
for the other is to call the edifice the architect, the fabric the
designer, the marble the sculptor, and the thing the power that made
it. The system of nature is the manifestation of that order which
argues a directing intelligence; and that intelligence is of an
eternal character, coeval with existence itself. Nature herself is a
declaration of a superior Being, whose will and purpose she portrays
in all her varied aspects. Beyond and above nature, stands nature's
God.

=10.= While existence is eternal, and therefore to being there never
was a beginning, never shall be an end, in a relative sense each stage
of organization must have had a beginning, and to every phase of
existence as manifested in each of the countless orders and classes of
created things, there was a first, as there will be a last; though
every ending or consummation in nature is but the beginning of another
stage of advancement. Thus, man's ingenuity has invented theories to
illustrate, if not to explain, a possible sequence of events by which
the earth has been brought from a state of chaos to its present
habitable condition; but by those hypotheses, this globe was once a
barren ball, on which none of the innumerable forms of life that now
tenant it could have existed. The theorist therefore must admit a
beginning to earthly life, and such a beginning is explicable only on
the assumption of some creative act, or a contribution from outside
the earth. If he admit the introduction of life upon the earth from
some other and older sphere, he does but extend the limits of his
inquiry as to the beginning of vital existence; for to explain the
origin of a rose-bush in our own garden by saying that it was
transplanted as an offshoot from a rose-tree growing elsewhere, is no
answer to the question concerning the origin of roses. Science of
necessity assumes a beginning to vital phenomena on this planet, and
admits a finite duration of the earth in its current course of
progressive change; and in this respect, the earth is a representative
of the heavenly bodies in general. The eternity of existence, then, is
no more positive as an indication of an eternal Ruler than is the
endless sequence of change, each stage of which has both beginning and
end. The origination of created things, the beginning of an organized
universe, is utterly inexplicable on any assumption of spontaneous
change in matter, or of fortuitous and accidental operation of its
properties.

=11.= Human reason, so liable to err in dealing with subjects of
lesser import even, may not of itself lead its possessor to a full
knowledge of God; yet its exercise will aid him in his search,
strengthening and confirming his inherited instinct toward his
Maker.[62] "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God."[63] In
the scriptures, the word fool[64] is used to designate a wicked man,
one who has forfeited his wisdom by a long course of wrongdoing,
bringing darkness over his mind in place of light, and ignorance
instead of knowledge. By such a course, the mind becomes depraved and
incapable of appreciating the finer arguments in nature. A wilful
sinner grows deaf to the voice of reason in holy things, and loses the
privilege of communing with his Creator, thus forfeiting the strongest
means of attaining a knowledge of God.

  [62] See Note 5.

  [63] Psalms xiv, 1.

  [64] Proverbs i, 7; x, 21; xiv, 9.

=12. III. Revelation= gives to man his fullest knowledge of God. We
are not left wholly to the exercise of fallible reasoning powers, nor
to the testimony of others for a knowledge of the Divine Creator; we
may know Him for ourselves. Instances of God manifesting Himself to
His prophets in olden as in later times are so numerous as to render
impossible any detailed consideration here; moreover, we will have
opportunity of examining many examples in connection with our study of
the ninth of the Articles of Faith; for the present, therefore, brief
mention must suffice. We have already noted, as the foundation of many
traditions relating to the existence and personality of God, His
revelations of Himself to Adam and other ante-diluvian patriarchs;
then to Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses. An example but briefly
mentioned in the Jewish scriptures is that of Enoch, the father of
Methuselah; of him we read that he walked with God.[65] From the
"Writings of Moses" we learn that the Lord manifested Himself with
special favor to this chosen seer,[66] revealing unto him the course
of events until the time of Christ's appointed ministry in the flesh,
the plan of salvation through the sacrifice of the Only Begotten, and
the scenes that were to follow until the final judgment.

  [65] Gen. v, 18-24; see also Jude 14.

  [66] Pearl of Great Price, Moses vi, vii.

=13.= Of Moses we read that he received a manifestation from God, who
spoke to him from the midst of the burning bush in Mount Horeb,
saying: "I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of
Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid
to look upon God."[67] Unto Moses and assembled Israel God appeared in
a cloud, with the terrifying accompaniment of thunders and lightnings,
on Sinai: "And the Lord said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the
children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from
heaven."[68] Of a later manifestation we are told:--"Then went up
Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of
Israel: And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet
as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body
of heaven in his clearness."[69]

  [67] Exodus iii, 6.

  [68] Ex. xx, 18-22.

  [69] Ex. xxiv, 9-10.

=14.= On through the time of Joshua and the judges to the kings and
the prophets, the Lord declared His presence and His power. Isaiah saw
the Lord enthroned in the midst of a glorious company, and cried out,
"Woe is me, for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I
dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips, for mine eyes have
seen the King, the Lord of hosts."[70]

  [70] Isa. vi, 1-5.

=15.= At a subsequent period, when Christ emerged from the waters of
baptism, the voice of the Father was heard declaring "This is my
beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."[71] And on the occasion of
our Lord's transfiguration, the same voice repeated this solemn and
glorious acknowledgment.[72] While Stephen was suffering martyrdom at
the hands of his cruel and bigoted countrymen, the heavens were
opened, and he "saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right
hand of God."[73]

  [71] Matt. iii, 16-17; Mark i, 11.

  [72] Matt. xvii, 1-5; Luke ix, 35.

  [73] Acts vii, 54-60.

=16.= The Book of Mormon is replete with instances of communication
between God and His people, mostly through vision and by the
ministration of angels, but also through direct manifestation of the
Divine presence. Thus, we read of a colony of people leaving the Tower
of Babel and journeying to the western hemisphere, under the
leadership of one who is known in the record as the brother of Jared.
In preparing for the voyage across the great deep, the leader prayed
that the Lord would touch with His finger, and thereby make luminous,
certain stones, that the voyagers might have light in the ships. In
answer to this petition, the Lord stretched forth His hand and touched
the stones, revealing His finger, which the man was surprised to see
resembled the finger of a human being. Then the Lord, pleased with the
man's faith, made Himself visible to the brother of Jared, and
demonstrated to him that man was formed literally after the image of
the Creator.[74] To the Nephites who inhabited the western continent,
Christ revealed Himself after His resurrection and ascension. To these
sheep of the western fold, He testified of His commission received
from the Father; showed the wounds in His hands, feet, and side, and
ministered unto the believing multitudes in many ways.[75]

  [74] Book of Mormon, Ether iii.

  [75] Book of Mormon, III Nephi xi-xxviii.

=17.= In the present dispensation, God has revealed, and does still
reveal himself to His people. We have seen how by faith and sincerity
of purpose Joseph Smith, while yet a youth, won for himself a
manifestation of God's presence, being privileged to behold both the
Father and Christ the Son.[76] His testimony of the existence of God
is not dependent upon tradition or studied deduction; he declares to
the world that both the Father and Christ the Son live, for he has
beheld their persons, and has heard their voices. In addition to the
manifestation cited, Joseph Smith and his fellow servant, Sidney
Rigdon, state that on the 16th of February, 1832, they saw the Son of
God, and conversed with Him in heavenly vision. In describing this
manifestation they say: "And while we meditated upon these things,
the Lord touched the eyes of our understandings, and they were
opened, and the glory of the Lord shone round about; and we beheld the
glory of the Son, on the right hand of the Father, and received of His
fulness; and saw the holy angels, and they who are sanctified before
His throne, worshiping God and the Lamb, who worship Him forever and
ever. And now, after the many testimonies which have been given of
Him, this is the testimony last of all which we give of Him, that He
lives, for we saw Him."[77]

  [76] See page 9.

  [77] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 11-24.

=18.= Again, on the 3rd of April, 1836, in the temple at Kirtland,
Ohio, the Lord manifested Himself to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery,
who say of the occasion:--"We saw the Lord standing upon the
breastwork of the pulpit before us, and under His feet was a paved
work of pure gold in color like amber. His eyes were as a flame of
fire, the hair of His head was white like the pure snow, His
countenance shone above the brightness of the sun, and His voice was
as the sound of the rushing of great waters, even the voice of
Jehovah, saying,--I am the first and the last; I am He who liveth; I
am He who was slain; I am your advocate with the Father."[78]

  [78] Doc. and Cov. cx, 1-4.

=19.= These are a few of the testimonies establishing the fact of
direct revelation from God unto men in ancient and modern times. The
privilege of communing with our Maker is restricted to none; true
faith, sincerity of purpose, and purity of soul will win, for every
one who seeks the boon, the blessing of God's favor and the light of
His presence.

=20. The Godhead: The Trinity.=--Three personages composing the great
presiding council of the universe have revealed themselves to man: (1)
God the Eternal Father; (2) His Son, Jesus Christ; and (3) the Holy
Ghost. That these three are separate individuals, physically distinct
from each other, is very plainly proved by the accepted records of
the divine dealings with man. On the occasion of the Savior's baptism
before cited, John recognized the sign of the Holy Ghost; he saw
before him in a tabernacle of flesh the Christ, upon whom he had
performed the holy ordinance; and he heard the voice of the
Father.[79] The three personages of the Godhead were present,
manifesting themselves each in a different way, and each distinct from
the others. The Savior promised His disciples that the Comforter,[80]
which is the Holy Ghost, should be sent unto them by His Father; here
again are the three members of the Godhead distinctly referred to.
Stephen, at the time of his martyrdom, was blessed with the power of
heavenly vision, and he saw Jesus standing on the right hand of
God.[81] Joseph Smith, while calling upon the Lord in fervent prayer
for wisdom to guide him in his religious professions, saw the Father
and the Son, standing in the midst of light which shamed the
brightness of the sun; one of these declared of the other, "This is my
beloved Son, hear Him."[82] Each of the members of the Trinity is
called God,[83] together they constitute the Godhead.

  [79] Matt. iii, 16-17; Mark i, 9-11; Luke iii, 21-22.

  [80] John xiv, 26; xv, 26.

  [81] Acts vii, 55-56.

  [82] See page 9.

  [83] I Cor. viii, 6; John i, 1-14; Matthew iv, 10; I Tim. iii, 16;
  I John v, 7; Mosiah xv, 1, 2.

=21. Unity of the Godhead.=[84]--The Godhead is a type of unity in the
attributes, powers, and purposes of its members. Jesus, while on
earth[85] and in manifesting Himself to His Nephite servants,[86] has
repeatedly testified of the unity existing between Himself and the
Father, and between them both and the Holy Ghost. By some this has
been construed to mean that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost
are one in substance and in person, that the names in reality
represent the same individual under different aspects. A single
reference to prove the error of this view may suffice:--Immediately
before His betrayal, Christ prayed for His disciples, the Twelve, and
other converts, that they should be preserved in unity,[87] "that they
all may be one" as the Father and the Son are one. It is absurd to
think that Christ desired His followers to lose their individuality
and become one person, even if a change so directly opposed to the
laws of nature were possible. Christ desired that all should be united
in heart, and spirit, and purpose; for such is the unity between His
Father and Himself, and between themselves and the Holy Ghost.

  [84] See Note 11.

  [85] John x, 30, 38; xvii, 11, 22.

  [86] III Nephi xi, 27, 36; xxviii, 10; see also Alma xi, 44.

  [87] John xvii, 11-21.

=22.= This unity is a type of completeness; the mind of any one member
of the Trinity is the mind of the others; seeing as each of them does
with the eye of purity and perfection, they see and understand alike;
under similar conditions and circumstances each would act in the same
way, guided by the same principles of unerring justice and equity. The
one-ness of the Godhead, to which the scriptures so abundantly
testify, implies no mystical union of substance, nor any unnatural and
therefore impossible blending of personality; Father, Son, and Holy
Ghost are as distinct in their persons and individualities as are any
three personages in the flesh. Yet their unity of purpose and
operation is such as to make their edicts one, and their will the will
of God. To see one is to see all; therefore said Christ when
importuned by Philip to show them the Father: "Have I been so long
time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath
seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the
Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in
me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the
Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me that I am
in the Father, and the Father in me."[88]

  [88] John xiv, 9-11.

=23. Personality of Each Member of the Godhead.=--From the evidence
already presented, it is clear that the Father is a personal Being,
possessing a definite form, with bodily parts, and spiritual passions.
Jesus Christ, who was with the Father[89] in spirit before coming to
dwell in the flesh, and through whom the worlds were made,[90] lived
among men as a man, with all the physical characteristics of a human
being; after His resurrection He appeared in the same form;[91] in
that form He ascended into heaven;[92] and in that form He has
manifested Himself to the Nephites, and to modern prophets. Now we are
assured that Christ was in the express image of His Father,[93] after
which image man also has been created.[94] Therefore we know that both
the Father and the Son are in form and stature perfect men; each of
them possesses a tangible body, infinitely pure and perfect, and
attended by transcendent glory, yet a body of flesh and bones.[95]

  [89] John xvii, 5.

  [90] John i, 3; Heb. i, 2; Eph. iii, 9; Col. i, 16.

  [91] John xx, 14-15, 19-20, 26-27; xxi, 1-14; Matt, xxviii, 9;
  Luke xxiv, 15-31, 36-44.

  [92] Acts i, 9-11.

  [93] Heb. i, 3; Col. i, 15; II Cor. iv, 4.

  [94] Genesis i, 26-27; James iii, 8-9.

  [95] Doc. and Cov. cxxx, 22.

=24.= The Holy Ghost, called also Spirit, and Spirit of the Lord,[96]
Spirit of God,[97] Comforter,[98] and Spirit of Truth,[99] is not
tabernacled in a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of
spirit;[100] yet we know that the Spirit has manifested Himself in
the form of a man.[101] It is by the ministrations of the Spirit that
the Father and the Son operate in their dealings with mankind;[102]
through Him knowledge is communicated,[103] and by Him the purposes of
the Godhead are achieved.[104] The Holy Ghost is the witness of the
Father and the Son,[105] declaring to man their attributes, bearing
record of the other personages of the Godhead.[106]

  [96] I Nephi iv, 6; xi, 8; Mos. xiii, 5. Acts ii, 4; viii, 29; x,
  19; Rom. viii, 10, 26; I Thess. v, 19.

  [97] Matt, iii, 16; xii, 28; I Nephi xiii, 12.

  [98] John xiv, 16.

  [99] John xv, 26; xvi, 13.

  [100] Doc. and Cov. cxxx, 22.

  [101] I Nephi xi, 11.

  [102] Neh. ix, 30; Isa. xlii, 1; Acts x, 19; Alma xii, 3; Doc. and
  Cov. cv, 36; xcvii, 1.

  [103] John xvi, 13; I Nephi x, 19; Doc. and Cov. xxxv, 13; 1, 10.

  [104] Gen. i, 2; Job xxvi, 13; Psalms civ, 30; Doc. and Cov. xxix,
  31.

  [105] John xv, 26; Acts v, 32; xx, 23; I Cor. ii, 11; xii, 3; III
  Nephi xi, 32.

  [106] For a fuller treatment of the Holy Ghost, His personality
  and attributes, see Lecture viii, p. 162.

=25. Some of the Divine Attributes.=--_God is Omnipresent_: There is
no part of creation, however remote, into which He cannot penetrate;
through the medium of the Spirit the Godhead is in direct
communication with all things at all times. It has been said,
therefore, that God is everywhere present at the same time; but it is
unreasonable to suppose that the actual person of any one member of
the Godhead can be in more than one place at one time. The senses of
God are of infinite power, His mind of unlimited capacity; His eye can
penetrate all space, His ear can comprehend every sound; His powers of
transferring Himself from place to place are not limited; plainly,
however, His person cannot be in more than one place at any one time.
Admitting the personality of God, we are compelled to accept the fact
of His materiality; indeed, an "immaterial being," under which
meaningless name some have sought to designate the condition of God,
cannot exist, for the very expression is a contradiction in terms. If
God possesses a form, that form is of necessity of definite
proportions and therefore of limited extension in space. It is
therefore impossible for Him to occupy at one time more than one space
of such limits; and it is not surprising therefore to learn from the
scriptures that He moves from place to place. Thus we read in
connection with the account of the Tower of Babel, "And the Lord came
down to see the city and the tower."[107] Again, God appeared to
Abraham, and having declared Himself to be "the Almighty God," He
talked with the patriarch, and established a covenant with him; then
we read "And He left off talking with him, and God went up from
Abraham."[108]

  [107] Gen. xi, 5.

  [108] Gen. xvii, 1, 22.

=26.= _God is Omniscient._--By Him matter has been organized and
energy directed. He is therefore the Creator of all things that are
created; and "Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of
the world."[109] His power and His wisdom are alike incomprehensible
to man, for they are infinite. Being Himself eternal and perfect, His
knowledge cannot be otherwise than infinite. To comprehend Himself, an
infinite Being, He must possess an infinite mind. Through the agency
of angels and ministering servants, He is in continuous communication
with all parts of creation, and may personally visit as He may
determine.

  [109] Acts xv, 18; see also Pearl of Great Price: Moses i, 6, 35;
  I Nephi ix, 6.

=27.= _God is Omnipotent._--He is properly called the Almighty. Man
can discern proofs of the Divine omnipotence on every side, in the
forces that control the elements of earth, and that guide the orbs of
heaven in their prescribed courses; all are working together for the
common good. There can be no limits to the powers of God; whatever His
wisdom indicates as fit to be done He can and will do. The means
through which He operates may not be of infinite capacity in
themselves; but they are directed by an infinite power. A rational
conception of His omnipotence is power to do all that He may will to
do.

=28.= _God is kind_, _benevolent_, _and loving_, tender, considerate,
and long-suffering, bearing patiently with the frailties of His
wayward children. He is just, yet merciful in judgment,[110] showing
favor to all alike, and yet combining with these gentler qualities a
firmness, almost amounting to fierceness, in avenging wrongs.[111] He
is jealous[112] of His own power and the reverence paid to Him by His
children; that is to say, He is zealous for the principles of truth
and purity, which are nowhere exemplified in a higher degree than in
His personal attributes. This Being is the Author of our existence,
Him we are permitted to approach as Father. Our faith will increase in
Him as we learn of Him.[113]

  [110] Deut. iv, 31; II Chron. xxx, 9; Exo. xxxiv, 6; Neh. ix, 17,
  31; Psalms cxvi, 5; ciii, 8; lxxxvi, 15; Jer. xxxii, 18; Exo. xx,
  6.

  [111] Exo. xx, 5; Deut. vii, 21; x, 17; Psa. vii, 11.

  [112] Exo. xx, 5; xxxiv, 14; Deut. iv, 24; vi, 14, 15; Josh. xxiv,
  19, 20.

  [113] See Note 12.

=29. Idolatry and Atheism.=--From the abundant evidence of the
existence of Deity, the idea of which is so generally held by the
human family, there would seem to be little ground on which man could
rationally assert and maintain a disbelief in God; and in view of the
many proofs of the benignant nature of the Divine attributes and
disposition, there ought to be little tendency to turn aside after
false and unworthy objects of worship. Yet the history of the race
shows that theism, which is the doctrine of belief in and acceptance
of, God as the rightful Ruler, is opposed by many varieties of
atheism;[114] and that man is prone to belie his boast as a creature
of reason, and to render his worship at idolatrous shrines. Atheism is
probably a development of later times, whilst idolatry asserted itself
as one of the early sins of the race. Even at the time of Israel's
exodus from Egypt, God deemed it proper to command by statute, "Thou
shalt have no other gods before me;"[115] yet even while He wrote
those words on the stony tablets, His people were bowing before the
golden calf which they had fashioned after the pattern of the Egyptian
idol.

  [114] See Note 6.

  [115] Exo. xx, 3.

=30.= It has been stated that man possesses an instinct for worship,
that he craves and will find some object of adoration. When man fell
into the darkness of continued transgression, and forgot the Author of
his being, and the God of his fathers, he sought for other deities.
Some among men came to regard the sun as the type of the supreme, and
before that luminary they prostrated themselves in supplication.
Others selected for adoration earthly phenomena; they marvelled over
the mystery of fire, and, recognizing the beneficent effects of that
phenomenon, they worshiped the flame. Some saw, or thought they saw,
in water the emblem of the pure and the good, and they rendered their
devotions by running streams. Others, awed into reverence by the
grandeur of towering mountains, repaired to these natural temples, and
worshiped the altar instead of Him in whose honor and by whose power
it had been raised. Another class, more strongly imbued with a
reverence for the emblematic, sought to create for themselves
artificial objects of adoration. They made images and worshiped them;
they hewed uncouth figures from tree trunks, and chiseled strange
forms in stone, and to these they bowed.[116]

    "Nations, ignorant of God,
    Contrive a wooden one."

=31.= Idolatrous practices in some of their phases came to be
associated with rites of horrible cruelties, as in the custom of
sacrificing children to Moloch, and, among the Hindoos, to the Ganges;
as also in the wholesale slaughtering of human beings, under Druidical
tyranny. The gods that human-kind have set up for themselves are
heartless, pitiless, cruel.[117]

  [116] See Note 7.

  [117] See Note 8.

=32.= Atheism, as before stated, is the denial of the existence of
God; in a milder form it may consist in the mere ignoring of Deity.
But the professed atheist, in common with his believing
fellow-mortals, is subject to man's universal passion for worship;
though he refuse to acknowledge the true and the living God, he
consciously or unconsciously deifies some law, some principle, some
passion of the human soul, or perchance some material creation; and to
this he turns, to seek, in contemplation of the unworthy object, a
semblance of the comfort which the believer finds in rich abundance
before the throne of his Father and God. I doubt the existence of a
thorough atheist,--one who with the sincerity of a settled conviction
denies in his heart the existence of an intelligent Supreme Power. The
idea of God is an essential characteristic of the human soul. The
philosopher recognizes the necessity of such an element in his
theories of being. He may shrink from the open acknowledgment of a
personal Deity, yet he assumes the existence of a "governing power,"
of a "great unknown," of the "unknowable," the "illimitable," the
"unconscious." Oh, man of learning though not of wisdom! why reject
the privileges extended to you by the omnipotent, omniscient Being to
whom you owe your life, yet whose name you will not acknowledge? No
mortal can approach Him while contemplating His perfections and might
with aught but awe and speechless reverence; regarding Him only as
Creator and God, we are abashed in thought of Him; but He has given us
the right to approach Him as His children, to call upon Him by the
endearing name of Father! And even the atheist feels, in the more
solemn moments of his life, a yearning of the soul toward a spiritual
Parent, as naturally as his human affections turn toward the father
who gave him mortal life. The atheism of to-day is but a species of
idolatry after all.

=33. Sectarian View of the Godhead.=--The consistent, simple, and
authentic doctrine respecting the character and attributes of God,
such as was taught by Christ and the apostles, gave way as revelation
ceased, and as the darkness incident to the absence of authority fell
upon the world, after the apostles and their priesthood had been
driven from the earth; and in its place there appeared numerous
theories and dogmas of men, many of which are utterly incomprehensible
in their mysticism and inconsistency. In the year 325 A.D., the
Council of Nice was convened by the emperor Constantine, who sought
through this body to secure a declaration of Christian belief which
would be received as authoritative, and be the means of arresting the
increasing dissension incident to the general disagreement regarding
the nature of the Godhead, and other theological subjects. The Council
condemned some of the theories then current; among them that of Arius,
which asserted a separate individuality for each member of the
Trinity; and promulgated a new code of belief known as the Nicene
Creed. A statement of this doctrine, supposedly as announced by
Athanasius, is as follows:--"We worship one God in trinity, and
trinity in unity; neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the
substance. For there is one person of the Father, another of the Son,
and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost, is all one; the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal. Such
as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The
Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The
Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost
incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy
Ghost eternal. And yet there are not three eternals, but one eternal.
As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated;
but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible. So likewise the Father
is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Ghost almighty, and yet
there are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is
God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God, and yet there are not
three Gods, but one God." It would be difficult to conceive of a
greater number of inconsistencies and contradictions, expressed in
words as few.

=34.= The Church of England teaches the present orthodox view of God
as follows:--"There is but one living and true God, everlasting,
without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, wisdom, and
goodness." The immateriality of God as asserted in these declarations
of sectarian faith is entirely at variance with the scriptures, and
absolutely contradicted by the revelations of God's person and
attributes, as shown by the citations already made.

=35.= We affirm that to deny the materiality of God's person is to
deny God; for a thing without parts has no whole, and an immaterial
body cannot exist.[118] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints proclaims against the incomprehensible God, devoid of "body,
parts, and passions," as a thing impossible of existence, and asserts
its belief in and allegiance to the true and living God of scripture
and revelation.

  [118] See Note 9.

     NOTES.

     =1. Natural to Believe in a God.=--"The great and primary truth
     'that there is a God' has obtained among men almost universally
     and in all ages; so that the holy scriptures, which speak of God
     in every page, and which advert to the sentiments of mankind for
     the period of about four thousand years, always assume this truth
     as admitted. In the early ages of the world, indeed, there is no
     positive evidence that speculative theism had any advocates; and
     if, at a subsequent period, the 'fool said in his heart, There is
     no God,' the sentiment appears more prominent in his affections
     than in his judgment; and, withal, had so feeble an influence
     over the minds of men, that the sacred writers never deemed it
     necessary to combat the error, either by formal arguments, or by
     an appeal to miraculous operations. Polytheism, not atheism, was
     the prevailing sin; and therefore the aim of inspired men was not
     so much to prove the existence of one God, as the non-existence
     of others,--to maintain His authority, to enforce His laws, to
     the exclusion of all rival pretenders."...

     "So clear, full, and overpowering is the evidence of God's
     existence, that it has commanded general belief in all ages and
     countries,--the only exceptions being a few savage tribes of a
     most degraded type, among whom the idea of God has faded and
     disappeared with every vestige of civilization; and a few
     eccentric would-be philosophers who affect to doubt everything
     which others believe, and question the truth of their own
     intuitions, so that the general assent to the being of a God
     might be added as a testimony of no small weight in this
     argument."--_Cassell's Bible Dictionary; article "God."_

     =2. Importance of Belief in God.=--"The existence of a Supreme
     Being is, without doubt, the sublimest conception that can enter
     the human mind, and, even as a scientific question, can have no
     equal, for it assumes to furnish the cause of causes, the great
     ultimate fact in philosophy, the last and sublimest
     generalization of scientific truth. Yet this is the lowest demand
     it presents for our study; for it lies at the very foundation of
     morality, virtue, and religion; it supports the social fabric,
     and gives cohesion to all its parts; it involves the momentous
     question of man's immortality and responsibility to supreme
     authority, and is inseparably connected with his brightest hopes
     and highest enjoyments. It is, indeed, not only a fundamental
     truth, but the grand central truth of all other truths. All other
     truths in science, ethics, and religion radiate from this. It is
     the source from which they all flow, the center to which they all
     converge, and the one sublime proposition to which they all bear
     witness. It has, therefore, no parallel in its solemn grandeur
     and momentous issues."--_The same._

     =3. Belief in God, Natural and Necessary.=--Dr. Joseph Le Conte,
     Professor of Geology and Natural History in the University of
     California, and a scientist of world-wide renown, has spoken as
     follows:--"_Theism_, or a belief in God or in gods, or in a
     supernatural agency of some kind, controlling the phenomena
     around us, is the fundamental basis and condition of all
     religion, and is therefore universal, necessary, and intuitive. I
     will not, therefore, attempt to bring forward any proof of that
     which lies back of all proof, and is already more certain than
     anything can be made by any process of reasoning. The ground of
     this belief lies in the very nature of man; it is the very
     foundation and groundwork of reason. It is this and this only
     which gives significance to Nature; without it, neither religion
     nor science, nor indeed human life, would be possible. For,
     observe what is the characteristic of man in his relation to
     external Nature. To the brute, the phenomena of Nature are
     nothing but sensuous phenomena; but man, just in proportion as he
     uses his human faculties, instinctively ascends from the
     phenomena to their cause. This is inevitable by a law of our
     nature, but the process of ascent is different for the cultured
     and uncultured races. The uncultured man, when a phenomenon
     occurs, the cause of which is not immediately perceived, passes
     by one step from the sensuous phenomenon to the first cause;
     while the cultured, and especially the scientific man, passes
     from the sensuous phenomena through a chain of secondary causes
     to the first cause. The region of second causes, and this only,
     is the domain of science. Science may, in fact, be defined, as
     the _study of the modes of operation of the first cause_. It is
     evident, therefore, that the recognition of second causes cannot
     preclude the idea of the existence of God.... Thus, Theism is
     necessary, intuitive, and therefore universal. We cannot get rid
     of it if we would. Push it out, as many do, at the front door,
     and it comes in again, perhaps unrecognized, at the back door.
     Turn it out in its _nobler forms_ as revealed in Scripture, and
     it comes in again in its _ignoble forms_, it may be as magnetism,
     electricity, or gravity, or some other supposed efficient agent
     controlling Nature. In some form, noble or ignoble, it will
     become a guest in the human heart. I therefore repeat, _Theism
     neither requires nor admits of proof_. But in these latter times,
     there is a strong tendency for Theism to take the form of
     _Pantheism_, and thereby religious belief is robbed of all its
     power over the human heart. It becomes necessary, therefore, for
     me to attempt to show, not the existence indeed, but the
     _personality of Deity_.... Among a certain class of cultivated
     minds, and especially among scientific men, there is a growing
     sentiment, sometimes openly expressed, sometimes only vaguely
     felt, that what we call God is only a universal, all-pervading
     principle animating Nature,--a general principle of evolution--an
     unconscious, impersonal life-force under which the whole cosmos
     slowly develops. Now, this form of Theism may possibly satisfy
     the demands of a purely speculative philosophy, but cannot
     satisfy the cravings of the human heart.... The argument for the
     personality of Deity is derived from the evidences of intelligent
     contrivance and design in Nature, or in the adjustment of parts
     for a definite, and an intelligent purpose. It is usually called
     '_the argument from design_.' The force of this argument is felt
     at once intuitively by all minds, and its effect is irresistible
     and overwhelming to every plain, honest mind, unplagued by
     metaphysical subtleties."--Prof. Joseph Le Conte: in _Religion
     and Science_, pp. 12-14.

     =4. God in Nature.=--Sir Isaac Newton, one of the most critical
     of scientific workers, in writing to his friend Dr. Bentley in
     1692, said in reference to the natural universe: "To make such a
     system, with all its motions, required a Cause which understood
     and compared together the quantities of matter in the several
     bodies of the sun and planets, and the gravitating powers
     resulting from them, the several distances of the primary planets
     from the sun, and of the secondary ones from Saturn, Jupiter, and
     the earth; and the velocities with which these planets could
     revolve about those quantities of matter in the central bodies;
     and to compare and adjust all these things together in so great a
     variety of bodies argues the Cause to be not blind and
     fortuitous, but very well skilled in mechanics and geometry."

     =5. Natural Indications of God's Existence.=--"It may not be, it
     is not likely, that God can be found with microscope and scalpel,
     with test-tube or flask, with goniometer or telescope; but with
     such tools, the student earnestly working, cannot fail to
     recognize a power beyond his vision, yet a power of which the
     pulses and the motions are unmistakable. The extent of our solar
     system once seemed to man more limited than it does at present;
     and the discovery of the most distant of the planetary family was
     due to a recognition of an attractive force inexplicable except
     on the supposition of the existence of another planet. The
     astronomer, tracing known bodies along their orbital paths, could
     feel the pull, could see the wire that drew them from a narrower
     course; he saw not Neptune as he piled calculations sheet on
     sheet; but the existence of that orb was clearly indicated, and
     by heeding such indications he sought for it, and it was found.
     Theory alone could never have revealed it, though theory was
     incomplete, unsatisfactory without it; but the practical search,
     instigated by theory, led to the great demonstration. And what is
     all science but theory compared to the practical influence of
     prayerful reliance on the assistance of an omnipotent, omniscient
     power? Disregard not the indications of your science work,--the
     trembling of the needle that reveals the magnetic influence; the
     instinct within that speaks of a life and a Life-Giver, far
     beyond human power of explanation or comprehension. As you sit
     beneath the canopied vault, pondering in the silence of night
     over the perturbations, the yearnings which the soul cannot
     ignore, turn in the direction indicated by those impulses, and
     with the penetrating, space-annihilating, time-annulling glass of
     prayer and faith, seek the source of that pervading force."--The
     Author in _Baccalaureate Sermon_, Utah University Quarterly,
     Sept., 1895.

     =6. Theism; Atheism, etc.=--According to current usage, _Theism_
     signifies a belief in God,--the acceptance of one living and
     eternal Being who has revealed Himself to man. _Deism_ implies a
     professed belief in God, but denies to Deity the power to reveal
     Himself, and asserts a disbelief in Christianity; the term is
     used in different senses, prominent among which are:--(1) belief
     in God as an intelligent and eternal Being, with a denial of all
     providential care: (2) belief in God, with denial of a future
     state of the soul: (3) as advocated by Kant, denial of a personal
     God, while asserting belief in an infinite force, inseparably
     associated with matter, and operating as the first great cause.
     _Pantheism_ regards matter and mind as one, embracing everything
     finite and infinite, and calls this universal existence God. In
     its philosophical aspect, pantheism "has three generic forms with
     variations: (1) _one-substance pantheism_ which ascribes to the
     universal being the attributes of both mind and matter, thought
     and extension, as in Spinoza's system: (2) _materialistic
     pantheism_ which ascribes to it only the attributes of matter, as
     in the system of Strauss: (3) _idealistic pantheism_ which
     ascribes to it only the existence of mind as in Hegel's system."
     In its doctrinal aspect, pantheism comprises "the worship of
     nature and humanity founded on the doctrine that the entire
     phenomenal universe, including man and nature, is the
     ever-changing manifestation of God." _Polytheism_ is the doctrine
     of a plurality of gods, who are usually regarded as
     personifications of forces or phenomena of nature. _Monotheism_
     is the doctrine that there is but one God. _Atheism_ signifies
     disbelief in God, or the denial of God's existence; _dogmatic
     atheism_ denies, while _negative atheism_ ignores, the existence
     of a God. _Infidelity_ is sometimes used as synonymous with
     atheism, though specifically the term signifies a milder form of
     unbelief, manifesting itself in scepticism on matters religious,
     a disbelief in the religion of the Bible, and of course a
     rejection of the doctrines of Christianity. _Agnosticism_ holds
     that God is unknown and unknowable; that His existence can
     neither be proved nor disproved; it neither affirms nor denies
     the existence of a personal God; it is the doctrine of "We do not
     know."--_See Standard Dictionary._

     =7. Idolatrous Practices in General.=--The soul of man, once
     abandoned to depravity, is strongly prone to depart from God and
     his institutions. "Hence," says Burder, "have arisen the altars
     and demons of heathen antiquity, their extravagant fictions, and
     abominable orgies. Hence we find among the Babylonians and
     Arabians, the adoration of the heavenly bodies, the earliest
     forms of idolatry; among the Canaanites and Syrians, the worship
     of Baal, Tammuz, Magog, and Astarte; among the Phoenicians, the
     immolation of children to Moloch; among the Egyptians, divine
     honors bestowed on animals, birds, insects, leeks, and onions;
     among the Persians, religious reverence offered to fire; and
     among the polished Greeks, the recognition in their system of
     faith of thirty thousand gods. Hence, moreover, we find at the
     present time, among most Pagan tribes, the deadliest
     superstitions, the most cruel and bloody rites, and the most
     shocking licentiousness and vice, practiced under the name of
     religion."--_History of all Religions_, p. 12.

     =8. Examples of Atrocious Idolatry.=--The worship of Moloch is
     generally cited as an example of the cruelest and most abhorrent
     idolatry known to man. Moloch, called also Molech, Malcham,
     Milcom, Baal-melech, etc., was an Ammonite idol: it is mentioned
     in scripture in connection with its cruel rites (Lev. xviii, 21;
     xx, 2-5; see also I Kings xi, 5, 7, 33; II Kings xxiii, 10, 13;
     Amos v, 26; Zephaniah i, 5; Jeremiah xxxii, 35). Keil and
     Delitzsch describe the idol as being "represented by a brazen
     statue which was hollow, and capable of being heated, and formed
     with a bull's head, and with arms stretched out to receive the
     children to be sacrificed." While the worship of this idol did
     not invariably include human sacrifice, it is certain that such
     hideous rites were characteristic of this abominable shrine. The
     authors last quoted say: "From the time of Ahaz, children were
     slain at Jerusalem in the valley of Ben-Hinnom, and then
     sacrificed by being laid in the heated arms and burned." (II Kings
     xxiii, 10; xvi, 3; xvii, 17; xxi, 6; Jer. xxxii, 35; Ezek. xvi,
     20, 21; xx, 31; compare Psalms cvi, 37, 38.) Many authorities
     state that the sacrifice of children to this hideous monster long
     ante-dated the time of Ahaz. "The offering of living victims was
     probably the climax of enormity in connection with this system,
     and it is said that Tophet, where it was to be witnessed, was so
     named from the beating of drums to drown the shrieks and groans
     of those who were burned to death. The same place was called the
     Valley of Hinnom, and the horrible associations connected with it
     led to both Tophet and Gehenna ('valley of Hinnom') being adopted
     as names and symbols of future torment." For foregoing facts, and
     others, _see "The Pentateuch" by Keil and Delitzsch, and
     Cassell's Bible Dictionary_.

     Scarcely less horrible were the practices of voluntary suicide
     under the car of the idol Juggernaut, and the drowning of
     children in the sacred Ganges as found among the Hindoos.
     According to Burder ("History of all Religions"), the ponderous
     and hideous image Juggernaut, was, on festival days, usually
     placed on a movable tower resting on wheels; and, thus mounted,
     was drawn through the streets by enthusiastic worshipers. As the
     car moved along, some of the most zealous of the devotees threw
     themselves under the wheels and were crushed to death; and such
     acts were "hailed with the acclamations of the multitude as the
     most acceptable sacrifices." The same author thus describes the
     rite of child-sacrifice to the sacred river, as formerly
     practiced in India:--"People in some parts of India, particularly
     the inhabitants of Orissa, and of the eastern parts of Bengal,
     frequently offer their children to the goddess Gunga. The
     following reason is assigned for this practice: When a woman has
     been long married, and has no children, it is common for the man,
     or his wife, or both of them, to make a vow to the goddess Gunga,
     that if she will bestow the blessing of children upon them, they
     will devote the firstborn to her. If, after this vow, they have
     children, the eldest is nourished till a proper age, which may be
     three, four, or more years, according to circumstances when, on a
     particular day, appointed for bathing in any part of the river,
     they take the child with them and offer it to the goddess: the
     child is encouraged to go farther and farther into the water,
     till it is carried away by the stream, or is pushed off by its
     inhuman parents."--_History of all Religions_, pp. 745-746.

     The practices of Druidism among the ancient Britons furnish
     another example of degradation in religion through the absence of
     authoritative guidance and the light of revelation. The Druids
     professed a veneration for the oak, and performed most of their
     distinctive ceremonies in sacred groves. Human sacrifices were
     offered as a feature of their system. Of their temples, some,
     e.g. Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, and others in
     Kent, still remain. These circular enclosures, which were open to
     the sky, were called _doom-rings_: near the center of each was an
     altar (_dolmen_) on which victims were sacrificed. The horrible
     ceremonies included on special occasions the burning alive of
     large numbers of human beings, enclosed in immense cages of
     wicker-work.

     =9. Immaterialists are Atheists.=--"There are two classes of
     atheists in the world. One class denies the existence of God in
     the most positive language; the other denies his existence in
     duration or space. One says 'There is no God;' the other says
     'God is not _here_ or _there_, any more than he exists _now_ and
     _then_.' The infidel says 'God does not exist anywhere.' The
     immaterialist says 'He exists _nowhere_.' The infidel says 'There
     is no such substance as God.' The immaterialist says 'There is
     such a substance as God, but it is _without parts_.' The atheist
     says 'There is no such substance as _spirit_.' The immaterialist
     says 'A spirit, though he lives and acts, occupies no room, and
     fills no space in the same way and in the same manner as matter,
     not even so much as does the minutest grain of sand.' The atheist
     does not seek to hide his infidelity; but the immaterialist,
     whose declared belief amounts to the same thing as the atheist's,
     endeavors to hide his infidelity under the shallow covering of a
     few words.... The immaterialist is a religious atheist; he only
     differs from the other class of atheists by clothing an
     indivisible unextended _nothing_ with the powers of a God. One
     class believes in no God; the other believes that _Nothing_ is
     god and worships it as such."--Orson Pratt, in pamphlet
     _Absurdities of Immaterialism_, p. 11.

     =10. Atheism, a Fatal Belief.=--"During the Reign of Terror, the
     French were declared by the National Assembly to be a nation of
     atheists; but a brief experience convinced them that a nation of
     atheists could not long exist. Robespierre then 'proclaimed in
     the convention, that belief in the existence of God was necessary
     to those principles of virtue and morality upon which the
     republic was founded; and on the 7th of May, the national
     representatives, who had so lately prostrated themselves before
     the Goddess of Reason, voted by acclamation that the French
     people acknowledged the existence of the Supreme Being, and the
     immortality of the soul.'"--_Students' France, xxvii, 6_; quoted
     by Rev. Charles E. Little, in _Historical Lights_, pp. 280-281.

     =11. The Trinity.=--"'Mormonism' affirms its unqualified belief
     in the Godhead as the Holy Trinity, comprising Father, Son, and
     Holy Ghost; each of the three a separate and individual
     personage; the Father and the Son each a personage of spirit and
     of immortalized body; the Holy Ghost a personage of spirit. The
     unity of the Godhead is accepted in the literal fulness of
     scriptural declaration--that the Three are one in purpose, plan,
     and method; alike in all their Godly attributes; one in their
     Divine omniscience and omnipotence; yet as separate and distinct
     in their personality as are any three inhabitants of earth.
     'Mormonism' claims that scripture passages declaring the oneness
     of the Trinity admit of this interpretation; that such indeed is
     the natural interpretation, and that the conception is in accord
     with reason."--_The Philosophy of "Mormonism_," by The Author:
     Improvement Era, vol. iv, p. 463.

     =12. The Father and the Son.=--In the treatment of the
     "Personality of Each Member of the Godhead" (p. 41) and "Divine
     Attributes" (p. 42) no attempt has been made to segregate the
     references made to The Father and to The Son. It is to be
     remembered that the Personage most generally designated in the
     Old Testament as God or the LORD, is He who in the mortal state
     was known as Jesus Christ, and in the antemortal state as
     Jehovah. See the author's work, "Jesus the Christ," chap. iv.
     That Jesus Christ or Jehovah is designated in certain scriptures
     as the Father in no wise justifies an assumption of identity
     between Him and His Father, Elohim. This matter has been
     explained in a publication dated June 30, 1916, entitled "The
     Father and The Son; a Doctrinal Exposition by the First
     Presidency and the Twelve." This appeared in _Improvement Era_,
     August, 1916, and in a pamphlet of earlier issue. Excerpts
     therefrom follow: "The term 'Father' as applied to Deity occurs
     in sacred writ with plainly different meanings. Each of the four
     significations specified in the following treatment should be
     carefully segregated.

     "1. _'Father' as Literal Parent._... Jesus Christ is the Son of
     Elohim both as spiritual and bodily offspring; that is to say,
     Elohim is literally the Father of the spirit of Jesus Christ and
     also of the body in which Jesus Christ performed His mission in
     the flesh....

     "2. _'Father' as Creator._ A second scriptural meaning of
     'Father' is that of Creator, e.g. in passages referring to any
     one of the Godhead as 'The Father of the heavens and of the
     earth.'... With this meaning, as the context shows in every case,
     Jehovah, who is Jesus Christ the Son of Elohim, is called 'the
     Father.'...

     "3. _Jesus Christ the 'Father' of those who abide in His
     Gospel"._ See Doc. and Cov. xxxiv, 1-3; xxxv, 1, 2; xxxix, 1-4;
     Mosiah xv, 10-13.

     "4. _Jesus Christ the 'Father' by Divine Investiture of
     Authority"._ See John x. 30; xvii, 11, 22; compare xiv. 28; see
     further v, 43; x, 26; III Nephi xx, 35; xxviii, 10; and Doc. and
     Cov. 1, 43.



LECTURE III.

TRANSGRESSION AND THE FALL.

     =Article 2.=--We believe that men will be punished for their own
     sins, and not for Adam's transgression.


TRANSGRESSION AND ITS RESULTS.

=1. Man's Free Agency.=--The Church holds and teaches as a strictly
scriptural doctrine, that man has inherited among the inalienable
rights conferred upon him by his divine Father, absolute freedom to
choose the good or the evil in life as he may elect. This right cannot
be guarded with more jealous care than is bestowed upon it by God
Himself; for in all His dealings with man, He has left the mortal
creature free to choose and to act, with no semblance of compulsion or
restraint, beyond the influences of paternal counsel and loving
direction.[119] True, He has given commandments, and has established
statutes, with promises of blessings for compliance and dire penalties
for infraction; but in the choice of these, God's children are
untrammeled. In this respect, man is no less free than are the angels
and the Gods, except as he has fettered himself with the bonds of sin,
and forfeited his power of will and force of soul. The individual has
as full a measure of liberty to violate the laws of health, the
requirements of nature, and the commandments of God in matters both
temporal and spiritual, as he has to obey all such; in the one case he
brings upon himself the sure penalties that belong to the broken law;
as in the other he inherits the specific blessings and the added
freedom that attend a law-abiding life. Obedience to law is the habit
of the free man; 'tis the transgressor who fears the law, for he
brings upon himself deprivation and restraint, not because of the law,
which would have protected him in his freedom, but because of his
antagonism to law.

  [119] See Note 1.

=2.= The predominant attribute of justice, recognized as part of the
Divine nature, forbids the thought that man should receive promises of
reward for righteousness, and threats of punishment for evil deeds, if
he possessed no power of independent action. It is no more a part of
God's plan to compel men to work righteousness, than it is His purpose
to permit evil powers to force His children into sin. In the days of
Eden, the first man had placed before him commandment and law,[120]
with an explanation of the penalty which would follow a violation of
that law. No law could have been given him in righteousness had he not
been free to act for himself. "Nevertheless thou mayest choose for
thyself, for it is given unto thee, but remember that I forbid
it,"[121] said the Lord God to Adam. Concerning His dealings with the
first patriarch of the race, God has declared in this day, "Behold, I
gave unto him that he should be an agent unto himself."[122]

  [120] Genesis ii, 17; Pearl of Great Price, Moses ii, 27-29; iii,
  15-17.

  [121] Pearl of Great Price, Moses iii, 17.

  [122] Doctrine and Covenants, xxix, 35.

=3.= When the brothers Cain and Abel brought their sacrifices before
the Lord, the elder one became angry because his offering was
rejected; then the Lord reasoned with Cain, and endeavored to teach
him that he must expect results of his actions to follow in kind, good
or evil, as he might elect:--"If thou doest well, shalt thou not be
accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door."[123]

  [123] Genesis iv, 7.

=4.= A knowledge of good and evil is essential to the advancement
which God has made possible for His children to achieve; this
knowledge can be best gained by actual experience, with the contrasts
of good and its opposite before the eyes; therefore has man been
placed upon the earth subject to the influence of good and wicked
powers, with a knowledge of the conditions surrounding him, and the
heaven-born right to choose for himself. The words of the prophet,
Lehi, are particularly explicit: "Wherefore, the Lord God gave unto
man that he should act for himself. Wherefore, man could not act for
himself, save it should be that he was enticed by the one or the
other.... Wherefore, men are free according to the flesh; and all
things are given them which are expedient unto man. And they are free
to choose liberty and eternal life, through the great mediation of all
men, or to choose captivity and death, according to the captivity and
power of the devil; for he seeketh that all men might be miserable
like unto himself."[124]

  [124] II Nephi ii, 16 and 27; x, 23. See also Alma iii, 26; xii,
  31; xxix, 4, 5; xxx, 9; Hel. xiv, 30.

=5.= Alma, another Nephite prophet, in speaking of those who had died,
said they had gone "that they might reap their rewards, according to
their works, whether they were good or whether they were bad, to reap
eternal happiness or eternal misery, according to the spirit which
they listed to obey, whether it be a good spirit or a bad one; For
every man receiveth wages of him whom he listeth to obey, and this
according to the words of the spirit of prophecy."[125]

  [125] Alma iii, 26-27.

=6.= Samuel, the converted Lamanite, upon whom the spirit of the
prophets had fallen, admonished his wayward fellows in this wise: "And
now remember, remember my brethren, that whosoever perisheth,
perisheth unto himself; and whosoever doeth iniquity, doeth it unto
himself; for behold, ye are free; ye are permitted to act for
yourselves; for behold, God hath given unto you a knowledge, and He
hath made you free; He hath given unto you that ye might know good
from evil, and He hath given unto you that ye might choose life or
death."[126]

  [126] Helaman xiv, 30-31.

=7.= When the plans for creating and peopling the earth were under
discussion in heaven, Satan sought to destroy the free agency of man,
by obtaining power to force the human family to do his will, promising
the Father that by such means he would redeem all mankind, and that
not one of them should be lost.[127] This proposition was rejected,
while the original purpose of the Father,--to use persuasive
influences of wholesome precept and sacrificing example with the
inhabitants of the earth, then to leave them free to choose for
themselves, was agreed upon, and the Only Begotten Son was chosen as
the chief instrument in carrying that purpose into effect.

  [127] Moses iv. 1; see also Abraham iii, 27-28; and "Jesus the
  Christ," ch. ii.

=8. Man's Responsibility= for his individual acts is as complete as is
his agency to elect for himself. The natural result of good deeds is
happiness; the consequence of evil is misery; these follow in every
man's life by inviolable laws. There is a plan of judgment[128]
divinely fore-ordained, by which every man will be called to answer
for his deeds; and not for deeds alone but for his words also, and
even for the thoughts of his heart. "But I say unto you, that every
idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the
day of judgment."[129] These are the words of the Savior Himself. "And
let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his neighbor, and
love no false oath: for all these are things that I hate, saith the
Lord."[130] John the Revelator was permitted to learn in vision
something of the scenes connected with the last judgment; he says:
"And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books
were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life;
and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the
books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which
were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in
them: and they were judged every man according to their works."[131]

  [128] Matt. x, 15; xi, 22; II Peter ii, 9; iii, 7; I John iv, 17.

  [129] Matt. xii, 36.

  [130] Zech. viii, 17.

  [131] Rev. xx, 12, 13.

=9.= The judgment of God is not always made to follow immediately the
acts of men; good deeds may not be at once rewarded, evil is rarely
peremptorily punished; and this is according to Divine wisdom; were it
appointed otherwise, the test of individual nature, and the trial of
human faith, for which purposes this mortal probation was primarily
ordained, would be greatly lessened; for the certainty of immediate
pleasure or pain would almost universally determine human acts to
secure the one and to avoid the other. Judgment, therefore, is
postponed, that every one may fully prove his nature, the good man
increasing in righteousness, and the evil doer possessing opportunity
of repentance and reparation before the great and terrible day. On
rare occasions, speedy judgment of a temporal nature has been
executed, the physical results of worldly blessing for good,[132] and
calamity for evil deeds[133] following swiftly upon the acts. Whether
such retribution entirely satisfies the claims of justice, or a
further visitation of judgment is to take place beyond this world,
matters not. Such acts are exceptional in the Divine administration.

  [132] Job xlii, 10-17.

  [133] Numbers xii, 1-2; 10-15; xv, 32-36; xvi; xxi, 4-6; I Sam.
  vi, 19; II Sam. vi, 6-7; Acts v, 1-11.

=10.= It is the prerogative of Jesus Christ[134] to judge the
children of men, and He will do it as His own purposes, which are
likewise the purposes of His Father, may be best served. John records
the words of Christ: "For the Father judgeth no man, but hath
committed all judgment unto the Son; that all men should honor the Son
even as they honor the Father."[135] And Peter, while expounding the
gospel to the devout Gentile, Cornelius, declared concerning Jesus
Christ, that "it is He which was ordained of God to be the Judge of
quick and dead."[136] Of the dread fate of the wicked reserved for the
judgment day, many prophets have borne record[137] and the presiding
Judge of that awful tribunal has given in His own words
descriptions[138] so vivid and forceful, as to leave no shadow of
doubt that every living soul will be called to acknowledge the record,
and to accept the results of his acts. The Lord's words and those of
His prophets are unequivocal, that He is no respecter of persons,[139]
and that any species of favor foreign to justice is unknown to Him.
This judgment none but the unrepentant wicked need fear; to the
righteous it is a time of triumph.[140]

  [134] John v, 22-27; Acts x, 42; xvii, 31; Rom. ii, 16; II Cor. v,
  10; II Tim. iv, 1, 8; Doc. and Cov. cxxxiii, 2.

  [135] John v, 22.

  [136] Acts x, 42.

  [137] Dan. vii, 9; II Thess. i, 7, 8; III Nephi xxvi, 3-5; Doc.
  and Cov. lxxvi, 31-49; 103-106.

  [138] Matt. xxv, 31-46; Doc. and Cov. i, 9-12.

  [139] Acts x, 34, 35; Rom. ii, 11; Eph. vi, 9; Colos. iii, 25.

  [140] II Tim. iv, 8.

=11. Sin.=--What is the nature of sin? To this question the Apostle
John replies, "Sin is the transgression of the law."[141] In the
original language of the Bible records, many words occur for which our
single term sin is used, all however conveying the common idea of
opposition to the Divine will.[142] As God is the embodiment of purity
and perfection, such opposition is a rebellion against the principles
of advancement, and an acceptance of the practices that lead to
degradation. Sin is any condition, whether consisting in omission of
things required, or in commission of acts forbidden, which tends to
prevent or hinder the development of the human soul. As a righteous
course leads to eternal life, so sin tends toward the darkness of the
second death. Sin was introduced to the world by the arch-fiend
Satan;[143] yet it is by Divine permission that mankind is brought in
contact with sin, the contrast between evil and good thus being
learned.

  [141] I John iii, 4.

  [142] See Note 2.

  [143] Pearl of Great Price: Moses iv, 4; Genesis iii.

=12.= According to the technical definition of sin, it consists in the
violation of law, and in this strict sense sin may be committed
inadvertently or in ignorance. It is plain, however, from the
scriptural doctrine of human responsibility, and the unerring justice
of God, that in his transgressions as in his righteous deeds, man will
be judged according to his ability to comprehend law. To him who has
never been made acquainted with a higher law, the requirements of that
law do not apply in their fulness. For sins committed without
knowledge,--that is, for laws violated in ignorance, a propitiation
has been provided in the atonement wrought through the sacrifice of
the Savior; and sinners of this class do not stand condemned.

=13.= Nephi, prophesying to the ancient inhabitants of the western
continent, taught them this doctrine:--"Where there is no law given,
there is no punishment; and where there is no punishment, there is no
condemnation; and where there is no condemnation, the mercies of the
Holy One of Israel have claim upon them, because of the atonement; for
they are delivered by the power of him; For the atonement satisfieth
the demands of his justice upon all those who have not the law given
to them, that they are delivered from that awful monster, death and
hell and the devil, and the lake of fire and brimstone which is
endless torment; and they are restored to that God who gave them
breath, which is the Holy One of Israel."[144] And then, in contrast
with the lot of those who are thus pardonable, the prophet adds:--"But
wo unto him that has the law given; yea, that has all the commandments
of God, like unto us, and that transgresseth them, and that wasteth
the days of his probation, for awful is his state!"[145] This is in
strict agreement with the teachings of Paul to the Romans, "For as
many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law; and as
many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law."[146] And
the word of modern scripture is to the same effect, for we are told
through recent revelation to the Church, that among those who are to
receive the blessings of redemption are "they who died without
law."[147] These will include the heathen nations, whose redemption is
promised, with the added declaration that "they that knew no law shall
have part in the first resurrection."[148]

  [144] II Nephi ix, 25-26.

  [145] The same, paragraph 27.

  [146] Rom. ii, 12.

  [147] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 72.

  [148] Doc. and Cov. xiv, 54. See p. 404, Note 4.

==14. Punishment for Sin.--As rewards for righteous deeds are
proportionate to deserving acts, so the punishment prescribed for sin
is made adequate to the offence.[149] Punishment is inflicted upon the
sinner, for disciplinary and reformatory purposes, and in support of
justice. There is nothing of vindictiveness or of desire to cause
suffering in the Divine nature; on the contrary, our Father is
cognizant of every pang, and permits such to afflict for beneficent
purposes only. God's mercy is declared in the retributive pains which
He allows, as in the blessings of peace which issue from His hand. It
is scarcely profitable to speculate as to the exact nature of the
spiritual suffering imposed as punishment for sin. Comparison with
physical pain,[150] such as the tortures of fire, in a sulphurous
lake, serve to show that the human mind is incapable of comprehending
the depth of these dread penalties. The sufferings entailed by the
awful fate of condemnation are more to be feared than are any possible
inflictions of purely physical torture; the mind, the spirit, the
whole soul is doomed to suffer, and the extent of the torment no man
knoweth.

  [149] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 82-85; lxxxii, 21; civ, 9; lxiii, 17;
  II Nephi i, 13; ix, 27; xxviii, 23.

  [150] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 36, 44; Jacob vi, 10; Alma xii, 16-17;
  III Nephi xxvii, 11-12.

=15.= Consider the word of the Lord regarding those whose sin is the
unpardonable one, whose transgression has carried them beyond the
present horizon of possible redemption; those who have sunk so low in
their wickedness as to have lost the power and even the desire to
attempt reformation.[151] "Sons of Perdition" is the terrible
designation by which they are known. These are they who, having
learned the power of God, afterward renounce it; those who sin
wilfully, in the light of knowledge; those who open their hearts to
the Holy Spirit, and then put the Lord to a mockery and a shame by
denying Him; and those who commit murder, wherein they shed innocent
blood;[152] these are they of whom the Savior has declared that it
would be better for them had they never been born.[153] These are to
share the punishment of the devil and his angels--punishment so
terrible that the knowledge is withheld from all except those who are
consigned to this dread doom, though a momentary glance at the awful
picture is permitted to some.[154] These sinners are the only ones
over whom the second death hath power, "Yea, verily, the only ones
who shall not be redeemed in the due time of the Lord."[155]

  [151] See Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 26, 32, 43.

  [152] Doc. and Cov. cxxxii, 27.

  [153] John xvii, 12; II Thess. ii, 3; Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 32.

  [154] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 45-48.

  [155] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 38-39.

=16. The Duration of Punishment.=--As to the duration of such
punishment, we may take assurance that it will be graded according to
the sin; and that the popular interpretation of scriptural passages to
the effect that every sentence for misdeeds is interminable, is
entirely false.[156] Great as is the effect of this life upon the
hereafter, and terrible as is the responsibility of opportunities lost
for repentance, God holds the power to pardon beyond the grave. And
yet the scriptures speak of eternal and endless punishment. Any
punishment ordained of God is eternal, for He is eternal.[157] His is
a system of endless punishment, for it will always exist as a place or
condition prepared for disobedient spirits; yet the infliction of the
penalty will have an end in every case of willing repentance and
attempted reparation. And repentance is not impossible in the spirit
world.[158] Yet, as seen, there are some sins so terrible that their
consequent punishments are not made known to man;[159] these extreme
penalties are reserved for the "Sons of Perdition."

  [156] Doc. and Cov. xix, 6-12; lxxvi, 36, 44.

  [157] Doc. and Cov. xix, 10-12.

  [158] I Peter iii, 18-20; iv, 6; Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 73. See p.
  119.

  [159] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 44.

=17.= The false doctrine that the punishment to be visited upon the
erring souls is endless, that every sentence for sin is of
interminable duration, must be regarded as one of the most pernicious
results of unenlightened sectarianism. It is but a dogma of
unauthorized and erring churches, at once unscriptural, unreasonable,
and revolting to one who loves mercy and honors justice. True, the
scriptures speak of everlasting burnings, eternal damnation, and the
vengeance of eternal fire,[160] as characteristics of the judgment
provided for the wicked; yet in no instance is there justification for
the inference that the individual sinner will have to suffer the wrath
of offended justice forever and ever. The punishment in any case is
sufficiently severe without the added and supreme horror of unending
continuation. Justice must have her due; but when "the uttermost
farthing" is paid, the prison doors shall open and the captive be
free. But the prison remains, and the law prescribing punishment for
offences will not be repealed.

  [160] Matt. xviii, 8; xxv, 41, 46; II Thess. i, 9; Mark iii, 29;
  Jude 7.

=18.= So general were the ill-effects of the commonly-accepted
doctrine, unscriptural and untrue though it was, regarding the endless
torment awaiting every sinner, that even before the Church had been
formally organized in the present dispensation, God gave a revelation
through the Prophet Joseph Smith, touching this matter, in which we
read:--"And surely every man must repent or suffer; for I, God, am
endless: wherefore I revoke not the judgments which I shall pass, but
woes shall go forth, weeping, wailing and gnashing of teeth, yea to
those who are found on my left hand; nevertheless it is not written
that there shall be no end to this torment, but it is written endless
torment. Again it is written eternal damnation ... for behold, I am
endless, and the punishment which is given from my hand, is endless
punishment, for Endless is my name; wherefore, eternal punishment is
God's punishment. Endless punishment is God's punishment.[161]"

  [161] Revelation given March, 1830; Doc. and Cov. xix, 4-12.

=19. Satan.=--We have had occasion to refer frequently to the author
of evil among men. This is Satan,[162] the adversary or opponent of
the Lord, the chief of all evil spirits, called also the Devil,[163]
Beelzebub,[164] or the Prince of Devils, Perdition,[165] and
Belial.[166] The figurative appellations Dragon and Serpent are
applied to Satan, when reference is made to his fall.[167] We learn
from the revealed word[168] that Satan was once an angel of light; he
was then known as Lucifer, a Son of the Morning, but his uncontrolled
ambition prompted him to aspire to the glory and power of the Father,
to secure which he made the unjust proposition to redeem the human
family by compulsion; failing in this purpose, he headed an open
rebellion against the Father and the Son, drawing a third of the hosts
of heaven into his impious league.[169] These rebellious spirits were
expelled from heaven, and have since followed the impulses of their
wicked natures by seeking to lead human souls to their own condition
of darkness. They are the Devil and his angels. The right of free
agency, maintained and vindicated by the fateful strife in heaven,
prevents the possibility of compulsion being employed in this fiendish
work of degradation; but the powers of these malignant spirits to
tempt and persuade are used to their utmost limits. Satan tempted Eve
to transgress the law of God;[170] it was he who imparted the secret
of murder to the fratricide, Cain.[171]

  [162] Job i, 6-22; ii, 1-7; Zech. iii, 1-2.

  [163] Matt. iv, 5, 8, 11; I Peter v, 8.

  [164] Matt. xii, 24.

  [165] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 26.

  [166] II Cor. vi, 15.

  [167] Rev. xii, 9; xx, 2.

  [168] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 25-27.

  [169] Doc. and Cov. xxix, 36-37; see also Pearl of Great Price:
  Moses iv, 3-7; Abraham iii, 27-28; "Jesus the Christ," pp. 8, 9.

  [170] Genesis iii, 4-5, and Pearl of Great Price: Moses iv, 6-11.

  [171] Pearl of Great Price: Moses v, 29-33.

=20.= Satan exerts a mastery over the spirits that have been corrupted
by his practices; he is the foremost of the angels who were thrust
down, and the instigator of the ruin of those who fall in this life;
he seeks to molest and hinder mankind in good efforts, by tempting to
sin; it may be by imposing sickness,[172] or possibly death. Yet in
all these malignant doings, he can go no farther than the
transgressions of the victim may enable him, or the wisdom of God may
permit him to go, and he may at any time be checked by the superior
power. Indeed, even the operations of his utmost malice may be turned
to the accomplishment of Divine purposes. The scriptures prove to us
that the days of Satan's power are already numbered,[173] his doom has
been pronounced, and in the Lord's own time he will be completely
overcome. He is to be bound during the millennial reign,[174] and
after that thousand years of blessed peace, he will be loosed for a
little season; then his defeat will be made complete, and his power
over the children of God will be entirely destroyed.

  [172] Luke xiii, 16; Job i.

  [173] John xii, 31; xvi, 11.

  [174] Rev. xx, 1-10.


THE FALL.

=21. Our First Parents in Eden.=[175]--The crowning scene of the great
drama of creation was the forming of man in the image of his spiritual
Father, God.[176] For the reception of the first man, the Creator had
specially prepared a choice region of earth, and had embellished it
with natural beauties calculated to gladden the heart of its royal
possessor. "The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden,[177] and
there he put the man whom he had formed."[178] Soon after man's advent
upon the earth the Lord created for him a companion or help-meet,
declaring that it was not good that man should be alone,[179] Thus,
male and female, Adam and his wife Eve, were placed in the Garden.
They had been given dominion "over the fish of the sea, and over the
fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the
earth."[180] With this great power were associated certain special
commands, the first of which in point of importance was that they "be
fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it;" then,
that they refrain from eating or even touching the fruit of a certain
tree, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, which grew in the midst
of the Garden, though of all other fruits they were permitted to
freely partake. The words of God concerning this command and its
penalty are:--"And I, the Lord God, commanded the man, saying, of
every tree in the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of
the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; nevertheless
thou mayest choose for thyself, for it is given unto thee, but
remember that I forbid it, for in the day thou eatest thereof thou
shalt surely die."[181]

  [175] Read Genesis, chapters ii and iii; Pearl of Great Price:
  Moses iii, iv: Abraham v, 7-21.

  [176] Genesis i, 26; Pearl of Great Price: Moses ii, 27.

  [177] See Note 3.

  [178] Genesis ii, 8-9.

  [179] Genesis ii, 18; Pearl of Great Price: Moses iii, 18, 21-24.

  [180] Genesis i, 28; Pearl of Great Price: Moses ii, 28; Abraham
  iv, 28.

  [181] Pearl of Great Price: Moses iii, 16-17; see also Genesis ii,
  16-17.

=22. The Temptation= to disobey this command soon came. Satan
presented himself before Eve in the Garden, and, speaking by the mouth
of the serpent, questioned her about the commands which God had given
respecting the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Eve answered that
they were forbidden even to touch the fruit of that tree, under
penalty of death. Satan then sought to beguile the woman,
contradicting the Lord's statement, and declaring that death would not
follow a violation of the Divine injunction; but that, on the other
hand, by doing that which the Lord had forbidden, she and her husband
would become like unto the gods, knowing good and evil for themselves.
The woman was captivated by these representations; and, being eager to
possess the advantages pictured by Satan, she disobeyed the command of
the Lord, and partook of the fruit forbidden. She feared not evil,
for she knew it not. Then, telling Adam what she had done, she urged
him to do likewise.

=23.= Adam found himself in a position that impelled him to disobey
one of the requirements of God. He and his wife had been commanded to
multiply and replenish the earth. Adam was still immortal; Eve had
come under the penalty of mortality; and in such dissimilar
conditions, the two could not remain together, and therefore could not
fulfill the Divine requirement. On the other hand, Adam would be
disobeying another command by yielding to his wife's request. He
deliberately and wisely decided to stand by the first and greater
commandment; and, therefore, with a full comprehension of the nature
of his act, he also partook of the fruit that grew on the Tree of
Knowledge. The fact that Adam acted understandingly in this matter is
affirmed by the scriptures. Paul, in writing to Timothy, explained
that "Adam was not deceived; but the woman, being deceived, was in the
transgression."[182] The prophet Lehi, in expounding the scriptures to
his sons, declared "Adam fell that man might be, and men are that they
might have joy."[183]

  [182] I Timothy ii, 14. See Note 8.

  [183] II Nephi ii, 25.

=24. The Tree of Life.=--There was another tree of special virtues in
Eden; its fruit insured life to all who ate of it. While Adam and Eve
lived in innocent immortality, this tree had not been forbidden them;
the celestial fruit indeed was fitting food for their sinless state.
Now that they had transgressed, however, now that the Divine decree
had issued, fixing death as their lot, it was not proper that the
fruit of the Tree of Life should be longer within their reach. They
were, therefore, expelled from the Garden, and cherubim with a flaming
sword guarded the way, that man might not return in an unregenerate
state. By the act of transgression, our first parents acquired a
knowledge, which in their condition of pristine innocence they had not
possessed,--the experimental knowledge of good and evil. The result of
the Fall could have been of none but ill effect had the fallen ones
been immediately restored to a condition of immortality, without
repentance, without atonement. In the despair that followed their
realization of the great change that had come upon them, and in the
light of the knowledge gained at such cost as to the virtues of the
fruit that grew on the Tree of Life, it would have been but natural
for them to seek the seeming advantages of an immediate escape, by
partaking of the celestial food. It was in mercy that they were
deprived of the means of so doing.

=25.= The words of the Creator are unmistakable as to the necessity of
banishing His first earthly children from Eden:--"And the Lord God
said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil:
and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of
life, and eat, and live forever: Therefore the Lord God sent him forth
from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
So he drove out the man: and he placed at the east of the garden of
Eden cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the
way of the tree of life."[184]

  [184] Gen. iii, 22-24; Pearl of Great Price: Moses iv, 31.

=26.= Alma, the Nephite prophet, comprehended the result that would
have followed had Adam and his wife eaten of the Tree of Life; he thus
explained the matter:--"Now we see that the man had become as God,
knowing good and evil; and lest he should put forth his hand, and take
also of the tree of life, and eat and live forever, the Lord God
placed Cherubim and the flaming sword, that he should not partake of
the fruit; And thus we see, that there was a time granted unto man to
repent, yea, a probationary time, a time to repent and serve God. For
behold, if Adam had put forth his hand immediately, and partook of the
tree of life, he would have lived forever, according to the word of
God, having no space for repentance; yea, and also the word of God
would have been void, and the great plan of salvation would have been
frustrated."[185]

  [185] Alma xlii, 3-5.

=27. The Immediate Result of the Fall= was the substitution of
mortality, with all its attendant frailties, for the vigor of the
primeval deathless state. Adam felt directly the effects of
transgression, in finding a barren and dreary earth, with a sterile
soil, instead of the beauty and fruitfulness of Eden. In place of
pleasing and useful plants, thorns and thistles sprang up; and he had
to labor arduously under the conditions of physical fatigue and
suffering, to cultivate the soil that he might obtain necessary food.
Upon Eve fell the penalty of bodily infirmity; the pains and sorrows,
which since have been regarded as the natural lot of womankind, came
upon her, and she was made subject to her husband. Having now lost
their sense of former innocence, they became ashamed of their
nakedness, and the Lord made for them garments of skins. And upon both
the man and the woman was visited the penalty of spiritual death; for
in that very day they were banished from Eden, and cast out from the
presence of the Lord. The serpent, having served the purposes of
Satan, was made a subject of Divine displeasure, being doomed to crawl
forever in the dust, and to suffer from the enmity which it was
decreed should be placed in the hearts of Eve's children.[186]

  [186] See Note 4.

=28. Atonement was Provided for.=--God left not His now mortal
children without hope. He gave other commandments to Adam, requiring
him to offer sacrifices in the name of the Only Begotten Son, and
promising redemption unto him and all his descendants who would comply
with the conditions prescribed. The opportunity of winning the
victor's reward by overcoming evil was explained to our parents, and
they rejoiced. Adam said, "Blessed be the name of God, for because of
my transgression my eyes are opened, and in this life I shall have
joy, and again in the flesh I shall see God." Eve was glad and
declared, "Were it not for our transgression we never should have had
seed, and never should have known good and evil, and the joy of our
redemption, and the eternal life which God giveth unto all the
obedient."[187]

  [187] Pearl of Great Price: Moses v 10-11; see Note 6.

=29. The Fall came not by Chance.=--It would be unreasonable to
suppose that the transgression of Eve and Adam came as a surprise to
the Creator. By His infinite fore-knowledge, God knew what would be
the result of Satan's temptation to Eve, and what Adam would do under
the conditions. And further, it is evident that the Fall was foreseen,
to be a means whereby man could be brought face to face with both good
and evil; that of his own agency he might elect the one or the other,
and thus be prepared by the experiences of a mortal probation for the
exaltation provided in the glorious plan of his creation:--"For
behold, this is my work and my glory, to bring to pass the immortality
and eternal life of man;"[188] thus spake the Lord unto Moses. It was
the purpose of God to place within the reach of the spirits begotten
by Him in the heavens the means of individual effort, and the
opportunity of winning, not merely redemption from death but also
salvation and even exaltation, with the powers of eternal progression
and increase. Hence, it was necessary that the spiritual offspring of
God should leave the mansions of their primeval childhood, and enter
the school of mortal experience, meeting, contending with, and
overcoming evil, according to their several degrees of faith and
strength. Adam and Eve could never have been the parents of a mortal
posterity had they not themselves become mortal; mortality, as before
stated, was an essential element in the Divine plan respecting the
earth and its appointed inhabitants; and as a means of introducing
mortality the Lord placed before the progenitors of the race a law,
knowing full well that transgression would follow.

  [188] Pearl of Great Price: Moses i 39; see Note 7.

=30.= Eve was fulfilling the foreseen purposes of God by the part she
took in the great drama of the Fall; yet she did not partake of the
forbidden fruit with that object in view, but with the intent to
violate the Divine command, being deceived by the sophistries of the
serpent-fiend. Satan also, for that matter, furthered the purposes of
the Creator, in tempting Eve; yet his design was to thwart the Lord's
plan. We are definitely told that "he knew not the mind of God,
wherefore he sought to destroy the world."[189] Yet, his diabolical
effort, far from being the initiatory step toward destruction,
contributed to the plan of man's eternal exaltation. Adam's part in
the great event was essentially different from that of his wife; he
was not deceived; on the contrary he deliberately decided to do as Eve
desired, that he might carry out the purposes of his Maker with
respect to the race of men, whose first patriarch he was ordained to
be.

  [189] Pearl of Great Price: Moses iv, 6.

=31.= Even the transgressions of man may be turned to the
accomplishment of high purposes. As will be shown, the sacrifice of
Christ was ordained from before the foundation of the world,[190] yet
Judas who betrayed, and the blood-thirsty Jews who brought about the
crucifixion of the Son of God, are none the less guilty of the awful
crime.

  [190] See Lecture iv, p. 76.

=32.= It has become a common practice with mankind to heap reproaches
upon the progenitors of the family, and to picture the supposedly
blessed state in which we would be living but for the Fall; whereas
our first parents are entitled to our deepest gratitude for their
legacy to posterity,--the means of winning glory, exaltation, and
eternal lives, on the battlefield of mortality. But for the
opportunity thus given, the spirits of God's offspring would have
remained forever in a state of innocent childhood; sinless through no
effort of their own; negatively saved, not from sin, but from the
opportunity of meeting sin; incapable of winning the honors of victory
because prevented from taking part in the battle. As it is, they are
heirs to the birthright of Adam's descendants,--mortality, with its
immeasurable possibilities and its God-given freedom of action. From
Father Adam we have inherited all the ills to which flesh is heir; but
such are necessarily incident to the knowledge of good and evil, by
the proper use of which knowledge man may become even as the
Gods.[191]

  [191] See Note 5.


NOTES.

     =1. Man's Agency is God-given.=--The following is an extract from
     a discourse delivered by President Brigham Young, July 5, 1855.
     (See Journal of Discourses of that date, and Millennial Star,
     vol. xx, p. 43.) "What is the foundation of the rights of man?
     The Lord Almighty has organized man for the express purpose of
     becoming an independent being like unto Himself, and has given
     him his individual agency. Man is made in the likeness of his
     Creator, the great archetype of the human species, who bestowed
     upon him the principles of eternity, planting immortality within
     him, and leaving him at liberty to act in the way that seemeth
     good unto him;--to choose or refuse for himself, to be a
     Latter-day Saint or a Wesleyan Methodist, to belong to the Church
     of England, the oldest daughter of the Mother Church, to the old
     Mother herself, to her sister the Greek Church, or to be an
     infidel and belong to no church. When the kingdom of God is fully
     set up and established on the face of the earth, and takes the
     pre-eminence over all other nations and kingdoms, it will protect
     the people in the enjoyment of all their rights, no matter what
     they believe, what they profess, or what they worship."

     =2. The Nature of Sin.=--The English word "sin" represents a very
     great variety of terms occurring in the original languages, the
     literal translation of which bear to one another a very great
     similarity. Thus, in the Old Testament, the following terms among
     others occur:--_setim_ (referred to in Psalms ci, 3), signifying
     "to deviate from the way;" _shegagah_ (Lev. iv, 2; Num. xv, 27),
     "to err in the way;" _avon_, "the crooked, or perverted;" _avel_,
     "to turn aside." In the New Testament we find, _hemartia_, "the
     missing of a mark;" _parabasis_, "the transgressing of a line;"
     _parakoe_, "disobedience to a voice;" _paraptoma_, "falling from
     uprightness; "_agnoema_, "unjustifiable ignorance;" _hettema_,
     "giving only partial measure;" _anomia_, "non-observance of law;"
     _plemmeleia_, "a discord." The above illustrations are taken
     mainly from Müller and French. In all these expressions, the
     predominant idea is that of departure from the way of God, of
     separation from His companionship by opposition to the Divine
     requirements. Sin was introduced into the world from without; it
     was not a natural product of earth. The seed of disobedience was
     planted in the mind of Eve by the arch-fiend: that seed took
     root; and much fruit, of the nature that we, with unguarded
     words, call calamity, is the result. From these thorns and
     thistles of mortality, a Savior has been prepared to deliver us.

     =3. Eden.=--In the Hebrew tongue, from which our word "Eden" is
     taken, this term signifies something particularly delightful,--a
     place of pleasantness; the place is also called "the garden of
     the Lord." One particular spot in the land of Eden was prepared
     by the Lord as a garden; this was situated eastward in Eden. From
     the garden, the parents of the race were expelled after the Fall,
     though it is reasonable to suppose that they still dwelt in the
     land or region of Eden. We read that at a later date, Cain, the
     first murderer, "went out from the presence of the Lord, and
     dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden" (Gen. iv, 16).
     Though there is no uniform belief among Christian scholars as to
     the geographical location of Eden, the majority claim that it was
     in Persia; however, the most radical among the advocates of this
     view fail to prove any marked resemblance between the region at
     present and the place described in the Bible. The Latter-day
     Saints have more exact knowledge on the matter, a revelation
     having been given through Joseph Smith, at Spring Hill, Mo., May
     19, 1838, in which that place is named by the Lord
     "Adam-ondi-Ahman, because, said he, it is the place where Adam
     shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit,
     as spoken of by Daniel the prophet" (Doc. and Cov. cxvi). From
     another revelation we learn (Doc. and Cov. cvii, 52-53) that
     three years before his death, Adam called together in the valley
     of Adam-ondi-Ahman those of his sons who had been made High
     Priests, together with the rest of his righteous posterity, and
     there bestowed upon them his patriarchal blessings, the event
     being marked by special manifestations from the Lord (see also
     Doc. and Cov. cxvii, 8). The Lord has pointed out in this day the
     exact location of the altar upon which Adam offered sacrifices
     after his expulsion from the Garden (see Contributor, Vol. vii,
     page 314). There is no authentic record of the human race having
     inhabited the Eastern Hemisphere until after the flood. The
     Western Continent, called now the New World, comprises indeed the
     oldest inhabited regions of earth. The west, not the east, is the
     "cradle of nations."

     =4. The Serpent=, as stated, having aided the purposes of Satan,
     received from the Lord a special curse (see Genesis iii, 13, 15,
     and the Pearl of Great Price, p. 16). The creature was doomed to
     a life of degradation. Even from the standpoint of anatomy, the
     serpent is a degraded type. Though a vertebrate,--a member of the
     highest sub-kingdom of animals, it is devoid even of external
     limbs, and its means of locomotion are of no higher order than
     are those of the worm and the caterpillar. In the scriptures, the
     serpent is made the symbol of craft, subtlety, cunning, and
     danger.

     =5. Mortality Essential.=--President John Taylor, after
     discussing the succession of events leading up to the Fall,
     says--"Thus it would appear that if any of the links of this
     great chain had been broken, it would have interfered with the
     comprehensive plan of the Almighty pertaining to the salvation
     and eternal exaltation of those spirits who were His sons, and
     for whom principally the world was made: that they, through
     submission to the requirements of the eternal principle and law
     governing those matters, might possess bodies, and those bodies
     united with the spirits might become living souls, and being the
     sons of God, and made in the image of God, they through the
     atonement might be exalted, by obedience to the law of the
     Gospel, to the Godhead."--_Mediation and Atonement_, p. 135.

     =6. Beneficent Results of the Fall.=--"'Honor thy father and thy
     mother.' This was one of the ten special commandments given to
     Israel, during a grand display of God's power and glory on Mount
     Sinai. In the past centuries of darkness it appears to have lost
     its significance with the Christian world. They do not appear to
     realize that honor is due to the first parents of the human race.
     They have been long taught that Adam and Eve were great
     transgressors, and have mourned over the fact that they partook
     of the forbidden fruit and brought death into the world. There is
     no possibility that the fall of man was an accident or chance,
     any more than was his creation. If an accident, then why was
     Christ prepared from before the foundation of the world as a
     propitiation for sin, and to open up the way for man to
     immortality? Christ's mediation was a sequence of the fall" (see
     Acts v, 31). "Without the fall there would have been no broken
     law, and therefore nothing to repent of; and there could be no
     forgiveness of sin without the atonement of Christ. The Book of
     Mormon makes this subject very plain: 'And now, behold, if Adam
     had not transgressed, he would not have fallen; but he would have
     remained in the Garden of Eden. And all things which were
     created, must have remained in the same state which they were
     after they were created; and they must have remained forever, and
     had no end. And they would have had no children; wherefore they
     would have remained in a state of innocence, having no joy, for
     they knew no misery; doing no good, for they knew no sin' (II
     Nephi ii, 22-23).... We, the children of Adam, have no right to
     bring accusations against the Patriarch of the race. But rather,
     we should rejoice with them, that through their fall and the
     atonement of Jesus Christ, the way of eternal life has been
     opened up to us."--_A Compendium of the Doctrines of the Gospel_:
     F. D. Richards and J. A. Little, pp. 3-4.

     =7. The Fall Fore-known.=--"'Mormonism' accepts the doctrine of
     the Fall, and the account of the transgression in Eden, as set
     forth in Genesis; but it affirms that none save Adam shall ever
     have to account for Adam's disobedience; that mankind in general
     are absolutely absolved from the responsibility for that
     'original sin,' and that each shall answer for his own
     transgressions alone. That the Fall was foreknown of God,--that
     it was the accepted means by which the necessary condition of
     mortality should be inaugurated; and that a Redeemer was provided
     before the world was. That general salvation, in the sense of
     redemption from the effects of the Fall, comes to all without
     their seeking it; but that individual salvation or rescue from
     the effects of personal sins is to be acquired by each for
     himself, by faith and good works through the redemption wrought
     by Jesus Christ."--_The Philosophy of Mormonism_: The Author;
     Improvement Era, Vol. IV, pp. 465-466.

     =8. The Fall a Process of Physical Degeneracy.=--For a concise
     treatment of this topic see "Jesus the Christ," pp. 19 and 29.



LECTURE IV.

THE ATONEMENT, AND SALVATION.

     =Article 3.=--We believe that through the atonement of Christ,
     all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances
     of the gospel.


THE ATONEMENT.

=1. The Atonement of Christ= is taught as a leading doctrine by all
sects professing Christianity. The expression is so common a one, and
the essential point of its signification is so generally admitted,
that definitions may appear to be superfluous; nevertheless, there is
a peculiar importance attached to the use of the word atonement, in a
theological sense. The doctrine of the atonement comprises proof of
the divinity of Christ's earthly ministry; and the vicarious nature of
His death, as a fore-ordained and voluntary sacrifice, intended for
and efficacious as a propitiation for the sins of mankind, thus
becoming the means whereby salvation may be obtained.

=2.= The New Testament, which is properly regarded as the scripture of
Christ's mission among men, is imbued throughout with the doctrine of
salvation through the work of atonement wrought by the Savior; and yet
the word atonement, occurs but once in the whole record; and in that
single instance, according to the opinion of most biblical
authorities, it is confessedly misused. The instance referred to is
found in the words of Paul addressed to the saints at Rome:--"But we
also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now
received the atonement."[192] The marginal rendering gives, instead of
atonement, reconciliation, and of this word a related form is used in
the preceding verse. A consistent translation, giving a full
agreement between the English and the Greek, would make the verse
quoted, and that immediately preceding it, read in this way:--"For if,
when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his
Son; much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And
not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by
whom we have now received the reconciliation."[193] The term atonement
occurs repeatedly in the Old Testament, and with marked frequency in
three of the books of the Pentateuch, viz.: Exodus, Leviticus, and
Numbers; and the sense in which it is employed is invariably that of a
sacrifice of propitiation, usually associated with the death of an
acceptable victim, whereby reconciliation was to be effected between
God and His creatures.

  [192] Romans v, 11.

  [193] Romans v, 10-11.

=3.= The structure of the word in its present form is suggestive of
this, the true meaning; it is literally _at-one-ment_, "denoting
reconciliation, or the bringing into agreement of those who have been
estranged."[194] And such is the significance of the saving sacrifice
of the Redeemer, whereby He expiated the transgression of the Fall,
through which came death into the world, and provided ready and
efficient means for man's attainment of immortality through
reconciliation with God.

  [194] Standard Dictionary, under _propitiation_.

=4. Nature of the Atonement.=--The atonement wrought by Jesus Christ
is a necessary sequence of the transgression of Adam; and, as the
infinite foreknowledge of God made clear to Him the one even before
Adam was placed on earth, so the Father's boundless mercy prepared a
Savior for mankind before the world was framed. Through the Fall, Adam
and Eve have entailed the conditions of mortality upon their
descendants; therefore all beings born of earthly parents are subject
to bodily death. The sentence of banishment from the presence of God
was in the nature of a spiritual death; and that penalty, which was
visited upon our first parents in the day of their transgression, has
likewise followed as the common heritage of humanity. As this penalty
came into the world through an individual act, it would be manifestly
unjust to cause all to eternally suffer therefrom, without a chance of
deliverance. Therefore was the promised sacrifice of Jesus Christ
ordained as a propitiation for broken law, whereby Justice could be
fully satisfied, and Mercy be left free to exercise her beneficent
influence over the souls of mankind.[195] All the details of the
glorious plan, by which the salvation of the human family is assured,
may not lie within the understanding of man; but surely man has
learned, from his futile attempts to fathom the primary cause of the
phenomena of nature, that his powers of comprehension are limited; and
he will admit, that to deny an effect because of his inability to
elucidate its cause, would be to forfeit his claims as an observing
and reasoning being.

  [195] See Note 1.

=5.= Simple as is the plan of redemption in its general features, it
is confessedly a mystery to the finite mind in detail. President John
Taylor has written in this wise:--"In some mysterious, incomprehensible
way, Jesus assumed the responsibility which naturally would have
devolved upon Adam; but which could only be accomplished through the
mediation of Himself; and by taking upon Himself their sorrows,
assuming their responsibilities, and bearing their transgressions or
sins. In a manner to us incomprehensible and inexplicable, He bore the
weight of the sins of the whole world, not only of Adam, but of his
posterity; and in doing that, opened the kingdom of heaven, not only
to all believers and all who obeyed the law of God, but to more than
one half of the human family who die before they come to years of
maturity, as well as to the heathen, who, having died without law,
will through His mediation be resurrected without law, and be judged
without law, and thus participate, according to their capacity, works,
and worth, in the blessings of His atonement."[196]

  [196] Pres. John Taylor, Mediation and Atonement, pp. 148-149.

=6.= But, however incomplete may be our comprehension of the scheme of
redemption through Christ's vicarious sacrifice in all its parts, we
cannot reject it without becoming infidel; for it stands as the
fundamental doctrine of all scripture, the very essence of the spirit
of prophecy and revelation, the most prominent of all the declarations
of God unto man.

=7. The Atonement a Vicarious Sacrifice.=--It is to many a matter of
surpassing wonder that the voluntary sacrifice of a single being could
be made to operate as a means of ransom for the rest of mankind. In
this, as in other things, the scriptures are explicable only by the
spirit of scriptural interpretation. The sacred writings of ancient
times, the words of modern prophets, the traditions of mankind, the
rites of sacrifice, and even the sacrileges of heathen idolatries,
involve the idea of vicarious atonement. God has never refused to
accept an offering made by one who is authorized on behalf of those
who are in any way incapable of doing the required service themselves.
The scape-goat,[197] and the altar victim[198] of ancient Israel, if
offered with repentance and contrition, were accepted by the Lord in
mitigation of the sins of the people. It is interesting to note, that
while the ceremonies of sacrifice formed so large and so essential a
part of the Mosaic requirements, these rites long ante-dated the
establishment of Israel as a distinct people; for, as already shown,
altar sacrifice was rendered by Adam.[199] The symbolism of the
sacrificing of animals as a prototype of the great sacrifice to follow
on Calvary was thus instituted with the beginning of human history.

  [197] Lev. xvi, 20-22.

  [198] Lev. iv.

  [199] See page 70.

=8.= The many kinds of sacrifice prescribed by the Mosaic law are
clearly classified under the headings bloody and bloodless. Offerings
of the first order only, involving the infliction of death, were
acceptable in propitiation or atonement for sin, and the victim had to
be clean, healthy, and without spot or blemish. And so for the great
sacrifice, the effects of which were to be infinite, only an innocent
subject could be accepted. It was Christ's right, as the only sinless
Being on earth, and as the Only Begotten of the Father, and above all
as the One ordained to this mission in the heavens, to be the Redeemer
of mankind; and though the exercise of this right involved a
sacrifice, the extent of which man cannot comprehend, yet Christ made
that sacrifice willingly and voluntarily. To the last He had the means
of terminating the tortures of His persecutors, by a simple exercise
of His powers as one of the Godhead.[200] In some way, though that way
may be inexplicable to us, Christ took upon Himself the sins of
mankind. The means may be to our finite minds a mystery, yet the
results are our salvation.

  [200] Matt. xxvi, 53-54; John x, 17-18.

=9.= Something of the Savior's agony as He groaned under this load of
guilt, which to Him, as a type of purity, must have been in itself
repulsive, He has told us through the prophet's words in this day:
"For behold, I, God, have suffered these things for all, that they
might not suffer if they would repent; but if they would not repent
they must suffer even as I, which suffering caused myself, even God,
the greatest of all, to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every
pore, and to suffer both body and spirit; and would that I might not
drink the bitter cup, and shrink:--Nevertheless, glory be to the
Father, and I partook and finished my preparations unto the children
of men."[201] Further instances of the validity of vicarious service
are found in the ordinances of baptism for the dead[202] as taught in
apostolic and modern times, and in the institution of other temple
ceremonies[203] in the present dispensation.

  [201] Doc. and Cov. xix, 16-19. See "Jesus the Christ," pp.
  610-614.

  [202] I Cor. xv, 29. See Lectures vi and vii.

  [203] Doc. and Cov. cxxvii, 4-9; cxxviii.

=10. Christ's Sacrifice was Voluntary and Love-inspired.=--We have
noted in passing that Christ gave His life willingly and voluntarily
for the redemption of mankind. He offered Himself, in the great
Council of the Gods, as the subject of the atoning sacrifice made
necessary by the fore-seen transgression of the first man; and the
free agency shown and exercised in this, the early stage of His saving
mission, was retained to the very last of the agonizing fulfillment of
the accepted plan. Though He lived on earth a man in every particular
that concerns us in our regard for Him as an example of Godliness in
humanity, yet it is to be remembered that, though born of a mortal
mother, he was begotten by an immortal Sire; and so had combined
within His being the capacity to die, and the power to set death at
defiance. He gave His life; it was not taken from Him. Note the
significance of His own declaration:--"Therefore doth my Father love
me, because I lay down my life that I may take it up again. No man
taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it
down, and I have power to take it again."[204] On another occasion
Jesus testified of Himself in this way:--"For as the Father hath life
in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself; and
hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the
Son of man."[205] And then amid the tragic scenes of the betrayal,
when one who had been a professed follower and friend gave Him with a
traitorous kiss to His persecutors, when Peter, with a rashness
prompted by righteous zeal, drew and used the sword in His defence,
the Master said:--"Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father,
and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? But
how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must
be?"[206] And on to the bitter end, marked by the expiring though
triumphant cry "It is finished," the incarnated God held in subjection
within Himself the power to thwart His murderers, had He so willed.

  [204] John x, 17-18. See "Jesus the Christ," pp. 22, 23, 81, 418.

  [205] John v, 26-27.

  [206] Matt. xxvi, 53-54.

=11.= The motive inspiring and sustaining Him through all the scenes
of His mission, from the time of His primeval ordination to the moment
of victorious consummation on the cross, was two-fold; first, the
desire to do His Father's will, in accomplishing the salvation of man;
second, His love for humanity, of whose welfare and destiny He had
assumed charge. Far from cherishing the least feeling of
vindictiveness against those, who, in defiance of the laws of God and
man, put Him to ignominious death, He entertained for them compassion
to the last. Hear Him in the hour of supreme agony, praying aloud,
"Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do."[207] Not less
is the Father's love, as shown by His accepting the Son's offer, and
permitting Him whom He delighted to call His Beloved, to suffer as
only a God could suffer:--"For God so loved the world, that he gave
his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not
perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the
world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be
saved."[208] And further, we hear the teaching of the apostle, whom
the Savior loved so well, "In this was manifested the love of God
toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world
that we might live through him."[209]

  [207] Luke xxiii, 34.

  [208] John iii, 16-17.

  [209] I John iv, 9. See "Jesus the Christ," chs. ii and iii.

=12. The Atonement Fore-ordained and Fore-told.=--As already shown,
the plan of the Father to open a way for the redemption of mankind,
then to leave all men free to exercise their own agency, was adopted
by the Council in heaven to the rejection of Lucifer's plan of
compulsion. Even at that remote period, Christ was thus ordained as a
Mediator for all mankind; in fact, "a covenant was entered into
between Him and His Father, in which He agreed to atone for the sins
of the world, and He thus, as stated, became a 'Lamb slain from before
the foundation of the world.'"[210] The prophets of old, many of whom
lived centuries before the time of Christ's coming in the flesh,
testified of Him and of the great work He had been ordained to
perform. These men of God had been permitted to behold in prophetic
visions many of the scenes incident to the Savior's earthly mission;
and they solemnly bore record of the manifestations. Indeed, the
testimony of Christ is the spirit of prophecy, and without it no
person can rightly claim the distinction of being a prophet of God.
Adam's despair, on being driven from Eden, was changed to joy when,
through revelation, he learned of the plan of redemption to be wrought
by the Son of God in the flesh.[211] Righteous Enoch taught the same
truths, which had been declared to him from the heavens.[212] This
testimony was borne by Moses,[213] Job,[214] David,[215]
Zechariah,[216] Isaiah,[217] and Micah.[218] The same declaration was
made by John the Baptist,[219] the prophet of the Highest, designated
by the Savior as more than a prophet; he it was who baptized the
Christ, and who witnessed the Father's words associated with the
visible sign of the Holy Ghost, concerning the mission of the Son.

  [210] Pres. John Taylor, in Mediation and Atonement, p. 97.

  [211] See page 71. Moses v, 9-11.--For general treatment see
  "Jesus the Christ," ch. v. See also Note 6.

  [212] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vi, 51-68.

  [213] Deut. xviii, 15, 17-19.

  [214] Job xix, 25-27.

  [215] Psalms ii, 1-12.

  [216] Zech. ix, 9; xii, 10; xiii, 6.

  [217] Isaiah vii, 14; ix, 6-7.

  [218] Micah v, 2.

  [219] Matt. iii, 11.

=13.= Should there be any doubt as to the application of such
prophecies, we have the conclusive testimony of Christ that they refer
to Himself. On that memorable day, immediately following His
resurrection, while walking incognito with two of His disciples on the
road to Emmaus, He taught them the scriptures that had been written
concerning the Son of God; "Beginning at Moses, and all the prophets,
he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning
himself."[220] A few hours after this event, the Lord appeared to the
Eleven at Jerusalem. He operated upon their minds "that they might
understand the scriptures; and said unto them, Thus it is written, and
thus it behoved Christ to suffer,"[221] in this way testifying that He
was fulfilling a previously ordained plan. Peter, one of the Savior's
most intimate earthly associates, refers to Him as "a Lamb without
blemish and without spot, who verily was fore-ordained before the
foundation of the world."[222] In his epistle to the Romans, Paul
characterizes Christ as the one "Whom God hath set forth to be a
propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness
for the remission of sins that are past."[223] These are but a few of
the biblical evidences of Christ's appointment and fore-ordination;
both Old and New Testament[224] writings abound in proofs of the
Messiah's great work.

  [220] Luke xxiv, 27.

  [221] Luke xxiv, 45-46. See "Jesus the Christ," pp. 685-690.

  [222] I Peter i, 19-20.

  [223] Romans iii, 25.

  [224] See Rom. xvi, 25-26; Eph. iii, 9-11; Col. i, 24-26; II Tim.
  i, 8-10; Titus i, 2-3; Rev. xiii, 8.

=14.= Book of Mormon prophets are characterized by their full
testimonies concerning the Messiah. Because of his purity of faith,
the brother of Jared was permitted to behold the Savior of mankind,
twenty-two centuries prior to the meridian of time, and to be shown
that man was created after the image of the Lord, at the same time
being taught of the Father's purpose that the Son take upon Himself
flesh and dwell on earth.[225] Note the personal declaration of the
fore-ordained Redeemer to this prophet:--"Behold, I am he who was
prepared from the foundation of the world to redeem my people. Behold,
I am Jesus Christ. I am the Father and the Son. In me shall all
mankind have light, and that eternally, even they who shall believe on
my name; and they shall become my sons and my daughters."[226]

  [225] Ether iii, 13-14; see also xiii, 10-11.

  [226] Ether iii, 14; read also 8-16. See Note 12, p. 53.

=15.= Nephi records the prophecy of his father Lehi concerning the
future appearing of the Son in the flesh, His baptism, death, and
resurrection; this prophetic utterance specifies the exact date of the
Savior's birth, viz., six hundred years after the time of Lehi's
exodus from Jerusalem. The mission of John the Baptist is described,
and even the place of baptism is designated.[227] Shortly after the
time of Lehi's vision, Nephi was shown by the Spirit the same things,
as also many others, some of which he has written, but the greater
part of which he was forbidden to write, as another, the Apostle
John, had been ordained to set them forth in a book which should form
part of the Bible. But, from his partial account of his vision, we
learn that he saw in Nazareth, Mary the Virgin, first alone, and
shortly afterward with a child in her arms; the demonstrator of the
vision informed him that the infant was the Lamb of God, the Son of
the Eternal Father. Then Nephi beheld the Son ministering among the
children of men, proclaiming the word, healing the sick, and working
many other wondrous miracles; he saw John, the prophet of the
wilderness, going before Him; he beheld the Savior baptized of John,
and the Holy Ghost descending upon Him with the visible sign of the
dove. Then he saw and prophesied that twelve chosen apostles would
follow the Savior in His ministry; that the Son would be taken and
judged of men, and finally be slain. Piercing the future, even beyond
the time of the crucifixion, Nephi beheld the strife of the world
against the apostles of the Lamb, and the final triumph of God's
cause.[228]

  [227] I Nephi x, 3-11.

  [228] I Nephi xi, 14-35; see also II Nephi ii, 3-21; xxv, 20-27;
  xxvi, 24.

=16.= Jacob, the brother of Nephi, prophesied to his brethren that
Christ would appear in the flesh among the Jews, and that He would be
scourged and crucified of them.[229] King Benjamin lifted his voice in
support of the same testimony, and preached unto his people the
righteous condescension of God.[230] So also declared Abinadi,[231]
Alma,[232] Amulek,[233] and Samuel the Lamanite prophet.[234] The
literal fulfillment of these prophecies furnishes unquestionable proof
of their truth. The wondrous signs indicative of Christ's birth[235]
and death were all realized,[236] and after His death and ascension
the Savior manifested Himself among the Nephites, as the Father
announced Him to the multitude.[237]

  [229] II Nephi vi, 8-10; ix, 5-6.

  [230] Mosiah iii, 5-27; iv, 1-8.

  [231] Mosiah xv, 6-9; xvi.

  [232] Alma vii, 9-14.

  [233] Alma xi, 35-44.

  [234] Hela. xiv, 2-8.

  [235] Hela. xiv, 2-5; 21-27.

  [236] III Nephi i, 5-21; viii, 3-25.

  [237] III Nephi xi, 1-17. See "Jesus the Christ," ch. xxxix.

=17.= The ancient scriptures, then, are plain in declaring that Christ
came upon the earth to do a work previously allotted. He lived,
suffered and died, in accordance with a plan which was framed in
righteousness for the redemption of the children of Adam, even before
the world was. Equally important and explicit is the word of modern
revelation through which the Son has declared Himself as Alpha and
Omega, the beginning and the end, man's Advocate with the Father, the
universal Redeemer.[238] Let us consider a single citation from the
many revelations concerning Christ given in the present
dispensation:--"Listen to the voice of the Lord your God, even Alpha
and Omega, the beginning and the end, whose course is one eternal
round, the same today as yesterday and forever. I am Jesus Christ, the
Son of God, who was crucified for the sins of the world, even as many
as will believe on my name, that they may become the sons of God, even
one in me as I am in the Father, as the Father is one in me, that we
may be one."[239]

  [238] See Doc. and Cov. vi, 21; xiv, 9; xviii, 10-12; xix, 1-2,
  24; xxi, 9; xxix, 1; xxxiii; xxxiv, 1-3; xxxv, 1-2; xxxviii, 1-5;
  xxxix, 1-3; xlv, 3-5; xlvi, 13-14; lxxvi, 1-4, 12-14, 19-24, 68;
  xciii, 1-6, 12-17, 38.

  [239] Doc. and Cov. xxxv, 1-2.

=18. The Extent of the Atonement= is infinite, applying alike to all
descendants of Adam. Even the unbeliever, and the heathen, and the
child who dies before reaching the years of discretion, are redeemed
by the Savior's self-sacrifice from all the consequences of the
Fall.[240] It is conclusively proved by the scripture that the
resurrection of the body is one of the victories achieved by Christ
through His atoning sacrifice. He Himself proclaimed the eternal
truth, "I am the resurrection and the life;"[241] and He among men
came first forth from the grave,--"the first fruits of them that
slept."[242] Now, the scriptures leave no room for doubt concerning
the fact that the resurrection will be universal. The Savior announced
to his apostles the beginning of this work of deliverance from the
tomb; hear His words, "Marvel not at this; for the hour is coming, in
the which all that are in their graves shall hear his voice, and shall
come forth; they that have done good unto the resurrection of life,
and they that done evil unto the resurrection of damnation;"[243] or,
as the latter part of the declaration has been rendered through
inspiration in the present day, "They who have done good, in the
resurrection of the just: and they who have done evil in the
resurrection of the unjust."[244]

  [240] See Note 2.

  [241] John xi, 25.

  [242] I Cor. xv, 20; see Acts xxvi, 23.

  [243] John v, 28-29.

  [244] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 17.

=19.= Paul refers to the doctrine of a universal resurrection as being
so well proved that even his accusers had to admit the truth, "that
there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and
unjust."[245] On another occasion he said "For as in Adam all die,
even so in Christ shall all be made alive."[246] Furthermore, John the
Revelator testifies of his vision concerning futurity, "And I saw the
dead, small and great, stand before God.... And the sea gave up the
dead which were in it, and death and hell delivered up the dead which
were in them."[247] Thus it is plain that the effect of the atonement,
as far as it applies to the victory over temporal or bodily death,
involves the entire race. It is equally clear that the release from
Adam's legacy of spiritual death, or banishment from the presence of
God, will be similarly universal; so that if any man lose salvation,
such loss will be due to himself, and in no way be dependent upon the
Fall. The doctrine that the gift of redemption through Christ is free
to all men, was specifically taught by the apostles of old. Thus Paul
says:--"Therefore, as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all
men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift
came upon all men to the justification of life."[248] And
further:--there is "one mediator between God and men, the man Christ
Jesus; who gave himself a ransom for all."[249] John spoke of the
Redeemer's sacrifice, saying:--"And he is the propitiation for our
sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole
world."[250]

  [245] Acts xxiv, 15.

  [246] I Cor. xv, 22.

  [247] Rev. xx, 12-13.

  [248] Rom. v, 18.

  [249] I Tim. ii, 5-6.

  [250] I John ii, 2.

=20.= The same great truths were taught among the Nephites. Benjamin,
the righteous king, preached of "the atonement which was prepared from
the foundation of the world for all mankind, which ever were ever
since the fall of Adam, or who are, or who ever shall be, even unto
the end of the world."[251] In revelation of the present day we read
of Christ's having come into the world, to suffer and to die, "That
through him all might be saved whom the Father had put into his power
and made by him."[252]

  [251] Mos. iv, 7.

  [252] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 42.

=21.= But besides this universal application of the atonement, whereby
all men are redeemed from the effects of Adam's transgression, both
with respect to the death of the body and the taint of inherited sin,
there is a special application of the same great sacrifice, as a means
of propitiation for individual sins, through the faith and good works
of the sinner. This two-fold effect of the atonement is implied in the
article of our faith now under consideration. The first effect is to
secure to all mankind alike, exemption from the otherwise terrible
effects of the Fall, thus providing a plan of _General Salvation_. The
second effect is to open a way for _Individual Salvation_ whereby
mankind may secure forgiveness of personal sins. As these sins are the
result of individual acts, it is just that forgiveness for them should
be conditioned on individual compliance with prescribed
requirements,--"obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel."

=22. The General Effect of the Atonement=, so far as it applies to all
who have arrived at years of accountability and judgment, has been
made sufficiently clear perhaps from the scriptures already quoted.
Its application to children may properly receive our further
attention. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches as
a doctrine founded on reason, justice, and scripture, that all
children are innocent in the sight of God, and that, until they reach
an age of personal responsibility, baptism is not requisite or proper
in their behalf; that, in short, they are saved through the atonement
of Christ. To a degree, children are born heirs to the good or evil
natures of their parents; the effects of heredity in determining
character are readily recognized. Good and evil tendencies, blessings
and curses, are transmitted from generation to generation. Through
this divinely appointed order, the justice of which is plain in the
revealed light of knowledge concerning the pre-existent state of the
spirits of mankind, the children of Adam are natural heirs to the
calamities of mortality; but through Christ's atonement they are all
redeemed from the curses of this fallen state; the debt, which comes
to them as a legacy, is paid for them, and thus are they left free.
Children who die free of sin are entirely innocent in the eyes of God,
even though they be the offspring of transgressors. We read in the
Book of Mormon:--"Little children cannot repent; wherefore it is awful
wickedness to deny the pure mercies of God unto them, for they are all
alive in him because of his mercy.... For behold that all little
children are alive in Christ, and also all they that are without the
law. For the power of redemption cometh on all that have no law."[253]

  [253] Moroni viii, 19-22.

=23.= The prophet Mormon writing to his son Moroni expressed in the
following manner his conviction of children's innocence:--"Listen to
the words of Christ, your Redeemer, your Lord and your God. Behold, I
came into the world not to call the righteous, but sinners to
repentance: the whole need no physician, but they that are sick;
wherefore little children are whole, for they are not capable of
committing sin; wherefore, the curse of Adam is taken from them in me,
that it hath no power over them.... Behold I say unto you, That this
thing shall ye teach, repentance and baptism unto those who are
accountable and capable of committing sin; yea, teach parents that
they must repent and be baptized, and humble themselves as their
little children, and they shall all be saved with their little
children. And their little children need no repentance, neither
baptism. Behold, baptism is unto repentance to the fulfilling the
commandments unto the remission of sins. But little children are alive
in Christ even from the foundation of the world."[254]

  [254] Moroni viii, 8-12.

=24.= And in a revelation through the prophet Joseph Smith in this
dispensation, the Lord has said:--"But behold I say unto you, that
little children are redeemed from the foundation of the world through
mine Only Begotten; wherefore they cannot sin, for power is not given
unto Satan to tempt little children until they begin to become
accountable before me."[255] President John Taylor, after citing
instances of Christ's affection for little children, and proofs of the
innocent condition in which they are regarded in heaven,
says:--"Without Adam's transgression, those children could not have
existed; through the atonement they are placed in a state of salvation
without any act of their own. These would embrace, according to the
opinion of statisticians, more than one half of the human family, who
can attribute their salvation only to the mediation and atonement of
the Savior."[256]

  [255] Doc. and Cov. xxix, 46-47.

  [256] Mediation and Atonement, page 148. See Note 3.

=25. The Special or Individual Effect of the Atonement= makes it
possible for any and every soul to obtain absolution from the dread
effect of personal sins, through the mediation of Christ; but such
saving intercession is to be invoked by individual effort as
manifested through faith, repentance, and continued works of
righteousness. The laws under which individual salvation is obtainable
have been prescribed by Christ, whose right it is to say how the
blessings of His own sacrifice shall be administered. All men are in
need of the Savior's mediation, for all are transgressors. So taught
the apostles of old:--"For all have sinned, and come short of the
glory of God."[257] And again:--"If we say that we have no sin we
deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."[258] Now, that the
blessing of redemption from individual sins, while free for all to
attain, is nevertheless conditioned on individual effort, is as
plainly declared as is the truth of unconditional redemption from the
effects of the Fall. There is a judgment ordained for all, and all
will be judged "according to their works." The free agency of man
enables him to choose or reject, to follow the path of life, or the
road that leads to destruction; it is but just that he be held to
answer for the exercise of his freedom, and that he meet the results
of his acts.

  [257] Rom. iii, 23.

  [258] I John i, 8.

=26.= Hence the justice of the scriptural doctrine that salvation
comes to the individual only through obedience. "He became the author
of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him"[259] said Paul of
the Christ. And further:--God "will render to every man according to
his deeds: To them who, by patient continuance in well doing, seek for
glory and honor and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are
contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness,
indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man
that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory,
honor, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first,
and also to the Gentile: For there is no respect of persons with
God."[260] To these may be added the words of the risen Lord, "He that
believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; and he that believeth not,
shall be damned."[261]

  [259] Heb. v, 9.

  [260] Rom. ii, 6-11.

  [261] Mark xvi, 16.

=27.= Consider further the prophecy of King Benjamin proclaimed to the
Nephite multitude:--Christ's blood "atoneth for the sins of those who
have fallen by the transgression of Adam, who have died, not knowing
the will of God concerning them, or who have ignorantly sinned. But
wo, wo unto him who knoweth that he rebelleth against God; for
salvation cometh to none such, except it be through repentance and
faith on the Lord Jesus Christ."[262] But why multiply scriptural
citations when the whole tenor of sacred writ supports the doctrine?
Without Christ no man can be saved, and the salvation provided at the
cost of Christ's sufferings and bodily death is offered upon certain
clearly defined conditions only; and these are summarized under
"obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel."

  [262] Mosiah iii, 11-12.

=28. Salvation and Exaltation.=--Some degree of salvation will come to
all who have not forfeited their right to it; exaltation is given to
those only who by active labors have won a claim to God's merciful
liberality by which it is bestowed. Of the saved, not all will be
exalted to the higher glories; rewards will not be bestowed in
violation of justice; punishments will not be meted out to the
ignoring of mercy's claims. No one can be admitted to any order of
glory, in short, no soul can be saved until justice has been satisfied
for violated law. Our belief in the universal application of the
atonement implies no supposition that all mankind will be saved with
like endowments of glory and power. In the kingdom of God there are
numerous degrees or gradations provided for those who are worthy of
them; in the house of our Father there are many mansions, into which
only those who are prepared are admitted. The old sectarian idea, that
in the hereafter there will be but two places for the souls of
mankind,--heaven and hell, with the same glory in all parts of the
one, and the same terrors throughout the other,--is wholly untenable
in the light of divine revelation. Through the direct word of the Lord
we learn of varied degrees of glory.

=29. Degrees of Glory.=--The revelations of God have defined the
following principal kingdoms or degrees of glory, as prepared through
Christ for the children of men:

I. _The Celestial Glory._[263]--There are some who have striven to
obey all the Divine commandments, who have accepted the testimony of
Christ, and received the Holy Spirit; these are they who have overcome
evil by godly works, and who are therefore entitled to the highest
glory; these belong to the Church of the First Born, unto whom the
Father has given all things; they are made Kings and Priests of the
Most High, after the order of Melchisedek; they possess celestial
bodies, "whose glory is that of the sun, even the glory of God, the
highest of all, whose glory the sun of the firmament is written of as
being typical;" they indeed are admitted to the celestial company,
being crowned with the celestial glory, which makes them Gods.

  [263] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 50-70.

II. _The Terrestrial Glory._[264]--We read of those who receive glory
of a secondary order, differing from the highest as "the moon differs
from the sun in the firmament;" these are they who, though honorable,
were still in darkness, blinded by the craftiness of men, and unable
to receive and obey the higher laws of God, they proved "not valiant
in the testimony of Jesus," and therefore are not entitled to the
fulness of glory.

  [264] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 71-80.

III. _The Telestial Glory._--We learn of a still lower kind of glory,
differing from the higher orders as the stars differ from the brighter
orbs of the firmament; this is given to those who received not the
testimony of Christ, but who still did not deny the Holy Spirit; who
have led lives exempting them from the heaviest punishment, yet whose
redemption will be delayed till the last resurrection. In the
telestial world there are innumerable degrees of glory, comparable to
the varying lustre of the stars.[265] Yet all who receive of any one
of these orders of glory are at last saved, and upon them Satan will
finally have no claim. Even the telestial glory, as we are told by
those who have been permitted to gaze upon it, "surpasses all
understanding; and no man knows it except him to whom God has revealed
it."[266] Then there are those who have lost all claim upon the
immediate mercy of God; whose deeds have numbered them with Perdition
and his angels.[267]

  [265] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 81-86.

  [266] The same, paragraphs 89-90.

  [267] See page 62; also pages 416-422.


NOTES.

     =1. The Atonement Proved by Evidence.=--"It is often asked: 'How
     is it that through the sacrifice of one who is innocent salvation
     may be purchased for those under the dominion of death?' We
     observe in passing that what should most concern man is not so
     much how it is that such is the case, but is it a fact?... To
     that question the blood sprinkled upon a thousand Jewish altars,
     and the smoke that darkened the heavens for ages from burnt
     offerings, answer yes.... Even the mythology of heathen nations
     retains the idea of an atonement that either has been, or is to
     be made for mankind. Fantastic, distorted, confused, buried under
     the rubbish of savage superstition it may be, but it nevertheless
     exists. So easily traced, so distinct is this feature of heathen
     mythology, that some writers have endeavored to prove that the
     gospel plan of redemption was derived from heathen mythology.
     Whereas the fact is that the gospel was understood and
     extensively preached in the earliest ages; men retained in their
     tradition a knowledge of those principles or parts of them, and
     however much they have been distorted, traces of them may still
     be found in nearly all the mythologies of the world. The prophets
     of the Jewish scriptures answer the question in the affirmative.
     The writers of the New Testament make Christ's atonement the
     principal theme of their discourses and epistles. The Book of
     Mormon, speaking as the voice of an entire continent of people
     whose prophets and righteous men sought and found God, testifies
     to the same great fact. The revelations of God as given through
     the Prophet Joseph Smith are replete with passages confirming
     this doctrine."--Roberts' _Outlines of Ecclesiastical History_,
     Section viii, 6.

     =2. Redemption from the Fall Universal and Unconditional.=--"We
     believe that through the sufferings, death, and atonement of
     Jesus Christ all mankind, without one exception, are to be
     completely and fully redeemed, both body and spirit, from the
     endless banishment and curse to which they were consigned by
     Adam's transgression; and that this universal salvation and
     redemption of the whole human family from the endless penalty of
     the original sin, is effected without any conditions whatever on
     their part; that is, they are not required to believe or repent,
     or be baptized, or do anything else, in order to be redeemed from
     that penalty; for whether they believe or disbelieve; whether
     they repent or remain impenitent, whether they are baptized or
     unbaptized, whether they keep the commandments or break them,
     whether they are righteous or unrighteous, it will make no
     difference in relation to their redemption, both soul and body,
     from the penalty of Adam's transgression. The most righteous man
     that ever lived on the earth, and the most wicked wretch of the
     whole human family, were both placed under the same curse without
     any transgression or agency of their own, and they both alike
     will be redeemed from that curse, without any agency or
     conditions on their part."--Apostle Orson Pratt in _Remarkable
     Visions_.

     =3. Christ the Author of our Salvation.=--President John Taylor
     speaks of the death of Christ as an expiatory sacrifice, and
     adds:--"The Savior thus becomes master of the situation,--the
     debt is paid, the redemption made, the covenant fulfilled,
     justice satisfied, the will of God done, and all power is now
     given into the hands of the Son of God,--the power of the
     resurrection, the power of the redemption, the power of
     salvation, the power to enact laws for the carrying out and
     accomplishment of this design.... The plan, the arrangement, the
     agreement, the covenant was made, entered into and accepted,
     before the foundation of the world; it was prefigured by
     sacrifices, and was carried out and consummated on the Cross.
     Hence, being the Mediator between God and man, He becomes by
     right the Dictator and Director on earth and in heaven for the
     living and for the dead, for the past, the present, and the
     future, pertaining to man as associated with this earth or the
     heavens, in time or eternity, the Captain of our salvation, the
     Apostle and High Priest of our profession, the Lord and Giver of
     life."--_Mediation and Atonement_, Pres. John Taylor, p. 171.

     =4. The Atonement Inaugurated by Christ.=--"The Apostle Paul
     quite comprehensively sums up the results of Christ's death and
     resurrection: 'But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become
     the first fruits of them that slept. For since by man came death,
     by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all
     die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive' (I Cor. xv,
     21-22). That is, death having come on all men through the
     disobedience of Adam, so must all be raised to immortality and
     eternal life through the death and resurrection of Christ. Paul
     also asserted that 'the last enemy that shall be destroyed is
     death' (verse 26). John the Revelator declares that he saw death
     and hell cast into the lake of fire (Rev. xx, 14). The atonement,
     as wrought out by Jesus Christ, further signifies that He has
     opened up the way for man's redemption from his own sins, through
     faith in Christ's sufferings, death, and resurrection. The
     Apostle Paul well expresses this: 'For all have sinned, and come
     short of the glory of God; being justified freely by his grace
     through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God hath set
     forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare
     his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past,
     through the forbearance of God' (Romans iii, 23-26). These
     passages evidence that redemption from death, through the
     sufferings of Christ, is for all men, both the righteous and the
     wicked; for this earth, and for all things created upon it. The
     whole tenor of the scriptures assures us that, while they may be
     sure of resurrection from death, regardless of their personal
     acts, yet they will be rewarded for their works, whether they be
     good or evil, and that redemption from personal sins can only be
     obtained through obedience to the requirements of the Gospel, and
     a life of good works. The transgression of Adam being infinite in
     its consequences, those consequences cannot be averted, except
     through an infinite atonement."--_Compendium_, F. D. Richards &
     J. A. Little, pp. 8-9.

     =5. The Atonement Necessary.=--"In the economy of God and the
     plan proposed by the Almighty, it was provided that man was to be
     placed under a law apparently simple in itself, yet the test of
     that law was fraught with the gravest consequences. The
     observance of that law would secure eternal life, and the penalty
     for the violation of that law was death.... If the law had not
     been broken, man would have lived; but would man thus living have
     been capable of perpetuating his species, and of thus fulfilling
     the designs of God in preparing tabernacles for the spirits which
     had been created in the spirit world? And further, could they
     have had the need of a mediator, who was to act as a propitiation
     for the violation of this law, which it would appear from the
     circumstances was destined to be broken; or could the eternal
     increase and perpetuity of man have been continued, and his high
     exaltation to the Godhead been accomplished, without the
     propitiatory atonement and sacrifice of the Son of
     God?"--_Mediation and Atonement_, Pres. John Taylor, pp. 128-129.

     =6. The Need of a Redeemer.=--For special treatment of this topic
     see "Jesus the Christ," pp. 17-31.



LECTURE V.

FAITH AND REPENTANCE.

     =Article 4.=--We believe that the first principles and ordinances
     of the Gospel are (1) Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; (2)
     Repentance; ...


FAITH.

=1. Nature of Faith.=--The predominating sense in which the term faith
is used throughout the scriptures is that of full confidence and trust
in the being, purposes, and words of God. Such trust, if it be
implicit, will remove all doubt concerning things accomplished or
promised of God, even though such things be not apparent to or
explicable by the ordinary senses of mortality; hence arises the
definition of faith given by Paul: "Now faith is the substance [i.e.
confidence, or assurance] of things hoped for, the evidence
  [i.e. the demonstration or proof] of things not seen."[268] It is
  plain that such a feeling of trust may exist in different persons
  in varying degrees; indeed, faith may manifest itself from the
  incipient feeble state which is little more than mere belief,
  scarcely free from hesitation and fear, to the strength of abiding
  confidence that sets doubt and sophistry at defiance.

  [268] Heb. xi, 1.

=2. Belief, Faith, and Knowledge=, while intimately related and
ofttimes regarded as one, are in reality not identical. The terms
faith and belief are sometimes used as synonyms, nevertheless each of
them has a specific and definite meaning in our language, although in
early English there was virtually no distinction between them, and
therefore the words are used interchangeably in the ancient
scriptures. Belief may consist in a merely intellectual assent, whilst
faith implies such confidence and conviction as will impel to action.
Dictionary authority justifies us in drawing a distinction between the
two, according to present usage in English; and this authority defines
belief as a simple assent to the truth or actuality of anything,
excluding however the moral element of responsibility through such
assent, which is embraced by faith. Belief is in a sense passive,--a
mental agreement or acceptance only; faith is active and
positive,--such a reliance and confidence as will lead to works. Faith
in Christ comprises belief in Him, combined with trust in Him. One
cannot have faith without belief; yet he may believe and still lack
faith. Faith is vivified, vitalized, living belief.

=3.= Certainly there is a great difference in degree, even if no
essential distinction in kind be admitted between the two. As shall be
presently demonstrated, faith in the Godhead is requisite to
salvation; it is indeed a saving power, leading its possessor in the
paths of godliness; surely a mere belief in the existence and
attributes of Deity is no such power. Mark the words of the Apostle
James.[269] In his general epistle to the Saints, he chided his
brethren for certain empty professions. Said he in effect:--You take
pride and satisfaction in declaring your belief in God; you boast of
being distinguished from the idolaters and the heathen because you
accept one God; you do well to so profess, and so believe; but,
remember, others do likewise; even the devils believe; and so firmly
that they tremble at thought of the fate which that belief makes plain
to them.--What, do devils believe in Christ? Aye, their belief amounts
to certain knowledge, as to who He is, and as to what constitutes His
part, past, present, and to come, in the Divine plan of human
existence and salvation. Call to mind the case of the man possessed by
evil spirits, in the land of the Gadarenes; a man so grievously
tormented as to be a terror to all who came near him; he could be
neither tamed nor bound; people were afraid to approach him; yet when
he saw Christ, he ran to Him and worshiped, and the wicked spirit
within him begged for mercy at the hands of that Righteous One,
calling Him "Jesus, Son of the Most High God."[270] Again, an unclean
spirit in the synagogue at Jerusalem implored Christ not to use His
power, crying in fear and agony, "I know thee, who thou art, the Holy
One of God."[271] And then, we are told that Christ was once followed
by a multitude made up of people from Idumæa and Jerusalem, from Tyre
and Sidon; among them were many who were possessed of evil spirits,
and these, when they saw Him, fell down in the attitude of worship,
exclaiming: "Thou art the Son of God."[272] Was there ever mortal
believer who confessed more unreservedly a knowledge of God and His
Son Jesus Christ than did these same followers of Satan? The evil one
knows God and Christ; remembers, perchance, somewhat concerning the
position which he once occupied as a Son of the Morning[273]; yet with
all such knowledge he is Satan still. Neither belief nor its
superior,--actual knowledge,--is efficient to save; for neither of
these is faith. Belief may be a product of the mind, faith is of the
heart; belief is founded on reason; faith largely on intuition.

  [269] See James ii, 19.

  [270] See Mark v, 1-18; also Matt. viii, 28-34.

  [271] See Mark i, 24.

  [272] Mark iii, 8-11. See "Jesus the Christ," pp. 181, 310-312.

  [273] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 25-27.

=4.= We frequently hear it said that faith is imperfect knowledge;
that the first disappears as the second takes its place; that now we
walk by faith but some day we will walk by the sure light of
knowledge. In a sense this is true; yet it must be remembered that
knowledge may be as dead and unproductive in good works as is
faithless belief. Those confessions of the devils, that Christ was the
Son of God, were founded on knowledge; yet the great truth which they
knew did not change their evil natures. How different was their
acknowledgment of the Savior from that of Peter, who, to the Master's
question "Whom say ye that I am?" replied in practically the words
used by the unclean spirits before cited, "Thou art the Christ, the
Son of the living God."[274] Peter's faith had already shown its vital
power; it had caused him to forsake much that had been dear, to follow
his Lord through persecution and suffering, and to put away
worldliness with all its fascinations, for the sacrificing godliness
which his faith made so desirable. His knowledge of God as the Father,
and of the Son as the Redeemer, was perhaps no greater than that of
the unclean spirits; but while to them that knowledge was but an added
cause of condemnation, to him it was a means of salvation.

  [274] Matt. xvi, 15-16; see also Mark viii, 29; Luke ix, 20.

=5.= The mere possession of knowledge gives no assurance of benefit
therefrom. An illustration may perhaps be here allowed. During an
epidemic of cholera in a large city, a scientific man proved to his
own satisfaction, by chemical and microscopical tests, that the water
supply was infected, and that through it contagion was being spread.
He proclaimed the great truth throughout the city, and warned all
against the use of unboiled water. Many of the people, although
incapable of comprehending his methods of investigation, far less of
repeating such for themselves, had faith in his warning words,
followed his instructions, and escaped the death to which their
careless and unbelieving fellows succumbed. Their faith was a saving
one. To the man himself, the truth by which so many lives had been
spared was a matter of knowledge. He had actually seen, under the
microscope, the death-dealing germs in the water; he had tested their
virulence; he knew of what he spoke. Nevertheless, in a moment of
forgetfulness he drank of the unpurified water, and soon thereafter
died a victim to the plague. His knowledge did not save him, complete
though it was; yet others, whose reliance was only that of faith in
the truth which he declared, escaped the threatening destruction.
Truly he had knowledge; but, was he wise? Knowledge is to wisdom what
belief is to faith; one an abstract principle, the other a living
application. Not possession merely, but the proper use of knowledge
constitutes wisdom. Of belief compared with faith it may be said, as
it has been taught of knowledge and wisdom:--

    "Knowledge and wisdom, far from being one,
    Have oft-times no connection....
    Knowledge, a rude unprofitable mass,
    The mere material with which wisdom builds,
    Till smoothed and squared and fitted to its place,
    Does but encumber whom it seems to enrich."

=6. The Foundation of Faith.=--In a theological sense, we understand
by faith as already outlined, a living, inspiring confidence in God,
and an acceptance of His will as our law, and of His words as our
guide, in life. Faith in God is possible only as we come to know, or
at least to believe, that He exists, and moreover, that He is a Being
of worthy character and attributes. The grounds upon which man founds
his belief or knowledge respecting the existence of God, have been
examined in a previous lecture;[275] some of the Divine attributes, as
made known through God's dealings with mankind, have been likewise
specified. A restatement of the principal facts relating to the
character of the Supreme Being may be in place here, inasmuch as some
knowledge concerning the attributes of Deity is essential to the
exercise of faith in Him. Let us adopt the summary of facts as set
forth by the prophet, Joseph Smith; he presents, on the testimony of
scripture, the following statements respecting the character of God.

  [275] Lecture II, page 28.

"(1.) That He was God before the world was created, and the same God
that He was after it was created.

"(2.) That He is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, abundant in
goodness, and that He was so from everlasting, and will be to
everlasting.

"(3.) That He changes not, neither is there variableness with Him; but
that He is the same from everlasting to everlasting, being the same
yesterday, to-day, and for ever; and that His course is one eternal
round, without variation.

"(4.) That He is a God of truth and cannot lie.

"(5.) That He is no respecter of persons; but in every nation he that
fears God and works righteousness is accepted of Him.

"(6.) That He is love."[276]

  [276] Doc. and Cov., Lectures on Faith, iii, 13-18.

=7.= A knowledge of these comprehensive features of the Divine nature
will enable one to exercise rational and intelligent faith in God. And
upon such knowledge of God's existence, the worthiness of His
character, and the perfection of His attributes, is man's faith in Him
established. Faith then cannot be exercised in the absence of all
knowledge; yet even the benighted heathen show some of the fruits of
faith; but they have at least the conviction that arises from man's
natural intuition regarding a supreme power, which has been described
as a common heritage of humanity. In every human soul, even in that of
the savage, there is some basis for faith, however limited and
imperfect the darkness of heredity or of wilful sin may have made it.
Every child of God is born with the capacity for faith inherent within
his own nature; and all yearn in some degree for the strength and aid
which only faith can give. We shall yet learn:--

                "That in all ages
    Every human heart is human;
    That in even savage bosoms
    There are longings, yearnings, strivings,
    For the good they comprehend not.
    That the feeble hands and helpless,
    Groping blindly in the darkness,
    Trust God's right hand in that darkness,
    And are lifted up and strengthened."[277]

  [277] Longfellow.

The heathen's faith may be imperfect and weak, for his ability to
recognize the evidence upon which belief in God depends may be small.
While the first promptings of faith toward God may be the result of
natural intuition,--a faint echo of the songs of praise which were so
common during the state of primeval childhood,--the later development
will be largely the result of unprejudiced and prayerful investigation
and search for truth.

=8.= From trustworthy evidence, rightly interpreted, true faith will
spring; from false evidence, only distorted and misplaced faith can
arise.[278] Our conclusions concerning any question under test will be
governed largely by the number and credibility of the witnesses, if it
so be that we cannot investigate the alleged facts for ourselves; and
in either case, by the amount and quality of the evidence obtainable.
Now, however improbable a declaration may appear to us, if the truth
of it be affirmed by witnesses in whom we have confidence, we are led
to admit the statement, at least provisionally, as true. If many
credible witnesses testify, and moreover, if collateral evidence
suggest itself through facts in our possession, we may consider the
statement as proved; although we would be unable to affirm the truth
of it on the strength of our personal knowledge, until we had seen and
heard for ourselves, until in fact each of us had become a competent
witness through personal observation. To illustrate: of the citizens
of this country but a comparative few perhaps have visited the seat of
government; the masses know nothing by actual observation of the
Capitol, the executive mansion, and other buildings of national
interest and importance; very few have personally met the President
who resides there. How does any one of the multitudes who have not
seen for themselves, know of the city of Washington, of the Capitol,
and of the President? Solely through the testimony of others. He may
have among his acquaintances one or many who have been in the capital
of our country and whose statements he accepts as true; assuredly he
has heard or read of those who do know for themselves. Then he hears
of laws being framed there, and of edicts issuing from the nation's
headquarters; his studies in school, his use of maps and books, and
many other incidents add to the evidence which soon becomes decisive.
His inferences multiply, and develop into a positive conviction. He
acquires a faith in the existence of a center of national government,
and a regard for the laws which emanate therefrom.

  [278] See Note 1.

=9.= Let us take another illustration: Astronomers tell us that the
earth is of a kind with certain of the stars; that it is one of a
family of planets which revolve about the sun in concentric orbits;
and that some of those planets are many times the size of our globe.
We may not be skilled in astronomers' methods of observation and
calculation, and may therefore be unable to test the truth of these
statements for ourselves; but we find such a mass of evidence
resulting from the united testimony of those in whose skill as
scientific workers we have confidence, that the conclusions are
accepted by us as fully proved.

=10.= So too concerning the existence, authority, and attributes of
God, the testimonies of many holy men in ancient and modern
times,--prophets whose credibility is established by the fulfillment
of their predictions,--have come to us in united declaration of the
solemn truths, and nature furnishes corroborative testimony on every
side. To reject without disproving such evidence is to ignore the most
approved methods of investigation and research known to man. The
development of faith from evidence is illustrated in the scenes of a
certain memorable Pentecost celebration, on which occasion thousands
of Jews, imbued with a preconceived prejudice that Jesus was an
impostor, heard the apostles' testimonies, and witnessed the attendant
signs: three thousand of them were convinced of the truth and became
followers of the Son of God, their prejudice giving place to belief,
and their belief developing into faith with its accompanying
works.[279] The foundation of faith in God then is a sincere belief in
or knowledge of Him, as sustained by evidence and testimony, tested
and proved by earnest, prayerful search.

  [279] See Acts ii.

=11. Faith a Principle of Power.=--In its widest sense, faith,--the
assurance of things for which we hope, and the evidence of things not
discernible through our senses,--is the motive principle that impels
men to resolve and to act. Without its exercise, we would make no
exertion the results of which are future: without faith that he may
gather in the autumn, man would not plant in the spring; neither would
he essay to build, did he not have confidence that he would finish the
structure and enjoy its use; had the student no faith in the
possibility of successfully following his studies, he would not enter
upon his courses. Faith thus becomes to us the foundation of hope,
from which spring all our aspirations, ambitions, and confidences for
the future. Remove man's faith in the possibility of any desired
success, and you rob him of the incentive to strive. He would not
stretch forth his hand to seize did he not believe in the possibility
of securing that for which he reaches. This principle becomes
therefore the impelling force by which men struggle for excellence,
oftentimes enduring vicissitudes and suffering that they may achieve
their purposes. Faith is the secret of ambition, the soul of heroism,
the motive power of all effort.

=12.= The exercise of faith is pleasing unto God, and thereby His
interposition may be secured. It was through faith that the Israelites
in their exodus from Egypt followed their dauntless leader into the
bed of the sea; and through the protecting agencies of God, which that
faith drew forth, they were saved, while the Egyptians met destruction
in attempting to follow.[280] With full confidence in the instructions
and promises of God, Joshua and his intrepid followers laid siege to
Jericho; and the walls of that city of sin fell before the faith of
the besiegers without the use of battering rams, or other engines of
war.[281] By the same power Joshua gained the assistance of the
luminaries of heaven, in his work of victory over the Amorites.[282]
Paul cites[283] us also to the instances of Gideon,[284] Barak,[285]
Samson,[286] Jephthah,[287] David,[288] Samuel,[289] and the prophets,
"who, through faith, subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained
promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire,
escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong." It
was by faith that Alma and Amulek were delivered from captivity, while
the prison walls which had previously held them were rent and
demolished.[290] By faith, Nephi and Lehi[291] the sons of Helaman
were protected from their Lamanite foes, even by fire, though they
were not burned; and a still greater work was wrought in the hearts of
their persecutors, for they became enlightened, and accepted the
testimony of truth. Through the operation of faith even the waves of
the sea may be subdued,[292] trees are subject to the voice of Him who
commands by faith;[293] mountains may be removed for the
accomplishment of righteous purposes,[294] the sick may be
healed,[295] evil spirits may be cast out,[296] and the dead may be
raised to life.[297] All things are wrought through faith.[298]

  [280] Exo. xiv, 22-29; Heb. xi, 29.

  [281] Josh. vi, 20; Heb. xi, 30.

  [282] Josh. x, 12.

  [283] Heb. xi, 32-34; Doc. and Cov., Lecture i, 20.

  [284] Judges vi, 11.

  [285] Judges iv, 6.

  [286] Judges xiii, 24.

  [287] Judges xi, 1; xii, 7.

  [288] I Sam. xvi, 1, 13; xvii, 45.

  [289] I Sam. i, 20; xii, 20.

  [290] Alma xiv, 26-29; Doc. and Cov., Lecture on Faith, i, 19.

  [291] Helaman v, 20-52; Doc. and Cov., Lecture on Faith, i, 19.

  [292] Matt. viii, 23-27; Mark iv, 36-41; Luke viii, 22-25; Matt.
  xiv, 24-32; Mark vi, 47-51, John vi, 17-21.

  [293] Matt. xxi, 17-21; Mark xi, 12-13, 20-24; Book of Jacob iv,
  6.
  [294] Matt. xvii, 20; Mark xi, 23-24; Ether xii, 30; Jacob iv, 6;
  Doc. and Cov., Lecture on Faith, i, 19.

  [295] Luke xiii, 11; xiv, 2; xvii, 11; xxii, 50; Matt. viii, 2, 5,
  14, 16, etc.

  [296] Matt. viii, 28; xvii, 18; Mark i, 23.

  [297] Luke vii, 11-16; John xi, 43-45; I Kings xvii, 17-24.

  [298] Matt. xvii, 20; Mark ix, 23; Eph. vi, 16; I John v, 4.

=13.= But, it may be argued that faith of itself is not a source of
power; that its effect is due to an external interposition of Divine
aid, which faith merely secured; and the skeptic may add that an
omniscient God, if truly loving and kind, would act independently and
give without waiting to be invoked through faith or prayer. A
sufficient answer is found in the abundant proof furnished by the
scriptures, that the Almighty operates in accordance with law; and
that arbitrary and capricious action is foreign to His nature. However
the laws of heaven may have been formulated, the application of their
beneficent provisions to humanity is dependent on the faith and
obedience of the mortal subjects. Consider the defeat of Israel by the
men of Ai; a law of righteousness had been violated, and things that
were accursed had been introduced into the camp of God's people this
transgression stopped the current of Divine help, and until the people
had sanctified themselves, the power was not renewed unto them.[299]
Christ was influenced, and to some extent controlled in His miracles
among men by the faith or lack of faith of the people. The common
benediction, "Thy faith hath made thee whole," with which He announced
the healing interposition, is evidence of the fact. Then we learn that
in His own country He could do no mighty work, being restrained by the
unbelief of the people.[300]

  [299] Joshua vii-viii.

  [300] Matt. xiii, 58; Mark vi, 5 6.

=14. A Condition of Living Faith.=--A condition essential to the
exercise of a living, growing, sustaining faith in Deity, is the
consciousness on man's part that he is at least endeavoring to live in
accordance with the laws of God as he has learned them. A knowledge
that he is wilfully and wantonly sinning against the truth will
deprive him of sincerity in prayer and faith, and will surely estrange
him from his Father. He must feel that the trend of his life's course
is acceptable to God, that with due allowance for mortal weakness and
human frailty he is in some measure approved of the Lord, or he can
never approach the throne of grace with confidence. The consciousness
of earnest effort toward godly walk and conduct is a power of itself,
strengthening its possessor in sacrifice and under persecution, and
sustaining him in all good works. It was this knowledge of assured
communion with God that enabled the saints of olden time to endure as
they did, though their sufferings were appalling. Of them we read that
some "were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain
a better resurrection: And others had trial of cruel mockings and
scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment: They were stoned,
they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they
wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute,
afflicted, tormented; (of whom the world was not worthy:) they
wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the
earth."[301] As in former days so in the present, the saints have been
sustained through all their sufferings by the sure knowledge of Divine
approval; and the faith of righteous men has ever grown through a
consciousness of their good endeavors.

  [301] Heb. xi, 35-38; see also Doc. and Cov., Lectures on Faith,
  vi.

=15. Faith Essential to Salvation.=--Inasmuch as salvation is
attainable only through the mediation and atonement of Christ, and
since this is made applicable to individual sin only in the cases of
those who obey the laws of righteousness, faith in Jesus Christ is
indispensable to salvation. But no one can believe in Jesus Christ,
and at the same time doubt the existence and authority of either the
Father or the Holy Ghost; therefore faith in the entire Godhead is
essential to salvation. Paul declares that without faith it is
impossible to please God, "for he that cometh to God must believe that
He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek
Him."[302] The scriptures abound in assurances of salvation to those
who exercise faith in God, and obey the requirements which that faith
makes plain. Christ's words on the matter are conclusive, "He that
believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not
shall be damned;"[303] and again, "He that believeth on the Son hath
everlasting life, and he that believeth not the Son shall not see
life, but the wrath of God abideth on him."[304] And similar doctrines
did His apostles teach after His death all the days of their
ministry.[305] A natural result of implicit faith in the Godhead will
be a growing confidence in the scriptures as containing the word of
God, and in the words and works of His authorized servants, who speak
as the living oracles of heaven.

  [302] Heb. xi, 6.

  [303] Mark xvi, 16.

  [304] John iii, 36. See also John iii, 15; iv, 42; v, 24; xi, 25;
  Gal. ii, 20; I Nephi x, 6, 17; II Nephi xxv, 25; xxvi, 8; Enos i,
  8; Mos. iii, 17; III Nephi xxvii, 19; Hel. v, 9; Doc. and Cov.
  xiv, 8.

  [305] Acts ii, 38; x, 42; xvi, 31; Rom. x, 9; Heb. iii, 19; xi, 6;
  I Pet. i, 9; I John iii, 23; v, 14.

=16. Faith a Gift of God.=--Though within the reach of all who
diligently strive to gain it, faith is nevertheless a Divine gift, and
can be obtained only from God.[306] As is fitting for so priceless a
pearl, it is given to those only who show by their sincerity that they
are worthy of it, and who give promise of abiding by its dictates.
Although faith is called the first principle of the gospel of Christ,
though it be in fact the foundation of all religion, yet even faith is
preceded by sincerity of disposition and humility of soul, whereby the
word of God may make an impression upon the heart.[307] No compulsion
is used in bringing men to a knowledge of God; yet, as fast as we open
our hearts to the influences of righteousness, the faith that leads to
life eternal will be given us of our Father.

  [306] Matt. xvi, 17; John vi, 44, 65; Eph. ii, 8; I Cor. xii, 9;
  Rom. xii, 3; Moroni x, 11.

  [307] See Rom. x, 17.

=17. Faith and Works.=--Faith in a passive sense, that is, as mere
belief, is inefficient as a means of salvation. This truth was clearly
set forth both by Christ and the apostles, and the vigor with which it
was declared may be an indication of the early development of a most
pernicious doctrine,--that of justification by belief alone. The
Savior taught that works were essential to the validity of profession
and the efficacy of faith. Mark his words:--"Not every one that sayeth
unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he
that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven."[308] "He that
hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and
he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him,
and will manifest myself to him."[309] The instructions of the
Apostle James are particularly explicit:--"What doth it profit, my
brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can
faith save him? If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of
daily food, and one of you say unto them, depart in peace, be ye
warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which
are needful to the body; what doth it profit? Even so faith, if it
hath not works, is dead, being alone. Yea, a man may say, Thou hast
faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I
will shew thee my faith by my works."[310] And to this may be added
the words of John:--"And hereby we do know that we know him, if we
keep his commandments. He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his
commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him. But whoso
keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby
know we that we are in him."[311]

  [308] Matt. vii, 21.

  [309] John xiv, 21.

  [310] James ii, 14-18.

  [311] I John ii, 3-5.

=18.= To these teachings may be added many inspired utterances from
Nephite scriptures[312] and from modern revelation,[313] all affirming
the necessity of works, and denying the saving efficacy of mere
belief. Yet in spite of the plain word of God, sectarian dogmas have
been promulgated to the effect that by faith alone man may achieve
salvation, and that a mere profession of belief shall open the doors
of heaven to the sinner.[314] The scriptures cited and man's inherent
sense of justice furnish a sufficient refutation of these false
teachings.

  [312] See I Nephi xv, 33; II Nephi xxix, 11; Mosiah v, 15; Alma
  vii, 27; ix, 28; xxxvii, 32-34; xli, 3-5.

  [313] Doc. and Cov. throughout.

  [314] See Note 2.


REPENTANCE.

=19. Nature of Repentance.=--The term repentance is used in the
scriptures with several different meanings, but, as representing the
duty required of all who would obtain forgiveness for transgression,
it indicates a godly sorrow for sin, producing a reformation of life,
and embodies (1) a conviction of guilt; (2) a desire to escape the
hurtful effects of sin; and (3) an earnest determination to forsake
sin and to accomplish good. Repentance is a result of contrition of
soul, which springs from a deep sense of humility, and this in turn is
dependent upon the exercise of an abiding faith in God. Repentance
therefore properly ranks as the second principle of the gospel,
closely associated with and immediately following faith. As soon as
one has come to recognize the existence and authority of God, he feels
a respect for Divine laws, and a conviction of his own unworthiness.
His wish to please the Father, whom he has so long neglected, will
impel him to forsake sin; and this impulse will acquire added strength
from the sinner's natural and commendable desire to escape, if
possible, the dire results of his own waywardness. With the zeal
inspired by fresh conviction, he will crave an opportunity of showing
by good works the sincerity of his newly developed faith; and he will
regard the remission of his sins as the most desirable of blessings.
Then he will learn that this gift of mercy is granted on certain
specific conditions only.[315] The first step toward the blessed state
of forgiveness consists in the sinner confessing his sins; the second,
in his forgiving others who have sinned against him; and the third in
his showing his acceptance of Christ's atoning sacrifice by obeying
the Divine requirements.

  [315] See Note 3.

=20. (1.) Confession of Sins= is essential, for without it repentance
is incomplete. The Apostle John tells us, "If we say that we have no
sin we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess
our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to
cleanse us from all unrighteousness."[316] We read also, "He that
covereth his sins shall not prosper, but whoso confesseth and
forsaketh them shall have mercy."[317] And unto the Saints in this
dispensation the Lord has said, "Verily I say unto you, I, the Lord,
forgive sins unto those who confess their sins before me and ask
forgiveness, who have not sinned unto death."[318] And that this act
of confession is included in repentance is shown by the Lord's words:
"By this ye may know if a man repenteth of his sins: Behold he will
confess them and forsake them."[319]

  [316] I John i, 8-9; see also Psalms xxxii, 5; xxxviii, 18; Mosiah
  xxvi, 29-30.

  [317] Prov. xxviii, 13.

  [318] Doc. and Cov. lxiv, 7.

  [319] Doc. and Cov. lviii, 43.

=21. (2.) The Sinner Must be Willing to Forgive Others=, if he hopes
to obtain forgiveness. Surely his repentance is but superficial if his
heart be not softened to the degree of tolerance for the weaknesses of
his fellows. In teaching His hearers how to pray, the Savior
instructed them to supplicate the Father: "Forgive us our debts as we
forgive our debtors."[320] He led them not to hope for forgiveness if
in their hearts they forgave not one another: "For," said He, "if ye
forgive men their trespasses, your Heavenly Father will also forgive
you; but if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your
Father forgive your trespasses."[321] And forgiveness between man and
man, to be acceptable before the Lord, must be unbounded. In answering
Peter's question, "Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and
I forgive him--till seven times?" the Master said, "I say not unto
thee, until seven times; but until seventy times seven;" clearly
intending to teach that man must ever be ready to forgive. On another
occasion He taught the disciples, saying, "If thy brother trespass
against thee, rebuke him, and if he repent, forgive him. And if he
trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day
turn again to thee saying, I repent, thou shalt forgive him."[322]

  [320] Matt. vi, 12; see also Luke xi, 4.

  [321] Matt. vi, 14-15; III Nephi xiii, 14-15.

  [322] Luke xvii, 3-4.

=22.= Illustrating further the Divine purpose to mete unto men the
measure they mete unto their fellows,[323] the Savior put forth to His
disciples a parable of a king, to whom one of his subjects owed an
enormous sum of money, ten thousand talents; but when the debtor
humbled himself and pleaded for mercy, the compassionate heart of the
king was moved and he forgave his servant the debt. But the same
servant, going out from the presence of the king, met a fellow-servant
who was indebted to him in a paltry sum; forgetting the mercy so
recently shown unto himself, he seized his fellow-servant and cast him
into prison till he would pay the debt. Then the king, hearing of
this, sent for the wicked servant, and, denouncing him for his lack of
gratitude and consideration, handed him over to the tormentors.[324]
The Lord will not listen to petitions nor accept an offering from one
who has bitterness in his heart toward others; "First be reconciled to
thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."[325] In His revealed
word to the Saints in this day, the Lord has placed particular stress
upon this necessary condition: "Wherefore I say unto you that ye ought
to forgive one another, for he that forgiveth not his brother his
trespasses, standeth condemned before the Lord, for there remaineth
in him the greater sin;"[326] and to remove all doubt as to the proper
subjects for human forgiveness, it is added:--"I, the Lord, will
forgive whom I will forgive, but of you it is required to forgive all
men."

  [323] Matt. vii, 2; Mark iv, 24; Luke vi, 38.

  [324] Matt. xviii, 23-35. See "Jesus the Christ," pp. 392-395.

  [325] Matt. v, 23-24: III Nephi xii, 23-24.

  [326] Doc. and Cov. lxiv, 9-10.

=23. (3.) Confidence in Christ's Atoning Sacrifice= constitutes the
third essential condition in obtaining remission of sins. The name of
Christ is the only name under heaven whereby men may be saved;[327]
and we are taught to offer our petitions to the Father in the name of
His Son. Adam received this instruction from the mouth of an
angel,[328] and the Savior personally instructed the Nephites to the
same effect.[329] But no person can truthfully profess faith in
Christ, and refuse to obey His commandments; therefore obedience is
essential to remission of sin; and the repentant sinner will eagerly
seek to learn what is further required of him.

  [327] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vi, 52.

  [328] Pearl of Great Price: Moses v, 6-8.

  [329] III Nephi xxvii, 5-7.

=24.= Repentance, to be worthy of its name, must comprise something
more than a mere self-acknowledgment of error; it does not consist in
lamentations and wordy confessions, but in the heart-felt recognition
of guilt, which carries with it a horror for sin, and a resolute
determination to make amends for the past and to do better in the
future. If such a conviction be genuine, it is marked by that godly
sorrow which, as Paul has said, "worketh repentance to salvation, not
to be repented of; but the sorrow of the world worketh death."[330]
Apostle Orson Pratt has wisely said:--"It would be of no use for a
sinner to confess his sins to God, unless he were determined to
forsake them; it would be of no benefit to him to feel sorry that he
had done wrong, unless he intended to do wrong no more; it would be
folly for him to confess before God that he had injured his
fellow-man, unless he were determined to do all in his power to make
restitution. Repentance, then, is not only a confession of sins, with
a sorrowful, contrite heart, but a fixed, settled purpose to refrain
from every evil way."

  [330] II Cor. vii. 10.

=25. Repentance Essential to Salvation.=--This evidence of sincerity,
this beginning of a better life, is required of every candidate for
salvation. In the obtaining of Divine mercy, repentance is as
indispensable as faith, it must be as extensive as sin. Where can we
find an absolutely sinless mortal? Sagely did the Preacher of old
declare "There is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good and
sinneth not."[331] Who, therefore, has no need of forgiveness? who is
exempt from the requirements of repentance? God has promised
forgiveness unto those who truly repent before Him, it is unto such
that the advantages of individual salvation, through the atonement of
Christ, are extended. Isaiah thus admonishes to repentance, with
assuring promises of forgiveness: "Seek ye the Lord while he may be
found, call ye upon him while he is near. Let the wicked forsake his
way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the
Lord, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will
abundantly pardon."[332]

  [331] Eccl. vii, 20; see also Rom. iii, 10; I John i, 8.

  [332] Isa. iv, 6-7; see also II Nephi ix, 24; Alma v, 31-36,
  49-56; ix, 12; Doc. and Cov. i, 32-33; xix, 4; xx, 29; xxix, 44;
  cxxxiii, 16.

=26.= The burden of inspired teachers in every age has been the call
to repentance. To this effect was heard the voice of John crying in
the wilderness, "Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at
hand."[333] And the Savior followed with "Repent ye and believe the
gospel,"[334] for "Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise
perish."[335] So too proclaimed the apostles of old, that God
"commandeth all men everywhere to repent."[336] And in the present
dispensation has come the word, "We know that all men must repent, and
believe on the name of Jesus Christ ... or they cannot be saved in the
kingdom of God."[337]

  [333] Matt. iii, 2.

  [334] Mark i, 15.

  [335] Luke xiii, 3.

  [336] Acts xvii, 30.

  [337] Doc. and Cov. xx, 29.

=27. Repentance, a Gift from God.=--Repentance is a means of pardon,
and is therefore one of God's great gifts to man. It is not to be had
for the careless asking; it may not be found upon the highway, it is
not of earth, but a treasure of heaven, and is given with care, yet
with boundless liberality unto those who have brought forth works that
warrant its bestowal.[338] That is to say, all who prepare themselves
for repentance will, by the humbling and softening influence of the
Holy Spirit, be led to the actual possession of this great gift. When
Peter was charged by his fellow-worshipers with a breach of law in
that he had associated with Gentiles, he told his hearers of the
Divine manifestations he had so recently received; they believed and
declared "Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto
life."[339] Paul also, in writing to the Romans, teaches that
repentance comes through the goodness of God.[340]

  [338] Matt. iii, 7-8; Acts xxvi, 20.

  [339] Acts xi, 18.

  [340] Rom. ii, 4; see also II Tim. ii, 25.

=28. Repentance not always Possible.=--The gift of repentance is
extended to men as they humble themselves before the Lord, it is the
testimony of the Spirit in their hearts; if they hearken not unto the
monitor it will again leave them, for the Spirit of God strives not
ever with man.[341] Repentance becomes more difficult as the sin is
more wilful; it is by humility and contrition of the heart that
sinners may increase their faith in God, and so obtain from Him the
priceless gift of repentance. As the time of repentance is
procrastinated, the ability to repent grows weaker; neglect of
opportunity in holy things brings a forfeit of the chance. In giving
commandment to Joseph Smith, in the early days of the present Church,
the Lord said, "For I the Lord cannot look upon sin with the least
degree of allowance; nevertheless, he that repents and does the
commandments of the Lord shall be forgiven, and he that repents not,
from him shall be taken even the light which he has received, for my
Spirit shall not always strive with man saith the Lord of Hosts."[342]

  [341] Gen. vi, 3; Doc. and Cov. i, 33.

  [342] Doc. and Cov. i, 31-33.

=29. Repentance Here and Hereafter.=--The Nephite prophet, Alma,
described the period of earthly existence as a probationary state,
granted unto man for repentance;[343] yet we learn from the scriptures
that repentance may be obtained, under certain conditions, beyond the
vail of mortality. Between the times of His death and resurrection,
Christ "preached unto the spirits in prison, which sometime were
disobedient when once the long suffering of God waited in the days of
Noah;"[344] these the Son visited, and unto them He preached the
Gospel, "that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, who
received not the testimony of Jesus in the flesh, but afterwards
received it."[345]

  [343] Alma xii, 24; xxxiv, 32; xiii, 4.

  [344] I Peter iii, 19-20.

  [345] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 73-74. See "Jesus the Christ," ch.
  xxxvi.

=30.= Yet no soul is justified in postponing his efforts to repent
because of this assurance of God's long-suffering and mercy. We know
not on what terms repentance will be obtainable in the hereafter, but
it is unreasonable to suppose that the soul who has wilfully rejected
the opportunity of repentance in this life will find it easy to repent
there. To procrastinate[346] the day of repentance is to deliberately
place ourselves in the power of the adversary. As Amulek taught and
admonished the multitude of old: "For behold this life is the time for
men to prepare to meet God, ... therefore I beseech of you that ye do
not procrastinate the day of your repentance unto the end.... Ye
cannot say when ye are brought to that awful crisis, that I will
repent, that I will return to my God. Nay, ye cannot say this; for
that same spirit which doth possess your bodies at the time that ye go
out of this life, that same spirit will have power to possess your
body in that eternal world. For behold, if ye have procrastinated the
day of your repentance, even until death, behold ye have become
subjected to the spirit of the devil, and he doth seal you his."[347]

  [346] Alma xxxiv, 33.

  [347] Alma xxxiv, 32-35.


NOTES.

     =1. Example of False Faith.=--"When Europeans first began their
     explorations in the New World, the Indians whom they met were
     much amazed at the power and explosive properties of gun-powder,
     and asked many questions respecting the manner in which it was
     produced. The Europeans, taking advantage of the ignorance of the
     savages, and seeing an opportunity to increase their wealth by
     the deception, told the Indians that it was the seed of a plant
     which grew in the lands they had come from, and doubtless it
     would thrive in their land also. The Indians, of course, believed
     this statement, and purchased the supposed seed, giving in
     exchange for it large quantities of gold. In implicit faith they
     carefully planted the supposed seed, and anxiously watched for
     its sprouting and the appearance of the plant; but it never came.
     They had faith in the statements made to them by the Europeans,
     but as these statements were false, and therefore the evidence on
     which the Indians based their belief untrue, their faith was
     vain."--Orson Pratt.

     =2. The Sectarian Dogma of Justification by Faith alone= has
     exercised an influence for evil since the early days of
     Christianity. The idea upon which this pernicious doctrine was
     founded was at first associated with that of an absolute
     predestination, by which man was fore-doomed to destruction, or
     to an utterly undeserved salvation. Thus, Luther taught as
     follows:--"The excellent, infallible, and sole preparation for
     grace is the eternal election and predestination of God." "Since
     the fall of man, free-will is but an idle word." "A man who
     imagines to arrive at grace by doing all that he is able to do,
     adds sin to sin, and is doubly guilty." "That man is not
     justified who performs many works; but he who without works has
     much faith in Christ." (For these and other doctrines of the
     so-called "Reformation," see D'Aubigné's _History of the
     Reformation_, vol. i, pp. 82, 83, 119, 122.) In Miller's _Church
     History_ (vol. iv, p. 514) we read: "The point which the reformer
     [Luther] had most at heart in all his labors, contests, and
     dangers, was the justification by faith alone." Melanchthon
     voices the doctrine of Luther in these words: "Man's
     justification before God proceeds from faith alone. This faith
     enters man's heart by the grace of God alone;" and further, "As
     all things which happen, happen necessarily according to the
     divine predestination, there is no such thing as liberty in our
     wills" (D'Aubigné, vol. iii, p. 340). It is true that Luther
     strongly denounced, and vehemently disclaimed responsibility for,
     the excesses to which this teaching gave rise, yet he was not
     less vigorous in proclaiming the doctrine. Note his words:--"I,
     Doctor Martin Luther, unworthy herald of the gospel of our Lord
     Jesus Christ, confess this article, that faith alone without
     works justifies before God; and I declare that it shall stand and
     remain forever in despite of the emperor of the Romans, the
     emperor of the Turks, the emperor of the Persians,--in spite of
     the pope and all the cardinals, with the bishops, priests, monks,
     and nuns,--in spite of kings, princes, and nobles, and in spite
     of all the world and of the devils themselves; and that if they
     endeavor to fight against this truth they will draw the fires of
     hell upon their heads. This is the true and holy gospel, and the
     declaration of me, Doctor Luther, according to the teachings of
     the Holy Ghost" (D'Aubigné, vol. i, p. 70).

     Fletcher (_End of Religious Controversy_, p. 90) illustrates the
     vicious extreme to which this evil doctrine led, by accusing one
     of its adherents with having said, "Even adultery and murder do
     not hurt the pleasant children, but rather work for their good.
     God sees no sin in believers, whatever sin they may commit.... It
     is a most pernicious error of the schoolmen to distinguish sins
     according to the fact, and not according to the person. Though I
     blame those who say, let us sin that grace may abound, yet
     adultery, incest, and murder, shall upon the whole, make me
     holier on earth, and merrier in heaven."

     A summary of the mediæval controversy regarding the means of
     grace, including the doctrines of Luther and others, is presented
     in Roberts' _Outlines of Ecclesiastical History_, part iii,
     section ii, to which the student is referred. The quotations
     given above are incorporated therein.

     =3. Forgiveness not always Immediate.=--"On account of the
     magnitude of sins committed, repentance is not always followed by
     forgiveness and restoration. For instance, when Peter was
     preaching to the Jews, who had slain Jesus and taken His blood on
     themselves and their children, he did not say, repent and be
     baptized for the remission of sins; but, 'Repent ye therefore,
     and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the
     times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; and
  [when] He shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto
  you; whom the heaven must receive until the times of the
  restitution of all things' (Acts iii, 19-21). That is, repent now,
  and believe in Jesus Christ, that you may be forgiven when He whom
  you have slain shall come again in the days of the restitution of
  all things; and prescribe to you the terms on which you may be
  saved."--_Compendium_, p. 28.



LECTURE VI.

BAPTISM.

     =Article 4.=--We believe that the first principles and ordinances
     of the Gospel are:--... (3) Baptism by immersion for the
     remission of sins; ...


=1. Nature of Baptism.=--Among the Latter-day Saints, water baptism
ranks as the third principle, and the first essential ordinance, of
the gospel. Baptism is the gateway leading into the fold of Christ,
the portal to the Church, the established rite of naturalization in
the kingdom of God. The candidate for admission into the Church and
kingdom, having obtained and professed faith in the Lord Jesus Christ,
and having sincerely repented of his sins, is properly required to
give evidence of this spiritual sanctification by some outward
ordinance, prescribed by authority as the sign or symbol of the new
profession. The initiatory ordinance is baptism by water, to be
followed by the higher baptism of the Holy Spirit; and, as a result of
this act of obedience, remission of sins is granted.

=2.= How simple are the means thus ordained for admission into the
fold; they are within the reach of the poorest and weakest, as also of
the rich and powerful! What symbol more expressive of a cleansing from
sin could be given, than that of baptism in water? Baptism is made a
sign of the covenant entered into between the repentant sinner and his
Maker, that thereafter he will seek to observe the Divine commands.
Concerning this fact, the Prophet Alma thus admonished and instructed
the people of Gideon:--"Yea, I say unto you, come and fear not, and
lay aside every sin, which easily doth beset you, which doth bind you
down to destruction, yea, come and go forth, and show unto your God
that ye are willing to repent of your sins, and enter into a covenant
with him to keep his commandments, and witness it unto him this day,
by going into the waters of baptism."[348]

  [348] Alma vii, 15.

=3.= The humbled sinner, convicted of his transgression, through the
bestowal of God's good gifts of faith and repentance, will hail most
joyfully any means of cleansing himself from pollution, now so
repulsive in his eyes; all such will cry out as did the stricken
Jewish multitude at Pentecost, "What shall we do?" Unto such comes the
answering voice of the Spirit, through the medium of scripture, or by
the mouths of the Lord's appointed servants, "Repent and be baptized
every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of
sins."[349] Springing forth as a result of contrition of soul, baptism
has been very appropriately called the first fruits of repentance.[350]

  [349] Acts ii, 37-38.

  [350] Moroni viii, 25.

=4. The Establishment of Baptism= dates from the time of the earliest
history of the race. When the Lord manifested Himself to Adam after
the expulsion from the Garden of Eden, He promised the patriarch of
the race, "If thou wilt turn unto me and hearken unto my voice, and
believe, and repent of all thy transgressions, and be baptized, even
in water, in the name of mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace
and truth, which is Jesus Christ, the only name which shall be given
under heaven, whereby salvation shall come unto the children of men,
ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, asking all things in His
name, and whatsoever ye shall ask, it shall be given you.... And it
came to pass, when the Lord had spoken with Adam, our father, that
Adam cried unto the Lord, and he was caught away by the Spirit of the
Lord, and was carried down into the water, and was laid under the
water, and was brought forth out of the water. And thus he was
baptized, and the Spirit of God descended upon him, and thus he was
born of the Spirit, and became quickened in the inner man."[351] Enoch
preached the doctrine of repentance and baptism, and did baptize the
people, and as many as accepted these teachings and submitted to the
requirements of the gospel, became sanctified and holy in the sight of
God.

  [351] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vi, 52-65.

=5. The Special Purpose of Baptism= is to afford admission to the
Church of Christ with remission of sins. What need of more words to
prove the worth of this divinely appointed ordinance? What gift could
be offered the human race greater than a ready means of obtaining
forgiveness for transgression? Justice forbids the granting of
universal and unconditional pardon for sins committed, except through
obedience to ordained law; but means simple and effective are
provided, whereby the penitent sinner may enter into a covenant with
God, sealing that covenant with the sign that commands recognition in
heaven, that he will submit himself to the laws of God; thus he places
himself within the reach of Mercy, under whose protecting influence he
may win eternal life.

=6.= _Biblical Proofs_, that baptism is designed as a means of
securing to man a remission of his sins, are abundant. John the
Baptist was the special preacher of this doctrine in the days
immediately preceding the Savior's ministry in the flesh; and the
voice of this priest of the desert stirred Jerusalem and reverberated
through all Judæa, proclaiming remission of sins as the fruits of
acceptable baptism.[352]

  [352] Mark i, 4; Luke iii, 3.

=7.= Saul of Tarsus, a zealous persecutor of the followers of Christ,
while journeying to Damascus, intent on a further exercise of his
ill-directed zeal, received a special manifestation of the power of
God, and was converted with signs and wonders. He heard and answered
the voice of Christ, and thus became a special witness of his Lord.
Yet even this unusual demonstration of Divine favor was insufficient.
Blinded through the glory that had been manifested unto him, humbled
and earnest, awakening to the terrible fact that he had been
persecuting his Redeemer, he exclaimed in anguish of soul, "What shall
I do, Lord?" He was directed to go to Damascus, there to learn more of
God's will concerning him. Gladly did he receive the Lord's messenger,
devout Ananias, who ministered unto him so that he regained his sight,
and then taught him baptism as a means of obtaining forgiveness.[353]

  [353] Acts xxii, 1-16.

=8.= And Saul, known now as Paul, thereafter a preacher of
righteousness, and an apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ, taught to
others the same great saving principle, that by baptism in water comes
regeneration from sin.[354] In forceful language, and attended with
special evidences of Divine power, Peter declared the same doctrine to
the penitent multitude. Overcome with grief at the recital of what
they had done to the Son of God, they cried out "Men and brethren,
what shall we do?" Promptly came the answer, with apostolic authority,
"Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ
for the remission of sins."[355]

  [354] Titus iii, 5.

  [355] Acts ii, 36-37; see also I Peter iii, 21.

=9.= _Book of Mormon prophets_ gave the same testimony to the western
fold of Christ. To this effect were the words of Nephi, the son of
Lehi, addressed to his brethren:--"For the gate by which ye should
enter, is repentance, and baptism by water; and then cometh a
remission of your sins by fire, and by the Holy Ghost."[356] So did
Alma teach the people of Gideon, as already quoted.[357] Nephi, the
grandson of Helaman, immediately preceding Christ's advent upon earth,
went forth amongst his people, baptizing unto repentance, from which
followed "a great remission of sins."[358] Nephi ordained assistants
in the ministry, "that all such as should come unto them, should be
baptized with water, and this as a witness and a testimony before God,
and unto the people, that they had repented and received a remission
of their sins."[359] Mormon adds his own testimony, as commissioned of
Christ, exhorting the people to forsake their sins and be baptized for
remission thereof.[360]

  [356] II Nephi xxxi, 17.

  [357] Alma vii, 14-15; see page 122.

  [358] III Nephi i, 23.

  [359] III Nephi vii, 24-26.

  [360] III Nephi xxx, 2.

=10.= _Modern Revelation_, concerning baptism and its object, shows
that the same importance is ascribed by the Lord to the ordinance
today as in earlier times. That there may be no question as to the
application of this doctrine to the Church in the present
dispensation, the principle has been re-stated, the law has been
re-enacted for our guidance. The elders of the Church are commissioned
to preach the remission of sins as obtainable through the means of
authorized baptism.[361]

  [361] Doc. and Cov. xix, 31; lv, 2; lxviii, 27; lxxvi, 51, 52;
  lxxxiv, 27, 74.

=11. Fit Candidates for Baptism.=--The prime object of baptism being
admission to the Church, with remission of sins, and this coming only
through the exercise of faith in God and true repentance before Him,
it naturally follows that baptism can in justice be required of those
only who are capable of exercising faith and of working
repentance.[362] In a revelation on Church government given through
Joseph the Prophet, April, 1830, the Lord specifically states the
conditions under which persons may be received into the Church
through baptism: these are His words:--"All those who humble
themselves before God, and desire to be baptized, and come forth with
broken hearts and contrite spirits, and witness before the Church that
they have truly repented of all their sins, and are willing to take
upon them the name of Jesus Christ, having a determination to serve
him to the end, and truly manifest by their works that they have
received of the Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins,
shall be received by baptism into his Church."[363]

  [362] See Note 1.

  [363] Doc. and Cov. xx, 37.

=12.= Such conditions exclude all who have not arrived at the age of
discretion and responsibility; and by special commandment the Lord has
forbidden the Church to receive any who have not attained to such
age.[364] By revelation, the Lord has designated eight years as the
age at which children may be properly baptized into the Church, and
parents are required to prepare their children for the ordinances of
the Church, by teaching them the doctrines of faith, repentance,
baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. Failure in this requirement
is accounted by the Lord as a sin resting upon the heads of the
parents.[365]

  [364] Doc. and Cov. xx, 71.

  [365] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 25-27.

=13. Infant Baptism.=--The Latter-day Saints are opposed to the
practice of infant baptism, which indeed they believe to be sacrilege
in the eyes of God. No one having faith in the word of God can look
upon the child as impure; such an innocent being needs no initiation
into the fold, for it has never strayed therefrom; it needs no
remission of sins, for it is sinless; and should it die before it has
become contaminated by the sins of earth, it will be received again,
without baptism, into the presence of its God. Yet there are many
professedly Christian teachers who declare that as all children are
born into a wicked world, they are themselves wicked, and must be
cleansed in the waters of baptism to be made acceptable to God. How
heinous is such a doctrine!--the child to whom the Savior pointed as
an example of emulation of those even who had received the holy
apostleship,[366] the Lord's selected type of the kingdom of heaven,
the favored spirits whose angels stand forever in the presence of the
Father, faithfully reporting all that may be done unto their sacred
charges[367]--such souls are to be rejected and cast into torment
because their earthly guardians failed to have them baptized! To teach
such a doctrine is sin.

  [366] Matt. xviii, 1-6.

  [367] Verse 10.

=14. The History of Infant Baptism= is instructive, as throwing light
upon the origin of this erratic practice. It is certain that the
baptism of infants, or pedobaptism (Greek _paidos_, child, and
_baptismos_, baptism) as it is styled in theological lore, was not
taught by the Savior, nor by His apostles. Some point to the incident
of Christ blessing little children, and rebuking those who would
forbid the little ones coming unto Him,[368] as an evidence in favor
of infant baptism; but, as has been wisely and tersely remarked:--"From
the action of Christ's blessing infants, to infer they are to be
baptized, proves nothing so much as that there is a want of better
argument; for the conclusion would with more probability be derived
thus: Christ blessed infants, and so dismissed them, but baptized them
not; therefore infants are not to be baptized."

  [368] Matt. xix, 13; Mark x, 13; Luke xviii, 15.

=15.= There is no authentic record of infant baptism having been
practiced during the first two centuries after Christ, and the custom
probably did not become general till the fifth century; from the
last-named time until the Reformation, however, it was accepted by the
dominant church organization. But even during that dark age, many
theological disputants raised their voices against this unholy
rite.[369] In the early part of the sixteenth century, a sect rose
into prominence in Germany, under the name of Anabaptists (Greek
_ana_, again, and _baptizo_, baptize), distinguished for its
opposition to the practice of infant baptism, and deriving its name
from the requirement made of all its members who had been baptized in
infancy that they be baptized again. This denomination, commonly
called the Baptists, has become greatly divided by internal disputes;
but in general, the Baptists have maintained a unity of belief in
opposing the baptism of irresponsible children.

  [369] See Note 2.

=16.= Some pedobaptists have attempted to prove an analogy between
baptism and circumcision; but for such position there is no scriptural
warrant. Circumcision was made the mark of a covenant between God and
His chosen servant Abraham,[370] a symbol regarded by the posterity of
Abraham as indicative of their freedom from the idolatry of the times,
and of God's acceptance of them; and nowhere is circumcision made a
means for remission of sins. That rite was applicable to males only;
baptism is administered to both sexes. Circumcision was to be
performed on the eighth day after birth, even though such should fall
on the Sabbath.[371] In the third century a council of bishops was
held under the presidency of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, at which it
was gravely determined, that to postpone baptism until the eighth day
after birth was dangerous, and consequently not to be allowed.

  [370] Gen. xvii, 1-14.

  [371] John vii, 22-23.

=17. Infant Baptism is Forbidden in the Book of Mormon=, from which
fact we know that disputation upon this subject must have arisen among
the Nephites. Mormon, having received special revelation from the
Lord concerning the matter, wrote an epistle thereon to his son
Moroni, in which he denounces the practice of infant baptism, and
declares that any one who supposeth that little children need baptism
is in the gall of bitterness, and in the bonds of iniquity, denying
the mercies of Christ, and setting at naught His atonement and the
power of His redemption.[372]

  [372] Moroni viii. Read the entire epistle.

=18. Baptism Essential to Salvation.=--Most of the proofs concerning
the object of baptism apply with equal force to the proposition that
baptism is necessary for salvation; for, inasmuch as remission of sins
constitutes a special purpose of baptism, and as no soul can be saved
in the kingdom of God with unforgiven sins, it is plain that baptism
is essential to salvation. Salvation is promised to man on condition
of his obedience to the commands of God; and, as the scriptures
conclusively prove, baptism is one of the most important of such
requirements. Baptism, being commanded of God, must be essential to
the purpose for which it is instituted, for our Father deals not with
unnecessary forms. Baptism is required of all who have attained to
years of accountability; none are exempt.

=19.= Even Christ, standing as a man without sin in the midst of a
sinful world, was baptized, "to fulfill all righteousness,"[373] such
being the purpose, as declared by the Savior Himself to the hesitating
priest, who, zealous as he was for his great mission, yet demurred
when asked to baptize One whom he considered sinless. Centuries before
the great event, Nephi, prophesying among the people in the western
world, fore-told the baptism of the Savior, and beautifully explained
how righteousness would be thereby fulfilled:[374]--"And now if the
Lamb of God, he being holy, should have need to be baptized by water
to fulfill all righteousness, O, then, how much more need have we,
being unholy, to be baptized?"

  [373] Matt. iii, 15.

  [374] II Nephi xxxi, 5-8.

=20.= The words of the Savior, spoken while He ministered in the
flesh, declare baptism to be essential to salvation. One of the rulers
of the Jews, Nicodemus, came to Christ by night and made a profession
of confidence in the instructions of the Savior, whom he designated as
"a teacher come from God." Seeing his faith, Jesus taught unto him one
of the chief laws of heaven, saying: "Except a man be born again, he
cannot see the kingdom of God." A question by Nicodemus called forth
from the Savior the additional declaration, "Verily, verily I say unto
thee, except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter
into the kingdom of God."[375] It is practically indisputable, that
the watery birth here referred to as essential to entrance into the
kingdom is baptism. We learn further, concerning Christ's attitude
toward baptism, that He required the ordinance of those who professed
to become His disciples.[376] When appearing to the Eleven in His
resurrected state, giving them His farewell blessing and final
commission, He commanded them: "Go ye, therefore, and teach all
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and
of the Holy Ghost;"[377] and, concerning the results of baptism, He
taught them, that "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved,
but he that believeth not shall be damned."[378]

  [375] John iii, 1-5.

  [376] John iv, 1-2.

  [377] Matt. xxviii, 19.

  [378] Mark xvi, 16.

=21.= Plain as seems the spirit of these instructions and promises,
there are nevertheless many who, while professing to teach the
doctrine of the Redeemer, evade the meaning of His precepts, and
declare that because He said "he that believeth not shall be damned,"
instead of "he that is not baptized shall be damned," baptism is after
all not an essential, but a mere convenience or simple propriety, in
the plan of salvation. It is a mockery of faith to profess belief in
Christ while refusing to abide by His commandments. To believe the
word of God and do it not, is to increase our culpability; such a
course but adds hypocrisy to other sin. Surely the full penalty
provided for wilful unbelief will fall to the lot of the professed
believer who refuses to yield obedience to the very principles in
which he boasts of having faith. And what can be said of the sincerity
of one who refuses to obey the Divine commands except there be
specific penalties provided for disobedience? Can such a one's
repentance be sincere, when he now is submissive only through fear of
punishment? However, in stating this principle for the government of
the Saints in the present dispensation, the Lord's words are more
particular and specific, "And he that believeth and is baptized shall
be saved, and he that believeth not, and is not baptized, shall be
damned."[379]

  [379] Doc. and Cov. cxii, 29.

=22.= The same doctrine concerning the necessity of baptism was
preached by the disciples of Christ, particularly those who were
immediately associated with Him in the ministry. John the Baptist
testifies that he had been appointed to baptize with water,[380] and,
concerning those who accepted John's teachings, the Savior declared
that they, even though they were publicans, justified God, while the
Pharisees and lawyers who refused to be baptized, "rejected the
counsels of God against themselves,"[381] thereby, most assuredly
forfeiting their claim to salvation. As already pointed out, Peter,
the chief of the apostles, had but one answer to give to the eager
multitude seeking to know the essentials of salvation, "Repent and be
baptized, every one of you."[382]

  [380] John i, 33.

  [381] Luke vii, 30.

  [382] Acts ii, 38; see also I Peter iii, 21.

=23.= Christ's humble compliance with the will of His Father, by
submitting to baptism even though He stood sinless, surely declares to
the world in language more forceful than words that none are exempt
from this condition, that baptism indeed is a requisite for salvation.
So, no evidence of Divine favor, no bestowal of heavenly gifts,
excuses man from obedience to this and other requirements of the
gospel. Some illustrations of this fact have been given in connection
with the purpose of baptism. Saul of Tarsus, though permitted to hear
the voice of His Redeemer, could only enter the Church of Christ
through the portals of baptism by water and by the Holy Ghost.[383]
Afterward he preached baptism, declaring that by that ordinance may
"we put on Christ," becoming the children of God. Cornelius, the
centurion, was acknowledged of God through prayers and alms, and an
angel came to him, and instructed him to send for Peter, who would
tell him what to do. The apostle, having been specially prepared by
the Lord for this mission, entered the house of the penitent Gentile,
though to do such, was to violate the customs of the Jews; and taught
him and his family of Christ Jesus. Even while Peter was speaking, the
Holy Ghost fell upon his hearers, so that they testified by the gift
of tongues, and greatly glorified God.[384] Yet the bestowal of such
great gifts in no degree exempted them from compliance with the law of
baptism; and Peter commanded them to be baptized in the name of the
Lord.

  [383] Acts ix, 1-18; xxii, 1-16.

  [384] Acts x, 30-48.

=24.= Christ's ministers on the western continent were not less
energetic in promulgating the doctrine of baptism. Lehi[385] and his
son Nephi,[386] each testified of the baptism of the Savior, and of
the absolute necessity of baptism by water and by the Holy Ghost on
the part of all seekers after salvation. Nephi beautifully compares
repentance and baptism by water and the Spirit to the gate leading
into the fold of Christ.[387] Alma the first preached baptism as
indispensable to salvation, calling upon the people to witness unto
the Lord by their observance of this principle, that they covenanted
to keep His commandments. The second Alma, son of the former,
proclaimed baptism as a means of salvation, and consecrated ministers
to baptize.[388]

  [385] I Nephi x, 7-10.

  [386] II Nephi xxxi, 4-14.

  [387] II Nephi xxxi, 17.

  [388] Mos. xviii, 8-17; Alma v, 61, 62; ix, 27.

=25.= During the last century preceding the birth of Christ, the work
of God among the Lamanites was begun, by the preaching of faith,
repentance, and baptism; Ammon declared this doctrine to King Lamoni
and his people.[389] Helaman preached baptism;[390] and in the time of
his ministry, less than half a century before Christ's advent on
earth, we read that tens of thousands united themselves with the
Church, by baptism. So also preached Helaman's sons,[391] and his
grandson Nephi.[392] These baptisms were performed in the name of the
Messiah who was to come; but when He came to His western flock, He
directed that they should be baptized in the name of the Father, and
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; and bestowed upon twelve chosen
servants the authority to officiate in the ordinance,[393] promising
the riches of Heaven unto all who would comply with His law, and unto
such only.

  [389] Alma xix, 35.

  [390] Alma lxii, 45.

  [391] Hel. v, 14-19.

  [392] III Nephi i, 23.

  [393] III Nephi xi, 22-25; xii, 1-2.

=26.= Evidence is abundant that the Savior regarded the baptized state
as an essential condition of membership in His Church; thus, when
instituting the sacrament among the Nephites, He instructed His
disciples to administer it unto those only who had been properly
baptized.[394] Further, we are informed that those who were baptized
as Jesus had directed, were called the Church of Christ.[395] True to
the Savior's promise, the Holy Ghost came to those who were baptized
by His ordained authority, thus adding to water-baptism the higher
baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost;[396] and many of them received
wonderful manifestations of the Divine approval, seeing and hearing
unspeakable things, not lawful to be written. The faith of the people
showed itself in good works,[397] in prayers and fasting,[398] in
acknowledgment of which Christ reappeared, this time manifesting
Himself to the Disciples whom He had called to the ministry; and unto
them he reiterated the former promises regarding all who were baptized
of Him; and to this He added, that, provided they endured to the end,
they should be held guiltless in the day of judgment.[399] On that
occasion, He repeated the commandment through obedience to which
salvation is promised:--"Repent all ye ends of the earth, and come
unto me, and be baptized in my name, that ye may be sanctified by the
reception of the Holy Ghost, that ye may stand spotless before me at
the last day."[400]

  [394] III Nephi xviii, 5, 11, 23-30.

  [395] III Nephi xxvi, 21.

  [396] III Nephi xxvi, 17-18; xxviii, 18; IV Nephi i, 1.

  [397] III Nephi xxvi, 19-20.

  [398] III Nephi xxvii, 1-2.

  [399] III Nephi xxvii, 16.

  [400] III Nephi xxvii, 20.

=27.= Nearly four centuries later, we hear the same proclamation from
the lips of Mormon.[401] And Moroni, his son, the solitary
representative of a once mighty people, while mourning the
destruction of his kindred, leaves what at the time he supposed would
be his farewell testimony to the truth of this doctrine;[402] then
being spared contrary to his expectations, he reverts again to the
sacred theme, realizing the incalculable worth of the doctrine unto
any and all who would read his pages; and in what might be regarded as
his last words, he testifies to baptism by water and the Spirit as the
means of salvation.[403]

  [401] Mormon vii, 8-10.

  [402] Mormon ix, 22-23.

  [403] Moroni vi, 1-4.

=28.= And this great principle, proclaimed of old, remains unaltered
today; it is truth and changes not. The elders of the Church today
have been commissioned in almost the same words as were used in
authorizing the apostles of old:--"Go ye into all the world, preach
the gospel to every creature, acting in the authority which I have
given you, baptizing in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of
the Holy Ghost; and he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved,
and he that believeth not shall be damned."[404] And again, hear the
word of the Lord through Joseph the Prophet unto the elders of the
Church:--"Therefore, as I said unto mine apostles I say unto you
again, that every soul who believeth on your words, and is baptized by
water for the remission of sins shall receive the Holy Ghost." But,
"verily, verily I say unto you, they who believe not on your words,
and are not baptized in water, in my name, for the remission of their
sins, that they may receive the Holy Ghost, shall be damned, and shall
not come into my Father's kingdom where my Father and I am."[405] In
obedience to these commands, the elders of this Church have continued
to proclaim the gospel among the nations, preaching faith, repentance,
and baptism by water and the Holy Ghost, as essential to salvation.

  [404] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 8-9.

  [405] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 64, 74; see also cxii, 28-29.

=29.= We have examined the doctrines concerning baptism current among
the Jews, the Nephites, and the Church of Jesus Christ in this age,
and have found the principles taught to be ever the same. Indeed, we
have gone farther back, even to the earliest history of the human
race, and have learned that baptism was announced as a saving
principle by which Adam was promised forgiveness and salvation. No one
has reason to hope for salvation except by complying with the law of
God, of which baptism is an essential part.


NOTES.

     =1. Preparation for Baptism.=--The doctrine that baptism, to be
     acceptable, must be preceded by efficient preparation, was
     generally taught and understood in the days of Christ, as also in
     the so-called apostolic period, and the time immediately
     following. But this belief gradually fell away, and baptism came
     to be regarded as an outward form, the application of which
     depended little, if at all, on the candidates' appreciation, or
     conception of its purpose; and, as stated in the test, the Lord
     deemed it wise to re-announce the doctrine in the present
     dispensation. Concerning the former belief a few evidences are
     here given:

     "In the first ages of Christianity, men and women were baptized
     on a profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ."--_Canon
     Farrar._ "But as Christ enjoins them (Mark, xvi, 15-16) to teach
     before baptizing, and desires that none but believers shall be
     admitted to baptism, it would appear that baptism is not properly
     administered unless when it is preceded by faith."... In the
     apostolic age "no one is found to have been admitted to baptism
     without a previous profession of faith and
     repentance."--_Calvin._ "You are not first baptized, and then
     begin to receive the faith, and have a desire; but when you are
     to be baptized, you make known your will to the Teacher, and make
     a full confession of your faith with your own
     mouth."--_Arnobius_--a rhetorician who wrote in the latter half
     of the third century.

     "In the primitive church, instruction preceded baptism, agreeable
     to the order of Jesus Christ--'Go, teach all nations, baptizing
     them,' etc."--_Saurin_ (a French protestant; 1677-1730.)

     "In the first two centuries, no one was baptized, except, being
     instructed in the faith and acquainted with the doctrine of
     Christ, he was able to profess himself a believer; because of
     those words, 'He that believeth and is baptized.'"--_Salmasius_
     (a French author; 1588-1653).

     =2. Historical Notes on Infant Baptism.=--"The baptism of
     infants, in the first two centuries after Christ, was altogether
     unknown.... The custom of baptizing infants did not begin before
     the third age after Christ was born. In the former ages no trace
     of it appears; and it was introduced without the command of
     Christ."--_Curcellaeus._

     "It is certain that Christ did not ordain infant baptism.... We
     cannot prove that the apostles ordained infant baptism. From
     those places where baptism of a whole family is mentioned (as in
     Acts xvi, 33; I Cor. i, 16) we can draw no such conclusion,
     because the inquiry is still to be made, whether there were any
     children in the families of such an age that they were not
     capable of any intelligent reception of Christianity; for this is
     the only point on which the case turns.... As baptism was closely
     united with a conscious entrance on Christian communion, faith
     and baptism were always connected with one another; and thus it
     is in the highest degree probable that baptism was performed only
     in instances where both could meet together, and that the
     practice of infant baptism was unknown at this (the apostolic)
     period.... That not till so late a period as (at least certainly
     not earlier than) Irenæus, a trace of infant baptism appears; and
     that it first became recognized as an apostolic tradition in the
     course of the third century, is evidence rather against than for
     the admission of its apostolic origin."--_Johann Neander_ (a
     German theologian who flourished in the first half of the present
     century).

     "Let them therefore come when they are grown up--when they can
     understand--when they are taught whither they are to come. Let
     them become Christians when they can know Christ."--_Tertullian_
     (one of the Latin "Christian Fathers"; he lived from 150 to 220
     A. D.) Tertullian's almost violent opposition to the practice of
     pedobaptism is cited by Neander as "a proof that it was then not
     usually considered an apostolic ordinance; for in that case he
     would hardly have ventured to speak so strongly against it."

     Martin Luther, writing in the early part of the sixteenth
     century, declared: "It cannot be proven by the sacred scriptures
     that infant baptism was instituted by Christ, or begun by the
     first Christians after the apostles."

     "By _tekna_ the Apostle understands, not infants, but posterity;
     in which signification the word occurs in many places of the New
     Testament (see among others John viii, 39); whence it appears
     that the argument which is very commonly taken from this passage
     for the baptism of infants, is of no force, and good for
     nothing."--_Limborch_ (a native of Holland, and a theologian of
     repute; he lived 1633-1712).

     =3. Baptism Necessary.=--"That Gospel baptism is necessary to
     salvation, is abundantly evidenced in the sacred writings.
     Christ, the highest authority known to man, asserted this most
     emphatically when He said to Nicodemus: 'Verily, verily, I say
     unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he
     cannot enter into the kingdom of God' (John iii, 5). So important
     did the Savior consider baptism, that when He went to John to be
     baptized, and John forbade Him, He replied to him: 'Suffer it to
     be so now, for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness'
     (Matt. iii, 13-15). In this he taught John the doctrine that a
     fulness of righteousness, or salvation, could not be received
     without it. The prophet Nephi, who lived nearly six hundred years
     before the birth of our Savior, clearly understood the necessity
     of baptism. Said he: 'And now, if the Lamb of God, he being holy,
     should have need to be baptized by water, to fulfil all
     righteousness, O then, how much more need have we, being unholy,
     to be baptized, yea, even by water?' (II Nephi xxxi, 5). The
     prophet Mormon, who lived nearly one thousand years after Nephi,
     also taught the necessity of following the example of our Savior
     in being baptized, first by water (Mormon vii,
     10)."--_Compendium_, p. 32. See also: Doc. and Cov. v, 16;
     lxviii, 8; lxxvi, 51; cxii, 29; cxxviii, 12; Book of Mormon: II
     Nephi xxxi, 11, 17; Alma v, 62; ix, 27; III Nephi xviii, 5;
     xxviii, 18; Mormon ix, 29; Moroni vi, 1-4; viii, 4-22.



LECTURE VII.

BAPTISM.--Continued.

     =Article 4.=--We believe that the first principles and ordinances
     of the Gospel are:--... (3) Baptism by immersion for the
     remission of sins; ...


MODE OF BAPTISM.

=1. Method of Administering Baptism Important.=--In considering the
object and the necessity of baptism, much has been said and inferred
concerning the importance which the Lord attaches to this initiatory
rite; it is natural that the mode of administering the ordinance
should also be specifically prescribed. Many Christian sects have some
established rite of initiation, in which water figures as a necessary
element; though with some the ceremony consists in nothing more than
the placing of the priest's moistened finger on the forehead of the
candidate; or in the pouring or sprinkling of water on the face; while
others consider immersion of the whole body as requisite. The
Latter-day Saints hold that the scriptures are devoid of ambiguity
regarding the acceptable mode of baptism; and they boldly declare
their belief that bodily immersion by a duly authorized servant or
representative of the Savior is the only true form. Their reasons for
this belief may be summed up as follows: (1) The derivation and former
usage of the word baptism, and its cognates, betoken immersion. (2)
The symbolism of the rite is preserved in no other form. (3)
Scriptural authority, the revealed word of God through the mouths of
ancient and modern prophets, prescribes immersion as the true form of
baptism.

=2. (1.) The Word "Baptism=," as is generally admitted by
philologists, is derived from the Greek _bapto_, _baptizo_, meaning
literally to dip, or to immerse. As is true in the case of every
living language, words may undergo great changes of meaning; and some
writers declare that the term in question may be as applicable to
pouring or sprinkling with water as to actual immersion. It becomes
interesting, therefore, to inquire as to the current meaning of the
term at or near the time of Christ; for, as the Savior evidently
deemed it unnecessary, in the course of His instructions concerning
baptism, to modify or in any way to enlarge upon the meaning of the
term, the word "baptize" evidently conveyed a very definite meaning to
those who received His teachings. From the use made of the original
term by the Latin and Greek authors,[406] it is plain that they
understood an actual immersion in water as the only true
signification. The modern Greeks understand baptism to mean a burial
in water, and therefore, as they adopt the profession of Christianity,
they practice immersion as the only proper form in baptism.[407]
Concerning this kind of argument, it should be remembered that
philological evidence is not of the most decisive order. Let us pass
then to the consideration of other and stronger reasons.

  [406] See Note 1.

  [407] See Note 2.

=3. (2.) The Symbolism of the Baptismal Rite= is preserved in no form
other than immersion. The Savior compared baptism to a birth, and
declared such to be essential to the life that leads to the kingdom of
God.[408] Surely none can say that a birth is represented by a simple
sprinkling of water on the face or head. Not the least of the
distinctions which have contributed to Christ's pre-eminence as a
teacher of teachers, consists in His precise and forceful use of
language; His comparisons are always strong, His metaphors ever
expressive, His parables convincing; and so inappropriate a comparison
as is implied in such a false representation of birth, would be
entirely foreign to the Great Teacher's methods.

  [408] John iii, 3, 5.

=4.= Baptism has also been very impressively compared to a burial,
followed by a resurrection; and in this symbol of the bodily death and
resurrection of His Son has God promised to grant remission of sins.
In writing to the Romans, Paul says:--"Know ye not, that so many of us
as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?
Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as
Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so
we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted
together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the
likeness of his resurrection."[409] And again, the same apostle
writes: "Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with
him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him
from the dead."[410] Among all the varied forms of baptism practiced
by man, immersion alone typifies a birth, marking the beginning of a
new career; or the sleep of the grave, with subsequent victory over
death.

  [409] Rom. vi, 3-5.

  [410] Col. ii, 12.

=5. (3.) Scriptural Authority= warrants none other form than
immersion. Christ Himself was baptized by immersion. We read that
after the ceremony, He "went up straightway out of the water."[411]
That the baptism of the Savior was acceptable before His Father is
abundantly proved by the manifestations immediately following the
ordinance--in the descent of the Holy Ghost, and the declaration,
"This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." John, surnamed,
because of his Divine commission, the Baptist, baptized in the river
Jordan;[412] and shortly afterward we hear of him baptizing in Ænon,
near to Salim, "because there was much water there;"[413] yet had he
been baptizing by sprinkling, a small quantity of water would have
sufficed for a multitude.

  [411] Matt. iii, 16-17; Mark i, 10-11.

  [412] Mark i, 4, 5.

  [413] John iii, 23.

=6.= We read of baptism following the somewhat speedy conversion of
the Ethiopian eunuch, treasurer to the queen, Candace. To him Philip
preached the doctrine of Christ, as they rode together in the
Ethiopian's chariot; the eunuch, believing the words of his inspired
instructor, desired baptism, and Philip consenting, "he commanded the
chariot to stand still, and they both _went down into the water_, both
Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. And when they were come
_up out of the water_, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip that
the eunuch saw him no more; and he went on his way rejoicing."[414]
Surely the record in this case is explicit, that immersion was the
mode practiced by Philip.

  [414] Acts viii, 26-39.

=7. History, other than Scriptural=, proves that for more than two
centuries after Christ, immersion was the only mode of baptism
generally practiced by professed Christians; and not indeed till near
the close of the thirteenth century did other forms become
general.[415] Distortions of ordinances instituted by authority may be
expected, if the outward form of such ordinances be attempted after
the authority to minister in them has been taken away; yet such
distortions are of gradual growth; deformities resulting from
constitutional ailments do not develop in a day; we may with reason,
therefore, look for the closest imitation of the true form of baptism,
as indeed of any other ordinance instituted by Christ, in the period
immediately following His personal ministry, and that of His
apostles. Then, as the darkness of unbelief deepened, the authority
given of Christ having been taken from the earth with His martyred
servants, many innovations appeared, dignitaries of the various
churches becoming a law unto themselves and to their adherents. Early
in the third century, the Bishop of Carthage decided that persons of
weak health might be acceptably baptized by sprinkling; and with the
license thus given, the true form of baptism gradually fell into
disfavor, and unauthorized practices devised by man took its place.

  [415] See Note 3.

=8. Baptism among the Nephites= was performed by immersion only. The
wide extent to which baptism was preached and practiced among the
people from Lehi to Moroni has been already shown. When the Savior
appeared to His people on this hemisphere, He gave them very explicit
instructions as to the method of procedure in administering the
ordinance. These are his words:--"Verily I say unto you, that whoso
repenteth of his sins through your words, and desireth to be baptized
in my name, on this wise shall ye baptize them: behold, ye shall go
down and stand in the water, and in my name shall ye baptize them. And
now behold, these are the words which ye shall say, calling them by
name, saying, _Having authority given me of Jesus Christ, I baptize
you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Amen._ And then shall ye immerse them in the water, and come forth
again out of the water."[416]

  [416] III Nephi xi, 23-27.

=9. Modern Baptism=, as prescribed by revelation, is after the same
pattern. The first baptisms in the present dispensation were those of
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, who baptized each other according to
the directions of the heavenly messenger from whom they had received
authority to administer in this holy ordinance, and who was none other
than John the Baptist of a former dispensation, the forerunner of the
Messiah. Joseph Smith thus describes the event:--"Accordingly we went
and were baptized; I baptized him [Oliver Cowdery] first, and
afterwards he baptized me.... Immediately on our coming up out of the
water after we had been baptized, we experienced great and glorious
blessings."

=10.= In a revelation concerning Church government, dated April, 1830,
the Lord prescribed the exact mode of baptism as He desires the
ordinance administered in the present dispensation. He said: "Baptism
is to be administered in the following manner unto all those who
repent:--The person who is called of God and has authority from Jesus
Christ to baptize, shall go down into the water with the person who
has presented him or herself for baptism, and shall say, calling him
or her by name--_Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize
you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
Amen._ Then shall he immerse him or her in the water, and come forth
again out of the water."[417]

  [417] Doc. and Cov. xx, 72-74.

=11.= The Lord would not have prescribed the words of this ceremony
did He not desire them used, and therefore elders and priests of the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have no personal authority
to change the form given of God, by additions, omissions, or
alterations of any kind.


BAPTISM AND "RE-BAPTISM."

=12. A Repetition of the Baptismal Ordinance= on the same individual
is allowable under certain specific conditions. Thus, if one, having
entered the Church by baptism, withdraws from it, or is excommunicated
therefrom, and afterwards repents and desires to regain his standing
in the Church, he can do so only through baptism. However, such is a
repetition of the initiatory ordinance as previously administered.
There is no ordinance of "re-baptism" in the Church distinct in
nature, form, or purpose, from other baptism; and, therefore, in
administering baptism to a subject who has been formerly baptized, the
form of the ceremony is exactly the same as in first baptisms. The
expression, "I re-baptize you," in place of "I baptize you," and the
additions "for the renewal of your covenants," or "for the remission
of your sins," though such have been used by officiating elders and
priests of the Church, are not authorized. The dictates of reason
unite with the voice of the presiding authorities of the Church in
discountenancing any erratic departures from the course prescribed by
the Lord; changes in ceremonies given by authority can be effected
only by authority, and we must look for direction in these matters to
those who hold the keys of power in the Church.

=13.= A "re-baptism," that is, a repetition of the simple ordinance as
at first performed, may be allowed under particular circumstances,
which seemingly warrant this extraordinary step. Thus, in the early
days of the Church in Utah, its members having come hither through
much tribulation, long and toilsome journeyings, accompanied in many
instances by prolonged suspension of Church gatherings and other
formal religious observances, it was wisely suggested by President
Young that the members of the Church renew the witness of their
allegiance to the cause of God, by each one seeking baptism. Then, as
other companies of immigrants continued to arrive, the same conditions
of long travel and rough experience applying in their cases, and
further, as many of them hailed from foreign branches of the Church,
still incompletely organized, through which circumstances the actual
standing of the members could not be readily proved, the same rite of
a second baptism was allowed to them. However, it was never intended
that such a practice should become general; far less that it should be
established as a permanent rule of action in the Church. The
Latter-day Saints do not profess to be Anabaptists.

=14. "Re-baptisms" Recorded in Scripture= are very few; and in every
instance, the existence of special circumstances justifying the action
are readily seen. Thus, we read of Paul baptizing certain professed
disciples at Ephesus though they had already been baptized after the
manner of John's baptism.[418] But in this case, the apostle was
evidently, and with good reason, suspicious that the baptism of which
these spoke had been performed by unauthorized hands, or at least
without the proper preliminary education of the candidates; for when
he tested the efficacy of their baptism by asking "Have ye received
the Holy Ghost since ye believed?" they answered him, "We have not so
much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost." Then asked he in
surprise, "Unto what then were ye baptized?" and they replied, "Unto
John's baptism." But Paul knew, as we know, that John preached the
baptism of repentance by water, but always declared that such was but
a preliminary to the greater baptism by fire, which Christ should
bring. Therefore, in view of such unsatisfactory evidence concerning
the validity of their baptism, Paul had baptism in the name of the
Lord Jesus administered unto these twelve devout Ephesians, after
which he laid his hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost.

  [418] Acts xix, 1-6.

=15.= The baptism instituted by Christ among the Nephites,[419] was
very largely a "re-baptism;" for as we have already seen, the doctrine
of baptism had been taught and practiced among the people from the
time of Lehi; and surely, Nephi, the first to whom the Savior gave
authority to baptize after His departure, had been previously
baptized, for he and his co-laborers in the ministry had been most
zealous in declaring the necessity of baptism.[420] Yet in this case
also, there had probably arisen much impropriety in the manner, and
perhaps in the spirit, of administering the ordinance; for the Savior
in giving minute directions concerning the form of baptism, reproved
them for the spirit of contention and disputation that had previously
existed among them regarding the ordinance.[421] Therefore, the
baptism of these people was made valid by an authoritative
administration after the manner prescribed of God.

  [419] III Nephi xi, 21-28.

  [420] III Nephi vii, 23-26, etc.

  [421] III Nephi xi, 27-30.

=16.= Incidentally, our attention is arrested by the fact that in
these cases of re-baptism among the Nephites, the same ritual was used
as in first baptism, and this by explicit instructions of the Lord,
coupled with an impressive warning against disputation. Why should the
priests in this day seek to alter the form to suit the case of a
candidate who has formerly been baptized?

=17. Repeated Baptisms of the Same Person= are not sanctioned in the
Church. It is easy to fall into the error of believing that baptism
offers a ready means of gaining forgiveness of sins however oft
repeated. Such a belief tends rather to excuse than to prevent sin,
inasmuch as the hurtful effects seem to be so easily averted. Neither
the written law of God, nor the instructions of His living Priesthood,
designate baptism as a means of securing forgiveness by those who are
already within the fold of Christ. Unto such, forgiveness of all sin,
if not unto death, has been promised on confession, and repentance
with full purpose of heart; of them a repetition of the baptismal rite
has not been required and, were subjects of this class repeatedly
baptized, unto them remission of sins would in no wise come, except
they repent most sincerely. The frailties of mortality and our
proneness to sin lead us continually into error; but if we covenant
with the Lord at the waters of baptism, and thereafter seek to observe
His law, He is merciful to pardon our little transgressions, through
repentance sincere and true; and without such repentance, baptism,
however oft repeated, would avail us nothing.


BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD.

=18. Baptism Required of All.=--The universal applicability of the law
of baptism has been already dwelt upon. Compliance with the ordinance
has been shown to be essential to salvation, and this condition
applies to all mankind. Nowhere in scripture is a distinction made in
this regard between the living and the dead. The dead are those who
have lived in mortality upon earth; the living are mortals who yet
shall pass through the ordained change which we call death. All are
children of the same Father, all to be judged and rewarded or punished
by the same unerring justice, with the same interpositions of
benignant mercy. Christ's atoning sacrifice was offered, not alone for
the few who lived upon the earth while He was in the flesh, nor for
those who were to be born in mortality after His death, but for all
inhabitants of earth then past, present, and future. He was ordained
of the Father to be a judge of both quick and dead;[422] He is Lord
alike of living and dead,[423] as men speak of dead and living, though
all are to be placed in the same position before Him; there will be
but a single class, for all live unto Him.[424]

  [422] Acts x, 42; II Tim. iv, 1; I Peter iv, 5.

  [423] Rom. xiv, 9.

  [424] Luke xx, 36, 38.

=19. The Gospel yet Unknown to Many.=--Of the multitudes of human
beings who have existed on the earth, but few have heard and fewer
have obeyed, the law of the gospel. In the course of the world's
history there have been long periods of spiritual darkness, when the
gospel was not preached upon the earth; when there was no authorized
representative of the Lord officiating in the saving ordinances of the
kingdom. Such a condition has never existed except as the result of
the unbelief and waywardness of the people. When mankind have
persistently trodden the pearls of truth into the mire, and have
sought to slay and rend the bearers of the jewels, in justice not more
than in mercy these treasures of heaven have been taken and withheld
until a more appreciative posterity could be raised up. It may very
properly be asked, What provisions are made in the economy of God for
the eventual salvation of those who have thus neglected the
requirements of the Word, and for those who have never heard the
gospel tidings?

=20.= According to certain dogmas that have prevailed among many
so-called Christian sects during the obscurity of the spiritual night,
and which are yet zealously promulgated, never-ending punishment or
interminable bliss, unchanging in kind or degree, shall be the lot of
every soul; the award being made according to the condition of the
spirit at the time of bodily death; a life of sin being thus entirely
nullified by a death-bed repentance; and an honorable career, if
unmarked by ceremonies of the established sects, being followed by the
tortures of hell without the hope of relief. Such a belief must rank
with the dread heresy which proclaims the condemnation of innocent
babes who have not been sprinkled by man's assumed authority.

=21.= It is blasphemous to thus attribute caprice and vindictiveness
to the Divine nature. In the justice of God, no soul shall be
condemned under any law which has not been made known unto him. It is
true, eternal punishment has been decreed as the lot of the wicked;
but the true meaning of this terrible expression has been given by the
Lord Himself:[425] eternal punishment is God's punishment; endless
punishment is God's punishment, for "Endless" and "Eternal" are among
His names, and the words are descriptive of His attributes. No soul
will be kept in prison or continued in torment beyond the time
requisite to work the needed reformation and to vindicate justice, for
which ends alone punishment is imposed. And no one will be permitted
to enter any kingdom of glory to which he is not entitled through
obedience to law.

  [425] See page 63; Doc. and Cov. xix, 10-12.

=22. The Gospel to be Preached to the Dead.=--It is plain, then, that
the gospel must be proclaimed in the spirit world; and that such work
is provided for, the scriptures abundantly prove. Peter, describing
the mission of his Redeemer, thus declares this truth:--"For this
cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they
might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to
God in the spirit."[426] The inauguration of this work among the dead
was effected by Christ in the interval between His death and
resurrection. While His body lay in the tomb, His spirit ministered to
the spirits of the departed:--"By which also he went and preached unto
the spirits in prison; which sometime were disobedient when once the
long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a
preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls, were saved by
water."[427]

  [426] I Peter iv, 6.

  [427] I Peter iii, 18-20.

=23.= Other scriptures sustain the position, that while in a
disembodied state, Christ went elsewhere than to the place usually
termed heaven,--the abode of His Father; and that He labored among
the dead, who greatly needed His ministry. One of the malefactors who
suffered crucifixion by His side, through humility won from the dying
Savior the promise, "To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise."[428]
And three days afterward, the Lord, then a resurrected Being, declared
to the sorrowing Magdalene, "I have not yet ascended to my
Father."[429]

  [428] Luke xxiii, 39-43.

  [429] John xx, 17.

=24.= If it was deemed proper and just that the gospel be carried to
the spirits who were disobedient in the days of Noah, is it not
reasonable to conclude that like opportunities shall be placed within
the reach of others who have rejected the word at different times? For
the same spirit of neglect and disobedience that characterized the
time of Noah has ever existed.[430] And further, if, in the plan of
God, provisions be made for the redemption of the wilfully
disobedient, of those who actually spurn the truth, can we believe
that the still greater multitudes of spirits who have never heard the
Gospel are to be left in punishment eternally? No; God has decreed
that even the heathen nations, and those that knew no law, shall be
redeemed.[431] The good gifts of the Father are not confined to this
sphere of action, but will be distributed in justice throughout
eternity. Upon all who reject the word of God in this life shall fall
the penalties provided for such act; but after the debt has been paid,
the prison doors shall be opened, and the spirits once confined in
suffering, now chastened and clean, shall come forth to partake of the
glory provided for their class.

  [430] Luke xvii, 26.

  [431] Doc. and Cov. xlv, 54.

=25. Christ's Work among the Dead was Foretold.=--Centuries before
Christ came in the flesh, the prophets rejoiced in the knowledge that
through Him would salvation be carried to the dead as well as to the
living. Speaking of the punishment to be brought upon the proud and
haughty of the earth, Isaiah declares: "And they shall be gathered
together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up
in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited."[432] The
same great prophet thus testifies concerning the work of the coming
Redeemer; He is "to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners
from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison
house."[433] And David, singing to the music of inspiration concerning
the redemption from the grave, exclaims: "Therefore my heart is glad,
and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope. For thou
wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy
One to see corruption. Thou wilt shew me the path of life; in thy
presence is fulness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for
evermore."[434]

  [432] Isa. xxiv, 22.

  [433] Isa. xlii, 6-7.

  [434] Psa. xvi, 9-11.

=26. Work of the Living for the Dead.=--The redemption of the dead
will be effected in strict accordance with the law of God, which is
written in justice and framed in mercy. It is alike impossible for any
spirit, in the flesh or disembodied, to obtain even the promise of
eternal glory, except on condition of obedience to the laws and
ordinances of the gospel. And, as baptism is essential to the
salvation of the living, it is likewise indispensable to the salvation
of the dead. This was known by the Saints of old, and hence the
doctrine of baptism for the dead was taught among them. In an epistle
addressed to the Saints at Corinth, Paul expounded the principles of
the resurrection, whereby the bodies of the dead are to be brought
forth from the graves. "Christ the first fruits, and afterward they
that are Christ's," and as proof that this doctrine of the
resurrection was included in the gospel as they had received and
professed it, the apostle asks: "Else what shall they do which are
baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then
baptized for the dead?"[435] These words are unambiguous, and the fact
that they are presented without explanation or comment argues that the
principle of baptism for the dead was understood among the people to
whom the letter was addressed.

  [435] I Cor. xv, 29. See "The House of the Lord," p. 92.

=27.= The necessity of vicarious work is here shown,--the living
laboring in behalf of the dead; the children doing for their
progenitors what is beyond the power of the latter to do for
themselves. Many and various are the interpretations rendered by
erring human wisdom on this plain statement of Paul's; yet the simple
and earnest seeker after truth finds little difficulty in
comprehending the meaning. In words which form the closing sentences
of the Old Testament, the prophet Malachi predicted the great work to
be carried on in behalf of the dead during the latter days: "Behold, I
will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and
dreadful day of the Lord: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers
to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest
I come and smite the earth with a curse."[436] It is a current belief
among many Bible students, that this prophecy had reference to the
birth and ministry of John the Baptist,[437] upon whom indeed rested
and remained the spirit and power of Elias, as the angel had
foretold;[438] but we have no record of Elijah ministering unto John;
and moreover the results of the latter's ministry warrant no
conclusion that in him did the prophecy find its full realization.

  [436] Mal. iv, 5-6.

  [437] Matt. xi, 14; xvii, 11; Mark ix, 11; Luke i, 17.

  [438] Luke i, 17; Doc. and Cov. xxvii, 7.

=28.= We must therefore look to a later date in the world's history
for a fulfillment of Malachi's prediction. On the 21st of September,
1823, Joseph Smith[439] received a visitation of a heavenly being who
announced himself as Moroni, sent from the presence of God. In the
course of his instructions to the chosen youth, this heavenly
personage quoted the prophecy of Malachi, already referred to, but in
language slightly different from, and certainly more expressive than,
that appearing in the ordinary translation of the scriptures; the
angel's version is as follows: "For behold the day cometh that shall
burn as an oven, and all the proud, yea and all that do wickedly,
shall burn as stubble, for they that come shall burn them, saith the
Lord of Hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.
Behold I will reveal unto you the Priesthood by the hand of Elijah the
prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord.
And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the promises made to
the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their
fathers; if it were not so the whole earth would be utterly wasted at
His coming."[440]

  [439] See page 10.

  [440] Compare verses 1, 5, and 6, Mal. iv.

=29.= In a glorious manifestation to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery,
given in the Kirtland Temple, April 3, 1836, there appeared unto them
Elijah the prophet, who was taken to heaven without tasting death; he
declared unto them: "Behold, the time has fully come which was spoken
of by the mouth of Malachi, testifying that he (Elijah) should be sent
before the great and dreadful day of the Lord come, to turn the hearts
of the fathers to the children and the children to the fathers, lest
the whole earth be smitten with a curse. Therefore the keys of this
dispensation are committed into your hands, and by this ye may know
that the great and dreadful day of the Lord is near, even at the
doors."[441]

  [441] Doc. and Cov. cx, 13-16.

=30. The Fathers and the Children Mutually Dependent.=--One of the
great principles underlying the doctrine of salvation for the dead is
that of the mutual dependence of the fathers and the children. As the
Prophet Joseph taught the Saints,[442] but for the establishment of a
connecting link between the departed fathers and the living children,
the earth would be smitten with a curse. The plan of God provides that
neither the children nor the fathers can alone be made perfect; and
the necessary union is effected through baptism and associated
ordinances for the dead. The manner in which the hearts of the
children and those of the fathers are turned toward one another is
made plain through these scriptures. As the children learn that
without the aid of their progenitors they cannot attain perfection,
assuredly will their hearts be opened, their faith will be kindled,
and good works will be attempted, for the redemption of their dead;
and the departed, learning from the ministers of the gospel laboring
among them, that they must depend upon their children as vicarious
saviors, will seek to sustain their still mortal representatives with
faith and prayer for the perfecting of those labors of love.

  [442] Doc. and Cov. cxxviii, 18; see also this entire section and
  sec. cxxvii.

=31.= And love, which is a power in itself, is thus intensified. Aside
from the emotions which are stirred within the soul by the presence of
the Divine, there are few feelings stronger and purer than the love
for kindred. Heaven would not be all we wish were family love unknown
there.[443] Affection there will differ from its earthly type, in
being deeper, stronger, purer. And thus in the mercy of God, His
erring, mortal children, who have taken upon themselves the name of
Christ on earth, may become, in a limited sphere, each a savior in the
house of his fathers, and that too by vicarious labor and sacrifice,
rendered in humility, and, as represented in the baptismal ordinance,
typical of the death, burial, and resurrection of the Redeemer.

  [443] See Note 4.

=32. The Labor for the Dead is Two-fold.=--That performed on earth
would be incomplete but for its supplement and counterpart beyond the
vail. Missionary labor is in progress there, whereby the tidings of
the gospel are carried to the departed spirits, who thus learn of the
work done in their behalf on earth. What glorious possibilities
concerning the purposes of God are thus presented to our view! How the
mercy of God is magnified by these evidences of His love! How often do
we behold friends and loved ones, whom we count among earth's fairest
and best, stricken down by the shafts of death, seemingly in spite of
the power of faith and the ministrations of the Priesthood of God! Yet
who of us can tell but that these may be permitted to minister in the
labor of redemption beyond, preaching perhaps the gospel to the
spirits of their forefathers, while others of the same family are
officiating in a similar behalf on earth?

=33.= As far as the Divine will has been revealed, it requires that
the outward ordinances, such as baptism in water, the laying on of
hands for the bestowal of the Holy Ghost, and the higher endowments
that follow, be attended to on earth, a proper representative in the
flesh acting as proxy for the dead. The results of such labors are to
be left with God. It is not to be supposed that by these ordinances
the departed are in any way compelled to accept the obligation, nor
that they are in the least hindered in the exercise of their free
agency. They will accept or reject, according to their condition of
humility or hostility in respect to things divine; but the work so
done for them on earth will be of avail when wholesome argument and
reason have shown them their true position.


TEMPLES.

=34. Temples or Other Sacred Places= are required for the performance
of these holy ordinances. Whenever an organization of the priesthood
has existed on earth, the Lord has required the preparation of places
suited to His use, where the rites of His Church could be performed.
It is but proper that such a structure should be the result of the
people's best efforts, inasmuch as it is made by them an offering unto
the Lord. In every age of the world, the chosen people have been a
temple-building people. Shortly after Israel's deliverance from the
bondage of Egypt, the Lord called upon the people to construct a
sanctuary to His name, the plan of which He minutely specified. Though
this was but a tent, it was elaborately furnished and appointed, the
choicest possessions of the people being used in its construction.[444]
And the Lord accepted this offering of His wandering people, by
manifesting His glory therein, and there revealing Himself.[445] When
the people had settled in the promised land, the Tabernacle of the
congregation was given a more permanent resting place;[446] yet it
still was honored for its sacred purpose, until superseded by the
Temple of Solomon as the sanctuary of the Lord.

  [444] Exo. xxv; xxxv, 22. See "The House of the Lord," ch. ii.

  [445] Exo. xl, 34-38.

  [446] Josh. xviii, 1.

=35.= This temple, one of the most gorgeous structures ever erected by
man for sacred service, was dedicated with imposing ceremonies; but
its splendor was of short duration; for, within less than forty years
from the time of its completion, its glory declined, and finally it
fell a prey to the flames. A partial restoration of the temple was
made after the Jews returned from their captivity; and through the
friendly influence of Cyrus and Darius, the temple of Zerubbabel was
dedicated.[447] That the Lord accepted this effort of His people to
maintain a sanctuary to His name, is fully shown by the spirit that
actuated its officers, among whom were Zechariah, Haggai, and Malachi.
This temple remained standing for nearly five centuries; and, but a
few years before the birth of the Savior, the reconstruction of the
edifice was begun by wicked Herod the Great, and the term "Temple of
Herod" passed into history.[448] The veil of this temple was rent at
the time of the crucifixion,[449] and in the year 70 A. D. the
destruction of the building was accomplished by Titus.

  [447] I Kings vi, viii.

  [448] Ezra i, iii, vi.

  [449] Matt. xxvii, 50.

=36. Modern Temples.=--From that time until the present dispensation,
no other temples have been reared on the eastern continent. It is
true, imposing edifices have been erected for the purposes of worship;
but a colossal structure does not necessarily constitute a temple. A
temple is more than a church-building, a meeting-house, a tabernacle,
or a synagogue; it is a place specially prepared by dedication unto
the Lord, and marked by His acceptance, for the performing of the
ordinances pertaining to the Holy Priesthood. The Latter-day Saints,
true to the characteristics of the chosen of God,[450] have been from
the first a temple-building people. Only a few months after the
organization of the Church in the present dispensation, the Lord made
reference to a temple which was to be built.[451] In July, 1831, the
Lord designated a spot in Independence, Mo., as the site of a future
temple;[452] but the work of construction thereon has not yet been
consummated, as is likewise the case with the temple site at Far West,
on which the corner-stones were laid July 4, 1838, and relaid April
26, 1839.

  [450] Doc. and Cov. cxxiv, 39. See "The House of the Lord."

  [451] Doc. and Cov. xxxvi, 8.

  [452] Doc. and Cov. lvii, 3.

=37.= The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has constructed
temples, each an imposing and costly structure, at Kirtland, Ohio;
Nauvoo, Illinois; St. George, Logan, Manti, and Salt Lake City, Utah;
Cardston, Canada; and Laie, Hawaiian Islands. The temples at Kirtland
and Nauvoo were abandoned as the members of the Church who had built
them through sacrifice yet untold were driven westward by the force of
persecution. The building at Kirtland is now used as an ordinary
meeting-house by a small sect that is but little known and that
evinces no activity in the sacred labors for which temples are built.
The temple at Nauvoo was destroyed through malicious incendiarism. The
magnitude and grandeur of the sacred labors accomplished in the
temples of the present dispensation, for the salvation of both the
living and the dead, give assurance of the Lord's gracious
acceptance.[453]

  [453] For a comprehensive treatment see the author's work. "The
  House of the Lord"--a study of holy sanctuaries, ancient and
  modern: 336 pp. with illustrations.


NOTES.

     =1. Usage of the Term "Baptize" in Ancient Times.=--The following
     instances show the ordinary meaning attached to the Greek term
     from which our word "baptize" is derived. In all, the idea of
     immersion is plainly intended.--(For these and other examples,
     see Millennial Star, Vol. XXI, pp. 687-688.)

     Polybius, a writer of history, who flourished during the second
     century before Christ, uses the following expressions: In
     describing a naval conflict between the Carthaginian and Roman
     fleets off the shores of Sicily he says, "If any were hard
     pressed by the enemy they withdrew safely back, on account of
     their fast sailing into the open sea: and then turning round and
     falling on those of their pursuers who were in advance, they gave
     them frequent blows and 'baptized' many of their vessels."--Book
     I, ch. 51.

     The same writer thus refers to the passage of the Roman soldiers
     through the river Trebia: "When the passage of the river Trebia
     came on, which had risen above its usual current, on account of
     the rain which had fallen, the infantry with difficulty crossed
     over, being 'baptized' up to the chest."--Book III, ch. 72.

     Describing a catastrophe which befell the Roman ships at
     Syracuse, Polybius states: "Some were upset, but the greater
     number, their prow being thrown down from a height, were
     'baptized' and became full of sea."

     Strabo, who lived during the time of Christ, used the term
     "baptized" in the same sense. He thus describes an instrument
     used in fishing: "And if it fall into the sea it is not lost:
     for it is compacted of oak and pine wood: so that even if the oak
     is 'baptized' by its weight, the remaining part floats and is
     easily recovered."

     Strabo refers to the buoyancy of certain saline waters thus:
     "These have the taste of salt water, but a different nature, for
     even persons who cannot swim are not liable to be 'baptized' in
     them, but float like logs on the surface."

     Referring to a salt spring in Tatta, the same writer says: "So
     easily does the water form a crust round everything 'baptized'
     into it that if persons let down a circlet of rushes they will
     draw up wreaths of salt."

     Speaking of a species of pitch from the lake Sirbonis, Strabo
     says: "It will float on the surface owing to the nature of the
     water, which, as we said, is such as to render swimming
     unnecessary, and such that one who walks upon it is not
     'baptized.'"

     Dio Cassius, speaking of the effects of a severe storm near Rome
     says: "The vessels which were in the Tiber, which were lying at
     anchor near the city, and to the river's mouth, were 'baptized.'"

     The same author thus alludes to the fate of some of Curio's
     soldiers while fleeing before the forces of Juba: "Not a few of
     these fugitives perished, some being knocked down in their
     attempts to get on board the vessels, and others, even when in
     the boats, being 'baptized' through their weight."

     Alluding to the fate of the Byzantians who endeavored to escape
     the siege by taking to the sea, he says: "Some of those, from the
     extreme violence of the wind, were 'baptized.'"

     =2. Baptism among the Greeks.=--"The native Greeks must
     understand their own language better than foreigners, and they
     have always understood the word baptism to signify dipping; and
     therefore from their first embracing of Christianity to this day
     they have always baptized, and do yet baptize, by
     immersion."--_Robinson._

     =3. Early Form of Christian Baptism.=--History furnishes ample
     proof that in the first century after the death of Christ,
     baptism was administered solely by immersion. Tertullian thus
     refers to the immersion ceremony common in his day: "There is no
     difference whether one is washed in a sea or in a pool, in a
     river or in a fountain, in a lake or in a channel: nor is there
     any difference between those whom John dipped in Jordan, and
     those whom Peter dipped in the Tiber.... We are immersed in the
     water."

     The following are but a few of the instances on record (see
     Millennial Star, Vol. XXI, pp. 769-770):

     Justin Martyr describes the ceremony as practiced by himself.
     First describing the preparatory examination of the candidate, he
     proceeds: "After that they are led by us to where there is water,
     and are born again in that kind of new birth by which we
     ourselves were born again. For upon the name God, the Father and
     Lord of all, and of Jesus Christ, our Savior, and of the Holy
     Spirit, the immersion in water is performed, because the Christ
     hath also said, 'Except a man be born again, he cannot enter into
     the kingdom of heaven.'"

     Bishop Bennet says concerning the practices of the early
     Christians: "They led them into the water and laid them down in
     the water as a man is laid in a grave; and then they said those
     words, 'I baptize (or wash) thee in the name of the Father, Son,
     and Holy Ghost'; then they raised them up again, and clean
     garments were put on them; from whence came the phrases of being
     baptized into Christ's death, of being buried with Him by baptism
     into death, of our being risen with Christ, and of our putting on
     the Lord Jesus Christ, of putting off the old man, and putting on
     the new."

     "That the apostles immersed whom they baptized there is no
     doubt.... And that the ancient church followed their example is
     very clearly evinced by innumerable testimonies of the
     fathers."--_Vossius._

     "Burying as it were the person baptized in the water, and raising
     him out again, without question was anciently the more usual
     method."--_Archbishop Secker._

     "'Immersion' was the usual method in which baptism was
     administered in the early Church.... Immersion was undoubtedly a
     common mode of administering baptism, and was not discontinued
     when infant baptism prevailed.... Sprinkling gradually took the
     place of immersion without any formal renunciation of the
     latter."--_Canon Farrar._

     =4. The Fathers and the Children.=--"The revelation in our day of
     the doctrine of baptism for the dead may be said to have
     constituted a new epoch in the history of our race. At the time
     the Prophet Joseph received that revelation, the belief was
     general in Christendom that at death the destiny of the soul was
     fixed irrevocably and for all eternity. If not rewarded with
     endless happiness, then endless torment was its doom, beyond all
     possibility of redemption or change. The horrible and monstrous
     doctrine, so much at variance with every element of Divine
     justice, was generally believed, that the heathen nations who had
     died without a knowledge of the true God, and the redemption
     wrought out by His Son Jesus Christ, would all be eternally
     consigned to hell. The belief upon this point is illustrated by
     the reply of a certain Bishop to the inquiry of the king of the
     Franks, when the king was about to submit to baptism at the hands
     of the bishop. The king was a heathen, but had concluded to
     accept the form of religion then called Christianity. The thought
     occurred to him that if baptism were necessary for his salvation,
     what had become of his dear ancestors who had died heathens? This
     thought framed itself into an inquiry which he addressed to the
     bishop. The prelate, less politic than many of his sect, bluntly
     told him they had gone to hell. 'Then, by Thor, I will go there
     with them,' said the king, and thereupon refused to accept
     baptism or become a Christian."--Geo. Q. Cannon's _Life of Joseph
     Smith_, p. 510.

     =5. Temples and Sacred Places.=--"When the Lord brought Israel
     out of Egypt, determined to make that people a nation to Himself,
     as soon as they had arrived at a safe distance from surrounding
     peoples, He required them to build a Tabernacle, which is
     sometimes called the Temple, wherein He could institute certain
     ordinances and regulations for their guidance and worship. This,
     at the commencement of their pilgrimage in the wilderness, was
     made portable, and of the costliest and best material within
     their reach; and one of the tribes was set apart to have charge
     of it and its appurtenances. Such has ever been the purpose of
     the Lord. This served them through their journey and in the
     promised Canaan, until suitable wealth enabled Solomon to erect a
     magnificent Temple on Mount Moriah, since called 'The Hill of
     Zion,' to which all Israel came annually to worship or attend
     conference. The Lord has informed us (Doc. and Cov. cxxiv, 39)
     that His people are always commanded to build Temples, or holy
     houses, unto His holy name. This accounts for our reading in the
     Book of Mormon of so many Temples having been erected on this
     continent. It also explains why the Prophet Joseph so early
     taught the commencement of a Temple in every important location
     of the Saints."--_Compendium_, F. D. Richards and J. A. Little,
     pp. 301-302. Consult: Exo. xxv-xxviii; I Kings vi-viii; Ezra vi;
     II Nephi v, 16; and compare Jacob i, 17; ii, 2-11; Mosiah i, 18;
     ii, 6-7; Alma xvi, 13; xxiii, 2; xxvi, 29; Helaman iii, 9; x, 8;
     Doc. and Cov. i, 7-9; lxxxiv, 3-5, 31; xcvii, 10; cxxiv, 29-51,
     55. See also _Temples_, J. M. Sjodahl, Salt Lake City, 1892. See
     "The House of the Lord, a Study of Holy Sanctuaries, Ancient and
     Modern," by James E. Talmage, Salt Lake City, 1912.



LECTURE VIII.

THE HOLY GHOST.

     =Article 4.=--We believe that the first principles and ordinances
     of the Gospel are:--... (4) Laying on of hands for the gift of
     the Holy Ghost.


=1. The Holy Ghost Promised.=--John the Baptist, proclaiming in the
wilderness repentance and baptism by water, foretold a second higher
baptism, which he characterized as being of fire and the Holy Ghost;
this was to follow his administration,[454] and was to be given by
that Mightier One whose shoes the Baptist considered himself unworthy
to bear. That the holder of this superior authority was none other
than the Christ is proved by John's solemn record:--"Behold the Lamb
of God.... This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is
preferred before me.... And I knew him not, but he that sent me to
baptize with water, the same said unto me: Upon whom thou shalt see
the Spirit descending and remaining on him, the same is he which
baptizeth with the Holy Ghost."[455]

  [454] Matt. iii, 2-3, 11; Mark i, 8; Luke iii, 16.

  [455] John i, 29-33.

=2.= In declaring to Nicodemus[456] the necessity of baptism, the
Savior did not stop with a reference to the watery birth alone, that
being incomplete without the quickening influence of the Spirit; born
of water and of the Spirit is the necessary condition of him who is to
gain admittance to the kingdom. Many of the scriptural passages quoted
in proof of the purpose and necessity of baptism, show baptism by fire
and the Holy Ghost to be closely associated with the prescribed
ordinance of immersion in water.

  [456] John iii, 3-5.

=3.= Christ's instructions to His apostles comprise repeated promises
concerning the coming of the "Comforter," and the "Spirit of
Truth,"[457] by which expressive terms the Holy Ghost is designated.
In His last interview with the apostles, at the termination of which
He ascended into heaven, the Lord repeated these assurances of a
spiritual baptism, which was then soon to take place.[458] The
fulfillment of this great prediction was realized at the succeeding
Pentecost, when the apostles, having assembled together, were endowed
with mighty power from heaven,[459] being filled with the Holy Ghost
so that they spake in tongues other than their own as the Spirit gave
them utterance. Among other manifestations of this heavenly gift, may
be mentioned the appearance of flames of fire like unto tongues, which
rested upon each of them. The promise so miraculously fulfilled upon
themselves was repeated by the apostles to those who sought their
instruction. Peter, addressing the Jews on that same day, declared, on
the condition of their acceptable repentance and baptism, "Ye shall
receive the gift of the Holy Ghost."[460]

  [457] John xiv, 16-17, 26; xv, 26; xvi, 7, 13.

  [458] Acts i, 5.

  [459] Acts ii, 1-4.

  [460] Acts ii, 38.

=4.= Book of Mormon evidence is not less conclusive regarding the Holy
Spirit's visitation unto those who obey the requirements of water
baptism. Nephi, Lehi's son, bore solemn record of this truth,[461] as
made known to him by the voice of God. And the words of the
resurrected Savior to the Nephites come in plainness indisputable, and
with authority not to be questioned, proclaiming the baptism of fire
and the Holy Ghost unto all those who obey the preliminary
requirements.[462]

  [461] II Nephi xxxi, 8, 12-14, 17.

  [462] III Nephi xi, 36; xii, 2.

=5.= Unto the Saints in the dispensation of the fulness of times, the
same great promise has been made. "I say unto you again," spake the
Lord in addressing certain elders of the Church, "that every soul that
believeth on your words, and is baptized by water for the remission of
sins shall receive the Holy Ghost."[463]

  [463] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 64.

=6. Personality and Powers of the Holy Ghost.=--The Holy Ghost is
associated with the Father and the Son in the Godhead. In the light of
revelation, we are instructed as to the distinct personality of the
Holy Ghost. He is a Being endowed with the attributes and powers of
Deity, and not a mere thing, force, or essence. The term Holy Ghost
and its common synonyms, Spirit of God,[464] Spirit of the Lord, or
simply, Spirit,[465] Comforter,[466] and Spirit of Truth,[467] occur
in the scriptures with plainly different meanings, referring in some
cases to the person of God, the Holy Ghost, and in other instances to
the power or authority of this great Being. The context of such
passages will show which of these significations applies.

  [464] Matt. iii, 16; xii, 28; I Nephi xiii, 12.

  [465] I Nephi iv, 6; xi, 8; Mos. xiii, 5; Acts ii, 4; viii, 29; x,
  19: Rom. viii, 10, 26; I Thess. v, 19.

  [466] John xiv, 16-26; xv, 26.

  [467] John xv, 26; xvi, 13.

=7.= The Holy Ghost undoubtedly possesses personal powers and
affections; these attributes exist in Him in perfection. Thus, He
teaches and guides,[468] testifies of the Father and the Son,[469]
reproves for sin,[470] speaks, commands, and commissions,[471] makes
intercession for sinners,[472] is grieved,[473] searches and
investigates,[474] entices,[475] and knows all things.[476] These are
not mere figurative expressions, but plain statements of the
attributes and characteristics of this great Personage. That the Holy
Spirit is capable of manifesting Himself in the true form and figure
of God, after which image man is shaped, is indicated by the wonderful
interview between the Spirit and Nephi, in which He revealed Himself
to the prophet, questioned him concerning his desires and belief,
instructed him in the things of God, speaking face to face with the
man. "I spake unto him," says Nephi, "as a man speaketh; for I beheld
that he was in the form of a man, yet nevertheless I knew that it was
the Spirit of the Lord; and he spake unto me as a man speaketh to
another."[477] However, the Holy Ghost does not possess a tangible
body of flesh and bones, as do both the Father and the Son, but is a
personage of spirit.[478]

  [468] John xiv, 26; xvi, 13.

  [469] John xv, 26.

  [470] John xvi, 8.

  [471] Acts x, 19; xiii, 2; Rev. ii, 7; I Nephi iv, 6; xi, 2-8.

  [472] Rom. viii, 26.

  [473] Eph. iv, 30.

  [474] I Cor. ii, 4-10.

  [475] Mos. iii, 19.

  [476] Alma vii, 13.

  [477] I Nephi xi, 11.

  [478] Doc. and Cov. cxxx, 22.

=8.= Much of the confusion existing in our human conceptions
concerning the nature of the Holy Ghost arises from the common failure
to segregate our ideas of His person and powers. Plainly, such
expressions as being filled with the Holy Ghost,[479] and the Spirit
falling upon men, have reference to the powers and influences which
emanate from God, and which are characteristic of Him; for the Holy
Ghost may in this way operate simultaneously upon many persons, even
though they be widely separated; whereas the actual person of the Holy
Ghost cannot be in more than one place at a time. Yet we read that
through the power of the Spirit, the Father and the Son operate in
their creative acts and in their general dealings with the human
family.[480] The Holy Ghost may be regarded as the minister of the
Godhead, carrying into effect the decisions of the Supreme Council.

  [479] Luke i, 15, 67; iv, 1; Acts vi, 3; xiii, 9; Alma xxxvi, 24;
  Doc. and Cov. cvii, 56.

  [480] Gen. i, 2; Neh. ix, 30; Job xxvi, 13; Psalms civ, 30; Isa.
  xlii, 1; Acts x, 19; I Nephi x, 19; Alma xii, 3; Doc. and Cov. cv,
  36; xcvii, 1.

=9.= In the execution of these great purposes, the Holy Ghost directs
and controls the numerous forces of Nature, of which indeed a few, and
these perhaps of the minor order, wonderful as even the least of them
seems to man, have thus far been made known to the human mind.
Gravitation, sound, heat, light, and the still more mysterious,
seemingly supernatural power of electricity, are but the common
servants of the Holy Spirit in His operations. No earnest thinker, no
sincere investigator supposes that he has yet learned of all the
forces existing in and operating upon matter; indeed, the observed
phenomena of nature, yet wholly inexplicable to him, far outnumber
those for which he has devised even a partial explanation. There are
powers and forces at the command of God, compared with which,
electricity, the most occult of all the physical agencies controlled
in any degree by man, is as the pack-horse to the locomotive, the foot
messenger to the telegraph, the raft of logs to the ocean steamer. Man
has scarcely glanced at the enginery of creation; and yet the few
forces known to him have brought about miracles and wonders, which but
for their actual realization would be beyond belief. These mighty
agencies, and the mightier ones still to man unknown, and many,
perhaps, to the present condition of the human mind unknowable, do not
constitute the Holy Ghost, but the mere means ordained to serve Divine
purposes.

=10.= Subtler, mightier, and more mysterious still than any or all of
the physical forces of nature, are the powers that operate upon
conscious organisms, the means by which the mind, the heart, the soul
of man may be affected. In our ignorance of the true nature of
electric energy, we speak of it as a fluid; and so by analogy the
forces through which the mind is governed have been called spiritual
fluids. The true nature of these higher powers is unknown to us, for
the conditions of comparison and analogy, so necessary to our frail
human reasoning, are wanting; still the effects are experienced by
all. As the conducting medium in an electric current is capable of
conveying but a limited current, the maximum strength depending upon
the resistance offered by the conductor, and, as separate circuits of
different degrees of conductivity may carry currents of widely varying
intensity, so human souls are of varied capacity with respect to the
diviner powers. But as the medium is purified, as the obstructions are
removed, so the resistance to the energy decreases, and the forces
manifest themselves with greater perfection. By analogous processes of
purification, may our spirits be made more susceptible to the power of
life, which is an emanation from the Spirit of God. Therefore are we
taught to pray by word and action for a constantly increasing portion
of the Spirit, that is, the power of the Spirit, which is a measure of
the favor of God unto us.

=11. The Office of the Holy Ghost= in His ministrations among men is
very fully described in scripture. He is a Teacher sent from the
Father;[481] and unto those who are entitled to His tuition He will
reveal all things necessary for the soul's advancement. Through the
influences of the Holy Spirit, the powers of the human mind may be
quickened and increased, so that things past may be brought to
remembrance. He will serve as a guide in things divine unto all who
will obey Him,[482] enlightening every man,[483] in proportion to his
humility and obedience;[484] unfolding the mysteries of God,[485] as
the knowledge thus revealed may tend to spiritual growth; conveying
knowledge from God to man;[486] sanctifying those who have been
cleansed through obedience to the requirements of the gospel;[487]
manifesting all things;[488] and bearing witness unto men concerning
the existence and infallibility of the Father and the Son.[489]

  [481] John xiv, 26.

  [482] Doc. and Cov. xlv, 57.

  [483] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 45-47.

  [484] Doc. and Cov. cxxxvi, 33.

  [485] I Nephi x, 19.

  [486] Doc. and Cov. cxxi, 43.

  [487] Alma xiii, 12.

  [488] Doc. and Cov. xviii, 18.

  [489] John xv, 26; Acts v, 32; xx, 23; I Cor. ii, 11; xii, 3; III
  Nephi xi, 32.

=12.= And not alone does the Holy Ghost bring to mind the past, and
explain the things of the present, but His power is manifested
likewise in prophecy concerning the future;--"He shall show you things
to come," declared the Savior to the Apostles in promising the advent
of the Comforter. Adam, the first prophet of earth, under the
influence of the Holy Ghost "predicted whatsoever should befall his
posterity unto the latest generation."[490]

  [490] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 56.

=13.= The power of the Holy Ghost then is the spirit of prophecy and
revelation; His office is that of enlightenment of the mind,
quickening of the intellect, and sanctification of the soul.

=14. To Whom is the Holy Ghost given?= Not to all indiscriminately.
The Redeemer declared to the apostles of old, "I will pray to the
Father and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with
you forever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive,
because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him."[491] Clearly, then, a
certain condition of the candidate is requisite before the Holy Ghost
can be bestowed, that is to say, before the person can receive a right
to the company and ministrations of the Spirit. God grants the Holy
Ghost unto the obedient; and the bestowal of this gift follows faith,
repentance, and baptism by water.

  [491] John xiv, 16, 17.

=15.= The apostles of old promised the ministration of the Holy Ghost
unto those only who had received baptism by water for the remission of
sins;[492] John the Baptist gave assurances of the visitation of the
Holy Ghost to those only who were baptized unto repentance.[493] The
instance of Paul's rebaptizing the twelve disciples at Ephesus before
he conferred upon them the Holy Ghost, on account of a probable lack
of propriety or of authority in their first baptism,[494] has already
been dwelt upon. We read of a remarkable manifestation of power among
the people of Samaria,[495] to whom Philip went and preached the Lord
Jesus; the people with one accord accepted his testimony and sought
baptism. Then came unto them Peter and John, through whose
ministrations the Holy Ghost came upon the new converts, whereas upon
none of them had the Spirit previously fallen, though all had been
baptized.

  [492] Acts ii, 38.

  [493] Matt. iii, 11; Mark i, 8.

  [494] Acts xix, 1-7; see page 146.

  [495] Acts viii, 5-8, 12, 14-17.

=16.= The Holy Ghost dwells not in tabernacles unfit and unworthy.
Paul makes the sublime declaration that the body of man when filled
with the power of the Holy Ghost becomes a temple of this spirit; and
the apostle specifies the penalty prescribed for defiling a structure
sanctified by so holy a presence.[496] Faith in God leads to
repentance of sin, this is followed by baptism in water for the
remission of sins, and this in turn by the bestowal of the Holy Ghost,
through whose power come sanctification and the specific gifts of God.

  [496] I Cor. iii, 16. See also vi, 19; II Cor. vi, 16; Doc. and
  Cov. xciii, 35.

=17. An Exception to the Prescribed Order= is shown in the case of
the devout Gentile, Cornelius, unto whom, together with his family,
came the Holy Ghost, with such power that they spake with new tongues
to the glorification of God, and this before their baptism.[497] But
sufficient reason for this departure from the usual order is seen in
the prejudice that existed among the Jews toward other nations, which,
but for the Lord's direct instructions to Peter, would have hindered,
if indeed it did not prevent, the apostle from ministering unto the
Gentiles; as it was, his act was loudly condemned by his own people;
but he answered their criticisms with a recital of the lesson given
him of God, and the undeniable evidence of the Divine will as shown in
the reception of the Holy Ghost by Cornelius and his family before
baptism.

  [497] Acts x.

=18.= And in another sense the Holy Ghost has frequently operated for
good through persons that are unbaptized; indeed, some measure of this
power is given to all mankind; for, as seen already, the Holy Spirit
is the power of intelligence, of wise direction, of development, of
life. Manifestation of the power of God, as made plain through the
operations of the Spirit, are seen in the triumphs of ennobling art,
the discoveries of true science, and the events of history; with all
of which the carnal mind may believe that God takes no direct concern.
Not a truth has ever been made the property of human kind except
through the power of that great Spirit who exists to do the bidding of
the Father and the Son. And yet the actual companionship of the Holy
Ghost, the divinely-bestowed right to His ministrations, the
sanctifying baptism with fire, are given as a permanent possession
only to the faithful, repentant, baptized candidate for salvation; and
with all such this gift shall abide, unless it be forfeited through
transgression.

=19. The Bestowal of the Holy Ghost= is effected through the ordinance
of an oral blessing, pronounced upon the candidate by the proper
authority of the Priesthood, accompanied by the imposition of hands by
him or those officiating. That this was the mode followed by the
apostles of old is evident from the Jewish scriptures; that it was
practiced by the early Christian Fathers is proved by history; that it
was the acknowledged method among the Nephites is plainly shown by the
Book of Mormon records; and for the same practice in the present
dispensation authority has come direct from heaven.

=20.= Among the instances recorded in the New Testament, we may
mention the following: Peter and John conferred the Holy Ghost upon
Philip's converts at Samaria, as already noted, and the ordinance was
performed by prayer and the laying on of hands.[498] Paul operated in
the same manner on the Ephesians whom he had caused to be baptized;
and "when he had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on
them, and they spake with tongues and prophesied."[499] Paul also
refers to this ordinance in his admonition to Timothy not to neglect
the gift so bestowed.[500] The same apostle, in enumerating the
cardinal principles and ordinances of the Church of Christ, includes
the laying on of hands as following baptism.[501]

  [498] Acts viii, 14-17. Read the account of Simon, the magician,
  in the same chapter.

  [499] Acts xix, 2-6.

  [500] II Tim. i, 6.

  [501] Heb. vi, 1-2.

=21.= Alma so invoked the power of the Holy Ghost in behalf of his
co-laborers:[502]--"He clapped his hands upon all them who were with
him. And behold, as he clapped his hands upon them they were filled
with the Holy Spirit." The Savior gave authority to the twelve chosen
Nephites,[503] by touching them one by one; they were thus
commissioned to bestow the Holy Ghost.

  [502] Alma xxxi, 36.

  [503] III Nephi xviii, 36, 37.

=22.= In this dispensation, it has been made a duty of the Priesthood
"to confirm those who are baptized into the Church by the laying on of
hands for the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost."[504] The Lord has
promised that the Holy Ghost shall follow these authoritative acts of
His servants.[505] The ceremony of laying on of hands for the bestowal
of the Holy Ghost is associated with that of confirmation in the
Church. The officiating elder acting in the name and by the authority
of Jesus Christ, says, "_Receive ye the Holy Ghost_;" and "_I confirm
you a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints_."
Even these words are not prescribed, but their meaning should be
expressed in the ceremony; and to such may be added other words of
blessing and invocation as the Spirit of the Lord may dictate to the
officiating elder. This act completes the outward form of the baptism
so indispensable to salvation--the birth of water and of the Spirit.

  [504] Doc. and Cov. xx, 41, 43.

  [505] Doc. and Cov. xxxv, 6; xxxix, 6, 23; xlix, 11-14.

=23.= The authority to so bestow the Holy Ghost belongs to the higher
or Melchizedek Priesthood,[506] whereas water-baptism may be
administered by a priest, officiating in the ordinances of the lesser
or Aaronic order of priesthood.[507] This order of authority, as made
known through revelation, explains that while Philip had authority to
administer the ordinance of baptism to the converted Samaritans,
others who held the higher priesthood had to be sent to confer upon
them the Holy Ghost.[508]

  [506] Doc. and Cov. xx, 38-43.

  [507] Doc. and Cov. xx, 46, 50.

  [508] See Acts viii, 5-17.

=24. Gifts of the Spirit.=--As already pointed out, the special office
of the Holy Ghost is to enlighten and ennoble the mind, to purify and
sanctify the soul, to incite to good works, and to reveal the things
of God. But, beside these general blessings, there are certain
specific endowments promised in connection with the gifts of the Holy
Ghost. Said the Savior, "These signs shall follow them that believe:
In my name shall they cast out devils, they shall speak with new
tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly
thing it shall not hurt them: they shall lay hands on the sick and
they shall recover."[509]

  [509] Mark xvi, 17-18; Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 65-78.

=25.= These gifts of the Spirit are distributed in the wisdom of God
for the exaltation of His children. Paul thus discourses concerning
them: "Now, concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you
ignorant.... Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same
Spirit.... But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man
to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of
wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit. To
another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gift of healing by
the same Spirit. To another the working of miracles; to another
prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kind of
tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues. But all these
worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man
severally as he will."[510] No man is without some gift from the
Spirit; one person may possess several.

  [510] I Cor. xii, 8; see also Moroni x, 8-18.


NOTES.

     =1. Effect of the Holy Ghost on the Individual.=--"An intelligent
     being, in the image of God, possesses every organ, attribute,
     sense, sympathy, affection, of will, wisdom, love, power and
     gift, which is possessed by God Himself. But these are possessed
     by man in his rudimental state in a subordinate sense of the
     word. Or, in other words, these attributes are in embryo, and are
     to be gradually developed. They resemble a bud, a germ, which
     gradually develops into bloom, and then, by progress, produces
     the mature fruit after its own kind. The gift of the Holy Spirit
     adapts itself to all these organs or attributes. It quickens all
     the intellectual faculties, increases, enlarges, expands, and
     purifies all the natural passions and affections, and adapts them
     by the gift of wisdom, to their lawful use. It inspires,
     develops, cultivates, and matures all the fine-toned sympathies,
     joys, tastes, kindred feelings, and affections of our nature. It
     inspires virtue, kindness, goodness, tenderness, gentleness, and
     charity. It develops beauty of person, form and features. It
     tends to health, vigor, animation, and social feeling. It
     develops and invigorates all the faculties of the physical and
     intellectual man. It strengthens, invigorates, and gives tone to
     the nerves. In short, it is, as it were, marrow to the bone, joy
     to the heart, light to the eyes, music to the ears, and life to
     the whole being."--Parley P. Pratt, _Key to Theology_, pp. 96-97
     (4th ed.).

     =2. The Laying on of Hands.=--From the scriptures cited, it is
     plain that the usual ceremony of bestowing the gift of the Holy
     Ghost consisted in part in the imposition of hands by those in
     authority (Acts viii, 17; ix, 17; xix, 2-6; Alma xxxi, 36; III
     Nephi xviii, 36-37; Doc. and Cov. xx, 41). The same outward sign
     has marked other authoritative acts: for example, ordination to
     the priesthood; and administration to the sick. It is probable
     that Paul had reference to Timothy's ordination when he exhorts
     him thus: "Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given
     thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the
     presbytery" (I Tim. iv, 14). And again, "Stir up the gift of God,
     which is in thee by the putting on of my hands" (II Tim. i, 6).
     The first ordination to the priesthood in latter times was done
     by the imposition of hands by John the Baptist (Doc. and Cov.
     xiii). That Christ in healing the sick sometimes laid His hands
     upon the afflicted ones is certain (Mark vi, 5); and He left with
     His apostles a promise that healing should follow the
     authoritative laying on of hands (Mark xvi, 15, 18). The same
     promise has been repeated in this day (Doc. and Cov. xlii,
     43-44). Yet, notwithstanding the importance given to this sign of
     authority, the laying on of hands is but exceptional among the
     practices of the many sects professing Christianity to-day.

     =3. Operation of the Holy Ghost.=--The means through which the
     Holy Ghost operates are no more truly the Holy Ghost in person
     than are the light and heat and actinic energy of the sun, the
     sun itself. The influence, spirit, or power of the Holy Ghost is
     that of enlightenment and progression, and this is given unto men
     in proportion to their receptiveness and worthiness; but the
     right to the special ministrations of the third member of the
     Godhead is obtainable only through compliance with the
     preliminary requirements of the Gospel--faith, repentance, and
     baptism.

     =4. Mode of Conferring the Holy Ghost.=--Questions have arisen as
     to the ceremony of confirmation and the bestowal of the Holy
     Ghost, particularly as to the propriety of saying: _Receive ye
     the Holy Ghost_; or _Receive ye the Gift of the Holy Ghost._.
     Since the companionship of the Holy Ghost embraces all the
     spiritual graces and gift in so far as such are deserved by and
     appropriate to the person, the Church teaches that officiating
     Elders in confirming baptized candidates should use the form:
     _Receive ye the Holy Ghost_.

     In explaining the reception of the Holy Ghost by the apostles of
     old, the First Presidency of the Church issued an instructive
     statement Feb. 5, 1916. See DESERET NEWS of that date, and
     _Improvement Era_, March, 1916; and for excerpt from same see
     "Jesus the Christ" (third and later editions), p. 720.



LECTURE IX.

THE SACRAMENT OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.

In connection with Article 4.


=1. The Sacrament.=--In the course of our study of the principles and
ordinances of the Gospel, as specified in the fourth of the Articles
of Faith, the subject of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper[511] very
properly claims attention, the observance of this ordinance being
required of all who have become members of the Church of Christ
through compliance with the requirements of faith, repentance, and
baptism by water and by the Holy Ghost.

  [511] See Notes 1 and 2.

=2. Institution of the Sacrament among the Jews.=--The sacrament of
the Lord's Supper dates from the night of the Passover feast[512]
immediately preceding the crucifixion of the Savior. On that solemn
occasion, Christ and His apostles were assembled in Jerusalem, keeping
the feast in an upper room, which had been made ready by His express
command.[513] As a Jew, Christ appears to have been ever loyal to the
established usages of His people; and it must have been with most
extraordinary feelings that He entered upon this commemorative feast,
the last of its kind bearing the significance of the type of a future
sacrifice, as well as a reminder of God's favor in the past. Knowing
well the terrible experiences immediately awaiting Him, He communed
with the Twelve at the paschal board in anguish of soul, prophesying
concerning His betrayal, which was soon to be accomplished by the
agency of one who there ate with Him. Then He took bread, and blessed
it and gave it to His disciples, saying, "Take, eat; this is my
body;"[514] "this do in remembrance of me."[515] Afterward, taking the
cup, He blessed its contents and administered it to them with the
words, "Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament,
which is shed for many for the remission of sins."[516] It is
interesting to note that the account of the sacrament and its purport
as given by Paul[517] resembles so closely as to be almost identical
with the descriptions recorded by the evangelists. The designation of
the Sacrament as the Lord's Supper is used by no biblical writer other
than Paul.

  [512] See Note 3.

  [513] Luke xxii, 8-13.

  [514] Matt. xxvi, 26.

  [515] Luke xxii, 19; see also Mark xiv, 22-25.

  [516] Matt. xxvi, 27-28. See "The Great Apostasy," pp. 119, 120.

  [517] I Cor. xi, 23-25.

=3. Institution of the Sacrament among the Nephites.=--On the occasion
of His visit to the Nephites, which occurred shortly after His
resurrection, Christ established the sacrament among this division of
His flock. He requested the disciples whom He had chosen to bring Him
bread and wine; then taking the bread, He brake it, blessed it, and
gave it to the disciples with the command that they should eat and
afterward distribute to the people. The authority to administer this
ordinance He promised to leave with the people. "And this shall ye
always observe to do," said He, "even as I have done.... And this
shall ye do in remembrance of my body, which I have shewn unto you.
And it shall be a testimony unto the Father that ye do always remember
me. And if ye do always remember me, ye shall have my Spirit to be
with you."[518] The wine was administered in the same order, first to
the disciples, then by them to the people. This also was to be part of
the standing ordinance among the people:--"And ye shall do it in
remembrance of my blood which I have shed for you, that ye may
witness unto the Father that ye do always remember me." Then followed
a reiteration of the great promise, "And if ye do always remember me,
ye shall have my Spirit to be with you."[519]

  [518] III Nephi xviii, 6, 7.

  [519] III Nephi xviii. 11. See "Jesus the Christ," ch. xxxix.

=4. Fit Partakers of the Sacrament.=--The Divine instructions
concerning the sacredness of this ordinance are very explicit; and the
consequent need of scrupulous care being exercised lest it be engaged
in unworthily is apparent. In addressing the Corinthian Saints, Paul
utters solemn warnings against hasty or unworthy action in partaking
of the sacrament, and declares that the penalties of sickness, and
even death, are visited upon those who violate the sacred
requirements.--"For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup,
ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall
eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be
guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine
himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For
he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation
to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. For this cause many are
weak and sickly among you, and many sleep."[520]

  [520] I Cor. xi, 26-30.

=5.= When instructing the Nephites, Jesus laid great stress upon the
fitness of those who partook of the sacrament; and moreover He placed
much responsibility upon the officers of the Church whose duty it was
to administer it, that they should permit none whom they knew to be
unworthy to take part in the ordinance:--"And now behold, this is the
commandment which I give unto you, that ye shall not suffer any one
knowingly to partake of my flesh and blood unworthily, when ye shall
minister it; for whoso eateth and drinketh my flesh and blood
unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to his soul; therefore, if
ye know that a man is unworthy to eat and drink of my flesh and blood,
ye shall forbid him."[521]

  [521] III Nephi xviii, 28, 29.

=6.= The direct word of the Lord unto the Saints in this dispensation
instructs them to permit no one who has committed trespass to partake
of the sacrament until reconciliation has been made; nevertheless the
Saints are commanded to exercise abundant charity toward their erring
fellows, not casting them out from the assemblies, yet carefully
withholding the sacrament from them.[522] In our system of Church
organization, the local ecclesiastical officers are charged with the
responsibility of administering the sacrament, and the people are
required to keep themselves worthy to partake of the sacred emblems.

  [522] Doc. and Cov. xlvi, 4. See also III Nephi xviii, 30.

=7.= There is an entire absence of scriptural sanction for giving the
sacrament to any who are not members in full fellowship in the Church
of Christ. Christ administered the ordinance on the eastern continent
to His apostles only; and we have record of their giving it to those
only who had assumed the name of Christ. Amongst His western fold,
Christ established the law that only the actual members of His Church
should partake. In promising to ordain one among them with power to
officiate in the sacrament, the Savior specified that the one so
chosen should give it unto the people of His Church, unto all those
who believed and were baptized in His name.[523] Only those indeed who
had been so baptized were called the Church of Christ.[524] Continuing
His instructions to the disciples concerning the sacrament, the Savior
said: "This shall ye always do to those who repent and are baptized in
my name."[525]

  [523] III Nephi xviii, 5.

  [524] III Nephi xxvi, 21.

  [525] III Nephi xviii, 11.

=8.= And the same law is applicable to-day; it is the members of the
Church[526] who are admonished to meet together often for the
observance of the sacrament; and the Church comprises none of mature
years who have not been baptized by the authority of the Holy
Priesthood.[527]

  [526] Doc. and Cov. xx, 75.

  [527] Doc and Cov. xx, 87.

=9. Purpose of the Sacrament.=--From the scriptural references already
made, it is plain that the sacrament is administered to commemorate
the atonement of the Lord Jesus, as consummated in His agony and
death; it is a testimony before God, that we are mindful of His Son's
sacrifice made in our behalf; and that we still profess the name of
Christ and are determined to strive to keep His commandments, in the
hope that we may ever have His Spirit to be with us. Partaking of the
sacrament worthily may be regarded therefore as a means of renewing
our covenants before the Lord, of acknowledgment of mutual fellowship
among the members, and of solemnly witnessing our claim and profession
of membership in the Church of Christ. The sacrament has not been
established as a specific means of securing remission of sins; nor for
any other special blessing, aside from that of a fresh endowment of
the Holy Spirit, which, however, comprises all needful blessings. Were
the sacrament ordained for the remission of sins, it would not be
forbidden to those who are in greatest need of special forgiveness;
yet participation in the ordinance is restricted to those whose
consciences are void of serious offense, those, therefore, who are
acceptable before the Lord; those indeed who are in as little need of
special forgiveness as mortals can be.

=10. The Sacramental Emblems.=--In instituting the sacrament among
both the Jews and the Nephites, Christ used bread and wine as the
emblems of His body and blood;[528] and in this, the dispensation of
the fulness of times, He has revealed His will that the Saints meet
together often to partake of bread and wine in this commemorative
ordinance.[529] But the Lord has also shown that other forms of food
and drink may be used in place of bread and wine. Very soon after the
Church was organized in the present dispensation, the Prophet Joseph
was about to purchase some wine for sacramental purposes, when a
special messenger from God appeared to him, and delivered the
following instructions: "For, behold, I say unto you, that it
mattereth not what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, when ye
partake of the sacrament, if it so be that ye do it with an eye single
to my glory; remembering unto the Father my body which was laid down
for you, and my blood which was shed for the remission of your sins.
Wherefore, a commandment I give unto you, that you shall not purchase
wine, neither strong drink, of your enemies: Wherefore you shall
partake of none except it is made new among you; yea in this my
Father's kingdom which shall be built up upon the earth."[530] Upon
this authority, the Latter-day Saints administer water in their
sacramental service, in preference to wine concerning the purity of
which they are not assured. However, in the vineyard districts of the
Church territory, wine has been generally used.

  [528] Matt. xxvi, 27-29; III Nephi xviii, 1, 8.

  [529] Doc. and Cov. xx, 75.

  [530] Doc. and Cov. xxvii, 2-4.

=11. Manner of Administering the Sacrament.=--It is customary with the
Latter-day Saints in all wards or regularly organized branches of the
Church, to hold sacramental meetings every Sabbath. The authority of
the priest of the Aaronic order of priesthood is requisite in
consecrating the emblems; and, as a matter of course, any one holding
the higher order of priesthood has authority to officiate in this
ordinance. The bread is first to be broken into small pieces, and
placed in suitable receptacles on the sacramental table; and then,
according to the Lord's direction, the elder or priest shall
administer it, after this manner:--"He shall kneel with the Church and
call upon the Father in solemn prayer, saying:--

"_O God, the Eternal Father, we ask thee in the name of thy Son, Jesus
Christ, to bless and sanctify this bread to the souls of all those who
partake of it, that they may eat in remembrance of the body of thy
Son, and witness unto thee, O God, the Eternal Father, that they are
willing to take upon them the name of thy Son, and always remember
him, and keep his commandments which he has given them, that they may
always have his Spirit to be with them. Amen._"[531]

  [531] Doc. and Cov. xx, 76, 77; compare Moroni iv.

=12.= After the bread has been distributed to the congregation, in
which labor the teachers and deacons may take part, under the
direction of the officiating priest, the wine or water is consecrated
in this manner:--

"_O God, the Eternal Father, we ask thee, in the name of thy Son,
Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this wine [or water] to the souls
of all those who drink of it, that they may do it in remembrance of
the blood of thy Son, which was shed for them; that they may witness
unto thee, O God, the Eternal Father, that they do always remember
him, that they may have his Spirit to be with them. Amen._"[532]

  [532] Doc. and Cov. xx, 78-79; compare Moroni v.

=13.= The plainness of the Lord's instructions to the Saints regarding
this ordinance, leaves no excuse for disputation concerning the
ceremony, for assuredly no one who officiates in these holy rites can
feel that he is authorized to change the forms even by the alteration
of a word. If ever the Lord desires a change in this ordinance, He
will doubtless make it known through His established channels of the
priesthood. The records of the Nephites clearly prove that the manner
of administering the sacrament as practiced in their day,[533] was the
same as revealed for the guidance of the Saints in the dispensation of
the fulness of times.

  [533] Moroni iv; v.


NOTES.

     =1. The Term "Sacrament"= is commonly used in both a general and
     a specific sense; according to its derivation, it signifies a
     sacred thing or holy ceremony, and with this meaning it is
     applied by different sects to several ceremonies of their
     churches. Thus, the Protestants speak of two sacraments,--baptism
     and the Lord's Supper; the Roman and Greek Catholics recognize
     seven sacraments,--the two named above, and also confirmation,
     matrimony, the bestowal of church orders, penance, and extreme
     unction. Some sections of the Greek church are said to exclude
     confirmation and extreme unction from among the seven sacraments.
     With even greater latitude, the term is applied to any miraculous
     or spiritual manifestation; it is so used by Bishop Jeremy Taylor
     when he says, "God sometime sent a light of fire, and pillar of a
     cloud ... and the sacrament of a rainbow, to guide His people
     through their portion of sorrows." Specifically, however, the
     word sacrament denotes the Lord's Supper, and in this sense alone
     does the word occur in Latter-day Saint theology. Eucharist and
     Holy Communion are terms employed in certain churches as
     synonymous with the sacrament of the Lord's supper. From the
     custom of regarding the ceremony of communion, that is, the
     partaking of the sacrament, as an evidence of standing in any
     church, and from the rule which withholds this privilege from
     those who are judged to be unworthy of fellowship, comes the term
     _excommunicate_, as applied to deprivation of church fellowship,
     meaning literally to cast out from communion.

     =2. The Lord's Supper.=--As stated, this designation of the
     sacrament occurs but once in the Bible. The "Lord's Supper" is
     referred to by Paul in his first epistle to the Corinthians. In
     all probability this name was used because the rite was first
     administered at the time of the evening meal. It must be
     remembered that the _deipnon_ or evening supper among the Jews
     was the principal meal of the day, and really corresponded to our
     dinner.

     =3. The Passover and the Sacrament.=--The feast of the passover
     was the chief of the annual ceremonials of the Jews, and derived
     its name from the circumstances of its origin. In setting His
     hand to deliver Israel from the bondage of Egypt, the Lord
     wrought many miracles and wonders before Pharaoh and his
     idolatrous house; and, as the last of the ten terrible plagues to
     which the Egyptians were subjected, the first born of every
     household was smitten with death during a single night. By
     previous command, the Israelites had marked the posts and lintels
     of their doorways with the blood of a lamb slain for the
     occasion, the blood having been sprinkled by means of a bunch of
     hyssop. In His passage through the land, the Lord passed over the
     houses so marked (Exodus xii, 12, 13); while in all the Egyptian
     homes the stroke of death was felt. Hence arises the name
     Passover, from _pasach_--to pass by. The flesh of the paschal
     lamb was eaten amid the haste of departure. To commemorate their
     deliverance from bondage, the Lord required of the Israelites an
     annual celebration of this event, the occasion being known as the
     "Feast of the Passover," also as the "Feast of Unleavened Bread,"
     the latter name arising from the Lord's command that during the
     specified time of the observance no leaven should be found in the
     houses of the people (Ex. xii, 15); and the occasion of the feast
     was to be taken advantage of for instructing the children
     concerning the merciful dealings of God with their forefathers
     (Ex. xii, 26. 27). But aside from its commemorative purpose, the
     passover became to the people a type of the sacrifice on Calvary.
     Paul says, "Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us" (I Cor.
     v, 7). As being typical of the future atoning death of Christ,
     the passover lost part of its significance by the crucifixion,
     and was superseded by the sacrament. There is perhaps no closer
     relation between the two ordinances than this. Surely the
     sacrament was not designed to fully supplant the passover, for
     the latter was established as a perpetually recurring
     feast:--"And the day shall be unto you for a memorial: and ye
     shall keep it a feast to the Lord throughout your generations; ye
     shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever" (Ex. xii, 14).

     =4. Errors Concerning the Sacrament=, and its signification, and
     the manner of administering it, grew rapidly in the
     professed-Christian churches during the early centuries of the
     Christian era. As soon as the power of the priesthood had
     departed, much disputation arose in matters of ordinance, and the
     observance of the sacrament became distorted. Theological
     teachers strove to foster the idea that there was much mystery
     attending this naturally simple and most impressive ordinance;
     that all who were not in full communion with the Church should be
     excluded, not only from participation in the ordinance, which was
     justifiable, but from the privilege of witnessing the service,
     lest they profane the mystic rite by their unhallowed presence.
     Then arose the heresy of transubstantiation,--which held that the
     sacramental emblems by the ceremony of consecration lost their
     natural character of simple bread and wine, and became in reality
     flesh and blood,--actually parts of the crucified body of Christ.
     Argument against such dogmas is useless. Then followed the
     veneration of the emblems by the people, the bread and
     wine--regarded as part of Christ's tabernacle, being elevated in
     the mass for the adoration of the people; and later, the custom
     of suppressing half of the sacrament was introduced. By the
     innovation last mentioned, only the bread was administered, the
     dogmatic assertion being that both the body and the blood were
     represented in some mystical way in one of the "elements."
     Certain it is, that Christ required his disciples to both eat and
     drink in remembrance of Him.

     =5. Sacrament Administered to Unbaptized Children.=--Questions
     have been raised as to the propriety of administering the
     sacrament to children below the age specified as that of baptism
     into the Church. As indicated in a preceding lecture (pp.
     127-130), children born in the Church are members thereof without
     baptism until they arrive at the age of accountability. There is
     seemingly no violation of law in administering the sacrament to
     such innocent subjects, and as the living authorities of the
     Church have directed the practice, the question of propriety is
     answered. Nevertheless, children should be taught that after they
     have been baptized and confirmed in the Church, the partaking of
     the sacrament has to them an added significance, in that it marks
     a renewal of the covenants they made at the waters of baptism.



LECTURE X.

AUTHORITY IN THE MINISTRY.

     =Article 5.=--We believe that a man must be called of God, by
     prophecy and by the laying on of hands by those who are in
     authority, to preach the Gospel, and administer in the ordinances
     thereof.


MEN CALLED OF GOD.

=1. Scriptural Examples.=--It is not less agreeable to the dictates of
human reason, than it is conformable to the plan of perfect
organization which characterizes the Church of Christ, that all who
minister in the ordinances of the Gospel should be called and
commissioned for their sacred duties by the authority of heaven. The
scriptures sustain this view most thoroughly; they present to us an
array of men whose Divine callings are specially attested, and whose
mighty works declare a power greater than that of man. On the other
hand, not an instance is set down in holy writ of anyone taking to
himself the authority to officiate in sacred ordinances, and being
acknowledged of the Lord in such administration.

=2.= Consider the case of Noah, who "found grace in the eyes of the
Lord"[534] in the midst of a wicked world. Unto him the Lord spake,
announcing His displeasure with the wicked inhabitants of earth, and
the Divine intention concerning the deluge; and instructed him in the
manner of building and stocking the ark. That Noah declared the word
of God unto his perverse contemporaries is shown in Peter's
declaration of Christ's mission in the spirit world,--that the Savior
preached to those who had been disobedient during the period of God's
long suffering in the days of Noah, and who had in consequence
endured the privations of the prison house in the interval.[535]
Surely none can question the Divine source of Noah's authority, nor
the justice of the retributive punishment following the wilful
rejection of his teachings, for his words were the words of God.

  [534] Gen. vi, 8.

  [535] I Peter iii, 19-20.

=3.= So also with Abraham, the father of the faithful; the Lord called
him[536] and made covenant with him for all the generations of his
posterity. Isaac[537] was similarly distinguished; likewise
Jacob,[538] to whom, as he rested upon his pillow of stones in the
desert, the Lord appeared. Unto Moses[539] came the voice of God
amidst the fierceness of fire, calling and commissioning the man to go
into Egypt and deliver therefrom the people whose cries had come up
with such effect before the throne of heaven. In this great work
Aaron[540] was called to assist his brother; and later, Aaron and his
sons[541] were chosen by Divine direction from the midst of the
children of Israel to minister in the priest's office. When Moses[542]
saw that his days were numbered, he solicited the Lord to appoint a
successor in his holy station; and by special command, Joshua, the son
of Nun, was so selected.

  [536] Gen. xii-xxv; Pearl of Great Price: Book of Abraham.

  [537] Gen. xxvi, 2-5.

  [538] Gen. xxviii, 10-15.

  [539] Exo. iii, 2-10.

  [540] Exo. iv, 14-16, 27.

  [541] Exo. xxviii, 1.

  [542] Numb, xxvii, 15-23.

=4.= Samuel, who became so great a prophet in Israel, commissioned to
consecrate, command, and rebuke kings, to direct armies, and to serve
as the oracle of God unto the people, was chosen while yet a boy, and
called by the voice of the Lord.[543] And such was the power that
followed this call, that all Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew that
Samuel was established a prophet of the Lord.[544] Time fails to
permit the mention of many other men of might, who received their
power from God, whose histories portray the honor with which the Lord
regarded His chosen ministers. Think of the heavenly vision by which
Isaiah was called and directed in the duties of his prophetic
office;[545] of Jeremiah, to whom the word of the Lord came in the
days of Josiah;[546] of the priest Ezekiel, who first received the
Divine message in the land of the Chaldeans,[547] and subsequently on
other occasions; of Hosea,[548] and all the rest of the prophets to
Zechariah[549] and Malachi.[550]

  [543] I Sam. iii, 4-14.

  [544] I Sam. iii, 20.

  [545] Isa. i, 1; ii, 1; vi, 8-9.

  [546] Jer. i, 2-10.

  [547] Ezek. i, 1.

  [548] Hos. i, 1.

  [549] Zech. i, 1.

  [550] Mal. i, 1.

=5.= The apostles of the Lord were called by His own voice in the days
of His ministry; and surely the Savior's authority is beyond question,
vindicated as it is by the mighty works of the atonement, wrought
through pain and the anguish of death, and by the authoritative
declaration of the Father at the time of Christ's baptism. Peter, and
Andrew his brother, while casting their nets into the sea, were called
with the instruction,--"Follow me, and I will make you fishers of
men;"[551] and soon after, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, were
similarly called. So with all of the chosen Twelve who ministered with
the Master; and unto the Eleven who had remained faithful, He appeared
after His resurrection, giving them special commissions for the work
of the kingdom.[552] Christ specifically declares that He had chosen
His apostles, and that He had ordained them in their exalted
stations.[553]

  [551] Matt. iv, 18-20.

  [552] Matt. xviii, 19-20; Mark xvi, 15.

  [553] John vi, 70; xv, 16.

=6.= In the period immediately following that of Christ's earthly
mission, the ministers of the Gospel were all designated and set apart
by unquestionable authority. Even Saul of Tarsus, afterward Paul the
Apostle, who was converted with marvelous signs and wondrous
manifestations,[554] had to be formally commissioned for the labor
which the Lord desired him to perform; and we are told that the Holy
Ghost spake to the prophets and teachers of the Church at Antioch,
while they fasted before the Lord, saying, "Separate me Barnabas and
Saul for the work whereunto I have called them."[555]

  [554] Acts ix.

  [555] Acts xiii, 1-2.

=7. The Ordination of Men to the Ministry=, as sanctioned by
scriptural precedent, and established by direct revelation of God's
will, is to be effected through the gift of prophecy, and by the
imposition of hands by those who are in authority. By prophecy is
meant the right to receive, and the power to interpret, manifestations
of the Divine will. That the laying on of hands is usual as a part of
the ceremony is seen in several of the instances already cited;
nevertheless the scriptures record numerous ordinations to the offices
of the priesthood, with no specific statement concerning the
imposition of hands, nor indeed any other details of the ceremony.
Such instances do not warrant the conclusion that the laying on of
hands was not actually performed; and indeed in the light of modern
revelation it is clear that the imposition of hands was a usual
accompaniment of ordination, as it was also a part of the ceremony of
confirming blessings,[556] and of bestowing the Holy Ghost.[557]

  [556] Gen. xlviii, 14-19. Compare II Kings v, 11; Matt. viii, 15;
  Mark vi, 5; xvi, 15-18.

  [557] See Lecture viii, pp. 162-174.

=8.= Thus, the priesthood descended from Adam to Noah, under the
hands of the fathers;[558] Enos was ordained by the hand of Adam; and
the same was true of Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah. Lamech
was ordained under the hand of Seth; Noah received his authority from
the hand of Methuselah. And so may the priesthood be traced, bestowed
as the spirit of prophecy directed by the hand of one upon another,
till the time of Moses. Melchizedek, who conferred this authority upon
Abraham, received his own through the direct lineage of his fathers,
from Noah. Esaias, a contemporary of Abraham, received his ordination
under the hand of God. Through the hand of Esaias, the authority
passed to Gad, thence by the same means to Jeremy, Elihu, Caleb, and
Jethro, the priest of Midian, under whose hand Moses was
ordained.[559] Joshua the son of Nun was set apart as directed of God,
through the imposition of hands by Moses.[560]

  [558] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 40-52.

  [559] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 6-14.

  [560] Numb. xxvii, 18; Deut. xxxiv, 9.

=9.= In the days of the apostles, circumstances rendered it expedient
to appoint special officers in the Church, to care for the poor and
attend to the distribution of supplies; these were selected with care,
and were set apart through prayer and laying on of hands.[561] Timothy
was similarly ordained, as witness the admonitions given him by
Paul:--"Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by
prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery,"[562] and
again, "Stir up the gift of God which is in thee by the putting on of
my hands."[563] The Lord has bound Himself by solemn covenant to
acknowledge the acts of His authorized servants. Unto whomsoever the
elders give promise after baptism the Holy Ghost will come.[564]
Whatever the priesthood shall bind or loose on earth, is to be
similarly bound or loosed in heaven;[565] the sick upon whom the
elders lay their hands, are to recover;[566] and many other signs are
to follow them that believe. And so jealous is the Lord of the power
to officiate in His name, that at the judgment, all who have aided or
persecuted His servants, are to be rewarded or punished as if they had
done those things unto Christ Himself.[567]

  [561] Acts vi, 1-6.

  [562] I Timothy iv, 14.

  [563] II Tim. i, 6.

  [564] Acts ii, 38; III Nephi xi, 35; xii, 2; Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv,
  64.

  [565] Matt. xvi, 19; Doc. and Cov. i, 8; cxxviii, 8-11.

  [566] Mark xvi, 15-18.

  [567] Matt. xviii, 4-6; xxv, 31-46; Doc. and Cov. lxxv, 19-22;
  lxxxiv, 88-90.

=10. Unauthorized Ministrations= in priestly functions are not alone
invalid, they are indeed grievously sinful. In His dealings with
mankind, God has ever recognized and honored the priesthood
established by His direction; and has never countenanced any
unauthorized assumption of authority. A terrible lesson is taught in
the case of Korah and his associates, in their rebellion against the
authority of the priesthood,--in that they falsely professed the right
to minister in the priest's office. The Lord promptly visited them for
their sins, causing the ground to cleave asunder, and to swallow them
up with all their belongings.[568]

  [568] Numbers xvi.

=11.= And think of the affliction that fell upon Miriam, the sister of
Moses, a prophetess among the people.[569] She, with Aaron, railed
against Moses, and they said, "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by
Moses? hath He not spoken also by us? and the Lord heard it."[570] He
came at once in a cloud, and stood in the door of the tabernacle,
denouncing their presumption, and vindicating the authority of His
chosen oracle, Moses. When the cloud passed from the tabernacle,
Miriam was seen to be leprous, white as snow; and according to the
law, she was shut out of the camp of Israel. However, through the
earnest entreaties of Moses, the Lord healed the woman, and she was
subsequently permitted to return to the company.

  [569] Exo. xv, 21.

  [570] Numbers xii.

=12.= Consider the fate of Uzza, the Israelite who met sudden death
through the anger of God, because he put forth his hand to steady the
ark of the covenant lest it fall.[571] This he did in spite of the law
that none but the priests might touch the sacred accompaniments of the
ark; we read that not even the appointed bearers of the vessel were
allowed to touch its holy parts, on pain of death.[572]

  [571] I Chron. xiii, 10.

  [572] Num. iv, 15.

=13.= Think also of Saul the King of Israel, who had been called from
the farm to be made a monarch favored of God. When the Philistines
were marshalled against Israel in Michmash, Saul waited for
Samuel,[573] under whose hand he had received his kingly
anointing,[574] and to whom he had looked in the days of his humility
for guidance; he asked that the prophet come and offer sacrifices to
the Lord in behalf of the people. But, growing impatient at Samuel's
delay, Saul prepared the burnt offering himself, forgetting that
though he occupied the throne, wore the crown, and bore the sceptre,
these insignia of kingly power gave him no right to officiate even as
a door-keeper in the house of God; and for this and other instances of
his unrighteous presumption, he was rejected of God and another was
chosen in his place.

  [573] I Sam. xiii, 5-14.

  [574] I Sam. x.

=14.= A striking instance of Divine jealousy concerning holy functions
is shown in the dreadful experience of Uzziah, king of Judah. He was
placed upon the throne when but sixteen years old; and, as long as he
sought the Lord, he was greatly prospered, so that his name became a
terror unto his enemies. But he allowed pride to grow in his heart,
and indulged the delusion that in his kingship he was supreme. He
entered the temple and essayed to burn incense on the altar. Shocked
at his blasphemous action, Azariah, the chief priest of the temple,
and fourscore priests with him, forbade the king, saying:--"It
appertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the Lord, but
to the priests, the sons of Aaron, that are consecrated to burn
incense; go out of the sanctuary, for thou hast trespassed." At this
rebuke and condemnation from his subjects, though they were priests of
the living God, the king became angry; but immediately the dread
scourge of leprosy fell upon him; the signs of the horrible disease
appeared in his forehead; and, being now physically an unclean
creature, his presence tended the more to defile the holy place. So
Azariah and his associate priests thrust the king out from the temple,
and he, a smitten thing, fled from the house of God never again to
enter its sacred precincts. Concerning the rest of his punishment we
read, "And Uzziah the king was a leper unto the day of his death, and
dwelt in a several house, being a leper; for he was cut off from the
house of the Lord."[575]

  [575] II Chron. xxvi.

=15.= A forceful illustration of the futility of false ceremonies, or
of the mere form of sacred ordinances when the authority is absent, is
shown in the New Testament record of the seven sons of Sceva. These in
common with others had seen, and had marveled at, the miraculous power
exhibited by Paul, whom the Lord so blessed in his apostleship that
through contact with handkerchiefs or aprons sent by him the sick were
healed, and their evil spirits were cast out. Sceva's sons, who are
counted by the sacred chronicler among the exorcists and the vagabond
Jews, sought also to expel an evil spirit: "We adjure you by Jesus
whom Paul preacheth," said they; but the evil spirit derided them for
their lack of authority, exclaiming: "Jesus I know, and Paul I know,
but who are ye?" Then the afflicted person, in whom the evil spirit
dwelt, leaped upon them and overcame them, so that when they escaped
from the house they were naked and wounded.[576]

  [576] Acts xix, 13-17.

=16. Teachers True and False.=--None but those who are duly authorized
to teach can be regarded as true expounders of the word. The remarks
of Paul concerning the high priests are alike applicable to every
office of the priesthood: "No man taketh this honor to himself, but he
that is called of God, as was Aaron."[577] And Aaron, as we have
already seen, was called through Moses unto whom the Lord revealed His
will in the matter. This authority to act in the name of the Lord is
given to those only who are chosen of God; it is not to be had for the
mere asking; it is not to be bought with gold. We read of Simon, the
sorcerer, who coveted the power possessed by the apostles; he offered
these ministers of Christ money, saying, "Give me also this power that
on whomsoever I lay my hands he may receive the Holy Ghost." But Peter
answered him with righteous indignation, "Thy money perish with thee,
because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with
money; thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter, for thy heart is
not right in the sight of God."[578]

  [577] Heb. v, 4.

  [578] Acts viii, 18-24.

=17.= It was known to the apostles of old that men would seek to
arrogate unto themselves the right to officiate in things divine, thus
becoming servants of Satan. In addressing a conference of the elders
at Ephesus, Paul prophesied of these ill events, and warned the
shepherds of the flock to look well to their charge.[579] In an
epistle to Timothy, the apostle reiterates this prophecy; encouraging
to diligence in preaching the word, he declares, "For the time will
come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but after their own
lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers having itching ears, and
they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned
unto fables."[580] Peter's declarations on the same subject are no
less plain. Addressing himself to the Saints of his time, he refers to
the false prophets of old, and adds:--"There shall be false teachers
among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies; even denying
the Lord that bought them.... And many shall follow their pernicious
ways, by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken
of."[581]

  [579] Acts xx, 28-30.

  [580] II Tim. iv, 2-4.

  [581] II Pet. ii, 1-3.

=18. Divine Authority in the Present Dispensation.=--The Latter-day
Saints claim to possess authority to administer in the name of God,
and that this right has been conferred in this day under the hands of
those who held the same power in former dispensations. That the
authority of the holy priesthood was to be taken from the earth as the
apostles of old were slain, and that it would of necessity have to be
restored from heaven before the Church could be re-established, may be
shown by scripture. On the 15th day of May, 1829, while Joseph Smith
and Oliver Cowdery were engaged in earnest prayer for instruction
concerning baptism for the remission of sins, mention of which they
had found in the plates from which they were then engaged in
translating the Book of Mormon, a messenger from heaven descended in a
cloud of light. He announced himself as John, called of old the
Baptist, and said he acted under the direction of Peter, James, and
John, who held the keys of the higher priesthood. The messenger laid
his hands upon the two young men and ordained them to authority,
saying, "Upon you my fellow servants, in the name of Messiah, I
confer the priesthood of Aaron, which holds the keys of the
ministering of angels, and of the gospel of repentance, and of baptism
by immersion for the remission of sins; and this shall never be taken
again from the earth, until the sons of Levi do offer again an
offering unto the Lord in righteousness."[582]

  [582] Pearl of Great Price: Extr. Hist. of Joseph Smith, 69. Doc.
  and Cov. xiii.

=19.= A short time after this event, Peter, James, and John appeared
to Joseph and Oliver, and ordained the two to the higher or
Melchizedek priesthood, bestowing upon them the keys of the
apostleship, which these heavenly messengers had held and exercised in
the former gospel dispensation. This order of priesthood holds
authority over all the offices in the Church, and includes power to
administer in spiritual things;[583] consequently all the authorities
and powers necessary to the establishment of the Church were by this
visitation restored to earth.

  [583] Doc. and Cov. cvii.

=20.= No one is authorized to officiate in any of the ordinances of
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints unless he has been
ordained to that calling by those holding the power; thus, no man
receives the priesthood except under the hand of one who holds that
priesthood himself; that one must have obtained it from others
previously commissioned; and so every holder of the priesthood to-day
can trace his authority to the hands of Joseph the Prophet, who, as
already stated, received his ordination under the hands of heavenly
messengers clothed with power divine. That men who are called of God
to the authority of the ministry on earth may have been selected for
such appointment even before they took mortal bodies is evident from
the scriptures. This matter may properly claim attention in the
present connection; and its consideration leads us to the subjects
which follow.


FORE-ORDINATION AND PRE-EXISTENCE.

=21. Fore-ordination.=--In a wonderful interview with Abraham, the
Lord revealed many things ordinarily withheld from mortal eyes. Said
the patriarch:--"Now the Lord had shewn unto me, Abraham, the
intelligences that were organized before the world was; and among all
these there were many of the noble and great ones; and God saw these
souls that they were good, and he stood in the midst of them, and he
said, These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were
spirits, and he saw that they were good; and he said unto me, Abraham,
thou art one of them, thou wast chosen before thou wast born."[584]
This is one of the many scriptural proofs that the spirits of mankind
existed prior to their earthly probation:--a condition in which these
intelligences lived and exercised their free agency before they
assumed bodily tabernacles. Surely then the natures, dispositions, and
tendencies of men are known to the Father of their spirits, even
before these beings are born in mortality; and He needs not to wait
till they develop and prove their capacities on earth before they are
appointed to special labors in the fulfillment of Divine purposes.

  [584] Pearl of Great Price: Abraham iii, 22-23; see also Jer. i,
  4-5.

=22.= Evidence is abundant that Christ was chosen and ordained to be
the Redeemer of the world, even from the beginning. We read of His
foremost position amongst the sons of God in offering Himself as a
sacrifice to carry into effect the will of the Father.[585] He it was,
"Who verily was fore-ordained before the foundation of the
world."[586]

  [585] See page 83.

  [586] I Peter i, 20. See "Jesus the Christ," ch. ii.

=23.= Paul taught the doctrine of Divine selection and pre-appointment
thus:--"For whom he did fore-know, he also did predestinate to be
conformed to the image of his Son.... Moreover, whom he did
predestinate, them he also called."[587] And again:--"God hath not
cast away his people which he foreknew."[588]

  [587] Rom. viii, 29-30.

  [588] Rom. xi, 2.

=24.= Alma, the Nephite prophet, spoke of the priests who had been
ordained after the order of the Son, and added:--"And this is the
manner after which they were ordained: being called and prepared from
the foundation of the world, according to the fore-knowledge of God,
on account of their exceeding faith and good works; in the first place
being left to choose good or evil; therefore they having chosen good,
and exercising exceeding great faith, are called with a holy calling,
yea, with that holy calling which was prepared with, and according to,
a preparatory redemption for such."[589]

  [589] Alma xiii, 3; also 10, 11.

=25. Fore-ordination does not Imply Compulsion.=--The doctrine of
absolute predestination, resulting in a nullification of man's free
agency, has been advocated with various modifications by different
sects. Nevertheless, such teachings are wholly unjustified by both the
letter and the spirit of sacred writ. God's fore-knowledge concerning
the natures and capacities of His children enables Him to see the end
of their earthly career even from the first:--"Known unto God are all
his works from the beginning of the world."[590] Many people have been
led to regard this fore-knowledge of God as a sure predestination
whereby souls are assigned to glory or condemnation, even before their
birth in the flesh, and independently of any merits or demerits of
their own. This heretical doctrine seeks to rob Deity of every trait
of mercy, of justice, and of pure love; it makes the Father appear
capricious and selfish, directing and creating all things for His own
glory alone, caring not for the consequent suffering of the victims of
His injustice. How dreadful, how inconsistent is such an idea of God!
It leads to the absurd conclusion that the mere knowledge of coming
events must act as a determining influence in bringing about those
occurrences. God's knowledge of spiritual and of human nature enables
Him to conclude with certainty as to the actions of any of His
children under given conditions; yet such knowledge has surely no
determining effect upon the creature.[591]

  [590] Acts xv, 18.

  [591] See "Jesus the Christ," pp. 18, 28.

=26.= Doubtless He knows of some spirits that they await only the
opportunity of choice between good and evil to choose the latter and
to accomplish their own destruction; these are they as spoken of by
Jude, "who were before of old ordained to this condemnation."[592] To
avert the fate of such, their free agency would have to be taken away;
they can be saved by force alone; and compulsion is forbidden by the
laws of heaven, for salvation and for condemnation alike. There are
others whose integrity and faithfulness have been demonstrated in
their pristine state; the Father knows how unreservedly they may be
trusted, and many of them are called even in their mortal youth to
special and exalted labors as chosen servants of the Most High.

  [592] Jude 4.

=27. Pre-existence of Spirits.=--The facts already presented
concerning fore-ordination furnish proof that the spirits of mankind
passed through a stage of existence prior to the earthly probation.
This antemortal period is oft-times spoken of as the stage of
"primeval childhood" or "first estate." That these spirits existed as
organized intelligences, and exercised their free agency during that
primeval stage, is clear from the declaration of the Lord to
Abraham:--"And they who keep their first estate shall be added upon,
and they who keep not their first estate shall not have glory in the
same kingdom with those who keep their first estate; and they who keep
their second estate shall have glory added upon their heads forever
and ever."[593]

=28.= No Christian doubts the pre-existence of the Savior, or
questions His position as one of the Godhead before He came to earth
as Mary's Son. The common interpretation given to the opening words of
John's Gospel sustains the view of Christ's primeval God-ship:--"In
the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word
was God." We read further, "And the Word was made flesh and dwelt
among us."[594] The sayings of the Redeemer Himself support this
truth. When His disciples dissented concerning His doctrine of
Himself, He said, "What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up
where he was before?"[595] On another occasion He spoke in this
wise:--"I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world;
again, I leave the world and go to the Father."[596] And His
disciples, pleased with this plain declaration confirming the belief
which, perchance, they already entertained at heart, rejoined, "Lo,
now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no proverb ... by this we
believe that thou camest forth from God."[597] To the wicked Jews who
boasted of their descent from Abraham, and sought to hide their sins
under the protecting mantle of the great patriarch's name, the Savior
declared:--"Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I
am."[598] In a solemn prayer to His Father, the Son implored, "And
now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self, with the glory
which I had with thee before the world was."[599] Yet Christ was born
a child among mortals; and it is fair to infer, that if His earthly
birth was the union of a pre-existent or antemortal spirit with a
mortal body, such also is the birth of every member of the human
family.

  [593] Pearl of Great Price: Abraham iii, 26.

  [594] John i, 1, 14.

  [595] John vi, 62.

  [596] John xvi, 28.

  [597] Verses 29-30.

  [598] John viii, 58. See "Jesus the Christ." pp. 37, 411.

  [599] John xvii, 5. See also II Nephi ix, 5; xxv, 12; Mos. iii, 5;
  xiii, 33-34; xv, 1.

=29.= But we are not left to mere inference on a basis of analogy
only; the scriptures plainly teach that the spirits of mankind are
known and numbered unto God before their earthly advent. In his
farewell administration to Israel Moses sang, "Remember the days of
old.... When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance,
when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people
according to the number of the children of Israel."[600] From this we
learn that the earth was allotted to the nations, according to the
number of the children of Israel; it is evident therefore that the
number was known prior to the existence of the Israelitish nation in
the flesh; this is most easily explained on the assumption of a
previous existence in which the spirits of the future nation were
known.

  [600] Deut. xxxii, 7-8.

=30.= No chance is possible therefore in the number or extent of the
temporal creations of God.[601] The population of the earth is fixed
according to the number of spirits appointed to take tabernacles of
flesh upon this sphere; when these have all come forth in the order
and time decreed of God, then, and not till then, shall the end come.

  [601] See Note, this page.


NOTES.

     =1. Spiritual Creations.=--The pre-existent condition is not
     characteristic of human souls alone; all things of earth have a
     spiritual being, of which the temporal structure forms but the
     counterpart. We read of the creation of "every plant of the field
     before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it
     grew" (Gen. ii, 5). This is set forth with greater fulness in
     another revelation to Moses:--"These are the generations of the
     heaven and the earth when they were created, in the day that I,
     the Lord God, made the heaven and the earth, and every plant of
     the earth before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field
     before it grew. For I, the Lord God, created all things of which
     I have spoken, spiritually, before they were naturally upon the
     face of the earth.... And I, the Lord God, had created all the
     children of men, and not yet a man to till the ground; for in
     heaven created I them; and there was not yet flesh upon the
     earth, neither in the water, neither in the air: but I, the Lord
     God, spake, and there went up a mist from the earth, and watered
     the whole face of the ground. And I, the Lord God, formed man
     from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
     breath of life; and man became a living soul, the first flesh
     upon the earth, the first man also; nevertheless, all things were
     before created, but spiritually were they created and made
     according to my word."--(Pearl of Great Price: Moses iii, 4-7.)

     =2. Authority Given of God.=--"The most comprehensive evidence
     that Joseph Smith received the authority and power of the Holy
     Priesthood, is that the works of John the Baptist, of Jesus and
     His apostles, are being again done on the earth by his
     administration. To receive the powers of this Priesthood, it is
     necessary that men should obey the laws and ordinances of the
     Gospel. The Lord has personally appeared to some men, and
     covenanted with them as He did with Abraham (see Gen. xii, 1-3;
     xiii, 14-17). The Lord also personally called and authorized His
     twelve Jewish apostles. So fully were they authorized to labor
     for Him, and act in His name, that He said to them: 'He that
     receiveth you receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth
     him that sent me' (Matt. x, 40). More generally, it is from the
     prophets and apostles of Christ that men receive the Priesthood.
     Many received it under the hands of the apostles of the first
     Gospel dispensation. Those who have received it in this
     latter-day dispensation, have received it from Joseph Smith and
     Oliver Cowdery; and, in doing so, have received it through a
     legitimate channel from God the Father and His Son Jesus Christ.
     Those who have received this Priesthood have covenanted with God
     the Father, and He with them. This is evidently the view taken of
     the subject in the above passage quoted from Matthew. The
     doctrine is more fully illustrated in Doc. and Cov.: 'All they
     who receive this Priesthood receiveth me, saith the Lord; for he
     that receiveth my servants receiveth me; and he that receiveth me
     receiveth my Father; and he that receiveth my Father, receiveth
     my Father's kingdom; therefore all that my Father hath shall be
     given unto him, and this is according to the oath and covenant
     which belongeth to the Priesthood' (Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv,
     35-39)."--_Compendium_, F. D. Richards and J. A. Little, p. 67.

     =3. Fore-ordination.=--"'Known unto God are all his works from
     the beginning of the world' (Acts xv, 18). The knowledge that we
     have of the beginning of the world is principally derived from
     the history of its creation in the Bible Genesis, and in the
     writings of Moses and of Abraham, as given in the Pearl of Great
     Price.... These writings make it plain that man existed in a
     spiritual condition prior to coming here, and also quite as
     evident that in that pre-existence he exercised his free
     agency.... God may have called and chosen men in their first
     estate, or spiritual existence, but whether they will accept that
     call and fill it, by repentance and good works in this life, is a
     matter in which it is their privilege to exercise their free
     agency.... Men exercised their free agency in the first or
     spiritual estate, as well as in this. That the character of their
     works in that estate shaped their destiny in this is
     evident."--_Compendium_, F. D. Richards and J. A. Little, pp.
     138-140.

     See also: Acts ii, 23; Romans viii, 29-30; xi, 2, 28; Isaiah
     xlviii, 12; I Chron. xxix, 1; Book of Mormon: Alma xiii, 3-7;
     Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 34, 99.



LECTURE XI.

THE CHURCH AND ITS PLAN OF ORGANIZATION.

     =Article 6.=--We believe in the same organization that existed in
     the primitive Church, viz: apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers,
     evangelists, etc.


THE CHURCH IN FORMER AND LATTER DAYS.

=1. The Primitive Church.=--In the dispensation of the Savior's
ministry, Christ established His Church upon the earth, appointing
therein the officers necessary for the carrying out of the Father's
purposes. As shown in the last lecture, every person so appointed was
divinely commissioned with authority to officiate in the ordinances of
his calling; and, after Christ's ascension, the same organization was
continued, those who had received authority ordaining others to the
various offices of the priesthood. In this way were given unto the
Church, apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors,[602] high
priests,[603] seventies,[604] elders,[605] bishops,[606] priests,[607]
teachers,[608] and deacons.[609]

  [602] Eph. iv, 11.

  [603] Heb. v, 1-5.

  [604] Luke x, 1-11.

  [605] Acts xiv, 23; xv, 6; I Peter v, 1.

  [606] I Tim. iii, 1; Titus 1, 7.

  [607] Rev. i, 6.

  [608] Acts xiii, 1.

  [609] I Tim. iii, 8-12.

=2.= Besides these specific offices in the priesthood, there were
other callings of a more temporal nature, to which men were also set
apart by authority: such for instance was the case of the seven men of
honest report who, in the days of the apostles, were chosen and
appointed to minister to the poor, thus leaving the Twelve freer to
attend to the particular duties of their office.[610] This special
appointment illustrates the nature of the helps and governments[611]
set in the Church, to assist in the work under the direction of the
regular officers of the priesthood.

  [610] Acts vi, 1-6.

  [611] I Cor. xii, 28.

=3.= The ministers so appointed, and the members among whom they
labor, constitute the Church of Christ, which has been impressively
compared to a perfect body, the individuals typifying the separate
members, each with its special function, all co-operating for the
welfare of the whole.[612] Every office so established, every officer
so commissioned, is necessary to the development of the Church and to
the accomplishment of the work of God. An organization established of
God comprises no superfluities; the eye, the ear, the hand, the foot,
every organ of the body, is essential to the symmetry and perfection
of the physical structure; in the Church no officer can rightly say to
another, "I have no need of thee."[613]

  [612] I Cor. xii, 12-27; Rom. xii, 4-5; Eph. iv, 16.

  [613] I Cor. xii, 21.

=4.= The existence of these officers, and particularly their operation
with accompaniments of Divine assistance and power, may be taken as a
distinguishing characteristic of the Church in any age of the
world,--a crucial test, whereby the validity or falsity of any claim
to Divine authority may be determined. The gospel of Christ is the
everlasting gospel; its principles, laws, and ordinances, and the
Church organization founded thereon, must be ever the same. In
searching for the true Church, therefore, one must look for an
organization comprising the offices established of old, the callings
of apostles, prophets, evangelists, high priests, seventies, pastors,
bishops, elders, priests, teachers, deacons; not men bearing these
names merely, but ministers able to vindicate their claim to position
as officers in the Lord's service, through the evidences of power and
authority accompanying their ministry.

=5. Apostasy from the Primitive Church.=--The question may fairly
arise in the mind of the earnest investigator, have these authorities
and powers, together with their associated gifts of the Spirit,
remained with men from the apostolic age to the present; in short, has
there been a Church of Christ upon the earth during this long
interval? In answer, let these facts be considered: Since the period
immediately following the ministrations of the apostles of old, and
until the present century, no organization has maintained a claim to
direct revelation from God; in fact, the teachings of the professed
ministers of the gospel for centuries have been to the effect that
such gifts of God have ceased, that the days of miracles have gone,
and that the present depends for its guiding code wholly upon the
past. A self-suggesting interpretation of history indicates that there
has been a great departure from the way of salvation as laid down by
the Savior, a universal apostasy from the Church of Christ.[614]
Scarcely had the Church been organized by the Savior, whose name it
bears, before the powers of darkness arrayed themselves for conflict
with the organized body. Even in the days of Christ, persecution was
bitterly waged against the disciples; commencing with the Jews, and
directed first against the Master Himself and His few immediate
associates, this tide of opposition soon enveloped every known
follower of the Savior; so that the very name Christian became an
epithet of derision.

  [614] See Notes 1 and 2. See "The Great Apostasy, Considered in
  the Light of Scriptural and Secular History," by James E. Talmage,
  Salt Lake City, 1909.

=6.= In the first quarter of the fourth century, however, a change in
the attitude of paganism toward Christianity was marked by the
conversion of Constantine the Great, under whose patronage the
Christian profession grew in favor, and became in fact the religion of
the state. But what a profession, what a religion was it by this
time! Its simplicity had departed; earnest devotion and
self-sacrificing sincerity were no longer characteristic of the
Church's ministers; these professed followers of the humble Prophet of
Nazareth, these self-styled associates of the meek and lowly Jesus,
these loudly-proclaimed lovers of the Man of Sorrow, lived amid
conditions strangely inconsistent with the life of their great
Exemplar. Church offices were sought after for the distinction of
honor and wealth accompanying them; ministers of the gospel affected
the state of worldly authority; bishops sought the pomp of princes,
archbishops lived as kings, and popes like emperors. With these
unauthorized and unscriptural innovations came many changes in the
ordinances of the so-called church: the rites of baptism were
perverted; the sacrament was altered; public worship became an
exhibition of art; men were canonized; martyrs were made subjects of
adoration; blasphemy grew apace, in that men without authority essayed
to exercise the prerogatives of God in calling others to what still
bore the name of spiritual office. Ages of darkness came upon the
earth; the power of Satan seemed almost supreme.

=7.= For a special consideration of the evidence of a general apostasy
from the Church of Christ, the student must consult authorities on
ecclesiastical history. While the fact of the apostasy is admitted by
but few such writers, the historical events which they chronicle
suggest the awful truth. We may trace, from the days of the apostles
down to near the close of the tenth century, a constantly changing
form of Church organization, which, at the later time named, bore but
little semblance to the Church established by the Savior. This falling
away is admitted by some historians, and as we shall presently see, it
was definitely foretold by authoritative prophecy.

=8.= John Wesley, founder of a powerful sect, declared that the
distinctive gifts of the Holy Ghost were no longer with the church,
having been taken away on account of the unworthiness of professing
Christians, whom he characterized indeed as heathen, with only a dead
form of worship.[615] In the Church of England "Homily Against Peril
of Idolatry" we read "So that laity and clergy, learned and unlearned,
all ages, sects, and degrees of men, women, and children of whole
Christendom--an horrible and most dreadful thing to think--have been
at once drowned in abominable idolatry; of all other vices most
detested of God, and most damnable to man; and that by the space of
eight hundred years and more." Milner, an author on church history,
admits a pitiable condition of the Church in the tenth century, and
finds in that sad state a fulfillment of scriptural predictions.

  [615] John Wesley's Works, vii, pp. 26-27. See Note 4, following
  Lecture xii, in connection with Article 7, "Spiritual Gifts," page
  238.

=9. This Great Apostasy was Foretold.=--The infinite fore-knowledge of
God made plain to Him even from the beginning this falling away from
the truth; and, through inspiration, the prophets of old uttered
solemn warnings of the approaching dangers. Surely Isaiah was gazing
upon the era of spiritual darkness when he declared, "The earth also
is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have
transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting
covenant."[616] And how deeply impressive is the declaration of
Jeremiah, "For my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken
me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken
cisterns that can hold no water."[617]

  [616] Isa. xxiv, 5.

  [617] Jer. ii, 13.

=10.= The prophecies of the apostles relative to the false teachers so
soon to trouble the flock, already quoted,[618] declare the apostasy
then rapidly approaching. Paul warned the Saints of Thessalonica that
they be not deceived by those who cried that the second coming of
Christ was then at hand, "For," said the apostle, "that day shall not
come except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be
revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself
above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God
sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God."[619]
This falling away had begun even in the days of the apostles:--"Even
now," says John, "are there many anti-Christs."[620] And Paul, in
addressing the Galatians, declared, "There be some that trouble you,
and would pervert the gospel of Christ."[621]

  [618] See pages 192-193.

  [619] II Thess. ii, 3-4.

  [620] I John ii, 18. See further II Peter ii, 1-3; Jude 17, 18.

  [621] Gal. i, 7; also Acts xx, 29, 30; I Tim. iv, 1-3; II Tim. iv,
  1-4.

=11.= Not less conclusive are the prophecies contained in the Book of
Mormon relating to this great falling away. Nephi, son of Lehi,
predicted the oppression of the North American Indians at the hands of
the Gentiles, and declared that at that time the people will be lifted
up in self-pride, having departed from the ordinances of God's house;
true, they will build to themselves many churches, but in these they
will preach their own wisdom, with envyings, and strife, and malice,
denying however the power and miracles of God.[622]

  [622] II Nephi xxvi, 19-22; see also xxvii, 1; xxviii, 3, 6; xxix,
  3; I Nephi xiii, 5; xxii 22-23.

=12. Restoration of the Church.=--From the facts already stated, it is
evident that the Church was literally driven from the earth; in the
first ten centuries immediately following the ministry of Christ, the
authority of the priesthood was lost from among men, and no human
power could restore it. But the Lord in His mercy provided for the
re-establishment of His Church in the last days, and for the last
time; and prophets of olden time fore-saw this era of renewed
enlightenment, and sang in joyous tones of its coming.[623] It has
been already shown that this restoration was effected by the Lord
through the Prophet Joseph Smith, who, together with Oliver Cowdery,
in 1829 received the Aaronic Priesthood under the hands of John the
Baptist; and later the Melchizedek Priesthood under the hands of the
former-day apostles, Peter, James, and John. By the authority thus
bestowed, the Church has been again organized with all its former
completeness, and mankind once more rejoices in the priceless
privileges of the counsels of God. The Latter-day Saints declare their
high claim to the true Church organization, similar in all essentials
to the organization effected by Christ among the Jews; this people of
the last days profess to have the Priesthood of the Almighty, the
power to act in the name of God, which power commands respect both on
earth and in heaven. Let us consider the organization of the
priesthood as it exists to-day.

  [623] Dan. ii, 44-45; vii, 27; Matt. xxiv, 14; Rev. xiv, 6-8.


PLAN OF GOVERNMENT IN THE RESTORED CHURCH.

=13. Orders and Offices in the Priesthood.=--The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints recognizes two orders of priesthood, the
lesser called the Aaronic, the greater known as the Melchizedek order.
_The Aaronic Priesthood_ is named after Aaron, who was given to Moses
as his mouth-piece, to act under his direction in the carrying out of
God's purposes respecting Israel.[624] For this reason, it is
sometimes called the Lesser Priesthood; but though lesser, it is
neither small nor insignificant. While Israel journeyed in the
wilderness, Aaron and his sons were called by prophecy and set apart
for the duties of the priest's office.[625]

  [624] Exo. iv, 14-16.

  [625] Exo. xxviii, 1.

=14.= At a subsequent period of Israel's history, the Lord chose the
tribe of Levi to assist Aaron in the priestly functions, the special
duties of the Levites being to keep the instruments and attend to the
service of the tabernacle. The Levites thus chosen of the Lord were to
take the place of the first-born throughout the tribes, whom the Lord
had claimed for His service from the time of the last dread plague in
Egypt, whereby the first-born in every Egyptian house was slain, while
the eldest in every Israelitish house was hallowed and spared.[626]
The commission thus given to the Levites is sometimes called the
_Levitical Priesthood_;[627] it is to be regarded as an appendage to
the priesthood of Aaron, not comprising the highest priestly powers.
The Aaronic Priesthood, as restored to the earth in this dispensation,
comprises the Levitical order.[628] This priesthood holds the keys of
the ministering of angels, and the authority to attend to the outward
ordinances, the letter of the gospel;[629] it comprises the offices of
deacon, teacher, and priest, with the bishopric holding the keys of
presidency.

  [626] Numb. iii, 12-13, 39, 44-45, 50-51.

  [627] Heb. vii, 11.

  [628] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 1.

  [629] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 20.

=15.= The greater or _Melchizedek Priesthood_ is named after the king
of Salem, a great High Priest of God;[630] before his day it was known
as "the Holy Priesthood, after the order of the Son of God, but out of
respect or reverence to the name of the Supreme Being, to avoid the
too frequent repetition of His name, they, the Church, in ancient
days, called that Priesthood after Melchizedek."[631] This priesthood
holds the right of presidency in all the offices of the Church; its
special functions lie in the administration of spiritual things:
comprising as it does the keys of all spiritual blessings of the
Church, the right "to have the heavens opened unto them, to commune
with the general assembly and Church of the First Born, and to enjoy
the communion and presence of God the Father, and Jesus the Mediator
of the new covenant."[632] The special offices of the Melchizedek
Priesthood are those of apostle, patriarch or evangelist, high priest,
seventy, and elder. Revelation from God has defined the duties
associated with each of these callings; and the same high authority
has directed the establishment of presiding officers growing out of,
or appointed from among those who are ordained to the several offices
in these two priesthoods.[633]

  [630] Gen. xiv, 18; Heb. vii, 1-17.

  [631] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 2-4.

  [632] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 8, 18-19.

  [633] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 21.

=16. Specific Duties in the Priesthood.--The Office of Deacon= is the
first or lowest in the Aaronic Priesthood. The duties of this calling
are generally of a temporal nature, pertaining to the care of the
houses of worship and the comfort of the worshipers. In all things,
however, the Deacon may be called to assist the Teacher in his
labors.[634] Twelve deacons form a quorum;[635] such a body is to be
presided over by a president and counselors, selected from among their
number.

  [634] Doc. and Cov. xx, 57; cvii, 85.

  [635] =Quorum.=--This term has acquired a special meaning among
  the Latter-day Saints. It signifies, not alone a majority or such
  a number of persons of any organized body as is requisite for
  authoritative action, but the organized body itself. The Church
  regards a quorum as "a council or an organized body of the
  priesthood," e. g. _an elders' quorum; the quorum of the Twelve
  Apostles_, etc. (See Standard Dictionary.)

=17. Teachers= are local officers, whose function it is to mingle with
the Saints, exhorting them to their duties, and strengthening the
Church by their constant ministry; they are to see that there is no
iniquity in the Church; that the members do not cherish ill-feelings
toward one another; but that all observe the law of God respecting
Church duties. They may take the lead of meetings when no Priest or
higher officer is present. Both Teachers and Deacons may preach the
word of God when properly directed so to do; but they have not the
power to independently officiate in any spiritual ordinances, such as
baptizing, administering the sacrament, or laying on of hands.[636]
Twenty-four Teachers constitute a quorum; from among such a body a
president and counselors are to be chosen.

  [636] Doc. and Cov. xx, 53-59; cvii, 86.

=18. The Priests= are appointed to preach, teach, expound the
scripture, to baptize, to administer the sacrament, to visit the
houses of the members, exhorting them to diligence. When properly
directed, the Priest may ordain Deacons, Teachers, and other Priests;
and he may be called upon to assist the Elder in his work. A quorum of
Priests comprises forty-eight members; such an organization is to be
presided over by a Bishop.

=19. Elders= are empowered to officiate in any or all duties connected
with lower callings in the priesthood; and in addition, they may
ordain other Elders; confirm as members of the Church candidates who
have been properly baptized, and confer upon them the Holy Ghost.
These officers have authority to bless children in the Church, and to
take charge of all meetings, conducting the same as they are led by
the Holy Ghost.[637] The Elder may officiate in the stead of the High
Priest when the latter is not present. Ninety-six Elders form a
quorum; three of these constitute the presidency of the quorum.[638]

  [637] Doc. and Cov. xx, 38-45, 70; cvii, 11-12.

  [638] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 89.

=20. Seventies= are traveling ministers, ordained to promulgate the
Gospel among the nations of the earth, "unto the Gentiles first, and
also unto the Jews." They are to act under the direction of the
Apostles in this exalted labor.[639] A full quorum comprises seventy
members, including seven presidents.

  [639] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 34-35, 97-98.

=21. High Priests= are ordained with power to officiate when properly
directed in all the ordinances and blessings of the Church. They may
travel as do the Seventies, carrying the Gospel to the nations; but
they are not specially charged with this duty, their specific calling
being that of standing presidency. The High Priests of any stake of
the Church may be organized into a quorum, and this without limit as
to number; over such a quorum, three of the members may be chosen to
preside, as president and counselors.[640]

  [640] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 10; cxxiv, 134-135.

=22. Patriarchs=, or =Evangelists=, are charged with the special duty
of blessing the Church; of course they have authority to officiate
also in other ordinances. There is one "Patriarch to the Church," with
general jurisdiction throughout the whole organization; he holds the
keys of the patriarchal office, and unto him the promise is given
"that whoever he blesses shall be blessed, and whoever he curses shall
be cursed, that whatsoever he shall bind on earth shall be bound in
heaven, and whatsoever he shall loose on earth shall be loosed in
heaven."[641]

  [641] Doc. and Cov. cxxiv, 92-93.

=23.= Concerning the patriarchal authority, the Lord has said: "The
order of this priesthood was confirmed to be handed down from father
to son, and rightly belongs to the literal descendants of the chosen
seed to whom the promises were made. This order was instituted in the
days of Adam, and came down by lineage."[642] But, beside this office
of general patriarchal power, there are a number of local Patriarchs
appointed in the branches of the Church, all subject to counsel and
direction at the hands of the "Patriarch to the Church;" yet
possessing the same privileges in their district as belong to him
throughout the Church. It is made a duty of the Twelve Apostles to
ordain evangelical ministers, or Patriarchs, in all large branches of
the Church, the selection to be made through the power of
revelation.[643]

  [642] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 40-57.

  [643] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 39.

=24. Apostles= are called to be special witnesses of the name of
Christ in all the world;[644] they are empowered to build up and
organize the branches of the Church; and may officiate in any or all
of the sacred ordinances. They are to travel among the Saints,
regulating the affairs of the Church wherever they go, but
particularly where there is no complete local organization. They are
authorized to ordain Patriarchs and other officers in the priesthood,
as they may be directed by the Spirit of God.[645]

  [644] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 23.

  [645] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 39, 58; xx, 38-44.

=25. Presidency and Quorum Organizations.=--The revealed word of God
has provided for the establishment of presiding officers "growing out
of, or appointed from among those who are ordained to the several
offices in these two priesthoods."[646] In accordance with the
prevailing principles of order so characteristic of all His work, the
Lord has directed that the bearers of His priesthood shall be
organized into quorums, the better to aid them in learning the duties
of their stations. Some of these quorums are general in extent and
authority; others are local in their jurisdiction. All quorums in
authority and all presiding officers are to be sustained in their
several positions by the vote of the people over whom they are
appointed to preside. Local officers are thus voted upon by the local
organizations, general authorities by the Church in conference
assembled. Conferences of the Church are held at semi-annual
intervals, on which occasions the names of all the general officers
are submitted for the vote of the people. In like manner the
authorities of stakes and wards are sustained by vote at local
conferences held for these and other purposes. The principle of common
consent is thus observed in all the organizations of the Church.

  [646] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 21.

=26. The First Presidency= constitutes the presiding quorum of the
Church. By Divine direction, a president is appointed from among the
members of the High Priesthood to preside over the entire Church. He
is known as President of the High Priesthood of the Church, or
Presiding High Priest over the High Priesthood of the Church.[647] He
is called "to be a seer, a revelator, a translator, and a prophet,
having all the gifts of God which He bestows upon the head of the
Church."[648] His station is compared by the Lord to that of Moses of
old, who stood as the mouth-piece of God unto Israel. In his exalted
labors among the Church, this Presiding High Priest is assisted by two
others holding the same priesthood, and these three High Priests, when
properly appointed and ordained, and upheld by the confidence, faith,
and prayers of the Church, "form a quorum of the Presidency of the
Church."[649]

  [647] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 64-68.

  [648] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 91-92.

  [649] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 22.

=27. The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.=--Twelve men holding the
apostleship, properly organized, constitute the quorum of the
Apostles. These the Lord has designated as the twelve traveling
counselors;[650] they form the traveling presiding High Council, to
officiate under the direction of the First Presidency in all parts of
the world. They constitute a quorum, whose unanimous decisions are
equally binding in power and authority with those of the First
Presidency of the Church.[651] When the quorum of the First Presidency
is disorganized through the death or disability of the President, the
directing authority in government reverts at once to the quorum of the
Twelve Apostles, by whom the nomination to the Presidency is made.
There may be apostles in the Church who are not members of this quorum
of Twelve; but such have no place in the sittings of the quorum.

  [650] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 23, 33.

  [651] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 24.

=28. The Presiding Quorum of Seventy.=--The first quorum of Seventies
form a body whose unanimous decisions are equally binding with those
of the Twelve Apostles. Many quorums of Seventies may be required in
the work of the Church; already there have been effected approximately
two hundred of such organizations; each quorum is presided over by
seven presidents. The seven presidents of the First Quorum of
Seventies, however, preside over all the other quorums and their
presidents.[652]

  [652] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 25-26, 34, 93-97.

=29. The Presiding Bishopric=, as at present constituted, comprises
the Presiding Bishop of the Church, and two Counselors. This quorum
holds jurisdiction over the duties of other Bishops in the Church, and
of all organizations pertaining to the Aaronic Priesthood. The oldest
living representative among the sons of Aaron is entitled to this
office of presidency, provided he be in all respects worthy and
qualified; he must be designated and ordained by the First Presidency
of the Church.[653] If such a literal descendant of Aaron be found and
ordained, he may act without counselors, except when he sits in
judgment in a trial of one of the presidents of the High Priesthood,
in which case he is to be assisted by twelve High Priests.[654] But in
the absence of any direct descendant of Aaron properly qualified, a
High Priest of the Melchizedek Priesthood may be called and set apart
by the First Presidency of the Church to the office of Presiding
Bishop; he is to be assisted by two other High Priests properly
ordained as his counselors.[655]

  [653] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 18-20.

  [654] Doc. and Cov. cvii, 82-83.

  [655] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 19.

=30. Local Organizations of the Priesthood.=--Where the Saints are
permanently located Stakes of Zion are organized, each Stake
comprising a number of wards or branches. Over each Stake is placed a
_Stake Presidency_, consisting of a president and two counselors, who
are High Priests properly chosen and set apart to this office. The
Stake Presidency is assisted in judicial function by a _Standing High
Council_, composed of twelve High Priests chosen and ordained to the
office. This Council is presided over by the Stake Presidency, and
forms the highest judicial tribunal of the Stake.

=31.= The presidents of stakes and bishops of wards are properly
regarded as pastors to the fold; their duties are doubtless analogous
to those of the pastors of former dispensations. The High Priests and
the Elders in each Stake are organized into quorums as already
described; the former without limitation as to number, the latter
forming one or more quorums, each of ninety-six members, as their
number may warrant. _Patriarchs_ are also set apart to officiate in
their holy office among the people of the Stake.

=32. A Ward Bishopric= is established in every fully organized Ward of
the Church. This body consists usually of three High Priests set apart
as a Bishop and Counselors. If, however, a literal descendant of Aaron
be called to the bishopric, it is his privilege to act without
counselors, as was stated in the case of the Presiding Bishop. The
Bishop has jurisdiction over the quorums of the Lesser Priesthood in
his Ward, and also over holders of the Higher Priesthood as members of
his Ward; but he has no direct presidency over quorums of the
Melchizedek order, as such, which may be embraced within his domain.
As a presiding High Priest, he properly presides over his entire Ward.
The ward organization comprises quorums of Priests, Teachers, and
Deacons, one or more of each as the numerical extent of the Ward may
determine.

=33. Helps in Government.=--Beside these constituted authorities and
offices in the priesthood, there are a number of secondary or special
organizations established among the people for educational and
benevolent purposes. Among these, the following are of such importance
as to call for special mention.

(1.) _Primary Associations._--These provide for the moral instruction
and training of young children.

(2.) _Mutual Improvement Associations._--These comprise separate
organizations for the sexes, and are designed for the education and
training of the youth, in subjects of general and theological
interest. Instruction is provided in theology, literature and history,
science and art, the laws of health, and numerous other branches of
useful knowledge.

(3.) _Sunday Schools_ comprise graded classes for the study of the
scriptures, and for training in theology, in moral and religious
duties, and in the discipline of the Church. Sunday schools, while
primarily designed for the young, are open to all.

(4.) _Church Schools._--These institutions provide for both secular
and religious instruction, and range from the grade of the
kindergarten to that of the college.

(5.) _Religion Classes._--In these is provided a course of graded
instruction in theology and religion, which is offered as a supplement
and complement to the purely secular teachings of the non-denominational
schools.

(6.) _Relief Societies._--These are composed of women whose
self-imposed duties relate to the care of the poor, and the relief of
suffering among the afflicted.

=34.= Most of these auxiliary organizations exist in each ward.
Indeed, with the exception of Church Schools, which usually rank as
stake institutions, or even as of wider scope, all of the secondary
organizations named are regarded as essential to the complete
equipment of any ward. Officers are appointed to preside over the
several organizations in each ward; and while such officers are
subject in a general way to the local authorities in the priesthood,
they look for specific instructions regarding the plan and method of
their particular work, to the stake and general authorities of the
special organizations. In accordance with the principle of common
consent which characterizes the Church in general, the officers of the
auxiliary institutions, while they are nominated by, or at least with
the consent of the established authorities in the priesthood, are
installed and retained in office by the vote of the members in the
local or general organization within which they are appointed to
labor.


NOTES.

     =1. Degeneracy of Worship Incident to the Apostasy.=--That, as
     the priesthood disappeared from the earth after the apostolic
     period, the forms of worship were perverted, while many pagan
     influences and practices crept in, may be reasonably inferred
     from the records of history. Mosheim, an authority of note in
     ecclesiastical history, has this to say regarding pagan
     innovations during the fourth century:--"The Christian bishops
     introduced, with but slight alterations, into the Christian
     worship, those rites and institutions by which, formerly, the
     Greeks and Romans and other nations had manifested their piety
     and reverence towards their imaginary deities; supposing that the
     people would more readily embrace Christianity, if they saw that
     the rites handed down to them from their fathers still existed
     unchanged among the Christians, and perceived that Christ and the
     martyrs were worshiped in the same manner as formerly their gods
     were. There was, of course, little difference, in these times,
     between the public worship of the Christians and that of the
     Greeks and Romans. In both alike, there were splendid robes,
     mitres, tiaras, wax tapers, crosiers, processions, illustrations,
     images, golden and silver vases, and numberless other things."

     Of the form of professedly Christian worship in the fifth
     century, the same authority says:--"Public worship everywhere
     assumed a form more calculated for show and for the gratification
     of the eye. Various ornaments were added to the sacerdotal
     garments, in order to increase the veneration of the people for
     the clerical order.... In some places it was appointed that the
     praises of God should be sung perpetually night and day, the
     singers succeeding each other without interruption: as if the
     Supreme Being took pleasure in clamor and noise, and in the
     flatteries of men. The magnificence of the temples knew no
     bounds. Splendid images were placed in them; ... the image of the
     Virgin Mary holding her infant in her arms occupied the most
     conspicuous place."

     =2. Early Beginning of the Apostasy.=--Orson Pratt, an apostle of
     the present age, has written as follows concerning the early
     falling away from the authorized practices of the Church:--"The
     great apostasy of the Christian church commenced in the first
     century, while there were yet inspired apostles and prophets in
     their midst; hence Paul, just previous to his martyrdom,
     enumerates a great number who had 'made shipwreck of their
     faith,' and 'turned aside into vain jangling,' teaching 'that the
     resurrection was already past;' giving 'heed to fables and
     endless genealogies;' 'doubting about questions and strifes of
     words whereof come envyings, railings, evil surmisings, perverse
     disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth,
     supposing that gain is godliness.' This apostasy had become so
     general that Paul declares to Timothy 'that all they which are in
     Asia be turned away from me;' and again he says, 'at my first
     answer, no man stood with me, but all men forsook me;' he further
     states that 'there are many unruly, and vain talkers, deceivers,'
     'teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.'
     These apostates, no doubt, pretended to be very righteous, 'for,'
     says the apostle, 'they profess that they know God, but in works
     they deny him, being abominable and disobedient, and unto every
     good work reprobate.'"

     =3. The Rule of the Priesthood.=--That the power of the
     Priesthood is to be exercised in the spirit of patience and love,
     and not in opposition to individual free agency, is apparent from
     many scriptures, among which is the following:--"Behold, there
     are many called, but few are chosen. And why are they not chosen?
     Because their hearts are set so much upon the things of this
     world, and aspire to the honors of men, that they do not learn
     this one lesson--That the rights of the Priesthood are
     inseparably connected with the powers of heaven, and that the
     powers of heaven cannot be controlled nor handled only upon the
     principles of righteousness. That they may be conferred upon us,
     it is true; but when we undertake to cover our sins, or to
     gratify our pride, or vain ambition, or to exercise control, or
     dominion, or compulsion, upon the souls of the children of men,
     in any degree of unrighteousness, behold, the heavens withdraw
     themselves; the Spirit of the Lord is grieved; and when it is
     withdrawn, Amen to the Priesthood, or the authority of that man.
     Behold, ere he is aware, he is left unto himself, to kick against
     the pricks; to persecute the saints; and to fight against God. We
     have learned, by sad experience, that it is the nature and
     disposition of almost all men: as soon as they get a little
     authority, as they suppose, they will immediately begin to
     exercise unrighteous dominion. Hence, many are called, but few
     are chosen. No power or influence can or ought to be maintained
     by virtue of the Priesthood, only by persuasion, by
     long-suffering, by gentleness, and meekness, and by love
     unfeigned; by kindness, and pure knowledge, which shall greatly
     enlarge the soul without hypocrisy and without guile; Reproving
     betimes with sharpness, when moved upon by the Holy Ghost, and
     then showing forth afterwards an increase of love toward him whom
     thou hast reproved, lest he esteem thee to be his enemy; That he
     may know that thy faithfulness is stronger than the cords of
     death. Let thy bowels also be full of charity towards all men,
     and to the household of faith; and let virtue garnish thy
     thoughts unceasingly; then shall thy confidence wax strong in the
     presence of God, and the doctrine of the Priesthood shall distil
     upon thy soul as the dews from heaven. The Holy Ghost shall be
     thy constant companion, and thy sceptre an unchanging sceptre of
     righteousness and truth; and thy dominion shall be an everlasting
     dominion, and without compulsory means it shall flow unto thee
     forever and ever."--Doc. and Cov. cxxi, 34-46.



LECTURE XII.

SPIRITUAL GIFTS.

     =Article 7.=--We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy,
     revelation, visions, healing, interpretation of tongues, etc.


=1. Spiritual Gifts Characteristic of the Church.=--It has been
already affirmed, that all men who would officiate with propriety in
the ordinances of the Gospel must be commissioned for their exalted
duties by the power and authority of heaven. When so divinely
invested, these servants of the Lord will not be lacking in proofs of
the Master's favor; for it has ever been characteristic of the
dealings of God with His people, to manifest His power by the bestowal
of a variety of ennobling graces, which are properly called gifts of
the Spirit. These are oft-times exhibited in a manner so different
from the usual order of things as to be called miraculous and
supernatural. In this way did the Lord make Himself known in the early
times of scriptural history; and from the days of Adam until the
present, prophets of God have generally been endowed with such power.
Whenever the priesthood has operated through an organized Church on
the earth, the members of the flock have been strengthened in their
faith, and otherwise blessed in numerous related ways, by the
possession of these graces within the Church. We may safely regard the
existence of these spiritual powers as one of the essential
characteristics of the true Church; where they are not, the priesthood
of God does not operate.

=2.= Mormon[656] solemnly declares that the days of miracles will not
pass from the Church, as long as there shall be a man upon the earth
to be saved; "For," says he, "it is by faith that miracles are
wrought; and it is by faith that angels appear and minister unto men;
wherefore if these things have ceased, wo be unto the children of men,
for it is because of unbelief, and all is vain." And Moroni, standing
on the threshold of the grave, bears an independent testimony that the
gifts and graces of the Spirit will never be done away as long as the
world shall stand, except it be through the unbelief of mankind.[657]

  [656] Moroni vii, 35-37.

  [657] Moroni x, 19, 23-27.

=3.= Hear the words of this prophet addressed to those "who deny the
revelations of God and say that they are done away, that there are no
revelations nor prophecies, nor gifts, nor healing, nor speaking with
tongues, and the interpretation of tongues. Behold I say unto you, he
that denieth these things knoweth not the Gospel of Christ; yea he has
not read the scriptures; if so, he does not understand them. For do we
not read that God is the same yesterday, to-day, and forever, and in
him there is no variableness neither shadow of changing? And now, if
ye have imagined up unto yourselves a god who doth vary, and in him
there is shadow of changing, then have ye imagined up unto yourselves
a god who is not a God of miracles. But behold, I will show unto you a
God of miracles, even the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and
the God of Jacob; and it is that same God who created the heavens and
the earth, and all things that in them are."[658]

  [658] Mormon ix, 7-11.

=4. Nature of Spiritual Gifts.=--The gifts here spoken of are
essentially endowments of power and authority, through which the
purposes of God are accomplished, sometimes with accompanying
conditions that appear to be supernatural. By such the sick may be
healed, malignant influences overcome, spirits of darkness subdued,
the Saints, humble and weak, may proclaim their testimonies and
otherwise utter praises unto God in new and strange tongues, and
others may interpret these words; the feeble human intellect may be
invigorated by the heavenly touch of spiritual vision and blessed
dreams, to see and comprehend things ordinarily withheld from mortal
senses; direct communication with the fountain of all wisdom may be
established, and the revelations of the Divine will may be obtained.

=5.= These gifts have been promised of the Lord unto those who believe
in His name;[659] they are to follow obedience to the requirements of
the Gospel. Among believers, they are to serve for encouragement, and
as incentives to higher communion with the Spirit.[660] They are not
given as signs to gratify carnal curiosity; nor to satisfy a morbid
craving for the wonderful. Men have been led to the light through
manifestations of the miraculous; but events in the lives of these
show that they are either such as would have found a knowledge of the
truth in some other way, or they are but superficially affected, and
as soon as the novelty of the new sensation has exhausted itself they
wander again into the darkness from which they had for the time
escaped. Miracles are not primarily intended, surely they are not
needed, to prove the power of God; the simpler occurrences, the more
ordinary works of creation do that. But unto the heart already
softened and purified by the testimony of the truth, to the mind
enlightened through the Spirit's power and conscious of obedient
service in the requirements of the gospel, the voice of miracles comes
with cheering tidings of a loving Parent's continued favor, with fresh
and more abundant evidences of the magnanimity of an all-merciful
God.[661]

  [659] Mark xvi, 16; Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 64-73.

  [660] Matt, xii, 38, 39; xvi, 1-4; Mark viii, 11, 12; Luke xi,
  16-30.

  [661] See Note 6.

=6.= Yet even to the unbeliever, the testimony of miracles should
appeal, at least to the extent of argument favoring an investigation
of the power through which these acts are wrought; in such cases
miracles are as "a loud voice addressed to those who are hard
of hearing." The purpose of spiritual gifts in the Church is
explicitly set forth in a revelation from the Lord through Joseph
Smith:--"Wherefore, beware lest ye be deceived; and that ye may not be
deceived, seek ye earnestly the best gifts, always remembering for
what they are given; For verily I say unto you, they are given for the
benefit of those who love me and keep all my commandments, and him
that seeketh so to do, that all may be benefited that seeketh or that
asketh of me, that asketh and not for a sign that he may consume it
upon his lusts."[662]

  [662] Doc. and Cov. xlvi, 8, 9.

=7. Miracles= are commonly regarded as supernatural occurrences,
taking place in opposition to the laws of nature. Such a conception is
plainly erroneous, for the laws of nature are inviolable. However, as
human understanding of these laws is at best but imperfect, events
strictly in accordance with natural law may appear contrary thereto.
The entire constitution of nature is founded on system and order; the
laws of nature, however, are graded as are the laws of man. The
application of a higher law in any particular case does not destroy
the efficacy or validity of an inferior one; the lower law is as fully
applicable as before to the case for which it is framed. For example,
society has enacted a law forbidding, on peril of heavy penalties, any
man appropriating the property of another; yet oftentimes officers of
the law forcibly seize the possessions of their fellow-men, against
whom judgments may have been rendered; and such acts are done to
satisfy, not to violate justice. Jehovah commanded "Thou shalt not
kill," and mankind has re-enacted the law, prescribing penalties for
violation thereof. Yet sacred history testifies, that, in certain
cases, the Lawgiver Himself has directly commanded His servants to
vindicate justice by taking human life. The judge who passes the
extreme sentence upon a convicted murderer, and the executioner who
carries into effect that dread mandate, act not in opposition to "Thou
shalt not kill," but actually in support of this decree.

=8.= With some of the principles upon which the powers of nature
operate, we are in a degree acquainted; and in contemplating them we
are no longer surprised, though deeper reflection may show that even
the commonest occurrence is wonderful and strange. But any event
beyond the ordinary is pronounced miraculous, supernatural, if not
indeed unnatural, and we are more or less awe-stricken by the
same.[663] When the prophet Elisha caused the axe to float in the
river,[664] he brought to his service, through the exercise of the
authority of the priesthood, a power superior to that of gravity.
Without doubt, the iron was heavier than the water; yet by the
operation of this higher force it was supported, suspended, or
otherwise sustained at the surface, as if it were held there by a
human hand, or rendered sufficiently buoyant by attached floaters.

  [663] See Note 1.

  [664] II Kings vi, 5-7.

=9.= Wine ordinarily consists of about four-fifths water, the rest
being a variety of chemical compounds the elements of which are
abundantly present in the air and soil. The ordinary method--what we
term the natural method--of bringing these elements into proper
combination is by planting the grape, then cultivating the vine till
the fruit is ready to yield its juice in the press. But by the
exercise of a power not within purely human reach, the Savior, at the
marriage in Cana,[665] called those elements together, and brought
about a chemical transformation within the water-pots of stone,
resulting in the production of pure wine. So, too, when the multitudes
were fed, under His priestly touch and authoritative blessing the
bread and fishes increased in substance, as if the seasons of years
had been consumed in their growth according to what we consider the
natural order. In healing the leprous, the palsied, and the infirm,
the disordered bodily parts were brought again into their normal and
healthful state; the impurities operating as poisons in the tissues
were removed by means more rapid and effectual than those which depend
upon the action of drugs and medicine.

  [665] John ii, 1-11. See "Miracles" in "Jesus the Christ," pp.
  147, 151.

=10.= No earnest observer, no reasoning mind, can doubt the existence
of intelligences and organisms which the senses of man do not reveal.
This world seems but the temporal embodiment of things spiritual. The
Creator has told us that He formed all things spiritual before they
were made temporal.[666] The flowers that flourish and die on earth
are perhaps represented above by imperishable blossoms of transcendent
beauty and entertaining fragrance. Man is shaped after the image of
Deity; his mind, though darkened by custom and weakened by injurious
habit, is still a fallen type of immortal thought and Divine reason;
and though the space separating the human and the Divine in thought,
desire, and action, be as wide as that between sea and sky, for as the
stars are above the earth so are the ways of God above those of man,
yet we may affirm a strict analogy between the spiritual and the
temporal. When the eyes of Elisha's servant were opened, the man saw
the hosts of heavenly warriors covering the mountains about
Dothan,--footmen, horsemen, and chariots, armed for fight against the
Syrians.[667] When Israel encompassed Jericho,[668] may we not
believe that the Captain of the Lord's host[669] and his heavenly
train were there, and that before their angelic powers, sustained by
the faith and obedience of the mortal army, the walls were leveled?

  [666] See Note, page 199.

  [667] II Kings vi, 13-18.

  [668] Josh. vi.

  [669] Josh. v, 13, 14.

=11.= Some of the latest and highest achievements of man in the
utilization of natural forces approach the conditions of spiritual
operations. To count the ticking of a watch a hundred miles away; to
speak in but an ordinary tone and be heard across the country; to
signal from one hemisphere and be understood on the other though
oceans roll and roar between; to bring the lightning into our homes
and make it serve as fire and torch;--are not these miracles? The
possibility of such would not have been received with credence before
their actual accomplishment. The President of the Republic, sitting in
his chair of state at the nation's capital, talks with all parts, even
with the ends of this great country; and if the apparatus be in order,
if operators and officials be true, he is rightly informed of every
movement of importance anywhere in the land. The orbs of the universe
are as truly connected by a system of inter-communication,
surprisingly perfect in its action and adaptation. These and the other
innumerable miracles of creation are accomplished in strict accordance
with the laws of nature, which are the laws of God. But we must return
to a further consideration of the specific manifestations of spiritual
gifts within the Church.

=12. An Enumeration of the Gifts of the Spirit= cannot be made
complete by man, so numerous, so extensive are the blessings of the
Father for His children. Yet the more common of these spiritual
manifestations have been specified by inspired scriptural writers, and
by the sure word of revelation. Paul writing to the Corinthian
Saints,[670] Moroni inditing his last appeal to the Lamanites,[671]
and the voice of the Lord directed to the people of His Church in this
dispensation,[672] each names many of the great gifts of the Spirit.
From these scriptures, we learn that every man has received some gift
from God; and in the great diversity of gifts all do not receive the
same. "To some it is given by the Holy Ghost to know the differences
of administration.... And again it is given by the Holy Ghost to some
to know the diversities of operations whether it be of God, that the
manifestations of the Spirit may be given to every man to profit
withal. And again, verily I say unto you, to some it is given by the
Spirit of God, the word of wisdom; to another it is given the word of
knowledge, that all may be taught to be wise, and to have knowledge.
And again to some it is given to have faith to be healed; and to
others it is given to have faith to heal. And again to some it is
given the working of miracles, and to others it is given to prophesy,
and to others the discerning of spirits. And again, it is given to
some to speak with tongues; and to another it is given the
interpretation of tongues; and all these gifts cometh from God for the
benefit of the children of God."[673]

  [670] I Cor. xii, 4-11.

  [671] Moroni x, 7-19.

  [672] Doc. and Cov. xlvi, 8-29.

  [673] Doc. and Cov. xlvi, 11-26; see also I Cor. xii, 4-11.

=13. The Gift of Tongues and Interpretation.=--The gift of tongues
constituted one of the first miraculous manifestations of the Holy
Ghost unto the apostles of old. It was included by the Savior among
the special signs appointed to follow the believer; "In my name," said
He, "they shall speak with new tongues."[674] The early fulfillment of
this promise in the case of the apostles themselves was realized on
the succeeding Pentecost, when they, having assembled in one place,
were filled with the Holy Ghost and began to speak in strange
tongues.[675] When the door of the Gospel was first opened to the
Gentiles, the converts rejoiced in the Holy Ghost which had fallen
upon them and which gave them utterance in tongues.[676] This gift
with others manifested itself among certain disciples at Ephesus,[677]
on the occasion of their receiving the Holy Ghost. In the present
dispensation, this gift, again promised to the Saints, finds frequent
exercise. Its chief employment is in the function of praise rather
than that of instruction and preaching; and this is agreeable to
Paul's teaching, "For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh
not unto men but unto God."[678] An unusual manifestation of the gift
was witnessed on the occasion of the Pentecostal conversion of the
Jews, already referred to, when the apostles addressing the multitude,
were understood by all the diversified company, each listener hearing
their teachings in his own tongue.[679] This special gift was here
associated with higher endowments of power; the occasion was one of
instruction, admonition, and prophecy. The gift of interpretation may
be possessed by the one speaking in tongues, though more commonly the
separate powers are exercised by different persons.

  [674] Mark xvi, 17.

  [675] Acts ii, 4.

  [676] Acts x, 46.

  [677] Acts xix, 6.

  [678] I Cor. xiv, 2.

  [679] Acts ii, 6-12.

=14. The Gift of Healing= was exercised extensively in the
dispensation of the Savior and His apostles; indeed, healing
constituted by far the greater part of the miracles wrought at that
time. By authoritative ministrations, the eyes of the blind were
opened; the dumb were made to speak; the deaf to hear; the lame leaped
for joy; afflicted mortals, bowed with infirmity, were lifted erect
and enjoyed the vigor of youth; the palsied were made well; lepers
were cleansed; impotence was banished; and fevers were assuaged. In
this, the dispensation of the fulness of times, this power is
possessed by the Church, and its manifestation is of frequent
occurrence among the Saints. Thousands of blessed recipients can
testify to the fulfillment of the Lord's promise, that if His servants
lay hands on the sick, they shall recover.[680]

  [680] Mark xvi, 18; see also Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 68.

=15.= The usual method of administering to the sick is by the
imposition of hands of those who possess the requisite authority of
the priesthood;--this being agreeable to the Savior's instructions in
former days,[681] and according to Divine revelation in the present
day.[682] This part of the ordinance is usually preceded by an
anointing with oil previously consecrated. The Latter-day Saints
profess to abide by the counsels of James of old,[683] "Is any sick
among you? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them
pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the
prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up;
and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him."

  [681] The same; see also James v, 14, 15.

  [682] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 43-44.

  [683] James v, 14, 15.

=16.= Though the authority to administer to the sick belongs to the
elders of the Church in general, some possess this power in an unusual
degree, having received it as a special endowment of the Spirit.
Another gift, allied to this, is the power of exercising faith to be
healed;[684] which is manifested in varying degrees. Not always are
the administrations of the elders followed by immediate healings; the
afflicted may be permitted to suffer in body, perhaps for the
accomplishment of Divine purposes,[685] and in the time appointed of
the Lord, His children pass through bodily death. But let the counsels
of God be observed in administering to the afflicted; then if they
recover, they live unto the Lord; and the assuring promise is added
that those who die under such conditions die unto the Lord.[686]

  [684] Doc. and Cov. xlvi, 19; xlii, 48-51; see also Acts xiv, 9;
  Matt, viii, 10; ix, 28, 29.

  [685] See instances of Job.

  [686] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 44-46.

=17. Visions and Dreams= have constituted a means of communication
between God and His children in every dispensation of the priesthood.
In general, visions are manifested to the waking senses, whilst dreams
are given during sleep. In the vision, however, the senses may be so
affected as to render the person practically unconscious, at least
oblivious to ordinary occurrences, while he is able to discern the
heavenly manifestation. In the earlier dispensations, the Lord very
frequently communicated through dreams and visions, often-times
revealing to His prophets the events of the future even to the latest
generations. From the multitude of instances recorded, let us select a
few. Consider the case of Enoch,[687] unto whom the Lord spake face to
face, showing him the course of the human family until and beyond the
second coming of the Savior. The brother of Jared[688] because of his
righteousness was so blessed of God as to be shown all the inhabitants
of the earth, both those who had previously existed and those who were
to follow. Unto Moses the will of God was made known with the visual
manifestation of fire.[689] Lehi received his instructions to leave
Jerusalem[690] through dreams; and on many subsequent occasions the
Lord communicated with this patriarch of the western world by visions
and by dreams. The Old Testament prophets were generally so favored;
e. g., Jacob the father of all Israel,[691] Job the patient
sufferer,[692] Jeremiah,[693] Ezekiel,[694] Daniel,[695]
Habakkuk,[696] Zechariah.[697]

  [687] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vi, 27-39.

  [688] Ether iii.

  [689] Exo. iii, 2.

  [690] I Nephi ii, 2-4.

  [691] Gen. xlvi, 2.

  [692] Job iv, 12-21.

  [693] Jer. i, 11-16.

  [694] Ezek. i; ii, 9, 10; iii, 22, 23; viii; xxxvii, 1-10, etc.

  [695] Dan. vii; viii.

  [696] Hab. ii, 2, 3.

  [697] Zech. i, 8-11; 18-21; ii, 1, 2; iv; v; vi, 1-8.

=18.= The dispensation of Christ and His apostles was marked by
similar manifestations. The birth of John the Baptist was fore-told to
his father while he was officiating in priestly functions.[698]
Joseph, betrothed to the Virgin, received through an angel's
visit[699] tidings of the Christ yet to be born; and on subsequent
occasions he received warnings and instructions in dreams concerning
the welfare of the Holy Child.[700] The Magi, returning from their
pilgrimage of worship, were warned in dreams of Herod's treacherous
designs.[701] Saul of Tarsus was shown in a vision the messenger whom
God was about to send to him to minister in the ordinances of the
priesthood;[702] and other visions followed.[703] Peter was prepared
for the ministry to the Gentiles through a vision;[704] and John was
so favored of God in this respect that the book of Revelation is
occupied by the record.

  [698] Luke i, 5-22.

  [699] Matt. i, 20.

  [700] Matt. ii, 13, 19, 22.

  [701] Matt. ii, 12.

  [702] Acts ix, 12.

  [703] Acts xvi, 9; xviii, 9, 10; xxii, 17-21.

  [704] Acts x, 10-16; xi, 5-10.

=19.= Most of the visions and dreams recorded in scripture have been
given to the chosen people through the ministering priesthood; but
there are exceptional instances of such manifestations unto some, who,
at the time, had not entered the fold. Such, for example, was the case
with Saul and Cornelius; but in these instances the Divine
manifestations were immediately preliminary to conversion. Dreams
with special import were given to Pharaoh,[705] Nebuchadnezzar,[706]
and others; but it required a higher power than their own to interpret
them; and Joseph and Daniel were called to officiate. The dream given
to the Midianite soldier, and its interpretation by his fellow,[707]
betokening the victory of Gideon, were true manifestations; as also
the dream of Pilate's wife,[708] in which she learned of the innocence
of the accused Christ.

  [705] Gen. xli; see other instances in Gen. xl.

  [706] Dan. ii.

  [707] Jud. vii, 13, 14.

  [708] Matt. xxvii, 19.

=20. The Gift of Prophecy= distinguishes its possessor as a
prophet,--literally, one who speaks for another; specifically, one who
speaks for God,[709] It is distinguished by Paul as one of the most
desirable of spiritual endowments, and its pre-eminence over the gift
of tongues he discusses at length.[710] To prophesy is to receive and
declare the word of God, and the statement of His will to the people.
The function of prediction, often regarded as the sole essential of
prophecy, is but one among many characteristics of this divinely given
power. The prophet may have as much concern with the past as with the
present or the future; he may exercise his gift in teaching through
the light of, and by the experience of preceding events, as in
fore-telling occurrences. The prophets of God have ever been in
special favor with Him, being privileged to learn of His will and
designs; indeed, the promise is made that the Lord will do nothing
except He reveal His secret purposes unto His servants, the
prophets.[711] These chosen oracles stand as mediators between God and
mortals, pleading for or against the people.[712]

  [709] See note 2.

  [710] I Cor. xiv, 1-9.

  [711] Amos iii, 7.

  [712] I Kings xviii, 36, 37; Rom. xi, 2, 3; James v, 16-18; Rev.
  xi, 6.

=21.= No special ordination in the priesthood is essential to man's
receiving the gift of prophecy; bearers of the Melchizedek order,
Adam, Noah, Moses, and a multitude of others were truly prophets, but
not more truly so than were many who exercised the Aaronic functions
only--as for example most of the Old Testament priests subsequent to
the time of Moses, and John the Baptist.[713] The ministrations of the
prophetesses Miriam[714] and Deborah[715] show that this gift may be
possessed by women also. In the time of Samuel, the prophets were
organized into a special order, to aid their purposes of study and
improvement.[716]

  [713] Matt. xi, 8-10.

  [714] Exo. xv, 20.

  [715] Jud. iv, 4.

  [716] See Note 3.

=22.= In the present dispensation, this great gift is enjoyed in a
fulness equal to that of any preceding time. The Lord's will
concerning present duties is made known to His people through the
mouths of prophets; and events of great import are fore-told.[717] The
very fact of the present existence and growing condition of the Church
is an undeniable testimony of the power and reliability of modern
prophecy. The Latter-day Saints constitute a body of witnesses,
numbering hundreds of thousands, to the effect of this, one of the
great gifts of God.

  [717] Doc. and Cov. i, 4; lxxxvii.

=23. Revelation= is the means through which the will of God is
declared directly and in fulness to man. Under circumstances best
suiting the Divine purposes, through the dreams of sleep or in waking
visions of the mind, by voices without visional appearance, or by
actual manifestations of the Holy Presence before the eye, God makes
known His designs, and charges His chosen vessels to bear the sacred
messages so imparted. Under the influence of inspiration, or its more
potent manifestation--revelation, man's mind is enlightened, and his
energies quickened to the accomplishment of wonders in the work of
human progress; touched with a spark from the heavenly altar, the
inspired instrument cherishes the holy fire within his soul, and
imparts it to others as he may be led to do; he is the channel through
which the will of God is conveyed. The words of him who speaks by
revelation in its highest form, are not his own; they are the words of
God Himself; the mortal mouth-piece is but the trusted conveyer of
these heavenly messages. With the authoritative, "Thus saith the
Lord," the revelator delivers the burden intrusted to his care.

=24.= The Lord strictly observes the principles of order and propriety
in giving revelation to His servants. Though it is the privilege of
any person to live so as to merit this gift in the affairs of his
special calling, only those appointed and ordained to the offices of
presidency are to be revelators to the people at large. Concerning the
President of the Church, who at the time of the revelation here
referred to was the Prophet Joseph Smith, the Lord has said to the
elders of the Church:--"And this ye shall know assuredly, that there
is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and
revelations until he be taken, if he abide in me.... And this shall be
a law unto you, that ye receive not the teachings of any that shall
come before you, as revelations or commandments. And this I give unto
you that you may not be deceived, that you may know they are not of
me."[718]

  [718] Doc. and Cov. xliii, 3, 5, 6.

=25. The Testimony of Miracles.=--The Savior's promise in a former
day[719] as in the present dispensation[720] is definite, to the
effect that specified gifts of the Spirit are to follow the believer
as signs of Divine favor. The possession and exercise of such gifts
may be taken therefore as essential features of the Church of
Christ.[721] Nevertheless we are not justified in regarding the
evidence of miracles as infallible testimony of authority from heaven;
on the other hand, the scriptures furnish abundant proof that
spiritual powers of the baser sort have wrought miracles, and will
continue so to do, to the deceiving of many who lack discernment. If
miracles be accepted as infallible evidence of godly power, the
magicians of Egypt, through the wonders which they accomplished in
opposition to the ordained plan for Israel's deliverance, have as good
a claim to our respect as has Moses.[722] John the Revelator saw in
vision a wicked power working miracles, and thereby deceiving many;
doing great wonders, even bringing fire from heaven.[723] Again, he
saw three unclean spirits, whom he knew to be "the spirits of devils
working miracles."[724]

  [719] Mark xvi, 17-18.

  [720] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 65-73.

  [721] See Notes 4 and 5.

  [722] Exo. vii-xi.

  [723] Rev. xiii, 11-18.

  [724] Rev. xvi, 13-14.

=26.= Consider, in connection with this, the prediction made by the
Savior:--"There shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and
shall show great signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were
possible, they shall deceive the very elect."[725] The invalidity of
miracles as a proof of righteousness is declared in an utterance of
Christ Jesus regarding the events of the great judgment:--"Many will
say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name?
and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many
wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you;
depart from me, ye that work iniquity."[726] The Jews, to whom these
teachings were addressed, knew that wonders could be wrought by evil
powers; for they charged Christ with working miracles by the authority
of "Beelzebub the prince of devils."[727]

  [725] Matt. xxiv, 24.

  [726] Matt. vii, 22-23.

  [727] Matt. xii, 22-30; Mark iii, 22; Luke xi, 15. See "Jesus the
  Christ," p. 265.

=27.= If the working of miracles were a distinctive characteristic of
the holy priesthood, we would look for the testimony of wondrous
manifestations in connection with the work of every prophet and
authorized minister of the Lord; yet we fail to find a record of
miracles in the case of Zechariah, Malachi, and other prophets of old;
while of John the Baptist, whom Christ declared to be more than a
prophet,[728] it was plainly said that he did no miracle;[729]
nevertheless, in rejecting John's doctrine, the unbelievers were
ignoring the counsel of God against their own souls.[730] To be valid
as a testimony of truth, miracles must be wrought in the name of
Christ, and to His honor, in furtherance of the plan of salvation. As
stated, they are not given to satisfy the curious and the lustful, nor
as a means of gaining notoriety for him through whom they are
accomplished. These gifts of the true Spirit are manifested in support
of the message from heaven, and in corroboration of the words spoken
by authority.

  [728] Matt. xi, 9.

  [729] John x, 41.

  [730] Luke vii, 30.

=28. Imitations of Spiritual Gifts.=--The proofs already cited of
miraculous achievements by powers other than of God, and the
scriptural predictions concerning such deceptive manifestations in the
last days, ought to be our warning against spurious imitations of the
gifts of the Holy Spirit. Satan has shown himself to be an
accomplished strategist and a skilful imitator; the most deplorable of
his victories are due to his simulation of good, whereby the
undiscerning have been led captive. Let us not be deluded with the
thought that any act, the immediate result of which appears to be
benign, is necessarily productive of permanent good. It may serve the
dark purposes of man's arch-enemy to play upon the human sense of
goodness, even to the extent of healing the body, and apparently of
thwarting death.

=29.= The restoration of the priesthood to earth in this age of the
world was followed by a phenomenal growth of the vagaries of
spiritualism, whereby many have been led to put their trust in Satan's
counterfeit of God's eternal power. The development of the healing
gift in the Church today is imitated in a degree comparable to that
with which the magicians simulated the miracles of Moses, by the
varied faith cures and their numerous modifications. For those to whom
miraculous signs are all-sufficient, the imitation will answer as well
as would the real; but the soul who regards the miracle in its true
nature as but one element of the system of Christ, possessing value as
a positive criterion only as it is associated with the numerous other
characteristics of the Church, will not be deceived.

=30. Spiritual Gifts in the Church Today.=--The Latter-day Saints
claim to possess within the Church all the sign-gifts promised as the
heritage of the believer. They point to the unimpeached testimonies of
thousands who have been blessed with direct and personal
manifestations of heavenly power; to the once blind, and dumb, halt,
and weak in body, who have been freed from their infirmities through
their faith and by the ministrations of the priesthood; to a multitude
who have voiced their testimony in tongues with which they were
naturally unfamiliar; or who have demonstrated their possession of the
gift by a phenomenal mastery of foreign languages, when such was
necessary to the discharge of their duties as preachers of the word of
God; to many who have enjoyed communion with heavenly beings; to
others who have prophesied in words that have found their speedy
vindication in literal fulfillment; and to the Church itself, whose
growth has been guided by the voice of its Divine Leader, made known
through the gift of revelation.[731]

  [731] Sec Note 7.


NOTES.

     =1. A Seeming Miracle.=--A few years ago, Herr Werner Siemens, a
     German scientist of note, visited the pyramid of Gizeh, and,
     accompanied by a couple of Arab guides, climbed to the top. He
     observed that the atmospheric conditions were very favorable to
     electric manifestations. Fastening a large brass button to an
     empty water-gourd in the hands of one of the Arabs, and then
     placing his knuckle within a short distance from the button, he
     drew therefrom a succession of brilliant sparks, accompanied of
     course by the crackling noises characteristic of electric
     discharges. The guides viewed this exhibition of supernatural
     powers with amazement and terror, which reached a climax when
     their master stretched his staff above his head, and the stick
     was surmounted by a beautiful St. Elmo's flame. This spectacle
     was more than the superstitious Bedouins could bear, they
     trembled before an enchanter who could play with lightning and
     fire as with a toy, and who carried miniature thunder in his coat
     pocket; so they fled down the steps with dangerous precipitation,
     and soon disappeared in the desert.

     =2. The Term "Prophet"= appears in the English Bible as the
     translation of a number of ancient terms, the most usual of which
     is _nabhi_ (Hebrew), signifying "to bubble forth like a
     fountain." Another of the original words is _rheo_ (Greek),
     meaning "to flow," and by derivation "to speak forth," "to
     utter," "to declare." A prophet, then, is one from whom flow
     forth the words of a higher authority. Aaron is spoken of as a
     prophet or spokesman to Moses (Exo. vii, 1); but in the usual
     sense, the prophet is the representative of God. Closely allied
     with the calling of the prophet is that of the seer; indeed, at a
     time prior to that of Samuel, the common designation of the
     oracle of God was seer: "for he that is now called a prophet was
     beforetime called a seer" (I Sam. ix, 9). The seer was permitted
     to behold the visions of God, the prophet to declare the truths
     so learned; the two callings were usually united in the same
     person. Unto the prophet and seer the Lord usually communicated
     in visions and dreams; but an exception to this order was made in
     the case of Moses, who was so faithful and so great in all things
     good, that the Lord discarded the usual means and declared
     Himself to His servant face to face (Num. xii, 6-8).

     =3. Prophets Organized.=--The prophet's office existed among men
     in the earliest periods of history. Adam was a prophet (Doc. and
     Cov. cvii, 53-56); as also were Enoch (Jude 14; P. of G. P.,
     Moses vi, 26), Noah (Gen. vi, vii; P. of G. P., Moses viii, 19;
     II Peter ii, 5), Abraham (Gen. xx, 7), Moses (Deut. xxxiv, 10),
     and a multitude of others who ministered at intermediate and
     subsequent times. Samuel, who was established in the eyes of all
     Israel as a prophet of the Lord (I Sam. iii, 19, 20), organized
     the prophets into a society for common instruction and
     edification. He established schools for the prophets, theological
     colleges, where men were trained in things pertaining to holy
     offices; the students were generally called "sons of the
     prophets" (I Kings xx, 35; II Kings ii, 3, 5, 7; iv, 1, 38; ix,
     1). Such schools were established at Ramah (I Sam. xix, 19, 20),
     Bethel (II Kings ii, 3), Jericho (II Kings ii, 5), Gilgal (II
     Kings iv, 38). The members seem to have lived together as a
     society (II Kings vi, 1-4). In the present dispensation, a
     similar organization was effected under the direction of the
     prophet Joseph Smith; this also received the name of the School
     of the Prophets.

     =4. The Decline of Spiritual Gifts in former days= is admitted by
     many authorities on ecclesiastical history and Christian
     doctrine. As an instance of this kind of testimony to the
     departure of the spiritual graces from the apostate church, the
     following words of John Wesley may be applied:--"It does not
     appear that these extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit were
     common in the church for more than two or three centuries. We
     seldom hear of them after that fatal period when the emperor
     Constantine called himself a Christian, and from a vain
     imagination of promoting the Christian cause thereby, heaped
     riches and power and honor upon Christians in general, but in
     particular upon the Christian clergy. From this time they almost
     totally ceased; very few instances of the kind were found. The
     cause of this was not as has been supposed because there was no
     more occasion for them,--because all the world was become
     Christians. This is a miserable mistake; not a twentieth part of
     it was then nominally Christian. The real cause of it was the
     love of many, almost all Christians, so called, was waxed cold.
     The Christians had no more of the Spirit of Christ than the other
     heathens. The Son of Man, when he came to examine His Church,
     could hardly find faith upon the earth. This was the real cause
     why the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were no longer to
     be found in the Christian Church--because the Christians were
     turned heathens again, and only had a dead form left."--Wesley's
     Works, vii, 89; 26-27.

     =5. Sectarian Views concerning Continuance or Decline of
     Spiritual Gifts.=--"Protestant writers insist that the age of
     miracles closed with the fourth or fifth century, and that after
     that the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost must not be looked
     for. Catholic writers, on the other hand, insist that the power
     to perform miracles has always continued in the Church; yet those
     spiritual manifestations which they describe after the fourth and
     fifth centuries savor of invention on the part of the priests,
     and childish incredulity on the part of the people; or else, what
     is claimed to be miraculous falls far short of the power and
     dignity of those spiritual manifestations which the primitive
     church was wont to witness. The virtues and prodigies, ascribed
     to the bones and other relics of the martyrs and saints, are
     puerile in comparison with the healings by the anointing with oil
     and the laying on of hands, speaking in tongues, interpretations,
     prophecies, revelations, casting out devils in the name of Jesus
     Christ; to say nothing of the gifts of faith, wisdom, knowledge,
     discernment of spirits, etc.--common in the Church in the days of
     the apostles (I Cor. xii, 8-10). Nor is there anything in the
     scriptures or in reason that would lead one to believe that they
     were to be discontinued. Still this plea is made by modern
     Christians--explaining the absence of these spiritual powers
     among them--that the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were
     only intended to accompany the proclamation of the gospel during
     the first few centuries, until the church was able to make its
     way without them, and they were to be done away. It is sufficient
     to remark upon this, that it is assumption pure and simple, and
     stands without warrant either of scripture or right reason; and
     proves that men had so far changed the religion of Jesus Christ
     that it became a form of godliness without the power
     thereof."--Elder B. H. Roberts, _Outlines of Ecclesiastical
     History_, part ii, sec. v, 6-8.

     =6. Miracles an Aid to Spiritual Growth.=--Apostle Orson Pratt,
     commenting on the utterances of Paul concerning the passing away
     of certain spiritual gifts (I Cor. xiii), writes in part as
     follows:--"The church in its militant and imperfect state,
     compared with its triumphant, immortal, and perfect state, is (in
     the 11th verse) represented by the two very different states of
     childhood and manhood. 'When,' says St. Paul, 'I was a child, I
     spake as a child, understood as a child, I thought as a child;
     but when I became a man I put away childish things.' In the
     various stages of education from childhood to manhood, certain
     indispensable rules, and diagrams, and scientific instruments are
     employed for the use and benefit of the pupil, that he may
     acquire a correct knowledge of the sciences, and be perfected in
     his studies. When the principles have been once acquired, and the
     student has been perfected in every branch of education, he can
     dispense with many of his maps, charts, globes, books, diagrams,
     etc.; as being, like childish things, no longer necessary; they
     were useful before his education was perfected, in imparting the
     desired knowledge, but having fulfilled their purposes, he no
     longer needs their assistance.... So it is with the Church in
     relation to spiritual gifts. While in this state of existence it
     is represented as a child: prophecy, revelations, tongues, and
     other spiritual gifts are the instruments of education. The
     child, or church, can no more be perfected in its education
     without the aid of these gifts as instruments, than the chemist
     could in his researches if he were deprived of the necessary
     apparatus for experiments. As the chemist needs his laboratory
     for experiments, as long as there remains any undiscovered truths
     in relation to the elements and compounds of our globe, so does
     the Church need the great laboratory of spiritual
     knowledge--namely, revelation and prophecy,--as long as it knows
     only in part.... As a human being, when a child, speaks as a
     child, understands as a child, and thinks as a child, so does the
     Church in this state of existence know only in part; but as the
     child, when it becomes a man, puts away childish things, so will
     the Church put away such childish things as 'prophecy in part,'
     'knowledge in part,' and 'seeing in part,' when it grows up,
     through the aid of these things, to a perfect man in Christ
     Jesus; that which is in part will be done away or merged into the
     greater fulness of knowledge which there reigns."--_Divine
     Authenticity of the Book of Mormon_, i, 15.

     But none of these gifts will be done away as long as the occasion
     for their exercise continues. That this was the conviction of
     Apostle Orson Pratt, whose words are quoted above, is evident
     from the following utterances by the same authority:--"The
     affliction of devils, the confusion of tongues, deadly poisons
     and sickness, are all curses which have been introduced into the
     world by the wickedness of man. The blessings of the gospel are
     bestowed to counteract these curses. Therefore, as long as these
     curses exist, the promised signs [Mark xvi, 16-18; Doc. and Cov.
     lxxxiv, 65-72] are needed to counteract their evil consequences.
     If Jesus had not intended that the blessings should be as
     extensive and unlimited in point of time as the curses, He would
     have intimated something to that effect in His word. But when He
     makes a universal promise of certain powers, to enable every
     believer in the gospel throughout the world to overcome certain
     curses, entailed upon man because of wickedness, it would be the
     rankest kind of infidelity not to believe the promised blessing
     necessary, as long as the curses abound among men."

     =7. Modern Manifestations.=--The official and incidental
     publications of the Church abound in instances of miraculous
     manifestations during the current dispensation. A number of
     authenticated accounts with many cases are to be found as
     follows:--Orson Pratt's "Divine Authenticity of the Book of
     Mormon," chapter v; B. H. Roberts' "A New Witness for God,"
     chapter xviii.

     For a brief treatment of "The Attitude of Science towards
     Miracles" see in "Jesus the Christ," p. 151, Note 7, summary of
     an article published by the Victoria Institute or Philosophical
     Society of Great Britain.



LECTURE XIII.

THE BIBLE.

     =Article 8.=--We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far
     as it is translated correctly....


=1. Our Acceptance of the Bible.=--The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints accepts the Bible as the first and foremost of her
standard works, chief among the books which have been proclaimed as
her written guides in faith and doctrine. In the respect and sanctity
with which the Latter-day Saints regard the Bible, they are of like
profession with Christian denominations in general, but differ from
them in the additional acknowledgment of certain other scriptures as
authentic and holy, which others are in harmony with the Bible, and
serve to support and emphasize its facts and doctrines. There is,
therefore, no specifically "Mormon" treatment of the Bible to be
presented. The historical and other data, upon which is based the
current Christian faith as to the genuineness of the biblical record,
are accepted as unreservedly by the Latter-day Saints as by the
members of any sect; and in literalness of interpretation this Church
probably excels.

=2.= Nevertheless, the Church announces a reservation in the case of
erroneous translation, which may occur as a result of human
incapacity; and even in this measure of caution we are not alone, for
biblical scholars generally admit the presence of errors of the kind,
many of them self-apparent. The Latter-day Saints believe the original
records to be the word of God unto man, and, as far as these records
have been translated correctly, the translations are regarded as
equally authentic. The English Bible professes to be a translation
made through the wisdom of man; in its preparation the most scholarly
men have been enlisted; yet not a version has been published in which
even the unlearned cannot perceive errors. However, an impartial
investigator has cause to wonder more at the paucity of errors than
that errors are to be found at all.

=3.= There will be, there can be, no absolutely reliable translation
of these or other scriptures, unless it be effected through the gift
of translation, as one of the endowments of the Holy Ghost. The
translator must have the spirit of the prophet if he would render in
another tongue the prophet's words; and human wisdom leads not to that
possession. Let the Bible then be read reverently, and with prayerful
care, the reader ever seeking the light of the Spirit that he may
discern between truth and the mistakes of men.

=4. The Name "Bible."=--In present usage, the term _Holy Bible_
designates the collection of sacred writings otherwise known as the
Jewish scriptures, containing an account of the dealings of God with
the human family; which account is confined wholly, except in the
record of ante-diluvian events, to the eastern hemisphere. The word
_Bible_, though singular in form, is the English representative of a
Greek plural, _Biblia_, signifying literally _the books_. The use of
the word probably dates from the fourth century, at which time we find
Chrysostom[732] employing the term to designate the scriptural books
then accepted as canonical by the Greek Christians. It is to be noted,
that the idea of a collection of books predominates in all early
usages of the word _Bible_; the scriptures were, as they are, composed
of the special writings of many authors, widely separated in time;
and, from the striking harmony and unity prevailing throughout these
diverse productions, strong evidence of their authenticity may be
adduced.

  [732] See Note 1.

=5.= The word _Biblia_ was thus endowed with a special meaning in the
Greek, signifying _the books_, that is to say the holy books as
distinguishing the sacred scriptures from all other writings; and the
term soon became current in the Latin, in which tongue it was used
from the first in its special sense. Through Latin usage, perhaps
during the thirteenth century, the word came to be regarded as a
singular noun signifying _the book_; this departure from the plural
meaning, invariably associated with the term in the Greek original,
led up to the popular error of regarding the Bible as having been a
unified volume from the first. Hence we meet with the reputed
derivation of the word from the Greek singular noun _Biblos_ meaning
_the book_, but this is declared by a preponderance of good authority
to be founded on a traditional misconception. It may appear that the
derivation of a word is of trifling importance; yet in this case, the
original form and first use of the title now current as that of the
sacred volume must be of instructive interest, as throwing some light
upon the compilation of the book in its present form.

=6.= It is evident that the name _Bible_ is not of itself a biblical
term; its use as a designation of the Jewish scriptures is wholly
external to those scriptures themselves. In its earliest application,
which dates from post-apostolic times, it was made to embrace most if
not all the books of the Old and the New Testament. Prior to the time
of Christ, the books of the Old Testament were known by no single
collective name, but were designated in groups as (1) the Pentateuch,
or five books of the Law; (2) the Prophets; and (3) the Hagiographa,
comprising all sacred records not included in the other divisions. But
we may the better consider the parts of the Bible by taking the main
divisions separately. A very natural division of the biblical record
is effected by the earthly work of the Savior; the written productions
of pre-Christian times came to be known as the Old Covenant; those of
the days of the Savior and the years immediately following, as the New
Covenant.[733] The term _testament_ gradually grew in favor until the
designations Old and New Testaments became common.

  [733] I Cor. xi, 25; see also Jer. xxxi, 31.


THE OLD TESTAMENT.

=7. Its Origin and Growth.=--At the time of our Lord's ministry in the
flesh, the Jews were in possession of certain scriptures which they
regarded as canonical or authoritative. There can be little doubt as
to the authenticity of those works, for they were frequently quoted by
both Christ and the apostles, by whom they were designated as "the
scriptures."[734] The Savior specifically refers to them under their
accepted terms of classification as "the law of Moses, the prophets,
and the psalms."[735] The books thus accepted by the people in the
time of Christ are sometimes spoken of as the Jewish canon of
scripture. The term _canon_, now generally current, suggests not books
that are merely credible, authentic, or even inspired, but such books
as are recognized as authoritative guides in profession and practice.
The term is instructive in its derivation. Its Greek original,
_kanon_, signified a straight measuring rod, and hence it came to mean
an authoritative standard of comparison, a rule, or test, as applied
to moral subjects as well as to material objects.

  [734] John v, 39; Acts xvii, 11.

  [735] Luke xxiv, 44.

=8.= As to the formation of the Jewish canon, or the Old Testament, we
read that Moses wrote the first part of it, viz. the Law; and that he
committed it to the care of the priests, or Levites, with a command
that they preserve it in the ark of the covenant,[736] to be a witness
against Israel in their transgressions. Fore-seeing that a king would
some day govern Israel, Moses commanded that the monarch should make a
copy of the Law for his guidance.[737] Joshua, successor of Moses, as
leader and law-giver of Israel, wrote further of the dealings of God
with the people, and of the Divine precepts; and this writing he
evidently appended to the Law as recorded by Moses.[738] Three
centuries and a half after the time of Moses, when the theocracy had
been replaced by a monarchy, Samuel, the approved prophet of the Lord,
wrote of the change "in a book, and laid it up before the Lord."[739]
And thus we see the law of Moses was augmented by later authoritative
records. From the writings of Isaiah, we learn that the people had
access to the "Book of the Lord;" for the prophet admonished them to
seek it out, and read it.[740] It is evident, then, that in the time
of Isaiah the people had a written authority in doctrine and practice.

  [736] Deut. xxxi, 9, 24-26.

  [737] Deut. xvii, 18.

  [738] Joshua xxiv, 26.

  [739] I Sam. x, 25.

  [740] Isaiah xxxiv, 16.

=9.= Nearly four centuries later (640-630 B. C.), while the righteous
king Josiah occupied the throne of Judah as a part of divided Israel,
Hilkiah the high priest and father of the prophet Jeremiah found in
the temple "a book of the law of the Lord,"[741] which was read before
the kings.[742] Then, during the fifth century B. C., in the days of
Ezra, the edict of Cyrus permitted the captive people of Judah, a
remnant of once united Israel, to return to Jerusalem,[743] there to
rebuild the temple of the Lord, according to the law[744] of God then
in the hand of Ezra. From this we may infer that the written law was
then known; and to Ezra is usually attributed the credit of compiling
the books of the Old Testament as far as completed in his day, to
which he added his own writings.[745] In this work of compilation he
was probably assisted by Nehemiah and the members of the Great
Synagogue,--a Jewish college of a hundred and twenty scholars.[746]
The book of Nehemiah, which gives a continuation of the historical
story as recorded by Ezra, is supposed to have been written by the
prophet whose name it bears, in part at least during the life of Ezra.
Then, a century later, Malachi,[747] the last of the prophets of note
who flourished before the opening of the dispensation of Christ, added
his record, completing, and virtually closing the pre-Christian canon,
with a prophetic promise of the Messiah and of the messenger whose
commission would be to prepare the way of the Lord.

  [741] II Chron. xxxiv, 14-15; see also Deut. xxxi, 26.

  [742] II Kings xxii.

  [743] Ezra i, 1-3.

  [744] See Ezra vii, 12-14.

  [745] The Book of Ezra.

  [746] This historical information is given in certain of the
  apocryphal works; see II Esdras.

  [747] Mal. iii, iv.

=10.= Thus, it is evident that the Old Testament grew with the
successive writings of authorized and inspired scribes from Moses to
Malachi, and that its compilation was a natural and gradual process,
each addition being deposited, or, as the sacred record gives it,
"laid up before the Lord," in connection with the previous writings.
Undoubtedly there were known to the Jews many other books, not
included in our present Old Testament; references to such are abundant
in the scriptures themselves, which references prove that many of
those extra-canonical records were regarded as of great authority. But
concerning this we will enquire further in connection with the
Apocrypha. The recognized canonicity of the Old Testament books is
attested by the numerous references in the latter to the earlier
books, and by the many quotations from the Old Testament occurring in
the New. About two hundred and thirty quotations or direct references
have been listed; and in addition to these, hundreds of less direct
allusions occur.

=11. Language of the Old Testament.=--It is highly probable, almost
certain indeed, that nearly all the books of the Old Testament were
originally written in Hebrew. Scholars profess to have found evidence
that small portions of the books of Ezra, Daniel, and Jeremiah were
written in the Chaldee language; but the prevalence of Hebrew as the
language of the original scriptures has given to the Old Testament the
common appellation, Hebrew or Jewish canon. Of the Pentateuch, two
versions have been recognized,--the Hebrew proper and the
Samaritan,[748] the latter of which was preserved in the most ancient
of Hebrew characters by the Samaritans, between whom and the Jews
there was lasting enmity.

  [748] See Note 2.

=12. The Septuagint.=--Passing over the Peshito or early Syriac
version of the Old Testament as of minor significance, we recognize as
the first important translation of the Hebrew canon that known as the
_Septuagint_.[749] This was a Greek version of the Old Testament,
translated from the Hebrew at the instance of an Egyptian monarch,
probably Ptolemy Philadelphus, about 286 B. C. The name _Septuagint_
suggests the number seventy, and is said to have been given because
the translation was made by a body of seventy-two elders (in round
numbers seventy); or, as other traditions say, because the work was
accomplished in seventy, or seventy-two days; or, according to yet
other stories, because the version received the sanction of the Jewish
ecclesiastical council, the Sanhedrin, which comprised seventy-two
members. Certain it is that the Septuagint (sometimes indicated by the
numerals LXX) was the current version among the Jews in the days of
Christ's ministry, and was quoted by the Savior and the apostles in
their references to the old canon. It is regarded as the most
authentic of the ancient versions, and is accepted at the present time
by the Greek Christians and other eastern churches. It is evident,
then, that from a time nearly three hundred years before Christ, the
Old Testament has been current in both Hebrew and Greek: this
duplication has been an effective means of protection against
alterations.

  [749] See Note 3.

=13. The Present Compilation= recognizes thirty-nine books in the Old
Testament: these were originally combined as twenty-two books,
corresponding to the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The thirty-nine
books as at present constituted may be conveniently classified as
follows:

  (1.) The Pentateuch or Books of the Law       5
  (2.) The Historical Books                    12
  (3.) The Poetical Books                       5
  (4.) The Books of the Prophets               17

=14.= (1.) =The Books of the Law.=--The first five books in the Bible
are collectively designated as the _Pentateuch_ (_pente_--five,
_teuxos_--volume); and were known among the early Jews as the _Torah_,
or the law. Their authorship is traditionally ascribed to Moses,[750]
and in consequence the "Five Books of Moses" is another commonly used
designation. They give the history, brief though it be, of the human
race from the creation to the flood, and from Noah to Israel; then a
more particular account of the chosen people through their period of
Egyptian bondage; thence during the journey of four decades in the
wilderness to the encampment on the farther side of Jordan.

  [750] Ezra vi, 18; vii, 6; Neh. viii, 1; John vii, 19.

=15.= (2.) =The Historical Books=, twelve in number, comprise the
following: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, I and II Samuel, I and II Kings, I
and II Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. They tell the story of the
Israelites entering the land of promise, and their subsequent career
through three distinct periods of their existence as a people:--(1) as
a theocratic nation, with a tribal organization, all parts cemented by
ties of religion and kinship; (2) as a monarchy, at first a united
kingdom, later a nation divided against itself; (3) as a partly
conquered people, their independence curtailed by the hand of their
victors.

=16.= (3.) =The Poetical Books= number five: Job, Psalms, Proverbs,
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. They are frequently spoken of
as the doctrinal or didactic works, and the Greek designation
Hagiographa (_hagios_--holy, and _graphe_--a writing) is still
applied.[751] These are of widely different ages, and their close
association in the Bible is probably due to their common use as guides
in devotion amongst the Jewish churches.

  [751] As stated, the Hagiographa, or "sacred writings," are
  generally understood to include the five poetical works of the Old
  Testament. By some authorities, the list is extended to include
  all the books mentioned in the Talmud as hagiographa; viz., Ruth,
  Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs,
  Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Daniel.

=17.= (4.) =The Books of the Prophets= comprise the five larger works
of Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Lamentations of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and
Daniel, commonly known as the works of the _Major Prophets_; and the
twelve shorter books of Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah,
Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, known to
Bible scholars as the books of the _Minor Prophets_. These give the
burden of the Lord's word to His people, encouragement, warning and
reproof, as suited their condition, before, during, and after their
captivity.[752]

  [752] See Note 4.

=18. The Apocrypha= comprise a number of books of doubtful
authenticity, though such have been at times highly esteemed. Thus,
they were added to the Septuagint, and for a time were accorded
recognition among the Alexandrine Jews. However, they have never been
generally admitted, being of uncertain origin. They are not quoted in
the New Testament. The designation apocryphal (meaning hidden, or
secret) was first applied to the books by Jerome, because, said he,
"the church doth read [them] for example of life and instruction of
manners, but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine."
The Roman church professes to acknowledge them as scripture, action to
this end having been taken by the council of Trent (1546); though the
doubt of the authenticity of the works seems still to exist even among
the Roman Catholic authorities. The sixth article in the Liturgy of
the Church of England defines the orthodox views of the church as to
the meaning and intent of Holy Scripture; and, after specifying the
books of the Old Testament which are regarded as canonical, proceeds
in this wise:--"And the other books (as Hierome [Jerome]
saith) the church doth read for example of life and instruction of
manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine;
such are these following:--The Third Book of Esdras; The Fourth Book
of Esdras; The Book of Tobias; The Book of Judith; The rest of the
Book of Esther; The Book of Wisdom; Jesus, the Son of Sirach; Baruch
the Prophet; The Song of the Three Children; The Story of Susanna; Of
Bel and the Dragon; The Prayer of Manasses; The First Book of
Maccabees; The Second Book of Maccabees."


THE NEW TESTAMENT.

=19. Its Origin and Authenticity.=--Since the latter part of the
fourth century of our present era, there has arisen scarcely a single
question of importance regarding the authenticity of the books of the
New Testament as at present constituted. From that time until the
present, the New Testament has been accepted as an unquestioned canon
of scriptures by all professed Christians.[753] In the fourth century,
there were generally current several lists of the books of the New
Testament as we now have them; of these may be mentioned the
catalogues of Athanasius, Epiphanius, Jerome, Rufinus, and Augustine
of Hippo, and the list announced by the third Council of Carthage. To
these may be added four others, which differ from the foregoing in
omitting the Revelation of John in three cases, and the same with the
Epistle to the Hebrews in one.

  [753] See Notes 5 and 6.

=20.= This superabundance of evidence relating to the constitution of
the New Testament canon in the fourth century is a result of the
anti-Christian persecution of that period. At the beginning of the
century in question, the oppressive measures of Diocletian, emperor of
Rome, were directed not alone against the Christians as individuals
and as a sect, but against their sacred writings, which the fanatical
and cruel monarch sought to destroy. Some degree of leniency was
extended to those persons who yielded up the holy books that had been
committed to their care; and not a few embraced this opportunity of
saving their lives. When the rigors of persecution were lessened, the
churches sought to judge their members who had weakened in their
allegiance to the faith, as shown by their surrender of the
scriptures, and all such were anathematized as traitors. Inasmuch as
many books that had been thus given up under the pressure of
threatening death were not at that time generally accepted as holy, it
became a question of first importance to decide just which books were
of such admitted sanctity that their betrayal would make a man a
traitor.[754] Hence we find Eusebius designating the books of the
Messianic and apostolic days as of two classes:--(1) Those of
acknowledged canonicity, viz:--the gospels, the epistles of Paul,
Acts, I John, I Peter, and probably the Apocalypse. (2) Those of
disputed authenticity, viz:--the epistles of James, II Peter, II and
III John, and Jude. To these classes he added a third class, including
books that were admittedly spurious.[755]

  [754] See Tregelles' "Historic Evidence of the Origin ... of the
  Books of the New Testament," p. 12--.

  [755] See Eusebius, "Ecclesiastical History," iii, 25.

=21.= As stated, the list published by Athanasius, which dates from
near the middle of the fourth century, gives the constitution of the
New Testament as we now have it; and at that time all doubts as to the
correctness of the enumeration seem to have been put to rest; and we
find the Testament of common acceptance by professing Christians in
Rome, Egypt, Africa, Syria, Asia Minor, and Gaul. The testimony of
Origen, who flourished in the third century, and that of Tertullian,
who lived during the second, were tested and pronounced conclusive by
the later writers in favor of the canonicity of the gospels and the
apostolic writings. Each book was tested on its own merits, and all
were declared by common consent to be authoritative and binding on the
churches.

=22.= If there be need to go farther back, we may note the testimony
of Irenæus, distinguished in ecclesiastical history as Bishop of
Lyons; he lived in the latter half of the second century, and is known
as a disciple of Polycarp, who was personally associated with the
Revelator, John. His voluminous writings affirm the authenticity of
most of the books of the New Testament, and define their authorship as
at present admitted. To these testimonies may be added those of the
Saints in Gaul, who wrote to their fellow-sufferers in Asia, quoting
freely from gospels, epistles, and the Apocalypse;[756] the
declarations of Melito, Bishop of Sardis, who journeyed to the East to
determine which were the canonical books, particularly of the Old
Testament;[757] and the solemn attest of Justin Martyr, who embraced
Christianity as a result of his earnest and learned investigations,
and who suffered death for his convictions. In addition to individual
testimony, we have that of ecclesiastical councils and official
bodies, by whom the question of authenticity was tried and decided. In
this connection may be mentioned the Council of Nice, 325 A. D.; the
Council of Laodicea, 363 A. D.; the Council of Hippo, 393 A. D.; the
third and the sixth Councils of Carthage, 397 and 419 A. D.

  [756] See Eusebius, book iv.

  [757] Eusebius iv, 26.

=23.= Since the date last named, no dispute as to the authenticity of
the New Testament has claimed much attention; surely the present is
too late a time, and the separating distance today is too vast, to
warrant the reopening of the question. The New Testament must be
accepted for what it claims to be; and though, perhaps, many precious
parts have been suppressed or lost, while some corruptions of the
sacred texts may have crept in, and errors have been inadvertently
introduced through the incapacity of translators, the volume as a
whole must be admitted as authentic and credible, and as an essential
part of the holy scriptures.[758]

  [758] Compare John v, 39.

=24. Classification of the New Testament.=--The New Testament
comprises twenty-seven books, conveniently classified as:--

  (1.) Historical      5
  (2.) Didactic       21
  (3.) Prophetic       1

=25.= (1.) =The Historical Books= include the four Gospels and the
Acts of the Apostles. The authors of these works are spoken of as the
evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; to Luke is ascribed the
authorship of the Acts.

=26.= (2.) =The Didactic Books= comprise the epistles; and these we
may arrange thus: (_1._) _The Epistles of Paul_, comprising (_a_) his
doctrinal letters addressed to Romans, Corinthians, Galatians,
Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Hebrews; (_b_) his
pastoral communications to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon. (_2._) _The
General Epistles_ of James, Peter, John, and Jude.

=27.= (3.) =The Prophetic Works=, consisting of the Revelation of
John, commonly known as the Apocalypse.


THE BIBLE AS A WHOLE.

=28. Early Versions of the Bible.=--Many versions of the Old Testament
and of the combined Testaments have appeared at different times. The
Hebrew text with the Samaritan duplication of the Pentateuch, and the
Greek translation, or the Septuagint (LXX), have been already noted.
Revisions and modified translations competed for favor with the
Septuagint during the early ages of the Christian era; Theodotian,
Aquila, and Symmachus each issued a new version. One of the first
translations into Latin was the _Italic version_, probably prepared in
the second century; this was later improved and amended, and then
became known as the _Vulgate_; and this is still held by the church of
Rome to be the authentic version. This version included both Old and
New Testaments.

=29. Many Modern Versions in English=, some fragmentary, others
complete, have appeared since the beginning of the thirteenth century.
About 1380 A. D., Wycliffe presented an English translation of the New
Testament, made from the Vulgate; the Old Testament was afterward
added. About 1525 A. D., Tyndale's translation of the New Testament
appeared; this was included in Coverdale's Bible, printed in 1535,
which constituted the first version of the complete Bible. Matthew's
Bible dates from 1537; Taverner's Bible from 1539, and Cranmer's Great
Bible from the same year. In 1560 the Geneva Bible appeared; in 1568
the Bishops' Bible, the first English version having chapter and verse
divisions; and in 1611 the so-called Authorized English Version, or
King James' translation, this being a new translation of Old and New
Testaments from the Hebrew and Greek, made by forty-seven scholars at
the command of King James I. This has superseded all earlier versions,
and is the form now in current use among Protestants. But even this
latest and supposedly best version was found to contain many and
serious errors; and in 1885 a revised version was issued, which,
however, has not yet been accorded general acceptance.

=30. Genuineness and Authenticity of the Bible.=--However interesting
and instructive these historical and literary data of the Jewish
scriptures may be, the consideration of such is subordinate to that of
the authenticity of the books; for as we, in common with the rest of
the Christian world, have accepted them as the word of God, it is
eminently proper that we should inquire into the genuineness of the
records upon which our faith is so largely founded. All evidences
furnished by the Bible itself, such as its language, historical
details, and the consistency of its contents, unite in supporting its
claim to genuineness as the actual works of the authors to whom the
separate parts are ascribed. In a multitude of instances, comparisons
are easy between the biblical record and contemporary history not
scriptural, particularly in regard to biography and genealogy, and, in
all such cases, striking agreement has been found.[759] Further
argument exists in the individuality maintained by each writer,
resulting in a marked diversity of style; while the wondrous unity
pervading the whole declares the operation of some single guiding
influence throughout the ages of the record's growth; and this can be
nothing less than the power of inspiration which operated upon all who
were accepted as instruments in the Divine Hand to prepare this book
of books. Tradition, contemporary history, literary analysis, and
above and beyond all these, the test of prayerful research and
truth-seeking investigation, unite to prove the authenticity of this
wondrous volume, and to point the way, defined within its covers,
leading men back to the Eternal Presence.

  [759] See Note 7.

=31. Book of Mormon Testimony regarding the Bible.=--As declared in
the eighth of the Articles of Faith now under consideration, the
Latter-day Saints accept the Book of Mormon as a volume of sacred
scripture, which, like the Bible, embodies the word of God. In the
next lecture the Book of Mormon will receive our special attention;
but it may be profitable to refer here to the collateral evidence
furnished by that work regarding the authenticity of the Jewish
scriptures, and of the general integrity of these latter in their
present form. According to the Book of Mormon record, the Prophet
Lehi, with his family and some others, left Jerusalem by the command
of God, about 600 B. C., during the first year of King Zedekiah's
reign. Before finally forsaking the land of their nativity, the
travelers secured certain records, which were engraved on plates of
brass. Among these writings were a history of the Jews and some of the
scriptures then accepted as authentic.

=32.= Lehi examined the brazen record--"And he beheld that they did
contain the five books of Moses, which gave an account of the creation
of the world, and also of Adam and Eve, who were our first parents;
and also a record of the Jews from the beginning, even down to the
commencement of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah; and also the
prophecies of the holy prophets, from the beginning, even down to the
commencement of the reign of Zedekiah; and also many prophecies which
have been spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah."[760] This direct reference
to the Pentateuch and to certain of the Jewish prophets is valuable
external evidence concerning the authenticity of those parts of the
biblical record.

  [760] I Nephi v, 10-13.

=33.= In a vision, Nephi, the son of Lehi, learned of the future of
God's plan regarding the human family; and saw that a book of great
worth, containing the word of God and the covenants of the Lord with
Israel, would go forth from the Jews to the Gentiles.[761] It is
further stated that Lehi's company, who, as we shall see, were led
across the waters to the western continent, whereon they established
themselves and afterward grew to be a numerous and powerful people,
were accustomed to study the scriptures engraved on the plates of
brass; and, moreover, their scribes embodied long quotations therefrom
in their own growing record.[762] So much for Book of Mormon
recognition of the Old Testament, or at least of such parts of the
Jewish canon as had been completed when Lehi's migrating colony left
Jerusalem, during the ministry of the prophet Jeremiah.

  [761] See I Nephi xiii, 21-23.

  [762] I Nephi xx-xxi; II Nephi vii-viii; xii-xxiv.

=34.= But further, concerning the New Testament scriptures this voice
from the western world is not silent. In prophetic vision, many of the
Nephite teachers saw and fore-told the ministry of Christ in the
meridian of time, and recorded predictions concerning the principal
events of the Savior's life and death, with striking fidelity and
detail. This testimony is recorded of Nephi,[763] Benjamin,[764] who
was both prophet and king, Abinadi,[765] Samuel the converted
Lamanite,[766] and others. In addition to these and many other
prophecies regarding the mission of Christ, all of which agree with
the New Testament record of their fulfillment, we find in the Book of
Mormon an account of the risen Lord's ministrations among the Nephite
people, during which He established His Church with them, after the
pattern recorded in the New Testament; and, moreover, He gave them
many instructions in words almost identical with those of His
teachings among the Jews in the east.[767]

  [763] I Nephi x, 4-5; xi-xiii; xiv; II Nephi ix, 5; x, 3; xxv, 26;
  xxvi, 24.

  [764] Mosiah iii; iv, 3.

  [765] Mosiah xiii-xvi.

  [766] Helaman xiv, 12.

  [767] III Nephi ix-xxvi; compare for New Testament references with
  Matthew v-vii etc.; and for Old Testament mention with Isaiah liv;
  Malachi iii-lv.


NOTES.

     =1. John Chrysostom=, one of the Greek "Christian Fathers,"
     flourished during the latter half of the fourth century; he was
     patriarch of Constantinople, but was deposed and exiled some time
     before his death which occurred in 407. His use of the term
     _biblia_ to designate the scriptural canon is among the earliest
     applications of the sort yet found, He entreated his people to
     avail themselves of the riches of inspired works in this
     wise:--"Hear, I exhort, all yet in secular life, and purchase
     _biblia_, the medicine of the soul." Speaking of the Jewish
     Christians, he says, "They have the _biblia_, but we have the
     treasures of the _biblia_; they have the letters, we have the
     letters and the understanding."

     =2. The Samaritan Copy of the Pentateuch.=--In his valuable
     course of lectures on Bible subjects, Elder David McKenzie
     presents the following, with references to the writings of
     Horne:--"Nine hundred and seventy years before Christ, the nation
     of Israel was divided into two kingdoms. Both retained the same
     book of the law. Rivalry prevented either of them from altering
     or adding to the law. After Israel was carried into Assyria,
     other nations occupied Samaria. These received the Pentateuch.
     (II Kings xvii, 26-28.) The language being Hebrew or Phoenician,
     whereas the Jewish copy was changed into Chaldee, corruption or
     alteration was thus made impracticable, yet the texts remain
     almost identical."

     =3. Versions of the Bible or of Parts Thereof.=--_The
     Septuagint_:--"Various opinions have been put forth to explain
     its appellation of _Septuagint_; some say that Ptolemy
     Philadelphus requested of Eleazer the High Priest a copy of the
     Hebrew scriptures, and six learned Jews from each tribe (together
     seventy-two), competent to translate it into Greek; these were
     shut up in the isle of Pharos, and in seventy-two days they
     completed their task: as they dictated it, Demetrius Phalereus,
     the king's chief librarian, transcribed it: but this is now
     considered a fable. Others say that these same interpreters,
     having been shut up in separate cells, wrote each one a
     translation; and so extraordinarily did they all coincide
     together in words as well as sentiment, that evidence was thus
     afforded of their inspiration by the Holy Spirit; this opinion
     has also been set aside as too extravagant. It is very possible
     that seventy-two writers were employed in the translation; but it
     is more probable that it acquired the name of _Septuagint_ from
     having received the approbation of the Jewish Sanhedrin, which
     consisted of seventy-two persons. Some affirm it to have been
     executed at different times; and Horne says it is most probable
     that this version was made during the joint reigns of Ptolemy
     Lagus and his son Philadelphus, about 285 or 286 B. C."

     _The Vulgate._--"There was a very ancient version of the Bible
     translated from the Septuagint into Latin, but by whom and when
     is unknown. It was in general use in the time of Jerome, and was
     called the _Itala_ or _Italic Version_. About the close of the
     fourth century, Jerome began a new translation into Latin from
     the Hebrew text, which he gradually completed. It at last gained
     the approbation of Pope Gregory I, and has been used ever since
     the seventh century. The present Vulgate, declared authentic by
     the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century, is the ancient
     Italic version, revised and improved by the corrections of Jerome
     and others; and is the only one allowed by the Church of Rome."

     _The "Authorized Version."_--"Certain objections having been made
     to the _Bishops' Bible_ at the Hampton Court conference in A. D.
     1603, King James I directed a new translation to be made.
     Forty-seven persons, eminent for their piety and biblical
     learning, were chosen to this end; they were divided into six
     committees, two to sit at Oxford, two at Cambridge, and two at
     Westminster; and each committee had a certain portion of the
     scriptures assigned to it. They began their task in A. D. 1607,
     and the whole was completed and in print in A. D. 1611. This is
     called the _Authorized English Version_ and is the one now in
     use."--From _Analysis of Scripture History_, by Pinnock; pp. 3,
     5; (6th ed.).

     =4. The Prophetical Books= of the Old Testament are arranged with
     little or no regard to their chronological order, the extent of
     the contained matter placing the larger works first. The
     chronological arrangement would probably be Jonah, Joel, Amos,
     Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah:--all of these prophesied
     previous to the captivity; then follow Jeremiah, Habakkuk,
     Ezekiel, and Daniel, who wrote during the captivity; then Haggai,
     Zechariah, and Malachi, after the return of the Jews from
     captivity.

     =5. Manuscript Copies of the New Testament.=--Three manuscripts
     of New Testament writings now in existence are regarded as
     authentic. These are known as the _Vatican_ (now in Rome), the
     _Alexandrian_ (now in London), and the _Sinaitic_ (now in the St.
     Petersburg library). The last named or Sinaitic is considered to
     be the oldest copy of the New Testament in existence. The
     manuscript was discovered in 1859 among the archives of a
     monastery on Mount Sinai, hence its name. It was found by
     Tischendorf, and is now in the imperial library at St.
     Petersburg.

     =6. Concerning the Genuineness of Parts of the New
     Testament.=--In answer to objections that have been urged by
     critics in the matter of genuineness or authenticity of certain
     books of the New Testament, the following array of testimony may
     be considered. The items are presented here as collated by Elder
     David McKenzie, and as used by him in his instructive lectures on
     the Bible.

     (_I_) _The Four Gospels._--_1. Matthew._ Papias, Bishop of
     Hierapolis, was a hearer of the Apostle John. With respect to St.
     Matthew's Gospel, Eusebius quotes him as saying:--"Matthew
     composed the Oracles In the Hebrew tongue, and each one
     interpreted them as he could."--(Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iii, 39.)

     _2. Mark._ Of Mark's writing, Papias also says:--"Mark having
     become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately everything
     that he remembered, without, however, recording in order what was
     either said or done by Christ. For neither did he hear the Lord,
     nor follow Him, but afterward attended Peter, who adapted his
     instructions to the needs of his hearers, but had no design of
     giving a connected account of the Lord's oracles (or
     discourses)."--(Bishop Lightfoot's translations, in "Contemporary
     Review," August, 1875.)

     _3. Luke._ Internal evidence shows that Luke's Gospel and the
     Acts of the Apostles were composed by the same author. St. Paul
     speaks of Luke as a physician; and Dr. Hobart, in 1882, published
     at London a treatise on "The Medical Language of St. Luke," and
     points out the frequent use of medical terms in Luke's writings,
     permeating the entire extent of the third Gospel, and the Acts of
     the Apostles. Even M. Renan makes a similar admission. He
     says:--"One point which is beyond question is that the Acts are
     by the same author as the third Gospel, and are a continuation of
     that Gospel. One need not stop to prove this proposition, which
     has never been seriously contested. The prefaces at the
     commencement of each work, the dedication of each to Theophilus,
     the perfect resemblance of style and of ideas, furnish on this
     point abundant demonstrations." "A second proposition is that the
     author of the Acts is a disciple of Paul, who accompanied him for
     a considerable part of his travels."--(M. Renan, "The Apostles";
     see preface.)

     _4. John._ Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, about 177 A. D., a pupil of
     Polycarp who was martyred in 155 or 156, relates in a letter to a
     fellow-pupil his recollections of what he had heard Polycarp say
     about his intercourse with John, and with the rest who had seen
     the Lord; and about the Lord, and about His miracles, and about
     His teaching. All these he would relate altogether in accordance
     with _the Scriptures_. (Eusebius, Eccl. Hist, v, 20.) That
     Irenæus meant by "the Scriptures," Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
     is evident from the text. Besides, he urges "not only that four
     Gospels alone have been handed down from the beginning, but that
     in the nature of things there could not be more nor less than
     four. There are four regions in the world, and four principal
     winds, and the Church therefore, as destined to be conterminous
     with the world, must be supported by four Gospels as four
     pillars."--(Contemporary Review, August, 1876, p. 413.) [The forced
     analogy assumed by Irenæus between the _four_ Gospels and
     the _four_ winds, etc., is of course without foundation, and
     its use appears literally absurd; nevertheless the fact that he
     noted it furnishes evidence of the acceptance of the four Gospels
     in his day.--J. E. T.]

     (_II_) _The Pauline Epistles._--The following extracts from the
     testimony of the Tübingen critics on four of Paul's epistles, are
     instructive.

     De Wette says, in his introduction to the "Books of the New
     Testament" (123, a.):--"The letters of Paul bear the marks of his
     powerful genius. The most important of them are raised above all
     contradiction as to their authenticity; they form the solid
     kernel of the book of the New Testament."

     Baur says, in his "Apostle Paul" (1, 8):--"Not only has no
     suspicion of the authenticity of these Epistles even arisen, but
     they bear so incontestably the seal of the originality of Paul,
     that one cannot comprehend for what reason critics could raise
     any objection to them."

     Weizsæker writes (Apost. Zeitalter, 1866, p. 190):--"The letters
     to the Galatians and the Corinthians are, without doubt, from the
     hand of the Apostle; from his hand also came incontestably the
     Epistle to the Romans."

     Holtzmann says ("Einleit in's N. T.," p. 224):--"These four
     Epistles are the Pauline Homologoumena (books universally
     received) in the modern acceptation of the word. We can realize,
     with respect to them, the proof of authenticity undertaken by
     Paley against the free-thinkers of his time."

     M. Renan in _The Gospels_ (pp. 40, 41), thus expresses
     himself:--"The epistles of Paul have an unequaled advantage in
     this history--that is, their absolute authenticity." Of the
     Epistles to the Corinthians, the Galatians, and the Romans, Renan
     speaks as "indisputable and undisputed;" and adds, "The most
     severe critics, such as Christian Baur, accept them without
     objection."

     =7. Archeological Evidence Confirming the Bible.=--Prof. A. H.
     Sayce, M. A., sums up his learned treatise on the testimony of
     the ancient monuments, thus:--"The critical objections to the
     truth of the Old Testament, once drawn from the armory of Greek
     and Latin writers, can never be urged again; they have been met
     and overthrown once for all. The answers to them have come from
     papyrus and clay and stone, from the tombs of ancient Egypt, from
     the mounds of Babylonia, and from the ruined palaces of the
     Assyrian kings."

     =8. Missing Scripture.=--Those who oppose the doctrine of
     continual revelation between God and His Church, on the ground
     that the Bible is complete as a collection of sacred scriptures,
     and that alleged revelation not found therein must therefore be
     spurious, may profitably take note of the many books not included
     in the Bible, yet mentioned therein, generally in such a way as
     to leave no doubt that they were once regarded as authentic.
     Among these extra-biblical scriptures, the following may be
     named; some of them are in existence to-day, and are classed with
     the Apocrypha; but the greater number are unknown. We read of the
     Book of the Covenant (Exo. xxiv, 7); Book of the Wars of the Lord
     (Numb. xxi, 14); Book of Jasher (Josh. x, 13); Book of the
     Statutes (I Sam. x, 25); Book of Enoch (Jude 14); Book of the
     Acts of Solomon (I Kings xi, 41); Book of Nathan the Prophet, and
     that of Gad the Seer (I Chron. xxix, 29); Book of Ahijah the
     Shilonite, and visions of Iddo, the Seer (II Chron. ix, 29); Book
     of Shemaiah (II Chron. xii, 15); Story of the Prophet Iddo (II
     Chron. xiii, 22); Book of Jehu (II Chron. xx, 34); the Acts of
     Uzziah, by Isaiah, the son of Amoz (II Chron. xxvi, 22); Sayings
     of the Seers (II Chron. xxxiii, 19); a missing epistle of Paul to
     the Corinthians (I Cor. v, 9); a missing epistle to the Ephesians
     (Eph. iii, 3); missing epistle to the Colossians, written from
     Laodicea (Col. iv, 16); a missing epistle of Jude (Jude 3); a
     declaration of belief mentioned by Luke (i, 1).



LECTURE XIV.

THE BOOK OF MORMON.

     =Article 8.=--... We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the
     word of God.


DESCRIPTION AND ORIGIN.

=1. What is the Book of Mormon?=--The claims made for the Book of
Mormon affirm it to be a divinely inspired record, made by the
prophets of the ancient peoples who inhabited the American continent
for centuries before and immediately after the time of Christ; which
record has been translated in the present generation through the gift
of God and by His special appointment. The authorized and inspired
translator of these sacred scriptures, through whose instrumentality
they have been given to the world in modern language, is Joseph Smith,
whose first acquaintance with the plates was mentioned in the first
lecture.[768] As stated, on the 21st of September, 1823, Joseph Smith
received, in answer to fervent prayer, a visitation from an angelic
personage, who gave his name as Moroni; subsequent revelations showed
him to be the last of a long line of prophets whose translated
writings constitute the Book of Mormon; by him the ancient records had
been closed; by him the graven plates had been deposited in the earth;
and through his ministration they were brought into the possession of
the modern prophet and seer whose work of translation is now before
us.

  [768] See pages 10, 17.

=2.= On the occasion of Moroni's first visit to Joseph Smith, the
angelic visitor declared the existence of the record, which, he said,
was engraved on plates of gold, at that time lying buried in the side
of a hill near Joseph's home. The hill, which was known by one
division of the ancient peoples as Cumorah, by another as Ramah, is
situated near Palmyra in the county of Wayne, State of New York. The
precise spot where the plates lay was shown to Joseph in vision; and
he had no difficulty in finding it on the day following the visitation
referred to. Joseph's statement of Moroni's declaration concerning the
plates is as follows:--"He said there was a book deposited, written
upon gold plates, giving an account of the former inhabitants of this
continent, and the source from which they sprang. He also said that
the fulness of the everlasting gospel was contained in it, as
delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants. Also, that there
were two stones in silver bows, (and these stones, fastened to a
breastplate, constituted what is called the Urim and Thummim),
deposited with the plates; and the possession and use of these stones
was what constituted Seers in ancient or former times; and that God
had prepared them for the purpose of translating the book."[769]

  [769] Pearl of Great Price: Extr. Hist. of Joseph Smith, 34-35.

=3.= Joseph found a large stone at the indicated spot on the hill
Cumorah; beneath the stone was a box, also of stone; the lid of this
he raised by means of a lever; then he saw within the box the plates,
and the breastplate with the Urim and Thummim, as described by the
angel. As he was about to remove the contents of the box, Moroni again
appeared before him, and forbade him taking the sacred things at that
time, saying that four years must pass before they would be committed
to his personal care; and that, in the meantime, Joseph would be
required to visit the place at yearly intervals; this the youthful
revelator did, receiving on each occasion additional instruction
concerning the record and God's purposes with it. On the 22nd of
September, 1827, Joseph received from the angel Moroni the plates and
the Urim and Thummim with the breastplate. He was instructed to guard
them with strict care, and was promised that if he used his best
efforts to protect them they would be preserved inviolate in his
hands; and that on the completion of the labor of translation, Moroni
would visit him again, and receive the plates.

=4.= The reason prompting the angelic caution regarding Joseph's care
of the treasures soon appeared; thrice in the course of his short
journey homeward with the sacred relics, he was attacked; but by
Divine aid he was enabled to withstand his assailants and finally
reached his home with the plates and other articles unharmed. These
attacks were but the beginning of a siege of persecution which was
relentlessly waged against him by the powers of evil as long as the
plates remained in his custody. News that he had the golden record in
his possession soon spread; and numerous attempts, many of them
violent, were made to wrest the plates from his hands. But they were
preserved; and, slowly, with many hindrances incident to persecution
by the wicked, and to the conditions of his own poverty which made it
necessary for him to toil and left little leisure for the appointed
labor, Joseph proceeded with the translation; and in 1830 the Book of
Mormon was first published to the world.

=5. The Title Page of the Book of Mormon.=--Our best answer to the
question: What is the Book of Mormon? is found on the title page to
the volume. Thereon we read:

     "The Book of Mormon: an account written by the hand of Mormon,
     upon plates taken from the plates of Nephi. Wherefore it is an
     abridgment of the record of the people of Nephi, and also of the
     Lamanites; written to the Lamanites who are a remnant of the
     house of Israel; and also to Jew and Gentile: written by way of
     commandment, and also by the spirit of prophecy and of
     revelation. Written and sealed up, and hid up unto the Lord, that
     they might not be destroyed; to come forth by the gift and power
     of God unto the interpretation thereof: sealed by the hand of
     Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, to come forth in due time by
     the way of Gentile; the interpretation thereof by the gift of
     God.

     "An abridgment taken from the book of Ether also; which is a
     record of the people of Jared; who were scattered at the time the
     Lord confounded the language of the people when they were
     building a tower to get to heaven; which is to show unto the
     remnant of the House of Israel what great things the Lord hath
     done for their fathers; and that they may know the covenants of
     the Lord, that they are not cast off forever; and also to the
     convincing of the Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ, the
     Eternal God, manifesting Himself unto all nations. And now, if
     there are faults, they are the mistakes of men: wherefore condemn
     not the things of God, that ye may be found spotless at the
     judgment seat of Christ."

This combined title and preface is a translation from the last page of
the plates, and was presumably written by Moroni, who, as before
stated, sealed and hid up the book in former days.[770]

  [770] See Note 1.

=6. Main Divisions of the Book.=--From the title page, we learn that
in the Book of Mormon we have to deal with the histories of two great
nations, who flourished in America as the descendants of small
colonies brought hither from the eastern continent by Divine
direction. Of these we may conveniently speak as the Nephites and the
Jaredites.

=7. The Nephite Nation= was the later, and in point of the fulness of
the records, the more important. The progenitors of this nation were
led from Jerusalem 600 B. C., by Lehi, a Jewish prophet of the tribe
of Manasseh. His immediate family, at the time of their departure from
Jerusalem, comprised his wife Sariah, and their sons Laman, Lemuel,
Sam, and Nephi; at a later stage of the history, daughters are
mentioned, but whether any of these were born before the family exodus
we are not told. Beside his own family, the colony of Lehi included
Zoram and Ishmael, the latter an Israelite of the tribe of Ephraim.
Ishmael, with his family, joined Lehi in the wilderness; and his
descendants were numbered with the nation of whom we are speaking. The
company journeyed somewhat east of south, keeping near the borders of
the Red Sea; then, changing their course to the eastward, crossed the
peninsula of Arabia; and there, on the shores of the Arabian Sea,
built and provisioned a vessel in which they committed themselves to
Divine care upon the waters. Their voyage carried them eastward across
the Indian Ocean, then over the south Pacific Ocean to the western
coast of South America, whereon they landed (590 B. C.). The landing
place is not described with such detail as to warrant definite
conclusions.

=8.= The people established themselves on what to them was the land of
promise; many children were born, and in the course of a few
generations a numerous posterity held possession of the land. After
the death of Lehi, a division occurred, some of the people accepting
as their leader Nephi, who had been duly appointed to the prophetic
office; while the rest proclaimed Laman, the eldest of Lehi's sons, as
their chief. Henceforth the divided people were known as Nephites and
Lamanites respectively. At times they observed toward each other
fairly friendly relations; but generally they were opposed, the
Lamanites manifesting implacable hatred and hostility toward their
Nephite kindred. The Nephites advanced in the arts of civilization,
built large cities, and established prosperous commonwealths; yet they
often fell into transgression; and the Lord chastened them by
permitting their foes to be victorious. They spread northward,
occupying the northern part of South America; then, crossing the
Isthmus, they extended their domain over the southern, central, and
eastern portions of what is now the United States of America. The
Lamanites, while increasing in numbers, fell under the curse of
darkness; they became dark in skin and benighted in spirit, forgot the
God of their fathers, lived a wild nomadic life, and degenerated into
the fallen state in which the American Indians,--their lineal
descendants,--were found by those who re-discovered the western
continent in later times.

=9.= The final struggles between Nephites and Lamanites were waged in
the vicinity of the hill Cumorah, in what is now the state of New
York, resulting in the entire destruction of the Nephites, about 400
A. D. The last Nephite representative was Moroni, who, wandering for
safety from place to place, daily expecting death from the victorious
Lamanites, who had decreed the absolute extinction of their white
kindred, wrote the concluding parts of the Book of Mormon, hid the
record in Cumorah, and soon thereafter died. It was this same Moroni
who, as a resurrected being, gave the records into the hands of Joseph
Smith in the present dispensation.

=10. The Jaredite Nation.=--Of the two nations whose histories
constitute the Book of Mormon, the first in order of time consisted of
the people of Jared, who followed their leader from the Tower of Babel
at the time of the confusion of tongues. Their history was written on
twenty-four plates of gold by Ether, the last of their prophets, who,
fore-seeing the destruction of his people because of their wickedness,
hid away the historical plates. They were afterward found, B. C. 123,
by an expedition sent out by King Limhi, a Nephite ruler. The record
engraved on these plates was subsequently abridged by Moroni, and the
condensed account was attached by him to the Book of Mormon record;
it appears in the modern translation under the name of the Book of
Ether.

=11.= The first and chief prophet of the Jaredites is not mentioned by
name in the record as we have it; he is known only as the brother of
Jared. Of the people, we learn that, amid the confusion of Babel,
Jared and his brother importuned the Lord that He would spare them and
their associates from the impending disruption. Their prayer was
heard, and the Lord led them with a considerable company, who, like
themselves, were free from the taint of idolatry, away from their
homes, promising to conduct them to a land choice above all other
lands. Their course of travel is not given with exactness; we learn
only that they reached the ocean, and there constructed eight vessels,
called barges, in which they set out upon the waters. These vessels
were small and dark within; but the Lord made luminous certain stones,
which gave light to the imprisoned voyagers. After a passage of three
hundred and forty-four days, the colony landed on the western shore of
North America, possibly south of the Gulf of California, and north of
the Isthmus of Panama.

=12.= Here they became a flourishing nation; but, giving way in time
to internal dissensions, they divided into factions, which warred with
one another until the people were totally destroyed. This destruction,
which occurred near the hill Ramah, afterward known among the Nephites
as Cumorah, probably took place at about the time of Lehi's landing in
South America,--590 B. C. The last representative of the ill-fated
race was Coriantumr, the former king, concerning whom Ether had
prophesied that he should survive all his subjects, and live to see
another people in possession of the land. This prediction was
fulfilled in that the king, whose people had become extinct, came, in
the course of his solitary wanderings, to a region occupied by the
people of Mulek, who are to be mentioned here as the third ancient
colony of emigrants from the eastern continent.

=13.= _Mulek_, we are told, was the son of Zedekiah, king of Judah, an
infant at the time of his brothers' violent deaths and his father's
cruel torture at the hands of the king of Babylon.[771] Eleven years
after Lehi's departure from Jerusalem, another colony was led from the
city, amongst whom was Mulek. His name has been given to the people,
probably on account of his recognized rights of leadership by virtue
of his lineage. The Book of Mormon record concerning Mulek and his
people is scant; we learn, however, that the colony was brought across
the waters, to a landing on the northern part of the continent. The
descendants of this colony were discovered by the Nephites under
Mosiah; they had grown numerous, but, having had no scriptures for
their guidance, had fallen into a condition of spiritual darkness.
They joined the Nephites, and their history is merged into that of the
greater nation.[772] The Nephites gave to North America the name Land
of Mulek.

  [771] See II Kings xxv, 7.

  [772] Omni i, 12-19.


THE ANCIENT PLATES AND THE MODERN TRANSLATION.

=14. The Plates of the Book of Mormon= as delivered by the angel
Moroni to Joseph Smith, according to the description given by the
modern prophet, were of gold, of uniform size, each about seven inches
wide by eight inches long; in thickness a little less than ordinary
sheet tin; they were fastened together by three rings running through
the plates near one edge; together they formed a book nearly six
inches in thickness, but not all has been translated, a part being
sealed. Both sides of the plates were engraved with small and
beautiful characters, described by those who examined them as of
curious workmanship, with the appearance of ancient origin.

=15.= Three classes of plates are mentioned on the title page of the
Book of Mormon, viz:--

(1.) _The Plates of Nephi_, which, as will be shown, were of two
kinds:--(a) the larger plates; (b) the smaller plates.

(2.) _The Plates of Mormon_, containing an abridgment from the plates
of Nephi, with additions made by Mormon and his son Moroni.

(3.) _The Plates of Ether_, containing, as we have seen, the history
of the Jaredites.

To these may be added another set of plates, as being mentioned in the
Book of Mormon, viz:

(4.) _The Brass Plates of Laban_, brought by Lehi's people from
Jerusalem, and containing Jewish scriptures and genealogies, many
extracts from which appear in the Nephite records. We have now to
consider more particularly the plates of Nephi, and Mormon's
abridgment thereof.

=16. The Plates of Nephi= are so named from the fact that they were
prepared, and their record was begun, by Nephi, the son of Lehi. These
plates were of two kinds,[773] which may be distinguished as the
"larger plates" and the "smaller plates." Nephi began his labors as a
recorder by engraving on plates of gold a historical account of his
people, from the time his father left Jerusalem. This account recited
the story of their wanderings, their prosperity and their distress,
the reigns of their kings, and the wars and contentions of the people;
the record was in the nature of a secular history. These plates were
handed from one recorder to another throughout the generations of the
Nephite people; so that, at the time they were abridged by Mormon, the
record covered a period of about a thousand years, dating from 600 B.
C., the time of Lehi's exodus from Jerusalem. Although these plates
bore the name of their maker, who was also the first of the writers,
the separate work of each recorder is known in general by his specific
name, so that the record is made up of many distinct books.

  [773] I Nephi ix; xix, 1-5; II Nephi v, 30; Jacob i, 1-4; Words of
  Mormon i, 3-7.

=17.= By command of the Lord, Nephi made other plates, upon which he
recorded particularly the ecclesiastical history of his people, citing
only such instances of other events as seemed necessary to the proper
sequence of the narrative. "I have received a commandment of the
Lord," says Nephi, "that I should make these plates for the special
purpose that there should be an account engraven of the ministry of my
people."[774] The object of this double line of history was unknown to
Nephi, it was enough for him that the Lord required the labor; that it
was for a wise purpose will be shown.

  [774] I Nephi ix, 3.

=18. Mormon's Abridgment.=--In the course of time the records that had
accumulated as the history of the people grew fell into the hands of
Mormon;[775] and he undertook to make an abridgment of these extensive
works, upon plates made with his own hands.[776] By such a course, a
record was prepared more concise and more nearly uniform in style,
language, and treatment than could possibly be the case with the
varied writings of so many authors as had contributed to the great
history during the thousand years of its growth. Mormon recognizes and
testifies to the inspiration of God by which he was moved to undertake
the great labor.[777] In preparing this shorter history, Mormon
preserved the division of the record into books according to the
arrangement of the originals; and thus, though the language may be
that of Mormon, except in cases of quotations from the plates of
Nephi, which are indeed numerous, we find the Books of Nephi, the Book
of Alma, the Book of Helaman, etc., the form of speech known as the
first person being generally preserved.

  [775] Words of Mormon i, 11; Mormon i, 1-4; iv, 23.

  [776] III Nephi v, 8-11.

  [777] III Nephi v, 14-19.

=19.= When Mormon, in the course of his abridgment, had reached the
time of King Benjamin's reign, he was deeply impressed with the record
engraved on the smaller plates of Nephi,--the history of God's
dealings with the people during the period of about four centuries,
extending from the time of Lehi's exodus from Jerusalem down to the
time of King Benjamin. This record, comprising so much of prophecy
concerning the mission of the Savior, was regarded by Mormon with more
than ordinary favor. Of these plates he attempted no transcript, but
included the originals with his own abridgment of the larger plates,
making of the two one book. The record as compiled by Mormon
contained, therefore, a double account of the descendants of Lehi for
the first four hundred years of their history,--the brief secular
history condensed from the larger plates, and the full text on the
smaller plates. In solemn language, and with an emphasis which
subsequent events have shown to be significant, Mormon declares the
hidden wisdom of the Divine purpose in this duplication:--"And I do
this for a wise purpose; for thus it whispereth me, according to the
workings of the Spirit of the Lord which is in me. And now, I do not
know all things; but the Lord knoweth all things which are to come;
wherefore, he worketh in me to do according to his will."[778]

  [778] Words of Mormon i, 7.

=20. The Lord's Purpose= in the matter of preparing and of preserving
the smaller plates as testified of by Mormon, and also by Nephi,[779]
is rendered plain from certain circumstances in this dispensation
attending the translation of the records by Joseph Smith. When the
prophet had prepared a translation of the first part of the writings
of Mormon, the manuscript was won from his care through the
unrighteous solicitations of Martin Harris, to whom he considered
himself in a degree indebted for financial assistance in the work of
publication. This manuscript, in all 116 pages, was never returned to
Joseph; but, through the dark schemes of evil powers, it fell into the
hands of enemies, who straightway laid a wicked plan to ridicule the
translator and thwart the purposes of God. This evil design was that
they wait until Joseph had re-translated the missing matter, when the
stolen manuscript, which in the meantime had been altered so that the
words were made to express the contrary from the true record, would be
set forth as a proof that the prophet was unable to translate the same
passages twice alike. But the Lord's wisdom interposed to bring to
naught these dark designs.

  [779] I Nephi ix, 5.

=21.= Having chastened the prophet by depriving him for a season of
his gift to translate, as also of the custody of the sacred records,
and this for his dereliction in permitting the writings to pass into
unappointed hands, the Lord graciously restored His penitent servant
to favor, and revealed to him the designs of his enemies;[780] at the
same time showing how these evil machinations should be made to fail.
Joseph was instructed, therefore, not to attempt a re-translation of
that part of Mormon's abridgment, the first translation of which had
been stolen; but instead, to translate the record of the same events
from the plates of Nephi,--the set of smaller plates which Mormon had
incorporated with his own writings. The translation so made was
therefore published as the record of Nephi, and not as the writing of
Mormon; and thus no second translation was made of the parts from
which the stolen manuscript had been prepared.

  [780] Doctrine and Covenants, x.

=22. The Translation of the Book of Mormon= was effected through the
power of God manifested in the bestowal of the gift of revelation. The
book professes not to be dependent upon the wisdom or learning of man;
its translator was not versed in linguistics; his qualifications were
of a different and of a far more efficient order. With the plates,
Joseph Smith received from the angel other sacred treasures, including
a breastplate, to which were attached the Urim and Thummim,[781]
called by the Nephites _Interpreters_; and by the use of these he was
enabled to render the ancient records in our modern tongue. The
details of the work of translation have not been authentically
recorded beyond the statement that the translator examined the
engraved characters by means of the sacred instruments, and then
dictated to the scribe the English sentences.

  [781] Doc. and Cov. x. 1; xvii, 1; cxxx, 8, 9; Mos. viii, 13-19;
  Ether iii, 23-28.

=23.= Joseph began his work with the plates by patiently copying a
number of characters, adding to some of the pages thus prepared the
translations. The prophet's first assistant in the labor, Martin
Harris, obtained permission to take away some of these transcripts,
with the purpose of submitting them to the examination of men learned
in ancient languages. He placed some of the sheets before Professor
Charles Anthon, of Columbia College, who, after careful examination,
certified that the characters were in general of the ancient Egyptian
order, and that the accompanying translations appeared to be correct.
Hearing how this ancient record came into Joseph's hands, Professor
Anthon requested Mr. Harris to bring the original book for
examination, stating that he would undertake the translation of the
entire work; then, learning that a part of the book was sealed, he
remarked, "I cannot read a sealed book"; and thus unwittingly did this
man fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah concerning the coming forth of the
volume:--"And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a
book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying,
read this, I pray thee, and he saith, I cannot, for it is
sealed."[782] Another linguist, a Dr. Mitchell, of New York, having
examined the characters, gave concerning them a testimony in all
important respects corresponding to that of Prof. Anthon.

  [782] Isaiah xxix, 11.

=24. Arrangement of the Book of Mormon.=--The Book of Mormon comprises
fifteen separate parts, commonly called books, distinguished by the
names of their principal authors. Of these, the first six books, viz.,
I and II Nephi, Jacob, Enos, Jarom, and Omni, are literal translations
from corresponding portions of the smaller plates of Nephi. The body
of the volume, from the Book of Mosiah to Mormon, chapter vii,
inclusive, is the translation of Mormon's abridgment of the larger
plates of Nephi. Between the books of Omni and Mosiah "The Words of
Mormon" occur, connecting the record of Nephi, as engraved on the
smaller plates, with Mormon's abridgment of the larger plates for the
periods following. The Words of Mormon may be regarded as a brief
explanation of the preceding portions of the work, and a preface of
the parts then to follow. The last part of the Book of Mormon, from
the beginning of Mormon viii to the end of the volume, is in the
language of Moroni, the son of Mormon, who first proceeds to finish
the record of his father, and then adds an abridgment of a set of
plates which contained an account of the Jaredites; this appears as
the Book of Ether.[783]

  [783] See page 266.

=25.= At the time of Moroni's writing he stood alone,--the sole
surviving representative of his people. The last of the terrible wars
between Nephites and Lamanites had resulted in the annihilation of the
former as a people; and Moroni supposed that his abridgment of the
Book of Ether would be his last literary work; but, finding himself
miraculously preserved at the conclusion of that undertaking, he added
the parts known to us as the Book of Moroni, containing accounts of
the ceremonies of ordination, baptism, administration of the
sacrament, etc., and a record of certain utterances and writings of
his father Mormon.


THE GENUINENESS OF THE BOOK OF MORMON.

=26.= The earnest student of the Book of Mormon will be most concerned
in his consideration of the reliability of the great record; and this
subject may be conveniently considered under two headings: 1st, the
genuineness and integrity of the Book of Mormon, i. e., the evidence
that the book is what it professes to be,--an actual translation of
ancient records; 2nd, the authenticity of the original writings, as
shown by internal and external evidence.

=27. The Genuineness of the Book= will appear to anyone who undertakes
an impartial investigation into the circumstances attending its coming
forth. The many so-called theories of its origin, advanced by
prejudiced opponents to the work of God, are in general too
inconsistent, and in most instances too thoroughly puerile, to merit
serious consideration. Such fancies as are set forth in
representations of the Book of Mormon as the production of a single
author or of men working in collusion, as a work of fiction, or in any
manner as a modern composition, are their own refutation.[784] The
sacred character of the plates forbade their display as a means of
gratifying personal curiosity; nevertheless a number of reputable
witnesses examined them, and these men have given to the world their
solemn testimony of the fact. In June, 1829, the prophecies respecting
the witnesses by whose testimony the word of God as set forth in the
Book of Mormon was to be established,[785] saw its fulfillment in a
manifestation of Divine power, demonstrating the genuineness of the
record to three men, whose affirmations accompany all editions of the
book.

  [784] See Note 2.

  [785] II Nephi xi, 3; xxvii, 12-13; Ether v, 3-4; see also Doc.
  and Cov. v, 11-15; xvii, 1-9.

=28. The Testimony of Three Witnesses.=--Be it known unto all nations,
kindreds, tongues, and people unto whom this work shall come, that we,
through the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, have
seen the plates which contain this record, which is a record of the
people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites, their brethren, and also
of the people of Jared, who came from the tower of which hath been
spoken; and we also know that they have been translated by the gift
and power of God, for his voice hath declared it unto us,[786]
wherefore we know of a surety that the work is true. And we also
testify that we have seen the engravings[787] which are upon the
plates; and they have been shown unto us by the power of God, and not
of man. And we declare with words of soberness, that an angel of God
came down from heaven[788] and he brought and laid before our eyes,
that we beheld and saw the plates, and the engravings thereon; and we
know that it is by the grace of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus
Christ, that we beheld and bear record that these things are true; and
it is marvelous in our eyes, nevertheless the voice of the Lord
commanded us that we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be
obedient unto the commandments of God, we bear testimony of these
things. And we know that if we are faithful in Christ, we shall rid
our garments of the blood of all men, and be found spotless before the
judgment-seat of Christ, and shall dwell with him eternally in the
heavens. And the honor be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the
Holy Ghost, which is one God. Amen.

  OLIVER COWDERY,
  DAVID WHITMER,
  MARTIN HARRIS.

  [786] Doc. and Cov. xvii, 6; xx, 8.

  [787] II Nephi v, 32; Alma lxiii, 12; Mormon i, 3.

  [788] See History of Joseph Smith, June, 1829.

=29.= The testimony so declared was never revoked, nor even modified
by any one of the witnesses whose names are subscribed to the
foregoing,[789] though all of them withdrew from the Church, and
developed feelings amounting almost to hatred toward Joseph Smith. To
the last of their lives, they maintained the same solemn declaration
of the angelic visit, and of the testimony that had been implanted in
their hearts. Shortly after the witnessing of the plates by the three,
other eight persons were permitted to see and handle the ancient
records; and in this also was prophecy fulfilled, in that it was of
old declared, that beside the three, "God sendeth more witnesses,"[790]
whose testimony would be added to that of the three. It was presumably
in July, 1829, that Joseph Smith showed the plates to the eight whose
names are attached to the following certificate.

=30. The Testimony of Eight Witnesses.=--Be it known unto all nations,
kindreds, tongues, and people unto whom this work shall come, that
Joseph Smith, Jun., the translator of this work, has shown unto us the
plates of which hath been spoken, which have the appearance of gold;
and as many of the leaves as the said Smith has translated, we did
handle with our hands; and we also saw the engravings thereon, all of
which has the appearance of ancient work, and of curious workmanship.
And this we bear record with words of soberness, that the said Smith
has shown unto us, for we have seen and hefted, and know of a surety
that the said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken. And we
give our names unto the world, to witness unto the world that which we
have seen; and we lie not, God bearing witness of it.

  CHRISTIAN WHITMER,
  JACOB WHITMER,
  PETER WHITMER, JUN.,
  JOHN WHITMER,
  HIRAM PAGE,
  JOSEPH SMITH, SEN.,
  HYRUM SMITH,
  SAMUEL H. SMITH.

  [789] See Note 3.

  [790] II Nephi xi, 3.

=31.= Three of the eight witnesses died out of the Church, yet not one
of the whole number ever was known to deny his testimony concerning
the Book of Mormon.[791] Here, then, are proofs of varied kinds
regarding the reliability of this volume. Learned linguists pronounce
the characters genuine; eleven men of honest report make solemn oath
of the appearance of the plates; and the nature of the book itself
sustains the claim that it is nothing more nor less than a translation
of ancient records.

  [791] See Note 4.


NOTES.

     =1. Book of Mormon Title Page.=--"I wish to mention here that the
     title page of the Book of Mormon is a literal translation, taken
     from the very last leaf on the left hand side of the collection
     or book of plates, which contained the record which has been
     translated, the language of the whole running the same as all
     Hebrew writing in general; and that said title page is not by any
     means a modern composition, either of mine or any other man who
     has lived or does live in this generation."--_Joseph Smith_, "Ch.
     Hist.," Vol. I, p. 71.

     =2. Theories concerning the Origin of the Book of Mormon. The
     Spaulding Story.=--The true account of the origin of the Book of
     Mormon was rejected by the public in general, who thus assumed
     the responsibility of explaining in some plausible way the source
     of the record. Many vague theories, based on the incredible
     assumption that the book was the work of a single author, were
     put forward; of these the most famous, and, indeed, the only one
     that lived long enough in public favor to be discussed, is the so
     called "Spaulding Story." Solomon Spaulding, a clergyman of
     Amity, Pa., wrote a romance to which no title other than
     "Manuscript Story" was prefixed. Twenty years after the author's
     death, one Hurlburt, an apostate from the Church of Jesus Christ
     of Latter-day Saints, announced a resemblance between the story
     and the Book of Mormon, and expressed his conviction that the
     work presented to the world by Joseph Smith was nothing but
     Spaulding's romance revised and amplified. The manuscript was
     lost for a time, and, in the absence of proof to the contrary,
     stories of the parallelism between the two works multiplied. But,
     by a fortunate circumstance, in 1884 President James H. Fairchild
     of Oberlin College, Ohio, and a literary friend, one Mr. Rice, in
     examining a heterogeneous collection of old papers that had been
     purchased by Mr. Rice, found the original story. The gentlemen
     made a careful comparison of the manuscript and the Book of
     Mormon; and, with the sole desire of subserving the purposes of
     truth, made public their results. Pres. Fairchild published an
     article in the _New York Observer_, Feb. 5, 1885, in which he
     said:--"The theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon in the
     traditional manuscript of Solomon Spaulding will probably have to
     be relinquished.... Mr. Rice, myself, and others compared it [the
     Spaulding manuscript] with the Book of Mormon and could detect no
     resemblance between the two.... Some other explanation of the
     Book of Mormon must be found, if any explanation is required."

     The manuscript was deposited in the library of Oberlin College,
     where it now reposes. Still, the theory of the "Manuscript
     Found," as Spaulding's story has come to be known, is
     occasionally pressed into service in the cause of anti-"Mormon"
     zeal, by some whom we will charitably believe to be ignorant of
     the facts set forth by Pres. Fairchild. A letter of more recent
     date, written by that honorable gentleman in reply to an
     enquiring correspondent, was published in the _Millennial Star_,
     Liverpool, Nov. 3, 1898, and is as follows:

  OBERLIN COLLEGE, OHIO,
  October 17, 1895.

     _J. R. Hindley, Esq._,

     DEAR SIR:--We have in our College Library an original manuscript
     of Solomon Spaulding--unquestionably genuine.

     I found it in 1884 in the hands of Hon. L. L. Rice of Honolulu,
     Hawaiian Islands. He was formerly State Printer at Columbus, O.,
     and before that, publisher of a paper in Painesville, whose
     preceding publisher had visited Mrs. Spaulding and obtained the
     manuscript from her. It had lain among his old papers forty years
     or more, and was brought out by my asking him to look up
     anti-slavery documents among his papers.

     The manuscript has upon it the signatures of several men of
     Conneaut, O., who had heard Spaulding read it and knew it to be
     his. No one can see it and question its genuineness. The
     manuscript has been printed twice at least--once by the Mormons
     of Salt Lake City, and once by the Josephite Mormons of Iowa. The
     Utah Mormons obtained the copy of Mr. Rice at Honolulu, and the
     Josephites got it of me after it came into my possession.

     This manuscript is not the original of the Book of Mormon.

  Yours very truly,
  JAS. H. FAIRCHILD.

     Printed copies of the "Manuscript Found" are obtainable, and any
     enquirer may examine for himself. For further information see
     _The Myth of the Manuscript Found_, by Elder George Reynolds,
     Salt Lake City; Whitney's _History of Utah_, Vol. I, pp. 46-56;
     Elder George Reynolds' preface to the story as issued by the
     Deseret News Company, Salt Lake City, 1886; and the story itself.
     See also three articles by Pres. Joseph F. Smith in "Improvement
     Era," Vol. III, pp. 241, 377, 451.

     =3. The Three Witnesses.=--Oliver Cowdery.--Born at Wells,
     Rutland Co., Vermont, October, 1805; baptized May 15, 1829; died
     at Richmond, Mo., March 3, 1850.

     David Whitmer.--Born near Harrisburg, Pa., January 7, 1805;
     baptized June, 1829; excommunicated from the Church, April 13,
     1838; died at Richmond, Mo., January 25, 1888.

     Martin Harris.--Born at East-town, Saratoga Co., New York, May
     18, 1783; baptized 1830; removed to Utah, August, 1870, and died
     at Clarkston, Cache Co., Utah, July 10, 1875.

     =4. The Eight Witnesses.=--Christian Whitmer.--Born January 18,
     1798; baptized April 11, 1830; died in full fellowship in the
     Church, Clay County, Missouri, November 27, 1835. He was the
     eldest son of Peter Whitmer.

     Jacob Whitmer.--Second son of Peter Whitmer; born in
     Pennsylvania, January 27, 1800; baptized April 11, 1830; died
     April 21, 1856, having previously withdrawn from the Church.

     Peter Whitmer, Jr.--Born September 27, 1809; fifth son of Peter
     Whitmer; baptized June, 1829; died a faithful member of the
     Church, at or near Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, September 22,
     1836.

     John Whitmer.--Third son of Peter Whitmer; born August 27, 1802;
     baptized June, 1829; excommunicated from the Church March 10,
     1838; died at Far West, Missouri, July 11, 1878.

     Hiram Page.--Born in Vermont, 1800; baptized April 11, 1830;
     withdrew from the Church, 1838; died in Ray Co., Missouri, August
     12, 1852.

     Joseph Smith, Sen.--The Prophet Joseph's father; born at
     Topsfield, Essex Co., Mass., July 12, 1771; baptized April 6,
     1830; ordained Patriarch to the Church, December 18, 1833; died
     in full fellowship in the Church at Nauvoo, Ill., Sept. 14, 1840.

     Hyrum Smith.--Second son of Joseph Smith, Sen., born at
     Tunbridge, Vt., February 9, 1800; baptized June, 1829; appointed
     one of the First Presidency of the Church November 7, 1837;
     Patriarch to the Church January 19, 1841; martyred with his
     brother, the Prophet, at Carthage, Ill., June 27, 1844.

     Samuel Harrison Smith.--Born Tunbridge, Vt., March 13, 1808;
     fourth son of Joseph Smith, Sen., baptized May 15, 1829; died
     July 30, 1844.

     =5. Consistency of the Book of Mormon.=--"If the historical parts
     of the Book of Mormon be compared with what little is known from
     other sources, concerning the history of ancient America, there
     will be found much evidence to substantiate its truth; but there
     cannot be found one truth among all the gleanings of antiquity
     that clashes with the historical truths of the Book of Mormon. If
     the prophetical part of this wonderful book be compared with the
     prophetical declarations of the Bible, there will be found much
     evidence in the latter to establish the truth of the former. But
     though there are many predictions in the Book of Mormon, relating
     to the great events of the last days, which the Bible gives us no
     information about, yet there is nothing in the predictions of the
     Bible that contradicts in the least the predictions of the Book
     of Mormon. If the doctrinal part of the Book of Mormon be
     compared with the doctrines of the Bible, there will be found the
     same perfect harmony which we find on the comparison of the
     prophetical parts of the two books. Although there are many
     points of the doctrine of Christ that are far more plain and
     definite in the Book of Mormon than in the Bible, and many things
     revealed in relation to doctrine that never could be fully
     learned from the Bible, yet there are not any items of doctrine
     in the two sacred books that contradict each other or clash in
     the least. If the various books which enter into the collection
     called the Book of Mormon be carefully compared with each other,
     there will be found nothing contradictory in history, in
     prophecy, or in doctrine.... If we compare the historical,
     prophetical, and doctrinal parts of the Book of Mormon with the
     great truths of science and nature, we find no contradictions--no
     absurdities--nothing unreasonable. The most perfect harmony
     therefore exists between the great truths revealed in the Book of
     Mormon and all other known truths, whether religious, historical,
     or scientific."--Apostle Orson Pratt in _Divine Authenticity of
     the Book of Mormon_, p. 56.



LECTURE XV.

THE BOOK OF MORMON.--Continued.

     =Article 8.=--... We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the
     word of God.


AUTHENTICITY OF THE BOOK OF MORMON.

=1. The Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon= constitutes our
most important consideration of the work. This subject is one of vital
interest to every earnest investigator of the ways of God, to every
sincere searcher after truth. Claiming to be, as far as the present
dispensation is concerned, a new scripture, presenting prophecies and
revelations not heretofore recognized in modern theology, announcing
to the world the message of a departed people, written by way of
commandment, and by the spirit of prophecy and revelation--this volume
is entitled to the most thorough and impartial examination. Nay, more,
not alone does the Book of Mormon merit such consideration, it claims,
even demands the same; for surely no one professing the most cursory
belief in the power and authority of God can receive with unconcern
the announcement of a new revelation, having the seal of Divine
authority upon it. The question of the authenticity of the Book of
Mormon is therefore one in which the world is interested.

=2.= The Latter-day Saints base their belief in the authenticity and
genuineness of the book on the following proofs:--

     I. The general agreement of the Book of Mormon with the Bible.

     II. The fulfillment of ancient prophecies accomplished by the
     bringing forth of the Book of Mormon.

     III. The strict agreement and consistency of the Book of Mormon
     with itself.

     IV. The evident truth of its contained prophecies.

To these may be added certain external, or extra-scriptural evidences,
amongst which are:--

     V. The strongly corroborative evidence furnished by modern
     discoveries in the field of archeological and ethnological
     science.


I. THE BOOK OF MORMON AND THE BIBLE.

=3. The Nephite and the Jewish Scriptures= are found to agree in all
matters of tradition, history, doctrine, and prophecy upon which both
the separate records treat. These two volumes of scripture were
prepared on opposite hemispheres, under conditions and circumstances
widely diverse; yet between them there exists a surprising harmony,
confirmatory of Divine inspiration in both. The Book of Mormon
contains a number of quotations from the ancient Jewish scriptures, a
copy of which, as far as they had been compiled at the time of Lehi's
exodus from Jerusalem, was brought to the western continent, as part
of the record engraved on the plates of Laban. In the case of such
passages, there is no essential difference between Bible and Book of
Mormon versions, except in instances of probable error in
translation,--usually apparent through inconsistency or lack of
clearness in the Bible reading. There are, however, numerous minor
variations in corresponding parts of the two volumes; and between
such, examination usually demonstrates the superior perspicuity of the
Nephite scripture.

=4.= In a careful comparison of the prophecies of the Bible with
corresponding predictions contained in the Book of Mormon, e. g. those
relating to the birth, earthly ministry, sacrificial death, and second
coming of Christ Jesus; with others referring to the scattering and
subsequent gathering of Israel; and with such as relate to the
establishment of Zion and the re-building of Jerusalem in the last
days, each of the records will be seen to be corroborative of the
other. True, there are many predictions in one which are not found in
the other; but in no instance has a contradiction or an inconsistency
between the two been pointed out. Between the doctrinal parts of the
two volumes of scripture the same perfect harmony is found to prevail.

=5.= Of the agreement of the Book of Mormon with the Bible and with
other standards of comparison, Apostle Orson Pratt has forcefully and
truthfully written:--"If the miracles of the Book of Mormon be
compared with the miracles of the Bible, there cannot be found in the
former anything that would be more difficult to believe, than what we
find in the latter. If we compare the historical, prophetical, and
doctrinal parts of the Book of Mormon with the great truths of science
and nature, we find no contradictions, no absurdities, nothing
unreasonable. The most perfect harmony, therefore, exists between the
great truths revealed in the Book of Mormon, and all other known
truths, whether religious, historical, or scientific."[792]

  [792] _Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon_, Orson Pratt's
  Works, p. 236 (1891, Utah ed.)


II. ANCIENT PROPHECY REGARDING THE BOOK OF MORMON.

=6. Ancient Prophecy= has been literally fulfilled in the coming forth
of the Book of Mormon. One of the earliest prophetic utterances
directly bearing upon this subject is that of Enoch, the ante-diluvian
prophet, unto whom the Lord revealed His purposes for all time.
Witnessing in vision the corruption of mankind, after the ascension of
the Son of Man, Enoch cried unto his God, "Wilt thou not come again on
the earth?" "And the Lord said unto Enoch, As I live, even so will I
come in the last days.... And the day shall come that the earth shall
rest, but before that day the heavens shall be darkened, and a veil of
darkness shall cover the earth, and the heavens shall shake and also
the earth, and great tribulations shall be among the children of men;
but my people will I preserve, and righteousness will I send down out
of heaven, and truth will I send forth out of the earth, to bear
testimony of Mine Only Begotten.... and righteousness and truth will I
cause to sweep the earth as with a flood to gather out mine own elect
from the four quarters of the earth, unto a place which I shall
prepare."[793] The Latter-day Saints regard the coming forth of the
Book of Mormon, together with the restoration of the Priesthood by the
direct ministration of heavenly messengers, as a fulfillment of this
prophecy, and of similar predictions contained in the Bible.

  [793] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 59-62.

=7. Biblical Prophecies and their Fulfillment.=--David, who sang his
psalms over a thousand years before the "Meridian of Time," declared,
"Truth shall spring out of the earth, and righteousness shall look
down from heaven."[794] And so also declared Isaiah.[795] Ezekiel saw
in vision[796] the coming together of the stick of Judah, and the
stick of Joseph, signifying, as the Latter-day Saints affirm, the
Bible and the Book of Mormon. The passage last referred to reads, in
the words of Ezekiel:--"The word of the Lord came again unto me,
saying, Moreover, thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon
it, For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions: then
take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of
Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel his companions; And join them
one to another into one stick; and they shall become one in thine
hand."

  [794] Psalms lxxxv, 11.

  [795] Isa. xiv, 8.

  [796] Ezek. xxxvii, particularly verses 15-20.

=8.= When we call to mind the ancient custom in the making of
books,--that of writing on long strips of parchment and rolling the
same on rods or sticks, the use of the word "stick" as equivalent to
"book" in the passage becomes at once apparent,[797] At the time of
this utterance, the Israelites had divided into two nations known as
the people of Judah, and that of Israel, or Ephraim. There would seem
to be little room for doubt that the records of Judah and of Joseph
are here referred to.[798] Now, as we have seen, the Nephite nation
comprised the descendants of Lehi of the tribe of Manasseh, of Ishmael
an Ephraimite, and of Zoram whose tribal relation is not definitely
stated. The Nephites were then of the tribes of Joseph; and their
record or "stick" is as truly represented by the Book of Mormon as is
the "stick" of Judah by the Bible.

  [797] See a corresponding use of the word "roll" in Jeremiah
  xxxvi, 1, 2; and its synonym "book" in verses 8, 10, 11, and 13.

  [798] Compare with Lehi's prediction made to his son Joseph, II
  Nephi iii, 12.

=9.= That the coming forth of the record of Joseph or Ephraim is to be
accomplished through the direct power of God is evident from the
Lord's interpretation of the vision of Ezekiel, wherein He
says:--"Behold, _I will take_ the stick of Joseph ... and will put
them with him, even with the stick of Judah."[799] And that this union
of the two records is to be a characteristic of the latter days is
evident from the prediction of an event which is to follow
immediately, viz., the gathering of the tribes from the nations among
which they had been dispersed.[800] Comparison with other prophecies
relating to the gathering will conclusively prove that the great event
is to take place in the latter times, preparatory to the second coming
of Christ.[801]

  [799] Ezek. xxxvii, 19.

  [800] Verse 21.

  [801] See lecture on "Gathering" in connection with Article 10,
  page 341.

=10.= Reverting to the writings of Isaiah, we find that prophet
voicing the Lord's threatenings against Ariel, or Jerusalem, "the city
where David dwelt." Ariel was to be distressed, burdened with
heaviness and sorrow; then the prophet refers to some people, other
than Judah, who occupied Jerusalem, for he makes comparison with the
latter, saying "And it shall be unto me _as_ Ariel." As to the fate
decreed against this other people we read:--"And thou shalt be brought
down, and shalt speak out of the ground, and thy speech shall be low
out of the dust, and thy voice shall be, as of one that hath a
familiar spirit, out of the ground, and thy speech shall whisper out
of the dust."[802]

  [802] Isaiah xxix, 4--read verses 1-6.

=11.= Of the fulfillment of these and associated prophecies, a modern
apostle has written:--"These predictions of Isaiah could not refer to
Ariel, or Jerusalem, because their speech has not been 'out of the
ground,' or 'low out of the dust'; but it refers to the remnant of
Joseph who were destroyed in America upwards of fourteen hundred years
ago. The Book of Mormon describes their downfall, and truly it was
great and terrible. At the crucifixion of Christ, 'the multitude of
their terrible ones,' as Isaiah predicted, 'became as chaff that
passeth away,' and it took place as he further predicts, 'at an
instant suddenly.'... This remnant of Joseph in their distress and
destruction became _as_ Ariel. As the Roman army lay siege to Ariel,
and brought upon her great distress and sorrow, so did the contending
nations of ancient America bring upon each other the most direful
scenes of blood and carnage. Therefore the Lord could, with the
greatest propriety, when speaking in reference to this event, declare
that, 'It shall be unto me _as_ Ariel.'"[803]

  [803] Orson Pratt, _Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon_,
  pp. 293-294 (Utah ed., 1891). For details of fulfillment of part
  of the prophecy, see III Nephi viii-ix.

=12.= Isaiah's striking prediction that the nation thus brought down
should "speak out of the ground," with speech "low out of the dust"
was literally fulfilled in the bringing forth of the Book of Mormon,
the original of which was taken out of the ground, and the voice of
the record is as that of one speaking from the dust. In continuation
of the same prophecy we read:--"And the vision of all is become unto
you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver unto one
that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I
cannot; for it is sealed: And the book is delivered unto him that is
not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not
learned."[804] The fulfillment of this prediction is claimed in the
presentation of the transcript from the plates,--"the words of a
book," not the book itself, to the learned Prof. Anthon, whose reply
almost in the words of the text has been cited;[805] and in the
delivery of the book itself to the unfettered lad, Joseph Smith.

  [804] Isaiah xxix, 11-12.

  [805] See pp. 273-274.


III. CONSISTENCY OF STYLE AND MATTER IN THE BOOK OF MORMON.

=13. The Consistency of the Book of Mormon= sustains belief in its
Divine origin. The parts bear evidence of having been written at
different times, and under widely varying conditions. The style of the
component books is in harmony with the times and circumstances of
their production. The portions which were transcribed from the plates
bearing Mormon's abridgment contain numerous interpolations as
comments and explanations of the transcriber; but in the first six
books, which, as already explained, are the verbatim record of the
smaller plates of Nephi, no such interpolations occur. The book
maintains strict consistency throughout all its parts; no
contradictions, no disagreements have been pointed out.

=14. A Marked Diversity of Style= characterizes the several
parts.[806] From what has been said regarding the classes of plates
which constitute the original records of the Book of Mormon, it is
evident that the volume contains the compiled writings of a long line
of inspired scribes extending through a thousand years, this
time-range being exclusive of the earlier years of Jaredite history.
Unity of style is not to be expected under such conditions; and,
indeed, did such occur, it would be fatal to the claims made for the
volume.

  [806] See Note 1.


IV. THE BOOK OF MORMON SUSTAINED BY THE FULFILLMENT OF ITS CONTAINED
PROPHECIES.

=15. Book of Mormon Predictions= are numerous and important. Amongst
the most conclusive proofs of the authenticity of the book is that
furnished by the demonstrated truth of its contained prophecies.
Prophecy is best proved in the light of its own fulfillment. The
predictions contained within the Book of Mormon may be classed as
(_a_) Prophecies relating to the time covered by the book itself, the
fulfillment of which is recorded therein; and (_b_) Prophecies
relating to times beyond the limits of the history chronicled in the
book.

=16.= _Prophecies of the First Class_ named, the fulfillment of which
is attested by the Book of Mormon record, are of but minor value as
proof of the authenticity of the work; for, had the book been written
according to a plot devised by man, both prediction and fulfillment
would have been provided for with equal care and ingenuity.
Nevertheless, to the studious and conscientious reader, the
genuineness of the book will be apparent; and the account of the
literal realization of the numerous and varied predictions relating
to the fate then future of the people whose history is given in the
record, as also of those concerning the details of the birth and death
of the Savior, and of His appearing in a resurrected state, must, by
their accuracy and consistency, appeal with force as evidence of
inspiration and authority in the record.

=17.= _Prophecies of the Second Class_, relating to a time which to
the writers was far future, are numerous and explicit: many of them
have special reference to the last days,--the dispensation of the
fulness of times,--and of these, some have been already literally
accomplished, others are now in process of actual realization, while
yet others are awaiting fulfillment under specified conditions which
seem now to be rapidly approaching. Among the most remarkable of the
Book of Mormon predictions incident to the last dispensation are those
that relate to its own coming forth and the effect of its publication
amongst mankind. Ezekiel's biblical prophecy concerning the coming
together of the "sticks," or records, of Judah and of Ephraim has
received attention. Consider the promise made to Joseph who was sold
into Egypt, repeated by Lehi to his son Joseph--a prediction which
couples the prophecy concerning the book with that of the seer through
whose instrumentality the miracle was to be accomplished:--"But a seer
will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins; and unto him will I
give power to bring forth my word unto the seed of thy loins; and not
to the bringing forth my word only, saith the Lord, but to the
convincing them of my word, which shall have already gone forth among
them. Wherefore, the fruit of thy loins shall write; and the fruit of
the loins of Judah shall write; and that which shall be written by the
fruit of thy loins, and also that which shall be written by the fruit
of the loins of Judah, shall grow together, unto the confounding of
false doctrines, and laying down of contentions, and establishing
peace among the fruit of thy loins, and bringing them to the knowledge
of their fathers in the latter days; and also to the knowledge of my
covenants, saith the Lord. And out of weakness he shall be made
strong, in that day when my work shall commence among all my people,
unto the restoring thee, O house of Israel, saith the Lord."[807] The
literal fulfillment of these utterances in the bringing forth of the
Book of Mormon through Joseph Smith is of itself apparent.

  [807] II Nephi iii, 11-13.

=18.= Unto Nephi the Lord showed the effect of the new publication,
declaring that in the day of Israel's gathering,--plainly then the day
of the fulness of times, as attested by the Jewish scriptures,--the
words of the Nephites should be given to the world, and should "hiss
forth unto the ends of the earth, for a standard" unto the house of
Israel; and that then the Gentiles, forgetting even their debt to the
Jews from whom they have received the Bible in which they profess such
faith, would revile and curse that branch of the covenant people, and
would reject the new scripture, exclaiming, "A Bible! a Bible! we have
got a Bible, and there cannot be any more Bible."[808] Is this not the
burden of the frenzied objections raised by the Gentile world against
the Book of Mormon,--that it is of necessity void because new
revelation is not to be expected?

  [808] II Nephi xxix, 3; read the chapter.

=19.= Now, in olden times, two witnesses were required to establish
the truth of any allegation; and, says the Lord concerning the dual
records witnessing of Himself:--"Wherefore murmur ye, because that ye
shall receive more of my word? Know ye not that the testimony of two
nations is a witness unto you that I am God, that I remember one
nation like unto another? Wherefore, I speak the same words unto one
nation like unto another. And when the two nations shall run
together, the testimony of the two nations shall run together
also."[809]

  [809] Verse 8.

=20.= Associated with these predictions of the joint testimony of
Jewish and Nephite scriptures is another prophecy, the consummation of
which is now eagerly awaited by the faithful. Other scriptures are
promised; note this word of God:--"Wherefore, because that ye have a
Bible, ye need not suppose that it contains all my words; neither need
ye suppose that I have not caused more to be written: ... For behold,
I shall speak unto the Jews, and they shall write it; and I shall also
speak unto the Nephites, and they shall write it; and I shall also
speak unto the other tribes of the house of Israel, which I have led
away, and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto all nations
of the earth, and they shall write it. And it shall come to pass that
the Jews shall have the words of the Nephites, and the Nephites shall
have the words of the Jews; and the Nephites and the Jews shall have
the words of the lost tribes of Israel; and the lost tribes of Israel
shall have the words of the Nephites and the Jews."[810]

  [810] Verses 10 and 12.


V. CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE FURNISHED BY MODERN DISCOVERIES.

=21. The Archeology and Ethnology= of the western continent contribute
valuable corroborative evidence in support of the Book of Mormon.
These sciences are confessedly unable to explain in any decisive
manner the origin of the native American races; nevertheless,
investigation in this field has yielded some results that are fairly
definite, and with the most important of these the Book of Mormon
account is in general accord. Among the most prominent of the
discoveries respecting the aboriginal inhabitants, are the
following:--

     I. That America was inhabited in very ancient times, probably
     soon after the building of the Tower of Babel.

     II. That the continent has been successively occupied by
     different peoples, at least by two classes, or so-called "races"
     at widely separated periods.

     III. That the aboriginal inhabitants came from the east, probably
     from Asia, and that the later occupants, or those of the second
     period, were closely allied to, if not identical with, the
     Israelites.

     IV. That the existing native races of America have sprung from a
     common stock.

=22.= From the outline already given of the historical part of the
Book of Mormon, it is seen that each of these discoveries is fully
attested by that record. Thus it is stated therein:--

I. That America was settled by the Jaredites, who came direct from the
scenes of Babel.

II. That the Jaredites occupied the land for about eighteen hundred
and fifty years, during which time they spread over a great part of
North and South America; and that at about the time of their
extinction (near 590 B. C.), Lehi and his company came to this
continent, where they developed into the segregated nations Nephites
and Lamanites, the former becoming extinct near 385 A. D., about a
thousand years after Lehi's arrival on these shores; the latter
continuing in a degenerate condition until the present, being
represented by the Indian tribes of to-day.

III. That Lehi, Ishmael, and Zoram, the progenitors of both Nephites
and Lamanites, were undoubtedly Israelites, Lehi being of the tribe of
Manasseh while Ishmael was an Ephraimite, and that the colony came
direct from Jerusalem, in Asia.

IV. That the existing Indian tribes are all direct descendants of
Lehi and his company, and that therefore they have sprung from men all
of whom were of the house of Israel.

Now let us examine some of the evidence bearing on these points
presented by individual investigators, most of whom knew nothing of
the Book of Mormon, and none of whom accept the book as
authentic.[811]

  [811] =Acknowledgments.=--Many of the citations which follow, used
  in connection with the extra-scriptural evidence supporting the
  Book of Mormon, have been brought together by writers among our
  people, particularly by Elder George Reynolds (see his lectures as
  specified where quoted); also series of articles entitled
  "American Antiquities," in Millennial Star, Liverpool, vol. xxi,
  by Moses Thatcher (see a series of articles on "The Divine Origin
  of the Book of Mormon," in _Contributor_, Salt Lake City, vol.
  ii); and by Elder Edwin F. Parry (see tract, "A Prophet of
  Latter-days," Liverpool, 1898).

=23. I. Concerning the very Ancient Period at which America was
Inhabited.=--A recognized authority on American antiquities gives the
following evidence and inference:--"One of the arts known to the
builders of Babel was that of brick making. This art was also known to
the people who built the works in the west. The knowledge of copper
was known to the people of the plains of Shinar; for Noah must have
communicated it, as he lived a hundred and fifty [350] years among
them after the flood. Also copper was known to the ante-diluvians.
Copper was also known to the authors of the western monuments. Iron
was known to the ante-diluvians. It was also known to the ancients of
the west. However, it is evident that very little iron was among them,
as very few instances of its discovery in their works have occurred;
and for this very reason we draw a conclusion that they came to this
country soon after the dispersion."[812]

  [812] Priest, _American Antiquities_, 1834, p. 219.

=24.= Lowry, in his "Reply to official inquiries respecting the
Aborigines of America," concludes concerning the peopling of the
western continent, "that the first settlement was made shortly after
the confusion of tongues at the building of the Tower of Babel."[813]

  [813] Schoolcraft's _Ethnological Researches_, vol. iii (1853).

=25.= Prof. Waterman of Boston says of the progenitors of the American
Indians:--"When and whence did they come? Albert Galatin, one of the
profoundest philologists of the age, concluded that, so far as
language afforded any clue, the time of their arrival could not have
been long after the dispersion of the human family."[814]

  [814] Extract from lecture by Prof. Waterman, delivered in
  Bristol, England, 1849; quoted in pamphlet by Edwin F. Parry, _A
  Prophet of Latter Days_ (Liverpool, 1898).

=26.= Pritchard says of America's ancient inhabitants, that "the era
of their existence as a distinct and isolated race must probably be
dated as far back as that time which separated into nations the
inhabitants of the old world, and gave to each branch of the human
family its primitive language and individuality."[815]

  [815] Pritchard, _National History of Man_ (London, 1845).

=27.= A native Mexican author, Ixtilxochitl, "fixes the date of the
first peopling of America about the year 2000 B. C.; this closely
accords with that given by the Book of Mormon, which positively
declares that it occurred at the time of the dispersion, when God in
His anger scattered the people upon the face of the whole earth."[816]
"Referring to the quotations from Ixtilxochitl, seventeen hundred and
sixteen years are said to have elapsed from the creation to the flood.
Moses places it sixteen hundred and fifty-six, a difference of only
sixty years.[817] They agree exactly as to the number of cubits,
fifteen, which the waters prevailed over the highest mountains. Such a
coincidence can lead to but one conclusion, the identity of origin of
the two accounts."[818]

  [816] Moses Thatcher, _Contributor_, vol. ii, p. 227, Salt Lake
  City, 1881.

  [817] See Note 2.

  [818] Moses Thatcher, _Contributor_, vol. ii, p. 228.

=28.= Prof. Short, quoting from Clavigero, says: "The Chiapanese have
been the first peoplers of the New World, if we give credit to their
traditions. They say that Votan, the grandson of that respectable old
man who built the great ark to save himself and family from the
deluge, and one of those who undertook the building of that lofty
edifice, which was to reach up to heaven, went by express command of
the Lord to people that land. They say also that the first people came
from the quarter of the north, and that when they arrived at
Soconusco, they separated, some going to inhabit the country of
Nicaragua, and others remaining at Chiapas."[819]

  [819] John T. Short, _North Americans of Antiquity_, p. 204
  (Harper Bros., New York; 2nd ed., 1888). See also _Contributor_
  (Salt Lake City, vol. ii, p 259).

=29. II. Concerning the Successive Occupation of America by Different
Peoples in Ancient Times.=--It has been declared by eminent students
of American archeology that two distinct classes, by some designated
as separate races, of mankind inhabited this continent in early times:
Prof. F. W. Putnam[820] is even more definite in his assertion that
one of these ancient races spread from the north, the other from the
south. This is in agreement with the Book of Mormon record, which
describes the occupation of the continent by the Jaredites and the
Nephites in turn, the former having established themselves first in
North America, the latter in South America. H. C. Walsh, in an article
entitled "Copan, a City of the Dead,"[821] gives many interesting
details of excavation and other work prosecuted by Gordon under the
auspices of the Peabody expedition; and adds, "All this points to
successive periods of occupation, of which there are other
evidences."[822]

  [820] Putnam, _Prehistoric Remains in the Ohio Valley_, Century
  Magazine, March 1890.

  [821] See _Harper's Weekly_ (New York), October, 1897; article by
  Henry C. Walsh.

  [822] See Note 3.

=30. III. Concerning the Advent of at least One Division of the
Ancient Americans from the East, probably from Asia; and their
Israelitish Origin.=--Confirmatory evidence of the belief that the
aboriginal Americans sprang from the peoples of the eastern hemisphere
is found in the similarity of record and tradition on the two
continents, regarding the creation, the deluge, and other great events
of history. Boturini,[823] who is quoted by most writers on American
archeology says: "There is no Gentile nation that refers to primitive
events with such certainty as the Indians do. They give us an account
of the creation of the world, of the deluge,[824] of the confusion of
languages at the Tower of Babel, and of all other periods and ages of
the world, and of the long peregrinations which their people had in
Asia representing the specific years by their characters; and in the
seven Conejos (rabbits) they tell us of the great eclipse that
occurred at the death of Christ, our Lord."

  [823] Chevalier Boturini; he spent several years investigating the
  antiquities of Mexico and Central America, and collected many
  valuable records, of most of which he was despoiled by the
  Spanish; he published a work on the subject of his studies in
  1746.

  [824] See Note 4.

=31.= Similar evidence of the common source of eastern and western
traditions of great events in primitive times is furnished in the
writings of Short, already quoted, and by Baldwin,[825]
Clavigero,[826] Kingsborough,[827] Sahagun,[828] Prescott,[829]
Schoolcraft,[830] Squiers,[831] Adair,[832] and others.[833]

  [825] Baldwin, _Ancient America_ (Harper Bros., New York, 1871).

  [826] Clavigero, quoted by Prof. Short in _North Americans of
  Antiquity_.

  [827] Lord Kingsborough, _Mexican Antiquities_ (1830-37.)

  [828] Bernardo de Sahagun, _Historia Universal de Nueva Espana_.

  [829] W. H. Prescott, _Conquest of Mexico_ (see pp. 463-64).

  [830] Schoolcraft, _Ethnological Researches_ (1851); see vol. i.

  [831] Squiers, _Antiquities of the State of New York_, 1851.

  [832] Adair, _History of the American Indians_, London, 1775.

  [833] See Bancroft's _Native Races_, etc., vols, iii and v;
  Donnelly's _Atlantis_, p. 391 (1882).

=32.= Prof. Short adds his testimony to the evidence of the
aboriginal inhabitants of America being of "Old World origin," but
admits his inability to determine when or whence they came to this
continent.[834] Waterman, before cited, says: "This people could not
have been created in Africa, for its inhabitants were widely
dissimilar from those of America; nor in Europe, which was without a
native people agreeing at all with American races; then to Asia alone
could they look for the origin of the Americans."[835]

  [834] John T. Short, _North Americans of Antiquity_ (1888).

  [835] Extract from lecture by Prof. Waterman, delivered in
  Bristol, England, 1849; quoted in pamphlet by Edwin F. Parry, _A
  Prophet of Latter Days_, Liverpool, 1898.

=33.= It has been demonstrated that the aboriginal tribes were
accustomed to practice under certain conditions the rites of
circumcision,[836] baptism, and animal sacrifice.[837] Herrera, a
Spanish writer of three centuries ago, states that among the primitive
inhabitants of Yucatan baptism was known by a name that meant to be
born again.[838]

  [836] Lord Kingsborough.

  [837] Donnelly's _Atlantis_, p. 144.

  [838] Tract, _A Prophet of Latter Days_, by Edwin F. Parry, p.
  106.

=34.= But it is not alone in the matter of custom and tradition
relating to pre-Christian times that so marked a resemblance is found
between the peoples of the old and the new world. Many traditions and
some records, telling of the pre-destined Christ and His atoning
death, were current among the native races of this continent long
prior to the advent of Christian discoverers in recent centuries.
Indeed, when the Spaniards first invaded Mexico, their Catholic
priests found a native knowledge of Christ and the Godhead, so closely
corresponding with the doctrines of orthodox Christianity, that they,
in their inability to account for the same, invented the theory that
Satan had planted among the natives of the country an imitation gospel
for the purpose of deluding the people. A rival theory held that
Thomas, the apostle, had visited the western continent, and had taught
the gospel of Christ.[839]

  [839] See Pres. John Taylor's _Mediation and Atonement_, p. 201.

=35.= Lord Kingsborough, in his comprehensive and standard work,
refers to a manuscript by Las Casas the Spanish Bishop of Chiapa,
which writing is preserved in the convent of St. Dominic; in this the
Bishop states that a very accurate knowledge of the Godhead was found
to exist among the natives of Yucatan. One of the bishop's emissaries
wrote that "he had met with a principal lord, who informed him that
they believed in God, who resided in heaven, even the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Spirit. The Father was named Yeona, the Son Bahab, who
was born of a virgin, named Chibirias, and that the Holy Spirit was
called Euach. Bahab, the Son, they said, was put to death by Eupuro,
who scourged Him, and put on His head a crown of thorns, and placed
Him with His arms stretched upon a beam of wood; and that, on the
third day, He came to life, and ascended into heaven, where He is with
the Father; that immediately after, the Euach. came as a merchant,
bringing precious merchandise, filling those who would with gifts and
graces, abundant and divine."[840]

  [840] Kingsborough's _Antiquities of Mexico_.

=36.= Rosales affirms a tradition among the Chileans to the effect
that their forefathers were visited by a wonderful personage, full of
grace and power, who wrought many miracles among them, and taught them
of the Creator who dwelt in heaven in the midst of glorified
hosts.[841] Prescott refers to the symbol of the cross which was
found, by the Catholics who accompanied Cortez, to be common among
the natives of Mexico and Central America. In addition to this sign of
a belief in Christ, a ceremony akin to that of the Lord's Supper was
witnessed with astonishment by the invaders. The Aztec priests were
seen to prepare a cake of flour, mixed with blood, which they
consecrated and distributed among the people, who, as they ate,
"showed signs of humiliation and sorrow, declaring it was the flesh of
Deity."[842]

  [841] Rosales, _History of Chile_. See Pres. Taylor's _Mediation
  and Atonement_, p. 202.

  [842] Prescott, _Conquest of Mexico_, p. 465.

=37.= The Mexicans recognize a Deity in Quetzalcoatl, the traditional
account of whose life and death is closely akin to our history of the
Christ, so that, says President John Taylor, "we can come to no other
conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being."[843]
Lord Kingsborough speaks of a painting of Quetzalcoatl, "in the
attitude of a person crucified, with the impression of nails in his
hands and feet, but not actually upon the cross." The same authority
further says: "The seventy-third plate of the Borgian MS. is the most
remarkable of all, for Quetzalcoatl is not only represented there as
crucified upon a cross of Greek form, but his burial and descent into
hell are also depicted in a very curious manner." And again:--"The
Mexicans believe that Quetzalcoatl took human nature upon him,
partaking of all the infirmities of man, and was not exempt from
sorrow, pain, or death, which he suffered voluntarily to atone for the
sins of man."[844]

  [843] _Mediation and Atonement_, p. 201; see Note 5.

  [844] Lord Kingsborough, _Antiquities of Mexico_; see quotations
  by Pres. John Taylor, _Mediation and Atonement_, p. 202.

=38.= The source of this knowledge of Christ and the Godhead, to
account for which gave such trouble to the Catholic invaders and
caused them to resort to extreme and unfounded theory, is plainly
apparent to the student of the Book of Mormon. We learn from that
sacred scripture, that the progenitors of the native American races,
for centuries prior to the time of Christ's birth, lived in the light
of direct revelation, which, coming to them through their authorized
prophets, showed the purposes of God respecting the redemption of
mankind; and, moreover, that the risen Redeemer ministered unto them
in person, and established His Church among them with all its
essential ordinances. The people have fallen into a state of spiritual
degeneracy; many of their traditions are sadly distorted, and
disfigured by admixture of superstition and human invention; yet the
origin of their knowledge is plainly authentic.

=39. IV. Concerning the Common Origin of the Native Races on this
Continent.=--That the many tribes and nations among the Indians and
other "native races" of America are of common parentage is very
generally admitted; the conclusion is based on the evident close
relationship in their languages, traditions, and customs. "Mr. Lewis
H. Morgan finds evidence that the American aborigines had a common
origin in what he calls 'their system of consanguinity and affinity.'
He says, 'The Indian nations from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains,
and from the Arctic sea to the Gulf of Mexico, with the exception of
the Esquimaux, have the same system. It is elaborate and complicated
in its general form and details; and, while deviations from uniformity
occur in the systems of different stocks, the radical features are in
the main constant. This identity in the essential characteristics of a
system so remarkable tends to show that it must have been transmitted
with the blood to each stock from a common original source. It affords
the strongest evidence yet obtained of unity in origin of the Indian
nations within the regions defined.'"[845]

  [845] Baldwin's _Ancient America_, p. 56; see citations of
  conclusions regarding the characteristics of aboriginal Americans
  by Bradford, in the same work.

=40.= Baldwin further quotes Bradford's summary of conclusions
regarding the origin and characteristics of the ancient Americans,
amongst which we read:--"That they were all of the same origin,
branches of the same race, and possessed of similar customs and
institutions."[846] Adair writes:--"All the various nations of Indians
seem to be of one descent;" and in support of this conclusion he
presents abundant evidence of similarity of language, habits, and
customs, religious ceremonies, modes of administering justice,
etc.[847]

  [846] The same.

  [847] Adair's _History of the American Indians_, London, 1775.

=41. Written Language of the Ancient Americans.=--To these secular, or
extra-scriptural, evidences of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon
may be added the agreement of the record with recent discoveries
regarding the written language of these ancient peoples. The prophet
Nephi states that he made his record on the plates in "the language of
the Egyptians,"[848] and we are further told that the brazen plates of
Laban were inscribed in the same.[849] Mormon, who abridged the
voluminous writings of his predecessors, and prepared the plates from
which the modern translation was made, employed also the Egyptian
characters. His son Moroni, who completed the record, declares this
fact; but, recognizing a difference between the writing of his day and
that on the earlier plates, he attributed the change to the natural
mutation through time, and speaks of his own record and that of his
father, Mormon, as being written in the "reformed Egyptian."[850]

  [848] I Nephi i, 2.

  [849] Mosiah i, 4.

  [850] Mormon ix, 32.

=42.= Now consider the testimony of Dr. Le Plongeon, announcing his
discovery of a sacred alphabet among the Mayas of Central America,
which he declares to be practically identical with the Egyptian
alphabet. He states that the structure of the Maya sacred language
closely resembles that of the Egyptians; and he boldly proclaims his
conviction that the two nations derived their written language from
the same source.[851] Another authority says:--"The eye of the
antiquarian cannot fail to be both attracted and fixed by evidence of
the existence of two great branches of the hieroglyphical
language,--both having striking affinities with the Egyptian, and yet
distinguished from it by characteristics perfectly American."[852]

  [851] Dr. August Le Plongeon, in _Review of Reviews_, July, 1895.

  [852] _Quarterly Review_, October, 1836; abstracted in _Millennial
  Star_, vol. xxi, p. 467.

=43.= But the Egyptian is not the only eastern language found to be
represented in the relics of American antiquities; the Hebrew occurs
in this connection with at least equal significance. That the Hebrew
tongue should have been used by Lehi's descendants is most natural,
inasmuch as they were of the House of Israel, transferred to the
western continent directly from Jerusalem. That the ability to read
and write in that language continued with the Nephites until the time
of their extinction is evident from Moroni's statement regarding the
language used on the plates of Mormon:--"And now behold, we have
written this record according to our knowledge, in the characters
which are called among us the reformed Egyptian being handed down and
altered by us according to our manner of speech. And if our plates had
been sufficiently large, we should have written in Hebrew; but the
Hebrew hath been altered by us also."[853]

  [853] Mormon ix, 32-33. In connection with this important subject
  see articles entitled "A Study in American-Hebraic Names" by Thos.
  W. Brookbank, _Improvement Era_, vol. xx.

=44.= The following instances are taken from an instructive array of
such, brought together by Elder George Reynolds.[854] Several of the
early Spanish writers claim that the natives of some portions of the
land were found speaking a corrupt Hebrew. "Las Casas so affirms with
regard to the inhabitants of the island of Hayti. Lafitu wrote a
history wherein he maintained that the Caribbee language was radically
Hebrew. Isaac Nasci, a learned Jew of Surinam, says of the language of
the people of Guiana, that all their substantives are Hebrew." Spanish
historians record the early discovery of Hebrew characters on the
western continent. "Malvenda says that the natives of St. Michael had
tombstones, which the Spaniards digged up, with several ancient Hebrew
inscriptions upon them."

  [854] Reynolds' lecture, _The Language of the Book of Mormon_.

=45.= In all such writings, the characters and the language are allied
to the most ancient form of Hebrew, and show none of the vowel signs
and terminal letters which were introduced into the Hebrew of the
eastern continent after the return of the Jews from the Babylonian
captivity. This is consistent with the fact that Lehi and his people
left Jerusalem shortly before the captivity, and therefore prior to
the introduction of the changes in the written language.[855]

  [855] See an instructive series of articles in _Improvement Era_,
  Salt Lake City, vol. xvii, by Thomas W. Brookbank, entitled
  "Hebrew Idioms and Analogies in the Book of Mormon."

=46. Another Test.=--Let not the reader of the Book of Mormon content
himself with such evidences as have been cited concerning the Divine
authenticity of this reputed scripture. There is promised a surer and
a more effectual means of ascertaining the truth or falsity of this
marvelous volume. Like other scriptures, the Book of Mormon is to be
comprehended through the spirit of the scriptures, and this is
obtainable only as a gift from God. But this gift, priceless though it
be, is promised unto all who would seek for it. Then to all let us
commend the counsel of the last writer in the volume, Moroni, the
solitary scribe who sealed the book, afterward the angel of the record
who brought it forth:--"And when ye shall receive these things, I
would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the
name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with
a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will
manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost; and
by the power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of all
things."[856]

  [856] Moroni x, 4-5.


NOTES.

     =1. Diversity of Literary Style in the Book of Mormon.=--"There
     is a marked difference in the literary style of Nephi and some of
     the other earlier prophets from that of Mormon and Moroni. Mormon
     and his son are more direct and take fewer words to express their
     ideas than did the earlier writers; at least their manner is, to
     most readers, the more pleasing. Amos, the son of Jacob, has also
     a style peculiar to himself. There is another noticeable fact
     that when original records or discourses, such as the record of
     Limhi, the sermons of Alma, Amulek, etc., the epistles of
     Helaman, and others, are introduced into Mormon's abridgment,
     words and expressions are used that appear nowhere else in the
     Book of Mormon. This diversity of style, expression, and wording
     is a very pleasing incidental testimony to the truth of the claim
     made for the Book of Mormon,--that it is a compilation of the
     work of many writers."--From Lectures on the Book of Mormon, by
     Elder George Reynolds.

     =2. Mexican Date of the Deluge.=--In speaking of the time of the
     Deluge as given by the Mexican author, Ixtilxochitl, Elder George
     Reynolds says:--There is a remarkable agreement between this
     writer's statements and the Book of Genesis. The time from the
     Fall to the Flood only differs sixty, possibly only five years,
     if the following statement in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants
     (cvii, 49) regarding Enoch lengthens the chronology: "And he saw
     the Lord, and he walked with him, and was before his face
     continually; and he walked with God 365 years, making him 430
     years old when he was translated." The same statement is made in
     the Pearl of Great Price, Moses vii, 67.--From lecture on
     _External Evidences of the Book of Mormon_, by Elder George
     Reynolds.

     =3. Ancient Civilization in America.=--"That a civilization once
     flourished in these regions [Central America and Mexico] much
     higher than any the Spanish conquerors found upon their arrival,
     there can be no doubt. By far the most important work that has
     been done among the remains of the old Maya civilization has been
     carried on by the Peabody Museum of Harvard College, through a
     series of expeditions it has sent to the buried city now called
     Copan, in Spanish Honduras. In a beautiful valley near the
     borderland of Guatemala, surrounded by steep mountains and
     watered by a winding river, the hoary city lies wrapped in the
     sleep of ages. The ruins at Copan, although in a more advanced
     state of destruction than those of the Maya cities of Yucatan,
     have a general similarity to the latter in the design of the
     buildings, and in the sculptures, while the characters in the
     inscriptions are essentially the same. It would seem, therefore,
     that Copan was a city of the Mayas; but if so it must have been
     one of their most ancient settlements, fallen into decay long
     before the cities of Yucatan reached their prime. The Maya
     civilization was totally distinct from the Aztec or Mexican; it
     was an older and also a much higher civilization."--Henry C.
     Walsh, in article, _Copan--a City of the Dead_, Harper's Weekly,
     October, 1897.

     Baldwin in his valuable work "Ancient America" incorporates the
     conclusions announced by Bradford in regard to the ancient
     occupants of North America, as follows:--

     "That they were all of the same origin, branches of the same
     race, and possessed of similar customs and institutions.

     "That they were populous, and occupied a great extent of
     territory.

     "That they had arrived at a considerable degree of civilization,
     were associated in large communities, and lived in extensive
     cities.

     "That they possessed the use of many of the metals, such as lead,
     copper, gold, and silver, and probably the art of working in
     them.

     "That they sculptured in stone, and sometimes used that material
     in the construction of their edifices.

     "That they had the knowledge of the arch of receding steps; of
     the art of pottery, producing urns and utensils formed with
     taste, and constructed upon the principles of chemical
     composition; and the art of brick-making.

     "That they worked the salt springs, and manufactured salt.

     "That they were an agricultural people, living under the
     influence and protection of regular forms of governments.

     "That they possessed a decided system of religion, and a
     mythology connected with astronomy, which, with its sister
     science, geometry, was in the hands of the priesthood.

     "That they were skilled in the art of fortification.

     "That the epoch of their original settlement in the United States
     is of great antiquity; and that the only indications of their
     origin to be gathered from the locality of their ruined
     monuments, point toward Mexico."--Baldwin, _Ancient America_, p.
     56.

     =4. American Traditions concerning the Deluge.=--"Don Francisco
     Munoz de la Vega, the Bishop of that diocese (Chiapas), certifies
     in the prologue to his 'Diocesan Constitutions,' declaring that
     an ancient manuscript of the primitive Indians of that province,
     who had learned the art of writing, was in his record office, who
     retained the constant tradition that the father and founder of
     their nation was named Teponahuale, which signifies lord of the
     hollow piece of wood; and that he was present at the building of
     the Great Wall, for so they named the Tower of Babel; and beheld
     with his own eyes the confusion of language; after which event,
     God, the Creator, commanded him to come to these extensive
     regions, and to divide them amongst mankind."--Lord Kingsborough,
     _Mexican Antiquities_, vol. viii, p. 25.

     "It is found in the histories of the Toltecs that this age and
     first world, as they call it, lasted 1,716 years: that men were
     destroyed by tremendous rains and lightnings from the sky, and
     even all the land, without the exception of anything, and the
     highest mountains, were covered up and submerged in water fifteen
     cubits (caxtolmolatli); and here they added other fables of how
     men came to multiply from the few who escaped from this
     destruction in a 'toptlipetlocali;' that this word nearly
     signifies a close chest; and how, after men had multiplied, they
     erected a very high 'zacuali,' which is to-day a tower of great
     height, in order to take refuge in it should the second world
     (age) be destroyed. Presently their languages were confused, and,
     not being able to understand each other, they went to different
     parts of the earth."--The same, vol. ix, p. 321.

     "The most important among the American traditions are the
     Mexican, for they appear to have been definitely fixed by
     symbolic and mnemonic paintings before any contact with
     Europeans. According to these documents, the Noah of the Mexican
     cataclysm was Coxcox, called by certain people Teocipactli or
     Tezpi. He had saved himself, together with his wife Xochiquetzal,
     in a bark, or, according to other traditions, on a raft made of
     cypress-wood (_Cypressus disticha_). Paintings retracing the
     deluge of Coxcox have been discovered among the Aztecs, Miztecs,
     Zapotecs, Tlascaltecs, and Mechoacaneses. The tradition of the
     latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as
     we have it in Genesis, and in Chaldean sources. It tells how
     Tezpi embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife, his children,
     and several animals, and grain, whose preservation was essential
     to the subsistence of the human race. When the great god
     Tezcatlipoca decreed that the waters should retire, Tezpi sent a
     vulture from the bark. The bird, feeding on the carcases with
     which the earth was laden, did not return. Tezpi sent out other
     birds, of which the humming bird only came back, with a leafy
     branch in its beak. Then Tezpi, seeing that the country began to
     vegetate, left his bark on the mountain of
     Colhuacan."--Donnelly's _Atlantis_, p. 99.

     The tradition of a Deluge "was the received notion, under some
     form or other, of the most civilized people in the Old World, and
     of the barbarians of the New. The Aztecs combined with this some
     particular circumstances of a more arbitrary character,
     resembling the accounts of the east. They believed that two
     persons survived the Deluge, a man named Coxcox and his wife.
     Their heads are represented in ancient painting, together with a
     boat floating on the waters at the foot of a mountain. A dove is
     also depicted, with a hieroglyphical emblem of language in his
     mouth, which he is distributing to the children of Coxcox, who
     were born dumb. The neighboring people of Michoacan, inhabiting
     the same high plains of the Andes, had a still further tradition,
     that the boat in which Tegpi, their Noah, escaped, was filled
     with various kinds of animals and birds. After some time a
     vulture was sent out from it, but remained feeding on the dead
     bodies of the giants which had been left on the earth as the
     waters subsided. The little humming bird, _huitzitzilin_, was
     then sent forth, and returned with a twig in his mouth. The
     coincidence of both these accounts with the Hebrew and Chaldean
     narratives is obvious."--Prescott, _Conquest of Mexico_, pp.
     463-64.

     =5. Mexican Tradition concerning the Savior.=--"The story of the
     life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles
     that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no
     other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same
     being. But the history of the former has been handed down to us
     through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured
     and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the
     Savior's life and ministry. Regarding this god, Humboldt writes,
     'How truly surprising is it to find that the Mexicans, who seem
     to have been unacquainted with the doctrine of the migration of
     the soul and the Metempsychosis _should have believed in the
     incarnation of the only Son of the supreme God, Tomacateuctli_.
     For Mexican mythology, speaking of no other Son of God except
     Quetzalcoatl, who was born of Chimelman, the virgin of Tula
     (without man), by His breath alone, by which may be signified His
     word or will, when it was announced to Chimelman, by the
     celestial messenger whom He despatched to inform her that she
     should conceive a son, it must be presumed this was Quetzalcoatl,
     who was the only son. Other authors might be adduced to show that
     the Mexicans believe that this Quetzalcoatl was both God and man;
     that He had, previously to His incarnation, existed from
     eternity, and that He had been the Creator both of the world and
     man; and that He had descended to reform the world by endurance,
     and being King of Tula, was crucified for the sins of mankind,
     etc., as is plainly declared in the tradition of Yucatan, and
     mysteriously represented in the Mexican paintings.'"--Pres. John
     Taylor, _Mediation and Atonement_, p. 201.

     =7. Survival of the Hebrew Language among American Tribes.=--"It
     is claimed that such survivals are numerous in the religious
     songs and ceremonies of many of the tribes. A number of writers
     who visited or resided among the tribes of the northern
     continent, assert that the words Yehovah, Yah, Ale, and
     Hallelujah, could be distinctly heard in these exercises. Laet
     and Escarbotus assure us that they often heard the South American
     Indians repeat the sacred word Hallelujah."--Elder George
     Reynolds, _The Language of the Book of Mormon_.

     =8. "The Origin of the Pre-Columbian Civilization of
     America."=--Under this title an instructive article by G. Elliot
     Smith appeared in _Science_ vol. xliv, pp. 190-195 (August 11,
     1916). As to the interest accorded to the subject, the author
     says: "In the whole range of ethnological discussion perhaps no
     theme has evoked livelier controversies and excited more
     widespread interest than the problems involved in the mysteries
     of the wonderful civilization that revealed itself to the
     astonished Spaniards on their first arrival in America.

     "During the last century, which can be regarded as covering the
     whole period of scientific investigation in anthropology, the
     opinions of those who have devoted attention to such inquiries
     have undergone the strangest fluctuations. If one delves into the
     anthropological journals of forty or fifty years ago they will be
     found to abound in careful studies on the part of many of the
     leading ethnologists of the time, demonstrating, apparently in a
     convincing and unquestionable manner, the spread of curious
     customs or beliefs from the Old World to the New." The writer
     decries the fallacy of assuming that similarities in customs and
     culture of widely separated peoples can be explained on any other
     basis than that of a common origin, and proceeds as follows: "Why
     then, it will be asked, in the face of the overwhelming mass of
     definite and well-authenticated evidence clearly pointing to the
     sources in the Old World from which American civilization sprung,
     do so many ethnologists refuse to accept the clear and obvious
     meaning of the facts and resort to such childish subterfuges as I
     have mentioned? Putting aside the influence of Darwin's work, the
     misunderstanding of which, as Huxley remarked, 'led shallow
     persons to talk nonsense in the name of anthropological science,'
     the main factor in blinding so many investigators to appreciate
     the significance of the data they themselves so laboriously
     collect results from a defect incidental to the nature of their
     researches.... The failure to recognize the fact, recently
     demonstrated so convincingly by Dr. Rivers, that useful arts are
     often lost is another, and perhaps the chief, difficulty that has
     stood in the way of an adequate appreciation of the history of
     the spread of civilization." Dr. Smith presents an impressive
     array of evidence pointing to the Old World and specifically to
     Egypt, as the source of many of the customs by which the American
     aborigines are distinguished. The article is accompanied by a map
     showing probable routes of travel from the Old World to the New,
     and two landing places on the west coast, one in Mexico and
     another near the boundary common to Peru and Chile, from which
     places the immigrants spread.



LECTURE XVI.

REVELATION, PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE.

     =Article 9.=--We believe all that God has revealed, all that He
     does now reveal; and we believe that He will yet reveal many
     great and important things pertaining to the kingdom of God.


=1. What is Revelation?=--In a theological sense, the term
_revelation_ signifies the making known of Divine truth by
communication from the heavens. The Greek--_apocalypsis_, which in
meaning closely corresponds with our word _revelation_, expresses an
uncovering, or a disclosure of that which had been wholly or in part
hidden,--the drawing aside of a veil. An Anglicized form of the Greek
term--_Apocalypse_--is sometimes used to designate the particular
Revelation given to John upon the Isle of Patmos, the record of which
forms the last book of the New Testament as at present compiled.
Divine revelation, as illustrated by numerous examples in scripture,
may consist of disclosures or declarations concerning the attributes
of Deity, or of an expression of the Divine will regarding the affairs
of men.

=2.= The word _inspiration_ is sometimes invested with a signification
almost identical with that of _revelation_, though by its origin and
early usage it possessed a distinctive meaning. To inspire is
literally to animate with the spirit; a man is inspired when under the
influence of a power other than his own. Divine inspiration may be
regarded as a lower or less comprehensive manifestation of the
heavenly influence upon man than is shown in revelation. The
difference therefore is rather one of degree than of kind. By neither
of these directing processes does the Lord deprive the human subject
of agency or individuality;[857] as is proved by the marked
peculiarities of style and method characterizing the several books of
holy writ. Yet, in the giving of revelation, a more direct influence
is exercised upon the human recipient of the God-given message than is
the case under the lesser, though no less truly Divine, effect of
inspiration.

  [857] See Notes 1 and 3.

=3.= The directness and plainness with which God may communicate with
man is dependent upon the purity and general fitness of the person.
One may be susceptible to inspiration in its lower and simpler phases
only; another may be so thoroughly responsive to this power as to be
capable of receiving direct revelation; and this higher influence
again may manifest itself in varying degrees, and with a greater or
lesser shrouding of the Divine personality. Consider the Lord's words
to Aaron and Miriam, who had been guilty of disrespect toward Moses
the chosen revelator:--"And the Lord came down in the pillar of the
cloud, and stood in the door of the tabernacle, and called Aaron and
Miriam: and they both came forth. And He said, Hear now my words: If
there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make myself known unto
him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream. My servant Moses
is not so, who is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak
mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the
similitude of the Lord shall he behold."[858]

  [858] Numb. xii, 5-8.

=4.= We have seen that among the most conclusive proofs of the
existence of a Supreme Being is that afforded by direct revelation
from God Himself; and that some knowledge of the attributes and
personality of God is essential to any rational exercise of faith in
Him. We can but imperfectly respect an authority whose very existence
is a matter of uncertainty and conjecture with us; therefore, if we
are to implicitly trust and truly love our Creator, we must know
something of Him. Though the veil of mortality, with all its thick
obscurity, may shut the light of the Divine presence from the sinful
heart, that separating curtain may be drawn aside and the heavenly
light may shine into the righteous soul. By the listening ear, attuned
to the celestial music, the voice of God has been heard, declaring His
personality and will; to the eye that is freed from the motes and
beams of sin, single in its search after truth, the hand of God has
been made visible; within the soul properly purified by devotion and
humility, the mind of God has been revealed.

=5. Revelation is God's Means of Communication.=--We have no record of
a period of time during which an authorized minister of Christ has
dwelt on earth, when the Lord did not make known to that servant the
Divine will concerning the people. As has been shown, no man can take
upon himself, by his own act alone, the honor and dignity of the
ministry. To become an authorized minister of the Gospel, "a man must
be called of God, by prophecy, and by the laying on of hands, by those
who are in authority," and "those in authority" must have been
similarly called. When thus commissioned, the chosen one speaks by a
power greater than his own, in preaching the gospel and in
administering the ordinances thereof; he may verily become a prophet
unto the people. The Lord has consistently recognized and honored his
servants so appointed. He has magnified their office in proportion to
their own worthiness, making them living oracles of the Divine will.
This has been true of every dispensation of the work of God.

=6.= It is a privilege of the Holy Priesthood to commune with the
heavens, and to learn the immediate will of the Lord; this communion
may be effected through the medium of dreams and visions, through the
visitation of angels, or by the higher endowment of face to face
communication with the Lord.[859] The inspired utterances of men who
speak by the power of the Holy Ghost are scripture unto the
people.[860] In specific terms the promise has been given that the
Lord would recognize the medium of prophecy through which to make His
will and purposes known unto man:--"Surely the Lord God will do
nothing but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the
prophets."[861] Not all men may attain the position of special
revelators:--"The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him, and
he will show them his covenant."[862] Such men are oracles of truth;
privileged counselors, friends of God.[863]

  [859] See pp. 35-38 and Lecture xii.

  [860] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 4.

  [861] Amos iii, 7; see also I Nephi xxii, 2.

  [862] Psalms xxv, 14.

  [863] John xv, 14-15.

=7. Revelation in Ancient Times.=--Unto Adam, the patriarch of the
race, to whom were committed the keys of the first dispensation, God
revealed His will and gave commandments.[864] While living in a state
of child-like innocence prior to the Fall, Adam had direct
communication with the Lord; then, through transgression the man was
driven from Eden; but he took with him some remembrance of his former
happy state, including a personal knowledge of the existence and
attributes of his Creator. While sweating under the penalty fore-told
and fulfilled upon him, tilling the earth in a struggle for bread, he
continued to call upon the Lord. As Adam and his wife, Eve, prayed and
toiled, "they heard the voice of the Lord from the way towards the
garden of Eden, speaking unto them; and they saw him not, for they
were shut out from his presence; and he gave unto them commandments."[865]

  [864] Gen. ii, 15-20; Pearl of Great Price: Moses iii, 16.

  [865] Pearl of Great Price: Moses v, 4-5; see also Doc. and Cov.,
  Lect. on Faith ii, 19-25.

=8.= The patriarchs who succeeded Adam were blessed with the gift of
revelation in varying degrees; Enoch, the seventh in the line of
descent, was particularly endowed. We learn from the Old Testament
that Enoch "walked with God," and that when he had reached the age of
365 years "he was not, for God took him."[866] From the New Testament
we learn something more regarding his ministry;[867] and the Pearl of
Great Price gives us a fuller account of the Lord's dealings with this
chosen Seer.[868] Unto him were made known the plan of redemption, and
the prospective history of the race down to the meridian of time,
thence to the millennium and the final judgment. Unto Noah, the Lord
revealed His intentions regarding the impending deluge; by this
prophetic voice the people were warned and urged to repent;
disregarding it and rejecting the message, they were destroyed in
their iniquity. With Abraham, God's covenant was established; unto him
was revealed the course of the creative events.[869] And this covenant
was confirmed unto Isaac and Jacob.

  [866] Gen. v, 18-24.

  [867] Jude 14.

  [868] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vi, vii.

  [869] Gen. xvii, xviii; Pearl of Great Price: Book of Abraham.

=9.= Through revelation, God commissioned Moses to lead Israel from
bondage. From the burning bush on Horeb, the Lord declared to the man
thus chosen, "I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob."[870] In all the troublous scenes
between Moses and Pharaoh, the Lord continued His communications unto
His servant, who appeared amidst the glory of the Divine endowment, a
veritable God unto the heathen king.[871] And throughout the wearisome
forty years' journeying in the wilderness, the Lord ceased not to
honor His chosen prophet. So may we trace the line of revelators,--men
who have stood, each in his time, as the medium between God and the
people, receiving instruction from the source Divine, and transmitting
it to the masses,--from Moses to Joshua, and on through the Judges to
David and Solomon, thence to John, who was the immediate fore-runner
of the Messiah.

  [870] Exodus iii, 2-6.

  [871] Exodus iv, 16; vii, 1.

=10. Christ Himself was a Revelator.=--Notwithstanding His personal
authority, God though He had been and was, while the Christ lived as a
man among men, He declared His work to be that of One greater than
Himself, by whom He had been sent, and from whom He received
instructions. Note His words:--"For I have not spoken of myself; but
the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say,
and what I should speak. And I know that his commandment is life
everlasting: whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said
unto me, so I speak."[872] Further: "I can of mine own self do
nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek
not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent
me."[873] And again, "The words that I speak unto you I speak not of
myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.... And
as the Father gave me commandment, even so do I."[874]

  [872] John xii, 49-50.

  [873] John v, 30.

  [874] John xiv, 10, 31.

=11. The Apostles likewise=, left to bear the burden of the Church
after the departure of the Master, looked to heaven for guidance,
expected and received the word of revelation to direct them in their
exalted ministry. Paul writing to the Corinthians said:--"But God hath
revealed them [divine truths] unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man
knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him?
even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now
we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is
of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of
God."[875]

  [875] I Corinthians ii, 10-12.

=12.= John, also, declares that the book which is known specifically
as the _Revelation_ was not written of his own wisdom, but that it
is:--"The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew
unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent
and signified it by his angel unto his servant John."[876]

  [876] Rev. i, 1.

=13. Continual Revelation Necessary.=--The scriptures are conclusive
as to the fact that, from Adam to John the Revelator, God directed the
affairs of His people by personal communication through chosen
servants. As the written word--the record of revelation previously
given--grew with time, that became a law unto the people; but in no
period was that deemed sufficient. While the revelations of the past
have ever been indispensable as guides to the people, showing forth,
as they do, the plan and purpose of God's dealings under particular
conditions, they may not be universally and directly applicable to the
circumstances of succeeding times. Many of the revealed laws are of
general application to all men in all ages; e.g., the commandments
"Thou shalt not steal," "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not bear
false witness," and other injunctions regarding the duty of man toward
his fellows, most of which are so plainly just as to be approved by
the human conscience, even without the direct word of Divine command.
Other laws may be equally general in application, yet they derive
their validity as Divine ordinances from the fact that they have been
authoritatively instituted as such; as examples of this class, we may
consider the requirements concerning the sanctity of the Sabbath; the
necessity of baptism as a means of securing forgiveness of sins; the
ordinances of confirmation, the sacrament, etc. Revelations of yet
another kind are on record, such as have been given to meet the
conditions of particular times; these may be regarded as special, or
circumstantial revelations; e.g., the instructions to Noah regarding
the building of the ark and the warning of the people; the requirement
made of Abraham that he leave the land of his nativity and sojourn in
a strange country; the command to Moses, and through him to Israel,
relative to the exodus from Egypt; the revelations given to Lehi
directing the departure of his company from Jerusalem, their
journeying in the wilderness, the building of a ship, and their voyage
on the great waters to another hemisphere.

=14.= It is at once unreasonable, and directly contrary to our
conception of the unchangeable justice of God, to believe that He will
bless the Church in one dispensation with a present living revelation
of His will, and in another leave the Church, to which He gives His
name, to live as best it may according to the laws of a by-gone age.
True, through apostasy, the authority of the priesthood may have been
taken from the earth for a season, leaving the people in a condition
of darkness, with the windows of heaven shut against them; but at such
times, God has recognized no earthly Church as His own, nor any
prophet to declare with authority "Thus saith the Lord."

=15.= In support of the doctrine that revelation specially adapted to
existing conditions is characteristic of God's dealings with His
people, we have the fact of laws having been ordained and subsequently
repealed, when a more advanced stage of the Divine plan had been
reached. Thus, the law of Moses[877] was strictly binding upon Israel
from the time of the exodus to that of Christ's ministry; but its
repeal was declared by the Savior Himself,[878] and a higher law than
that "of carnal commandments," which had been given "because of
transgression," was instituted in its stead.

  [877] Exo. xxi; Lev. i; Deut. xii.

  [878] Matt. v, 17-48.

=16.= From the scriptures cited, and from numerous other assurances of
holy writ, it is evident that continual revelation has ever been
characteristic of the living Church. It is equally plain that
revelation is essential to the existence of the Church in an organized
state on the earth. If to have authority to preach the Gospel, and
administer in the ordinances of the same, a man must be called of God,
"by prophecy"[879] it is evident that in the absence of direct
revelation, the Church would be left without authorized officers, and
would, in consequence, become extinct. The prophets and patriarchs of
old, the judges, the priests, and every authorized servant from Adam
to Malachi, were called by direct revelation manifested through the
special word of prophecy. This was true also of John the Baptist,[880]
of Christ Himself, and of the apostles,[881] and lesser officers[882]
of the Church, as long as an organization recognized of God remained
on the earth. Without the gift of continual revelation there can be no
authorized ministry on the earth; and without officers duly
commissioned there can be no Church of Christ.

  [879] See Lecture x, page 184.

  [880] Luke i, 13-18.

  [881] John xv; Acts i, 12-26.

  [882] Acts xx, 28; I Tim. iv, 14; Titus i, 5.

=17.= Revelation is essential to the Church, not only for the proper
calling and ordination of its ministers, but also that the officers so
chosen may be guided in their ministrations:--to teach with authority
the doctrines of salvation; to admonish, to encourage, and if
necessary to reprove the people; and to declare unto them by prophecy
the purposes and will of God respecting the Church, present and
future. The promise of salvation is not limited by time, place, or
persons. So taught Peter on Pentecost day, assuring the multitude of
their eligibility to blessing:--"For the promise is unto you," said
he, "and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many
as the Lord our God shall call."[883] Salvation, with all the gifts of
God, was of old for Jew and Greek alike;[884] the same Lord over all,
rich unto those that call upon Him, without difference.[885]

  [883] Acts ii, 39.

  [884] Rom. x, 12; Gal. iii, 28; Col. iii, 11.

  [885] Rom. iii, 22.

=18. Alleged Objections in Scripture.=--The opponents of the doctrine
of continual revelation quote, with gross perversion of meaning,
certain scriptural passages to sustain their heresy; among such
scriptures are the following. The words of John with which he
approaches the conclusion of his book are these:--"For I testify unto
every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any
man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues
that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the
words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out
of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things
which are written in this book."[886] To apply these sayings to the
Bible as it was afterward compiled is wholly unjustified, for surely
John did not write with a knowledge that his book would be the
concluding section of any such compilation of the scriptures as we now
possess in our Bible. John had reference to his own words, which,
having come to him by revelation, were sacred; and to alter such, by
omission or addition, would be to modify the words of God. The sin of
altering any other part of the revealed word would be equally great.
Moreover, in this oft-quoted passage, no intimation is given that the
Lord may not add to or take from the word therein revealed; the
declaration is that no man shall change the record and escape the
penalty.

  [886] Rev. xxii, 18-19; see also Doc. and Cov. xx, 35.

=19.= A similar injunction against altering the message of Divine
command was uttered by Moses, over fifteen centuries before the date
of John's writing;[887] and with a similarly restricted application.
Another alleged objection to modern revelation is offered in Paul's
words to Timothy, regarding the holy scriptures "which are able to
make thee wise unto salvation,"[888] and which are "profitable for
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in
righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly
furnished unto all good works."[889] And the remarks of the apostle to
the elders at Ephesus are quoted with the same intent; the passage
reads: "Ye know ... how I kept back nothing that was profitable unto
you, but have shewed you, and have taught you publicly, and from house
to house.... For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the
counsel of God."[890] It is argued that if the scriptures known to
Timothy were all-sufficient to make him "wise unto salvation," and the
man of God "perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works," the
same scriptures are sufficient for all men to the end of time; and
that if the doctrines preached to the Ephesian elders represented "all
the counsel of God," no further counsel is to be expected. In reply,
it is perhaps sufficient to say that the objectors to continued
revelation who defend their unscriptural position by strained
interpretation of such passages, if consistent, would be compelled to
reject all revelation given through the apostles after the date of
Paul's utterances, including even the Revelation of John.

  [887] Deut. iv, 2; xii, 32.

  [888] II Tim. iii, 15.

  [889] II Tim. iii, 16-17.

  [890] Acts xx, 18-27.

=20.= Equally absurd is the assertion that Christ's dying exclamation,
"It is finished," meant that revelation was at an end; for we find the
same Jesus afterward revealing Himself, as the resurrected Lord, to
His apostles, promising them further revelation,[891] and assuring
them that He would be with them even unto the end.[892] And, moreover,
were the words of the Crucified One susceptible of any such intent,
the apostles who taught by revelation as long as they lived must be
classed as impostors.

  [891] Luke xxiv, 49.

  [892] Matt. xxviii, 20; see also Mark xvi, 20.

=21.= To justify the anathema with which the opponents of modern
revelation seek to persecute those who believe in the continual flow
of God's word to His Church, the following prophecy of Zechariah is
quoted:--"And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord of
hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and
they shall no more be remembered: and also I will cause the prophets
and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land. And it shall come to
pass, that when any shall yet prophesy, then his father and his mother
that begat him shall say unto him, Thou shalt not live; for thou
speakest lies in the name of the Lord: and his father and his mother
that begat him shall thrust him through when he prophesieth. And it
shall come to pass in that day, that the prophets shall be ashamed
every one of his vision, when he hath prophesied."[893] The day here
spoken of appears to be yet future, for surely the "idols" and the
"unclean spirits" still have influence; and, moreover, the fact that
the "prophets" here intended are false ones is shown by Zechariah's
associating them with idols and unclean spirits.

  [893] Zech. xiii, 2-4.

=22.= Such attempts to oppose the doctrine of continued revelation as
have been made on the authority of the foregoing scriptures are
pitiably futile; they carry their own refutation, and leave untouched
the truth, that belief in modern revelation is wholly reasonable and
strictly scriptural.[894]

  [894] See Note 2.

=23. Modern Revelation.=--In the light of our knowledge concerning the
constancy of revelation as an essential characteristic of the Church,
it is as reasonable to look for new revelation today as to believe in
the existence of the gift during ancient times. "Where there is no
vision the people perish,"[895] was declared of old; and surely it is
proper to include with vision, revelation also, since the latter gift
is often manifested through dreams and visions. Nevertheless, in spite
of abundant and most explicit testimony of scripture, the so-called
Christian sects of the day are practically a unit in declaring that
revelation ceased with the apostles, or even before their time; that
further communication from the heavens is unnecessary; and that to
expect such is unscriptural. In assuming this position, the discordant
sects of the day are but following the path that was trodden by
unbelievers in earlier times. The recreant Jews rejected the Savior,
because He came to them with a new revelation. Had they not Moses and
the prophets to guide them? what more could they need? They openly
boasted "We are Moses' disciples," and added "We know that God spake
unto Moses; as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is."[896]

  [895] Prov. xxix, 18.

  [896] John ix, 28-29.

=24.= The scriptures, far from predicting a cessation of revelation in
latter times, expressly declare the continuation of that gift among
the people of the Lord. John foresaw the restoration of the gospel in
the last days, through angelic ministration:--"And I saw another angel
fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach
unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred,
and tongue, and people."[897] He knew further that the voice of God
would be heard in the last days, calling His people from Babylon to a
place of safety:--"And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come
out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that
ye receive not of her plagues."[898]

  [897] Rev. xiv, 6.

  [898] Rev. xviii, 4.

=25.= The Book of Mormon is not less explicit in declaring that direct
revelation shall abide as a blessing upon the Church in the latter
days. Note the prediction given through Ether the Jaredite; the
context shows that the time spoken of is that of the last
dispensation:--"And in that day, they [the Gentiles] shall exercise
faith in me, saith the Lord, even as the brother of Jared did, that
they may become sanctified in me, then will I manifest unto them the
things which the brother of Jared saw, even to the unfolding unto them
all my revelations, saith Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Father of
the heavens and of the earth, and all things that in them are.... But
he that believeth these things which I have spoken, him will I visit
with the manifestations of my Spirit, and he shall know and bear
record."[899]

  [899] Ether iv, 7, 11.

=26.= Lehi, instructing his sons, quoted a prophecy of Joseph the son
of Jacob, which is not recorded in the compilation of books known as
the Bible; it has special reference to the work of Joseph the modern
prophet:--"Yea, Joseph truly said, Thus saith the Lord unto me: A
choice seer will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins; and he
shall be esteemed highly among the fruit of thy loins. And unto him
will I give commandment, that he shall do a work for the fruit of thy
loins, his brethren, which shall be of great worth unto them, even to
the bringing of them to the knowledge of the covenants which I have
made with thy fathers."[900]

  [900] II Nephi iii, 7.

=27.= Nephi, the son of Lehi, spoke by prophecy of the last days, in
which the Gentiles should receive a testimony of Christ with many
signs and wondrous manifestations:--"He manifesteth himself unto all
those who believe in him, by the power of the Holy Ghost; yea, unto
every nation, kindred, tongue, and people, working mighty miracles,
signs, and wonders, among the children of men, according to their
faith. But behold, I prophesy unto you concerning the last days;
concerning the days when the Lord God shall bring these things forth
unto the children of men."[901]

  [901] II Nephi xxvi, 13-14.

=28.= The same prophet, apostrophizing with warning words the
unbelievers of the last days, predicted the coming forth of additional
scriptures:--"And it shall come to pass, that the Lord God shall bring
forth unto you the words of a book, and they shall be the words of
them which have slumbered. And behold the book shall be sealed: and in
the book shall be a revelation from God, from the beginning of the
world to the ending thereof."[902]

  [902] II Nephi xxvii, 6-7.

=29.= The Savior, addressing the Nephites, repeated the prediction of
Malachi concerning the revelation to be given through Elijah, before
the day of the Lord's second coming:--"Behold, I will send you Elijah
the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the
Lord; and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and
the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the
earth with a curse."[903]

  [903] III Nephi xxv, 5-6; see also Mal. iv, 5, 6; pp. 11, 153-154
  this book; and for the fulfillment, Doc. and Cov. cx, 13.

=30.= By revelation in the present day, the Lord has confirmed and
fulfilled His early promises, and has specifically rebuked those who
would close His mouth, and estrange Him from His people. His voice is
heard to-day, "proving to the world that the Holy Scriptures are true,
and that God does inspire men and call them to His holy work in this
age and generation, as well as in generations of old, thereby showing
that He is the same God, yesterday, to-day, and forever."[904]

  [904] Doc. and Cov. xx, 11-12. See also i, 11; xi, 25; xx, 26-28;
  xxxv, 8; xlii, 61; l, 35; lix, 4; lxx, 3; and the entire volume,
  as evidence of the continuation of revelation in the Church today.

=31. Revelation Yet Future.=--In view of the demonstrated facts that
revelation between God and man has ever been and is a characteristic
of the Church of Christ, it is reasonable to await with confident
expectation the coming of other messages from heaven, even until the
end of man's probation on earth. The Church is, and will continue to
be, as truly founded on the rock of revelation as it was in the day of
Christ's prophetic blessing upon Peter, who by this gift of God was
able to testify of his Lord's divinity.[905] Current revelation is
equally plain with that of former days, in predicting the yet future
manifestations of God through this appointed channel.[906] The canon
of scripture is still open; many lines, many precepts, are yet to be
added; revelation, surpassing in importance and glorious fulness any
that has been recorded, will yet be given to the Church and be
declared to the world.

  [905] Matt. xvi, 16-19; Mark viii, 27-30; Luke ix, 18-20; John vi,
  69.

  [906] Doc. and Cov. xx, 35; xxxv, 8; and the Doc. and Cov.
  references last cited.

=32.= What shadow of justification or pretense of consistency can man
claim for denying the power and purposes of God to reveal Himself and
His will in these days as He assuredly did in former times? In every
department of human knowledge and activity, in everything for which
man arrogates to himself glory, he prides himself in the
possibilities of enlargement and growth; yet in the Divine science of
theology, he holds that progress is impossible, and advancement
forbidden. Against such heresy and blasphemous denial of the Divine
prerogatives and power, God has proclaimed His edict in words of
terrible import:--"Wo be unto him that shall say We have received the
word of God, and we need no more of the word of God for we have
enough."[907] "Deny not the spirit of revelation, nor the spirit of
prophecy, for wo unto him that denieth these things."[908]

  [907] II Nephi xxviii, 29; see also 30, and xxix, 6-12.

  [908] Doc. and Cov. xi, 25.


NOTES.

     =1. Freedom under Inspiration.=--Faussett has this to say of
     man's agency under the influence of inspiration:--"Inspiration
     does not divest the writers of their several individualities of
     style, just as the inspired teachers in the early Church were not
     passive machines in prophesying (I Cor. xiv, 32). 'Where the
     Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty' (II Cor. iii, 17). Their
     will became one with God's will; His Spirit acted on their
     spirit, so that their individuality had full play in the sphere
     of His inspiration. As to religious truths, the collective
     Scriptures have unity of authorship; as to other matters, their
     authorship is palpably as manifold as the writers. The variety is
     human, the unity Divine. If the four evangelists were mere
     machines, narrating the same events in the same order and words,
     they would cease to be independent witnesses. Their very
     discrepancies (only _seeming_ ones) disprove collusion.... The
     slight variations in the decalogue between Exo. xx and its
     repetition Deut. v, and in Ps. xviii compared with II Sam. xxii,
     in Ps. xiv compared with Ps. liii, and in New Testament
     quotations of Old Testament (sometimes from the Septuagint, which
     varies from the Hebrew, sometimes from neither in every word),
     all prove the spirit-produced independence of the sacred writers,
     who, under Divine guidance and sanction, presented on different
     occasions the same substantial truths under different aspects,
     the one complementing the other."--_Bible Cyclopedia_, A. R.
     Faussett, p. 308.

     =2. The Doctrine of no Further Revelation, New and False.=--"The
     history of the people of God, from the earliest ages, shows that
     _continued revelation_ was the only way by which they could
     possibly learn all their duties, or God's will concerning them.
     They never once thought that the revelations given to previous
     generations were sufficient to guide them into every duty. A
     doctrine which rejects new revelation is a new doctrine, invented
     by the devil and his agents during the second century after
     Christ; it is a doctrine in direct opposition to the one believed
     in and enjoyed by the saints in all ages. Now, to subvert and do
     away a doctrine four thousand years old, and introduce a new one
     in its stead can only be done by divine authority.... As the
     doctrine, then, of continued revelation is one that was always
     believed by the saints, it ought not to be required of any man to
     prove the necessity of the continuation of such a doctrine. If it
     were a new doctrine, never before introduced into the world, it
     would become necessary to establish its divine origin; but
     inasmuch as it is only the continuation of an old doctrine,
     established thousands of years ago, and which has never ceased to
     be believed and enjoyed by the saints, it would be the greatest
     presumption to call it in question at this late period; and hence
     it would seem almost superfluous to undertake to prove the
     necessity of its continuance. Instead of being required to do
     this, all people have the right to call upon the new-revelation
     deniers of the last seventeen centuries to bring forward their
     strong reasonings and testimonies for breaking in upon the
     long-established order of heaven, and introducing a new doctrine
     so entirely different from the old. If they wish their new
     doctrine to be believed, let them demonstrate it to be of divine
     origin, or else all people will be justified in rejecting it, and
     clinging to the old."--Orson Pratt, _Divine Authenticity of the
     Book of Mormon_, I (2) 15, 16.

     =3. Inspiration a Sure Guide.=--"Inspiration has been defined to
     be the 'actuating energy of the Holy Spirit, in whatever degree
     or manner it may have been exercised, guided by which the human
     agents chosen by God have officially proclaimed his will by word
     of mouth or have committed to writing the several portions of the
     Bible.' By _plenary inspiration_ we mean that this energy was so
     fully and perfectly exercised, as to make the teaching of the
     sacred writers to be, in the most literal sense of the words,
     God's teaching, as proceeding from him, truly expressing his
     mind, and bearing with it the sanction of his authority. By
     _verbal inspiration_ we mean that this energy was not exhausted
     in suggesting to the writers the matter of Scripture, and then
     leaving them to themselves to convey, in their own manner and
     after an exclusively human sort, what had been supernaturally
     suggested; but that they were assisted and guided in the
     conveyance of the truth received.... When the doctrine of plenary
     and verbal inspiration is thus disentangled from the
     misapprehensions which have been entertained of it, it presents
     in no point of view any just ground of objection. It is
     consistent with all the conclusions relative to the Word which
     modern scholarship has succeeded in establishing; for the dreams
     of the 'higher criticism' are little more than the vagaries of
     arbitrary caprice; and it is much to be regretted that they have
     been honored with a deference wholly undeserved, and have been
     rashly placed side by side with the valuable and precious results
     of genuine criticism. These results, in many respects, point
     decisively in the direction of plenary inspiration, when the
     doctrine itself is rightly understood, as supplying the only
     consistent and logical ground on which the authority of the
     canonical writings can be safely based."--Cassell's _Bible
     Dictionary_, pp. 559, 561.

     =4.= "Is it unreasonable, is it unphilosophical, thus to look for
     additional light and knowledge? Shall religion be the one
     department of human thought and effort in which progression is
     impossible? What would we say of the chemist, the astronomer, the
     physicist, or the geologist, who would proclaim that no further
     discovery or revelation of scientific truth is possible, or who
     would declare that the only occupation open to students of
     science is to con the books of by-gone times and to apply the
     principles long ago made known, for none others shall ever be
     discovered? The chief motive impelling to research and
     investigation is the conviction that to knowledge and wisdom
     there is no end. 'Mormonism' affirms that all wisdom is of God,
     that the halo of his glory is intelligence, and that man has not
     yet learned all there is to learn of him and his ways. We hold
     that the doctrine of continuous revelation from God is not less
     philosophical and scientific than scriptural."--_The Philosophy
     of "Mormonism._" The Author, in _Improvement Era_, Vol. iv, p.
     468.



LECTURE XVII.

THE DISPERSION OF ISRAEL.

     =Article 10.=--We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and
     in the restoration of the Ten Tribes, etc.


=1. Israel.=--The term _Israel_, in its original sense, expressed the
thought of one who had succeeded in his supplication before the Lord;
"soldier of God," "one who contends with God," "a prince of God," are
among the common English renderings. The name first appears in sacred
writ as a title conferred by the Lord upon Jacob, when the latter
prevailed in his determination to secure a blessing from his heavenly
visitor in the wilderness, receiving the promise "Thy name shall be
called no more Jacob, but Israel, for as a prince hast thou power with
God and with men, and hast prevailed."[909] We read further:--"And God
appeared unto Jacob again, when he came out of Padan-aram, and blessed
him, and God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob; thy name shall not be
called anymore Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his
name Israel."[910]

  [909] Gen. xxxii, 28.

  [910] Gen. xxxv, 9-10.

=2.= But the combined name and title thus bestowed under conditions of
such solemn dignity soon acquired a wider application, and came in
course of time to represent the entire posterity of Abraham, through
Isaac and Jacob,[911] with each of whom the Lord had covenanted, that
through his descendants should all nations of the earth be
blessed.[912] The name of the individual patriarch thus grew into the
designation of a nation, including the twelve tribes; who delighted in
the title Israelites, or children of Israel. By such names they were
collectively known during the dark days of their Egyptian
bondage;[913] throughout the four decades of the exodus and the
journey to the land of promise;[914] so on through the period of their
existence as a powerful people under the government of the judges; and
as a united nation during the hundred and twenty years comprised in
the successive reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon.[915]

  [911] I Sam. xxv, 1; Isa. xlviii, 1; Rom ix, 4; xi, 1.

  [912] Gen. xii, 1-3; xvii, 1-8; xxvi, 3-4. xxviii, 13-15.

  [913] Exo. i, 1, 7; ix, 6-7; xii, 3, etc.

  [914] Exo. xii, 35, 40; xiii, 19; xv, 1; xxxv, 20, 30; Lev. i, 2;
  Numb, xx, 1, 19, 24, etc.

  [915] See references in great number throughout the books of
  Judges, I and II Samuel, and I and II Kings.

=3.= At the death of Solomon, probably about 975 B. C., the kingdom
was divided; the tribe of Judah and part of the tribe of Benjamin
accepted Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king;
while the rest of the people, usually spoken of as the ten tribes,
revolted against Rehoboam, thus breaking their allegiance with the
house of David; they chose Jeroboam as their king. The ten tribes
under Jeroboam retained the title _Kingdom of Israel_, though the
kingdom was likewise known by the name of Ephraim,[916] from its most
prominent tribe; while Rehoboam and his subjects were known as the
_Kingdom of Judah_. For about two hundred and fifty years the two
kingdoms maintained a separate existence; after which (721 B. C.), the
independent status of the kingdom of Israel was destroyed, and the
people were brought into captivity by the Assyrians under Shalmanezer.
The Kingdom of Judah was recognized for over a century longer, after
which it was brought to an end by Nebuchadnezzar, who inaugurated the
Babylonian captivity. For about seventy years the people remained in
subjection, which fact was in accordance with the prophecy of
Jeremiah,[917] then the Lord softened the hearts of the ruling kings,
and the work of emancipation was begun by Cyrus the Persian. The
Hebrew people were permitted to return to Judea, and to rebuild the
temple at Jerusalem.

  [916] Isa. xi, 13; xvii, 3; Ezek. xxxvii, 16-22; Hos. iv, 17.

  [917] Jer. xxv, 11-12; xxix, 10.

=4.= The people, then commonly known as Hebrews, or Jews,[918]
retained as the name of their nation the designation Israel, though
they scarcely comprised two complete tribes out of the twelve. The
name Israel, thus held with commendable pride by the remnant of a once
mighty people, was used in a figurative manner to designate the chosen
and accepted ones who constituted the Church of Christ;[919] and in
that sense it is still employed. The people of Israel, as first we
meet them in history, were a united people. That we may comprehend the
true import of the gathering to which reference is made in the tenth
of the Articles of Faith, it is necessary that we first consider the
dispersions and scattering to which the people have been subjected.
The scriptures abound in predictions concerning such dispersions; holy
scripture and history in general unite in testimony of the fulfillment
of these prophecies.

  [918] See Notes 1 and 2.

  [919] Rom. ix, 6; Gal. vi, 16.

=5. The Dispersion of Israel Foretold.=--It has been said, that "if a
complete history of the house of Israel were written, it would be the
history of histories, the key of the world's history for the past
twenty centuries."[920] Justification for this sweeping statement is
found in the fact that the Israelites have been so completely
dispersed among the nations as to give to this scattered people a
place of importance as a factor in the rise and development of almost
every large division of the human family. This work of dispersion was
brought about by many stages, and extended through millenniums. It was
foreseen by the early prophets among the chosen people; and the
spiritual leaders of every generation prior to and immediately
following the Messianic era predicted the scattering of the people, as
an ordained result of their increasing wickedness, or referred to the
fulfillment of former prophecies regarding the dispersion, then
already accomplished, and foretold a further and more complete
disruption of the nation.

  [920] Compendium, p. 85 (1884 ed.).

=6. Biblical Prophecies.=--In the course of Israel's troubled journey
from Egypt, where they had dwelt as in a "house of bondage," to
Canaan, the land of their promised inheritance, the Lord gave them
many laws, and established ordinances for their government in temporal
and spiritual affairs. He arrayed for their contemplation blessings
beyond the power of the unaided mind of man to conceive, predicating
these upon their obedience to the laws of righteousness, and their
allegiance to Himself as God and King. In contrast with this picture
of blessed prosperity, the Lord described with terrible distinctness,
and soul-harrowing detail, a state of abject misfortune and blighting
suffering, into which they would surely fall if they departed from the
path of rectitude and adopted the sinful practices of the heathen
peoples with whom they would have dealings. The darkest parts of this
dread picture were those that depicted the prospective breaking up of
the nation, and the scattering of the people among those who knew not
God. These extreme calamities, however, were to befall Israel only
after less severe chastisements had proved ineffective.[921]

  [921] Read the fateful predictions in Leviticus xxvi, 14-33.

=7.= When the journey following the exodus was nearing its close, as
the Israelites were preparing to cross the Jordan and to take
possession of the land of promise; when Moses, patriarch, law-giver,
and prophet, was about to ascend Nebo, from which he was to look over
the goodly land and then die there; he repeated the story of
contrasted blessings and cursings which formed the condition of God's
covenant with the people. "The Lord shall cause thee to be smitten
before thine enemies"[922] was declared unto them; and again:--"The
Lord shall bring thee, and thy king which thou shalt set over thee,
unto a nation which neither thou nor thy fathers have known; and there
shalt thou serve other gods, wood and stone. And thou shalt become an
astonishment, a proverb, and a by-word, among all nations whither the
Lord shall lead thee."[923] And yet further:--"The Lord shall bring a
nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as
the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand; a
nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the
old, nor shew favor to the young:[924] ... And the Lord shall scatter
thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the
other; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou nor
thy fathers have known, even wood and stone."[925]

  [922] Deut. xxviii, 25.

  [923] Verses 36-37.

  [924] Verses 49, 50.

  [925] Verse 64.

=8.= As the sacred record progresses, the fact is made plain that
Israel had chosen the evil alternative, forfeiting the blessings and
reaping the curses. When the son of sinful Jeroboam lay sick almost
unto death, the troubled king sent his wife in disguise to Ahijah, the
blind prophet of Israel, to inquire concerning the fate of the child.
The prophet, seeing beyond the physical blindness of his old age,
predicted the child's death and the overthrow of the house of
Jeroboam; and declared further:--"For the Lord shall smite Israel, as
a reed is shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of this
good land, which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them
beyond the river, because they have made their groves, provoking the
Lord to anger."[926]

  [926] I Kings xiv, 15.

=9.= Through Isaiah the Lord justifies His judgment upon the people,
likening them to an unprofitable vineyard,[927] which, in spite of
protecting hedge and fullest care, had yielded out wild grapes, and
which was fit only for spoliation; "therefore," He continues, "my
people have gone into captivity."[928] And yet other tribulations were
to follow, against which the people were warned lest they alienate
themselves entirely from the God of their fathers:--"And what will ye
do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which shall come
from far? to whom will ye flee for help?"[929] The prophet directs the
attention of his erring people to the fact that their tribulations are
from the Lord:--"Who gave Jacob for a spoil and Israel to the robbers?
did not the Lord, he against whom we have sinned? for they would not
walk in his ways, neither were they obedient unto his law. Therefore
he has poured upon them the fury of his anger, and the strength of
battle."[930]

  [927] Isa. v, 1-7.

  [928] Verse 13.

  [929] Isa. x, 8.

  [930] Isa. xiii, 24-25.

=10.= After the captivity of Ephraim, or the kingdom of Israel,
specifically so called, the people of Judah needed yet other
admonishings and threatenings. Through Jeremiah the fate of their
brethren was brought to their remembrance;[931] then, as a result of
their continued and increasing wickedness, the Lord said:--"And I will
cast you out of my sight, as I have cast out all your brethren, even
the whole seed of Ephraim."[932] Their land was to be despoiled; all
the cities of Judah were to be consigned to desolation,[933] and the
people were to be scattered among the kingdoms of the earth.[934]
Other prophets[935] revealed the Lord's words of anger and dire
warning; and the Divine decree is recorded:--"I will sift the house of
Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve;"[936] and
again: "I will sow them among the people, and they shall remember me
in far countries."[937]

  [931] Jer. vii, 12.

  [932] Verse 15.

  [933] Jer. ix, 11; x, 22.

  [934] Jer. xxxiv, 17.

  [935] Ezek. xx, 23; xxii, 15; xxxiv, 6; xxxvi, 19; Amos vii, 17;
  ix, 9; Micah iii, 12.

  [936] Amos ix, 9.

  [937] Zech. x, 9.

=11. Book of Mormon Predictions.=--The record made by that division of
the house of Israel which took its departure from Jerusalem and made
its way to the western hemisphere about 600 B. C., contains many
references to the dispersions that had already taken place, and to the
continuation of the scattering which was to the writers of the Book of
Mormon yet future. In the course of the journey to the coast, the
prophet Lehi, while encamped with his family and other followers in
the valley of Lemuel on the borders of the Red Sea, declared what he
had learned by revelation of the future "dwindling of the Jews in
unbelief," of their crucifying the Messiah, and of their scattering
"upon all the face of the earth."[938] He compared Israel to an olive
tree,[939] the branches of which were to be broken off and
distributed; and he recognized the exodus of his colony, and their
journeying afar as an incident in the general plan of dispersion.[940]
Nephi, the son of Lehi, also beheld in vision the scattering of the
covenant people of God, and on this point added his testimony to that
of his prophet-father.[941] He saw also that the seed of his brethren,
subsequently known as the Lamanites, were to be chastened for their
unbelief, and that they were destined to become subject to the
Gentiles, and to be scattered before them.[942] Down the prophetic
vista of years, he saw also the bringing forth of sacred records,
other than those then known, "unto the convincing of the Gentiles, and
the remnant of the seed of my brethren,[943] and also the Jews who
were scattered upon all the face of the earth."[944]

  [938] I Nephi x, 11-12.

  [939] Verse 12; xv, 12, 13; see also Jacob v and vi.

  [940] I Nephi x, 13.

  [941] I Nephi xiv, 14.

  [942] I Nephi xiii, 11-14.

  [943] The division of Lehi's posterity, known at a later date as
  Lamanites.

  [944] I Nephi xiii, 39.

=12.= After their arrival on the promised land, the colony led by Lehi
received further information regarding the dispersion of Israel. The
prophet Zenos,[945] quoted by Nephi, had predicted the unbelief of the
house of Israel, in consequence of which these covenant ones of God
were to "wander in the flesh, and perish, and become a hiss and a
by-word, and be hated among all nations."[946] The brothers of Nephi,
skeptical in regard to these teachings, asked whether the things of
which he spake were to come to pass in a spiritual sense, or more
literally; and were informed that "the house of Israel, sooner or
later, will be scattered upon all the face of the earth, and also
among all nations"; and further, in reference to dispersions then
already accomplished, that "the more part of all the tribes have been
led away; and they are scattered to and fro upon the isles of the
sea";[947] and then, by way of prediction concerning further division
and separation, Nephi adds that the Gentiles shall be given power over
the people of Israel, "and by them shall our seed be scattered."[948]
Though an ocean lay between the country of their nativity and the land
to which they had been miraculously led, the children of Lehi learned
through revelation by the mouth of Jacob, Nephi's brother, of the
captivity of the Jews whom they had left at Jerusalem.[949] By Nephi
they were further told of troubles then impending over the city of
their birth,[950] and of a further dispersion of their kindred, the
Jews.[951]

  [945] See Note 3.

  [946] I Nephi xix, 12-14.

  [947] I Nephi xxii, 1-4.

  [948] I Nephi xxii, 7.

  [949] II Nephi vi, 8.

  [950] II Nephi xxv, 14-15.

  [951] Verse 15.

=13.= The Lamanites, a division of Lehi's colony, were also to be
disrupted and scattered, as witness the words of Samuel, a prophet of
that benighted people.[952] Nephi, the third prophet of that name,
grandson of Helaman, emphasizes the dispersion of his people by
declaring that their "dwellings shall become desolate."[953] Jesus
Himself, after His resurrection, while ministering to the division of
His flock on the western hemisphere, refers solemnly to the remnant of
the chosen seed who are to be "scattered forth upon the face of the
earth because of their unbelief."[954]

  [952] Helaman xv, 12.

  [953] III Nephi x, 7.

  [954] III Nephi xvi, 4.

=14.= From these references it is plain that the followers of Lehi,
including his own family, and Zoram,[955] together with Ishmael and
his family,[956] from whom sprang the mighty peoples the Nephites, who
suffered extermination because of their unfaithfulness, and the
Lamanites, who, now known as the American Indians, have continued in
troubled existence until the present day, were informed by revelation
of the dispersion of their former compatriots in the land of
Palestine, and of their own certain doom as a result of their
disobedience to the laws of God. We have said that the transfer of
Lehi and his followers from the eastern to the western hemisphere was
itself a part of the general dispersion. It should be remembered that
another colony of Jews came to the western hemisphere, the start
dating about eleven years after the time of Lehi's departure. This
second company was led by Mulek, a son of Zedekiah the last king of
Judah; they left Jerusalem immediately after the capture of the city
by Nebuchadnezzar, about 588 B. C.[957]

  [955] I Nephi iv, 20-26, 30-37.

  [956] I Nephi vii, 2-6, 19, 22; xvi, 7.

  [957] Omni i, 14-19; Mos. xxv, 2-4; Alma xxii, 30-32; Hel. vi, 10;
  viii, 21; p. 268.

=15. The Fulfillment of these Prophecies.=--The sacred scriptures, as
well as other writings for which the claim of direct inspiration is
not asserted, record the literal fulfillment of prophecy in the
desolation of the house of Israel. The dividing of the nation into the
separate kingdoms of Judah and Israel led to the downfall of both. As
the people grew in their disregard for the laws of their fathers,
their enemies were permitted to triumph over them. After many minor
losses in war, the kingdom of Israel met an overwhelming defeat at the
hands of the Assyrians, in or about the year 721 B. C. We read that
Shalmanezer IV, king of Assyria, besieged Samaria, the third and last
capital of the kingdom,[958] and that after three years the city was
taken by Sargon, Shalmanezer's successor. The people of Israel were
carried captive into Assyria, and distributed among the cities of the
Medes.[959] Thus was the dread prediction of Ahijah to the wife of
Jeroboam fulfilled. Israel was "scattered beyond the river,"[960]
probably the Euphrates, and from the time of this event the ten tribes
are entirely lost to history.

  [958] Shechem was the first capital of the kingdom of Israel (I
  Kings xii, 25); later, Tirzah became the capital: it was famous
  for its beauty (I Kings xiv, 17; xv, 33; xvi, 8,17, 23; Song of
  Sol. vi, 4); and lastly Samaria (1 Kings xvi, 24).

  [959] II Kings xvii, 5-6; xviii, 9-11.

  [960] I Kings xiv, 15.

=16.= The sad fate of the kingdom of Israel had some effect in
partially awakening among the people of Judah a sense of their own
impending doom. Hezekiah reigned as king for nine and twenty years,
and proved himself a bright exception to a line of wicked rulers who
had preceded him. Of him we are told that "he did that which was
right in the sight of the Lord."[961] During his reign, the Assyrians
under Sennacherib invaded the land; but the Lord's favor was in part
restored to the people, and Hezekiah roused them to a reliance upon
their God, bidding them take courage and fear not the Assyrian king
nor his hosts, "for" said this righteous prince, "there be more with
us than with him; With him is an arm of flesh, but with us is the Lord
our God, to help us and to fight our battles."[962] The Assyrian army
was miraculously destroyed.[963] But Hezekiah died, and Manasseh ruled
in his stead; this king did evil in the sight of the Lord,[964] and
the wickedness of the people continued for half a century or more,
broken only by the good works of one righteous king, Josiah.[965]

  [961] II Kings xviii, 1-3; II Chron. xxix, 1-11.

  [962] II Chron. xxxii, 7-8.

  [963] II Chron. xxxii, 21-22.

  [964] II Chron. xxxiii, 1-10; II Kings xxi, 1-9.

  [965] II Kings xxii, 1; II Chron. xxxiv, 1.

=17.= While Zedekiah occupied the throne, Nebuchadnezzar, king of
Babylon, laid siege to Jerusalem,[966] took the city about 588 B. C.,
and soon thereafter led the people captive into Babylon, thus
virtually putting an end to the kingdom of Judah. The people were
scattered among the cities of Asia; and groaned under the vicissitudes
of the Babylonian captivity for nearly seventy years,[967] after which
they were given permission by Cyrus the Persian, who had subdued the
Babylonians, to return to Jerusalem. Multitudes of the exiled Hebrews
availed themselves of this opportunity, though many remained in the
land of their captivity; and while those who did return earnestly
sought to re-establish themselves on a scale of their former power,
they were never again truly an independent people. They were assailed
by Syria and Egypt, and later became tributary to Rome, in which
condition they were during the personal ministry of Christ among them.

  [966] II Kings xxv, 1-3; II Chron. xxxvi, 17.

  [967] See pp. 327-328.

=18.= Jeremiah's prophecy still lacked a complete fulfillment, but
time proved that not a word was to fail. "Judah shall be carried away
captive, all of it; it shall be wholly carried away captive;"[968]
this was the prediction. A rebellious disturbance among the Jews gave
a semblance of excuse for a terrible chastisement to be visited upon
them by their Roman masters, which culminated in the destruction of
Jerusalem, A. D. 71. The city fell after a six months' siege before
the Roman arms led by Titus, son of the Emperor Vespasian. Josephus,
the famous historian, to whom we owe most of our knowledge as to the
details of the struggle, was himself a resident in Galilee and was
carried to Rome among the captives. From his record we learn that more
than a million Jews lost their lives through the famine incident to
the siege; many more were sold into slavery, and uncounted numbers
were forced into exile. The city was utterly destroyed, and the site
upon which the temple had stood was plowed up by the Romans in their
search for treasure. Thus literally were the words of Christ
fulfilled, "There shall not be left here one stone upon another that
shall not be thrown down."[969]

  [968] Jer. xiii, 19.

  [969] Matt. xxiv, 1-2; see also Luke xix, 44. See "Jesus the
  Christ," pp. 563, 567, 586.

=19.= Since the destruction of Jerusalem and the final disruption of
the organized people, the Jews have been wanderers upon the face of
the earth, outcasts among the nations, a people without a country, a
nation without a home. The prophecy uttered by Amos of old has had its
literal fulfillment: truly have Israel been sifted among all nations
"like as corn is sifted in a sieve;"[970] let it be remembered,
however that coupled with this dread prediction was the promise, "Yet
shall not the least grain fall upon the earth."

  [970] Amos ix, 9.

=20. The Lost Tribes.=--As already stated, in the division of the
Israelites after the death of Solomon, ten tribes established
themselves as an independent kingdom. This, the kingdom of Israel, was
terminated, as far as history is concerned, by the Assyrian captivity,
721 B. C. The people were led into Assyria; and later disappeared so
completely that they have been called the Lost Tribes. They seem to
have departed from Assyria, and while we lack definite information as
to their final destination and present location, there is abundant
evidence that their journey was toward the north.[971] The Lord's Word
through Jeremiah promises that the people shall be brought back "from
the land of the north,"[972] and a similar declaration has been made
through Divine revelation during the present dispensation.[973]

  [971] Jer. iii, 12.

  [972] Jer. xvi, 15; xxiii, 8; xxxi, 8.

  [973] Doc. and Cov. cxxxiii, 26-27.

=21.= In the writings of Esdras or Ezra, which, however, are not
included among the canonical books of the Bible, but are known as
apocryphal, we find references to the north-bound migration of the ten
tribes, which they undertook in accordance with a plan to escape the
heathen by going to "a further country where never man dwelt, that
they might there keep their statutes which they never kept in their
own land."[974] The same writer informs us further that they journeyed
a year and a half into the north country; but he gives us evidence
that many remained in the land of their captivity.

  [974] II Esdras xiii. See Note 4.

=22.= The resurrected Christ, while ministering among the Nephites on
this hemisphere, specifically mentioned "the other tribes of the house
of Israel, whom the Father hath led away out of the land;"[975] and
again He referred to them as "other sheep which are not of this land,
neither of the land of Jerusalem; neither in any parts of that land
around about, whither I have been to minister."[976] Christ announced
a commandment of the Father that He should reveal Himself to them. The
present location of the Lost Tribes has not been accurately revealed.

  [975] III Nephi xv, 15.

  [976] III Nephi xvi, 1.


NOTES.

     =1. Hebrews.=--Shem is called "the father of all the children of
     Eber," as Ham is called father of Canaan. The Hebrews and
     Canaanites were often brought into contact, and exhibited the
     respective characteristics of the Shemites and the Hamites. The
     term "Hebrews" thus is derived from "Eber" (Gen. x, 21; comp.
     Numb, xxiv, 24).--_Bible Cyclopedia_, by Fausset.

     The writer of the article "Hebrew" in Cassell's Bible Dictionary
     questions the evidence on which the derivation of "Hebrew" from
     "Eber" or "Heber" is asserted, and says: "All that can be
     confidently affirmed is that the term is employed of Abraham, and
     of the descendants of Jacob in general. The interest attaching to
     the word, coupled with its obscure origin, suffices to account
     for the many speculations in regard to it. It may be added that
     some scholars have found the name 'Hebrews,' a little changed, on
     the monuments of Egypt. If this interpretation is verified, it
     will be of value, as showing that when the Egyptians called
     Joseph a Hebrew, they employed the designation which was accepted
     among them."

     =2. Jews.=--The term properly signifies "a man of Judah," or a
     descendant of Judah, but the word came to be applied to all those
     who were otherwise designated 'Hebrews.' It does not appear to
     have come into use until long after the revolt of Jeroboam and
     the ten tribes, and so long as the kingdom stood, it was
     naturally employed of the citizens of the kingdom of Judah (II
     Kings xvi, 6; xxv, 25); but it rarely occurs in this sense. After
     the exile it took the extension of meaning which it has to the
     present day. It was adopted by the remnants of all the tribes,
     and was the one name by which the descendants of Jacob were known
     throughout the ancient world; certainly it was far more common
     than 'Hebrew.' It occurs in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther,
     Daniel, etc., is found in the Apocrypha; and is common in
     Josephus, and in the New Testament."--_Cassell's Bible
     Dictionary_.

     "Under the theocracy they were known as Hebrews, under the
     monarchy as Israelites, and during foreign domination as Jews.
     The modern representatives of this stock call themselves Hebrews
     in race and language, and Israelites in religion, but Jews in
     both senses."--_Standard Dictionary_.

     =3. Zenos.=--"A Hebrew prophet, often quoted by the Nephite
     servants of God. All we are told of his personal history is that
     he was slain because he testified boldly of what God revealed to
     him. That he was a man greatly blessed of the Lord with the
     spirit of prophecy is shown by that wonderful and almost
     incomparable parable of the Vineyard, given at length by Jacob
     (Jacob, chap. v). His prophecies are also quoted by Nephi (I
     Nephi xix, 10, 12, 16), Alma (Alma xxxiii, 3, 13, 15), Amulek,
     Alma (xxxiv, 7), Samuel the Lamanite (Helaman xv, 11), and Mormon
     (III Nephi x, 16)."--_Dictionary of the Book of Mormon_, by Elder
     George Reynolds.

     =4. The Journeyings of the Lost Tribes.=--Esdras, whose books, as
     stated in the text, are classed among the apocrypha, describes a
     vision, in the course of which the Ten Tribes are noticed in this
     way:--"Those are the tribes which were carried away captives out
     of their own land in the time of Oseas [Hosea] the king, whom
     Shalmanezer, the king of the Assyrians, took captive, and crossed
     them beyond the river; so were they brought into another land.
     But they took counsel to themselves, that they would leave the
     multitude of the heathen, and go forth unto a further country
     where never man dwelt, that they there might keep their statutes,
     which they never kept in their own land. And they entered in at
     the narrow passage of the river Euphrates. For the Most High then
     showed them signs, and stayed the springs of the flood till they
     were passed over. For through the country there was a great
     journey, even of a year and a half, and the same region is called
     Arsareth (or Ararah). Then dwelt they there until the latter
     time, and when they come forth again, the Most High shall hold
     still the springs of the river again, that they may go
     through."--II Esdras xiii.

     Concerning the journeyings of the Ten Tribes toward the north,
     Elder George Reynolds, in his little work _Are We of Israel?_
     says:--"They determined to go to a country 'where never man
     dwelt,' that they might be free from all contaminating
     influences. That country could only be found in the north.
     Southern Asia was already the seat of a comparatively ancient
     civilization; Egypt flourished in northern Africa; and southern
     Europe was rapidly filling with the future rulers of the world.
     They had therefore no choice but to turn their faces northward.
     The first portion of their journey was not however north;
     according to the account of Esdras, they appear to have at first
     moved in the direction of their old home; and it is possible that
     they originally started with the intention of returning thereto;
     or probably, in order to deceive the Assyrians, they started as
     if to return to Canaan, and when they crossed the Euphrates and
     were out of danger from the hosts of Medes and Persians, then
     they turned their journeying feet toward the polar star. Esdras
     states that they entered in at the narrow passage of the river
     Euphrates, the Lord staying the springs of the flood until they
     were passed over. The point on the river Euphrates at which they
     crossed would necessarily be in its upper portion, as lower down
     would be too far south for their purpose. The upper course of the
     Euphrates lies among lofty mountains; near the village of Pastash
     it plunges through a gorge formed by precipices more than a
     thousand feet in height, and so narrow that it is bridged at the
     top; it shortly afterward enters the plain of Mesopotamia. How
     accurately this portion of the river answers to the description
     of Esdras of the 'Narrows' where the Israelites crossed!"

     "The tribes shall come; they are not lost unto the Lord; they
     shall be brought forth as hath been predicted; and I say unto you
     there are those now living--aye, some here present--who shall
     live to read the records of the Lost Tribes of Israel, which
     shall be made one with the record of the Jews, or the Holy Bible,
     and the record of the Nephites, or the Book of Mormon, even as
     the Lord hath predicted; and those records, which the tribes lost
     to man but yet to be found again shall bring, shall tell of the
     visit of the resurrected Christ to them, after He had manifested
     Himself to the Nephites upon this continent." From address by the
     author October 8, 1916, see Proceedings of 87th Semi-annual
     Conference of the Church.



LECTURE XVIII.

THE GATHERING OF ISRAEL.

     =Article 10.=--We believe in the literal gathering of Israel, and
     in the restoration of the Ten Tribes, etc.


=1. The Gathering Predicted.=--Terrible as was the chastisement
decreed on Israel for their waywardness and sin, amounting, as it did,
to their dissolution as a nation, and to a virtual expulsion from the
sight of the Lord's favor; fearful as has been their denunciation by
Him who delighted to call them His people; through all their
sufferings and deprivations, while wandering as outcasts among alien
nations who have never ceased to treat them with contumely and insult,
when their very name has been made a hiss and a byword in the
earth;--they have ever been sustained by the sure word of Divine
promise, that a day of glorious deliverance and blessed restoration
awaits them. Associated with the curses under which they writhed and
groaned, were assurances of blessings. From the heart of the people,
as from the soul of their mighty king in the day of his deserved
affliction, has poured forth a song of tearful rejoicing:--"Thou wilt
not leave my soul in hell."[977] The sufferings of Israel have been
but necessary chastening by a grieved yet loving Father, who planned
by these effective means to purify His sin-stained children. To them
He has freely told His purpose in thus afflicting them, and in His
punishments they have seen His love, "For whom the Lord loveth he
chasteneth,"[978] and "Blessed is the man whom thou chasteneth, O
Lord."[979]

  [977] Psa. xvi, 10; Acts ii, 27.

  [978] Heb. xii, 6.

  [979] Psa. xciv, 12; see also Prov. iii, 12; James i, 12; Rev.
  iii, 19.

=2.= Though smitten of men, a large part of them gone from a knowledge
of the world, Israel are not lost unto their Father; He knows whither
they have been led or driven; toward them His heart still yearns with
paternal love; and surely will He bring them forth, in due time and by
appointed means, into a condition of favor and power, befitting His
chosen and covenant people. In spite of their sin, and the
tribulations which they would assuredly bring upon themselves, the
Lord said:--"And yet for all that, when they be in the land of their
enemies, I will not cast them away, neither will I abhor them, to
destroy them utterly, and to break my covenant with them: for I am the
Lord their God."[980] As complete as was the scattering, so will be
the gathering of Israel.

  [980] Levit. xxvi, 44; see also Deut. iv, 27-31.

=3. Bible Prophecies concerning the Gathering.=--We have examined a
few of the biblical predictions concerning the dispersion of Israel;
in all cases the blessing of eventual restoration was associated with
the curse. Among the early prophecies, we hear the Lord declaring that
it shall come to pass that when thou, Israel, "shalt return unto the
Lord thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to all that I command
thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with
all thy soul; that then the Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and
have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all
the nations, whither the Lord thy God hath scattered thee. If any of
thine be driven out unto the utmost parts of heaven, from thence will
the Lord thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee: and
the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers
possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and
multiply thee above thy fathers."[981]

  [981] Deut. xxx, 2-5.

=4.= Nehemiah pleads in fasting and prayer that the Lord would
remember His promise of restoration if the people would turn unto
righteousness.[982] Isaiah speaks with no uncertain words of the
assured return and re-union of scattered Israel, saying:--"And it
shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again
the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be
left.... And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall
assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of
Judah from the four corners of the earth."[983]

  [982] Neh. i, 9.

  [983] Isaiah xi, 11-12.

=5.= The restoration is to be complete; there shall be a united
people, no longer two kingdoms, each at enmity with the other; for,
"The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah
shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not
vex Ephraim."[984] With the words of a fond Father, the Lord thus
speaks of His treatment of Israel and brightens their desolation with
promises:--"For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great
mercies will I gather thee. In a little wrath I hid my face from thee
for a moment; but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee,
saith the Lord thy Redeemer."[985]

  [984] Verse 13; see also Ezek. xxxvii, 21.

  [985] Isa. liv, 7-8.

=6.= After giving a terrible recital of the people's sins and the
penalties to follow, Jeremiah thus voices the will and purpose of God,
concerning the subsequent deliverance:--"Therefore, behold, the days
come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be said, The Lord liveth,
that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but,
The Lord liveth, that brought up the children of Israel from the land
of the north, and from all the lands whither he had driven them: and
I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their
fathers. Behold, I will send for many fishers, saith the Lord, and
they shall fish them; and after will I send for many hunters, and they
shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of
the holes of the rocks."[986] And again:--"Behold, I will bring them
from the north country, and gather them from the coasts of the
earth.... Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations, and declare it in
the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him,
and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. For the Lord hath redeemed
Jacob, and ransomed him from the hand of him that was stronger than
he. Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and
shall flow together to the goodness of the Lord."[987]

  [986] Jer. xvi, 12-16.

  [987] Jer. xxxi, 7-8, 10-12.

=7.= "Backsliding Israel," "treacherous Judah," are the terms of
reproof with which the Lord addressed His recreant children; then He
commanded the prophet, saying: "Go and proclaim these words toward the
north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the Lord; and I
will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am merciful, saith
the Lord, and I will not keep anger for ever. Only acknowledge thine
iniquity, that thou hast transgressed against the Lord thy God, and
hast scattered thy ways to the strangers under every green tree, and
ye have not obeyed my voice, saith the Lord. Turn, O backsliding
children, saith the Lord; for I am married unto you: and I will take
you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion:
And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed
you with knowledge and understanding. And it shall come to pass, when
ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the
Lord, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Lord:
neither shall it come to mind; neither shall they remember it; neither
shall they visit it; neither shall that be done any more. At that time
they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord; and all the nations
shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalem;
neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil
heart. In those days the house of Judah shall walk with the house of
Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to
the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers."[988]

  [988] Jer. iii, 12-18; see also xxiii, 8; xxv, 34; xxx, 3; xxxii,
  37.

=8.= To Ezekiel the Lord also declared the plan of Israel's
restoration:--"Thus saith the Lord God; behold, I will take the
children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they be gone, and
will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land:
And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of
Israel: and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no
more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any
more at all."[989]

  [989] Ezek. xxxvii, 21-22; see also xi, 17; xx, 34-42; xxviii, 25;
  xxxiv, 11, 31.

=9.= That the re-establishment is to be a permanent one is evident
from the revelation given through Amos, wherein we read that the Lord
said:--"And I will bring again the captivity of my people of Israel,
and they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they
shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also
make gardens, and eat the fruit of them. And I will plant them upon
their land, and they shall no more be pulled up out of their land
which I have given them, saith the Lord thy God."[990]

  [990] Amos ix, 14-15.

=10.= As a fitting close to our selection of biblical prophecies, let
the words of Jesus of Nazareth be read, spoken while He lived among
men: "And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet,
and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one
end of heaven to the other."[991]

  [991] Matt. xxiv, 31.

=11. Book of Mormon Prophecies.=--The gathering of Israel claimed the
attention of many prophets whose teachings are recorded in the Book of
Mormon, and not a little direct revelation concerning the subject is
preserved within the pages of that volume. We have noted Lehi's
discourse in the valley of Lemuel, in which that patriarch-prophet
compared the house of Israel to an olive tree, the branches of which
were to be broken off and scattered; now may we add his prediction
regarding the subsequent grafting-in of the branches. He taught that,
"after the house of Israel shall be scattered, they should be gathered
together again; or, in fine, after the Gentiles had received the
fulness of the Gospel, the natural branches of the olive tree, or the
remnants of the house of Israel, should be grafted in, or come to a
knowledge of the true Messiah, their Lord and their Redeemer."[992]

  [992] I Nephi x, 14; see also Jacob v.

=12.= Nephi, quoting the words of the prophet Zenos,[993] emphasizes
the declaration that, when purified by suffering, Israel shall come
again into the favor of the Lord, and then shall they be gathered from
the four quarters of the earth, and the isles of the sea shall be
remembered.[994] Jacob, the brother of Nephi, testified to the truth
of the prophecies of Zenos, and indicated the time of the gathering as
a characteristic sign of the last days. Consider his words:--"And in
the day that he shall set his hand again the second time, to recover
his people, is the day, yea, even the last time that the servants of
the Lord shall go forth in his power, to nourish and prune his
vineyard; and after that the end soon cometh."[995]

  [993] See Note 3, p. 340.

  [994] I Nephi xix, 16; see also I Nephi xxii, 11, 12, 25; II Nephi
  vi, 8-11.

  [995] Jacob vi, 2.

=13.= Among the most comprehensive predictions regarding the
restoration of the Jews is the following utterance of Nephi:--"Wherefore,
the Jews shall be scattered among all nations; yea, and also Babylon
shall be destroyed; wherefore, the Jews shall be scattered by other
nations; and after they have been scattered, and the Lord God hath
scourged them by other nations, for the space of many generations,
yea, even down from generation to generation, until they shall be
persuaded to believe in Christ, the Son of God, and the atonement,
which is infinite for all mankind; and when that day shall come, that
they shall believe in Christ, and worship the Father in his name, with
pure hearts and clean hands, and look not forward any more for another
Messiah, then, at that time, the day will come that it must needs to
be expedient that they should believe these things, and the Lord will
set his hand again the second time to restore his people from their
lost and fallen state. Wherefore, he will proceed to do a marvelous
work and a wonder among the children of men."[996]

  [996] II Nephi xxv, 15-17.

=14.= Nephi, commenting on the words of Isaiah regarding the
sufferings and subsequent triumph of the people of Israel, states the
condition upon which their gathering is predicated, and says of
God:--"That he has spoken unto the Jews, by the mouth of his holy
prophets, even from the beginning down, from generation to generation,
until the time comes that they shall be restored to the true church
and fold of God; when they shall be gathered home to the lands of
their inheritance, and shall be established in all their lands of
promise."[997]

  [997] II Nephi ix, 2; see also I Nephi xv, 19; xix, 13-16; II
  Nephi xxv, 16, 17, 20; III Nephi v, 21-26; xxi, 26-29; xxix, 1-8;
  Mormon v, 14.

=15.= It is evident from these and many other passages that the time
of the Jews' return is to be determined by their acceptance of Christ
as their Lord. When that time comes, they are to be gathered to the
land of their fathers; and in the work of gathering, the Gentiles are
destined to take a great and honorable part, as witness the further
words of Nephi:--"But behold, thus saith the Lord God: When the day
cometh that they shall believe in me, that I am Christ, then have I
covenanted with their fathers that they shall be restored in the
flesh, upon the earth, unto the lands of their inheritance. And it
shall come to pass that they shall be gathered in from their long
dispersion, from the isles of the sea, and from the four parts of the
earth; and the nations of the Gentiles shall be great in the eyes of
me, saith God, in carrying them forth to the land of their
inheritance. Yea, the kings of the Gentiles shall be nursing fathers
unto them, and their queens shall become nursing mothers; wherefore,
the promises of the Lord are great unto the Gentiles, for he hath
spoken it, and who can dispute?"[998]

  [998] II Nephi x, 7-9; xxx, 7; see also Isaiah xlix, 23; III Nephi
  v, 26; xx, 29.

=16.= The assistance which the Gentiles are to give in the preparation
of the Jews, and of the remnant of the house of Israel established on
the western continent, is affirmed by several Book of Mormon prophets;
and, moreover, the blessings which the Gentiles may thus bring upon
themselves are described in detail.[999] A single quotation must
suffice for our present purpose; and this the declaration of the risen
Lord, during His brief ministration among the Nephites:--"But if they
[the Gentiles] will repent, and hearken unto my words, and harden not
their hearts, I will establish my church among them, and they shall
come in unto the covenant, and be numbered among this the remnant of
Jacob, unto whom I have given this land for their inheritance, and
they shall assist my people, the remnant of Jacob, and also, as many
of the house of Israel as shall come, that they may build a city,
which shall be called the New Jerusalem; and then shall they assist my
people that they may be gathered in, who are scattered upon all the
face of the land, in unto the New Jerusalem. And then shall the power
of heaven come down among them; and I also will be in the midst; and
then shall the work of the Father commence at that day, even when this
gospel shall be preached among the remnant of this people. Verily I
say unto you, at that day shall the work of the Father commence among
all the dispersed of my people; yea, even the tribes which have been
lost, which the Father hath led away out of Jerusalem. Yea, the work
shall commence among all the dispersed of my people, with the Father,
to prepare the way whereby they may come unto me, that they may call
on the Father in my name; yea, and then shall the work commence, with
the Father, among all nations, in preparing the way whereby his people
may be gathered home to the land of their inheritance."[1000]

  [999] III Nephi xxi, 21-27; Ether xiii, 8-10.

  [1000] III Nephi xxi, 22-28.

=17. Modern Revelation Concerning the Gathering.=--We have found
abundant proof of the severely literal fulfilment of prophecies
relating to Israel's dispersion. The predictions relative to the
gathering have been but partly fulfilled; for, while the work of
concentration has been well begun, and is now in active progress, the
consummation of the labor is yet future. It is reasonable, then, to
look for revelation and prophecy concerning the subject, in modern
scripture as well as in the inspired writings of former times.
Speaking to the elders of the Church in this dispensation, the Lord
declares His purpose to gather His people "even as a hen gathereth her
chickens under her wings,"[1001] and adds: "And ye are called to
bring to pass the gathering of mine elect, for mine elect hear my
voice, and harden not their hearts; wherefore the decree hath gone
forth from the Father, that they shall be gathered in unto one place
upon the face of this land, to prepare their hearts and be prepared in
all things against the day when tribulation and desolation are sent
forth upon the wicked."[1002]

  [1001] Revelation given 1830, Doc. and Cov. xxix, 2; see also x,
  65; xliii, 24.

  [1002] Doc. and Cov. xxix, 7-8; see also xxxi, 8; xxxiii, 6;
  xxxviii, 31; cxxxiii, 7; xlv, 25; lxxvii, 14; lxxxiv, 2.

=18.= Hear further the word of the Lord unto the people of His Church
in the present day, not only predicting the gathering of the Saints to
Zion, but announcing that the hour for the gathering has
come:--"Wherefore, prepare ye, prepare ye, O my people; sanctify
yourselves; gather ye together, O ye people of my Church.... Yea,
verily I say unto you again, the time has come when the voice of the
Lord is unto you, go ye out of Babylon, gather ye out from among the
nations, from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the
other."[1003]

  [1003] Doc. and Cov. cxxxiii, 4, 7.

=19. Extent and Purpose of the Gathering.=--Some of the prophecies
already cited have special reference to the restoration of the Ten
Tribes; others relate to the return of the people of Judah to the land
of their inheritance; yet others refer to the re-establishment of
Israel in general, without mention of tribal or other divisions; while
many passages in the revelations of the present dispensation deal with
the gathering of the Saints who have numbered themselves with the
Church of Christ as re-established. It is evident that the plan of
gathering comprises:--

1. Return of the Jews to Jerusalem.

2. Restoration of the Ten Tribes.

3. Assembling in the land of Zion of the people of Israel from the
nations of the earth.

=20.= The sequence of these subdivisions as here presented, is that of
convenience only, and has no significance as to the order in which the
work is to be done. The division last named constitutes the present
great work of the Church, though the labor of assisting in the
restoration of the Lost Tribes is included. We are informed by
revelation, given in the Kirtland Temple, that the appointment to and
the authority for this work were solemnly committed to the Church. And
through whom should such authority be expected to come? Surely through
him who had received it by Divine commission in a former dispensation
of united Israel. Moses, who was the chief representative of Israel's
God when the Lord set His hand the first time to lead His people to
the land of their appointed inheritance, has come in person and has
committed to the latter-day Church the authority to minister in the
work now that the Lord has "set his hand the second time" to recover
His people.

=21.= Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, each of whom had been duly
ordained to the apostleship, testify of the manifestations made to
them, in these words:--"The heavens were again opened unto us, and
Moses appeared before us, and committed unto us the keys of the
gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and the leading
of the ten tribes from the land of the north."[1004] The importance of
the work thus required of the Church was emphasized by a later
revelation, in which the Lord gave this command:--"Send forth the
elders of my church unto the nations which are afar off; unto the
islands of the sea; send forth unto foreign lands; call upon all
nations; firstly upon the Gentiles, and then upon the Jews. And
behold, and lo, this shall be their cry, and the voice of the Lord
unto all people: Go ye forth unto the land of Zion.... Let them,
therefore, who are among the Gentiles flee unto Zion. And let them who
be of Judah flee unto Jerusalem, unto the mountain of the Lord's
house. Go ye out from among the nations, even from Babylon, from the
midst of wickedness, which is spiritual Babylon."[1005]

  [1004] Doc. and Cov. cx, 11.

  [1005] Doc. and Cov. cxxxiii, 8-9, 12-14.

=22.= The last sentence of the foregoing quotation expresses the
purpose for which this work of gathering the Saints from the nations
of the earth has been ordained. The Lord would have His people
separate themselves from the sins of the world, and depart from
spiritual Babylon, that they may learn the ways of God and serve Him
the more fully. John the Revelator, while in exile on Patmos, saw in
vision the fate of the sinful world. An angel came down from heaven,
"and he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great
is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the
hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful
bird.... And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of
her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye
receive not of her plagues. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and
God hath remembered her iniquities."[1006]

  [1006] Rev. xviii, 2, 4-5.

=23.= The faith of the Saints teaches that in the day of the Lord's
righteous fury, safety will be found in Zion. The importance which the
Latter-day Saints associate with the work of gathering, and the
fidelity with which they seek to discharge the duty enjoined upon them
by Divine authority in the matter of warning the world of the
impending dangers, as described in the Revelator's vision, are
sufficiently demonstrated by the great extent of the missionary labor
as at present prosecuted by this people.[1007]

  [1007] See Note 1.

=24. Israel a Chosen People.=--It is evident that the Lord has
conferred the choicest of blessings upon His people Israel.[1008] With
Abraham, the patriarch of the nation, God entered into a covenant and
said:--"I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and
make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing; and I will bless
them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee, and in thee
shall all families of the earth be blessed."[1009] This was to be an
everlasting covenant.[1010] It was confirmed upon Isaac,[1011] and in
turn upon Jacob who was called Israel.[1012] The promises regarding
the multitudinous posterity, among whom were to be counted many of
royal rank, have been literally fulfilled. No less certain is the
realization of the second part of the prediction, that in and through
Abraham's descendants should all nations of the earth be blessed. For,
by a world-wide dispersion, the children of Israel have been mingled
with the nations; and the blood of the chosen seed has been sprinkled
among the peoples.[1013] And now, in this the day of gathering, when
the Lord is again bringing His people together to honor and bless them
above all that the world can give, every nation with the blood of
Israel in the veins of its members will partake of the blessings.

  [1008] See Note 2.

  [1009] Gen. xii, 1-2; see also Gal. iii, 14, 16.

  [1010] Gen. xvii, 6-8.

  [1011] Gen. xxvi, 3-4.

  [1012] Gen. xxxv, 11-12.

  [1013] See Note 3.

=25.= But there is another and a more striking proof of blessings
flowing to all nations through the house of Israel. Was not the
Redeemer born in the flesh through the lineage of Abraham? Surely the
blessings of that Divine birth are extended, not only to the nations
and families of the earth collectively, but to every individual in
mortality.

=26. Restoration of the Ten Tribes.=--From the scriptural passages
already considered, it is plain that, while many of those belonging to
the Ten Tribes were dispersed among the nations, a sufficient number
to justify the retention of the original name were led away as a body,
and are now in existence in some place where the Lord has hidden
them. To them Christ went to minister after His visit to the Nephites,
as before stated.[1014] Their return constitutes a very important part
of the gathering, characteristic of the dispensation of the fullness
of times.

  [1014] Pp. 338-339.

=27.= To the scriptures already quoted as relating to their return,
the following should be added: As a feature of the work of God in the
day of restoration we are told:--"And they who are in the north
countries shall come in remembrance before the Lord, and their
prophets shall hear his voice, and shall no longer stay themselves,
and they shall smite the rocks, and the ice shall flow down at their
presence. And an highway shall be cast up in the midst of the great
deep. Their enemies shall become a prey unto them. And in the barren
deserts there shall come forth pools of living water; and the parched
ground shall no longer be a thirsty land. And they shall bring forth
their rich treasures unto the children of Ephraim my servants. And the
boundaries of the everlasting hills shall tremble at their presence.
And there shall they fall down, and be crowned with glory, even in
Zion, by the hands of the servants of the Lord, even the children of
Ephraim; and they shall be filled with songs of everlasting joy.
Behold this is the blessing of the everlasting God upon the tribes of
Israel, and the richer blessing upon the head of Ephraim and his
fellows."[1015]

  [1015] Doc. and Cov. cxxxiii, 26-34.

=28.= From the express and repeated declaration, that in their exodus
from the north the Ten Tribes are to be led to Zion, there to receive
honor at the hands of some of the children of Ephraim, who necessarily
are to have previously gathered there, it is plain that Zion is to be
first established. The establishment of Zion will receive attention in
the next lecture.


NOTES.

     =1. Gathering Now in Progress.=--The Latter-day Saints "are
     building up stakes of Zion in the Rocky Mountain valleys, and in
     this way are fulfilling predictions of the ancient prophets.
     Isaiah hath it written, 'And it shall come to pass in the last
     days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established
     in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the
     hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall
     go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the
     Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of
     his ways, and we will walk in his paths; for out of Zion shall go
     forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem' (Isaiah
     ii, 2-3). It is remarkable how minutely the Latter-day Saints are
     fulfilling the terms of this prophecy: 1. They are building the
     temples of God in the tops of the mountains, so that the house of
     the Lord is truly where Isaiah saw it would be. 2. The Saints
     engaged in this work are people gathered from nearly all the
     nations under heaven, so that all nations are flowing unto the
     house of the Lord in the top of the mountains. 3. The people who
     receive the gospel in foreign lands joyfully say to their
     relatives and friends: Come ye, and let us go up to the house of
     the Lord, and he will teach us of his ways and we will walk in
     his paths."--Roberts' _Outlines of Ecclesiastical History_, p.
     409.

     =2. Israel a Chosen People.=--"The promise to Abram that he
     should become a great nation, has been fulfilled in his chosen
     seed occupying the land of Palestine, as such, for fifteen
     hundred years. It will again be fulfilled when they become a
     nation on that land forever. The history of the eastern
     hemisphere for the two thousand years which intervened between
     the calling of Abraham and the destruction of Jerusalem by the
     Romans, witnesses that every nation that fought against Israel,
     or in any way oppressed them, passed away. Time will show the
     same general result from the destruction of Jerusalem to the
     millennium. The Prophet Isaiah, speaking of the time when the
     Lord should favor Israel, said, 'All they that were incensed
     against thee shall be ashamed and confounded: they shall be as
     nothing; and they that strive with thee shall perish' (xli, 11).
     'I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; and
     they shall be drunken with their own blood' (xlix, 27). 'I have
     taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, even the dregs of
     the cup of my fury; thou shalt no more drink of it again: but I
     will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee; which have
     said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over.'"--_A Compendium
     of the Doctrines of the Gospel_, by Elders Franklin D. Richards
     and James A. Little, pp. 246-247.

     =3. Israel Among the Nations.=--"When we reflect that it is
     thirty-two centuries since the enemies of Israel began to oppress
     them in the land of Canaan, that about one-third of the time they
     were a people in that land they were more or less in bondage to
     their enemies; that seven hundred years before the coming of
     Christ the ten tribes were scattered throughout western Asia;
     that we have no record that any have as yet returned to the land
     of their inheritance; that nearly six hundred years before
     Christ, the Babylonish captivity took place, and that, according
     to the Book of Esther, only a small part of the Jews ever
     returned, but were scattered through the 127 provinces of the
     Persian empire; that Asia was the hive from which swarmed the
     nomadic tribes who over-ran Europe; that at the destruction of
     Jerusalem by the Romans the Jews were scattered over the known
     world; we may well ask the question, Does not Israel to-day
     constitute a large proportion of the human
     family?"--_Compendium_, by Elders F. D. Richards and James A.
     Little, p. 90.



LECTURE XIX.

ZION.

     =Article 10.=--We believe ... That Zion will be built upon this
     [the American]
continent, etc.


=1. Two Gathering Places.=--Some of the passages quoted in connection
with the dispersion and the subsequent re-union of Israel, make
reference to Jerusalem which is to be re-established, and Zion which
is to be built. True, the latter name is in many cases used as a
synonym of the first, owing to the fact that a certain hill within the
Jerusalem of old was known specifically as Zion, or Mount Zion; and
the name of a part is often used figuratively to designate the whole;
but in other passages, the separate and distinctive meaning of the
terms is clear. The prophet Micah, who ministered during the seventh
century before the birth of Christ, "full of power by the spirit of
the Lord, and of judgment, and of might,"[1016] predicted the
destruction of Jerusalem and its associated Zion, the former to
"become heaps," and the latter to be "plowed as a field;"[1017] and
then announced a new condition which is to exist in the last days,
when another "mountain of the house of the Lord" is to be established,
and this is to be called Zion.[1018] The two places are mentioned
separately in the prophecy:--"For the law shall go forth of Zion, and
the word of the Lord from Jerusalem."[1019]

  [1016] Micah iii, 8.

  [1017] Micah iii, 12; see also page 337 of this book.

  [1018] Micah iv, 1.

  [1019] Micah iv, 2; Isaiah ii, 2-3.

=2.= Joel adds this testimony regarding the two places from which the
Lord shall rule over His people:--"The Lord also shall roar out of
Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem."[1020] Zephaniah breaks
forth into song, with the triumph of Israel as his theme, and
addresses the daughters of both cities:--"Sing, O daughter of Zion;
shout, O Israel; be glad and rejoice with all the heart, O daughter of
Jerusalem."[1021] Then, the prophet predicts separately of each
place:--"In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not: and
to Zion, Let not thine hands be slack."[1022] Furthermore, Zechariah
records the revealed will in this way:--"And the Lord shall yet
comfort Zion, and shall yet choose Jerusalem."[1023]

  [1020] Joel iii, 16.

  [1021] Zeph. iii, 14.

  [1022] Verse 16.

  [1023] Zech. i, 17; See also ii, 7-12.

=3.= When the people of the house of Jacob are prepared to receive the
Redeemer as their rightful king, when the scattered sheep of Israel,
have been sufficiently humbled through suffering and sorrow to know
and to follow their Shepherd, then, indeed, will He come to reign
among them. Then a literal kingdom will be established, wide as the
world, with the King of Kings on the throne; and the two capitals of
this mighty empire will be, Jerusalem on the eastern hemisphere, and
Zion on the western. Isaiah speaks of the glory of Christ's kingdom in
the latter days, and ascribes separately to Zion and to Jerusalem the
blessings of triumph:[1024]--"O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get
thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good
tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid;
say unto the cities of Judah, behold your God."[1025]

  [1024] Isa. iv, 3-4.

  [1025] Isa. xl, 9.

=4. The Name "Zion"= is used in several distinct senses. By
derivation, the word _Zion_, or, as written by the Greeks, _Sion_,
probably meant _bright_, or _sunny_; but this commonplace
signification is lost in the deeper and more affecting meaning which
the word as a name and title came to acquire. As stated, a particular
hill within the site of the city of Jerusalem was called Zion. When
David gained his victory over the Jebusites, he captured and occupied
the "stronghold of Zion," and named it the city of David.[1026] "Zion"
then was the name of a place; and it has been applied as follows:

  [1026] II Sam. v, 6-7; see also I Kings ii, 10, and viii, 1.

     1. To the hill itself, or Mount Zion, and, by extension of
     meaning, to Jerusalem.

     2. To the location of the "mountain of the house of the Lord,"
     which Micah predicts shall be established in the last days,
     distinct from Jerusalem. To these we may add another application
     of the name as made known through modern revelation, viz.:

     3. To the city of Holiness, founded by Enoch, the seventh
     patriarch in descent from Adam, and called by him Zion.[1027]

  [1027] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 18-21.

4. Yet another use of the term is to be noted--viz.: a metaphorical
one--by which the Church of God is called Zion, comprising, according
to the Lord's own definition, the pure in heart.[1028]

  [1028] Doc. and Cov. xcvii, 21.

=5. Jerusalem.=--As a fitting introduction to our study regarding the
new Zion, yet to be built, as we shall presently see, on the western
hemisphere, let us briefly consider the history and destiny of
Jerusalem,[1029] the Zion of the eastern continent. The word Jerusalem
is generally believed to mean by derivation the _foundation_ or _city
of peace_. We meet it for the first time as Salem, the abode of
Melchizedek, high-priest and king, to whom Abram paid tithes, in the
nineteenth century before Christ.[1030] We find a direct statement
concerning the identity of Salem and Jerusalem by Josephus.[1031] As
noted, the city was wrested from the Jebusites by David;[1032] this
was about 1048 B.C. During the reigns of David and Solomon, the city
as the capital of the kingdom of undivided Israel acquired great fame
for its riches, beauty, and strength, its chief attraction being the
marvelous temple of Solomon which adorned Mount Moriah.[1033] After
the division of the kingdom, Jerusalem remained the capital of the
smaller kingdom of Judah.

  [1029] See Note 1.

  [1030] Gen. xiv, 18-20.

  [1031] Ant. of the Jews I, chapter x.

  [1032] II Sam. v, 6-7.

  [1033] I Kin. v-viii; II Chron. ii-vii.

=6.= Among its many and varied vicissitudes incident to the fortunes
of war,[1034] may be mentioned:--the destruction of the city and the
enslaving of the inhabitants by Nebuchadnezzar, 588-585 B.C.;[1035]
its re-establishment at the close of the Babylonian captivity[1036]
(about 515 B.C.); and its final overthrow at the disruption of the
Jewish nation by the Romans, 70-71 A.D. In importance, and in the love
of the Jews, the city was the very heart of Jewry: and in the
estimation of Christians, it has ever been invested with sanctity. It
occupied an important place in the earthly mission of the Redeemer,
and was the scene of His death, resurrection, and ascension. The
Savior's high regard for the chief city of His people is beyond
question. He forbade that any should swear by it, "for it is the city
of the great King;"[1037] and because of its sins, He lamented over it
as a father for a wayward child.[1038]

  [1034] I Kings xiv, 25; II Kings xiv, 13-14; xxv; II Chron. xii,
  2-5; xxxvi, 14, 21; Jer. xxxix, 5-8.

  [1035] Jer. lii, 12-15.

  [1036] Ezra i-iii; Neh. ii.

  [1037] Matt. v, 35; see also Psa. xlviii, 2; lxxxvii, 3.

  [1038] Matt. xxiii, 37; Luke xiii, 34.

=7.= But, great as is Jerusalem's past, a yet greater future awaits
her. Again will the city become a royal seat, her throne that of the
King of Kings, with permanency of glory assured.

=8. The Latter-day Zion; New Jerusalem.=--The biblical statements
concerning the Zion of the last days as separate from the ancient or
the re-established Jerusalem of the east, are silent regarding the
geographical location of this second and modern capital of Christ's
kingdom. We learn something, however, from the Bible as to the
physical characteristics of the region wherein Zion is to be built.
Thus, Micah, after predicting the desolation of the hill, Mount Zion,
and of Jerusalem in general, describes in contrast the new Zion,
wherein the house of the Lord is to be built in the last days. These
are his words:--"But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the
mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established in the top of
the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people
shall flow unto it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and
let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God
of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his
paths; for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord
from Jerusalem."[1039]

  [1039] Micah iv, 1-2.

=9.= The prophecy of Isaiah is not less explicit regarding the
mountainous character of the country of modern Zion;[1040] and,
furthermore, this writer assures us that the righteous man only shall
be able to dwell amid the fiery splendor of this new abode; and of him
the prophet says:--"He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall
be the munitions of rocks;" and adds the statement that the land shall
be very far off.[1041] In another passage, he mentions a gathering
place "beyond the rivers of Ethiopia," and, "on the mountains" where
the Lord is to "set up an ensign" to the world.[1042]

  [1040] Isa. ii, 2-3.

  [1041] Isa. xxxiii. 15-17.

  [1042] Isa. xviii, 1-3.

=10.= The teachings of the Book of Mormon, and the truths made known
through revelation in the present dispensation, regarding the Zion of
the last days, while agreeing with the biblical record as to the general
description of the situation, and the glories of the city, are more
explicit in regard to the location. In these scriptures, the names
Zion and New Jerusalem are used synonymously, the latter designation
being given in honor of the Jerusalem of the east. John the Revelator
saw in vision a New Jerusalem as characteristic of the latter times.[1043]
Ether, writing 600 B.C. as a prophet among the Jaredites,--a people
who had inhabited parts of North America for centuries before Lehi and
his followers came to this hemisphere,[1044]--foretold the
establishment of the New Jerusalem on this continent, and emphasized
the distinction between that city and the Jerusalem of old.

  [1043] Rev. xxi, 2.

  [1044] See page 266.

=11.= The Nephite prophet, Moroni, in the synopsis of the writings of
Ether, says of the latter, that he saw concerning the land of North
America, "That it was the place of the New Jerusalem, which should
come down out of heaven, and the Holy Sanctuary of the Lord." And
adds: "Behold, Ether saw the days of Christ, and he spake concerning a
new Jerusalem, upon this land; And he spake also concerning the house
of Israel, and the Jerusalem from whence Lehi should come; after it
should be destroyed, it should be built up again a holy city unto the
Lord, wherefore it could not be a New Jerusalem, for it had been in a
time of old, but it should be built up again, and become a holy city
of the Lord; and it should be built unto the house of Israel: And that
a New Jerusalem should be built up upon this land, unto the remnant of
the seed of Joseph, for which things there has been a type: For as
Joseph brought his father down into the land of Egypt, even so he died
there; wherefore the Lord brought a remnant of the seed of Joseph out
of the land of Jerusalem, that he might be merciful unto the seed of
Joseph, that they should perish not, even as he was merciful unto the
father of Joseph, that he should perish not; Wherefore the remnant of
the house of Joseph shall be built upon this land; and it shall be a
land of their inheritance; and they shall build up a holy city unto
the Lord, like unto the Jerusalem of old; and they shall no more be
confounded, until the end come, when the earth shall pass away."[1045]

  [1045] Book of Mormon, Ether xiii, 3-8.

=12.= Jesus Christ visited the Nephites in North America soon after
His resurrection, and in the course of His teachings said:--"And
behold, this people will I establish in this land, unto the fulfilling
of the covenant which I made with your father Jacob; and it shall be a
New Jerusalem. And the powers of heaven shall be in the midst of this
people; yea, even I will be in the midst of you."[1046] Our Savior
predicted further, as set forth in a previous lecture,[1047] that the
Gentiles, if they would repent of their sins, and not harden their
hearts, should be included in the covenant, and be permitted to assist
in the building of a city to be called the New Jerusalem.[1048]

  [1046] III Nephi xx, 22.

  [1047] See pp. 348-349.

  [1048] III Nephi xxi, 22-24.

=13.= Ether the Jaredite, and John the Revelator, separated by more
than six centuries of time and prophesying on opposite hemispheres,
each saw the New Jerusalem come down from heaven, "prepared," says the
Jewish apostle, "as a bride adorned for her husband."[1049] We have
already spoken of the Zion of Enoch,[1050] a city once situated on the
North American continent, whose inhabitants were so righteous that
they too were called Zion, "because they were of one heart and one
mind."[1051] They, with their patriarch leader, were translated from
the earth, or, as we read, "it came to pass that Zion was not, for
God received it up into His own bosom, and from thence went forth the
saying, 'Zion is fled.'"[1052] But before this event, the Lord had
revealed unto Enoch the Divine purpose in regard to humanity, even
unto the last of time. Great events are to mark the latter days; the
elect are to be gathered from the four quarters of the earth to a
place prepared for them; the tabernacle of the Lord is to be
established there, and the place "shall be called Zion, a New
Jerusalem." Then Enoch and his people are to return to earth and meet
the gathered elect in the holy place.

  [1049] Rev. xxi, 2.

  [1050] Page 358.

  [1051] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 18.

  [1052] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 69; Doc. and Cov. xxxviii,
  4; xlv, 11-12; lxxxiv, 99-100.

=14.= We have seen that the names Zion and New Jerusalem are used
interchangeably; and, furthermore, that righteous people as well as
sanctified places are called Zion; for, by the Lord's special word,
Zion to Him means "the pure in heart."[1053] The Church in this day
teaches that the New Jerusalem seen by John, and by the prophet Ether,
as descending from the heavens in glory, is the return of exalted
Enoch and his righteous people; and that the people or Zion of Enoch,
and the modern Zion, or the gathered elect on the western continent,
will become one people.

  [1053] Doc. and Cov. xcvii, 21; Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii,
  18; also Doc. and Cov. lxxxiv, 100.

=15.= The Book of Mormon is explicit in foretelling the establishment
of Zion on the western continent; but the precise location was not
revealed until after the restoration of the priesthood in the present
dispensation. In 1831, the Lord commanded the elders of His Church in
this wise:--"Go ye forth into the western countries, call upon the
inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, build up
churches unto me; and with one heart and with one mind, gather up your
riches that ye may purchase an inheritance which shall hereafter be
appointed unto you; and it shall be called the New Jerusalem, a land
of peace, a city of refuge, a place of safety for the saints of the
Most High God; and the glory of the Lord shall be there, and the
terror of the Lord shall also be there, insomuch that the wicked will
not come unto it, and it shall be called Zion."[1054]

  [1054] Doc. and Cov. xiv, 64-67; read further, verses 68-71.

=16.= Later revelations called the elders of the Church to assemble in
western Missouri,[1055] and designated that place as the land
appointed and consecrated for the gathering of the Saints.[1056]
"Wherefore this is the land of promise, and the place for the city of
Zion."[1057] The town of Independence was named as "the center place,"
and the site for the temple was designated, the Saints being counseled
to purchase land there, "that they may obtain it for an everlasting
inheritance."[1058] On August 3rd, 1831, the temple site thus named
was solemnly dedicated by the prophet, Joseph Smith, and his
associates in the priesthood.[1059] The region round about was also
dedicated, that it might be a gathering place for the people of God.

  [1055] Doc. and Cov. lii, 2-3; see Note 2.

  [1056] Doc. and Cov. lvii, 1-2

  [1057] Verse 2.

  [1058] Verses 4-5.

  [1059] See Note 3.

=17.= Such, then, is the belief of the Latter-day Saints; such are the
teachings of the Church. But the plan of building up Zion has not yet
been consummated. The Saints were not permitted to enter into
immediate possession of the land, which was promised them as an
everlasting inheritance. Even as years elapsed between the time of the
Lord's promise to Israel of old that Canaan should be their
inheritance, and the time of their entering into possession
thereof,--years devoted to the people's toilsome and sorrowful
preparation for the fulfilment,--so in these latter-days, the Divine
purpose is held in abeyance, while the people are being sanctified
for the great gift, and for the greater responsibilities associated
with it. In the meantime, the honest in heart are gathering to the
valleys of the Rocky Mountains; and here, in the tops of the
mountains, exalted above the hills, temples have been erected, and all
nations are flowing unto this region. But Zion shall yet be
established on the chosen site; she "shall not be moved out of her
place," and the pure in heart shall surely return, "with songs of
everlasting joy to build up the waste places of Zion."[1060]

  [1060] Doc. and Cov. ci, 17-18; see also ci, 43, 74, 75; ciii, 1,
  11, 13, 15; cv, 1, 2, 9, 13, 16, 34; cix, 47; cxxxvi, 18.

=18.= But gathered Israel cannot be confined to the "center place,"
nor to the region immediately adjacent; other places have been and
will be appointed, and these are called Stakes of Zion.[1061] Many
stakes have been established in the regions inhabited by the
Latter-day Saints, and these are to be permanent possessions; and
thence will go those who are appointed from among the worthy to
receive possession of their inheritances. Zion is to be chastened, but
only for a little season,[1062] then will come the time of her
redemption.

  [1061] Doc. and Cov. ci, 21; see page 215.

  [1062] Doc. and Cov. c, 13.

=19.= That time will be appointed of God, yet it is to be determined
according to the faithfulness of the people. Their wickedness causeth
the Lord to tarry; for, saith He:--"Therefore, in consequence of the
transgression of my people, it is expedient in me that mine elders
should wait for a little season for the redemption of Zion."[1063] And
again,--"Zion shall be redeemed in mine own due time."[1064] But the
Lord's time in giving blessings unto His people is dependent upon
them. As long ago as 1834 came the word of the Lord unto the
Church:--"Behold, I say unto you, were it not for the transgressions
of my people ... they might have been redeemed even now."[1065]

  [1063] Doc. and Cov. cv, 9; also cxxxvi, 31.

  [1064] Doc. and Cov. cxxxvi, 18.

  [1065] Doc. and Cov. cv, 1-2.


NOTES.

     =1. Jerusalem.=--"The city has, in different ages, borne a
     variety of names, and even in the Bible it has several
     designations. Salem, mentioned in Gen. xiv, 18, was perhaps its
     name in the time of Melchizedek, and it is certainly so called in
     Psa. lxxvi, 2. Isaiah (xxix, 1, 7) calls it Ariel. Jebus, or
     Jebusi, the city of the Jebusites, was its name in the days of
     Joshua and the Judges (Josh. xv, 8; xviii, 16, 28; Judges xix,
     10, 11), and this name continued in use till David's time (I
     Chron. xi, 4, 5). Some have thought that Jerusalem is itself a
     corruption of Jebus-Salem, but it is a theory unsupported by
     facts. Jerusalem is also termed 'the city of David,' 'the city of
     Judah,' 'the holy city,' 'the city of God' (II Kings xiv, 20; II
     Chron. xxv, 28; Neh. xi, 18; Psa. lxxxvii, 3). To this day it is
     called el-Kuds, or 'the holy,' in most countries of the East. No
     city in the world has received more honorable appellations; our
     Savior himself called it 'the city of the great King.'"--_Bible
     Dictionary_, Cassell & Co., p. 600.

     =2. The Founding of Zion in Missouri.=--"... A company of Saints
     known as the Colesville Branch--from their having lived at
     Colesville, Broome County, New York--had arrived in Missouri, and
     having received instructions to purchase the lands in the regions
     around about Zion, they secured a tract of land in a fertile
     prairie some ten or twelve miles west of Independence, in Kaw
     township, not far from the present location of Kansas City. On
     the 2nd of August [1831]--the day preceding the dedication of the
     temple site--in the settlement of the Colesville Saints, the
     first log was laid for a house as the foundation of Zion. The log
     was carried by twelve men, in honor of the Twelve Tribes of
     Israel; and Elder Sidney Rigdon consecrated and dedicated the
     land of Zion for the gathering of the Saints."--_Outlines of
     Ecclesiastical History_, by Elder B. H. Roberts, p. 352.

     =3. Temple Site, Independence, Jackson County,
     Missouri.=--"Taking the road running west from the Court House
     for a scant half mile, you come to the summit of a crowning hill,
     the slope of which to the south and west is quite abrupt, but
     very gradual toward the north and east.... This is the temple
     site. It was upon this spot on the third day of August, 1831,
     that Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Edward Partridge, W. W. Phelps,
     Oliver Cowdery, Martin Harris, and Joseph Coe, and another person
     whose name I cannot learn, for there were eight in all--men in
     whom the Lord was well pleased, assembled to dedicate this place
     as the temple site in Zion. The eighty-seventh psalm was read.
     Joseph [the prophet] then dedicated the spot, where is to be
     built a temple on which the glory of God shall rest. Yea, the
     great God hath so decreed it, saying: 'Verily this generation
     shall not pass away, until an house shall be built unto the Lord,
     and a cloud shall rest upon it, which cloud shall be even the
     glory of the Lord, which shall fill the house.... And the sons of
     Moses, and also the sons of Aaron, shall offer an acceptable
     offering, and sacrifice in the house of the Lord, which house
     shall be built unto the Lord in this generation, upon the
     consecrated spot as I have appointed.'--(Doc. and Cov. sec.
     lxxxiv, 5, 31.)"--Elder B. H. Roberts, _Missouri Persecutions_.
     See "The House of the Lord," by James E. Talmage, Chapter V.



LECTURE XX.

CHRIST'S REIGN ON EARTH.

     =Article 10.=--We believe ... That Christ will reign personally
     upon the earth, etc.


=1. Christ's First and Second Advents.=--The facts of Christ's birth
in the flesh, of His thirty and three years of life among mortals, of
His ministry, sufferings, and death, are universally accepted as
attested history. Not alone do the records that the Christian world
regards as sacred and inspired bear testimony concerning these facts,
but the history written by man, and, in contrast, called profane, is
generally in harmony with the biblical account. Even those who reject
the doctrine of Christ's divinity, even they who refuse to accept Him
as their Redeemer, admit the historical facts of His marvelous life,
and acknowledge the incalculable effect of His precepts and example
upon the human family.

=2.= In the "Meridian of Time" Christ was born to earth, amid humble
surroundings,--in obscurity, indeed, to all except the faithful few
who had been watching for the expected advent. His coming had been
heralded through the previous centuries, even from the dawn of human
existence; every prophet of God had borne record of the great events
which were to characterize His advent. Every important incident
connected with His birth, life, death, triumphal resurrection, and
ultimate glory as King, Lord, and God, had been predicted; and even
the details of the circumstances were given with exactness. Judah and
Israel had been told to prepare for the coming of the Anointed
One;[1066] yet, behold, when He came to His own they received Him
not. Persecuted and despised, He trod the thorny path of duty, "a, man
of sorrows and acquainted with grief;" and, finally condemned by His
people, who clamored to an alien power for authority to execute their
own diabolical sentence upon their Lord, He went to the death
prescribed for malefactors.

  [1066] See Note 1.

=3.= To human judgment, it surely seemed that the Divine mission of
Christ had been nullified, that His work had failed, and that the
powers of darkness had become triumphant. Blind, deaf, and hard of
heart were those who refused to see, hear, and comprehend the purport
of the Savior's mission. Similarly benighted are they who reject the
prophetic evidence of His second coming, and who fail to read the
signs of the times, which declare the event, at once so terrible and
glorious, to be near at hand. Both before and after His death, Christ
prophesied of His appointed reappearance upon the earth; and His
faithful followers are to-day waiting and watching for the signs of
the great fulfillment. The heavens are flaming with those signals, and
the burden of inspired teaching is again heard,--Repent, repent, for
the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

=4. Christ's Second Coming Predicted; and Signs Described. Bible
Prophecies.=--The prophets of the Old Testament, and those of Book of
Mormon record who lived and wrote before the era of Christ, had little
to say regarding the second coming of the Lord, little indeed in
comparison with their numerous and explicit predictions concerning His
first advent. As they looked into the sky of futurity, and with
prophetic power read the story of the heavenly orbs, their vision was
dazzled with the brilliancy of the Meridian Sun, and they saw little
of the glorious luminary beyond, whose proportions and radiance were
veiled by the mists of distance. A few of them saw and so testified,
as the following passages show: The Psalmist sang:--"Our God shall
come, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall devour before him, and
it shall be very tempestuous round about him."[1067] These devouring
and tempestuous conditions did not attend the coming of Bethlehem's
Babe.

  [1067] Psalms l, 3.

=5.= Isaiah cries:--"Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be
strong, fear not; behold your God will come with vengeance, even God
with a recompense; he will come and save you."[1068] Aside from the
evident fact that these conditions did not attend the first coming of
Christ, the context of the prophet's words shows that he applied them
to the last days, the time of restitution, the day of the "ransomed of
the Lord," and of the triumph of Zion.[1069] Again Isaiah
speaks:--"Behold, the Lord God will come with strong hand, and his arm
shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work
before him."[1070]

  [1068] Isa. xxxv, 4.

  [1069] Verses 5-10.

  [1070] Isa. xl, 10.

6. The prophet Enoch, who lived twenty centuries before the first of
those whose words are given above, spoke with vigor on the subject.
His teachings do not appear under his own name in the Bible, though
Jude, a New Testament writer, cites them.[1071] From the Book of Moses
in the Pearl of Great Price, we learn concerning the revelation given
to Enoch:--"And the Lord said unto Enoch, As I live, even so will I
come in the last days, in the days of wickedness and vengeance, to
fulfil the oath which I have made unto you concerning the children of
Noah."[1072]

  [1071] Jude 14-15.

  [1072] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 60.

7. Jesus taught the disciples that His mission in the flesh was to be
of short duration, and that he would come again to earth, for we find
them enquiring in this wise, "Tell us when shall these things be? And
what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the
world?"[1073] In reply, our Lord detailed many of the signs of the
latter times, the last and greatest of which He thus stated:--"And
this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a
witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come."[1074] With
great clearness, Jesus spoke of the worldliness in which the children
of men had continued to indulge, even on the eve of the Deluge, and on
the day of the fiery destruction which befell the Cities of the
Plains, and added:--"Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of
man is revealed."[1075]

  [1073] Matt. xxiv, 3. See "Jesus the Christ," ch. xxxii.

  [1074] Verse 14.

  [1075] Luke xvii, 26-30.

=8.= Another of our Lord's predictions concerning His second coming is
as follows; His citation of the signs by which the approach of the
event may be known is so impressive that we should read the
description in its entirety:--"And they [the disciples] asked him,
saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will
there be when these things shall come to pass? And he said, Take heed
that ye be not deceived: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am
Christ; and the time draweth near: go ye not therefore after them. But
when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified: for these
things must first come to pass; but the end is not by and by. Then
said he unto them, Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom
against kingdom: and great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and
famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall
there be from heaven. But before all these, they shall lay their hands
on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and
into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's
sake. And it shall turn to you for a testimony. Settle it therefore in
your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer: For I will
give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be
able to gainsay nor resist. And ye shall be betrayed both by parents,
and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they
cause to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my
name's sake.... And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon,
and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with
perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; men's hearts failing them
for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the
earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they
see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. And
when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up
your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh."[1076]

  [1076] Luke xxi, 7-28; see also Mark xiii, 14-26; Rev. vi, 12-17.

=9.= Again, by way of warning, the Lord said:--"Whosoever therefore
shall be ashamed of me and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful
generation, of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he
cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."[1077]

  [1077] Mark viii, 38.

=10.= At the time of the Ascension, as the apostles stood gazing into
the firmament, where a cloud had hidden their resurrected Lord from
sight, they became aware of the presence of two heavenly visitors, who
said:--"Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this
same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in
like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven."[1078] Paul instructed
the churches in the doctrines of Christ's second advent, and described
the glory of His coming.[1079] So also did others of the
apostles.[1080]

  [1078] Acts i, 11. See "Jesus the Christ," p. 695.

  [1079] I Thess. iv, 16; II Thess. i, 7-8; Heb. ix, 28.

  [1080] I Peter iv, 13; I John ii, 28; iii, 2.

=11. Among Book of Mormon Prophecies= concerning our present subject,
we find the teachings of Christ Himself at the time of His
ministrations to the Nephites in His resurrected state. To the
multitude He explained many matters, "even from the beginning until
the time that He should come in his glory."[1081] In promising the
three disciples the desire of their hearts, which was that they might
be spared in the flesh to continue the work of the ministry, the Lord
said to them:--"Ye shall live to behold all the doings of the Father,
unto the children of men, even until all things shall be fulfilled,
according to the will of the Father, when I shall come in my glory,
with the powers of heaven."[1082]

  [1081] III Nephi xxvi, 3; see also xxv, 5.

  [1082] III Nephi xxviii, 7; see also 8. See "Jesus the Christ,"
  ch. xxxix.

=12. The Word of Modern Revelation= is no less sure regarding the
appointed advent of the Redeemer. To servants, specially commissioned,
instructions were given to this effect:--"Wherefore, be faithful,
praying always, having your lamps trimmed and burning, and oil with
you,[1083] that you may be ready at the coming of the Bridegroom. For
behold, verily, verily, I say unto you that I come quickly."[1084] And
again, this instruction is given:--"Cry repentance unto a crooked and
perverse generation, preparing the way of the Lord for his second
coming; for behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, the time is soon
at hand that I shall come in a cloud with power and great
glory."[1085]

  [1083] An allusion to the parable of the Ten Virgins; see Matt.
  xxv, 1-13.

  [1084] Doc. and Cov. xxxiii, 17.

  [1085] Doc. and Cov. xxxiv, 6-7.

=13.= In a revelation to the people of the Church, March 7, 1831, the
Lord speaks of the signs of His coming, and counsels diligence.
Consider His words:--"Ye look and behold the fig-trees, and ye see
them with your eyes, and ye say when they begin to shoot forth, and
their leaves are yet tender, that summer is now nigh at hand; even so
it shall be in that day when they shall see all these things, then
shall they know that the hour is nigh. And it shall come to pass that
he that feareth me shall be looking forth for the great day of the
Lord to come, even for the signs of the coming of the Son of man; and
they shall see signs and wonders, for they shall be shown forth in the
heavens above, and in the earth beneath; and they shall behold blood
and fire, and vapors of smoke; and before the day of the Lord shall
come, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon be turned into blood,
and stars fall from heaven; and the remnant shall be gathered unto
this place, and then they shall look for me, and behold I will come;
and they shall see me in the clouds of heaven, clothed with power and
great glory, with all the holy angels; and he that watches not for me
shall be cut off."[1086]

  [1086] Doc. and Cov. xiv, 37-44; see also paragraphs 74-75.

=14.= The distinctive characteristic of the revelations as given in
the present dispensation, regarding the second coming of our Lord, is
the emphatic and oft-repeated declaration that the event is near at
hand.[1087] The call is, "Prepare ye, prepare ye, for that which is to
come, for the Lord is nigh." Instead of the cry of one man in the
wilderness of Judea, the voice of thousands is heard authoritatively
warning the nations, and inviting them to repent and flee to Zion for
safety. The fig tree is rapidly putting forth its leaves; the signs in
heaven and earth are increasing; surely the great and dreadful day of
the Lord is near.

  [1087] See the numerous references in connection with Doc. and
  Cov. i, 12. See "Jesus the Christ," ch. xlii.

=15. The Precise Time of Christ's Coming= has not been made known to
man. By learning to comprehend the signs of the times, by watching the
development of the work of God among the nations, and by noting the
rapid fulfillment of significant prophecies, we may perceive the
progressive evidence of the approaching event, "But the hour and the
day no man knoweth, neither the angels in heaven, nor shall they know
until he comes."[1088] His coming will be a surprise to those who have
rejected His warnings, and who have failed to watch. "Like a thief in
the night"[1089] will be the coming of the day of the Lord unto the
wicked. "Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour
wherein the Son of man cometh."[1090]

  [1088] Doc. and Cov. xlix, 7.

  [1089] II Peter iii, 10; I Thess. v, 2, etc.

  [1090] Matt, xxv, 13; see also xxiv, 42, 44; Mark xiii, 33, 35;
  Luke xii, 40.

=16. Christ's Reign: The Kingdom.=--We have seen that, according to
the words of holy prophets ancient and modern, Christ is to come, in a
literal sense, and so manifest Himself in person in the last days. He
is to dwell among His Saints. "Yea, even I will be in the midst of
you,"[1091] He declared to the people on this continent, whom He
promised to establish in the land of the New Jerusalem; and similar
assurances were given through the prophets of the east.[1092] In this
prospective ministration among His gathered Saints, Christ is to be at
once their God and their King. His government is to be that of a
perfect theocracy; the laws of righteousness will be the code, and
control will be administered under one authority, undisputed because
indisputable.

  [1091] III Nephi xx, 22; see also xxi, 25.

  [1092] Ezek. xxxvii, 26-27; Zech. ii, 10, 11; viii, 3; II Cor. vi,
  16.

=17.= The scriptures abound with declarations that the Lord will yet
reign among his people. To this effect sang Moses before the hosts of
Israel after their miraculous passage through the Red Sea,--"The Lord
shall reign for ever and ever;"[1093] and the psalmist echoes the
refrain, "The Lord is King for ever and ever."[1094] Jeremiah calls
Him "an everlasting king," before whose wrath the earth shall tremble,
and the nations yield;[1095] and Nebuchadnezzar, humbled through
tribulation, rejoiced in honoring the King of Heaven, "whose dominion
is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to
generation."[1096]

  [1093] Exo. xv, 18.

  [1094] Psa. x, 16 see also xxix, 10; cxlv, 13; cxlvi, 10.

  [1095] Jer. x, 10.

  [1096] Dan. iv, 34-37.

=18.= Even chosen Israel were not always willing to accept God as
their king. Remember how they protested that Samuel, the anointed
prophet and judge, was old,--a poor excuse for their claim, as the old
man ministered with vigor among them for thirty-five years beyond that
time,--and how they cried for a king to rule them, that they might be
like other nations.[1097] Note the pathetic words with which the Lord
replied to Samuel's prayer regarding this demand of the people, and
the sorrow with which He granted them their wish:--"Hearken unto the
voice of the people in all that they say unto thee; for they have not
rejected thee, but they have rejected me that I should not reign over
them."[1098] But the Lord will not be ever rejected by His people; at
the time appointed He will come with power and great glory, and will
assume His rightful place of authority as King of earth.

  [1097] I Sam. viii, 5.

  [1098] Verse 7; see also x, 19; Hosea xiii, 10-11.

=19.= Daniel interpreted the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, and spoke of the
many kingdoms and divisions of kingdoms which were to be established,
then added:--"And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven
set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom
shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and
consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever."[1099]
Touching the extent of the great kingdom to be established the same
prophet declared:--"And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of
the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of
the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom,
and all dominions shall serve and obey him."[1100]

  [1099] Dan. ii, 44.

  [1100] Dan. vii, 27.

=20.= Speaking of the restoration of Judah and Israel in the last
days, Micah prophesies:--"And the Lord shall reign over them in mount
Zion from henceforth, even for ever."[1101] In the annunciation to the
Virgin, the angel said of the unborn Christ:--"He shall reign over the
house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there shall be no
end."[1102] In the visions of Patmos, the Apostle John saw the
glorious consummation, and a universal recognition of the eternal
King:--"And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in
heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of
our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign forever and
ever."[1103] Modern revelation is rich in evidence of an approaching
reign of righteousness, with Christ as King; witness the
following:--"And also the Lord shall have power over his saints, and
shall reign in their midst."[1104] "For in my own due time will I come
upon the earth in judgment, and my people shall be redeemed and shall
reign with me on earth."[1105]

  [1101] Micah iv, 7; see also Isa. xxiv, 23.

  [1102] Luke i, 33.

  [1103] Rev. xi, 15.

  [1104] Doc. and Cov. i, 36.

  [1105] Doc. and Cov. xliii, 29; see also lxxxiv, 119.

=21. Kingdom and Church.=--In the Gospel according to Matthew, the
phrase "kingdom of heaven" is of frequent occurrence; while in the
books of the other evangelists, and throughout the epistles, the
expression is "kingdom of God," "kingdom of Christ," or simply
"kingdom." It is evident that these expressions may be used
interchangeably without violence to the true meaning. However, the
term kingdom is used in more senses than one, and a careful study of
the context in each instance may be necessary to a proper
comprehension of the writers intent. The most common usages are
two:--1. An expression synonymous with "the Church," having reference
to the followers of Christ without distinction as to their temporal or
spiritual organizations. 2. The designation of the literal kingdom
over which Christ is to reign on earth in the last days.

=22.= When we contemplate the Kingdom in the latter and more general
sense, the Church must be regarded as a part thereof; an essential
indeed, for it is the germ from which the Kingdom is to be developed,
and the very heart of the perfected organization. The Church has
existed and now continues in an organized form, without the Kingdom as
a visibly established power with temporal authority in the world; but
the Kingdom cannot be maintained without the Church.

=23.= In modern revelation, the expressions "kingdom of God" and
"kingdom of heaven" are sometimes used with distinctive meanings,--the
former phrase signifying the Church, and the latter the literal
kingdom which is to supersede and comprise all existing national
divisions. In this sense, the kingdom of God has been set up already
in these the last days; its beginning in and for the present
dispensation was the establishment of the Church on its latter-day and
permanent foundation. This is consistent with our conception of the
Church as the vital organ of the Kingdom in general. The powers and
authority committed to the Church are then the keys of the Kingdom.
Such meaning is made clear in the following revelation to the
Church:--"The keys of the kingdom of God are committed unto man on the
earth, and from thence shall the gospel roll forth unto the ends of
the earth, as the stone which is cut out of the mountain without
hands[1106] shall roll forth, until it has filled the whole earth....
Call upon the Lord, that his kingdom may go forth upon the earth, that
the inhabitants thereof may receive it, and be prepared for the days
to come, in the which the Son of man shall come down in heaven,
clothed in the brightness of his glory, to meet the kingdom of God
which is set up on the earth; wherefore may the kingdom of God go
forth, that the kingdom of heaven may come, that thou, O God, mayest
be glorified in heaven, so on earth, that thy enemies may be subdued;
for thine is the honor, power and glory for ever and ever."[1107]

  [1106] Allusion to Daniel's interpretation of the dream of
  Nebuchadnezzar; see Dan. ii, 34, 44.

  [1107] Doc. and Cov. lxv, 2, 5-6.

=24.= At the time of His glorious advent, Christ will be accompanied
by the hosts of righteous ones who have already passed from earth; and
the Saints who are still alive on earth are to be quickened and caught
up to meet Him, and to descend with Him as partakers of His
glory.[1108] With Him too will come Enoch and his band of the pure in
heart;[1109] and a union will be effected with the Kingdom of God, or
that part of the Kingdom of Heaven previously established as the
Church of Christ on earth; and the Kingdom on earth will be one with
that in heaven. Then will be realized a complete fulfillment of the
Lord's own prayer, given as a pattern to all who pray:--"Thy kingdom
come, thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven."[1110]

  [1108] Doc. and Cov. lxxxviii, 91-98.

  [1109] See pp. 358, 362-363.

  [1110] Matt. vi, 10; Luke xi, 2.

=25.= The disputed question, "Is the Kingdom already set up on earth
or are we to wait for its establishment until the time of the future
advent of Christ, the King?" may properly receive answer either
affirmative or negative, according to the sense in which the term
kingdom is understood. The Kingdom of God as identical with the Church
of Christ has assuredly been established; its history is that of the
Church in these the last days; its officers are divinely commissioned,
their power is that of the holy priesthood. They claim an authority
which is spiritual, but also temporal in dealing with the members of
the organization,--Church or Kingdom as you may choose to call
it,--but they make no attempt, nor do they assert the right, to
modify, assail, or in any way interfere with, existing governments;
far less to subdue nations or to set up rival systems of control. The
Kingdom of Heaven, including the Church, and comprising all nations,
will be set up with power and great glory when the triumphant King
comes with His heavenly retinue to personally rule and reign on the
earth which He has redeemed at the sacrifice of His own life.

=26.= As seen, the Kingdom of Heaven will comprise more than the
Church. The honorable and honest among men will be accorded protection
and the privileges of citizenship under the perfect system of
government which Christ will administer; and this will be their happy
lot whether they are actually members of the Church or not.
Law-breakers and men of impure heart will meet the judgment of
destruction according to their sin; but those who live according to
the truth as they have been able to receive and comprehend it, will
enjoy the fullest liberty under the benign influences of a perfect
administration. The special privileges and blessings associated with
the Church, the right to hold and exercise the priesthood with its
boundless possibilities and eternal powers, will be, as now they are,
for those only who enter into the covenant and become part of the
Church of the Redeemer.

=27. The Millennium.=--In connection with scriptural mention of
Christ's reign on earth, a duration of a thousand years is frequently
specified. While we cannot regard this as indicating a time limit to
the Kingdom's existence, or a measure of the Savior's administration
of power, we are justified in the belief that the thousand years
immediately following the establishment of the Kingdom are to be
specially characterized, so as to be different from both preceding and
succeeding time. The gathering of Israel and the establishment of an
earthly Zion are to be effected, preparatory to His coming. His advent
is to be marked by a destruction of the wicked, and by the
inauguration of an era of peace. The Revelator saw the souls of the
martyrs, and of other righteous men, in power, living and reigning
with Christ a thousand years.[1111] At the beginning of this period
Satan is to be bound, "that he should deceive the nations no more
until the thousand years should be fulfilled."[1112] Certain of the
dead are not to live again until the thousand years are passed;[1113]
while the righteous "shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall
reign with him a thousand years."[1114] Among the most ancient of
revelations regarding the Millennium is that given to Enoch:--"And it
came to pass that Enoch saw the day of the coming of the Son of Man,
in the last days, to dwell on the earth in righteousness for the space
of a thousand years."[1115]

  [1111] Rev. xx, 4; see also 6.

  [1112] Rev. xx, 2-3.

  [1113] Verse 5.

  [1114] Verse 6.

  [1115] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 65.

=28.= It is evident, then, that in speaking of the Millennium we have
to consider a definite period, with important events marking its
beginning and its close, and conditions of unusual blessedness
extending throughout. It will be a sabbatical era,[1116]--a thousand
years of peace. Enmity between man and beast shall cease; the
fierceness and venom of the brute creation shall be done away,[1117]
and love shall rule.[1118] A new condition of affairs will prevail,
as was declared in the word of the Lord to Isaiah:--"For behold, I
create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be
remembered nor come into mind."[1119]

  [1116] See Note 2.

  [1117] Isa. xi, 6-9; lxv, 25.

  [1118] See Notes 3 and 4.

  [1119] Isa. lxv, 17.

=29.= Concerning the state of peace, prosperity, and duration of human
life, characteristic of that period, we read:--"There shall be no more
thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his
days: for the child shall die an hundred years old; but the sinner
being an hundred years old shall be accursed. And they shall build
houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the
fruit of them. They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall
not plant, and another eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of
my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands.
They shall not labor in vain, nor bring forth for trouble; for they
are the seed of the blessed of the Lord, and their offspring with
them. And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer:
and while they are yet speaking, I will hear. The wolf and the lamb
shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock:
and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy
in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord."[1120]

  [1120] Verses 20-23.

=30.= The Lord's voice is heard to-day declaring the same prophetic
truths, as is shown in the revelations touching the Millennium given
in the present dispensation of the Church.[1121] In 1831, the Lord
addressed the elders of His Church, and said:--"For the great
Millennium, of which I have spoken by the mouth of my servants, shall
come; for Satan shall be bound, and when he is loosed again, he shall
only reign for a little season, and then cometh the end of the
earth."[1122] On another occasion these words were spoken:--"For I
will reveal myself from heaven with power and great glory, with all
the hosts thereof, and dwell in righteousness with men on earth a
thousand years, and the wicked shall not stand.... And again, verily,
verity, I say unto you, that when the thousand years are ended, and
men again begin to deny their God, then will I spare the earth but for
a little season, and the end shall come."[1123]

  [1121] Doc. and Cov. lxiii, 49-51.

  [1122] Doc. and Cov. xliii, 30-31.

  [1123] Doc. and Cov. xxix, 11, 22-23.

=31.= The Millennium then is to precede the events usually indicated
by the scriptural phrase, "the end of the world." During that period,
all conditions will be propitious for righteousness; Satan's power
will be suspended; and men, relieved to some extent from temptation,
will be zealous in the service of their reigning Lord. Nevertheless,
sin will not be wholly abolished, nor will death be banished; though
children will live to reach maturity in the flesh, and then may be
changed to a condition of immortality in the "twinkling of an
eye."[1124] Both mortal and immortal beings will tenant the earth, and
communion with the heavenly powers will be common. The Latter-day
Saints believe that during that millennial era they will be privileged
to continue the vicarious work for the dead, which constitutes so
important and so characteristic a feature of their duty,[1125] and
that the facilities for direct communication with the heavens will
enable them to carry on their labor of love without hindrance. When
the thousand years are passed, Satan will again assert his power, and
those who are not then numbered among the pure in heart will yield to
his influence. But the liberty thus recovered by "the prince of the
power of the air"[1126] will be of short duration; his final doom will
speedily follow, and with him will go to the punishment that is
everlasting, all who are his. Then the earth will pass to its
celestial condition, and become a fit abode for the glorified sons and
daughters of our God.

  [1124] Doc. and Cov. lxiii, 50-51.

  [1125] See pp. 148-159.

  [1126] Eph. ii, 2.


NOTES.

     =1. "The Anointed One."=--"Christ, the official name of the
     Redeemer of mankind, as Jesus, or in the Hebrew, _Joshua_,
     'Savior,' was His natural name. Christ means 'anointed,' from
     _chrio_, 'to anoint.' Under the Old Testament dispensation, high
     priests, kings, and prophets were appointed to their office by
     the pouring of the sacred oil upon their heads. The rite was
     performed by the recognized officer of Jehovah, and was an
     outward testimony that their appointment proceeded direct from
     God himself, as the source of all authority, and as being under
     the ancient covenant, in a peculiar way, the governor of his
     people. The oil used in the consecration of priests, and the
     anointing of the tabernacle and sacred vessels, was a special
     preparation of myrrh, cinnamon, calamus, and cassia (Exo. xxx,
     23-25), which the Jews were forbidden to apply to the body, or to
     copy under pain of death. It was no doubt intended to typify the
     gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit."--Cassell's _Bible
     Dictionary_, p. 257.

     =2. The Seventh Thousand Years.=--"As each _seventh_ year was
     Israel's year of remission, so of the world's seven thousands,
     the seventh shall be its sabbatism."--Fausset's _Bible
     Cyclopedia_, p. 685. "There remaineth therefore a rest to the
     people of God"; or, as given by marginal reference, instead of
     "rest," the "keeping of a sabbath."--Heb. iv, 9.

     =3. Millennial Peace.=--"The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb,
     and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the
     young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall
     lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones
     shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the
     ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and
     the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den. They
     shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth
     shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover
     the sea."--Isa. xi, 6-9; see also lxv, 25.

     =4. The Earth before, during, and after the Millennium.=--"There
     are three conditions of the earth spoken of in the inspired
     writings,--the present, in which everything pertaining to it must
     go through a change which we call death; the millennial
     condition, in which it will be sanctified for the residence of
     purer intelligences, some mortal and some immortal; and the
     celestial condition, spoken of in the twenty-first and
     twenty-second chapters of Revelation, which will be one of
     immortality and eternal life."--_Compendium_, by Elders F. D.
     Richards and James A. Little, p. 202.



LECTURE XXI.

REGENERATION AND RESURRECTION.

     =Article 10.=--We believe ... That the earth will be renewed and
     receive its paradisiacal glory.


RENEWAL OF THE EARTH.

=1. The Earth Under the Curse.=--The blessed conditions, under which
the earth shall exist and man shall live during the millennial era,
are almost beyond human powers of comprehension, so different are they
from all to which history testifies and which experience confirms. A
reign of righteousness throughout the earth has never yet been known
to the fallen race of man. So marked has been the universal curse, so
great the power of the tempter; so bitter the selfish and ungodly
strife betwixt man and man, and between nation and nation; so general
has been the enmity of the animal creation, among its own members, and
toward the being who, though in a degraded state, yet holds the Divine
commission to the authority of dominion; so prolific has been the soil
in bringing forth thorns, briers, and noxious weeds, that the
description of Eden is to us as the story of another world, an orb of
a higher order of existence, wholly unlike this dreary sphere. Yet, we
learn that Eden was truly a feature of our planet, and that the earth
is destined to become a celestialized body,--fit for the abode of the
most exalted intelligences. The millennium, with all its splendor, is
but a more advanced stage of preparation, by which the earth and its
inhabitants will approach the fore-ordained perfection.

=2. Regeneration of the Earth.=--The term regeneration (translated
from the Greek _palingenesia_, and signifying a new birth, or, more
literally, one who is born again) occurs twice[1127] in the New
Testament; while other expressions of equivalent meaning are used in
many places. However, the terms are usually applied to the renewal of
the soul of man through the spiritual birth, by which salvation is
made obtainable; though our Lord's use of the term, in the promise of
future glory which He confirmed upon the apostles, has probable
reference to the rejuvenation of the earth, its inhabitants and their
institutions, in connection with the millennial era:--"I say unto you,
That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of
man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon
twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."[1128]

  [1127] Matt. xix, 28; Titus iii, 5.

  [1128] Matt. xix, 28.

=3.= A time of restitution is foretold. Consider the words of Peter,
spoken to the people who had come together in Solomon's porch,
marveling over the miraculous healing of the lame beggar at the gate
Beautiful:--"Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may
be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the
presence of the Lord; and he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was
preached unto you: whom the heavens must receive until the times of
restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all
his holy prophets since the world began."[1129]

  [1129] Acts iii, 19.

=4.= That the change to a state more nearly approaching perfection is
to affect both nature and man is evident from the teachings of Paul,
as recorded in his letter to the Romans:--"Because the creature itself
also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the
glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole
creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. And not
only they, but ourselves also, which have the first-fruits of the
Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the
adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body."[1130]

  [1130] Rom. viii, 21-23.

=5.= This work of regeneration has already begun. As a necessary
preliminary, whereby the curse that would otherwise afflict the earth
might be averted, Elijah the prophet was to visit the earth, bringing
with him the keys and authority of a great work; concerning which
event, while yet future, the Lord said:--"Behold, I will send you
Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of
the Lord: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children,
and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite
the earth with a curse."[1131]

  [1131] Mal. iv, 5-6; see also III Nephi xxv.

=6.= The Latter-day Saints solemnly declare that this prophecy has had
a literal fulfillment, in that on the third day of April, A.D. 1836,
Elijah visited the Prophet Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, in the
newly dedicated temple at Kirtland, Ohio, announced his mission as
that spoken of by the mouth of Malachi, declared that the day for the
fulfillment of the prediction had come, and committed the keys of this
work of the last dispensation to the Church, that the labor of
restoration might be carried on; and moreover, as a sign "that the
great and dreadful day of the Lord is near, even at the doors."[1132]
Throughout the Millennium, this process of regeneration will be
continued. Society shall be purified; nations shall exist in peace;
wars shall cease; the ferocity of beasts shall be subdued; the earth,
escaping in a great measure the curse of the Fall, shall yield
bounteously to the husbandman; and the planet shall be redeemed.

  [1132] Doc. and Cov. cx, 14-16; p. 154, this book.

=7.= The final stages of this regeneration of nature will not be
reached until the Millennium has run its blessed course. Describing
the events to take place after the completion of the thousand years,
John the Revelator says:--"And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for
the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was
no more sea.... And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying,
Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with
them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with
them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their
eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying,
neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed
away."[1133] A similar prediction was made by Ether the Jaredite, six
hundred years before Christ was born:--"And there shall be a new
heaven, and a new earth: and they shall be like unto the old, save the
old have passed away, and all things have become new."[1134] This
event is to follow the scenes of the Millennium, as the context makes
plain.

  [1133] Rev. xxi, 1, 3-4.

  [1134] Book of Mormon, Ether xiii, 9.

=8.= In the year 1830 of our present era, the Lord said:--"When the
thousand years are ended, and men again begin to deny their God, then
will I spare the earth but for a little season; and the end shall
come, and the heaven and the earth shall be consumed and pass away,
and there shall be a new heaven and a new earth, for all old things
shall pass away, and all things shall become new, even the heaven and
the earth, and all the fulness thereof, both men and beasts, the fowls
of the air and the fishes of the sea: and not one hair, neither mote,
shall be lost, for it is the workmanship of mine hand."[1135]

  [1135] Doc. and Cov. xxix, 22-25.

=9.= According to the scriptures, the earth has to undergo a change
analogous to death, and to be regenerated in a manner comparable to a
resurrection. References to the elements melting with heat, and to the
earth being consumed and passing away, such as occur in many
scriptures already cited, are suggestive of death; and the new earth,
really the renewed or regenerated planet, which is to result, may be
compared with a resurrected organism. The change has been likened unto
a transfiguration.[1136] Every created thing has been made for a
purpose; and everything that fills the measure of its creation is to
be advanced in the scale of progression, be it an atom or a world, an
animalcule, or man--the direct and literal offspring of Deity. In
speaking of the degrees of glory provided for His creations, and of
the laws of regeneration and sanctification, the Lord, in a revelation
dated 1832, speaks plainly of the approaching death and subsequent
quickening of the earth. These are His words:--"And again, verily, I
say unto you, the earth abideth the law of a celestial kingdom, for it
filleth the measure of its creation, and transgresseth not the law.
Wherefore it shall be sanctified; yea, notwithstanding it shall die,
it shall be quickened again, and shall abide the power by which it is
quickened, and the righteous shall inherit it."[1137]

  [1136] Doc. and Cov. lxiii, 20-21.

  [1137] Doc. and Cov. lxxxviii, 25-26.

=10.= During the Millennium, the earth, while preparing for the final
change, will be tenanted by both mortal and immortal beings; but after
the regeneration is complete, death will no longer be known among its
inhabitants. Then the Redeemer of earth "shall deliver up the kingdom,
and present it unto the Father spotless, saying, I have
overcome."[1138] Before victory is thus achieved and triumph won, the
enemies of righteousness must be subdued; the last foe to be
vanquished is death. Thus saith Paul the Apostle:--"Then cometh the
end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the
Father; when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority and
power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath put all
things under his feet. But when he saith, All things are put under
him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things
under him. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall
the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under
him, that God may be all in all."[1139]

  [1138] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 107.

  [1139] I Cor. xv, 24-26.

=11.= The following partial description of the earth in its
immortalized condition has been given by the Prophet Joseph Smith in
this dispensation:--"This earth, in its sanctified and immortal state,
will be made like unto crystal, and will be a Urim and Thummim[1140]
to the inhabitants who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to
an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be
manifest to those who dwell on it; and this earth will be
Christ's."[1141]

  [1140] See page 273.

  [1141] Doc. and Cov. cxxx, 9.

=12. Absence of Evidence from Science.=--Attempts have been made to
demonstrate an agreement between the teachings of science concerning
the destiny of the earth, and the scriptural predictions regarding the
ordained regeneration of our planet, by which it is to be made fit for
the abode of immortal souls. Without considering the details of the
alleged evidence of mutual support between science and the revealed
word in this matter, it may suffice to say that the so-called
evidence is unsatisfactory, and that science is practically silent on
the subject. The geologist views the earth as a body in process of
continual change, its surface a heterogeneous mass of fragmental
material; he reads, in the record inscribed on its stony pages, the
story of past development through many successive stages of progress,
each making the globe more fit for habitation by man; he witnesses the
work of constructive and destructive agencies now in operation, land
masses yielding to the lowering action of air and water, and by their
destruction furnishing material for other formations now in process of
construction;--the general effect of all such being to level the
surface by degrading the hills and raising the valleys. On the other
hand, he observes volcanic agencies operating to increase the
inequality of level by violent eruption and crustal elevation. He
confesses inability, from his observations of the present, and his
deductions concerning the past of the earth, to predict even a
probable future. So futile have been his efforts to ascertain the
origin or determine the destiny of the globe, that he has generally
abandoned the attempt. The epoch-making declaration of an acknowledged
leader in the science has now become proverbial:--Geology furnishes
"no traces of a beginning, no prospect of an end."[1142]

  [1142] James Hutton.

=13.= The astronomer, studying the varied conditions of other worlds,
may seek by analogy to learn of the probable fate of our own. Gazing
into space with greatly augmented vision, he sees, within the system
to which the earth belongs, spheres exhibiting a great range of
development,--some in their formative stage, seemingly unfit for the
abode of beings constituted as are we; others in a state more nearly
resembling that of the earth: and yet others seemingly old and
lifeless. Of the mighty systems beyond the comparatively small company
under control of our own sun, he knows nothing but the existence of
these central orbs. But, nowhere has he discovered a celestialized
world. Think you that mortal eye could discern such even if it were
within the limits of vision as determined by distance alone?

=14.= The poet has written:--

    "Nor think though men were not,
    That heaven would want spectators,
    God want praise!
    Millions of spiritual beings
    Walk the earth
    Unseen both when we wake,
    And when we sleep."

If this thought be founded on truth, and the Christian soul will
hardly doubt it, we may as readily believe in the existence of other
worlds than those of structure so gross as to be visible to our dull
eyes. I repeat, that in regard to the revealed word concerning the
regeneration of earth, and the acquirement of a celestial glory by our
planet, science has nothing to offer, either by way of support or
contradiction. Let us not because of this, disparage science, or decry
the labors of its votaries. No one realizes more fully than does the
truly scientific man how much we do not know.


RESURRECTION OF THE BODY.

=15. The Resurrection from the Dead.=--Closely associated with, and
analogous to, the ordained rejuvenation of earth, whereby our planet
is to pass from its present dreary and broken state to a condition of
glorified perfection, is the resurrection of the bodies of all beings
who have had an existence upon its surface. The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints teaches the doctrine of a literal resurrection;
an actual re-union of departed spirits and the tabernacles with which
they were clothed during mortal probation; and a transition from
mortality to immortality in the case of some who will be in the flesh
at the time of the great change, and who, because of individual
righteousness, are to be spared the sleep of the grave. But in such
teachings, the Church is not essentially different from most Christian
sects, except perhaps in the literalness of the bodily resurrection as
taught by it, and in the belief concerning the nature of the
resurrected state. The Bible is replete with evidence regarding the
quickening of the dead. Human knowledge of the resurrection rests
wholly upon revelation. Pagan peoples have therefore no conception of
an actual coming forth of the dead unto life.[1143]

  [1143] See Note 1.

=16.= In accepting the doctrine of a resurrection, we are to be guided
by faith; which, however, is supported by abundant revelation, given
in a manner unequivocal and sure. Science, the result of human
research, fails to afford us any indication of such an event in the
history of living things, and men have sought in vain for an analogy
in external nature. True, comparisons have been made, metaphors have
been employed, and similes pressed into service, to show in nature
some counterpart or semblance of the immortalizing change to which the
Christian soul looks forward with unwavering confidence; but all such
figures of speech are defective in the application, and untrue in
their professed analogies.

=17.= The return of spring after the death-like sleep of winter; the
passing of the crawling caterpillar into the corpse-like chrysalis,
and the subsequent emergence of the winged butterfly; the coming forth
of a living bird from the tomb-like recess of the egg; these and other
natural processes of development have been used as illustrative of the
resurrection. Each of them is defective, for in no instance of such
awakening has there been an actual death. If the tree die, it will not
resume its leafage with the return of the sun; if the pupa within the
chrysalis, or the life-germ within the egg be killed, no butterfly or
bird will emerge. When we indulge such figurative illustrations
without most thorough caution, we are apt to conceive the thought that
the body predestined to resurrection is not truly dead; and that
therefore the quickening which is to follow, is not what the revealed
word declares it to be. Observation proves that the separation of the
spirit from the body leaves the latter an inanimate mass, no longer
able to resist the processes of physical and chemical dissolution. The
body, deserted by its immortal tenant, is literally dead; it resolves
itself into its natural components, and its substance enters again
upon the round of universal circulation of matter. Yet the
resurrection from the dead is assured; the faith of those who trust in
the word of revealed truth will be vindicated,[1144] and the Divine
decree will be carried into full effect.

  [1144] See Note 2.

=18. Predictions concerning the Resurrection.=--The prophets in the
past dispensations of the world's history have foreseen and foretold
the final conquest of death. Some of them testified specifically of
Christ's victory over the tomb; others have dwelt upon the
resurrection in a general way. Job, the man of patience under
tribulation, sang joyously even in his agony:--"For I know that my
Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the
earth: and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my
flesh shall I see God."[1145] Enoch, to whom the Lord revealed His
plan for the redemption of mankind, foresaw the resurrection of
Christ, the coming forth of the righteous dead with Him, and the
eventual resurrection of all men.[1146]

  [1145] Job. xix, 25-26; see also Isa. xxvi, 19; Ezek. xxxvii,
  11-14; Hos. xiii, 14.

  [1146] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 56-57.

=19.= Nephi testified to his brethren that the Redeemer's death was a
fore-ordained necessity, provided in order that resurrection from the
dead might be given to man. These are his words:--"For as death hath
passed upon all men, to fulfil the merciful plan of the great Creator
there must needs be a power of resurrection, and the resurrection must
needs come unto man by reason of the fall; and the fall came by reason
of transgression; and because man became fallen they were cut off from
the presence of the Lord; ... And this death of which I have spoken,
which is the spiritual death, shall deliver up its dead; which
spiritual death is hell; wherefore, death and hell must deliver up
their dead, and hell must deliver up its captive spirits, and the
grave must deliver up its captive bodies, and the bodies and the
spirits of men will be restored one to the other; and it is by the
power of the resurrection of the Holy One of Israel. O how great the
plan of our God! For on the other hand, the paradise of God must
deliver up the spirits of the righteous, and the grave deliver up the
body of the righteous; and the spirit and the body is restored to
itself again, and all men become incorruptible, and immortal, and they
are living souls, having a perfect knowledge like unto us in the
flesh; save it be that our knowledge shall be perfect."[1147]

  [1147] II Nephi ix, 6, 12-13.

=20.= Samuel, the Lamanite prophet, predicted the Savior's birth,
ministry, death, and resurrection, and explained the resulting
resurrection of mankind:--"For behold, he surely must die, that
salvation may come; yea, it behoveth him, and becometh expedient that
he dieth, to bring to pass the resurrection of the dead, that thereby
men may be brought into the presence of the Lord; Yea, behold this
death bringeth to pass the resurrection, and redeemeth all mankind
from the first death--that spiritual death; for all mankind, by the
fall of Adam, being cut off from the presence of the Lord, are
considered as dead, both as to things temporal and to things
spiritual. But, behold, the resurrection of Christ redeemeth mankind,
yea, even all mankind, and bringeth them back into the presence of the
Lord."[1148]

  [1148] Helaman xiv, 15-17; see also Mosiah xv, 20-24; and Alma xl,
  2, 16.

=21.= The New Testament furnishes abundant evidence that the doctrine
of the resurrection was very generally understood during the time of
Christ's earthly mission, and in the succeeding apostolic era.[1149]
The Master Himself proclaimed these teachings. In reply to the
hypercritical Sadducees,[1150] He said:--"But as touching the
resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto
you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and
the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the
living."[1151] the Jews who sought His life because of His deeds and
doctrine He spoke in this way:--"Verily, verily, I say unto you, He
that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath
everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed
from death unto life. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is
coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of
God: and they that hear shall live."[1152]

  [1149] Matt. xiv, 1-2; John xi, 24.

  [1150] See Note 3.

  [1151] Matt. xxii, 31-32; see also Luke xiv, 14.

  [1152] John v, 24-25; see also verse 21, and xi, 23-25.

=22.= That Christ fully comprehended the purpose of His approaching
martyrdom, and the resurrection which was to follow, is abundantly
proved by His own utterances while yet in the flesh. To Nicodemus He
said:--"And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so
must the Son of man be lifted up: That whosoever believeth in him
should not perish, but have eternal life."[1153] And to Martha, who
was bewailing the death of her brother Lazarus, he declared: "I am
the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he
were dead, yet shall he live."[1154] Of His own resurrection He
prophesied freely; specifying the time during which His body would be
entombed.[1155]

  [1153] John iii, 14-15.

  [1154] John xi, 25.

  [1155] Matt. xii, 40; xvi, 21; xvii, 23; xx, 19.

=23. Two General Resurrections= are mentioned in the scriptures: these
may be specified as first and final, or as the resurrection of the
just and the resurrection of the unjust. The first was inaugurated by
the resurrection of Jesus Christ; immediately following which, many of
the departed Saints came forth from their graves; a continuation of
this, the resurrection of the just, has been in operation,[1156] and
will be brought to pass in a general way in connection with the coming
of Christ in His glory, and will be incident therefore to the
beginning of the Millennium. The final resurrection will be deferred
until the end of the thousand years of peace, and will be in
connection with the last judgment.

  [1156] Note the fact that Moroni, the last of the Nephite
  prophets, who died in the first quarter of the fifth century A.D.,
  appeared as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith in 1823 (see pp.
  10-12).

=24. The First Resurrection.--Christ's Resurrection, and that
immediately following.=--The facts of Christ's resurrection from the
dead are attested by such an array of scriptural proofs that no doubt
of the reality finds place in the mind of any believer in the inspired
records. To the women who came early to the sepulchre, the angel, who
had rolled the stone from the door of the tomb, spoke, saying:--"He is
not here, for he is risen, as he said."[1157] Afterward the
resurrected Lord showed Himself to many[1158] during the forty days'
interval between His resurrection and ascension.[1159] Subsequent to
the ascension He manifested Himself to the Nephites on the western
hemisphere, as already noted in another connection.[1160] The
apostles, as we shall see, ceased not to testify of the genuineness of
their Lord's resurrection, nor did they fail to proclaim the
resurrections of the future.

  [1157] Matt. xxviii, 6. See "Jesus the Christ." ch. xxxvii.

  [1158] Matt. xxviii, 9, 16; Mark xvi, 14; Luke xxiv, 13-31, 34;
  John xx, 14-17, 19, 26; xxi, 1-4; I Cor. xv, 5-8.

  [1159] Luke xxiv, 49-51; Acts i, 1-11.

  [1160] See page 37.

=25.= Christ, "the first-fruits of them that slept,"[1161] was the
first among men to come forth from the grave in an immortalized body;
but we read that, soon after His resurrection, many of the Saints were
brought from their tombs:--"And the graves were opened; and many
bodies of the saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves
after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto
many."[1162]

  [1161] I Cor. xv, 20, 23; see also Acts xxvi, 23; Col. i, 18; Rev.
  i, 5.

  [1162] Matt. xxvii, 52-53.

=26.= Alma, the Nephite prophet, whose writings antedate by nearly a
century the birth of Christ, clearly understood that there would be no
resurrection prior to that of the Redeemer, for he said:--"Behold I
say unto you, that there is no resurrection; or, I would say, in other
words, that this mortal does not put on immortality; this corruption
does not put on incorruption, until after the coming of Christ."[1163]
And furthermore, he foresaw a general resurrection in connection with
Christ's coming forth from the dead, as the context of the foregoing
quotation clearly proves.[1164] Inspired men among the Nephites spoke
of the death and resurrection of Christ[1165] even during the time of
His actual ministry in the flesh; and their teachings were speedily
confirmed by the appearance of the risen Lord among them,[1166] as had
been foretold by their earlier prophets.[1167]

  [1163] Alma xl, 2.

  [1164] The same. Paragraph 16.

  [1165] III Nephi vi, 20.

  [1166] III Nephi xi.

  [1167] I Nephi xii, 6; II Nephi xxvi, 1, 9; Alma xvi, 20; III
  Nephi xi. 12.

=27.= In the latter-days, the Lord has again manifested Himself,
declaring the facts of His death and resurrection:--"For behold, the
Lord your Redeemer suffered death in the flesh; wherefore he suffered
the pain of all men, that all men might repent and come unto him. And
he hath risen again from the dead, that he might bring all men unto
him on conditions of repentance."[1168]

  [1168] Doc. and Cov. xviii, 11-12.

=28. Resurrection at the Time of Christ's Second
Coming.=--Immediately, after the departure of Christ from the earth,
the apostles, upon whom then devolved the direct responsibility of the
Church, were found preaching the doctrine of a future and universal
resurrection. This teaching appears to have formed a very prominent
feature of their instructions; for it was made a special cause of
complaint by the Sadducees, who assailed the apostles, even within the
sacred confines of the temple, the accusers "being grieved that they
[the apostles] taught the people, and preached through Jesus the
resurrection from the dead."[1169] Paul gave offense by the zeal with
which he preached the resurrection which was to come; as witness his
contention with certain philosophers of the Epicureans and of the
Stoics; in the course of which some said:--"What will this babbler
say? other some, He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods:
because he preached unto them Jesus, and the resurrection."[1170] The
discussion was continued at Areopagus, or Mars' Hill, where Paul
preached the gospel of the true and living God, including the tenets
of the resurrection. "And when they heard of the resurrection of the
dead, some mocked; and others said, We will hear thee again of this
matter."[1171] He declared the same truth to Felix, the governor of
Judea;[1172] and when brought in bonds before Agrippa, the king, he
asked, as if dealing with one of the principal accusations against
him, "Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God
should raise the dead?"[1173]

  [1169] Acts iv, 2; see also Matt. xxii, 23, 31-32, and Acts xxiii,
  8.

  [1170] Acts xvii, 18.

  [1171] Verse 32.

  [1172] Acts xxiv, 15.

  [1173] Acts xxvi, 8.

=29.= The resurrection appears to have been a favorite theme with
Paul; in his epistles to the Saints, he gives it a prominent
place.[1174] From him, also, we learn that an order of precedence is
to be observed in the resurrection:--"But now is Christ risen from the
dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept. For since by man
came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in
Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man
in his own order: Christ the first-fruits; afterward they that are
Christ's at his coming."[1175]

  [1174] Rom. vi, 5; viii, 11; I Cor. xv; II Cor. iv, 14; Phil. iii,
  21; Col. iii, 4; I Thess. iv, 14; Heb. vi, 2.

  [1175] I Cor. xv, 20-23; the entire chapter should be studied.

=30.= It is expressly declared that many graves shall yield up their
dead at the time of Christ's advent in glory, and the just who have
slept, together with many who have not died, will be caught up to meet
the Lord. Paul thus wrote to the Saints in Thessalonica:--"Even so
them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.... For the
Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of
the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall
rise first. Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up
together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air."[1176]

  [1176] I Thess. iv, 14-17.

=31.= To the three Nephite disciples, who had asked the blessing of
John the beloved apostle, Christ said:--"And ye shall never endure the
pains of death; but when I shall come in my glory, ye shall be changed
in the twinkling of an eye from mortality to immortality."[1177]

  [1177] III Nephi xxviii, 8.

=32.= Through the medium of latter-day revelation, the Lord has
said:--"Behold I will come, and they shall see me in the clouds of
heaven, clothed with power and great glory, with all the holy angels;
and he that watches not for me shall be cut off. But before the arm of
the Lord shall fall, an angel shall sound his trump, and the Saints
that have slept shall come forth to meet me in the cloud."[1178] Of
the many signs and wonders which shall attend the Lord's glorious
coming we have this partial description:--"And the face of the Lord
shall be unveiled: and the saints that are upon the earth, who are
alive, shall be quickened, and be caught up to meet him. And they who
have slept in their graves shall come forth; for their graves shall be
opened, and they also shall be caught up to meet him in the midst of
the pillar of heaven. They are Christ's, the first-fruits; they who
shall descend with him first, and they who are on the earth and in
their graves, who are first caught up to meet him."[1179]

  [1178] Doc. and Cov. xlv, 44-45.

  [1179] Doc. and Cov. lxxxviii, 95-98.

=33.= Such are some of the glories to attend the first resurrection;
in which only the righteous are to have part. But the company of the
righteous will include all who have faithfully lived according to the
laws of God as made known to them; children who have died in their
innocence; and even the just among the heathen nations who have lived
in comparative darkness while groping for light, and who have died in
ignorance.[1180] This doctrine is made plain by modern revelation:--"And
then shall the heathen nations be redeemed, and they that knew no law
shall have part in the first resurrection."[1181] The Millennium then
is to be inaugurated by a glorious deliverance of the just from the
power of death; and of this company of the redeemed it is
written:--"Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first
resurrection; on such the second death hath no power, but they shall
be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand
years."[1182]

  [1180] See Note 4.

  [1181] Doc. and Cov. xlv, 54; see also Ezek. xxxvi, 23-24; xxxvii,
  28; xxxix, 7, 21, 23.

  [1182] Rev. xx, 6.

=34. The Final Resurrection.=--"But the rest of the dead lived not
again until the thousand years were finished."[1183] So said the
Revelator after having described the glorious blessings of the just,
who are given part in the first resurrection. The unworthy will be
called to the judgment of condemnation, when the regenerated world is
ready to be presented to the Father.[1184]

  [1183] Rev. xx, 5.

  [1184] See Note 5.

=35.= The contrast between those whose part in the first resurrection
is assured, and those whose doom it is to wait until the time of final
judgment, is a strong one, and in no case do the scriptures lighten
it. We are told that it is proper for us to weep over bereavement by
death, "and more especially for those that have not hope of a glorious
resurrection."[1185] In the present day, the voice of the Mighty One
is heard in solemn warning:--"Hearken ye, for, behold, the great day
of the Lord is nigh at hand. For the day cometh that the Lord shall
utter his voice out of heaven; the heavens shall shake, and the earth
shall tremble, and the trump of God shall sound both long and loud,
and shall say to the sleeping nations, Ye saints arise and live; ye
sinners stay and sleep until I shall call again."[1186]

  [1185] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 45.

  [1186] Doc. and Cov. xliii, 17-18.

=36.= The vision of the final scene is thus described by John:--"And I
saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were
opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life; and
the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the
books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which
were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in
them: and they were judged every man according to their works."[1187]
This stage marks the completion of the work of resurrection. As the
scriptures conclusively prove, the resurrection will be universal;
while it is true that the dead will be brought forth in order, each as
he is prepared for the first or the final stage, yet everyone who has
tabernacled in the flesh will again assume his body and with such be
judged.

  [1187] Rev. xx, 12-13.

=37.= The Book of Mormon is explicit in the description of the literal
and universal resurrection:--"Now, there is a death which is called a
temporal death; and the death of Christ shall loose the bands of this
temporal death, that all shall be raised from this temporal death; The
spirit and the body shall be re-united again in its perfect form; both
limb and joint shall be restored to its proper frame, even as we now
are at this time, and we shall be brought to stand before God, knowing
even as we know now, and have a bright recollection of all our guilt.
Now this restoration shall come to all, both old and young, both bond
and free, both male and female, both the wicked and the righteous; and
even there shall not so much as a hair of their heads be lost; but all
things shall be restored to its perfect frame, as it is now, or in the
body, and shall be brought and be arraigned before the bar of Christ
the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, which is one eternal
God, to be judged according to their works, whether they be good or
whether they be evil. Now, behold, I have spoken unto you, concerning
the death of the mortal body, and also concerning the resurrection of
the mortal body. I say unto you that this mortal body is raised to an
immortal body; that is from death; even from the first death unto
life."[1188]

  [1188] Alma xi, 42-45.

=38.= Consider also the following:--"The death of Christ bringeth to
pass the resurrection, which bringeth to pass a redemption from an
endless sleep, from which sleep all men shall be awoke by the power of
God when the trump shall sound; and they shall come forth, both small
and great, and all shall stand before his bar, being redeemed and
loosed from this eternal band of death, which death is a temporal
death; And then cometh the judgment of the Holy One upon them, and
then cometh the time that he that is filthy shall be filthy still; and
he that is righteous shall be righteous still; he that is happy shall
be happy still; and he that is unhappy shall be unhappy still."[1189]

  [1189] Mormon ix, 13-14.

=39.= So far has the word of revealed truth extended our knowledge
regarding the destiny of the children of God. Beyond the regeneration
of the earth, and the final judgment of the just and the wicked, we
know little except that a plan of eternal progression has been
provided.


NOTES.

     =1. Pagan Ignorance Concerning the Resurrection.=--In connection
     with the statement that human knowledge of the resurrection is
     based on revelation, the following is of interest:--"Whatever
     heathen philosophers may have _guessed_ as to the immortality of
     the soul, even admitting that this was really the result of their
     own speculations, and not at all due to the relics of tradition,
     it is certain that they never reached so far as the doctrine of a
     bodily resurrection. Pliny, when enumerating the things which it
     was not even in the power of God to do, specified these two--the
     endowment of mortals with an eternal existence, and the recalling
     of the departed from the grave (ii, c, vii). A similar opinion is
     enunciated by Æschylus in the 'Eumenides' (647, 648). The utmost
     to which they attained in their ethical speculations was a
     conception of the possible continuance of life, in some new forms
     and conditions, beyond the grave; but this was all. A
     resurrection in the scripture sense of the word they never
     imagined."--Cassell's _Bible Dictionary_, p. 936.

     =2. General Belief in a Resurrection.=--"This great event of the
     future, like the doctrine of the resurrection of Christ, is so
     entirely a cardinal truth, that there never has been a time in
     which it has not been an article of the Christian creed, the only
     difference between the ancient creeds and our own, being that the
     latter has the phrase 'resurrection of the body' whereas the
     former invariably uses the form 'resurrection of the flesh.' The
     reason for the ancient mode of expression is stated by Jerome to
     be, that since there are spiritual bodies, some might readily
     accept a resurrection of the body in that sense, who would deny
     the actual resurrection of the flesh."--Cassell's _Bible
     Dictionary_, p. 935.

     =3. The Sadducees=, when mentioned in the New Testament, are
     usually represented as being in opposition to the Pharisees, the
     two classes constituting the most influential of the sects
     existing among the Jews at the time of Christ. The two differed
     on many fundamental matters of belief and practice, including
     pre-existence of spirits; the reality of spiritual punishment and
     future retribution for sin; the necessity of self-denial in
     individual life; the immortality of the soul; and the
     resurrection from the dead; in all of which the Pharisees stood
     for the affirmative, while the Sadducees denied. Josephus
     says:--"The doctrine of the Sadducees is that the soul and body
     perish together; the law is all that they are concerned to
     observe" (Ant. xviii, 1, 4). The sect consisted mainly of members
     of the aristocracy. Special mention of the Sadducees here is
     suggested by their determined opposition to the doctrine of the
     resurrection, which they sought to assail by arrogant assumption
     or to belittle by ridicule. Cassell's _Bible Dictionary_ gives
     place to the following:--"The Sadducees are never mentioned in
     John's Gospel. The only occasion on which they are spoken of in
     the Gospels of Mark and Luke is that referred to also by St.
     Matthew, on which they attempted to ridicule the doctrine of the
     resurrection, by asking our Lord's opinion as to whose wife a
     woman would be in the future world, who had been married to
     several in this world (Matt. xxii, 23-32; Mark xii, 18-27; Luke
     xx, 27-38). Their question proceeded on the assumption that the
     levirate law, as promulgated by Moses (Deut. xxv, 5-6), implied
     that the Jewish law-giver had no resurrection of the dead in
     view. Our Lord's answer explained the difficulty, affirmed the
     resurrection of the dead, and asserted the existence of angels,
     which the Sadducees also denied (Matt. xxii, 30; Mark xii, 25;
     Luke xx, 35, 36; compare with Acts xxiii, 8). He also quoted the
     divine announcement,--'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac,
     and the God of Jacob' (Exod. iii, 6, 15, 16), and founded thereon
     by inference an argument not only for immortality, but also for
     the resurrection. The words quoted must have been regarded by our
     Lord as implying that the patriarchs, as parties to the covenant,
     were still in a state of conscious relation to God."

     =4. Heathen in the First Resurrection.=--The statement that the
     heathen dead will have place in the first resurrection is
     sustained by the word of scripture, and by a consideration of the
     principles of true justice according to which humanity is to be
     judged. Man will be accounted blameless or guilty, according to
     his deeds as interpreted in the light of the law under which he
     is required to live. It is inconsistent with our conception of a
     just God, to believe Him capable of inflicting condemnation upon
     any one for noncompliance with a requirement of which the person
     had no knowledge. Nevertheless, the laws of the Church will not
     be suspended even in the case of those who have sinned in
     darkness and ignorance; but it is reasonable to believe that the
     plan of redemption will afford such benighted ones an opportunity
     of learning the laws of God; and surely, as fast as they so
     learn, will obedience be required on pain of the penalty. Note
     the following passages in addition to the citations in the text:

     "And if there was no law given if men sinned, what could justice
     do, or mercy either; for they would have no claim upon the
     creature?"--Alma xlii, 21.

     "Wherefore he has given a law; and where there is no law given,
     there is no punishment; and where there is no punishment, there
     is no condemnation; and where there is no condemnation, the
     mercies of the Holy One of Israel have claim upon them, because
     of the atonement; for they are delivered by the power of
     him."--II Nephi ix, 25.

     "And moreover, I say unto you, that the time shall come, when the
     knowledge of a Savior shall spread throughout every nation,
     kindred, tongue, and people. And behold, when that time cometh,
     none shall be found blameless before God, except it be little
     children, only through repentance and faith on the name of the
     Lord God Omnipotent."--Mos. iii, 20-21. See also Helaman xv,
     14-15.

     =5. The Intermediate State of the Soul; Paradise.=--The condition
     of the spirits of men between death and the resurrection is a
     subject of great interest, and one concerning which much dispute
     has arisen. The scriptures prove, that at the time of man's final
     judgment he will stand before the bar of God, clothed in his
     resurrected body, and this, irrespective of his condition of
     purity or guilt. While awaiting the time of their coming forth,
     disembodied spirits exist in an intermediate state, of happiness
     and rest or of suffering and suspense, according to their works
     in mortality. The prophet Alma said:--"Now concerning the state
     of the soul between death and the resurrection. Behold, it has
     been made known unto me, by an angel, that the spirits of all
     men, as soon as they are departed from this mortal body; yea, the
     spirits of all men, whether they be good or evil, are taken home
     to that God who gave them life. And then shall it come to pass
     that the spirits of those who are righteous are received into a
     state of happiness, which is called paradise; a state of rest; a
     state of peace, where they shall rest from all their troubles and
     from all care, and sorrow, etc. And then shall it come to pass,
     that the spirits of the wicked, yea, who are evil; for behold,
     they have no part nor portion of the Spirit of the Lord; for
     behold, they chose evil works rather than good; therefore the
     spirit of the devil did enter into them, and take possession of
     their house; and these shall be cast out into outer darkness;
     there shall be weeping, and wailing, and gnashing of teeth; and
     this because of their own iniquity; being led captive by the will
     of the devil. Now this is the state of the souls of the wicked;
     yea, in darkness, and a state of awful, fearful looking, for the
     fiery indignation of the wrath of God upon them; thus they remain
     in this state, as well as the righteous in paradise until the
     time of their resurrection."--Alma xl, 11-14.

     Reference to paradise, as a place prepared for righteous spirits
     while awaiting the resurrection, is made also by the first Nephi
     (II Nephi ix, 13), by a later prophet of the same name (IV Nephi
     14), and by Moroni (Moroni x, 34). New Testament mention supports
     the same (Luke xxiii, 43; II Cor. xii, 4; Rev. ii, 7). Paradise,
     then, is not the place of final glory; for such the thief who
     died with Christ was assuredly not prepared, yet we cannot doubt
     the fulfillment of our Lord's promise that the penitent
     malefactor should be with Him in paradise that day; and,
     moreover, the declaration of the risen Savior to Mary Magdalene,
     three days later, that He had not at that time ascended to His
     Father, is proof of His having spent the intermediate time in
     paradise.

     The word "paradise," by its derivation through the Greek from the
     Persian, signifies a pleasure ground.



LECTURE XXII.

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND TOLERATION.

     =Article 11.=--We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God
     according to the dictates of our own conscience, and allow all
     men the same privilege, let them worship how, where, or what they
     may.


=1. Man's Right to Freedom in Worship.=--The Latter-day Saints
proclaim their unqualified allegiance to the principles of religious
liberty and religious toleration. Freedom to worship Almighty God as
the conscience may dictate, they claim as one of the inherent and
inalienable rights of humanity. The inspired framers of our charter of
national independence proclaimed to the world, as a self-evident
truth, that the common birthright of humanity gives to every man a
claim to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Happiness is
foreign, liberty but a name, and life a disappointment to him who is
denied the freedom to worship as he may desire. No person possessing a
regard for Deity and a sense of duty toward that power Divine, can be
happy if he be restricted in the performance of the highest duty of
his existence. Could one be happy, though he were housed in a palace,
surrounded with all material comforts and provided with every facility
for intellectual enjoyment, if he were cut off from communion with the
being whom he loved the most? To the man who has learned to know his
Divine Father, freedom of worship is preferable even to life.

=2. What is Worship?=--The derivation of the term suggests an answer.
It comes to us as the lineal descendant of a pair of Anglo-Saxon words
(_weorth_, meaning worthy, and _scipe_, the old form of _ship_,
signifying condition or state), and conveys the thought of
_worthy-ship_. The worship of which one is capable depends upon his
comprehension of the worthiness characterizing the object of his
reverence. Man's capacity for worship is a measure of his
comprehension of God. The fuller the acquaintance, the closer the
communion between the worshiper and his Deity, the more thorough and
sincere will be his homage. When we say of one, in figurative speech,
that he is a worshiper of the good, the beautiful, the true, we affirm
that he possesses a deeper and a more complete conception of worth in
the object of his adoration, than has another whose perception does
not lead him to reverence those ennobling qualities.

=3.= Man, then, will worship God according to his conception of the
Divine attributes and powers; and this conception approaches the
correct one in proportion to the spiritual light that has come to him.
True worship cannot exist where there is no reverence or love for the
object. This reverence may be ill-founded; the adoration may be a
species of idolatry; the object may be in fact unworthy; yet of the
devotee it must be said that he worships if his conscience clothe the
idol with the attribute of worthy-ship. We have spoken of "true
worship;" the expression is a pleonasm. Worship, as has been affirmed,
is the heart-felt adoration that is rendered as a result of a sincere
conception of worthiness on the part of the object; any manifestation
of reverence prompted by a conviction inferior to this is but a
counterfeit of worship. Call such "false worship" if you choose, but
let it be remembered that worship is necessarily true, the word
requires no adjective to extend its meaning, nor to attest its
genuineness. Worship is not a matter of form, any more than is prayer.
It consists not in posture nor in gesture, in ritual nor in creed.
Worship most profound may be rendered with none of the artificial
accessories of ritualistic service; for altar, the stone in the
desert may serve; the peaks of the everlasting hills are temple
spires; the vault of heaven is of all the grandest cathedral dome.

=4.= Man is at heart an inferior pattern of that which he worships.
The savage, who knows no triumph greater than that of bloody victory
over his enemy, who regards prowess and physical strength as the most
desirable qualities of his race, and who looks upon revenge and
vindictiveness as the sweetest gratifications of life, will assuredly
ascribe such attributes to his deity; and will offer his profoundest
reverence in sacrifices of blood. All the revolting practices of
idolatry are traceable to perverted and fiendish conceptions of human
excellence, and these are reflected in the hideous creations of
man-made, devil-inspired deities. On the other hand, the man whose
enlightened soul has received the impress of love, pure and undefiled,
will ascribe to his God the attributes of gentleness and affection,
and will say in his heart, "God is love." He alone who has acquired a
proper understanding of the glory and responsibility of parenthood,
can intelligently use the Son's title of invocation, "Our Father."
Knowledge, therefore, is essential to worship; man cannot adequately
serve God in ignorance; and the greater his knowledge of the Divine
personality, the fuller, truer, will be his adoration; he may learn to
know the Father, and the Son who was sent; and such knowledge is man's
guarantee to eternal life.

=5.= Worship is the voluntary homage of the soul. Under compulsion, or
for the hypocritical purposes of effect, one may insincerely perform
all the outward ceremonies of an established style of adoration; he
may voice words of prescribed prayers; his lips may profess a creed;
yet his effort is but a mockery of worship, and its indulgence a sin.
Our Father desires no reluctant homage nor unwilling praise. Formalism
in worship is acceptable only so far as it is accompanied by an
intelligent devoutness; and it is of use only as an aid to the
spiritual devotion which leads to communion with Deity. The spoken
prayer is but empty sound if it be anything less than an index to the
volume of the soul's righteous desire. Communications addressed to the
throne of Grace must bear the stamp of sincerity if they are to reach
their high destination. The most acceptable form of worship is that
which rests on an unreserved compliance with the laws of God as the
worshiper has learned their purport.

=6. Religious Intolerance.=--The Church holds, that the right to
worship according to the dictates of conscience has been conferred
upon man by an authority higher than any of earth; and that, in
consequence, no worldly power can justly interfere with its exercise.
The Latter-day Saints accept as inspired the constitutional provision,
by which religious liberty within our own nation is professedly
guarded, that no law shall ever be made "respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;"[1190] and they
confidently believe that, with the spread of enlightenment throughout
the world, a similar guarantee will be acquired by every nation.
Intolerance has been the greatest hindrance to true progress in every
period of time; yet under the sable cloak of perverted zeal for
religion, nations while boasting of their civilization, and professed
ministers of the gospel of Christ, have stained the pages of the
world's history with the record of such unholy deeds of persecution as
to make the heavens weep. In this respect, so-called Christianity
ought to bow its head in shame before the record of even pagan
toleration. Rome, while arrogantly, though none the less effectively,
posing as the mistress of the world, granted to her vanquished
subjects the rights of free worship, requiring of them only that they
refrain from molesting others or one another in the exercise of such
freedom.

  [1190] Constitution of the United States, first amendment.

=7.= But as soon as the gospel of Christ was established upon the
earth, its devout adherents immediately, and its more pretentious
though less sincere devotees of a later day, came to regard themselves
as of such sanctity and excellence that all who believed and professed
not as did they, were wholly unworthy of consideration. Nay, even long
prior to the advent of the Teacher of Love, Israel, knowing the
covenant of Divine favor under which they had flourished, counted
themselves sure of an exalted station, and looked upon all who were
not of the chosen seed as unworthy. Christ, in His ministry among the
Jews, saw with compassionate sorrow the spiritual and intellectual
bondage of the times, and declared unto them the saving word, saying,
"The truth shall make you free." At this, those self-righteous
children of the covenant became angry, and boastfully answered, "We be
Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man; how sayest thou,
Ye shall be made free?" Then the Master reproved them for their
bigotry:--"I know that ye are Abraham's seed, but ye seek to kill me,
because my word has no place in you."[1191]

  [1191] John viii, 32-45; see also Matt. iii, 9. See "Jesus the
  Christ," p. 408.

=8.= There is little cause for wonder in the fact that the early
Christians, zealous for the new faith unto which they had been
baptized, and newly converted from idolatrous practices and pagan
superstitions, should consider themselves superior to the rest of
humanity still sitting in darkness and ignorance. Even John, now known
as the Apostle of Love, but surnamed by the Christ, he and his brother
James, Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder,[1192] was intolerant and
resentful toward those who followed not his path; and more than once
he had to be rebuked by his Master. Note this incident:--"And John
answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy
name, and he followeth not us; and we forbade him because he followeth
not us. But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which
shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. For
he that is not against us is on our part. For whosoever shall give you
a cup of water to drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ,
verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward."[1193] And again,
while traveling with their Lord through Samaria, the apostles James
and John were incensed at the Samaritans' neglect shown toward the
Master; and they craved permission to call fire from heaven to consume
the unbelievers, but their revengeful desire was promptly rebuked by
the Lord, who said, "Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For
the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save
them."[1194]

  [1192] Mark iii, 17.

  [1193] Mark ix, 38-41; see also Luke ix, 49-50, and compare Numb.
  xi, 27-29.

  [1194] Luke ix, 51-56; see also John iii, 17, and xii, 47.

=9. Intolerance is Unscriptural.=--The teachings of our Lord breathe
the spirit of forbearance and love even to enemies. He tolerated,
though he could not approve, the practices of the heathen in their
idolatry, the Samaritans with their mongrel and unorthodox customs of
worship, the luxury-loving Sadducees, and the law-bound Pharisees.
Hatred was not countenanced even toward foes. His instructions
were:--"Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them
that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and
persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father which is in
heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and
sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust."[1195] The Twelve were
commanded to salute with their blessing every house at which they
applied for hospitality. True, if the people rejected them and their
message, retribution was to follow; but this visitation of cursing was
to be reserved as a Divine prerogative for the judgment day. In His
Parable of the Tares, Christ taught the same lesson of forbearance;
the hasty servants wanted to pluck out the weeds straightway, but they
were forbidden lest they root up the wheat also; and were assured that
a separation would be effected in the time of harvest.[1196]

  [1195] Matt. v, 44-45.

  [1196] Matt. xiii, 24-30.

=10.= In spite of the prevailing spirit of toleration and love which
pervades the teachings of the Savior and His apostles, attempts have
been made to draw from the scriptures justification for intolerance
and persecution.[1197] Paul's stinging words, addressed to the
Galatians, have been given a meaning wholly foreign to the spirit
which prompted them. Warning the Saints of false teachers, he
said:--"As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any
other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be
accursed."[1198] With such an utterance, self-styled ministers of
Christ, who, if the whole truth were considered, are perhaps preaching
doctrines foreign to the apostolic precepts, seek to justify their
sectarian hatred and unchristian cruelty; forgetting that vengeance
and recompense belong to the Lord.[1199]

  [1197] See Note 1.

  [1198] Gal. i, 9; also 8.

  [1199] Deut. xxxii, 35; Psa. xciv, 1; Rom. xii, 19; Heb. x, 30.

=11.= The intent of John's words of counsel to the Elect Lady has been
perverted, and his teachings have been made a cover of refuge for
persecutors and bigots. Warning her of the ministers of Antichrist who
were industriously disseminating their heresies, the apostle
wrote:--"If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine,
receive him not into your house, neither bid him God-speed: for he
that biddeth him God-speed is partaker of his evil deeds."[1200] By no
rightful interpretation can these words be made to sanction
intolerance, persecution, and hatred.

  [1200] II John, 10-11.

=12.= The apostle's true meaning has been set forth with clearness and
force by a renowned Christian writer of the present day, who, after
deploring the "narrow intolerance of an ignorant dogmatism,"
says:--"The Apostle of Love would have belied all that is best in his
own teaching if he had consciously given an absolution, nay, an
incentive, to furious intolerance.... Meanwhile, this incidental
expression of St. John's brief letter will not lend itself to these
gross perversions. What St. John really says and really means, is
something wholly different. False teachers were rife, who, professing
to be Christians, robbed the nature of Christ of all which gave its
efficacy to the atonement, and its significance to the incarnation.
These teachers, like other Christian missionaries, traveled from city
to city; and, in the absence of public inns, were received into the
houses of Christian converts. The Christian lady to whom St. John
writes is warned, that if she offers her hospitality to these
dangerous emissaries, who were subverting the central truth of
Christianity, she is expressing a public sanction of them; and by
doing this, and offering them her best wishes, she is taking a direct
share in the harm they do. This is common sense, nor is there anything
uncharitable in it. No one is bound to help forward the dissemination
of teaching what he regards as erroneous respecting the most essential
doctrines of his own faith. Still less would it have been right to do
this in the days when Christian communities were so small and weak.
But, to interpret this as it has in all ages been practically
interpreted--to pervert it into a sort of command to exaggerate the
minor variations between religious opinions, and to persecute those
whose views differ from our own--to make our own opinions the
conclusive test of heresy, and to say with Cornelius-a-Lapide, that
this verse reprobates 'all conversations, all intercourse, all
dealings with heretics'--is to interpret scripture by the glare of
partisanship and spiritual self-satisfaction, not to read it under the
light of holy love."[1201]

  [1201] Canon Farrar. _The Early Days of Christianity_, pp. 587,
  588.

=13. Toleration is not Acceptance.=--The human frailty of running to
extremes in thought and action finds few more glaring examples than
are presented in man's dealings with his fellows on matters religious.
On the one hand, he is prone to regard the faith of others as not
merely inferior to his own, but as utterly unworthy of his respect;
or, on the other, he brings himself to believe that all sects are
equally justified in their professions and practices, and that
therefore there is no distinctively true order of religion. It is in
no wise inconsistent for Latter-day Saints to boldly proclaim the
conviction, that their own Church is the accepted one, the only one
entitled to the designation "Church of Jesus Christ," and the sole
earthly repository of the eternal priesthood in the present age; and
yet to willingly accord kind treatment and a recognition of sincerity
of purpose to every soul or sect honestly professing Christ, or merely
showing a respect for truth, and manifesting a sincere desire to walk
according to the light received. My allegiance to the Church of my
choice is based on a conviction of the validity and genuineness of its
high claim to distinction, as the one and only Church possessing a
God-given charter of authority; nevertheless, I count the sects as
sincere until they demonstrate that they are otherwise, and am
prepared to defend them in their rights.

=14.= Joseph Smith, the first prophet of the last dispensation, while
reproving certain of his brethren for intolerance toward the cherished
beliefs of other men, taught that even idolaters ought to be
protected in their worship; that, while it would be the strict duty of
any Christian to direct his efforts toward enlightening such benighted
minds, he would not be justified in forcibly depriving even the
heathen of their rights of adoration. In the pure eyes of God,
idolatry is one of the most heinous of sins; yet He is tolerant of
those who, knowing Him not, yield to their inherited instinct for
worship by rendering homage even to stocks and stones. Deadly as is
the sin of idolatrous worship on the part of him to whom light has
come, it may represent in the savage the sincerest reverence of which
he is capable. And, as set forth in a preceding lecture,[1202] the
voice of the Eternal One has declared that the heathen who have known
no law shall have part in the first resurrection.

  [1202] See page 61.

=15.= What justification can man find for intolerance toward his
fellow, when God, who is grieved over every sin, manifests so marked a
forbearance? The free agency of the human soul is sacred to Deity.

    "Know this, that every soul is free,
    To choose his life, and what he'll be;
    For this eternal truth is given,
    That God will force no man to heaven.
    He'll call, persuade, direct aright,
    Bless him with wisdom, love, and light,
    In nameless ways be good and kind,
    But never force the human mind."

=16. Man is strictly Answerable for his Acts.=--The unbounded
liberality and true tolerance with which the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints regards other religious denominations, and the
teachings of the Church respecting the assurance of final redemption
for all men except the few who have fallen so far as to have committed
the unpardonable sin, thereby becoming Sons of Perdition, may suggest
the erroneous conclusion, that we believe that all so redeemed shall
be admitted to equal powers, privileges, and glories in the Heaven of
our God. Far from this, the Church proclaims the doctrine of many and
varied degrees of glory, which the redeemed will inherit in strict
accordance with their merits.[1203] We believe in no general plan of
universal forgiveness or reward, by which sinners of high and low
degree shall be exempted from the effects of their deeds, while the
righteous are ushered into heaven as a dwelling place in common, all
glorified in the same measure. As stated, the heathen whose sins are
those of ignorance, are to come forth with the just in the first
resurrection; but this does not imply that those children of the lower
races are to inherit the glory provided for the able, the valiant, and
the true, in the cause of God on earth.

  [1203] See pp. 94-95.

=17.= Our condition in the world to come will be strictly a result of
the life we lead in this probation, as, by the light of revealed truth
regarding the pre-existent state,[1204] we perceive our present
condition to be determined by the fidelity with which we kept our
first estate. The scriptures repeatedly declare that man will reap the
natural harvest of his works in life, be such good or evil; in the
effective language with which the Father encourages and warns his
frail children, every one will be rewarded or punished according to
his works.[1205] In eternity, man will enjoy or loath the "fruit of
his doing."

  [1204] See pp. 195-198.

  [1205] Job xxxiv, 11; Psal. lxii, 12; Jer. xvii, 10; xxxii, 19;
  Matt. xvi, 17; Rom. ii, 6-12; xiv, 12; I Cor. iii, 8; II Cor. v,
  10; Rev. ii, 23; xx, 12; xxii, 12.

=18. Degrees of Glory.=--That the privileges and glories of heaven are
graded to suit the various capacities of the blessed, is indicated in
Christ's teachings. To His apostles He said:--"In my Father's house
are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to
prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I
will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there
ye may be also."[1206]

  [1206] John xiv, 1-3.

=19.= This utterance is supplemented by that of Paul, who speaks of
the graded glories of the resurrection as follows:--"There are also
celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the
celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. There
is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another
glory of the stars; for one star differeth from another star in glory.
So also is the resurrection of the dead."[1207]

  [1207] I Cor. xv, 40-42.

=20.= A fuller knowledge of this subject has been imparted in the
present dispensation. From a revelation given in 1832[1208] we learn
the following:--Three great kingdoms or degrees of glory are
established for the future habitation of the human race; these are
known as the Celestial, the Terrestrial, and the Telestial. Far below
the last and least of these, is the state of eternal punishment
prepared for the Sons of Perdition.

  [1208] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi.

=21. The Celestial Glory= is provided for those who merit the highest
honors of heaven. In the revelation referred to, we read of
them:--"They are they who received the testimony of Jesus, and
believed on his name and were baptized after the manner of his burial,
being buried in the water in his name, and this according to the
commandment which he has given, that by keeping the commandments they
might be washed and cleansed from all their sins, and receive the Holy
Spirit by the laying on of the hands of him who is ordained and sealed
unto this power, and who overcome by faith, and are sealed by the Holy
Spirit of promise, which the Father sheds forth upon all those who are
just and true. They are they who are the Church of the First-born.
They are they into whose hands the Father has given all things,--they
are they who are Priests and Kings, who have received of his fulness,
and of his glory, and are Priests of the Most High, after the order of
Melchisedek, which was after the order of Enoch, which was after the
order of the Only Begotten Son; wherefore, as it is written, they are
Gods, even the sons of God;--wherefore all things are theirs, whether
life or death, or things present, or things to come, all are theirs,
and they are Christ's, and Christ is God's.... These shall dwell in
the presence of God and his Christ for ever and ever. These are they
whom he shall bring with him, when he shall come in the clouds of
heaven, to reign on the earth over his people. These are they who
shall have part in the first resurrection. These are they who shall
come forth in the resurrection of the just.... These are they who are
just men made perfect through Jesus, the mediator of the new covenant,
who wrought out this perfect atonement through the shedding of his own
blood. These are they whose bodies are celestial, whose glory is that
of the sun, even the glory of God, the highest of all, whose glory the
sun of the firmament is written of as being typical."[1209]

  [1209] The same: Paragraphs 51-70.

=22. The Terrestrial Glory.=--This, the next lower degree, will be
attained by many whose works do not merit the highest reward. We read
of them:--"These are they who are of the terrestrial, whose glory
differs from that of the Church of the First-born who have received
the fulness of the Father, even as that of the moon differs from the
sun in the firmament. Behold, these are they who died without law, and
also they who are the spirits of men kept in prison, whom the Son
visited, and preached the Gospel unto them, that they might be judged
according to men in the flesh, who received not the testimony of Jesus
in the flesh, but afterwards received it. These are they who are
honorable men of the earth, who were blinded by the craftiness of men.
These are they who receive of his glory, but not of his fulness. These
are they who receive of the presence of the Son, but not of the
fulness of the Father; wherefore they are bodies terrestrial, and not
bodies celestial, and differ in glory as the moon differs from the
sun. These are they who are not valiant in the testimony of Jesus;
wherefore they obtain not the crown over the kingdom of our
God."[1210]

  [1210] The same: Paragraphs 71-79.

=23. The Telestial Glory.=--The revelation continues:--"And again, we
saw the glory of the telestial,[1211] which glory is that of the
lesser, even as the glory of the stars differs from that of the glory
of the moon in the firmament. These are they who received not the
gospel of Christ, neither the testimony of Jesus. These are they who
deny not the Holy Spirit. These are they who are thrust down to hell.
These are they who shall not be redeemed from the devil, until the
last resurrection, until the Lord, even Christ the Lamb shall have
finished his work."[1212] We learn further that the inhabitants of
this kingdom are to be graded among themselves, comprising as they do
the unenlightened among the varied opposing sects and divisions of
men, and sinners of many types, whose offences are not those of utter
perdition;--"For as one star differs from another star in glory, even
so differs one from another in glory in the telestial world; for these
are they who are of Paul, and of Apollos, and of Cephas. These are
they who say they are some of one and some of another--some of Christ,
and some of John, and some of Moses, and some of Elias, and some of
Esaias, and some of Isaiah, and some of Enoch; but received not the
gospel, neither the testimony of Jesus, neither the prophets, neither
the everlasting covenant."[1213] Evidently a considerable part of the
human family will fail of all glory beyond that of the telestial
kingdom, for we are told,--"But behold, and lo, we saw the glory and
the inhabitants of the telestial world, that they were as innumerable
as the stars in the firmament of heaven, or as the sand upon the
seashore."[1214] They are thus not wholly rejected; their every merit
will be respected. "For they shall be judged according to their works,
and every man shall receive according to his own works, his own
dominion in the mansions which are prepared; and they shall be
servants of the Most High, but where God and Christ dwell, they cannot
come, worlds without end."[1215]

  [1211] See Note 2.

  [1212] Paragraphs 81-86.

  [1213] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 98-101.

  [1214] The same: Par. 109.

  [1215] The same: Par. 111-112.

=24. The Kingdoms with Respect to One Another.=--The three kingdoms of
widely differing glories are themselves organized on an orderly plan
of gradation. We have seen that the telestial kingdom comprises a
multitude of subdivisions; this also is the case, we are told, with
the celestial;[1216] and, by analogy, we conclude that a similar
condition prevails in the terrestrial. Thus the innumerable degrees of
merit amongst mankind are provided for in an infinity of graded
glories. The Celestial kingdom is supremely honored by the personal
ministrations of the Father and the Son.[1217] The Terrestrial kingdom
will be administered through the higher, without a fullness of glory.
The Telestial is governed through the ministrations of the
Terrestrial, by "angels who are appointed to minister for them."[1218]

  [1216] Doc. and Cov. cxxxi, 1; see also II Cor. xii, 1-4.

  [1217] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 68.

  [1218] Par. 86, 88.

=25.= It is reasonable to believe, in the absence of direct
revelation by which alone absolute knowledge of the matter could be
acquired, that, in accordance with God's plan of eternal progression,
advancement from grade to grade within each of the three specified
kingdoms will be provided for. But if the recipients of a lower glory
be enabled to advance, surely the intelligences of higher rank shall
not be stopped in their progress; and thus we may conclude that
degrees and grades will ever characterize the kingdoms of our God.
Eternity is progressive; perfection is relative; the essential feature
of God's living purpose is its associated power of eternal increase.

=26. The Sons of Perdition.=--We learn of another class of souls whose
sins are such as to place them beyond the present possibility of
redemption. These are called Sons of Perdition; children of the fallen
angel, once a Son of the Morning, now Lucifer, or Perdition.[1219]
These are they who have violated truth in the full blaze of the light
of knowledge; who, having received the testimony of Christ, and having
been endowed by the Holy Spirit, then deny the same and defy the power
of God, crucifying the Lord afresh, and putting Him to an open shame.
This, the unpardonable sin, can be committed by those only who have
received the knowledge and the sacred conviction of the truth, against
which they then rebel. Their sin is comparable to the treason of
Lucifer, by which he sought to usurp the power and glory of his God.
Concerning them and their dreadful fate, the Almighty has said:--"I
say that it had been better for them never to have been born; for they
are vessels of wrath, doomed to suffer the wrath of God, with the
devil and his angels in eternity; concerning whom I have said, there
is no forgiveness in this world nor in the world to come.... They
shall go away into everlasting punishment, which is endless
punishment, which is eternal punishment, to reign with the devil and
his angels in eternity, where their worm dieth not, and the fire is
not quenched, which is their torment; And the end thereof, neither the
place thereof, nor their torment, no man knows; neither was it
revealed, neither is, neither will be revealed unto man, except to
them who are made partakers thereof: Nevertheless I, the Lord, show it
by vision unto many, but straightway shut it up again; wherefore the
end, the width, the height, the depth, and the misery thereof, they
understand not, neither any man except them who are ordained unto this
condemnation."[1220]

  [1219] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 25-27.

  [1220] Doc. and Cov. lxxvi, 31-48, see also Heb. vi, 4-6; Alma
  xxxix, 6. For other references see page 62.

=27.= Surely the doctrines of the Church are explicit in defining the
relationship between the mortal probation and the future state, and in
teaching the individual accountability and the free agency of man. The
Church affirms that in view of the terrible responsibility under which
every man rests, as the unrestrained director of his own course, he
must be and is free to choose in all things, from the life that leads
to the celestial home, to the career that is but the introduction to
the miseries of perdition. Freedom to worship, or to refuse to
worship, is a God-given right.


NOTES.

     =1. Intolerance among Christians To-day.=--"It must be
     said--though I say it with the deepest sorrow--that the cold
     exclusiveness of the Pharisee, the bitter ignorance of the
     self-styled theologian, the usurped infallibility of the
     half-educated religionist, have been ever the curse of
     Christianity. They have imposed 'the senses of men upon the words
     of God, the special senses of men on the general words of God;'
     and have tried to enforce them on all men's consciences with all
     kinds of burnings and anathemas under equal threats of death and
     damnation. And thus they incurred the terrible responsibility of
     presenting religion to mankind in a false and repellent guise. Is
     theological hatred still to be a proverb for the world's just
     contempt? Is such hatred--hatred in its bitterest and most
     ruthless form--to be regarded as the legitimate and normal
     outcome of the religion of love? Is the spirit of peace never to
     be brought to bear on religious opinions? Are such questions
     always to excite the most intense animosities, and the most
     terrible divisions?... Is the world to be forever confirmed in
     its opinion that theological partisans are less truthful, less
     candid, less high-minded, less honorable even than the partisans
     of political and social causes, who make no profession as to the
     duty of love? Are the so-called 'religious' champions to be
     forever as they now are, the most unscrupulously bitter, the most
     conspicuously unfair? Alas! they might be so with far less danger
     to the cause of religion if they would forego the luxury of
     'quoting scripture for their purpose.'"--Canon Farrar, _The Early
     Days of Christianity_, pp. 584-585.

     =2. "Telestial."=--The adjective "telestial" has not become
     current in the language; its use is at present confined to the
     theology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It
     is applied as a distinguishing term to the lowest of the three
     kingdoms of glory provided for the redeemed. The only English
     word approaching it in form is the adjective "telestic," which is
     defined thus:--"tending toward the end or final accomplishment;
     tending to accomplish a purpose."

     =3. Toleration.=--"'Mormonism' offers no modified or conditional
     claims as to the necessity of compliance with the laws and
     ordinances of the gospel by every independent inhabitant of earth
     unto whom salvation shall come. It distinguishes not between
     enlightened and heathen nations, nor between men of high or low
     intelligence; nor even between the living and the dead. No human
     being who has attained years of accountability in the flesh, may
     hope for salvation in the kingdom of God until he has rendered
     obedience to the requirements of Christ, the Redeemer of the
     world. But while thus decisive, 'Mormonism' is not exclusive. It
     does not claim that all who have failed to accept and obey the
     gospel of eternal life shall be eternally and forever damned.
     While boldly asserting that the Church of Jesus Christ of
     Latter-day Saints is the sole repository of the Holy Priesthood
     as now restored to earth, it teaches and demands the fullest
     toleration for all individuals, and organizations of individuals,
     professing righteousness; and holds that each shall be rewarded
     for the measure of good he has wrought, to be adjudged in
     accordance with the spiritual knowledge he has gained. And for
     such high claims combined with such professions of tolerance, the
     Church has been accused of inconsistency. Let it not be
     forgotten, however, that toleration is not acceptance. I may
     believe with the utmost fulness of my soul's powers that I am
     right and my neighbor is wrong concerning any proposition or
     principle; but such conviction gives me no semblance of right for
     interfering with his exercise of freedom. The only bounds to the
     liberty of an individual are such as mark the liberty of another,
     or the rights of the community. God himself treats as sacred, and
     therefore as inviolable, the freedom of the human soul.
     'Mormonism' contends that no man or nation possesses the right to
     forcibly deprive even the heathen of his right to worship his
     deity. Though idolatry has been marked from the earliest ages
     with the seal of divine disfavor, it may represent in the
     benighted mind the sincerest reverence of which the person is
     capable. He should be taught better, but never compelled. There
     is no claim of universal forgiveness; no unwarranted
     glorification of Mercy to the degrading or neglect of Justice; no
     thought that a single sin of omission or of commission shall fail
     to leave its wound or scar. In the great future there shall be
     found a place for every soul, whatever his grade of spiritual
     intelligence may be."--_The Philosophy of Mormonism_: The Author,
     in _Improvement Era_, vol. iv, pp. 502-504.



LECTURE XXIII.

SUBMISSION TO SECULAR AUTHORITY.

     =Article 12.=--We believe in being subject to kings, presidents,
     rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, honoring, and sustaining the
     law.


=1. Introductory.=--It is but reasonable to expect of a people
professing the Gospel of Christ, and claiming membership in the one
accepted and divinely invested Church, that they manifest in practice
the virtues which their precepts inculcate. True, we may look in vain
for perfection among those even who make the fullest and most
justifiable claims to orthodoxy; but we have a right to expect in
their creed ample requirements concerning the most approved course of
action, and in their lives, sincere and earnest effort toward the
practical realization of their professions. Religion, to be of service
and at all worthy of acceptance, must be of wholesome influence in the
individual lives and the temporal affairs of its adherents. Among
other virtues, the Church in its teachings should impress the duty of
a law-abiding course; and the people should show forth the effect of
such precepts in their excellence as citizens of the nation, and as
individuals in the community of which they are part.

=2.= The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints makes emphatic
declaration of its belief and precepts regarding the duty of its
members toward the laws of the land; and sustains its position by the
authority of specific revelation in ancient as in present times.
Moreover, the people are confident, that when the true story of their
rise and progress as an established body of religious worshipers is
written, the loyalty of the Church and the patriotic devotion of its
members will be vindicated and extolled by the world in general, as
now are these virtues recognized by the few unprejudiced investigators
who have studied with honest purpose the history of this remarkable
organization.

=3. Obedience to Authority Enjoined by Scripture.--=During the
patriarchal period, when the head of the family possessed virtually
the power of judge and king over his household, the authority of the
ruler and the rights of the family were respected. Consider the
instance of Hagar, the "plural" wife of Abram, and the handmaid of
Sarai. Jealousy and ill-feeling had arisen between Hagar and her
mistress, the senior wife of the patriarch. Abram listened to the
complaint of Sarai, and, recognizing her authority over Hagar, who,
though his wife, was still the servant of Sarai, said:--"Behold thy
maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee." Then, as the
mistress dealt harshly with her servant, Hagar fled into the
wilderness; there she was visited by an angel of the Lord, who
addressed her thus:--"Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou, and
whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my
mistress Sarai. And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return to thy
mistress, and submit thyself under her hands."[1221] Observe that the
heavenly messenger recognized the authority of the mistress over the
bond-woman, even though the latter had been given the rank of wifehood
in the family.

  [1221] Gen. xvi, 1-9. See "Jesus the Christ," p. 397, Note 6.

=4.= The ready submission of Isaac to the will of his father, even to
the extent of offering his life[1222] on the altar of bloody
sacrifice, is evidence of the sanctity with which the authority of the
family ruler was regarded. It may appear, as indeed it has been
claimed, that the requirement which the Lord made of Abraham as a test
of faith, in the matter of giving his son's life as a sacrifice, was a
violation of existing laws, and therefore opposed to stable
government. The claim is poorly placed in view of the fact, that the
patriarchal head was possessed of absolute authority over the members
of his household, the power extending even to judgment of life or
death.[1223]

  [1222] Gen. xxii, 1-10.

  [1223] See Gen. xxxviii, 24.

=5.= In the days of the exodus, when Israel were ruled by a theocracy,
the Lord gave divers laws and commandments for the government of His
chosen people; among them we read:--"Thou shalt not revile the gods,
nor curse the ruler of thy people."[1224] Judges were appointed by
Divine direction to exercise authority amongst Israel. Moses, in
reiterating the Lord's commands, charged the people to this
effect:--"Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates,
which the Lord thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes; and they
shall judge the people with just judgment."[1225]

  [1224] Exo. xxii, 28. The word "gods" in this passage is rendered
  by some translators "judges." (See marginal reference, Bible.) See
  "Jesus the Christ," p. 501, Note 8.

  [1225] Deut. xvi, 18; see also i, 16; I Chron. xxiii, 4; xxvi, 29.

=6.= When the people wearied of God's direct control, and clamored for
a king, the Lord yielded to their desire, and gave the new ruler
authority by a holy anointing.[1226] David, even though he had been
anointed to succeed Saul on the throne, recognized the sanctity of the
king's person, and bitterly reproached himself because on one occasion
he had mutilated the robe of the monarch. True, Saul was at that time
seeking David's life, and the latter sought only a means of showing
that he had no intent to kill his royal enemy; yet we are told:--"That
David's heart smote him, because he had cut off Saul's skirt. And he
said unto his men, The Lord forbid that I should do this thing unto
my master, the Lord's anointed, to stretch forth mine hand against
him, seeing he is the anointed of the Lord."[1227]

  [1226] I Sam. viii, 6-7, 22; ix, 15-16; x, 1.

  [1227] I Sam, xxiv, 5-6, 10; see also xxvi, 9-12, 16.

=7.= Note, further, the following scriptural adjurations as recorded
in the Old Testament:--"My son, fear thou the Lord, and the
king."[1228] "I counsel thee to keep the king's commandment, and that
in regard of the oath of God."[1229] "Curse not the king, no not in
thy thought."[1230]

  [1228] Prov. xxiv, 21.

  [1229] Eccles. viii, 2.

  [1230] Eccles. x, 20. Note 5.

=8. Examples Set by Christ and His Apostles.=--Our Savior's work on
earth was marked throughout by His acknowledgment of the existing
powers of the land, even though the authority had been won by cruel
conquest, and was exercised unjustly. When the tax-collector called
for the tribute money demanded by the hierarchy, Christ, though not
admitting the justice of the claim, directed that the tax be paid, and
even invoked a miraculous circumstance whereby the money could be
provided. Of Peter he asked:--"What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do
the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children,
or of strangers? Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto
him, Then are the children free. Notwithstanding, lest we should
offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the
fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou
shall find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and
thee."[1231]

  [1231] Matt. xvii, 24-27. See "Jesus the Christ," p. 382.

=9.= At the instigation of certain wicked Pharisees, a treacherous
plot was laid to make Christ appear as an offender against the ruling
powers. They sought to catch Him by the hypocritical question,--"What
thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cæsar or not?" His
answer was an unequivocal endorsement of submission to the laws. To
His questioners He replied:--"Shew me the tribute money. And they
brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image
and superscription? They say unto him, Cæsar's. Then saith he unto
them, Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's; and
unto God the things that are God's."[1232]

  [1232] Matt. xxii, 15-21; see also Mark xii, 13-17; Luke xx,
  20-25. See "Jesus the Christ," p. 546.

=10.= Throughout the solemnly tragic circumstances of His trial and
condemnation, Christ maintained a submissive demeanor even toward the
chief priests and elders who were plotting His death. These officers,
however unworthy of their priestly power, were nevertheless in
authority, and had a certain measure of jurisdiction in secular as in
ecclesiastical affairs. When He stood before Caiaphas, laden with
insult and accused by false witnesses, He maintained a dignified
silence. To the high priest's question,--"Answereth thou nothing? What
is it these witness against thee?" He deigned no reply. Then the high
priest added:--"I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us
whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God."[1233] To this solemn
adjuration, spoken with official authority, the Savior gave an
immediate answer; thus recognizing the office of the high priest,
however unworthy the man.

  [1233] Matt. xxvi, 57-64; Mark xiv, 55-62.

=11.= A similar respect for the high priest's office was shown by Paul
while a prisoner before the tribunal. His remarks displeased the high
priest, who gave immediate command to those who stood near Paul to
smite him on the mouth.[1234] This angered the apostle, and he cried
out:--"God shall smite thee, thou whited wall: for sittest thou to
judge me after the law, and commandest me to be smitten contrary to
the law? And they that stood by said, Revilest thou God's high
priest? Then said Paul, I wist not, brethren, that he was the high
priest: for it is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of
thy people."[1235]

  [1234] See Note 1.

  [1235] Acts xxiii, 1-5.

=12. Teachings of the Apostles.=--Paul, writing to Titus, who had been
left in charge of the Church among the Cretans, warns him of the
weaknesses of his flock, and urges him to teach them to be orderly and
law-abiding:--"Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and
powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work."[1236] In
another place, Paul is emphatic in declaring the duty of the Saints
toward the civil power, such authority being ordained of God. He
points out the necessity of secular government, and the need of
officers in authority, whose power will be feared by evil-doers only.
He designates the civil authorities as ministers of God; and justifies
taxation by the state, with an admonition that the Saints fail not in
their dues.

  [1236] Titus iii, 1.

=13.= These are his words addressed to the Church at Rome:--"Let every
soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of
God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore
resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that
resist shall receive to themselves damnation. For rulers are not a
terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of
the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the
same: For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do
that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain:
for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him
that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for
wrath, but also for conscience sake. For, for this cause pay ye
tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually
upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to
whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor
to whom honor."[1237]

  [1237] Rom. xiii, 1-7.

=14.= In a letter to Timothy, Paul teaches that in the prayers of the
Saints, kings and all in authority should be remembered, adding that
such remembrance is pleasing in the sight of God:--"I exhort
therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions,
and giving of thanks, be made for all men; For kings, and for all that
are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all
godliness and honesty. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of
God our Savior."[1238]

  [1238] I Tim. ii, 1-3.

=15.= The duty of willing submission to authority is elaborated in the
epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians; and illustrations are
applied to the relations of social and domestic life. Wives are taught
to be submissive to their husbands,--"For the husband is the head of
the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church;" but this duty
within the family is reciprocal, and therefore husbands are instructed
as to the manner in which authority ought to be exercised. Children
are to obey their parents; yet the parents are cautioned against
provoking or otherwise offending their little ones. Servants are told
to render willing and earnest service to their masters, recognizing in
all things the superior authority; and masters are instructed in their
duty toward their servants, being counseled to abandon threatening and
other harsh treatment, remembering that they also will have to answer
to a Master greater than themselves.[1239]

  [1239] Eph. v, 22-23; vi, 1-9; Col. iii, 18-22; iv, 1.

=16.= Peter is not less emphatic in teaching the sanctity with which
the civil power should be regarded;[1240] he admonishes the Saints in
this wise:--"Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the
Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors,
as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers,
and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God,
that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish
men: as free, and not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness,
but as the servants of God. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear
God. Honor the king."[1241]

  [1240] See Note 2.

  [1241] I Peter ii, 13-17.

=17.= These general rules, relating to submission to authority, he
applies, as did Paul similarly, to the conditions of domestic life.
Servants are to be obedient, even though their masters be harsh and
severe:--"For this is thankworthy, if a man for conscience toward God
endure grief, suffering wrongfully. For what glory is it, if, when ye
be buffeted for your faults, ye take it patiently? but if, when you do
well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with
God."[1242] Wives also, even though their husbands be not of their
faith, are not to vaunt themselves and defy authority, but to be
submissive, and to rely upon gentler and more effective means of
influencing those whose name they bear.[1243] He gives assurance of
the judgment which shall overtake evil doers, and specifies as fit
subjects for condemnation, "chiefly them that walk after the flesh in
the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are
they, self-willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of
dignities."[1244]

  [1242] Verses 19-20.

  [1243] I Peter iii, 1-7.

  [1244] II Peter ii, 10.

=18.= Doubtless there existed excellent reason for these explicit and
repeated counsels against the spirit of revolt, with which the
apostles of old sought to lead and strengthen the Church. The Saints
rejoiced in their testimony of the truth, that had found place in
their hearts,--the truth that was to make them free,--and it would
have been but natural for them to regard all others as inferior to
themselves, and to rebel against all authority of man in favor of
their allegiance to a higher power. There was constant danger that
their zeal would lead them to acts of indiscretion, and thus furnish
excuse, if not reason, for the assaults of persecutors, who would have
denounced them as law-breakers and workers of sedition. Even
half-hearted submission to the civil powers would have been unwise at
least, in view of the disfavor with which the new sect had come to be
regarded by their pagan contemporaries. The voice of their inspired
leaders was heard, therefore, in timely counsel for humility and
submission. But there were then, as ever have there been, weightier
reasons than such as rest on motives of policy, requiring submission
to the established powers. Such is no less the law of God than of man.
Governments are essential to human existence; they are recognized,
given indeed, of the Lord; and His people are in duty bound to sustain
them.

=19. Book of Mormon Teachings= concerning the duty of the people as
subjects of the law of the land are abundant throughout the volume.
However, as the civil and the ecclesiastical powers were usually
vested together, the king or chief judge being also the high priest,
there are comparatively few admonitions of allegiance to the civil
authority as distinct from that of the priesthood. From the time of
Nephi, son of Lehi, to that of the death of Mosiah,--a period of
nearly five hundred years, the Nephites were ruled by a succession of
kings; during the remaining time of their recorded history,--more than
five hundred years, the people were subject to judges of their own
choosing. Under each of these varieties of government, the secular
laws were rigidly enforced, the power of the state being supplemented
and strengthened by that of the Church. The sanctity with which the
laws were regarded is illustrated in the judgment pronounced by Alma
upon Nehor, a murderer, and a promoter of sedition and priestcraft:--"Thou
art condemned to die," said the judge, "according to the law which has
been given us by Mosiah, our last king; and they have been
acknowledged by this people; therefore, this people must abide by the
law."[1245]

  [1245] Alma i, 14.

=20. Modern Revelation= requires of the Saints in the present
dispensation a strict allegiance to the civil laws. In a communication
dated August 1, 1831, the Lord said to the Church:--"Let no man break
the laws of the land, for he that keepeth the laws of God hath no need
to break the laws of the land, Wherefore, be subject to the powers
that be, until he reigns whose right it is to reign, and subdues all
enemies under his feet."[1246] At a later date, August 6, 1833, the
voice of the Lord was heard again on this matter, saying:--"And now,
verily I say unto you concerning the laws of the land, it is my will
that my people should observe to do all things whatsoever I command
them; and that law of the land which is constitutional, supporting
that principle of freedom in maintaining rights and privileges,
belongs to all mankind, and is justifiable before me; Therefore, I,
the Lord, justify you, and your brethren of my church, in befriending
that law which is the constitutional law of the land."[1247]

  [1246] Doc. and Cov. lviii, 21-22.

  [1247] Doc. and Cov. xcviii, 4-6.

=21.= A question has many times been asked of the Church and of its
individual members, to this effect:--In the case of a conflict between
the requirements made by the revealed word of God, and those imposed
by the secular law, which of these authorities would the members of
the Church be bound to obey? In answer, the words of Christ may be
applied:--it is the duty of the people to render unto Cæsar the things
that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that are God's. At the
present time, the Kingdom of Heaven as an earthly power, with a
reigning King exercising direct and personal authority in temporal
matters, has not been established upon the earth; the branches of the
Church as such, and the members composing the same, are subjects of
the several governments within whose separate realms the Church
organizations exist. In this day of comparative enlightenment and
freedom, there is small cause for expecting any direct interference
with the rights of private worship and individual devotion; in all
civilized nations the people are accorded the right to pray, and this
right is assured by what may be properly called a common law of
human-kind. No earnest soul is cut off from communion with his God;
and with such an open channel of communication, relief from burdensome
laws and redress for grievances may be sought from the Power that
holds control of nations.

=22.= Pending the over-ruling by Providence in favor of religious
liberty, it is the duty of the Saints to submit themselves to the laws
of their country. Nevertheless, they should use every proper method,
as citizens or subjects of their several governments, to secure for
themselves and for all men the boon of freedom in religious duties. It
is not required of them to suffer without protest imposition by
lawless persecutors, or through the operation of unjust laws; but
their protests should be offered in legal and proper order. The Saints
have practically demonstrated their acceptance of the doctrine that it
is better to suffer evil than to do wrong by purely human opposition
to unjust authority. And if by thus submitting themselves to the laws
of the land, in the event of such laws being unjust and subversive of
human freedom, the Saints be prevented from doing the work appointed
them of God, they are not to be held accountable for the failure to
act under the higher law. The word of the Lord has been given
explicitly defining the position and duty of the people in such a
contingency:--"Verily, verily, I say unto you, that when I give a
commandment to any of the sons of men, to do a work unto my name, and
those sons of men go with all their might, and with all they have, to
perform that work, and cease not their diligence, and their enemies
come upon them, and hinder them from performing that work; behold, it
behoveth me to require that work no more at the hands of those sons of
men, but to accept of their offerings; And the iniquity and
transgression of my holy laws and commandments, I will visit upon the
heads of those who hindered my work, unto the third and fourth
generation, so long as they repent not and hate me, saith the Lord
God."[1248]

  [1248] Doc. and Cov. cxxiv, 49-50; see Note 3.

=23. An Illustration= of such suspension of Divine law is found in the
action of the Church regarding the matter of plural or polygamous
marriage. The practice referred to was established as a result of
direct revelation,[1249] and many of those who followed the same felt
that they were divinely commanded so to do. For ten years after plural
marriage had been introduced into Utah as a Church observance, no law
was enacted in opposition to the practice. Beginning with 1862,
however, Federal statutes were framed declaring the practice unlawful
and providing penalties therefor. The Church claimed that these
enactments were unconstitutional, and therefore void, inasmuch as they
violated the provision in the national constitution which denies the
government power to make laws respecting any establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.[1250] Many
appeals were taken to the national court of final resort, and at last
a decision was rendered sustaining the anti-polygamy laws as
constitutional and therefore binding. The Church, through its chief
officer, thereupon discontinued the practice of plural marriage, and
announced its action to the world; solemnly placing the responsibility
for the change upon the nation by whose laws the renunciation had been
forced. This action has been approved and confirmed by the official
vote of the Church in conference assembled.[1251]

  [1249] Doc. and Cov. cxxxii.

  [1250] Article I, of the Amendments to the Constitution of the
  United States.

  [1251] See Note 4.

=24. Teachings of the Church Today.=--Perhaps there can be presented
no better summary of the teachings of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints regarding its relation to the civil power, and the
respect due to the laws of the land, than the official declaration of
belief which was issued by the Prophet Joseph Smith, and which has
been incorporated in the Doctrine and Covenants,--one of the standard
works of the Church, adopted by vote of the Church as one of the
accepted guides in faith, doctrine, and practice.[1252] It reads as
follows:--

  [1252] Doc. and Cov. cxxxiv.


"OF GOVERNMENTS AND LAWS IN GENERAL.

"1. We believe that governments were instituted of God for the benefit
of man, and that he holds men accountable for their acts in relation
to them, either in making laws or administering them, for the good and
safety of society.

"2. We believe that no government can exist in peace, except such laws
are framed and held inviolate as will secure to each individual the
free exercise of conscience, the right and control of property, and
the protection of life.

"3. We believe that all governments necessarily require civil officers
and magistrates to enforce the laws of the same, and that such as will
administer the law in equity and justice, should be sought for and
upheld by the voice of the people (if a republic), or the will of the
sovereign.

"4. We believe that religion is instituted of God, and that men are
amenable to him, and to him only, for the exercise of it, unless their
religious opinions prompt them to infringe upon the rights and
liberties of others; but we do not believe that human law has a right
to interfere in prescribing rules of worship to bind the consciences
of men, nor dictate forms for public or private devotion; that the
civil magistrate should restrain crime, but never control conscience;
should punish guilt, but never suppress the freedom of the soul.

"5. We believe that all men are bound to sustain and uphold the
respective governments in which they reside, while protected in their
inherent and inalienable rights by the laws of such governments; and
that sedition and rebellion are unbecoming every citizen thus
protected, and should be punished accordingly; and that all
governments have a right to enact such laws as in their own judgment
are best calculated to secure the public interest, at the same time,
however, holding sacred the freedom of conscience.

"6. We believe that every man should be honored in his station: rulers
and magistrates as such, being placed for the protection of the
innocent, and the punishment of the guilty; and that to the laws, all
men owe respect and deference, as without them peace and harmony would
be supplanted by anarchy and terror; human laws being instituted for
the express purpose of regulating our interests as individuals and
nations, between man and man, and divine laws given of heaven,
prescribing rules on spiritual concerns, for faith and worship, both
to be answered by man to his Maker.

"7. We believe that rulers, states, and governments have a right, and
are bound to enact laws for the protection of all citizens in the free
exercise of their religious belief; but we do not believe that they
have a right in justice, to deprive citizens of this privilege, or
proscribe them in their opinions, so long as a regard and reverence
are shown to the laws, and such religious opinions do not justify
sedition nor conspiracy.

"8. We believe that the commission of crime should be punished
according to the nature of the offense; that murder, treason, robbery,
theft, and the breach of the general peace, in all respects, should
be punished according to their criminality, and their tendency to evil
among men, by the laws of that government in which the offense is
committed; and for the public peace and tranquillity, all men should
step forward and use their ability in bringing offenders against good
laws to punishment.

"9. We do not believe it just to mingle religious influence with civil
government, whereby one religious society is fostered, and another
proscribed in its spiritual privileges, and the individual rights of
its members as citizens, denied.

"10. We believe that all religious societies have a right to deal with
their members for disorderly conduct according to the rules and
regulations of such societies, provided that such dealing be for
fellowship and good standing; but we do not believe that any religious
society has authority to try men on the right of property or life, to
take from them this world's goods, or to put them in jeopardy of
either life or limb, neither to inflict any physical punishment upon
them; they can only excommunicate them from their society, and
withdraw from them their fellowship.

"11. We believe that men should appeal to the civil law for redress of
all wrongs and grievances, where personal abuse is inflicted, or the
right of property or character infringed, where such laws exist as
will protect the same; but we believe that all men are justified in
defending themselves, their friends, and property, and the government,
from the unlawful assaults and encroachments of all persons, in times
of exigency, where immediate appeal cannot be made to the laws, and
relief afforded.

"12. We believe it just to preach the gospel to the nations of the
earth, and warn the righteous to save themselves from the corruption
of the world; but we do not believe it right to interfere with bond
servants, neither preach the gospel to, nor baptize them, contrary to
the will and wish of their masters, nor to meddle with or influence
them in the least, to cause them to be dissatisfied with their
situations in this life, thereby jeopardizing the lives of men; such
interference we believe to be unlawful and unjust, and dangerous to
the peace of every government allowing human beings to be held in
servitude."


NOTES.

     =1. Insults to Paul and to Christ.=--See Acts xxiii, 1-5.
     "Scarcely had the apostle uttered the first sentence of his
     defense, when, with disgraceful illegality, Ananias ordered the
     officers of the court to smite him on the mouth. Stung by an
     insult so flagrant, an outrage so undeserved, the naturally
     choleric temperament of Paul flamed into that sudden sense of
     anger which ought to be controlled, but which can hardly be
     wanting in a truly noble character. No character can be perfect
     which does not cherish in itself a deeply-seated, though
     perfectly generous and forbearing, indignation against
     intolerable wrong. Smarting from the blow, 'God shall smite
     thee,' he exclaimed, 'thou whitewashed wall! What! Dost thou sit
     there judging me according to the Law, and in violation of law
     biddest me to be smitten?' The language has been censured as
     unbecoming in its violence, and has been unfavorably compared
     with the meekness of Christ before the tribunal of his enemies.
     [See John xviii, 19-23.]
'Where,' asks St. Jerome, 'is that patience of the Savior, who--as a
lamb led to the slaughter opens not his mouth--so gently asks the
smiter, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness to the evil; but if well,
why smitest thou me?" We are not detracting from the apostle, but
declaring the glory of God, who, suffering in the flesh, reigns above
the wrong and frailty of the flesh.' Yet we need not remind the reader
that not once or twice only did Christ give the rein to righteous
anger, and blight hypocrisy and insolence with a flash of holy wrath.
The bystanders seemed to have been startled by the boldness of St.
Paul's rebuke, for they said to him, 'Dost thou revile the high priest
of God?' The apostle's anger had expended itself in that one outburst,
and he instantly apologized with exquisite urbanity and self-control.
'I did not know,' he said, 'brethren, that he is the high priest';
adding that, had he known this, he would not have addressed to him the
opprobrious name of 'whited wall,' because he reverenced and acted
upon the rule of scripture, 'Thou shalt not speak ill of a ruler of
thy people.'"--Farrar, _The Life and Work of St. Paul_, pp. 539-540.

=2. Peter's Teaching's Regarding Submission to Law.=--A special "duty
of Christians in those days was due respect in all things lawful, to
the civil government.... Occasions there are--and none knew this
better than an apostle who had himself set an example of splendid
disobedience to unwarranted commands [Acts iii, 19, 31; v, 28-32;
40-42]--when 'we must obey God rather than men.' But those occasions
are exceptional to the common rule of life. Normally, and as a whole,
human law is on the side of divine order, and, by whomsoever
administered, has a just claim to obedience and respect. It was a
lesson so deeply needed by the Christians of the day that it is taught
as emphatically by St. John [John xix, 11], and by St. Peter, as by
St. Paul himself. It was more than ever needed at a time when
dangerous revolts were gathering to a head in Judea; when the hearts
of Jews throughout the world were burning with a fierce flame of
hatred against the abominations of a tyrannous idolatry; when
Christians were being charged with 'turning the world upside-down'
[Acts xvii, 6]; when some poor Christian slave, led to martyrdom or
put to the torture, might easily relieve the tension of his soul by
bursting into apocalyptic denunciations of sudden doom against the
crimes of the mystic Babylon; when the heathen, in their impatient
contempt, might wilfully interpret a prophecy of the final
conflagration as though it were a revolutionary and incendiary threat;
and when Christians at Rome were, on this very account, already
suffering the agonies of the Neronian persecution. Submission,
therefore, was at this time a primary duty of all who wished to win
over the heathen, and to save the Church from being overwhelmed in
some outburst of indignation which would be justified even to
reasonable and tolerant pagans as a political necessity.... 'Submit,
therefore,' the apostle says, 'to every human ordinance, for the
Lord's sake, whether to the emperor as supreme [the name "king" was
freely used of the emperor in the provinces], or to governors, as
missioned by him for punishment of malefactors and praise to
well-doers; for this is the will of God, that by your well-doing ye
should gag the stolid ignorance of foolish persons; as free, yet not
using your freedom for a cloak of baseness, but as slaves of God.
'Honor all men' as a principle; and as your habitual practice, 'love
the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the King.'" [See I Peter ii,
13-17.]--Farrar, _Early Days of Christianity_, pp. 89-90.

=3. The Law of God, and the Law of Man.=--The teaching of the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints respecting the duty of its
members in obeying the laws of the land wherein they live, is more
comprehensive and definite than is that of many other Christian sects.
In January, 1899, an association of the free Evangelical churches of
England officially published "a common statement of faith in the form
of a new catechism." Touching the relation between church and state,
the following formal questions and prescribed answers occur:--

"36. Q.--What is a free church? A.--A church which acknowledges none
but Jesus Christ as Head, and, therefore, exercises its right to
interpret and administer His laws without restraint or control by the
state.

"37. Q.--What is the duty of the church to the state? A.--To observe
all the laws of the state unless contrary to the teachings of Christ,"
etc.

According to the report of the committee in charge of the work of
publication, the catechism "represents, directly or indirectly, the
beliefs of not less, and probably many more, than sixty millions of
avowed Christians in all parts of the world."

=4. Discontinuance of Plural Marriage.=--The official act terminating
the practice of plural marriage among the Latter-day Saints was the
adoption by the Church, in conference assembled, of a manifesto
proclaimed by the President of the Church. The language of the
document illustrates the law-abiding character of the people and the
Church, as is shown by the following clause:--"Inasmuch as laws have
been enacted by Congress forbidding plural marriages, which laws have
been pronounced constitutional by the court of last resort, I
[President Wilford Woodruff] hereby declare my intention to submit to
those laws, and to use my influence with the members of the Church
over which I preside to have them do likewise." In the course of a
sermon immediately following the proclaiming of the manifesto,
President Woodruff said regarding the action taken:--"I have done my
duty, and the nation of which we form a part must be responsible for
that which has been done in relation to that principle" (i.e., plural
marriage).

=5. A Striking Instance of Submission to Secular
Authority.=--"Governments are instituted of God, sometimes by His
direct interposition, sometimes by His permission. When the Jews had
been brought into subjection by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, the
Lord commanded through the prophet Jeremiah (xxvii, 4-8) that the
people render obedience to their conqueror, whom He called His
servant; for verily the Lord had used the pagan king to chastise the
recreant and unfaithful children of the covenant. The obedience so
enjoined included the payment of taxes and extended to complete
submission." See "Jesus the Christ," p. 564, Note 2.



LECTURE XXIV.

PRACTICAL RELIGION.

     =Article 13.=--We believe in being honest, true, chaste,
     benevolent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men; indeed, we
     may say that we follow the admonition of Paul,--We believe all
     things, we hope all things, we have endured many things, and hope
     to be able to endure all things. If there is anything virtuous,
     lovely, or of good report or praiseworthy, we seek after these
     things.


=1. Religion of Daily Life.=--In this article of their faith, the
Latter-day Saints declare their acceptance of a practical religion; a
religion that shall consist, not alone of professions in spiritual
matters, and belief as to the conditions of the hereafter, of the
doctrine of original sin and the actuality of a future heaven and
hell, but also, and more particularly, of present and every-day
duties, in which respect for self, love for fellow-men, and devotion
to God are the guiding principles. Religion without morality,
professions of godliness without charity, church-membership without an
adequate responsibility as to individual conduct in daily life, are
but as sounding brass and tinkling cymbals--noise without music, the
words without the spirit of prayer. "Pure religion and undefiled
before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows
in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the
world."[1253] Honesty of purpose, integrity of soul, individual
purity, absolute freedom of conscience, willingness to do good to all
men even enemies, pure benevolence,--these are some of the fruits by
which the religion of Christ may be known, far exceeding in importance
and value the promulgation of dogmas, and the enunciation of theories.
Yet a knowledge of things more than temporal, doctrines of spiritual
matters, founded on revelation and not resting on the sands of man's
frail hypotheses, are likewise characteristic of the true Church.

  [1253] James i, 27.

=2. The Comprehensiveness of Our Faith= must appeal to every earnest
investigator of the principles taught by the Church, and still more to
the unprejudiced observer of the results as manifested in the course
of life characteristic of the Latter-day Saints. Within the pale of
the Church there is a place for all truth,--for everything that is
praiseworthy, virtuous, lovely, or of good report. The liberality with
which the Church regards other religious denominations; the
earnestness of its teaching that God is no respecter of persons, but
that He will judge all men according to their deeds; the breadth and
depth of its precepts concerning the state of immortality, and the
gradations of eternal glory awaiting the honest in heart of all
nations, kindred, and churches, civilized and heathen, enlightened and
benighted, have been set forth in preceding lectures. We have seen
further, that the belief of this people carries them forward, even
beyond the bounds of all knowledge thus far revealed, and teaches them
to look with unwavering confidence for other revelation, truths yet to
be added, glories grander than have yet been made known, eternities of
powers, dominions, and progress, beyond the mind of man to conceive or
the soul to contain. We believe in a God who is Himself progressive,
whose majesty is intelligence; whose perfection consists in eternal
advancement; the perpetual work of whose creation stands "finished,
yet renewed forever;"[1254]--a Being who has attained His exalted
state by a path which now His children are permitted to follow; whose
glory it is their heritage to share. In spite of the opposition of all
the sects, in the face of direct charges of blasphemy, the Church
proclaims the eternal truth, "_As man is, God once was; as God is, man
may become._" With such a future, well may man open his heart to the
stream of revelation, past, present, and to come; and truthfully
should we be able to say of every enlightened child of God, that he
"Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth
all things."[1255] As incidental to the declaration of belief embodied
in this article of faith, many topics relating to the organization,
precepts, and practice of the Church suggest themselves. Of these the
following may claim our present attention.

  [1254] Bryant.

  [1255] I Cor. xiii, 7.

=3. Benevolence.=--Benevolence is founded on love for fellow-men; it
embraces, though it far exceeds charity, in the ordinary sense in
which the latter word is used. By the Divine Teacher it was placed as
second only to love for God. On one occasion, certain Pharisees came
to Christ, tempting Him with questions on doctrine, in the hope that
they could entangle Him, and so make Him an offender against the
Jewish law. Their spokesman was a lawyer; note his question and the
Savior's answer:--"Master, which is the great commandment in the law?
Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first
and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love
thy neighbor as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law
and the prophets."[1256] The two commandments, here spoken of as first
and second, are so closely related as to be virtually one, and that
one:--"Thou shalt love." He who abideth one of the two will abide
both. For without love for our fellows, it is impossible to please
God. Hence wrote John,--the Apostle of Love,--"Beloved, let us love
one another: for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of
God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God, for God is
love.... If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a
liar; for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he
love God whom he hath not seen? And this commandment have we from him,
That he who loveth God love his brother also."[1257]

  [1256] Matt. xxii, 36-40; see also Luke x, 25-27.

  [1257] I John iv, 7-8, 20-21.

=4.= But perhaps the grandest and most sublime of the apostolic
utterances concerning the love that saves, is found in the epistle of
Paul to the Saints at Corinth.[1258] In our current English
translation of the Bible, the virtue which the apostle declares
superior to all the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, and which is to
continue after all the rest have passed away, is designated as
_charity_; but the original word meant _love_; and surely Paul had in
mind something grander than mere alms-giving, as is evident from his
expression:--"And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, ...
and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing."[1259] Though a man
speak with the tongue of angels; though he possess the power of
prophecy--the greatest of the ordinary gifts; though he be versed in
knowledge and understand all mysteries; though his faith enable him to
move mountains; and though he give his all, including even his
life,--yet without love is he nothing. Charity, or alms-giving, even
though it be performed with the sincerest of motives, devoid of all
desire for praise or hope of return, is but a feeble manifestation of
the love that is to make one's neighbor as dear to him as himself; the
love that suffers long; that envies not others; that vaunts not
itself; that knows no pride; that subdues selfishness; that rejoices
in the truth. When "that which is perfect" is come, the gifts which
have been bestowed in part only will be superseded. "Perfection will
then swallow up imperfection; the healing power will then be done
away, for no sickness will be there; tongues and interpretations will
then cease, for one pure language alone will be spoken; the casting
out of devils and power against deadly poisons will not then be
needed, for in heaven circumstances will render them unnecessary. But
charity, which is the pure love of God, never faileth; it will sit
enthroned in the midst of the glorified throng, clothed in all the
glory and splendor of its native heaven."[1260] If man would win
eternal life, he cannot afford to neglect the duty of love to his
fellow, for "Love is the fulfilling of the law."[1261]

  [1258] I Cor. xiii; see also Alma xxxiv, 28-29; Mosiah iv, 16-24.

  [1259] Verse 3.

  [1260] Orson Pratt, _Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon_,
  i, 15-16.

  [1261] Rom. xiii, 10; see also Gal. v, 14; I Peter iv, 8.

=5. Benevolence Manifested by the Church.=--The Church of the present
day can point to a stupendous labor of benevolence already
accomplished and still in progress. One of the most glorious monuments
of its work is seen in the missionary labor which has ever been a
characteristic feature of its activities. Actuated by no other motives
than pure love for humanity and a desire to fulfil the commands of God
respecting such, the Church sends out every year hundreds of
missionaries to proclaim the gospel of eternal life to the world,
without money or price. Multitudes of these devoted servants have
suffered contumely and insult at the hands of those whom they seek to
benefit; and not a few have given their lives with the seal of the
martyr upon their testimony and work. The charity that manifests
itself in material giving is not neglected in the Church; indeed this
form of benevolence is impressed as a sacred duty upon every
Latter-day Saint. While each one is urged to impart of his substance
to the needy in his individual capacity, a system of orderly giving
has been developed within the Church; and of this some features are
worthy of special consideration.

=6. Free-will Offerings.=--It has ever been characteristic of the
Church and people of God, that they take upon themselves the care of
the poor, if any such exist among them. To subserve this purpose, as
also to foster a spirit of liberality, kindness, and benevolence,
voluntary gifts and free-will offerings have been asked of those who
profess to be living according to the law of God. In the Church today,
a systematic plan of giving for the poor is in operation. Thus, in
almost every ward or branch, an organization among the women, known as
the Relief Society,[1262] is in existence. Its purpose is in part to
gather from the society and from the members of the Church in general,
contributions of money and other property, particularly the
commodities of life, and to distribute such to the deserving and
needy, under the direction of the local officers in the priesthood.
But the Relief Society operates also on a plan of systematic
visitation to the houses of the afflicted, extending aid in nursing,
administering comfort in bereavement, and seeking in every possible
way to relieve distress. The good work of this organization has won
the admiration of many who profess no connection with the Church; its
methods have been followed by other benevolent associations, and the
Society has been accorded a national status in the United States.

  [1262] See page 216.

=7. The Fast Offerings= represent a still more general system of
donation. The Church teaches the efficacy of continual prayer and of
periodical fasting, as a means of acquiring the humility that is meet
for Divine approval; and a monthly fast-day has been appointed for
observance throughout the Church. For many years, the first Thursday
in each month was so observed; but, with the object of securing a
more general attendance at the fast-service, a beneficial change has
been introduced, and at present the first Sunday of the month is so
devoted. The Saints are asked to manifest their sincerity in fasting
by making an offering on that day for the benefit of the poor; and, by
common consent, the giving of at least an equivalent of the meals
omitted by the fasting of the family is expected. These offerings may
be made in money, food, or other usable commodity; they are received
by the bishopric or its representatives, and by the same authority are
distributed to the worthy poor of the ward or branch. In these and in
numerous other ways do the Latter-day Saints contribute of their
substance to the needy, realizing that the poor among them may be the
Lord's poor; and that, irrespective of worthiness on the part of the
recipient, want and distress must be alleviated. The people believe
that the harmony of their prayers will become a discord if the cry of
the poor accompany their supplications to the throne of Grace.

=8. Tithing.=--The Church recognizes today the doctrine of
tithe-paying, similar in its general provision to that taught and
practiced of old. Before considering the present authorized practice
in this matter, it may be instructive to study the ancient practice of
tithe-paying. Strictly speaking, a tithe is a tenth, and such a
proportion of individual possessions appears to have been formerly
regarded as the Lord's due. The institution of tithing antedates even
the Mosaic dispensation, for we find both Abraham and Jacob paying
tithes. Abraham, returning from a victorious battle, met Melchizedek
king of Salem and "priest of the most high God;" and, recognizing his
priestly authority, "gave him tithes of all."[1263] Jacob made a
voluntary vow with the Lord to render a tenth of all that should come
into his possession.[1264]

  [1263] Gen. xiv, 18-20; see also Heb. vii, 1-3, 5, and Alma xiii,
  13-16.

  [1264] Gen. xxviii, 22.

=9.= The Mosaic statutes are explicit in requiring tithes:--"And all
the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the
fruit of the tree, is the Lord's; it is holy unto the Lord.... And
concerning the tithe of the herd, even of whatsoever passeth under the
rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord."[1265] The tenth was to be
paid as it came, without search for good or bad; under some
conditions, however, a man could redeem the tithe by paying its value
in some other way, but in such a case he had to add a fifth of the
tithe. The tenth of all the property in Israel was to be paid to the
Levites, as an inheritance given in acknowledgment of their service in
the labor of the tabernacle; and they in turn were to pay tithing on
what they received, and this tithe of the tithe was to go to the
priests.[1266] A second tithe was demanded of Israel to be used for
the appointed festivals.[1267] It is evident, that while no specific
penalty for neglect of the law of tithing is recorded, the proper
observance of the requirement was regarded as a sacred duty. In the
course of the reformation by Hezekiah, the people manifested their
repentance by an immediate payment of tithes;[1268] and so liberally
did they give, that a great surplus accumulated; observing which,
Hezekiah enquired as to the source of such plenty:--"And Azariah the
chief priest of the house of Zadok answered him, and said, since the
people began to bring the offerings into the house of the Lord, we
have had enough to eat, and have left plenty; for the Lord hath
blessed his people; and that which is left is this great store."
Nehemiah took care to regulate the tithe-paying of the people;[1269]
and both Amos[1270] and Malachi[1271] chided the people for their
neglect of this duty. Through the prophet last named, the Lord charged
the people with having robbed Him; but promised them blessings beyond
their capacity to receive if they would return to their allegiance to
Him: "Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein
have we robbed thee? In tithes and offerings. Ye are cursed with a
curse: for ye have robbed me, even this whole nation. Bring ye all the
tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and
prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you
the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall
not be room enough to receive it."[1272] In visiting the Nephites
after His resurrection, the Savior told them of these sayings of
Malachi, repeating the words of the Jewish prophet.[1273] The
Pharisees, at the time of Christ's ministry, were particularly
scrupulous in the matter of tithe paying,--even to the neglect of the
"weightier matters of the law,"--and for this inconsistency they were
severely rebuked by the Master.[1274]

  [1265] Lev. xxvii, 30-34.

  [1266] Numb. xviii, 21-28.

  [1267] Deut. xii, 5-17; xiv, 22-23.

  [1268] II Chron. xxxi, 5-6.

  [1269] Neh. x, 37; xii, 44.

  [1270] Amos iv, 4.

  [1271] Mal. iii, 10.

  [1272] Mal. iii, 8-10; see also III Nephi xxiv, 7-12.

  [1273] III Nephi xxiv, 7-10.

  [1274] Matt, xxiii, 23; Luke xi, 42. See "Jesus the Christ," p.
  556.

=10.= In the present dispensation, the law of tithing has been given a
place of great importance; and particular blessings have been promised
for its faithful observance. This day has been called by the Lord, "a
day of sacrifice, and a day for the tithing of my people; for he that
is tithed shall not be burned."[1275] In a revelation, given through
the Prophet Joseph Smith, July 8, 1838, the Lord has explicitly set
forth His requirement of the people in this matter.[1276]

  [1275] Doc. and Cov. lxiv, 23-24; see also lxxxv, 3.

  [1276] Doc. and Cov. cxix. See the author's "The Law of the
  Tithe," 20 pp.

=11. Consecration and Stewardship.=--The law of tithing, as accepted
and professedly observed by the Church today, is after all but a
lesser law, given by the Lord in consequence of the human weaknesses,
selfishness, covetousness, and greed, which prevented the Saints from
accepting the higher principles, according to which the Father would
have His children live. Specific requirements regarding the payment of
tithes were made through revelation in 1838; but seven years prior to
that time, the voice of the Lord had been heard on the subject of
consecration,[1277] or the dedication of all one's property, together
with his time, talents, and natural endowments, to the service of God,
to be used as occasion may require. This again is not new; to the
present dispensation the law of consecration is given as a
re-enactment; it was recognized and observed with profit in olden
times.[1278] But even in the apostolic period, the doctrine of
consecration of property and common ownership was old; thirty-four
centuries before that time, the same principle had been practiced by
the patriarch Enoch and his people, and with such success that "the
Lord came and dwelt with his people; ... And the Lord called his
people Zion, because they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in
righteousness; and there was no poor among them."[1279] In each of the
instances cited,--that of the people of Enoch, and that of the Saints
in the early part of the Christian era,--we learn of the unity of
purpose and consequent power acquired by the people who lived in this
social order; they were "of one heart and one mind." Through the
spiritual strength so attained, the apostles were able to perform many
mighty works;[1280] and of Enoch and his followers we read that the
Lord took them unto Himself.[1281]

  [1277] Doc. and Cov. xiii, 71.

  [1278] Acts iv, 32, 34-35; see also ii, 44-46.

  [1279] Pearl of Great Price: Moses vii, 16-18.

  [1280] Acts ii, 43.

  [1281] See pp. 362-363.

=12.= The people of whom the Book of Mormon gives us record also
attained to the blessed state of equality, and with corresponding
results. The disciples, whom Christ had personally commissioned,
taught with power, and "they had all things common among them, every
man dealing justly, one with another."[1282] Further, we read of a
general conversion by which the people came to a condition of ideal
peace; "there were no contentions or disputations among them.... And
they had all things common among them, therefore they were not rich
and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of
the heavenly gift."[1283] They were so blessed, that of them the
prophet said:--"Surely there could not be a happier people among all
the people who had been created by the hand of God."[1284] But after
nearly two centuries of this happy condition, the people gave way to
pride; some of them yielded to a passion for costly apparel; then they
refused to longer have their goods in common; and straightway many
classes came into existence; dissenting sects were established; and
then began a rapid course of disruption, which led to the extinction
of the Nephite nation.[1285]

  [1282] III Nephi xxvi, 19.

  [1283] IV Nephi i, 2-3.

  [1284] Verse 16.

  [1285] Verse 24, etc. See "Jesus the Christ," p. 741.

=13. Stewardship in the Church Today.=--A system of unity in temporal
matters has been revealed to the Church in this day; such is currently
known as the Order of Enoch,[1286] or the United Order,[1287] and is
founded on the law of consecration. As already stated, in the early
days of the modern Church the people demonstrated their inability to
abide this law in its fulness, and, in consequence, the lesser law of
tithing was given; but the Saints confidently await the day in which
they will devote, not merely a tithe of their substance, but all that
they have, and all that they are, to the service of their God; a day
in which no man will speak of mine and thine, but all things shall be
theirs and the Lord's.

  [1286] Doc. and Cov. lxxviii.

  [1287] Doc. and Cov. civ, 48.

=14.= In this expectation, they indulge no vague dream of communism,
encouraging individual irresponsibility, and giving the idler an
excuse for hoping to live at the expense of the thrifty; but rather, a
calm trust that in the promised social order which God can approve,
every man will be a steward in the full enjoyment of liberty to do as
he will with the talents committed to his care; but with the sure
knowledge that an account of his stewardship will be required at his
hands. As far as the plan of this prospective organization has been
revealed, it provides that a person entering the order shall
consecrate to the Lord all that he has, be it little or much, giving
to the Church a deed of his property sealed with a covenant that
cannot be broken.[1288] The person thus having given his all, is to be
made a steward over a part of the property of the Church, according to
his ability to use it. The varying grades of occupation will still
exist; there will be laborers, whose qualifications fit them best for
common toil; and managers who have proved their ability to lead and
direct; some who can serve the cause of God best with the pen, others
with the plow; there will be engineers and mechanics, artisans and
artists, farmers and scholars, teachers, professors, and
authors;--every one laboring as far as practicable in the sphere of
his choice, but each required to work, and to work where and how he
can be of the greatest service. His stewardship is to be assured him
by written deed, and as long as he is faithful to his charge, no man
can take it from him.[1289] Of the proceeds of his labors, every man
may use as he requires for the support of himself and his family; the
surplus is to be rendered to the Church for public and general works,
and for the assistance of those who are worthily deficient.[1290] As
further illustrative of the uses to which the surplus is to be
devoted, we read:--"All children have claim upon their parents for
their maintenance until they are of age. And after that they have
claim upon the Church, or in other words, upon the Lord's storehouse,
if their parents have not wherewith to give them inheritances. And the
storehouse shall be kept by the consecrations of the Church, and
widows and orphans shall be provided for, as also the poor.[1291] Any
faithful steward, requiring additional capital for the improvement of
his work, has a claim for such upon the custodians of the general
fund, they in turn being held accountable for their management, which
constitutes their stewardship.[1292] Equal rights are to be secured to
all. The Lord said:--'And you are to be equal, or, in other words, you
are to have equal claims on the properties, for the benefit of
managing the concerns of your stewardships, every man according to his
wants, and his needs, inasmuch as his wants are just; and all this for
the benefit of the Church of the living God, that every man may
improve upon his talent, that every man may gain other talents, yea,
even an hundred fold, to be cast into the Lord's storehouse, to become
the common property of the whole church.'"[1293]

  [1288] Doc. and Cov. xiii, 30.

  [1289] Doc. and Cov. ii, 4-5.

  [1290] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 32-35.

  [1291] Doc. and Cov. lxxxiii, 4-6.

  [1292] Doc. and Cov. civ, 70-77.

  [1293] Doc. and Cov. lxxxii, 17-18.

=15.= Freedom of agency is to be secured to every individual; if he be
unfaithful he will be dealt with according to the prescribed rules of
church discipline. A corresponding power of self-government will be
exercised by the several stakes or other divisions of the Church, each
having independent jurisdiction over its own store-houses and its
affairs of administration,[1294] all being subject to the general
authorities of the Church. Only the idler would suffer in such an
order as is here outlined; he shall surely meet the results of his
negligence. Against him the edict of the Almighty has gone forth. We
read in the revelations:--"Thou shalt not be idle; for he that is idle
shall not eat the bread nor wear the garments of the laborer."[1295]
"The idler shall not have place in the church except he repents and
mends his ways."[1296] "And the inhabitants of Zion, also, shall
remember their labors, inasmuch as they are appointed to labor in all
faithfulness; for the idler shall be had in remembrance before the
Lord."[1297]

  [1294] Doc. and Cov. li, 10-18, 18.

  [1295] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 42; see also lx, 13; lxxv, 3.

  [1296] Doc. and Cov. lxxv, 29.

  [1297] Doc. and Cov. lxviii, 30; see also lxxxviii, 124.

=16. Social Order of the Saints.=--In view of the prevailing
conditions of social unrest, of the loud protest against existing
systems, whereby the distribution of wealth is becoming more and more
unequal,--the rich growing richer from the increasing poverty of the
poor, the hand of oppression resting more and more heavily upon the
masses, the consequent dissatisfaction with governments, and the
half-smothered fires of anarchy discernible in almost every
nation,--may we not take comfort in the God-given promise of a better
plan--a plan which seeks without force or violence to establish a
natural equality, to take the weapons of despotism from the rich, to
aid the lowly and the poor,[1298] and to give every man an opportunity
to live and to labor in the sphere to which he is adapted? From the
tyranny of wealth, as from every other form of oppression, the truth
will make men free. To be partakers of such freedom, mankind must
subdue selfishness, which is one of the most potent enemies of
godliness.

=17.= The Church teaches the necessity of proper social organization,
in harmony with the laws of the land; the sanctity of the institution
and covenant of marriage as essential to the stability of society; the
fulfillment of the Divine law with respect to the perpetuation of the
human family; and the importance of strictest personal purity.

  [1298] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 39.

=18. Marriage.=--The teachings of the scriptures concerning the
necessity of marriage are numerous and explicit. "The Lord God said,
It is not good that the man should be alone;"[1299] this comprehensive
declaration was made concerning Adam, immediately after his location
in Eden; Eve was given unto him, and the man recognized the necessity
of a continued association of the sexes in marriage, and
said:--"Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and
shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one flesh."[1300]
Neither of the sexes is complete in itself as a counterpart of God. Of
the creation of human kind we read:--"So God created man in his own
image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he
them."[1301] The purpose of this dual creation is set forth in the
next verse of the sacred narrative:--"And God blessed them; and God
said unto them, Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the
earth."[1302] Such a command would have been meaningless and void if
addressed to either of the sexes alone; for only by the union of both
is the propagation of the species possible. And without the power of
perpetuating his kind, how insignificant would appear the glory and
majesty of man! How little can be accomplished by the individual
within the limited range of a single mortal existence!

  [1299] Gen. ii, 18.

  [1300] Verse 24.

  [1301] Gen. i, 27; see also v, 2.

  [1302] Verse 28; see also ix, 1, 7; Lev. xxvi, 9.

=19.= Grand as may seem the achievements of a man who is truly great,
the culmination of his glorious heritage lies in the possibility of
his leaving offspring from his own being to continue, perchance, the
triumphs of their sire. And if such be true of mortals with respect to
the things of earth, how transcendently greater is the power of
eternal increase, as viewed in the light of revealed truth concerning
the un-ending progression of the future state! Truly the apostle was
wise when he said, "Neither is the man without the woman, neither the
woman without the man, in the Lord."[1303]

  [1303] I Cor. xi, 11.

=20.= The Latter-day Saints accept the doctrine that marriage is
honorable,[1304] and apply it as a requirement to all who are not
prevented by physical or other disability from assuming the sacred
responsibilities of the wedded state. They consider, as part of the
birthright of every worthy man, the privilege and duty to stand as the
head of a household, the father of a posterity, which by the blessing
of God may never become extinct; and equally strong is the right of
every worthy woman to be a wife and a mother in the family of mankind.
In spite of the simplicity, reasonableness, and naturalness of these
teachings, false teachers have arisen among men, declaring the
pernicious doctrine that the married state is but a carnal necessity,
inherited by man as an incident of his degraded nature; and that
celibacy is a mark of a higher state, more acceptable in the pure
sight of God. Concerning such the Lord has spoken in this day:--"Whoso
forbiddeth to marry is not ordained of God, for marriage is ordained
of God unto man ... that the earth might answer the end of its
creation; and that it might be filled with the measure of man,
according to his creation before the world was made."[1305]

  [1304] Heb. xiii, 4.

  [1305] Doc. and Cov. xlix. 15-17.

=21. Celestial Marriage.=--Marriage, as regarded by the Latter-day
Saints, is ordained of God and designed to be an eternal relationship
of the sexes. With this people it is not merely a temporal contract to
be of effect on earth during the mortal existence of the parties, but
a solemn agreement which is to extend beyond the grave. In the
complete ceremony of marriage, as prescribed by the Church, the man
and the woman are placed under covenant of mutual fidelity, not "until
death do you part," but "for time and for all eternity." A contract as
far reaching as this, extending not only throughout time, but into the
domain of the hereafter, requires for its validation an authority
superior to that of earth; and such an authority is found in the holy
priesthood, which, given of God, is eternal. Any power less than this,
while perchance of effect in this life, is assuredly void as to the
state of the human soul beyond the grave. As the Lord has said:--"All
covenants, contracts, bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances,
connections, associations, or expectations, that are not made, and
entered into, and sealed, by the Holy Spirit of promise, of him who is
anointed, both as well for time and for all eternity, and that too
most holy, by revelation, and commandment, through the medium of mine
anointed, whom I have appointed on the earth to hold this power, ...
are of no efficacy, virtue, or force, in and after the resurrection
from the dead; for all contracts that are not made unto this end, have
an end when men are dead."[1306] And, as touching the application of
the principle of earthly authority for things of earth, and eternal
authority for things beyond the grave, to the sacred contract of
marriage, the revelation continues:--"Therefore, if a man marry him a
wife in the world, and he marry her not by me, nor by my word, and he
covenant with her so long as he is in the world, and she with him,
their covenant and marriage are not of force when they are dead, and
when they are out of the world; therefore they are not bound by any
law when they are out of the world; Therefore, when they are out of
the world, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are
appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants, to
minister for those who are worthy of a far more, and an exceeding, and
an eternal weight of glory; For these angels did not abide my law,
therefore they cannot be enlarged, but remain separately and singly,
without exaltation in their saved condition, to all eternity, and from
henceforth are not Gods, but are angels of God, for ever and
ever."[1307]

  [1306] Doc. and Cov. cxxxii, 7.

  [1307] Doc. and Cov. cxxxii, 15-17. See "The House of the Lord,"
  p. 101.

=22.= This system of holy matrimony, involving covenants as to time
and eternity, is known distinctively as Celestial Marriage,--the order
of marriage that exists in the celestial worlds. The sacred ordinance
of celestial marriage is permitted to those members of the Church only
who are adjudged worthy of participation in the special blessings of
the House of the Lord; for this ordinance, together with others of
eternal validity, is to be performed in the temples which are reared
and dedicated for such holy service.[1308] Children who are born of
parents thus married are natural heirs to the priesthood; "children of
the covenant" they are called; they require no ceremony of adoption or
sealing to insure them place in the posterity of promise. But the
Church sanctions marriages for earthly time only, and bestows upon
such the seal of the priesthood, among those who are not admitted to
the temples of the Lord, or who voluntarily prefer the lesser and
temporal order of matrimony.

  [1308] Doc. and Cov. cxxiv, 30-40.

=23. Unlawful Associations of the Sexes= have been designated by the
Lord as among the most heinous of sins; and the Church today regards
individual purity in the sexual relation as an indispensable
condition of membership. The teachings of the Nephite prophet, Alma,
concerning the enormity of offences against virtue and chastity, are
accepted by the Latter-day Saints without modification; and such are
to the effect:--"That these things are an abomination in the sight of
the Lord; yea, most abominable above all sins, save it be the shedding
of innocent blood, or denying the Holy Ghost."[1309] The
command:--"Thou shalt not commit adultery,"--once written by the
finger of God amid the thunders and lightnings of Sinai, has been
renewed as a specific injunction in these the last days; and the
penalty of excommunication has been prescribed for the offender.[1310]
Moreover, the Lord regards any approach to sexual sin as inconsistent
with the professions of those who have received the Holy Spirit, for
He has declared that "he that looketh on a woman to lust after her, or
if any shall commit adultery in their hearts, they shall not have the
Spirit, but shall deny the faith."[1311]

  [1309] Alma xxxix, 5.

  [1310] Doc. and Cov. xlii, 24, 80-83; lxiii, 16-17.

  [1311] Doc. and Cov. lxiii, 16; see also xlii, 23.

=24. Sanctity of the Body.=--The Church counsels its members that each
regard his body as "the temple of God;"[1312] and that he maintain its
purity and sanctity as such. He is taught that the Spirit of the Lord
dwells not in unclean tabernacles; and that, therefore, he is required
to live according to the laws of health, which constitute part of the
law of God. For the special guidance of His Saints, the Lord has
revealed a "Word of Wisdom"[1313] unto the people; in accordance with
which they are counseled to eat wholesome food only; to abstain from
strong drink, hot drinks, and all kinds of stimulants and narcotics;
to eat flesh but sparingly, and to maintain in all respects a
healthful state of the physical organism. And, on condition of their
compliance with these behests, the Saints have been promised, that all
"Who remember to keep and do these sayings, walking in obedience to
the commandments, shall receive health in their navel, and marrow in
their bones, and shall find wisdom and great treasures of knowledge,
even hidden treasures; and shall run and not be weary, and shall walk
and not faint; And I, the Lord, give unto them a promise, that the
destroying angel shall pass by them, as the children of Israel."[1314]

  [1312] I Cor. iii, 16; see also vi, 19; II Cor. vi, 16; Doc. and
  Cov. xciii, 35.

  [1313] Doc. and Cov. lxxxix; read the revelation entire.

  [1314] Doc. and Cov. lxxxix, 18-21.


NOTES.

     =1. Love, the Fulfilling of the Law.=--"Peter says, 'Above all
     things have fervent love [charity] among yourselves' [I Peter iv,
     8]. _Above all things._ And John goes farther, 'God is love' [I
     John iv, 8]. And you remember the profound remark which Paul
     makes elsewhere, 'Love is the fulfilling of the law' [Rom. xiii,
     10; Gal. v, 14]. Did you ever think what he meant by that? In
     those days men were working their passage to heaven by keeping
     the ten commandments, and the hundred and ten other commandments
     which they had manufactured out of them. Christ said, I will show
     you a more simple way. If you do one thing, you will do these
     hundred and ten things without ever thinking about them. If you
     love, you will unconsciously fulfil the whole law.... Take any of
     the commandments, 'Thou shalt have no other gods before me.' If a
     man love God you will not require to tell him that. Love is the
     fulfilling of that law. 'Take not his name in vain.' Would he
     ever dream of taking his name in vain if he loved him? 'Remember
     the Sabbath day to keep it holy.' Would he not be too glad to
     have one day in seven to dedicate more exclusively to the object
     of his affection? Love would fulfil all these laws regarding God.
     And so if he loved man, you would never think of telling him to
     honor his father and mother. He could never do anything else. It
     would be preposterous to tell him not to kill. You could only
     insult him if you suggested that he should not steal,--how could
     he steal from those he loved? It would be superfluous to beg him
     not to bear false witness against his neighbor. If he loved him
     it would be the last thing he would do. And you would never dream
     of urging him not to covet what his neighbors had. He would
     rather they possessed it than himself. In this way 'Love is the
     fulfilling of the law.'"--Drummond: _The Greatest Thing in the
     World_.

     =2. Charity and Love.=--"According to the etymology and original
     usage, _beneficence_ is the doing well, _benevolence_ the wishing
     or willing well to others; but _benevolence_ has come to include
     _beneficence_ and to displace it.... _Charity_, which originally
     meant the purest love for God and man (as in I Cor. xiii), is now
     almost universally applied to some form of _alms-giving_ and is
     much more limited in meaning than _benevolence_."--_Standard
     Dictionary._

     _Charity_ means "properly, love, and hence acts of kindness. The
     word never occurs in the Old Testament; in the New Testament it
     is always, with one exception, synonymous with love, and in every
     case the love of man toward his fellow man, and to that which is
     good (see especially I Cor. xiii). The 'feasts of charity' in
     Jude 12, are commonly understood to be the _agapæ_, or
     'love-feasts,' which were prevalent in the early church, and
     which consisted in a simple fraternal meeting for worship, and an
     equally simple social repast."--_Bible Dictionary_, Cassell.

     "Charity is only a little bit of love; one of the innumerable
     avenues of love, and there may even be, and there is a great deal
     of charity without love. It is a very easy thing to toss a copper
     to a beggar on the street; it is generally an easier thing than
     not to do it.... We purchase relief from the sympathetic feelings
     roused by the spectacle of misery, at the copper's cost. It is
     too cheap--too cheap for us, and often too dear for the beggar.
     If we really loved him, we would either do more for him or
     less."--Drummond: _The Greatest Thing in the World_.

     =3. Man's Relationship to God.=--"'Mormonism' claims an actual
     and literal relationship of parent and child between the Creator
     and man--not in the figurative sense in which the engine may be
     called the child of its builder; not the relationship of a thing
     mechanically made to the maker thereof; but the connection
     between father and offspring. In short it is bold enough to
     declare that man's spirit being the offspring of Deity, and man's
     body though of earthy components yet being in the very image and
     likeness of God, man even in his present degraded--aye, fallen
     condition--still possesses, if only in a latent state, inherited
     traits, tendencies and powers that tell of his more than royal
     descent; and that these may be developed so as to make him, even
     while mortal, in a measure Godlike.

     "But 'Mormonism' is bolder yet. It asserts that in accordance
     with the inviolable law of organic nature--that like shall beget
     like, and that multiplication of numbers and perpetuation of
     species shall be in compliance with the condition 'each after his
     kind,' the child may achieve the former status of the parent, and
     that in his mortal condition man is a God in embryo. However far
     in the future it may be, what ages may elapse, what eternities
     may pass before any individual now a mortal being may attain the
     rank and sanctity of godship, nevertheless man carries in his
     soul the possibilities of such achievement; even as the crawling
     caterpillar or the corpse-like chrysalis holds the latent
     possibility, nay, barring destruction in an earlier stage, the
     certainty indeed, of the winged imago in all the glory of
     maturity.

     "'Mormonism' claims that all nature, both on earth and in heaven,
     operates on a plan of advancement; that the very Eternal Father
     is a progressive Being; that his perfection, while so complete as
     to be incomprehensible by man, possesses this essential quality
     of true perfection--the capacity of eternal increase. That
     therefore, in the far future, beyond the horizon of eternities
     perchance, man may attain the status of a God. Yet this does not
     mean that he shall be then the equal of the Deity we worship, nor
     that he shall ever overtake those intelligences that are already
     beyond him in advancement; for to assert such would be to argue
     that there is no progression beyond a certain stage of
     attainment, and that advancement is a characteristic of low
     organization and inferior purpose alone. We believe that there
     was more than the sounding of brass or the tinkling of wordy
     cymbals in the fervent admonition of the Christ to his
     followers--'Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is
     in heaven is perfect.'"--_The Philosophy of Mormonism_: The
     Author, in _Improvement Era_, vol. iv, pp. 464-465.



APPENDIX.


=Note.=--In view of the expressed wish of the Church authorities, by
whose direction this work is published, that the Lectures on the
"Articles of Faith" be used as a text-book and work of reference in
the various theological organizations of the Church, a series of
questions and suggestive exercises, for the work of class review, is
herewith presented.


LECTURE I.

Introductory.

=1.= What is Theology? (State, 1, derivation of the word; 2, extent of
the science.)

=2.= Compare Theology and Religion.

=3.= Define the "Articles of Faith." (Give:--1, circumstance of their
origin, see note, p. 24; 2, their readoption by the Church; 3, their
necessary incompleteness as an expression of our belief.)

=4.= Name the standard works of the Church.

=5.= State the principal incidents connected with the parentage,
birth, and youth of the Prophet Joseph Smith.

=6.= Give the circumstances of Joseph Smith's prayerful search for
truth.

=7.= Describe his first vision.

=8.= What prominent feature of modern sectarian teaching, regarding
the personality of the Father and His Son, Jesus Christ, was disproved
by this vision?

=9.= How was Joseph's statement of his vision received by sectarian
teachers of that time?

=10.= Describe the visitations of Moroni to Joseph Smith. (Give:--1,
dates; 2, most important messages delivered by the angel.)

=11.= Describe the re-establishment of the Church through the ministry
of Joseph Smith in the present dispensation.

=12.= Relate the circumstances of the martyrdom of Joseph and his
brother Hyrum.--(Doc. and Cov. cxxxv.)

=13.= Show the importance of the Divine authenticity of Joseph Smith's
calling, in respect to the claims made for the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints.

=14.= Summarize the evidence of Divine authority in the work
accomplished by Joseph Smith.

=15.= Give instances of the fulfillment of ancient prophecy in his
work.

=16.= Show the Divine source of Joseph Smith's authority in the
priesthood.

=17.= Show the validity of the claim made, that he was a true prophet.
(Give:--1, the Lord's test of a true prophet; 2, give instances of
important prophecies uttered by Joseph Smith and already fulfilled.)


LECTURE II, ARTICLE 1.

God and the Godhead.

=1.= Show that the exercise of faith in God is dependent upon a
knowledge of His existence.

=2.= State what you know of the general belief of mankind as to the
existence of God.

=3.= Summarize the evidence on which our belief in the existence of
God is founded.

=4.= Give evidence drawn from human history and tradition.

=5.= Show how the exercise of reason affords evidence of the same.

=6.= Give the evidence of revelation (1, instances recorded in the
Bible; 2, Book of Mormon instances; 3, examples from modern
revelation).

=7.= Show that the Godhead is a Trinity.

=8.= What do you understand by the scriptural declarations concerning
the unity of the Godhead?

=9.= Give evidence of the personality of each member of the Godhead
(with scriptural references).

=10.= Summarize the most important of the Divine attributes as
attested by scripture.

=11.= Define:--1, Idolatry; 2, Atheism; 3, Theism, with its varied
modifications.

=12.= Show that atheism is of comparatively modern development.

=13.= Show that a belief in God is natural and necessary amongst
human-kind. (See pp. 49, 53.)

=14.= In what way does the idolatry of heathen nations support a
belief in the existence of God?

=15.= Show the close relationship between atheism and immaterialism.


LECTURE III, ARTICLE 2.

Transgression.

=1.= Give the principal scriptural proofs of man's free agency (quote
evidence from each of the standard works of the Church).

=2.= Show that man's accountability for his acts is just, in view of
his rights of free agency.

=3.= What is sin? (1, Compare wilful sins with those committed in
ignorance; 2, give scriptural evidence of the Lord's plan of dealing
in the two cases.)

=4.= Show that punishment for sin is ordained of God.

=5.= Give a statement of scriptural teachings regarding the duration
of punishment in the hereafter. (State the Lord's definition of
endless and eternal punishment.)

=6.= Give scriptural proofs of the personality of Satan (1, his former
position in heaven; 2, his title before his fall; 3, his expulsion
from heaven; 4, his present opposition to the purposes of God; 5, his
predicted fate).

The Fall.

=7.= Describe the condition of our first parents in Eden.

=8.= What important commands were given them by the Lord?

=9.= Give the scriptural statements concerning Satan tempting Eve.

=10.= Show that Adam understood the nature of his act in partaking of
the forbidden fruit.

=11.= What is known of the Tree of Life in the Garden of Eden?

=12.= Show that the expulsion of our first parents from Eden was a
necessity after their transgression.

=13.= What were the immediate results of the Fall?

=14.= Give scriptural proof that the Fall was necessary and
fore-ordained.

=15.= Show that mortality is a blessed heritage to mankind.

=16.= State the doctrine of the Atonement as declared to Adam after
the Fall.

=17.= Describe the joy of Adam and Eve when they learned of the effect
of the Fall and the Atonement provided.


LECTURE IV, ARTICLE 3.

The Atonement and Salvation.

=1.= Define "atonement" in its scriptural usage. (Compare its meaning
with that of "reconciliation," as the latter term occurs in the New
Testament.)

=2.= State what you know of the nature of the Atonement.

=3.= Show that the Atonement is a necessary sequence of the Fall.

=4.= What is meant by a vicarious sacrifice? (Give scriptural
instances of such as recorded in the Old Testament.)

=5.= Show that Christ's sacrifice was, 1, vicarious; 2, voluntary on
His part; 3, love inspired.

=6.= Give scriptural proofs (from each of the standard works) that the
Atonement was fore-ordained and fore-told.

=7.= Show:--1, the general, and 2, the individual effect of the
Atonement amongst mankind.

=8.= Define:--1, "salvation;" 2, "exaltation."

=9.= Name the "Degrees of Glory" in their order, as revealed of God.

=10.= Give a summary of the scriptural descriptions of:--1, the
Celestial kingdom of glory; 2, the Terrestrial; 3, the Telestial.


LECTURE V, ARTICLE 4.

Faith.

=1.= State the nature of faith.

=2.= Define the terms "faith," "belief," and "knowledge," in their
relation to one another.

=3.= Give scriptural instances of belief in Christ, which had no
saving power.

=4.= What do you regard as the essential foundation of faith in God?

=5.= Give Joseph Smith's summary of facts respecting the character and
attributes of God.

=6.= Show how misplaced faith may result from false evidence.

=7.= What is meant by the statement that faith is a principle of
power? (Give scriptural instances.)

=8.= Prove that faith is essential to salvation.

=9.= Show from the scriptures that faith is a gift from God.

=10.= Show that faith, to be effective, must be accompanied by good
works.

Repentance.

=11.= What is meant by true repentance?

=12.= State the conditions under which forgiveness of sins is
promised.

=13.= Prove that repentance is essential to salvation.

=14.= Show that repentance is a gift from God.

=15.= How may this gift be lost or forfeited?

=16.= What evidence have we that repentance is possible in the
hereafter?

=17.= Give a summary of the teachings of Amulek regarding the danger
of procrastination in the matter of repentance.


LECTURES VI AND VII, ARTICLE 4.

Baptism.

=1.= State what you know of the earliest revelation from God regarding
baptism.

=2.= What is the special purpose of baptism? (Give proofs, 1, from the
Bible; 2, from the Book of Mormon; 3, from modern revelation.)

=3.= Who are fit subjects for Baptism?

=4.= Show that infant baptism is unscriptural (1, that it is
unsustained by the Bible; 2, that it is forbidden in the Book of
Mormon, and by modern revelation).

=5.= Give a brief account of the history of infant baptism.

=6.= Define:--"Pedobaptists;" "Anabaptists." (Give derivation of the
terms and their present meanings.)

=7.= Prove by scriptural evidence that baptism is essential to
salvation (1, from the Bible; 2, from the Book of Mormon; 3, from the
Doctrine and Covenants).

=8.= Why was Christ's baptism a necessity?

=9.= Give a summary of the reasons upon which the Latter-day Saints
base their belief that immersion is the only true mode of baptism.

=10.= Show what evidence is furnished by the derivation of the word
"baptize," and its early usage.

=11.= Show how the symbolism of the baptismal rite is best preserved
by immersion.

=12.= Give scriptural and other historical evidence that immersion is
the only form sanctioned by the Lord.

=13.= Give the revealed formula for baptism (1, among the Nephites; 2,
in the present dispensation).

=14.= Under what conditions may baptism be repeated on the same
person?

=15.= Give instances of "re-baptism" mentioned in scripture, and
allowed in the present dispensation, showing the special or
exceptional nature of such repetitions of the ordinance.

=16.= Show the impropriety of repeated baptisms of the same person.

=17.= Demonstrate the necessity of baptism for the dead.

=18.= What evidence have we that the gospel is preached to the dead?

=19.= Cite scriptural predictions of Christ's ministry amongst the
dead.

=20.= Prove that the vicarious work of the living for the dead in the
last dispensation was fore-told.

=21.= Show that the authority for this labor has been already given to
the Church.

=22.= Explain the two-fold nature of this vicarious labor for the
dead.

=23.= What is a temple?

=24.= Give a brief account of ancient temples accepted by the Lord.

=25.= Describe the work of temple-building already accomplished by the
Church in the present dispensation.


LECTURE VIII, ARTICLE 4.

The Holy Ghost.

=1.= Cite biblical promises concerning the advent of the Holy Ghost.

=2.= Give other scriptural proof (1, from the Book of Mormon; 2, from
the record of modern revelation), that the Holy Ghost is to minister
unto all who have been properly baptized.

=3.= Give the principal names and titles by which the Holy Ghost is
described in scripture.

=4.= What is the special office of the Holy Ghost as a member of the
Godhead?

=5.= Give scriptural proofs of the Holy Ghost's personality.

=6.= Describe the office of the Holy Ghost in His ministrations among
men.

=7.= To whom is the Holy Ghost promised?

=8.= Give instances of the Holy Ghost's ministrations unto sincere
believers who had not been baptized; explain such exceptional
instances.

=9.= Describe the ordinance of conferring the Holy Ghost in the case
of those who have been baptized.

=10.= Show that the authoritative laying-on of hands was a feature of
the ordinance in former days (1, among the Jews; 2, among the
Nephites).

=11.= To which order of priesthood does the authority to confer the
Holy Ghost belong? (Give scriptural proofs.)

=12.= Show that the imposition of hands by those in authority is
characteristic of other ordinances in the Church.

=13.= What is meant by "Gifts of the Spirit"?


LECTURE IX, IN CONNECTION WITH ARTICLE 4.

The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper.

=1.= Define the term "sacrament" in its general and specific uses.

=2.= Describe the institution of the Sacrament by the Savior (1, among
the Jews; 2, among the Nephites).

=3.= Who are fit partakers of the Sacrament?

=4.= Cite scriptural caution: 1, against partaking of the Sacrament
unworthily; 2, against knowingly administering it to the unfit.

=5.= What is the purpose of the Sacrament?

=6.= What did Christ administer as the emblems of His body and blood?

=7.= What justification has the Church for using water instead of wine
under certain conditions?

=8.= Give the prescribed prayers of consecration: 1, for the bread; 2,
for the wine or water.

=9.= What grade of authority in the priesthood is requisite in
consecrating the sacramental emblems?

=10.= What relationship exists between the Sacrament and the Jewish
Passover?


LECTURE X, ARTICLE 5.

Authority in the Ministry.

=1.= Give scriptural examples of men who were called of God by special
revelation or by personal ministration: 1. before the "Meridian of
Time"; 2, in the days of Christ; 3, in the apostolic period; 4, in the
"Dispensation of the Fulness of Times."

=2.= In what manner is the priesthood conferred?

=3.= Name the principal holders of the priesthood from Adam to Moses.

=4.= Cite instances of God's disapproval of unauthorized
ministrations. (Give the circumstances in the following cases: 1,
Korah and his associates; 2, Miriam and Aaron; 3, Uzza; 4, Saul; 5,
Uzziah; 6, sons of Sceva.)

=5.= Give scriptural predictions concerning false teachers who would
arise.

=6.= Prove the existence of the priesthood in the Church today.

=7.= Give an account of the restoration of: 1, the Aaronic, and, 2,
the Melchizedek priesthood, in the present dispensation.

Fore-ordination and Pre-existence.

=8.= How was the fact of fore-ordination made known to Abraham?

=9.= Give scriptural proofs of Christ's fore-ordination as the
Redeemer of mankind.

=10.= Cite other scriptures supporting the doctrine of fore-ordination
(1, New Testament; 2, Book of Mormon).

=11.= Show that fore-ordination does not infringe upon free agency.

=12.= Give scriptural proofs of the pre-existence of spirits.


LECTURE XI, ARTICLE 6.

Church Organization.

=1.= What is the Church? (Sustain your definition by scriptural
records.)

=2.= What is meant by the Primitive Church?

=3.= What evidence have you that a general apostasy from the Primitive
Church occurred?

=4.= Show by the scriptures that this apostasy was fore-told. (Give
evidence: 1, from the Old Testament; 2, from the New Testament; 3,
from the Book of Mormon.)

=5.= Show that the restoration of the Church to earth was fore-told.

=6.= Define "priesthood."

=7.= Name the principal orders of priesthood as revealed.

=8.= What relationship exists between the Aaronic and the Levitical
priesthood?

=9.= Name the special offices in the Aaronic priesthood, in order,
with a statement of the specific duties and authority of each.

=10.= Name the special offices in the Melchizedek priesthood, in
order, describing the authority and duties of each.

=11.= Describe the constitution and authority of each of the following
presiding "quorums" in the priesthood:--1, The First Presidency; 2,
The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles; 3. The Presiding Quorum of Seventy;
4, The Presiding Bishopric.

=12.= Define "branch," "ward," and "stake," as used to designate
divisions of the Church.

=13.= Explain the constitution, authority, and special duties of:--1,
Stake Presidency; 2, Standing High Council; 3, Ward Bishopric.

=14.= What ordination in the priesthood is requisite in the case of
members of the presiding organizations last named?

=15.= Define "quorum" in its special sense as used by the Latter-day
Saints.

=16.= What is a Patriarch? (1. Define in this connection the term
"evangelist"; 2. show in what respect succession to the presiding
patriarchal office differs from that in other offices and callings in
the priesthood.)

=17.= Name the auxiliary organizations which operate as "helps in
government" within the Church.

=18.= Give the special duties of each of these. (Named on p. 216.)

=19.= Show how the principle of common consent is observed in
appointments to office within the Church.


LECTURE XII, ARTICLE 7.

Spiritual Gifts.

=1.= Show that the existence of spiritual gifts has ever been
characteristic of the priesthood.

=2.= Give scriptural proof that such gifts will always be found in the
Church.

=3.= What is a miracle?

=4.= Why are miracles called, by some, supernatural occurrences?

=5.= For what purpose are spiritual gifts manifested in the Church?

=6.= Show that miraculous manifestations are not an infallible
indication of the operation of the priesthood.

=7.= Name the spiritual gifts specifically mentioned in the
scriptures.

=8.= Describe the usual manifestation characterizing each of the
following gifts, with scriptural illustrations of each:--1, The gift
of tongues and interpretation; 2, of healing, and the gift of faith to
be healed; 3, of visions; 4, of dreams; 5, of prophecy; 6, of
revelation.

=9.= Cite scriptural promises that certain sign-gifts of the Spirit
shall follow the believer.

=10.= Give instances of miracles wrought by evil powers.

=11.= Cite the predictions of John the Revelator regarding such
imitations of the gifts of the Spirit, which are to characterize the
work of God in the last days.

=12.= What did Christ say about signs and wonders that would be
wrought by wicked men?

=13.= What evidence have you of the existence of spiritual gifts in
the Church today?


LECTURE XIII, ARTICLE 8.

The Bible.

=1.= What position does the Bible occupy among the standard works of
the Church?

=2.= What reservation does the Church make in accepting the modern
versions of the Bible as the unchanged word of God?

=3.= Define "Bible." (1, Give the derivation of the word; and, 2, its
modern usage.)

=4.= Show that the division into Old and New Testaments is natural and
self-suggestive.

=5.= Explain the term "canon of scripture" as applied to the Bible.

=6.= Explain, with scriptural references, the growth of the Old
Testament from the time of Moses to that of Malachi.

=7.= State what you know of the language in which the books of the Old
Testament were originally written.

=8.= What is the Septuagint? (1, Give the meaning of the term; 2,
describe the origin of the book.)

=9.= Classify the books of the Old Testament as at present compiled.

=10.= What classification of Old Testament writings was recognized in
the days of the Savior's ministry?

=11.= What is the Pentateuch? (1, Define the term; 2, enumerate the
books comprised; 3, state what you know of their authorship; 4, give
an account of the copies or versions possessed by the Jews and the
Samaritans anciently.)

=12.= Name the Historical books in order.

=13.= Name the Poetical books. (In this connection, define the term
"Hagiographa.")

=14.= Name the Prophetical books. (1, In their order as at present
compiled; 2, in the probable order of their production.)

=15.= What is meant by the Apocrypha?

=16.= What is the New Testament?

=17.= Give the principal historical evidence of investigation
regarding the authenticity of the New Testament books.

=18.= Name and classify the books of the New Testament.

=19.= What is the Vulgate?

=20.= Specify the principal modern versions of the Bible.

=21.= Give evidence supporting belief in the genuineness and
authenticity of the Bible.

=22.= State the principal items of evidence from the book of Mormon,
corroborating the authenticity of the Bible.

=23.= Give the important conclusions of biblical scholars regarding
the genuineness of the New Testament or of parts thereof.

=24.= Give the principal biblical references to scriptures not
contained in the Bible.


LECTURE XIV, ARTICLE 8.

The Book of Mormon.

=1.= What is the Book of Mormon?

=2.= How was the ancient record brought to modern notice?

=3.= What do we learn from the title-page of the Book of Mormon as to
the nations or peoples whose history is dealt with in the volume?

=4.= Which was the earliest of the nations, mentioned in the Book of
Mormon, which established itself on the American continent?

=5.= Give an account of the journey of Lehi and his colony from
Jerusalem to America. (State: 1, the Divine instructions directing
Lehi to leave; 2, time of this occurrence; 3, the course of their
overland journey; 4, journey across the ocean; 5, place of landing in
America.)

=6.= Describe the origin of Nephites and Lamanites respectively.

=7.= Who were the Jaredites? (1, Why so named; 2, time and manner of
their migration to this continent; 3, brief statement of their
history.)

=8.= How came the record of the Jaredites to be incorporated with the
Nephite writings?

=9.= What is known of Mulek and his people?

=10.= Name the classes of plates referred to in the Book of Mormon (1,
on the title page; 2, elsewhere in the volume).

=11.= State what is known of the plates of Nephi (1, their origin; 2,
the "larger" as distinguished from the "smaller" plates; 3, method by
which the record grew).

=12.= What is Mormon's abridgment of the plates of Nephi?

=13.= Which of the plates of Nephi did Mormon include with his own
abridgment?

=14.= What great purpose of the Lord was subserved by this duplication
of part of the ancient record?

=15.= Describe the circumstances resulting in the plates coming into
the custody of Joseph Smith (1, his first information regarding their
existence; 2, his first view of the plates; 3, his four years of
probation; 4, his possession of the plates).

=16.= What other sacred articles were buried with the plates?

=17.= What is meant by the Urim and Thummim?

=18.= What purpose did these instruments serve in the work
translation?

=19.= Give an outline of the circumstances attending the translation
and publication of the Book of Mormon (1, difficulties attending the
work; 2, date of first publication).

=20.= What is the testimony of the learned regarding the characters of
parts of the original record?

=21.= Summarize the evidence of the genuineness of the Book of Mormon.
(Show the distinction between genuineness and authenticity.)

=22.= Who were the three witnesses to the genuineness of the book?
Give an outline of their testimony.

=23.= Name the eight witnesses. To what did they testify?

=24.= What is the so-called "Spaulding Story" of the origin of the
Book of Mormon? Show its absurdity.

=25.= Explain the arrangement of the several parts of the Book of
Mormon.


LECTURE XV, ARTICLE 8.

Authenticity of the Book of Mormon.

=1.= Summarize the proofs of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon.

=2.= Show that the Book of Mormon and the Bible corroborate each other
in matters on which they treat in common.

=3.= Demonstrate the fulfillment of ancient prophecy in the coming
forth of the Book of Mormon (1, of prophecies contained in the Pearl
of Great Price; 2, of Old Testament prophecies, specifically those of
Isaiah and Ezekiel).

=4.= State what you know of the consistency of the Book of Mormon in
style and matter.

=5.= Give examples of Book of Mormon prophecies, the fulfillment of
which is recorded therein.

=6.= Give examples of Book of Mormon prophecies, the fulfillment of
which has taken place since the closing of the record.

=7.= State what you know of Book of Mormon prophecy yet awaiting
fulfillment.

=8.= Summarize the general results of modern investigation and
research with which the Book of Mormon is in striking accord.

=9.= Give evidence that America was inhabited at a very ancient period
(1, cite the conclusions of investigators; and 2, compare with the
Book of Mormon account).

=10.= Give the principal evidence of the successive occupation of the
American continent by different peoples in ancient times, confirm by
the Book of Mormon account.

=11.= Give the principal conclusions of investigators concerning the
Asiatic origin of the first colonies who came to America.

=12.= Summarize the evidence indicating their Israelitish origin.

=13.= State in a general way the traditions of America's native people
concerning:--1, The Deluge; 2, the Divinity of Christ, and His
crucifixion.

=14.= Show the resemblance of certain religious ceremonies as
practiced by the Jews, and by some of the native American peoples.

=15.= What evidence is there, external to the Book of Mormon,
indicating the common origin of all the American "races"?

=16.= Confirm the foregoing conclusions (11 to 15) by the Book of
Mormon record.

=17.= What is known of the written languages current among the
Nephites? In what language were the plates of Nephi and those of
Mormon inscribed?

=18.= What external evidence is there of the Egyptian language having
been known among the American peoples?

=19.= Give evidence of the survival of the Hebrew language among the
native tribes.

=20.= What test of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon is given by
the last of the writers?


LECTURE XVI, ARTICLE 9.

Revelation, Past, Present, and Future.

=1.= What is revelation? Compare with inspiration.

=2.= Show that revelation is God's chosen method of communication
through the priesthood.

=3.= What is known of God's revelations to:--1, Adam; 2, Enoch; 3,
Noah; 4, Abraham; 5, Isaac; 6, Jacob; 7, Moses?

=4.= Give examples of Divine revelation through other Old Testament
prophets.

=5.= Show that Christ was a revelator, while He dwelt among men.

=6.= Give scriptural evidence of revelation having been given through
the apostles of old.

=7.= Show that the doctrine of continual revelation is reasonable.

=8.= Show that it is scriptural.

=9.= Show that continual revelation has ever been characteristic of
the operations of the priesthood.

=10.= Cite the principal objections to this doctrine, professedly
founded on scripture. Show their unscriptural foundation.

=11.= Give specific scriptures predicting that revelation is to
characterize the Church in the last dispensation (1, from the Bible;
2, from the Book of Mormon).

=12.= Give instances of modern revelation. Cite promises of the Lord
in this dispensation assuring the continuation of revelation in the
Church.

=13.= Show the reasonableness of expecting yet further revelation.

=14.= Show that the doctrine of no further revelation is comparatively
modern, and unscriptural.

=15.= Show that inspiration does not deprive man of his freedom or
individuality.


LECTURE XVII, ARTICLE 10.

The Dispersion of Israel.

=1.= Explain the term "Israel" (1, derivation of the word; 2, bestowal
of the title on Jacob; 3, its use as the name of Jacob's posterity; 4,
as a name of one of the kingdoms after the division of the nation; 5,
as a title of the chosen people of God in a collective sense).

=2.= Give a general outline of the Israelites' history from the time
of Jacob receiving the name Israel, to t