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Title: Industrial Arts Design - A Textbook of Practical Methods for Students, Teachers, and Craftsmen
Author: Varnum, William H.
Language: English
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[Illustration: Firing the Kiln

_Courtesy of the Rookwood Potteries_]



    VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES

    SUPERVISING EDITOR
    FRED D. CRAWSHAW, M.E.

    PROFESSOR OF MANUAL ARTS, THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

    INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN

    A TEXTBOOK OF PRACTICAL METHODS FOR STUDENTS,
    TEACHERS, AND CRAFTSMEN

    BY

    WILLIAM H. VARNUM

    ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF DRAWING AND DESIGN
    UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

    SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY

    CHICAGO      NEW YORK



    Copyright 1916 by
    SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY



PREFACE


_Place for the Book._ As a textbook, INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN is a
practical guide for designing in wood, clay, and base and precious
metals. It is intended for individual student use in the High Schools,
Normal Schools, and Colleges and as a reference book for elementary
school teachers. Its more complex problems are intended as definite
helps to the industrial arts designer or craftsman. The wood problems
are treated with special reference to their adaptability to bench and
cabinet work.

_Need of the Book._ It has been written to fill a decided demand for a
textbook that shall, without loss of time, directly apply
well-recognized principles of general design to specific materials and
problems encountered in the Industrial Arts. A brief description of the
decorative processes adapted to the materials under discussion with the
design principles directly applying to these processes, insures designs
that may be worked out in the studio or shop. It is hoped that this
provision will eliminate the large number of impractical designs that
are frequently entirely unfitted to the technic of the craft. This lack
of mutual technical understanding between the teacher of design and the
shop work instructor is the cause of friction that it is hoped will be
removed by the methods advocated in these pages.

_The Author's Motive._ It has been the intention to reduce unrelated and
abstract theories to a minimum and reach directly rules and conclusions
that shall be applicable to typical materials in common use in the
schools and industries. The original conception materialized in the
publication of a series of articles upon Design in the _Industrial Arts
Magazine_, in 1915. These articles were favorably received and their
results in the schools proved highly satisfactory. Through this
encouragement, the articles have been reprinted in book form, enriched
by the addition of illustrations, review questions, and three chapters
on color with its applications.

INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN develops the principles of industrial design in a
new and logical form which, it is believed, will simplify the teaching
of craft design. Chapters I to V deal with the elementary problems
confronting the designer as he begins the first steps on his working
drawing; Chapters VI to VIII show the methods by which he may express
his individuality through contour or outline enrichment, while Chapters
IX to XVII explain the treatment of the most difficult form of
decoration, that of surface enrichment.

_The Appendix._ The appendix is added to show the manner in which the
rules may be directly applied to a course of study in either pottery or
art metal. The present work is not intended to include the chemistry of
glaze mixing or other technical requirements to which reference is made
in the appendix; consequently the reader is referred to "The Potter's
Craft" by C.F. Binns and "Pottery" by George J. Cox for fuller
explanations of the formulae and technicalities of the craft.

_Source of Principles._ The principles herein advocated are directly
related to architectural design which is to be regarded as the standard
authority for the industrial arts designer. It was necessary to state
these principles in the form of sufficiently flexible rules which would
allow the student to use his own judgment, but at the same time,
restrict him to the essential principles of good design.

_Rules._ This presentation of the principles of design by means of
flexible rules in concrete form, serves to vitalize design by virtue of
their immediate application to the material. The rules likewise save
time for both pupil and instructor. This is regarded as an important
factor, inasmuch as the amount of time usually allotted to classroom
teaching of design is limited.

While these rules are applied to the specific materials, the designer
may readily adjust them to other materials and find them equally
applicable. Direct copying of designs from the illustrations is a
dangerous expedient and is to be discouraged as a form of plagiarism
which will eventually destroy the student's initiative, originality, and
reputation for creative work.

_Results_. From the tests so far observed, it has been seen that under
design guidance, the projects become more noticeably individual in
character, lighter and better in construction, and more fully adjusted
to their environment. The student's interest and initiative in his work
are strengthened, and he completes the truly valuable cycle of the
educative process of evolving his own idea and crystallizing it in the
completed work. It is hoped that this book will tend to develop higher
standards of good design in schools, industrial establishments, and the
home.

In conclusion, the author expresses his thanks to the following for
their valuable suggestions and assistance in contributed illustrations:
Miss D.F. Wilson, Miss Edna Howard, Miss Elizabeth Upham, Miss A.M.
Anderson, Mr. J.M. Dorrans, Mr. J.B. Robinson, author of "Architectural
Composition," and others to whom reference is made in the text.

    WILLIAM HARRISON VARNUM.

    _Madison, Wisconsin.
    April, 1916._



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                         PAGE

     I. DIVISIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN                          7

    II. THE PRIMARY MASS AND ITS PROPORTIONS                        13

   III. HORIZONTAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS              19

    IV. VERTICAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS                33

     V. APPENDAGES AND THE RULES GOVERNING THEM                     43

    VI. ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN WOOD   57

   VII. ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN CLAY   77

  VIII. ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN BASE
          AND PRECIOUS METALS                                       87

    IX. SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD          99

     X. SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD.
          (Continued)                                              117

    XI. SURFACE ENRICHMENT WITH MINOR SUBDIVISIONS OF LARGE
          PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD                                   133

   XII. SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY                                 145

  XIII. SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF PRECIOUS METALS. SMALL FLAT PLANES   160

   XIV. SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE AND
          PRECIOUS METALS                                          179

    XV. COLOR: HUE, VALUE, AND CHROMA; STAINS                      194

   XVI. COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN. LARGE
          SURFACES OF WOOD; WALL AND CEILING AREAS                 201

  XVII. COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN. SMALL
          SURFACES IN CLAY AND METAL                               209

        COMPLETE SUMMARY OF RULES                                  218

        APPENDIX                                                   223

          (_a_) A Complete Course of Study for the Applied Arts
               in Thin Base and Precious Metals. Relation of the
               Rules to the Problems                               224

          (_b_) A Complete Course of Study for the Applied Arts
               in Pottery. Relation of the Rules to the Problems   237

        INDEX                                                      245



INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN



CHAPTER I

DIVISIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN


[Sidenote: Non-technical Criticism]

This book has been written with the view of presenting design from the
standpoint of the industrial arts. An instructor generally experiences
difficulty in finding the exact word to use when criticizing a student's
drawing. The student has equal difficulty in understanding the
criticism. There is little wonder that he is confused, when the rather
ambiguous terms "good-looking," "ugly," "squatty," and "stiff" are used
to express qualities that can be expressed only in terms of design.

[Sidenote: Intelligent Analysis]

The lack of understanding between the pupil and the teacher may be
compared to the attitude of the average individual "who knows what he
likes." He is on an equally insecure footing regarding industrial
design. His reason for liking or disliking a certain thing may depend
upon some whim or fancy, the popular fashion of the times, or a desire
to possess a duplicate of something he has seen. As a consumer with
purchasing power, he should have the ability to _analyze intelligently_
the contents of catalogs and store windows with the thought of securing
the best in industrial art--something that may be accepted as standard
one hundred years from now.

It is, therefore, the intention to present design of industrial
character in its simplest form, freed from technicalities or ambiguous
statements. It is intended to give the average individual not
particularly interested in drawing or design a knowledge of the subject,
based upon principles that have survived for hundreds of years in
architectural monuments and history.

[Sidenote: Results of Clear Criticism]

[Illustration: THE FIRST MAJOR DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN

PLATE 1]

It is possible that the presentation of these principles may enable the
instructor in the public schools to guide his pupil away from the heavy
and expensive stereotyped designs, and by clear and simple criticism,
lead him to better forms of construction. He may also be helped to
lead the pupil to design problems in harmony with his home surroundings
and thus avoid the introduction of an inharmonious element into what may
possibly be a harmonious setting. The teacher, pupil, or layman should
use his knowledge of the subject as a basis for criticism or
appreciation of the field of the industrial arts.

[Sidenote: Requirements of an Industrial Problem]

In order to start successfully upon a design, it is necessary to know
what qualities a good industrial article should possess. Whether one is
designing a bird-house, a chocolate set, or a gold pendant, the article
must meet three needs: (1) It must be of service to the community or to
the individual; (2) It must be made of some durable material; (3) It
must possess beauty of proportion, outline, and color.

Ruskin said that a line of beauty must also be a line of service. The
"stream line body" in automobile construction is the result of the
automobile maker's attempt to combine beauty with service. This is the
attitude that should govern the union of beauty and service in all of
the industrial arts.

[Sidenote: Divisions in Design Evolution and Enrichment]

There are three divisions or phases in the designing of a structure and
its enrichment. These are: (1) Structural Design; (2) Contour
Enrichment; (3) Surface Enrichment. Some objects are carried through
only one of these divisions, while others are developed through all
three of them.

[Sidenote: First Major Division]

Plate 1, illustrative of the first division, deals naturally enough with
the planning of the constructive or utilitarian lines of an object and
its parts. It may be termed Structural or Constructive Design. Questions
of how high or how long an object should be, to harmonize with its
width, the proper placing of rails, shelves, and brackets, the
determination of the greatest and least diameter of vase forms have to
be decided in this period of Proportions and Space Relations.

The knowledge of tools and materials, and of the manner in which they
may be used for constructive purposes, influences the solution of these
questions and others which we shall shortly discuss. Strictly
utilitarian objects are seldom carried past this stage of development.

[Sidenote: Second Major Division]

[Illustration: THE SECOND MAJOR DIVISION IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN

PLATE 2]

Plate 2 indicates the next logical division--Contour Enrichment--or the
period of the enrichment of the structural outline or contour. The
bounding lines, or contours, of the structure may be enriched in many
ways, as, for example, curving certain portions to soften the severity
of the plain structure. The garden urn and small stool have contours
treated in this manner. Chippendale, Sheraton, and Hepplewhite
furniture, simplified to the accepted range of shop technic, vary the
straight lines of mission furniture and come within the possible
developments of this division.

[Sidenote: Effects of Second Division]

The cement fence post at _C_, Plate 2, is a strict utilitarian problem
without interest. The post at _D_, enriched by a bevel, has equal
utilitarian and increased aesthetic interest and value.

[Sidenote: Third Major Division]

Plate 3 illustrates the last division of evolution and concerns itself
with the application of design to the surface of the otherwise complete
structure. This division is commonly called applied surface design or
decorative design. It is readily seen that this division should be
considered after the structure has been carefully planned. To separate
this division from the period of structural or contour enrichment we
will call it Surface Enrichment.

[Sidenote: Steps in Design Evolution]

It may be seen from the foregoing discussion that a design may be
carried through the following steps: (1) Blocking in the enclosing lines
of the design, as at Figure B, Plate 2, adding to this whatever may be
needed for structural purposes, keeping the lines as nearly vertical and
horizontal as possible; (2) Enriching and varying the outline or
contour. It is well for elementary wood workers to use this step with
extreme caution, while less reserve is necessary in clay and metal; (3)
After careful consideration in determining the need of additional
decoration, the last step, surface enrichment, should be used. The
following chapters will take up these steps in the order stated above.

[Sidenote: Ideal Correlation]

The ideal method of developing the principles set forth in this chapter
includes correlated activity in the shop by working out the project in
the required material. As the technic of the individual improves, the
larger range of design principles will be found to accompany and
parallel his increasing skill.


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What three requirements should be met in a well designed
     industrial article?

     2. State three major divisions in industrial arts design.

     3. State briefly the problems to be considered in each
     division.

     4. What is the last and ideal step for the designer?

[Illustration: THE THIRD MAJOR DIVISION IN INDUSTRIAL ART DESIGN

PLATE 3]



CHAPTER II

THE PRIMARY MASS AND ITS PROPORTIONS


[Sidenote: The Architectural Method]

Upon first observing a building, one seldom notices details of
structure. He sees the large mass as it is silhouetted against the sky.
Nearer approach discloses mouldings, cornices, and doorways; while
careful analytical study shows the technical points of construction. The
architect, in his original planning, thinks in terms of masses, widths,
and heights, disregarding at first the details and color. As
architecture stands for parent design principles and represents some of
the world's best examples of composition and design, industrial design
should be based upon the best examples of architectural design. To a
certain degree, also, the methods of the industrial arts designer should
be those of the architect.

[Sidenote: The Industrial Arts Method]

It is necessary to think at first of our problem as a single mass or
solid, bounded by enclosing dimensions of width, height, and thickness.
Details like a mirror, handles, brackets, or knobs may project outside
of this mass, but for the time being, they may be disregarded. Figure B,
Plate 2, shows this manner of thinking, and will enable us to regard the
problem as a big, simple mass so that the entire object, unobstructed by
small details, may be seen.

[Sidenote: The Primary Mass]

This is the method of _thinking_ about the problem which should precede
the drawing. To further describe this mass, which will be called the
single or Primary Mass, it is necessary to think of the intended service
of the project. A rather hazy idea of making a vase or a stool to be put
to no particular use, may have been the original motive. Now the exact
service should be defined as it will have a marked effect upon the shape
of this primary mass.

[Sidenote: Service]

Rule 1a. _A primary mass must be either vertical or horizontal according
to the intended service, unless prohibited by technical requirements._
Service is an important factor inasmuch as it limits the intended use of
the mass. A mass is horizontal when its largest dimension is horizontal.
When the horizontal dimension of this mass is reduced until the main
vertical dimension is longer than the main horizontal one, it becomes a
vertical mass. As an example, a davenport is generally a horizontal mass
intended to hold a number of people. When the mass is narrowed to the
point where the vertical dimension exceeds the horizontal, it becomes a
chair for one person. A low bowl may be intended for pansies, but as
soon as the service changes and we design it for goldenrod, it becomes a
vertical mass. The fable of the fox who, upon being invited to dine with
the stork, found the tall vases unfitted for his use illustrates the
change of mass with the change of service.

[Illustration: ANALYSIS OF THE PRIMARY MASS

PLATE 4]

[Sidenote: Horizontal and Vertical Primary Masses]

Figures 1 and 4, Plate 4, are examples of horizontal masses with the
dark lines indicating the dominance of the horizontal lines and planes.
The shelter house contains a long bench, making necessary the long
horizontal lines of the building. The calendar holder has to be a
horizontal mass because of the restrictions imposed by the shape of the
calendar pad.

Figures 2 and 3 are vertical masses. The vase is intended for tall
flowers, while the chair, as has already been mentioned, must meet the
needs of a single person. Utility and service then have been found to
give the primary mass a given direction or dominance.

[Sidenote: Drawing the Primary Mass]

The designer now represents this mass by drawing a rectangle similar to
the block outline of Figure B, Plate 2. It is now necessary to see if
the foundation stones of this rectangle have been laid correctly; in
other words, to test the proportions of the primary vertical or
horizontal mass.

[Sidenote: Proportions of the Primary Masses]

Rule 1b. _A primary mass should have the ratio of one to three, three to
four, three to five, five to eight, seven to ten, or some similar
proportion difficult for the eye to detect readily and analyze._
Proportions are generally expressed in terms of ratios. A surface of
five by eight inches would give a ratio of five to eight; ten by sixteen
feet is reducible to the same ratio. Certain ratios are monotonous and
offend the eye by their lack of variety. Ratios such as one to one or
one to two are of this class and should be avoided. If these ratios
could speak they would resemble people talking in a low monotonous tone
of voice.

[Illustration: PROPORTIONATE RATIOS

PROCESS OF DESIGNING

PLATE 5]

[Sidenote: Unsatisfactory Ratios]

Certain other ratios are weak and indeterminate, showing a lack of clear
thinking. They are like people with no definite or cleancut ideas upon
a subject they discuss. Examples in this class show ratios of two to two
and one-eighth, or three to three and one-fourth, neither positively
square nor frankly rectangular. They hide around the corner, as it were,
waiting to be anything. Figure 5, Plate 5, is an example of
unsatisfactory proportionate ratios of the primary mass. The blotting
tablet is nearly square, while the candlestick and sconce, which should
have been designed with strongly vertical masses, lack the type of
definite thinking that results in a decided vertical dimension.

Disregarding the improvement in technic, Figure 6 shows problems
designed with a definite knowledge of proportion. The metal objects are
refined in their dimensions, and pleasing to the eye. Tests have been
made with the idea of determining what the eye considers perfectly
natural and agreeable proportion. This has been found to be the ratio of
two to three. Consequently, it is clear why Figure 6 shows objects more
pleasing than those in Figure 5.

It may be felt that too much space is being given to this subject of
proportion. It should be remembered, however, that the industrial arts
are intimately associated with daily life and that unless proportions
are pleasing to our aesthetic sense, many articles of common use shortly
become intolerable.

[Sidenote: Preliminary Thinking in Terms of Design]

This preliminary portion of the designer's task has been given to
thinking out the problem and drawing one rectangle. There is a tendency
to start the design by pushing the pencil over the paper with a forlorn
hope that a design may be evolved with little mental effort. This should
be regarded as illogical and unworthy of the desired end. A rectangle of
the most prominent surface of the problem, based upon the desired
service of the project, and the best proportions which our knowledge of
design and understanding of the limitations of construction will permit,
should be the final result of the first study. From now on through the
succeeding steps, the details of the problem will become more and more
clear, as the technical limitations of the tools and materials governing
the designer's ideas and controlling and shaping the work are better
understood, until all governing factors become crystallized in the form
of a working drawing or model. This is a strictly professional practice
as illustrated in Figure 7, which shows the skilled Rookwood potter
developing a vase form, the definite embodiment of correct thinking in
terms of the material which is constantly before him.


SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 1a. _A primary mass must be either vertical or horizontal
     according to the intended service, unless prohibited by
     technical requirements._

     Rule 1b. _A primary mass should have the ratio of one to three,
     three to four, three to five, five to eight, seven to ten, or
     some similar proportion difficult for the eye to readily detect
     and analyze._


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. How does the architect first plan his elevations?

     2. How should the designer first think of his problem?

     3. Define a horizontal primary mass.

     4. Define a vertical primary mass.

     5. State some desirable ratios to be used in designing the
     proportions of the primary mass. Explain.



CHAPTER III

HORIZONTAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS


In the second chapter we discussed the nature of the primary mass in its
relation to the intended service or duty it has to perform. It was found
that the demands of service usually cause the primary mass to be
designed with either a strong vertical or horizontal tendency.

[Sidenote: Divisions of the Primary Mass]

It now becomes imperative to carry the designing processes still further
and divide the vertical or horizontal primary mass into parts or
divisions, demanded either by structural requirements or because the
appearance of the object would be materially improved by their presence.
This latter point is sometimes referred to as the aesthetic requirement
of the problem. There are two simple types of divisions, those crossing
the primary mass horizontally and those crossing the primary mass in a
vertical direction. This chapter will be limited to the subject of
horizontal divisions.

[Sidenote: Nature and Need of Horizontal Space Divisions]

If a city purchases a piece of land for park purposes, presumably a
landscape architect is assigned the task of laying out the paths and
drives. He does this by crossing his plan at intervals with lines to
represent paths connecting important points. Under favorable conditions
the architect is free to curve his path to suit his ideas. He has
considerable freedom in selecting his design but the paths or roads must
dip and curve in sympathy with the contour of the land and in accord
with the aesthetic requirements.

While the landscape designer has a broad latitude in his treatment of
land divisions, the industrial designer or architect is restricted, on
the other hand, by the structural requirements of the object and by his
materials. He must cross his spaces or areas by horizontal shelves, or
rails, or bands of metal that hold the structure together. As
architecture is of fundamental importance in industrial design, let us
see what the architect has in mind in designing a structure.

[Illustration: STEPS ILLUSTRATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF HORIZONTAL
SPACE DIVISIONS FROM PRIMARY MASS TO THE STRUCTURE

PLATE 6]

[Sidenote: Architectural Horizontal Divisions]

The architect has the surface of the ground with which to start. This
gives him a horizontal line as the base of his building. He considers it
of major importance in his design. We find him crossing the front of his
building with horizontal moulding or long bands of colored brick,
paralleling the base line and otherwise interestingly dividing the
vertical face of the front and sides. His guide is the bottom line of
his primary mass or the line of the ground which binds the different
parts of the building into a single unit. It can be readily seen that if
he shifted the position of his mouldings up or down with the freedom of
the landscape architect in locating his roads, he would not be planning
his horizontal divisions in sympathy with the structural requirements of
his primary mass.

These horizontal divisions or lines have a tendency to give apparent
added length to an object. Thus by their judicious use a designer may
make a building or room look longer than it really is.

Let us now turn to the simpler objects with which we may be more
directly concerned. The piano bench has horizontal lines crossing it,
giving an effect quite similar to that of horizontal mouldings crossing
a building. There may also be ornamental inlaid lines crossing the bench
and intended to beautify the design, but it is to be remembered that at
present we are considering the _structural divisions_ only.

[Sidenote: Designing Objects with Horizontal Divisions]

Plate 6 represents a concrete example of the methods to be used in
designing the horizontal divisions of a piano bench. The steps may be
divided as follows:

(_a_) The height of a piano bench may be determined either from
measurement of a similar bench or from one of the books on furniture
design now on the market. The scale of one inch or one and one-half
inches to the foot may be adopted. Two horizontal lines should be drawn,
one for the bottom and one for the top of the bench. The distance
between these lines we will arbitrarily fix at twenty inches.

(_b_) Many objects are designed within rectangles which enclose their
main or over-all proportions. With this in view, and keeping in mind the
width of the bench necessary to the accommodation of two players and the
requirements of a well proportioned primary mass (Rule 1b), the lines
are now drawn completing the rectangular boundaries of the primary
mass. The limitations of service and the restrictions of good designing
give the width of the primary mass so designed as three feet and two
inches, with a ratio of height to length of five to eight and one-half.
It is simpler to design first the most prominent face of the object to
be followed by other views later in the designing process.

[Illustration: APPLIED AND CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN

PRINCIPLE 1: A. PROPORTIONS OF THE SINGLE PRIMARY MASS WITH DOMINANCE OF
THE HORIZONTAL DIVISION

PRINCIPLE 2: A. RELATION OF HORIZONTAL SUBDIVISIONS

PROBLEM: HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS CLASSES 1 2 3

PLATE 7]

[Sidenote: Designing Objects with Horizontal Divisions--(_Continued_)]

(_c_) By observing benches similar to the one being designed it will be
seen that the horizontal divisions will take the form of a rail and a
shelf, making two crossings of the primary mass dividing it into three
horizontal spaces. Several trial arrangements of these structural
elements are now made with the thought of making them conform to the
rule governing three horizontal spaces. Rule 2b. We shall later discuss
this rule and its applications fully.

(_d_) By selecting the best sketch of many which the designer will make
he has the basis for the application of Rule 2b for the structural
elements. The project now begins to take on concrete form. The top board
may project slightly beyond the primary mass without materially
affecting the value of the designed proportions.

[Sidenote: Value of a Full Size Drawing]

(_e_) The last step is the designing of the side view in relation to the
front view. This enables the designer to comprehend the project as a
whole. It is strongly urged that the final or shop drawing be of full
size. In more elaborate designs the finer proportions are lost in the
process of enlargement from a small sketch, often hurriedly executed in
the shop. Again much time is lost by necessary enlargement, whereas a
full size curved detail may be quickly transferred to wood by carbon
paper or by holes pricked in the paper. It is not expensive or difficult
to execute full size drawings; it is in accord with shop practice and
the custom should be encouraged and followed on all possible occasions.
See Figure 102a.

The process of designing round objects is identical to that just
described as illustrated by the low round bowl in Plate 7. It should be
designed in a rectangle of accepted proportions. Rule 1b. The primary
mass may have excellent proportions and yet the vase or bowl may remain
devoid of interest. It may be commonplace.

[Illustration: HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN WOOD

PLATE 8]

As will shortly be shown, the rules governing horizontal divisions serve
as a check on the commonplace. A horizontal division generally marks the
point where the outward swell of the vase contour reaches its maximum
width. If this widest point in the primary mass (X-Plate 7) is
pleasingly located between the top and bottom of a vase form the contour
will be found satisfactory.

[Sidenote: Architectural Precedent for Horizontal Divisions]

It is possible to continue _ad infinitum_ with these illustrations but
horizontal space divisions are nearly always present in some form, due
to structural necessity or aesthetic requirements. It is an easy matter
to say that these lines must divide the primary mass into "interesting"
spaces, well related to each other, or "pleasingly located," but the
designer must have some definite yet flexible rule to govern his work.
From the analysis of many famous historic buildings and well designed
industrial projects it has been found that all horizontal masses may be
analyzed as dividing the primary mass into either _two_ or _three_
divisions or spaces, regardless of the complexity of the project.


ANALYSIS OF HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS

[Sidenote: Two Horizontal Space Divisions]

Rule 2a. _If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal divisions,
the dominance should be either in the upper or the lower section._ Plate
7 shows this division of the primary mass--the simplest division of the
space. A space divided just half way from top to bottom would be
monotonous and expressive of the ratio of one to one. This arrangement
as we have already discovered in the second chapter is not conducive to
good design.

By the stated rule, 2a, the varied adjustment of this double horizontal
division affords all possible latitude for constructive purposes. It is
better to place the division in such a manner that the upper division
(or lower) will not appear pinched or dwarfed by comparison with the
remaining area. Thus a ratio of one to three, or three to five, or five
to eight is better than a ratio of one to one or one to eighteen, but
there is no exact or arbitrary ruling on this point.

[Sidenote: Two Horizontal Divisions in Wood]

Figure 8 illustrates two horizontal divisions in wood construction and
also the freedom of choice as to exact proportions. The eye will be
found a good judge of the proper spacings subject to the limitations
already mentioned.

[Illustration: HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN CLAY

PLATE 9]

It is best to keep the design within the limits of two horizontal
space divisions in designing cylindrical clay forms, particularly in the
elementary exercises. Enough variety will be found to make pleasing
arrangements, and the technical results obtained by two divisions are
much better than those obtained from a greater number of divisions.

[Sidenote: Two Horizontal Divisions in Clay]

Figures 14, 15, and 16, Plate 9, are clay forms with the dominance
placed in either the upper or lower portion of the primary mass. Figure
13 has been used to illustrate the fact that horizontal space division
principles are applicable to any material. The horizontal divisions in
Figure 13 are due to structural needs. A horizontal line carries this
division across to Figure 14, a clay vase. The horizontal division line
now becomes the one which marks the widest part of the vase. It gives
the same relation between the top and bottom horizontal spaces as in
Figure 13. It marks an aesthetic point in the design of the vase, or a
variation of the contour, introduced by reason of its effect upon the
beauty of the vase, not called for by the needs of actual service.

A musical composition is often played in an orchestra first by the wood
instruments, taken up and repeated by the brasses, then by the strings,
and finally played as an harmonious whole by the entire orchestra. There
is a close parallel in Figure 12, an adaptation of one of Gustav
Stickley's designs. The two-division rule is used in the relations of
the plaster and wainscoting; again in the plaster over, and the cement
or tile around the fireplace. It is repeated in the arrangement of the
copper and cement of the fireplace facing and hood and in the door
panels. By repeating again and again similar space divisions the wall
space becomes a unified and harmonious whole. Variety is secured by the
introduction of three horizontal divisions in the details of the
wainscoting. This method of repeating similar space divisions is called
"echoing" and is one of the most effective means known for securing the
effect of _unity_.

[Sidenote: Two Horizontal Divisions in Metal]

The horizontal subdivisions in metal are usually made for service.
Figures 17, 18, and 19, Plate 10, are examples of such divisions. The
location of the clock face in Figure 18 calls for the placing of its
horizontal axis in accordance with Rule 2a. The lamp in Figure 19 shows
an instance where the entire design once divided by Rule 2a, may be
again subdivided into a similar series of divisions. This arrangement
is quite similar to the system of repetitions seen in Figure 12 and
termed "echoing" the original divisions.

[Illustration: HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS IN METAL

PLATE 10]

[Sidenote: Three Horizontal Space Divisions]

Rule 2b. _If the primary mass is divided into three horizontal divisions
or sections, the dominance should be placed in the center section with
varying widths in the upper and lower thirds._

When it becomes necessary to divide the primary mass into more than two
sections the designer's problem becomes more difficult. With the
addition of a greater number of horizontal divisions there is a manifest
tendency for the design to become cut up into so many small sections
that the simplicity of the whole mass is lost. Here, as elsewhere, that
principle which we call _unity_ or the quality of "holding together" is
necessary and should be the constant test of the design. The instant any
part of the design seems to fly apart from the main mass it becomes the
designer's duty to simplify the design or pull the parts together and
thus restore the lost unity.

As a restriction against loss of unity it is necessary to group all of
the minor horizontal divisions into a system of two or three large
horizontal divisions. Referring to Rule 2b, it is seen that when three
divisions are used, it becomes the practice to accentuate the center
section by making it larger. This arrangement is designed to give weight
to the center portion and by this big stable division to hold the other
subdivisions together and in unity.

[Sidenote: Three Horizontal Divisions in Wood]

Two horizontal masses and one vertical mass shown in Figures 9, 10, and
11, Plate 8, illustrate the application of this three-division rule to
wood construction. It is seen that the construction of rails, doors, and
shelves is responsible for the fixing of all of these divisions. It may
also be seen that three divisions are applicable to either the vertical
or the horizontal primary mass. Figure 10 illustrates the violation of
this type of spacing at the point _A_, where the shelves are no more
pleasingly arranged than the rounds of a ladder. Later on we shall be
able to rearrange these shelves in a pleasing manner but at present it
is better to relieve the monotony by omitting the center shelf. This
applies the three division rule to the satisfactory appearance of the
desk at _B_.

Similar monotony in spacing is seen in the screen, Figure 11. The
correction in _B_ appeals at once as a far more satisfactory arrangement
than that secured by placing the cross bar half way up as in _A_. There
are no infallible rules for this readjustment beyond those already
stated. The eye must in part be depended upon to guide the artistic
sense aright.

[Sidenote: Three Horizontal Divisions in Clay]

It is suggested that it is desirable to keep clay forms within the
limitations of two divisions. Rectangular posts, pedestals, and other
vertical forms in cement may be developed by the application of Rule 2a
or 2b, if care is taken to group all minor divisions well within the
limitations of these rules.

[Sidenote: Three Horizontal Divisions in Metal]

The statement just made in reference to simplified groupings is
illustrated in the candlestick and cup in Figures 20 and 21, Plate 10.
The construction based upon the three functions performed by the cup,
the handle, and the base, suggests the use of these horizontal
divisions. The minor curves have been subordinated to, and kept within,
these three divisions. The final result gives a distinct feeling of
unity impossible under a more complex grouping. The Greek column will
afford an architectural illustration of a similar grouping system.

The lathe bed of Figure 22 shows one of innumerable examples of space
violations in the industrial arts. A slight lowering of the cross brace
would add materially to the appearance and strength of the casting.
Figure 23 is a copper box with the following more or less common faults
of design: commonplace ratio of length and width (2:1) partially
counteracted, however, by a more pleasing ratio of the vertical
dimension, equal spacing in the width of cover of box and box body, and
equal spacing of the hinges of the box from the ends of the box and from
each other. By applying the two and three horizontal division rules
these errors may be avoided.

[Sidenote: Freehand Curves]

Figure 24 shows a low bowl with a compass curve used in designing the
contour. This has brought the widest part of the design in the exact
center of the bowl which makes it commonplace. In addition to this the
top and bottom are of the same width, lacking variety in this respect.
Correction is readily made by applying a freehand curve to the contour,
raising or lowering the widest point (_F_), at the same time designing
the bottom either larger or smaller than the top.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 7 is a sheet suggestive of the application of Rules 1a,
     1b, 2a, and 2b, with an indication of the type of problem to be
     required. The steps of the designing processes in either wood
     (class 1), clay (class 2), or metal (class 3), are summarized
     as follows:

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Construction of the rectangle representing the vertical
     or horizontal character of the primary mass with desirable
     proportions. It is better to select a typical view (Plate 6,
     _D_), preferably a front elevation.

     (_b_) Subdivide this rectangle into two or three structural
     sections; horizontal in character. Make two or three trial
     freehand sketches for varied proportions and select the most
     pleasing one in accordance with Rules 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b.

     (_c_) Translate the selected sketch to a full size mechanical
     drawing or at least to a reasonably large scale drawing. The
     structural elements: _i.e._, legs, rails, posts, etc., should
     be added and other additional views made.

     (_d_) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop
     purposes.

     (_e_) Construct the project.


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a nasturtium bowl, applying Rules 1a, 1b, 2a. Design a
     writing table 2 feet 6 inches high with three horizontal
     divisions.

SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 2a. _If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal
     divisions, the dominance should be either in the upper or the
     lower section._

     Rule 2b. _If the primary mass is divided into three horizontal
     divisions or sections, the dominance should be placed in the
     center section with varying widths in the upper and lower
     thirds._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. State two methods of subdividing the primary mass.

     2. Define the nature and need of horizontal space divisions.

     3. Give five steps to be used in designing a foot stool or
     piano bench.

     4. What point constitutes a horizontal division in the contour
     of a simple clay bowl?

     5. State the rule governing two horizontal space divisions and
     furnish illustrations in wood, clay, and metal.

     6. Give the rule governing three horizontal space divisions and
     supply illustrations in wood, clay, and metal.

     7. State five steps in the designing of a project in the
     industrial arts involving the use of horizontal structural
     divisions.

[Illustration: APPLIED AND CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN

PRINCIPLE 3: VERTICAL SPACE DIVISIONS OF THE SINGLE H OR V PRIMARY MASS.

PROBLEM: VERTICAL SUB DIVISIONS IN CLASSES 1 2 3. THEY ARE USED TO BREAK
OR VARY LARGE AREAS OF HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL MASSES.

PLATE 11]



Chapter IV

VERTICAL MAJOR DIVISIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS


[Sidenote: Nature and Need of Vertical Space Division]

The design of the primary mass has now been considered under Rules 1a
and 1b, and its horizontal divisions under Rules 2a and 2b. The next
logical step is the consideration of the nature of the lines that cross
the primary mass in a vertical direction. In the original planning of
the primary mass it was found that the horizontal bounding lines and the
horizontal divisions were parallel to the base line of an object and
that the base line was necessary to ensure stability. Vertical lines are
necessary and equally important to give the needed vertical support to
an object.

So accustomed is the eye to vertical lines in tree trunks, tall
buildings, and thousands of other examples that the upward eye movement
in viewing an object, having a predominance of vertical elements,
seemingly adds to its height.

The designer thus has a most useful device with which to increase the
apparent height of an object that, for structural or other reasons, must
in reality not have great height. Chapter III drew attention to the
influence of horizontal lines on a project. Vertical lines on an object
are found to produce an analogous effect vertically.

[Sidenote: Architectural Precedent for Vertical Divisions]

Gothic cathedral builders used the vertical line, repeated again and
again in buttresses, pinnacles, and spires to give great apparent height
to a building and to make it a unified vertical mass of great beauty.
The modern church spire, together with the long, vertical interior
columns, similarly affects our present day church edifices.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF VERTICAL SPACE DIVISIONS IN CLASS 1 (WOOD).
THE DIVISIONS OF THIS CLASS ARE GENERALLY BASED UPON THE STRUCTURAL
REQUIREMENTS.

PLATE 12]

This idea of repeating the vertical bounding lines of the primary mass
by cutting the mass into vertical spaces is also useful in breaking up
or destroying the monotony of large unbroken surfaces. Pilasters may cut
the front of a building into interesting spaces; piers may break up the
regularity of a long fence; legs and panels may, each for the same
purpose, cross a cabinet. While some of these may be structurally
necessary and some not, they are all witnesses to the desire to produce
beauty in design. As these examples are so numerous in the industrial
arts, it is well to study in detail their proper adaptation to our
needs.

[Sidenote: One Vertical Space Division]

Upon analyzing one vertical space division, it will be found to be a
primary mass, vertical in character and governed by Rule 1a. Figure 25,
Plate 12, illustrates one vertical division. The foot is an appendage to
be considered in Chapter V.

[Sidenote: Two Vertical Space Divisions]

Rule 3a. _If the primary mass is divided into two vertical divisions,
the divisions should be equal in area and similar in form._ Exception
may be made in case of structural requirements. By imagining two
adjacent doors of equal size, the design effect of two vertical
divisions may be made clear. Plate 11 illustrates a rectangle (_A_)
divided in this manner, preliminary to the development of a problem.
Figure 27, Plate 12, represents the type of object to which the
exception to the rule may be applied. In the design of this desk, the
structure practically prohibits two equal vertical divisions,
necessitating an unequal division in the section occupied by the
drawers.

In Plate 12, Figure 26, the designer had his vertical spacings dictated
by service in the form of two doors. As service demands a tall vertical
primary mass, it is but natural to design the doors to conform with the
primary mass. This gives a monotonously long space for the glass panels
and suggests structural weakness. To relieve this the designer applied
Rule 2a and crossed the vertical panels by horizontal subdivisions,
relieving the monotony and still retaining the unity of the primary
mass.

[Sidenote: Two Vertical Divisions in Wood]

In Figure 27 his problem was a variation of that presented in Figure 26.
Structural limitations called for unequal divisions of the vertical
space arrangement. The left portion of the desk becomes dominant as
demanded by service. The drawer or brace is necessary in this design as
it acts as a sort of link, binding the two vertical legs together. The
omission of the drawer would destroy the unity of the mass.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF VERTICAL SPACE DIVISIONS IN CLASS 2. CLAY AND
CEMENT.

PLATE 13]

[Sidenote: Two Vertical Divisions in Clay]

As vertical space divisions are principally applicable to rectilinear or
flat objects and moreover as it is in such forms only that they have
structural value, they are not commonly met in cylindrical pottery ware.
Vertical divisions are, however, occasionally used in architectural
tiles and other flat wall objects. As three divisions are much more
commonly used in clay and cement, this material will now be left for
later consideration in this chapter.

[Sidenote: Vertical Divisions in Metal]

Vertical spacings in metal are quite similar to space divisions in wood.
Wrought iron fences are, by reason of structural limitations composed of
vertical and horizontal lines, varied by the introduction of piers and
curved members. As they are typical of a certain branch of iron
construction, two designs of the Anchor Post Iron Company have been
introduced. Figure 32, Plate 14, represents two equal vertical divisions
made so because of structural and aesthetic demands. The piers in this
instance form a part of the general design of the entire gate and must
be considered accordingly.

The vertical subdivision in Figure 32, Plate 14, has been repeated or
echoed by the long vertical bars, alternating with the shorter ones and
producing pleasing variety. The horizontal divisions are designed
according to Rule 2b. In designing the newel lantern in Figure 34 the
designer was required to form a vertical primary mass to conform with
the similar mass of the post. This he determined to subdivide vertically
in practically the same manner as the cabinet in Figure 26. Threatened
with the same monotony he met the situation by subdividing the vertical
sections into three horizontal divisions in accordance with Rule 2b. The
structural supports, however, rising up in the center of this mass,
destroy its unity. They would have carried out the lines of the
structure of the newel post and continued the lines of the lantern
better, if they had been attached to the corners rather than to the
sides of the newel post.

[Sidenote: Three Vertical Space Divisions]

Rule 3b. _If the primary mass is divided into three vertical divisions,
the center division should be the larger, with the remaining divisions
of equal size._ A large building with a wing on either side will give an
idea of this form of spacing. The size of the main building holds the
wings to it, thus preserving the unity of the structure, while equal
divisions on either side give balance. Plate 11 (_B_) gives an example
of a rectangle divided in this manner. This three-division motive is a
very old one. In the middle ages painters and designers used three
divisions or a triptych, as it is called, in their altar decorations. A
painting of the Virgin was usually placed in the center division with a
saint in each of the remaining panels to the right and left. Designers
and mural decorators have been using the triptych ever since that
period.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF TWO AND THREE VERTICAL SUBDIVISIONS IN CLASS
3 (METAL).

PLATE 14]

[Sidenote: Three Vertical Divisions in Wood]

The desk in Figure 28, Plate 12, is a good example of the three-vertical
space rule. The drawer in the center forms the mid or dominant section
and by its greater length holds the two smaller sections together. This
design is better than Figure 27, which has a similar mass. The prominent
vertical lines in Figure 27 counteract and destroy the effect of the
long horizontal dominant lines of the table top, whereas in Figure 28,
the vertical lines in the center of the design are so short that they do
not interfere with the horizontal lines of the table top. Figure 28
supports the horizontal tendency of the primary mass while Figure 27
neutralizes or practically destroys its character.

[Sidenote: Three Vertical Divisions in Clay and Cement]

Figure 30, Plate 13, represents an overmantle by the Rookwood Potteries.
It is typical of a class of overmantles which may be developed in tiles
or in cement, forming an agreeable contrast with the brick of a large
fireplace. The three divisions or triptych should be proportionately
related to the opening of the fireplace and to the enclosing mass of
brick or wood work. We will consider Figure 29 to show how this may be
carried out.

Figure 29 bears a strong resemblance to Figure 12, Plate 9, and is an
elaboration of a simple three-division theme of spacing. The design
seems to be complex until it is analyzed into two rules. The primary
mass of the entire fireplace motive (including the surrounding
panelling) has first been planned with strong and prominent horizontal
lines. This was then divided vertically (_A_) to conform with Rule 3b,
the three-division theme, giving the divisions for the bookcases and
mantle. The horizontal divisions (_B_) were then constructed within the
remaining space, affecting the distance from the picture moulding to the
mantle and from the mantle to the floor line, in accordance with Rule
2a. That left the space of the width of the cement work (_C_) to be
subdivided again by Rule 3b, while the top of the wainscoting panels
re-echoed the previous horizontal divisions of Rule 2a. The fireplace
opening merely carries out at _D_ the same proportionate relation that
dominates all vertical divisions, Rule 3b, while the wainscoting follows
the general horizontal divisions of Rule 2a. By this method we have
variety in spacing and unity through repetition of similar proportions.

[Illustration: THE EVOLUTION OF A DESIGN INVOLVING THE USE OF TWO
HORIZONTAL AND THREE VERTICAL SUBDIVISIONS

PLATE 15]

The cement bench, Figure 31, has a three-division arrangement to break
up the monotony of the long rail, and at the same time to repeat the
characteristics of a horizontal primary mass.

[Sidenote: Three Vertical Divisions in Metal]

Figure 33, Plate 14, is a common example of three vertical divisions in
metal suggested by the needs of service. Figures 35 and 36 are thin
metal problems. The familiar pen tray is primarily a horizontal mass, so
determined by its required service as a pen holder. The projecting
handles form the outer divisions, and the spacing motive, Rule 3b, has
been repeated in the raised projection, decorating the handles. The book
rack in Figure 36 is an example of the manner in which a nearly square
mass, so designed for structural reasons, may, by Rules 3b and 2a, be
broken into a fairly pleasing arrangement of divisions.

[Sidenote: More Than Three Divisions]

Rule 3c. _In elementary problems, if more than three vertical divisions
are required, they should be so grouped as to analyze into Rules 3a and
3b, or be exactly similar._ The eye becomes confused by a multitude of
vertical divisions and it is much better designing to keep them within
the number stated in this chapter. There are instances, however, when
this is impossible. Under such conditions the following treatment should
be adopted:

Unless, as stated, a large number of vertical divisions may be grouped
into two or three vertical divisions it is better to make all of the
divisions of the same size. This does not fatigue the eye as much as
would the introduction of a number of complex spacings. This solution
enables the amateur designer to deal with complex problems with an
assurance of securing a degree of unity.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 15 is practically self-explanatory and shows the order in
     which the various divisions, so far considered, are to be
     introduced into the design together with the grouping of
     details within those divisions. Figure D introduces the
     additional element termed the appendage to be considered in
     Chapter V.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Construction of the rectangle representing the vertical
     or horizontal character of the primary mass with desirable
     proportions. Select the most prominent surface for this
     rectangle, preferably the front elevation.

     (_b_) Subdivide this rectangle into two or three structural
     sections, horizontal and vertical in character. Make two or
     three trial freehand sketches on cross section paper for varied
     proportions and select the most pleasing in accordance with
     rules.

     (_c_) Translate the selected sketch into a scale or full size
     drawing and add additional views to complete the requirements
     of a working drawing. Add additional structural elements: legs,
     rails, etc.

     (_d_) For shop purposes, enlarge a scale drawing to full size,
     dimension and otherwise prepare it for actual use. See Figure
     102a, page 68, for character of this change.

     (_e_) Construct the project.


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a fire screen with two horizontal and three vertical
     major subdivisions.

     Design a bookcase 4 feet 2 inches high with three horizontal
     and two vertical major subdivisions.

SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 3a. _If the primary mass is divided into two vertical
     divisions, the divisions should be equal in area and similar in
     form._

     Rule 3b. _If the primary mass is divided into three vertical
     divisions, the center division should be the larger, with the
     remaining divisions of equal size._

     Rule 3c. _In elementary problems, if more than three vertical
     divisions are required, they should be so grouped as to analyze
     into Rules 3a and 3b, or be exactly similar._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What is the nature and need of vertical space divisions?

     2. State the rule governing the use of two vertical space
     divisions and give illustrations in wood, clay, and metal.

     3. Give the rule relating to the use of three vertical space
     divisions and furnish illustrations in wood, clay, and metal.

     4. What is the treatment of more than three vertical divisions?
     Why?



Chapter V

APPENDAGES AND RULES GOVERNING THEM


[Sidenote: Use of the Appendage]

An appendage is a member added to the primary mass for utilitarian
purposes. In the industrial arts, when an appendage is added merely for
the purpose of decoration, it is as useless and functionless as the
human appendix and, as a source of discord, should be removed.

An appendage in industrial arts may be, among other things, a plate
rail, bracket, spout, cover, or handle, all of which are capable of
service either for or with the primary mass. In architecture it may be a
wing or ell added to the mass of the building. Simple as its design may
seem, it is often so placed in relation to the main or primary mass that
it does not seem to "fit" or to be in unity with that mass.

[Sidenote: Designing an Appendage]

Rule 4a. _The appendage should be designed in unity with, and
proportionately related to, the vertical or horizontal character of the
primary mass, but subordinated to it._

Rule 4b. _The appendage should have the appearance of flowing smoothly
and, if possible, tangentially from the primary mass._

Rule 4c. _The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat some lines
similar in character and direction to those of the primary mass._

[Sidenote: Violations of Appendage Design]

All of the foregoing rules are intended to promote the sense of unity
between the primary mass and its appendages. If a mirror on a dresser
looks top-heavy it is generally due to the fact that it has not been
subordinated in size to the primary mass. Rule 4a. If the handle
projects from the primary mass of an object similar to the handle on a
pump, it has not been designed in accordance with Rules 4b and 4c.
Again, if the appendage projects from a primary mass like a tall chimney
from a long flat building, it has violated Rule 4a and has not been
proportionately related to the character of the vertical or horizontal
proportions of the primary mass.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF APPENDAGES IN CLASS 1 (WOOD) ADDED TO THE
PRIMARY MASS FOR UTILITARIAN PURPOSES. THEY SHOULD ALWAYS BE RELATED
TO THE PRIMARY MASS BY TANGENTS, PARALLELS OR BOTH.

PLATE 16]

It should be readily seen that if the primary mass has one dominant
proportion while the appendage has another, there will be a serious
clash and the final result will be the neutralization of both motives,
resulting in either an insipid and characterless design or a downright
lack of unity.

[Sidenote: Appendages in Wood]

The design of the small dressing table, Figure 37, Plate 16, with the
mirror classing as an appendage, is an excellent illustration of Rule
4a. The main mass of the table is vertical in character and the mirror
carries out or repeats the character of the primary mass by having a
similar but subordinate vertical mass. In this instance it is so large
that it has nearly the effect of a second primary mass.

As tangential junctions are difficult to arrange in wood construction
and particularly in furniture, the break between the table top and the
mirror has been softened by the introduction of a bracket or connecting
link. The curves of the link cause the eye to move freely from the
primary mass to the appendage and thus there is a sense of oneness or
unity between the two masses.

The lantern in Figure 38 becomes an appendage and is subordinated to the
large pedestal or support. The tangential junction has in this case been
fully possible and the eye moves freely from the vertical lines of the
base to the similar vertical mass of the lantern without noticeable
break.

[Sidenote: Unifying Appendage and Primary Mass]

The service of the dressing table, Figure 39, with its three-division
mirror makes the problem of adaptation of the appendage to the mass of
the table, in accordance with the rules, much more difficult. Under the
circumstances, about the best that can be done, at the same time keeping
within the limitations of desired service, is to plan the mirrors in
accordance with Rule 3b, with the dominant section in the center. To
secure an approach to unity, each section of the mirror should echo the
vertical proportion of the primary mass of the table.

The top of the writing stand, in Figure 40, is an example of a
horizontal appendage which repeats the horizontal character of the front
or typical face of the primary mass of the table. The small drawers and
divisions again take up and repeat the horizontal motive of the table,
while the entire appendage may be subdivided under Rule 3b, giving the
dominance to the center portion. The short curves in the appendage all
tend to lead the eye in a satisfactory and smooth transition from one
mass to the other or from the table top to the appendage. The
proportions of the small drawers are similar to the proportions of the
table drawers. Rule 4c. All of these points of similarity bring the
masses into close unity or oneness of appearance.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 41a]

The table legs, in Figure 41, are more difficult to adjust
satisfactorily. The idea of the designer is, however, apparent. The legs
leave the column of the table with a tangential curve and, sweeping out
with a strong curve, repeat the horizontal line of the table top in the
horizontal lines of their bottom surfaces.

[Sidenote: Industrial Applications]

Figure 41a, a modification of Figure 39, shows close unity between the
three divisions of the mirror due to the pleasing curve of the center
section with its tendency to bind the other sections to it. Again, the
echoing of the spacings of the three drawers in the similar spacings of
the three mirrors, makes the bond of unity still closer to the ideal
arrangement. Rule 4c.

Figures 41b and 41c are, in a way, parallel to Figure 41. The eye moves
freely from the feet (appendages) along the smooth and graceful curves
to the tall shaft or column of the primary mass. The turned fillets,
introduced at the junction of the appendage and the primary mass, in
Figure 41c, have a tendency to check this smooth passage making the
arrangement in Figure 41b preferable. The hardware for the costumers is
well chosen and in sympathy with the vertical proportions of the design.

[Sidenote: Appendages in Clay]

With the word "clay" all difficulties in the treatment of appendages
vanish. It is by far the easiest medium for the adaptation of the
appendage to the primary mass. Covers, handles, and spouts are a few of
the more prominent parts falling under this classification.

The process of the designer is to create the primary rectangle,
subdivide it into two horizontal subdivisions in accordance with Rule
2a, and proceed to add the desired number of appendages. The result may
be suggested by the following illustrations. In Figure 43, Plate 17, the
cover is a continuation of the curve of the top of the bowl, Rule 4a;
the tops of the handles are continuations of the horizontal line in the
top contour of the bowl, while the lower portions of the handles seem to
spring or grow from the lower part of the bowl with a tangential curve.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 41b

FIGURE 41c]

[Sidenote: Covers, Spouts, and Handles]

Figure 44 is a horizontal primary mass with the horizontal subdivision
in the upper section of that mass. The spout and handle spring naturally
from the body and balance each other in proportion, while the cover
handle rises smoothly from the primary mass. The horizontal character of
the primary mass is consistently carried out in the appendages.

The handle, in Figure 45, leaving the body at a tangent, rises with a
long straight curve to turn suddenly and join the pitcher in harmony
with its top. The apparent abruptness of the junction is softened by the
rounded corners typical of clay construction.

The Rookwood set, Figure 42, represents three similar primary masses.
The proportionate ratios and the horizontal subdivisions are the same
throughout. The handle for the teapot has been curved in the center to
give variety to the handle. This variation is a difficult thing to
manage without consequent loss of unity as by this variation Rule 4a is
violated. One thing may be said in its favor. It brings the hand closer
to the spout and thus supports the pouring weight. But the unusual in
design is to be discouraged until sufficient skill in simple designing
has been acquired.

In designing handle appendages for clay, they should be so placed that
they readily control the weight of the material in the container and
afford room for the fingers. Thus, it is better to have the larger
portion of the handle opening at the top of the primary mass. The spout
in all instances should continue sufficiently high to allow the
container to be filled to its full capacity without danger of the
contents running out of the spout. The glaze runs into rounded corners
much more freely than into square ones, hence it is preferable to use
rounded corners wherever possible.

[Sidenote: Requirements for Appendage Design]

It is the unexpected curve that is welcome in all designing, provided it
supports the structure and conforms to established rules. After
completing a design involving appendages it should be checked from three
points of view; (1) service, (2) unity between the primary mass and the
appendages, and (3) variety of curvature. On this last point it is
needless to say that compass curves are not desirable except in rounding
small corners or in using fillets. It is well known that compass curves
are difficult to assimilate into pleasing tangential effects. They are
inclined to be monotonous and regular with a "made by the thousand"
appearance to them. One should trust to freehand sweeps, drawn freely
with a full arm movement when possible. All curves should spring
naturally from the primary mass. Blackboard drawing is excellent
practice for the muscles used in this type of designing. In a short time
it will be found possible to produce the useful long, rather flat curve
with its sudden turn (the curve of force) that will make the compass
curve tame and commonplace by comparison.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF APPENDAGES IN CLASS 2 (POTTERY) ADDED TO THE
PRIMARY MASS FOR UTILITARIAN PURPOSES. THE PLASTICITY OF CLAY ALLOWS A
PERFECT TANGENTIAL UNION WITH THE BODY

PLATE 17]

[Sidenote: Freehand Curves]

[Sidenote: Appendages in Metal]

Figures 55, 56, and 57, Plate 18, show the close bond between the
appearance of the appendage in clay, and the one in metal. While it is
technically more difficult to adapt metal to the rules governing
appendages than is the case with clay, the final results are, in most
instances, equally pleasing to the eye.

In most of the figures showing examples in metal, the appendages have to
be secured to the primary mass by screws, rivets, or solder, whereas in
clay they may be moulded _into_ the primary mass. This tends to secure a
more unified appearance; but in metal, the junction of the handle and
the primary mass is often made a decorative feature of the design and
gives added interest and variety to the project.

The simple primary mass, Figure 58, has a horizontal space division in
the lower portion of the mass. This point of variation of the contour
has been used in the primary masses in Figures 55, 56, and 57, also as
the starting point of that dominant appendage, the handle. Springing
tangentially from the body, it rises in a straight line of extreme value
in service, then with a slight turn it parallels and joins the top of
the bowl, thus fulfilling the design functions of an appendage from both
points of service and beauty. The spout and lid, Figure 55, may be
likewise analyzed.

[Sidenote: Tangential Junctions]

The points of tangency, in Figure 54, become a decorative feature of the
design. The handles in the parts of the fire set, Figures 48 and 49,
offer different problems. It is difficult to analyze the latter figures
to determine the appendages as they are in such thorough unity with the
handles and are practically subdivisions of the primary mass. But
referring to the rule stating the fact that the appendages are
subordinated to and attached to the primary mass, it may justly be
stated that the shovel portion of the design may legitimately be
classed as an appendage. This will explain the need of a curve at the
junction points and the feature of the decorative twists in Figure 49.
Both designs may be analyzed into three horizontal divisions.

[Illustration: EXAMPLES OF APPENDAGES IN CLASS 3. METAL ... SEE
"A" ... NOTE THE TANGENTIAL RELATION BETWEEN THE APPENDAGE AND PRIMARY
MASS AT "T"

PLATE 18]

[Sidenote: Andiron Design]

The andirons, Figures 50 to 53, illustrate interesting transitions in
wrought iron from the primary mass to the appendage. The vertical shaft
of wrought iron has been treated as a primary mass while the feet may be
classed as appendages. In Figure 50 we have an example of a frankly
square junction point. Figure 51 discloses a weld with rounded corners,
forming a more pleasing junction than does the abrupt angle of Figure
50. This conforms to Rule 4b. The appendage legs echo or repeat the
vertical lines of the primary mass and there is consequently a sense of
unity between them.

In Figure 52 the appendage foot is curved, and the primary mass has a
similar curve on the top of the vertical column to apply Rule 4c to
repeat the curve. The small links at _X_ indicate an attempt to make the
junction point more pleasing to the eye, but the link is too large to
accomplish the desired result successfully. In Figure 53 the links have
been materially reduced in size and in the amount of curvature. In this
example the eye goes unhampered from appendage to primary or back again,
without perceptible interruption and the unity of the mass, seriously
threatened in Figure 52, is restored in Figure 53.

In Figure 46 there is an example of a link becoming large enough to be
classed as an appendage connecting two primary masses, _e.g._, the
lantern and the wall. Under these conditions, one end of the appendage
harmonizes with the lantern and the other end with the wall. Figure 47
shows a cast brass candlestick which is an excellent example, from the
Studio, of tangential junction.

[Sidenote: Influence of Tools and Materials]

Clay may readily stand as the most adaptable material for appendages,
with metal ranking second, and wood third. The grain of wood seems to
interfere with the tangential junction of the appendage and primary
mass. Appendages of wood are, however, quite necessary at times. Their
use is merely a matter of lessening the contrast of conflicting lines in
an addition of this nature.

The band and bracket saws are required in many instances to construct
the connecting link between opposing masses of wood.

[Illustration: APPLIED AND CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN

PRINCIPLE 4. RELATION OF PRIMARY MASS TO APPENDAGES

PROBLEM: APPLICATION TO CLASSES 2 AND 3

PLATE 19]

[Sidenote: Influence of Tools and Materials (_Continued_)]

Hand building or casting is the means used to construct the appendages
in plastic materials. Appendages in cement are seen in the uprights for
cement seats and are generally translated into the primary mass by means
of mouldings or curves.

Forging or thin and raised metal construction affords many examples of
the adaptability of material in constructing appendages. Rivets form
decorative features at the junction points and should be placed with
great care and relation to the decoration and the point of tangency.


INSTRUCTION SHEET FOR CLASS PRESENTATION

     The typical views to be used in classroom work, with the
     ordinary range of problems, are shown on Plate 19. These
     typical views should be supplemented by dimensions, cross
     sections, and other views whenever necessary. Wood construction
     has been omitted from this sheet, but its development in design
     is quite similar to the steps indicated in the summary.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the primary rectangle.

     (_b_) Subdivide the rectangle into two or three horizontal and,
     if necessary, vertical divisions.

     (_c_) Estimate the dimensions of the appendage necessary to
     perform the desired service in the best manner.

     (_d_) If the appendage is a handle, place it in such a position
     that it not only appears to but actually does support the
     weight of the primary mass.

     (_e_) Complete the contour curves of the primary mass based
     upon the horizontal division which acts as a unit of
     measurement or a turning point.

     (_f_) Join the appendages to the primary mass by means of
     tangential curves.

     (_g_) Establish unity between the primary mass and the
     appendages by applying Rules 4a, 4b, and 4c.

     (_h_) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop use.
     See Plate 26.

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a sugar bowl, cream pitcher, and teapot. Consider them
     as different members of one set.

     Design a sideboard 3 feet 3 inches high with plate rack, the
     design to contain two vertical and two horizontal divisions
     exclusive of the appendage.

SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 4a. _The appendage should be designed in unity with, and
     proportionately related to, the vertical or horizontal
     character of the primary mass, but subordinated to it._

     Rule 4b. _The appendage should have the appearance of flowing
     smoothly and, if possible, tangentially from the primary mass._

     Rule 4c. _The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat
     some lines similar in character and direction to those of the
     primary mass._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. State the nature and use of the appendage.

     2. What is the relation of the size of the appendage to the
     size of the primary mass?

     3. How should the appendage be attached to the primary mass?

     4. How does Rule 4c help to secure unity between the appendage
     and the primary mass?

     5. Are compass curves permissible in appendage design?

     6. State influence of tools and materials upon appendage
     design.



CHAPTER VI

ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN WOOD


With this chapter we introduce contour enrichment, the second major
division of industrial arts design.

[Sidenote: Need and Value of Enrichment]

A critic of furniture designed by the average manual arts student has
stated frankly that while it might have been honestly constructed it
was, in the first place, too heavy for a woman to move about the house
and, in the second place, it represented a decidedly uneconomical use of
that valuable material, wood. That there is a basis in fact for this
statement cannot be denied. Is it true, then, that furniture must of
necessity be clumsy and heavy when it is sufficiently simplified in
constructive processes for school work? We may say emphatically, "No!"

One may correct the proportions of an object and reduce the size of the
materials in it to a minimum but still fail to secure the desirable
elements of lightness and interest. The object may still _look_ heavy
and remain a box-like structure void of the grace synonymous with the
best in design. It is, however, possible to correct the clumsy and heavy
appearances by imparting to the design elements of grace and lightness.
Two methods may be used, singly or together: (1) Enrichment of the
Functional Outlines or Contours; (2) Surface Enrichment sometimes called
Space Filling. These may be roughly classified respectively as three and
two dimension enrichment.

[Sidenote: Contour Enrichment]

The first, or outline enrichment, concerns itself with the structural
lines. As all designing processes should start with the structure, it
will be our policy to do so. The present chapter will deal only with
enrichment of outlines of wood projects.

Rule 5a. _Outline enrichment should be subordinated to and support the
structure._

Rule 5b. _Outline enrichment should add grace, lightness, and variety to
the design._

[Illustration: COMMON ERRORS IN CONTOUR ENRICHMENT

STAMP BOXES

PLATE 19a]

[Sidenote: Purpose of Contour Enrichment]

[Sidenote: Requirements of Contour Enrichment]

It is the purpose of enrichment to add to the problem (1) grace; (2)
lightness; (3) variety; (4) unity. If it is applied in a proper manner
it should likewise add to the apparent structural strength. We should
carefully guard the design, therefore, against (1) enrichment that has a
tendency to obscure or destroy the structural lines; in other words,
enrichment that is not subordinated to the structure, and (2) enrichment
that adds nothing to the structure by its application; that is, one
which does not increase either the apparent strength or the beauty of
the object.

As an example of this first point, the turned candlestick with the
candle supported by a stack of turned balls alternating with tauri or
thin discs tends to obscure completely the sense of support. Again, the
landscape gardener feels that he is violating a fundamental principle in
design if by planting vines to grow around a building, he obscures the
foundation, and the roof appears, consequently, to rest on and be
supported by the stems and leaves of the vines. Thus it is seen that the
eye registers a sense of structural weakness when the main supports of
an object disappear and are no longer to be traced under the enrichment.

Under the second point falls the indiscriminate placing of unrelated
objects in the contour enrichment. Naturalistic objects similar to the
claw foot and the human head, for example, should give way to natural
curves that add to the appearance of total strength. Where are we to
find these curves suited to our purpose?

[Sidenote: Valuable Curves for Outline Enrichment]

Up to this point emphasis has been placed upon straight and curved lines
immediately connected with pure service. For grace and lightness it is
necessary to depart at times from the rigidity of straight lines. To
understand the character of this departure let us consider a simple
bracket as a support for a shelf.

This bracket acts as a link, connecting a vertical wall or leg with a
horizontal member or shelf. A bracket shaped like a 45-degree triangle,
Figure 10, page 24, gives one the sense of clumsiness. If the feeling of
grace is to be imparted the eye must move smoothly along the outline of
the bracket, giving one a sensation of aesthetic pleasure. A curved line
will produce this effect more completely than will a straight line. One
must likewise get the feeling that the curve of the bracket is designed
to support the shelf.

[Illustration: NATURAL AND GEOMETRIC CURVES WITH THEIR USE IN FUNCTIONAL
OUTLINE ENRICHMENT

PLATE 20]


THE CURVE OF FORCE

[Sidenote: Valuable Curves]

Turning to Figure 70, Plate 20, we find that whenever nature desires to
support a weight she is inclined to use a peculiar curve seen at _F_.
Possibly through continued observation the eye has associated this curve
with strength or supporting power. Figure 71 has detailed this curve. It
is found to consist of a long, rather flat portion with a quick and
sudden turn at its end. The curve is known to designers as the Curve of
Force and is most valuable in all forms of enrichment. Designers even in
early ages used it in some form as will be noted from the fragment of
Greek sculpture in Figure 72. Its beauty rests in its variety. A circle
has little interest due to its rather monotonous curvature. The eye
desires variety and the curve of force administers to this need and
gives a sense of satisfaction. As designers on wood, how are we to
utilize this curve for purposes of outline enrichment?

[Sidenote: An Approximate Curve of Force]

For approximate similarity of curvature an ellipse constructed as shown
in Figure 73 will be found convenient. By drawing several ellipses of
varying sizes upon sheets of tin or zinc, a series of templates of
utmost practical value may be formed and used as was done in securing
the curves of force in Figures 74 and 75. If the rail or shelf is longer
than the post, measured downward from the rail to the floor or to the
next shelf, the ellipse should be used with its major axis placed in a
horizontal position, Figure 75. If, on the contrary, the post is longer
than the shelf the ellipse should have its major axis in a vertical
position, Figure 74. Figures 76 and 77 show other instances of the use
of the approximate curve of force. Many similar practical applications
will occur to the designer.

[Sidenote: Mouldings]

We have classed the bracket as a link connecting a vertical and
horizontal structure. Mouldings may likewise be considered as links
connecting similar horizontal or vertical surfaces by bands of graded
forms. Inasmuch as they effect the outline they are considered in this
chapter. As the mouldings are to assist the eye to make the jump from
one surface to another by easy steps, the position from which the
mouldings are to be seen determines to some extent their design.

[Illustration: ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOUR OR OUTLINE BY MOULDINGS APPLIED
TO WOOD ... TYPES OF MOULDING ... WOOD TURNING PROBLEMS

PLATE 21]

[Sidenote: Mouldings (_Continued_)]

Figure 78 shows the relation of the spectator to three types of
mouldings at _A_, _B_, and _C_. The top or _crown_ (_A_) is to be seen
from below. On a large project the angle of the mouldings with the
body of the object should be approximately 45 degrees. The
_intermediate_ moulding (_B_) is lighter than the crown and forms a
transitional link that may be seen from either above or below. The lower
or _base_ moulding (_C_) is the widest member of the group as demanded
by our sense of stability. It is seen from above. Both for sanitary and
structural reasons it projects but slightly from the base. With this
grouping in mind it is needless to say that a faulty moulding is one,
some portion of which, hidden by intervening moulding, cannot be seen by
the spectator.

Architectural design and history have formulated a series of curves,
geometric in character, that are regarded as standards in the Industrial
Arts. Some of the more prominent curves with their constructions are
shown in Figure 79. The horizontal divisions are analyzed in accordance
with Rules 2a and 2b. It is noticed that the Scotia possesses a curve
having the shape of the curve of force, while the two Cymas are saved
from monotonous division by means of their reversed curves, illustrating
the contrast of direction. The curves of Figure 80 are excellent lines
for freehand practice in designing mouldings and will develop the
principle of continuity of curvature or the smooth transition of one
curve into the next.

[Sidenote: Continuity and Contrast]

To keep this continuity from the monotony of a Marcel Wave it is
customary to break continuous curves by a fillet such as a straight line
as shown at _D_, Figures 81, 82, and 83. When the desired outside
diameter has been reached, contrast of direction is necessary and
pleasing as a return, Figure 82. A glance at the curves so far
considered will quickly determine whether they are fitted for the crown,
intermediate or base mouldings. A curve should join a straight line with
either a tangential or right angle junction, which makes for
positiveness in contour expression.

[Sidenote: Grouping of Curves]

[Illustration: FIGURE 85.--Modern Candlesticks]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 86.--Modern Book Trough]

Application of these curves to outline enrichment for wood turning
projects is to be governed by a strict adherence to Rules 2a or 2b,
otherwise confusion and lack of unity will result. Figure 83 shows a
major grouping under Rule 2b with the subdivisions and minor curves
arranged under Rules 2a and 2b. Figure 84 shows a disregard for rules
and the result is an undesirable monotony of contour. If smooth and even
continuity of curvature is given considerable thought, together with
that for systematic grouping and variety, a pleasing result from wood
turning (a much abused but pleasing form of outline enrichment) may be
secured. Figures 85 and 86 are illustrations from the industrial field
with moulding curves grouped, following and supporting the structural
lines of the object. The columns in Figure 86 might, however, be
advantageously reversed.

[Sidenote: Materials]

Large objects designed to be seen from a distance require larger space
divisions for their mouldings than do small objects seen from a nearer
point. Material affects the curve somewhat. Smaller mouldings are more
suited to the expensive woods like mahogany while larger curves may be
used in pine or oak.

[Sidenote: Evolution of Enriched Outline Design]

We now have at our command a number of interesting and serviceable
curves suited to the material. Plate 22 is a sheet of applications.
Figures 87 to 94 deal with the book-rack end and in this, as in the
initial chapter, architecture is referred to as the source for many laws
of industrial design. It has seemed wise to illustrate some of these
important parallels as follows:

We will assume the type of joint construction of the book-rack end as
settled and the question of enrichment to be under consideration.

Figure 87 is a simple primary mass without enrichment. It is comparable
to the plain box-like structure with monotonous outline and without
interest. The eye follows the outline in the direction of the arrows,
pausing at the square corners, which interrupt a free movement by a
harsh right angle. The base (an appendage) repeats in each instance the
lines of the primary mass.

Figure 88. Round corners, by freeing the design from the right angles,
accelerate the eye movement and give a sense of added interest and grace
to the contour.

Figure 89. The cornice of a building suggests a similar arrangement
which may be added to the primary mass. It adds the element of contrast
of direction and variety of widths.

[Sidenote: Variations]

Figure 90. The main primary mass of a building with two equal appendages
will suggest the enrichment of the outline in sympathy with three
vertical divisions. Rule 3b. The rounded corners again assist the eye to
travel freely around the contours, thus giving a sense of unity to the
entire form.

[Illustration: ENRICHMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL OUTLINES OR CONTOURS AS
APPLIED TO WOOD

THE EVOLUTION OF OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF A BOOK RACK END WITH CROSS
REFERENCES TO PARALLELS IN ARCHITECTURE

PLATE 22]

[Illustration: FIGURES 101 and 102]

Figure 91. The pediment of a Greek temple with the interest centered at
the top of the pediment (_x_) causes a similar concentration of interest
in the book-rack end. The slight inclination of the sides supplies
variety of widths. The architect considers an object with the interest
centered in this manner in the upper portion, as possessing more
individuality than a motive with purely horizontal lines across the top
boundary.

[Illustration: FOLDING SCREEN

FIGURE 102a]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 103.--A Modern Telephone Stand and Stool]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 104.--Modern Chair]

Figure 92. In this figure the curved inclination facilitates the upward
movement of the eye, at the same time supplying variety of width.

Figure 93. The addition of an appendage to the outline of the Greek
temple suggests a slight drop or variation in the top edge of the
book-rack end which gives increased interest and grace through variety.

Figure 94. Contrast of direction is supplied in this suggestion but it
is questionable whether we are adding much to the interest by the
corner.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 105.--A Modern Serving Table]

Figures 95 to 98 are variations of one theme, the foot stool, and Figure
99 adds suggestive designs for rails. _D_ in Figure 99 shows the
enrichment line cut to a depth which threatens the structural value of
the rail. This is corrected in Figure 103. Figure 100 is an application
of the curve of force to a chair leg _B_, with other possibilities
at _A_ and _C_. Numerous applications of the varied curves under
consideration are found throughout this sheet.

[Illustration: FIGURE 105a]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 106.--Sheraton Table]

Before closing with enriched outlines it is well to consider flagrant
violations of this enrichment now on the market. Figure 101 shows a
typical example of complete lack of unity and simplicity. It is a type
of design often associated with cheaply constructed furniture. It is an
ornate parody on outline enrichment. The curves of extravagance are well
shown in Figure 102 where large bulbous curves with no systematic
grouping combine disastrous waste of material with lack of grace or
lightness. It is excellent practice to redesign such examples as those
shown in Figures 101 and 102 with special reference to Rule 5c.

Rule 5c. _Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should give a sense of
oneness or unity to the design, binding divergent members together._

[Illustration: INSTRUCTION SHEET

CONTOUR ENRICHMENT OF WOOD

DRAWN AND DESIGNED BY JEANNETTE E. FITCH

U. OF W.]

Illustrations 103 to 106 are typical forms of present day outline
enrichment. Limitations of space will not permit reference to the use of
Period furniture. Sheraton and Hepplewhite designs are most adaptable
for school uses as may be seen by comparing the Sheraton desk (Figure
106) with the foot stool in Figure 96.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Figure 83 and Plates 22 and 23 are indicative of what might be
     obtained from a class. The problem represented on Plate 23 is
     advantageously colored with the intended stain and with a small
     section of side wall and trim visible. See Chapter 16, Figures
     458 to 463. Figure 102a shows the method of enlarging a design
     into a full size working drawing for shop purposes.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the primary rectangle.

     (_b_) Subdivide the rectangle into vertical and horizontal
     divisions.

     (_c_) Determine parts to be treated by contour enrichment.

     (_d_) Determine method suited to the project: wood turning,
     moulding, etc.

     (_e_) Group the wood turning curves under a definite system
     included under Rules 2a and 2b. Group the mouldings under
     crown, intermediate, and base classifications. Add this
     enrichment to the primary mass or make other simple variations
     that will not destroy the unity of the project.

     (_f_) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop use.

     (_g_) Construct the project.

     _Note_.--If the designer is not properly equipped to prepare
     his own mouldings, he should consult moulding catalogs or the
     stock of some local lumber company.


ADDITIONAL SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a wood pedestal with the curves grouped into three
     horizontal divisions.

     Design a hall table 2 feet 10 inches high and add simple
     contour enrichment.


SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 5a. _Outline enrichment should be subordinated to and
     support the structure._

     Rule 5b. _Outline enrichment should add grace, lightness, and
     variety to the design._

     Rule 5c. _Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should give a
     sense of oneness or unity to the design, binding divergent
     members together._


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. State nature and need of enrichment.

     2. What two forms of enrichment are commonly used in industrial
     arts design?

     3. What four qualities are added to industrial design by
     contour enrichment?

     4. What disturbing elements should be guarded against in the
     application of contour enrichment?

     5. Describe the curve of force and its function in the contour
     enrichment of wood.

     6. What are mouldings? Name three types of mouldings, their
     positions with relation to the eye level, and some curves used
     in their design.

     7. Give examples of curves of continuity and contrast. By what
     means should two contrasting curves be separated?

     8. How should a curve join a straight line?

     9. Explain the grouping of contour curves in wood turning
     projects similar to a round leg or candlestick.

     10. Present five designs for book-racks, enriched by changes of
     the contour. Give architectural cross references for each
     design.

     11. Present three well designed table or chair legs and top and
     bottom rails and assemble one of these in a design.



CHAPTER VII

ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN CLAY


[Sidenote: Need of Enrichment]

In the medium we are now about to consider there is a tendency for the
enthusiastic beginner to over-elaborate the outline into meaningless
forms. This possibly is due to the ease with which clay is manipulated.
It would be well then to ask two questions before starting with the work
of enriching the simple structure. First, why should it be enriched--is
there a positive gain by so doing? Second, (if the decision is favorable
to enrichment) where should it be enriched? Let us co-ordinate the parts
to assist in this process.

[Sidenote: Parts Differing in Function]

[Sidenote: Unity]

Rule 5d. _Parts of one design differing in function should differ in
appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire design._ As a suggestion
to guide one in enriching an object it is necessary to consider that
parts differing in function may differ in appearance, but as members of
one family they should still be related to the whole. For example, a
spout, handle, and lid may differ in design from that of the body of a
pitcher because they differ from it in function. Again, the rim and foot
of a vase may be slightly changed or individually accented because of
their respective duties. The base and holder of a candlestick may vary
in design from the central part or handle, as each has a special
function to perform. This rule of the change of appearance with the
change of functional service (Rule 5d), is found throughout
architectural design. The variation in design in the base, shaft, and
capital of a column is possibly one of the most common examples. While
differing in function they still _must have unity and "hold together."_

These functional parts of one design, differing in service rendered,
form centers of construction and may receive emphasis in outline
enrichment. Corners and terminal points are likewise available for
decoration and will be discussed at length later.

[Illustration: FIGURE 107.--Clay Outline Enrichment in the Rookwood
Potteries]

Enrichment in clay and metal generally means a substitution of curved
for straight lines in the enriched portions of the design. These curves
have the ability to impart grace, lightness, and variety to an object
provided they are based upon constructive features of the problem. They
must have a unit of measurement and must likewise be appropriate to the
material. It is therefore necessary to deal with clay in this chapter
and follow with a consideration of metal in another chapter.

In Figures 109 to 123, Plate 24, we have a number of examples of
variation of practically the same primary enclosing rectangle. Figure
108 represents a "squarely" proportioned circular bowl lacking both
refinement of proportion and enrichment. Figure 109 has added refinement
of proportions. Figures 110 and 111 have introduced an outline enriched
to the extent of a simple curve. The base is the dominant width in the
first, and the top dominates in width in the second. The outline in
Figure 112, while similar to 110 for a portion of its length, departs at
a stated point and by curving in toward the base supplies more variety
to the contour. We have already said that this outline curve should have
a unit of measurement and by referring to Rules 2a and 2b we are able to
formulate the following:

[Sidenote: Unit of Measurement for Curves in Outline Enrichment]

Rule 5e. _In cylindrical forms outline curves with a vertical tendency
should have their turning points or units of measurement in accordance
with the horizontal divisions of Rules 2a and 2b._ Figures 112 and 113
have as their unit of measurement two horizontal spaces formed in
accordance with Rule 2a, while Figures 116 and 117 have still more
variety by the addition of a compound curve with its turning points or
unit of measurement based upon Rule 2b. Figures 114 and 115 with
outlines similar to those in Figures 112 and 113, respectively, have an
additional enrichment, the foot and rim accentuation.

[Sidenote: Accentuation of Functional Parts in Clay]

The new element of enrichment consists of accenting by adding to the
design a modeled rim and a base or foot, as it is technically known.
This not only strengthens the structure at these two functional points
but, by adding a small section of shadow, it tends to break up the
surface, Figure 127, and add to the variety of enrichment. Figures 124
to 127 show the building processes connected with this interesting and
constructive addition.

[Sidenote: Appendages]

Figures 116 to 119 show variations of the preceding figures while
Figures 120 to 123 introduce the appendages to preceding figures. As in
the designing of all appendages, discussed in Chapter V, it is the
designer's intention to balance spout and handle to avoid a one-sided or
top-heavy appearance.

One of the principal difficulties that confronts the amateur designer is
the failure to secure variety while retaining unity. This is largely due
to a lack of ideas upon the subject and a marked lack of systematic
development of one theme.

Attention is directed to the diagram in the lower portion of Plate 24.
The idea is to start with some simple form in columns _A_, _B_, _C_,
_D_, _E_, _F_, Figure 128. Figure 129 introduces _two_ horizontal
divisions. Rule 2a. The _black_ portion is the dominant section.

[Illustration: OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN CLAY

GOOD CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN IS "A FREE AND ADEQUATE EMBODIMENT OF AN IDEA
IN A FORM PECULIARLY APPROPRIATE TO THE IDEA ITSELF" HEGEL

PLATE 24]

[Sidenote: Systematic Development of Outline Enrichment in Clay]

Notice the change in outlines based upon this division. Figure 130
raises the division point of the two subdivisions into the upper half of
the object. This brings out the need of an accented foot which is,
however, not of sufficient prominence to be considered as a horizontal
spacing. Figure 131 raises the horizontal division points, again causing
the introduction of a larger foot and now qualifying it as a division of
the whole mass. This then makes our design a three-division problem,
Rule 2b, and places it under the restrictions of Rule 5e.

The feet of all of the bowls have been systematically decreased in width
by the converging lines _C-C_ while the tops have been maintained
constant in width. By this simple diagram an infinite number of designs
may be formed and the choice of selection from the series, thoughtfully
exercised, will supply the ideal bowl, ready to be translated into a
full size working drawing. It is not the idea, however, to guarantee a
perfect design in each one of these divisions as that would be
practically impossible, but we have systematically applied a method of
determination for stimulating the imagination. A series of articles by
F.H. Rhead in the Keramic Studio first suggested the system of
development by means of graded rectangles.

[Sidenote: Candlesticks]

Plate 25 shows a further elaboration of the succeeding themes. The
candlestick series, Figures 132 to 138, introduces two or three-space
division problems with contour turning points at _A_, Rule 5e, and with
accented or embryonic feet and rims. The change from the purely
functional and unenriched member of Figure 132 through the series shows
the enrichment changing slightly to meet the needs of the three
functional parts: the base, the handle, and the candle socket. Rule 5d.

[Sidenote: Containers]

Figure 139 shows a series of illustrations representing variations for
containers. The first figure is without enrichment, followed by
variations of the outline in the manner already suggested.

[Sidenote: Pourers]

Figure 140 indicates a series of pourers with the least attractive
design on the left end. This unsatisfactory design is found, upon
analysis, to be due to centrally placed horizontal division violating
Rule 2a. The design of the appendages in this series will again be found
to conform with the rules in Chapter V. The units of measurement for the
curves may be readily ascertained from observation.

[Illustration: OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN CLAY WITH
METHODS OF SECURING VARIETY

PLATE 25]

[Sidenote: Similarity with Varying Primary Masses]

Figure 141 is useful for the following purpose. It is desirable at times
to develop a number of similar forms for a set, with a gradually
increasing ratio of proportions, either in height or width. Figure 141
shows how the _height_ may be increased while maintaining a common
width. Notice the gradual proportionate increase of the height of the
neck _A-B_ as well as that of the body. The line _X_ is of the utmost
value in ascertaining the height of the intermediate bowls. The eye
should now be so trained that the height of the neck _A-B_ on the last
bowl can be readily proportioned by _eye measurement_ to that of the
first bowl. A line similar to _X_ will give the intermediate points.

Figure 142 varies the _width_ in a similar manner. Notice the gradually
decreasing distances _C-D-E-F_, the spaces for which may be determined
by the eye.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 26 suggests the sequential progression of steps leading
     to the potter's working drawing.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the primary rectangle.

     (_b_) Add limits of functional parts: handle, spout, cover, etc.

     (_c_) Establish unit of measurement for primary rectangle contour
     curves.

     (_d_) Design contour of primary mass and add the appendages to it,
     observing the rules pertaining to appendages and unit of
     measurement.

     (_e_) Dimension and otherwise prepare the drawing for the potter's
     use. This includes the planning of a working drawing, one-eighth
     larger in all directions than the preliminary design, to allow for
     the shrinkage of the clay body. The working drawing should also be
     in partial sections to show the construction of the interior of the
     ware.

SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a teapot, tea caddy, and cup showing a common unity in
     contour design. (Plate 82.)

SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 5d. _Parts of one design differing in function should
     differ in appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire
     design._

     Rule 5e. _In cylindrical forms outline curves with a vertical
     tendency should have their turning points or units of measurement
     in accordance with the horizontal divisions of Rules 2a and 2b._

[Illustration: RULES 5D AND 5E CONTOUR OR OUTLINE ENRICHMENT. CLAY.
INSTRUCTION SHEET

PLATE 26]

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. Give and illustrate the rule governing the change in the
     appearance of the design with the change of functional service.

     2. What is the aesthetic value of curves in outline enrichment?

     3. Correlate the rule governing the unit of measurement for
     vertical contour curves with the rules controlling horizontal
     divisions.

     4. Show, by a diagram, the method of systematically varying the
     contours of circular forms: (_a_) by changing the horizontal
     divisions; (_b_) by varying the proportion of the primary mass.

     5. What is the value of accenting the functional parts in clay
     design?

[Illustration: _Courtesy of James Milliken University_

FIGURE 142a.--Outline and Surface Enrichment in College Pottery]

[Illustration: OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASSES OF THE
BASER METALS

ENRICHMENT OF EDGES, CORNERS, INTERMEDIATE POINTS, APPENDAGES. SEE
PLATE 28 FOR TERMINALS, LINKS, DETAILS.

PLATE 27]



CHAPTER VIII

ENRICHMENT OF THE CONTOURS OR OUTLINES OF DESIGNS IN BASE AND PRECIOUS
METALS


[Sidenote: Enrichment of the Base Metals--Iron, Copper, Brass, Bronze]

The contours of clay forms are generally free to follow the curves and
take the direction dictated by the knowledge and taste of the designer.
Metal outlines are more restricted in this respect. Metal is frequently
associated with service and consequently its design is often governed by
its intended use. For example, if we were to design a metal drawer pull
for a buffet, it would have to be considered in relation to the
character and shape of the buffet. Again, the screws with which it is
attached to the buffet would influence its outline design. It is, in
other words, a _dependent_ outline.

[Sidenote: Free and Dependent Outlines]

To distinguish between an unrestricted outline and one bound by other
considerations we will term the restricted outline a _dependent
outline_, for its enrichment must be related to other forms either
within or without its surface. A _free outline_ on the other hand is one
in which the designer is free to use his ideas unrestricted by any other
outside consideration, except service and design consistent with the
material.

In order to emphasize the nature of a dependent outline we have Rule 5f.
_Dependent outline enrichment should be related to essential parts of a
design and influenced by their forms and functions; it must be
consistent with the idea of the subject._

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Edges]

We will start with the simplest form of outline enrichment of base
metals, the decoration of an edge. It is contrary to the laws of service
to leave sharp edges on articles intended for intimate household use,
except where cutting edges are required. The rounding of sharp edges is
likewise dictated by the laws of beauty. The transition from one plane
surface to another is assisted by a rounded edge, as the eye takes
kindly to the softened play of light and shade.

This gives us the simplest form of enrichment--the beveled, chamfered,
or rounded edge, Figures 143 and 144, Plate 27. The rim of a thin
18-gauge plate is likewise improved and strengthened by lapping the edge
as shown in Figure 145, giving the rounded effect shown in Figure 144.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Functional Parts]

There are six important functional parts with which we are brought into
common contact in industrial design of base metals. There are many more,
but these are the most common and consequently are of the utmost
importance to the designer as design centers. These parts are itemized
as follows: (1) Corners, (2) Appendages, (3) Intermediate Points, (4)
Terminals, (5) Links, (6) Details. As the decorative treatment of each
part varies with the functional duty, Rule 5d, separate treatment and
consideration of each part will be necessary.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Corners]

Corners, as extreme turning points of a design, are often found
convenient for the location of screw holes, rivets, etc. These important
construction elements become prominent functional parts of the design
and by custom and the laws of design, Rule 5d, they are capable of
receiving outline enrichment. But the contour of the corner must be
related to the screws or rivets, particularly if they are near the edge,
hence our outline becomes a _dependent outline_ and as such must be
related to the rivets or screws by Rule 5f.

Figures 146 to 149 show various arrangements of this type of design. The
unity of the design is not lost, and the functional parts are enriched
by contours related to the elements of service (rivets). Figure 153
shows another but slightly modified example of the same laws applied to
hinge construction. The enriched outline in this case is closely
associated with the holes in the hinge. The hinges in turn must be
related to the object for which they are designed. Figure 150 gives a
common example of corner enrichment by means of varying the edge at the
corners, _i.e._, by rounding the tray corners.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Appendages]

As appendages have distinct functional duties their design may vary as
the design of the arm of the human figure differs from the head. Yet, as
parts of the same body, they must fit the shape of the object to which
they are attached. The candle holder and handle as appendages in Figure
150 are designed in sympathetic relation by means of tangential and
similar curves sufficiently varied to give the eye a feeling of variety
in the design. The novel single flower holders, Figures 151 and 152,
with the glass test tube acting as a container show other possible
forms of the appendage design. The first is informal while the second is
formal, but both adhere to the first simple rules of appendage design.
Rule 4a, etc.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Intermediate Points]

[Illustration: FIGURE 156a.--Candlestick, Rendered by E.R.]

The enrichment of center or intermediate points should be handled with
great care and with a definite reason. Careless handling may cause the
design to lack unity. Figures 154 and 155 show a simple twist as
enrichment. The serviceable reason for this is to obtain a grip at the
point of the twist. Again, it varies the character of the straight edges
and adds interest without loss of compactness or unity. If one is
desirous of widening a vertical or horizontal rod, the enrichment made
by welding a number of small rods together with a spreading twist gives
a pleasing and serviceable handle. Figure 156.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Terminals]


[Sidenote: Free and Dependent Contour Enrichment]

As the public demands a happy ending to a story or a play, so does the
eye demand a well-designed ending to a design. The part that terminal
enrichment plays in industrial design is, therefore, to say the least,
important to us as designers. Figure 157 illustrates terminals in thin
metal and is shown by courtesy of the _School Arts Magazine_ from one
of the articles by Mr. Augustus Rose. The outlines are in part dependent
in character, controlled by rivets. Notice the change of curve as the
function changes from the _dependent curve_ of the rivet area to the
_free outline_ of the handle and again from the handle to the cutting
blade; a functional change of marked character, but in thorough unity
with the entire design. It is again emphasized that whether the design
possesses a free or a dependent outline, or a combination of both types,
all parts of the design must be held together by entire _unity_. The
rivets are occasionally placed toward the edge and a domed boss is used
to accent the center as is shown in Figure 158.

[Illustration: OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN THE BASER
METALS. THE ENRICHMENT OF TERMINALS, LINKS, AND DETAILS. FREE OUTLINES

PLATE 28]


THE IONIC VOLUTE

[Sidenote: Terminal Enrichment in Wrought Metal]

As the Curve of Force was a valuable curve in wood construction, so we
find it an equally valuable curve for wrought metal. Its recurrence
again and again in industrial design leads us to appreciate its value in
the arts. It is the Ionic volute handed down to us in its present form
from the time of the Greeks, who developed it to a high state of
perfection.

[Sidenote: Curve of Beauty]

While its geometric development is a tedious process, it may be easily
constructed for practical purposes by the following method. In Figure
159, _P_ represents a small cylinder of wood, possibly a dowel. A strong
piece of thread, or fine wire, is wrapped around the base of the dowel a
number of times and a loop is formed in the free end. A pencil with a
sharp point is inserted in the loop and the pencil and dowel are placed
together on a sheet of paper. As the thread unwinds from the dowel the
point of the pencil will describe a volute which may be developed
indefinitely. It will be noticed that no corresponding parts of the
curve are concentric and it thus has constant variety. It has been
termed the CURVE OF BEAUTY and is found in nature in the wonderfully
designed shell of the nautilus.

It is advisable to form several templates for the volute out of bent
wrought iron, of different sizes, and to practice drawing the curve many
times to accustom the hand and the eye to its changes of direction. The
"eye" or center portion is sometimes terminated by thinning and
expanding in the manner shown in Figure 160.

[Illustration: OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASS IN PRECIOUS
METALS. SILVER. A DEPENDENT OUTLINE RELATED TO AND ENCLOSING A
SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE.

PLATE 29]

[Sidenote: Greek Scroll]

One form of application of the volute is shown in the terminal points of
the candlestick in Figure 161. It is here shown combined with the second
volute in the form of a reverse curve. In Figure 162, it has been
combined with a smaller but reversed volute at the upper end. The entire
and combined curve is commonly known as a Greek Scroll. In Figure 163
the Greek Scroll has been combined with the reverse curve of Figure 161
to form a portion of the bracket. In this figure we find the familiar
curve of force faithfully serving its function as a supporting member
for the top portion of the bracket.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Links]

A link is a convenient filler in connecting parts of a right angle. It
likewise serves as a brace in connecting several disconnected parts and
is useful in maintaining the unity of a design. Figure 164 shows a
common form of link with its ends thinned and expanded as shown in
Figure 160. This construction may, however, be disregarded as it is
technically quite difficult to accomplish.

[Sidenote: Enrichment of Details]

Details are the smaller portions of a design and are similar to the
trimmings and minor brackets of a building in relative importance. They
enter to a considerable extent into wrought metal grille design, and are
generally formed of the link, Greek scroll, or the Ionic volute, so as
to be in harmony with the other parts of the design outline. Rule 5f.
Their presence and use may be readily detected on Plate 28.

Rule 5g. _A curve should join a straight line with either a tangential
or right angle junction._

[Sidenote: Summary of Wrought Metal Free Outline Enrichment]

As we are now familiar with continuity in wood moulding curves we should
feel, in reviewing the figures in this chapter, the value of flowing
continuity and tangential junction points (Rule 5g) necessary in wrought
metal enrichment. The curves that we have considered are adapted to the
materials and a comparatively large and new field of design is opened to
the designer through a combination of curves mentioned. Plate 30 is
self-explanatory and brings out the general application of the foregoing
principles as applied to cast bronze hardware. It is interesting to
notice the change of enrichment paralleling the change of function as
outlined in Rule 5d.


OUTLINE ENRICHMENT OF PRECIOUS METALS

[Sidenote: Outline Enrichment of Silver]

[Sidenote: Stones and Their Cuttings]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin_

PLATE 30]

Little has been written regarding the designing of jewelry. As can be
readily seen, a semi-precious stone is the controlling factor in the
major portion of the designs with silver as a background. Any enrichment
merely accentuates the beauty of the setting. This statement would lead
us to consider the outline as _dependent_ in character and thoroughly
related to the stone. It is necessary then to take the stone as a point
of departure. The standard stone cuttings used in simple jewelry are
shown in Figures 166 to 170. The first three and the last are cabochon
cut, elliptical in contour with flat bottoms. The long axes have been
drawn in each instance.

[Sidenote: Relation of Stone to Contour]

With Figures 171 to 174 we begin to see the close relation between the
stone and its enclosing form. Rule 5f. A longer major axis in the stone
calls for an increased length in the corresponding axis of the silver
foundation or background. It is really a re-echo of the proportions of
the primary mass of the stone in the mass of the silver. It is well for
the beginner to make the axis of the stone and the silver blank coincide
and to use this long axis as a basis for future enrichment. In a
vertical primary mass, similar to the one shown in Figure 180, it is
better design to place the stone a short distance above the geometric
center of the mass as it insures a sense of stability and balance. A
stone when placed toward the bottom of a design of this nature is
inclined to give a feeling of "settling down" or lost balance.

Figure 176 varies the design shown in Figure 171. The two circles
related to the stone are connected by four silver grains or balls.
Figure 177 shows an attempt to enrich the contour of the silver, but
there is a resulting tendency to detract from the simplicity of the
unbroken outline and, as a result, little is gained by its attempted
enrichment. Figures 178 and 179 show a better form of enrichment by
accentuating the outline. This may be accomplished either by engraving a
single line paralleling the contour or by soldering a thin wire around
the outline.

[Sidenote: Need of Top and Side Views]

While the top view of an article of jewelry may have been carefully
designed the side view in most instances is totally neglected. The side
view should show a steady graduation from the surface of the silver to
the outline of the stone. This prevents the stone from bulging from the
surface like a sudden and unusual growth. Doming, small wedges of
silver, or a twist around the bezel may accomplish this as can be
readily seen in Figures 181, 182, and 183.

[Illustration: RULES 5D 5E 5F 5G. CONTOUR OR OUTLINE ENRICHMENT. CLAY.
METAL. INSTRUCTION SHEET.

PLATE 31]

[Sidenote: Motives for Outline Enrichment in Silver]

While emphasis should be placed upon simplicity of outline, certain well
regulated forms of enrichment may be added to the contour and enhance
the beauty of the stone. Such motives with constructive steps are shown
in Figure 184 and their application in Figures 185 to 188. It will be
noticed that the enrichment _invariably leads up to the stone_ which is
the center of interest in the design. The ornament is likewise based
upon the prominent axes of the stone.

[Sidenote: Free Outline Enrichment in Silver]

Figures 189, 190, and 191 are types of beaten and raised silver work and
show characteristic forms in silver, with two examples of accented
outline enrichment. As they are curvilinear forms, their design is
similar in many ways to clay forms of similar proportions and uses.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 31 shows the design steps necessary to the evolution of a
     lamp in two materials. A full size working drawing should
     follow Figure D.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the unenriched primary mass.

     (_b_) For dependent contours, locate the elements of service
     within the primary mass. This may be interpreted to mean
     rivets, screw holes, semi-precious stones, etc.

     (_c_) Determine upon the portion of the contours to be
     enriched, gauged by its need for grace, lightness, and variety.
     This enrichment is preferably concentrated at the following
     points: edges, corners, appendages, intermediate points,
     terminals, links, and details. These points may be combined
     provided the result does not violate the simplicity of the
     structural lines.

     (_d_) Draw the enrichment in the predetermined area, causing it
     to be in harmony with such interior functional parts as screw
     holes, rivets, semi-precious stones, etc. Utilize suggested
     curves.

     (_e_) Review all of the contour curves added to the design. Are
     they feeble compass curves or do they have the character of
     long sweeping curves with short "snappy" turns for variety?

     (_f_) Test the entire design for unity. Does the eye move
     smoothly through all parts of the contour? Does the design
     "hold together"? Are all links and appendages joined to the
     primary mass in a graceful tangential manner?

     (_g_) Dimension, add additional views, and details, if
     necessary, and otherwise prepare the drawing for shop use.

     SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design an electric table lamp with square copper rod as a support,
     feet, and copper shade.

     Design a hinge for a cedar chest.

     SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 5f. _Dependent outline enrichment should be related to
     essential parts of a design and influenced by their forms and
     functions; it must be consistent with the idea of the subject._

     Rule 5g. _A curve should join a straight line with either a
     tangential or right angle junction._

     REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. Contrast contour enrichment of wood, clay, and metal.

     2. Define free and dependent outline in contour enrichment of base
     metal.

     3. Describe and explain the use of the Ionic volute in contour
     enrichment of metal.

     4. Define and present illustrations of contour enrichment designed
     for edges, corners, appendages, intermediate points, terminals,
     links, and other details in base metal.

     5. Define and illustrate free and dependent contour enrichment of
     precious metal.

[Illustration: FIGURE 190a.--Union of Outline Enrichment on Clay and
Metal]



CHAPTER IX

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD


With this chapter we enter upon a consideration of the third and last
major division of Industrial Arts Design, that of Surface Enrichment.

[Sidenote: Nature and Need of Surface Enrichment]

We have considered in previous chapters the subject of contour or
outline enrichment. Now consider for a moment the fact that articles
such as a square box, or tile, are not suited to outline enrichment, yet
they have large, flat, and rather monotonous surfaces capable of
decoration. It is readily seen that such surfaces will admit of further
elaboration which we will distinguish from contour enrichment by using
the term Surface Enrichment. As in contour enrichment, so in surface
enrichment, the added element of design not only increases the beauty of
the object but it likewise, if properly applied, gives apparent added
strength to the structure.

Rule 6a. _Surfaces to be enriched must admit of enrichment._

[Sidenote: When and Where to Enrich a Surface]

Strictly utilitarian articles should not be ornamented by surface
enrichment. As an example, a wooden mixing spoon, bowl, or wooden knife
handle should not be enriched by carving, as the carving would interfere
with the proper cleansing of the article. A surface exposed to
considerable wear should not be enriched. Objects not strictly in the
utilitarian class, such as a paper knife, book stall, envelope holder,
or library table may be appropriately enriched in an unostentatious
manner so that they will harmonize with their surroundings. But the
enrichment should first be placed upon the surface in such a manner that
it will not interfere with the functional use of the article for
service. Large projections upon the back of a chair or upon the handle
of a paper cutter are unpleasant and interfere with intended uses.

[Illustration: FIGURE 191a.--Structure Obscured by Surface and Contour
Enrichment]

Rule 6b. _Surface enrichment must be related to the structural contours
but must not obscure the actual structure._

Careful consideration should be given to the often-mentioned law that
the surface enrichment must be thoroughly related to structure and
contour but not so as to obscure either. We must keep in mind the fact
that it is necessary to support the structure, not to cover it up by
related ornament, as in Figure 191a.

[Sidenote: Conservative Use of Ornament]

Most critics of industrial design complain of an overwhelming desire
upon the part of the designer to over-decorate the structure. Surface
enrichment runs wild over steam radiators, stoves, and wooden rocking
chairs. Reserve is the watchword recommended as of extreme importance.
The illustrations in this chapter are restricted to a limited range of
design motives for the express purpose of simplifying the number of
recommended methods.

Rule 6c. _The treatment must be appropriate to the material._

[Sidenote: Relation of Enrichment to Material]

The close-fibered woods with smooth, even textures are capable of more
delicate enrichment than woods of coarser grain. Small articles are
generally seen from a close range and should, therefore, be ornamented
with finer decoration than large articles, such as a piece of furniture
that is to be seen from a distance. The latter should have surface
enrichment of sufficient boldness to "carry" or to be distinct from a
distant point. Furthermore the enrichment should not have a "stuck on"
appearance, but be an integral part of the original mass.

[Sidenote: Appropriate Methods of Surface Enrichment for Wood]

There are three distinct means of ornamenting wood: (1) inlaying,
depending for interest upon the difference in value and hue of the
different inlaying woods used; (2) carved enrichment, depending upon
line and mass for its beauty and made visible by contrasts of light and
shade; (3) painting or staining of the surface with the interest
dependent upon the colors or stains and their relation to each other and
to the hue of the wood. It has been deemed wise to consider the first
two types in the present chapter, and leave the last type for later
consideration. In Chapters XV, XVI, and XVII, accentuation has been
placed on wood coloring. The designer is advised to read those chapters
before attempting to stain or color his problem.

[Sidenote: Inlaying]

Treating surface enrichment in its listed order we find that inlaying is
one of the most common and best forms of enrichment for wood work. As
inlaying readily adapts itself to bands and borders, emphasis is placed
upon them.

[Illustration: STRAIGHT LINE SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF A SMALL PRIMARY MASS
IN WOOD

BANDS AND BORDERS

FOR INLAYING, CARVING, STAINING

PLATE 32]

Rule 6i. _Inlayed enrichment should never form strong or glaring
contrasts with the parent surface._

[Sidenote: Errors in Wood Inlay]

Two conspicuous errors are often associated with inlaid designs. The
first is the use of woods affording a glaring contrast with that of the
project. Figure 209, Page 106. The right contrast of value is
established when the inlay seems neither to rise from the surface nor
sink through it. It should remain _on the surface_ of the plane to be
enriched, for it is surface enrichment. Figures 210, 211, and 212 are
illustrative of pleasing contrasts.

The second specific glaring error is the use of unrelated inlay. As an
example, an Indian club is created by gluing many varicolored woods
around a central core. The result of the pattern so formed has little
relation to the structural lines, fails entirely to support them; and,
as a result, should be discarded.

[Sidenote: Carving]

Carving is difficult for the average beginner in wood working design,
therefore merely the simplest forms of the craft are suggested as
advisable. Figure 205a. If an elaborate design is desired (Figure 205c),
it should be first drawn in outline and finally modeled in relief by
Plastelene. This model is then an effective guide for the carver,
supplementing the original outline drawing.

[Sidenote: Divisions of Carving]

Carving may be roughly divided into the following groups: (1) high
relief carving similar to heads, human figures, and capitals; (2) low
relief carving in which the planes have been flattened to a
comparatively short distance above the original block of wood, such as
panels, which are good examples of this group; (3) pierced carving where
the background has been entirely cut away in places, such as screens,
which illustrate this type; (4) incised carving in which the design has
been depressed _below_ the surface of the wood. Geometric chip carving
is a representative type of this group. There are possible variations
and combinations of these groups.

Rule 6j. _Carved surface enrichment should have the appearance of
belonging to the parent mass._

_The central governing thought_ in all carved designs is to show an
interesting proportion of light and shade coupled with a unity between
the raised portion of the design and the background. If the carving
has a glued on appearance it becomes mechanical and resembles a stamped
or machine-produced ornament.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD WITH
BORDERS OF CURVED AND STRAIGHT LINES

FOR INLAYING, CARVING, STAINING

PLATE 33]

[Sidenote: Steps Taken in Carving]

A typical carved enrichment is carried through four steps: (1) the
design is transferred to the wood surface by means of carbon paper; (2)
the design is "set in" or separated from the ground by means of a
grooved chisel; (3) the wood is cut away from the back of the design by
a process of grounding; (4) the leaves and flowers or other elements of
the design are modeled. The designer should keep these processes in mind
when developing his design.

[Sidenote: The Designer's Vocabulary]

It is now essential to find the extent of the vocabulary possible for
the designer of surface enrichment. He has three large sources of
information: first, geometric forms and abstract spots; second, natural
organic objects such as flowers, leaves, animals, etc.; third,
artificial objects, pots, jars, ink bottles, and other similar objects.

He may assemble or group these objects or elements for future designs
into four typical systems: first, bands or borders; second, panels;
third, free ornament; and fourth, the diaper or all-over patterns.


DESIGNING BANDS ON BORDERS

Rule 6d. _Bands and borders should have a consistent lateral, that is,
onward movement._

Rule 6e. _Bands and borders should never have a prominent contrary
motion, opposed to the main forward movement._

[Sidenote: Bands]

Bands are particularly suitable for inlaying. They are composed of
straight lines arranged in some orderly and structurally related manner.
They are used for bordering, framing, enclosing, or connecting. They
give a decided _onward_ motion which tends to increase the apparent
length of the surface to which they are applied. Referring to Plate 32,
Figure 192, we find three typical bands, _A_, _B_, and _C_. It is often
the custom to limit the width of the inlayed bands to the width of the
circular saw cut. To secure unity, the center band in _C_ is wider than
the outside sections.

[Sidenote: Accenting]

A possible variation of motive in band designing may be secured by
accenting. The single band has been broken up at _D_ into geometric
sections of pleasing length. But while this design gives variety, it
also destroys the unity of a single straight line. Unity may, however,
be restored by the addition of the top and bottom bands at _E_. This
method of restoring unity is of extreme value in all border arrangements
and is constantly used by the designer.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

APPLICATION OF BANDS AND BORDERS

PLATE 34]

Rule 6f. _All component parts of a border should move in unison with the
main movement of the border._

[Sidenote: Borders]

Bands, as has just been stated, give distinctly "onward" movement.
Borders are merely bands combined with other motives from the designer's
vocabulary. As will be seen, bands, by their onward movement, tend to
hold the other elements of the border together. Figure 193 is a border
design without variety, unity, or interest. Figure 194 has added unity
to a similar border by the addition of the double bands, but monotony is
still present. Figure 195 suggests a method of relieving the monotony by
accentuating every other repeat, thus supplying variety and creating an
analogy to march-time music. Figure 196 has accentuated the monotonous
border in Figure 194 by omitting every other square. This makes a simple
and effective inlay pattern and suggests a large number of possible
variations that could be applied to accented band motives.

[Sidenote: Moorish Ornament]

Figures 197 and 198 are border motives of geometric derivation taken
from the historic schools of ornament. Figure 198 illustrates the "strap
ornament" of the Moorish school. The simple underlying geometric net
upon which these designs are based may be found in Meyer's Handbook of
Ornament.


INCEPTIVE AXES

Rule 6h. _Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a strongly
upward movement in addition to the lateral movement, provided the
lateral movement dominates._

[Sidenote: Upward and Onward Borders]

In addition to the purely onward borders we now come to a variety with a
distinctly _upward_ movement as well. While this new feature adds
materially to the interest of the border, it also adds to the difficulty
of designing. The upward movement is often centered about an axis termed
the Axis of Symmetry or Inceptive Axis, about which are grouped and
balanced the different elements from the designer's vocabulary. When
both sides are alike, the unit so formed is called a _bilateral unit_.
Figure 199 shows the formation of a bilateral unit by means of grouping,
accenting, and balancing straight lines over an inceptive axis. By
adding bands above and below and doubling these vertical lines to gain
width, we form at _A_ and _B_, Figure 199, inlaid designs with an upward
and onward tendency or movement.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 215.--Inlaid Band Border]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 216.--Single and Double Band Inlaid Border]

The introduction of curved lines and natural units allows us to add more
grace to these combined movements. The leading lines of a small border,
designed to be seen at close range, are planned in Figure 200. The
central line or inceptive axis is repeated at regular intervals and the
leading or skeleton lines are balanced to the right and left of this
axis. These leading lines, as can be readily seen, have an upward and
onward movement. To insure continuity, a small link and the top and
bottom bands have been added to complete the onward movement.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of C.E. Partch_

FIGURE 216a.--Work of High School Students]

Material for straight borders may be derived from geometry, nature, or
artificial forms, but for borders designed in curves, nature is
generally selected as a source.

Figure 201 illustrates a crude and uninteresting form, unsuited to
outline enrichment. Figure 202 has brought Figure 201 into some
semblance of order, but as can be readily seen by the primary outline
which encloses it, the widest point occurs exactly midway from top to
bottom, which makes the form monotonous. This defect has been remedied
in Figure 203 and an interesting and varied area appears for the first
time. What Dr. Haney calls "the feebly flapping curve" of Figure 202 has
been replaced by the vigorous and "snappy" curve of Figure 203, which
gives what is termed a dynamic or rhythmic value in surface enrichment.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of C.E. Partch_

FIGURE 216b.--Work of High School Students]

Rule 6g. _Each component part of a border should be strongly dynamic
and, if possible, partake of the main movements of the border._

Any form which causes the eye to move in a given direction is strongly
_dynamic_, and is opposed to the _static_ form which does not cause a
marked eye movement. A circle is symbolic of the static form, while a
triangle is dynamic. In the designer's nomenclature, the term "rhythmic"
may be used synonymously with "dynamic."

Dynamic areas or forms should carry out the upward and onward movement
of the leading lines. Figure 204 shows how closely dynamic areas are
connected with nature's units for design motives. A slight change in the
contour may transform a leaf into excellent material with which to
clothe the leading lines. The curve of force, the cyma, and other curves
described in previous chapters should be recognized by the designer and
utilized in the contours of dynamic forms.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of C.E. Partch_

FIGURE 216c.--Instruction Sheet Problem]

The leading lines of the border in Figure 200 are shown clothed or
enriched in Figure 205. Vigorous dynamic spots, conventionalized from
natural units, continue the upward and onward movement of the original
leading lines. As will be noted, the background has been treated to
allow the spots to appear in relief. Small "fussy" spots or areas have
been omitted and the units, varied in size and strongly dynamic in form,
balance over an inceptive axis. The small link reaches out its helping
hand to complete the onward movement without loss of unity, while the
bands above and below bind the design together and assist in the lateral
movement. Figure 205 shows three methods of treatment: simple spots
without modeling, from _A_ to _B_; slight indications of modeling, from
_B_ to _C_; full modeling of the entire unit at _C_. The choice of
treatment depends, of course, upon the skill of the craftsman.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 217.--Carved and Accented Border and Triple Carved Band]

Figure 206 shows a design varied from formal balance over a central axis
of symmetry or an inceptive axis. It has a decided onward movement with
the leaves balanced above and below the stem which is the axis. The
"repeat" has been reversed at _B_ and is more pleasing than the portion
at _A_. The area of the background, in its relation to that used for
ornamentation or "filling," cannot be predetermined with exactness.
There should be no blank spaces for the eye to bridge. Some designers
allow about one-third ground for two-thirds filling or enrichment.
This proportion gives a full and rich effect and may be adopted in most
instances as satisfactory.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of C.E. Partch_

PLATE 35.--Instruction Sheet]

[Sidenote: Point of Concentration--Effect upon Structure]

When a border is used to parallel a rectangle it is customary to
strengthen the border at the corners for two reasons: first, to
strengthen, apparently, the structure at these points; second, to assist
the eye in making the sudden turn at the corner. The corner enforcement
affords momentary resting points for the eye, and adds pleasing variety
to the long line of border. The strengthened point is called the _point
of concentration_ or point of force. Its presence and effect may be
noted by the symbol P.C. in Figures 207, 208, 213, and 214.

[Sidenote: Chip Carving]

Figure 213 represents the rather angular and monotonous chip carving
motive. It is, however, a simple form of carved enrichment for wood
construction. Figure 214 shows the more rhythmic flow of a carved and
modeled enrichment. Two methods of leaf treatment are given at _A_ and
_B_.

Figures 215, 216, and 217 are industrial and public school examples of
the forms of surface enrichment treated in this chapter.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 35 shows the necessary working drawings for wood inlay
     and is supplied as a typical high school problem by Mr. C.E.
     Partch of Des Moines, Iowa. See Figure 216c.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the primary rectangle, appendage, etc.

     (_b_) Subdivide the rectangle into its horizontal and vertical
     subdivisions.

     (_c_) Design very simple contour enrichment.

     (_d_) Determine the location of zone of enrichment, and the
     amount and method of enriching the surface.

     (_e_) Make several preliminary sketches to determine the best
     design and add the one finally selected to the structure.
     Correlate with contour enrichment.

     (_f_) Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare
     the drawing for shop use.

SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a walnut side table 3 feet high and enrich with a double
     band inlay of ebony.

SUMMARY OF RULES
     Rule 6a. _Surfaces to be enriched must admit of enrichment._

     Rule 6b. _Surface enrichment must be related to the structural
     contours but must not obscure the actual structure._

     Rule 6c. _The treatment must be appropriate to the material._

     Rule 6d. _Bands and borders should have a consistent lateral,
     that is, onward movement._

     Rule 6e. _Bands and borders should never have a prominent
     contrary motion, opposed to the main forward movement._

     Rule 6f. _All component parts of a border should move in unison
     with the main movement of the border._

     Rule 6g. _Each component part of a border should be strongly
     dynamic and, if possible, partake of the main movement of the
     border._

     Rule 6h. _Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a
     strongly upward movement in addition to the lateral movement,
     provided the lateral movement dominates._

     Rule 6i. _Inlayed enrichment should never form strong or
     glaring contrasts with the parent surface._

     Rule 6j. _Carved surface enrichment should have the appearance
     of belonging to the parent mass._

REVIEW QUESTIONS
     1. Give the reasons why surface enrichment may be used as
     decoration.

     2. State an original example illustrating when and where to use
     surface enrichment.

     3. Name an object from the industrial arts in which the
     structure has been weakened or obscured by the application of
     surface enrichment. Name an example of the correct use of
     surface enrichment and state wherein it has been correctly
     applied.

     4. How should surface enrichment of small masses differ from
     that applied to larger masses; in what manner does the fiber of
     the wood affect the design?

     5. Name three means of enriching the surface of wood. Briefly
     describe the processes of inlaying and carving, with the design
     restrictions governing each.

     6. Give three sources of ornament open to the designer of
     surface enrichment.

     7. Draw an accented triple band motive for inlay.

     8. What is the inceptive axis; a bilateral unit? What are
     leading lines; dynamic forms; points of concentration?

     9. Design an upward and onward continuous carved border for
     wood and base it upon a vertical inceptive axis. Treat as in A,
     Figure 205.

     10. Illustrate the manner in which structure may be apparently
     strengthened by a band or border.



CHAPTER X

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD--Continued

ENCLOSED AND FREE ORNAMENT


[Sidenote: Enclosed Ornament (Panels)]

Chapter IX dealt with methods of developing continuous or repeating
ornament (bands or borders). This leaves enclosed and free forms of
surface enrichment to be considered in this chapter.

As an enclosed form, a panel may be enriched by geometric, natural, or
artificial ornament. It is enclosed in a definite boundary of bands or
lines and may be a square or other polygon, circle, ellipse, lunette,
spandrel, lozenge, or triangle. As the decoration does not have the
continuous repeating movement of the border and as it covers an enclosed
area, it is necessarily treated in a different manner from either band
or border. Its object is to decorate a plane surface. The enrichment may
be made by means of carving, inlaying, or painting.

[Sidenote: Free Ornament]

Free ornament means the use of motives not severely enclosed by bands or
panels. Free ornament is generally applied to centers or upper portions
of surfaces to relieve a monotonous area not suited to either panel or
border treatment. It may have an upward or a radial movement dependent
upon the character of the member to be enriched.

[Sidenote: Summary]

We then have three forms of possible surface enrichment: repeating or
continuous motives, enclosed motives, and free motives. Our next point
is to consider where the last two may be used appropriately in surface
enrichment.

[Sidenote: Zone of Enrichment]

The panel of a small primary mass of wood may be enriched at any one of
three places: first, at the margins; second, at the center; third, over
the entire surface. The exact position is a matter to be determined by
the structural design and the utilitarian requirements of the problem.
For example, a bread board or taboret top would require the enrichment
in the margin with the center left free. A table leg might require an
enrichment in the center of the upper portion of the leg, while a square
panel to be inserted in a door, Figure 233, Page 124, might require full
surface treatment.

[Sidenote: Structural Reinforcement]

Each area of panel enrichment should have one or more accented points
known as points of concentration. The design should become more
prominent at these places and cause the eye to rest for a moment before
passing to the next point of prominence. The accented portion of the
design at these points should be so related to the structure that it
apparently reinforces the structure as a whole. Corners, centers of
edges, and geometric centers are salient parts of a structure; we shall
therefore be likely to find our points of concentration coinciding with
them. Let us then consider the first of these arrangements as applied to
enclosed enrichment.


MARGINAL PANEL ENRICHMENT

ENCLOSED ENRICHMENT FOR PARTLY ENRICHED SURFACES

Rule 7a. _Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be related to the
outlines of the primary mass and to the panel it is to enrich._

Rule 7b. _Marginal points of concentration in panels should be placed
(1) preferably at the corner or (2) in the center of each margin._

Rule 7c. _To insure unity of design in panels, the elements composing
the points of concentration and the links connecting them must be
related to the panel contour and to each other._

[Sidenote: Marginal Zone Enrichment]

The marginal method of enrichment may be used when it is impossible to
enrich the entire surface because the center is to be used for
utilitarian purposes or because it would be aesthetically unwise to
enrich the entire surface. The marginal zone is adapted to enriching box
tops, stands, table tops, and similar surfaces designed preferably with
the thought of being seen from above. We shall call such surfaces
horizontal planes.

As the design is to be limited to the margin, the panel outline is bound
to parallel the contours, or outlines, of the surface to be enriched. It
is well to begin the design by creating a panel parallel to the outlines
of the enriched surface. Figure 218. The next step is to place the point
of concentration in the marginal zone and within this figure. Common
usage dictates the _corners_ as the proper points. [Sidenote: Points of
Concentration]

[Sidenote: Points of Concentration in the Corner of Margin]

It may be the designer's practice to use the single or double bands,
Figures 218, 219, 220, with a single accentuation at the corners. The
spots composing the point of concentration must have unity with the
enclosing contours and with the remainder of the enrichment. Figure 220
is, in this respect, an improvement over Figure 219. But these examples
are not _true_ enclosed panel enrichment. They are the borders of
Chapter IX acting as marginal enrichment. It is not until we reach
Figure 221 that the true enclosed enrichment appears, when the panel
motive is clearly evident. In this figure a single incised band
parallels the contours of the figure until the corner is reached. Here
we find it turning, gracefully widening to give variety, and supporting
the structure by its own increased strength. The single band in Figure
221 acts as a bridge, leads the eye from one point of concentration to
the next similar point, forms a compact mass with the point of
concentration, and parallels the enclosing contours of the enriched
surface.

[Sidenote: Points of Concentration in the Center of Margin]

In Figure 222 the point of concentration is to be found in the _center_
of each margin. This bilateral unit is clearly designed on and about the
center lines of the square panel. These points of concentration take the
place of previous concentrations at the _corners_ which were based upon
the square's diagonals. While accenting based upon the center lines is
acceptable, this means of concentration does not seem so successfully to
relate the accented part to the structural outlines as that of
concentration based upon the diagonals. The latter, therefore, is
recommended for beginners. The corners of Figure 222 are, however,
slightly accented by means of the bridging spots _x-x_.

[Sidenote: Inceptive Axes or Balancing Lines]

The diagonals and center lines of the surface enriched squares of
Figures 221 and 222 and similar structural lines are _inceptive axes_,
as they are center lines for new design groups. It may then be said that
a strong basic axis or similar line depending upon the structure, may
become the center line or inceptive axis upon which to construct a
bilateral design. It is only necessary to have this inceptive axis pass
through the enrichment zone of the panel. Hereafter in the drawings,
inceptive axes will be designated by the abbreviation I.A. while the
point of concentration will be indicated by the abbreviation P.C.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

MARGINAL ENRICHMENT OF SQUARE AREAS

SYMBOLS: {PC} POINT OF CONCENTRATION; {IA} INCEPTIVE AXIS

TOOL PROCESSES. INLAYING AND CARVING

PLATE 36]

[Sidenote: Inceptive Axis]

The strongest plea for the inceptive axis is the fact that it interlocks
surface enrichment with the structure, insuring a degree of unity that
might otherwise be unattainable.

The carved enrichment of Figure 223 fully illustrates this point. The
analytical study of Figure 224 shows the diagonal used as an inceptive
axis, with the leading lines grouped about it at the corner point of
concentration.


FREE ENRICHMENT

Rule 8a. _Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces should be
based and centered upon an inceptive axis of the structure._

Rule 8b. _Free ornament should be related and subordinated to the
structural surfaces._

Rule 8c. _Points of concentration in free enrichment of vertically
placed masses are usually located in and around the inceptive axis and
above or below the geometric center of the design._

[Sidenote: Center Zone Enrichment]

This method of surface enrichment is used to relieve the design of heavy
members in the structure or to distribute ornament over the surface of
lighter parts in a piece of furniture. An example is noted in Figure
246, Page 128, where the upper portion of the legs has center
enrichment. As can be readily seen, the enrichment is generally free in
character with little or no indication of enclosure. Figure 225 shows
the application of free enrichment to a paneled screen or hinged door.
The P.C. is in the upper portion of the door and is re-echoed in the
door frames, while the ornament itself is strongly dynamic in movement
with a decided upward tendency in sympathy with the proportions of the
door. This motive might be developed by inlay, carving, or paint.

Figure 226 is a carved Gothic leaf, appropriately used as enrichment of
heavy furniture. The unit may be raised above the surface or, even more
easily, depressed or incised into the surface. The small corner spot is
added with the intention of bringing the leaf into sympathetic
conformity with the contours. Note how the center line of both units in
Figures 225 and 226 coincides with the inceptive axis of the structure.
Let it again be reiterated that this binding of the surface enrichment
to the structure by means of the coincidence of the axes of symmetry
and the inceptive axes causes the most positive kind of unity. No part
of this form of enrichment should be carved sufficiently high to give it
the appearance of being separated from the main surface.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

FREE CENTER ENRICHMENT FOR VERTICAL AREAS

TOOL PROCESSES: INLAYING, LOW RELIEF CARVING

PLATE 37]

[Sidenote: Examples of Free Enrichment]

Figures 227 and 228 are additional examples of free enrichment. Figure
228 has introduced by its monogram the individual touch of ownership so
essential to the success of school designing. The monogram represents
free enrichment while the border is marginal decoration with the point
of concentration in the center of the top edge. Both types of enrichment
are related to each other and to the structural contours.

[Sidenote: Pierced Free Enrichment]

[Sidenote: Errors in the Use of Pierced Enrichment]

Figure 229 is typical free _pierced_ enrichment. The wood in the
enriched portion is removed and the resulting figure supplies added
lightness of construction and variety to the surface. One encounters
this form of enrichment in the average school project with greater
frequency than either inlaying or carving. It is with the thought of
adding to the possibilities of school project decoration that the latter
forms have been introduced. A word regarding the errors often
encountered in pierced enrichment of the character of Figure 229 may not
be amiss. Pupils, believing the square to be the last word in this form
of enrichment, place the figure on the member to be enriched with little
thought of its possible relation to the structural contours; the result
is the un-unified design illustrated in Figure 230. To correct this,
reference should be made to Rule 8b.


FULL PANEL ENRICHMENT

Rule 7d. _The contours of fully enriched panels should parallel the
outlines of the primary mass and repeat its proportions._

[Sidenote: Full Surface Enrichment]

This is the richest and most elaborate form of enrichment when carried
to its full perfection. It generally takes the form of a panel filled
with appropriate design material. This panel may be used to enrich the
plain end of a project such as a book stall and thus cover the entire
surface, or it may be inserted into a large primary mass and accentuate
its center as in a door, in a manner similar to Figure 233. Its use,
whatever its position, leads us to the consideration of methods of
designing full panels.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

ENCLOSED ENRICHMENT: SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR PANELS--TOOL PROCESSES
CARVING, INLAYING

PLATE 38]

Rule 7e. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched square panel
may be in its center or in its outer margin._

[Sidenote: Square Panels]

In planning designs for full panels, it would be well to consider:
first, square panels; second, rectangular panels; third, varied panels.
The point of concentration may be kept in the _corners_ of a square
panel, as designed in Figure 231, or it may be placed in the _center_,
as shown in Figure 232. The effects, when assembled, are indicated in
Figure 233.

To secure these effects, a square panel is commonly divided into quarter
sections by center lines. The diagonals of each quarter should be drawn
before proceeding with the details of the design. These diagonals and
center lines are the building lines or leading _axes_ of the pattern.
The _leading lines and details_ are then grouped around these center and
diagonal axes in a manner quite similar to the method used in Figures
223 and 224. These leading lines are then _clothed with enrichment_ by
applying the processes indicated in Chapter IX.

[Sidenote: Steps in Panel Designing]

Without going into detail we may say that it is good practice: first, to
draw the square panel; second, to draw the center lines and diagonals;
third, to locate points of concentration; fourth, to make the leading
lines move inwardly to center concentration or outwardly to corner
concentration; fifth, to clothe these lines with ornament having
strongly dynamic movement corresponding to the leading lines; sixth, to
fill in remaining space with ornament, supporting the movement toward
points of concentration, even though slight and minor contrasts of
direction are added to give variety. When the entire design is completed
one should ask the following questions: Does the design have unity? Does
it seem too thin and spindling? And most of all, do the points of
concentration and shape of the panel fit the structural outlines and
proportions? We cannot fit a square peg into a round hole; neither can
we fit a square panel into a circular or rectangular mass without
considerable change to the panel.

Figures 234 and 235 have been drawn with the idea of suggesting a simple
and modified form of panel enrichment which may be readily handled by
the beginner. The tree as a decorative symbol is appropriate to wood,
and its adaption to a square panel is drawn at Figure 235.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

ENCLOSED PANEL ENRICHMENT--FORMAL AND FREE BALANCE

APPLICATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL MOTIVES

PLATE 39]

[Sidenote: Rectangular Panels]

While a rectangular panel may be divided into sections by a number of
different methods, it is well for the beginner in design to treat it as
a vertical mass, designed to enrich a vertical surface. This vertical
panel may then be divided into halves by the axis of symmetry, which
should coincide with an inceptive axis, but it is not essential to
balance the enrichment exactly in each half. Small deviations from exact
symmetry sometimes give added variety to the design. Figure 235.

Rule 7f. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched vertical
panel should be in the upper portion of the panel._

[Sidenote: Vertical Panels]

The point of concentration in vertical panels should be in the upper
portion, and all parts of the design, both leading lines and clothing,
should have a strong upward tendency. Figure 236 is a vertical panel
from historic ornament. The heavier parts have been designed at the
bottom for stability and the lighter and more intricate members have
been placed at the top.

Rule 7g. _The fully enriched panel and its contents should be designed
in unified relation to the structural outlines, with the center line of
the panel coinciding with the inceptive axis of the structure._

To see how to apply rectangular panels to wood surfaces, let us look at
Figure 240. This is a simple design with an incised background and might
be used for enriching a narrow paneled door, newel post, or frame. The
large areas are at the bottom; the point of concentration is at the top,
and the entire design balances over the inceptive axis. The point of
concentration consists of the geometrically treated small flower form,
with its original lines modified to simplify the carving processes. The
stem coincides with the inceptive axis, while narrow and sympathetically
related minor panels fill in the background and keep the design from
appearing weak and thin.

[Sidenote: Adapting Data to Material]

Figure 237 is an accurate rendering of the flower form and is the _data
or record of facts_ for Figure 240. Figure 238 introduces the method of
plotting the areas from these facts. Variety of form and area is, at
this stage, desirable. Figure 239 has assembled these areas into orderly
balance over the axis of symmetry. Figure 240 has again slightly
modified them to apply to the vertical panel in wood.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of Berkey and Gay_

FIGURE 246.--Example of Free and Marginal Enrichment]


VARIED PANELS

[Sidenote: Panels of Varied Shapes]

The panels under consideration up to this time have been designed to
harmonize with square and rectangular contours. The panel may, however,
become a most flexible and sympathetic element, changing its form to
suit the ever-changing contours. But though change of shape affects the
contents of the panel to a certain extent the points of concentration
and the inceptive axes still act as our guide. Objects are arranged
formally on each side of the inceptive axes and the space filling is
approximately the same as in former examples.

[Sidenote: Use of Artificial Objects]

The still life sketches of the art class may be conventionalized into
appropriate motives for utilitarian objects as shown in Figure 241. This
use of still life suggests a most desirable correlation and a welcome
one to many drawing teachers. Three points should be kept in mind:
first, adaptability of the object, its decorative possibilities, and
appropriateness to service; second, adjustment of the panel to contours;
third, adjustment of the object to the wood panel.

Some portion of the object should be designed to parallel the panel.
Small additional spots may assist in promoting harmony between the
object and the panel boundary. These three considerations are
essentially necessary factors in the design of enclosed enrichment.
Figures 242 and 243 are other adaptations of panel design to varied
contours.

[Sidenote: Free Balance]

In the foregoing examples the designs are more or less rigidly balanced
over the inceptive axis or axis of symmetry. Imaginary axis it is, but,
acting with the panel, it nevertheless arbitrarily limits the position
of all parts within the panel. By removing this semblance of formal
balance, we approach what is termed _free balance_. In this we find that
the designer attempts to balance objects informally over the geometric
center of the panel or combined panels. As the arrow points in Figure
244 indicate, the problem is to balance the trees in an informal and
irregular manner, avoiding "picket fence" regularity. In all of this
freedom there is a sense of order, since a mass of trees on one side of
the geometric center is balanced by a similar mass on the other side.
Indeed, in Figure 244 this may be carried even to the point of
duplicating in reverse order the outside panels of the Triptych.

[Illustration: RULES 7D TO 7E--ENCLOSED SURFACE ENRICHMENT WITH
APPLICATION OF STILL LIFE TO A FULLY ENRICHED SURFACE

PLATE 40]

Figure 245 again reverts to artificial motives, illustrated in free
balance. The jet of steam is the unifying factor which brings the cup
into harmony with the enclosing space. Figure 246 shows illustrations of
free balance and border enrichment from the industrial market.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 40 indicates the necessary design steps for a panel
     surface enrichment correlating with still life drawing. Note
     the connection between the ink bottle, pen, and book as used to
     decorate a book stall.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     FOR SQUARE PANEL SURFACE ENRICHMENT

     (_a_) Draw the primary rectangle of the principal surface,
     appendages, etc.

     (_b_) Subdivide into major vertical and horizontal divisions.

     (_c_) Design simple contour enrichment. Determine location of
     zone of enrichment (the panel), the amount and method of
     enriching the surface.

     (_d_) Draw outline of the panel which should be sympathetically
     related to the contours.

     (_e_) Draw diameters, diagonals, or center lines of the panel.
     Regard these as possible inceptive axes.

     (_f_) Locate points of concentration on either diameters,
     diagonals, or center lines.

     (_g_) Draw leading lines in sympathy with the contours of the
     panel, the inceptive axis, and the point of concentration.

     (_h_) Clothe the leading lines with enrichment that shall be
     appropriate to the structure, the material, and the intended
     service. Note the result. Is the panel agreeably filled without
     appearing overcrowded or meager? Several preliminary sketches
     should be made.

     (_i_) Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare
     the drawing for shop use.


SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a glove box and enrich the cover with a simple carved
     panel with marginal panel enrichment.


SUMMARY OF RULES

ENCLOSED SURFACE ENRICHMENT FOR PARTLY ENRICHED PANELS

     Rule 7a. _Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be
     related to the outlines of the primary mass, and to the panel
     it is to enrich._

     Rule 7b. _Marginal points of concentration in panels should be
     placed (1) preferably at the corners or (2) in the center of
     each margin._

     Rule 7c. _To insure unity of design in panels, the elements
     composing the points of concentration and the links connecting
     them must be related to the panel contour and to each other._


     ENCLOSED SURFACE ENRICHMENT FOR FULLY ENRICHED PANELS

     Rule 7d. _The contours of fully enriched panels should parallel
     the outlines of the primary mass and repeat its proportions._

     Rule 7e. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched
     square panel may be in its center or in its outer margin._

     Rule 7f. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched
     vertical panel should be in the upper portion of the panel._

     Rule 7g. _The fully enriched panel and its contents should be
     designed in unified relation to the structural outlines, with
     the center line of the panel coinciding with the inceptive axis
     of the structure._


     FREE SURFACE ENRICHMENT

     Rule 8a. _Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces
     should be based and centered upon an inceptive axis of the
     structure._

     Rule 8b. _Free ornament should be related and subordinated to
     the structural surfaces._

     Rule 8c. _Points of concentration in free enrichment of
     vertically placed masses are usually located in and around the
     inceptive axis and above or below the geometric center of the
     design._

     Postulate: _Surface enrichment should be inseparably linked to
     the surface and to the outlines or contours_.


     REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What is a panel?

     2. State three sections or areas at which a panel may be
     enriched. Give reasons for selecting a given area.

     3. Explain relation of point of concentration to each section.

     4. In marginal enrichment, is it preferable to locate the point
     of concentration in the center or corner of the margin? Why?

     5. What is the value of an inceptive axis with relation to the
     unity of a design? What is its relation to the structure?

     6. Give the characteristics and use of free enrichment.

     7. State the use of full panel enrichment.

     8. Where may the point of concentration be located in full
     square panel enrichment?

     9. Name six steps essential to the designing of a square panel.

     10. For what specific purpose is a vertical rectangular panel
     adapted?

     11. Where should the point of concentration be located in a
     vertical rectangular panel?

     12. Draw a flower form and adapt it to a carved enrichment in
     wood.

     13. To what uses are panels of varied shapes adapted?

     14. How may artificial objects be adapted to surface
     enrichment?

     15. Explain the term "free balance."



CHAPTER XI

SURFACE ENRICHMENT WITH MINOR SUBDIVISIONS OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN
WOOD


[Sidenote: Minor Subdivisions]

This article is, in part, a brief summary and review of Rules 2a, 2b,
3a, 3b, 3c (vertical and horizontal major divisions) with application to
minor subdivisions. By minor spacings or subdivisions in wood work we
refer to the areas occupied by drawers, doors, shelves, and other small
parts subordinated in size to the large or major divisions such as large
front or side panels, etc. These smaller or minor subdivisions in wood
work are bounded by runners, rails, guides, and stiles depending upon
the form of construction and character of the minor subdivision. Major
divisions are often bounded by legs, table tops, and principal rails.

It is an interesting and useful fact that rules governing major
divisions generally apply equally well to minor ones. There are a few
exceptions and additions to be noted in their appropriate places.

When minor subdivisions are well planned they supply one of the most
interesting forms of surface enrichment or treatment, for if we consider
paneling an appropriate form of decoration, we are equally privileged to
feel that each small drawer or door adds its quota of interest to the
sum total of the entire mass. We are equally justified in accenting
these drawers or doors with panel decoration or other forms of surface
enrichment provided that harmony is maintained.

These minor subdivisions, properly enriched, may become equalizers, or
elements which adjust the design to the character of the surroundings
destined to receive the project of which they are a part.

[Sidenote: Vertical Sections and Their Divisions]

With reference to the illustrations, Figure 247, Plate 41, shows a
simple minor panel treatment falling under Rule 3a. Single or preferably
double band inlay might have been suitably substituted for the sunken
panels. As many craftsmen are not properly equipped to produce inlays,
it is practicable to use stock inlays, thus simplifying the process.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT AND MINOR SPACE DIVISIONS FOR
LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD.

ACCENTUATION OF MINOR VERTICAL DIVISIONS

PLATE 41]

[Sidenote: Minor Subdivisions of Three Vertical Major Parts or
Divisions]

In a three-part design it is the designer's desire to gain the effect of
lightness and height by the use of Rule 3b. As a simple treatment of a
three-part design, Figure 248 needs little comment. Figures 249 and 250
are examples of dividing, by means of minor divisions, the outer
sections of a three-part design.

The small drawers in the right and left sections of Figure 250 might
have been improved in proportion by again applying Rule 2a to their
design, thereby varying the measure of their heights. The enclosed panel
enrichment affords pleasing variety to the otherwise unvaried front
panels. Rule 7g.

[Sidenote: Unbroken Vertical Divisions]

Figures 251 and 252 show unbroken drawer runners continuing through all
three vertical sections, thus definitely binding these sections
together. It is seen that this device is conducive to unity, whenever
two or three vertical divisions have been used.

Figure 252 is a repetition of Figure 251, but shows the echo or
continuation of the three divisions of the primary mass into the
appendage. The use of the single or double band enrichment still further
binds the minor subdivisions of the primary mass into ideal unity with
the appendage.


SEQUENTIAL PROGRESSION OF MINOR HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS

Rule 2c. _A primary mass may be divided into three or more smaller
horizontal masses or sections by placing the larger mass or masses at
the bottom and by sequentially reducing the height measure of each mass
toward the smaller division or divisions to be located at the top of the
mass._

[Sidenote: Sequential Arrangement of Minor Horizontal Divisions]

Rule 2c. Let us now imagine the center section of a three-part design to
be removed and extended upward. Its transformation by this process into
a cabinet or chiffonier similar to Figure 253, Plate 42, introduces the
new principle of _sequential progression_. Instead of adhering to the
limitation of Rules 2a and 2b, this arrangement shows that the
horizontal divisions may be gradually decreased in height from the
bottom toward the top of the primary mass. By this rhythmic decrease in
the measure of the height, the eye is led through an orderly gradation
through lesser areas to the top, thus giving a pleasing sensation of
lightness and variety to the structure. By this method, also, the large
areas are retained at the bottom to give stability and solidity to the
structure. A quick test of these conditions may be made by reversing
Figure 254, thus producing a more decidedly pleasing effect.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT AND MINOR SPACE DIVISIONS FOR LARGE
PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

SEQUENTIAL ARRANGEMENT OF MINOR HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS IN ONE OR THREE
VERTICAL DIVISIONS

PLATE 42]

[Sidenote: Sequential Arrangements--(_Continued_)]

This orderly gradation or sequence of heights need not be carried out
with absolute mathematical precision such as 7 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1.
Arrangements similar to the following progression make for equally
pleasing and more varied effect: 9-1/4 - 8 - 6-3/4 - 6 - 5 - 4-3/4. Many
designers repeat similar heights for two neighboring horizontal spaces
as, 6 - 5 - 5 - 4-3/4, but the upward gradation should be apparent.
Figure 255, an Austrian motive, shows a strongly marked sequence with
the top division broken by Rule 3b. It is better practice to keep such
attempts confined to the bottom or top members of the sequence or loss
of unity may be the final result.

By applying this principle to the center section of a three-part design,
we now have illustrated in Figure 256 the new sequence in its
application, and Figures 257 and 258 are variations of the same idea.

[Sidenote: Two Horizontal and Three Vertical Divisions]

We now come to the transitional type of design where three _vertical_
sections begin to lose their dominance as major divisions, but still
retain their places in the design as minor sections. Replacing these in
prominence is the _horizontal_ major section or division. The first
immediate result of this change as shown in Plate 43 is to produce a
more compact surface with a greater impression of length because of the
presence of strongly accented horizontal lines which are always
associated with horizontal divisions. This transitional style with its
minor but dominant horizontal divisions would harmonize with the long
horizontal lines of a room or similar lines in the furniture. The full
expression of this style or type will be readily seen by comparing
Plates 43 and Figures 251 and 252, Plate 41. Several styles of period
furniture have been introduced in Plate 43 to prove the universality of
these principles of space divisions.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT AND MINOR SUB DIVISIONS FOR LARGE
PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

THREE VERTICAL DIVISIONS CROSSED BY TWO HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS

PLATE 43]

[Sidenote: Dominance of Lower or Upper Sections]

Figures 259, 260, and 262, Plate 43, are divided by three minor vertical
sections cut by two minor horizontal divisions with the dominance in the
_lower section_. Rule 2a. The arrangement of the small central drawers
could have been more varied by the application of the principle of
sequential progression. Figures 261 and 263 show similar vertical
spacings with a difference in the arrangements of the horizontal
divisions. In these figures the dominance has been placed in the _upper
section_ of the primary mass by the division created by the runner above
the lower drawer. It is likewise seen that Figure 263 needs a top
appendage to bind the top into closer unity with minor spacings.

[Sidenote: Transitional Types]

In carrying the transitional type to which we have referred in the
previous paragraphs from the vertical space influence toward the
horizontal, we are gradually approaching _three minor horizontal
divisions_, still maintaining three minor vertical divisions in a
modified and less prominent form. Figure 264 is an approach toward three
horizontal divisions. As only one clear-cut horizontal space division is
visible, this figure is not a pure example. The upper horizontal space
division is broken up into a three-part design by the drawer guides. It
is not until we reach Figure 266 that three horizontal divisions are
clearly evident.


HORIZONTAL DIVISIONS

[Sidenote: Three Minor Horizontal Divisions Cut by Varying Numbers of
Vertical Divisions]

The horizontal minor divisions in furniture are generally drawer runners
and the vertical minor divisions are often drawer guides. The horizontal
divisions may be arranged in either one of two ways: first, by the
application of Rule 2b; or second, by applying Rule 2c, the rule of
sequential progression. Figures 266, 267, and 268, Plate 44, are
representative of the former while Figures 269 and 270 are typical of
the latter. The result in either case is a compactly designed and solid
mass of simple structural lines. On some occasions we find the
three-part rule used for minor divisions within the horizontal sections,
while again the two-part rule is used. The method depends upon the
desired use and appearance. In either case the long areas and large
masses are to be retained as far as possible near the bottom of each
primary mass, as this custom tends to give a sense of solidity to the
design.

[Sidenote: Four Vertical Divisions]

Figure 271 is a rare reversion to more than three vertical divisions. In
this case, Rule 3c has been observed and we find all of the panels are
of equal size. Variety has been secured by means of the horizontal
spacings.


FREE BALANCE

[Sidenote: Free Minor Space Treatment]

[Sidenote: Free Balance]

This form of design is inherent in the Japanese system. It consists in
the planning and balancing of unequal areas over a geometric center. It
is not subject to definite rules as is the more formal balancing. The
reader is referred to Mr. Arthur Dow's excellent book on Composition for
further discussion of the subject. Figure 272, Plate 45, is an example
of partly formal and partly free balance and its method of treatment.

[Sidenote: Carving and Piercing as Applied to Large Masses]

Figures 273 and 274 are pierced designs, thoroughly related to the
structure and in no way weakening it. Figure 273 is representative of a
type which, if carried to extremes, will cause the structure to become
too weak for service; it is, therefore, necessary to guard and restrict
this form of enrichment. The carving of Figure 275, combined with the
contour enrichment, forms a pleasing variation to this common type of
furniture design.

Small minor details in furniture construction should be designed with as
much care as the larger major or minor parts. The larger areas or spaces
in small details similar to stationery shelves and pigeon holes must
harmonize in proportion with the space in which they are placed and of
which they are a part.

[Sidenote: Small Minor Details of Large Primary Masses]

The three-part or three-vertical division system, Rule 3b, is generally
used to design the small details in furniture as may be seen in Figures
276, 277, 278, and 279; while the rule of sequence, Rule 2c, may be
employed again to subdivide these small details in a horizontal
direction with as much variety as is consistent with unity. Figure 280
is a leaded glass surface enrichment for doors. Note the leading lines
of the enrichment as they parallel the dominant proportions of the panel
opening.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 46 is a typical high school sheet of design problems,
     with the masses accentuated by pen shading. See Plate 15.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) to (_e_). See similar steps in Chapter IV.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT AND MINOR SUB DIVISIONS FOR LARGE
PRIMARY MASSES IN WOOD

FREE MINOR SPACINGS. APPENDAGES. PIERCED AND CARVED ENRICHMENT.

PLATE 45]


SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a sideboard 3 feet 3 inches high with plate rack. The
     primary mass should have three minor horizontal divisions and
     three minor vertical divisions, with the horizontal divisions
     accented.


SUMMARY OF RULES

SEQUENTIAL PROGRESSION OF MINOR HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS

     Rule 2c. _A primary mass may be divided into three or more
     smaller horizontal masses or sections by placing the larger
     mass or masses at the bottom and by sequentially reducing the
     height measure of each mass toward the smaller division or
     divisions to be located at the top of the mass._


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What are minor subdivisions in wood construction?

     2. What is the effect of a design with dominant vertical major
     divisions? State its use.

     3. Show some customary methods of dividing three vertical major
     divisions into minor subdivisions.

     4. State the rule of sequential progression. Give illustrations
     from the industrial arts.

     5. Describe the transitional stage between the point where the
     dominance of the vertical motive ceases and the horizontal
     influence begins.

     6. What is the effect of a design with dominant horizontal
     major divisions? State its use.

     7. Show some customary methods of subdividing horizontal major
     divisions into minor subdivisions.

     8. What should be the relation in a design between the details
     of a project and the divisions of the primary mass?

[Illustration: INSTRUCTION SHEET

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE MASSES IN WOOD

DRAWING AND DESIGN BY A. J. FOX. U. OF W.

PLATE 46]



CHAPTER XII

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY


[Sidenote: Limitations for Surface Enrichment]

In some respects the surface enrichment of clay is similar to that of
wood as, for example, the similarity produced by inlays in clay and in
wood. On the other hand the enrichment of clay is unhampered by the
restricting effects of unequal resistance of the material, such as the
grain of wood. Again it _is_ limited to those effects or forms of
enrichment that are capable of withstanding the intense heat to which
ceramic decoration is subjected. See Frontispiece.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Rookwood Potteries_

FIGURE 281.--Filling the Saggars before Firing]

[Sidenote: Decorative Processes of Surface Enrichment]

Before proceeding with a design it is well for one to understand clearly
the possibilities of clay enrichment. He must know what kind of designs
are best suited to clay as a medium, to the intended service, and to the
ultimate application of the heat of the pottery kiln. Without entering
into technicalities let us briefly discuss the following processes.
The first three deal with finger and tool manipulation of the clay body
and are consequently the simpler of the processes. The last five are
concerned chiefly with the addition of coloring pigments either to the
clay or to the glaze and are, therefore, more complex in character.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of The Rookwood Potteries_

FIGURE 282.--Stacking the Kiln]

[Sidenote: Forms of Manipulation]


PROCESSES

Rule 9a. _Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to be able
to withstand the action of heat to which all ware must be submitted._

Rule 9b. _Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay should be
simple and bold and thus adapted to the character of the material._

[Sidenote: Incising]

1. This is the simplest form of enrichment, a process familiar to the
earliest primitive potters and appropriate now for beginners. It
consists of the process of lowering lines or planes into the clay body
to the depth of from one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch. These lines
or planes should be bold and broad. They may be made with a blunt pencil
or a flat pointed stick. A square, rectangular, or round stick may be
used as a stamp with which to form a pattern for incising. Illustrations
of simple incising may be found in Figures 283, 284, 295, 319, 330. The
tiles shown are about six inches square.

[Sidenote: Piercing]

2. This process is less common and, as its name implies, is carried out
by cutting through the clay. It may be done with a fine wire. Either the
background or the design itself may be thus removed. The effect produced
is that of lightening an object such as the top of a hanging flower
holder, a window flower box, or a lantern shade.

[Sidenote: Modeling]

3. By adding clay to the main body, and by working this clay into low
relief flower or geometric forms, one has the basic process of modeling.
The slightly raised areas of clay form a pleasing play of light and
shade that varies the otherwise plain surface of the ware. The process
should be used with caution, for over-modeling, Figure 325, will
obstruct the structural outlines and, because of its over prominence as
decoration, will cease to be _surface enrichment_. In the technical
language of the designer over-modeling is an enrichment which is not
subordinated to the surface. In articles intended for service this high
relief modeling is unsanitary and unsatisfactory.

Figures 286 and 287 show incising with slight modeling, while 324, 328,
and 329 are examples of more complex enrichment.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY

RECTANGULAR AND SQUARE AREAS

PLATE 47]

[Sidenote: Introduction of Coloring Pigments]

With the introduction of the second group comes an added interest and
difficulty, that of the introduction of color. Pigments that will
withstand the application of heat are suggested at different points.

[Sidenote: Inlay]

4. This process consists of removing certain areas from the clay body to
the depth of one-eighth inch and filling in the depression with tinted
clay. Tints formed by the addition of ten per cent or less of burnt
umber or yellow ochre to the modeling clay will give interesting
effects. Figures 284, 285, 320, and 321 show forms which may be
developed by this process.

Sgraffito, an Italian process, is more difficult than inlaying, but the
effect is similar. A thin layer of colored clay is placed over the
natural clay body, and the design is developed by cutting away this
colored coating in places, thus exposing the natural clay body. Figure
306. There are variations of this plan that may be attempted by the
advanced designer.

[Sidenote: Slip Painting]

5. Slip is clay mixed with water to the consistency of cream. For slip
painting this mixture is thoroughly mixed with not more than ten per
cent of coloring pigment as represented by the underglaze colors of the
ceramist. This thick, creamy, colored slip is then painted on the
surface of the clay body while damp, much as the artist would apply oil
colors. The ware, when thoroughly dried, is glazed and fired, which
produces the effect shown in Figures 290, 291, and 327. The color range
is large; almost any color may be used with the exception of reds and
strong yellows. A colorless transparent glaze should be used over
beginner's slip painting.

[Sidenote: Colored Glazes]

6. This process refers to the direct introduction of the colored pigment
into the glaze. By varying the glaze formula we may have a clear,
transparent, or glossy glaze similar to Figure 317, a dull surfaced
opaque effect, termed a matt glaze, Figure 332; or a glossy but opaque
faience glaze similar to the blue and white Dutch tiles. There are other
forms such as the crystalline and "reduced" glazes, but these as a rule
are far beyond the ability of the beginning craftsman in ceramics.

[Sidenote: Combinations]

It is possible to use these three types of glazed surface in various
ways. For example, a vase form with an interesting contour may be left
without further surface enrichment except that supplied by clear glaze
or by a colored matt similar to certain types of Teco Ware.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY

SHALLOW CIRCULAR FORMS: PLATES, ETC

PLATE 48]

It is likewise possible to apply transparent glazes over incised
designs, inlay or slip painting, increasing their beauty and the
serviceability of the ware. A semi-transparent glaze is sometimes placed
over slip painting giving the charm inherent to the Vellum Ware of the
Rookwood Potteries. Figure 332. Greens, blues, yellows, and browns, with
their admixtures, are the safest combinations for the craftsman who
desires to mix his own glazes.

[Sidenote: Underglaze Painting]

7. This process may be seen in the examples of Newcomb Pottery
illustrated particularly in Figure 314 or 326. The underglaze pigment is
thinly painted upon the fired "biscuit," or unglazed ware. A thin,
transparent glaze is then placed _over_ the color, and in the final
firing the underneath color shows through this transparent coating, thus
illustrating the origin of the name underglaze or under-the-glaze
painting. Sage-green and cobalt-blue underglaze colors are frequently
used in Newcomb designs with harmonious results. The outline of the
design is often incised and the underglaze color, settling into these
channels, helps to accentuate the design. Figure 314.

[Sidenote: Porcelain or Overglaze Painting]

8. This is popularly known as china painting and consists of painting
directly upon the glazed surface of the ware and placing it in a china
kiln where a temperature between 600 degrees and 900 degrees C. is
developed. At this point the coloring pigment melts or is fused into the
porcelain glaze, thus insuring its reasonable permanence. Figure 302.

The eight processes briefly described may be readily identified on the
plates by referring to the figures corresponding to those which number
the processes and are added to each figure number. Two processes are
sometimes suggested as possible for one problem.

[Sidenote: Classification of Structural Clay Forms]

Different clay forms require different modes of treatment. To simplify
these treatments will now be our problem. It has been found convenient
to form four divisions based upon the general geometric shape of the
ware. The first, Plate 47, includes rectangular and square areas; the
second, Plate 48, shallow and circular forms; the third, Plate 49, low
cylindrical forms; and the fourth, Plate 50, high cylindrical forms. The
first three divisions have distinct modes of design treatment, while the
fourth interlocks to a considerable extent with the third method. We
shall now consider each plate with reference to its use and possible
forms of enrichment. For the sake of brevity, the results have been
condensed into tabulated forms.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY

LOW CYLINDRICAL FORMS

PLATE 49]

Each geometric form or type on these plates has not only distinctive
methods of design treatment but characteristic locations for placing the
design as well. These places or zones of enrichment have been indicated
in the following tabulated forms by the letters in parentheses. There
are a number of zones for each plate. For example, Plate 47 has its
distinctive problems as tiles, weights, etc., and five characteristic
zones of enrichment described on pages 153-155 and indicated by the
letters A, B, C, D, E, followed by a brief description of that zone.
Each zone is still further analyzed into its accompanying type of
design, inceptive axis, point of concentration, and illustrations. Each
plate has the proper zone of enrichment immediately following the figure
number and in turn followed by the process number.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Square and Rectangular Areas, Plate 47]

_Problems_: Tiles for tea and coffee pots, paper weights, window boxes;
architectural tiles for floors, and fire places.

       *       *       *       *       *

     (_A_) _Zone of Enrichment_: In the margin.

     _Reason for Choice_: Central area to be devoted to zone of
     service requiring simplicity in design.

     [Sidenote: Marginal Enrichment]

     _Type of Design_: Bands or borders.

     _Inceptive Axis_: For corners; the bisector of the angle.

     _Points of Concentration_: The corners and, if desired, at
     equal intervals between the corners.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 283, 284, 286, 287, 288.

       *       *       *       *       *

     (_B_) _Zone of Enrichment_: center of surface, free ornament.

     [Sidenote: Center Enrichment]

     _Type of Design_: Initials, monograms, street numbers,
     geometric patterns, and other examples for free ornament. A
     star or diamond is _not_ appropriate enrichment for a square
     area unless properly related to the contour by connecting
     areas.

     _Inceptive Axes_: Vertical or horizontal diameters or
     diagonals.

     _Points of Concentration_: Center of embellishment.

     _Illustrations_: Figure 285.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY

HIGH CYLINDRICAL FORMS. VASES, PITCHERS, ETC

PLATE 50]

     (_C_) _Zone of Enrichment_: full surface enrichment in a
     horizontal position.

     _Type of Design_: A symmetrical pattern generally radiating
     from the geometric center of the surface and covering at least
     two-thirds of the surface.

     [Sidenote: Full Vertical Surface Enrichment]

     _Inceptive Axes_: Diameters or diagonals of the area.

     _Points of Concentration_: At the corners or the center of the
     outer margin; at geometric center, as in a rosette.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 283, 289, and 291.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Full Horizontal Surface Enrichment]

     (_D_) _Zone of Enrichment_: full surface enrichment in a
     vertical position.

     _Type of Design_: A symmetrical pattern with a strong upward
     movement and covering more than one-half of the surface.

     _Inceptive Axis_: The vertical center line.

     _Point of Concentration_: Upper section of the surface.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 290 and 292.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Free Balance]

     (_E_) _Zone of Enrichment_: free balance over full surface.

     _Type of Design_: Semi-decorative motive preferably covering
     the entire surface.

     _Inceptive Axis_: Masses freely balanced over the geometric
     center of the area.

     _Point of Concentration_: Near, but not in the exact center.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298.

     _Note_: The points of concentration should be accented by
     slight contrast of value and hue. See chapters on color.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Shallow Circular Forms, Plate 48]

     _Problems_: Plates, saucers, ash trays, card receivers, almond
     and candy bowls.

       *       *       *       *       *

     (_A_) _Zone of Enrichment_: margin of interior surface; margin
     of exterior surface.

     _Type of Design_: Bands or borders thoroughly related to the
     structural contours. Bands for exterior enrichment may be
     placed directly on the contour, Figures 299 and 301, thus
     forming an

[Illustration: APPLIED AND CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN

RULE 9: ENRICHMENT OF THE PRIMARY MASS BY A BORDER

PROBLEM: ENRICHMENT OF CLASS 2 (POTTERY)

PLATE 51.--Instruction Sheet]

[Sidenote: Marginal Enrichment]

     accented contour (_F_) or slightly removed from it, as in
     Figure 300.

     _Inceptive Axes_: For interior surfaces, the radii of the
     contour circle generally supply the axes of symmetry.

     _Points of Concentration_: For interior surfaces, the points of
     concentration may be placed in or near the radii of the area.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 302, 303, 304, 305, 306.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Problems_: Cups, pitchers, steins, nut and rose bowls, low
     vase forms.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Low Cylindrical Forms, Plate 49]

     (_A_) _Zone of Enrichment_: upper margin of exterior.

     [Sidenote: Marginal Enrichment]

     _Type of Design_: Borders of units joining each other or
     connected by bands or spots acting as connecting links. Rule
     9c.

     _Inceptive Axes_: Vertical elements of the exterior surface.
     Elements are imaginary lines dividing the exterior surface into
     any given number of vertical sections. Elements used as center
     lines form the axes of symmetry about which the butterfly of
     Figure 308 and similar designs are constructed.

     _Points of Concentration_: On each vertical element.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 316.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Full Vertical Surface Enrichment]

     (_D_) _Zone of Enrichment_: full vertical surface.

     _Type of Design_: Extended borders with strongly developed
     vertical lines or forms. Less than one-half of the surface may
     be covered.

     _Inceptive Axes_: Vertical elements.

     _Points of Concentration_: In upper portion of vertical
     elements, hence in upper portion of area.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 307, 314, 317, 318.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: High Cylindrical Forms, Plate 50]

     (_E_) _Zone of Enrichment_: free balance of full surface. (See
     _D_, above).

     _Illustration_: Figure 315.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Problems_: Vases, jars, pitchers, tall flower holders, covered
     jars for tea, crackers, or tobacco.

[Sidenote: Marginal Enrichment]

     (_A_) _Zone of Enrichment_: margin of exterior.

     _Type of Design_: Borders of geometric units, freely balanced
     floral units, and other natural motives placed in upper margin
     of mass.

     _Inceptive Axes_: Vertical elements of cylinder.

     _Points of Concentration_: In upper portion of vertical
     elements.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 319, 320, 321, 327, 331, 332.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Full Surface Enrichment]

     (_D_) _Zone of Enrichment_: full surface of exterior.

     _Type of Design_: Free of formal conventionalized unit repeated
     on each vertical element. The units may be juxtaposed or may be
     connected by bands or similar links.

     _Inceptive Axes_: Vertical elements of cylinder.

     _Point of concentration_: In upper portion of vertical
     elements.

     _Illustrations_: Figures 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 329.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Types of Commercial Pottery]

The reader should carefully consider the postulate and various divisions
of Rule 7 and try to apply them to the material now under consideration.
Acknowledgment is made for material supplied by the Rookwood Potteries
for Figures 288, 289, 292, 293, 294, 297, 298, 315; 327 and 332; Newcomb
Potteries, Figures 314, 316, 317, 318, 326; Teco Potteries, 329; Keramic
Studio Publishing Company, 302, 307, 308, 310, 312.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plate 51 illustrates the marginal surface enrichment of low
     cylindrical forms, with part surface enrichment of two higher
     forms.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw primary mass:

     For square or rectangular areas draw square rectangle, etc.

     For shallow circular forms draw a circle.

     For low cylindrical forms draw a rectangle; subdivide this if
     desired by a unit of measurement into two horizontal divisions.

     For high cylindrical forms draw a rectangle; subdivide this if
     desired by a unit of measurement into two or three horizontal
     divisions. Rule 5e.

     (_b_) Design simple contour enrichment based upon these units
     of measurement.

     (_c_) Locate zone of enrichment.

     (_d_) Draw inceptive axes:

     For square or rectangular areas draw diameters, diagonals, or
     both.

     For shallow circular forms draw radii of the primary circle;
     concentric circles for bands.

     For low cylindrical forms draw the elements of the underlying
     cylindrical form for extended borders or lines paralleling the
     top or bottom of the primary mass for bands.

     For high cylindrical forms draw inceptive axes similar to low
     cylindrical forms.

     (_e_) Locate points of concentration in these inceptive axes.

     (_f_) Determine manner and amount of surface enrichment.

     (_g_) Add leading lines and develop these into surface
     enrichment.

     (_h_) Make potter's working drawing, full size (See Plate 26).
     Add the necessary amount for shrinkage and otherwise prepare
     the drawing for potter's use.

     (_i_) Make a paper tracing of the surface enrichment for
     transfer to clay body and cut a zinc or tin template as a
     contour guide in building the form.

SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a cider or chocolate set with appropriate surface
     enrichment.

     Design an architectural tile 6 in. by 9 in. for accenting a
     brick fireplace in the home.

SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 9a. _Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to
     be able to withstand the action of heat to which all ware must
     be submitted._

     Rule 9b. _Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay
     should be simple and bold and thus adapted to the character of
     the material._

     Rule 9c. _A border should not be located at the point of
     greatest curvature in the contour of a cylindrical form. The
     contour curve is of sufficient interest in itself at that
     point._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. Compare the surface enrichment of clay with that of wood.

     2. State a major requirement of a good pottery design.

     3. Give the broad divisions into which it is possible to divide
     the decorative processes of clay surface enrichment.

     4. Name and briefly describe eight methods of enriching the
     surface of clay.

     5. What precautions should be exercised with regard to the use
     of incised, pierced, and modeled decoration?

     6. Should a border be placed at the point of greatest curvature
     of the contour? Give reasons.

     7. Name method of classifying structural forms in clay into
     four groups.

     8. State problems and possible zones of enrichment in each
     group. Give reasons for choice.

     9. State type of design unit, conventionalized, natural or
     artificial forms, location of inceptive axis, points of
     concentration, and process for each zone of enrichment.

     10. What is an element of a cylindrical surface?



CHAPTER XIII

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF PRECIOUS METALS

SMALL FLAT PLANES


[Sidenote: Base and Precious Metals]

Chapter XII referred to clay as a free and plastic material adapted to a
wide range of surface enrichment processes. Metal as a more refractory
material offers greater resistance to the craftsman and is relatively
more limited in its capacity for surface enrichment. As was the case in
the consideration of contour enrichment for designing purposes, it is
necessary in the consideration of surface enrichment to divide metal
into two groups: precious and base metals. As the field of design in
both base and precious metals is large, we shall consider the surface
enrichment of _precious metals only_ in this chapter.

[Sidenote: Divisions for Enrichment]

Following an order similar in character to that used in clay designing,
problems in both base and precious metals may be divided into four
classified groups as follows: flat, square, rectangular, or irregular
planes; shallow circular forms; low cylindrical forms; high cylindrical
forms. Designs included in the first group, flat planes, comprise such
problems as are typically represented by tie pins, fobs, rings, and
pendants. The design problems presented by these examples are so
important that it is wise to restrict this chapter to _flat planes_.

Rule 10g. _The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide with one
axis of a stone, and at the same time be sympathetically related to the
structure._

Rule 10h. _The position of the inceptive axis should be determined by:
(1) use of the project as ring, pendant, or bar pin, (2) character of
the primary mass as either vertical or horizontal in proportion._

[Sidenote: Inceptive Axes and Points of Concentration]

The semi-precious or precious stone is commonly found to be the point of
concentration of these designs. The inceptive axes of tie pins,
pendants, and fobs are generally vertical center lines because of the
vertical positions of the objects when worn. The inceptive axes,
moreover, should pass through the point of concentration and, at the
same time, be sympathetically related to the structure. Rings and bar
pins are frequently designed with horizontal inceptive axes, so
determined by their horizontal characteristics and positions.

The point of concentration for tie pins, pendants, and fobs in formal
balance, in addition to coinciding with the inceptive axis, is generally
located above or below the geometric center of the primary mass. The
point of concentration for rings and bar pins is placed in the
horizontal inceptive axis and centrally located from left to right.

[Sidenote: Typical Processes of Enrichment]

[Sidenote: Economy of Material]

As a step preliminary to designing, and in order that the enrichment may
be conventionalized or adapted to conform to the requirements of tools,
processes, and materials, it is now imperative to become familiar with a
number of common forms of surface enrichment in metal. There are eight
processes frequently encountered in the decoration of silver and gold:
piercing, etching, chasing or repousséing, enameling, inlaying, stone
setting, building, carving. To these may be added planishing, frosting
or matting, and oxidizing as methods employed to enrich the entire
surface. Economy of material is of prime importance in the designing of
precious metal and, particularly in gold projects, conservation of the
metals should be an urgent consideration in all designs.

Rule 10a. _Designs in precious metals should call for the minimum amount
of metal necessary to express the idea of the designer for two reasons:
(1) good taste; (2) economy of material._

[Sidenote: Evolution and Technical Rendering of Processes]

A non-technical and brief description of each process follows. All
designs in this chapter may be identified by referring to the process
numbers after the figure description as 1, 3, 5; 2, 4, 6, corresponding
to the key numbers on Plate 52. A design to be submitted to the
craftsman should be a graphic _record of technical facts_ in addition to
good design, which requires that we should have an expressive _technical
means of rendering each process_. The last column, on Plate 52,
indicates this rendering. In addition to this rendering each one of the
eight technical processes has been carried through three design steps.
1. (first column, Plate 52) Planning the original primary mass, with its
inceptive axis suggested by the structure and intended use. It passes
through the point of concentration. 2. (second column, Plate 52). The
division of the primary mass into zones of service and enrichment with
the suggestion of the leading lines which, at some points, are parallel
to the contours and lead up to the point of concentration. The contours
in this column have, in several instances, been changed to add lightness
and variety to the problem. 3. The last step (column three, Plate 52)
shows the design with graphic rendering suggestive of the completed
process.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN METAL WITH
EVOLUTION AND RENDERING OF EIGHT PROCESSES OF ENRICHMENT

PLATE 52]


TECHNICAL PROCESSES AND METHODS OF ILLUSTRATING SAME IN A DESIGN

[Sidenote: Piercing]

1. Removal of design unit or background by means of the jeweler's saw.
Bridges of metal should be left to support firmly all portions of the
design. Test this by careful study of the design. Rendering--shade all
pierced portions of the design in solid black. Slightly tint portions of
the design passing under other parts. Illustration, Figure 336.

Rule 10j. _All surface enrichment should have an appearance of
compactness or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used as to
avoid the appearance of having been scattered on the surface without
thought to their coherence._

[Sidenote: Etching]

2. Coating either design or background with an acid resistant, to be
followed by immersion of the article in an acid bath. Allow the
unprotected portion to be attacked and eaten by the acid to a slight
depth. Rendering--slightly tint all depressed or etched parts of the
design. Illustration, Figure 339.

[Sidenote: Chasing or Repousséing]

3. The embossing and fine embellishment of a metal surface by the
application of the hammer and punches. The work is conducted mainly from
the top surface. Rendering--stipple all parts of the background not
raised by the process. Chasing should seem an integral part of the
background and not appear stuck upon it. Illustration, Figure 342. Rule
10k.

[Sidenote: Enameling (Champleve)]

4. A process of enameling over metal in which the ground is cut away
into a series of shallow troughs into which the enamel is melted.
Exercise reserve in the use of enamel. Over-decoration tends to cheapen
this valuable form of decoration. Rendering--shade the lower and
right-hand sides of all enameled areas to suggest relief. Illustration,
Figure 345. If possible render in tempera color.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN PRECIOUS
METAL

CONTOUR AND SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF FLAT PLANES PINS AND BROOCHES

PLATE 53]

Rule 10i. _Caution should be exercised with regard to the use of enamel.
Over-decoration by this material tends to cheapen both process and
design._

Rule 10l. _The lanes or margins between enameled spots should be
narrower than the lane or margin between the enamel and the contour of
the primary mass._

[Sidenote: Inlaying]

5. The process of applying wire, etc., to an incision on metal either by
burnishing or fusing the metal into the cavities. Rendering--tint the
darker metal or, if possible, render in color. Illustration, Figure 348.

[Sidenote: Stone Cutting]

6. An enrichment of the surface by the addition of semi-precious or
precious stones. Other enrichment is generally subordinated to the stone
which then becomes the point of concentration. All enrichment should
lead toward the stone. Small stones may, however, be used to accentuate
other points of concentration in surface enrichment. Rendering--shade
the lower and right-side of the stone to suggest relief. Pierced
subordinate enrichment should be shaded in solid black. A concentric
line should be drawn outside of the contour of the stone to designate
the thin holding band, or bezel, enclosing the stone on all sides.
Illustration, Figure 351.

Rule 10d. _Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the contours
of both primary mass and point of concentration, especially whenever the
latter is a stone or enamel._

Rule 10e. _In the presence of either stone or enamel as a point of
concentration, surface enrichment should be regarded as an unobtrusive
setting, or background._

Rule 10f. _Stone or enamel used as a point of concentration should form
contrast with the metal, either in color, brilliancy, or value, or all
three combined._

[Sidenote: Building]

7. The process of applying leaves, wire, grains, and other forms of
surface enrichment to the plane of the metal. These may afterwards be
carved or chased. Rendering--shade the lower and right-hand lines;
slightly tint the lower planes of the metal. Illustration, Figure 354.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony_

Figure 372a.--Tie Pins]

8. The process of depressing or raising certain portions of the metal
surface by means of chisels and gravers. By the use of these tools the
surface is modeled into planes of light and shade, to which interest
is added if the unaggressive tool marks are permitted to remain on the
surface. Rendering--shade the raised and depressed portions to express
the modeling planes. As this is a difficult technical process the
designer is advised to model the design in plastelene or jewelers' wax
first. Illustration, Figure 357.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony_

FIGURE 372b.--Tie Pins]

[Sidenote: Carving]

Rule 10k. _Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the higher
planes near the point of concentration. It is well to have the stone as
the highest point above the primary mass. When using this form of
enrichment, the stone should never appear to rise abruptly from the
primary mass, but should be approached by a series of rising planes._

[Sidenote: Planishing]

9. The process of smoothing and, at the same time, hardening the surface
of the metal with a steel planishing hammer. The hammer strokes give an
interesting texture to the surface which may be varied, from the heavily
indented to the smooth surface, at the will of the craftsman. The more
obvious hammer strokes are not to be desired as they bring a tool
process into too much prominence for good taste. Rendering--print
desired finish on the drawing.

[Sidenote: Frosting]

10. A process of sand blasting or scratch brushing a metal surface to
produce an opaque or "satin" finish. Rendering--similar to planishing.

[Sidenote: Oxidizing]

11. A process of darkening the surface of metal by the application of
chemicals. Potassium sulphite will supply a deep, rich black to silver
and copper. Rendering--see Planishing.

[Sidenote: Design of Pins and Brooches]

The eleven processes mentioned above are among those which, by recent
common practice, have become familiar to the craftsman in precious
metals. While they do not cover the entire field, they at least give the
beginner an opportunity to design intelligently in terms of the
material.

[Sidenote: Dependent Surface Enrichment for Pins]

Plate 53 is mainly the enrichment of the flat plane by the addition of
semi-precious stones (process six). Whatever surface enrichment is added
to this design becomes _dependent_ enrichment and quite analogous to
_dependent_ contour enrichment, Plate 29, inasmuch as it has to be
designed with special reference to the shape and character of the stone.
Figures 358 to 363 are examples of _dependent contour_ enrichment;
Figures 364 to 371 are examples of _dependent surface_ enrichment.
Figures 358 to 367 are based upon _vertical_ inceptive axes as
appropriate to their intended service. The point of concentration may
be located at practically any point on this inceptive axis, provided the
major axis of the stone coincides with the inceptive axis. The best
results are obtained by placing the stone a little above or below the
exact geometrical center of the primary mass.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN PRECIOUS
METALS

CONTOUR AND SURFACE ENRICHMENT APPLIED TO FOBS

MAINLY FULL SURFACE ENRICHMENT BASED UPON VERTICAL INCEPTIVE AXES

PLATE 54]

[Sidenote: Inceptive Axes for Pins]

Figures 368 to 372 show articles based upon a horizontal inceptive axis.
The stone, in accordance with formal balance, is in the geometric center
from left to right. One notices the important fact that the surface
enrichment must bring the stone and contour together in sympathetic
relation and, at the same time, be related to both stone and contour.
This again brings out the meaning of _dependent_ surface enrichment. The
contour enrichment is to be kept as simple as possible and the interest
concentrated upon the surface enrichment. The _accentuation of both
surface and contour enrichment_ in a single design marks the height of
bad taste in design.

Rule 10b. _Contour and surface enrichment should never appear to compete
for attention in the same design._

[Sidenote: Fobs]

Plate 54 shows flat planes, the service of which suggests vertical
inceptive axes. Figure 380 is noted as an exception to this vertical
inceptive axis as it possesses a vertical primary mass but with radial
inceptive axes. The interesting manner by which the dynamic leaves of
the outer border transmit their movement to the inner border, which in
turn leads toward the point of concentration, is worthy of attention.
The points of concentration in other designs on this plate are all
contained in the vertical inceptive axes.

[Sidenote: Rings]

Plate 55, at first thought, would seem to fall under the classification
of low cylindrical forms but when reference is made to Figure 385 it is
readily seen that the ring has to be first developed as a flat plane, to
be afterwards bent into the required form. Care should be taken to keep
the design narrow enough to be visible when the ring is in position on
the finger.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN PRECIOUS
METAL

ENRICHMENT OF FLAT PLANES

RINGS

PLATE 55]

The long horizontal band of the ring supplies the motive for the
horizontal inceptive axis as a common basis or starting point for a
large number of designs. If the designer so desires, the vertical axis
of the finger is authority for an elliptical stone to be placed with its
major axis as a vertical line in harmony with the finger axis. In any
instance the designer seeks to lead the eye from the horizontal portion
of the ring (the finger band) toward the point of concentration (the
stone), by means of surface enrichment. A long sloping contour curve
helps, as a transition line in the boundary, to carry the attention from
the stone to the finger band. A great number of devices are used to
complete a similar transition in the surface enrichment. Figure 390a.
Too much piercing weakens the structure, and it is therefore to be
avoided.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony_

FIGURE 390a.--Rings]

Plate 56 suggests some vertical flat planes for pendants. While no
definite rule can be stated for the location of the stone, from past
experience, it is easier for beginners to place the stone on the
vertical inceptive axis slightly above the geometric center of the
primary mass. Figures 391 to 395. A design thus formed is less likely to
appear heavy, although there is nothing arbitrary about the suggestion.

Rule 10c. _Parts of a design differing in function should differ in
appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire design._

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL PRIMARY MASSES IN PRECIOUS
METAL

ENRICHMENT OF FLAT PLANES OF PENDANTS, CHAINS, LOCKETS

PLATE 56]

[Sidenote: Pendants and Chains]

In pendant design the surface enrichment generally carries the attention
from the contour of the pendant to the stone, thus insuring unity at
this point, while the contour lines often lead the attention from the
pendant to the chain. The eye should move in unbroken dynamic movement
from pendant to chain. The chain may have points of accent designed to
vary the even distribution of the links. These accents are frequently
composed of small stones with surface enrichment sympathetically
designed in unity with pendant, chain, and stone. Figure 401 shows
examples of this arrangement and similarly the need of a horizontal
inceptive axis to harmonize with the length of the chain. These small
accents are quite similar in design to bar pin motives.

Rule 10m. _Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not be used in
the same design._

[Sidenote: Relation of Stones to Metal]

For the designer's purposes we may consider two kinds of stones, the
transparent and the opaque. These should not be mixed in one design. The
most favorable stones are those forming contrasts of value or brilliancy
with the metal as, for example, the amethyst, lapis lazuli, or New
Zealand jade, with silver; or the dark topaz, or New Zealand jade, with
gold. Lack of these contrasts gives dull, monotonous effects that fail
to make the stone the point of concentration. Figure 467. These effects
may be partially overcome by frosting, plating, or oxidizing the metal,
thus forming stronger contrasts of value.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plates 52 and 57 are representative of the steps, processes, and
     problems for school use.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw the primary mass.

     (_b_) Locate the inceptive axis in this primary mass with its
     direction determined by the ultimate use or position of the
     primary mass and its general shape.

     (_c_) Locate zone of enrichment.

     (_d_) Locate point of concentration in the zone of enrichment
     and in the inceptive axis.

     (_e_) Design simple contour enrichment.

     (_f_) Design leading lines in sympathy with the contour and
     leading toward the point of concentration.

     (_g_) Elaborate the leading lines in sympathy with the
     material, the type of enrichment, the contours, and the
     inceptive axis.

     (_h_) Render in the technical manner suggested by Plate 52,
     dimension the primary mass, and otherwise prepare the drawing
     for shop use.

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony_

FIGURE 401a.--Pendants]

[Illustration: _Courtesy of the Elverhoj Colony_

FIGURE 402.--Pendants]

SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a built-up ring using an elliptical cabochon cut stone as
     the point of concentration. The inceptive axis is vertical.

SUMMARY OF RULES

     SMALL FLAT PLANES

     Rule 10a. _Designs in precious metals should call for the
     minimum amount of metal necessary to express the idea of the
     designer for two reasons: (1) good taste; (2) economy of
     material._

     Rule 10b. _Contour and surface enrichment should never appear
     to compete for attention in the same design._

     Rule 10c. _Parts of a design differing in function should
     differ in appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire
     design._

     Rule 10d. _Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the
     contours of both primary mass and point of concentration,
     especially whenever the latter is a stone or enamel._

     Rule 10e. _In the presence of either stone or enamel as a point
     of concentration, surface enrichment should be regarded as an
     unobtrusive setting, or background._

     Rule 10f. _Stone or enamel used as a point of concentration
     should form contrast with the metal, either in color,
     brilliancy, or value, or all three combined._

     Rule 10g. _The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide
     with one axis of a stone, and at the same time be
     sympathetically related to the structure._

     Rule 10h. _The position of the inceptive axis should be
     determined by (1) use of the project as ring, pendant, or bar
     pin, (2) character of the primary mass as either vertical or
     horizontal in proportion._

     Rule 10i. _Caution should be exercised with regard to the use
     of enamel. Over-decoration by this material tends to cheapen
     both process and design._

[Illustration: RULES 10 A TO M: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF SMALL
FLAT PLANES OF PRECIOUS METAL

{IA} INCEPTIVE AXIS

INSTRUCTION SHEET

PENDANTS, RINGS AND FOBS IN SLIVER

DESIGNED BY MISS GERTRUDE EVANS

U. OF W.

PLATE 57]

     Rule 10j. _All surface enrichment should have an appearance of
     compactness or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used
     as to avoid the appearance of having been scattered on the
     surface without thought to their coherence._

     Rule 10k. _Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the
     higher planes near the point of concentration. It is well to
     have the stone as the highest point above the primary mass.
     When using this form of enrichment the stone should never
     appear to rise abruptly from the primary mass, but should be
     approached by a series of rising planes._

     Rule 10l. _The lanes or margins between enameled spots should
     be narrower than the lane or margin between the enamel and the
     contour of the primary mass._

     Rule 10m. _Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not
     be used in the same design._

     Postulate.--_The design should conform to the limitations and
     requirements of tools, processes, and materials, and should be
     durable and suitable for service._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What is often used as a point of concentration in the
     surface enrichment of precious metals? Why?

     2. State direction of the inceptive axis for problems similar
     to: (_a_) tie pins, (_b_) pendants, (_c_) fobs, (_d_) rings,
     (_e_) bar pins? Why? Under what grouping of planes may they be
     placed?

     3. State the relation between the point of concentration and
     the inceptive axis.

     4. Give three steps in the design evolution of surface
     enrichment for small flat planes.

     5. Describe briefly eleven decorative processes for the surface
     enrichment of precious metals with the technical rendering of
     each.

     6. Illustrate examples of dependent contour and dependent
     surface enrichment of precious metals.

     7. Where should a stone in a design similar to a pin or brooch
     be placed with reference to the inceptive axis and the
     geometric center of the primary mass?

     8. Illustrate manner of planning primary mass, inceptive axis,
     point of concentration, contour, and surface enrichment of:
     (_a_) pins, (_b_) fobs, (_c_) rings, (_d_) pendants and chains.

     9. State the relation of stone or enamel to metal.

     10. What rule should govern the amount of metal used in a
     design?

     11. State the objection to a design with contour and surface
     enrichment equally elaborated.

     12. Is it possible to vary the design motive of a chain from
     that of a pendant? Why and how?

     13. Give illustration and requirements of a good design in
     champleve enamel.

     14. What precautions should be exercised in designing pierced
     enrichment?

     15. What rules should be observed in designing a built-up or
     carved design?

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN PRECIOUS
METALS

TREATMENT OF FLAT AND SEMI-FLAT SURFACES

WORK OF STUDENTS OF MILWAUKEE-DOWNER COLLEGE

PLATE 58]



CHAPTER XIV

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE AND PRECIOUS METALS


[Sidenote: Enrichment for Small Areas]

The surface enrichment of small, flat primary masses treated in Chapter
XIII emphasized the designer's tendency for _full_ surface enrichment of
small areas. Such treatment has proved satisfactory because the eye can
readily and immediately observe and comprehend or assimilate an
enrichment upon a small area. For larger enriched areas considered in
this chapter, full surface enrichment becomes a questionable policy for
the following reasons.

[Sidenote: Enrichment for Large Areas]

It is true that the old time craftsman with consummate skill fully
enriched large surfaces, but two factors interfere with this mode of
treatment today. The first factor is the decidedly practical nature of
the problem. The service to which the modern industrial project is put
interferes with the use of full surface enrichment. The second is the
lack of skill on the part of the modern amateur designer. It is a sound
policy to avoid the ornateness that frequently accompanies a large and
unskillfully planned area. In place of this, we should limit the
enrichment of large masses to a few salient areas which are well related
to the structural lines.

Rule 11b. _Conservative application should mark the use of surface
enrichment of large masses. Its use should:_ (1) _lighten or soften
necessarily heavy construction;_ (2) _support or apparently strengthen
good structure;_ (3) _add interest to large unbroken and uninteresting
surfaces._

[Sidenote: Essentials of Good Surface Enrichment]

These salient areas should determine the surface enrichment appropriate
to the structure, so that the enrichment: (1) will lighten or soften
necessarily heavy construction as in Figure 403; (2) support or
apparently strengthen good structure, Figure 413; (3) add interest to
large unbroken or otherwise uninteresting surfaces as illustrated in
Figure 405. To aid in producing the desired results, we have the
technical processes mentioned in Chapter XIII as follows: (1) Piercing;
(2) Etching; (3) Chasing; (4) Enameling; (5) Inlaying; (6) Stone
setting; (7) Building; (8) Carving; (9) Planishing; (10) Frosting; (11)
Oxidizing. On the plates for this chapter, the figure generally
following the cut number refers to the process, as: Figure 446, 3.

[Illustration: Figure 406a.--Mainly Objects Designed to be Seen from
Above]

SURFACE DESIGN EVOLUTION

Rule 11a. _The preliminary steps toward surface enrichment should be
thought out before they are drawn._

A designer will be materially helped if he devotes a few moments of
thought to his design problem before he applies the pencil to the paper.
In the end the time given to thinking out his problem will gain for him
both increased excellence of design and rapidity of execution, provided
his thinking is systematic. A sequential order of points to be observed
is given below. The object of systematic thought is to form a mental
picture of the enrichment to be in full accord with the materials and
construction and to be sympathetically related to the structural axes
and to the contours. The unenriched mass has been designed and we are
now ready for the consideration of surface enrichment in the following
order.

[Sidenote: Summary of Steps in Surface Enrichment]

(_a_) _Placing the Zone of Service._

1. Where is the zone of service?

       *       *       *       *       *

(_b_) _Classification of Form_.

1. Is the object flat, shallow and circular, low and cylindrical, high
and cylindrical?

       *       *       *       *       *

(_c_) _Placing the Zone of Enrichment._

1. Is the enrichment to be seen from above or from the side? See Figure
406a.

2. What point of the structure suggested by the form needs surface
enrichment? Is it the primary mass, appendages, terminals, links, or
details? Let the area selected become the zone of enrichment.

(_d_) _Amount of Enrichment._

1. Will the enrichment cover the full surface, part surface (center or
margin), or accented outline?

(_e_) _Location of Inceptive Axis._

1. Is the zone of enrichment associated with a square, rectangle,
hexagon, or irregularly shaped flat plane, circular or cylindrical
surface? Figure 470.

2. How should the inceptive axis be placed in the zone of enrichment to
harmonize with the structural forms suggested by 1 (e) and the point
from which it is viewed 1 (c)? See the violation of this latter point in
Figure 439. Presumably this inceptive axis will be a vertical center
line, horizontal center line, diagonal, diameter, radius, the element of
a cylinder, or a dynamic curve for a free border.

(_f_) _Point of Concentration._

[Sidenote: Surface Enrichment]

1. Where should the point of concentration be located upon the inceptive
axis?

(_g_) _Unison of Enrichment and Materials._

1. What decorative process will be adaptable to service, the material,
and the contemplated design?

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE METALS

TREATMENT OF FLAT AND SEMI-FLAT SURFACES

_Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin_

PLATE 59]

[Sidenote: Summary of Steps in Surface Enrichment]

(_h_) _Type of Units_.

1. What design units are suited to the process selected in (_g_),
appropriate to the texture and structural lines of the form to be
enriched and to its ultimate service? Choice may be made from nature,
geometric pattern, or historic ornament.

The above points may all be _thought out_. Now, with some assurance, the
designer may take his pencil and begin to _draw_ the units in their
proper position upon or about the inceptive axis with the point of
concentration correctly placed in position in the inceptive axis. Rules
and suggestions for this execution have been previously given.

       *       *       *       *       *

(_i_) _Designing of the Units_.

1. How should the units be drawn to be in harmony with the inceptive
axis, the contours, and to each other?

The above points of approach to surface enrichment represent a logical
reasoning process which supplies a line of sequential and developmental
pictures that will reduce to a minimum the element of doubt and fog
through which the average designer approaches his problem. The steps
will, in time, become practically automatic and may be thought out in a
surprisingly short period of time.

Rule 11c. _The type of design unit for large masses should be bolder
than similar designs for small primary masses._

[Sidenote: Large Masses and Their Treatment]

As may be expected from briefly considering the illustrations for this
chapter as compared with those for small primary masses, Chapter XIII,
it is seen that the units for base and precious metals are larger and
bolder than those used for smaller masses. The more effective designs
are those whose appropriateness, simplicity, and correct structural
proportions and relations appeal to our sense of fitness and beauty.

Figures 403, 404, and 406 are composed of projects designed mainly on
vertical inceptive axes or center lines. The freely balanced natural
units in Figure 403 have the zone of enrichment in the upper portion of
the appendage (handles), and the point of concentration in the upper
portion of the zone of enrichment. Formal symmetrical balance controls
the placing of enrichment in Figure 404. Initial letters, through lack
of consideration of design principles, are frequently misplaced on
masses with little or no consideration given to their mass relations
with the structural contours. As a contrast to this, notice the
carefully considered relations between the letter _W_ on the tea
strainer in Figure 404 and its adaptation to the contours of the
appendage. The stone enrichment on the handle of the paper cutter in
Figure 404 in no way interferes with its use as a cutter and is
therefore appropriate as surface enrichment.

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE METAL

TREATMENT OF FLAT PLANES IN CAST BRONZE

_Door Plates, Courtesy of P. and F. Corbin_

PLATE 60]

[Sidenote: Large Flat and Semi-flat Surfaces in Precious Metal, Plate
58]

The pierced enrichment of the silver box in Figure 405 contains vertical
and horizontal lines which bring the decorative human figures into
harmonious relation with the structural contours. Figure 406 shows both
formal and free balance with center and full surface zones of
enrichment. _C_ and _D_ could have been improved by a more strongly
marked point of concentration which would have added more character to
the designs.

[Sidenote: Flat and Semi-flat Surfaces in Base Metal, Plate 59]

In Chapter VIII, the contour terminal enrichment problem was described
at some length. Many illustrations on Plates 58, 59, and 60 are, in a
way, similar in their type of surface decoration, which is termed
_surface terminal enrichment_. The "happy ending" mentioned in Chapter
VIII as a suitable means of terminating the contour of a long primary
mass or appendage may be similarly treated by suitable surface
enrichment, particularly shown in Figures 403, 404, 407, 408, 409, and
410. The terminal is quite common as a zone of enrichment.

[Sidenote: Contour _Versus_ Surface Enrichment]

It is readily seen that when surface enrichment is the prevailing
decorative theme it becomes necessary to subordinate contour enrichment
to it, Rule 10b, otherwise the strife for dominance arising between
these two forms of enrichment will lead to poor and ornate design,
Figure 417. Whatever contour enrichment is used must be chosen to accord
with the surface enrichment, Rule 10d, as noted in the preceding figures
and in Figure 411. Here we find the closest connection, as the chased
forms of the surface at many points merge into the contour. Thus surface
and contour are bound together in unity with the surface enrichment,
which maintains its dominance throughout.

The simple and dignified treatment of the fire set in Figure 413 is
synonymous with the finest type of enrichment for service and beauty,
Rule 11b. The peacock motives of Figures 414 and 415 are applied to the
desk set. The motives as used in this case are generally well adapted to
their respective areas and inceptive axes.

[Sidenote: Surface Enrichment of Hardware, Plate 60]

Rule 11f. _Repulsive forms should not be introduced into surface
enrichment._

Figure 417 is a typical example of over-ornamentation with the surface
and contour enrichment struggling in deadly conflict for prominence. In
the combat, the natural structural axis has been totally neglected for
irrelevant and disconnected ornament. Figure 418 illustrates correctly
related surface ornament, with a dominance of the latter form, Rule 10b.
Figure 419 represents a type of decoration presumably roughened to meet
the needs of service. It proves, however, to be unpleasant to the touch
and unnecessary as the plain knob is preferable in every way. The
naturalistic snake motive of Figure 421 is repulsive to many people;
this and similar decorative motives should be avoided in preference to
the more conventionalized pattern of Figure 422, Rule 11f.

Rule 11e. _Two periods of historic ornament should not be introduced
into the same design._

[Sidenote: Historic Ornament Applied to Period Hardware Design Door
Plates]

It is impossible to close these chapters without reference to the
influence of the great schools of architectural history upon
contemporary design. There is a growing tendency for manufacturers to
use period patterns in house decorations which correspond to the design
of the building. A Colonial building frequently calls for Colonial
hardware, a Gothic church for corresponding surface enrichment of that
period.

As introductory illustrations, Figure 423 stands as a simple example of
accented (beveled) contour while Figure 424 has been accented with
reminiscent moulding appropriate to Colonial architecture. They might,
however, be used with many simply designed articles of furniture. From
this slight indication or portion of a style, we have a more pronounced
beginning in Figure 425 with its clearly marked Greek egg and dart
ornamental border. The acanthus leaf of the Byzantine school, Figure
426, changes to the geometric arabesques of the Moorish school in Figure
427. The Gothic arch, cusps, and quatrefoil of Figure 428 are changed to
the classic acanthus foliage of the French Renaissance period. Figure
429. Figures 430 and 431 are later developments of the Renaissance. The
heavily enriched Flemish pattern completes our illustrations of the use
of past forms of ornamentation applied to modern designs. Only a small
number from a rapidly enlarging field of period design are shown.

[Sidenote: Shallow Circular Forms, Plate 61]

With circular plates and trays, the enrichment normally takes the form
of a border (marginal enrichment), with the inceptive axes or center
lines of the repeated units radiating from the center of the circle.
Figures 433, 435, 436, 437, 438, and 439. An elliptical form frequently
calls for handles and terminal enrichment as shown by Figure 434.

Both Figures 437 and 438 have divided points of concentration and would
be materially improved by the omission of the center unit _A_. The small
tree used as a connecting link in the border of Figure 437 should be
reversed, as it now possesses a motion or growth contrary to the larger
tree units. The contour enrichment in Figure 438 could well be omitted
or moved around to support the surface enrichment. The pierced
enrichment _A_, Figure 439, is incorrectly used as it is not designed to
be seen from above, the normal viewpoint of the tray. The design should
have been based upon the horizontal axis of the project similar to
Figure 439 at _B_.

[Sidenote: Low Cylindrical Forms, Plate 62]

Differing from the shallow plate, with the increased height of the low
cylindrical forms of Plate 62, there now develops the possibility of
enriching the sides of this class of project: a zone of enrichment not
readily accessible in the shallow plate form. In addition to the sides
there remain the appendages, quite capable of carrying enrichment to
advantage. One should control the zone of enrichment in such a manner
that the attention will not be equally drawn to both appendage and
primary mass. Two points of enrichment, both calling for equal
attention, divide the interest in the problem, and cause a lack of unity
or oneness.

Rule 11d. _The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of
enrichment, whether located upon the primary mass, appendage, terminals,
links, or details. All other zones should be subordinate to this area._

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE AND
PRECIOUS METAL

TREATMENT OF SHALLOW CIRCULAR FORMS

PLATE 61]

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE AND
PRECIOUS METAL

TREATMENT OF LOW CIRCULAR FORMS

PLATE 62]

[Illustration: SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES IN BASE AND
PRECIOUS METALS

TREATMENT OF HIGH CYLINDRICAL FORMS

PLATE 63]

Enrichment upon the appendages may be found in Figures 440, 441, 442,
445, and on the upper portion of the straight sides of the primary mass
in Figures 443 and 444. The decorative units composing the border on
these straight sides are designed upon the vertical element of the
underlying cylindrical form as the inceptive axis. The enrichment for
the appendage is well related to the contour of that member and is
commonly based upon the center line of the appendage.

[Sidenote: Cylindrical Forms, Plate 63]

The principles of enriching these higher cylindrical forms in many ways
closely parallel those which govern the lower cylindrical forms. The
inceptive axes of the decoration on the two vases of Figures 446 and 447
may be readily analyzed as vertical elements of the cylinder. Figures
448 and 449 are quite rare exceptions of the accentuation of the
_vertical_ lines of the cylinder. Horizontal bands similar to Figures
444 and 447 are more common interpretations of cylinder enrichment.
Figure 450 marks a successful combination of two dissimilar materials
with the shade (appendage) as the dominating enriched member. Rule 10c.

The small chased bosses used as enrichment in Figure 452 are re-echoed
on the several pieces of the set which binds them into collective unity.
The top portion of the primary mass seems to need some form of
enrichment, as the contour adds little to the beauty of that part. The
symbol _X_ could have been better located by being moved to that place.
The point of concentration should be placed in the upper portion of a
large mass whenever that arrangement is possible.

It is in every way desirable that all designs should be executed full
size and in full accord with the requirements of a shop working drawing.
In addition the technical rendering suggested in Chapter XIII should be
carefully used in each drawing.


INSTRUCTION SHEET

     Plates 68 and 72 show problems suitable for class presentation. The
     method of development is similar to that presented on Plate 52.

SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Draw a primary mass with reference to its proper grouping
     as follows:

     For flat areas draw square, rectangle, etc.

     For shallow circular forms draw a circle.

     For low cylindrical forms draw a rectangle with horizontal
     proportions.

     For high cylindrical forms draw a rectangle with vertical
     proportions.

     (_b_) Locate zone of service.

     (_c_) Locate zone of enrichment: appendages, terminals,
     margins, full surface, etc.

     (_d_) Determine amount of enrichment.

     (_e_) Locate inceptive axes.

     (_f_) Place point of concentration in the inceptive axis where
     it traverses the zone of enrichment.

     (_g_) Select the decorative process suited to the material and
     contemplated motive.

     (_h_) Draw leading lines toward the point of concentration.

     (_i_) Draw conventionalized design motives based upon the
     leading lines, converging toward the point of concentration.
     Vary the contours to be sympathetically related to these design
     motives, provided such variation of the original primary mass
     is necessary to complete unity.

     (_j_) Add additional views, dimension, and otherwise prepare
     the drawing for shop use.

SUGGESTED PROBLEM

     Design a copper nut bowl and spoon. Enrich with a chased border
     appropriate to the subject. Enrich spoon, using fitting method of
     enrichment. The bowl and spoon should have a harmonious relation.

SUMMARY OF RULES

SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF LARGE PRIMARY MASSES

     Rule 11a. _The preliminary steps toward surface enrichment
     should be thought out before they are drawn._

     Rule 11b. _Conservative application should mark the use of
     surface enrichment of large masses. Its use should: (1) lighten
     or soften necessarily heavy construction; (2) support or
     apparently strengthen good structure; (3) add interest to large
     unbroken and uninteresting surfaces._

     Rule 11c. _The type of design unit for large masses should be
     bolder than similar designs for small primary masses._

     Rule 11d. _The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of
     enrichment, whether located upon the primary mass, appendage,
     terminal, links, or details. All other zones should be
     subordinate to this area._

     Rule 11e. _Two periods of historic ornament should not be
     introduced into the same design._

     Rule 11f. _Repulsive forms should not be introduced into
     surface enrichment._

REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. Contrast the method of enriching large and small areas of
     base and precious metals. Illustrate. What is the character of
     surface enrichment for large areas?

     2. Name three essentials to good surface design for base and
     precious metals. Illustrate each.

     3. Give nine steps necessary for the complete evolution of
     surface enrichment.

     4. Name method of classifying the structural forms of metal
     into four groups. How does this compare with the classification
     of clay forms?

     5. Between which two groups does the transition from a
     horizontal to a vertical primary mass occur?

     6. Is there a perceptible change in the surface enrichment
     paralleling this change in proportions of the primary mass?

     7. In which group or groups is the relation between surface and
     contour enrichment closest?

     8. Give the characteristics of surface enrichment designed for
     flat or semi-flat planes.

     9. State the value of the terminal as an enrichment zone.

     10. Discuss common errors in the surface enrichment of hardware
     and their correction.

     11. In what manner does historic ornament influence industrial
     design? Why?

     12. Give characteristics of surface enrichment designed for,
     (_a_) large, shallow circular forms; (_b_) large, low
     cylindrical forms; (_c_) large, high cylindrical forms.

     13. How does the point from which the article is to be seen
     affect the character of the design?



CHAPTER XV

COLOR: HUE, VALUE, AND CHROMA; STAINS


[Sidenote: Need of Harmonious Color]

In the previous chapters we have developed problems dealing with
proportions, contours, and surface enrichment. The use of color,
particularly in surface enrichment, is equally important inasmuch as its
use is often necessary to bring the project, as for example a piece of
furniture, into harmony with the surroundings which furnish its final
color environment. The incorrect use of color may seriously mar a
project otherwise correctly designed in line and form, and may also
weaken its influence in a particular setting.

[Sidenote: Use of Color Systems]

While there are a number of excellent systems of color notation, it is
well to bear in mind that a color system, however excellent, is a good
servant but a poor master. It is nevertheless considered as essential to
have a definite knowledge of some systematically developed color system
in order that we may methodically apply color to the structural form
with some degree of certainty.

[Sidenote: Color Pigments for Design Rendering]

For rendering drawings of problems involving the use of color it is
suggested that the beginner use the tempera, or opaque colors now on the
market. These colors readily adapt themselves to the average problem,
while their rich hues are more successful than those produced from the
ordinary water colors. Tubes of cobalt blue, ultramarine, light chrome
yellow, vermilion, emerald green, crimson madder, black, and white will
serve to solve the problems demanded by this chapter.

[Sidenote: Application of Pigment]

White is used to lighten and black to darken the pigments, which should
be mixed with water to the consistency of cream, and applied to cover
well the surface of the paper. One should guard against a thin,
transparent wash, as the desired effect is a velvety opaque and evenly
tinted surface only possible with the thick application of color. The
pigment will dry out about one-quarter lighter than when first applied.
The usual school color box of three pigments is useful for rendering
wood stains. These pigments may be used in thin flat washes and will
exhibit a transparent effect analogous to the effect of a wood stain.
The natural color of wood may be first represented and, when dry,
followed by a second thin wash of the hue of the wood stain.

[Sidenote: Rendering of Wood Stains]

Lacking as we are in a definite color nomenclature or standards, it now
becomes necessary to describe the processes and define the terms
necessary to the designer.

[Sidenote: Hue and Hue Rectangles]

_Hue_ is the technical name for color; a change of color means a change
of hue. For the designer's purposes we will select twelve equally graded
colors or hues from the spectrum and term them standard hues. Each hue
will have twenty-seven modifications or gradations, which is a
sufficient number for our purpose. These gradations are to be
graphically recorded by and contained in a diagram to be known as a _hue
rectangle_. There are twelve of these rectangles, one for each of the
selected hues, and they are found arranged in sequence in Figure 454.

[Sidenote: Standard Hues]

[Sidenote: Full Chromatic Intensity]

By referring to Figure 455, it is seen that the twelve selected standard
hues are represented at what is termed _full chromatic intensity_,
which, to the designer, means hues of the full strength of his color
pigment. This is far short of the true color intensity of the spectrum,
but for industrial arts purposes these hues are strong enough to serve
as standards for comparison and classification. The hues should be
evenly graded from red at the left to red violet at the right without
noticeable unevenness in the gradations. Red violet is the link which
connects the right end with the left, thus completing the circuit of the
twelve hues. The following pigment table gives name and symbol of
various hues.

[Sidenote: Approximate Related Standard Hues]

 --------------+-----------------------------------+------------+-------
      HUES     |               PIGMENTS            |   VALUES   |SYMBOLS
 --------------+-----------------------------------+------------+-------
 Red           | Pure crimson madder               | High dark  | R-HD
 Orange        | Crimson madder and vermilion      | Middle     | OR-M
 Orange        | Vermilion and light chrome yellow | Low light  | O-LL
 Orange yellow | Vermilion and light chrome yellow | Light      | OY-L
 Yellow        | Pure light chrome yellow          | High light | Y-HL
 Yellow green  | Light chrome yellow and           |            |
               |   emerald green                   | Light      | YG-L
 Green         | Pure emerald green                | Low light  | G-LL
 Green blue    | Emerald green and cobalt blue     | Middle     | GB-M
 Blue          | Pure cobalt blue                  | High dark  | B-HD
 Blue violet   | Ultramarine and crimson madder    | Dark       | BV-D
 Violet        | Ultramarine and crimson madder    | Low dark   | V-LD
 Red violet    | Ultramarine and crimson madder    | Dark       | RV-D
 --------------+-----------------------------------+------------+-------

[Sidenote: Locating Standard Hues]

It now becomes imperative to locate each standard hue at its definite
place in each rectangle. This invariably occurs at a predetermined point
in the left vertical boundary of the rectangle of that hue. From
inspection of Figure 455, it is quickly seen that violet seems to be the
darkest hue; yellow the lightest, with the others between these hues.
This variation of what is termed their value gives us a guide to their
proper placing in the hue rectangle.

[Sidenote: Values and Horizontal Value Lines]

_Value_ is that quality by which we may distinguish a dark hue from a
light one. For design purposes we will imagine the hue rectangle to
grade from white at the top to black at the bottom. We will draw
horizontal lines or steps across the rectangle, marking nine even value
steps from white to black; the top one to be termed White (W), followed
by High Light (HL); Light (L); Low Light (LL); Middle (M); High Dark
(HD); Dark (D); Low Dark (LD); and Black (B). These value steps may be
thought of as a scale of gray or neutral values descending the _right
boundary_ of the hue rectangle. They have been roughly indicated in the
hue rectangle at the left of Figure 454.

[Sidenote: Relation of the Standard Hue to the Hue Rectangle]

Each standard hue may now be located in the _left boundary_ of its hue
rectangle and opposite its neutral gray equivalent in the right
boundary. If the standard hue is accurately determined by the designer,
it will be of exactly the same value as its gray equivalent given in the
"value" column of the pigment table. The small arrows leading from
Figure 455 to 454 show where four standard hues are located; the
remaining hues are located in the left circle of each successive row in
the remaining rectangles, and upon their respective value lines.
Standard hues are expressed by the symbols in the _right column_ of the
pigment table.

[Sidenote: Tints]

Each standard pigment or hue may be thinned with opaque white to lighten
it, forming what is known as a tint of that hue. Red, in Figure 454,
reaching its full chromatic intensity at the value High Dark, may be
lightened four times before it ultimately arrives at white. Each step is
to be considered as occurring in the left hand boundary of the rectangle
above the standard hue, and is to be recorded by the symbols, R-M: R-LL:
R-L: R-HL. Orange yellow has only one possible tint. Strawberry, light
lavender, rose, etc., are merely nicknames for various tints.

[Sidenote: Shades]

Each standard hue may be darkened by the application of black, thus
forming shades of that hue. Red is capable of producing two shades, R-D
and R-LD, which are placed in the left boundary of the hue rectangle
below the standard hue. Browns, russets, and dark tans are shades of
different hues.

These modifications of the standard hues into tints and shades give to
the designer simple variations of his too brilliant standards. But even
these modifications are not sufficiently grayed for staining or painting
large wood or wall surfaces. There is a brilliancy and glare about
certain tints which require modification. The shades are safer for use
on large areas. The remaining space in the interior of the hue rectangle
is to be devoted to the last gradation of the standard hue.

[Sidenote: Chroma]

_Chroma_ is the strength of a color. It is the quality by which we
distinguish a strong color from a weak one. The standard hue is
approximately full chromatic intensity. Likewise each tint and shade is
considered to be of its full chromatic intensity, making the left-hand
boundary of the rectangle the area of full chroma.

From this boundary, each tint, standard, and shade _fades out or loses
chroma_ until the right boundary of the rectangle is reached. In this
boundary each tint, standard, and shade has faded out of its gray
equivalent, but without changing its original value; in other words it
has traveled along its horizontal value line to a complete grayness. The
right-hand boundary of the rectangle may then be represented by a gray
value scale of nine steps, including white and black.

[Sidenote: Vertical Chroma Lines]

It becomes necessary to record at regular intervals, this loss of
chroma. For this purpose, we have cut the hue rectangle by three
vertical lines. The first vertical line from the left boundary of the
rectangle marks the position where the standard with its tints and
shades have been grayed to the point where only three-fourths of the
original of hue remains. Similarly, the center and right vertical lines
mark the points where one-half and one-fourth, respectively, of the
color have been retained. These losses of chroma are recorded by similar
fractions. With possible modifications of value and chroma each hue now
has twenty-seven possible changes.

The full hue title or symbol may now be written as follows: (1) hue
name, (2) amount of chroma, (3) value. Examples: GB [Sidenote: Full Hue
Symbols]

3/4D-V1/2HL. We are now in a position to write whatever color we may
have in mind and another person will understand it, provided the other
person adopts our standard. Through the teachings of Dr. D.W. Ross, Mr.
A.H. Munsell, and others, the symbols and standards are now quite
generally understood and have, in a slightly modified form been accepted
in several standard color industries.

[Sidenote: Technical Practice]

[Sidenote: Warm and Cold Colors]

To familiarize oneself with the mixing of the various hues, it is
excellent practice to form a vertical gray scale of the
three-quarter-inch squares. There should be nine steps from white to
black; an enlarged duplication of the right boundary of the hue
rectangle. The warm standard hues at their full standard intensities;
RV-R-OR-O-OY-Y, may be formed and placed opposite their gray equivalents
on the left side of the gray scale, while the remaining or cold colors
may be similarly placed with relation to the gray scale but upon the
right of it.

[Sidenote: Scales of Color]

A vertical scale of tints and shades of one of the hues, duplicating the
left side of the rectangle gives the character of the tints and shades.
One shade and one tint should then be carried along a horizontal value
line through three steps of loss of chroma to complete grayness, but
without change of the original value. Yellow, by the addition of black
becomes a false greenish shade which may be corrected by the addition of
a small amount of vermilion.

[Sidenote: Wood Stains]

A large percentage of natural wood hues are to be found between the hue
rectangles, Red-Orange, Yellow and Green, or in the warm portion of the
spectrum. As a wood stain must blend harmoniously with the natural wood
color, it is reasonable to expect the best results from stains with a
predominance of warm hues or warm grays in their composition.

[Sidenote: Basic Primary Hues]

It is possible to duplicate _nearly all_ the twelve standard hues of
Figure 455 with mixtures of the three so-called primary hues of red,
yellow, and blue. It makes a fairly approximate scale which is, however,
not sufficiently accurate for standardizing purposes. The scale is
formed by mixing red and yellow in varying proportions for the
intermediate hues of orange, yellow, and blue for the greens, and blue
and red for the violets. This practice of mixing three primary colors
together serves as an important step, governing wood stain mixing for
beginners.

[Sidenote: Three Basic Aniline Wood Dyes]

Developing this idea further, we may select aniline brilliant scarlet as
approximating red; metanil yellow, approximating yellow; and acid green
as a substitute for blue. These stains are shown in the top portion of
Figure 456. By comparison with Figure 455, scarlet is found to be orange
red; metanil yellow, orange, and acid green to be true standard green.
These basic stains have been located in their proper positions with
regard to their hue, value, and chroma. Their positions are located by
the large circles in the hue diagrams of Figure 456.

[Sidenote: Wood Stain Mixing]

These stains are modified and reduced in chroma and value by mixing them
with nigrosene black, an aniline dye of blue black appearance, which
fills all the needs of an ivory black in water or oil color pigment.
With these four stains, almost any commercial stain may be duplicated.
Aniline dye for water stains readily dissolves in water while a special
aniline for oil staining is first cut with naphtha.

[Sidenote: Dark Mahogany Stain]

Dark mahogany stain in Figure 456 is orange red, ¾HD, and is indicated
by the circle _A_ in the same figure. To duplicate this stain we have as
the nearest base stain, brilliant scarlet, which corresponds to orange
red. This is placed at its full intensity in the circle OR on the middle
horizontal value line. To duplicate dark mahogany stain it will be
necessary to reduce in value a strong solution of brilliant scarlet,
slightly more than one horizontal value step, by the addition of
nigrosene. We shall then add a small amount of some thinning medium, oil
or water, to reduce slightly the stain in chroma.

[Sidenote: Flemish Oak Stain]

Flemish oak stain is orange ¾D. This calls for a mixture of metanil
yellow and brilliant scarlet aniline to form the orange hue. We must
then add nigrosene to reduce the value to D, and add a small amount of
thinner to produce the necessary reduction in chroma.

[Sidenote: Fumed Oak Stain]

This is commonly produced by fuming the wood with ammonia. The hue may
however be closely duplicated by a mixture of brilliant scarlet, metanil
yellow, and nigrosene. It is practically the same as Flemish oak, but
possesses one-quarter more color as can be seen on the orange hue
rectangle.

[Sidenote: Olive Green Stain]

The circle _D_ shows this stain to be slightly below yellow green, ¾M,
in value and chroma. The hue rectangle containing it is nearer the green
than the orange yellow rectangle; hence in mixing the stain we should
keep the green hue dominant by adding more of it than of metanil
yellow. As in other stains, nigrosene is added to reduce the full
chromatic intensities of the aniline to the proper value and chroma of
olive green stain.

[Sidenote: Light Weathered Oak Stain]

This stain is practically blue, 1/4M, and is formed by thinning
nigrosene to the proper value.

[Sidenote: Color Changes of the Stain]

Aniline dyes are apt to fade if exposed to full sunlight. There are,
however, certain preventives that are beyond the scope of this book to
treat in detail. The natural color of the wood is inclined to make a
stain warmer than when originally mixed. This should be allowed for.
Wood filler, the wood grain, porosity, qualities, and hue of the wood,
all influence the final value of the stain. It frequently becomes darker
in value as may be seen by comparing Figure 456 and Figures 458 to 461.
It is good policy to test the stain upon different woods to observe the
final effect. The tests may be kept for future reference.

It is readily seen from the few examples in Figure 456 that, with the
three basic stains, almost any other stains may be produced, thus
affording a broad field for harmonious selection and adaptation to the
environment. The next chapters will take up the question of color
harmony and its application to wood, wall surfaces, clay, and metal.


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     See paragraph upon "Technical Practice" in this chapter, page
     198.


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What pigments are best adapted to rendering design problems?
     What pigments are particularly adapted to the rendering of wood
     stains? How should each be applied?

     2. What are standard hues? Why do we need standards of hue?

     3. Define the term _values_.

     4. What are tints and shades?

     5. Define fully the term _chroma_.

     6. Bound the hue rectangle and trace the value and chroma
     changes occurring on its vertical and horizontal lines.

     7. Locate in its proper hue rectangle (Figure 455) the
     following hues: OY 3/4HD; YG 1/2LL; RV 3/4M; YL.

     8. Name the three primary hues. How may an approximate scale of
     twelve hues be prepared from them?

     9. Name the three basic aniline wood dyes and give their
     relation to the three primary hues. What is the practical use
     of nigrosene in stain mixing?

     10. Give the symbol and explain the method of mixing Flemish
     oak wood stain. Name and explain the method of mixing two
     others.

     11. How does its application to wood effect the color and value
     of aniline stain?

[Illustration: PLATE 64]



CHAPTER XVI

COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN

LARGE SURFACES OF WOOD; WALL AND CEILING AREAS


[Sidenote: Color Harmony]

In the preceding chapter, the classification and standardization of
color were emphasized as preliminary to the study of color harmony.
Color harmony is obtained by the proper balancing of value, hue, and
chroma upon a surface or surfaces to give a pleasing reaction to the
eye, and through the eye to the intellect.

We are now ready to familiarize ourselves with the specific applications
of these factors to practical design problems. Too many pieces of
furniture are stained with no thought as to the final adaptation in the
school or home. This is not wise, either from the standpoint of a
complete educative process or of good taste. Figures 458, 459, 460, 461,
show stains of Plate 64 applied to wood. Two new stains have been added,
sage green and silver gray. These six stains are representative ones and
act as a typical data for study of color harmony.


FURNITURE--TRIM--SIDE WALLS--CEILINGS

[Sidenote: Backgrounds]

The side walls of a room form the background for furniture; trim, wall
brackets, and similarly related objects; therefore the _closest relation
and harmony_ should be maintained between them.

[Sidenote: Value Range of Wood Stains]

The wood stains 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18, Plate 65, as they appear on
various kinds of wood are, in part, duplicates of the unapplied stains
of Plate 64, Figure 456. The effect of the wood has changed their values
and in some instances their color as can be seen by comparing the two
plates. Their _new relations_ have been plotted on the hue rectangles of
Figure 457, Plate 65, and the results joined by a dotted line. The
circles in the diagrams contain cross reference figures in order that
the stains may be traced without difficulty. The highest value is near
middle (18), and the lowest is low dark (6), showing a value range of
four steps.

[Sidenote: Value Range of Side Walls]

The side walls, taken from well-known wall tint catalogs have been
similarly plotted in Figure 457, and the results joined together by a
heavy black line. The lightest value is light (11), and the darkest is
middle value (14), an average range of three steps slightly above middle
value.

[Sidenote: Value Range of Ceilings]

Ceilings are the lightest of the surfaces considered. Their range is
from slightly below white (10), to light (16), a range of two values.
From the results, as plotted in Figure 457, it is seen that there is a
tendency to keep the ceilings within a close range of values. The
results have been joined together by means of a double black line. There
are exceptions to these results, but it is quite safe to keep well
within the suggested range for harmonious results. We may now draw the
following rules as a result of an empirical method of deduction.

Rule 12a. _An average wood stain is to be retained between the values
middle and low dark._

Rule 12b. _An average wall hue is to be retained between the values
light and middle._

Rule 12c. _An average ceiling hue is to be retained between the values
white (minus) and light._

[Sidenote: Value Range of Side Walls and Wood Work]

Averaging the value range between the wood work which includes the
furniture, trim, and the side walls of Figures 458, 459, 460, 461, 462,
and 463, we find that the range varies from five values in Figures 459
to slightly more than one in Figure 463. As the side walls and furniture
are to be regarded as unobtrusive settings for pictures and people it is
well to be very conservative with the use of values. A wide range of
values will cause a lack of unity. In this respect Figure 459 may be
regarded as approaching the extreme limit of contrasts of value
compatible with good taste. Let us, therefore, limit the value range to
four values, as, for example: low light for side walls and dark for
stain.

Rule 12d. _The relation between the side walls and furniture, trim,
etc., should be retained within the range of four values or less, as low
light and dark._

[Sidenote: Value Range of Side Walls and Ceilings]

The ceiling and side walls in Figure 459 are four values apart and in
Figure 463 this has been reduced to a one-value step. There seems to be
a common average of three values as an acceptable and agreeable
contrast. For dark rooms this would well be increased. For rooms with
light side walls the contrast would be considerably lessened.

Rule 12e. _The relation between side walls and ceiling should be within
the range of three values or less, as high light and low light._


HUE GROUPINGS

[Sidenote: Hue Range for Wood Work and Walls]

A wood stain should be closely related to the natural color of the wood.
As this is usually a warm color we naturally find most of the wood
stains included between the red and the yellow hue rectangles, inclusive
of red and yellow green. Walnut then may be stained a deep shade of
orange or red, but would not be adapted to a blue green stain. This
arbitrary but wide range of hues of stained wood naturally affects the
hue of the side walls. The plotting of the hues for the side walls,
Figure 457, shows a close relation to the hues of the stain to the wall.
In no instance do we find the hue rectangle of the wood work more than
three hues away from that of the walls. In four instances they are
within two hue rectangles of each other and in one instance they are
both within the same rectangle. This develops the fact that _analogous_
or neighboring groupings of hues prevail in relating the hues of wood
work and side walls.

[Sidenote: Analogous Hues]

An _analogous_ group of hues is an arrangement based upon a selection of
tints and shades within three rectangles of each other, as orange and
yellow. These harmonize because yellow is mixed with and becomes a hue
common to both. While the analogous arrangement of hues seems to be most
commonly used, and with a result that seems to justify its adoption into
general practice, there are other arrangements that are pleasing to the
eye.

[Sidenote: Contrasted Hues]

Figure 458 illustrates what is commonly known as a _contrasted_ grouping
or arrangement of hues. It consists of the tints or shades of one or
more hues and gray. It is the basis of color harmony between silver and
semi-precious stones. If two hues are used, one of them should be
reduced in chroma to nearly gray.

[Sidenote: Dominant Hue]

Figure 463 is typical of still another form of positive hue grouping. By
consulting the yellow hue rectangle of Figure 457 it is noted that the
wood work, side walls, and ceiling of Figure 463 _are all contained in
one rectangle_. This classes this color scheme as an example of
_dominant_ arrangement which may be simply defined as the _tints and
shades of one hue_. The arrangement does not have the variety supplied
by analogous grouping, introducing as it does, two hues from different
rectangles, but for large surfaces dominant grouping is a conservative
and safe arrangement. Its tendency toward monotony should be guarded
against by the introduction of some object high in chroma in the room
decorative scheme. A bright colored vase will accomplish this
successfully. Rule 12o, Chapter XVII.

Rule 12f. _Color schemes for wood work and side walls should preferably
be selected from one of the following groupings: analogous, contrasted,
or dominant arrangements of hues. Analogous grouping is preferable where
variety of hue is desirable._

[Sidenote: Special Arrangements]

The above rule is not to be taken as arbitrary. In the hands of
competent designers attractive color schemes are developed that differ
materially from the above suggestions. But, for the usual home setting,
the above arrangement may be regarded as satisfactory, and is given with
the idea of bringing the school shop work and the home environment into
closer color harmony. A specimen of special arrangement is given by the
Circle 3A. This is delft blue, which harmonizes with dark mahogany in a
satisfactory manner.

[Sidenote: Hue Range for Side Walls and Ceilings]

In adjusting the hues for side walls and ceilings, the relations should
be of the closest. The plotting of ceiling hues in Figure 457 shows a
strong tendency for the ceiling to be colored with a tint of the side
walls (dominant arrangement), or by a tint selected from the next
rectangle (analogous arrangement). Yellow or yellow-green, very light
and much reduced in chroma, seems to be the almost universal custom.
This is due to the strongly _light reflecting_ qualities of yellow.

Rule 12g. _Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the side
walls or by a lighter tint of an analogous hue._

[Sidenote: Range of Chroma for Stains]

Stains, as they occupy a comparatively limited area in the room color
scheme, are of their full chroma value or reduced to three-fourths
chroma. In only one instance (18), Figure 463, do we find a reduction
to one-fourth chroma, demanded by the nearly gray color scheme of the
walls. We find it to be an established fact that small areas are capable
of enrichment by colors of greater purity and higher chroma than larger
surfaces. A silver pin may be designed to contain a stone of high
brilliancy, but a wall surface has to be materially reduced in chroma to
possess color harmony.

[Illustration: PLATE 65]

[Sidenote: Range of Chroma for Stain]

Rule 12h. _Stains are usually not reduced to below three-fourths
chromatic intensity. Nearly gray side walls, however, call for a
reduction to one-fourth intensity._

[Sidenote: Range of Chroma for Walls]

As the walls occupy a large proportionate area of the color scheme of
the room we find it necessary to reduce them in chroma in order to
soften the glare of too brilliant colors. Figure 457 shows only one
instance (14) of a hue unreduced in chroma. It is retained at the full
chroma for that value on account of the brightness of the sage green
wood stain. The other hues represented in the diagram are grayed or
reduced in chroma from three-fourths to less than one-fourth, or to
nearly neutral gray.

Rule 12i. _Wall colors are usually reduced to three-fourths chroma to a
minimum reduction of slightly less than one-fourth chroma._

[Sidenote: Range of Chroma for Ceilings]

The same tendency toward chromatic reduction is to be seen in ceilings,
although we have two examples in Figure 457 (10 and 13) of nearly white
and high light ceilings that have not been reduced. To avoid crudity a
reduction in chroma by the addition of gray is to be desired.

Rule 12j. _Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to three-fourths
intensity with slightly less than one-fourth chroma as a minimum
reduction._

[Sidenote: Summary]

With a single exception (3A), the stains and wall tints have been
selected between and including the red and green rectangles. This is
customary and gives safe hue range as it insures the retention of wall
and ceiling hues in unified conformity with the warm tints of the
natural wood and its equally dark hued stains.

[Sidenote: Wall and Ceiling Pigments]

The following is a list of dry colors which may be purchased at a paint
or hardware store for a few cents a pound. It is suggested for the
designer or craftsman who desires to tint his own wall or ceiling. While
oil paint is to be preferred, these colors are readily and quickly
applied and form serviceable backgrounds.

[Sidenote: Calcimine]

The pigments are white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow light, chrome yellow
medium, and chrome yellow dark, burnt and raw sienna, turkey and raw
umber, ultramarine and ivory black. The greens are preferably mixed by
adding ultramarine to one of the chromes. Shades are formed by the
addition of the siennas, umbers, or black. Black and white, mixed to a
gray, are useful in reducing the chroma of a hue. The stains should be
mixed with hot water and a small amount of glue for a binder. White
occasionally comes prepared with glue in its composition.

[Sidenote: Opaque Wood Finishes]

While this chapter has emphasized the transparent finish for wood
treatment, as a method best fitted for woods with a distinct grain, it
is realized that oil painting of wood surfaces has a distinct and
important part to play in the interior decorative scheme of a room. This
latter method is adapted to soft woods without a strongly marked grained
surface. The warm hued rectangle of the spectrum: red, orange, and
yellow with their associated hues, which are so intimately connected
with the natural wood colors and their stains, no longer stand as a
limiting factor in controlling the color of the wood or the side walls.
The opaque nature of oil paints allows us to disregard the color of the
wood, and thus select any hue of oil paint which harmonizes with the
walls and decorative scheme of the room. The rules stated herein are
equally applicable to opaque colors. It may be necessary to reduce oil
paints in chroma beyond the point indicated in Rule 12h.

While it is not within the scope of this chapter to enter into a
complete discussion of the subject of interior decoration, the following
suggestions are considered as applying to our subject: viz., the surface
enrichment of large areas. Complete color harmony in interior decoration
generally demands the presence of the three so-called primary hues: red,
yellow, and blue, in some form in the wall color scheme. While this is
not always possible, two may be introduced as follows.

[Sidenote: Northern Exposure]

The light from the north, northeast, or northwest is cold blue,
supplying blue in the decorative scheme of three primary colors: blue,
red, and yellow. The wall tints should then be composed of combinations
of red and yellow, the remaining primaries. These may be applied to the
walls by means of tints of yellow and orange reduced in chroma, or
shades of orange and orange-red. No greens or blues should be used.

[Sidenote: Southern Exposure]

The light from the south, southeast, and southwest supplies plenty of
yellow. It is, then, necessary to add the remaining primaries or at
least one of them in the form of gray-blue, orange, or orange-yellow,
reduced to one-fourth chroma and practically to neutrality or
grayish-reds and greens, well reduced in chroma. Any hue strongly yellow
should be avoided.

[Sidenote: Effects of Hue upon Apparent Size]

Certain hues materially affect the apparent size of a room. If the room
is small certain values and hues will make it appear much smaller. Dark
values, as a rule, make the room look smaller by seemingly drawing the
walls closer together. Red contracts the apparent size of a room, while
yellow and blue expand it. Green and shades of yellow and red-orange, if
not too dark, have little effect upon the apparent size of a room.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     (_a_) Determine, by its exposure, the kind of light the room
     receives.

     (_b_) Choose a hue for the walls embodying one or both of the
     primary hues not represented by this daylight.

     (_c_) Select a value and chroma for this hue in accordance with
     Rules 12b and 12i.

     (_d_) Select a hue, value, and chroma for the ceiling in
     accordance with Rules 12g, 12e, and 12j.

     (_e_) Select the correct hue, value, and chroma for paint or
     stain for the wood work in accordance with Rules 12f, 12a, and
     12h.


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Develop the color scheme for the walls, ceiling, and wood work
     of a room with a northern exposure; southern exposure. Mix the
     stain for a piece of oak to harmonize with the wood work and
     walls of the living room of your home.

     Determine the wall tints to harmonize with dark weathered oak.
     Mix them from dry colors.


SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 12a. _An average wood stain is to be retained between the
     values middle and low dark._

     Rule 12b. _An average wall hue is to be retained between the
     values light and middle._

     Rule 12c. _An average ceiling hue is to be retained between the
     values white (minus) and light._

     Rule 12d. _The relation between the side walls and furniture,
     trim, etc., should be retained within the range of four values
     or less, as low light and dark._

     Rule 12e. _The relation between the side walls and ceiling
     should be within the range of three values or less, as high
     light and low light._

     Rule 12f. _Color schemes for wood work and side walls should
     preferably be selected from one of the following groupings:
     analogous, contrasted, or dominant arrangements of hues.
     Analogous grouping is preferable where variety of hue is
     desirable._

     Rule 12g. _Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the
     side walls or by a lighter tint of an analogous hue._

     Rule 12h. _Stains are usually not reduced to below
     three-fourths chromatic intensity. Nearly gray side walls,
     however, call for a reduction to one-fourth intensity._

     Rule 12i. _Wall colors are usually reduced to three-fourths
     chroma to a minimum reduction of slightly less than one-fourth
     chroma._

     Rule 12j. _Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to
     three-fourths intensity, with slightly less than one-fourth
     chroma as a minimum reduction._


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. What should we have in mind when staining furniture for the
     home?

     2. Why are the side walls important when considering the color
     scheme of a room?

     3. Give the value range for the average wood stains, side
     walls, and ceiling.

     4. State the value range to include wood work, furniture, trim,
     and side walls.

     5. State the value range that includes side walls and ceilings.

     6. Give the hue range for wood work and side walls.

     7. Explain the analogous, contrasted, and dominant groupings of
     hues and name two examples of each.

     8. Give the hue range for side walls and ceilings. Name several
     good combinations.

     9. Give range of chroma for wood work, side walls, and ceiling.
     Explain the reasons for each change of chroma.

     10. What experience have you had in mixing calcimine for wall
     decoration?

     11. Discuss opaque finishes for wood.

     12. Give the hues for rooms with northern and southern
     exposures. Why?

     13. State the effect of hues upon the apparent size of a room.



CHAPTER XVII

COLOR AND ITS RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL ARTS DESIGN


SMALL SURFACES IN CLAY AND METAL

Before proceeding to the discussion of the application of color to clay
it becomes necessary to determine what technical possibilities are
presented.

[Sidenote: Color Applied to the Surface Enrichment of Clay]

Plain glazing of the entire surface is a common form of pottery
enrichment. A piece of ware, thus glazed, may become a point of
concentration in the color arrangement of a room, and should be
definitely located in that arrangement. The ware may harmonize with the
background (side wall) by analogy, dominance, or contrast or through
complementary coloring. Rule 12o. A glaze from the diagram in Figure 464
should be selected as forming a part in the selected arrangement. Side
wall (11), Figure 457, would harmonize with glaze C9 by virtue of its
dominant relation or with M7 through analogy. The glaze selected should
be higher in chroma than the side wall and will be found to form a
cheerful and brilliant element in the room color scheme. The definite
linking of these different factors of interior decoration into unity has
been earnestly advocated in these chapters. Figures 457 and 464 show the
possibilities of cross references.

[Sidenote: Stains for Glazes]

It soon becomes apparent because of the coloring of clay ware that the
designer must know something of the color possibilities of glazed
pottery forms. The decorative processes were explained at some length in
Chapter XII, wherein we described the common types of surface
enrichment. As we are now primarily considering the question of color,
we first regard the ware as uniformly glazed with either clear or matt
glaze. The former is brilliant, of high chroma, and has a highly
polished surface, while the latter is dull surfaced glaze of lower
chroma.

[Sidenote: Metallic Oxides]

Metallic oxides are used to stain or color clear glazes, while
underglaze colors are ordinarily used for matts. The percentage of
stains to be added to the dry glazes is stated in Figure 464 where they
can be readily traced to their approximate locations in the hue
rectangles by the reference letters M1, C1, etc. Certain oxides are weak
coloring agents and require larger amounts of oxide to color the glaze
perceptibly.

Iron and copper oxide may be mixed to produce a large variety of yellow
greens; other combinations will suggest themselves. It is possible to
use oxides as well as underglaze colors for staining matt glazes.

[Sidenote: Harmony of Color]

We have, to this point, considered the enrichment of large surfaces
whose areas were arbitrarily determined by construction, as, for
example, the extent of wall surface, ceiling, or wood trim and
furniture. The essential element in this type of problem is the
selection of a one, two, or three-hued color arrangement that would
harmoniously link ceiling, wall, and wood together. If we had introduced
stencilling or figured wall paper it would have immediately called for
the solution of another problem, the factor of _how much_ strong color
to use. In other words, it would have introduced the question of
_proportionate distribution_ of color upon a given area. It was thought
best to limit the subject of proportionate distribution to small areas,
where the designer is often forced to make decisions and to divide
surfaces into proportionate color parts for his surface enrichment.

We may now repeat the definition of harmony with the accentuation placed
upon a certain wording directly applicable to small surfaces. Harmony is
obtained by the proper balancing and _proportionate distribution_ of
value, hue, and chroma upon a surface to give a unified and pleasing
reaction to the eye and intellect.

[Sidenote: Proportionate Distribution of Color for Small Areas]

Rule 12k. _Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma in
surface enrichment calls for a small area, high in chroma, and
contrasting in value to the rest of the surface but harmonizing with it.
This is usually located in the area of concentration. The larger areas
are to be sufficiently reduced in chroma and value to form a slight
contrast with the background._

[Sidenote: Examples of Proportionate Distribution]

Figure 465 illustrates some of the salient factors of distribution of
values and hues. Hues of or near standard chromatic intensity should be
used in _small quantities_ and should accentuate the point of
concentration. These small areas are to be regarded as giving brilliancy
and life to the surface and to hold the eye at the point of
concentration. Very small surfaces are capable of sustaining spots of
high chroma, as is shown in the silver pin of Figure 468. The remaining
portions of the surface enrichment should be kept subordinated in hue
and value to the point of concentration, _but related to it_. The bands
of Figure 465 are well reduced in value and make little contrast with
the background, thus forming true surface enrichment or that which
neither rises above or apparently falls through the surface. The point
of concentration is higher in chroma than the surrounding areas.

Rule 12l. _One hue, or a group of analogous hues should dominate all
color schemes. The point of concentration may be emphasized by one hue
related to the other hues by (1) contrasted, (2) dominant, (3)
analogous, (4) complementary relations. This hue should make slightly
stronger value and chroma contrast than the remaining hues._

Rule 12m. _An extreme range of five values is generally sufficient to
supply contrast to a design but still retain its value unity. Restraint
in the use of values is essential._

Rule 12n. _The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion to the
decrease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made to this under
Rule 12o._

[Sidenote: Value and Hue and Chroma Range for Small Areas]

In the vase, Figure 464A, the designer selected hues from neighboring or
analogous rectangles green and blue-green. The value range is restricted
to four steps and the areas of concentration are placed at the top of
the vase by the stronger value and hue contrasts of the foliage of the
trees and dark blue rim. In both Figures, 464A and 465, the designer has
used analogous hue arrangements. This is suggested to the beginner as
serviceable for objects exceeding the dimensions of jewelry and includes
such problems as vase forms, book stalls, and brackets. Contrasted and
dominant arrangements are also good, safe, and sound arrangements, but
fail to give the variety of color to small objects afforded by analogous
grouping. At a later point in this chapter the subject of complementary
coloring will suggest a new arrangement to the reader, but this scheme
is to be left until he has sufficiently mastered the possibilities of
the arrangements just indicated.

Five values form a safe value range for small objects. It is good
practice to keep the larger areas, including the background, within
three steps of each other and to allow the point of concentration to
form the strongest value contrast.

[Sidenote: Over Reduction in Chroma]

The chroma may range from full to three-quarters intensity. Reduction to
one-half or one-fourth intensity is inclined to make a small object
appear washed out or chalky. Shades, at their full intensity, are good
colors to use for small surfaces in wood. Small enameled objects may be
developed in full chroma, while pottery forms range from full chroma to
one-half chroma in forms of slip and underglaze painting.

[Sidenote: Color Applied to the Surface Enrichment of Metal]

It is interesting to note the gradually increasing chroma percentage of
the different coloring media in direct proportion to the reduction of
the area of the surface to be enriched. By comparing the diagrams of
Figures 464 and 457 it will be seen that there is a steady movement
toward the left sides of the hue rectangles or toward stronger
intensity. The wall areas are shown to be lowest in chroma, followed by
the increasing intensity of wood stains, glazes, and enamels.

[Sidenote: Enamels]

Enamels, commonly used to enrich metal surfaces, are highest in chroma
of the decorative materials under discussion and are to be treated with
nearly as much restraint as one would use in enriching a surface with
semi-precious stones, for strong hues are cheapened by excessive use.
The plate in Figure 436 has small circles filled with enamel and a large
field of chased or uncolored design.

[Sidenote: Transparent Enamels]

Transparent enamels are comparable to clear glazes and the coloring
medium is the same. Their preparation is difficult and therefore trade
names have been given in the table of Figure 464. As will be seen by
consulting the diagram of Figure 464, T1, T2, T3, etc., they are all at
their full value intensity. Enamels, as supplied by the trade, are much
too intense for use in enrichment and consequently are applied over a
coating of colorless clear enamel, technically named flux or fondant. As
the thickness of coating of enamel may vary, the hue classification is
to be regarded as approximate.

[Illustration: PLATE 66]

[Sidenote: Opaque Enamels]

Opaque enamels may be compared with matt glazes, for, while the texture
of the surface has a distinct gloss, the enamels themselves are not
so strong in hue as the transparent enamels. By referring to the diagram
of Figure 464, it may be seen that many of the opaque enamels are
reduced in chroma, thus accounting for their softened hue.

[Sidenote: Oxidation]

Metals are capable of considerable change of color by the application of
chemicals to the surface. Potassium sulphuret will lower the surface
value of silver or copper to a rich velvety black associated with
antiques. This may be removed in places naturally subjected to wear,
thus varying the dead black appearance. Copper and brass may be coated
with salt and vinegar or verdigris to give the surface a corroded and
greenish appearance. Heating is a fugitive method of coloring and is,
therefore, not considered.

[Sidenote: Harmony through Oxidation]

These surface changes may be utilized to harmonize metal and its
environment, as, for example, copper trimmings and a shade for a pottery
lamp; or it may be used to reduce the brightness of the natural copper
surface.

The surfaces of metals may be changed with actual manipulation of the
surface by frosting or sanding and plating. Gold may be readily plated
with gold to bring it into closer harmony with the stone. Plating,
applied to base metals, merely to give the impression of a more
expensive metal, is to be discouraged.

[Sidenote: Metal Backgrounds]

One has to consider metal as a background in much the same manner as we
considered wall surfaces as a background for stained furniture. Whatever
color is applied to the surface must harmonize in proportionate
distribution as well as hue, value, and chroma. We have a small amount
of leeway for varying the background by the different processes of
oxidation and plating.

[Sidenote: Enamel on a Copper Background]

As one of the more common processes, let us consider the application of
enamel to copper in the form of champleve enrichment. Our first thought
would be the analysis of the natural copper color. It is found to be a
shade of orange-red and will, therefore, readily harmonize with the
_analogous_ oranges and reds, as they both have the common hue of red.
There should be a slight contrast of value between these enamels and the
background. If this contrast is not present, it is well to oxidize
slightly the copper to lower its value and thus produce the contrast.

[Sidenote: Complementary Arrangement]

The fourth harmonious hue combination, that of complementary arrangement
or grouping, has been left to the last as its use is more closely
associated with small multi-colored projects and small areas. A hue
approximately complementary to the initial hue is found by counting
seven rectangles to the right or left of that hue; this will give the
hue complementary to the initial hue. Thus, starting with red and moving
through seven rectangles toward the right, we find the complement to be
green. Any two hues so selected will be found to enhance the brilliancy
of each other. The best results are secured when one hue dominates the
color scheme by its increased area. Pottery may be adapted to a
complementary color scheme by Rule 12i.

Rule 12o. _Small one or two-hued projects in clay, designed to be used
as a part of the decorative color scheme for a room should bear a
contrasted, dominant, analogous, or complementary relation to the side
walls of the room. The project may be much higher in chroma than the
side walls._

[Sidenote: The Relation of Colored Glazes to Interior Decoration of a
Room]

To find a glaze that will harmonize with the side walls of a room by
complementary arrangement of hues, select the desired wall tint from the
diagram in Figure 457. Find the similar hue rectangle in the diagram of
Figure 464 and, starting with this rectangle as one, count seven hues
from the side wall rectangle in either direction. In the seventh
rectangle or in a neighboring one will usually be found a number of
glazes answering the requirements and bearing a complementary relation
to the side walls. Select a glaze from these that will make a contrast
of chroma or value with the side wall. Example: background or side wall,
Figure 457, No. 8, is in the orange yellow rectangle. Counting seven
from this in Figure 464 we find the complement to be blue violet. As
there is no glaze in this rectangle we will move to its neighbor on the
left. This gives us clear glaze, C1, containing one and one-half per
cent black oxide of cobalt, or a matt glaze containing seven per cent
mazarine blue.

Glazes that will harmonize with side wall 8 through dominant
arrangements are found in the same rectangle, O Y, and are numbered M5,
M6, C7, C8. Glazes that will harmonize by analogy are C9 and M7, and are
found in the left and right neighboring rectangles.

In Figure 466, the copper fob, R O, is combined with its complementary
blue-green. Let us look at Figure 464. Counting seven intervals or hue
rectangles to the right of the orange red rectangle we find T4 which is
transparent blue green enamel. We may associate with this an analogous
enamel from the green rectangle; this proves to be T5 medium green
transparent enamel.

[Sidenote: Development of Design for Enamel on Metal]

The point of concentration may now be emphasized by an enamel
complementary to the blue green hue. Counting seven rectangles to the
_left_ we again encounter the red orange rectangle. Here there are no
enamels but in the red hue rectangle we find T7 which is slightly
orange-red. A small portion of this, Rule 12k, is applied and is found
to center the design at the point of concentration in a satisfactory
manner. Slight oxidation brings out the colors of the enamels.

Upon attempting to develop the same figure in opaque enamels it is soon
seen that there are no pleasing complementary enamels of this type, but
many analogous combinations. Autumn brown with the point of
concentration developed in orange (O5) would be an excellent compromise.

Rule 12p. _Correct color for surface enrichment should neither
apparently rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is applied,
but should stay upon the plane of that surface. Correct value and chroma
range will accomplish this._

[Sidenote: Color for Silver Enrichment]

The gray-blue color of silver lends itself to a great number of gem
stones, forming examples of contrasted arrangements. Care should be
taken to form contrasts of _value_. Figure 467 is an example of a weak
and insipid combination, lacking in value and hue contrast. The amethyst
of Figure 468 corrects this error, while the oxidation of Figure 469 has
partially corrected the lack of contrast shown in Figure 467. These
illustrations tend to show that even stronger contrasts may be attempted
with small gems and semi-precious stones than with enamels. This again
proves the rule that the smaller areas are capable of sustaining
stronger contrasts of hue, value, and chroma than are large ones.


SUMMARY OF DESIGN STEPS

     The outline of the surface enrichment is considered as
     complete.

     (_a_) METAL OR WOOD. Analyze the background into its hue,
     value, and chroma. CLAY. Select a background that will
     harmonize with the controlling hue or hues of the proposed
     color scheme. Rule 12o. If this is a one hued color scheme
     without gradation or surface enrichment the design steps may
     terminate at this point.

     (_b_) METAL, WOOD, AND CLAY. Select the extreme value range of
     the color scheme, considering, if possible, the background as a
     balancing or pivotal value point upon which the values may
     balance above and below. As the side walls formed a balancing
     point for the ceiling and furniture or wood work, so may the
     background of metal, wood, or colored clay become a similar
     balancing factor for small surfaces. Rule 12m.

     (_c_) METAL, WOOD, AND CLAY. Select a hue or hues which will
     harmonize with the background through dominant, contrasting, or
     analogous relations. Rule 12l. In selecting the hues consider
     the final placing of the object.

     (_d_) METAL, WOOD, AND CLAY. Select a chroma range. Allow the
     point or area of concentration to have a slightly higher
     chromatic relation than the other hues. The point of
     concentration may be one of the hues already selected or it may
     bear a _complementary_ relation to them. The hues may be
     averaged and a complementary to the average selected. Rule 12n.

     (_e_) METAL, WOOD, AND CLAY. Apply the rule of proportionate
     distribution, Rule 12k.

     (_f_) METAL AND WOOD. Using the pigments suggested in Chapter
     XV, design the problem. Test the result by applying Rule 12p.

     (_g_) CLAY. If the design has been developed in slip or
     underglaze painting, select a glaze for an overglaze coating
     that will harmonize with the prevailing hues by _dominance or
     analogy_. Other arrangements may destroy the hues of the
     original color scheme.

     (_h_) Develop the problem in its material.


SUGGESTED PROBLEMS

     Design a bowl for nasturtiums; make the color arrangement
     harmonize through analogy with the hues of the flowers.

     Design a vase for chrysanthemums; make the surface enrichment
     and the color arrangement harmonize through dominance with the
     hues of the flowers.

     Design a hat pin for a blue hat; materials, copper, and
     transparent enamels.

     Design a brooch to be worn with a gray dress.

     Design a pottery and copper lamp with amber art glass in the
     shade. Through oxidation and glazing, bring the lamp into color
     unity.


SUMMARY OF RULES

     Rule 12k. _Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma
     in surface enrichment calls for a small area high in chroma and
     contrasting in value to the rest of the surface, but
     harmonizing with it. This is usually located in the area of
     concentration. The larger areas are to be sufficiently reduced
     in chroma and value to form a slight contrast with the
     background._


HUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12l. _One hue, or a group of analogous hues should
     dominate all color schemes. The point of concentration may be
     emphasized by one hue related to the other hues by (1)
     contrasted, (2) dominant, (3) analogous, or (4) complementary
     relations. This hue should make slightly stronger value and
     chroma contrast than the remaining hues._


VALUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12m. _An extreme range of five values is generally
     sufficient to supply contrast to a design but still retain its
     value unity. Restraint in the use of values is essential._


CHROMA FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12n. _The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion
     to the decrease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made
     to this under Rule 12o._

     Rule 12o. _Small one or two-hued projects in clay, designed to
     be used as a part of the decorative color scheme for a room
     should bear a contrasted, dominant, analogous, or complementary
     relation to the side walls of the room. The project may be much
     higher in chroma than the side walls._

     Rule 12p. _Correct color for surface enrichment should neither
     apparently rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is
     applied, but should stay upon the plane of that surface.
     Correct value and chroma range will accomplish this._


REVIEW QUESTIONS

     1. State the value of mono-hued pottery in the decorative
     scheme of a room.

     2. What are generally used as stains for clear glazes; matt
     glazes?

     3. What is highest in chroma--matt, or clear glaze?

     4. Make a table of metallic oxides and the hues produced by
     them.

     5. Why will iron and copper oxides produce a yellow green
     stain? What stains will be produced by cobalt and copper
     oxides; cobalt and manganese oxides; cobalt and nickel oxides?

     6. Describe the type of room which you regard as best fitted
     for clear glazed pottery forms; matt glazed pottery forms.

     7. Define harmony of color.

     8. What is meant by proportionate distribution? Describe
     proportionate distribution.

     9. Give the value, hue, and chroma range for small areas. See
     Rules 12l, 12m, and 12n.

     10. How does the size of the area to be enriched by color
     affect the color medium, _i.e._, stains, glazes, enamels, etc.?

     11. Describe enamels, their types, characteristics, and range
     of hues. Consult catalogs for fuller possibilities.

     12. What is the effect of oxidation; what is its value?

     13. Describe fully complementary arrangements and give
     illustrations for enamel on silver or copper.

     14. State the color scheme for a fob to be worn with a
     blue-green dress; with a gray suit for a man.

     15. Select a stone for a silver brooch that would harmonize
     with a light blue dress; for a dress of orange dark hue and
     value. See catalogs of dealers in semi-precious stones for
     color of stones.

     16. What problems of hue, value, and chroma would arise in
     Question 15?



SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL AND SPECIAL RULES IN THE PRECEEDING
CHAPTERS


HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL PRIMARY MASSES

     Rule 1a. _A primary mass must be either vertical or horizontal
     according to the intended service, unless prohibited by
     technical requirements._


PROPORTIONS OF THE PRIMARY MASS

     Rule 1b. _The primary mass should have the ratio of one to
     three, three to four, three to five, five to eight, seven to
     ten, or some similar proportion difficult for the eye to detect
     readily and analyze._


HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS

     Rule 2a. _If the primary mass is divided into two horizontal
     divisions, the dominance should be either in the upper or the
     lower section._

     Rule 2b. _If the primary mass is divided into three horizontal
     divisions or sections, the dominance should be placed in the
     center section with varying widths in the upper and lower
     thirds._


SEQUENTIAL PROGRESSION OF MINOR HORIZONTAL SPACE DIVISIONS

     Rule 2c. _A primary mass may be divided into three or more
     smaller horizontal masses or sections by placing the larger
     mass or masses at the bottom and by sequentially reducing the
     height measure of each mass toward the smaller division or
     divisions to be located at the top of the mass._


VERTICAL SPACE DIVISIONS

     Rule 3a. _If the primary mass is divided into two vertical
     divisions, the divisions should be equal in area and similar in
     form._

     Rule 3b. _If the primary mass is divided into three vertical
     divisions, the center division should be the larger, with the
     remaining divisions of equal size._

     Rule 3c. _In elementary problems, if more than three vertical
     divisions are required, they should be so grouped as to analyze
     into Rules 3a, and 3b, or be exactly similar._


APPENDAGES

     Rule 4a. _The appendage should be designed in unity with, and
     proportionately related to, the vertical or horizontal
     character of the primary mass, but subordinated to it._

     Rule 4b. _The appendage should have the appearance of flowing
     smoothly and, if possible, tangentially from the primary mass._

     Rule 4c. _The appendage should, if possible, echo or repeat
     some lines similar in character and direction to those of the
     primary mass._


OUTLINE OR CONTOUR ENRICHMENT

     Rule 5a. _Outline enrichment should be subordinated to and
     support the structure._

     Rule 5b. _Outline enrichment should add grace, lightness, and
     variety to the design._

     Rule 5c. _Outline enrichment, by its similarity, should give a
     sense of oneness or unity to the design, binding divergent
     members together._

     Rule 5d. _Parts of one design differing in function should
     differ in appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire
     design._

     Rule 5e. _In cylindrical forms outline curves with a vertical
     tendency should have their turning points or units of
     measurement in accordance with the horizontal divisions of
     Rules 2a and 2b._

     Rule 5f. _Dependent outline enrichment should be related to
     essential parts of a design and influenced by their forms and
     functions; it must be consistent with the idea of the subject._

     Rule 5g. _A curve should join a straight line with either a
     tangential or right angle junction._


SURFACE ENRICHMENT

     Postulate. _The design should conform to the limitations and
     requirements of tools, processes, and materials, and should be
     durable and suitable for service._

     Rule 6a. _Surfaces to be enriched must admit of enrichment._

     Rule 6b. _Surface enrichment must be related to the structural
     contours but must not obscure the actual structure._

     Rule 6c. _The treatment must be appropriate to the material._


CONTINUOUS BANDS AND BORDERS FOR PARTLY ENRICHED SURFACES

     Rule 6d. _Bands and borders should have a consistent lateral,
     that is, onward movement._

     Rule 6e. _Bands and borders should never have a prominent
     contrary motion, opposed to the main forward movement._

     Rule 6f. _All component parts of a border should move in unison
     with the main movement of the border._

     Rule 6g. _Each component part of a border should be strongly
     dynamic and, if possible, partake of the main movements of the
     border._

     Rule 6h. _Borders intended for vertical surfaces may have a
     strongly upward movement in addition to the lateral movement,
     provided the lateral movement dominates._

     Rule 6i. _Inlayed enrichment should never form strong or
     glaring contrasts with the parent surface._

     Rule 6j. _Carved surface enrichment should have the appearance
     of belonging to the parent mass._


ENCLOSED ENRICHMENT--PARTLY ENRICHED PANELS FOR SURFACE ENRICHMENT

     Rule 7a. _Marginal panel enrichment should parallel or be
     related to the outlines of the primary mass and to the panel it
     is to enrich._

     Rule 7b. _Marginal points of concentration in panels should be
     placed (1) preferably at the corners or (2) in the center of
     each margin._

     Rule 7c. _To insure unity of design in panels, the elements
     composing the point of concentration and links connecting them
     must be related to the panel contour and to each other._


ENCLOSED ENRICHMENT--FULLY ENRICHED PANELS FOR SURFACE ENRICHMENT

     Rule 7d. _The contours of fully enriched panels should parallel
     the outlines of the primary mass and repeat its proportions._

     Rule 7e. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched
     square panel may be in its center or in its outer margin._

     Rule 7f. _The points of concentration for a fully enriched
     vertical panel should be in the upper portion of the panel._

     Rule 7g. _The fully enriched panel and its contents should be
     designed in unified relation to the structural outlines, with
     the center line of the panel coinciding with the inceptive axis
     of the structure._


FREE ORNAMENT FOR PARTLY ENRICHED SURFACES

     Rule 8a. _Free ornament for partly or fully enriched surfaces
     should be based and centered upon an inceptive axis of the
     structure._

     Rule 8b. _Free ornament should be related and subordinated to
     the structural surfaces._

     Rule 8c. _Points of concentration in free enrichment of
     vertically placed masses are usually located in and around the
     inceptive axis and above or below the geometric center of the
     design._


SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF CLAY

     Rule 9a. _Surface enrichment of clay must be so designed as to
     be able to withstand the action of heat to which all ware must
     be submitted._

     Rule 9b. _Incised, pierced, and modeled decoration in clay
     should be simple and bold and thus adapted to the character of
     the material._

     Rule 9c. _A border should not be located at the point of
     greatest curvature in the contour of a cylindrical form. The
     contour curve is of sufficient interest in itself at that
     point._


SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF BASE AND PRECIOUS METALS FOR SMALL MASSES

     Rule 10a. _Designs in precious metals should call for the
     minimum amount of metal necessary to express the idea of the
     designer for two reasons: (1) good taste; (2) economy of
     material._

     Rule 10b. _Contour and surface enrichment should never appear
     to compete for attention in the same design._

     Rule 10c. _Parts of a design differing in function should
     differ in appearance but be co-ordinated with the entire
     design._

     Rule 10d. _Surface enrichment should at some point parallel the
     contours of both primary mass and point of concentration
     especially whenever the latter is a stone or enamel._

     Rule 10e. _In the presence of either stone or enamel as a point
     of concentration, surface enrichment should be regarded as an
     unobtrusive setting, or background._

     Rule 10f. _Stone or enamel used as a point of concentration
     should form contrast with the metal, either in color,
     brilliancy, or value, or all three combined._

     Rule 10g. _The inceptive axis should pass through and coincide
     with one axis of a stone and at the same time be
     sympathetically related to the structure._

     Rule 10h. _The position of the inceptive axis should be
     determined by: (1) use of the project as ring, pendant, or bar
     pin, (2) character of the primary mass as either vertical or
     horizontal in proportion._

     Rule 10i. _Caution should be exercised with regard to the use
     of enamel. Over-decoration by this material tends to cheapen
     both process and design._

     Rule 10j. _All surface enrichment should have an appearance of
     compactness or unity. Pierced spots or areas should be so used
     as to avoid the appearance of having been scattered on the
     surface without thought to their coherence._

     Rule 10k. _Built, carved, and chased enrichment should have the
     higher planes near the point of concentration. It is well to
     have the stone as the highest point above the primary mass.
     When using this form of enrichment, the stone should never
     appear to rise abruptly from the primary mass, but should be
     approached by a series of rising planes._

     Rule 10l. _The lanes or margins between enameled spots should
     be narrower than the lane or margin between the enamel and the
     contour of the primary mass._

     Rule 10m. _Transparent and opaque stones or enamel should not
     be used in the same design._


SURFACE ENRICHMENT OF BASE AND PRECIOUS METALS FOR LARGE PRIMARY MASSES

     Rule 11a. _The preliminary steps toward surface enrichment
     should be thought out before they are drawn._

     Rule 11b. _Conservative application should mark the use of
     surface enrichment of large masses. Its use should: (1) lighten
     or soften necessarily heavy construction; (2) support or
     apparently strengthen good structure; (3) add interest to large
     unbroken and uninteresting surfaces._

     Rule 11c. _The type of design unit for large masses should be
     bolder than similar designs for small primary masses._

     Rule 11d. _The eye should be attracted to one principal zone of
     enrichment, whether located upon the primary mass, appendage,
     terminal, links, or details. All other zones should be
     subordinate to this area._

     Rule 11e. _Two periods of historic ornament should not be
     introduced into the same design._

     Rule 11f. _Repulsive forms should not be introduced into
     surface enrichment._


APPLICATION OF COLOR TO LARGE AREAS VALUES

     Rule 12a. _An average wood stain is to be retained between the
     values middle and low dark._

     Rule 12b. _An average wall hue is to be retained between the
     values light and middle._

     Rule 12c. _An average ceiling hue is to be retained between the
     values white (minus) and light._

     Rule 12d. _The relation between the side walls and furniture,
     trim, etc., should be retained within the range of four values
     or less, as low light and dark._

     Rule 12e. _The relation between the side walls and ceiling
     should be within the range of three values or less, as high
     light and low light._


HUES

     Rule 12f. _Color schemes for wood work and side walls should
     preferably be selected from one of the following groupings:
     analogous, contrasted, or dominant arrangements of hues.
     Analogous grouping is preferable where variety of hue is
     desirable._

     Rule 12g. _Ceilings should be colored by a lighter tint of the
     side walls or by a lighter tint of an analogous hue._


CHROMA

     Rule 12h. _Stains are usually not reduced to below
     three-fourths chromatic intensity. Nearly gray side walls,
     however, call for a reduction to one-fourth intensity._

     Rule 12i. _Wall colors are usually reduced to three-fourths
     chroma to a minimum reduction of slightly less than one-fourth
     chroma._

     Rule 12j. _Ceilings should usually be reduced in chroma to
     three-fourths intensity, with slightly less than one-fourth
     chroma as a minimum reduction._


DISTRIBUTION

     Rule 12k. _Proportionate distribution of hue, value, and chroma
     in surface enrichment calls for a small area, high in chroma,
     and contrasting in value to the rest of the surface, but
     harmonizing with it. This is usually located in the area of
     concentration. The larger areas are to be sufficiently reduced
     in chroma and value to form slight contrast with the
     background._


HUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12l. _One hue, or a group of analogous hues should
     dominate all color schemes. The point of concentration may be
     emphasized by one hue related to the other hues by (1)
     contrasted, (2) dominant, (3) analogous, (4) complementary
     relations. This hue should make slightly stronger value and
     chroma contrast than the remaining hues._


VALUES FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12m. _An extreme range of five values is generally
     sufficient to supply contrast to a design but still retain its
     value unity. Restraint in the use of values is essential._


CHROMA FOR SMALL OBJECTS

     Rule 12n. _The amount of chroma may be increased in proportion
     to the decrease in the decorated area. Exceptions may be made
     to this under Rule 12o._

     Rule 12o. _Small one or two-hued projects in clay, designed to
     be used as a part of the decorative color scheme for a room
     should bear a contrasted, dominant, analogous, or complementary
     relation to the side walls of the room. The project may be much
     higher in chroma than the side walls._

     Rule 12p. _Correct color for surface enrichment should neither
     apparently rise above nor drop below the surface to which it is
     applied, but should stay upon the plane of that surface.
     Correct value and chroma range will accomplish this._



APPENDIX


The following plates comprise complete courses for applied art problems
in thin metal (copper and silver), and clay. The problems are based upon
what is known as the "group system." The process forms the basis for
each group in each course. The stated problem in each group is merely
one of many that might be selected which involves the process of the
group.

The design rule that should be applied to each problem has been
indicated by its proper figure and letter on each plate, as 10a, etc.
The plates are sequentially arranged in order of the difficulty of the
process and may be summarized as follows.


THIN METAL

    Plate 67: Bending. Sawing. Riveting.
    Plate 68: Bending. Soft Soldering.
    Plate 69: Raising. Piercing. Etching.
    Plate 70: Raising and Planishing.
    Plate 71: Bending. Piercing. Etching. Hard Soldering.
    Plate 72: Hinge Construction.
    Plate 73: Raising. Planishing. Hard Soldering.
    Plate 74: Raising. Planishing.
    Plate 75: Champleve Enamelling.
    Plate 76: Precious Stone Mounting; Pins.
    Plate 77: Precious Stone Mounting; Rings.
    Plate 78: Precious Stone Mounting; Pendants.


POTTERY

    Plate 79: Hand Built Tile.
    Plate 80: Hand Built Bowl, Coil and Strip Method.
    Plate 81: Same with Appendage Added.
    Plate 82: Hand Building; Spouts, Lids, Handles.
    Plate 83: Poured Forms and Mould Making.
    Plate 84: Slip Painting.
    Plate 85: Glaze Testing.

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 1. BENDING, SAWING, RIVETING

PLATE 67]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 2: BENDING AND SOFT SOLDERING

PLATE 68]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 3: RAISING, PIERCING, ETCHING

PLATE 69]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 3: RAISING, PLANISHING: TRAYS

PLATE 70]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 4: BENDING, PIERCING, ETCHING, HARD SOLDERING

PLATE 71]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 5: HINGE CONSTRUCTION

PLATE 72]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 6: RAISING, PLANISHING, SOLDERING

PLATE 73]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 7: RAISING, PLANISHING

PLATE 74]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 8: CHAMPLEVE ENAMELLING.

PLATE 75]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 9: SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE MOUNTING

PLATE 76]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS: 10: SOLDERING, CARVING, STONE MOUNTING

PLATE 77]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: THIN METAL

PROCESS 11: PENDANT CONSTRUCTION, CHAIN MAKING

PLATE 78]

[Illustration: FIGURE 470.--Inceptive Axes. Partial Illustration of the
Metal Course]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: CLAY. POTTERY

PROCESS 1: HAND BUILT TILE. CUT FROM FLAT PIECE

PLATE 79]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: CLAY. POTTERY

PROCESS 2: HAND BUILDING. COIL AND STRIP

PLATE 80]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: POTTERY

PROCESS 3: HAND BUILDING, SPOUT, HANDLE, LID

PLATE 81]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: CLAY. POTTERY

PROCESS 3: HAND BUILDING: SPOUT, HANDLE, LID

PLATE 82]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: POTTERY

PROCESS 4: POURED FORMS. TWO AND THREE PIECE MOULDS

PLATE 83]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: POTTERY

PROCESS 5: SLIP PAINTING (UNDER GLAZE DECORATION)

PLATE 84]

[Illustration: APPLIED ARTS: POTTERY

PROCESS 6: GLAZE TESTING

PLATE 85]

[Illustration: FIGURE 471.--Results of the Pottery Course]

Figure 471 shows the actual results produced by the preceding course.
The process to which the individual pieces belong is indicated by the
small figure placed on the table and in front of the ware. The preceding
sheets should be regarded in the light of suggestions for original
thinking on the part of the student. They merely suggest technical
guidance, in order that his progress may be sequential and fitted to his
increasing skill.

The glazes are stated in the terms of the ceramist with the proportions
of base, alumina, and acid content of each glaze clearly stated. By
referring to the textbooks mentioned in the preface, these glazes may be
developed into the potter's formulae.

In both metal and pottery courses, two or more types are frequently
represented upon one plate. These types will allow the teacher to assign
a more difficult problem to the student with some previous experience.



INDEX


  PAGE

  Accenting bands in wood, 105

  Accentuation of functional parts, 79

  Adapting data to material, 127

  Analogous hues, 203

  Analysis, intelligent, 7

  Andiron design, 53

  Aniline wood dyes, 199

  Appendage design, 43-49

  Appendage, use of, 43

  Appendages, 43

  Appendages and primary mass, 45

  Appendages, contour enrichment of, 88

  Appendages, design violations, 43

  Appendages in clay, 47

  Appendages, industrial applications, 47

  Appendages, influence of tools and materials, 53

  Appendages in metal, 51

  Appendages in wood, 45

  Artificial objects, 129

  Architectural, horizontal divisions for, 21


  Bands, wood inlay, 105

  Backgrounds, 113, 201

  Base metals, enrichment of, 87

  Base and precious metals, surface enrichment of, 160, 163, 165, 167

  Borders for wood, 107

  Building, 165


  Candlesticks, 81

  Carving, 103

  Carving and piercing, 141

  Carving, design steps for, 105

  Ceilings, 202-205

  Center zone enrichment, 121

  Chasing, 163

  Chip carving, 115

  Chroma, 197

  Chromatic intensity, full, 195

  Clay, coloring for underglaze, 151

  Clay, decorative processes, 145

  Clay, incising, 147

  Clay, inlay, 149

  Clay, introduction of pigments, 149

  Clay, modeling, 147

  Clay, piercing, 147

  Clay, slip painting, 149

  Clay, surface enrichment for, 145

  Clay, surface enrichment, structural classification for, 151

  Clay, underglaze painting, 151

  Color for clay enrichment, 209

  Color for small areas, 210

  Color harmony, 201

  Color pigments, 194

  Color pigments, application of, 194

  Color symbols, 198

  Color systems, 194

  Commercial pottery, 158

  Complementary hues, 214

  Conservative use of ornament, 101

  Contrasted hues, 203

  Containers, 81

  Continuity and contrast, 63

  Contour enrichment, influence of materials, 65

  Contour enrichment, methods of varying, 70

  Contour enrichment of clay, need of, 77

  Contour enrichment, evolution of, 65

  Contour enrichment, purpose of, 59

  Contour enrichment, requirements of, 59

  Contour enrichment, systematic development of, 81


  Contour versus surface enrichment, 185

  Corners, contour enrichment of, 88

  Correlation, ideal, 11

  Covers, design for, 49

  Criticism, clear, 7

  Criticism, non-technical, 7

  Curve of beauty, 91

  Curve of force, 61

  Curve of force, approximate, 61

  Curves for contour enrichment, 59

  Curves, grouping of, 63

  Curves of extravagance, 73


  Dependent surface enrichment, 167

  Details, contour enrichment of, 93

  Design evolution, major divisions, 9

  Design evolution, steps in, 11

  Design, preliminary thought, 17

  Dominant hue, 204

  Dynamic curves and areas, 111


  Edges, contour enrichment of, 87

  Elements, 157

  Enameling, 163, 212, 213, 215

  Enrichment for small metal areas, 179

  Enrichment, need and value of, 57

  Enrichment of large metal areas, 179, 183

  Enrichment, types of, 57

  Essentials of good surface enrichment, 179

  Exposures, 206, 207


  Flat surfaces in base and precious metal, 185

  Fobs, design of, 169

  Four vertical minor divisions, 139

  Free balance, 129

  Free enrichment, 121

  Free minor division treatment, 141

  Free ornament, 117

  Freehand curves, 30, 51, 63

  Full size drawing, value of, 23

  Functional parts, enrichment of, 88


  Glazes for pottery, 149

  Glazes related to interior decoration, 214

  Glazes, stains for, 209

  Greek scroll, 93


  Handles, design for, 49

  Harmonious color, need of, 194

  Harmony of color, 210

  High cylindrical forms in clay, 157

  High cylindrical forms in metal, 191

  Historic ornament in hardware, 186

  Horizontal and vertical minor divisions, 137

  Horizontal divisions, architectural precedent, 25

  Horizontal divisions, nature and need of, 19

  Horizontal divisions, steps in designing, 21

  Horizontal minor divisions, 139

  Hue and hue rectangles, 195

  Hue groupings, 203


  Industrial problems, requirements of, 9

  Inceptive axes, 107, 121, 161

  Inceptive axes for marginal enrichment, 119

  Inlaying, 101-103

  Intermediate points, contour enrichment of, 89

  Ionic volute, 91


  Leading lines, curved, 108

  Links, 45

  Links, contour enrichment of, 93

  Low cylindrical forms in clay, 157

  Low cylindrical forms in metal, 187


  Major design division, first, 9

  Major design division, second, 9

  Major design division, third, 11

  Marginal zone enrichment, 118

  Material, adapting data to, 127

  Material, economy of, 161


  Material, relation to surface enrichment, 101

  Metallic oxides, 210

  Methods, architectural design, 13

  Methods, industrial design, 13

  Minor details, 141

  Minor subdivisions in wood, 133

  Moorish ornament, 107

  Mouldings, 61


  One vertical division, 35

  Outlines, free and dependent, 87, 91 (See Contours.)

  Oxidation, 213


  Panels, 117, 123, 125, 127, 129

  Panel design, steps in, 125

  Parts differing in function, 77

  Pendants and chains, design of, 173

  Pierced enrichment, 123

  Pigment table, 195

  Pigments, wall and ceiling, 205

  Pins and brooches, design of, 167

  Point of concentration, 115, 161

  Point of concentration for marginal enrichment, 119

  Porcelain painting, 151

  Pourers, 81

  Precious metals, processes of enrichment, 161, 163, 165, 169

  Primary hues, 198

  Primary masses, 13

  Primary mass, drawing of, 15

  Primary mass, divisions of, 19

  Primary masses, vertical and horizontal, 15

  Primary masses, proportions of, 15

  Proportionate distribution, 210


  Ratios, unsatisfactory, 17

  Rectangular panels, 127

  Rings, design of, 169


  Sequential progression, 135

  Service, influence of, 9, 13, 15

  Sets, designing of, 83

  Shades, 197

  Shallow circular forms in clay, 155

  Shallow circular forms in metal, 187

  Side walls, 202-205

  Silver, color for, 215

  Silver, contour enrichment of, 93

  Silver, free outline enrichment, 97

  Silver, motives for contour enrichment, 97

  Spouts, design of, 49

  Square and rectangular areas in clay, 153

  Square panels, 125

  Standard hues, 195

  Standard hues, locating, 196

  Stones, cutting, 95

  Stones, relation to contour, 95

  Stones, relation to metal, 173

  Structural forms, classification, 160

  Structural forms, classification for clay surface enrichment, 151

  Structural reinforcement, 118

  Surface design evolution, 180

  Surface enrichment, nature and need of, 99

  Surfaces, when and where to enrich, 99


  Tangential junctions, 51, 93

  Technical processes for metal, 163

  Technical rendering, 161

  Terminals, contour enrichment of, 89-91

  Three horizontal divisions, 29

  Three horizontal divisions in clay, 30

  Three horizontal divisions in metal, 30

  Three horizontal divisions in wood, 29

  Three vertical divisions, 37

  Three vertical divisions in clay, 39

  Three vertical divisions in metal, 41

  Three vertical divisions in wood, 39


  Tints, 196

  Transitional types in furniture, 139

  Two horizontal divisions, 25

  Two horizontal divisions in clay, 27

  Two horizontal divisions in metal, 27

  Two horizontal divisions in wood, 25

  Two vertical divisions, 35

  Two vertical divisions in clay, 37

  Two vertical divisions in metal, 37

  Two vertical divisions in wood, 35


  Unit of measurement for vertical curves, 79

  Unity, 29

  Unity in clay design curves, 77


  Value lines, 196

  Varied panels, 129

  Vertical divisions, architectural precedent, 33

  Vertical divisions, more than three, 41

  Vertical divisions, nature and need, 33

  Vertical and horizontal division evolution, 40

  Vertical sections and their minor divisions, 133-135

  Vocabulary, designer's, 105


  Walls and ceilings, 203-204

  Walls and wood work, 202-203

  Warm and cold colors, 198

  Wood finishes, opaque, 206

  Wood, methods of surface enrichment, 101

  Wood stains, 198

  Wood stains, chroma range, 205

  Wood stain mixing, 199, 200

  Wood stain rendering, 195

  Wood stains, value range, 201

  Wrought iron enrichment, 91


  Zones of enrichment, 118


       *       *       *       *       *


    Transcriber's Notes

    Inconsistent hyphenation and obvious punctuation and spelling errors
    have been corrected.

    {PC} and {IA} have been used to represent the letters P and C or
    I and A overlaid on one another to label the "Point of
    Concentration" and "Inceptive Axis" respectively.

    Although referred to on page 75, no illustration is captioned as
    "Plate 23" in the original text.





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