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Title: Scandinavians on the Pacific, Puget Sound
Author: Stine, Thomas Ostenson
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Libraries.)



Transcriber's Note: Captions have been added to some illustrations. The
spelling has been harmonized. Obvious printer errors have been repaired.



  [Illustration: ALASKA-YUKON-PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SEATTLE.
    Main Building, General View.]

  [Illustration: JOHN EDWARD CHILBERG.
    Vice President, The Scandinavian American Bank,
      Seattle Washington.
    President, Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition,
      June 1st to October 16, 1909.]



TO MY SCANDINAVIAN FRIENDS, NOW RESIDENTS OF THE PUGET SOUND COUNTRY:


Ten years have now elapsed since the "Scandinavians on the Pacific" was
published, and inasmuch as I now have the opportunity of inserting a few
pages, outlining in brief some of the changes that are manifest since
the publication of the book, I deem it proper to do so.

"Scandinavians on the Pacific" was my first literary effort. Some of
the verses contained in the book were written in a hasty manner, hence
found it advisable to rewrite them, coining them into better and more
uniform metre, and later they appeared in my book of poems, "Echoes from
Dreamland," which may be found in the Seattle Public Library, in the
library of the University of Washington, and in the libraries of Eastern
universities and colleges.

The opportunity of outlining the interesting changes that have taken
place in that period, and being enabled to make the addition a part of
the original book, comes to me by the generous suggestion of Mr. F. P.
Searle, Manager of the Ballard Office of The Scandinavian American Bank,
Ballard Station, Seattle, Washington, as it is Mr. Searle's intention to
present the book to all of his Scandinavian customers and friends.

In the year 1899, while completing the history contained in the
original part of this book, I could not have conceived of the wonderful
changes that have been made throughout the whole Northwest, and more
particularly in the City of Seattle. During the time I was writing the
book, one of my very pleasant headquarters was The Scandinavian American
Bank, then located at the corner of First Avenue and Yesler Way, in the
building that is now occupied by the State Bank of Seattle, and it
is a source of a great deal of satisfaction to me, that with a few
exceptions, all the officers and employees of The Scandinavian American
Bank are still with the grand institution, which has developed from a
very modest bank of that date, into one of the largest and most
successful banking institutions in the State of Washington.

First in my mind is Mr. Andrew Chilberg, to whom I dedicated this book,
and mentioned at the time that he was President of the bank, and can
still make the statement that he occupies the same honored position;
also Mr. James F. Lane, Cashier, and quite a number of the old time
employees. Mr. A. H. Soelberg, however, is now connected with the State
Bank of Seattle, in the capacity of Vice President and Cashier.

It is not my intention to confine the additional pages wholly to The
Scandinavian American Bank; but the associations were so pleasant, that
it naturally comes to my mind in a very vivid way, and before I leave
the subject entirely, I wish to speak of John Edward Chilberg, who at
the time the book was published, was known only as being an energetic
business man, in common with a great many others then residing in
Seattle. He is now the Vice President of The Scandinavian American Bank,
and the most of his success has been to the benefit of Seattle, as it
was through his foresight and faith in the future development of this
city that he brought about the erection of the first sky scraper,
which is the Alaska Building, and the present home of the Scandinavian
American Bank, and it was through his energy that such a large
proportion of Alaska's resources were obtained for Seattle.

In looking at his picture, as one of the Chilberg family, representing
four generations, which is found on page 48, it would indeed be a shrewd
judge of appearances that could have foreseen the success that this man
has made for himself, and for Seattle.

Without going into details of the many enterprises that he was
identified with, which represent some of the finest improvements in
Seattle, I will close my autobiographical sketch of Mr. Chilberg, by
calling attention to the successful way that he managed the affairs of
the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, as President of that successful
Fair, and all Scandinavians residing in this wonderful part of the
United States, can feel justifiably proud of the fact that it was a
descendant of their race who had so much to do with the wonderful
improvements that have been evidence in Seattle during the past ten
years, and it is indeed a pleasure for me to place his picture at this
day and date along with those of other prominent Scandinavians.

One of the most wonderful changes in Seattle is the gigantic regrade
work, which in a short time will so change the topography of the city,
that residents who left the city ten years ago, would on their return,
have hard work in locating old land marks. I understand that to take the
United States as a whole, this city is one of the best advertised cities
west of Chicago, and one cannot visit any other city without being made
aware that the majority of the people know all about Seattle. Of course
these reports must be of recent date, as the "Alaska-Yukon-Pacific
Exposition" was the real advertising factor, as it certainly was the
most grandly arranged, and most successful fair that it has ever been my
privilege to see.

As I look through this book, written so many years ago, I am made aware
of the old time citizens who have been called Home, yet feel that
all who have not had opportunity to read the early history of the
Scandinavians in this part of the country, will derive a great deal of
pleasure in being able to refresh their memories, and to those
Scandinavians who have recently settled in this part of the country, the
book will no doubt be the means of many re-unions of friendship formed
in other parts of the world.

In concluding this short sketch, permit me to add "Greetings from Puget
Sound," a poem which I wrote some months ago, and which was published on
a post card, and copyrighted by The Scenic Library Company.

THOS. OSTENSON STINE.


    GREETINGS FROM PUGET SOUND.

    Land and sea united greet us,
  Greeting all in words sublime;
    And with magic touches lift us,
  On the sunny wings of time.
    Over hills and laughing waters
  Plumage songsters hang and soar;
    From their hearts with gladness panting
  Greetings ever shake and pour.

    In the distance mellow cloudlets
  Float around the old Rainier,
    Mixing with his locks of silver
  In the balmy atmosphere.
    And we hear Snoqualmie yonder
  Calling, calling, loud and free.
    In a voice which shakes with welcome
  He is calling to the sea.

    From the mountain's snow-clad bosom
  Brooklets winding seaward sing;
    And the silver-braided wildwoods
  Tingle with the joy of spring.
    Breezes playing with the sea-nymphs
  Kiss the wooded land with glee,
    And the golden shore is warbling
  With the music of the sea.

    Morning steals serenely on us,
  Melting in from east to west,
    And the diamonds on the water,
  Burning, leap from crest to crest.
    When the sun departs in Westland
  Firs and pines in silence weep;
    Fold their flaming wings in slumber
  To the music of the deep.

    Mountains looking seaward charm us
  On the shore of Puget Sound;
    Cataracts with music fill us,
  Breezes waft the fragrance round.
    Hillocks green and valleys blooming
  And the diamond-studded sea
    Laugh and sing with salutation
  In a strain of harmony.

    Rivers, lakes and orchards laden
  Mingle with the fields of gold,
    And the fir and spruce and hemlock
  In their verdure wealth unfold.
    Mountains hold the treasure tempting,
  And the valleys ever green
    Teem with blooms of inspiration
  By the sun-kissed shore serene.

  --Thos. Ostenson Stine.

  Copyright, 1909, by The Scenic Library Co.



  PRESS OF
  DENNY-CORYELL COMPANY
  SEATTLE, WASH.



ERRATA.

Page 33, sixth line from bottom, should be _its briny breast_, not her
briny breast.

Page 46, third line from bottom, should be slaughter, not staughter.

Page 68, under the cut should be _Dr. Eiliv Janson_, not Eliiv.

Page 86, thirteenth line from top, should be _the 31st of May, 1889_,
not 1894.

Page 93, tenth line from top, should be _examen_, not examin.

Page 115, third line from top (in some of the copies), should be
_successful_, not sucsessful.

Page 132, second paragraph are too many commas.

Page 134, third line, second paragraph, should be _Solor_, not Sotor.

Page 196, under the cut (in a few copies) should be _Fairhaven_, not
Fairhavan.

Page 199, twelfth line (in a few copies) should be _reconnoitered_, not
reconnitered.

Page 208, second line from bottom, should be _legislature_, not
legislation.



  SCANDINAVIANS ON THE PACIFIC,

  PUGET SOUND.

  BY

  THOS. OSTENSON STINE, B. S.

  P. O. Box 599, Seattle, Wash.


  AN EVENING ON PUGET SOUND.

  A vocal stretch of sapphire glow,
  A sunset radiance of melted gold,
  Where silvery ripples softly laugh,
  Making music the whole night through.

  In a livery of green thy banks proudly stand,
  The weeping pine and mocking hemlock
  Lay shadows on thy starry breast,
  Where loving breezes play.

  High in the clouds rear the snow-capped sentinels,
  Listening to thy melancholy chimes,
  At their feet smile the lilies,
  And through the deep blue sail the sea-gulls.

  Copyright, 1900.


  [Illustration: ANDREW CHILBERG.]


TO

ANDREW CHILBERG,

Consul for Sweden and Norway and President of the Scandinavian American
Bank of Seattle,

As a Token of Respect for Your Friendship and Your Integrity of
Character,

I Dedicate this Volume.

THOS. O. STINE.


  [Illustration: DR. IVAR JANSON.
    An Eminent Surgeon of Seattle.]



PREFACE.


On solicitation of prominent Scandinavian-Americans, a year ago, I
undertook to write a volume or two, entitled, "Scandinavians on the
Pacific." At the launching of this idea an untold number rallied around
me with sweet tongues, but many who pretended to furnish historical data
fabricated delusive smiles of impertinent selfishness. Others, however,
have been frank in ushering kind assistance. The author is indebted to
the following gentlemen for willing advice and information: John Blaauw,
Editor of Tacoma Tidende, Tacoma; George Bech, Author of "Hæng Ham,"
etc., Seattle; Rev. T. J. Moen, Fairhaven, and N. P. Leque, Stanwood.

T. O. S.

  [Illustration: WONDERFUL SCENE ON THE GREAT NORTHERN
    IN CASCADE MOUNTAINS.]



  CONTENTS.


  INTRODUCTION.

  CHAPTER I.
  The Pacific Coast.

  CHAPTER II.
  The First Scandinavian Pioneers.

  CHAPTER III.
  Scandinavians in Seattle--Pioneers and Prominent
  Citizens.

  CHAPTER IV.
  Scandinavians in Seattle--Societies--Press--Prominent
  Citizens--Churches.

  CHAPTER V.
  Scandinavians in Ballard.

  CHAPTER VI.
  Scandinavians in Tacoma.

  CHAPTER VII.
  Scandinavians in Tacoma--Societies--Press--Prominent
  Citizens--Churches.

  CHAPTER VIII.
  Scandinavians in Everett.

  CHAPTER IX.
  Scandinavians at Stanwood.

  CHAPTER X.
  Scandinavians in Stillaguamish Valley.

  CHAPTER XI.
  Scandinavians at Cedarhome.

  CHAPTER XII.
  Scandinavians in Skagit Valley.

  CHAPTER XIII.
  Scandinavians in Bellingham Bay.

  CHAPTER XIV.
  Scattered Scandinavian Communities--Poulsbo and
  Other Places.

  [Illustration: A SCENE IN THE NORTH PACIFIC.]



ILLUSTRATIONS.

                                                PAGE

  Anderson, C. G. W.                              76
  Anderson, J. F.                                184
  Anderson, Graebert                              94
  Anderson, Oscar                                 78
  A Group of Representative Ladies                12
  Arntson, J. M.                                 120
  A Scene of Pioneer Life                         39
  A Rustic Bridge                                106
  Another Scene of the Wenatchee                  29
  A Puget Sound Cedar                             23
  A Miner at His Cabin                            32
  A Musician on Skagit River                     194
  A Scene in the Washington Woods                 31
  A Scene in the Harbor of Seattle                51
  A Scene in the North Pacific                    10
  An Island near Whatcom                          25

  Bank, Scandinavian American                     53
  Bennie, Jr., D. G.                             153
  Bech, George                                    92
  Blaauw, John                                   129
  Bull, Prof. Olof                               110

  Chilberg, Andrew,                     Frontispiece
  Christensen, Lars and Wife                     204
  Crogstad, Andrew N.                            186
  Crogstad, Mrs. Wilhelmina A.                   187
  Coltom, M. O.                                  155
  Church, N. D. Baptist                           99
  Church, N. D. Lutheran                          95
  Church, Swedish M. E.                           96
  Church, Swedish Baptist                         98
  Church, Stanwood, N. D. L.                     144

  Eggan, James                                    90
  Engquist, Frank                                104
  Enger, T. T.                                   135
  Elvrum, L. P. and Wife                         137
  Everett in Its Infancy                         139

  Fishing in Bellingham Bay                      198
  Foss, Louis                                    191

  Hanson, L. G. and Wife                         180
  Hansen, Hans                                    84
  Hals, John I.                                  164
  Hals' Shingle Mill                             163
  Hevly, E. A.                                   161
  Hallberg, P. A.                                 80

  Janson, Dr. Eiliv                               68
  Janson, Dr. Ivar,                     Frontispiece
  Johnson, Iver                                  159
  Johnson, Rev. John                              97
  Johnson, John                                  102

  Knudson, Knud                                  149
  Knatvold, H. E.                                112

  Langland, S. S.                                 72
  Leque, N. P.                                   141
  Logging Family Standing on a Cedar Stump       167
  Lindberg, Gustaf                               122
  Lundberg, A.                                    74

  Mining Scenes                                   34
  Moldstad, N. J.                                193
  Mt. Baker                                      196
  Mt. Rainier                                    108
  Mt. Index                                       21
  Morling House                                  182

  Nelson, N. B.                                   63
  Nicklason, G.                                  175
  Nogleberg, John                                 82
  Nogleberg's Studio                              81

  Orphans' Home                                  207
  Ox Logging                                     133

  Pacific Lutheran University                    132
  Prestlien Bluff                                166
  Pioneers Among Wild Beasts                     169

  Quevli, Dr. C.                                 114

  Ranch, Jorgen Eliason's                        202
  Residence of Olaf Rydjord                      151
  Residence of N. M. Lien                        150
  Rosling, Eric Edw.                             118
  Rynning, Dr. J. L.                             116
  Rude, H. P. and Family                          59
  Rialto Block                                    64

  Stanwood L. M. Sangkor                         145
  Stanwood Creamery                              152
  Samson, S.                                     124
  Sandahl, C. N.                                  70
  Sandegren, T.                                  131
  Steamer Advance                                206
  Soelberg, Axel H.                               66
  Skagit River                                    18
  Snoqualmie Fall                                 27

  The Cedarhome School                           172
  The Norman School                              165
  Thompson, S. A.                                147
  The Baltic Lodge                                85
  The 17th of May Committee                       88
  The Chilberg Family                             48
  The Wild Wenatchee                              28
  The University of Washington                    36

  Walters, Carl O.                               178
  Western Washington Native Snowshoe Hare        181
  Wonderful Scene on the G. N.                     8

  [Illustration: A GROUP OF REPRESENTATIVE LADIES.
    Miss Anna Myhre--Seattle
    Miss Minnie Anderson--Fir
    Miss Lottie Stromberd--Seattle
    Miss Bertha Korstad--Silverdale
    Miss Augusta Stromberd--Seattle
    Miss Emma Sandstrom--Seattle
    Miss Martha Anderson & Miss Henrietta Klackstead--Seattle
    Miss Petra & Emma Halverson--Tacoma]



INTRODUCTION.


  Viking brave on land or sea,
  Dauntless hero of liberty,
  While ages hang on bearded clay,
  Among the great thy name shall sway.

  Chroniclers shall paint thee in shades resplendent,
  Thy fame as the pine shall sway independent,
  Nations shall rise from lethargy old
  To tune the feats of the Norsemen bold.

  Suns of the South reflect thy rays,
  They breathe thy prowess on wild-flying sprays,
  But their light shall wane with ages to come,
  The stars of the future shall pale proud Rome.

  The foam-crest brine thy daring spells,
  Thy wings have climbed impetuous swells,
  In tempests wild o'er main afar,
  Thy only guide the burning star.

  Iceland and Greenland hast thou found,
  With valor to thy honor crowned,
  The Faroes in the salty deep,
  And others that in the ocean sleep.

  Thy scepter has on Sicily swayed,
  Thy brawny arms with Albion played,
  And Normandy to thy venture shines,
  With royal courts and eglantines.

  Beyond the sea maid's unkempt hair,
  Lay forests rich and jewels rare,
  Undreamt by kings of fame and power,
  "For the shore," shouts Leif,
  "spite storm and shower."

  _Vinland_ for the Norseman brave,
  The honor he to his country gave,
  Born with thee, an unknown strand,
  America, sweet freedom's land.

  _From "An Ode to the Land of the Vikings."_--_Stine._

The author does not aim to lift the Scandinavians into an air of
ungained merit, he does not aim to clothe them with undeserved encomium,
but seeks to paint their dues in a straightforward way, thoughtless of
sailing the sea of hyperbole, or entering any strait of unearned
exploit.

In order, however, to give the reader a clear conception of the spirit,
the intrepidity, the characteristic worth of the northern peoples, my
pen cannot refrain from plowing into the annals of the past. History is
plain and authentic on the subject, and the same chivalric blood ebbs
through the veins of the Vikings today as of yore. They have shared and
do share the burdens of adventure, discovery and colonzation. They have
nurtured their sons and daughters with patriotic zeal, and unfurled to
their love the folds of freedom. They have braved the foam-crest waves
minus compass and sympathy--stars of night and sun of day guided them
over the traceless billows. Their dauntless sails have wafted in sun and
storm from shore to shore and woven together distant climes.

From the dawn of navigation and soldiery the Scandinavians have evinced
skill and dexterity, filled with a whim to roam, see and conquer. They
were, perhaps, sometimes rough in their daring expeditions, but always
actuated with a will to plant the scepter of liberty and to raise the
standard of civilization.

In 860 the valorous Naddodd discovered Iceland, and fourteen years later
a republic form of government was established, which flourished four
centuries. In 984 Erik The Red discovered Greenland, and in the name of
his native country, Norway, took possession of the frozen territory, and
unfolded to the breeze the banner of liberty.

"To the West! To the West!" thought Leif Erikson, son of Erik The Red,
"spite waves and breakers," and in the year 1000 pointed the bow of
his bark for the shore of America, landed at Helluland, now known as
Newfoundland. He reconnoitered the coast as far south as Massachusetts,
and christened the New World, _Vinland_.

Not here do the Vikings stop. In 1002 Thorwald Erikson set sail
for Vinland, spent three years exploring the green-clad banks of
New England with zealous desire to unveil to his countrymen the
characteristic features of the new possession. In a collision with the
Skrællings (Indians) his precious life was blown out, the first European
to succumb to the arrows of the red race.

Not here do their voyages for the New World cease. The sagas plainly
picture their pilgrimages across the howling waste for Vinland in 1005,
1007, 1011, 1121, 1347.

True, the Scandinavians have been heroes on sea, but no less so on
land. King Gustavus Adolphus, of Sweden, poured his life blood on the
battlefield of Lutzen, not for military glory, but to liberate millions
of innocent souls from the fire of tyranny, the poisonous hands of the
chief of superstition, the narrow-minded Philip II., of Spain. He was
not only a military genius but the father of his people, a benefactor of
humanity.

In 1638 a company of Swedes colonized in the New World, who made the
hills and forests of Delaware ring with the music of their picks and
axes. As years rolled by emigration started from Sweden, Norway and
Denmark. The wilderness of America was their object, the building of
homes their love. They braved the interior, fought the lion and the
bear, conquered the frowning forests and subdued the spreading prairies.
First huts of logs and sods, then quaint dwellings rose to mark their
energy. Fields and gardens smiled, school-houses reared the air, and
happy lads and lasses pranced their way to school to drink freely from
the fountain of knowledge. Home, sweet home echoed from rocks and trees.
The frontier was their chance, and thither they steered their lots. They
knew how to swing the axe and use the hoe, climb mountains and make
themselves contented in the most hazardous exposure.

What to them the soft pillow? when a stone was near at hand. They slept
under the blue sky and drank health from the floating clouds. A home for
my son and daughter, or my sweetheart, gave them fresh courage. Not
only a home, but a pleasant home in a congenial clime, where the heaven
smiles serenely, where the rose-bud bursts and thrives the year round.
Thunder and cyclones had shaken their tranquility. More peaceful air,
tired of the friction and disagreement in the upper regions, and fire
that seems eager to eat the whole firmament. Away from the boisterous
thunderbolts which make it a business to blast and burn every cloud. "To
the West! Sweet Westland!" rolled in their souls, where the air is pure,
where the birds sing, where the scenery is grand.

  To the West! Sweet Westland! where freedom reigns,
  Where forests clothe the untrod plains,
  And flowers and fragrance blow
  Beneath peaks of crystal snow.
          Sweet Westland! broad and free,
          How I love to dwell in thee!

  Where jeweled brows look o'er the lea,
  And rhyming streams leap down to the sea,
  Where man is himself and courts no king,
  And axes swords, and bloodless swing.
          Sweet Westland! broad and free,
          How I love to dwell in thee!

  To the West! Sweet Westland by the sea,
  Where music swells the wooded lea,
  Where work is plenty and wealth to gain
  In clearing land and planting grain.
          Sweet Westland! broad and free,
          How I love to dwell in thee!

  THE AUTHOR.

  [Illustration: SKAGIT RIVER NEAR SEDRO-WOOLLEY.]



THE PACIFIC COAST.

CHAPTER I.


High and noble stands the Rocky, looking downward, where jeweled brows
hang, where silvery waves make music on the deep, or the sea maid shakes
her streaming locks. As early as 1513 the brave Balboa hurled his
exploring eyes over the watery waste and in the name of Spain declared
the discovery of the mighty ocean. But, alas! the valorous Spaniard
received only scoff and scorn for his adventure and hardship, and at
last the cold world saw fit to lead him to the judgment block for the
unknown depth beyond.

A later date, in 1592, Juan de Fuca, a Greek pilot, in the service of
Spain, discovered the beautiful strait which bears his name, the gateway
to the picturesque Puget Sound. In 1789 Captain Kendrick, an American
explorer, was reconnoitering along the Pacific coast, entered the Strait
of Fuca, steered his boat into the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte
Sound, and depicted the characteristic features of the land-locked
waters. In 1804 the United States government sent the Lewis and Clark
expedition across the Rocky to ascertain more minutely as to the climate
and the feasibility for settlement.

When the country was explored, and a sprinkling of pioneers had spread
themselves in the most favorable localities, tidings of the complication
between our government and Great Britain reached them. War clouds were
hanging in the air prognostic of determining the ownership of their
terra firma. An amicable settlement, however, was brought about and the
present boundary between Washington and British Columbia was fixed.

A petition was sent to Congress praying for closer relationship in the
Union, and in 1853 the Territory of Oregon was organized. The flux of
immigration fast settled the attractive sylva on the Sound and the
rolling prairies east of the Cascades. The Territory being too large,
and the country north of Columbia was sliced off and made to struggle
for itself. The promoters of the scheme were vigilant and got things to
move their own way, and after all, they didn't do anything worse than to
give this vigorating child of Uncle Sam the ever-cherished appellation
_Washington_.

  MY WASHINGTON.

  Beautiful Evergreen, home of the free,
  Sunshine of my fancy thee,
  Where fragrance swells the breeze,
  And freedom rings from rocks and trees.
  My Washington, sweet gem of the sea,
  Land of the future, and home of the free.

  I love thy peaks in twilight hue,
  In silver rays rear to my view,
  I love thy brooks, thy laughing fjord,
  Thy waving fields in grain of gold.
  My Washington, sweet gem of the sea,
  Land of the future, and home of the free.

  I love thee, my land, I'll serve thee true,
  I'll look for thy wants, I'll be with you,
  Through sun and storm my heart is thine,
  Sweet hills of fir and vine.
  My Washington, sweet gem of the sea,
  Land of the future, and home of the free.

  We've plenty of soil, silver and gold,
  Aye, fields and forests of wealth untold,
  Only our hearts for thee could rise,
  Of thee I sing, my paradise.
  My Washington, sweet gem of the sea,
  Land of the future, and home of the free.

  [Illustration: MOUNT INDEX--ON THE GREAT NORTHERN LINE, WASHINGTON.]

The scenery of Washington is grand and inviting. The Cascade runs
through the bosom of the state, cutting her in twain, and throws his
rugged spurs into Oregon and California. The majestic Rainier rears
through the clouds to a height of 14,444 feet, wearing a hood of
perpetual snow, which changes to a verdant fringe as it runs downward,
clothing his feet with evergreen. Mount Adams has pushed his head upward
12,902 feet, and Baker has reached an elevation of 10,814, while St.
Helen stopped 9750 feet above sea level.

To the westward is a less conspicuous attraction, the Coast Range, which
skirts the ocean and varies in height from 3000 to 4000 feet. Between
these mountain ranges sweeps a fertile basin, carpeted with an
unparalleled forest, fir, cedar, spruce and hemlock rise skyward to a
skeptical giddiness. Some stretch their forms 300 feet into the air.
Logs are piled upon one another, sleeping like angry mammoths at the
feet of gigantic trees. The more tender offsprings shoot up between
these lazy monsters, and some take delight to grow on their decaying
frames.

  Into the fleecy clouds the noble firs stand,
  Their austere forms spread shadows on the strand,
  And music floats on high,
  From silvery waves to the sky.

  Where tender shoots in gladness smile
  On moss-bearded logs in pile;
  Abreast with flowers they grow and sway
  In sisterhood from day to day.

  [Illustration: A PUGET SOUND CEDAR.]

The fjords of Norway are sublime, and Puget Sound is equally so. What
can be more soul-stirring and soul-inspiring than a merry sheet of water
rippling for hundreds of miles into a land of verdure, making sweet
music day and night? What can be more angelic and soothing to the soul
than the songs of the waves? Where can you find more poesy than in the
pearl-set crests rolling like melted gold upon gilded pebbles? A
clittering, clattering steal through the air, even in the calm of night
dulcet strains come to cheer the ear. A soft whisper seems to spring
from every flower. The forest is alive with melodies, hills and
mountains echo back the harps of the deep.

  [Illustration: AN ISLAND NEAR WHATCOM.]

  Sing loud ye waves of dancing pearls,
  Leap frisk ye winds from heaven's throat,
          For the jeweled strand,
          Melodious land.

  Laugh ye fir, spruce and hemlock,
  Play ye breezes with their wings,
          In freedom's air,
          In sun so fair.

  Smile ye flowers in gladness free,
  I kiss your lips and love you true,
          Sweet daisies mellow,
          In coats of yellow.

  Burst ye rose-buds to a fresh-born day,
  And drink from heaven's eye serene,
          Sweet beams of rainbow tint,
          Emblems of God, I weep and wait.

  Lift high your heads ye stately hills,
  Scatter smiles where music floats,
          By the opal sea,
          The land of the free.

  [Illustration: SNOQUALMIE FALL.
    By courtesy of the Great Northern.]

Rivers and falls are no less sublime than the Sound, and compare in
grandeur with the famous streams and cataracts of Switzerland and
Scandinavia. The Columbia ranks with the most picturesque rivers in the
world, being of great value to commerce, fleets of steamers ride on its
bosom day and night with merchandise from foreign climes, and grain,
fruit and other produce raised west of the Rocky. Snoqualmie, Snohomish,
Skagit and others are also navigable and invite the attention of
wonder-seekers.

  [Illustration: THE WILD WENATCHEE AND THE GREAT NORTHERN
    IN TUMWATER CANYON.]

Snoqualmie fall is one of nature's masterpieces, and bespeaks grandeur
and sublimity. The water shoots into the air, tumbles down a royal
precipice, whirls, foams and splashes, fills heaven with thunder and the
soul with awe and admiration. The Tumwater fall is likewise grand and
awe-inspiring, stunning in music and bewitching in scenery.

  [Illustration: ANOTHER SCENE OF THE WENATCHEE AND THE GREAT NORTHERN
    IN TUMWATER CANYON.]

Storms seldom visit the Pacific, and thunder rarely finds a rich medium
in the balmy clouds. But, terror! when a storm is propagated on yonder
deep, and sets the ocean boiling and shivering up shallow bays, and
springs into the forest like an unchained demon, then the whole heaven
shakes and trembles. Firs and cedars tumble like dead giants, knocking
each other to the ground in the fashion of heartless heathens. Blasts
upon blasts swell through the air and roll along the mountain ridges not
dissimilar to Jove's chariot.

Ay, you speak of awe and fright when a prairie fire gets sway on the
Central Plain, but when the guest of good and evil gains access to
the Washington forest in the month of August or September a hell is
witnessed similar to that painted by ranting trumpeters. Flames rise
skyward and with the aid of winds set the trees flaring and howling as
in the clutches of a thousand devils.

The fertility of the Pacific forest is something incredulous, the
quantity and quality of lumber produced are astounding to all not
familiar with this country. Even a conservative estimate would make many
curious speculators drunk with figures.

In the State of Washington forests spread over thirteen million acres of
land. West of the Cascades is a stretch of ten million, clothing hills
and dells from Canada to Columbia river with valuable fir, cedar,
spruce, pine, hemlock and tamarack, while on the east side three million
acres of forest land are scattered along the rivers and mountain slopes.

Saw mills and shingle factories are being kept busy the year round. More
than one billion feet of lumber are turned out annually and shipped to
all parts of the globe. The shingle industry is something phenomenal.
Factories are whistling and piping everywhere throughout the cedar
districts, and thousands of men find lucrative employments.

  [Illustration: A SCENE IN THE WASHINGTON WOODS.]

Mining is an important pursuit, rugged brows smile with independent
richness. Moss-bearded ledges of the precious metal run into the heart
of the Cascades. The Index districts teem with mineral wealth, and Lake
Chelan shines with doubtless yields. Iron ore rests in the bosom of the
Sound country from the green feet of old Rainier to the dashing waves of
the Pacific. As you cross the divide for Eastern Washington, you
find paying veins running in different directions. Coal is a natural
consequence, which in no manner puzzles the minds of geologists. From
days of yore luxuriant vegetation has robed plains and valleys to
impenetrable density. The death of rich forests has built beds of
astonishing thickness, and the formation of coal has resulted to a
marked degree.

  [Illustration: A MINER AT HIS CABIN.]

Agriculture and horticulture invite attention. The rolling prairies
between the Rocky and the Cascades are especially adapted for the
raising of cereals. Wheat yields from 50 to 75 bushels per acre, oats
from 100 to 125, rye from 60 to 80. Irrigation has been practiced with
wonderful success around Wenatchee. The feasibility of applying nature
itself is remarkable. Here and there meander silvery streams of clear
water, which are made to spread over fertile tracts of land at any time,
and to any part wanted. No longing for showers to quench and sweeten the
thirsty soil bothers the farmer in this section. Irrigation is so easily
practiced, and the crops thus raised are so enormous, may it be grain
or fruit, that the eastern agriculturist cannot conceive our natural
advantages. Why linger on the hungry prairies of the east, freezing your
lives out, when opportunities like these are extended to you? Here you
can get a pleasant home, for a small trifle, where the air is mild and
soothing, where the soil is rich and easily cultivated.

The Sound country is equally productive. Ay, inexhaustible. The
Washington fruit is known the world over for quality and quantity.
Magnificent orchards adorn every farm, and the smaller ranches, too,
enjoy the presence of wealthy apple, pear and plum trees.

When you throw your eye upon Puget Sound, and behold the fleet of fish
barges, rolling upon her briny breast, a reminiscence of the coast of
Norway steals into your soul. Cohorts of men, mostly Scandinavians,
resort to the waves for subsistence. Herring and salmon throng the water
in rich abundance. Shoals of the latter race along the shores, fighting
their way up streams to spawn. Some become savory prey for bears,
cougars and wolves, others die a respectable death, or return to their
natural abode--the ocean. The halibut plays master among the smaller
species, and grows fat at their diminution. He cares nothing for streams
or shallow bays, but gambols friskily amidst the salty billows.

  [Illustration: MINING SCENES ON THE GREAT NORTHERN,
    NEAR INDEX, WASHINGTON.]

All the gold and silver in the bowels of the earth, and all the
glittering nuggets shining on her bosom did not ruffle the serenity, or
affect the wonted vagrancy of the Indians. To them the forest was a
nuisance and the saw mill a scarecrow. The singing brook was worthless
and the rolling river valueless, save as mothers of trout. They had no
love for higher aspiration, no instinct for advancement, no aim to
better their condition, no foresight to provide against the pitiless
influence of cold or heat, no sagacity, no frugality, no thought of
tomorrow, no pile of subsistence for a rainy day or helpless age,
troubled their minds. Life was to them a ceaseless dream of nothingness.
Superstition was their god and pride, reason a casual stranger which
rooted not in their souls.

What has changed this sad drudgery of the Indians to a social
commonwealth? What has spurned the fiend of superstition to a shameful
death? What has invited reason and common sense to dwell peacefully
in our hearts? What has lifted the world from the thorny plane of
priesthood? What has wrested from the priestly hand the scepter of
government? Our forefathers knew it and provided for its development.
The pioneers of Washington had tested it, and prescribed it for
the coming generations. The log schoolhouse rose to their sweet
recollection of childhood days, then a frame building, then a brick
edifice. High schools were established, a state university was erected,
normal schools were founded, an agricultural college and school of
science was built.

  [Illustration: THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON.]



THE FIRST SCANDINAVIAN PIONEERS.

CHAPTER II.


  Dashed from shore to shore,
  On the Pacific evermore,
  Now sunk in grave or bent with years,
  Dauntless pioneers.

No class of people or nation deserves the title, cosmopolitan, better
than the Vikings. Their names mingle with the history of England,
France, Russia and Italy, and in the Western Hemisphere we find them all
over. To trace up the first Scandinavian that touched the shore of
Washington is difficult, if not impossible. No doubt but Scandinavians
made stoppings along the coast on their fishing expeditions to the north
before any white man had dreamt to pin his hopes to the North Pacific.
And it is probable, too, that some adventurous spirit of Viking blood
had been washed with American polish, and passed as a Yankee in the
Lewis and Clark expedition. It is safe to conjecture, however, that
some straggler from the sea-beaten shores of Scandinavia shared the
sufferings with the trappers of the Hudson Bay Company, or partook
of the hardships in John Jacob Astor's expeditions for the mouth of
Columbia river. These companies were made up of heterogeneous crews. The
mercurial French Canadian, the acute Yankee, the jolly Englishman, the
stern German, joined hands for the furfields, and it seems reasonable
that some hardy Scandinavian, too, was likely to abandon his fireside,
turn his back on civilization, and yield consent to a more romantic
life.

A motley combine known as the Russian Fur Company had established an
emporium on the Pacific coast, and a number of trading posts in
the interior, ere the close of the eighteenth century, and it is
authentically evidenced that Scandinavians and Finlanders constituted
the minor force of the regiment of trappers and navigators. Let it
suffice to say, however, that these brave adventurers regardless of
genealogical type did much to sow information in the Old World of the
evergreen land west of the Rocky; and suffer it to be known that the
probability is that some intrepid Scandinavian sacrificed his life in
search for peltry, and that his bones rest in peace beneath the green
turf in the Pacific forest. This brings us to the influx of permanent
settlers.

MRS. FREDERIC MEYER.--One of the first white women that breathed the air
of Pierce county was Mrs. Frederic Meyer, a Norwegian by birth. She left
her mother's hearth in Toten while a tender bud, fresh as a rose with
blooms of white and purple blushing on her cheeks. Few women are of
true romantic nature, their hearts, as a rule, are attached to social
affiliation around the fireside, but Mrs. Meyer figures as a typical
exception. Those that have known her well speak with kind tongues,
pronouncing her a model of her sex, chivalric in spirit, and brave, but
warm at heart. According to reliable information obtained in Tacoma, she
lit her feet on the green-trimmed shore, where the City of Destiny now
looms, forty odd years ago. She was married to an estimable German.

  [Illustration: A SCENE OF PIONEER LIFE.]

HOOD'S CANAL ANDERSON.--Hood's Canal Anderson was a peculiar composition
of strange fancy. He was born in Denmark, and from childhood showed an
insatiable passion for the sea, which ripened into irresistible lust.
While a lad of vernal years he left his native seat to be dashed on the
briny waves from port to port. He saw the crystal ice of Lofoten, the
huge glaciers of Greenland, the thirsty greens of India, the foul bogs
of China, the flowery vales of Japan, the rich gold fields of Australia,
the teeming meadows of New Zealand. He was tossed from continent to
continent, from island to island. About forty-five years ago he drifted
ashore near Port Discovery, and under veil of night put wings to his
feet for the forest. The fascinating aspect of the country and the
aromatic sylva poured streams of delight into his soul. As he stood in
the early morn, gazing around in mingled awe and admiration, he was
surrounded by a red race, who, at first, gave vent to the horrible
dilemma of converting his heart to ashes or treating him as a slave, but
his ingenious demeanor turned their sanguinity to laughter, and Anderson
became their curious jocularity which melted to favoritism. He strolled
with the train of vagabonds alternately fishing and hunting up streams
and canoeing the Sound. Thus ten years were dragged out of his longevity
without mingling with white men.

His longing for civilization vanished little by little, and the life of
celibacy settled heavily on his heart. He was a friend of the chief and
an admirer of his daughter, and it took only the big canoe to seal the
bargain. Anderson was rather long-headed for the red heathens, and got
the best of every deal. He was now the possessor of the biggest canoe,
save the royal ship, and was looked upon as independently opulent. Only
a word would change his life for better or worse. Finally he took the
delicate step and offered the huge dug-out in trade for the young
princess, which was accepted with loud eclat.

The ban of the nuptial day was made public. The bride spared no
tiptoeing to make it highly royal. First was a coat of red paint, then
purple, tinged with green. A carefully administered shampoo of oil
followed, then a crands of wild flowers was critically twined to her
wealth of black locks with a few quills set on end in the most confused
bewilderment. Of course, Anderson did not fancy the odorous coat of his
intended, nor her pert of etiquette, but being as those things were
incidental to the dynasty, he darted approbation with his blue eyes,
thinking, "Costume is not permanent."

From this time the chivalric Dane became a leader. He piloted the royal
squadron to Hood's Canal, where he squatted on a piece of land, hence
the sobriquet--Hood's Canal Anderson.

He became attached to his wife, and she reciprocated with equal depth of
conjugality, and shaped her costume to meet his liking, yet Uncle Sam
pried into their warm nestling by passing a law to either separate
or marry according to his code. Of course, Anderson had to marry his
wife the second time, which he did like a loyal citizen. He took his
corpulent queen, placed her in the stern of the big canoe, and paddled
to Seabold, where they were united in holy ties by Harry Shafer, Uncle
Sam's matrimonial agent. Anderson bears the honor of being the first
white man on Puget Sound concubined to a squaw in accordance with the
laws of the United States. He was industrious and elevated compared with
his station, turned a wooded bit of ground to a flowery garden, and in a
corner, beneath a weedy sod, he rests unsung.

PETER FRIBERG.--Peter Friberg, like Hood's Canal Anderson, has walked
the highway of frontier trials. He was born in Sweden, but when a mere
youth sought the waves. After years of trying experiences he found
himself on Puget Sound, among the floating Flatheads, about the same
time Anderson landed, but perchance drifted off with another flock of
red skins, consequently the two contemporaries were ignorant of each
others wanderings till later years, when they accidently met and shook
hands.

Peter Friberg also threw his heart to a squaw, and with her he barged
along the shores making depredation on salmon and halibut, finally
pinning his future to a happy point running into the bosom of the Sound,
near Salmon Bay.

MARTIN TOFTEZEN.--About two-and-forty years ago, a son of Norway
anchored his canoe on the north side of Whidbey Island. His name has
been pinned to its soil among the first on record. He was a pioneer of
heart and courage--chivalrous Martin Toftezen. He had drifted around the
Horn on a ship, and was tossed into the mouth of Puget Sound, where the
breath of the deep calmed to a gentle zephyr, and the wings of speed
flapped in disconsolation. The bark was dashed ashore by the angry
billows, caused by the agitating tide, and Toftezen stood in a transport
of mingled awe and perturbation. Nature was grand, enchantingly sang
the ripples up the fascinating arm, and mad in grandeur reared the
snow-capped peaks, flinging smiles of welcome. "Why reject the poetic
landscape? Nature's sweetness will smite the blue forehead of dreary
solitude." These thoughts rolled in his fancy, and up the Sound he
paddled, and settled on the green tail, where he wore out his life.

PETER ANDRIAS PETERSON.--No man on the Pacific coast ever endured more
hardships than the personage in question--Peter Andrias Peterson--who,
about a year ago fell prey to an incidental injury, and was carried over
the stream for the unknown sea beyond.

He was born in Denmark, 1828, and cast on the cold billows to struggle
for himself at the age of fifteen. A few years later he stepped ashore
in England, where he took a course in navigation to enable himself to
cope more successfully with the foam-crest surges. He embarked a ship
for India and Australia. In the latter place his mind was engrossed with
exciting reports from the gold fields, and thither he flew, a fugitive
of the sea. Success smiled on his brow, and wealth crowded into his
hands; but riches easily won are not highly treasured. In a wildcat
scheme he sunk his fortune, and before the dawn of a fresh week his
thousands were in the hands of others.

This catastrophe, brought about by sheer mishap, drove him back to the
sea, and, in 1859, landed at Victoria, British Columbia. A buoyant
spirit, though wounded with ill-luck, will soar to felicity and breathe
vigor on green fields. Peterson was delighted with the verdure that
greeted his vision, and took a canoe excursion around the Sound. On
returning to Victoria, he was struck with the gold fever which raged
desperately in the Cascades and Sound country. He compromised with his
floating thoughts, bent his energy on a prospecting tour, and in two
days flocked together sixteen men. In his customary adroitness he took
command of the little army of gold seekers, and bore into the forest,
but when two hundred and twenty-five miles from Victoria, thirteen of
them lost courage and returned to the city.

Peterson and his two companions proceeded up a small stream for some
days, and to their astonishment, one gray evening, fell upon four
white men actively engaged in picking gold nuggets. They staked out
a claim, glimpses of luck commenced to play on their cheeks, but died
ere a fortnight had gone to rest in the pensive dream of growing
forgetfulness. Their ration was getting low, and to save themselves from
falling victims to pitiless starvation, they raked together their pelf,
and returned to Victoria.

In the spring an English syndicate mustered a regiment of fresh
recruits, a man of spirit and agility was wanted to head an expedition
into the mountains, and Peterson was offered the responsibility, as he
had already gained fame as a daring adventurer. It was suggested to
seek a new field, and a guide was secured to usher them along. First,
however, was to hunt up an easy pass, and to accomplish this, a knot of
fourteen men, headed by Peterson, was dispatched into the wilderness.
They fought their way through murky vales and climbed moss-bearded
brows, the day sunk behind the horizon and night wrapped them in
darkness. Thus they continued; but, alas! the guide disappears. The
others rambled through treacherous woods, thoughtless of any hazard.
Hours were consumed climbing over angry logs and chasing through
witching dingles, but the guide was neither heard nor sighted.

The thirteen brave were lost in the forest where gloomy giants stretched
into a ghastly stillness, broken only by deceiving owls sailing over
their heads on disconsolate wings. For eight days they wandered without
a morsel to eat; grouse and pheasant were drumming through the air, and
deer gambolled in listless droves, but only to whet their keen appetite.
Their fire-locks were empty like their stomachs.

After darkness comes sunshine, and to their exhileration tumbled into
an unknown mining camp. They were received as friends and immediately
treated to a savory table. One of the unfortunates being so greedy for
the palatable viands that he rose in the night to gormandize a heap of
pan-cakes, left from supper, and shortly after fell juicy feed for the
grave and worms.

A new plan was formulated, two Scotchmen were sent back to Victoria
for provision, and the others remained at the camp. A couple of months
elapsed, and twenty-four miners halted at the gold-seeking hamlet where
the unlucky retinue joined them.

The company, now numbering thirty-four, resumed their pilgrimage in an
easterly direction for nearly two hundred miles. The landscape swept up
into jutting brows and gray-headed peaks, and the forest fringed into
a scabby shrub of hungry appearance. The change in nature cast cold
currents into their souls, but soon melted into delight. A beautiful
stream grated their ears, and thither they flocked.

Nature was now sweetness and grandeur, and fortune seemed to smile from
every leaf and twig. The blue heaven hung over them, here and there
dipped with shades of purple; the sun sent down his wealth of beams to
kiss their hardy cheeks; and the clear stream was busy making music
as it tumbled down jeweled precipices to swell the deep. They drank
hope and aspiration from the poetic environment, and each, as a loyal
soldier, embarked his assigned duty with happiness in his heart. Gold
was not doubted, before a month had slipped away, the precious metal
glittered in rich veins.

A frontier mining camp, in the heart of savages, is a continuous scene
of sunshine and storm, of joy and despair. Precaution must be the
watchword of every individual, early and late; a careless step might
betray them to the altar of cruel slaughter. The book-keeper had been
appointed custodian of the fire arms, who, in a thoughtless way, or to
satisfy his greed, bargained the ammunition to the Indians. Oh, terror!
the happy camp was turned to a lake of blood. One sad night, in the
early part of winter, the savages stealthily fell upon the camp, and
like thieves entered the lodges, pointed their ill-gotten fire-pieces
against innocent breasts, and quenched the light within.

Peterson and two Scotchmen escaped the murderous fire, naked they ran,
not dissimilar to deer over the snow, the former dashed into the river
where ten thousand pug devils, sitting in its bosom, bleeded his feet,
and the latter chased down the bank of the stream as in an elopement
from hell. After a month of severest suffering and hardship they reached
the gate of safety--Victoria--blood-stained and scraggy, hardly able to
combat the icy angel of death. The gold fever had ceased to ebb through
their veins. The two Scotchmen returned to their dear fatherland, and
Peterson built a boat and sailed for Stillaguamish where he sleeps in
peace under the green turf, three miles from Stanwood.

FRED LANDSTONE.--In Swedish, Fredrik Landsten, a man of nomadic spirit
and fine intellect, was born in Sweden, and in the spring of manhood
ascended the horizon of sea-faring exploits. In 1860 he landed at San
Francisco, and a year later stept ashore at Port Discovery, Washington.
A score of years on the rolling brine had changed his mind for terra
firma. He resorted to logging camps and saw mills, working hard until
1876, when he retired on a piece of land three miles from Poulsbo,
where he still resides, slowly wearing out the balance of his years.

  [Illustration: THE CHILBERG FAMILY OF FOUR GENERATIONS--ALL LIVING.
    John Charles Chilberg is behind the vase of flowers and his wife
      the second to his left.]

CHARLES JOHN CHILBERG (not John Charles as shown under the
illustration).--White with a wealth of snowy locks, and seven-and-four
scores of years hanging on his back, yet nimbly he frisks about on his
beautiful farm at Pleasant Ridge, Skagit county. This aged pioneer of
unusual endurance and grit, keen intellect and warm soul, was born in
Halland, near Laholm, Sweden, 1813, came to America, 1846, and located
in Iowa. In 1860 he visited Pike's Peak, Colorado, and in 1863 left
his family again, a loving wife and children, for the West with a view
to find a more congenial clime. For some time he traveled in Montana,
crossed the Rocky, and came to Puget Sound, 1865. The sweet-scenting
forest and the balmy heaven awakened his love for perambulation of the
Pacific, from British Columbia to the Golden State. He resolved to make
his future abode west of the Cascades, and in 1869 returned to Iowa
to remove his family to Washington, arriving at Pleasant Ridge the
following spring.

Mrs. Charles John Chilberg and three of her sons, Joseph, John H. and
Charles F., came to the Pacific in the spring of 1871, and Isaac and B.
A. a few months later. James P. Chilberg has climbed the horizon of
pioneer adventures. In 1859 he landed in California, in 1864 traveled in
Oregon, and in 1870 beheld the rippling Sound and the Washington forest.
In 1872 Nelson Chilberg took a survey of the Pacific and three years
subsequent his brother Andrew threw his eyes upon the mighty ocean.

ANDREW NELSON.--A jolly fellow, familiarly known as Dogfish Nelson, was
among the first Scandinavian pioneers. He was born in Denmark, 1832,
and landed as a sailor at Port Ludlow in 1867. Like many others he was
attracted by the country, and to drive away monotony took an Indian
woman for wife, as white women were almost unknown on the coast at that
time. Nelson has encountered many obstacles in his cruising among the
red skins and fierce brutes, but always managed to play the hero. He has
been industrious and convivial, and a flowery nest in Brown's Bay
bespeaks his rank.

HANS HANSEN, a Dane, who resides at Alki Point, near Seattle, has earned
a footing among the early Scandinavian pioneers. His years on the
Pacific reach pretty nigh two scores. Knut Knutson, a native of Norway,
and also a resident of Alki Point, came to Puget Sound over thirty
years ago, and has passed through days of sun and storm. C. E. Norager,
likewise of Norse birth, places his disembarkation on the Pacific about
forty years back.



CHAPTER III.


Seattle, the metropolis of Washington, and the busiest city on the
Pacific coast, has a romantic history, as well as a history of thrift
and progress. Thirty-five years ago only a few log cabins set on the
shore of Elliott Bay, inhabited by a handful of pioneers. Bears and
cougars danced around their huts, and Indians skulked in lazy hordes at
their threshold. How changed! to day the Queen city is spread over about
fifty square miles of land, overlooking the melodious Puget Sound, and
dots the green borders of three fresh-water lakes with snug cottages.
She has a population of about 85,000, of which a large per cent are
Scandinavians.

  [Illustration: A SCENE IN THE HARBOR OF SEATTLE.]

The first Scandinavian that visited Elliott Bay, of which we have any
authentic account, was Peter Friberg, formerly mentioned. Shortly after
came C. E. Norager and others referred to in the previous chapter.
Charles John Chilberg made a survey of the bay in 1865, when only a saw
mill and a sprinkling of shanties marked the presence of white men. In
1869, Edward Gunderson, a native of Norway, crossed the Rocky to make
Seattle his future habitation, which was then in its early embryo. The
same year, Amund Amunds, born in Racine county, Wis., of Norwegian
parents, removed to the city from Cowlitz county where he had
disembarked two years prior. Amunds grew opulent and invited the love of
all his associates. He was director and first vice-president of the
Scandinavian American Bank of Seattle, and heavily interested in real
estate. He was an energetic worker in the Ancient Order of United
Workmen, and received the highest honor--Grand Receiver of the
jurisdiction of Washington. He died four years ago and his funeral was
a solemn event.

In 1872, Nelson Chilberg, son of Charles John Chilberg, made an
appearance, and three years later his brother Andrew was attracted to
the coast, as referred to in the previous chapter, and started the first
Scandinavian store in Seattle, in company with J. P. Chilberg. The
prospect was glittering and ere a year had died Nelson joined them in
grocery business, the firm being Chilberg Brothers. Andrew Chilberg soon
rose to popularity, became one of Seattle's most prominent citizens, and
an honor to the Scandinavians.

  [Illustration: SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN BANK OF SEATTLE.]

He was born in Laholm, Sweden, March 29, 1845. When a lad of one year
he crossed the Atlantic with his parents, settling near Ottumwa, Iowa,
where he received his early education in the common schools. In 1860 he
left Ottumwa with his father and older brother, Nelson, for Pike's Peak,
Colorado, remaining two years, then returned to Iowa. In 1863 he crossed
the Rocky with a wagon train, arriving in Sacramento after a journey of
five months, September 24th. His health was harassed by exposure and
hardship in crossing the plains, and as an alternative of recovery
worked on a farm two years. Mr. Chilberg was anxious to complete his
education, and in 1866 returned to Iowa via Nicaragua and New York.
After taking a course in college he obtained a teacher's certificate and
engaged in teaching, but abandoned the profession after three years of
successful experience to enter a more lucrative position in Ottumwa.
In 1857 he journeyed to Seattle, where he still resides, embarking in
grocery business in company with his brother, the firm being Chilberg
Brothers. Three years subsequent to his arrival in the city, he was
elected to the city council, in 1879 appointed vice-consul for Sweden
and Norway, in 1882 chosen county assessor, and in 1885 intrusted
with the responsibility of city treasurer. In 1886 he was named city
passenger and ticket agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad, but
resigned, 1892, to accept the presidency of the Scandinavian American
Bank of Seattle. In 1896 he was elected to the board of education, and
the following year assumed the presidential chair. He was married to an
estimable lady, Miss Mary Nelson, in Iowa, November 5, 1874. They have
one son, Eugene, who is a young man of fine training, being educated in
the Seattle High School, Washington Agricultural College and School of
Science, and Washington State University.

Peter Wickstrom.--With the first brigade of Scandinavians, Peter
Wickstrom marched in the front rank. He was born in Sweden, 1837,
arrived in St. Paul, Minnesota, 1868, and four years later beheld
the city of Portland, Oregon, and the same year located in Seattle.

Louis and Henry Peterson.--The Peterson brothers were among the early
Scandinavians and the first to engage in the art of photography in the
city of Seattle. They were born in Norway but sailed for America while
young boys, arriving in Chicago, 1857, where they resided nineteen
years, leaving for Seattle, 1876.

Martin C. Mortensen.--Mortensen was a native of Denmark, and arrived
in Seattle the same year as the Peterson brothers. He came to America,
1868, and two years later landed in San Francisco, spending six years
in that city, then journeyed northward.

Christian C. Plough.--Vice-Consul Christian C. Plough is one of
Seattle's most highly respected citizens. He was born in Denmark, 1825,
and came to America, 1868, selecting Chicago for his first stopping
place, but after two months of abode in the Windy City he removed to
Nebraska, where he stayed one year. The Pacific was his aim and thither
he went, disembarked in Olympia, via San Francisco by boat, 1872,
where he remained three weeks. Portland, Oregon, had attracted
considerable attention as a city of business prospect, and Plough again
picked together his effects to resume another journey. He stayed in
Portland three years then removed to Seattle. In 1883 he was appointed
vice-consul for Denmark, served with honor until 1895 when he was
compelled to resign on account of ill health. Christian Geerstsen, a
man of honor and intelligence, came to America in company with Plough,
and also arrived in Seattle together. He was born in Denmark, 1839.

Ben Jensen, now a resident of San Juan county, arrived in Seattle when
a dense forest clothed the principal streets. He was born in Norway,
came to America while a youth, and has proved a worthy factor to his
adopted country. Ole Egge, also a native of Norway, has shared the
hardships of the early Pacific. He is a man of intelligence, and enjoys
the respect of his countrymen. His son Peter is a bright man of
mechanical ingenuity, and landed in Seattle with his parents.

In the more recent years, Scandinavians in Seattle have made great
progress in professional and business circles. In politics, too,
they have commanded notice, and in science and letters attention.
E. H. Evenson is the incumbent county auditor, and H. P. Rude
councilman-at-large.

E. H. Evenson was born at Whitewater, Wisconsin, in the year 1852. His
early life was spent on a farm in Waupaca county, Wisconsin. At the age
of 18 he began to teach in the common schools in his neighborhood, and
with the money thus earned he started on a six years' course at Decorah
College, Iowa, from which he graduated in the spring of '79. During all
this time he taught common schools at intervals, and during vacations
worked in the harvest fields of Minnesota and earned the money with
which to pay his college expenses. Having finished his course at Decorah
College he entered the State University of Wisconsin, from which he
graduated with the class of '81.

In the fall of the same year, Mr. Evenson secured a position as teacher
in Milton College, Milton, Wisconsin, where he remained for three years;
at the end of that period he removed to Madison, South Dakota, to fill a
place as teacher in the State Normal School at that city, which position
he occupied for two years; he was then elected county superintendent of
schools for Lake county, in which capacity he served two terms. At the
close of the last term he made another move west, to Puget Sound, and
settled on 40 acres of land near the town of Kent, where he now resides
with his family. He is at present serving his second term as auditor of
King county.

Mr. Evenson is a firm believer in the "single tax" theories of Henry
George; that is, in placing all taxes on ground rents. The justice of
that method, he claims, is based on the following self-evident truths:

"1st: That whatever the individual produces, belongs to the individual,
and whatever the community produces, belongs to the community.

"2d: That the general rise in land value, commonly called ground rents,
is caused by the growth of the community and its competition for work,
and therefore, by right, belongs to the community.

"3d: That, as taxes are needed for the welfare of the community, it is
only in accordance with natural and divine law that the community makes
use of this common fund before it resorts to the confiscation of what
properly belongs to the individual.

"4th: That it is not only unjust in principle, but injurious to the last
degree in practice, that one man is taxed more for making land useful
and employing labor on it, than another is taxed for holding land idle
and keeping labor off it.

"5th: That to tax labor or its products, is to discourage industry.

"6th: That to tax land values to their full amount will compel every
individual controlling natural opportunities to either utilize them by
the employment of labor, or abandon them to others; that it will thus
provide opportunities of work for all men, and secure to each the full
reward of his labor."

  [Illustration: H. P. RUDE AND FAMILY.]

H. P. Rude, the fearless councilman-at-large, of Seattle, was born in
Toten, Norway, March 4, 1861. He graduated from the public school at
the age of fifteen, later took a course in higher education at a private
institution. From boyhood he manifested native pluck which his career
plainly reveals. Unlike most boys, he spent his leisure studying and
learning the tailoring trade. Seeing that the seat of his birth being
too narrow for cosmopolitan development, he planned for the national
capital against the will of his father. In a confidential manner he
obtained two crowns from his grandfather, and under veil of night walked
forty-two miles, arriving at Dahl Station, Eidsvold, at ope of dawn,
from whence he took the train to Christiania. Though only a youth of
fifteen, he found employment in a leading tailoring establishment, and
attended school during evenings. In 1881 he emigrated to America, after
making a short stop in Chicago, he proceeded to Redwing, Minnesota, to
visit relatives who lived fifteen miles out in the country, in the state
of Wisconsin. Unable to articulate an English sentence, "but where there
is a will there is a way," crossed the river with an Indian, found the
road by means of a guide-post, and stalked the unknown distance. After
a pleasant reunion with friends and relatives, he returned to Redwing,
worked for some time at his trade, then embarked in business for himself.
His next move was to Minneapolis, where he found employment in a
fashionable store. He joined the Tailors' Union, having a membership of
200, and within a year became its president, and subsequently was chosen
a delegate to the Trade and Labor Assembly. He resigned from the Union
to engage in business of his own which he followed for some time.
After disposing of his interests in Minneapolis, he traveled in the
surrounding cities, then crossed the Rocky, arriving in Seattle, 1890,
during the transient boom of Anacortes, which attracted him to that
place, but returned to Seattle ere long. He worked for awhile as cutter,
then started a tailoring establishment of his own.

For years he had been alert to public affairs, and in 1896 was elected
councilman from the Sixth Ward, the fusion stronghold, with a
large majority. He was renominated by the Republican party, but
councilman-at-large, and elected with an increased vote. On resignation
of Mayor Wood, he was instrumental in placing Judge Thomas J. Humes into
the mayor's chair. To the credit of Mr. Rude it must be said that he has
ascended to his political honors unsought, and that his record is
emblematic of honesty and ability. He has been opposing the perpetuity
of the gambling hells in the lower strata of the city in such a manner
that even his political enemies had to commend his course. His famous
resolution made the tenderloin district shiver with fear, while honest
men and women bowed with gratitude. The following is taken from a
leading daily of Seattle:

"H. P. Rude, councilman-at-large, is entitled to great credit for his
endeavor to put a quietus to certain classes of crime so often indulged
in the various places of resort in the lower part of the city."

Mr. Rude's influence among the members of the city council is made
conspicuous by his representation on the several committees. He is
chairman of the police license and revenue committee, and a valuable
member on the committees of finance, corporation, labor, public
buildings and grounds, and harbor and wharf.

He was married, 1881, in Minnesota, to Miss Lina Sophia Larsen, a lady
of lofty character, to whom he was betrothed in Norway. She was born in
Eidswold, November 24, 1863, of highly respected parents, and emigrated
to America a few months subsequent to the arrival of her husband. They
have four children, Henry M. Rude, born in Wisconsin, March 14, 1883.
The other three are natives of Minnesota, George A. Rude, born May 3,
1885, Lillie Palma Rude, February 24, 1887, and Morris O. Rude, April
10, 1889.

J. H. Ekstrand, a true son of Sweden, and an ex-minister of the M. E.
Church, is a Seattle pioneer. He came to the United States more than two
scores of years ago, and has been influential in both church and
political circles.

E. A. Seaburg, a native of Sweden, has likewise given keen vigilance
to public affairs, always a stalwart republican. As regards men of
scholarly attainment, Rev. M. A. Christensen ranks among the most
polished on Puget Sound. He is an accomplished linguist and an eloquent
pastor of the Emmanuel Lutheran Church. H. M. Korstad, a graduate of the
University of Washington, is also master of several languages and a deep
student of ethics and psychology. He was born in the United States, but
his parents hail from Valders, Norway. His sister, Bertha Korstad, is a
prominent teacher in the public schools of Kitsap county.

  [Illustration: N. B. NELSON.]

  [Illustration: RIALTO BLOCK.
    Occupied by Frederick, Nelson and Munro.]

N. B. Nelson.--Very few have been more successful in business than the
personage in question--N. B. Nelson--of the firm, Frederick, Nelson
and Munro. He is a man of a lucky mixture--business, integrity, and
sociability. Mr. Nelson was born in Kristianstad, Sweden, July 31, 1857,
and like most boys in that country received a thorough schooling.
From boyhood he had nursed a liking to see America, and in 1875 landed
in Colorado, minus means, a stranger in a new world, and worst of all
unable to converse with the general public, but picked up the language
with marked rapidity. He bent his energy to farming, following the
pursuit for several years in Garfield county, but at the same time gave
keen eye to public affairs, and served the people as county commissioner
for three years. His attention was engrossed with the progress of the
Pacific, and thither he journeyed, 1891, and shortly after embarked in
furniture business on Pike street in a store less than twenty by sixty.
At present the firm of Frederick, Nelson and Munro occupies the Rialto
Block, in the very heart of the city, covering 105,400 square feet, more
than two and a half acres of household goods. The traffic of the firm
is immense, exceeding every establishment of its nature north of San
Francisco. Mr. Nelson was married, 1895, to an accomplished young lady,
Miss Teckla Johnson, born in Ronneby, Blekinge, Sweden. They have two
boys, Frederick Creigh Nelson and Chester Munro Nelson.

  [Illustration: AXEL H. SOELBERG.]

Axel H. Soelberg, bank cashier and a respected citizen of Seattle, was
born at Ness Hedemarken, Norway, on March 2, 1869. He received a common
school education, graduating at the age of fourteen. In 1884 he secured
a position in the store of Jevanord Brothers in Brumundalen, with whom
he remained until in the spring of 1888, when he emigrated for America.
He arrived in Minneapolis on the morning of May 17th. A short time
previous, a number of Norwegian-American citizens of Minneapolis had
organized the State Sash and Door Manufacturing Company, and Mr.
Soelberg was offered the position as book-keeper a few days after
his arrival in the city. He served in this capacity for about two
years, then was elected secretary of the firm, and two years later
vice-president. In the spring of 1892, when the Scandinavian American
Bank of Seattle was organized, he was tendered the position as
book-keeper in the bank, and accepting, Mr. Soelberg found himself in
Seattle on one of the first days in April of that year. At the annual
meeting in 1894, he was elected cashier of the bank, which position he
now holds. Mr. Soelberg is a man of literary aptitude as well as of
business capacity, has contributed largely to the Seattle Daily Times
and other leading papers. He could have won laurels on the field of
letters as well as business notice in the world of traffic. In January,
1898, he was married to Miss Olga Wickstrom, an accomplished young lady
of Seattle. They have a beautiful home in one of the finest parts of the
city.

  [Illustration: DR. EILIV JANSON.]

Drs. Ivar and Eiliv Janson.--Every Scandinavian is familiar with the
name, Kristofer Janson, the eminent Norwegian poet and novelist.

  No less a halo of the minstrel car,
  Light brave Janson sows afar,
  At thy torch superstition weeps,
  Dogmas wilt in deftly labored heaps.

  The God of nature,
  Love and truth,
  Flash on thy wing to Age and Youth,
  With gilded rod and silver tongue,
  Thou riftst the creeds of ages long.

  From "An Ode to the Land of the Vikings."

The two doctors in question are sons of this noble author, Ivar being
born in Bergen, Norway, March 1, 1865, and Eiliv in Sel, Gudbrandsdalen,
May 25, 1870. Both received their early education by private tuition,
and in 1882 emigrated with their parents to America, settling in
Minneapolis. They took advantage of the splendid school facilities
offered by that city as preparation for the state university of
Minnesota, where they graduated, 1892, with the degree of Doctor of
Medicine, M. D. Their collegiate records bespeak scholarly distinction
which have been made more emphatic by subsequent years. Immediately
after graduation, Dr. Ivar Janson was appointed assistant professor in
the medical department at his alma mater, but resigned the chair to take
a move westward, arriving in Seattle, 1895, where he enjoys an enviable
practice, being recognized as a leading surgeon on the Pacific. His
brother, Dr. Eiliv Janson, steered his fortune to Astoria, Oregon, in
the fall following his graduation, and soon rose to be one of the most
beloved physicians in the city. His ability invited the attention of the
public, and his practice grew immensely, being the largest in that part
of the state. The last year he has spent studying at the universities of
Europe, in Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Copenhagen and Paris, and will join
his brother in Seattle next June. The two doctors have evinced the
genius of their father, but in a different direction, the sire a poet,
the sons surgeons and physicians. The former has climbed the ladder of
fame, the latter are climbing it. They are both married to ladies of
rare abilities and accomplishments. Mrs. Ivar Janson is one of Seattle's
most gifted vocalists. "Think for yourself" is a soul-inspiring motto,
and is applicable to the Janson family. In spite of angry opposition
and glittering pelf the rich mind of Kristofer Janson has scattered
sunbeams of truth and thought. He has sought to lift his countrymen
upon the plane of reason and brotherly love. The sons have imbred their
father's soul of thought and sympathy, which the public echo in more
eloquent words than my pen.

  [Illustration: C. N. SANDAHL.]

C. N. Sandahl.--Washington is dependent on the science of horticulture,
fruit is her future. Any man willing to bend his heart to the soil is a
valuable exponent in the upbuilding of the country. Few men have done
more in this line than the well-known floriculturist and nurseryman, C.
N. Sandahl, of 1123, Second Avenue, Seattle. He was born in Horsens,
Denmark, 1857; acquired his education in the public schools of his
fatherland, and in the smiling book of nature, where real knowledge
teems to an intelligent eye. In 1880 he emigrated to America, spent
ten years in Ohio and Minnesota, pursuing his chosen vocation, then
journeyed to Washington and located in Seattle. After a careful scrutiny
of the country he engaged in floriculture and nursery, which occupation
he is following with notable ability. Mr. Sandahl is a man of business
capacity as well as of scientific propensity, and honest and honorable.

  [Illustration: S. S. LANGLAND.]

Samuel S. Langland.--Quiet of disposition but deep in thought, modest
in demeanor but aggressive in argument. The above words unfold Mr.
Langland's characteristic, an able lawyer of Seattle. He was born near
Stavanger, Norway, August 13, 1856, and emigrated with his parents to
Minnesota in the spring of 1867. His early boyhood experienced the
various hardships and vicissitudes incident to pioneer life. At the age
of fifteen he launched out for himself, choosing as a means of support
the apprenticeship of a tailor in Mancato, in which capacity he labored
a year and a half. From whence he went to St. Paul, a stranger in
an unwont sphere. English defied his tongue, but soon melted to his
grasping intellect. He worked at his trade about two years, but to
ascend to a higher stage of culture, he converted his energy to loftier
aims, worked for his board and attended private school, paying for his
tuition by doing janitor work, sweeping and keeping the schoolhouse
in order. After two years of assiduous study in this institution, he
entered the classical course of four years in the St. Paul High School
which he completed in three. In the fall of 1881 he was matriculated in
the same course at the state university, graduating with honor in
June, 1885. At the commencement exercises he distinguished himself by
delivering the most thoughtful and eloquent oration of the class, his
subject being "Is Man Advancing?" for which he received compliments from
the faculty and leading men of the state present on that occasion. His
struggles at the university with poverty symbolize an indomitable will.
He toiled evenings and Saturdays sawing wood and doing other manual
labor, his vacations were spent canvassing, or in the harvest field.
After darkness comes sunshine, and the year following his graduation he
was appointed professor of English Literature in the Augsburg Seminary.
In 1887 he studied law in St. Paul, was admitted to bar, and practiced
for some time at Moorhead, Minnesota, where he made rapid progress, being
nominated prosecuting attorney on the democratic ticket, but as that
party was in the minority he went to defeat with the rest of the
candidates. At Moorhead he was married to an estimable lady, Miss Esther
Annette Hutchison, and in December of 1890 moved to Puget Sound as
an alternative to regain health and vigor. Since 1891 he has been
practicing law in Seattle with growing promise, his specialty being real
estate litigation.

  [Illustration: A. LUNDBERG.]

A. Lundberg.--The person of this sketch, the educated artificial limb
manufacturer, A. Lundberg, was born in Kalstad, Sweden, 1847, where he
received a good schooling and learned his benefactory profession. At
the age of twenty-one he set sail for America, locating in Minneapolis,
where he stayed until 1888, working at his trade. From whence he moved
to Spokane, Washington, residing in that city eight years. Seattle
had attracted notice as an appropriate seat for a man of science and
mechanical ingenuity, and thither he migrated in 1896, establishing his
headquarters in Sullivan Building, First Avenue. Mr. Lundberg is the
only artificial limb manufacturer in the state of Washington; he
was educated for this work in early youth and has followed it
uninterruptedly. In many instances he has wrought out wondrous results,
cured cases that defied medical science. He was married in Minneapolis,
January 24, 1877, to a pleasant lady, Miss Anna Dahlgren. They have
three children, Evalin, Denalda and Marie.

  [Illustration: C. G. W. ANDERSON.]

C. G. W. Anderson.--Men are destined for divers avenues, but a
thoughtful man will follow the course of his inclination in the climax
upward, and success will smile as he proceeds. Mr. C. G. W. Anderson
seems to have incorporated this maxim. He was born in Sweden, September
24, 1856, where he enjoyed the benefit of a good schooling and a healthy
course in the curriculum of experience. At the age of twenty-six he left
his native soil for the New World, arriving in the United States, April
24, 1880. After ten years of various employment in the eastern states he
came to Seattle, engaging in hotel business on the corner of Terrace and
Fifth Avenue, where the Anderson looms in emphasis of the proprietor's
energy. Mr. Anderson is a man of a genial disposition, social and
affable and in all respects an honored citizen.

  [Illustration: OSCAR ANDERSON.]

Oscar Anderson.--A man of honor and integrity is a worthy adjunct to
any community. Oscar Anderson belongs to this type which his career
bespeaks. He was born in Karlskrona, Sweden, January 13, 1859, where he
received a thorough education in the public schools. From boyhood he
showed talents attributive only to the soul of the genius. In 1872 he
entered the hardware business, but abandoned it after two years of
experience to pursue the vocation of his forte--jewelry and mechanism.
In 1879 he engaged in business for himself which he continued
successfully until 1893. During all these years he was employed by the
Swedish navy mending and adjusting the chronometers of the men-of-war.
In 1891 the Russian government engaged his ingenuity, and on one
occasion he worked three days and three nights repairing the
chronometers of the navy for which he received a remuneration of 297
crowns. In 1892 he spent considerable time traveling in Denmark, partly
for pleasure and partly for studying the conditions of the country,
Copenhagen being the center of interest where he enjoyed himself for a
few months. The following year he sold out his business in Sweden and
emigrated for America, locating in Seattle, a stranger in a strange
country, but ere long his native "pluck" was manifested, and a fine
establishment at 406 Pike street emphasizes his ingenuity and business
ability.

  [Illustration: P. A. HALLBERG.]

P. A. Hallberg.--Experience is the best teacher, a college course of
mere theories gives little knowledge of the world. A course in fighting
the billows of the deep, or wrestling with the stumps of the forest, is
of more practical worth than a head crammed with deceased tongues, or
theoretical airships. P. A. Hallberg corroborates my view with his
personal experience. He was born in Skone, Sweden, 1867, and in his
early teens sought the waves. He visited China and other oriental
climes, faced the angry surges of Cape Horn, and dashed ashore at San
Pedro, California, from whence he sailed northward, navigated for
some time as mate on Puget Sound, also served in the government marine.
After years of sea-faring life he turned his attention to terra firma,
located in Seattle and commenced new pursuits. He worked for three years
in the Union Bakery, then spent some time in a meat market, and in
1894 bought the Union Bakery, and four years later removed to Second
Avenue, between Pike and Union, where he is doing a large business. Mr.
Hallberg is a man who has won the respect of the people of Seattle by
his integrity of character and straight business method.

  [Illustration: JOHN NOGLEBERG'S STUDIO AND FINE ART STORE.
    (Five separate departments.)]

  [Illustration: JOHN NOGLEBERG.]

John Nogleberg, a gifted artist, portrait, figure and landscape painter,
of Seattle, was born in Kongsberg, Norway, February 21, 1861. He
received a splendid education in his native country in music, science
and art, and in 1881 emigrated to America, locating in Chicago, where he
studied at the Academy of Fine Art and at the Art Institute. After
nine years of close application to his chosen profession, he moved to
Seattle, where he has the largest establishment of its kind west of
Chicago, engaging constantly a number of employees in the different
departments.

At the beginning of 1899 he moved into his elegant building on Second
Avenue, near Union Street, but from the present indication of business
his beautiful apartments will soon prove too small. He is an athlete and
an intense lover of nature. The soul of grandeur and sublimity seems to
be a part of his being, which his masterpieces plainly reflect. He is
fond of outdoor sport, fishing and hunting give him pleasant hours of
recreation. He is an active member of the Y. M. C. A., and a promoter of
the Norwegian-Danish M. E. church. In a word, Mr. Nogleberg is a true
gentleman as well as an artistic genius, being strictly temperance and
of noble aims and integrity.

  [Illustration: HANS HANSEN.]

Hans Hansen, manager of the Union Fish Company, and a man of indomitable
will power, was born in Norway, July 20, 1859, where he laid his
foundation for an active career. In 1881 he arrived in Minneapolis and
six years later beheld the city of Seattle. He settled on a homestead in
the Quillayute valley, but returned to the Queen City after a few years
of experience at farming. In 1896 he was elected to the legislature,
and became noted for his opposition to fish traps, and his earnest
support of Hon. George Turner for United States senator. He has been a
frequent contributor to the different papers on political and reform
topics. In religion he is a Methodist.



SCANDINAVIANS IN SEATTLE.

CHAPTER IV.

SOCIETIES--PRESS--PROMINENT CITIZENS--CHURCHES.


Scandinavians in Seattle have contributed largely to the social feature
of life. They have organized a number of societies, some flourished
immensely for some time, then died a natural death, others have continued
to prosper through sun and storm. The Normanna Literary and Social Club
was among the first Norwegian societies, but alas! only a few days of
sunshine then clouds and dispersion. The Baltic Lodge, I. O. G. T., was
placed on record February 10, 1888, and has since its birth drank vigor
from the fountain of wholesome reform. In a word, it is the healthiest
Scandinavian society in the city of Seattle, and some of the members
merit gratitude for their indefatigable work. G. Nygard, Gust. Thompson,
Ole Finnoy, Martin Erickson, Ole Larsen, James Eggan, Anton Peters, B.
H. Miller, Peter Peterson, W. T. Hillestad, A. Zaar, and Belle and Lena
Egge, Christina Newgard, Augusta and Lottie Stromberg, Mrs. Emma Eggan,
Ida Peters and Matilda Iverson have sacrificed both time and energy for
the advancement of the temperance cause.

  [Illustration: THE BALTIC LODGE, I. O. G. T., ON A PICNIC.]

A Swedish society, baptized Svea, the 31st of May, 1894, had but a few
struggles with the chilly world. The following year it withered into
oblivion unsung. Nordmændenes Sangforening (Norwegian Singing Society)
was organized in November, the same year, but soon gave signs of
ephemeral existence. The Sagatun was born the year after, lingered on a
narrow path for a while, finally fell into an innocent grave.

The Swedish Club, organized in 1892, is a healthy and vigorous society.
From its embryo to the present time it has had a smooth run of sunshine
and prosperity. It takes unity of hearts and energy to steer a social
fleet through all sorts of weather from the tiny stream of embarkation
into the calm sea of triumph. The Swedish Club has accomplished this.
The object of the organization is exclusively fraternal, to unite the
Swedish elements in the city by friendly ties, and to extend a warm
hand to those coming within its reach from other cities or climes. The
first officers were: H. E. Humer, Prest., Rudolph Alm, V. Prest., David
Petree, R. Sec., G. Edinholm, F. Sec., Andrew Chilberg, Treasurer, A. T.
Lundberg, Librarian, Hugo Hettengren, M. C. At its rift of morn only
thirty-two names smiled on the recording scroll, while now two hundred
members in good standing bespeak its strength, with the following
incumbent officers: J. M. Johnson, Prest., N. J. Nyquist, V. Prest., A.
Zaar, R. Sec., H. J. Norden, F. Sec., N. B. Nelson, Treasurer, A. T.
Lundberg, Librarian, J. Nyman, M. C., and P. J. Melin, Otto Roseleaf and
D. Nordstrom, Trustees.

The Danish Brotherhood, a national league of high standard, aiming to
benefit and to educate, found admission to Washington about eleven years
ago. The Seattle Lodge 29, was organized April 8, 1888, with eleven
chartered members, which now numbers one hundred and fifty. The Danish
Sisterhood, an auxiliary to the Danish Brotherhood, has taken steps in
the right direction, working to sweeten and strengthen the ties of love
and mutual amicability.

The Norwegian Workingmen's society sprang into existence about eight
years ago, and lived through many scenes of joy and pathos, now
flourishing, now trembling to its foundation. Alas! detonating meteors
exploded within its labyrinth and gloomy melancholy spread her black
veil, an oratorical flower dropped here, and a declamatory bloom there,
at last the tree of support shivered in chilly desolation, and withered
into nothingness.

  [Illustration: THE 17TH OF MAY COMMITTEE, 1899.
    A. Dahl, H. P. Rude, Erik Frisch, N. A. Christof, Frank Oleson,
    Jacob A. Hendricks.]

The Norse Club, organized three years ago, has reveled in healthy
sunshine, and smiling tendrils have encircled its prop. The 17th of
May, 1899, bespeaks its culmination. The celebration of Norwegian
independence under its banner was a marked event among the
Scandinavians.

Thousands of people gathered at Madison Park, Seattle, from all parts
of the Sound, to participate in perpetuating the memory of the Norse
heroes. Honor is due to the following gentlemen for launching and
piloting this social ship into a haven of safety: H. P. Rude, C. M.
Thuland, Frank Oleson, Christian Bolgen, A. J. Thuland, A. H. Soelberg,
B. A. Clausen, N. A. Christof, A. Scottness, Theodore Pederson and
Julius Sunde.

Fremad, the social wing of the Norwegian Lutheran church, has lived
through many upheavals, and yet looks forward with unclouded eyes. The
other Scandinavian churches have their inviting adjuncts, but of more
recent date, which tender valuable aids to their respective mothers.

  [Illustration: JAMES EGGAN.]

Scandinavians in Seattle have been fortunate in having men and women
gifted and willing to make the social feature of life entertaining
and successful. Of all the gaudy society flowers, no one merits more
applause than the genial photographer, James Eggan. He was born in
Osterdalen, Norway, 1872, came to America in 1880, locating in the city
of Minneapolis. From boyhood he evinced unusual talent as a comedian and
as an artist. He could have gathered jewels on the stage as well as in
the photographic studio. In 1889, he set out for the Pacific, and
after taking a survey of the picturesque Puget Sound, selected Seattle
as his future abode. Though only a youth of seventeen, yet he soon
invited the attention of the public in both the social and the artistic
world. Not only is Mr. Eggan possessed of natural endowments as a
photographer and as a reciter, but is a true type of integrity and
honesty.

Very few cities of three decades in the United States can boast of more
short-lived Scandinavian newspapers than Seattle. The Scandinavian
Publishing Company was the first on record, and issued two Scandinavian
weeklies, viz., Vestra Posten and Washington Posten, which yet live and
thrive. This company dissolved, and from its dissolution sprang two
others; The Swedish Publishing Company, issuing Vestra Posten and a
Norwegian concern of similar nature, publishing Washington Posten.

Vestra Posten was founded by N. P. Lind and T. Sandegren, and Washington
Posten by Frank Oleson, assisted by Julius Sunde. The former is at
present in the hands of N. G. Lind, J. W. Martin and A. Olson, who have
raised the paper to a high standard. The latter is owned and edited by
A. J. Thuland. C. M. Thuland, now lawyer, also gave heed to journalism.
He turned out Seattle Tidende and The North, but both fell into an early
tomb.

Julius and Engward Sunde organized and published Fram, which blossomed
and bore fruit, but one sad day it was stretched on a lazy bier and
wheeled to the grave. Folketidende popped into existence about four
years ago but through some intrigue it died and was buried minus tears
and ceremony. Folkets Blad was the next of the ephemeral journals; it
was born in 1899, lingered through a few sunny months, then swallowed,
without pity, by Tacoma Tidende.

  [Illustration: GEORGE BECH.]

Anent men of literary ability among the Scandinavians, George Bech,
without doubt, stands in the first rank. He is a well-known author,
musician and business man of Seattle, born in Roeskilde, Denmark, April
4, 1846. After finishing his education in the State School, 1865, he
was awarded the degree of A. M., and the following year took examin
philosophicus, Ph. M., at the University of Copenhagen; studied
mathematics for some time, then went into business, trading in Norway,
Sweden and Germany, but always assiduously at work during leisure
writing poems and novels for the different journals of Denmark and
Norway. In the latter country he made acquaintance with Olaf Lofhus,
editor of "Bergens Tidende," to whose paper he frequently contributed,
and Johan Sverdrup, then president of the National Storthing, in whose
house he was a welcome guest. In 1887 he left Copenhagen, arriving in
Seattle, August 22, where he found a rich field for his literary talent,
for some time contributing to local and other papers, then editor of
Folkedidende, and later Folkets Blad. He has written an exquisite
dramatic work, "Hæng Ham," and a song, "Old Glorious Glory," which
he has also put to music. It is Mr. Bech's ambition to have his song
adopted as a national hymn. He was married in May, 1880, and has one
son, sixteen years old.

  [Illustration: GRAEBERT ANDERSEN.]

Graebert Anderson, an eloquent ex-minister of the M. E. church, and
a gifted writer, was born in Denmark, 1860. After graduating from the
public schools, he spent some time in private study, with a view of
entering some academy, but instead of carrying out his plan, he left for
America, when about eighteen years old. Shortly after his arrival in the
New World, he commenced to prepare for the ministry of the M. E. church
at the university in Evanston, Illinois. Here he spent five years,
then migrated to the Pacific, where he has been recognized as the most
eloquent pulpit orator among the Scandinavians on the coast, and has
served as expounder of the gospel in the largest Norwegian-Danish
churches, namely in Oakland and Eureka, California, and Tacoma and
Seattle, Washington. Two years ago he resigned from the ministry to
devote his time to journalism. In 1889 he was married to Miss Lottie H.
Christensen, a lady of fine education, a teacher in the public schools
of Racine, Wisconsin. They reside in Seattle, where Mr. Anderson is
interested in newspaper business, being secretary of the Tacoma Tidende
Publishing Company, with office in Coleman building, First Avenue,
Seattle.

  [Illustration: REV. JOHN JOHNSON.
    Presiding Elder of the Swedish M. E. Church.]

  [Illustration: SWEDISH M. E. CHURCH, SEATTLE.]

  [Illustration: SWEDISH BAPTIST CHURCH, SEATTLE.]

  [Illustration: NORWEGIAN-DANISH LUTHERAN CHURCH, SEATTLE.]

  [Illustration: NORWEGIAN-DANISH BAPTIST CHURCH, SEATTLE.]

Scandinavians have been liberal in their contributions to religious
worship. Eight Scandinavian churches in the city of Seattle join to
confirm this fact. The various denominations are represented: Lutheran,
Methodist, Baptist, and Mission Friends. There are one Swedish and two
Norwegian-Danish Lutheran churches, one Swedish and one Norwegian-Danish
Baptist churches, one Swedish and one Norwegian-Danish Methodist
churches, and one Swedish Mission church.



SCANDINAVIANS IN BALLARD.

CHAPTER V.


Ballard merits the appellation, City of Smokestacks. No small town west
of the Rocky has more factories. Saw mills and shingle mills are sending
clouds of smoke into the air day and night, and brigades of industrious
men are busily engaged. The city has been regarded by many as a suburb
of Seattle, but this is a misinterpretation. True, Ballard is near
Seattle, and is connected to it by a well-equipped street railway, but
has its own government.

The first Scandinavian who touched Salmon Bay, half a mile below
Ballard, was probably Peter Friberg. In 1875 Gustaf Anderson pitched his
tent on a green spot near the rippling water where he yet resides. He
was born in Sweden, crossed the Atlantic in 1864, and spent several
years in Chicago before coming to the Pacific. He is a man of
intelligence and holds a respectable rank among the people. Ole
Schildstad, a native of Norway, and highly respected, arrived
simultaneously.

In those early days Ballard was undreamt. The smoke which now curls
above its bustle did not enter the calm of the pioneers' hearts.
They were contented with the peregrination of daily necessity. Few
Scandinavians then stalked the dense forest which clad the turf where
five thousand people now dwell midst noise and progress, but today over
one thousand Vikings mingle in the various walks of life in the town.

  [Illustration: JOHN JOHNSON.]

John Johnson, the leading merchant and an intelligent and honored
citizen, is a native of Norway, being born March 26, 1862, midway
between Trondhjem and Levanger, where he received his early education.
At the age of ten he emigrated to America, locating at Muskegon,
Michigan, attended the public schools three years, worked in a saw mill
four years, and clerked in a grocery store seven years. In 1886 he
launched into business for himself which he is pursuing with marked
success. During the same year he was married at Muskegon to a cultured
young lady, Miss Magna Nelson, whose parents hail from Tromso, Norway.
In 1893 Mr. Johnson moved to Ballard and immediately embarked in grocery
business. His large establishment and business method plainly reflect
his ability, and a multitudinous circle of friends bespeaks his
generosity and integrity of character.

  [Illustration: FRANK ENGQUIST.]

Frank Engquist, the well-known merchant tailor of Ballard, was born in
Sweden, 1861, received a fine education in his native country, and in
1882 crossed the Atlantic for the United States, settling at Moline,
Illinois, where he remained one and a half years. His next journey
was to Minneapolis, where he found employment in one of the largest
tailoring establishments in the city. In 1888 he migrated to Seattle,
Washington, and shortly after resumed his chosen occupation. He was
attracted by the fascinating aspect of the Sound, and abandoned his
business to try his hand at agriculture in Rolling Bay. The gigantic
trees and stubborn stumps plucked the laurels of his fancy, and in
1896 started business in Ballard, where he is permanently located. Mr.
Engquist is an expert workman, honest and intelligent, and what is still
loftier, a perfect gentleman.

P. E. Paulson, a genial business man, was born in Norway, 1865. His
father was a prominent educator, having been engaged in school work
about forty years. Mr. Paulson enjoyed the benefit of an excellent
education, and in 1882 sailed for America, locating in Rock county,
Minnesota. After two years of various occupation he arrived in Sioux
Falls, South Dakota, where he stayed two years. The Pacific exercised a
peculiar charm, and thither he emigrated, making Skagit valley his first
stopping place, and afterward located in Ballard, where he now resides.
Mr. Paulson is a leading member of the Foresters of America and other
organizations. He is a man of a kind disposition, and universally
respected.

I. C. Olson is a true type of honesty and individual character. He was
born in Norway, and for years resided in Minneapolis. He came to the
coast in 1893, settling in Ballard. In 1898 he was elected to the
legislature, where he distinguished himself as a man of integrity and
sound judgment.

Thomas Anderson is a rising grocer, and a prominent member of the
Norwegian Baptist church, Revs. O. L. Hoien and G. Berg are well liked
and earnest ecclesiastics. Rev. Martin Berg is editor of Kongeriget and
an eloquent advocate of Christian principles.

  [Illustration: A RUSTIC BRIDGE AT POINT DEFIANCE PARK, TACOMA.]



SCANDINAVIANS IN TACOMA.

CHAPTER VI.


Tacoma, or the City of Destiny, is the second city in population in the
State of Washington, and the first in natural grandeur. It is situated
on fine terraces, commanding a beautiful view of Commencement Bay and
the Sound for miles distance. Mt. Rainier, or Tacoma, towers over the
city, and his head of snow and checkered bosom fills the soul with awe
and wonder.

  Pride of the West, austere and grand,
  The noblest in Freedom's Land,
  To thee my soul is turning,
  In sapphire flames thou burning;
  Like spheres that walk the solar planes,
  Thy mellow blaze through heaven rains,
  Siren in cloudland high,
  Scene bewitching to my eye.

  How thy cheeks hang in a silvery glow!
  Awful in look is thy head of snow;
  In thy face I read Heaven's mighty arm,
  The power of God that bids thee charm,
  A landscape rich in song and flowers,
  In rhyming pine and vocal bowers,
  In dancing ripples of laughing gold,
  In streams of music leaping bold.

  [Illustration: MOUNT RAINIER, OR TACOMA.]

Scandinavians have made Tacoma their stronghold, about 10,000 dwell
within the city boundary. Some rank among the most thrifty and highly
esteemed citizens. They also bear the honor of being among the early
pioneers who gave light and courage to subsequent settlers. Mrs.
Fredric Meyer, a native of Norway, previously alluded to, was one of
the first white women to alight in Pierce county. Anton Malm, born in
Sweden, came to the coast in 1870, and mingled with the first pioneers
of Tacoma.

The Scandinavian business and professional men of Tacoma merit kind
consideration. They have risen to prominence and invited the confidence
and respect of all regardless of nationality. A biographical history of
the most prominent confronts itself. They are exemplary men, and their
rise to affluence and influence in an honest, straightforward manner is
worthy of emulation.

  [Illustration: PROFESSOR OLOF BULL.]

Professor Olof Bull.--There are but few whose souls are imbued with
divine strains. Music like poetry is born with a man. When Ole Bull was
asked, "Who taught you to play so sweetly?" he answered, "Norge's hoie
Fjeld og dybe Dale" (Norway's high mountains and deep dales). The name
of Olof Bull is synonymous to that of Ole Bull. The former came from
Sweden, the latter from Norway. Prof. Olof Bull was born in Undersvik,
Helsingland, Sweden, March 31, 1852. His parents were Olof and Katarina
Bull, his father is dead but his mother still lives. From early
childhood he evinced extraordinary talent for music which was cultivated
to a marked degree under A. Sorenson and other masters. In 1869 he
sailed for America, arriving in St. Paul, where he rapidly gained fame
as a genius violinist. In 1876 he organized the "Olof Bull Concert
Company" which scattered divine music the land over, and rose to
enviable reputation. In 1881 he was appointed musical director of the
Boston Opera, which he resigned in a year to accept the professorship of
violin in the Chicago Musical College, where he remained until 1890,
when he journeyed to Tacoma to be installed as musical director of
Tacoma Theatre, which chair he is filling with distinction. Professor
Olof Bull is a genius as a violinist, and greater still a man of
character, kind and compassionate.

O. B. Selvig.--The esteemed cashier of the Metropolitan Bank of Tacoma,
O. B. Selvig, was born near Drammen, Norway, in 1851. He received a fine
education, and at the age of seventeen bid farewell to his native seat
for America, arriving in Kandiyohi county, Minnesota, with his parents.
Young Selvig, like others who come to a new country with scanty means,
had to do his own rustling. He worked in different places at hard manual
labor up to 1878, when he secured a position in the postoffice at
Willmar, and two years later received the appointment of postmaster, and
shortly after became head agent for the American Express Company. He
served faithfully for seven years in this capacity, then resigned to
accept a more lucrative employment in the Kandiyohi County Bank. In the
fall of 1888 he migrated to Tacoma, Washington, and after cultivating
acquaintance with influential men in the city, he was tendered a
position in the Metropolitan Bank, and soon rose to cashier. Mr. Selvig
is not only a man of business, but of honor as well; one beloved and
respected by all.

  [Illustration: H. E. KNATVOLD.]

H. E. Knatvold.--In the fall of 1892, the Scandinavian American Bank of
Tacoma was organized, with a capital stock of $100,000, raised partly in
Tacoma and partly in the east. H. E. Knatvold, well known in business
circles, was elected cashier and general manager of the institution. He
was born in Drammen, Norway, September 3, 1848, where he obtained his
early education. At the age of fourteen he sailed with his parents for
the United States, settling in Freelom county, Minnesota. He engaged
in farm work, and spent his leisure studying, thus acquiring a fair
knowledge of English. At the age of twenty-one he removed to Albert Lea,
where he secured a clerkship in a store. To prepare himself to cope more
efficiently with the surges of the world, he relinquished his position
to take a course in Western College, Iowa, and shortly after embarked in
hardware business in Albert Lea. In 1884 he crossed the Rocky for the
Pacific, locating in Tacoma. He engaged in farming and real estate which
he followed successfully until 1892, when he was ushered into the chair
of cashier in the Scandinavian American Bank, which position he has
filled with credit ever since. Mr. Knatvold is a man of honor and
energy.

  [Illustration: DR. C. QUEVLI.]

Dr. C. Quevli.--It is a conceded fact that C. Quevli, of Tacoma, is
one of the most highly learned doctors on the Pacific. He was born
in Blakjer, Norway, June 24, 1864. When six years old he left his
fatherland with his parents for America, locating in Jackson county,
Minnesota, where he received the education that the common schools
could afford, then took a course at St. Olof's College, Northfield,
afterward entered the State University of Minnesota, where he graduated
with the degree of M.D. He launched into a successful practice at
Lamberton, Minnesota, but his soul was thirsting for more knowledge,
and to satisfy this he sailed for Christiania, Norway, where he took a
post-graduate course. On returning to the United States he selected
Tacoma for his future abode. Here he practiced three years, then
returned to Europe to continue his studies at the University of Berlin,
from whence he crossed the channel to England, and took a post-graduate
course in Kings College and Hospital of London. Afterward he traveled in
France and other European countries before voyaging to America. Dr. C.
Quevli is a physician of enviable reputation, but that is not all; he is
a gentleman beloved and honored.

  Empires rise to fall again,
  But truth and love never die;
  Greater the man with sunshine in his soul,
  Than kings who woo the fading star of fame.

  [Illustration: DR. J. L. RYNNING.]

Dr. J. L. Rynning.--The well-known doctor and professor of physiology in
the Pacific Lutheran University, J. L. Rynning (formerly Dr. J. L.
Jensen), of Tacoma, has gained friends and eminence in his chosen
profession. He was born in Iowa, 1858, of Norwegian parents, who removed
to the frontier of Minnesota while he was an infant of one year. Young
Rynning did not enjoy the opportunities that most boys have. The
schoolhouse was unknown to him until ten years of age. When time offered
a rural schooling he took advantage of it as preparation for the public
school of Rushford, later studied at the academy of Madison, Wisconsin,
and Luther College, Decorah, Iowa. He had a whim for the West, and
migrated to Montana where he engaged in school work. Mines, too, invited
his notice, and during his vacation of 1889 held the superintendency of
a silver mine in Montana. Mining, however, was abandoned for a more
professional career, and in 1892 graduated from Rush Medical College in
Chicago with the degree of Medicinæ Doctor, M. D. Immediately after
graduation he located at Butte, Montana, where he practiced for
some time. In 1893 he was married in Minnesota to Miss Marie Ellertson,
a lady of fine training, and took a wedding trip to the Pacific. He
foresaw the great future of the country, and removed to Stanwood,
Washington, to follow his profession. When the Lutheran University was
established at Parkland, he removed to Tacoma to tender his aid to the
institution. In this city he is permanently located, encircled with a
multitude of friends. Dr. Rynning is a man of heart as well as ability,
honest, kind and sympathetic.

  [Illustration: ERIC EDW. ROSLING.]

Eric Edw. Rosling.--Tacoma has reason to feel proud of the personage of
my pen, Eric Edw. Rosling, one of the ablest lawyers on the coast. He
was born in Stockholm, Sweden, March 3, 1865, and came to Boston with
his parents while a young boy. From infancy he displayed extraordinary
talents, which subsequent years have made more realistic. After
acquiring a liberal education he entered the Boston University Law
School, where he graduated with honors, completing a three years course
in two. In 1890 Mr. Rosling arrived in Tacoma and at once manifested the
same tireless energy which characterized his success at college. As a
lawyer he has but few equals, his logical and oratorical endowments make
him especially fit for the eminent profession he is pursuing. He is a
man of literary taste and studious habit which his large law and private
libraries join to emphasize. In 1897 he was appointed by the Supreme
Court of Washington as chairman of the committee to examine applicants
for admission to the bar. In politics he is a republican, but has
refused to accept any political office save the office of city
prosecuting attorney during Huson's administration. Twice he has been
elected to the board of education and has filled with distinction its
presidential chair. His deep interest in educational and church work has
made him a valuable factor throughout the Pacific. His oration at the
Willamette Chautauqua Assembly, Oregon City, in July, 1898, and his
address at the National Educational Association, Los Angeles, 1899,
placed him before the nation as an eloquent speaker and a finished
scholar. He was married at Tacoma, December 12, 1890, to Miss Minnie
Belle Lincoln, an accomplished lady of Boston. They have three children
and a beautiful home in the finest part of the city.

  [Illustration: J. M. ARNTSON.]

J. M. Arntson.--Self-made men, as a rule, become the leaders in a free
country where ability shines with unclouded luster. The individual in
question, J. M. Arntson, a rising lawyer of Tacoma, is a representative
of this class. He was born on a farm in Waukesha county, Wisconsin,
1858, where his parents, Johannes and Mekaline, settled in 1844, they
being among the first Norwegian emigrants to that part of the state.
When eight years of age his parents removed to the central part of
Minnesota where they engaged in general merchandise business. Here young
Arntson was reared and trained for a mercantile career, his education
was obtained in the public schools and by private instruction. He was
married at Willmar, Minnesota, 1882, to Miss Annie M. Olson, a lady of
heart and character, and the next year joined the army of homeseekers,
attracted to the shores of Puget Sound, and settled in Tacoma,
Washington. Since coming to this city he has been engaged in various
pursuits, first grocery then real estate. From youth he had possessed
an inclination for law, and to yield to his forte, he closed out his
business, and devoted his whole time to legal acquirements. In 1894 he
was admitted to bar, and immediately embarked in practice which has
constantly grown more promising. In 1898 he received the appointment as
clerk of police court, and in connection with the duties of his office
continues a lucrative practice. Though Mr. Arntson was born and raised
in America, yet he has been a warm friend of the Norwegians, always
ready to extend a helping hand when needed. He is delighted with
Norwegian literature, being conversant with social and political
problems.

  [Illustration: GUSTAF LINDBERG.]

Gustaf Lindberg, a representative business man of Tacoma, was born in
Vermland, Sweden, November 22, 1865, received a careful education, and
at the age of fourteen embarked in business as clerk in his native
place. In 1881 he chose the national capital of Sweden for his abode,
where he obtained a clerkship with the firm of C. A. Schweder. Being of
studious nature and industrious habit, he worked faithfully during day,
and attended school during evening, thus acquiring a store of useful
learning and applicable experience. In 1889 he left the land of his
birth for America, locating in Tacoma, where he found employment with
the grocery firm of Forbes & Wose. After two years of service with this
company, he joined his brother John in the grocery business, now a
leading establishment on the corner of Eleventh and G Streets. Mr.
Lindberg is a prominent factor in the Swedish-Lutheran church and a
worthy member of the Tacoma Chamber of Commerce, and in all respects
an honored citizen and a true gentleman.

  [Illustration: S. SAMSON.]

S. Samson.--For being a young man few have displayed steadier habits and
more business capacity than the congenial proprietor of the People's
Hotel and Restaurant, 913 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma. He was born in Ostra
Torsa, Kronoberg, Sweden, November 29, 1869, where he enjoyed the
training of splendid school facilities. In 1888 he crossed the stormy
Atlantic, and selected Tacoma for his permanent location. During his
early time in the New World he shared the vicissitudes of circumstances,
ever converting his leisure to useful acquirements. The language was
foreign to him, but being of docile aptitude this obstacle did not long
impede his progress, soon he could handle the English tongue with ease
and fluency. Business seemed to be his forte, which he embarked in some
years ago and has followed with marked success. He is a member of the
Tacoma Chamber of Commerce and owns considerable real estate in the
city. Mr. Samson has always been awake to the interest of the Pacific,
and especially his own town. He is a worthy citizen and enjoys the
respect of the people.



SCANDINAVIANS IN TACOMA.

CHAPTER VII.

SOCIETIES--PRESS--PROMINENT CITIZENS--CHURCHES.


A number of Scandinavian societies have sprung into existence in Tacoma
the last two decades. The Valhalla, a Swedish fraternal and beneficial
organization, was the first that blossomed into prosperity. It was
organized December 15, 1884, with G. F. Linquist, president, H. Nyman,
vice-president, H. Ohlin, secretary, W. P. Sundberg, treasurer, R.
Bomen, financial secretary, Charles Berg, master of ceremony. Only
few signed the constitution at its early launching, but has gradually
increased in membership to 125 in good standing. A praise-worthy band,
known as the "Swedish Valhalla Military Band," was founded by the
society to grace its work with sweet music.

The Norwegians organized a lodge of similar nature as the Valhalla,
baptized, The Ancient Order of Vikings, which, too, embarked with a
handful of supporters, but through perseverance and wise management
bloomed into one of the best Norwegian societies in the state. The aim
of this compact is broad and laudable, being like that of the I. O. O.
F., or other secret organizations of high standard. The Vikings was born
in 1892 with the following hard workers in the lead: John Blaauw, Thomas
Knudson, G. O. Sande, Ed. Haug and Sam Haug.

The Danish Brotherhood was instituted in March, 1889, with fifteen
members, and has flourished these years remarkably. At present it has
sixty on the roll, with a flowery adjunct, the Danish Sisterhood, which
has tendered the fraternal order kind assistance.

Haabet, a Norwegian literary society, has grown in vigor and number, and
is proving valuable to literary culture. The incumbent officers are:
Con. Bjorklund, Prest., Jacob Slippern, V. Prest., H. Hansen, Sec., John
Blaauw, Treasurer, G. O. Sande, Librarian, Hans Tokelsen, Editor.

The Norden, I. O. G. T., founded in early days, wrought out many
disagreeable obstacles, and planted seeds of moral purity, but the panic
of recent years scattered the prop of support to the four wings of the
world, and the pretty flowers that wont to grace the hall found pleasure
in other spheres. Week after week the lodge trembled on flirting arms,
which little by little gave heed to other diversions, and death on wooly
wings devoured the civilizing factor.

The Scandinavian Temperance Society lived through many years of gnawing
resistance. From it floated mighty words of wholesome advice, but
friends of the alcoholic hell, robed with smiling garbs of infernal
warp, plucked the sweet blooms of future hope, and planted in their
souls the stings of ruin. As days wore away, the poisonous influence
from the saloon den bewitched the sprightly stripling and the hoary
hair, and the temperance workers, the noblest of heroes, were too few
to feed the fire of interest, and the organization withered and died.

The Scandinavian press, of Tacoma, is growing into popularity. The first
Scandinavian newspaper on record in the city was, "Tacoma Budstikken," a
Norwegian-Danish weekly, founded in December, 1899, by P. O. Bergan, but
enjoyed only a short period of sunshine. The Tacoma Tidende was launched
July 5, 1890, and ripened into a Norwegian-Danish state paper. From
infancy it was in the hands of Dirk Blaauw who bid fair at journalism,
but a year ago it was transferred to his brother John who has steeped
it with journalistic fire, comparing in merit with the big eastern
weeklies. It takes a man of a congenial nature, ability and "push" to
make journalism a success, and these qualities manifest themselves every
day in the editor of Tacoma Tidende.

  [Illustration: JOHN BLAAUW.]

John Blaauw was born in Bergen, Norway, 1868, but when an infant of two
years he went with his parents to Christiania, where he resided till
he reached the age of seventeen, save two and a half years he spent in
Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1887 he emigrated to America, making Seattle
his destination. Right after the great fire he embarked in Scandinavian
journalism, and has practically followed it ever since.

No man is better informed of the condition and natural resources on the
Pacific coast than Editor John Blaauw. He has traveled in every county
from British Columbia to the Golden State. He has made Tacoma Tidende
an honor to the coast and a valuable source of information to thousands
of people throughout the United States. He is of a genial disposition,
kind and serviceable. Though always busy, yet glad to receive visitors,
and willing to impart all possible knowledge. Much of his time is
consumed in replying to letters concerning the Pacific country.

Tacoma Tribunen, a Swedish weekly of considerable merit, was brought to
light in April, 1890, by the Swedish Publishing Company. T. Sandegren
was installed as editor, and has ever since filled the chair with
credit.

  [Illustration: T. SANDEGREN.]

T. Sandegren was born near Halmstad, Sweden, in 1858, where he enjoyed
the benefit of a good common school education. At the age of twenty he
graduated from Lund College, and three years later took the degree of A.
B. at the University of Lund. Journalism was his forte which he embarked
immediately after graduation. In 1883 he crossed the Atlantic for the
United States, locating in Minnesota, where he obtained a position as
teacher in the Military School at Fort Snelling. In 1889 he migrated
to Seattle, and in company with N. P. Lind organized Vestra Posten. The
following year he was appointed editor of Tacoma Tribunen, and three
years later assumed the ownership of the paper, which he is conducting
with marked ability.

The Pacific Herold, edited by E. Berrum, is a pleasing journal,
published at the Pacific Lutheran University. Mr. Berrum has had years
of experience in the journalistic field. For half a decade or more he
represented "Skandinaven" on the Pacific.

A word concerning Scandinavian churches may not be out of place at this
point. In spite of a new country and adverse circumstances, nine of
them pierce the air of the City of Destiny. There are three Lutheran
churches, two Norwegian-Danish, and one Swedish; two Methodist churches,
one Norwegian-Danish, and one Swedish; two Baptist churches, one
Scandinavian and one Swedish; a Swedish Mission church, and a
Scandinavian Free church.

  [Illustration: PACIFIC LUTHERAN UNIVERSITY.]

To the south of Tacoma smiles the village of Parkland, the stronghold of
the Norwegian Synod, where the Pacific Lutheran University stands as a
pride to the place.

The aim of the institution is to give thorough instruction in the
various branches taught in the public schools and academies, including
science, art and music. It is operated under the banner of the Norwegian
Lutheran Synod, and sound Christian principles are made the basis of
all the work. Rev. B. Harstad may be rightly called the "Father of the
Institution," and Prof. N. J. Hong deserves the appellation "Faithful
Manager."

  [Illustration: OX LOGGING.]



SCANDINAVIANS IN EVERETT.

CHAPTER VIII.


Few cities during the short longevity of eight years have blossomed like
Everett. In 1891 it sprang into life midst the greatest of stir and
excitement, and has ever since enjoyed the presence of healthy sunbeams
and steady prosperity. Everett is the county seat of Snohomish county,
spread over a pleasant stretch of land between Snohomish river and a
beautiful bay of the Sound, affording an excellent fresh-water harbor
and an equally laudable salt-water haven.

The city has a population of about eight thousand, many of whom are
Scandinavians. John Brue was among the early pioneers, and one of the
founders of the Norwegian Lutheran church located at that place. For
years he was engaged in business in Everett, but disposed of his
interests to take possession of a nice farm near Stanwood.

  [Illustration: T. T. ENGER.]

T. T. Enger, a bright business man, merchant tailor, was also one of
the first to establish himself in the embryo city. He was born in Hoff,
Sotor, Norway, 1864, but moved with his parents to Aasnes when one and
a half years of age, where he received his early education, graduating
from the public schools at fifteen. His father, also, T. T. Enger, was
a prominent citizen and manager of H. Schulze's estate, the largest in
that part of Norway. Young Enger left his native seat for Christiania to
learn the tailoring trade, and in 1882 emigrated to America, arriving
at Madison, Wisconsin, September 22, where he remained two years
working at his trade. His next move was to Minneapolis, and in 1891
migrated to the Pacific, settling in Seattle, Washington. Shortly after
his arrival he was married to Miss Maria Olson, a worthy lady of Norse
ancestry. The transient fame of Anacortes startled the country, and
thither Mr. Enger went to engage in business, but in January, 1892, sold
out and removed to Everett, where he is conducting a fine tailoring
establishment. Mr. Enger is a man of energy and "push," reliable and
respected. He is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias, and holds
notable standing in the republican party.

  [Illustration: L. P. ELVRUM AND WIFE.]

Few men have passed through the trials that L. P. Elvrum has, the genial
landlord of Everett. He was born in Stordalen, near Trondjem, Norway,
1858, where he received a good education. At the age of nineteen he went
to sea, and was dashed uninterruptedly on the pitiless waves for four
years. Three times he weathered the North Cape. In 1881 he sailed for
America, spent one year in Minnesota, then journeyed to the Pacific,
settling at Stanwood, Washington. He sought the forest for employment,
worked four years at logging, then embarked in general merchandise in
Silvana, and immediately received the appointment of postmaster. In 1889
he was married to Miss Martha Beck, an estimable lady of Cedarhome. When
Everett commenced to bespeak business prospects, Mr. Elvrum sold out
his interests at Silvana and went thither to start a hotel. He is the
proprietor of the "North Star," one of the most respectable taverns
in the city. Mr. Elvrum is a man of business nature, social and
congenial, honest and a true gentleman. He has had many ups-and-downs,
but his motto has been, "Try and continue trying and you will succeed at
last." A motto that every man ought to drink into his soul for ready
application in the various turns of life.

There are also other Scandinavians in Everett who shine in business and
social circles. A. O. Solberg is a leading jeweler, and O. Alseth a
genial clerk and a popular member of the Lutheran church; Martin Dahl is
a well-known merchant tailor, and J. A. Johansen a progressive grocer.

Everett has within its limit two Scandinavian churches, a Norwegian
Lutheran, previously alluded to, and a Scandinavian Methodist, which
was built in 1893. Rev. P. M. Ellefsen, a Methodist missionary, visited
Everett, 1892, and the following year organized a congregation of ten
members which now numbers thirty. Rev. O. Heggen was the first appointed
minister to occupy the pulpit, who was succeeded by the eloquent Rev. O.
O. Twede.

A Young Peoples' Society was organized some years ago which has grown
healthy and vigorous; at present it has a membership of forty.

Among the leading members of the Methodist congregation we find E. A.
Olson, Swede, L. Carlsen, A. Thompsen, H. Helgesen, and Mrs. H.
Helgesen, Norwegians.

  [Illustration: EVERETT IN ITS INFANCY.]



SCANDINAVIANS AT STANWOOD.

CHAPTER IX.


Stanwood is the largest Scandinavian community in the State of
Washington, situated in Snohomish county, on a delta-like angle, where
the Skagit and the Stillaguamish rivers meet to mingle their blue
volumes. A navigable tongue of the Sound ripples up the flat, where
daily steamers gracefully ride for the proud city. To the east and west
from this thriving villa a panorama of inexhaustible fertility spreads
out before your eye, dotted with quaint dwellings, here and there
flecked with rich orchards, and slowly sweeps up forming what is
generally termed highland, where a Swedish colony smiles with flowery
gardens and beautiful farms.

Stanwood compares in magnitude and importance with the eastern
Scandinavian settlements, but differs vastly from them in spirit.
Here is more life, more freedom, and English the prevailing language,
especially among the younger folks.

In 1870, the time that Eller Graham, a native of Norway, disembarked at
the mouth of Skagit river, a white man was a curiosity. Doubtless Graham
was the first Scandinavian to seek the wilderness for a nestling place,
though it is probable that Martin Toftezen, who landed on Whidbey Island
twelve years prior, had made a reconnoissance of both Skagit and
Stillaguamish rivers.

Sivert Guligson Brekhus threw anchor where the Stillaguamish disembogues
its waters, 1873, but made his permanent habitation ten miles up the
river. Two years later O. B. Iverson made his appearance as government
surveyor, and almost simultaneously N. P. Leque, Nils Eide and A.
Danielson landed in fair-sized canoes. These pioneers had the sagacity
and foresight to unfold the future, and bought three hundred acres of
land together. The first named, O. B. Iverson, was elected to represent
Snohomish county in the territorial legislature, where his keen
intellect made palpable impressions. He now resides in Olympia, and
is an active member of the government surveying staff.

  [Illustration: N. P. LEQUE.]

N. P. Leque is a highly respected citizen, a gentleman in the true sense
of the word. He was born in Kinservik, Hardanger, Norway, May 8, 1848,
but moved with his parents to Ulvik when two years old. After receiving
a good common school education, he entered the normal school in Voss,
where he graduated with honor in 1865. The following year he engaged in
teaching, but abandoned it after two years of successful experience. The
11th of April, 1868, he was married to Miss Maria Lindebrekke, a lady
of fine intellect and noble aims, and the same year sailed for America,
settling at Vermillion, Clay county, South Dakota, where he embarked in
farming. The smiling Pacific created a desire for another journey, and
July 31, 1875, he paraded the streets of Tacoma, with his family. He
made a perambulation of the country, and in 1876 located on a beautiful
island, which bears his name.

In 1886 he was elected county commissioner, served with distinction for
two years, and declined renomination. He has been and is a valuable
member of the Lutheran church of Stanwood, and has always sought to
enhance the best interests of the community, morally and otherwise. For
some time he has been president of the Stanwood Co-operative Creamery.

Peter Leque, a close relative of N. P. Leque, is doubtless one of the
most popular Scandinavians on the Pacific coast. He was born in Norway,
but came to America in his early years, and received a fine education in
the common schools and at the State University of Washington. Ever since
1875 he has resided on Leque Island, hard by Stanwood. He is a man of
a grasping mind and elevated thoughts, a hard worker and a faithful
representative of the common people. A man that the public has picked
out to fill responsible positions on the merit of honesty and ability.
In 1888 he was elected county surveyor, in 1892 county assessor, and in
1894 county auditor.

O. K. Melby, proprietor of Melby Hotel, and a man of intelligence and
fine training, has shared the struggles of pioneer life. He was born in
Norway, came to the coast 1875, made a visit to Stanwood, and the
following year located in the embryo villa permanently, being the first
Scandinavian to engage in hotel business in this part of the state.

John Brygger, A. J. Brue, Peter Gunderson, Christian Joergensen, Martin
Larson, Iver Egge, C. Toftezen, L. T. Land, O. J. Finley, Ole Ryan,
Thomas Brue and John Brue are among the early settlers and the most
prominent citizens. They are all independent farmers and potent factors
in the upbuilding of the country.

  [Illustration: NORWEGIAN LUTHERAN CHURCH OF STANWOOD.]

  [Illustration: STANWOOD LUTHERSKE MENINGHEDS SANGKOR.
    1 C. P. Lien 7 A. Egge 13 Miss P. Johnson
    2 B. S. Lien 8 O. J. Lien 14 Miss M. Gunderson
    3 Miss E. Egge 9 Rev. L. C. Foss 15 O. E. Brue
    4 A. Brue 10 G. J. Holte 16 Miss M. S. Lien
    5 O. J. Finley 11 A. Gunderson 17 Miss H. Naas
    6 Miss A. Floe 12 E. Egge 18 G. Naas]

The Norwegian Lutheran church of Stanwood is the oldest of the Lutheran
churches on Puget Sound. It was organized twenty-three years ago by Rev.
L. Carlson, and has enjoyed the services of Revs. Emil Christensen, P.
Isberg and C. Joergensen. At present it is in charge of Rev. L. C. Foss
who has done much for Christianity and the Lutheran doctrine. He is a
friend of the young people as well as of the old, the guiding spirit
of the Young People's Society and a talented musician.

The Norwegian Singing Society is the pride of the community, and has
scattered laurels of accomplishment along the Sound. On many occasions
it has been called to Seattle and other places to cheer and entertain
the people with sweet melodies.

The progress and success of the Scandinavian business men of Stanwood
are well known. S. A. Thompson's establishment affords credit to the
town, and Knud Knudson's drug and jewelry store compares nicely with
similar concerns in the larger cities. B. Willard, the popular dairyman,
hails from Denmark. His energy and keen intellect have always been at
willing option for the good of his adopted country. A. Tackstrom,
the genial postmaster, was born in Sweden, and has been of practical
usefulness to his city. Edward Foss traces his birthplace to Norway,
but has resided for years in Stanwood. He is a mechanic by trade, and
a gentleman in demeanor. H. C. Anderson, the wealthy Klondiker,
who resides near the city, is a conspicuous factor, especially in
agricultural developments. The genial photographer, J. T. Wagness, has
gained a standing among the people as a man of ingenuity in his chosen
profession. Biographical sketches of men who have worked themselves up
in an honorable way would doubtless be of interest to the readers. Such
men as S. A. Thompson, Knud Knudson, and others merit a place among
the most prominent Scandinavians on the Pacific coast.

  [Illustration: S. A. THOMPSON.]

S. A. Thompson was born in Norway, 1864, where he received a splendid
school education. In 1880 he arrived in America, locating at Story
City, Iowa, remaining two years, then chose Moorhead, Minnesota, for
his habitation. After a stay of four years in this city he migrated to
Holdstead in the same state where he spent two years. Up to this time
Mr. Thompson had been engaged in sundry occupations, clerking and manual
labor, always devoting his leisure to the acquirement of an education.
In 1888 he landed in Stanwood, and immediately embarked in business. For
some time he was connected with shingle mills, entered Irvine's store,
clerked five years, and May 1, 1895, assumed possession of the whole
firm. Mr. Thompson is a man of genial nature, kind and social, at the
same time energetic, which his business career plainly emphasizes.

  [Illustration: KNUD KNUDSON.]

Knud Knudson, the gifted jeweler and drug merchant, was born in Modum,
Norway, 1864. After learning the watchmaking trade, he sailed for
America, arriving in Valley City, North Dakota, 1885, where he worked
at his trade one year. He was touched by reports from Caselton, packed
together his effects and moved thither, engaged in business for two
years, then took another trip, viz., to Chamberlain, South Dakota, but
one and a half years sufficed at this place. Washington was now the
absorbing question, and in 1890 located in Stanwood, and established
the first jewelry store in the city. In 1896 he launched into drug
business in connection with his already lucrative engagement. Mr.
Knudson is a leading business man, always busy and attentive, reliable
and respected.

N. M. Lien is one of the typical Norwegians on the Sound--honored and
intelligent--wealthy and conscientious. He came to America in 1866,
spent eleven years in Minnesota, twelve years in North Dakota, then
journeyed to Stanwood, Washington. He owns a magnificent farm, running
pretty nigh into the heart of the city, golden with waving cereals and
smiling flowers, and spreads out in an easterly direction.

  [Illustration: RESIDENCE OF N. M. LIEN.]

Olaf Rydjord is a lucrative farmer, one and a half miles up
Stillaguamish river from Stanwood. He was born in Norway, came to
Stanwood, 1890, with little or no means. Now he possesses a beautiful
farm, and ranks among the prosperous Scandinavians. He is also a man
of honor and ambition.

  [Illustration: RESIDENCE OF OLAF RYDJORD.]

One of the most laudable institutions in Snohomish county is the
Stanwood Co-operative Creamery, it bespeaks the thrift and standard of
the farmers. This enterprise originated with Rev. C. Joergensen, who
deserves the applause of the whole community for his indefatigable
energy. Mr. Joergensen is an ex-minister of the Lutheran faith, armed
with a liberal education and divers experience. He held the presidency
of the Stanwood Co-operative Creamery until his election as commissioner
of Snohomish county.

  [Illustration: STANWOOD CO-OPERATIVE CREAMERY.]

The Stanwood Co-operative Creamery has carried away many honors since
1895, the date of its commencement. It took the first prize, 1896, at
the County Fair of Pierce county, held in Tacoma, also the first prize
in Ellensburg, 1898, at the State Dairy Association. The output of
butter has gradually increased, at present averaging about eighteen
thousand pounds per month.

  [Illustration: D. G. BENNIE, JR.]

D. G. Bennie, jr., manager of the Stanwood Co-operative Creamery, has
engraved his good will on the hearts of the community. His business
methods are commendable, emphatic of honesty and ability. He was born
in Boston, Massachusetts, December 14, 1866, came to the Pacific coast,
1885, embarked in logging and farming, and in the spring of 1898 he was
elected to his present position, which he has filled with entire
satisfaction.

  [Illustration: M. O. COLTOM.]

M. O. Coltom, superintendent of the butter-making department, is a
worthy gentleman, who has filled his calling with credit to himself and
the association. He was born in Toten, Norway, forty-three years ago,
came to America, 1866, and to the coast, 1887. He has been connected
with the creamery since its infancy, and has always been vigilant to the
best interests of the enterprise. John Lund, also a native of Norway,
has been a faithful assistant to Mr. Coltom, for years he has served in
his present capacity with honor.

Stanwood is surrounded by thrifty Scandinavian farmers, the earliest
have already been mentioned. Some of the more recent who have added
laurels to agriculture are: Ole Naas, Peter Peterson, T. K. Logan, O.
Alseth, Anton F. Anderson, Otto Coltom, Oluf, John and Gunder Otterson,
Engbret Olson, Peter Holte, N. B. Thomle, Louis Christiansen and others.

Stanwood, as stated before, is largely populated with Scandinavians;
in addition to the number previously noted we find many good citizens,
namely: Herman Hafstad, connected with the Stanwood Hardware Company,
Carl Ryan, clerk in Eureka Grocery, Fred Ryan, clerk in Thompson's
store. Peter O. Wold and Ivar Opdal are representative Norwegians, well
liked and respected. Bert Gunderson is an intelligent young man; the
members of the Norwegian Singing Society rank among the best of young
people, Saul Olson, Ole Mellum, Elias Brue, Sam Lovik, Halvor Anderson;
John Melkild, Peter Brandall and others bespeak Norse integrity. A. B.
Klaeboe, now a gold seeker in Alaska, was once a leading business man
of this city. Twelve years ago he established the first drug store in
Stanwood, which he managed with notable success for a number of years.
He was born in Norway where he graduated from college with distinguished
scholarship.



SCANDINAVIANS IN STILLAGUAMISH VALLEY.

CHAPTER X.


The Stillaguamish valley, spreading out for a considerable distance on
both sides of the wandering river, which starts in the green-clad hills,
looming up in the southeast, and leaps gracefully downward to the city
of Stanwood, where it disembogues its waters, is a fertile plain,
running through the forest for twenty-five miles, adorned with royal
farms and three happy villas--Florence, Norman and Silvana. Thirty years
ago this noble stretch was the home of wild beasts, but now settled by
a jolly populace. Here the Scandinavians found a field that hit their
fancies--plenty of work and rich soil.

The first Scandinavian to brave this wilderness was Sivert Guligson
Brekhus, a native of Voss, Norway, who emigrated to America, 1862, spent
eleven years in the east combatting for success in divers avenues, and
in 1873 entered the mouth of the Stillaguamish river. He proceeded up
the stream which was choked with angry snags and stubborn logs. No less
than four jams impeded his progress. Mr. Brekhus has been a man of
unusual strength, and possessed of a heart that knew no fear. On one
occasion, in early days, a red savage attacked him in Stanwood. Mr.
Brekhus was alone which gave his heathen aggressor, surrounded by a
bloodthirsty horde of his race, lust for blood, and, like a devil in
flames, seized a manageable piece of timber and sought to convert the
white man to a heap of jelly. The brave Vossing approached him and the
following words burst from his lips, "Hvis du inhji parsa dig ska eg
slaa huvu ini majin paa dig." The red skins understood the depth of his
voice, and skulked away.

Ah! picture to yourself the hardship! All the provisions had to be
canoed from Seattle, and four boats were required to reach Mr. Brekhus'
ranch. Many struggles did this valorous pioneer pass through. Once he
carried a barrel of herring on his shoulders over the four jams, and at
another time a big cook stove.

Iver Furness, father of John Furness, the Norman merchant, has also
partaken of the trials and difficulties common to pioneer encounters. As
early as 1879 he dates his first peregrination on Stillaguamish river.
Like other adventurers he endured many days of hardship, anxiety and
worry. Supplementary to the toil for subsistence, the savages cast
chilly currents through his soul. The Sauk Indians, ravaging in Skagit
county, were dreaded like devils. One day the report reached the home
of Iver Furness, while relishing a healthy dinner, that the Sauks were
paddling up the river for a bloody massacre. Mrs. Furness was thrown
into a trance of fright, rushed for the door with knife in hand to take
refuge in the woods. Johnny, her son, grabbed the fire-lock to protect
their home, but, lo! it was only an Indian scare.

  [Illustration: IVER JOHNSON.]

Iver Johnson, the pioneer merchant of Silvana, and the popular county
commissioner, was born in Opdal, Norway, 1848. After graduating from the
public schools, he took a course in the higher branches of learning by
private tuition, and in 1869 sailed for the United States, selecting
South Dakota for his first abode in the New World. In 1875 he took
another step westward, locating at Port Gamble, Washington, where he
worked in saw mills for two years. Returning to South Dakota, he was
married to Martha Haugan, a charming young lady, but to his sorrow
she withered for the grave after four years of matrimonial happiness.
He recrossed the Rocky Mountain the same year, settling in the
Stillaguamish valley, worked in logging camps and cleared land for
some time, then embarked in general merchandise at Silvana, the first
store in the Stillaguamish valley. He sold out his interests at Silvana
to accept a clerkship in D. O. Pearson's store in Stanwood, which he
abandoned after five years of faithful service to assume the position as
deputy county auditor. In 1898 he was elected to the office of county
commissioner of Snohomish county in which capacity he is now working
with credit to himself and to his constituents. He was married the
second time, in 1887, to Miss Maria Funk, an accomplished lady of Norse
extraction.

Halvor Helvy, an intelligent farmer near Silvana, figures among the
first pioneers. He was born in Norway, and came to Stillaguamish from
South Dakota, 1878.

  [Illustration: E. A. HEVLY.]

E. A. Hevly, the popular merchant of Florence, and one of the brightest
business men on the Sound, was born in Opdal, Norway, February 28, 1866,
came to America, 1878, and the same year landed on the Pacific coast.
After receiving a common school education, he took a course in the
state University of Washington. For years he was employed as clerk,
but in 1891 became the sole owner of a large mercantile establishment,
which he is conducting with marked ability. Mr. Hevly is a congenial
man, honest, honorable and energetic.

  [Illustration: JOHN I. HALS.]

John I. Hals, proprietor of Hals' shingle mill, located across the river
from Florence, is a true type of Norse manhood. He was born in Norway,
came to Stanwood, 1882, worked four years in a saw mill at Utsalady, and
in 1889 bought from Munson, Johnson and Company a shingle mill standing
one mile east of Stanwood, the first Scandinavian shingle mill in
Snohomish county. Cedar timber was getting scarce and a change of
location became advantageous. To effect this he sold his mill, bought
eighty acres of land further up the river, and built a new mill, of
which Mr. Hals is the sole owner. The author does not believe in plowing
up the field of exaggeration, and so far as the personage in question is
concerned no occasion affords an opportunity. The men working for Mr.
Hals speak in more eloquent language than my pen. In a word, Mr. Hals is
a gentleman, kind, intelligent and generous.

  [Illustration: JOHN I. HALS' SHINGLE MILL.]

Round Florence are also other Scandinavians who have scattered light of
melioration. Flowery meadows and royal dwellings join to pronounce their
industry and rank of intelligence. Mr. Myro is an early pioneer and a
thrifty Dane, Taral Larsen is a prosperous farmer, a native of Norway,
who has shared the struggles of frontier life, Ed. Hanson, also a
Norwegian by birth, has been a valuable factor in the community,
especially in the promotion of education. As we proceed up the river we
find an unbroken settlement of well-to-do Scandinavians, who sought the
wilderness to make homes. Engebret and Sven Stenson, Sivert and Rasmus
Knutson and S. Erickson were among the first. L. O. Stubb, a prominent
farmer and a man of ability and influence, has given valuable service
to the community. He has been one of the foremost men to look after
the interest of education. He was born in Norway, came to Dogfish Bay,
Washington, 1880, and the same year settled near Norman.

  [Illustration: THE NORMAN PUBLIC SCHOOL.
    The first public school in the Stillaguamish valley above Florence:
      built, 1882, burnt 1892.]

Iver N. Prestlien, the pioneer of Prestlien Bluff, so named to
perpetuate his memory, was born in Norway, and settled on his present
location, 1885, when the inviting slope was a gloomy forest. He has done
much for the upbuilding of the community, educationally and otherwise.

  [Illustration: PRESTLIEN'S BLUFF.
    The schoolhouse is behind the big stump.]

John Furness, previously alluded to, an able business man, in company
with Mr. Engdahl, at Norman, has spared no energy for the good of the
public schools and the country in general. Andrew Estby, O. B. Lee, H.
Hereim and others have also lent willing assistance.

Cornelius N. Langsjoen, Elias Tangen, Julius Lund, Andrew Prestlien,
John Ingebretson, and others have contributed heart and hand to better
frontier gloom. Two fine Lutheran churches, one at Silvana and the other
across the river, emphasize the moral and intellectual standard of the
people.

  [Illustration: LOGGING FAMILY STANDING ON A CEDAR STUMP.]



SCANDINAVIANS AT CEDARHOME.

CHAPTER XI.


Three miles east of Stanwood smiles a beautiful villa, which fifteen
years ago received the baptism Cedarhome. It seems as though Nature in
her wisdom long, long ago took special pains to prepare a plot for this
smoothly sloping panorama. If it had been whittled out to order for a
quiet, sober and intelligent people nothing more consistent could have
been expected.

In early days a dense forest clothed this spot, and savage brutes
ruled unrestrained. But some forty years ago the irascible
agent--fire--resolved to show his power, which he did like an unchained
demon. He sent his red flames from tree to tree, consuming big and
small, save some stubborn giants, which remained black skeletons in
melancholy loneliness. Bears, cougars, wild-cats, and other inhabitants
of the forest picked up their feet and with lightning speed sought the
mountains for refuge.

  [Illustration: PIONEERS AMONG WILD BEASTS.]

The once rich sylva, where evergreen and foliage were wont to join in
sweet choruses, was now a charcoal desert with a few angry monsters
frowning in the air, squealing and cracking to the breath of every
breeze.

Years elapsed, the sun sent down his gentle beams, the clouds unlocked
their opulent stores, and the parched earth drank her fill, and gave
birth to shoots that blossomed into a carpet of green.

Ah, all a change! the chilly appearance of yesterday is today sunshine.
A fresh sylva, besprinkled with flowers, smiles to our joy, and birds
wheel on happy wings, pouring their hearts into dulcet music, and loving
zephyrs come to woo the tender growth.

In 1877 Arn Olson, a native of Norway, made a perambulation of the
country lying east of Stanwood with the object in view of finding a
suitable bit of ground for a home, arriving where Cedarhome now smiles
he resolved to pitch his permanent lot among the green bushes. Almost
simultaneously, Martin Larsen, a Norwegian by birth, braved the
interior, remained one year, then located on the Stanwood flat, three
miles north of the city.

It was not until the following year that Cedarhome commenced to echo the
presence of white men. Before only a faint sound now and then rose to
indicate human existence. Among the first who anchored their fortunes at
this place was John Anderson, who left Sweden in 1869 for Chicago, but
was soon seized with a whim to see and try other climes. Both South and
West were fields of attraction, and to satisfy his romantic nature
he took in the whole country. In 1876 he stood in the city of Seattle
gazing with wonder at the novelties about him. A reconnoissance of
Salmon Bay hit his liking, but shortly after settled on 160 acres of
land at Cedarhome, then called Burn.

Mr. John Anderson may be rightly termed the father of Cedarhome, and
yet, though his flowing beard has silvered to a halo of snow, he
contributes the fall of his life to daily duties.

August Anderson has passed through experiences not dissimilar to those
of John Anderson. He, too, was born in Sweden, came to America in his
prime of life, and in 1879 cast his lot in the forest. He has shared the
ups-and-downs of frontier struggles, always a faithful supporter of the
Methodist church.

Andrew Gustaf Bergquist made his appearance a few months subsequent to
the arrival of John and August Anderson. He is a native of Sweden, where
he spent his boyhood, but like thousands of others sought the New
World. Mr. Bergquist has been alert to the interests of the community,
educationally and morally. For years he has been a member of the school
board.

Now, gloomy loneliness! where art thine "blues and longings?" No jollier
crowd beneath the blue roof of heaven than a bunch of pioneers. Buoyant
in spirit, strong at arms, the forest fell to their axes. Trails were
swamped and cabins erected to their comforts.

Cohorts of eager land-seekers from all climes perambulated wealthy vales
and green-besprinkled knolls, and among these was P. O. Norman, who had
landed in Seattle, 1881, but spent two years reconnoitering the coast
ere he located at Cedarhome.

Love of work and progress is the spur of a new country. As population
increased so did the burden of responsibility augment. Morality and
education could not be neglected. Mr. Norman contributed from his fund
of experience and learning, acquired in his native country, Sweden, and
in the state of Nebraska where he had served as school trustee and
county commissioner.

  [Illustration: THE CEDARHOME PUBLIC SCHOOL.
    The dwelling to the right is the residence of E. O. Yngve.]

A craving had manifested for a union of worship, and in 1883 a Methodist
congregation was organized, forming a circuit with Seattle. Rev. Andrew
Farrell was called as pastor, who expounded the gospel in the two places
on alternate Sundays. In 1888 Mr. Norman drew up a petition citing for a
separation from Seattle and the formation of a circuit with Skagit. The
petition was granted by the bishop, and the Rev. O. E. Olander was
secured as clergyman.

Absolute independence has always been the longing of the soul. The
congregation was now ripe for a divorce from Skagit, which was granted,
1890, and a beautiful church was built, which stands as a pride to the
village. The Methodist doctrine has proven relishing, and credit is due
to the following faithful workers: P. O. Norman, John Anderson, August
Anderson, Andrew G. Bergquist, John Lovegren, N. G. Carlson, W. M.
Anderson, N. O. Ekstran, Magnus Haglund, Andrew Olson and John Olson.

The most promising feature of a church is a healthy, wide-awake Young
People's Society. Not only as an instrumentality to invite to share the
glory in Heaven, but to cultivate literature and music, to cherish each
others peculiarities and trend of thoughts. These societies are not
exclusively for the blooms of a few springs, often lingering fall with
hoary hair wields the guiding staff. The most eloquent and active
supporter of the Young People's Society at this place is John Lovegren,
though he has blushed about twelve summers of matrimonial happiness. Of
course, others have scattered sunbeams, and without their appellation
the narrative would not be complete. William M. Anderson has filled the
presidential chair, and Misses Minnie Johnson, Annie Anderson, Alice
Carlson, Annie, Lizzie and Emma Yngve, Minnie Bergquist, Mabel
Peterson, Annie and Jennie Olson, and Mrs. Edith Dacke have graced the
organization with sweet music and poetry. Messrs. Andrew Bergquist, A.
P. Dacke, Charley Edeen, John Carlson and Walter Jensen have contributed
able assistance.

The Cedarhome Literary Society, which has been in existence about
three years, has scattered literary light through the community. The
organizers and star members are: E. C. Nicklason, J. H. Swanson, Thomas
Munson, J. C. Jensen, Charley and Axel Ek, Eric, Mannie and Eddie
Lindstrom, Iver and Simon Olson, Jacob and Andrew Settre, Andrew Olson,
Kettle Levison, Lewis Sandstrom, Eddie, Eli and Ove Eliason, and Andrew
Anderson. The willing participants among the ladies are: Misses Minnie
Nicklason, Mary Jensen, Hilma and Hulda Ek, and Josie Settre.

No pioneer has endured more hardship than Mathias Munson, a native of
Norway. For thirty-five years he dashed on the merciless waves from
port to port, finally making his home in the wilderness of Washington.
Six-and-four scores of years rested on his shoulders at his death, one
year ago, yet strong and lively. He was an example of courage and
endurance, and is said to have saved many lives during his sea-faring
years.

Ole Jensen, born and educated in Denmark, bid farewell to his mother
country seventeen years ago, landed in Seattle and shortly after settled
at Cedarhome. "To do and dare" was his motto; the huge forest fell, and
a nice home smiles to his comfort. John Olson also arrived at Cedarhome
about seventeen years ago. He is a native of Sweden and has devoted most
of his time to farming, being a prominent member of the Methodist
church.

Cedarhome is no longer a nucleus of yearning bachelors, but a thrifty
town surrounded by gardens and meadows. Three religious denominations
are strongly represented, the Methodists, previously mentioned, the
Baptists and the Lutherans.

  [Illustration: G. NICKLASON.]

G. Nicklason, a pioneer of the Skagit valley and a popular merchant
of Cedarhome, was born in Sweden, but left his native country at the
twilight of manhood. After filling sundry vocations of hardship in the
east, his attention was drawn to the Pacific, settling in the Skagit
valley, 1876, where he labored hard clearing land and farming. A
beautiful farm in that locality bespeaks his industry. In 1890 he
moved to Cedarhome to engage in general merchandise--business of his
liking--in which he has proved himself a master. The fertile forest
awakened acute calculation in his mind, and in company with Carl O.
Walters started a lumber factory capable of turning out both lumber
and shingle. Mr. Nicklason is a man of energy and ability, honest and
strictly attentive to business.

  [Illustration: CARL O. WALTERS.]

Carl O. Walters, G. Nicklason's partner in lumber manufacturing, was
born in Gottland, Sweden, May 27, 1855, where he received his education,
graduated from the public schools at the age of fifteen. For three years
he served in the navy of Sweden, spent two years traveling in his native
country for the purpose of studying the natural resources and the varied
conditions. The sea was a pleasing attraction to him; visited all the
countries of Europe, and at the age of twenty-two embarked a ship for
the New World, sailed for some time on the Atlantic coast, rounded Cape
Horn, and landed in the Golden Gate, 1877. He dashed on the waves up
the coast as far as British Columbia. After eight years of navigation
he stept ashore, engaged in carpentry, worked in Seattle and British
Columbia, most of the time as contractor. In the latter place he spent
considerable time prospecting for coal, employed by the Vancouver Coal
Co. Twelve years ago he located at Cedarhome, turned his attention to
farming served as deputy county assessor, and gradually drifted into
lumber and shingle business, an occupation congenial to mechanical
ingenuity, which is Mr. Walters' forte, being born with mechanical
aptitude as well as with social and conversational endowments.

  [Illustration: MR. AND MRS. L. G. HANSON.]

L. G. Hanson, the present deputy county assessor, was born in Skone,
Sweden, 1855, emigrated to America in early manhood, 1882. After
some years of ups-and-downs in the south, he planted his fortune at
Cedarhome, nine years ago, and has ever since taken an active part
in public improvements. He has been a stanch supporter of the public
schools and an advocate for good roads. For years he has served as
school director and road supervisor, and in 1899 he was appointed deputy
county assessor.

E. O. Yngve, a man of affluence and influence in his native country,
Sweden, crossed the salty billows for America ten years ago. He has been
alert to the interest of his adopted country, and always glad to usher
the welfare of his people to the front.

Frank A. Peterson is likewise a man cut out for frontier life where
energy and strong arms are required. He is a native of Sweden, but came
to South Dakota in his early days, stayed there for some years, and in
1886 landed in Seattle, and two years later joined his countrymen at
Cedarhome. He has been awake to the interest of the public schools and
the welfare of the community in general; for years he has been a member
of the school board. His brother John is also a good citizen.

John Ek, too, belongs to the category of frontier soldiers who delight
in converting the forest into fields of gold and smiling gardens. He
was born in Sweden and came to Cedarhome, 1890. Round the village live
a number of good citizens and industrious farmers; viz., Oluf Johnson,
Sivert Wold, Rasmus Settre, K. K. Erdahl, N. O. Lindstrom, P. G.
Johnson, Olof Anderson, Levi Levison, Ole Johnson, Robert Johnson, P. L.
Anderson, Ole Husby, Erik Johnson, P. M. Arentzen, C. P. Hemmingsen, A.
Evenson, B. Evenson, and others. Aaron Larson, a native of Sweden, who
resides on a pleasant ranch about three miles east of Cedarhome, is a
highly accomplished musician. His daughter Cora is likewise displaying
extraordinary talents for divine strains.

  [Illustration: WESTERN WASHINGTON NATIVE SNOWSHOE HARE.]



SCANDINAVIANS IN SKAGIT VALLEY.

CHAPTER XII.


  Sweetest and loveliest of flowery vales,
  Where plenty teems and joy hails,
  Where waving fields of golden grain
  Merrily smile in sun and rain.

The Skagit valley is a stretch of inexhaustible fertility, commencing
at the mouth of the river and running northward for scores of miles, and
spreads out, east and west, into a plain beautifully embellished with
proud farms, and mostly populated with Scandinavians. Six miles up the
river rests the town of Fir, a bustling village, surrounded by a
rich farming community. Ole J. Borseth is the leading business man of
the town, who located here, 1883, and in 1891 engaged in general
merchandise. He is a native of Norway, where he was bred and educated.

  [Illustration: MORLING HOUSE.
    Owned by Knut H. Opdal, the first Scandinavian Hotel
      in the Skagit Valley.]

Knut H. Opdal, also born in Norway, arrived in 1888, and shortly
afterward embarked in hotel business. He and his wife are
representatives of Norse simplicity and integrity, imbued with love for
their native country, and patriotic and loyal to the stars and stripes.

  [Illustration: J. F. ANDERSON.]

J. F. Anderson was one of the first settlers. He was born in Sweden,
left his native land during the early summer of maturity, and located in
the state of Iowa. In 1874 he landed in Port Townsend on Prince Alfred,
and immediately proceeded to the Skagit valley, settling on North Fork.
After a year of hard work he moved with his family to Seattle in order
to give his children the advantages of good schooling. At the close of
six years they returned to the Skagit, locating on South Fork, where
Fir now stands. In 1883 a flood rushed over the country, swept along
everything save some stubborn buildings, the crop was destroyed, and
havoc spread in all directions. "Never give in," says the sage, which is
applicable to Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Anderson. "Onward" was their motto, and
two beautiful homes shine to their honest efforts one at Seattle and
one at Fir. Their children, who are now combating with the turmoils of
the world, are well educated and highly respected. Jennie is married and
lives in Seattle; Axel and Eric are connected with the Polson and Wilson
Hardware Co., established in Seattle and La Conner; Victor is married
to an esteemed lady, Miss Marie Paulson, and runs the farm; Minnie is
postmistress at Fir and a teacher of music, Howard sleeps in the grave,
and Otto stays home.

  [Illustration: ANDREW N. CROGSTAD.]

Andrew N. Crogstad, a leading citizen, a man of honor and intelligence,
has shared the difficulties of the frontier. He was born in Trondhjem,
Norway, 1852, received a good schooling and in February, 1872, left his
fatherland for Dunn county, Wisconsin, and five years later disembarked
in the Skagit valley. He turned his attention to logging and farming. A
beautiful farm, surrounded by a wealthy orchard, stands as a pride to
his energy. He has seen days of romantic awfulness, once hazardous, but
now pleasing reminiscences. The flood has always been a dread, and many
frights has it caused. One Fourth of July Mr. Crogstad went to Fir to
celebrate the independence of his adopted country. The morning was
bright and prognostic of a pleasant time. Returning home during gray
twilight, a seething, rolling sound floated down on the breeze, and ere
they realized the cause, water crept up to their feet. The ladies were
frightened out of their wits and took to screaming, which seems to
be their only alternative in time of danger. Mr. Crogstad and his
companion understood the predicament, slung the ladies on their backs
and pranced home, thus avoiding a disastrous outcome.

  [Illustration: MRS. WILHELMINA AUGUSTA CROGSTAD.]

In 1887 he was married to an estimable lady, Miss Wilhelmina Augusta
Jensen, born in Scleswig, Holstein, 1863, of Danish parentage, and came
to America, 1875. They have five children, four girls and one boy;
Alvina, Emma, Lottie, Clara and Maurice.

One not accustomed to pioneer life in the forest can hardly conceive its
many romantic features. To live on the bank of a big river, rolling and
moaning in tireless monotony, and huge trees praying and howling to the
wroth of the wind, and frisky brutes gamboling in wild frolics, and
Indians skulking in stealthy moods, is something awe-inspiring.

On a jolly morning, Charles Mann, the pioneer merchant of Fir,
reconnoitered in the woods behind his store, and to his awe, stumbled
into a hideous infernal, which was afterwards discovered to be an Indian
cemetery. Ah, terror! hundreds of Indians were hanging in the trees,
some nude skeletons, some with the hearts torn out of their mutilated
frames; owls and crows were sailing on evil wings among the ghastly
dead, and horror seemed to reign in every bush. This finding startled
the whole town, and into the woods rushed young and old; flames sprang
into the air and swept through the forest, and the dead Indians dropped
from a hanging hell into a burning one.

The flood of 1887 spread consternation throughout the community. The
water leaped down from the mountains in savage fury and scattered the
dykes to the briny billows, busy hugging the beach below. Houses set
sailing down the valley in tipsy joltings, and logs went chasing each
other in mad bewilderment for the sea. The deluge broke into Mann's
store and rose to the depth of three feet. Mr. Mann was alone in the
store, and to drive away loneliness grabbed the fish line and commenced
angling, caught two mountain trouts by the counter. During the same
flood Mrs. Mann was sitting in the Fir Hotel chatting with some friends,
and before they were aware of the enormity of the water they went
sailing on their chairs around the room.

In and around Fir live a number of Scandinavians who have witnessed
frontier encounters, but their early struggles have become pleasing
revels for a fanciful imagination, as the late years have crowned their
efforts with success. Olof Polson, a son of Sweden, and at present
mayor of La Conner, was along with the first brigade of pioneers that
scattered themselves in the valley. Ole Lonke, born in Norway, and a
prosperous farmer, about a mile from Fir, located here over twenty years
ago. Ole Johnson, also a native of Norway, has resided here over two
decades, and Peter Olson dates his arrival still further back.

Among the more recent settlers who have proved valuable exponents are:
John Hanson, August Johnson, Even Handstad, John Kragnes, Ole Kvande,
Knut Lange, Sivert Sande, Ole Olson, Lars Engen, G. O. Branstad, Lars
and Nils Danielson and Elik Johnson.

Proceeding up the river we find many Scandinavian pioneers who rank
among the most prominent citizens; viz., Peter Egtvet, Ole N. Lee, Frank
Tollefson and Magnus Anderson. At Skagit City, N. Erickson, Alfred,
Edwin and Herman Johnson are representative farmers who have spared no
time for the upbuilding of the country. Rev. John Johnson, presiding
elder of the Swedish Methodist church, who resides at this place, is a
noted man, being a gifted rhetorician and an able pulpit orator.

To the east of this happy village spreads out a fertile plain which
sweeps up into a proud elevation, called Pleasant Ridge, the home of
the old pioneer, Charles John Chilberg, and two of his sons, Isaac and
James. Here we find also a number of other Scandinavians who have shared
the burden of early struggles.

Four miles up the river from Skagit City stands the jolly city of Mt.
Vernon, which has within its boundary many prominent men from the
shores of Norway and Sweden. The two leading merchants of the city are
Norwegians--Louis Foss and N. J. Moldstad.

  [Illustration: LOUIS FOSS.]

Louis Foss is well known throughout the Pacific country, being the first
Scandinavian state senator in Washington. He was born in Norway, 1849,
received a liberal education, graduated from college at nineteen, and
shortly after emigrated to America, locating in Wisconsin. He worked
four years as scaler of logs on Chippewa river; went to the Dakota
Black Hills during the excitement of 1875, where he remained two years
working in the mines. From whence he went to Zumbrota, Minnesota, to
assume the management of a large merchandise store, in which capacity
he labored faithfully for five years. His name had acquired a favorable
clang among the people and the city of Fosston was christened to his
honor. In 1887 he disposed of his interests in Minnesota and moved
to Tacoma, Washington, where he engaged in real estate, and entered
mercantile business at Mt. Vernon and Buckley. Five years later he was
elected state senator from Pierce county, and served his state with
honor for four years. At the expiration of his senatorship he removed
with his family to Mt. Vernon, where he now resides, and owns a big
mercantile establishment, The Fair. He has also a large store of similar
kind in Anacortes which his eldest son is managing. Mr. Foss is not only
a man of business aptitude, but also a man of character, fidelity and
honor.

  [Illustration: N. J. MOLDSTAD.]

N. J. Moldstad merits the appellation of "progressive business man." He
was born in Vestre Toten, Norway, April 1, 1863, where he obtained his
early education. July 2, 1876, he sailed for America, settling at De
Forest, Wisconsin, and shortly after entered his brother's dry goods
store. His next move was to Lanesborough, Minnesota, where he secured
a clerkship with a big mercantile firm, afterwards assumed a similar
vocation in Minneapolis. From whence he turned his attention to North
Dakota, embarking in store and banking business for himself. The
Pacific had become a fascinating field, sold out, and crossed the Rocky,
locating in Tacoma, where he established a shoe store. Another journey
seemed to emphasize business progress, disposed of his establishment
in Tacoma and engaged in dry goods and clothing in Mt. Vernon. The last
years he has also given due consideration to the Alaska gold fields,
being interested in several claims around Dawson. In 1893 he took a trip
to Europe, traveled in England, France, Germany and the Scandinavian
countries. In 1898 he was married to an estimable lady in Mt. Vernon,
and spent his honeymoon journeying in California, the Southern states
and New York, visited Washington and shook hands with President
McKinley. On returning took in Chicago and other large cities. Mr.
Moldstad is a republican in politics and has been delegate to county and
state conventions, but has scoffed at the idea of seeking any office. He
is like Mr. Louis Foss, of the same city, in being a true gentleman,
respected and respectable.

  [Illustration: A MUSICIAN ON SKAGIT RIVER.]



SCANDINAVIANS IN BELLINGHAM BAY.

CHAPTER XIII.


It is but few places where nature has been so kind and lavishing with
her store of grandeur as in Bellingham Bay. Sweet in music, the happy
ripples dance to kiss the pebbled borders of the twin cities--New
Whatcom and Fairhaven. Above the din of their tumults stands the
white-haired Mt. Baker with a snowy hood drawn down his broad shoulders,
throwing glimpses of awe over a gay landscape. About four miles from
these sister cities smiles Lake Whatcom, where living gondolas ride on
its glassy bosom from shore to shore.

  [Illustration: MT. BAKER, SEEN FROM FAIRHAVEN.]

In early days Scandinavians gave heed to this happy land of verdure and
songs. About forty years ago they visited the bay and reconnoitered the
country. Everson, a Norwegian by birth, was among the first pioneers.
The last ten years a number of Norwegians, Swedes and Danes have located
in both New Whatcom and Fairhaven, and rank among the leading business
men of the two cities.

  [Illustration: FISHING IN BELLINGHAM BAY.]

O. B. Barba, a prominent lawyer of New Whatcom, born in Norway, but
raised and educated in Wisconsin, came here, 1890, and has steadily
invited the confidence of his countrymen and the people in general.

Ole Oien has the honor of being the first Scandinavian elected to
county office in Whatcom county. He was born in Toten, Norway, came to
Bellingham Bay several years ago, and at the last election was chosen to
the office of county clerk. He is a man of energy and intelligence, and
may rise to higher trust and honor in the gift of the people.

Olaf Udness and Charley Erholm, the former born in Norway and the latter
in Finland, emigrated here, 1889. They are proprietors of the Pacific
Steam Laundry, and prominent in business and social circles.

Thomas Dahlquist, a native of Sweden, and one of the leading grocers in
New Whatcom, landed in Bellingham Bay, 1889, and has gained the esteem
of all the people. His wife was born in Norway and is regarded as the
foremost Scandinavian lady in the city.

John Larsen, owner of the only first-class music store in Bellingham
Bay, is an able business man. His wife is an influential member of the
Norwegian Synod church.

A. G. Wickman, born in Sweden, cast his eye for the first time over
Bellingham Bay, August 2, 1889. He is a man of keen intellect and sound
judgment, and possesses the air of a true gentleman. He is a merchant
tailor and enjoys a lucrative business.

P. Osberg and George Martinsen are well-known contractors, the firm
being Osberg and Martinsen. My pen would not be true to these gentlemen
without the following assertion: "Osberg and Martinsen's ingenious work
has commanded technical honor to the Scandinavians."

P. Jacobsen, a son of Denmark, is likewise a man of mechanical aptitude.
He is a skillful blacksmith and a true gentleman.

In Fairhaven we find many popular Scandinavians, men who are held
in high esteem by the people. Rev. T. J. Moen is one who enjoys the
respect and love of the community. He was born in Talgen, Norway, where
he received his early education. In 1879 he graduated from Hamar
Seminarium, among the highest in scholarship, and two years later
emigrated to America, where he secured a position as teacher of
religion. His ambition was to be a minister of the gospel, and in 1889
entered Augsburg Seminarium, spent one year in the academic department,
then stept into the theological college and graduated with honor after
three years of diligent study. He came to New Whatcom seven years ago
as pastor of the United Lutheran church, and has met with success in his
responsible vocation.

Mrs. T. J. Moen, a lady of intelligence and fine training, was born in
Rollag, Numedal, Norway, and came to America while a lass of six years.
At the age of nineteen she was united in holy matrimony to Rev. T. J.
Moen. She is an earnest worker in the Sunday school, likewise attentive
to her fireside duties.

J. M. Scarseth and Chris. Grue, proprietors of the Wisconsin Grocery,
rank as the foremost merchants of Fairhaven. Scarseth was born in
Wisconsin of Norwegian parents and Grue in Norway. They came to
Bellingham Bay, 1889.

Henry Christian Engeberg is a Dane by birth, a fine scholar and a
careful druggist. He is a graduate of the University of Copenhagen
and came to Fairhaven ten years ago.

B. W. Benson, a real estate dealer, is a man of true Norse type, social,
honest and intelligent. He was born in Norway, and came to Bellingham
Bay, 1889.

A. L. Stenvig, the only merchant tailor in Fairhaven, traces his
birthplace to Norway. He came to this city ten years ago, worked
for others at first, but now owns a paying establishment.

Gust. Linden, a native of Sweden, O. M. C. Henning and Chris. Keel, born
in Norway, have been in Fairhaven since 1890, and have worked themselves
up from meager circumstances to affluence and honor. They are
representatives of the industrial classes, possessed of mechanical
ingenuity and prominent members of the Lutheran church.

Mrs. Henning, wife of O. M. C. Henning, is a woman of learning and
elevated character, being an energetic worker in the United Lutheran
church. Her oldest daughter, Mrs. Richard, is a popular teacher in the
city schools of Fairhaven.



SCATTERED SCANDINAVIAN COMMUNITIES, POULSBO AND OTHER PLACES.

CHAPTER XIV.


  AT POULSBO BAY

  The rippling bells are ringing,
  The druid woods are singing,
  And mellow throats hang on the air
  Pouring their hearts into music rare.
          Ever ringing,
          Ever singing,
          At Poulsbo Bay.

  Nature's soul in rapture smiling,
  Hillocks green the sunbeams climbing;
  When morning bursts on pearl-set wing,
  The vocal harps of the forest sing,
         Sweet freedom's air,
         In sunshine fair,
         At Poulsbo Bay.

  Jingle, jingle, ever chiming,
  Sea and land together rhyming,
  Sweet poets untaught singing,
  Nature's God to me is ringing.
         Rapture chiming,
         Grandeur smiling,
         At Poulsbo Bay.

On a sunny slope slowly rising from the merry sheet of golden water,
stands the town of Poulsbo, in Kitsap county, about twenty-five miles
northwest from Seattle. A smiling tongue of the Sound is rippling into
the land, and here and there a green nose is pushing itself into the
brine as trying to contest with the elements of the deep. Sweet melodies
spring from the laughing ripples, and sail on the wings of lazy zephyrs
to cheer the ears of the village. This musical bay is a natural abode
for Scandinavians who are wont to the songs of happy fjords. As early as
1875, Ole Stubb stranded his skiff on the shore of this vocal stretch
for permanent nestling. He was born in Norway, and has witnessed days of
divers struggles, interlaced with days of sunshine.

A year later Fred Landstone pinned his lot to a piece of land about ten
miles east of Poulsbo, and in 1883 Jorgen Eliason was attracted to the
bay, and has ever since been instrumental in shaping the affairs of the
community. He is a native of Norway, landed in Michigan, 1870, and
has proved himself a man of honor and intellectual capacity, a true
representative of Norse simplicity and manhood. I. B. Moe arrived
simultaneously and has been a potent factor in a multitude of
enterprises.

  [Illustration: JORGEN ELIASON'S RANCH.]

Torge Jensen, a prominent citizen of Poulsbo, a man of integrity and
intelligence, was a member of the early brigade of pioneers. He was born
in Norway and came to Poulsbo from South Dakota. He has been one of the
foremost men to look after the interest of the place, educationally and
otherwise.

Nils Olson, also of Norse birth, merits a footing among the first
settlers and deserves the encomium due a man of honesty and noble aims.

Among the business men of Poulsbo, Adolph Hostmark carries the honor of
being the first merchant. He erected a store fifteen years ago, and
conducted a general merchandise establishment until his death. Some
years subsequent Lars Christensen engaged in mercantile business and his
career has been an uninterrupted success, characteristic of industry and
uprightness.

  [Illustration: LARS CHRISTENSEN AND WIFE.]

Lars Christensen was born in Thisted, Denmark, 1844, received a common
school education, spent years on a large plantation as foreman and
assistant manager. In 1872 he emigrated to America, selecting Marquette,
Michigan, as his favorable place for dwelling. He worked on the docks
and at other manual labor until 1875, when he migrated to Brookings
county, South Dakota, where he engaged in farming. After twelve years of
varied experiences on the Dakota prairies he turned his attention to the
Pacific, arriving in Poulsbo, 1887, where he embarked in clearing
land and ranching. A beautiful place in the heart of the smiling villa
bespeaks his pluck and industry. In 1893 he launched into general
merchandise, which he later converted into a dry goods store. Mr.
Christensen has always been a prominent member of the Lutheran church
and a true republican in politics, and in every walk of life a loyal
citizen, honest, intelligent and respected. He was married to an
estimable lady in Denmark. They have one son, C. P. Christensen, who
was born in Denmark, 1868, and came to America with his parents. He has
inherited the traits of a noble father and mother and ranks among the
best of men, endowed with a fine intellect and moral integrity.

Poulsbo has achieved what no other community on the coast has ventured
to do. While the villa was in its early embryo a knot of pioneers
organized and incorporated the Poulsbo Wharf and Storage Company, and
built a substantial dock and warehouse, accessible by any steamer.

The first steamer that cleaved the bosom of the deep between Poulsbo and
Seattle was the Quickstep, owned by John J. Hansen, who later built
Hattie Hansen. But to burst the chains of monopolized transportation,
and to usher pecuniary relief to the toiling farmers, a sprinkling of
valorous hearts, headed by Thomas Hegdahl and Nils Olson, perfected the
organization of the Poulsbo-Colby Transportation Company, and built
the beautiful steamer--Advance--which plies daily between Poulsbo and
Seattle.

  [Illustration: STEAMER ADVANCE.]

The following are officers of the Poulsbo-Colby Transportation Company;
J. A. McPherson, President; Peter Erlandson, Vice-president; C. P.
Christensen, Secretary; L. Christensen, Treasurer; J. W. Russell,
Manager.

Poulsbo has had its religious upheavals but aside from these fanatical
revolutions it has scattered seeds of Christian principles. A fine
Lutheran church tops a pleasant hillock as evidence of this statement.
Rev. I. Tollefsen was summoned to the bay as the first gospel expounder
who unveiled the gems of the Old Book according to Augsburgian theology.
Into his footsteps dropped Rev. H. Langeland who is yet a beloved
representative of the Supreme Being in the charming town of Poulsbo.
Many of the trance reports which have taken speedy wings for other
climes have not been absolutely true. In justice to Rev. H. Langeland
my pen cannot evade the declaration that he is a gentleman and a true
Christian.

The Orphans' Home, organized eight years ago, looms magnificently on a
nicely trimmed knoll, overlooking a wizard landscape. Rev. Tollefsen is
the father of the institution, but the people in general have given to
it their unreserved support.

  [Illustration: ORPHANS' HOME AT POULSBO.]

During recent years, Poulsbo has made quick strides forward, no less
than four stores and two hotels combine to signalize its progress.
Langeland and Eliason are thrifty grocers; Alf Hostmark conducts an
establishment of similar nature; Thos. Hegdahl is a prosperous furniture
dealer and L. Christensen a dry goods merchant. The farmers around
Poulsbo have tendered ready hands to any project tending to advance the
interest of their villa. Steiner Thoreson and T. Paulson have been
active exponents in the divers avenues of melioration, and A. V.
Paulson, an ex-teacher of the public schools, has never been lagging
when a new enterprise was to be rooted. Ole Thompson, A. Talakson, A. O.
Hagan, Chris. Williams and Ole Nelson figure among the early settlers.
They are thrifty farmers and have contributed their time and energy for
the good of the community. Nils Atleson, though recent colonist, has
shared the burden of pushing the place to the front. He is the leader of
the United Lutheran church, and a man of intelligence and pluck. K. G.
Steen and others have also proved worthy factors where skill and energy
shine pre-eminently.

The country surrounding Poulsbo is mostly peopled with Scandinavians.
Pearson, across the bay, is a thriving community, principally settled
with intelligent Swedes, who have spared no time to make their terra
firma attractive.

Breidablik, the home of the Paulson family, is an inviting place. As we
recede further from Poulsbo we come to Seabold where many Scandinavians
breathe happiness and prosperity. A short distance from this village
lives C. Sanders, who was born in Sweden and came to Port Madison
thirty-five years ago. There are also other old settlers as A. M.
Anderson and Chas. Olson. Across a pleasant elevation of land slowly
falling to the sea we find the flower-besprinkled Rollingbay, where some
early pioneers contend happily with the wild billows of the world.
Martin Sunnes, Dona Falk, Andrew Sornsen, Nils Peterson, Peter Bye, T.
Siverson, Mrs. Hanna Johnson and C. Johnson were the first adventurers.

There are other scattered Scandinavian settlements, but let it suffice,
for this volume, by taking a step to Shelton, Mason county. Here we
find the well-known Professor G. B. Gunderson and other prominent
Scandinavians. Prof. Gunderson has served the people of his county
as superintendent of the public schools and as representative in the
legislation, with marked ability and success.





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