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Title: Field and Woodland Plants
Author: Furneaux, William S.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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FIELD AND WOODLAND PLANTS

       *       *       *       *       *

THE OUTDOOR WORLD SERIES.


THE OUTDOOR WORLD; or, the Young Collector's Handbook. By W. S. FURNEAUX.
With 18 Plates (16 of which are coloured), and 549 Illustrations in the
Text. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 6_s._ net.

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS (BRITISH). By W. S. FURNEAUX. With 12 coloured
Plates and 241 Illustrations in the Text. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 6_s._
net.

LIFE IN PONDS AND STREAMS. By W. S. FURNEAUX. With 8 coloured Plates and
331 Illustrations in the Text. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 6_s._ net.

FIELD AND WOODLAND PLANTS. By W. S. FURNEAUX. With 8 Coloured Plates and
numerous Illustrations from Drawings by PATTEN WILSON and from
Photographs. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 6_s._ net.

THE SEA SHORE. By W. S. FURNEAUX. With 8 Plates in colour and over 300
Illustrations in the Text. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 6_s._ net.

BRITISH BIRDS. By W.H. HUDSON. With a Chapter on Structure and
Classification by FRANK E. BEDDARD, F.R.S. With 16 Plates (8 of which
are coloured), and over 100 Illustrations in the Text. Crown 8 vo. gilt
edges, 6_s._ net.

COUNTRY PASTIMES FOR BOYS. By P. ANDERSON GRAHAM. With 252 Illustrations
from Drawings and Photographs. Crown 8 vo. gilt edges, 3_s._ net.


LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 39 Paternoster Row, London,
New York, Bombay, and Calcutta.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: _Plate I._
SPRING FLOWERS OF THE WOODS.
1. Green Hellebore. 2. Plantain-leaved Leopard's-bane. 3. Lady's
Slipper. 4. Sand Garlic. 5. Wild Hyacinth. 6. Wood Melic Grass.]


FIELD AND WOODLAND PLANTS

by

W. S. FURNEAUX

Author of
'The Outdoor World' 'British Butterflies and Moths'
'Life in Ponds and Streams' 'The Sea Shore' etc.

[Illustration]

With Eight Plates in Colour, and
Numerous Illustrations by Patten Wilson, and
Photographs from Nature by the Author



Longmans, Green, and Co.
39 Paternoster Row, London
New York, Bombay, and Calcutta
1909

All rights reserved



PREFACE


This additional volume to the young naturalist's 'Outdoor World Series'
is an attempt to provide a guide to the study of our wild plants, shrubs
and trees--a guide which, though comparatively free from technical terms
and expressions, shall yet be strictly correct and scientific.

The leading feature of the book is the arrangement of the plants and
trees according to their seasons, habitats and habits; an arrangement
which will undoubtedly be of the greatest assistance to the lover of
wild flowers during his work in the field, and also while examining and
identifying his gathered specimens at home.

A large portion of the space has necessarily been allotted to the
descriptions of plants, several hundreds of which have been included,
and a large proportion of these illustrated; but not a little has been
devoted to an attempt to create an interest in some of those wonderful
habits which lead us to look upon plants as living beings with
attractions even more engrossing than their beautiful forms and colours.

It has been thought advisable to give but little attention to aquatic
plants and to the flowers which are to be found only on the coast, these
having been previously included in former volumes of this series
dealing, respectively, with pond life and the sea shore.

The thanks of the author are due to his friend, G. Du Heaume, Esq., for
his valuable assistance in collecting many of the flowers required for
description and illustration.

                                                         W. S. F.



CONTENTS


  CHAP.                                                            PAGE

  I. INTRODUCTION--GENERAL CHARACTERS OF PLANTS AND THE
  IDENTIFICATION OF FLOWERS                                           1

  II. THE POLLINATION AND FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS                   25

  III. CLIMBING PLANTS                                               30

  IV. EARLY SPRING                                                   39

  V. WOODS AND THICKETS IN SPRING                                    48

  VI. THE SPRING-FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS OF WOODS, THICKETS,
  AND HEDGEROWS                                                      61

  VII. WAYSIDES AND WASTES IN SPRING                                 81

  VIII. MEADOWS, FIELDS, AND PASTURES--SPRING                       108

  IX. BOGS, MARSHES, AND WET PLACES IN SPRING                       123

  X. WOODS AND THICKETS IN SUMMER                                   130

  XI. WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER                                 151

  XII. WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER--COMPOSITE FLOWERS             175

  XIII. WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER--_continued_                  190

  XIV. MEADOWS, FIELDS, AND PASTURES--SUMMER                        211

  XV. BOGS, MARSHES, AND WET PLACES--SUMMER                         236

  XVI. ON HEATH, DOWN, AND MOOR                                     257

  XVII. IN THE CORN FIELD                                           281

  XVIII. ON THE CHALK                                               296

  XIX. BY THE RIVER SIDE                                            312

  XX. ON WALLS, ROCKS, AND STONY PLACES                             318

  XXI. FIELD AND WAYSIDE IN AUTUMN                                  328

  XXII. AUTUMN IN THE WOODS                                         331

  XXIII. PARASITIC PLANTS                                           340

  XXIV. CARNIVOROUS PLANTS                                          350

  LIST OF FLOWERS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR HABITATS
  AND HABITS                                                        359

  LIST OF FLOWERS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR ORDERS
  AND GENERA                                                        373

  GLOSSARIAL INDEX                                                  381



COLOURED PLATES


  I. SPRING FLOWERS OF THE WOODS                         _Frontispiece_

  1. Green Hellebore

  2. Plantain-leaved Leopard's-Bane

  3. Lady's Slipper

  4. Sand Garlic

  5. Wild Hyacinth

  6. Wood Melic Grass

  II. FLOWERS OF THE WOODS                         _To face p._     130

  1. Great Valerian

  2. Foxglove

  3. Succory-leaved Hawk's-beard

  4. Nettle-leaved Bell-flower

  5. Broad-leaved Helleborine

  6. Hairy Brome-grass

  III. FLOWERS OF THE WAYSIDE                      _To face p._     150

  1. Round-leaved Crane's-bill

  2. Black Horehound

  3. Evergreen Alkanet

  4. Bristly Ox-tongue

  5. Red Bartsia

  6. Annual Meadow Grass

  7. Hemlock Stork's-bill

  IV. FLOWERS OF THE FIELD                         _To face p._     210

  1. Rough Cock's-foot Grass

  2. Lucerne

  3. Crimson Clover

  4. Blue-Bottle

  5. Common Vetch

  6. Meadow Clary

  V. FLOWERS OF BOGS AND MARSHES                   _To face p._     236

  1. Marsh Gentian

  2. Marsh Marigold

  3. Marsh Orchis

  4. Marsh Mallow

  5. Marsh Vetchling

  6. Marsh St. John's-wort

  7. Bog Pimpernel

  VI. FLOWERS OF DOWN, HEATH, AND MOOR              _To face p._    256

  1. Musk Thistle

  2. Clustered Bell-flower

  3. Spiny Rest Harrow

  4. Hairy Hawkbit

  5. Sheep's-bit

  6. Spotted Orchis

  7. Heath Rush

  VII. FLOWERS OF THE CORN-FIELD                   _To face p._     280

  1. Long Smooth-headed Poppy

  2. Field Scabious

  3. Corn Cockle

  4. Corn Marigold

  5. Flax

  6. Corn Pheasant's-eye

  VIII. FLOWERS OF CHALKY SOILS                    _To face p._     296

  1. Red Valerian

  2. Narrow-leaved Flax

  3. Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch

  4. Spiked Speedwell

  5. Pasque Flower

  6. Bee Orchis

  7. Yellow Oat Grass

_Erratum._--On Plate VI, _for_ 'Spring Rest Harrow' _read_ 'Spiny Rest
Harrow.'



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF PLANTS

                                                                   PAGE

  Forms of Roots                                                      2

  Running underground stem of Solomon's Seal                          4

  Arrangement of Leaves                                               5

  Leaf of Pansy with two large Stipules                               5

  Margins of Leaves                                                   6

  Various Forms of Simple Leaves                                      7

  Forms of Compound Leaves                                            7

  Forms of Inflorescence                                              8

  Longitudinal Section through the flower of the Buttercup           10

  Inferior and Superior Ovary                                        11

  Unisexual Flowers of the Nettle                                    11

  Dehiscent Fruits                                                   12


  THE POLLINATION AND FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS


  Pollen Cells throwing out their Tubes                              25


  CLIMBING PLANTS


  Prickles of the Wild Rose                                          31

  Ivy, showing the Rootlets or Suckers                               32

  Stem of the Bindweed, twining to the left                          34

  Stem of the Hop, twining to the right                              35


  EARLY SPRING


  Trees in Winter or Early Spring

  1. Hazel; 2. Ash; 3. Oak; 4. Lime                                  41

  5. Birch; 6. Poplar; 7. Beech; 8. Alder                            43

  Twig of Lime in Spring, showing the Deciduous, Scaly Stipules      45

  Seedling of the Beech                                              46


  WOODS AND THICKETS IN SPRING

  The Daffodil                                                       48

  The Wood Anemone                                                   49

  The Goldilocks                                                     50

  The Wild Columbine                                                 51

  The Dog Violet                                                     52

  The Wood Sorrel                                                    53

  The Sweet Woodruff                                                 54

  The Lesser Periwinkle                                              55

  The Bugle                                                          56

  The Broad-leaved Garlic                                            57

  The Star of Bethlehem                                              58

  The Hairy Sedge                                                    59


  SPRING-FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS

  The Barberry                                                       62

  The Spindle Tree                                                   63

  The Wild Cherry                                                    65

  The Crab Apple                                                     67

  The Mountain Ash                                                   68

  The Spurge Laurel                                                  70

  The Elm in Flower                                                  71

  The Oak in Flower                                                  72

  The Beech in Fruit                                                 73

  The Scots Pine, with Cones                                         78

  The Yew in Fruit                                                   79


  WAYSIDES AND WASTES IN SPRING

  The Shepherd's Purse                                               82

  The Scurvy Grass                                                   83

  The Common Whitlow Grass                                           83

  The Yellow Rocket                                                  84

  The Procumbent Pearlwort                                           86

  The Greater Stitchwort                                             87

  The Chickweed                                                      88

  The Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed                               89

  The Dove's-foot Crane's-bill                                       90

  The Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill                                     91

  The Herb Robert                                                    92

  The Grass Vetchling                                                93

  The Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil                                   94

  The Moschatel                                                      95

  The White Bryony                                                   96

  The Wild Beaked Parsley                                            97

  The Garden Beaked Parsley                                          98

  The Goutweed                                                       99

  The Crosswort                                                     100

  The Colt's-foot in Early Spring                                   101

  The Germander Speedwell                                           101

  The White Dead Nettle                                             102

  The Yellow Pimpernel                                              103

  The Dog's Mercury                                                 104

  The Black Bryony                                                  105

  The Wild Arum                                                     106


  MEADOWS, FIELDS, AND PASTURES--SPRING

  The Field Pennycress                                              109

  The Wild Pansy                                                    110

  The Ragged Robin                                                  111

  The Purple Clover                                                 114

  The Daisy                                                         115

  The Butterbur                                                     117

  The Yellow Rattle                                                 118

  The Henbit Dead Nettle                                            119

  The Cowslip                                                       120

  The Fox-tail Grass                                                121


  BOGS, MARSHES, AND WET PLACES IN SPRING

  The Marsh Potentil                                                124

  The Golden Saxifrage                                              125

  The Marsh Valerian                                                126

  The Marsh Trefoil                                                 127

  The Marsh Lousewort                                               127

  The Yellow Flag                                                   128


  WOODS AND THICKETS IN SUMMER

  The Large-flowered St. John's-wort                                131

  The Common St. John's-wort                                        132

  The Dyer's Greenweed                                              133

  The Sweet Milk Vetch                                              134

  The Wild Raspberry                                                135

  The Rose Bay Willow Herb                                          136

  The Dogwood                                                       137

  The Wood Sanicle                                                  138

  The Alexanders                                                    139

  The Elder                                                         140

  The Guelder Rose                                                  141

  The Saw-wort                                                      143

  The Ivy-leaved Bell-flower                                        145

  Twigs of Holly                                                    146

  The Privet                                                        147

  The Millet Grass                                                  148

  The Bearded Wheat                                                 148

  The Slender False Brome                                           149


  WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER

  The Wild Clematis                                                 152

  The Hedge Mustard                                                 152

  The Felix Weed                                                    153

  The Dyer's Weed                                                   154

  The Deptford Pink                                                 155

  The Red Campion                                                   156

  The Common Mallow                                                 157

  The Musk Mallow                                                   158

  The Bloody Crane's-bill                                           159

  The Fruit of the Stork's-bill                                     160

  The Hemlock Stork's-bill                                          161

  The Bird's-foot Trefoil                                           162

  The Herb Bennet or Geum                                           163

  The Dog Rose                                                      164

  The Silver Weed                                                   164

  The Agrimony                                                      165

  The Orpine or Livelong                                            167

  The Fool's Parsley                                                168

  The Wild Parsnip                                                  169

  The Cow Parsnip or Hogweed                                        170

  The Honeysuckle                                                   171

  The Great Hedge Bedstraw                                          172

  The Teasel                                                        173

  Teasel Heads                                                      174

  Flower Head of the Marigold                                       176

  Florets of a Composite Flower                                     176

  The Yellow Goat's-beard                                           177

  The Hawkweed Picris                                               178

  The Prickly Lettuce                                               179

  The Sharp-fringed Sow-Thistle                                     180

  The Smooth Hawk's-beard                                           181

  The Nipplewort                                                    182

  The Burdock                                                       183

  The Spear Thistle                                                 184

  The Creeping Thistle                                              185

  The Tansy                                                         186

  The Wormwood                                                      187

  The Ragwort                                                       188

  The Scentless Mayweed                                             189

  The Yarrow or Milfoil                                             189

  The Rampion Bell-flower                                           191

  The Great Bindweed                                                192

  The Henbane                                                       193

  The Woody Nightshade or Bittersweet                               194

  The Deadly Nightshade                                             195

  The Yellow Toadflax                                               196

  The Vervein                                                       197

  The Balm                                                          198

  The Hedge Woundwort                                               199

  The Gromwell                                                      201

  The Hound's-tongue                                                202

  The White Goosefoot                                               203

  The Spotted Persicaria                                            205

  The Curled Dock                                                   207

  The Great Nettle                                                  208

  The Canary Grass                                                  209


  MEADOWS, FIELDS, AND PASTURES--SUMMER

  The Gold of Pleasure                                              212

  The Bladder Campion                                               213

  The White Campion                                                 214

  The Kidney Vetch                                                  215

  The Common Melilot                                                216

  The Lady's Mantle                                                 217

  The Meadow Sweet                                                  219

  The Burnet Saxifrage                                              220

  The Wild Carrot                                                   221

  The Devil's-bit Scabious                                          222

  The Rough Hawkbit                                                 223

  The Autumnal Hawkbit                                              224

  The Meadow Thistle                                                225

  The Black Knapweed                                                226

  The Great Knapweed                                                226

  The Common Fleabane                                               227

  The Ox-eye Daisy                                                  228

  The Sneezewort                                                    229

  The Small Bindweed                                                230

  Section of the Flower of Salvia                                   231

  The Self-heal                                                     231

  The Ribwort Plantain                                              232

  The Butterfly Orchis                                              233

  The Cat's-tail Grass                                              233

  The Meadow Barley                                                 233

  The Rye Grass or Darnel                                           234

  The Sheep's Fescue                                                234


  BOGS, MARSHES, AND WET PLACES--SUMMER

  The Lesser Spearwort                                              237

  The Great Hairy Willow Herb                                       238

  The Purple Loosestrife                                            239

  The Water Hemlock                                                 241

  The Common Water Dropwort                                         242

  The Marsh Thistle                                                 243

  The Brooklime                                                     244

  The Water Figwort                                                 245

  The Gipsy wort                                                    246

  The Round-leaved Mint                                             247

  The Forget-me-not                                                 248

  The Water Pepper or Biting Persicaria                             249

  The Bog Asphodel                                                  251

  The Common Rush                                                   252

  The Shining-fruited Jointed Rush                                  253

  The Common Sedge                                                  254

  The Marsh Sedge                                                   255


  HEATH, DOWN, AND MOOR

  The Milkwort                                                      258

  The Broom                                                         259

  The Furze or Gorse                                                260

  The Tormentil                                                     261

  The Smooth Heath Bedstraw                                         264

  The Dwarf Thistle                                                 265

  The Carline Thistle                                               267

  The Common Chamomile                                              268

  The Harebell                                                      269

  The Cross-leaved Heath                                            270

  The Bell Heather or Fine-leaved Heath                             271

  The Eyebright                                                     273

  The Wild Thyme                                                    275

  The Autumnal Lady's Tresses                                       276

  The Butcher's Broom                                               277

  The Common Quaking Grass                                          278

  The Common Mat Grass                                              279


  IN THE CORN FIELD

  The Mousetail                                                     282

  The Common Red Poppy                                              284

  The White or Opium Poppy                                          285

  The Fumitory                                                      287

  The Black Mustard                                                 288

  The Corn Spurrey                                                  289

  The Shepherd's Needle or Venus's Comb                             290

  The Venus's Looking Glass or Corn Bell-flower                     291

  The Scarlet Pimpernel                                             292

  The Climbing Bistort                                              293

  The Dwarf Spurge                                                  294


  ON THE CHALK

  The Rock Rose                                                     297

  The Sainfoin                                                      300

  The Salad Burnet                                                  301

  The Field Gentian                                                 302

  The Yellow-wort                                                   303

  The Great Mullein                                                 304

  The Red Hemp Nettle                                               305

  An Orchis Flower                                                  307

  The Sweet-scented Orchis                                          309


  BY THE RIVER SIDE

  The Common Meadow Rue                                             313

  The Hemp Agrimony                                                 314

  The Common Skull-cap                                              315

  The Comfrey                                                       316


  ON WALLS, ROCKS AND STONY PLACES

  The Biting Stonecrop or Wall Pepper                               321

  The Wall Pennywort or Navelwort                                   322

  The London Pride                                                  323

  The Mossy Saxifrage                                               324

  The Ivy-leaved Toadflax                                           325

  The Wall Pellitory                                                326


  AUTUMN IN THE WOODS

  The Alder in Autumn                                               333

  The Ash in Autumn                                                 336

  The Maple in Fruit                                                337

  The Wayfaring Tree in Fruit                                       338

  The Strawberry Tree                                               339


  PARASITIC PLANTS

  The Greater Dodder                                                342

  The Clover Dodder                                                 343

  The Great Broomrape                                               345

  The Mistletoe                                                     347

  A Young Mistletoe Plant                                           348


  CARNIVOROUS PLANTS

  The Greater Bladder-wort                                          351

  Longitudinal section through the leaf of the Toothwort            352

  The Common Butterwort                                             353

  The Round-leaved Sundew                                           355



FIELD

AND

WOODLAND PLANTS



I

INTRODUCTION

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF PLANTS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF FLOWERS


The beginner will often find it difficult, and sometimes quite
impossible, to identify some of the flowers seen or gathered during a
country ramble; and he will hardly be surprised to experience many
disappointments in his attempts to do this when he realises the large
number of species among our flowering plants, and the very close
resemblance that allied species frequently bear to one another. But
there are right and wrong methods of setting to work for the purpose of
determining the identity of a plant, and the object of this chapter is
to put the beginner on the right track. He must remember, however, that
the aid given here is intended to assist him principally in the
identification of the commoner species, though it may, at the same time,
help him to determine the natural affinities or relationships of other
flowers that fall in his way.

The directions we are about to give the reader regarding this portion of
his work will be understood by him only if he is fairly well acquainted
with the general characters of a flowering plant and with the structure
of flowers; and as it would hardly be advisable to assume such
knowledge, we shall give a brief outline of this part of the subject,
dealing only with those points that are essential to our purpose, and
explaining the meaning of those terms which are commonly employed in the
description of plants and their flowers.


THE ROOT

The root is that portion of the plant which descends into the soil for
the absorption of the mineral food required. It really serves a double
purpose, for, in addition to the function just mentioned, it fixes the
plant in its place, thus forming a basis of support for the stem and its
appendages.

[Illustration: FORMS OF ROOTS 1. Simple fibrous. 2. Branched fibrous. 3.
Tap root. 4. Tuberous root.]

Roots are capable of absorbing liquids only, and all fertile soils
contain more or less soluble mineral matter which is dissolved by the
moisture present. This matter is absorbed mainly by the minute
root-hairs--outgrowths of the superficial cells--which are to be found
on the rootlets or small branches that are given off from the main
descending axis.

The principal forms of roots occurring in our flowering plants are:--

1. The _simple fibrous root_, consisting of unbranched fibres such as we
see in the Bulbous Buttercup and the Common Daisy.

2. The _branched fibrous root_, as that of the Chickweed and Grasses.

3. The _tap root_, which is thick above and tapers downwards, like the
roots of the Dandelion, Carrot and Wild Parsnip.

4. The _tuberous root_, common among the Orchids.

5. The _creeping root_, possessed by some Grasses in addition to their
fibrous roots.

Besides these common forms there are roots of a somewhat exceptional
character, such as the _aerial roots_ or _suckers_ which grow from the
stem of the Ivy and serve to support the plant; and the roots of the
Mistletoe, which, instead of penetrating the soil, force their way into
the substance of certain trees, from which they derive the necessary
nourishment.

The student of plant life must always be careful to distinguish between
roots and underground stems, for there are many examples of creeping and
tuberous stems which resemble certain roots in general appearance. A
true root bears no buds, and, therefore, is not capable of producing new
plants. If a root creeps under the ground, as does the root of the
Barley Grass, it merely serves the purpose of collecting nourishment
from a wider area--a matter of considerable importance when the soil is
dry and deficient in suitable mineral food. A creeping stem, on the
other hand, developes buds as it proceeds, each bud giving rise to a new
plant; and the creeping itself is the result of the growth of a
permanent terminal bud.

Again, when studying plants for the purpose of identification, it is
often important to note whether the root is _annual_, _biennial_, or
_perennial_; that is, whether the root lives for one season only, lives
throughout the winter, and supports the plant for a second season, or
retains its life for an indefinite number of years.

Most of the roots that live over one season are of a fleshy nature,
thick and tapering, or tuberous, and contain more or less stored
nourishment which assists the new growths that are called forth by the
warmth and light of the early spring sun.


THE STEM

The stems of plants exhibit a much greater variety of structure and
habit than do the roots. Their chief functions are to support the leaves
and flowers, and to arrange these parts in such a manner that they
obtain the maximum of light and air; also to form a means of
communication by which the sap may pass in either direction. Stems also
frequently help to protect the plant, either by the development of
thorns or prickles, or by producing hairs which prevent snails and slugs
from reaching and devouring the leaves and flowers.

The character of the stem is often of some importance in determining the
species, so we must now note the principal features that should receive
our attention.

As regards surface, the stem may be _smooth_ or _hairy_. In general
form, as seen in transverse section, it may be _round_, _flattened_,
_triangular_, _square_, or traversed longitudinally by ridges and
furrows more or less distinct. Flattened stems are sometimes more or
less _winged_ with leaf-like extensions, as in the Everlasting Pea, in
which case the wings perform the functions of foliage leaves. It should
also be noted whether the stems are _herbaceous_, or _woody_, and
whether they are _hollow_, or _jointed_.

In some plants the stem is so short that the leaves appear to start
direct from the root, as in the Dandelion and Primrose. Such stems are
said to be _inconspicuous_.

[Illustration: RUNNING UNDERGROUND STEM OF SOLOMON'S SEAL

_a_, Terminal bud from which the next year's stem is developed; _b_,
Stem of the present year; _c_, and _d_, Scars of the stems of previous
years.]

The longer and conspicuous stems are either _simple_ or _branched_, and
they may be _erect_, _prostrate_, _trailing_, _climbing_, or _running_.
In the case of climbing stems it should be noted whether the necessary
support is obtained by means of tendrils, rootlets, or suckers, or by
the twining of the stem itself.

Running stems are those which run along the surface of the ground by the
continued growth of a terminal bud, and produce new plants at intervals,
as in the case of the Wild Strawberry. Many stems, however, creep under
the ground, and these should always be distinguished from running roots,
from which they may be known by the production of buds that develop into
new plants, as in the Iris and Solomon's Seal.


THE LEAF

The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is a matter of great
importance for purposes of identification. Especially should it be noted
whether the leaves are _opposite_, _alternate_, _whorled_ (arranged in
circles round the stem), or _radical_ (apparently starting direct from
the root).

Some leaves have smaller leaves or scales at their bases, that is, at
the points where they are attached to the stem of the plant. Such leaves
or scales are termed _stipules_. They are often so well developed that
they are as conspicuous as the ordinary foliage leaves, and in such
instances they perform the functions of the latter. The presence and
character of the stipules should always be noted. A leaf without
stipules is said to be _exstipulate_.

[Illustration: ARRANGEMENT OF LEAVES
1. Opposite. 2. Alternate. 3. Whorled.]

A leaf usually consists of two distinct parts--the _petiole_ or stalk,
and the _lamina_ or blade. Some, however, have no petiole, but the blade
is in direct contact with the stem. These leaves are said to be
_sessile_, and some of them clasp the stem, or even extend downwards on
the stem, forming a wing or a sheath.

[Illustration: LEAF OF THE PANSY WITH TWO LARGE STIPULES.]

A leaf is said to be _simple_ when the blade is in one continuous whole,
even though it may be very deeply divided; but when the blade is cut
into distinct parts by incisions that extend quite into the midrib (the
continuation of the stalk to the tip of the leaf), the leaf is
_compound_.

The student must be careful to distinguish between compound leaves and
little branches or twigs bearing several simple leaves, for they are
often very similar in general appearance. The compound leaf may always
be known by the total absence of buds, and often by the presence of one
or more stipules at the base of its stalk; while a branch bearing a
similar appearance usually has a terminal bud, also buds in the exils of
its leaves, and never any stipules at the point where it originates. The
distinct parts of compound leaves are termed _leaflets_.

Attention to the form and character of the leaf is often of as much
importance as the observation of the flower in the determination of
species. Not only should we note the general shape of the leaf, but also
the character of its surface, its margin, and its apex. The surface may
be _smooth_, _hairy_, _downy_, _velvety_, _shaggy_, _rough_, _wrinkled_
or _dotted_. The margin is said to be _entire_ when it is not broken by
incisions of any kind. If not entire it may be _toothed_, _serrate_
(sawlike), _crenate_ or _wavy_. Sometimes it happens that the teeth bear
still smaller teeth, in which case the margin is said to be _doubly
toothed_; or, if the teeth are sawlike, it is _doubly serrate_. As
regards the apex, it is generally sufficient to note whether it is
_acute_ (sharp), _obtuse_ (blunt), or _bifid_ (divided into two).

[Illustration: MARGINS OF LEAVES
1. Entire. 2. Serrate or sawlike. 3. Doubly serrate. 4. Dentate or
toothed. 5. Crenate. 6. Doubly crenate. 7. Sinuate or wavy.]

It is not necessary to describe separately all the principal forms of
simple and compound leaves. These are illustrated, and the student
should either make himself acquainted with the terms applied to the
different shapes, or refer, as occasion requires, to the illustrations.
Concerning the compound leaves, however, their segments are themselves
sometimes divided after the manner of the whole, and even the secondary
segments may be similarly cut. Thus, if the segments of a pinnate leaf
are themselves pinnately compound, the leaf is said to be _bi-pinnate_;
and, if the secondary segments are also compound, it is a _tri-pinnate_
leaf.


INFLORESCENCE

We must now turn our attention to the different kinds of _inflorescence_
or arrangement of flowers. Flowers are commonly mounted on stalks
(_peduncles_), but in many cases they have no stalks, being attached
directly to the stem of the plant, and therefore said to be _sessile_.
Whether stalked or sessile, if they arise from the axils of the
leaves--the angles formed by the leafstalks and the stem--they are said
to be axillary. When only one flower grows on a stalk it is said to be
_solitary_; but in many cases we find a number of flowers on one
peduncle, in which instances, should each flower of the cluster have a
separate stalk of its own, the main stalk only is called the peduncle,
and the lesser stalks bearing the individual flowers are the
_pedicels_.

  [Illustration: VARIOUS FORMS OF SIMPLE LEAVES
  1. Oval or elliptical.
  2. Ovate.
  3. Obovate.
  4. Orbicular.
  5. Lanceolate.
  6. Linear.
  7. Cordate (heart-shaped).
  8. Obcordate.
  9. Reniform (kidney-shaped).
  10. Sagittate (Arrow-shaped).
  11. Rhomboidal.
  12. Spathulate (spoon-shaped).
  13. Peltate (stalk fixed to the centre).
  14. Oblique.
  15. Runcinate (lobes pointing more or less downwards).
  16. Hastate (halberd-shaped).
  17. Angled.
  18. Palmate.
  19. Pinnatifid.]

[Illustration: FORMS OF COMPOUND LEAVES
1. Binate. 2. Ternate. 3. Digitate. 4. Pinnate.]

[Illustration: FORMS OF INFLORESCENCE
1. Spike. 2. Raceme. 3. Corymb. 4. Umbel. 5. Cyme. 6. Compound Raceme or
Panicle. 7. Capitulum or Head. 8. Compound Umbel.]

It is often convenient to make use of certain terms to denote the
various arrangements of flower-clusters, and the principal of these are
as follows:--

1. _Spike._--Sessile flowers arranged along a common axis.

2. _Raceme._--Flowers stalked along a common axis.

3. _Corymb._--Flowers stalked along a common axis, but the lengths of
the pedicels varying in such a manner as to bring all the flowers to the
same level.

4. _Umbel._--The pedicels all start from the same level on the peduncle.

5. _Cyme._--An arrangement in which the flower directly at the end of
the peduncle opens first, followed by those on the branching pedicels.

6. _Panicle._--A compound raceme--a raceme the pedicels of which are
themselves branched.

7. _Capitulum_ or _Flower-head_.--A dense cluster of flowers, all
attached to a common broad disc or receptacle.

Other forms of inflorescence may also be compound. Thus, a _compound
umbel_ is produced when the pedicels of an umbel are themselves
umbellate.


THE FLOWER

A flower, if complete in all its parts, consists of modified leaves
arranged in four distinct whorls, the parts being directly or indirectly
attached to a receptacle.

The outer whorl is the _calyx_, and is composed of parts called
_sepals_, which may be either united or distinct. The calyx is usually
green; but, in some cases, is more or less highly coloured. Sometimes
the calyx is quite free from the pistil or central part of the flower,
the sides of which are thus left naked, and the calyx is then said to be
_inferior_. If, however, it is united to the surface of the pistil it is
_superior_. When it remains after other parts of the flower have
decayed, it is said to be _persistent_.

The second whorl--the _corolla_--is usually the whorl that gives most
beauty to the flower. It is composed of parts, united or distinct,
called _petals_.

Both calyx and corolla vary very considerably in shape. They may be
cup-shaped, tubular, bell-shaped, spreading, funnel-shaped, lipped, &c.
If the sepals and petals are arranged symmetrically round a common
centre, the calyx and corolla, respectively, are said to be _regular_;
if otherwise, they are _irregular_.

The third whorl consists of the _stamens_, each of which, in its most
perfect form, is made up of a _filament_ or stalk, and an _anther_
which, when mature, splits and sets free the _pollen_ that is formed
within it. Sometimes the stamen has no filament, and the anther is then
said to be sessile.

The mode of attachment of the stamens is very variable. They may grow
from immediately below the pistil, or from its summit; or they may be
attached to either the petals or the sepals. The filaments are usually
distinct, but sometimes they are united in such a manner as to form a
tube, or grow into two or more bundles. The anthers are usually
distinct, even when the filaments are united; but these sometimes grow
together.

[Illustration: LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH THE FLOWER OF THE BUTTERCUP
Showing the calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil. The pistil consists of
several distinct carpels, one of which is represented in section to show
its single ovule.]

The central part of the flower is the _pistil_, and this is made up of
one or more parts called _carpels_. Each carpel, when distinct, is a
hollow case or _ovary_, prolonged above into one or more stalks or
_styles_, tipped by a viscid secreting surface called the _stigma_. The
ovary contains the _ovules_, attached to a surface called the
_placenta_; and these ovules, after having been impregnated by the
pollen, develop into seeds which are plants in embryo. The ovary may
have no style, and the stigma is then sessile.

Where the pistil consists of more than one carpel, these carpels may
unite in such a manner as to form a single cell, or an ovary of two or
more cells. In other cases the carpels remain quite distinct, thus
forming a number of distinct ovaries, each with its own stigma. For
purposes of identification it is often necessary to note the position of
the placenta. This may be at the side of the ovary, in which case it is
said to be _parietal_; or it may stand up in the centre of the ovary,
without any attachment to the sides, when it is described as _free
central_. If, however, it occupies the centre of the ovary, but is
attached by means of radiating partitions to the sides, it is termed
_axile_.

If the ovary is quite free in the centre of the flower, the surrounding
parts being attached below it, it is said to be _superior_; but if the
perianth (p. 11) adheres to it, it is _inferior_.

A leaf or scale will often be observed at the foot of a flower stalk or
at the base of a sessile flower. This is termed a _bract_, and a flower
possessing a bract is said to be _bracteate_. The bract is sometimes so
large that it almost completely encloses the flower, or even a cluster
of flowers.

[Illustration: INFERIOR (1) AND SUPERIOR (2)OVARY.]

The flower is the reproductive part of the plant, being concerned in the
production of the seeds; but the organs directly connected with the
seed-formation are the pistil and the stamens, the former containing the
ovules, and the latter producing the pollen cells by means of which the
ovules are impregnated. Thus the stamens and the pistil are the
_essential_ parts of the flower, though the corolla and the calyx may
perform some subsidiary function in connexion with the reproduction of
the species.

This being the case, a flower may be described as _perfect_ if it
consists of stamens and pistil only, without any surrounding calyx or
corolla; and _imperfect_ if it possesses no pistil _or_ no stamens,
regardless of the presence or absence of calyx and corolla.

[Illustration: UNISEX FLOWERS OF THE NETTLE
1. Pistillate. 2. Staminate.]

The two outer whorls of a well-developed perfect flower (calyx and
corolla) together form the _perianth_. Some flowers, however have only
one whorl outside the anthers, representing both the calyx and corolla
of the more highly organised flower. This one whorl, therefore, is the
perianth, and its parts are not correctly termed either petals or
sepals, since they represent both.

A perfect flower is sometimes spoken of as _bisexual_, for it includes
the two sexual organs of the plant--the ovary or female part, producing
the ovules; and the stamens or male part, which is concerned in the
impregnation or fertilisation of the ovules.

Many plants produce only _unisexual_ (and therefore imperfect) flowers,
which contain either no stamens or no pistil. If such possess stamens
and no pistil, they are called _staminate_ or _male_ flowers; and if
pistil and no stamens, _pistillate_ or _female_ flowers. These two kinds
are sometimes borne on the same plant, when they are said to be
_monoecious_; but often on separate plants (_dioecious_), as in some
of the Nettleworts and the Willow Tree. Spikes of unisexual flowers,
such as are common among our forest trees, are called _catkins_.


THE FRUIT AND SEED

[Illustration: DEHISCENT FRUITS
1. Pod. 2. Siliqua. 3. Silicula. 4. Follicles (cluster of three). 5.
Capsule splitting longitudinally. 6. Capsule splitting transversely. 7.
Capsule splitting by pores.]

After the ovules have been impregnated by the pollen they develop into
seeds, each of which consists of or contains an embryo plant; and, at
the same time, the ovary itself enlarges, changing its character more or
less, till it becomes a ripened _fruit_.

Fruits vary very considerably in their general characters, but may be
divided into two main groups--those that split when ripe (_dehiscent
fruits_) and those which do not split (_indehiscent fruits_).

The principal forms of dehiscent fruits are:--

1. The _pod_ or _legume_, which splits into two valves, with placenta on
one side.

2. The _siliqua_, a long, narrow fruit that splits into two valves which
separate from a membrane with placenta on both sides.

3. The _silicula_, of the same nature as the siliqua, but about as broad
as it is long.

4. The _follicle_, which splits on one side only, through the placenta.

5. All other fruits that split are termed _capsules_. Some of these
split longitudinally, some transversely, and others by forming pores for
the escape of the seeds.

The chief kinds of indehiscent fruits are:--

1. The _drupe_ or stone-fruit, which consists of a hard stone surrounded
by a fleshy covering, as the plum and the cherry.

2. The _berry_, which is soft and fleshy, and contains several seeds,
like the currant and the grape.

3. The _nut_ or _achene_--a fruit with hard and dry walls, as the
filbert and the acorn.

4. The _samara_ or winged fruit, like that of the sycamore.

Various modifications of these indehiscent fruits are to be met with;
thus, the blackberry is not really a berry, but a cluster of little
drupes formed from a single pistil of many carpels. A berry, too, may be
made up of many parts, as is the case with the orange. The apple and
similar fruits consist of a core (the true fruit) surrounded by a fleshy
mass that is produced from the receptacle of the flower; and the
strawberry is a succulent, enlarged receptacle of the flower, with a
number of little achenes (the true fruits) on its surface.

The seed, as we have already observed, is the embryo plant. It consists
of one or more seed-leaves or _cotyledons_, a _radicle_ or young root,
and a _plumule_ or young bud. In many cases the skin of the seed
encloses nothing more than the three parts of the embryo, as named
above; but it sometimes contains, in addition, a quantity of nutrient
matter in the form of albumen, starch, oil, gum, or other substance.


CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Our flowering plants are divided into two main groups, the
_dicotyledons_ and the _monocotyledons_. These terms suggest that the
division is based on the nature of the seed, which is really the case,
but the groups are characterised by differences in other parts. Thus,
the plants which produce seeds with two cotyledons may be known by the
nature of the stem, which consists of a central pith, surrounded by wood
arranged in one or more rings, and the whole enclosed in an outer
epidermis or in a bark. These plants also bear leaves with netted veins,
and the parts of the flower are usually in whorls of four or five or
multiples of four or five. Those plants whose seeds have only one
cotyledon may be known by the absence of a central pith and true bark in
the stem, while the wood is arranged in scattered bundles instead of in
a ring or rings. They have also, generally, leaves with parallel veins;
and the parts of the flower are usually in threes or multiples of three.
The following table shows these features at a glance:--

  _Dicotyledons_                      _Monocotyledons_

  Embryo with two cotyledons.         Embryo with one cotyledon.

  Stem with central pith, wood in     Stem with no central pith, no true
  rings or rings, and bark.           bark, and wood not in rings.

  Leaves with netted veins.           Leaves with parallel veins.

  Parts of flower usually in fours    Parts of flower arranged in threes
  or fives.                           or multiples of three.

These two great divisions or _classes_ are split up into _sub-classes_,
each embracing a large number of plants with common characters; and the
sub-classes are again divided into _orders_, and the orders into
_genera_.

The student should always endeavour to determine the order to which any
flower he finds belongs; and, if possible, the genus and the species. It
is certainly a pleasure to be able to call flowers by their names, but
at the same time it must be remembered that a vast deal of pleasure may
be gained by the study of flowers--their peculiar structure, habits and
habitats--even though their names are unknown; and the student who has
learnt to recognise these characters, and to discover the relationships
that exist between certain flowers of different species, is certainly
much more fortunate than the one who knows abundance of names with only
a meagre acquaintance with the flowers themselves.

Our table of classification gives the most important distinguishing
characters of the classes, sub-classes, and orders, of a very large
proportion of our wild flowers, and will enable the reader to determine
the natural order of almost every one he sees. In order to show how this
table is to be used we will take an imaginary example.

Let us suppose that we find a plant with a square stem; opposite, simple
leaves with netted veins; flowers apparently in whorls, in the axils of
the leaves; persistent calyx of five united sepals; a lipped corolla, of
five united petals, two forming the lower, and three the upper lip; four
stamens, attached to the corolla, two longer than the others; a
superior, four-lobed ovary; and a fruit of four little nuts; then we
proceed to determine the natural order to which it belongs as follows:--

The netted veins of the leaves, and the arrangement of the parts of
the flower in whorls of four and five, show us at once that the plant
is a _dicotyledon_. Then, the presence of both calyx and corolla
enables us to decide that the plant belongs to Division I. of the
dicotyledons--that it belongs to one of the orders 1 to 59. Noting, now,
that the corolla is composed of united petals, we are enabled to fix its
position in the subdivision I.B, among orders 37 to 59. Next, the
superior ovary shows that it must be located in the group I.B 2--orders
44 to 59; and as the stamens are attached to the corolla, we see at once
that it is not a member of order 44. Turning now to the Synopsis of the
Natural Orders (p. 17), we find that the irregular flowers of
this group of orders occur only in 51, 52, 53, 54, and 56. Finally, the
square stem, opposite leaves, and character of the fruit, show us that
the plant must belong to the order _Labiatæ_.

The student should, as far as possible, deal with all flowers in this
manner, assigning each one to its proper order; and, if he preserves his
specimens for future observation, the names of the orders should always
be attached, and the plants arranged accordingly.

Again, should the reader meet with a common flower the name of which was
previously known, while he is as yet ignorant as to the order to which
it belongs; or, should he find a flower that he can at once identify by
means of one of our illustrations; he should not rest satisfied on
seeing that the name of the order is given beside the name of the plant,
but turn to the synopsis, and note the distinguishing characters which
determine the natural position of the plant. In this way he will
cultivate the habit of careful observation; will make much more rapid
progress in forming an acquaintance with plants in general, and will
soon become familiar with those natural affinities which mark, more or
less distinctly, a cousinship among the flowers.

To aid the reader in this part of his work we have given the name of the
natural order with the name of every plant described; and, where
difficulties are likely to occur in the identification of similar common
species of the same genus, though perhaps only one member of the genus
has been selected for description, a few notes are often included with
the object of assisting in the identification of the others.

In our descriptions of wild flowers we do not always repeat those
features which are common to the species of their respective orders.
These features are, however, of the greatest importance; and thus it is
essential that the reader makes himself acquainted with them, by
referring to the synopsis of the orders, before noting those characters
which are given as being more directly concerned in the determination of
the species themselves. Thus, when we describe the Pasque Flower (p.
297) we do not refer to those general characters that apply to
all the _Ranunculaceæ_ or Buttercup family, and which may be seen at
once by referring to p. 17, but give all those details that are
necessary to enable one to distinguish between the Pasque Flower and the
other members of the same order.


_Dicotyledons_

(Leaves with netted veins. Parts of flower generally in fours or fives
or multiples of four or five)

I. Flowers with both calyx and corolla.

    A. Corolla composed of free and separate petals.

      1. Stamens attached to base of flower, beneath the pistil--Orders
      1-22.

      2. Stamens attached above or around the pistil--Orders
      23-36.

    B. Corolla of united petals.

      1. Ovary inferior.

        _a._ Stamens on the corolla--Orders 37-41.

        _b._ Stamens on the ovary--Orders 42-43.

      2. Ovary superior.

        _a._ Stamens free from the corolla--Order 44.

        _b._ Stamens on the corolla--Orders 45-59.

II. Flowers with calyx or corolla or both absent.

    A. Flowers with corolla absent, and, generally, with stamens
    and pistil in the same flower.

      1. Ovary superior--Orders 60-64.

      2. Ovary inferior--Orders 65-67.

    B. Corolla and calyx usually absent. Stamens and pistil
    usually in separate flowers.

      1. Flowers not in catkins--Orders 68-71.

      2. Flowers in catkins--Orders 72-76.


_Monocotyledons_

(Leaves usually with parallel veins. Parts of flower in
threes or multiples of three)

 I. Perianth (see p. 11), coloured or petal-like, not scaly. (Sometimes
absent.)

      A. Ovary inferior.

           1. Leaves with parallel veins--Orders 77-80.

           2. Leaves with netted veins--Order 81.

      B. Ovary superior--Orders 82-88.

II. Flowers without perianth, enclosed in scales or husks.

      A. Grassy herbs, with solid stems; leaves forming unsplit
           sheaths round the stem; flowers in spikelets, with one
           to three stamens--Order 89.

      B. Grassy herbs, with hollow stems; leaves generally forming
           split sheaths round the stem; flowers generally
           perfect, with three stamens--Order 90.

SYNOPSIS OF THE NATURAL ORDERS

1. RANUNCULACEÆ.--Herbs mostly with alternate leaves and regular
flowers. Sepals generally 5, distinct. Petals 5 or more. Stamens 12 or
more. Pistil of many distinct carpels. Fruit of many one-seeded achenes.
(The Buttercup Family.)

2. BERBERIDACEÆ.--Shrub with compound spines; alternate, spiny leaves;
and pendulous flowers. Sepals 6. Petals 6. Stamens 6. Fruit a berry.
(The Berberry Family.)

3. NYMPHÆACEÆ.--Aquatic plants with floating leaves and solitary
flowers. Petals numerous, gradually passing into sepals outwards, and
into stamens inwards. Ovary of many cells, with many seeds. (The
Water-lily Family.)

4. PAPAVERACEÆ.--Herbs with a milky sap; alternate leaves without
stipules; and regular (generally nodding) flowers. Sepals 2, deciduous.
Fruit a capsule. Petals 4. Stamens many. Ovary one-celled, but with many
membranous, incomplete partitions. (The Poppy Family.)

5. FUMARIACEÆ.--Herbs with much divided, exstipulate leaves; and racemes
of small irregular, bracteate flowers. Sepals 2 or 0, deciduous. Petals
4, irregular. Stamens 6, in two bundles. Ovary of two carpels,
one-celled. (The Fumitory Family.)

6. CRUCIFERÆ.--Herbs with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and racemes of
regular flowers. Sepals 4. Petals 4, cruciform. Stamens 6, four longer
and two shorter. Ovary one-or two-celled. Fruit a siliqua. (The Cabbage
Family.)

7. RESEDACEÆ.--Herbs or shrubs with alternate, exstipulate leaves; and
spikes of irregular, greenish flowers. Sepals 4 or 5, persistent. Petals
4 to 7, irregular. Stamens many. Ovary of 3 lobes, one-celled. (The
Mignonette Family.)

8. CISTACEÆ.--Herbs or undershrubs with entire, opposite leaves; and
conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals 3 to 5. Petals 5, twisted in the
bud. Stamens many. Ovary of 3 carpels, one-chambered. (The Rock-rose
Family.)

9. VIOLACEÆ.--Herbs with alternate, stipuled leaves; and axillary,
irregular flowers. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5, unequal, the lower
one prolonged into a spur. Stamens 5. Ovary of three carpels,
one-celled. (The Violet Family.)

10. DROSERACEÆ.--Small marsh plants with radical, glandular leaves; and
cymes of small, white, regular flowers. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 5 or
10. Ovary of 3 to 5 carpels, one-celled. (The Sundew Family.)

11. POLYGALACEÆ.--Herbs with alternate, scattered, exstipulate, simple
leaves; and racemes of irregular flowers. Sepals 5, the inner ones
resembling petals. Petals 3 to 5, unequal. Stamens 8, in two bundles.
Ovary two-celled. Fruit a capsule. (The Milkwort Family.)

12. FRANKENIACEÆ.--Herb with opposite, exstipulate leaves; and small,
axillary, red, regular flowers. Sepals 4 to 6, united into a tube.
Petals 4 to 6. Stamens 4 to 6. Ovary of 2 to 5 carpels, one-celled. (The
Sea Heath.)

13. ELATINACEÆ.--Small aquatic herbs, with opposite, stipulate,
spathulate leaves; and minute, axillary, red flowers. Sepals, petals and
stamens 2 to 5. Fruit a capsule with 2 to 5 valves. (The Waterwort
Family.)

14. CARYOPHYLLACEÆ.--Herbs mostly with jointed stems; opposite, simple
leaves; and red or white, regular flowers. Sepals 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5.
Stamens 8 or 10. Styles 2 to 5. Fruit a one-celled capsule, opening at
top by teeth. (The Pink Family.)

15. LINACEÆ.--Herbs with slender stems; narrow, simple, entire,
exstipulate leaves; and cymes of regular flowers. Sepals, petals,
stamens, and carpels 4 or 5. Petals twisted in the bud, fugacious
(falling early). Carpels each with two ovules. Fruit a capsule of 3 to 5
cells. (The Flax Family.)

16. MALVACEÆ.--Herbs or shrubs with alternate, stipuled leaves; and
conspicuous, axillary, regular flowers. Sepals 5. Petals 5, twisted in
the bud. Stamens many, united into a tube. Carpels many, each with one
ovule. (The Mallow Family.)

17. TILIACEÆ.--Trees with alternate, stipuled, oblique, serrate leaves;
a large bract adherent to the flower stalk; and cymes of greenish,
regular flowers. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens many. Carpels 5, each with
two ovules. (The Linden Family.)

18. HYPERICACEÆ.--Herbs or shrubs with opposite, simple, exstipulate
leaves, often dotted with glands; and cymes of conspicuous yellow,
regular flowers. Sepals 4 or 5, with glandular dots. Petals 4 or 5,
twisted in the bud. Stamens many, united into several bundles. Carpels 3
to 5, with many ovules. Fruit a capsule with 3 to 5 cells. (The St.
John's-wort Family.)

19. ACERACEÆ.--Trees with opposite, palmately-lobed leaves; and small,
green, regular flowers. Sepals and petals 4 to 9. Stamens 8, on the
disc. Fruit a samara. (The Maple Family.)

20. GERANIACEÆ.--Herbs with lobed, generally stipulate leaves; and
conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals 3 to 5, persistent. Petals 3 to 5.
Stamens 5 to 10. Carpels 3 to 5, surrounding a long beak. (The
Crane's-bill Family.)

21. BALSAMINACEÆ.--Herbs with simple, alternate leaves; and axillary,
irregular, yellow flowers. Sepals 3 or 5, one forming a wide-mouthed
spur. Petals 5, four of which are united in pairs. Stamens 5. Fruit a
capsule with five elastic valves. (The Balsam Family.)

22. OXALIDACEÆ.--Low herbs, with radical, generally trifoliate leaves;
and axillary, regular flowers. Sepals 5. Petals 5, united at the base.
Stamens 10. Ovary five-celled, with many ovules. (The Wood Sorrel
Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

23. CELASTRACEÆ.--Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves; and small,
regular flowers in axillary cymes. Sepals and petals usually 4. Stamens
usually 4, alternating with the petals. Carpels 4. Fruit a fleshy
capsule. (Spindle Tree.)

24. RHAMNACEÆ.--Shrubs with simple leaves; small, greenish flowers; and
berry-like fruit. Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 or 5. Stamens opposite
the petals. Ovary superior, three-celled, with one ovule in each cell.
(The Buckthorn Family.)

25. LEGUMINOSÆ.--Herbs or shrubs with alternate, stipuled leaves,
generally pinnate or ternate, often tendrilled; and papilionaceous
(butterfly-like) flowers. Sepals 5, combined. Petals 5, irregular.
Stamens generally 10, all, or nine of them united. Ovary superior. Fruit
a pod. (The Pea Family.)

26. ROSACEÆ.--Trees, shrubs, or herbs with alternate, stipuled leaves;
and conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5. Stamens
many. Carpels 1, 2, 5, or many. (The Rose Family.)

27. ONAGRACEÆ.--Herbs with mostly entire, simple, exstipulate leaves;
and conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals 2 to 4. Petals 2 to 4, twisted
in the bud, or absent. Stamens 2 to 4, or 8. Ovary inferior, with
carpels 1 to 6 (usually 4), many-seeded. (The Willow-herb Family.)

28. HALORAGIACEÆ.--Aquatic herbs with whorled leaves and minute flowers.
Sepals 2 to 4 or absent. Petals 2 to 4 or absent. Stamens 1, 2, 4, or 8.
Ovary inferior. Carpels 1 to 4. (The Mare's-tail Family.)

29. LYTHRACEÆ.--Herbs with opposite or whorled, entire leaves; and
conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals, and petals 3 to 6. Stamens
generally twice as many as petals. Ovary superior. Carpels 2 to 6. Fruit
a many-seeded capsule. (The Loosestrife Family.)

30. TAMARISCACEÆ.--Shrub with minute, scale-like leaves; and lateral
spikes of small, regular flowers. Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens 4 to
10, on the disc. Styles 3. (The Tamarisk.)

31. CUCURBITACEÆ.--Rough, climbing herb, with tendrilled,
palmately-lobed leaves; greenish, dioecious flowers in axillary
racemes; and scarlet berries. Sepals and petals 5, united. Stamens 3.
Ovary inferior. Carpels 3. (The White Bryony.)

32. SAXIFRAGACEÆ.--Shrubs and herbs with regular flowers. Sepals and
petals 4 or 5. Stamens 4 or 10. Carpels 2 or 4, united. (The Saxifrage
Family.)

33. CRASSULACEÆ.--Succulent herbs with simple leaves; and small,
regular, starry flowers. Sepals, petals, and carpels 3 to 20, usually 5.
Stamens twice as many as the petals. Carpels superior, forming
follicles. (The Stonecrop Family.)

34. ARALIACEÆ.--Climbing shrub with clinging rootlets, evergreen leaves,
umbels of yellowish flowers, and black berries. Sepals, petals, stamens,
carpels, and seeds 5 each. Ovary inferior. (The Ivy.)

35. CORNACEÆ.--Herbs and shrubs with opposite leaves, small flowers, and
berry-like fruits. Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 or 5. Ovary inferior.
Carpels 2, each with one ovule. (The Dogwood Family.)

36. UMBELLIFERÆ.--Herbs with mostly compound, pinnate leaves, sheathing
at the base; and compound umbels of small, white flowers. Sepals,
petals, and stamens 5. Ovary inferior. Fruit of two adhering carpels.
(The Parsley Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

37. CAPRIFOLIACEÆ.--Shrubs and herbs with opposite leaves, and
conspicuous (sometimes irregular) flowers. Sepals and petals 3 to 5.
Stamens 4 to 10. Fruit a berry. (The Honeysuckle Family.)

38. RUBIACEÆ.--Herbs with whorled leaves; and small, regular flowers.
Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 to 6. Carpels 2. (The Bedstraw Family.)

39. VALERIANACEÆ.--Herbs with opposite leaves and small (sometimes
irregular) flowers. Sepals 3 to 5, often downy. Petals 3 to 5. Stamens 1
or 3. Ovary of three carpels, one-celled. (The Valerian Family.)

40. DIPSACEÆ.--Herbs with opposite leaves; and heads of small flowers,
mostly blue. Calyx enclosed in a whorl of scaly bracts. Petals 4 or 5.
Stamens 4, free. Ovary one-celled and one-seeded. (The Teasel Family.)

41. COMPOSITÆ.--Herbs with heads of small flowers with tubular or
strap-shaped corollas. Calyx absent or represented by a whorl of silky
hairs (pappus). Stamens 4 or 5, anthers generally united. (The Daisy
Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

42. CAMPANULACEÆ.--Herbs with milky sap; alternate, entire, scattered
leaves; and usually conspicuous, blue, regular flowers. Sepals, petals,
and stamens 5. Ovary of 2 to 8 carpels. (The Bellflower Family.)

43. VACCINIACEÆ.--Low (mostly mountainous) shrubs, with scattered,
simple, alternate leaves; small drooping, reddish or pink, regular
flowers; and edible berries. Sepals, petals, and carpels 4 or 5. Stamens
8 or 10. (The Cranberry Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

44. ERICACEÆ.--Shrubs or herbs with opposite or whorled, evergreen
leaves; and small conspicuous, regular, flowers. Sepals, petals, and
carpels 4 or 5. Stamens 5 to 10. (The Heath Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

45. AQUIFOLIACEÆ.--Shrub with evergreen, spiny leaves; and small,
greenish, regular flowers. Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels 4 or 5.
Fruit berry-like, with one-seeded stones. (The Holly.)

46. OLEACEÆ.--Trees or shrubs with opposite leaves; and small, regular
flowers. Sepals and petals 4, sometimes absent. Stamens 2. Fruit a berry
or a samara. (The Olive Family.)

47. APOCYNACEÆ.--Slender, prostrate shrubs, with milky sap; opposite,
evergreen, entire leaves; and conspicuous, regular, purple flowers.
Sepals, petals, and stamens 5. Corolla salver-shaped. (The Periwinkle
Family.)

48. GENTIANACEÆ.--Bitter herbs with opposite, simple, entire leaves; and
regular, conspicuous flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 to 10.
Carpels 2. Fruit a capsule. (The Gentian Family.)

49. CONVOLVULACEÆ.--Herbs, generally twining, with alternate, simple
leaves (sometimes absent); and mostly conspicuous, regular flowers.
Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 or 5. Ovary two-or four-celled. Fruit a
four-seeded capsule. (The Bindweed Family.)

50. SOLANACEÆ.--Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves, and axillary
cymes of regular flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens 5. Ovary
two-celled. Fruit berry-like or a capsule, many seeded. (The Nightshade
Family.)

51. SCROPHULARIACEÆ.--Herbs with mostly irregular, lipped flowers.
Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamens 2, or 4, two longer than the others.
Carpels 2. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. (The Figwort Family.)

52. OROBANCHACEÆ.--Fleshy, brown, parasitic plants, with scattered
scale-leaves; and mostly brownish, irregular flowers. Sepals 4 or 5.
Petals 5, lipped. Stamens 4, two longer than the others. Carpels 2.
Fruit a one-chambered, many-seeded capsule. (The Broom-rape Family.)

53. VERBENACEÆ.--An erect, branched herb, with opposite leaves; and a
compound spike of small, irregular flowers. Sepals and petals 5. Corolla
lipped. Stamens 4, two longer than the others. Ovary four-celled. Fruit
of 4 nutlets. (The Vervain.)

54. LABIATÆ.--Herbs, mostly aromatic, with square stems, opposite
leaves, and whorls or cymes of irregular flowers. Sepals and petals 5.
Corolla usually lipped. Stamens 4 (rarely 2), two longer than the
others. Fruit of 4 one-seeded nutlets. (The Dead Nettle Family.)

55. BORAGINACEÆ.--Herbs, mostly rough, with alternate, simple leaves;
and spikes of conspicuous, regular flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens
5. Carpels 2. Fruit of 4 one-seeded nutlets. (The Borage Family.)

56. LENTIBULARIACEÆ.--Insectivorous, marsh herbs, with radical, entire
leaves, or much-divided floating leaves with bladders; and conspicuous,
irregular flowers. Sepals and petals 5. Corolla usually lipped. Stamens
2. Fruit a one-chambered, many-seeded capsule. (The Butterwort Family.)

57. PRIMULACEÆ.--Herbs, mostly with radical leaves; and conspicuous,
regular flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens 4 to 9. Stamens opposite
the petals. Ovary one-celled, with free central placenta. Fruit a
many-seeded capsule. (The Primrose Family.)

58. PLUMBAGINACEÆ.--Herbs, mostly maritime, with radical or alternate
leaves; and mostly blue, regular flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens 5.
Stamens opposite the petals, and usually free. Carpels 3 to 5. Ovary
one-celled and one-seeded. (The Thrift Family.)

59. PLANTAGINACEÆ.--Herbs with (generally) simple, entire, radical
leaves; and spikes of greenish flowers. Sepals, petals, and stamens 4.
Corolla scaly. Carpels usually 2 or 4. Fruit a one-to four-chambered
capsule. (The Plantain Family.)

_Note._--_Plants in which calyx or corolla are, or appear to be, absent
occur in orders_ 1, 6, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 32.

       *       *       *       *       *

60. AMARANTHACEÆ.--A smooth, prostrate herb, with scattered, stalked,
exstipulate, simple leaves; and small, axillary, green, monoecious
flowers. Sepals and stamens 3 to 5. (The Amaranth.)

61. CHENOPODIACEÆ.--Herbs with simple, exstipulate leaves, or leafless,
jointed stems; and small green flowers. Sepals 3 to 5, persistent.
Stamens 1 to 5, opposite the sepals. Fruit indehiscent. (The Goosefoot
Family.)

62. POLYGONACEÆ.--Herbs with sheathing stipules; alternate, simple
leaves; and small flowers. Sepals 3 to 6, green or coloured, usually
persistent. Stamens 5 to 8. Fruit indehiscent. (The Dock Family.)

63. ELEAGNACEÆ.--A shrub with silvery scales; alternate, entire,
exstipulate leaves; and inconspicuous, dioecious flowers. Sepals 2 to
4, persistent. Stamens 4. Fruit berry-like. (The Sea Buckthorn.)

64. THYMELACEÆ.--Shrubs with tough inner bark; simple, entire,
exstipulate leaves; and conspicuous, perfect, sweet-scented flowers.
Sepals 4. Stamens 8. Fruit berry-like. (The Spurge Laurel Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

65. LORANTHACEÆ.--A green, parasitic, much branched shrub, with
opposite, simple, entire leaves; inconspicuous, dioecious flowers; and
whitish viscid berries. Sepals and stamens 4. Ovary one-chambered. Berry
one-seeded. (The Mistletoe.)

66. ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ.--Herbs and climbing shrubs, with alternate leaves
and perfect flowers. Sepals 2 or 3, sometimes coloured, sometimes
lipped. Ovary with 4 to 6 chambers, containing many ovules. (The
Birthwort Family.)

67. SANTALACEÆ.--A slender, prostrate, root-parasite, with alternate,
linear leaves; and inconspicuous, perfect flowers. Sepals and stamens 4
or 5. Ovary one-celled. Fruit dry, one-seeded. (The Bastard Toad-flax.)

       *       *       *       *       *

68. EMPETRACEÆ.--A mountain, evergreen, resinous shrub, with alternate,
narrow leaves; and inconspicuous, dioecious flowers. Perianth of 6
scales. Stamens 3. Ovary of 3 to 9 cells, with one ovule in each cell.
(The Crowberry.)

69. EUPHORBIACEÆ.--Trees, shrubs, or herbs, generally with a milky sap;
simple, entire leaves; and small, inconspicuous flowers, sometimes
enclosed in calyx-like bracts. Perianth of 3 or 4 parts, or absent.
Stamens 1 or many. Fruit separating into 2 or 3 carpels elastically.
(The Spurge Family.)

70. URTICACEÆ.--Herbs, often with simple, stinging leaves; and small,
green, clustered, unisexual flowers. Stamens 4 or 5, opposite the
sepals. Ovary superior, one-celled. Fruit indehiscent. (The Nettle
Family.)

71. ULMACEÆ.--Trees with alternate, distichous leaves, and perfect
flowers. Perianth of 4 or 5 parts, bell-shaped. Stamens 4 or 5. Ovary
superior, with one or two cells. Fruit a thin, one-seeded samara. (The
Elm Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

72. CUPULIFERÆ.--Trees or shrubs with alternate, stipuled, simple
leaves; and small, green flowers. Perianth of 5 or 6 parts. Stamens 5 to
20. Fruit a nut, enclosed in a tough cupule. (The Oak Family.)

73. BETULACEÆ.--Trees or shrubs with alternate leaves and small flowers.
Stamens 1 or more. Fruit small, indehiscent, winged, not enclosed in a
cup. (The Birch Family.)

74. SALICACEÆ.--Trees with alternate, simple leaves; and flowers which
generally appear before the leaves. Stamens one or more to each scale.
Fruit many-seeded, not enclosed in a cup. (The Willow Family.)

75. MYRICACEÆ.--A small aromatic shrub, with alternate, simple leaves;
and inconspicuous flowers. Stamens 4 to 8. Fruit a drupe. (The Bog
Myrtle.)

76. CONIFERÆ.[1]--Shrubs or trees with rigid evergreen, linear leaves;
and resinous juices. Male flowers in catkins. Female flowers generally
in cones. Seeds not enclosed in an ovary. (The Pine Family.)


[1] The members of the Pine family do not really belong to the
Dicotyledons, although their stems increase in thickness in the same way
as those of our other trees and shrubs. They belong to the _Gymnosperms_
(naked-seeded group), in which the seeds are not produced in ovaries;
but it is more convenient, for our present purpose, to place them near
our other forest trees.

       *       *       *       *       *

77. ORCHIDACEÆ.--Herbs mostly with tuberous roots, and conspicuous,
irregular, perfect flowers in spikes or racemes. Sepals, petals, and
carpels 3. Stamens 1 or 2, united to the style. (The Orchid Family.)

78. IRIDACEÆ.--Herbs with fleshy, underground stems; narrow leaves; and
handsome, irregular, perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 parts. Stamens and
carpels 3. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit a many-seeded capsule with three
valves. (The Iris Family.)

79. AMARYLLIDACEÆ.--Herbs with bulbs, narrow leaves, and handsome,
regular, perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 parts. Stamens 6. Ovary
3-celled. Fruit a 3-valved capsule. (The Narcissus Family.)

80. HYDROCHARIDACEÆ.--Aquatic herbs, with floating or submerged leaves;
and conspicuous, regular, dioecious flowers. Sepals and petals 3.
Stamens 3 to 12. Carpels 3 or 6. Fruit a berry. (The Frog-bit Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

81. DIOSCORIACEÆ.--A climbing herb, with broad, glossy leaves; and
small, monoecious flowers. Sepals, petals, and carpels 3. Stamens 6.
Ovary 3-celled. Fruit a berry. Seeds 6. (The Black Bryony.)

       *       *       *       *       *

82. LILIACEÆ.--Herbs with mostly narrow leaves, and conspicuous,
regular, perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 parts, Stamens 6. Ovary
3-celled. Fruit a berry or capsule. (The Lily Family.)

83. ALISMACEÆ.--Aquatic plants with radical, net-veined leaves; and
conspicuous, white, perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 parts. Stamens 6 or
more. Carpels numerous, and distinct or nearly so. (The Water-plantain
Family.)

84. NAIDACEÆ.--Aquatic plants with mostly floating or submerged leaves;
and inconspicuous flowers. Perianth of 4 to 6 scales, or absent. Stamens
and carpels 1 to 6. (The Pond-weed Family.)

85. LEMNACEÆ.--Minute floating plants, with green, cellular fronds,
rarely flowering. Flowers very small, enclosed in a bract. Stamen 1.
Ovary one-celled. Ovules 1 to 7. (The Duckweed Family.)

86. ARACEÆ.--Herbs with net-veined, radical leaves; and small flowers on
a fleshy spadix enclosed in a leafy sheath. Perianth of 6 parts, or
absent. Stamens 1 to 6. Ovary of one to three cells. Fruit berry-like.
(The Cuckoo Pint Family.)

87. TYPHACEÆ.--Erect marsh plants, with long, narrow leaves; and small
monoecious flowers in conspicuous spikes or heads. Perianth absent.
Stamens many. Fruit a one-seeded drupe. (The Reed-mace Family.)

88. JUNCACEÆ.--Rush-like herbs, with cylindrical or narrow leaves, and
small, brown flowers. Perianth membranous, of 6 parts. Stamens 6.
Carpels 3. Fruit a 3-valved capsule. (The Rush Family.)

       *       *       *       *       *

89. CYPERACEÆ.--Grassy herbs, with usually solid, triangular stems; and
linear leaves, with tubular sheaths. Flowers in spikelets, unisexual or
perfect. Stamens 1 to 3. Carpels and stigmas 2 or 3. (The Sedge Family.)

90. GRAMINEÆ.--Grassy herbs, with hollow stems; and linear leaves, with
split sheaths. Flowers usually perfect. Stamens usually 3. Stigmas 1 or
2. (The Grass Family.)



II

THE POLLINATION AND FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS


Since flowers are the reproductive organs of the plant it seems only
natural to suppose that the wonderful variety of colour and form which
they exhibit might have some connexion with the processes concerned in
the propagation of their respective species, and the more we study the
nature of the flowers and observe the methods by which pollen is
transferred from stamens to stigmas, the stronger becomes our conviction
that the diversities mentioned are all more or less connected with the
one great function of reproduction.

This being the case, we propose to devote a short chapter to a simple
account of the uses of the parts of a flower, and to the various
contrivances on the part of the plant to secure the surest and best
means of perpetuating the species.

It has already been stated that the stamens produce pollen cells, and
that the ovary contains one or more ovules. As soon as the anthers are
mature, they open and set free the pollen cells they contained. A stigma
is said to be mature when it exposes a sticky surface to which pollen
cells may adhere, and on which these cells will grow. When a pollen cell
has been transferred to such a stigma, it is nourished by the fluid
secreted by the latter, and sends out a slender, hollow filament (the
pollen tube) which immediately begins to descend through the stigma, and
through the style, if any, till it reaches the ovary.

[Illustration: POLLEN CELLS THROWING OUT THEIR TUBES]

Should the reader desire to watch the growth of the pollen tubes, he can
easily do so by shaking some pollen cells (preferably large ones, such
as those of some lilies) on to a solution of sugar, and watching them at
intervals with the aid of a lens. In the course of a few hours the
pollen tubes will be seen to protrude, and these eventually grow to a
considerable length.

In order that the ovules of a flower may develop into seeds, it is
necessary that they become impregnated by pollen from the anthers of the
same species, and this is brought about in the following manner: The
pollen cells having been transferred by some means to the mature stigma,
they adhere to the surface of the latter, and, deriving their
nourishment from the secretion of the stigmatic cells, as above
described, proceed to throw out their tubes. These tubes force their way
between the cells of the stigma and style, and enter the ovary. Each
tube then finds its way to one of the ovules, which it enters by means
of a minute opening in its double coat called the micropyle, penetrates
the embryo-sac, and reaches the ovum or egg-cell. The ovule is now
impregnated or fertilised, and the result is that the ovum divides and
subdivides into more and more cells till at last an embryo plant is
built up. The ovule has thus become a seed, and its further development
into a mature plant depends on its being transferred to a suitable soil,
with proper conditions as to heat and moisture.

If the flower concerned is a perfect one, and the ovules are impregnated
by pollen from its own anthers, it is said to be self-fertilised; but if
the pollen cells that fertilise the ovules have been transferred from a
distinct flower, it is said to be cross-fertilised.

Now, it has been observed that although self-fertilisation will give
rise to satisfactory results in some instances, producing seeds which
develop into strong offspring, cross-fertilisation will, as a rule,
produce better seeds. In fact, self-fertilisation is not at all common
among flowers, and the pollen has frequently no effect unless it has
been transferred from another flower. In a few cases it has been found
that the pollen even acts as a poison when it is deposited on the stigma
of the same flower, causing it to shrivel up and die. In many instances
the structure and growth of the flower is such that self-pollination is
absolutely impossible; and where it is possible the seedlings resulting
from the process are often very weak.

It has already been hinted that the wonderful variety of form and colour
exhibited by flowers has some connexion with this important matter of
the transfer of pollen, and the reader who is really interested in the
investigation of the significance of this great diversity will find it a
most charming study to search into the advantages (to the flower) of
the different peculiarities presented, especially if he endeavours to
confirm his conclusions by direct observations of the methods by which
the pollen cells are distributed to the stigmas.

Pollen cells are usually distributed either by the agency of the wind or
by insects; and it is generally easy to determine, by the nature of the
flower itself, which is the method peculiar to its species.

A wind-pollinated flower is generally very inconspicuous. It produces no
nectar, which forms the food of such a large number of insects, and has
no gaudy perianth, nor does it emit any odour such as would be likely to
attract these winged creatures. Its anthers generally shed an abundance
of pollen, to compensate for the enormous loss naturally entailed in the
wasteful process of wind-distribution, and the pollen is so loosely
attached that it is carried away by the lightest breeze. Further, the
anthers are never protected from the wind, but protrude well out of the
flower; and the stigma or stigmas, which are also exposed, have a
comparatively large area of sticky surface, and are often hairy or
plumed in such a manner that they form effectual traps for the capture
of the floating pollen cells.

An insect-pollinated flower, on the other hand, has glands (_nectaries_)
for the production of nectar, and its perianth is usually of such a
conspicuous nature that it serves as a signal to attract the insects to
the feast. (In some instances the individual flowers are very small, but
these are generally produced in such clusters that they become
conspicuous through their number.) Often it emits a scent which assists
in guiding the insects to their food. Its stamens are generally so well
protected by the perianth that the pollen is not likely to be removed
except by the insects that enter the flower; and the supply of pollen is
usually not so abundant as in the wind-pollinated species, for the
insects, travelling direct from flower to flower, convey the cells with
greater economy. The stigmas, too, are generally smaller, and are
situated in such a position that, when mature, they are rubbed by that
portion of the insect's body which is already dusted with pollen.

As we watch the nectar-feeding insects at work, we not only observe that
the flowers they visit possess the general characters given above as
common to the insect-pollinated species, but also that, in many
instances, the structure of the flower is such that the transfer of
pollen from anthers to stigma could only be accomplished by the
particular kind of insect which it feeds. Various contrivances are also
adopted by many flowers to attract the insects which are most useful to
them, and to exclude those species which would deprive them of nectar
and pollen without aiding in the work of pollination. Thus, some flowers
are best pollinated by the aid of certain nocturnal insects, which they
attract at night by the expansion of their pale-coloured corollas and by
the emission of fragrant perfumes. These close their petals by day in
order to economise their stores and protect their parts from injury
while their helpers are at rest. Others require the help of day-flying
insects: these are expanded while their fertilisers are on the wing, and
sleep throughout the night.

We do not propose to give detailed accounts of the various stratagems by
which flowers secure the aid of insects in this short chapter. Several
examples are given in connexion with the descriptions of flowers in
subsequent pages, but a few typical instances, briefly outlined here,
will give the reader some idea of features which should be observed as
flowers are being examined.

In many flowers the anthers and the stigma are not mature at the same
time, and consequently self-pollination is quite impossible. With these
it often happens that the anthers and stigma alternately occupy the same
position, so that the same part of the body of an insect which becomes
dusted with pollen in one flower rubs against the stigma of another.

Other flowers, such as the Forget-me-not, in which both stamens and
stigma are ripe together, project their stigmas above the stamens at
first, in order that an insect from another flower might touch the
stigma before it reaches the stamens, and thus cross-pollinate them; and
their stamens are afterwards raised by the lengthening of the corolla
until they touch the stigma. Thus the flowers attempt to secure
cross-pollination; but, failing this, pollinate themselves.

In the Common Arum or Cuckoo Pint, described on p. 106, we have
an example of a flower of peculiar construction, surrounded by a very
large bract in which insects are imprisoned and fed until the anthers
are mature, and then set free in order that they might carry the pollen
to another flower of which the stigmas are ripe.

Sometimes the flowers of the same species assume two or three different
forms as far as the lengths of the stamens and pistils are concerned,
the anthers of one being of just the same height as the stigma of
another, so that the pollen from the former will dust that portion of
the body of the insect which rubs against the latter Examples are to be
found among the Primulas, and in the Purple Loosestrife, both of which
are described in their place.

In some flowers the stamens are irritable, rising in such a manner as to
strike the insects that visit them; and in these cases the anthers
almost invariably deposit pollen on that portion of the insect's body
which is most likely to come in contact with the stigma of the next
flower visited. Again, in Sages, the anthers are so arranged that they
are made to swing, as on a see-saw, to exactly the same end.

These few examples will suffice to show that the structure and
conformation of flowers are subservient to the one great purpose of
securing the most suitable means of the distribution of pollen, and the
student who recognises and studies the various forms of flowers in this
connexion will find his work in the field doubly interesting.



III

CLIMBING PLANTS


Many plants have stems which grow to a considerable length, and which
are at the same time too weak to support the plants in the erect
position. A considerable number of these show no tendency to assume an
upward direction, but simply trail along the surface of the ground,
often producing root fibres at their nodes to give them a firmer hold on
the soil and to absorb additional supplies of water and mineral food.
Some, however, grow in the midst of the shrubs and tall herbage of
thickets and hedgerows, or in some other position in which it becomes
necessary to strive for a due proportion of light, and such plants would
stand but a small chance in the struggle for existence if they did not
develop some means of securing a favourable position among their
competitors.

These latter are collectively spoken of as climbing plants; but it is
interesting to note that in their seedling stage they are all erect, and
it is only after they reach a certain height that they commence to
assume some definite habit by which they obtain the necessary support,
or to develop special organs by which they can cling to objects near
them.

Some climbers produce no special organs for the purpose of fastening
themselves to surrounding objects, but trust entirely to the wandering
and more or less zig-zag nature of their feeble stems, and thus reach
the open light merely by a process of interweaving, as in the case of
the Hedge Bedstraw (_Galium mollugo_). Others adopt this same method of
interweaving, but at the same time develop some kind of appendages to
give them additional support. Thus, the Rough Water Bedstraw (_G.
uliginosum_), which sometimes reaches a height of four or five feet, has
recurved bristles all along its slender stem, and these serve as so many
little hooks, holding the plant securely on to the neighbouring rank
herbage of the marsh or swamp in which it grows, while the rigid leaves
further assist by catching in the angles of surrounding stems.

Another good example is to be seen in the common Goose-grass or Cleavers
(_G. aparine_) of our hedgerows, which also reaches a height of four or
five feet, and clings very effectually by means of the hooked bristles
of its stems and leaves.

The Marsh Speedwell (_Veronica scutellata_), though it grows to a height
of only one foot, is too weak to stand erect without support, and it has
quite a novel method of securing the aid of the plants among which it
grows. Its two topmost leaves at first stand erect over the terminal
bud, so that they are easily pushed through the spaces in the
surrounding herbage as the stem lengthens. They then diverge, and even
turn slightly downwards, thus forming two supporting arms, the holding
power of which is further increased by the down-turned teeth of their
margins. This process is repeated by the new pairs of leaves formed at
the growing summit of the stem, with the result that the plant easily
retains the erect position.

[Illustration: PRICKLES OF THE WILD ROSE.]

The Wild Roses and Brambles growing in the hedgerows support themselves
among the other shrubby growths by the interlacing of their stems, but
are also greatly aided by the abundance of prickles with which these
stems are armed. The prickles, even if erect, would afford considerable
assistance in this respect; but it may be observed that they are
generally directed downwards, and often very distinctly curved in this
direction, and so serve to suspend the weak stems at numerous points.

We often find the Bramble growing in abundance on heaths and downs, in
situations where suitable props do not exist. In this case the younger
shrubs simply trail along the ground, or form low arches as the weight
of the stems and their appendages cause the apex to bend to the ground.
Yet if we turn to the older shrubs of several years' growth we find that
they have succeeded in reaching a height of some feet. The first stems
of these shrubs formed low arches as we have just described, and then
they gave rise to branches which were first erect, but were afterwards
bent downwards in the same manner, forming arches rising higher than
their predecessors. This continued, year after year, till at last a long
series of stems, forming arch above arch, reached the present height,
the older stems, at the bottom, now dead, serving to support the whole
mass above.

[Illustration: IVY, SHOWING THE ROOTLETS OR SUCKERS.]

Some climbing stems produce little roots by means of which they can
cling firmly to available supports. Such are very common among tropical
plants, but our Ivy affords a splendid example. The roots so formed may
appear in clusters at special points of the stem, or in long lines
running longitudinally on it, and they are produced on trailers as well
as on climbers. In fact, we can draw no fine distinction between the
former and the latter in this respect, and even the Ivy will sometimes
trail along the ground after the manner of the Periwinkle, which roots
itself at several points as it proceeds.

The rootlets of the Ivy and other climbers of the same habit always
avoid the light; and if they are not originally formed on the side of
the stem facing the supporting surface, they soon turn towards the
latter, and give rise to little clinging suckers that firmly adhere. If
they come in contact with a bare rock, or with a surface from which no
nutriment can be derived, they serve the one purpose of clinging only;
but if they reach even a small amount of nutritive soil, they produce
absorbent fibres that are capable of extracting food.

The ivy usually clings to the bark of trees or to old walls, the
crevices of which often contain some small amount of transported soil,
or more or less organic soil formed by the growth and decay of low forms
of vegetable life; and thus the tree is enabled to obtain a little food
from the objects that give it the necessary mechanical support.

The well-known Virginian Creeper (_Ampelopsis_) produces rootlets by
means of which it can cling to very smooth surfaces. Its light-avoiding
'tendrils' always turn to the wall or other supporting body; and, on
coming in contact with it, give off little branches which diverge like
the toes of the tree-frog, and produce little adhesive discs which hold
on firmly by the aid of a sticky secretion.

Perhaps the most interesting of all climbing plants are those which
twine their stems around the props afforded by the neighbouring growths.
As before stated, the stems of these plants are erect when very young;
but after they have reached a certain height the top of the stem bends
to one side, and then, as the growth proceeds, it turns slowly round and
round, describing a circle in the horizontal plane, thus seeking some
support round which it can twine.

The rate at which the top of the stem revolves varies in different
plants, and also in the same plant according to the temperature and
other conditions affecting the growth. In some species the upper portion
describes a complete circle in less than two hours during warm weather,
while in others a single revolution may occupy one or two days.

It will be seen, from the nature of these movements, that the revolving
stem is far more likely to come in contact with erect, rather than with
horizontal supports, and observations made on twining stems will show
that they seldom fix themselves round supports which are placed
horizontally or only on a slight incline. In fact, some of these stems
seem quite unable to twist themselves spirally except round an axis
that is either erect or forms a very large angle with the horizontal
plane.

Should the twining stem succeed in reaching a favourable prop, it
immediately commences to bend itself round and round, forming a more or
less compact spiral; and it is probable that the slight pressure, caused
by the contact, acts as a stimulus which incites the peculiar mode of
growth.

The direction which the spiral takes is not always the same. In the Hop,
Honeysuckle, and the Climbing Buckwheat or Black Bindweed, the direction
is always the same as that of the hands of a clock; while in the
Bindweeds the spiral is invariably contra-clockwise. Further, it is not
possible to compel any species to turn in a direction opposite to that
which it naturally follows. Its stem may be forcibly twined in the wrong
direction any number of times, but the free end will always follow its
natural course as soon as it is left undisturbed.

[Illustration: STEM OF THE BINDWEED, TWINING TO THE LEFT.]

Should the stem of a young twining plant fail to reach a suitable
support, it bends over, not being sufficiently rigid to support itself,
and at last the apex reaches the ground. Then, starting afresh from this
second position of rest, it begins to ascend, and its upper end again
commences to revolve as before. The chances are that it will, from this
second position, find something round which it can twine; but failing
this its summit may again and again bend to the ground, thus renewing
its attempts from various positions more or less distant from one
another, and in each effort so made the revolving upper end of the stem
gradually lengthens, and describes a larger and larger circle in search
for a favourable prop.

A twining stem sometimes has the advantage of additional support
afforded by the stiff nature of the base of the stem, which is often
rendered still more rigid by a twist or torsion resembling that of the
strands of a rope. Such advantage is often still further increased by
the presence of longitudinal ridges of the stem, frequently bearing rows
of hooked prickles or hairs that hold on to any object touched. Again,
the base of the stem, even though it reaches nothing round which it can
twine, sometimes takes the form of a spiral, thus forming a good
foundation for the upper portion as it seeks out a convenient prop. Yet
another contrivance to secure the same end may be observed in the
Greater Bindweed and some other plants. The stems, failing to secure a
favourable hold, twine round one another, thus producing a kind of rigid
cable for the support of the upper extremities as they revolve in order
to find stems round which to form their spirals.

Should all the methods and contrivances of the twining plant fail it in
its attempts to secure an uppermost place among the surrounding herbage
or shrubs, it is compelled to trail along the ground. But such a
position is most disadvantageous and unnatural to it, and usually
results in a stunted and sickly plant that may produce no flowers.

Most of the twining plants of our country are of short duration. Many,
like the Climbing Buckwheat, are annuals; while others, as the Hop and
the Bindweeds, though they have perennial roots, produce fresh stems
each season. The Honeysuckle and the Bittersweet, however, have
perennial, woody stems which increase in thickness year by year, though
the latter does not twine very much, and seems to take an intermediate
place between the typical twiners and the plants which support
themselves by merely interlacing their stems with the neighbouring
plants or shrubs.

[Illustration: STEM OF THE HOP, TWINING TO THE RIGHT.]

Some twining stems are unable to form their spirals round thick
supports, and after making some attempt to do so grow off at a tangent
to seek some less bulky prop. It has been observed, for instance, that
the Hop cannot grasp a pole that is more than four inches in diameter.

In many cases, too, the spirals of the twining stem increase in diameter
after they are first formed, and can thus adapt themselves to the
increasing size of a living stem round which they have grown. The
spirals of the Honeysuckle, however, do not increase in this way; and
consequently, when they surround the trunk or branch of a young tree,
the latter is constricted, often to such an extent that it is strangled
and becomes stunted in its growth.

Another class of climbing plants cling to their surroundings by means of
tendrils, which are modifications of leaves or shoots that grow spirally
like the stems we have been considering.

Whatever be the origin of a tendril, it generally grows straight until
it has reached some favourable support, and in order to obtain such
support it performs circular movements similar to those of the tips of
twining stems. Like these stems, too, the tendril is always sensitive,
and forms a close spiral round the object it touches.

Some tendrils will grow spirally without ever touching a support, but
these often become stunted and wither, while those which reach and
embrace a stem or other structure are apparently incited to a luxuriant
growth by the stimulating effect of the pressure produced.

When the tip of a tendril is successful in gripping a stem firmly, the
portion behind it often takes part in the spiral movement, thus becoming
shorter, and pulling the support towards its own plant in such a manner
as to bring it within the reach of additional tendrils.

Of course the tendrilled plants have a much better chance of securing a
suitable support than the twiners, for the latter have to depend on the
searching and clinging powers of but one structure, while the tendrils
are usually very numerous on the same plant, and throw themselves out in
all directions in search of the required aid. The production of tendrils
as a means of support is also much more economical than the method of
clinging by a twining stem, for the former are usually very slender,
while the latter must necessarily be sufficiently thick to convey the
nutritive requirements of the whole plant; and thus the process of
clinging by tendrils is more in accordance with the usual economy of
Nature.

We have observed that twining stems can, as a rule, twine round only
those supports which are erect or nearly so. This is not the case with
tendrils, which are better adapted for twisting round horizontal stems
and leafstalks. Often, too, they pass from one branch or leaf to
another, and so secure the plant to which they belong by fastenings both
above and below. Further, while the clasping part of a tendril often
becomes hard and rigid, the portion between this and the plant may
remain green and flexible. This latter portion also frequently forms a
new spiral in the opposite direction, thus rendering the connexion
between the plant and its support so supple and elastic that no damage
is likely to accrue from the motions caused by the wind.

The tendrils which form long spirals are generally modified stems or
leaves, or they may be elongated leaflets of a compound leaf. Those
which are modified stems may be distinguished by their growth from the
axils of the leaves, denoting that they had their origin in axillary
buds after the manner of branches generally; and also, sometimes, by the
fact that they bear imperfect leaves in the form of little scales. The
tendrils of the Common or White Bryony (p. 96) are of this
nature; while those of the Grape Vine are either modified floral stems
or altered flower-stalks.

In some cases the entire leaf may be changed into a tendril, in which
instance its true nature is revealed by the presence of a bud in its
axil, as in many ordinary foliage leaves. More frequently, however, the
'leaf-tendril' is an altered leaflet of a compound leaf, such as we see
in the Peas and Vetches; and it is interesting to note in such cases
that the loss entailed by the conversion of leaflets into tendrils is
often compensated for by the formation of leaf-like stipules which are
capable of performing the function of leaves. In fact, we often find
that the size of the stipules is proportional to the number of tendrils
produced; and that when the leaflets are considerably reduced in number
by their conversion into tendrils, not only are the stipules large and
leafy, but the stem itself may be extended laterally into broad
wing-like expansions which do the work of foliage leaves.

Interesting illustrations of this are to be found in the Yellow Vetch--a
rather rare plant sometimes seen in sandy fields--in which all the
leaves are converted entirely into tendrils, and their function
performed by very large leafy stipules; also in the Narrow-leaved
Everlasting Pea of bushy places, in which the leaflets of the compound
leaves are all converted into tendrils with the exception of two, the
work of which is aided by the stipules and by the 'wings' of the stem
and petioles. In the Rough-podded Vetch, too, the stems and petioles are
winged to serve the same end; and other British members of this genus
have either large stipules or winged stems, or both, to compensate for
the loss of leaflets that have been modified into tendrils.

In other climbers the blade of the leaf is not reduced in size, even
though the leaf serves the purpose of a tendril, the function of
clinging being assigned exclusively to the petiole or leaf-stalk. This
may be observed in the Wild Clematis and the Bryony, in both of which
the petiole forms a ring round any branch or stem with which it comes in
contact. These petioles are apparently equally sensitive on all sides,
and are therefore ready to cling to any available support, whether above
or below. In the Clematis the leaves are at first at right angles to the
stem of the plant, but they afterwards turn downwards, and thus
transform themselves into so many anchors which give additional aid in
supporting the climber among the other hedgerow plants and shrubs.



IV

EARLY SPRING


The work of the botanist is light during the early spring, especially if
his attention is directed only to plants and trees in their flowering
stages; but, to one whose ambition is to study Nature in all her varied
phases, this season of the bursting of the bud, when all things are
awakening into new life, is full of interest, and demands no small
amount of time.

The first flowers observed in the spring are mainly those hardy weeds
which may be seen in bloom almost through the year, such as the
Shepherd's Purse, Chickweed, Groundsel, White Dead Nettle, Red Dead
Nettle, and Henbit Dead Nettle. These are soon followed by the Furze,
Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil, Snowdrop, Hazel, Common Whitlow-grass, and
other flowers that are truly blossoms of the spring. All these will be
described in turn, according to their various habitats; the object of
the present short chapter being to note those signs of early spring
which demand the attention of the lover of Nature while flowers are as
yet few and inconspicuous.

A ramble over bleak downs and moors during the cold days of early spring
will probably reveal but little of interest in the way of vegetable
life, but in sheltered vales and woods, copses, and protected waysides,
there is much to be observed. Here it is that we find the hardy weeds
which have continued to bloom throughout the winter months; the earliest
of the spring flowers; the fresh green foliage of herbs and shrubs that,
in more exposed situations, have been completely denuded; the first
tender seedlings appearing above the ground long before the frosts are
over; and the expanding 'leaf-buds' showing their green while elsewhere
all life seems dormant.

This is the season when the young botanist requires his notebook more
than the collecting-book or vasculum; for his records of early flowers,
and of the times of the appearance of the leaf in our trees and shrubs,
will prove of great interest when compared with the corresponding events
and times of other years. Not only do our spring seasons vary
considerably from year to year in such a manner as to alter the general
times of appearance of leaf and flower, but the vicissitudes of our
climate even change the order in which these events occur.

The general study of the buds of trees should commence before they begin
to burst. We commonly speak of the buds as winter buds, but it should be
known that they were formed in the preceding summer or autumn, and have
remained dormant throughout the winter. There is usually a _terminal
bud_ at the tip of each twig, and _lateral buds_ at the sides. If we
examine a lateral bud we find immediately beneath it a more or less
distinct scar, denoting the position of a leaf that fell in the autumn,
thus showing that the bud in question was formed in the axil or angle of
the leaf. These observations should be verified by examining the trees
in autumn, while the leaves still exist.

It is not sufficient that we are able to recognise trees when in leaf;
they should be known equally or almost as well during the winter and
early spring while the branches are bare, and this is usually easily
accomplished by making ourselves acquainted with the general form of
each tree as viewed from a distance, and, on closer inspection, with the
nature of the bark and the character of the buds.

All our forest trees are of the exogenous type; that is, their stems
increase in thickness by the addition of new wood formed outside the
older wood and underneath the bark. Thus the bark, which is composed of
a layer or mass of dead, sapless cells, is gradually pushed outward as
the stem thickens. The result is that the bark is either more or less
fractured, as in the Elm and the Oak, or it flakes off and falls to the
ground, as is the case with the Plane and the Birch. A new layer of bark
is always formed during each summer, and this, in turn, either cracks or
peels away; but while, in the former instance, the accumulated bark
presents a very rugged appearance, and becomes very thick, in the latter
case it remains smooth, and is always thin.

Then again, how are we to account for the great variety in the general
forms of our different trees--the irregular, crooked nature of the Oak;
the slender, but denser branching of the airy Birch; and the tall,
pyramidal form of the Lombardy Poplar? All this is easily understood if
we carefully observe the positions of the buds as seen during the winter
months; and watch the development of these buds during early spring.

[Illustration: TREES IN WINTER OR EARLY SPRING
1. Hazel, with catkins. 2. Ash. 3. Oak. 4. Lime, with remains of the
last season's fruits.]

If the buds are irregularly scattered on the twigs, the lateral buds
being as strongly developed as the terminal ones, while, in the spring,
as is often the case, certain only of the buds develop into new twigs,
the others remaining dormant, then the branches assume that irregular,
crooked appearance so characteristic of the Oak. If, on the other hand,
all the terminal buds are well developed, and the lateral buds are
weaker and more regularly distributed, but farther apart, then the tree
grows more rapidly in height than in breadth, and assumes more nearly
the character of the Pyramidal Poplar. It will thus be seen that the
study of trees in their winter condition is not altogether lacking in
interest.

Referring once more, but briefly, to the matter of dormant buds, we
recommend the reader not only to observe that some buds do not expand
with the others during the spring, but to make them the subject of
experiment. Thus, when the Horsechestnut is well in leaf, dormant buds
will usually be seen on the sides of the twigs, sheltered by the
spreading leaves produced at the tips. Now remove the whole cluster of
leaves formed by the terminal bud, together with the bud itself, and the
hitherto dormant laterals, under the influence of increased light and
warmth, and supplied with sap that is now directed into new channels,
will speedily show signs of growth. Similarly, the fruit-gardener will
remove the tips of the branches of his fruit trees, which often bear
buds that are destined to produce leafy twigs only, and thus encourage
the growth of the fruiting buds that are situated lower on the twigs.

Let us now briefly consider the structure of buds and the manner in
which they are protected. Most buds are surrounded by brownish scales
which are impervious to water, and thus prevent a loss by evaporation at
a season when the activity of the roots in absorbing moisture from the
soil is suspended. Such loss is still further insured in some cases by a
covering of natural varnish. On removing this protective coat we find a
dense cluster of closely-packed leaves, variously folded or crumpled in
different species, and often, in the centre, a cluster of flowers.

What, then, is the true definition of a bud? It is a young branch, and
may give rise to a mature branch bearing foliage leaves only, floral
leaves only, or a combination of both. A transverse section of a bud,
examined, if necessary, with the aid of the microscope, will show the
nature of the branch it was destined to produce; and, in the case of
buds which represent, in embryo, branches bearing flowers, or both
leaves and flowers, it is often an easy matter to see the whorls of the
future flowers, and even the pollen cells in the anthers and the ovules
in the ovary.

[Illustration: TREES IN WINTER OR EARLY SPRING
5. Birch, with catkins. 7. Beech. 6. Poplar. 8. Alder, with catkins, and
the old fruit 'cones' of the previous season.]

Interesting as it is to study the structure of buds in their dormant
condition during winter and early spring, even more fascinating is the
watching of the gradual expansion of the bud and the unfolding of the
young leaves. And it is not always necessary to make frequent visits to
the woods in order to carry out such observations, for a large number of
buds will develop almost equally well, at any rate through their earlier
stages, if the twigs bearing them be placed in vessels of water either
in or out of doors; and in many cases all the stages from dormant bud to
perfect leaves and fully-expanded flowers may be watched in this way.

We have spoken of the protection afforded to the dormant bud during the
winter period, but it is interesting to note that protection is
necessary for the young leaves even after they have forced themselves
well out into the light and air. The reason for this is that the
epidermis or outer skin of the young leaf is not properly developed. It
is not yet water-tight, and, consequently, the sap of the tender leaves
would rapidly evaporate, so that they would soon become dry and
shrivelled.

The means by which the young leaves are protected will be readily seen
if we watch the gradual development of the bud. In many cases these
leaves remain folded long after they have left the shelter of the
original bud-scales, the manner of folding being the same as that which
obtained while within the bud. Sometimes they are folded like a fan, or
like the leaves of a book; sometimes rolled one within the other, or
irregularly crumpled in such a manner that nothing is exposed to the air
except the edges of the leaves and the surfaces of the veins.

In addition to the protection from evaporation afforded by the folding
of the young leaves, many are covered with a dense coat of "wool." Young
leaves of the Horsechestnut are very thickly covered with such a coat,
of which only the slightest traces are to be seen in the fully-grown
leaf. The young leaves of the Beech are folded like a fan for some time
after they have left the enclosure of the bud, and the folding is such
that the only parts exposed are the margins, the midrib, and the
strongly-marked parallel veins. But since all these parts are provided
with hairs, the young leaf, as long as it is folded, is surrounded by a
complete protective covering. As the epidermis develops, and the danger
of loss by evaporation thus reduced, the leaf straightens itself out,
and the hairs either fall or become shrivelled. The leaf of the
Wayfaring Tree is protected, while young, by a complete covering of
starlike hairs which form a fine felted coat over the whole surface; and
when the epidermis is properly formed, the hairs are all shed.

Some young leaves are preserved by scaly stipules which surround them
after they have emerged from the bud; and as soon as the epidermis is
sufficiently impermeable the stipules, having done their work, fall to
the ground. So great is the shower of these transient structures, in the
case of the Oak, Elm, and Lime trees, that the ground is almost
completely covered by them.

[Illustration: TWIG OF THE LIMB IN SPRING, SHOWING THE DECIDUOUS, SCALY
STIPULES.]

Young leaves have yet another way of preventing the evaporation of their
sap, and that is by turning themselves into the erect position so that
the warmth of the spring sun has but little effect on them. The young
leaves of various grasses turn their apices upwards; while those of the
Horsechestnut, after having lost the protection afforded by the woolly
covering and the original folding, turn themselves with their points
downwards. Later, when the epidermis is well formed, and the leaves are
so far developed that they are capable of utilising the energy of the
sun in the performance of their functions, they take up the horizontal
position.

Another interesting matter for spring observation is the relative times
of the bursting of the flowering buds and the leafing buds on the same
species of tree or shrub. In many cases the former are fully developed
before the latter show any signs of active growth, or while the foliage
is as yet only passing through its earliest stages. The Hazel catkins
shed their abundance of pollen before the foliage buds show the
slightest signs of green. The Blackthorn is white with snowy blossoms
before a leaf appears. The upper twigs of the Elm appear fluffy in the
distance through the formation of its flowers while the foliage buds are
still dormant; and the Alder, Willow, Poplar and Aspen likewise produce
full-blown catkins while their branches are otherwise bare. Of the trees
above named, the Hazel, Elm, Alder, Poplar, and Aspen are dependent on
the spring winds for the transfer of the pollen, but the pollination of
the Willow and the Blackthorn is brought about by the agency of early
insects which visit the flowers for the nectar they provide.

[Illustration: SEEDLING OF THE BEECH, SHOWING THE COTYLEDONS AND THE
FIRST FOLIAGE LEAVES.]

The same spring sun which calls forth the new leaves and early flowers
exerts its vivifying influence on the seeds that fell to the ground
before the winter's frosts set in, and in sheltered places myriads of
young seedlings of plants and trees may be found in their first stages
of growth. The early history of a plant is as interesting a study as
that of the mature specimen, and the young botanist will do well if he
seeks out the germinating seeds and watches their development. This part
of botanical study may, perhaps, be carried on more conveniently at home
than in the field, for the seedlings may be grown in soil, wet sawdust,
or in water alone, and the stages closely observed.

The seed is a plant in embryo. It consists of a young root, a bud, and
one or two seed-leaves or cotyledons. Some seeds contain nothing but the
parts just named, and when this is the case the cotyledons contain a
reserve of food material sufficient to maintain the developing plant
until the root is enabled to absorb sufficient nutriment from the soil,
and the first foliage leaves are so far advanced that they can absorb
carbonic acid gas from the air, and build up with the aid of this gas,
together with the food obtained from the soil, the compounds required by
the growing plant.

Other seeds contain, in addition to the embryo, a reserve of nutrient
material quite distinct from it; and in such instances the cotyledons
have the power of taking up this reserve, changing it to a condition
suitable to the requirements of the plant, and then distributing it to
the growing parts.

In some seedlings the cotyledons will remain for some time within, or
partially within the seed, in order that they may continue the
absorption of this reserve; and while this process is going on the seed
may remain below the surface of the soil, or it may be lifted into the
air by the upward growth of the cotyledons themselves.

In cases where the cotyledons contain the food reserve for the seedling
they sometimes remain under the soil, but in many instances they are
pushed into the air by the upward growth of that portion of the plant
axis immediately below them. In either case they decay as soon as their
work is accomplished. This often happens as soon as they have delivered
up to the seedling their reserve of food, but frequently the cotyledons
which ascend into the air expand, becoming really leaflike in general
appearance, assuming a green colour through the development of
chlorophyll (the green colouring matter of plants), and then perform all
the functions of the ordinary foliage leaves of the plant. Such
cotyledons often continue to exist long after the first foliage leaves
have appeared from the bud, for, although the original food reserve has
been exhausted, they are now in a position to manufacture, under the
combined influence of the sun's warmth and light, compounds essential
for their own growth as well as that of the other parts of the seedling.
These cotyledons, however, are never of the same form as the true
foliage leaves.

The student should obtain a variety of seeds or seedlings of our wild
plants and forest trees in order to study these interesting early
stages. Such employment will prove very valuable at a season when there
is but little call for outdoor work.



V

WOODS AND THICKETS IN SPRING


One of our earliest spring flowers of the wood is the lovely Daffodil or
Lent Lily (_Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus_) of the order _Amaryllidaceæ_.
This plant develops from a bulb--an underground bud formed of thick,
fleshy leaves; and the flowers appear during March and April. The
perianth is composed of a tube and six spreading limbs of a delicate
yellow colour; and a deep, bell-shaped, golden coronet, beautifully
notched and curled at the rim.

[Illustration: THE DAFFODIL.]

During April and May we meet with the beautiful little Wood Anemone
(_Anemone nemorosa_--order _Ranunculaceæ_), often in such abundance that
the ground beneath the trees is completely covered by its graceful
leaves and flowers. The leaves are radical, stalked, and deeply lobed,
springing from an underground stem. On the flower stalk, some distance
below the flower, is a whorl of stalked bracts of the same form as the
radical leaves. The flower has six spreading sepals, resembling petals,
usually white, but often tinged with a delicate pink, or, more rarely,
with blue. The fruit consists of a number of downy achenes.

[Illustration: THE WOOD ANEMONE]

Belonging to the same order (_Ranunculaceæ_) we have two species of
Hellebore--the Green Hellebore (_Helleborus viridis_) and the Stinking
Hellebore (_H. foetidus_), both found in woods on chalk or limestone
during April and May. The former, also known in parts as the Bear's-foot
(Plate I, Fig. 1), has leaves palmately lobed, consisting of
five or seven parts; and the flowers, which are more than an inch
across, have spreading green sepals, and small tubular petals which
contain nectar that is supposed to be poisonous on account of the small
dead flies that are commonly found sticking to it. The Stinking
Hellebore, or Setterwort, has evergreen, radical leaves, the lobes of
which do not radiate from a common centre; and the flowers, of which
there are many on each peduncle, have erect sepals.

The Goldilocks or Wood Ranunculus (_Ranunculus auricomus_) is a flower
very much like the Upright Meadow Buttercup (p. 211), though not
nearly so tall, being only from six to ten inches high. It grows chiefly
in thickets and copses, and flowers from April to July. Its root is
fibrous; the stem erect, slender, and branched; the radical leaves
long-stalked, round or kidney-shaped, divided into three, five, or seven
lobes; and the stem leaves few, sessile, and palmately divided to the
base into very narrow segments. The calyx is downy, consisting of
spreading, yellow sepals; and the petals are often partially or entirely
wanting. This plant is widely distributed, but is most frequent in the
centre and south of England.

[Illustration: THE GOLDILOCKS.]

The Columbine (_Aquilegia vulgaris_), also one of the _Ranunculaceæ_, so
well known as a garden flower, grows wild in the thickets and copses of
several parts, blooming from May to July. Its branched stem grows to a
height of one or two feet; and the leaves are stalked, with three broad,
stalked, three-lobed segments. The pretty, drooping flowers are usually
over an inch in diameter, of a white, blue, or purple colour, in a
loose, leafy panicle. They have five coloured, deciduous sepals; five
petals, each with a curved spur that projects below the base of the
calyx; numerous stamens; and an ovary of five carpels which ripen into
as many follicles.

The Dog Violet (_Viola canina_--Order _Violaceæ_) is probably too well
known to need description, seeing that it is easily distinguished from
the other species of the same genus by the absence of scent and by the
presence of running stems. It is, however, very variable, both in its
habits and habitats, so much so, indeed, that some botanists regard the
varieties as distinct species under the titles of Wood Violet, Dark Wood
Violet, Pale Wood Violet, Hill Violet, Bog Violet, &c. These different
forms are distinguished by the shape of the leaves, which may be
broadly-cordate, narrow-cordate, or lanceolate; and also by the nature
of the stem and the form and colour of the spur of the corolla. In some
the main stem is flowerless, but flowering stems proceed from the axils
of its leaves; in others the main stem is long and branched, bearing
flowers. The narrow-leaved and branched varieties occur principally on
heaths, while the broad-leaved forms, in which the main stem is
flowerless, are found chiefly in woods. The student will do well to
compare as many forms as possible as an interesting study in variation.

[Illustration: THE WILD COLUMBINE.]

The flowers have five sepals; and five unequal petals, usually of a
bluish-purple colour, the lower one prolonged backward into a blunt
spur. Five stamens closely surround the ovary, which is composed of
three carpels, but is one-celled.

The mode of the dispersion of the seeds is particularly interesting in
this instance. When the seeds are ripe the ovary splits into three
valves which spread out till they are at right angles to their former
position. Each valve is closely packed with smooth, oval seeds; and, as
the carpels dry, their sides, originally convex, become gradually
straightened so that they press on the seeds. The result is that the
seeds are detached from the placenta, one by one, and suddenly shot out
to a distance sometimes exceeding a yard. The whole process may be
observed by placing some ripe fruits on a large sheet of paper spread in
a warm, airy room.

Another peculiarity of the violet is to be seen in its production of two
distinct kinds of flowers. The spring flowers, which we know so well,
are conspicuous, and are visited and pollinated by insects, but they
produce few or no seeds. In the autumn another kind of flower is formed,
inconspicuous ones that often possess no petals, and which do not open.
These are fertilised by their own pollen, and produce abundance of seed.

[Illustration: THE DOG VIOLET.]

Soon after the appearance of the Dog Violet--usually early in May--we
meet with the flowers of the Wood Sorrel or Alleluia (_Oxalis
Acetosella_), a plant which is often included with the Crane's-bills in
the order _Geraniaceæ_, but sometimes placed in a separate small order
(_Oxalidaceæ_) containing only three British species. It is a very
pretty little plant, of an acid nature, springing from a creeping
rhizome. The leaves are radical, ternate, hairy, and sensitive, folding
vertically at night in such a manner that the lower surfaces, containing
the stomata, are completely covered, and thus loss by evaporation
prevented. The flowers are usually solitary and axillary, and the
peduncle has two small bracts about half way up. There are five sepals,
united below; five white or pinkish petals; and ten stamens, all united
into one bundle, but five shorter than the others. The ovary is
five-chambered, and the fruit is a capsule.

Like the Violet, this flower is particularly interesting both as to the
nature of its flowers, and to the manner in which it scatters its seeds.
It bears two kinds of flowers--the delicate spring flowers just
described, which are barren; and the later inconspicuous blooms, without
petals, and which do not open, but produce seeds. The latter kind of
flower may be seen up to August and September.

[Illustration: THE WOOD SORREL.]

When the ovary is ripe it splits longitudinally along five seams, but
the seeds remain attached to the placenta. Now, the seed coat is made up
of layers, one of the inner of which becomes highly strained as the
ripening proceeds, while the outer coat is not so strained. When the
seed is quite ripe the cell-walls of the deeper layer swell, thus
exerting a pressure on the outer layer, which is at last rent. The edges
of the slit formed suddenly roll back, and the seed is violently jerked
out through the opening of the capsule immediately in front of it.

In April, and from this month to about the end of July, the Wood
Strawberry (_Fragaria vesca_--order _Rosaceæ_) is in flower. There is no
mistaking this species when in fruit, but at other times the Barren
Strawberry (_Potentilla Fragariastrum_), also called the
Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil, is often confused with it. The latter may
be known by the absence of runners.

The chief distinguishing features of the Wood Strawberry are the running
stem; ternate leaves, with sessile, hairy, serrate leaflets; hairy,
erect peduncles; and white flowers, about half an inch in diameter, on
pedicels which droop when in fruit.

In shady woods grows the Sweet Woodruff (_Asperula odorata_--order
_Rubiaceæ_)--a small, erect and smooth plant, seldom exceeding eight
inches in height. The leaves are six to nine in each whorl, lanceolate,
with small prickles on the margins. The flowers are white, in terminal
panicles, and the fruit is rough with hooked hairs. The herb emits, when
dry, a pleasant odour resembling that of new hay.

[Illustration: THE SWEET WOODRUFF.]

There are two Periwinkles (order _Apocynaceæ_), both of which have been
introduced into Britain as garden flowers, but have become established
as wild flowers in several parts. One of these--the Lesser Periwinkle
(_Vinca minor_)--is moderately common, especially in the West, where it
is often seen in thickets and other shady places, flowering during April
and May. It has a trailing stem, from one to two feet long, rooting at
the nodes; and short, erect, leafy, flowering branches. The leaves are
opposite, narrow-elliptical, entire, and quite smooth; and the blue or
violet flowers, which are about an inch in diameter, are solitary on
short, erect stalks. The calyx is free, and deeply divided into five
narrow segments; the corolla has a narrow tube, and five broad,
spreading parts; there are five stamens, enclosed in the tube of the
corolla; and the carpels are distinct at the base, but connected at the
top by the single style.

The other species--the Greater Periwinkle (_Vinca major_)--is a very
similar plant, but its leaves are broader, with minute hairs on the
margin; the calyx segments are also hairy at the edges; and the corolla
is larger, with a broad tube.

The Tooth-wort (_Lathræa squamaria_--order _Orobanchaceæ_) is a
peculiar, fleshy, pinkish plant, to be found among decaying vegetable
matter or at the roots of the Hazel, Elm and a few other trees. It is
partly parasitic, deriving its nourishment from the roots of the trees
to which it is attached, or sometimes obtaining its food partly or
entirely from decaying leaves and stems. Its upright stem, which reaches
a height of from five to ten inches, is covered with tooth-like, hollow
scales, and bears a one-sided raceme of purple-brown flowers. This
peculiar plant is not only a parasite on trees, but is also a
carnivorous species, provided with the means of capturing and digesting
very small animals, and a more detailed account of its form and habits
will be found in our short chapter devoted especially to carnivorous
plants.

The Bugle (_Ajuga reptans_, of the order _Labiatæ_), is a very abundant
flower in moist woods and pastures, blooming in May and June. It has a
short root-stock, generally with creeping runners; and erect, smooth
flowering stems from three to twelve inches high. At the base is a tuft
of obovate, radical leaves, from one to two inches long, gradually
narrowed into the stalk, with wavy margins; and on the stem are shorter
leaves, with very short stalks, the upper ones often deeply tinged with
blue or purple. The flowers are blue (occasionally pink or white), and
are arranged in whorls of from six to ten in the axils of the upper
leaves, the whole forming a leafy spike. They have a five-cleft calyx; a
corolla with a short, erect, notched, upper lip; and a longer lower lip
with three spreading lobes, the middle one of which is broader and
notched.

[Illustration: THE LESSER PERIWINKLE.]

The stamens, of which there are two pairs, project beyond the upper lip
of the corolla; and the four nutlets of the fruit are rough and united.

The Yellow Dead Nettle, Weasel-snout, or Archangel (_Galeobdolon lutea_
or _Lamium Galeobdolon_) of the same order is very much like the White
Dead Nettle (p. 102) in habit, but is rather more slender, and
less branched. It is not a very common plant, but is abundant in certain
localities, forming one of the conspicuous flowers of thickets, copses
and shady hedgerows during May and June. Its leaves are opposite,
stalked, ovate, acute, and coarsely toothed; and the handsome large
yellow flowers are in dense whorls of from six to ten in the axils of
the upper leaves. The calyx has five short teeth; and the corolla has a
short tube, not much longer than the calyx, and two lips, the upper of
which is arched, while the lower is spotted with red, and has three
lobes.

Our next example, the lovely Primrose (_Primula vulgaris_ or _P.
acaulis_--order _Primulaceæ_), which so beautifully bedecks our woods
and banks in April and May, is so well known that a description for
purposes of identification is quite unnecessary.

There are two distinct forms of the primrose flower, often called the
pin-eyed and the thrum-eyed, the two forms growing on different plants.
The former has its stamens at a contracted portion of the tube, about
half way down, and a style so long that the stigma is visible at the top
of the tube. The latter has its stamens at the contracted throat of the
tube, while the style is so short that the stigma is half-way down.

[Illustration: THE BUGLE.]

These two forms may be termed the long-styled and the short-styled
primrose, respectively, and the difference is of great importance,
inasmuch as it helps to bring about the cross-fertilisation of the
flower.

[Illustration: THE BROAD-LEAVED GARLIC.]

The principal agents concerned in the transfer of pollen from one flower
to another are the wind and insects, but it is evident that the work is
done, in the case of the primrose, by insects; for not only do we find
that the anthers and the stigma are protected from the wind, being more
or less hidden in the tube of the corolla, but the showy corolla, the
delicate scent emitted by the flower, and the nectar produced at the
base of the tube all combine to encourage nectar-loving insects whose
proboscis is long enough to reach the sweets.

While such an insect is sucking the nectar from a short-styled primrose,
the base of its proboscis is rubbing pollen from the anthers at the top
of the tube, and the removal of the pollen is assisted by the contracted
throat of the corolla in this kind of flower. Should that insect then
visit a long-styled flower, the base of the proboscis, now dusted with
pollen, will transfer some of the pollen cells to the stigma. In the
same way pollen will be transferred from the anthers of the long-styled
to the short-styled flower, since the stamens and stigma respectively
occupy corresponding positions in the tubes of the corollas.

[Illustration: THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM.]

On Plate I (Fig. 3) we represent the Lady's Slipper
(_Cypripedium Calceolus_)--a rare and beautiful orchis found in some of
the limestone woods of North England. Its stem is downy and leafy,
reaching a height of about one foot. The leaves, of which there are
three or four, are oblong and ribbed; and the one or two large flowers
are brownish with the exception of the lip, which is yellow and
inflated.

Two species of Garlic (order _Liliaceæ_) are also to be found in woods
early in the season. They are both strong-smelling plants with bulbous
roots, radical leaves, and flowers arranged in an umbel with membranous
spathes. One--the broad-leaved Garlic or Ramsons (_Allium ursinum_)--is
very common, grows to a height of from six to twelve inches, and flowers
from April to June. The stem is bluntly triangular and leafless; and the
broad, radical leaves are much like those of the Lily of the Valley. The
flowers are white, and form a flat umbel with two sharply-pointed bracts
at its base.

The second species--the Sand Leek or Sand Garlic (_A.
Scorodoprasum_)--grows to two or three feet, and is found almost
exclusively in sandy woods of North England, where it flowers a little
later than the Ramsons. The stem-leaves are linear, and form two-edged
sheaths; and the flowers, which are reddish-purple, are in a loose
umbel. (Plate I, Fig. 4.)

[Illustration: THE HAIRY SEDGE.]

The Star of Bethlehem (_Ornithogalum umbellatum_) is a pretty flower
that was originally introduced for cultivation, but has now become well
established as a wild flower in many parts of Britain. It is found
chiefly in copses and thickets, especially in the neighbourhood of towns
and villages, and flowers in April and May. It has an oval bulb
containing an abundance of viscid sap; long narrow, limp, radical
leaves; and a flowering stem from six to twelve inches high. The flowers
are white, from six to ten in number, arranged in a raceme the lower
stalks of which are lengthened in such a manner as to bring all the
flowers to a level, thus giving the general appearance of an umbel.
There is a membranous bract at the base of each pedicel; and each flower
has a perianth of six free, spreading, persistent segments, marked
outside with a central, green line, and having a nectary at the base.

The same order includes the well-known Blue-bell or Wild Hyacinth
(_Hyacinthus nonscriptus_ or _Scilla festalis_), which is occasionally
confused with the Harebell of the order _Campanulaceæ_. The leaves of
this plant are linear and channelled, and the drooping flowers form a
raceme of from six to twelve blooms. The perianth is bell-shaped,
composed of six united parts, usually blue, but rarely pink or white.
The anthers are yellow, and as with all the plants of this order, the
ovary is superior. (See Plate I, Fig. 5.)

In damp woods we often meet with the Hairy Sedge (_Carex hirta_), which
grows from one to two feet high; and in similar situations, the
Pendulous Wood Sedge (_C. sylvatica_)--a tufted species, with a weak,
leafy stem, from two to three feet high, and flaccid leaves. The latter
has a single terminal, male spikelet, of about an inch long; and
slender, drooping female spikelets, of about the same length, on long
stalks.

On Plate I, we also represent the Wood Melic Grass (_Melica uniflora_),
a slender, graceful species which may be seen in woods, often in bloom
as early as the beginning of May.



VI

THE SPRING-FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS OF WOODS, THICKETS, AND HEDGEROWS


Having considered the principal low-growing flowers of the woods, we
must now give some attention to the trees and shrubs of the same
localities.

This portion of the field-naturalist's work will be found at least as
fascinating as the observation of the herbaceous plants, for although
the flowers of trees are often small and very inconspicuous, many are
really beautiful blossoms, and all present features of more or less
interest to the botanist. Moreover, the observations of these flowers
will always be coupled with those of the appearance and expansion of the
leaves, for while some trees produce their flowers shortly before their
leaves, and others after, leaves and flowers often come about the same
time, and the period of the year covered by the present chapter--from
about March to April or early June--will include the bursting of the
leaf-buds and the expansion of the leaves of all our deciduous trees and
shrubs. Opportunities should be made at this season to observe not only
the parts of the trees just named, but to note all other characters
presented by the trees, such as the nature of the trunk and its bark,
the mode of branching, the appearance of the young twigs, and the nature
of the soil and situation in which each species is found.

Our first example is the Barberry (_Berberis vulgaris_)--the only
British representative of its order (_Berberaceæ_)--a smooth, pale-green
shrub, from four to seven feet high, often seen in woods, thickets, and
hedgerows, flowering in May and June. Its branches generally droop at
the tips, and have triple spines at the base of each leaf or cluster of
leaves. The latter are obovate, sharply toothed or even prickly, and
often reduced to a cluster of spines. The flowers are pale yellow, in
hanging racemes. Each has several yellow sepals, the outer of which are
very small; six petals, in two whorls, with nectaries at their bases;
and six stamens. The stamens at first lie on the petals; but they are
very sensitive, and when the filaments are touched by an insect as it
seeks the nectar at their bases, the stamens immediately spring upward,
throwing off their pollen, and often depositing some on the insect's
back. It is thus possible that the cross-pollination of the flowers is
greatly aided by the insect, especially as it will often happen that the
same part of its back which has been touched by the elastic stamen will
come in contact with the stigma of another flower.

[Illustration: THE BARBERRY.]

The Sycamore, also called the Great Maple and the False Plane (_Acer
pseudo-platanus_--order _Aceraceæ_), although not really a British tree,
has probably found a home here for nearly five centuries. It has been
named the False Plane on account of its having been mistaken for, and
called, the Plane, which tree it somewhat resembles in the form of the
leaf, as well as in the character of the smooth, thin bark that peels
off, giving the tree a patchy appearance. It should be noted, however,
that the leaves of the Plane are arranged alternately, while those of
the Sycamore are in opposite pairs; also that the fruits of the former
are in pendulous balls while those of the latter are winged, and
generally in two parts.

[Illustration: THE SPINDLE TREE.]

The Sycamore grows to a height of from forty to fifty feet and flowers
in May or early June, some time after the appearance of the leaves. The
leaves are simple and cut into five lobes, with a palmate venation and
irregularly toothed margins. The flowers are small, yellowish green, and
produced in graceful, pendulous racemes. Each one is about a quarter of
an inch in diameter, with five narrow sepals, five narrower petals,
eight stamens, and a two-lobed, flattened, hairy ovary which develops
into a pair of 'keys' or samaras, with wings about an inch and a half
long.

The Maple (_Acer campestre_) is a much smaller tree, with a very
rugged, corky bark. In woods it often reaches a height of fifteen to
twenty feet, though it produces flowers and fruit long before it is
fully grown; and it is often seen, more or less trimmed and stunted,
among hedgerow shrubs. Its leaves are opposite, two to four inches wide,
on slender stalks, palmately veined, and divided to about the middle
into five obtuse, entire or crenate lobes. The greenish flowers are much
like those of the Sycamore, and appear at the same time, but grow in
loose, erect, axillary racemes; and the wings of the fruit always spread
horizontally in a straight line. On p. 337 is a photograph of a
twig of this tree in fruit.

The Spindle Tree (_Euonymus europæus_), the only British member of the
order _Celastraceæ_, is a moderately common wood and hedgerow shrub
which is usually from four to ten feet high, when untrimmed, bearing
yellowish-green flowers during May and June. Its branches are smooth,
green and angular; and its leaves are opposite, shortly-stalked, oval,
acute, finely toothed, with a shining surface. The flowers are usually
from three to five together in loose axillary clusters. They have a
small, flat calyx of four short sepals; four spreading petals, about a
sixth of an inch long; four stamens, about half the length of the
petals; and an ovary of from three to five cells embedded in the fleshy
disc. The fruits are very pretty, and often form a conspicuous feature
of the hedgerow during late summer. They are lobed capsules which open
at the angles, exposing the bright orange mace that encloses the seeds.

Several of the prettiest of our trees and shrubs belong to the order
_Rosaceæ_, and among these we may name the Dwarf Cherry, Bird Cherry,
Gean, Sloe, Bullace, Hawthorn, Wild Pear, Crab Apple, Service Tree,
White Beam Tree, and Mountain Ash. The first of these, known variously
as the Wild Cherry, Dwarf Cherry, and Red Cherry (_Prunus Cerasus_),
grows from four to eight feet high, and bears white flowers, in almost
sessile umbels, during May and early June. Its bark is of a reddish
colour, and numerous suckers arise from its root. The leaves are
oval-oblong, smooth, firm, and nearly erect; and the fruit is round,
juicy, and red. Although in the wild state the fruit is very acid, this
is the tree from which our sweet, cultivated cherries have been derived.
In order to distinguish this from other similar species, it should be
noted that the tube of the calyx is _not_ contracted at its mouth.

The Bird Cherry (_P. Padus_) is found principally in North England,
where it is moderately common in parts. It is larger than the last,
often reaching a height of fifteen feet. Its leaves are narrow,
somewhat egg-shaped, smooth, with a doubly-serrate margin. The flowers,
which appear in May or June, are white, and arranged in pendulous
racemes; and the fruit is oval, almost black, and bitter.

[Illustration: THE WILD CHERRY.]

Another wild cherry, generally known as the Gean (_P. Avium_), is still
larger, sometimes reaching a height of thirty feet, and is not uncommon
in woods and hedges. The bark is smooth; the leaves abruptly pointed,
soft, drooping, and downy beneath; and the beautiful white flowers are
in almost sessile umbels. The calyx-tube of this species is contracted
at the mouth, and the fruit is either red or black, heart-shaped, and
bitter. The leaves turn to a deep red colour in the autumn.

Among the earliest flowers of Spring are the white blossoms of the Sloe
or Blackthorn (_Prunus spinosa_), which appear in March and April, some
time before the leaves. The shrub grows from four to eight feet high,
has a blackish bark, and numerous branches, the smallest of which
terminate in hard, rigid thorns. The leaves are ovate, finely-toothed,
smooth, stalked, with small, free stipules. The flowers are small,
shortly-stalked, with a free, deciduous calyx of five lobes; five
spreading petals; from fifteen to twenty stamens; and an ovary which
ripens to an almost black, juicy, acrid drupe, about half an inch in
diameter, containing a hard stone, and covered with a bluish bloom. This
shrub is very common in thickets and hedgerows.

The Bullace (_Prunus insititia_), sometimes regarded as a variety of _P.
spinosa_, is a very similar bush, growing in similar situations, and
flowering at the same time; but its bark is brown, and the branches less
spiny. Its leaves, also, are downy beneath; and the flowers, which
appear at the same time as the leaves, are in pairs, on downy stalks.
The fruit is about double the size of that of the last species, either
dark or yellow in colour, less acrid, and drooping.

The above two species are the origins of the damsons and plums of our
fruit gardens.

The May or Hawthorn (_Cratægus Oxyacantha_) is so well known that there
would be no necessity to describe it, were it not for the fact that,
being so familiar, its distinguishing characters are liable to be
overlooked. It is a much-branched shrub, with many of the branches
modified into protective spines. The leaves are simple, smooth,
deeply-lobed and obtuse, have deciduous stipules, and appear before the
flowers. The flowers are generally white, sweetly-scented, and arranged
in corymbs. There are five sepals and five petals, and the numerous
stamens have pink anthers producing brown pollen. The carpels, one to
three in number, are enclosed in the calyx-tube; and the fruit is a
bright red pome with a bony core.

The Wild Pear (_Pyrus communis_) is occasionally met with in woods and
hedgerows, where its white flowers may be seen in April or May. The
leaves of this tree are simple, elliptical, and serrate; and the smaller
branches often terminate in a spine. The flowers are about an inch in
diameter, and arranged in corymbs. They have distinct styles--a feature
which serves to distinguish the blossom from that of the Wild Apple; and
the fruit, which tapers towards the base, is a five-chambered, woody
pome, with a horny core. Two varieties of this species occur, one with
the base of the fruit conical, and the other with the base rounded.

The Crab Apple (_P. Malus_) is very similar in general appearance, but
has no spines; and the flowers, which are in sessile umbels, are white,
with delicate shades of pink. The styles, also, are united below; and
the fruit is globular, yellow or reddish, concave at the insertion of
the stalk, very acid, and five-chambered. This tree is common in
hedgerows as well as in woods, and flowers during May or early June.

[Illustration: THE CRAB APPLE.]

In the woods and hedges of South England we commonly meet with the
Service Tree (_P. torminalis_)--a small tree with downy twigs, and
smooth leaves with from six to ten triangular, serrate lobes. Its
flowers are small, white, and arranged in compound cymes. They bloom in
April and May; and in the autumn their place is occupied by small,
green fruits, spotted with brown, with a two-chambered, brittle core.

The White Beam (_P. aria_) is a small tree, commonly found on the
outskirts of woods on chalky or limestone soils, which might be confused
with the last species. It has large, irregularly-lobed leaves, white and
downy beneath, with serrate edges. The general form of the leaf is
egg-shaped, while that of the Service Tree is cordate. The corymbs of
white flowers bloom in April; and the fruit, though much like that of
_P. torminalis_, is spotted with _red_. There are no less than four
varieties of this tree, distinguished mainly by the forms of the leaves,
the serration of their edges, and the number of lateral veins.

[Illustration: THE MOUNTAIN ASH.]

We have yet another representative of the Rose order in the Mountain
Ash, Rowan, or Fowler's Service Tree (_P. Aucuparia_), which is common
in mountainous woods, and supplies an edible fruit. It is a very
graceful and beautiful tree, with a smooth greyish bark; and pinnate
leaves with from thirteen to seventeen serrate leaflets, downy on the
under side. The flowers are small, of a creamy white colour, in large
corymbs. They bloom in May and June; and later in the year their place
is occupied by the scarlet globular fruits, with a yellow pulp,
enclosing from two to four chambers.

The Black Currant (_Ribes nigrum_), of the order _Grossulariaceæ_, or
sometimes included in the _Saxifragaceæ_, is sometimes found wild in
moist woods, flowering in April or May. It is well known as a garden
shrub, and may be easily recognised by the characteristic odour emitted
from its stems and leaves when bruised. In some northern woods the Red
Currant (_R. rubrum_) is also found wild.

The Wayfaring Tree or Mealy Guelder Rose (_Viburnum Lantana_--order
_Caprifoliaceæ_) is moderately common in the woods and hedges of dry
districts, especially on calcareous soils. It grows from ten to twenty
feet high, and flowers during May and June. Its young shoots are covered
with star-like hairs, which give them a characteristic mealy or downy
appearance. The leaves are simple, elliptical-cordate, serrate, without
stipules, and are downy beneath. The flowers are small, white, perfect,
and arranged in terminal cymes. In late summer the tree is rendered
conspicuous by its _flattened_ berries, which become scarlet as they
ripen and afterwards turn black. A photograph of a twig in fruit is
given on p. 338.

The Ash Tree (_Fraxinus excelsior_--order _Oleaceæ_) is easily
recognised at a distance, either in summer or winter, by the graceful
curves of the lower branches, which droop, and then bend upward at their
extremities; also, on a closer inspection, by the light ashy colour of
the smooth bark of the twigs, and the large, black, triangular, terminal
buds. The leaves are pinnate, with from nine to seventeen
oblong-lanceolate, sessile, serrate leaflets. The flowers appear before
the leaves in April and May, in dense clusters. They have no perianth:
some consist only of an ovary, some only of two dark purple stamens,
while others are perfect flowers with both ovary and stamens. Some trees
have male blossoms only, and therefore produce no fruit; others bear
dense tufts of pendulous, winged fruits which are ripe in October (p.
336), but often remain on the tree till the following spring.
The wing of the fruit is slightly twisted, and thus, when the fruit is
detached, it falls with a slow, spinning motion that allows it to be
carried some distance by the wind, reaching the ground with its seed-end
downwards. The seed does not germinate until the second spring. A
variety of the Ash occurs with simple leaves.

Very early in the Spring--February to April--we may often see the
Spurge Laurel (_Daphne Laureola_) in flower in woods and copses. This is
an erect, smooth shrub, from two to four feet high, with a few erect
branches bearing at their summits crowded clusters of thick, glossy,
narrow, evergreen leaves. Its flowers, of a yellowish green colour, are
in drooping, axillary clusters among the leaves. They have a tubular,
inferior perianth, with four spreading lobes; eight stamens inserted in
the top of the tube; and a free ovary of one cell, containing a single
ovule. The perianth falls early; and the ovary afterwards becomes a
berry-like fruit with a single stone.

[Illustration: THE SPURGE LAUREL.]

Another similar shrub, known as the Mezereon (_Daphne Mezereum_), is
found in similar situations, and flowers at the same time, but it may be
known by its deciduous leaves, and by its pale red flowers arranged in
threes on the side of the stem. These two species are the only British
representatives of the order _Thymelaceæ_.

Two species of Elm are common in our woods and hedgerows. The
small-leaved or Common Elm (_Ulmus campestris_), and the Wych Elm (_U.
montana_). Both are distinguished by their thick, furrowed, corky bark;
and their rough oval-cordate leaves with unequal sides. They are often
placed in the same order (_Urticaceæ_) as the well-known Stinging
Nettles, but some authorities form a distinct order for these two
species alone, under the name of _Ulmaceæ_.

The Common Elm is not indigenous, but was introduced into our country by
the Romans. It is, however, one of our commonest trees, and is
especially abundant in the South. The midrib of the leaf is covered
below with irritating, glandular hairs, somewhat resembling those of
nettles in structure and function; and the stipules are deciduous,
falling early in the season. The flowers are perfect, appearing before
the leaves in March and April, and are in small, dense clusters,
principally on the topmost branches. Each flower has a little,
bell-shaped, persistent perianth; a superior ovary with two styles; and
four or five stamens with black anthers. The fruits are very thin oval
samaras with the seeds above the centre, but they seldom ripen in our
country. They are produced in such abundance that the ground is often
almost completely covered with them when they fall. Botanists recognise
several varieties of this species, but these differ so slightly from one
another that they are barely distinguishable. The Common Elm throws off
a large number of suckers from its roots, often producing a dense
undergrowth round its bole.

[Illustration: THE ELM IN FLOWER.]

The Wych Elm is a native of our country, and is also very common, but it
occurs principally in the woods of the North. It is very similar in
general appearance to the last species, which it also resembles in
having several barely distinguishable varieties; but it generally
attains a much greater girth, and does not throw off such an abundance
of suckers from its roots. Its twigs are downy; and the leaves, which
are larger than those of _U. campestris_, are irregularly doubly
serrate, with hairs on the prominent ribs of the under side, and are
arranged in two straight rows, one on each side of the twig. The flowers
are very similar to those of the Common Elm; and the fruit is a broad
oblong or almost round samara, with the seed in the _centre_. Both
species are pollinated by the wind; and, as is the case with
wind-pollinated flowers generally, the stamens protrude well out of the
flower, and produce abundance of pollen.

[Illustration: THE OAK IN FLOWER.]

Four of our forest trees belong to the order _Cupuliferæ_; these are the
Oak, Beech, Hornbeam and Hazel. The first of them--the Oak (_Quercus
Robur_)--is easily recognised in the winter by its deeply-furrowed,
corky bark, its zigzag, spreading branches, and the clusters of oval
buds at the tips of the twigs. In summer it may be known at once by the
oval, sinuate leaves with blunt lobes. The flowers of the Oak appear
with the leaves in April or May; they are imperfect, but both male and
female blossoms appear on the same tree. The former are in slender,
drooping, interrupted catkins; and each flower has ten stamens. The
latter are in clusters of a few only, and each separate flower is
enclosed in a cupule of overlapping scales. The ovary has three cells,
and contains six ovules; but, as a rule, only one ovule of each flower
is fertilised. Sometimes, however, two, three, or more of the ovules
become fertilised, thus producing an acorn which will give rise to as
many separate seedling trees. At times we meet with an Oak nearly every
acorn of which contains two or more ovules. This tree is remarkable for
the number of insects which feed on its leaves, and also for the number
of different species of gall-flies which produce galls on its leaves and
stems. Two well-marked varieties occur: one--_pedunculata_--with sessile
leaves and long flower stalks; and the other--_sessiliflora_--with
stalked leaves and short flower-stalks.

[Illustration: THE BEECH IN FRUIT.]

The Beech (_Fagus sylvatica_) is readily recognised during winter and
early spring by its smooth, thin, olive-grey bark, and its long
tapering, pointed, brown buds. The expanding buds have already been
mentioned (p. 44) as of special interest as regards the fan-like
folding of the young leaves, and the arrangement for preventing undue
loss of moisture while the epidermis is as yet very thin and permeable.
The leaves of this tree are ovate, smooth and glossy, with
strongly-marked parallel veins branching from the midrib. When young
they are very silky, but later the fine, silky hairs are seen only on
the slightly-toothed margin, and even these disappear as the season
advances. The flowers are imperfect, and appear in April or early May.
The staminate catkins are of a dark purple-brown colour, rounded and
pendulous, with from eight to forty slender stamens having exposed,
yellow anthers. The pistillate flowers are grouped in little clusters of
from two to four, each one having three stigmas, and being surrounded by
a four-lobed prickly cupule which afterwards forms a closed case. The
fruits are three-cornered nuts, enclosed in the hardened cupules which
split longitudinally, when ripe, into four valves that are lined with
soft, silky hairs.

The Hornbeam (_Carpinus Betulus_) is a much smaller tree, more or less
abundant in the damp, clayey woods of the South. Its bark is smooth or
slightly furrowed, of a light greyish colour, and its leaves are
elliptical-ovate, with a doubly-serrate margin and acute point. The
arrangement of the principal veins is the same as that of the Beech, and
the young leaves are similarly plaited in the bud, but the expanded
leaves are broader at the base than those of the Beech, are rougher, and
are permanently hairy on the under surface. As with the Beech, the
leaves assume very pleasing tints in the autumn, turning first yellow,
and then through shades of orange to brown; and, in sheltered woods,
many of them remain on the tree throughout the winter. The flowers
appear in May and early June, and are imperfect, male and female flowers
being in separate catkins, but on the same tree. The staminate catkins
are pendulous and leafy, each flower having oval, acute bracts, and from
three to twelve stamens with forked filaments and hairy anthers. The
pistillate flowers are in erect catkins and are arranged in pairs. Their
outer bracts are shed early, but the inner bracts or _bracteoles_, which
are three-lobed, grow very large as the fruits ripen, at which time,
also, the whole catkin becomes pendulous. Each flower has a
two-chambered ovary, and two styles; but only one cell develops, and
thus the fruits, each with only one seed, lie on the bases of the leafy
bracteoles which aid in their dispersion by the wind.

Our last example of the _Cupuliferæ_ is the well-known Hazel (_Corylus
Avellana_), which is generally found in trimmed hedges and among the
undergrowth of woods. Its bark on the trunk and larger branches is grey;
but brown, hairy, and dotted with glands, on the young shoots. The
leaves are roundish, slightly cordate and unsymmetrical, with a sharp
apex and an irregularly-serrate edge; and, when young, are
longitudinally plaited in the bud. The flowers appear before the leaves,
and are mature in March or early April, but the early stages of the
catkins may be observed on the tree throughout the winter, and even in
the preceding autumn. The staminate catkins are pendulous, from one to
two inches in length when in full bloom, and are commonly known to
country children as 'lambs-tails.' They are of a bright yellow colour,
and each flower has from four to eight stamens, with hairy anthers that
produce abundance of pollen. The pistillate catkins are small, oval, and
sessile, hardly to be distinguished from the foliage buds until they
protrude their bright crimson stigmas. The minute flowers are enclosed
in overlapping bracts which afterwards form the leafy cupules of the
large woody nuts; and each one has a two-celled ovary and two styles.

Our forest trees include three representatives of the order
_Betulaceæ_--the Common Birch, the Dwarf Birch, and the Alder. The first
of these, the Common Birch, Silver Birch, or Lady of the Woods (_Betula
alba_), is at once recognised by its smooth, silver-white bark, which
peels off in horizontal strips; its copper-brown branches; and its very
slender, drooping twigs. The leaves are small, rhomboid or triangular,
with an irregularly doubly-serrate margin, a sharp apex, and veins very
prominent on the under side. They are also provided with long stalks
which, together with the slender character of the weeping twigs, allow
them to be moved by the slightest breeze. The male and female flowers
are in separate catkins, the former of which may be seen on the tree
throughout the winter, but do not bloom until April or May. Both are at
first erect, but the staminate catkins droop as they mature, and shed
abundance of yellow pollen. The flowers have three-lobed, deciduous,
scale-like bracts; the male ones consist of two stamens with forked
filaments; and the females of a flattened, two-celled ovary. The female
catkins droop as they ripen, each one producing a large number of
minute, one-seeded and broadly-winged fruits which are easily dispersed
by the wind. Two varieties of this tree occur, one with the leaves and
twigs covered with downy hairs, and the other with leaves of an
oval-cordate form.

The Dwarf Birch (_B. nana_) is a mere shrub, seldom exceeding two feet
in height, and is to be found only in some of the mountainous districts
of Scotland. It has rounded, crenate leaves, with short stalks; and the
wings of the fruit are very narrow.

The Alder (_Alnus glutinosa_) is common in wet woods, and especially
along the banks of streams in wooded valleys. Some of the mountain
streams of the West of England, Wales, and Scotland, are bordered with
almost continuous lines of Alder for miles together. This tree has a
very dark grey bark, and the young branches are more or less triangular
in form. The leaves are round, with a wedge-shaped base, and are green
on both sides. They have very short stalks, are very blunt, and have a
wavy, serrate margin. When very young they are hairy and sticky to the
touch; hence the specific name of _glutinosa_. The catkins appear before
the leaves, and are mature in March or April. The staminate catkins are
pendulous, and much like those of the Birch; but the flowers have red
scales and four stamens. The pistillate catkins are short and erect, and
each flower has a fleshy scale within a reddish-brown, woody bract. The
fruits are shed in the autumn, but the thickened woody bracts of the
female catkin remain on the tree till, and even after, the flowers of
the following spring are in bloom.

Coming now to the order _Salicaceæ_, we have to deal with the Poplars,
of which we have several species, all more or less common, and largely
planted in cultivated ground. Our first example is the White Poplar
(_Populus alba_), a large tree frequently seen in abundance in most
woods. It has a smooth, grey bark, spreading branches, downy shoots and
buds, and it throws off many suckers from its roots. The leaves are
roundish, approaching a heart-shape, except those of the young shoots,
which are divided more or less deeply into five lobes; and they are
covered below by a white cottony down. The flowers are imperfect, and
the male and female catkins, produced on different trees, are mature in
March or April. The male catkins are three or four inches long, and each
flower has from six to ten stamens, with red anthers. The female catkins
are much shorter, and its flowers have divided stigmas, with long,
narrow, yellow segments arranged like a cross. The ovaries ripen into
capsules which split open in July, setting free seeds which are provided
with cottony filaments; and the seeds often fall in such abundance as to
almost completely cover the ground beneath the tree.

The Grey Poplar (_P. canescens_) grows in similar situations, and
flowers at the same time. Its leaves are roundish, with a waved and
toothed margin, and are covered beneath with a slight coating of grey
down. Those of the youngest shoots are more or less lobed. In this
species the two stigmas are purple, wedge-shaped, and divided into from
two to four lobes.

A third species--the Aspen (_P. tremula_) receives its specific name
from the tremulous movements of its leaves, which swing with a rotary
movement when disturbed even by the slightest breeze. This
characteristic is common, to a greater or lesser degree, to all the
species of this genus, and is due to the peculiar nature of the
leafstalks, which are long, and flattened in a plane at right angles to
that of the blade of the leaf. The Aspen has a grey bark, spreading
branches, and downy shoots. The leaves are nearly round, with a sharp
point and a serrate margin. When young they are downy above and beneath,
but become smooth later. The catkins are very dense, and the flowers of
the female tree have two divided stigmas.

The Black Poplar (_P. nigra_) and the Lombardy Poplar (_P. fastigiata_),
though very common, are not natives of this country. The former is a
large, spreading tree, and the latter is readily distinguished by its
tall, pyramidal form, with all its branches directed upward. Although
these two trees are so very unlike in general appearance, yet they
resemble one another so closely in the form of the leaves and the
character of the flowers that they are sometimes regarded as two
varieties of the same species. In both the leaves are very variable in
form, being either triangular, rhombic, or nearly circular, with rounded
teeth. Both have smooth shoots, and sticky buds; and their catkins are
not so dense as in the other members of the genus. The leaves also are
smooth on both surfaces except when young, at which stage they are
slightly downy beneath. The male catkins are two or three inches long,
of a deep red colour; and, since they appear before the leaves, are very
conspicuous. The female catkins are much shorter and erect, and the ripe
capsular fruits burst in June, setting free seeds which are covered with
a cottony down. _P. nigra_ has a furrowed grey bark, rendered still more
irregular by prominent swellings, and it rarely produces suckers. _P.
fastigiata_, on the other hand, often produces numerous suckers, and its
trunk generally has a rough, furrowed, and twisted appearance. It is
interesting to note that the female of the latter does not occur in our
country. The tree was introduced by means of suckers, and it appears
certain that suckers of the male tree only were brought over for this
purpose.

We conclude this chapter by a brief description of the two native
conifers of our woods--the Scotch Fir or Scots Pine (_Pinus sylvestris_)
and the Yew (_Taxus baccata_). The former is very well known, for while
its real home is the elevated parts of the North, it has been planted
more or less in most southern districts; and it is readily distinguished
from other forest trees by its general form, as well as by the nature of
its leaves, and by its 'cones.' It should be noted, however, that
several similar species, which may be confused with the Scots Pine, have
been introduced into our country, but descriptions of these can hardly
be included here.

[Illustration: THE SCOTS PINE WITH THE CONES OF TWO SEASONS.]

The bark of the Scots Pine is rough, of a reddish-brown colour, and
peels off in thick scales. Its trunk reaches a diameter of three or four
feet, and it often grows to a height of over one hundred feet. The
leaves are long, slender, rigid, grooved above, and always arranged in
pairs. When young they are of a bright green colour, but turn to a dark
green later, and remain on the tree for two years or more. The male and
female flowers grow on the same tree, and are mature in May or June. The
male catkins are only about a quarter of an inch in diameter, but are
collected into conspicuous spikes, and shed an abundance of pale yellow
pollen. The female catkins are in the form of egg-shaped cones, tapering
to a point. The carpels of the flowers do not enclose the seeds, but are
thick scales beneath which the seeds lie. The cone is two or three
inches in length, and takes about eighteen months to ripen, so that the
cones of two successive years will generally be found on the tree at the
same time. When ripe, the scales are woody and very hard, and as they
separate, the winged, naked seeds are set free and dispersed by the
wind. The tree has usually a very weather-beaten appearance, due to the
fact that the lower branches die as the height increases, and are then
more easily detached in stormy weather.

[Illustration: THE YEW IN FRUIT.]

The Yew is a native of mountainous woods, but has been planted largely
in other situations. It is an evergreen tree, with a dark brown, fibrous
bark; and although it never grows to any great height--seldom exceeding
fifty feet, it often has a girth of from twenty to thirty feet, and
reaches an age of fifteen hundred or two thousand years. The leaves are
very crowded, about one inch in length, and arranged in two rows along
the stem. They are linear, pointed, of a dark glossy green above, and
lighter below. The flowers are small, sessile, situated in the axils of
the leaves, and appear in March or April. The male flower consists of
from five to eight anthers, below which is a whorl of overlapping
scales. The female is much smaller, and is composed of a fleshy disc
with a small ovule at the top and scales below. After fertilisation the
ovule enlarges into a green seed, and the disc, which almost completely
surrounds it, develops into a roundish, sweet, fleshy cup, about half an
inch in diameter, of a bright rose-red colour and of a beautiful waxy
appearance. The leaves of the Yew are poisonous, but the fruits are
quite harmless. A variety of this tree occurs of a pyramidal form, with
scattered leaves and an oblong fruit. It should be noted that while the
male and female flowers of the Yew generally grow on separate trees, the
both are occasionally found on the same tree.



VII

WAYSIDES AND WASTES IN SPRING


In the present chapter we shall consider a number of wild flowers that
are to be found by the waysides, including banks and hedgerows, and in
waste places, during the spring months.

Our first example is the Celandine (_Chelidonium majus_), of the Poppy
family (order _Papaveraceæ_), generally spoken of as the _Greater_
Celandine in order to distinguish it from the Lesser Celandine (p. 108),
which belongs to the _Ranunculaceæ_. This plant is moderately common in
shady hedgerows and waste places, grows to a height of from one to two
feet, and flowers from May to July or August. It has a yellow, pungent,
poisonous sap. The leaves are pinnate, with an odd leaflet at the tip,
of a glaucous green colour; and all the leaflets are bluntly lobed. The
flowers are yellow, from three-quarters to an inch in diameter, and are
arranged in long-stalked umbels. As in the poppies, there are two sepals
which fall early, and four petals which are crumpled in the bud. There
are numerous stamens, attached below the superior ovary; and the latter
ripens into a pod-like capsule of one chamber, about an inch and a half
in length, which splits, when ripe, into two valves.

The Order _Cruciferæ_ is well represented by the wayside and on waste
ground during the spring months, and the reader will do well to note the
general characters of the flowers of this order (p. 17), unless
already acquainted with them, before attempting to identify the species
here described. Our first example--the Shepherd's Purse (_Capsella
Bursa-pastoris_) is a well-known weed, often troublesome in our gardens,
and may be seen in bloom from February to October. It is an erect herb,
from six to eighteen inches high, which may be identified at once by
reference to our illustration. The small white flowers are in
lengthening racemes, and are often made less conspicuous by the
conversion of the four petals into stamens. This weed is easily
distinguished from all the other plants of the order by the form of the
fruit, which is triangular and inversely heart-shaped. When ripe, it
splits into two boat-shaped, keeled valves, which separate from a
central membrane to which the seeds are attached.

[Illustration: THE SHEPHERD'S PURSE.]

The Common Scurvy Grass (_Cochlearia officinalis_) is to be found
chiefly on the sea shore, but it often extends for miles inland,
especially along the banks of the estuaries of rivers. It is a smooth,
succulent plant, from four to eight inches high. The little white
flowers have spreading petals, and are arranged in a short raceme; and
the fruit is globular or oval, nearly a quarter of an inch long, pointed
at the top, with several seeds in each cell. This plant commences to
flower in May, and continues in bloom until August.

The Common Whitlow Grass (_Draba verna_) is a very small and
inconspicuous plant, abundant on banks and hedgerows, bearing minute,
white flowers in April and May. It has a cluster of narrow, toothed,
hairy, radical leaves, from a quarter to half an inch long, that spread
horizontally close to the ground; and a leafless stem, from one to four
inches long, bearing a raceme of flowers on slender pedicels. The petals
of the flowers are deeply notched; and the fruits are oblong, about a
quarter of an inch long and half that width, containing many seeds.

[Illustration: THE SCURVY GRASS.]

[Illustration: THE COMMON WHITLOW GRASS.]

Two species of Winter Cress (genus _Barbarea_) are common in waste
land--the Common Winter Cress or Yellow Rocket (_B. vulgaris_), and the
Early Winter Cress or American Cress (_B. præcox_). The former is an
erect plant, from one to two feet high, with numerous, small, yellow
flowers in a loose raceme, blooming from May to August. The radical
leaves are pinnately divided, with a large, rounded, terminal lobe, and
side lobes becoming smaller towards the base; and the upper leaves are
oval and irregularly toothed. All the leaves are smooth and glossy, and
of a deep green colour. The fruits are short, and thicker than the
pedicels. A double variety of this flower is commonly cultivated in
flower gardens.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW ROCKET.]

The Early Winter Cress is a very similar plant, flowering at the same
time, but is of a more slender habit, and has narrower leaves, the upper
of which are pinnately divided. The flowers are also larger, and
arranged in a closer raceme; and the fruit is longer, but not thicker
than the pedicel. This species is cultivated as a salad, and frequently
occurs as a garden escape.

Two species of _Sisymbrium_ are also very common--the Garlic Mustard
(_S. alliaria_), also known as Sauce Alone and Jack-by-the-Hedge; and
the Thale Cress or Wall Cress (_S. Thaliana_). The first named is one of
the commonest of our hedgerow flowers. It grows to a height of one or
two feet, and bears, from April to June, a corymbose cluster of pure
white flowers, each about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The stem and
leaves, when crushed, emit a distinct odour of garlic. The former is
slightly branched; and the leaves are large, stalked, broadly cordate,
with many prominent veins, coarsely toothed, and of a delicate green
colour. The fruits are erect, about two inches long, on short pedicels.

The Thale Cress grows on dry banks and walls, and displays its minute
white flowers from April to the end of the summer. The stem is erect,
slender and branched, from six to ten inches in height; and the leaves,
which are nearly all radical, are simple, oblong-lanceolate, toothed
and downy. The fruits of this species are erect, narrow, with four
obscure angles, and about twice as long as their stalks.

The Rape or Cole-seed (_Brassica napus_) is a cruciferous weed commonly
occurring in cultivated ground, and often cultivated for its seeds. It
grows from one to two feet high, and bears corymbose clusters of yellow
flowers during May and June. Its root is fusiform (spindle-shaped), and
all its leaves are smooth and of a sea-green colour. The lower leaves
are lyrately pinnate, with toothed edges; and the stem leaves are
ovate-lanceolate, acute, embracing the stem. The pods spread as they
ripen.

The Wild Turnip (_Brassica Rapa_) is a very similar plant, producing its
yellow flowers from April to July. Its root is tuberous and fleshy. The
lower leaves are hairy and rough, and not of the glaucous green
characterising the last species, while the upper leaves are glaucous and
smooth.

The Sweet Violet (_Viola odorata_)--the favourite flower of wayside
banks--is common in many parts, and is generally very easily
distinguished from other similar species of the order (_Violaceæ_) by
its pleasing fragrance. It has a short root-stock, and, usually, long
creeping runners. At the top of the stock is a cluster of long-stalked
leaves, broadly heart-shaped in form, blunt, with crenate margins and a
slightly downy surface. At the base of the leafstalks are very narrow,
entire stipules; and from among these arise the slender flower-stalks,
of about the same length as those bearing the leaves, with a pair of
small bracts a little above the middle. The flowers are solitary,
drooping, of a violet, lilac, or white colour, with obtuse sepals; a
short, blunt, straight spur to the lower petal; and a hooked, pointed
stigma. The conspicuous, scented flowers with which we are so well
acquainted, bloom from March to April; but all through the summer the
plant bears small petalless flowers that produce the seeds.

Of the order _Caryophyllaceæ_ our first example is the Ciliated
Pearlwort (_Sagina ciliata_), a small, creeping plant, flowering in May
and June in dry places. The leaves are very small, narrow, ciliated,
terminating abruptly in a sharp point; and the two of each pair are
united at their bases. The flowers are very small and stalked; and the
petals are either very minute or absent. The sepals, stamens, styles,
and valves of the capsule, are each four; and the sepals lie close
against the capsule.

The Procumbent Pearlwort (_S. procumbens_), also found in dry places,
is a similar little plant, smooth and prostrate, with very small white
flowers that appear in May and bloom till the end of the summer. The
peduncles of this species curve backward just after flowering, but
become erect afterwards; and the sepals, which are sometimes five in
number, are not close against the fruit, as in the last, but spreading.

[Illustration: THE PROCUMBENT PEARLWORT.]

The genus _Stellaria_ includes some plants with pretty, white, star-like
flowers, some of which adorn our hedgerows in early spring. The most
conspicuous of these is the Greater Stitchwort or Satin Flower (_S.
Holostea_), the flowers of which are three-quarters of an inch in
diameter, and are arranged in loose, leafy cymes. The sepals have no
veins, and are about half as long as the petals, which are so deeply
cleft that the flower, at first sight, appears to possess ten instead of
five.

The Lesser Stitchwort (_S. graminea_) is a very similar flower, common
in dry places, blooming from May to August. The plant is smooth, and
does not possess the glaucous hue of the last species. The stem is very
straggling and slender, from one to three feet long; and the leaves are
grass-like, sessile, and acute. The flowers are very similar to those of
the Greater Stitchwort, but are smaller. The sepals have each three
veins, and are as long as the petals.

[Illustration: THE GREATER STITCHWORT.]

The Little Chickweed (_S. media_), so troublesome in our gardens,
belongs to the same genus. Its decumbent, branching stem has a
longitudinal line of hairs placed alternately on opposite sides from
joint to joint; and its ovate, smooth, succulent leaves are shortly
pointed, the lower ones having hairy stalks. The little star-like, white
flowers grow from the axils of the leaves, and have each five hairy
sepals, as long as the deeply-cleft petals, with narrow, membranous
margins.

These three species of _Stellaria_, and, in fact, all the species of the
genus, are distinguished by their divided petals and the presence of
three styles; but there is another group of flowers in the same order
known as the Mouse-ear Chickweeds (_Cerastium_), also with divided
petals, but having either four or five styles.

[Illustration: THE CHICKWEED.]

Three of the species of this group may be included among the spring
flowers of waysides. One of these is the Broad-leaved or Clustered
Mouse-ear Chickweed (_Cerastium glomeratum_), which flowers from April
to the end of the summer. It has an erect, sticky, hairy stem; and pale
green ovate leaves. The little white flowers are tufted, on short
stalks, with sepals and petals of equal length. A second--the
Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed (_C. triviale_)--has a similar but
spreading stem; and the leaves are narrow, and of a deep green colour.
In this one, too, the sepals and petals are equal; but the former are
hairy, and the flower-stalks are longer. The other is the Field
Mouse-ear Chickweed (_C. arvense_), which has numerous white flowers,
in forked cymes, blooming from April to August. Its stem is hairy,
prostrate, from six to ten inches long; the leaves very narrow; and the
sepals only about half as long as the petals.

[Illustration: THE BROAD-LEAVED MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED.]

The pretty Wild Geraniums, of which there are several species, often
form a very attractive feature of the wayside. They are readily
recognised as a group by the swollen joints of their stems; the simple,
stipuled, lobed leaves; the axillary flowers; and the fruit composed of
five distinct carpels, with their five long styles adhering to a long
central beak. The flowers have five distinct petals and sepals, and ten
stamens, five of which become alternately larger. When the fruit is ripe
the five carpels separate, and are raised by the curving of the smooth
styles which remain for a time attached to the beak.

In early April, and from then to August or September, the Dove's-foot
Crane's-bill (_Geranium molle_) may be seen in flower by the wayside.
The plant is prostrate, soft and downy, with rounded leaves lobed and
cut. The pretty pink or lilac flowers are from a third to half an inch
in diameter, with abruptly-pointed sepals and notched petals. This
species may be readily distinguished from similar plants of the same
genus by the smooth, wrinkled capsules, and smooth seeds.

A second species--the Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill (_G. dissectum_)--is
also very common in wastes and by waysides. It is a hairy, rather than
a downy plant, with spreading stems from one to two feet long; and
displays its bright red, shortly-stalked flowers from April to August.
The flowers, which vary from a quarter to half an inch in diameter, have
long-pointed sepals and notched petals.

[Illustration: THE DOVE'S-FOOT CRANE'S-BILL.]

A third species, also very common, is the Herb Robert (_G.
Robertianum_), characterised by a strong odour, and red, hairy,
spreading, succulent stems one or two feet long. The leaves are
compound, with three or five deeply-divided leaflets, and turn to a
bright crimson colour in late summer. The flowers are half an inch or
more in diameter, with ovate entire petals, of a pink colour and
beautifully veined. The sepals have long points, and are rendered very
viscid by glandular hairs. A white-flowered variety of this geranium is
occasionally seen.

We have now to note four of the spring leguminous plants (order
_Leguminosæ_)--plants belonging to the Pea family, distinguished by
their butterfly-like flowers, and, usually, by compound, stipuled
leaves. Our first example is the Black Medick or Non-such (_Medicago
lupulina_) which is common in wastes, by the waysides and in pastures.
This is a procumbent, spreading plant, with stems from six inches to two
feet in length, and leaflets inversely egg-shaped, with finely-toothed
edges. The flowers, which appear in April, and continue to bloom till
near the end of the summer, are small, yellow, and arranged in dense
oblong spikes. The calyx has five teeth, and the pods are kidney-shaped,
each with only one seed.

[Illustration: THE JAGGED-LEAVED CRANE'S-BILL.]

In shady grassy or bushy places we may see the Crimson Vetch or Grass
Vetchling (_Lathyrus Nissolia_) which, although not common, is rather
frequent in the midland and southern counties of England. It is a very
slender plant, from one to two feet high, bearing crimson flowers in May
and June, and may be identified at once by reference to our
illustration.

[Illustration: THE HERB ROBERT.]

The pretty Bird's-foot (_Ornithopus perpusillus_) is commonly found on
waste ground, more particularly on sandy soils. It has a spreading,
prostrate stem, from six to eighteen inches long, and pinnate leaves
with from about fifteen to twenty-five elliptical, downy leaflets. The
flowers appear to be pink when viewed from a distance; but, when
examined closely, are seen to have cream coloured petals that are veined
with crimson. They are arranged in heads, of a few flowers each, on long
stalks, with a leaf immediately below each head. The pods are curved,
and made up of from seven to nine oval, one-seeded joints, with a
terminal beak resembling the claw of a bird, so that each cluster of
pods has much the appearance of a bird's foot. This plant flowers from
April to July.

Our other example of leguminous flowers is the Bush Vetch (_Vicia
sepium_)--a climbing plant with stem two or three feet long, very common
in hedges, flowering from April to August. The leaves are pinnate, with
from twelve to eighteen oval, blunt leaflets which increase in size
towards the base. The flowers are pale purple, and are arranged in
axillary racemes of from four to six, on very short peduncles. The style
is tufted on one side, and the pods are smooth and erect.

We have now to note a flower of the Rose order (_Rosaceæ_), but since it
is common for a beginner to be confused by the general resemblance of
some of the flowers of this group to some of the _Ranunculaceæ_, it may
be well to point out that in the latter the stamens are united to the
receptacle of the flower, below the carpels, while in the rose order the
stamens are attached around or on the ovary itself.

[Illustration: THE GRASS VETCHLING.]

The Strawberry-leaved Cinquefoil or Barren Strawberry (_Potentilla
Fragariastrum_) is very similar to the Wild Strawberry, with which it is
often confused; but no difficulty will arise if it be noted that the
species we are now considering produces no running stems. The Barren
Strawberry is a silky little plant, with a thick, prostrate stem; and,
as one of its popular names implies, a ternate leaf resembling that of
the Wild Strawberry. The flowers are white, half an inch or less in
diameter, on slender peduncles, with notched petals. This is one of our
earliest spring flowers, blooming from February or early March to about
the end of May; and is very common on banks, in hedgerows, and in weedy
wastes.

The Tuberous Moschatel (_Adoxa Moschatellina_) is a very inconspicuous
but an interesting little plant. It is sometimes placed in the same
order (_Araliaceæ_) as the Ivy, while some botanists regard it as
belonging to the Honeysuckle family (order _Caprifoliaceæ_). It has a
scaly, creeping, thick, underground stem or rhizome, and a four-angled
aerial stem; and the whole plant emits the scent of musk. The flowers
are small, of a yellowish-green colour, and are clustered together into
five-flowered, terminal heads. The petals are spreading, the stamens
four or five in number, and the fruit is berry-like, with one-seeded
chambers. The plant is only four or five inches in height, and though
not common, may be found in shady places in many parts. It flowers
during April and May.

[Illustration: THE STRAWBERRY-LEAVED CINQUEFOIL.]

The White or Red-berried Bryony (_Bryonia dioica_) is a very common
hedgerow climber, the only British representative of its order
(_Cucurbitaceæ_). It has a very thick rootstock; a slender stem, that
often reaches a length of ten feet or more; large, bright green, palmate
leaves with three, five or seven angular, coarsely-toothed lobes; and
long simple or branched tendrils. The flowers are imperfect, the males
and females growing on separate plants. The former are of a pale yellow
colour, in stalked clusters, each one consisting of a spreading,
five-lobed corolla, about half an inch in diameter, and five stamens,
one of which is free, while the other four are united in pairs: the
females are smaller, generally in pairs, each consisting of a globular
ovary with three stigmas, and a superior, five-lobed corolla. The fruit
is a scarlet or orange-coloured berry, about a third of an inch in
diameter, containing several seeds. The whole plant is clothed with
small, white hairs, and contains an acrid sap. Time of flowering--May to
September.

[Illustration: THE MOSCHATEL.]

The Common Beaked Parsley (_Anthriscus vulgaris_), of the order
_Umbelliferæ_, is very common by waysides, flowering during May and
June. The stem of this plant is smooth and shining, from two to three
feet high, slightly swollen at the nodes. The leaves are tri-pinnate,
with blunt segments, and slightly hairy on the under side. The white
flowers are arranged in compound umbels with short stalks, and the
umbels droop before the flowers open. There are no bracts at the base of
the main pedicels, but five or six _bracteoles_, with fringed edges, lie
at the foot of the secondary pedicels. The fruits are short, ovate, with
short beaks and hooked bristles. As with the other members of this
genus, the petals have an inflexed lip.

This genus includes the Chervil or Wild Beaked Parsley (_A.
sylvestris_), which is very common in hedges and waysides, flowering
from April to June. It grows from three to four feet high, and has
tri-pinnate leaves with coarsely-serrated edges. The umbels are
terminal, on long stalks. There are no bracts, but about five narrow,
ovate bracteoles with fringed edges. The flowers are white; and the
fruits are long and narrow, smooth, with short beaks.

[Illustration: THE WHITE BRYONY, CLIMBING OVER A BED OF NETTLES.]

The Garden Beaked Parsley (_A. cerefolium_) is very similar to the last
species, but has only three bracteoles in a whorl, and the umbels are
lateral and shortly stalked. Also, the fruit, which is of the same form,
has a longer beak. This species is not a native, but is often found as a
garden escape. It grows to a height of about eighteen inches, and
flowers from May to July.

Our last example of the _Umbelliferæ_ is the Goutweed, Bishop-weed or
Herb Gerard (_Ægopodium Podagraria_), a rather coarse, erect, smooth
plant, from one to two feet high, commonly seen in wayside ditches and
other damp places. It was formerly cultivated largely for medicinal
purposes, consequently it is to be found chiefly near towns and
villages, where it occurs as a garden escape. It has a creeping,
aromatic stock; a hollow, grooved stem; large long-stalked, biternate
radical leaves, with ovate or narrow, toothed segments, two or three
inches long; and smaller stem-leaves with fewer segments. The flowers
are greenish white, in umbels of many rays, with few or no primary or
secondary bracts; and the fruits are oblong, about a sixth of an inch
long, with the two diverging styles curved downward. The plant flowers
from May to August.

[Illustration: THE WILD BEAKED PARSLEY.]

On dry banks by the wayside we may commonly meet with the Crosswort or
Mugwort (_Galium Cruciatum_) of the Bed-straw Family (_Rubiaceæ_). It is
a prostrate plant, with stem from six to eighteen inches long; and
soft, downy, elliptical leaves arranged crosswise in whorls of four. Its
fragrant little yellow flowers are in whorled, axillary cymes, each
cluster having from six to eight blossoms. The lower flowers have
stamens and no pistil, and the upper ones pistil only. The fruits are
smooth. The time of flowering is from April to June.

[Illustration: THE GARDEN BEAKED PARSLEY.]

Composite flowers (Order _Compositæ_) are mostly summer-bloomers, but
three at least are very common by waysides in spring. One of these is
the Mouse-ear Hawkweed (_Hieracium Pilosella_), a slender plant with
leafy runners, rendered silky in appearance by long, soft hairs. The
stem is almost leafless, but there are elliptical-lanceolate, entire,
radical leaves covered, especially on the under side, by starlike hairs.
The yellow heads are solitary, on stalks varying from two to ten inches
long. This species flowers from May to August.

The second species is the Common Groundsel (_Senecio vulgaris_), which
may be seen in bloom throughout the year. Though so well known, we think
it advisable to call attention to one or two of its characteristic
features. The leaves are smooth, deeply cut, toothed, and half clasp the
stem. The flower-heads have no ray florets; and the outer bracts are
very short, with black tips.

From March to April almost all damp places are more or less thickly
dotted with the bright yellow flowers of the Colt's-foot (_Tussilago
Farfara_); and later, after all the flowers have ceased to bloom, the
same places are covered with the large, heart-shaped, angular leaves,
four or five inches wide, thickly clothed beneath with a loose, cottony
down which is also sparingly scattered over the upper surface. The early
flowering stems are rather thick and fleshy, about six inches high, and
downy. They bear a number of small, narrow, erect, scale-like leaves,
and, at the top, a single flower-head, surrounded by a whorl of narrow
bracts, and a few smaller outer bracts. The inflorescence consists of
several whorls of narrow, strap-shaped, outer florets, with no stamens;
and a few central, tubular, perfect florets. The fruits are cylindrical,
with a tuft of long, simple hairs.

[Illustration: THE GOUTWEED.]

The Speedwells (_Veronica_) belong to the order _Scrophulariaceæ_. They
are all herbs, with simple leaves; slightly irregular flowers with an
unequally four-cleft, spreading corolla, the lower lobe of which is
smallest; and only two stamens. At least six species of this genus may
be found by waysides, in flower during the spring months.

One of these--the Thyme-leaved Speedwell (_Veronica serpyllifolia_), is
common in most waste places. It is a small plant, with a downy,
prostrate stem from three to ten inches long. The leaves are broadly
elliptical, slightly crenate, blunt, and somewhat leathery in nature.
The flowers are about a quarter of an inch across, of a light blue or
lilac colour, striped with dark blue veins; and appear from May to July.
They are arranged in several spike-like, many-flowered racemes. The
corolla tube is very short; the style long and persistent; and the
fruits are inversely-cordate capsules.

[Illustration: THE CROSSWORT.]

The Common Speedwell (_V. officinalis_) is a small plant, with hairy,
prostrate stems from two to ten inches in length. It is common in dry
places. The leaves are opposite, elliptical, serrate, with short stalks.
The pale blue flowers, which are only about a sixth of an inch in
diameter, are in many-flowered, axillary, spike-like racemes. The
capsules are of the same form as in the last species, but are deeply
notched. This species flowers from May to July.

The Germander Speedwell (_Veronica Chamædrys_) is one of our most
beautiful and most abundant spring flowers. It is very common on banks
and by roadsides, flowering during May and June. Its stem is weak,
decumbent, rooting at the base, often considerably more than a foot in
length, and remarkable for the line of hairs that changes to alternate
sides at each node. A raceme of flowers, much longer than the leaves,
arises from several of the nodes. The flowers are bright blue, about
half an inch in diameter, with a four-cleft calyx; a deeply four-cleft
corolla, the lower lobe of which is narrowest; and two prominent
stamens. The fruit is a very broad, flat capsule, notched at the top,
narrowed towards the base, splitting into two valves when ripe.

[Illustration: THE COLT'S-FOOT IN EARLY SPRING.]

[Illustration: THE GERMANDER SPEEDWELL.]

A fourth species, the Wall Speedwell (_V. arvensis_), is abundant on
walls and dry roadsides. It is a prostrate, downy plant, generally more
or less thickly covered with dust, flowering from April to about the end
of summer. The stem is from four inches to a foot in length, and two
lines of hairs run along the branches. The leaves are oval-cordate,
crenate, and slightly stalked. The flowers are very small and
inconspicuous, and are frequently almost completely hidden by the
crowded upper leaves. They have very short corolla-tubes, and are
arranged in loose, terminal, spikelike racemes.

The Grey Field Speedwell (_V. polita_) is common in waste places and
rough fields, flowering from April to September. Its flowers are bright
blue, about a quarter of an inch across, solitary, axillary, on stalks
which are longer than the leaves. The sepals are broadly oval and
pointed, and the petals are all of the same colour. The leaves of this
plant are stalked, cordate, and irregularly toothed.

Our last example of the order is the Green Field Speedwell (_V.
agrestis_), also common in fields and by the roadside. It has several
prostrate stems, from four to eight inches long; and stalked, cordate
leaves with irregularly serrate margins. The flowers are small, about a
fifth of an inch across, solitary, axillary, on stalks shorter than the
leaves. The sepals are narrow, oblong, and blunt; and the lower petal is
white. This species flowers from April to the end of the summer.

[Illustration: THE WHITE DEAD NETTLE.]

The Dead Nettles (genus _Lamium_, of the order _Labiatæ_) may be readily
distinguished from the Stinging Nettles, with which they are often
confused, by their square stems, and whorls of showy, lipped flowers.
Further, these flowers may be recognised from among the others of their
own order by the ten-ribbed, bell-shaped calyx; and by the one or two
teeth on each side of the lower lip of the corolla.

Three of this group are very common wayside spring flowers. One is the
White Dead Nettle (_Lamium album_), with large, white flowers forming
whorls in the axils of the leaves. The leaves of this plant are all
stalked, cordate, with a very sharp point, deeply serrate, and often
marked with white blotches. The teeth of the calyx are narrow, as long
as the tube, with long slender points; and the tube of the corolla is
curved, longer than the calyx, gradually widening from below upwards.
The two lower stamens are longer than the upper pair, and the anthers
are black. The plant varies from six to eighteen inches in height, and
flowers from April to September.

The Red Dead Nettle (_L. purpureum_) grows to the same height, but has
much smaller cordate or kidney-shaped leaves, with blunt apices and
crenate edges. The upper ones are very crowded, and often tinged with
red; and all the leaves are stalked. The flowers are small, of a
red-purple colour (rarely white), in crowded whorls in the axils of the
upper leaves. The tube of the corolla is straight, longer than the
calyx; and the calyx teeth are spreading.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW PIMPERNEL.]

The third species--the Cut-leaved Dead Nettle (_L. incisum_ or _L.
hybridum_)--is not so abundant as the other two, but moderately common
on waste land. Its leaves, which are all stalked, are very deeply cut
in a serrate manner; the lower ones being cordate, while the upper are
more triangular. The flowers are of a rose-red colour, in crowded whorls
near the top of the stem. The tube of the corolla is _shorter_ than the
calyx, and straight; and the teeth of the calyx are about as long as its
tube. The plant grows from six to eighteen inches in height, and flowers
throughout the whole of spring and summer.

Another common Labiate--the Ground Ivy (_Nepeta Glechoma_)--may be seen
almost everywhere in the spring, in bloom from March to May. It has a
procumbent, creeping stem, and deeply-crenate, kidney-shaped leaves. The
flowers are of a blue-purple colour, arranged in whorls of three or four
in the axils of the leaves. The calyx has five teeth and fifteen ribs;
and the two front stamens are shorter.

[Illustration: THE DOG'S MERCURY.]

The Early Field Scorpion Grass (_Myosotis collina_) belongs to the order
_Boraginaceæ_--a family of (usually) hairy herbs with alternate leaves
and one-sided spikes or racemes of showy flowers. The flowers have a
five-lobed calyx and corolla, five stamens, and a fruit of four nutlets.
It is in the same genus as the familiar Forget-me-not, and, in fact,
somewhat closely resembles that plant, which is often confused with
certain species of Scorpion Grass. It is a slender, more or less
prostrate herb, with blunt oblong leaves; and minute, bright blue
flowers which are at first hidden among the leaves, but afterwards
exposed by the lengthening of the stem. The flowers have very short
pedicels; and are in long, slender, leafless, spikelike racemes, with a
single flower some distance down, in the axil of the highest leaf. The
popular name of Scorpion Grass has been given on account of the
characteristic arrangement of the flowers when in the bud, these being
then tightly coiled in a scorpoid fashion. In order that the present
species might be distinguished from allied plants, we should note that
the pedicels are shorter than the calyx; that the calyx is furnished
with hooked bristles, and is open and swollen when the fruits are
formed; also that the tube of the corolla is very short. The Early Field
Scorpion Grass is very common on dry banks. Its stems vary from about
four to ten inches long, and the flowers appear during April and May.

[Illustration: THE BLACK BRYONY IN FRUIT.]

The Wood Loosestrife or Yellow Pimpernel (_Lysimachia nemorum_) of shady
waysides and woods is a member of the _Primulaceæ_ or Primrose family.
It is altogether a pretty little plant, much like the Scarlet Pimpernel
in general appearance, but somewhat larger and more glossy. It has a
prostrate, spreading stem, often tinged with red; and opposite, oval,
acute leaves with short stalks. The flowers are yellow, usually a little
more than half an inch in diameter, with a spreading corolla. They are
axillary, placed singly on very slender peduncles, and have very narrow
sepals. This species flowers from May to August.

The Perennial or Dog's Mercury (_Mercurialis perennis_), of the
_Euphorbiaceæ_ or Spurge family, is one of our earliest spring flowers,
and may be seen in abundance on almost all shady waysides, in bloom from
March to May, and growing from six to eighteen inches high. The minute
green flowers, which have three sepals and no petals, are in racemes or
spikes that grow from the axils of the upper leaves. They are unisexual;
the staminate flowers in slender racemes, with several erect stamens;
and the pistillate ones in short, few-flowered spikes, with a two-celled
ovary, two styles, and a few imperfectly formed stamens.

The Black Bryony (_Tamus communis_)--order _Dioscoriaceæ_--is a pretty
climbing plant, the slender stem of which twines for several feet among
the hedgerow trees and shrubs. Its leaves are cordate and acute, and
change either to a bright yellow or a beautiful bronze colour in the
autumn. The flowers, which appear in May and June, are yellowish green,
in small clusters; and the fruits are oblong berries, turning to a
bright scarlet as the leaves assume their autumn tints.

[Illustration: THE WILD ARUM.]

Our next flower is the peculiar and interesting Wild Arum (_Arum
maculatum_), of the order _Araceæ_, also known as Lords and Ladies,
Cuckoo Pint, and Wake Robin. It is a very common flower of shady
waysides, blooming during April and May. The plant is succulent, with a
short, fleshy rhizome; and large, smooth, sagittate leaves that are
often spotted with purple. The floral stalk is thick and fleshy, and
supports numerous unisexual flowers which are clustered round a central
axis or _spadix_ that is prolonged above into a club-shaped appendage.
The whole of the spadix is surrounded by a large bract or _spathe_ which
is contracted a little distance above its base. The portion of the
spathe below the constriction encloses the flowers, and remains
permanently closed as long as they are in bloom; but the upper part
opens on one side, just before the flowers begin to mature, exposing
the club of the spathe. The club is thick and fleshy, and coloured
either dull purple, bright red, pink, or yellow. The pistillate flowers
are clustered round the bottom of the spadix, and consist of a number of
sessile ovaries. Above them is a ring of imperfect flowers consisting of
styles only, and above these again is the cluster of staminate flowers,
with some aborted stamens at the top. After fertilisation has taken
place the spathe and the spadix soon wither away, and the ovaries
develop into a cluster of large berry-like fruits, each containing a few
seeds. These fruits, mounted on the summit of the lengthened, fleshy
peduncle, are very conspicuous objects in the autumn hedgerows.

The contrivance by which cross-fertilisation is secured in these flowers
is particularly interesting:--Numbers of little insects (midges) are
attracted by the brightly coloured club, and, possibly, also by the
foetid odour of the flowers. These creep down the spadix, passing
through the narrow neck into the closed compartment below. The neck is
more or less obstructed by the upper, abortive, staminate flowers, which
consist merely of a few whorls of bristles. Since, however, many of
these bristles point downwards, they offer but little obstruction to
insects as they enter; but prevent their escape. Thus, on cutting open
the lower part of the spathe, we may frequently find quite a number of
midges that have been imprisoned, their bodies covered with pollen that
has probably been carried from another Arum previously visited. The
pistillate flowers are mature first, and thus the imprisoned insects,
creeping about in their cell during this early stage of the flower, are
sure to bring pollen cells in contact with some of the ripened stigmas.

After the work of fertilisation has been accomplished, the anthers
ripen, setting free abundance of pollen which now covers the bodies of
the insects in the place of that which has been rubbed on to the
stigmas. Then the abortive stamens, which prevented the escape of the
insects, wither; and, at the same time, the neck of the spathe relaxes.
Thus the prisoners are again set free, and possibly a large proportion
of them enter another flower and repeat the process of
cross-pollination.

The commonest of the early-flowering Grasses of the wayside is the
Annual Meadow Grass (_Poa annua_)--a small tufted species, varying from
a few inches to nearly a foot in height. It commences to flower in
March, and remains in bloom till the end of the summer. It is
represented on Plate III.



VIII

MEADOWS, FIELDS AND PASTURES--SPRING


It is, of course, impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the
flowers of spring and those of summer, for not only does each individual
species vary in the time of its first appearance, according to the
nature of the season, but many of the spring and summer flowers overlap
in such a manner that it is difficult to decide which season has the
greater claim to each one. In the present chapter, however, we shall
include those flowers of our fields and meadows which usually _commence_
to bloom before the beginning of June, even though they may continue to
produce blossoms well into the summer.

One of the most conspicuous features of the meadows in spring is
certainly the abundance of those bright yellow flowers known
collectively as the Buttercups. But the name of Buttercup, standing
alone, has no definite, scientific meaning, the name being applied to
quite a number of flowers of the _Ranunculus_ genus of the order
_Ranunculaceæ_.

The earliest of these is undoubtedly the Pilewort or Lesser Celandine
(_Ranunculus Ficaria_), which appears early in April, and often in such
abundance as to cover the ground with its leaves and flowers. This
flower is not confined to fields and meadows, but often covers large
patches of bank and hedgerow, where, together with the Greater
Stitchwort, it produces a most brilliant show of white and yellow stars.

The plant has a small rootstock, with a number of little oblong tubers
which are renewed every year, and sometimes a branched, creeping stem.
Its leaves usually all grow direct from the rootstock, and are stalked,
heart-shaped, glossy, with crenate or angled margins. The flower-stalks
bear a few small leaves, and a single flower with three sepals, and
about eight glossy, oblong, yellow petals. The cluster of carpels in
the middle of the flower form a large, globular head.

A little later in the season our pastures are bountifully bedecked by
two of the most familiar Buttercups--the Creeping Buttercup (_R.
repens_) and the Bulbous Buttercup (_R. bulbosus_), both of which appear
early in May.

[Illustration: THE FIELD PENNY CRESS.]

The former grows from six inches to a foot in height, and may be easily
distinguished by its creeping stems, which give off root fibres and
produce new plants at every node. The flowering stems of this species
are clothed with long hairs, and the leaves are divided into three
stalked segments which are lobed and toothed, the middle segment
projecting much beyond the other two. The flowers are in loose panicles,
on long, furrowed stalks, with five yellowish-green, concave, spreading
sepals that are shorter than the petals. The carpels are ovate in form,
somewhat flattened, arranged in a globular head; and the fruits are
smooth. This plant is abundant almost everywhere, and continues to
flower till the end of the summer.

The Bulbous Buttercup is very similar to the last species, but may be
known at once by its swollen, bulbous root. Its leaves are divided into
three segments which are more or less toothed and lobed, and the sepals
bend backwards on the peduncle as soon as the flower opens. Its carpels
are smooth, and form a globular head; and the ripened achenes are also
smooth. The plant is very abundant. It flowers from May to August.

[Illustration: THE WILD PANSY.]

Coming now to the Crucifers, we have first to note the Field Pennycress
(_Thlaspi arvense_), which may be recognised at once by reference to our
illustration. It is an erect, smooth, plant, from six to twenty inches
in height, a common weed in cultivated ground, flowering from May to
July. Its radical leaves are stalked, and wither early; and the small
white flowers are soon followed by round siliquas, about half an inch
in diameter, with a broad wing notched at the top.

The same order includes the Cuckoo Flower, Lady's Smock, or Meadow
Bittercress (_Cardamine pratensis_), which is certainly one of our
prettiest spring flowers, growing in abundance in most moist meadows,
and flowering from April to June. It has a short rootstock, with small,
fleshy scales, often so much swollen as to resemble tubers; and the stem
is erect, either simple or branched, and a foot or more in height. The
leaves are pinnately divided, the leaflets of the lower ones being ovate
or round, and those of the upper ones very narrow. The flowers are
rather large, white or lilac in colour, with stamens about half as long
as the petals, and yellow anthers. The fruits are usually more than an
inch in length.

[Illustration: THE RAGGED ROBIN.]

One of the common weeds of cultivated fields is the pretty Wild Pansy or
Heartsease (_Viola tricolor_), of the order _Violaceæ_. The plant may be
easily recognised by its resemblance to the Garden Pansy, which is a
variety of the same species. It is very variable, both in regard to its
general build, and to the colour and size of the flowers. The plant is
either smooth or slightly downy, and its branching stem varies from four
to ten inches in length. The leaves are oblong or cordate, with crenate
edges; and each one has a large, leafy stipule which is divided into
oblong or very narrow lobes. The flowers are coloured with varied
proportions of yellow, white, and purple; and the lower petal, which is
the broadest, is usually purple at the base. This species flowers from
May to the end of the summer.

In damp meadows, and especially near ditches and in marshy ground, we
meet with the Ragged Robin (_Lychnis Flos-cuculi_ of the order
_Caryophyllaceæ_). This is an erect plant, from one to two feet high,
with a viscid stem that is slightly downy and never much branched. The
leaves are few and small, the upper ones sessile and the lower stalked.
The pretty red or rose-coloured flowers are arranged in a very loose
terminal panicle, and have no scent. The petals are each divided into
four very narrow lobes, of which the two middle ones are longest; and
the fruit is a broad oval capsule, which opens, when ripe, by five
teeth. The flowers appear first in May, and continue to bloom till the
end of June or the beginning of July.

Several spring-flowering leguminous plants (order _Leguminosæ_) are to
be found in fields and meadows, and of these we will first notice the
Spotted Medick (_Medicago maculata_), generally easily distinguished by
the dark spot in the centre of the leaflets of its trifoliate leaves. It
is a smooth plant, with procumbent, branching stems varying from six
inches to two feet in length. There are fine, spreading hairs on the
leafstalks, and the leaflets are obcordate and toothed. At the base of
each leafstalk there is a pair of toothed stipules. The small, yellow
flowers are in short, dense racemes, only a few in each cluster; and the
pods are little compact spirals, almost globular in general form, with
three or four ridges, and a central furrow broken by a number of fine,
curved prickles. The plant is abundant in the southern counties of
England and Ireland, where it grows on pasture-land, flowering from May
to near the end of the summer.

The Netted Medick (_M. denticulata_), of the same genus, is a similar
plant, flowering during the same period, and often seen in the southern
and eastern counties of England, especially in fields near the coast.
Its prostrate stems are of the same length as those of the Spotted
Medick; and its leaves are also very similar, but the stipules are
bordered with very fine teeth. The flowers are in small, yellow heads;
and the pod forms a loose, flat spiral of two or three coils, deeply
netted on the surface, and bordered with curved prickles.

We have next to note several species of Trefoils (genus _Trifolium_),
all distinguished by trifoliate, compound leaves, so familiar to us in
the clovers; and stipules which adhere to the leafstalks. Their flowers
are in dense clusters, and each one has a five-toothed calyx, and an
irregular corolla of narrow petals which usually remains, in a withered
condition, around the ripening pod. There are ten stamens, the upper one
free, while the remaining nine, united by their filaments, form a split
tube round the ovary. The pod sometimes contains only one seed, and
never more than four.

The Subterranean Trefoil (_T. subterraneum_), which is abundant on the
dry pastures of South England, is characterised by a stem, from six to
eighteen inches long, which is underground for the greater part. The
visible portion of the plant is small, and more or less covered with
long, spreading hairs. The leaves are on long stalks, with obovate
leaflets, and broad stipules. The flowers vary in colour from white to
pink or crimson, and are usually in hairy clusters of from two to four.
As the fruit ripens, the peduncle lengthens and bends downward. At the
same time the calyx turns back on the stalk, exposing short fibres, each
with five spreading teeth which fold over the fruit. The flowers appear
during May and June.

The Dutch Clover or White Clover (_T. repens_) is one of the most
familiar of the Trefoils. It is very abundant in English pastures, and
has been introduced into Ireland, where it is now often selected as the
national emblem in the place of the Wood Sorrel (p. 52), which
is regarded by many as the original 'true Shamrock.' The whole plant is
smooth or slightly hairy; and its creeping stem, from two to twenty
inches in length, sends down root-fibres from its nodes. The leaves have
long stalks, with stipules at the base; and the leaflets are broadly
oval or obovate, finely toothed, and have usually a lighter,
crescent-shaped mark near the middle. The flower-stalks are long,
growing from the axils of the leaves; and each one bears a globular head
of white or pinkish flowers. The plant flowers from April to the end of
the summer.

A very similar species--_T. hybridum_--has been introduced into our
country, and has now become established in many places where it was
formerly cultivated. Its stipules are larger than those of the Dutch
Clover; the pod contains only two seeds; and the flowers are usually
pinkish.

The Common Purple Clover (_T. pratense_) is also largely cultivated for
fodder, but it is indigenous, and grows abundantly in most parts as a
wild plant. It is very similar to the Dutch Clover in general build,
but its stem is more or less erect, the flowers are purple, and the
whole plant is generally more hairy. The stipules are ovate, larger,
veined, and have long points; and each flower-head has a pair of
trifoliate leaves at its base. The individual flowers are about half an
inch long; and the hairy calyx has the lower tooth longer than the
others. The pod contains only one seed, and is surrounded by the brown,
withered corolla, as well as by the calyx, which remains erect while the
fruit ripens. This species also flowers from May to the end of the
summer.

[Illustration: THE PURPLE CLOVER.]

Two of the Vetches (_Vicia_--of the order _Leguminosæ_) are also to be
included among our spring-flowering field-plants. One of these is the
Spring Vetch (_V. lathyroides_), which may be found in flower from April
to June on dry pastures. It is a small plant, with a hairy stem that
gives off spreading branches, from six to eight inches long, at the
base. The leaves are pinnate, with two or three pairs of leaflets,
rounded and notched at the apex, and no tendrils. The flowers are small,
solitary, of a rich purple colour, situated in the axils of the leaves.
The pods are smooth and usually less than an inch long.

The other species--the Common Vetch (_V. sativa_)--is a very similar
plant, but its trailing stems grow to a length of from one to two feet.
Its leaves have from four to seven pairs of leaflets, varying in form
from linear to obovate or obcordate, and have branched tendrils. At the
base of each leaf is a toothed stipule with, usually, a dark spot in the
centre. The flowers are axillary and sessile, either solitary or in
pairs, rather large, and of a pale purple colour. The pods are narrow,
smooth, from one to two inches long, and contain about twelve smooth
seeds. The plant is common in fields, and flowers during May and June.
It is represented in Fig. 5 of Plate IV.

[Illustration: THE DAISY.]

The very pretty Meadow Saxifrage (_Saxifraga granulata_), of the order
_Saxifragaceæ_, is very abundant in the meadows of some parts of England
and Scotland, and may sometimes be seen on grassy roadsides. It varies
from six to about ten inches high, and flowers during May and June. The
stem is erect, simple or slightly branched, and covered with spreading
hairs; and the lower leaves are kidney-shaped, either crenate or lobed,
having long stalks, while the upper ones are smaller, and either entire
or sharply lobed. The rather large white flowers are in terminal cymes
of from three to six. The calyx adheres to the ovary, and has blunt
segments; the five petals are about twice as long as the sepals; and
both petals and stamens are inserted into the bases of the segments of
the calyx. The stamens are ten in number, and the ovary is two-celled,
with two styles.

The principal spring-flowering umbelliferous plant of pastures is the
common Earthnut or Pignut (_Bunium flexuosum_ or _Conopodium
denudatum_). This plant has a smooth, slender, stem, with a few forked
branches, and is usually leafless at the base on account of the early
decay of the lower leaves. Its popular names are due to the large,
tuberous rootstock, which has somewhat the appearance of a chestnut, and
is often eaten by country folk, and dug out of the ground by pigs. The
lower leaves have three stalked segments, each divided pinnately into
narrow lobes which are themselves divided; and the upper leaves, which
are smaller, are cut into very narrow lobes, the middle one much longer
than the others. The small, white flowers are arranged in umbels of from
six to ten rays, with a few very narrow bracts or none at all. The
umbels are usually terminal, and droop before the flowers are open. The
fruit is oval or oblong, slightly flattened, with slightly-spreading
styles, and ribs scarcely visible. The plant grows from one to three
feet high, and flowers from May to July.

Dealing next with a few composite flowers (order _Compositæ_), we first
call attention to the leading characters of the Common Daisy (_Bellis
perennis_), which is abundant in fields and meadows almost everywhere,
and flowers practically all the year round. It has a tufted, perennial
rootstock, from which grows a cluster of obovate leaves, usually smooth,
and slightly toothed. The leafless peduncles also start direct from the
stock, each one bearing a solitary flower-head with an outer whorl of
nearly smooth bracts; a ray of strap-shaped, white or pinkish florets;
and a disc of numerous little yellow, tubular florets.

The Dandelion (_Taraxacum Dens-leonis_ or _T. officinale_) is equally
familiar as a meadow and wayside plant, commencing to flower in March,
and continuing in bloom till October. It has a thick tap-root, with a
very bitter taste; and direct from the crown of this grow the spreading
leaves and the hollow stalks of the solitary flower-heads. The former
vary very considerably in shape, but are usually long and narrow,
broader at the apex, and cut into triangular lobes which generally point
backwards. Sometimes, however, the leaves are almost entire; and they
also vary in colour, from a bright to a very dull green. The peduncles
vary from two to eight inches in length; and the florets of the head,
which are all yellow, are surrounded by an inner whorl of narrow, erect
bracts, and outer bracts which either overlap or are turned back on the
stalk. The little fruits have projecting points towards the top, and are
provided with a slender beak, three or four times as long as the achene
itself, at the summit of which is a tuft of silky hairs.

[Illustration: THE BUTTERBUR.]

Our last example of the composite flowers is the Butterbur, variously
named _Tussilago vulgaris_, _Petasites vulgaris_, and _Tussilago
Petasites_. It resembles the Common Colt's-foot (_Tussilago Farfara_) in
several respects; and, as will be seen from the above names, is
sometimes included in the same genus. Its leaves are very large, and
very similar to those of the Colt's-foot, being cordate and toothed,
and appearing after the flowers. The flowering stems each bear a dense
cluster of dull pink or purple heads, forming a raceme from four inches
to a foot in height. The pistillate and staminate flowers grow almost
exclusively on separate plants. In the former case the heads are larger
and densely clustered, each one consisting of filiform, pistillate
florets only, or almost entirely of these with a few tubular, staminate
florets in the centre. On other plants the flower-heads are smaller and
not so densely clustered; and each head consists entirely of tubular,
male flowers, or has a few filiform, female florets round the outside.
The plant is common in many parts of Britain. It grows in damp meadows,
especially along the banks of streams and ditches, flowering from March
to May.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW RATTLE.]

The Yellow Rattle (_Rhinanthus Crista-galli_), of the order
_Scrophulariaceæ_, is abundant in damp pastures, flowering from May to
July. It is a parasitic species, deriving a portion of its food, in the
form of ready-made organic compounds, from the roots of surrounding
grasses, and its parasitic habits are referred to in Chapter XXIII. Its
stem is erect, from six to eighteen inches high; and the leaves are
sessile, opposite, lanceolate, and coarsely toothed. The calyx is almost
globular, slightly flattened, with four small teeth. The yellow corolla
has a tube longer than the calyx, and terminates in two lips, one or
both of which have often a purple spot. The stamens are in two pairs;
and the fruit is an almost globular capsule, containing a few large,
flat seeds.

In similar situations we may find the Field Louse-wort (_Pedicularis
sylvatica_) of the same order, also a parasitic species, extracting
nourishment from the roots of grasses. It has spreading branches from
three to ten inches long, more or less recumbent. Its leaves are
alternately arranged, and pinnately cut into small, toothed segments.
The flowers are sessile in the axils of the upper leaves, and vary in
colour from rose to white. The calyx is broadly oblong, with five
unequal lobes. The tube of the corolla is considerably longer than the
calyx; and its upper lip has a very small tooth on each side, just under
the tip. The plant flowers from April to July.

[Illustration: THE HENBIT DEAD NETTLE.]

The only common spring labiate flower (order _Labiatæ_) of fields is the
Henbit Dead Nettle (_Lamium amplexicaule_), which is frequently met with
on sandy soils, flowering from April to the end of the summer. It is a
low plant, seldom reaching a foot in height, with a branching stem that
is too weak to stand erect. The upper leaves are sessile, round, much
wrinkled, and deeply crenate; while the lower ones, of the same form,
are on long petioles. The flowers are arranged in a few compact whorls,
in the axils of the upper leaves. The calyx is much shorter than the
tube of the corolla; and its five, pointed teeth, which are as long as
the tube, bend together as the fruit ripens. The lipped corolla is of a
rose or purple-red colour, about half an inch long, with a comparatively
long, straight tube.

In damp meadows we frequently see the changing Scorpion-Grass (_Myosotis
versicolor_), also known as the Yellow and Blue Scorpion Grass, deriving
its name from the fact that the corolla is yellow at first, and
afterwards changes to a dull blue. It is a hairy plant, with an erect
stem, from four to ten inches high, slightly branched. The leaves are
oval or ovate, narrow, and sessile; the lower ones forming a spreading
tuft at the base, while the others, few in number, are erect on the
stem. The flowers are very small, almost sessile, and arranged in a
one-sided, curved raceme. The calyx is deeply cleft into five parts
which close quite over the ripening fruit; and the small corolla has a
comparatively long tube and five spreading lobes. The plant flowers from
April to June. It belongs to the order _Boraginaceæ_.

The Cowslip (_Primula veris_--order _Primulaceæ_) is common in pastures
in many parts of Britain. It usually grows from six to ten inches high,
and flowers during May and June. The whole plant is clothed with soft,
downy hairs; and its leaves are all radical, obovate, narrowed towards
the base, and much wrinkled like those of the Primrose. The flowers are
arranged in a drooping umbel, on a long stalk. The calyx is tubular,
with five broad, blunt teeth; and the corolla has a long, narrow tube,
with five spreading lobes that form a shallow cup.

[Illustration: THE COWSLIP.]

Two species of Sorrel are very common in meadows and pastures during the
spring. They are plants very much resembling the docks; in fact, they
belong to the same genus (_Rumex_) of the order _Polygonaceæ_. Both have
erect, leafy stems, with sheathing stipules; and numerous, small, green
flowers which soon turn red. The latter are imperfect, with a
deeply-cleft perianth of six lobes. The male flowers have six stamens;
and the females have three styles. The fruits are little triangular
nuts, more or less enclosed in the segments of the perianth.

One of these--the Common Sorrel (_Rumex Acetosa_)--is very abundant in
damp meadows and pastures all over Britain. It varies from one to two
feet in height, with a stem that is usually unbranched, and flowers from
May to July. The leaves have a very acid juice, and are often used as a
salad. The radical ones are oblong, arrow-shaped at the base, with
pointed lobes, and have rather long stalks; the stem-leaves are
smaller, few in number, with shorter stalks. Sometimes both male and
female flowers grow on the same plant, but often the plant produces the
one kind only. They are arranged in long, leafless panicles; and the
outer lobes of the perianth of the female flowers are turned back on the
peduncle, while the inner are enlarged and swollen, and close over the
fruit.

The other species--the Sheep's Sorrel (_R. Acetosella_)--is a much
smaller plant, seldom reaching a foot in height, and often only three or
four inches. It grows abundantly in dry pastures and on heaths,
flowering from May to July. It is much more slender than the Common
Sorrel; and its leaves, which are also acid, are all very narrow, and
generally either arrow-shaped or spear-shaped at the base. The flowers
are in very slender, terminal panicles, the males and the females always
on separate plants; and the latter differ from those of the last species
in that all the segments of the perianth close over the fruit.

[Illustration: FOX-TAIL GRASS.]

Coming now to the monocotyledonous plants, we have first to note three
flowers of the order _Orchidaceæ_, the general features of which are
described in Chapter XVIII; and the reader is advised to refer
to this short account of the leading characteristics of the group before
attempting to identify the present species.

The first is the Twayblade (_Listera ovata_), frequently seen in moist
pastures, as well as in woods, flowering from May to July. The stem of
this plant is usually from one to two feet high, with a few sheathing
scales at the base; and the species can be recognised at once by its two
broad oval leaves, almost exactly opposite one another, from two to four
inches long, and about six inches from the ground. The flowers are of a
yellowish-green colour, in a long slender raceme; and each one has a
long lip, divided into two very narrow lobes.

The other two belong to the genus _Orchis_. They are the Green-winged
Meadow Orchis (_O. Morio_), and the Early Purple Orchis (_O. mascula_),
and may be distinguished by the following summary of their
characteristics:

The Green-winged Orchis.--Root with two undivided tubers, and stem from
six to twelve inches high. Leaves few, narrow, at the base of the stem
only; but a few, loose, sheathing scales above them. Flowers usually
about eight in number, forming a loose spike. Bracts thin, pink, about
the same length as the ovary. Sepals purplish, arching over the smaller
petals. Lip longer than the sepals, and divided into three short lobes.
Spur a little shorter than the ovary, and very blunt. The plant is
abundant in the South of England and in South Ireland, but less common
in the North. The flowers appear during May and June.

The Early Purple Orchis.--Root with two undivided tubers. Stem from six
to eighteen inches high, including the loose spike of flowers. Leaves
broad, and often spotted. Flowers numerous, usually purple, but
sometimes pink or even white. Bracts coloured, nearly as long as the
ovary. Upper sepals and petals arched over the ovary; lateral sepals
acute, and turned upwards and backwards. Lip about the same length as
the sepals, divided into three short lobes, the middle one notched, and
the lateral ones turned backward. Spur as long as the ovary, obtuse. The
plant is generally distributed, growing in moist meadows and in woods,
flowering from April to June.

Finally, we have to note two early-flowering grasses of pastures. One of
these is the Fox-tail Grass (_Alopecurus pratensis_), which grows from
one to two feet high, and may be identified with the aid of our
illustration. The other is the Slender Fox-tail (_A. agrestis_), a very
similar plant, but its spike of flowers is narrower, especially towards
the top, and the sheaths of its leaves are not so loose as in the
former.



IX

BOGS, MARSHES AND WET PLACES IN SPRING


The cold soils of bogs, marshes, and other wet places do not produce a
very great variety of flowers during the spring months; but some there
are which appear in great profusion; and others, though less
conspicuous, are sufficiently abundant and interesting to be included in
our list.

Our first is the beautiful Marsh Marigold (_Caltha palustris_) of the
Buttercup family (_Ranunculaceæ_), which is exceedingly abundant in
marshes and by the sides of muddy ditches in most parts of Britain,
flowering from March to June. It is represented on Plate V, and
may be distinguished at once from the other members of its family by its
glossy leaves, and its large flowers, varying from one to near two
inches in diameter.

A little later in the season we may meet with the pale blue or lilac
flowers of the Marsh Violet (_Viola palustris_--order _Violaceæ_), which
generally make their first appearance in April, and continue until June
or July. The plant is much like the well-known Sweet Violet in general
appearance, but is smaller, with a creeping stock; and the whole is
smooth with the exception of a few scattered hairs on the flower-stalks.
Its leaves are either round, heart-shaped, or kidney-shaped, with
slightly-waved edges, and often of a purplish hue beneath. The flowers
are smaller than those of the Sweet Violet, scentless, with pale petals;
and the spur of the corolla is very short and blunt. The plant is rather
local in the southern counties of England, but is decidedly abundant in
the bogs and marshes of North Britain.

Few of the spring bog-flowers are more interesting than the pretty
little Sundews (_Drosera_), so remarkable on account of their
carnivorous nature. A description of the three British species will be
found in Chapter XXIV, which contains also an account of their peculiar
habits.

Coming next to the order _Caryophyllaceæ_ we have to note two of the
Stitchworts or Starworts (_Stellaria_)--slender plants distinguished by
their opposite, pointed leaves; jointed stems; and little, white,
star-like flowers. They have five sepals; five petals, deeply divided
into two lobes; ten stamens; three styles; and a capsular fruit that
splits longitudinally, with many seeds.

One of these is the Glaucous or Marsh Stitchwort (_Stellaria glauca_ or
_S. palustris_), which is widely distributed though not very common. The
whole plant is slender, with a four-angled stem from six to eighteen
inches high; and narrow, sessile, undivided leaves that taper to a
point. Its flowers are solitary on axillary peduncles, from half to
three-quarters of an inch in diameter, with petals much longer than the
three-veined sepals. They first appear in April, and continue to bloom
until August.

[Illustration: THE MARSH POTENTIL.]

The other is the Bog Stitchwort (_S. uliginosa_)--a smooth, slender
plant, with a spreading, four-angled stem, and narrow-ovate leaves that
terminate in a stiff point. In marshy or boggy ground its stems are
straggling, and often near a foot in length; but on drier soils they are
much shorter, and the plant more tufted. The flowers are much
smaller--only about a quarter of an inch in diameter, and are arranged
in loose, terminal cymes. Their petals are shorter than the sepals, and
are very deeply divided into two narrow spreading lobes. This species
flowers during May and June.

The Rose family (_Rosaceæ_) includes the Purple Marsh Cinquefoil or
Marsh Potentil (_Comarum palustre_ or _Potentilla palustris_)--a stout
plant, varying from six to eighteen inches high, the whole generally
more or less tinged with purple. The flowers are of a dull purple-brown
colour, in loose clusters, and bloom from May to July. The sepals, which
are longer than the petals, have narrow outer segments, and longer,
broad, inner segments with long, sharp points. This species is widely
distributed, but is very local in the southern counties of England.

[Illustration: THE GOLDEN SAXIFRAGE.]

In shady marshes we may often meet with one or other of the two pretty
little Golden Saxifrages (order _Saxifragaceæ_), and sometimes the both
growing together. One of them--the Common Golden Saxifrage
(_Chrysosplenium oppositifolium_), is very abundant, often covering
large patches of marsh with its golden leaves and flowers. It is a
tender, succulent plant; with a decumbent stem, either simple, or
branched near the top, and rooting at the base. The leaves are opposite,
almost round, about half an inch in diameter, with wavy margins, and a
few scattered hairs on the upper side. The lower ones are shortly
stalked, and the upper generally of a golden colour. The flowers are
very small, in little, crowded, terminal clusters, surrounded by the
upper leaves. They have a calyx of four spreading sepals; no petals;
eight stamens joined to the base of the sepals; and an inferior ovary
divided above into two conical lobes.

The other species is the Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage (_C.
alternifolium_)--a very similar plant, but generally of a lighter
colour, and its leaves are always alternately arranged. Both species
have yellow flowers which bloom from April to July; and both grow to a
height of from two to five inches. The latter is much less common than
the former, but is very widely distributed.

The Marsh Pennywort or White Rot (_Hydrocotyle vulgaris_) is a peculiar
umbelliferous plant, common in marshes and bogs, with a slender stem
that creeps in the mud, rooting at every joint; and tufts of
long-stalked leaves which rise above the surface of the water. The
latter are round, with waved margins, about an inch in diameter, glossy,
and stalked in the centre. The minute white flowers are collected into
little five-flowered umbels, on stalks much shorter than those of the
leaves, each individual flower having a very short pedicel, and five
spreading petals. This plant flowers from May to August.

[Illustration: THE MARSH VALERIAN.]

In the marshes of South Britain we may often meet with the pretty Marsh
Valerian (_Valeriana dioica_) of the _Valerianaceæ_. It grows from six
to eight inches high, and its flowers, which bloom during May and June,
are of a pale rose colour, in a terminal corymb. They are mostly
unisexual, the male and female flowers growing on different plants. All
have a tubular corolla, pouched at the base, with five spreading lobes;
but the female blooms are more densely crowded than the males, and are
of a deeper colour. The former have an inferior ovary, with a slender
style and a lobed stigma; and the latter have three stamens on the
corolla.

The _Gentianaceæ_ is represented in bogs by the common Buckbean or Marsh
Trefoil (_Menyanthes trifoliata_), the only member of its family with
trifoliate leaves. This plant has a creeping stock; and its flowers,
which are pink in the bud and pinkish white when expanded, are in
handsome racemes on stalks from six inches to a foot in length. The
calyx has five short lobes; and the bell-shaped, fleshly corolla is
deeply cut into five lobes which are beautifully fringed above with
delicate filaments. The time of flowering is May to July.

[Illustration: THE MARSH TREFOIL.]

[Illustration: THE MARSH LOUSEWORT.]

In the marshes, ditches, and wet meadows of most parts we may see the
Red Rattle or Marsh Lousewort (_Pedicularis palustris_) which belongs to
the order _Scrophulariaceæ_. It has an erect stem, from six to eighteen
inches high, with reddish branches; and pinnate leaves with many oval
segments more or less deeply cut. Its rather large crimson flowers are
on very short stalks in the axils of the upper leaves, forming together
a leafy raceme. The calyx is a broad, hairy tube, with two
irregularly-toothed lips; and the corolla is much longer than the calyx,
with two lips, the upper of which has four minute teeth. After flowering
the calyx becomes much swollen; and the superior ovary ripens into a
capsule with a few rather large seeds. This plant flowers from May to
September.

Most wet places are characterised by the presence of one or more species
of Willows--those water-loving trees and shrubs which constitute the
genus _Salix_ of the order _Salicaceæ_. Some of them almost invariably
establish themselves along the banks of rivers and streams, and may
often be seen in long tortuous lines which mark the positions and
courses of streams that no longer exist; while others thrive best in the
standing water and sodden soils of marshes and bogs. One species in
particular, the Osier, is largely cultivated for its long, slender
twigs, so useful in the manufacture of baskets and other wicker-work;
but two or three others are valued for the same purpose, and are either
specially cultivated, or pollarded with the object of securing suitable
twigs for this work.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW FLAG.]

Nearly all the species have very narrow leaves, with prominent stipules
at the base; and their flowers grow in erect or horizontal catkins with
undivided scales. The flowers are always unisexual, the male and female
blossoms being produced on separate trees. The former have from two to
five stamens; and the latter a one-celled ovary that ripens to a capsule
containing many seeds, each with a tuft of silky hairs. A few of these
trees are common in marshes and bogs, but they are so similar in their
general features that the identification of species is somewhat
difficult for a beginner.

Some of our marshes and boggy pools are beautifully decorated from May
to July by the large, bright flowers of the Yellow Iris or Flag (_Iris
Pseudacorus_), which belongs to the order _Iridaceæ_. This plant has a
thick rhizome which creeps horizontally below the ground, and a round
stem from one to three feet high. Two or three flowers grow on the stem,
each with a sheathing bract at the base of its stalk. The perianth
consists of six segments, the outer three broadly ovate at the top, and
spreading; and the inner three narrower, shorter, and erect. There are
three stamens; and an inferior ovary with three large petal-like
stigmas, longer than the inner segments of the perianth, divided into
two at the tip. The fruit is a large capsule, two or three inches long,
containing many brownish-yellow seeds.



X

WOODS AND THICKETS IN SUMMER


A large number of the flowers that grow in woods bloom early in the
spring, before the buds of the trees have expanded, or, at least, before
the foliage is sufficiently dense to cover the ground with its shadow.
Some, however, are not so dependent on the direct rays of the sun, but
thrive even better in the shaded, moist atmosphere of wooded ground.
Others there are which seem grateful for the warm rays of the summer
sun, but grow to their greatest luxuriance in the moist and
partially-shaded ground of underwood and thicket, trusting to the
rigidity of their own erect stems, or to the climbing habit which they
have acquired, to bring their leaves and blossoms in full view of the
sun during some part of the day.

Plants such as these are selected for description in this chapter; and
although we may speak of their flowers as the summer blossoms of woods,
thickets and copses, we must be prepared to meet with several of them
outside these habitats, particularly in damp places that are more or
less protected from the heat of the sun.

Our first in this series is the Lime Tree (_Tilia europæa_) of the order
_Tiliaceæ_, which grows wild in many of our woods, but has been planted
to such an extent that it may be found in almost every cultivated
district except in the extreme North. Its leaves are stalked, alternate,
heart-shaped or broadly ovate, very pointed, serrate, smooth above, and
slightly downy below. The flowers, which appear during June and July,
are of a pale yellowish green colour, and are arranged in cymes, on
axillary, drooping peduncles that are attached for nearly half their
length to a long, leafy bract. There are five sepals, which fall early;
five petals; and many stamens that are united at their bases into
clusters. The blossoms have a very sweet scent, and produce such an
abundance of nectar that they are very attractive to bees and other
insects. The fruit is a woody nut, globular or more or less angled,
five-celled, with two seeds in each cell.

[Illustration: _Plate II._ FLOWERS OF THE WOODS.
1. Great Valerian. 2. Foxglove. 3. Succory-leaved Hawk's-beard. 4.
Nettle-leaved Bell-flower. 5. Broad-leaved Helleborine. 6. Hairy
Brome-grass.]

A small-leaved variety, sometimes regarded as a distinct species (_Tilia
parvifolia_), has a thin, angular fruit; and another, known as _Tilia
grandifolia_, has very large, broad leaves, downy on both sides, and a
downy fruit with from three to five prominent ribs.

[Illustration: THE LARGE-FLOWERED ST. JOHN'S WORT.]

Several species of St. John's-wort (order _Hypericaceæ_) grow in
thickets and other wooded spots. They vary considerably in size, as well
as in general appearance, but all agree in the following features: Their
leaves are opposite, entire, without stipules, and either sessile or
very shortly stalked. The flowers are regular, with five sepals; five
petals, often oblique at the tip; numerous stamens, united or clustered
into three or five sets; and a superior ovary that ripens to a capsule
with many seeds. No less than four species of the genus (_Hypericum_)
come within the province of the present chapter. They are:--

1. The Tutsan (_H. Androsæmum_).--An erect, shrubby plant, from one to
three feet high, flowering from June to August, common in the thickets
of most of the western and southern counties of Britain. It has several
erect, slightly-flattened stems; and large, blunt, ovate leaves, two or
three inches long, with very small, transparent dots that are easily
seen when the leaves are held up to the light. The flowers are yellow,
about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and form a compact,
terminal corymb. The sepals are broad, about a third of an inch long;
the petals a little longer, and oblique; and the stamens are in five
sets, connected at the base.

[Illustration: THE COMMON ST. JOHN'S WORT.]

2. The Large-flowered St. John's-Wort or Rose of Sharon (_H.
calycinum_).--A shrubby plant, from ten to eighteen inches high, with a
creeping, woody stock, flowering from July to September. It is not
indigenous, but has been largely introduced into parks and gardens, and
now grows wild in many parts. This species may be distinguished from all
other members of the genus by its large, yellow flowers, from one and a
half to three inches in diameter.

3. The Common St. John's-Wort (_H. perforatum_).--A very common plant in
woods and thickets, growing from one to two feet high, and flowering
from July to September. It has short, underground stems, or barren
shoots that lie on the ground and root at the nodes, in addition to the
erect, flowering stems, which are either round or two-edged, and
branched towards the top. The leaves are half an inch long, with opaque
veins, many transparent dots, and sometimes a few black dots on the
under side. The yellow flowers form a terminal corymb. Their sepals are
narrow, about half the length of the petals. The stamens are in three
sets, united at the base; and both petals and anthers are marked with
black dots.

4. The Hairy St. John's-Wort (_H. hirsutum_).--A stiff, erect plant,
from one to three feet high, common in the woods and thickets of most
parts of Britain, flowering in July and August. The stem is round, and
clothed with soft hairs. The leaves are ovate, oblong or elliptical,
tapering at the base into a short stalk, about an inch long, with many
transparent dots, and downy along the veins on the under side. The
sepals are narrow, acute, about half the length of the yellow petals,
and fringed with stalked glands. The stamens are in three sets.

[Illustration: THE DYER'S GREEN-WEED.]

The Wood Crane's-bill (_Geranium sylvaticum_--order _Geraniaceæ_), one
of the most handsome of our Wild Geraniums, is not found in the South,
but is moderately common in parts of North Britain, including North
Ireland. Its stem is erect, from one to two feet high, and branched
towards the top. In general form the leaves are heart-shaped or
shield-shaped, but they are very deeply divided into five or seven
radiating, cut, and toothed lobes. The lower ones are on long stalks;
but the upper are shortly stalked or sessile, and less divided. The
flowers are of a bluish-purple or rose colour, about an inch in
diameter, arranged in a loose panicle with two flowers on each pedicel.
The five sepals are about half the length of the petals, and terminate
in a very fine point; and the petals are obovate and slightly notched.
The plant flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE SWEET MILK VETCH.]

Passing now to the order _Leguminosæ_ we note first the Dyer's
Green-weed (_Genista tinctoria_)--a shrubby plant, common in the
thickets and bushy places of South Britain, flowering from July to
September. The stem is woody and stiff, but green; its base rests on the
ground, but it sends up erect flowering branches from one to two feet
high. The yellow flowers are arranged in terminal racemes, each flower
having a lanceolate bract at the base of its short stalk, and very small
bracts at the base of the calyx. The calyx has five teeth, the three
lower ones much narrower than the other two, all terminating in a sharp
point; the corolla is much longer than the calyx, with an oblong
standard or upper petal; the stamens are all united by their filaments,
forming a complete sheath round the ovary; and the pods are smooth,
about an inch long, and compressed.

In the thickets of most parts of Britain, but more especially those of
the eastern counties, we may often meet with the Sweet Milk Vetch
(_Astragalus glycyphyllos_) of the same order. It is a prostrate plant,
with pale yellow or cream-coloured flowers that bloom from June to
August. The flowers are about half an inch long, in short, dense,
shortly-stalked racemes. The calyx has five teeth; the upper stamen is
free from the other nine, which form a divided sheath round the ovary;
and the pod is smooth, round, curved, over an inch long, and divided by
a double membrane into two cells, each of which contains about seven
seeds.

[Illustration: THE WILD RASPBERRY.]

In the same order are two species of Everlasting Pea (_Lathyrus_), both
of which grow in thickets and other bushy places. One is the Tuberous
Everlasting Pea or Tuberous Bitter Vetch (_L. macrorrhizus_), an erect
plant, from six inches to a foot in height, flowering from May to July.
Its rootstock has small tubers, and the stem is winged. The leaves are
pinnate, with from two to four pairs of narrow leaflets and half
arrow-shaped stipules; they have no tendrils, but the leafstalk
terminates in a fine point. The flowers are of a red-purple colour,
changing to greenish blue as they fade; and are in loose racemes of from
two to four.

The other is the Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea (_L. sylvestris_), a
straggling plant, from two to six feet long, flowering from June to
August. It is not so common as the last, but may be found in similar
situations. Its stem has very narrow wings; and the leaves have very
narrow leaflets, flattened stalks, branched tendrils, and half
arrow-shaped stipules. The flowers are rather large, of a pale purple
colour, with a greenish keel, and a green spot on the large upper petal.
They are arranged in loose racemes.

[Illustration: THE ROSE BAY WILLOW HERB.]

The Wild Raspberry (_Rubus Idæus_--order _Rosaceæ_) is to be found in
the woods and thickets of most parts of Britain. It may be easily
distinguished from other species of its genus by the following
description:--Rootstock creeping, with many suckers. Stems round, erect,
with a soft down and numerous weak prickles. Leaves pinnate, with three
or five ovate, pointed, toothed leaflets, pale green above, and white
and hoary beneath. Stipules small, very narrow and pointed, usually
attached part way up to the leafstalk. Flowers white, in long, terminal,
drooping panicles. Calyx five-lobed; petals five, short and narrow;
stamens numerous; and fruit consisting of a globular cluster of red or
yellow, hoary, one-seeded, succulent carpels which usually separate from
the conical receptacle when ripe. The bush grows from three to five feet
high, and flowers from June to August.

Two species of Willow Herb (order _Onagraceæ_) grow in copses and
thickets, and are easily recognised by their rose-coloured flowers with
very long, inferior ovaries. One is the beautiful French Willow or Rose
Bay Willow Herb (_Epilobium angustifolium_), an erect plant, varying
from two to six feet in height, widely distributed, though not very
common, flowering during July and August. Its leaves are alternate,
narrow-elliptical, entire or with very small teeth, and very shortly
stalked. The flowers are about an inch in diameter, numerous, forming a
very long, loose, terminal, tapering raceme, with a narrow bract at the
base of each pedicel. The calyx is tubular, four-cleft, attached to the
top of the long ovary; the corolla consists of four entire, nearly
equal, spreading petals; the stamens, eight in number, all bend
downwards; and the stigma is deeply divided into four lobes, on a long
style which also bends downward. The fruit is a four-celled capsule, two
or three inches long, which splits when ripe, its valves curling
downwards and exposing numerous minute seeds, each of which has a silky
tuft of fine hairs that enables it to be dispersed by the wind. The
plant is most frequently seen in damp copses, and among the undergrowth
of damp woods.

[Illustration: THE DOGWOOD.]

The second species is the Pale Smooth-leaved Willow Herb (_E. roseum_),
an erect plant, seldom more than two feet high, found principally in the
damp copses of the southern counties, flowering in July and August. Its
stem is four-angled, two opposite angles being much more prominent than
the other two; and its leaves are opposite, with longer stalks,
lanceolate or elliptical, pointed, toothed, smooth, usually about two
inches long. The flowers are not nearly so numerous as those of the last
species, are only a little over a third of an inch in diameter, and in a
short, leafy panicle, drooping while in the bud. The calyx is deeply
divided into four sepals about a sixth of an inch long; the corolla
consists of four notched petals, a little longer than the sepals; the
stamens, ovary, fruit, and seeds correspond in number and character with
those of the last species; but the stigma is either entire or divided
into four very short lobes.

In the same order we have the Enchanter's Nightshade (_Circæa
lutetiana_), distinguished at once from the Willow Herbs by having only
two sepals, two petals, and two stamens. It is an erect, hairy plant,
from one to two feet high, flowering from June to August. Its stem is
slender; and the leaves are opposite, long-stalked, ovate and coarsely
toothed. The flowers are very small, white, in terminal, leafless
racemes, with deeply-notched petals, and pink stamens. The fruit is a
little two-lobed capsule with stiff, hooked hairs.

[Illustration: THE WOOD SANICLE.]

The Cornel or Dogwood (_Cornus sanguinea_), of the order _Cornaceæ_, is
a common shrub in woods and thickets, and is often employed in the
making of hedgerows. It grows from five to eight feet high, and flowers
during June and July. Its leaves are covered, when young, with fine,
silky hairs that lie close on the surface, but these almost entirely
disappear later; and towards the end of the summer the leaves assume a
deep crimson or purple colour. The flowers are very abundant, of a
yellowish white colour, and are arranged in dense cymes, about two
inches across, without bracts. The four-toothed calyx and the peduncle
are both clothed with a mealy down; and the four petals, about a quarter
of an inch long, are narrow and pointed. The fruit is a purple-black,
globular, berry-like drupe, containing a stone with one or two seeds.

In very dense woods, where the light is so much reduced that but few
flowers will grow, we may generally find the Wood Sanicle (_Sanicula
europæa_), a smooth umbelliferous plant with a short, hard rootstock,
and a simple stem from one to two feet high. The leaves, which are all
radical, are on long stalks, and are palmately divided into three or
five shining lobes that are themselves cut and sharply toothed. The
flowers are sessile, in little rounded heads; the whole inflorescence
forming an irregular umbel or a loose panicle. They are very minute, of
a pinkish white colour; and the outer ones of each head usually have no
pistil. They bloom during June and July, and are followed later by
little prickly fruits about a sixth of an inch long.

[Illustration: THE ALEXANDERS.]

In damp woods we commonly meet with the tall, stout, branching Angelica
(_Angelica sylvestris_) of the same order (_Umbelliferæ_), with a thick,
furrowed stem, two to four feet high, downy above, and usually more or
less shaded with purple. Its lower leaves are very large, with stalked,
ovate leaflets, from one to two inches long, often three-lobed, and
always sharply toothed. The upper leaves are much smaller, with fewer
leaflets, and often consist only of a broad sheath with a few small
leaflets at its summit. The flowers are white, generally tinged with
pink, and form a large terminal umbel of from sixteen to forty rays,
with two or three narrow primary bracts, and several fine secondary
ones. They bloom during July and August, and are succeeded by flattened
fruits with three ribs on the back of each of the two carpels. The
carpels are also broadly winged; and, as the wings do not adhere, each
fruit is surrounded by a double wing.

[Illustration: THE ELDER.]

The order _Caprifoliaceæ_ includes the Common Elder (_Sambucus nigra_),
the white or cream-coloured flowers of which are so conspicuous in our
woods and hedgerows in June. This tree grows to a height of fifteen or
twenty feet, and its young branches are remarkable for the large
quantity of pith they contain. The general form of the leaves and the
arrangement of the flowers are seen in our illustration. Each flower has
a calyx with five small teeth; a corolla with a short tube and five
spreading limbs; five stamens attached to the base of the corolla; and
an inferior ovary. The fruit is a black, berry-like drupe containing
(usually) eight little, seedlike stones.

[Illustration: THE GUELDER ROSE.]

The Guelder Rose or Water Elder (_Viburnum Opulus_), of the same order,
is a flowering shrub, usually six or eight feet high, moderately common
in moist woods and copses, especially in the South, bearing showy cymes
of white blossoms in June and July. The cymes are flat-topped,
consisting of numerous flowers, the outer of which are much larger,
often nearly an inch in diameter, but without stamens or styles, while
the others are perfect, with five stamens and three sessile styles. The
fruit is a blackish-red, almost globular, slightly-flattened berry,
containing a single seed. The cultivated variety of this shrub, known as
the Snowball Tree, has large, globular cymes of flowers, all of which
are large and barren.

The Great Valerian or All-heal (_Valeriana officinalis_--order
_Valerianaceæ_) is moderately common in moist woods, and is rather
widely distributed. It is an erect plant, from two to four feet high,
flowering from June to August. There seems to be two distinct varieties
of this plant, one with from four to six pairs of leaflets, and the
other with from six to ten pairs, in addition to the terminal leaflet in
each case. The flowers are small, flesh-coloured or nearly white, in
terminal and axillary corymbs. The little inferior ovary is surmounted
by a calyx which is compactly rolled in at first, but which expands into
a spreading, feathery pappus as the fruit ripens. The corolla is
tubular, with five short, equal, spreading lobes. It is not spurred as
in the case of the Red Valerian (p. 302), but the base of the
tube is pouched on one side. This plant is shown on Plate II, Fig.
1.

We have now to note some composite flowers (order _Compositæ_) of wooded
and shaded ground. Of these we will first take the Blunt-leaved or
Succory-leaved Hawk's-beard (_Crepis succisæfolia_ or _C. hieracoides_),
which is moderately common in the woods of North England and Scotland,
but does not occur in the South. It is an erect plant, varying from one
to three feet in height, smooth or slightly hairy, flowering during July
and August. The fruits (achenes) are marked by many fine, longitudinal
ridges, and are surmounted by a dense pappus of soft, white hairs which
are a little longer than the fruits themselves. This flower is
represented in Plate II, Fig. 3.

In the woods and thickets of nearly all parts of Britain we may see the
Saw-wort (_Serratula tinctoria_), a stiff, erect, smooth plant, from one
to three feet high, flowering in August and September. The flower-heads
are purple or crimson, forming a loose, terminal corymb; and the
florets, all of which are tubular, are imperfect, the males and females
being generally on different plants. The involucre is oblong in form,
more than half an inch long, consisting of many pointed, closely-placed
bracts, of which the inner are usually tipped with red; and that of the
male heads is somewhat broader than the involucre of the females. The
pappus consists of a tuft of simple hairs, most of which are longer than
the achene.

The Golden Rod (_Solidago Virga-aurea_) is another abundant flower,
found in dry woods and thickets in all parts. It is a tufted plant, with
stiff, erect, angular, slightly-branched stems, varying from six inches
to two feet in height; and narrow-elliptical leaves, entire or slightly
toothed, the lower ones stalked. The flowers are very numerous, of a
bright golden yellow-colour, forming a dense, terminal panicle. The
heads are not large, and each consists of about twenty tubular
disc-florets; half the number of strap-shaped ray-florets; and an
involucre of many overlapping bracts. The pappus consists of many simple
hairs. This species flowers from July to September.

Two species of Leopard's Bane (_Doronicum_) are occasionally to be seen
in damp woods and thickets, especially near villages. They are not
indigenous, only occurring as escapes from gardens, but they have now
become well established as wild flowers in many parts of Britain. Both
are tall, erect plants, from two to three feet high, with large yellow
heads surrounded by two or three rows of narrow, acute bracts. Except in
colour the heads much resemble the Ox-eye Daisy. In both species the
achenes of the ray have no pappus, but those of the disc have a pappus
of stiff hairs in several rows. They flower from May to July.

[Illustration: THE SAW-WORT.]

The Great Leopard's Bane (_D. Pardalianches_) has a creeping rootstock
and a hollow stem. Its radical leaves are broadly heart-shaped, slightly
toothed, on long stalks; and the stem leaves are narrower, entire or
toothed, the upper ones small, sessile, embracing the stem; and the
lower ones stalked, with a broad expansion at the base of the stalk
which clasps the stem. The heads are usually three or four in number, on
long leafless peduncles.

The other species, the Plantain-leaved Leopard's Bane (_D.
plantagineum_), has, as its name denotes, leaves similar to those of the
Plantain. It usually has solitary flower-heads, and is represented on
Plate I.

Passing now to the favourite Bell-flowers (Order _Campanulaceæ_), we
have to notice four species that are to be found in woods and other
shady spots during the summer months. The features common to the four
species are:--Leaves alternate. Calyx adhering to the ovary, with a
border of five lobes or teeth. Corolla bell-shaped, with five lobes.
Stamens five, attached to the corolla by the broad bases of the
filaments. Ovary inferior, ripening to a capsule that opens by
longitudinal clefts. The species referred to are:

1. The Giant Bell-flower (_Campanula latifolia_). A stout plant, from
three to five feet high; with an unbranched, leafy stem; and a leafy
raceme of large, deep blue or white flowers that bloom in July and
August. Its leaves are large, ovate to lanceolate, acute, doubly
serrate, the lower ones stalked and the upper sessile. Each axillary
peduncle bears only one flower, the calyx of which has long, narrow
segments, and the corolla is hairy within. The capsule is short, opening
by slits near the base. This flower is found principally in the North.

2. The Creeping Bell-flower (_C. Rapunculoides_).--A downy plant, with a
creeping rootstock; an erect, simple or slightly-branched stem from one
to two feet high; and a one-sided raceme of drooping, deep blue flowers
that appear in July and August. The leaves are rough and doubly toothed,
the lower ones stalked and heart-shaped, and the upper narrow and
sessile. The segments of the calyx are long and narrow, and the capsule
is globular, opening by small slits near the base. This species is
widely distributed, but not very common.

3. The Nettle-leaved Bell-flower (_C. Trachelium_).--A very rough plant,
with an angled stem, from one to three feet high, bearing a leafy raceme
of large blue flowers from July to October. Its leaves are much like
those of the Stinging Nettle, being very rough, bristly, and coarsely
toothed. The segments of the calyx are rather broad, and very rough with
stiff hairs. This species is very abundant in some localities, and is
widely distributed. (See Plate II, Fig. 4.)

4. The Ivy-leaved Bell-flower (_C. hederacea_).--A pretty little
creeping plant that grows in moist woods, flowering during July and
August. It is very widely distributed, and is a common flower in many
parts of Great Britain, more especially in the southern counties. Its
prostrate stem is very slender; and the leaves are small, stalked, very
broad, and palmately divided into angular lobes. The flowers are of a
pale blue colour, solitary on long, threadlike peduncles; and the
capsule is globular, opening by three valves at the top.

From May to August is the best season to study the Holly (_Ilex
aquifolium_--order _Aquifoliaceæ_). We are all acquainted with this tree
in its winter condition, with its bright red or yellow 'berries,' but
during the months above named the less familiar flowers are in bloom.
The tree is common in the woods of all parts of Britain, and is easily
distinguished at all times by its smooth, grey bark, as well as by its
thick, glossy, spiny, evergreen leaves, which are placed alternately on
the branches, attached by very short stalks. As a rule the leaves have
waved margins, and are armed with several very strong spines; but
commonly the spines of the upper leaves are much fewer, and are
sometimes reduced to a single one at the apex. The little white flowers
form dense clusters in the axils of the leaves. Generally they contain
both stamens and pistil, but often they are imperfect, the pistillate
flowers predominating on some trees and the staminate ones on others.
Their parts are arranged in fours, the calyx having four small teeth,
and the corolla four spreading lobes, while four stamens are attached to
the latter, and the ovary has the same number of cells, and the style
terminates in an equal number of small stigmas. The fruits are not
really berries, but little, poisonous drupes containing four one-seeded
stones.

[Illustration: THE IVY-LEAVED BELL FLOWER.]

The Privet (_Ligustrum vulgare_), which forms, together with the Ash,
the whole of the order _Oleaceæ_, as far as British species are
concerned, is very common in the southern counties, where it is often an
escape from gardens, the bush being so largely employed in the formation
of hedges; but it is truly wild, and very plentiful on the chalky soils
of the south and east of England. Except during very severe winters the
old leaves remain until the early spring leaves are well formed, so that
the bush is always green. The flowers are white, with a very
characteristic odour, and are arranged in dense, terminal, conical
panicles. The calyx forms a little cup with four teeth, but soon falls;
and the corolla is funnel-shaped, with four spreading lobes at the top
of its tube. The stamens are short, attached to the corolla; and the
superior ovary ripens to a black, globular berry containing two or four
seeds. The bushes are in bloom during June and July.

[Illustration: TWO TWIGS OF HOLLY
One from a lower, and one from the topmost branch of the same tree, the
former in fruit.]

Three species of Cow Wheat (_Melampyrum_) are to be found in copses and
woods during the summer. They belong to the order _Scrophulariaceæ_;
and, like other allied plants of this group, are partial parasites (See
page 349), deriving a portion of their food from the roots of
grasses by means of suckers. They have the following features in
common:--Leaves opposite. Calyx tubular, with four narrow teeth. Corolla
much longer than the calyx, consisting of a very long tube and two lips,
the upper lip undivided, with its sides turned back, and the lower with
three spreading lobes. A kind of 'palate' also closes the mouth of the
tube. The fruit is an ovate capsule, containing from one to four seeds.
The three species referred to are:--

1. The Common Cow Wheat (_M. pratense_).--A smooth, erect plant, from
six to eighteen inches high, with spreading, opposite branches; and
sessile, narrow leaves, often coarsely toothed at the base. The flowers
are pale yellow, over half an inch long, arranged in pairs in the axils
of the upper leaves, and all turned towards one side of the stem. The
corolla is three or four times the length of the calyx. This plant is
very common in moist copses and thickets, and flowers from June to
August.

[Illustration: THE PRIVET.]

2. The Crested Cow Wheat (_M. cristatum_).--A widely-distributed plant,
found principally in the copses and thickets of the eastern and southern
counties. Its stem is from six to twenty inches in height; and the
leaves are very narrow, and generally entire except in the case of a few
of the upper ones, which are slightly toothed at the base. The flowers
are yellow, more or less variegated with purple, about half an inch
long, and they closely overlap one another in a dense, four-sided spike
over an inch in length. Under each flower is a broad, heart-shaped,
strongly-toothed, rose-coloured bract. The plant blooms during July.

3. The Wood or Yellow Cow Wheat (_M. sylvaticum_), sometimes known as
the Small-flowered Cow Wheat. This is a much rarer plant, and seems to
be found only in the hilly woods of Scotland and North England. It is
very much like the Common Cow Wheat, but its flowers are of a deep
yellow colour, less than half an inch long, with entire bracts, and
equal, open lips. The corolla is only twice the length of the calyx, and
the lanceolate leaves are very seldom toothed.

[Illustration: MILLET GRASS.]

[Illustration: BEARDED WHEAT.]

The same order (_Scrophulariaceæ_) contains the handsome and favourite
Foxglove (_Digitalis purpurea_), which grows abundantly in most dry
woods and shady wastes, flowering from June to August. Its stout,
unbranched stem varies from two to six feet in height, a large
proportion being the axis of a long one-sided raceme of beautiful,
drooping, purple or, occasionally, white flowers. The fruit is an
ovate, pointed capsule that splits into two valves and contains many
seeds. It is remarkable that this plant does not grow freely on chalk
and limestone soils, yet it will often make a sudden appearance in great
profusion as we pass over the edge of a calcareous district. The flower
is shown on Plate II, Fig. 2.

Of the order _Labiatæ_ we shall note one species only, and that is the
pretty Wood Betony (_Stachys Betonica_), a very common plant in the
woods and thickets of the south of Britain. It is a hairy species, with
a slender, simple or slightly-branched stem from one to two feet high;
and deeply-crenate, oblong leaves. The lower leaves have long stalks,
and are heart-shaped at the base; but those of the stem are narrower,
sessile or shortly stalked, tapering at the base. The flowers, which
bloom from June to August, vary much in colour, ranging from a deep
purple or crimson to a rose-pink or (rarely) white; and they form a
dense oblong, terminal spike, consisting of whorls of six or more, with
a bract at the base of each calyx, and a pair of sessile leaves just
below the lowest whorl. The calyx is ribbed, with five very sharp teeth;
and the corolla, which is much longer than the sepals, has an erect,
oval, upper lip, and a spreading, three-lobed, lower lip. The stamens
are in two pairs, immediately under the upper lip; and the fruit
consists of four little rounded nuts.

[Illustration: SLENDER FALSE BROME.]

In the dry woods of South Britain we occasionally meet with the Wood
Scorpion-grass or Wood Forget-me-not (_Myosotis sylvatica_), of the
order _Boraginaceæ_. This plant is very much like the favourite Water
Forget-me-not, and has equally large flowers, but it is much more hairy.
Its stem is erect, without runners; and the blue flowers form a
one-sided raceme without bracts. As the flowers expand the stalk
lengthens considerably, with the result that the fruits are very
distant. Among other features by which we may distinguish between the
Wood Forget-me-not and the commoner Water Forget-me-not we may mention
that the corolla of the former is flatter; and the calyx, cleft to its
base into narrow segments, is very rounded below, and covered with
stiff, hooked bristles. The plant flowers from June to August.

We conclude this chapter with the names of four species of Grasses that
are partial to wooded districts, and which flower during the summer
months. They are the Millet Grass (_Milium effusum_), the Bearded Wheat
(_Triticum caninum_), the Slender False Brome (_Brachypodium
sylvaticum_), and the Hairy Brome Grass (_Bromus asper_). The first
three of these are represented on pages 148 and 149, and the fourth is
shown on Plate II.

[Illustration: _Plate III._
FLOWERS OF THE WAYSIDE.
1. Round-leaved Crane's-bill. 2. Black Horehound. 3. Evergreen Alkanet.
4. Bristly Ox-tongue. 5. Red Bartsia. 6. Annual Meadow Grass. 7. Hemlock
Stork's-bill.]



XI

WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER


It will probably have been noticed that several of the spring flowers of
our waysides and waste places continue to bloom into the summer.
Descriptions of these will, of course, not be repeated here, but, for
the convenience of those who are endeavouring to identify flowers which
have been gathered during the summer months, we append a list of the
species referred to:

PLANTS OF THE WAYSIDE AND WASTE GROUND THAT BLOOM DURING BOTH SPRING
AND SUMMER

  Greater Celandine.
  Shepherd's Purse.
  Yellow Rocket.
  Early Winter Cress.
  Thale Cress.
  Wild Turnip.
  Procumbent Pearlwort.
  Lesser Stitchwort.
  Mouse-ear Chickweed.
  Dove's-foot Crane's-bill.
  Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill.
  Herb Robert.
  Black Medick.
  Bird's-foot.
  Bush Vetch.
  Chervil.
  Mouse-ear Hawkweed.
  Groundsel.
  Common Speedwell.
  Wall Speedwell.
  Field Speedwell.
  Gray Field Speedwell.
  White Dead Nettle.
  Red Dead Nettle.
  Cut-leaved Dead Nettle.
  Yellow Pimpernel.
  Annual Meadow Grass.

The flowers described in the present chapter are those which do not, as
a rule, bloom before the month of June.

Our first example is the Wild Clematis, Traveller's Joy, or Old Man's
Beard (_Clematis Vitalba_), of the order _Ranunculaceæ_--a climbing
shrub, very common in the hedgerows of the south and centre of England,
producing a profusion of white, scented flowers during July and August,
and rendered even more conspicuous in the autumn and winter by the dense
clusters of feathered fruits. Its stem is woody and often very thick at
the base; and the annual branches climb over the neighbouring plants,
clinging by means of the twisted leafstalks. The leaves are opposite,
pinnate, with three or five stalked, ovate or cordate leaflets; and the
flowers are in loose, axillary or terminal panicles. The latter have
four greenish-white sepals; no petals; numerous stamens; and many
one-seeded carpels, each of which, when ripe, is tipped by the
persistent style that has become very long and feathered.

[Illustration: THE WILD CLEMATIS.]

The Common Hedge Mustard (_Sisymbrium officinale_--order _Cruciferæ_) is
a very common roadside plant, with stems and leaves so closely set with
hairs that they effectually hold the dust. It bears small, yellow
flowers, which appear during June and July; and it may be easily
distinguished from allied plants by its long and narrow, downy, tapering
pods, which lie close against the stem. Its stem grows from one to two
feet high, and is freely branched.

[Illustration: THE HEDGE MUSTARD.]

The Felix Weed (_S. Sophia_) of the same genus is moderately common,
grows to about the same height, and bears small, greenish-yellow flowers
from June to August. The stem of this plant is only slightly hairy,
slender, erect, and branched; and the leaves are divided in a pinnate
manner, with long, narrow segments similarly cut. In this genus the
sepals are longer than the petals; and the narrow, tapering fruits are
constricted between the numerous seeds.

The Dyer's Weed, also known as the Dyer's Rocket and the Yellow Weed
(_Reseda luteola_), is a plant of a habit similar to that of the Wild
Mignonette, and belongs to the same order (_Resedaceæ_), but may be
distinguished from the latter by its four sepals and four petals. It
owes its popular names to the fact that it was formerly employed for the
purpose of dyeing woollen fabrics. This is a common wayside plant,
especially in calcareous districts, and often reaches a height of three
feet, flowering during July and August.

Passing to the order _Caryophyllaceæ_, we note the Deptford Pink
(_Dianthus Armeria_)--a downy plant, a foot or more in height, with an
erect, slightly-branched stem; and very narrow, opposite leaves, from
one to three inches long, joined together at the base, and mostly acute
at the tip. The flowers, which bloom in July and August, are
rose-coloured with white spots, and are grouped in terminal clusters,
with a very narrow, pointed bract below each calyx, usually as long as
the calyx itself. This plant is to be found principally on dry banks and
on waste ground, but it is not common.

[Illustration: THE FELIX WEED.]

The Red Campion (_Lychnis diurna_) is common on the banks of wayside
ditches, as well as in copses and other moist and shady places. It has a
hairy stem, from one to two feet high; hairy, ovate leaves in pairs; and
red (rarely white), unisexual flowers which close at night. The male and
female flowers are on separate plants. The former have ten stamens; and
the latter a superior ovary which ripens to a globular capsule with five
teeth that spread horizontally or even curve downwards. In both the
calyx is tubular, with five triangular teeth; and the petals have
spreading, deeply-notched limbs. The plant flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE DYER'S WEED.]

Three species of Mallow (order _Malvaceæ_) are more or less common by
waysides and on waste ground. They are all interesting plants, with
large, regular, attractive flowers; and stipuled leaves which are
palmately lobed and veined. The flowers have five sepals and five
petals, the latter being very curiously twisted in the bud. The stamens,
five in number, are freely branched, and are also raised on a tubular
structure as the flower matures, so that they appear like a large number
of stamens with united filaments. The ovary consists of many carpels,
with as many styles; and the fruit splits into a number of one-seeded
parts arranged radially.

The Common Mallow (_Malva sylvestris_) is a strong, erect, downy plant,
from two to three feet high, with branched stem. The flowers are
axillary, large and showy, of a pale purple or a lilac colour, marked
with crimson veins; and the fruit is smooth.

[Illustration: THE DEPTFORD PINK.]

The Dwarf Mallow (_M. rotundifolia_) is about as common, and grows in
similar situations, but it is a smaller plant, with prostrate stems from
six inches to a foot long. The leaves are cordate or almost round,
divided into five or seven shallow, crenate lobes. The flowers are
smaller than those of _M. sylvestris_, being generally less than an inch
in diameter, of a pale lilac colour; and the fruit is hairy. Both
species flower from June to September.

It is interesting to note that these two flowers, which frequently grow
together on the same waste ground, and consequently have to compete with
one another in the general struggle for existence, are pollinated in
totally different ways, the one (_M. sylvestris_) by the aid of insects,
and the other (_M. rotundifolia_) probably almost always
self-pollinated. In both these flowers the stamens are mounted on the
top of a tube as above described; and in both the stamens are crowded
round the numerous styles while the flower is yet young, so that insects
which visit the flower for nectar can hardly fail to dust themselves
with pollen. In _M. sylvestris_, however, the stamens are mature before
the stigmas, and the former droop, thus bringing the anthers below the
level of the stigmas, so that the flower could hardly fertilise itself
even if anthers and stigmas matured simultaneously. But later the styles
bend downwards, thus bringing the stigmas to the position of the
withered stamens in order to catch the pollen brought by insects from
other flowers. Further, the pollen cells of this species are covered
with minute hooks by means of which they attach themselves to the hairy
legs of bees.

[Illustration: THE RED CAMPION.]

The anthers and stigmas of _M. rotundifolia_ are both matured together;
and the styles lengthen, and bend downwards, causing the stigmas to
twine themselves among the numerous stamens in such a manner that the
flower can hardly fail to fertilise itself. Further, if we watch the
flowers of these two species on a sunny day, we find that insects visit
the flowers of _M. sylvestris_ freely, while they are seldom attracted
to the smaller and less conspicuous blooms of _M. rotundifolia_.

The third species referred to is the Musk Mallow (_M. moschata_), so
called from the musky odour given off from all parts of the plant,
especially when rubbed or crushed. It is often seen in hedgerows, but is
not so common as the other two just described, and seems to be rather
partial to gravelly soils. The plant is hairy, of a pale green colour,
with an erect stem from two to three feet high. The flowers are large
and beautiful, of a rich rose colour, and crowded towards the top of the
stem. The fruit is hairy. A white variety is occasionally seen, and this
is not uncommonly grown as a garden flower. The time of flowering is
July and August.

[Illustration: THE COMMON MALLOW.]

Some three species of Geranium (order _Geraniaceæ_) have already been
described among the spring wayside flowers, and these were listed at the
commencement of the present chapter as continuing to bloom during the
summer; but now we have to note other interesting flowers of this and
an allied genus as essentially summer bloomers.

The first of these is the Round-leaved Crane's-bill (_Geranium
rotundifolium_), which rather closely resembles the Dove's-foot
Crane's-bill, but is not nearly so plentiful. It is a downy plant,
growing from six to twelve inches high, and flowering in June and July.
The flowers are usually nearly half an inch across, of a pink colour;
and the petals are _not_ notched. This species is represented on Plate
III, Fig. 1.

In dry pastures and on stony wastes we may see the Bloody Crane's-bill
(_Geranium sanguineum_), which, though not common, is very widely
distributed in Britain. It has a thick, woody stock; numerous more or
less decumbent stems, from one to two feet long, clothed with spreading
hairs; and round leaves, divided quite to the base into five or seven
deeply-cut segments. The flowers are solitary, dark crimson
(occasionally pink) in colour, with hairy sepals terminating in fine
points; slightly notched petals about twice as long as the sepals; and
ten stamens, five of which are larger, and glandular at the base. This
species flowers during July and August.

[Illustration: THE MUSK MALLOW.]

The Small-flowered Crane's-bill (_G. pusillum_) also resembles the
Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, but its flowers are usually smaller--about a
third of an inch in diameter--and of a pale lilac colour. The stems are
prostrate and downy, from six to eighteen inches long; and the leaves
roundish and deeply lobed. The sepals terminate in a sharp point, and
the petals are notched. This is a very common species, which flowers
throughout the summer.

British wild flowers of the Geranium family are divided into two groups,
known popularly as the Crane's-bills and the Stork's-bills, the former
constituting the genus _Geranium_, of which several flowers have been
described; and the latter forming the genus _Erodium_. These two groups
are sometimes confused by young botanists, but may be easily
distinguished by the aid of the following notes:--The flowers of the
Crane's-bills are symmetrical, while the petals of the Stork's-bills are
rather unequal in size and sometimes deficient. In the former there are
ten stamens, five of which are alternately larger, as previously
mentioned; while the latter have five perfect stamens, glandular at
their bases, and five alternating, abortive ones. Further, in the genus
_Geranium_ the persistent styles are straight, while in the
Stork's-bills they are twisted spirally.

[Illustration: THE BLOODY CRANE'S-BILL.]

The manner in which the seeds of Stork's-bills are dispersed is
particularly interesting:--When the fruit is ripe the carpels separate,
and the twisted styles are gradually released from one another, from
below upwards, till the fruit is finally set free and blown away by the
wind. The carpels thus detached are each furnished with a long style,
the lower portion of which is coiled like a corkscrew, while the upper
part is straighter but bent to one side. Now, these styles are
hygroscopic--that is, they are influenced by changes in the condition of
the atmosphere as regards moisture. This may easily be shown by placing
the fruit in an upright position on a piece of white card, and fixing it
so with a little spot of glue or gum, so that the bent upper end of the
style is free and serves as a little pointer. If now the open mouth be
placed close over the carpel, and moist air be breathed upon it, the
corkscrew will partially uncoil, causing the pointer to turn; and as
the carpel dries again the pointer will resume its former position.

Again, if the carpel be placed horizontally on a sheet of rough paper
(not fixed), and then alternately treated with moist and drier air, the
successive uncoiling and coiling of the spiral, together with the aid of
the bent tip and the hairs which give the carpel a hold, will cause it
to travel along. Thus, in its natural condition, and influenced by the
varying state of the atmosphere as regards moisture, the carpels of the
Stork's-bill will not only travel some distance from the parent plant,
but the seed end will even be thrust between the particles of soil, and
the seed thus naturally buried.

There are three British Stork's-bills, of which only one may be
described as common. This is the Hemlock Stork's-bill (_Erodium
cicutarium_), a very variable plant as regards the form of the leaves
and the size and number of flowers, often plentiful in waste places,
especially near the sea. Its stems are prostrate and hairy, growing from
six to eighteen inches in length; and the flowers, which may be seen
throughout the summer, are rose-coloured, or, sometimes, white. The
petals are not divided or notched, and they soon fall.

Passing now to the order _Leguminosæ_, we deal first with the
exceedingly pretty and common Bird's-foot Trefoil (_Lotus
corniculatus_), that derives its popular name from the arrangement of
the cylindrical seed-pods, which spread in such a manner as to resemble
the toes of a bird. Its stems are partially prostrate; and its compound
leaves are not composed of three leaflets, as the term _trefoil_
suggests, but of five, two of which occupy such a position that they
might be mistaken for stipules. The flowers, which bloom in July and
August, are of a bright yellow or orange colour, often tinged with red.
They are arranged in umbels of from three to ten, with long peduncles
and short pedicels.

[Illustration: THE FRUIT OF THE STORK'S-BILL.]

The genus _Vicia_, of the same order, includes the plants commonly known
as Tares. These are climbing plants which cling by means of tendrils at
the tips of their pinnate leaves, and have their flowers in axillary
clusters. Their styles are threadlike, with a ring or a tuft of downy
hairs near the extremity; and the pods are flattened.

Two species may be included among our summer wayside flowers, one of
which--the Hairy Tare (_Vicia hirsuta_)--is very common in fields and
hedges, flowering from June to August. The stems of this plant are
slender, hairy, and are so much branched that they form tangled masses,
often mixed up in a confused manner with neighbouring plants. The leaves
have from six to eight pairs of leaflets; and the minute, pale blue
flowers, in clusters of from one to six, are on long peduncles. The pods
have only two seeds, and are hairy and sessile.

[Illustration: THE HEMLOCK STORK'S-BILL.]

The other Tare referred to is the Slender Tare (_V. tetrasperma_), found
principally in the South of England. It owes its specific name to the
fact that its pods usually contain four seeds. It is more slender and
much less branched than the Hairy Tare, and its leaves have generally
only from three to five pairs of leaflets. The flowers are pale blue,
appearing from June to August, and are generally solitary or in pairs,
on peduncles which are about as long as the leaves. The pods are smooth.

[Illustration: THE BIRD'S-FOOT TREFOIL.]

The same genus includes the Tufted Vetch (_Vicia Cracca_)--a very common
plant on hedgerows and bushy waysides, where it climbs over the
neighbouring plants and shrubs, covering them with its dense racemes of
bluish-purple flowers from June to August. Its climbing stem is very
weak, but it often grows to a length of six feet or more, supporting
itself by means of the branched tendrils at the tips of its leaves. The
leaves are pinnate, with about ten pairs of narrow, pointed, silky
leaflets, usually from half an inch to three-quarters in length; and at
the base of each leaf-stalk is a pair of narrow, half arrow-shaped
stipules. The racemes are one-sided, on rather long stalks, with from
ten to thirty flowers, each nearly half an inch long. The pods are
smooth, flattened, about an inch long, containing from six to eight
seeds.

[Illustration: THE HERB BENNET OR GEUM.]

Of the order _Rosaceæ_ we have several summer wayside flowers, our first
example being the Common Avens, also called the Wood Avens and the Herb
Bennet (_Geum urbanum_), which is common on banks and hedgerows. This is
an erect, hairy plant, from one to two feet high, with yellow flowers,
from a half to three-quarters of an inch across, on erect stalks. The
numerous carpels ripen into a head of one-seeded achenes, on each of
which the persistent style forms a curved, hooked awn that readily
clings to the hair or wool of animals, thus providing an effectual means
by which the seeds are distributed. A variety of the Common Avens occurs
with drooping flowers.

[Illustration: THE DOG ROSE.]

[Illustration: THE SILVER WEED.]

The Dog Rose (_Rosa canina_) is one of the prettiest and most abundant
flowers of our hedgerows, and may be seen in bloom throughout June and
July. The bush has a thick, woody stock; and weak, straggling stems,
often reaching a height of six or eight feet, armed with equal, curved
prickles. The flowers are pink or white, with a calyx consisting of a
globular tube, contracted at the top, and five spreading segments; a
corolla of five petals; numerous stamens; and an ovary of several
one-seeded carpels with free styles. The carpels are very hairy, and are
enclosed within the tube of the calyx, which becomes red and succulent
as the fruit ripens; but the calyx segments usually fall before the
ripening is complete.

[Illustration: THE AGRIMONY.]

The Silver Weed (_Potentilla anserina_), of the same order, is one of
the commonest of our roadside flowers, rendered more conspicuous by its
pretty, silvery leaves than by its solitary, yellow flowers. It has a
creeping stem, from six to twelve inches long, which bears pinnate
leaves. The leaflets are deeply serrated, and densely covered beneath
(and sometimes also above) with soft, silky hairs.

Two of the Cinquefoils are very common by roadsides. These are the Hoary
Cinquefoil (_Potentilla argentea_), and the Creeping Cinquefoil
(_Potentilla reptans_). The first of these is a partially prostrate
plant, with stem from six to eighteen inches long; and digitate leaves
with five, wedge-shaped leaflets. The leaflets are rendered white
beneath by woolly hairs that lie close against the surface, and their
edges are curled backwards. The flowers, which bloom in June and July,
are yellow, small, and clustered.

The Creeping Cinquefoil has a slender stem that creeps on the ground and
forms new roots at the nodes. Its leaves are digitate and long-stalked,
with five obovate, serrate, hairy leaflets. The flowers are yellow,
solitary, nearly an inch in diameter, with five sepals and five petals.

On banks we frequently meet with the Agrimony (_Agrimonia Eupatoria_), a
slender plant, from one to two feet high, covered with soft hairs, and
bearing long, tapering, spikelike racemes of small, scattered, yellow
flowers during June and July. This plant may be readily identified by
means of our illustration.

One of the Willow Herbs--the Broad Smooth-leaved Willow Herb (_Epilobium
montanum_)--is common on roadside banks, flowering during June and July.
Its stems are slender, downy, and generally unbranched; and the leaves
are opposite, stalked (the lower ones almost stalkless), ovate, acute,
with serrate edges, and smooth except along the margins and the
principal veins, which are more or less downy. The plant grows to a
height of one or two feet, and bears small, pale-purple flowers which
droop when in the bud. It belongs to the order _Onagraceæ_; and, like
the others of its genus, has four sepals, four petals, eight stamens,
and a long inferior ovary which splits into four valves, setting free a
large number of little, tufted seeds.

The order _Crassulaceæ_ contains a number of low, succulent plants, with
small, regular, star-like flowers. Some of them are well known as
Stonecrops and House-leeks. Those of the Stonecrop group usually have
cymes of flowers with perianth leaves in whorls of five, and stamens in
two whorls.

One member of this group--the Orpine or Livelong (_Sedum Telephium_)--is
not uncommonly found on shady wayside banks, especially near villages
and on the outskirts of towns, where it is probably an escape from
gardens. Its leaves are large, flat, oval or oblong, with serrate
edges. The flowers have five sepals and five petals, are of a purple or
crimson colour, and are clustered in close cymes.

We have now to consider several species of the order _Umbelliferæ_--a
group of flowers which contains so many species, with often such close
resemblances in general appearance, that it is always more or less
puzzling to the beginner, especially as it is frequently necessary to
note minute details of structure in order to determine a species.

The leading characteristic of the order is that denoted by its name; for
the flowers, which are generally very small and white, are arranged in
umbels. In a few instances these umbels are simple; but in most they are
compound--that is, the stalks which radiate from the same point on the
main peduncle, and thus form the _primary umbel_, give rise to the
lesser stalks of the _secondary umbels_, which are similarly arranged
and bear the flowers. There are often bracts at the base of the primary
umbel, in which case they are termed the _primary bracts_; and there are
frequently _secondary bracts_ or _involucels_ at the bases of the
secondary umbels.

[Illustration: THE ORPINE OR LIVELONG.]

The flowers have a superior calyx; with five teeth; but this is often so
inconspicuous that it appears like a mere rim round the top of the
ovary. There are also five petals, which generally have their points
turned inwards; and five stamens. The inferior ovary consists of two
united carpels, surmounted by a fleshy disc that supports the petals and
the stamens, and bears two styles.

Special attention must be given to the structure of the fruits of
umbellifers, for a close examination of these is often necessary for
purposes of identification. The two carpels are close together, with
their adjacent surfaces flattened, and are fixed to a central axis
called the _carpophore_. As the fruit ripens, the carpophore often
divides, from above downwards, becoming Y-shaped; and the carpels, thus
separated, are for a time suspended on its two arms. Each carpel is
marked by vertical ridges, generally nine in number, five of them
(_primary ridges_) being more prominent than the four intermediate or
_secondary ridges_. The ridge on each side of the carpel, nearest to the
fissure that divides the fruit into two parts, is often extended so as
to form wings by means of which wind-distribution is greatly
facilitated; and between the various ridges are the _furrows_ of the
fruit. In addition to these features, there are often narrow,
light-coloured streaks running parallel with the ridges, in the walls of
the fruit. There are usually six of these in each carpel, sometimes more
than one in the same furrow, and they mark the positions of narrow
oil-sacs or _vittæ_. Each carpel contains only one seed.

[Illustration: THE FOOL'S PARSLEY.]

As to the general characters of the plants, it may also be noted that
the stems of the _Umbelliferæ_ are jointed, and frequently hollow; also
that the leaves are pinnately divided, and often _decompound_ (compound,
with compound leaflets).

[Illustration: THE WILD PARSNIP.]

Our first example of this family is the common Hemlock (_Conium
maculatum_) of hedges and waste ground--a very graceful plant, with a
much-branched stem that grows from two to six or more feet in height. It
is distinguished by a foetid odour and poisonous properties. Its stem
is slender in proportion to the height, furrowed, smooth, and spotted
with purple or red. The flowers are white, with hardly a trace of a
calyx, and arranged in compound umbels, with three small bracts _on one
side_ of the secondary umbels. The fruit is short, swollen, and slightly
flattened laterally; and the carpels, without vittæ, have each five
thick, waved ridges. The Hemlock flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE COW PARSNIP OR HOGWEED.]

Several of the common umbelliferous plants are called the Fool's Parsley
by those who are unable to distinguish between species, but this name is
correctly applied only to _Æthusa cynapium_, a smooth, leafy plant, with
an unpleasant odour and poisonous properties. The plant grows from a
foot to eighteen inches high, flowers during July and August, and is
common in cultivated ground as well as in wastes and by waysides. It may
be recognised at once by the help of our illustration; but we call
special attention to the three, long, drooping bracts on the outer side
of each secondary umbel.

On roadside banks, particularly in chalky districts, we may often meet
with the Wild Parsnip (_Pastinaca sativa_). This is an erect, downy
plant, with a tap root; and angular, hollow stem from two to three feet
high. Its leaves are pinnate, glossy above and downy beneath, with five
or seven ovate, sessile, cut and serrate leaflets, and sheathing
petioles. The umbels are terminal, without primary or secondary bracts;
and the flowers are small, of a bright yellow colour, producing
flattened, winged fruits. The flowers bloom during July and August.

The Cow Parsnip or Hogweed (_Heracleum Sphondylium_) is somewhat similar
in general appearance, but is much stouter, and grows to a height of
four or five feet. Its stem is hairy and channelled; and the leaves have
a few broad, lobed, serrate leaflets with a rough, hairy surface. The
flowers, which bloom during July and August, are of a reddish white
colour, and have unequal petals.

The Upright Hedge Parsley (_Torilis Anthriscus_ or _Caucalis
Anthriscus_) is a slender plant, with an erect, solid, rough stem, from
two to three feet high. Its leaves are hairy, bipinnate, with lobed and
toothed, ovate or oblong leaflets. The white or pale pink flowers are
arranged in long-stalked, terminal umbels of from about six to twelve
rays, with several primary and secondary bracts. The fruits are armed
with bristles which, though not hooked, are slightly bent inwards. This
is a very common hedgerow plant, flowering from July to September.

[Illustration: THE HONEYSUCKLE.]

Our last example of the _Umbelliferæ_ is the Rough Chervil
(_Chærophyllum temulum_), which is very common in hedgerows, among the
undergrowth of woods, and in other shady places. It has a slender stem,
from one to three feet high, swollen at the joints, spotted with purple,
and rendered rough by short hairs. The leaves, which are also rough and
spotted, are bipinnate, with ovate leaflets that are cut into segments
terminating abruptly in a sharp point; and they assume a rich purple
tint that makes the plant a conspicuous object in the autumn. The
flowers are white, in terminal compound umbels which droop in the bud.
The bracts are few in number or altogether absent, but there are several
secondary bracts which are fringed and bent downwards.

Passing now to the order _Caprifoliaceæ_, we have to deal with the
well-known and favourite Honeysuckle or Woodbine (_Lonicera
periclymenum_), so highly prized on account of its lovely fragrant
flowers. It is a climbing plant, often reaching a height of ten or
twelve feet, supporting itself by twining its woody stem round
surrounding shrubs and trees in hedges and the open spaces of woods. The
beautiful flowers, which are yellow within, and more or less tinged with
red outside, are arranged in terminal, stalked heads; and the united
petals form widely-gaping lips. The plant blooms from June to September,
and displays its crimson berries in the autumn.

Two other species of Honeysuckle occur in our hedges, but neither of
these is common. One is the Upright Honeysuckle, which has an erect
stem; downy, stalked leaves; and pale yellow, scentless flowers that
grow in pairs in the axils of the leaves. The other is the Perfoliate
Honeysuckle, so called because its upper leaves are united at their
bases, with the stem running through them. In this one the flower-heads
have no stalks.

[Illustration: THE GREAT HEDGE BEDSTRAW.]

In the Bedstraw family (order _Rubiaceæ_) we have two very common,
hedgerow plants--the Great Hedge Bedstraw (_Galium Mollugo_) and the
Goose-grass or Cleavers (_G. Aparine_). The first is a very straggling
plant, with a square stem, thickened at the joints, that often reaches a
length of four or five feet. Its leaves are elliptical, with apex
terminating suddenly in a bristle-like point, and margins roughened by
prickles that are either at right angles or pointing more or less
forward. They are arranged in whorls, usually of eight, but sometimes
six. The little white flowers, which bloom during July and August, are
arranged in panicles with spreading branches, the lower of which are
either horizontal or bent downward. The fruit is smooth.

The Goose Grass is so named because it is eaten by geese; and it is also
known as the Cleavers because its fruits, which are covered with hooked
bristles, cling tenaciously to our clothing and to the covering of
animals. Its straggling stem often reaches a length of four or five
feet, and forms tangled masses with the stems and leaves of other
hedgerow plants. The leaves are narrow and keeled; and the small, white
flowers are arranged in small axillary clusters of two or three. The
whole plant is rough with hooked bristles.

[Illustration: THE TEASEL.]

We conclude this chapter with a description of the common Teasel
(_Dipsacus sylvestris_) of the order _Dipsaceæ_. This is really a very
graceful plant, rarely less than three or four feet high, and sometimes
reaching six feet or more. Its stem is very stout and prickly; and its
large bright green leaves are simple, sessile, and arranged in opposite
pairs. They are prickly beneath, and the two leaves of each pair are
united at their bases in such a manner that they form hollows in which
the rain-water collects. The reservoirs so formed often contain drowned
insects which have flown or fallen into the water, or which have been
washed down the stem by the rain. Their dead bodies decompose, giving
rise to nitrogenous and other products of decay which generally
discolour the water. These products are valuable as plant food, and it
has been said that they are absorbed by the leaves. The flowers of the
Teasel are collected in large heads, covered with straight, stiff
bristles, and have an involucre of bracts which curve upwards. The
flowers are of a pale purple colour. They commence to open near the
middle of the head, forming a horizontal circle; and then they expand
both upwards and downwards from this level. The flowers are not
conspicuous individually, nor does each individual flower produce much
pollen; but the large heads of bloom attract numerous insects which
climb about among the flowers in search of nectar, covering their bodies
with pollen, and thus aiding the process of fertilisation.

[Illustration: TEASEL-HEADS.
1, 2, and 3 are successive flowering stages. 4, The elongated head in
fruit.]



XII

WAYSIDES AND WASTES IN SUMMER (_Continued_)

COMPOSITE FLOWERS


There are so many flowers of the order _Compositæ_ in bloom by the
wayside and on waste ground during the summer months that we devote a
chapter entirely to them.

This group is the largest of the natural orders, and is computed to
contain about a tenth of all the known flowering plants. The chief
distinguishing characteristic of the order is the arrangement of the
flowers into crowded heads, each consisting of a number of little
flowers or _florets_ that are sessile on a common _receptacle_, as in
the case of the Daisy, the Dandelion, and the Thistles.

The florets of each head or _capitulum_ are generally arranged into two
well-defined sets--the florets of the disc, occupying the centre; and
the florets of the ray, spreading more or less in a radial manner from
the edge of the disc. These two sets are often of different colours, as
in the Daisy, where the disc florets are of a deep yellow, while the ray
florets are white or pink.

In some of the Composites all the florets of each head are perfect,
while in others some are perfect and some imperfect. Then, as regards
the latter, they may be staminate or male florets, with no pistil;
pistillate or female flowers, with no stamens; or neuter florets,
possessing neither stamens nor pistil. In some few cases all the florets
of one head are staminate, while the pistillate florets alone form other
heads; and in these instances the two kinds of heads may be found on one
plant, or only one kind may exist on the same plant. In all cases the
capitulum is surrounded by one or more whorls of bracts which are often
closely overlapping.

The florets seldom possess a distinguishable calyx, but there is
sometimes an indication of the presence of five sepals; in many,
however, the calyx is represented by a whorl of hairs on the summit of
the ovary. Such a whorl is known as the _pappus_, and it frequently
enlarges as the fruit ripens, forming a kind of parachute that allows
the fruit to be carried great distances by the wind. The hairs of the
pappus are often sessile on the fruit, but sometimes mounted on the
summit of a slender stalk, as in the Dandelion. Further, the hairs which
constitute the pappus may be simple or feathered.

[Illustration: CAPITULUM OR FLOWER-HEAD OF THE MARIGOLD, showing the
_involucre_ or whorl of overlapping bracts.]

The corolla frequently consists of five petals, united into a tube with
as many teeth; but it is often _ligulate_ or strap-shaped, in which case
the presence of five petals is often denoted by five minute teeth at the
tip.

Where stamens exist they are five in number, attached to the petals, and
the anthers are generally united in such a manner that they form a tube
within the tube of the corolla.

[Illustration: FLORETS OF A COMPOSITE FLOWER. In fig. 1 the corolla is
strap-shaped; in fig. 2 it is tubular.]

Fertilisation is brought about much in the same way in many of the
composite flowers:--The anthers open inwards, discharging their pollen
within the tube formed by themselves, and just above the stigma which,
as yet, is immature. The style then lengthens, pushing its way up
through the anther-tube, and brushing up the pollen by means of the
tufts of hairs on its surface. At this stage a dense cluster of pollen
cells, completely covering the top of the style, may be seen projecting
above the tube of the corolla, and the pollen is sooner or later
scattered, the distribution being aided greatly by the various insects
which visit the flowers. The upper part of the style now divides into
two parts, and the branches diverge, exposing the stigmatic surfaces
which form the inner sides of the fork. It will thus be seen that the
florets are not self-pollinated, since the stigma is generally mature
after the pollen has all been removed from the same flower.

Our first example of this order is the Yellow Goat's-beard (_Tragopogon
pratensis_), also known as Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon. This is a common
wayside plant, of a glaucous green colour, with a milky sap. Its stem is
erect, from one to two feet high, and the whole plant is smooth. The
flower-heads are solitary, large, yellow, and surrounded by a single row
of narrow bracts that are united below; and the peduncle is thickened at
the top. The bracts are generally as long as the florets, and the latter
usually close about the middle of the day. The fruit is long and narrow,
with longitudinal ridges; and the pappus consists of rows of feathery
hairs which interlock and form a very shallow cup. The flowers bloom
during June and July.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW GOAT'S-BEARD.]

The Bristly Ox-tongue (_Helminthia echioides_ or _Picris echioides_),
also a common plant, is more or less covered with rigid, hooked
bristles, each of which arises from a swollen, white base; and it has a
milky sap. The stem is stout, branched, very bristly, and grows from two
to three feet high. The leaves are simple and toothed, the upper ones
cordate and embracing the stem, and the lower ones _auricled_ or eared.
The heads are terminal, consisting of yellow, ligulate florets,
surrounded by five large cordate bracts. The fruit is brown, curved,
with transverse ridges and a stalked pappus of feathery hairs. This
species flowers from June to September. It is shown on Plate
III.

In the same genus we have the Hawkweed Picris (_P. hieracoides_) which
bears yellow flowers from June to September. Its stem, more slender than
that of the last species, is from two to three feet high, branched
towards the top, and rough with hooked bristles; and the leaves are
lanceolate and toothed. There are numerous heads of flowers, about an
inch in diameter, usually arranged in a corymb, but sometimes in an
umbel, and there are bracts on the peduncles.

[Illustration: THE HAWKWEED PICRIS.]

The Strong-scented or Acrid Lettuce (_Lactuca virosa_) is moderately
common on dry wastes. It is an acrid, glaucous, leafy and prickly plant,
with a milky juice. Its erect stem grows to a height of three or four
feet. Its leaves are spreading, obovate in form, with toothed margins,
and bristly hairs on the under side of the midrib. The lower leaves are
frequently marked with dark spots, and the upper ones have pointed
auricles which clasp the stem. The heads of flowers are small, pale
yellow, and arranged in a loose, spreading panicle. The bracts overlap,
the outer ones being shorter, and the receptacle is flat. Each head
contains only a few florets. The fruit is flattened, black, with a beak
as long as itself and a pappus of many simple hairs. The flowers appear
during July and August.

Another Lettuce, known as the Prickly Lettuce (_L. Scariola_), is
somewhat rare. It is really less prickly than the last species, but is
equally tall, and flowers during the same months. Its leaves are erect,
lanceolate, sagittate, with a wavy margin; and the upper ones clasp the
stem. The fruit of this species is of a greyish colour, and has a beak
of the same length.

Two species of Sow-thistle (genus _Sonchus_) are included among our
wayside Composites. They are erect, succulent plants, from two to three
feet in height, with a milky juice, and either toothed or pinnatifid
leaves. Their flower-heads are yellow, arranged in a corymb, and bloom
during the whole of the summer. Each head is surrounded by several rows
of overlapping bracts, and the receptacle is flat and pitted. The fruits
are considerably flattened, without beaks; and the pappus consists of
several rows of fine, silky, unbranched hairs.

[Illustration: THE PRICKLY LETTUCE.]

One species is known as the Sharp-fringed Sow-thistle or the Common
Milk-thistle (_S. oleraceus_). Its leaves are sometimes deeply divided,
but always more or less toothed; and the teeth often terminate in sharp
prickles. The upper ones clasp the stem, and have spreading,
arrow-shaped ears. The stem is branched and hollow; and the fruit is
ribbed and transversely wrinkled.

The second is the Common Sow-thistle (_S. asper_)--a very similar plant,
but may be distinguished by its leaves, which are more spinously
toothed, with _rounded_ ears. In this one the fruits are also ribbed,
but they are not wrinkled transversely.

The Smooth Hawk's-beard (_Crepis virens_) has a furrowed, branched stem,
from a few inches to three feet in height. Its spreading radical leaves
are deeply toothed, and narrower towards the base; and the stem leaves
are narrow and sagittate. The numerous small heads of yellow flowers are
panicled, and the outer florets are often tinged with red. The heads are
surrounded by two rows of bracts, the outer of which are shorter and
narrower, and the whole involucre assumes a conical form after
flowering. The fruit is shorter than the pappus; tapering, but not
beaked; and the pappus consists of several rows of unbranched, silky
hairs. This plant flowers during July and August. It is very common on
waste land, and may be frequently seen growing on old walls, and even on
the roofs of country cottages and out-houses.

[Illustration: THE SHARP-FRINGED SOW-THISTLE.]

The genus _Hieracium_ (Hawkweeds) is a puzzle not only to the beginner,
but also to experienced botanists, who have not yet agreed as to its
division into species. According to some authorities these latter amount
to seven, but they, or rather some of them, are so variable, and present
so many intermediate characters, that some botanists divide the British
members into no less than thirty-three species.

All the plants of the group agree in the following particulars:--They
have a milky sap. The leaves are nearly all radical. The flower-heads
are either yellow or orange, surrounded by several rows of overlapping
bracts. The receptacle is pitted. The fruit is not beaked, and its
pappus consists of a single row of rigid, brittle, brownish hairs, which
are simple and of unequal lengths.

One species at least is a common wayside flower, and this is the Shrubby
Hawkweed (_H. boreale_). It grows from two to four feet high, and bears
a corymb of many yellow heads, from July to September. Its stem is hairy
below, downy with fine branched hairs above, and bears rigid, erect
branches which are leafy, and often of a reddish colour. This species
has no radical leaves. The stem leaves are ovate or lanceolate and
toothed, the upper ones broad and slightly clasping the stem. The
peduncle is scaly or woolly, and the involucre bracts are of a blackish
green colour.

[Illustration: THE SMOOTH HAWK'S-BEARD.]

The Nipplewort (_Lapsana communis_) is another very common Composite of
waysides and wastes. Its stem is erect, from one to two feet high,
branched, armed with scanty stiff hairs below, and smooth above. The
leaves are thin and usually hairy, the lower ones ovate, pinnatifid or
coarsely-toothed, with a few smaller lobes along the stalks, and the
upper ones small, and entire or only slightly toothed. The flower-heads
are small, yellow, in a loose panicle with long slender stalks. The
involucre consists of about eight glaucous scales, about a quarter of an
inch in length, and a whorl of small outer ones. The fruits are
flattened, with many longitudinal nervures, and have no pappus. The
flowers may be seen from July to September.

The Chicory or Succory (_Cichorium Intybus_) is a local plant, but often
very abundant where it exists. It has a long tap root; and a strong,
erect, bristly and sticky stem. The lower leaves are spreading and
hairy, deeply divided, with a large terminal lobe, and smaller lateral
lobes which are pointed and coarsely toothed. The upper leaves are
lanceolate, clasping the stem, with pointed auricles. The flower-heads
are of a bright blue colour, large and conspicuous, mostly in sessile
clusters of two or three along the rigid, spreading branches, but a few
are terminal. The involucre consists of about eight inner bracts, and a
whorl of outer ones that are much shorter. The florets are large; and
the fruits are smooth, or nearly so, and closely enveloped in the lower
part of the involucre. The time of flowering is from July to October.

[Illustration: THE NIPPLEWORT.]

Our next species is the Burdock (_Arctium Lappa_), familiar as a wayside
plant not only on account of its abundance and its large size, but also
on account of its globular flower-heads which cling so tenaciously to
our clothing by means of the hooked points of the inner involucre
bracts. It is a very stout, branching plant, varying from two to six
feet in height, with very large, stalked, cordate lower leaves that
often exceed a foot in length. The upper leaves are smaller, and broadly
ovate; and both these and the lower ones are smooth or nearly so on the
upper surface, but often covered with a short white down beneath. All
the leaves are also finely toothed, but bear no prickles. The
flower-heads are in terminal panicles, and are surrounded by many bracts
which are either quite smooth or covered with a white, woolly down. The
florets are purple, and all equal in size. The fruits are large, and
bear a short pappus of stiff hairs.

We now come to the interesting group of Thistles, all distinguished by
their very hard stems; their cut or toothed leaves, which are generally
very prickly; and their round or oval heads of flowers, surrounded by
many whorls of overlapping, and usually prickly, bracts. There are no
ray florets, but all are tubular and approximately equal in length.

Our first example is the Welted Thistle (_Carduus crispus_ or _Carduus
acanthoides_), which is a common plant in the South of England, but much
less abundant in the North. In general appearance it closely resembles
the Musk Thistle (p. 266), but is usually taller. The stem is
covered with prickles which run downwards in lines from the bases of the
leaves. The flowers are purple, in small, globular, clustered heads,
which droop slightly; and the numerous bracts of the involucre are
narrow, more or less erect, and terminate in a spreading or hooked
prickle. The pappus consists of rough, unbranched hairs. The above is
the description of the commonest form of this thistle, but it is a very
variable species. The plants vary from one to three feet in height, and
flower from June to August.

[Illustration: THE BURDOCK.]

Throughout the summer we may meet with the Spear Thistle (_C.
lanceolatus_), a very abundant species which grows on almost all waste
places. The plant is a stout one, varying from about one to five feet in
height, with a winged, prickly stem. The leaves are cut into short,
narrow lobes, with a long and pointed terminal one. They are covered
above with stiff hairs, and below with a white down; and all the lobes
terminate in stiff spines. The involucre is oval in form, covered with
cottony down; and its bracts are lanceolate, terminating with a stiff,
spreading spine. The flower-heads are few in number, with purple
florets, and measure about an inch and a quarter in diameter.

[Illustration: THE SPEAR THISTLE.]

Another common species is the Creeping Thistle (_C. arvensis_), which
has a perennial, creeping rootstock that gives off erect annual stems
from two to four feet in height. The stem is not winged, but the prickly
leaves clasp it, and sometimes extend a little way down at their bases.
The leaves are narrow, smooth, with edges turned inwards, very prickly,
and cut into numerous narrow lobes. The flower-heads are small,
arranged in loose terminal clusters, and are surrounded by numerous,
closely-placed bracts with small, sharp points. The flowers are always
imperfect, and the male and female blooms always occur on separate
plants. The heads of the male plants are globular in form, with
spreading purple florets; while those of the female plant are longer and
almost cylindrical in form, with longer bracts and shorter florets. The
pappus consists of numerous feathery hairs which grow very long as the
fruit ripens. This species flowers during July and August.

The Tansy (_Tanacetum vulgare_) is common in the hedgerows of most
localities, and is easily recognised by the powerful odour and bitter
taste of its leaves and flowers. It has a creeping root; an erect,
strong stem, which is either quite smooth or (generally) slightly downy;
and large, pinnate leaves, with narrow, deeply-toothed or pinnatifid
segments. There are a large number of flower-heads, nearly half an inch
in diameter, of a bright yellow colour, and arranged in large
flat-topped corymbs. This plant is common in most parts of Britain,
grows to a height of about three feet, and flowers during August and
September.

[Illustration: THE CREEPING THISTLE.]

The Mugwort (_Artemisia vulgaris_) is a very common roadside plant in
most districts, valued by many villagers as a remedy for rheumatism. It
has a short, woody rootstock; and erect, branching stems varying from
two to four feet in height. The leaves are deeply cut into narrow, acute
segments which are either coarsely serrate or lobed. They are green and
smooth above, but very white with a woolly down below. The flower-heads
are very numerous, erect, and arranged in a somewhat crowded, long,
terminal panicle. Each head is surrounded by a woolly involucre, and
consists of from fifteen to over twenty florets, either all perfect or
including a few without stamens. They are oval in form, and of a reddish
or yellowish-brown colour. The plant blooms throughout the summer.

[Illustration: THE TANSY.]

In the same genus is the Absinth or Wormwood (_A. Absinthium_), which is
not so tall or so slender as the last species, from which it may
readily be distinguished by its powerful aroma and bitter taste. The
whole of the plant is whitish with a close, fine down; and the erect
stems, from one to two feet high, are stiff and hard. The leaves are
very similar to those of the Mugwort, but are much broader, are silky on
both sides, and the narrow lobes of the leaves are blunt at the tips.
The flower-heads are also similarly arranged, but they are almost
globular in form, very silky, and more or less drooping. The florets are
numerous, and of a dull yellow colour, the central ones being mostly
fertile, while the outer, without stamens, are small, and often barren.
The plant flowers during August and September, is not so common as the
last species, but is abundant in districts near the sea.

One of the most conspicuous flowers of the summer is the Common Ragwort
(_Senecio Jacobæa_). It belongs to the same genus as the Groundsel, but
differs in having very showy, terminal corymbs of large, bright yellow
flowers with spreading rays. Its erect stem does not branch, as a rule,
except near the top, and reaches a height of from one to three or four
feet. The outer bracts of the involucre are small and few in number, and
both these and the inner ones are generally tipped with black.
Occasionally we may meet with plants of this species in which the
flower-heads have no ray, but in general the ray is well-formed, and
consists of about twelve narrow or oblong florets.

[Illustration: THE WORMWOOD.]

The Common Feverfew (_Matricaria Parthenium_ or _Chrysanthemum
Parthenium_) is a very abundant wayside flower, of which a double
variety is commonly grown in gardens. The plant reaches a foot or more
in height, and flowers freely from July to September. The stems are
erect and branched; and the leaves are stalked and pinnately divided
into ovate or oblong, lobed, toothed segments. The numerous flower-heads
are arranged in a corymb, and are about half an inch in diameter, with
white ray and yellow disc. The plant may be distinguished from similar
species of the same genus by the little toothed border on the summit of
the ripe fruits, and by the strong and somewhat pleasant odour of all
its parts.

[Illustration: THE RAGWORT.]

Even more common, in most places, is the Corn Feverfew or Scentless
Mayweed (_M. inodora_), which flowers from June to the end of the
summer. Its stem is erect, with spreading branches; and the sessile
leaves are two or three times divided into narrow, almost hair-like
segments. The flower-heads are much larger than those of the last
species, sometimes reaching a diameter of about two inches, and are
solitary. The involucre is brown, with a membranous edge; the ray
white, and the disc yellow. It is sometimes confused with the Wild
Chamomile, but may be distinguished by the shape of the receptacle,
which is hemispherical, and not so conical as in _Chamomilla_.

[Illustration: THE SCENTLESS MAYWEED.]

[Illustration: THE YARROW OR MILFOIL.]

Our last example of the Composites of the wayside is the Yarrow or
Milfoil (_Achillea millefolium_)--a plant that might be mistaken by the
beginner for one of the Umbellifers when seen at a distance; but a
closer examination will show not only that the level-topped
inflorescence is a dense, terminal corymb, but also that the flowers are
collected into little heads, each of which consists of a few white or
pink, pistillate ray-florets, surrounding a little cluster of tubular,
perfect, yellow florets of the disc. The leaves are narrow oblong, and
very finely cut into many hair-like, branching segments. The whole plant
has a strong and rather pleasant odour. It grows from six to eighteen
inches high, and flowers from June to September.



XIII

WASTES AND WAYSIDES IN SUMMER (_Continued_)


Continuing our list of the numerous wayside flowers of the summer
months, we take first the Rampion Bellflower or Ramps (_Campanula
Rapunculus_), of the order _Campanulaceæ_. The flowers of this order are
usually easily distinguished by their bell-shaped corolla, mounted on an
inferior ovary, and by their general resemblance to the Canterbury Bells
so familiar to us as favourite garden flowers. The Rampion is to be seen
on some of the sandy or gravelly wastes of the South of England during
July and August, but is rather local in its distribution. It has an
angled, erect stem, from two to three feet high, rough with stiff, white
hairs. The stem leaves are narrow, pointed, and usually entire; but the
lower leaves are broader, with slightly-scalloped edges, on long stalks.
The blue flowers are arranged in erect terminal racemes, either simple
or branched, each flower having a short stalk. In order to distinguish
between this and other species of the same genus we should note that the
segments of its calyx are narrow and entire; and that the corolla is
divided deeply into five narrow, pointed segments.

The Great Bindweed (_Convolvulus sepium_) of the order _Convolvulaceæ_,
is very conspicuous in most hedgerows, and is probably so well known
that a description need hardly be given for purposes of identification,
but we must call attention to a few interesting features that might be
overlooked. It is both a creeper and a climber, for it has a creeping
rootstock that enables it to travel considerable distances below the
surface of the ground, and a twining stem, usually four or five feet
long, by which it climbs over the surrounding plants or shrubs. The
large, white flowers, which bloom from June to August, are arranged
singly on short stalks. Each has a pair of rather large bracts which
completely hide the calyx, and which might at first be mistaken for the
calyx itself.

The Small Bindweed is, perhaps, more commonly seen in fields than in
hedgerows, and is included among the field flowers on p. 228;
and the Dodders, belonging to the same order, are described with the
other parasitic plants in Chapter XXIII.

[Illustration: THE RAMPION BELLFLOWER.]

The four British plants of the order _Solanaceæ_ are all wayside
species, flowering from June onwards, and may be considered together
here. They possess the following features in common:--The leaves are
alternately arranged, without stipules. The flowers are regular, with a
five-toothed or five-lobed calyx, and a corolla of (usually) five united
petals which are folded in the bud. The number of stamens correspond
with that of the lobes of the corolla, and the ovary, which is
two-celled, ripens into a berry containing several seeds, except in the
Henbane, where it forms a capsule.

The Henbane (_Hyoscyamus niger_) is an erect plant, with a branching
stem from one to two feet high, and the whole is more or less coarse and
hairy, with a viscid touch and an unpleasant odour. The flowers are of a
dingy yellow colour, and are arranged, with very short stalks, in
one-sided, leafy spikes which are curved backwards before the flowers
are open. The calyx is at first short, but grows longer, as the fruits
ripen, until it is about an inch long. It has prominent veins, and its
five lobes are stiff and bristly. The dingy corolla also reaches a
length of an inch or more, and is distinctly marked with dark bluish
veins. This plant flowers from June to September, and is moderately
common in waste places, especially near houses.

The other three flowers of this order referred to are all known as
Nightshades, and two of them belong to the genus _Solanum_, in which the
flowers are arranged in few-flowered terminal or lateral cymes, on short
stalks. The corolla has scarcely any tube, and the flowers are easily
distinguished by the peculiar arrangement of the five anthers, which are
on very short filaments, and are placed close against the style in such
a manner as to form a compact cone in the centre of the flower.

[Illustration: THE GREAT BINDWEED.]

One species--the Black Nightshade (_S. nigrum_)--is rather local in its
distribution, but often very abundant where it occurs, appearing as a
common weed on cultivated soils. It is an erect, spreading herb, either
quite smooth or slightly hairy, growing from six inches to two feet
high, with swollen angles on its branching stem. Its leaves are stalked,
ovate, more or less wavy, with large angular teeth; and the small, white
flowers are on short lateral stalks. The fruit is a small, round, black
or scarlet berry. This species may be seen in flower from June almost to
the end of the year.

[Illustration: THE HENBANE.]

The other species--the Woody Nightshade or Bittersweet (_S.
Dulcamara_)--is much more common, and may be seen straggling among the
hedgerow shrubs almost everywhere. It is a woody climber that supports
itself by means of its zig-zag stem, and often reaches a height of six
feet or more. The flower seems to be very well known, but is often, if
not generally, spoken of as the Deadly Nightshade, which is a much rarer
species with quite a different habit and appearance. The leaves are
stalked, and usually more or less heart-shaped. Sometimes they are
entire, but frequently there is a small lobe on each side of the base.
The flowers, though rather small, are very pretty, the conspicuous cone
of yellow anthers forming a bright centre to the spreading purple
corolla. They bloom from June to September; and towards the end of the
season the bright red fruits may be seen in abundance while the flowers
are still appearing.

[Illustration: THE WOODY NIGHTSHADE OR BITTERSWEET.]

The true Deadly Nightshade or Dwale (_Atropa belladonna_), of the same
order, is a very local plant, occurring principally in waste places in
the South of England. It is an erect, branching herb, either smooth or
slightly downy, reaching a height of two or three feet, and flowering
from June to September. The leaves are large stalked, ovate, and entire;
and each one has, usually, a smaller leaf, growing from the same point
on the stem and looking like a stipule. The flowers are very different
in general appearance from those of the other nightshades. They are
large--about an inch long, and solitary, on short stalks, in the axils
of the leaves or in the forks of the stem. The calyx is a broad bell,
deeply cut into five lobes; and the corolla is a deep, regular bell, of
a pale purple colour, with five short, broad lobes. The fruit is a
large, poisonous berry, almost globular, but flattened above.

[Illustration: THE DEADLY NIGHTSHADE.]

On waysides and in neglected fields we meet with the very common Red
Bartsia (_Bartsia Odontites_) of the order _Scrophulariaceæ_. This is a
small, tough plant (see Plate III), from six inches to a foot or
more in height, rather downy, with spreading branches. It may be readily
recognised by its several one-sided spikes of numerous purple-red
flowers, with a bell-shaped, four-pointed calyx, and a corolla that is
divided into a longer upper, and a shorter lower, lip. The leaves are
long and narrow, with a few teeth; and the fruit is an oblong capsule.
The above description applies to the most usual form of this plant, but
it is a very variable species, especially as regards the form of the
leaves and the branching of the stem.

The Yellow Toadflax (_Linaria vulgaris_), of the same order, is a very
pretty plant, from one to three feet high, exceedingly common on banks,
hedges, and the borders of fields, bearing dense, terminal racemes of
yellow flowers from June to October. Its calyx is small, and deeply
divided into five segments; and the corolla, which has a long pointed
spur at the base, is closed above by the bright orange 'palate' of the
lower lip.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW TOADFLAX.]

In the order _Verbenaceæ_ we have the common Vervein (_Verbena
officinalis_), a common plant in the dry wastes of the South of England,
and moderately frequent in some other parts. This is a smooth, erect
plant, with long, spreading, wiry, four-angled stems; and small, lilac
flowers in long, slender spikes. There are but few leaves towards the
top of the plant, and these are narrow and sessile, while the lower
leaves are broader, stalked, and coarsely toothed. When the flowers
first appear they are close together, but the spike increases in length
as the flowering proceeds, so that the lower flowers and fruits become
more distant. Each flower has a five-toothed calyx, and an irregular
corolla with a short tube and five unequal lobes. The Vervein grows from
one to two feet high, and flowers from July to September.

[Illustration: THE VERVEIN.]

Passing now to the Labiates, we deal first with two species of Calamints
(genus _Calamintha_), which are to be distinguished from the other
genera of the order by their axillary cymes of flowers, with calyx and
corolla both lipped, and the upper lip of the latter erect and flat.

One of these, the common Calamint (_Calamintha officinalis_), is a hairy
plant, with an erect, branched stem, one or two feet high, and stalked,
ovate, toothed leaves. The whorls of flowers are compound, in forked,
axillary cymes. The calyx is tubular, with thirteen ribs and five
pointed teeth. The three upper teeth are united at their base to form
the upper lip, while the other two, longer and narrower, form the lower.
The corolla is almost twice as long as the calyx, with an upper, erect
lip, and a lower lip with three broad lobes. The stamens are four in
number, in pairs, under the upper lip.

The Lesser Calamint (_C. Nepeta_) is a very similar plant, by some held
to be merely a variety of _C. officinalis_. Its leaves are shortly
stalked, but slightly toothed, and only about half an inch in length.
The flowers are about as long as the leaves, arranged in whorls of eight
or ten, with corolla about half as long again as the calyx. In both
species the mouth of the calyx is hairy, but the hairs are much more
prominent in the Lesser Calamint than in the last. Both plants are
frequently seen on sunny waysides, flowering during July and August.

[Illustration: THE BALM.]

The Balm (_Melissa officinalis_) is a common garden herb in some parts,
and in the South of England it is now fairly established as a wild
flower, though, at present, it is not often found very far from the
habitations of man. It is a hairy plant, much like a Calamint in
general appearance, growing from one to three feet high, and bearing
white flowers in July and August. Its leaves are stalked, ovate, acute,
toothed or crenate, of a pale green below; and the flowers are
shortly-stalked, in few-flowered, axillary whorls.

The Black Horehound (_Ballota nigra_), shown on Plate III, Fig.
2, is a coarse, hairy plant, with an unpleasant odour, commonly
seen on roadsides and wastes, flowering continuously from the beginning
of June to September or October. Its erect stem often exceeds three feet
in height, and branches more or less freely. The purple flowers are in
dense clusters in the axils of the leaves, and beneath them are several
narrow, stiff bracts. The calyx is about a third of an inch long, green
or purple-green in colour, with ten prominent ribs, and five broad teeth
which usually terminate abruptly in a fine, stiff point. The corolla is
of a purple colour, twice as long as the calyx, with an arched, oval
upper lip; and a slightly longer lower lip of three segments, the middle
one of which is the largest.

THE HEDGE WOUNDWORT.

Our last example of the wayside Labiates is the Hedge Woundwort
(_Stachys sylvatica_)--a very abundant and pretty plant that grows most
luxuriantly in damp, shady places, such as the borders of ditches, the
edges of woods, and shady banks and hedgerows. Its square stem is solid
and stout, straight and erect, and more or less branched. All the leaves
are stalked, the upper ones being narrow and entire, while the lower are
large, ovate or cordate, with a crenate or toothed edge and a very
pointed apex. The flowers, which bloom from July to September, are in
distant whorls of from six to ten, in the axils of the upper leaves,
forming long spikes. The calyx is bell-shaped, with ten ribs, and five
spreading teeth which are pointed, but not stiff; and the corolla, the
tube of which is longer than the calyx, is of a dark, red-purple colour,
prettily variegated with white on the lower lip. This plant varies from
one to three feet in height and has a very unpleasant odour.

We next take a few examples of the Borage family (order _Boraginaceæ_),
all of which are herbs more or less rough with coarse hairs, having
alternate, simple leaves, and flowers in one-sided spikes or racemes
which are rolled back while in bud. In all of them the calyx has five
divisions or teeth, and the corolla consists of five united petals of
equal or nearly equal size. There are five stamens within the tube of
the corolla, and the fruit consists of four nutlets enclosed in the
persistent calyx.

One of these--the Field Scorpion Grass (_Myosotis arvensis_)--is often
called the Forget-me-not, but it usually grows in dry waste places,
while the true Forget-me-not is found in wet situations. The flowers of
this species are also very much smaller. The stem of the plant is thin,
and bears small, oval, hairy leaves. The small blue corolla has short,
spreading, concave segments, and is surrounded by a calyx that is cleft
to the middle, and covered with hooked hairs. The sepals spread while
the flower is open, but assume an erect position when in fruit. As a
further means of distinguishing between this and other similar species
of the same genus we should note that the peduncle is longer than the
calyx, and that the style is very short. The plant varies from six to
eighteen inches in height, and flowers throughout the summer.

The Gromwell or Grey Millet (_Lithospermum officinale_) is a stout plant
with several erect, branched stems. The flowers are small, of a pale
yellow colour, in leafy racemes. The calyx is hairy and very deeply
cleft into five segments; and the corolla, which is about the same
length as the calyx, is funnel-shaped, with small scales in the throat
of its tube. This plant derives its generic name of _Lithospermum_ from
the nature of its fruit, which consists of white, stony nutlets with a
smooth and polished surface. Its height is from twelve to eighteen
inches; and the flowers appear during June and July.

Our next species--the Borage (_Borago officinalis_)--is not indigenous,
but is found wild in many parts, frequently in great abundance. It is a
very bristly plant, from one to two feet high, bearing bright blue
flowers from June to August. Its stem has spreading branches, and the
leaves are obovate, narrowing at the base into the stalk. The upper
leaves are narrower than the lower ones, and have shorter petioles. The
flowers are of a blue colour, or sometimes almost white, and are
drooping on rather long pedicels. The segments of the corolla are
spreading and very pointed; and the dark anthers are very conspicuous in
the centre of the flower.

The two British Alkanets (_Anchusa_) are interesting plants, though not
very common. They are coarse and hairy, and bear large, blue, bracteate
flowers, distinguished by a deeply five-cleft calyx; a corolla with five
spreading lobes, and a straight tube closed at the mouth by blunt, hairy
scales; and five stamens included within the tube. The fruit consists of
rather large wrinkled nuts.

One species, though generally known as the Common Alkanet (_Anchusa
officinalis_), is really a rare plant, occurring only as an escape from
cultivation in the neighbourhood of towns and villages. It has an
angular stem; narrow leaves--the lower ones very long, on long stalks,
and the upper ones smaller; and forked, one-sided, spikes of sessile or
shortly-stalked flowers of a rich blue colour. The calyx is bristly,
longer than the corolla, and cleft into narrow divisions. This plant
grows from one to two feet high, and flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE GROMWELL.]

The other species--the Evergreen Alkanet (_Anchusa sempervirens_)--is
not uncommon in some southern and south-western districts. It is a
stout, very bristly plant, from one to two feet high, with rather large,
blue flowers in short, opposite spikes. It is shown on Plate
III.

Our last flower of the Borage family is the Hound's-tongue
(_Cynoglossum officinale_), which is moderately common on waste ground,
flowering during June and July. This is an erect plant, from one to two
feet high, with a very unpleasant odour. Its stem is stout, branched and
hairy; and the leaves are thickly covered with soft down. The lowest
leaves are oval, with long stalks, often ten or twelve inches in length;
but the upper ones become smaller and narrower, with shorter stalks,
till towards the top they are very narrow, sessile, and clasp the stem.
The flowers are in racemes, with short pedicels, and have no bracts. The
segments of the calyx are narrow and pointed; and the small corolla is
of a reddish purple colour. The fruit is covered with little spines and
is about a quarter of an inch in diameter.

On dry waysides the Buck's-horn Plantain (_Plantago Coronopus_--order
_Plantaginaceæ_) is common. It may be readily distinguished as a
plantain by its slender, cylindrical spikes of small flowers, and its
spreading tuft of radical leaves. This species has a thick rootstock,
and its leaves are either linear and undivided, or, more commonly, cut
into very narrow segments. The flowers are green, with broad, hairy
sepals, the whole spike measuring from one to two inches in length. They
bloom during June and July.

[Illustration: THE HOUND'S-TONGUE.]

The plants which form the genus _Chenopodium_, of the order
_Chenopodiaceæ_, are essentially plants of the wayside and waste ground,
and of these we shall have to note several species. Most of them are
distinguished by the dusty mealiness of their leaves, though a few do
not possess this feature. In general they are characterised by
alternate, flat leaves; and small, green flowers in little sessile
clusters, forming spikes in the axils of the upper leaves. The little
flowers usually have a perianth of five segments which more or less
enclose the fruit; also five stamens, and two or three styles. The
following summary of the characters of these plants will enable the
reader to identify them:--

1. Stinking Goose-foot (_Chenopodium olidum_ or _C. Vulvaria_.)--A
procumbent or spreading plant, with a granular, mealy surface and a
nauseous odour resembling that of stale fish, especially when rubbed or
bruised. Stems from six inches to a foot or more in length, and much
branched. Leaves stalked, small, ovate, and entire. Flowers in dense,
leafless, axillary and terminal spikes which are shorter than the
leaves. Moderately common in many parts, especially in the eastern
counties. Time of flowering--August and September.

[Illustration: THE WHITE GOOSE-FOOT.]

2. Many-seeded Goose-foot (_C. polyspermum_).--A procumbent or erect,
spreading plant, without mealiness or nauseous odour. Stem much
branched. Leaves ovate or elliptical, entire, green, less than two
inches long. Flowers in axillary and terminal, leafless spikes, with a
calyx that does not cover the fruit. Common in parts of England,
flowering during August and September.

3. Upright Goose-foot (_C. urbicum_).--An erect plant, with a stout stem
and few branches. Leaves green on both sides. Lower leaves on long
stalks, broad, ovate or triangular, with bases narrowed towards the
stalk in such a manner as to approach a rhomboidal form, two or three
inches long, and irregularly toothed or lobed. Upper leaves narrower,
nearly entire, and acute. Flowers in small, dense clusters, forming
rather long, erect spikes. The green perianth does not completely cover
the fruit. Common on roadsides and waste ground, flowering in August and
September.

4. White Goose-foot (_C. album_).--A very common plant, varying in
colour from a pale green to a mealy white. Stem stout, erect, from one
to three feet high. Lower leaves stalked, ovate or rhomboid, more or
less toothed or angular, but entire at the base. Upper leaves
lanceolate, entire. Spikes of flowers irregularly clustered, leafy, and
usually branched; the upper ones forming a long panicle, intermixed with
the upper leaves. Perianth entirely covering the fruit.

5. Fig-leaved Goose-foot (_C. ficifolium_).--by some regarded as a
distinct species, but by others included among the varieties of _C.
album_. It closely resembles the latter in general appearance, but its
lower leaves are divided into three unequal lobes, and are somewhat
spear-shaped.

6. Red Goose-foot (_C. rubrum_).--An erect plant, from one to three feet
high, with smooth, triangular, irregularly-toothed leaves, resembling
those of the Upright Goose-foot. The spikes, also, closely resemble
those of the same plant, but the flowers have generally only two or
three segments to the perianth, and these often turn red as the fruit
ripens. The flowers appear during August and September. This species is
moderately common in most parts, and especially near the sea, where it
may be seen growing on the shingle very close to the water's edge.

7. Mercury Goose-foot, Allgood, or Good King Henry (_C.
Bonus-Henricus_).--An erect plant, from one to three feet high, growing
from a thick, fleshy root like that of the Dock. Leaves stalked,
triangular, acute, wavy or toothed, of a dark green colour. Upper leaves
smaller, and almost sessile. Flowers in clustered, compound spikes,
forming a terminal panicle, leafy below. Fruit completely enclosed in
the perianth. This plant was formerly cultivated as a potherb, and is
now commonly found on waste ground near villages. Time of
flowering--June to August.

In the same order we have the Common Orache (_Atriplex patula_)--a very
variable plant, from a few inches to three feet in height, with erect or
prostrate stem, and more or less mealy in appearance. Lower leaves
triangular, with spreading lobes at the base. Upper leaves narrower, and
entire or slightly toothed. Flowers in simple spikes, forming leafy,
terminal panicles. They are of two kinds--male and female, either
mixed, or collected in separate clusters. Segments of the perianth
united, pointed, sometimes toothed, and spotted above. The plant flowers
from July to September, and is abundant in most parts, especially near
the sea.

The order _Polygonaceæ_ also includes several wayside plants which may
be easily distinguished as a group by the following characters:--At the
bases of the alternate leaves are membranous stipules that form a sheath
round the stem. The flowers are small, arranged in clusters in the axils
of the leaves, or in terminal spikes or racemes. The fruit is a small
nut, enclosed more or less in the persistent perianth.

Three of the plants to which we refer belong to the genus _Polygonum_,
in which the sheathing stipule is usually fringed at the edge; and the
small flowers are either green or red, with a perianth of five segments,
and stamens not exceeding eight in number. The little nuts, too, are
either flattened or triangular. The three species may be identified by
the following summary of their leading features:

[Illustration: THE SPOTTED PERSICARIA.]

1. The Spotted Persicaria (_Polygonum Persicaria_).--A very common
wayside plant, and a weed of almost all cultivated soils, growing from
one to two feet high, and flowering from July to October. The leaves
have, usually, a dark-coloured patch in the centre; and the stipules
are fringed at the top with fine, stiff hairs. The flowers are
rose-coloured, with more or less green, arranged in short axillary or
terminal spikes without any leaves; and the nuts are rather thick, but
flattened, smooth, and glossy.

2. Pale-flowered Persicaria (_P. lapathifolium_).--Very similar to the
Spotted Persicaria, and sometimes regarded as a variety of that species;
but it differs in that its leaves are never spotted, and the lower
stipules are not fringed with hairs. The peduncle and perianth, which
are smooth in _P. persicaria_, are here rough, being dotted with small,
projecting glands; and the styles, which are united to about half way up
in the last species, are quite free in the present one. The flowers are
pink, with more or less green, and do not usually bloom after August;
and the plant often attains a length of three or four feet.

3. Knot-grass or Knot-weed (_P. aviculare_).--A very common procumbent
weed, with wiry stems from one to two or three feet long. The leaves,
seldom as much as an inch in length, are narrow, oblong, and flat; and
the stipules are white, membranous, more or less cut at the edges, with
a few veins. The flowers are small, very variable in colour, arranged in
short-stalked clusters of about three or four in the axils of nearly all
the leaves; and the fruit is a triangular nut, shorter than the segments
of the perianth. This plant flowers from July to September. An erect
variety, growing to a height of two feet or more, may be seen in
cornfields.

The same order includes the well-known Docks (_Rumex_), which differ
from _Persicaria_ as follows:--The root is very thick, and grows to a
great depth; the stems are erect and furrowed; and the thin membranous
stipules, though never fringed with hairs, often become more or less
torn. The flowers are small, green, in axillary clusters or terminal
racemes, often turning red as the fruit ripens. The perianth is deeply
divided into five segments, three of which become enlarged and close
over the triangular nut. Two species of this genus are abundant on
waysides. They are:--

1. The Broad-leaved Dock (_Rumex obtusifolius_).--A stout plant, two or
three feet high, and slightly branched. The lower leaves are ovate,
cordate at the base, blunt, often eight or nine inches long; and the
upper ones narrow and pointed. The flowers are perfect, reddish green,
in distant whorls, forming a terminal raceme which is leafless above.
The inner segment of the perianth is enlarged, ovate, distinctly
toothed, with a long point. Time of flowering--July to September.

2. The Curled Dock (_R. crispus_).--Very similar to the Broad-leaved
Dock in size and habit, but flowering somewhat earlier. The lower leaves
are much narrower, six to eight inches long, lanceolate, pointed, and
wavy at the edges. The upper leaves are small and narrower, passing
gradually into still smaller bracts towards the lower flowers. The
flowers are in crowded whorls, on slender pedicels which are longer than
the perianths; and the inner segment of the perianth is enlarged,
cordate, but not toothed.

[Illustration: THE CURLED DOCK.]

We have now to note two species of Spurge (_Euphorbia_) that grow by the
wayside; but before doing so it will be well to make ourselves
acquainted with the general characters of the interesting group to which
they belong. The Spurges are herbs with a milky juice, and a stem which
is usually unbranched below, bearing alternate leaves. The flowering
branches, towards the top of the plant, generally radiate from one
point, forming an umbel of from two to five or more rays that proceed
from the axil of one or more leaves. Each ray is usually forked, and
sometimes repeatedly so, with a pair of leaves at each angle, and a
little head of yellowish-green flowers between the branches. Each
flower-head is surrounded by a small cup of united bracts, inside which
is a whorl of little yellow or brownish glands, placed horizontally. In
the centre of the head is a single female flower, consisting of a
three-celled ovary, with a three-cleft style, mounted on a stalk of such
a length that the flower droops over the edge of the cup. Around this
female flower are from ten to fifteen little male flowers, each
consisting of a single stamen with a minute scale at its base. The fruit
contains three seeds, one in each carpel.

The Sun Spurge (_Euphorbia Helioscopia_) is a common species, varying
from six to eighteen inches high, flowering from June to October. Its
stem is generally simple, but sometimes branched at the base; and the
leaves are obovate or broadly oblong, without stipules, serrate, and
narrowed down at the base to a short stalk. The floral leaves are very
broad--almost round--and edged with very small teeth. The umbel consists
of five rays, each of which is forked, with very short branches; and the
glands within the cup are nearly round. The fruits are quite smooth, and
the seeds have a netted surface.

The other species--the Petty Spurge (_E. Peplus_)--is a smaller plant,
seldom exceeding a foot in length, with an erect or decumbent stem
branching at the bottom. The stem-leaves are oval or obovate, entire,
shortly-stalked and placed alternately; and the floral leaves are
cordate or broadly ovate. The flower-heads are small, surrounded by
crescent-shaped glands with long points; and the carpels of the fruit
have rough keels or wings.

[Illustration: THE GREAT NETTLE.]

Passing to the Stinging Nettles (order _Urticaceæ_), we have to deal
with three herbs that are remarkable for the stinging hairs which clothe
both leaves and stem. The leaves of all are opposite, and the flowers
imperfect. The male flowers have four stamens, and a small, green
perianth of four segments; while the females consist of an ovary with a
tufted stigma, surrounded by a perianth of four segments the two inner
of which are larger, or of two segments only. The fruit is a small,
flattened nut, enclosed in the persistent perianth. The distinguishing
characters of the three species are as follows:

1. The Small Nettle (_Urtica urens_).--An erect herb, from one to two
feet high, with leaves and stem smooth with the exception of the stiff,
stinging hairs. The leaves are thin, elliptical, deeply and regularly
toothed; and the flowers are in unbranched axillary spikes which are
shorter than the petioles, the males and females being intermixed. This
is a common species, flowering from June to September.

2. The Great Nettle (_U. dioica_).--A dark green herb, from one to four
feet high, more or less clothed with soft downy hairs in addition to the
stiff, stinging ones. The lower leaves are ovate or cordate, coarsely
toothed; and the upper ones narrower. The spikes of flowers are
branched, longer than the petioles, in the axils of the leaves. The
flowers are very similar to those of the Small Nettle, but the males and
females are usually on separate plants. This is a very common species,
flowering from June to September.

[Illustration: CANARY GRASS.]

3. The Roman Nettle (_U. pilulifera_).--A coarse, erect plant, from one
to two feet high, with stinging hairs more powerful than those of the
other species. The leaves are ovate or cordate, deeply and regularly
toothed. The male flowers are in clusters along the peduncles, which are
often as long as the leaves; and the females are in globular heads at
the top of stalks from half an inch to an inch in length. The heads of
fruits are about a third of an inch in diameter, thickly covered with
stinging hairs. This plant flowers from June to September. It is not so
abundant as the other nettles, and is found principally in the
neighbourhood of villages, especially in the eastern counties of
England.

Although the Hop (_Humulus Lupulus_) does not sting, the whole plant is
rough with stiff hairs resembling those of the nettles, and it is placed
in the same order. It is a climber, and clings to the hedgerow shrubs by
twining its long stems, which always turn in the same direction as the
sun. Its leaves are opposite, stalked, broadly heart-shaped in general
form, but cut into three or five sharply-toothed lobes. The flowers,
like those of the nettles, are imperfect, and the male and female
blossoms grow on separate plants. The former are in lax panicles, in the
axils of the upper leaves: they are small, of a yellowish green colour,
each consisting of five stamens surrounded by a perianth of five
segments. The females are arranged in rounded heads or spikes on short
stalks in the axils of the leaves. The heads are made up of a number of
closely-placed bracts, each with two little flowers at its base; and
each flower consists of an ovary, enclosed in a scale, with two long,
narrow stigmas. After fertilisation the scales of the head grow very
large, forming very conspicuous 'cones' in which the little fruits lie
concealed. The Hop flowers from July to September, and is common in
hedgerows and thickets.

Of the several wayside Grasses we have space for the mention of but one
species--the interesting Canary Grass (_Phalaris canariensis_). It is a
native of South Europe, introduced into this country and cultivated for
its seed (canary seed), but is now often seen growing wild in waste
places. It is represented on p. 209.

[Illustration: _Plate IV._
FLOWERS OF THE FIELD.
1. Rough Cock's-foot Grass. 2. Lucerne. 3. Crimson Clover. 4. Blue
Bottle. 5. Common Vetch. 6. Meadow Clary.]



XIV

MEADOWS, FIELDS AND PASTURES--SUMMER


In the present chapter we shall briefly describe a considerable number
of flowers which are to be seen in fields and pastures during the summer
months; but we must remind the reader that many of the species
previously mentioned in Chapter VIII as flowering in similar situations
in the spring, continue to bloom during the whole or a portion of the
summer. A list of these is given below; and it should be noted that the
flowers described in this chapter are those which do not generally
commence to bloom till the month of June.

SPRING FLOWERS OF MEADOWS, FIELDS AND PASTURES WHICH CONTINUE TO BLOOM
IN THE SUMMER.

  Creeping Buttercup.
  Bulbous Buttercup.
  Field Penny Cress.
  Wild Pansy.
  Ragged Robin.
  Spotted Medick.
  Netted Medick.
  White Clover.
  Purple Clover.
  Earthnut.
  Daisy.
  Dandelion.
  Yellow Rattle.
  Field Louse-wort.
  Henbit Dead Nettle.
  Common Sorrel.
  Sheep's Sorrel.
  Twayblade.

The Upright Buttercup or Meadow Crowfoot (_Ranunculus acris_) is often
confused with the two similar species (_R. repens_ and _R. bulbosus_)
already described in Chapter VIII, but it may be easily distinguished
from the former by the absence of creeping stems, and from the latter by
the spreading calyx and by the fibrous root without any bulbous
swelling. The whole plant is covered with soft hairs more or less
spreading; and it varies in height from six inches to three feet
according to the nature of the soil in which it grows. Its leaves are
all stalked with the exception of the few upper ones, and are very
deeply divided into three, five, or seven radiating segments which are
again cut into three lobes with acute divisions. The flowers are rather
large, on long terminal stalks, with a calyx of five yellowish-green,
concave sepals; and a very bright yellow corolla. The carpels are ovate,
slightly flattened, smooth, arranged in a globular head; and the fruits
are also smooth. The plant flowers during June and July.

Another 'Buttercup'--the Pale Hairy Crowfoot (_R. hirsutus_) is to be
seen in our pastures; and though not so common as the three just
mentioned, it is very generally distributed in England and the South of
Scotland. It seldom exceeds a foot in height, and flowers from June to
the end of the summer. Its stem is erect, hairy, and freely branched;
and its leaves are much like those of the Bulbous Buttercup (p.
110). The flowers, however, are smaller and more numerous than
those of the latter, and are of a paler yellow colour; but the sepals
are bent back on the flower-stalk as in this species. The fruits are
rough when quite ripe, with little tubercles along the margins.

[Illustration: THE GOLD OF PLEASURE.]

Cruciferous flowers are not at all abundant in fields and meadows during
the summer months, but one species--the Gold of Pleasure (_Camelina
sativa_)--may be seen in the flax-fields of South Britain and Ireland
during June and July. The plant has a simple or slightly branched stem,
from one to three feet high; and its leaves are all sessile, narrow,
arrow-shaped, either entire or slightly toothed, with pointed lobes at
the base. The flowers are small, yellow, arranged in a long, loose
raceme; and the fruits are oval siliquas, with convex valves, a distinct
central vein, and edges flattened into a narrow wing.

[Illustration: THE BLADDER CAMPION.]

The order _Caryophyllaceæ_ is represented in pastures by the Bladder
Campion (_Silene inflata_ or _S. cucubalis_)--a flower that is easily
recognised among the Campions and the Catchflys by the globular calyx.
The stem of the plant is semi-erect, branched below, and from two to
three feet high. The leaves are sessile, smooth, oblong, usually acute,
and placed in pairs on the jointed stem. The flowers are rather large,
arranged in lax, terminal panicles, and often droop slightly. The calyx
is globular, veined, and about half an inch or more in diameter; and the
five petals, which are deeply cleft into two lobes, have each a scale at
the base of the spreading limb. The plant is very widely distributed
over Britain, and is very common in some districts, flowering during
June and July.

The same order contains the White Campion (_Lychnis vespertina_)--a
hairy plant, with a branched stem from one to two feet high, and rather
large white or very pale pink flowers that open in the evening. It is
abundant in most parts of Britain, and flowers during June and July.
Its leaves are oval or oblong, usually pointed, and tapering towards the
base. The flowers are in loose cymes, and imperfect; the staminate and
the pistillate ones being usually on different plants. The calyx is
generally more than half an inch long, hairy, with ten ribs and five
narrow teeth. It is tubular at first, but becomes broadly oval, with a
contracted mouth, as the fruit ripens. The five limbs of the corolla are
spreading and rather deeply cleft into two parts; and the fruit is a
capsule that splits at the top by ten teeth which remain erect or curve
only slightly outwards. The plant is found principally in fields and in
open waste ground.

[Illustration: THE WHITE CAMPION.]

Our fields and pastures are particularly rich in flowers of the Pea
family (order _Leguminosæ_) during the summer months; and of these we
shall first note the pretty Kidney Vetch or Lady's Fingers (_Anthyllis
Vulneraria_), which is common in the dry pastures of most parts of
Britain. The whole plant is covered with short silky hairs which lie
close against the surface; and the stem, from six inches to over a foot
in length, is either erect or spreading. The leaves are pinnately
divided into several entire leaflets which are half an inch or more in
length, the terminal leaflet of the lower leaves being generally much
larger than the others. The flowers, which bloom from June to August,
are usually clustered into two dense heads at the tip of each stalk,
with a deeply-divided bract at the base of each head. The calyx is
densely covered with silky hairs; and the small corolla varies in colour
from pale yellow to red.

In the neighbourhood of cultivated fields we may frequently meet with
the Lucerne or Purple Medick (_Medicago sativa_). This is not a British
plant, but it has been introduced and largely cultivated, and is
commonly found as an escape. It has an erect stem, from one to two feet
high; and the flowers bloom during June and July, followed by smooth,
spirally-twisted pods of two or three coils. This plant appears on Plate
IV, Fig. 2.

In the genus _Melilotus_, of the same order, we have to note three
species, all of which agree in the following particulars:--They have
trifoliate leaves; and small, white or yellow flowers in long racemes on
axillary peduncles. The calyx has five teeth, and the corolla falls
after it fades. The stamens are ten in number, the upper one quite free,
while the filaments of the other nine are united into a split tube that
surrounds the ovary. The pod is only a little longer than the calyx,
rather thick in proportion to its length, with only one or two seeds,
and it does not split when ripe. The three species referred to may be
identified by the following descriptions:--

[Illustration: THE KIDNEY VETCH.]

The Common Melilot (_Melilotus officinalis_) is a smooth plant, with a
branched stem from two to four feet high; and long-stalked leaves with
roundish or oval leaflets, and narrow, pointed stipules. The flowers are
very numerous, yellow, about a quarter of an inch long, in long
racemes. The petals are equal; and the hairy pods are only about a sixth
of an inch long.

The Field Melilot (_M. arvensis_) is very similar, but not so tall, and
the flowers are less numerous. The 'keel' is shorter than the other
petals; and the pods are ribbed and blunt. The third species--the White
Melilot (_M. alba_)--is also very similar, but it has white flowers, in
which the 'standard' or upper petal is the longest. All three species
flower from June to August, but only the first may be described as
common.

The genus _Trifolium_, containing the Clovers and Trefoils, resembles
_Melilotus_ in its trifoliate leaves, five-toothed calyx, and in the
arrangement of the stamens; but it differs in that the stipules adhere
to the leaf stalks, and the corolla often persists round the ripened
fruit. Several species of this group are common in fields and pastures.

[Illustration: THE COMMON MELILOT.]

One of these is the Clustered Clover or Smooth Round-headed-Trefoil
(_Trifolium glomeratum_)--a smooth plant, with purple or pink flowers,
found principally in the dry pastures of South and East England,
flowering during June and July. Its spreading stems are from six to
twelve inches long; and the heads of flowers are small, sessile,
globular, and either axillary or terminal. The calyx is ten-veined,
shorter than the corolla, with five pointed teeth which bend outwards as
the fruit ripens.

The Strawberry Trefoil (_T. fragiferum_) has long-stalked, axillary
heads of rose-coloured flowers which become very compact and
strawberry-like when fruiting, at which time they are half an inch or
more in diameter. Its creeping stem roots at the nodes; and the leaves
are long-stalked, with toothed leaflets. Each head is surrounded below
by a whorl of lobed bracts about as long as the calyces which become
swollen after flowering. This is common in England, and flowers during
July and August.

The Hare's-foot Trefoil (_T. arvense_) is a slender, erect or sub-erect
plant, covered with short, soft hairs, flowering from June to the end of
the summer. Its stem is branched, from six inches to a foot in length;
and the heads of flowers, on long, terminal or axillary stalks, are at
first nearly globular, but afterwards cylindrical and about three
quarters of an inch long. The flowers are small, pink, with corolla
shorter than the calyx. The latter has five very long, feathery teeth,
giving the whole head of flowers a soft and feathery appearance. The
plant is abundant, especially in the southern counties of England.

The Crimson Clover (_T. incarnatum_) was introduced into England and
cultivated as fodder, but it is often found wild as an escape from
cultivation. The plant is erect, varying from six inches to two feet in
height, and is covered with soft, silky hairs. It flowers in June and
July. The corolla, which is much longer than the calyx, is sometimes
almost white. This flower is shown on Plate IV.

[Illustration: THE LADY'S MANTLE.]

One of the commonest flowers of this genus is the Hop Trefoil (_T.
procumbens_)--a slender plant, with erect or sub-erect stem much
branched below. Its leaflets are obovate or obcordate, and toothed; and
the flower-heads are dense, globular, on long axillary stalks, each
consisting of about forty bright yellow flowers. When fruiting the heads
are turned downwards, and the pods are then covered by the persistent,
brown corollas. This species flowers from June to August.

The Lesser Yellow Trefoil (_T. minus_) is very much like the last, and
flowers at the same time, but is more slender and more procumbent; and
its flower-heads, which consist of from ten to twenty pale yellow
flowers, are on stiff peduncles.

Our last example of the _Leguminosæ_ is the Meadow Pea or Meadow
Vetchling (_Lathyrus pratensis_), which is a very common flower of moist
pastures. The plant is straggling, with a weak, angled stem that
supports itself by interlacing with the surrounding herbage, aided by
its branched tendrils. Its stipules are large, narrow-oval in form, with
an arrow-shaped base. The compound leaf has only one pair of lanceolate
leaflets, the remaining leaflets having been modified into tendrils for
the support of the plant. The long axillary peduncles each bear a
one-sided raceme of from six to ten yellow flowers, which are followed
by rather large, smooth pods. The plant flowers from June to September.

The order _Rosaceæ_ contains the Great Burnet (_Sanguisorba
officinalis_), the only British representative of its genus. It is very
much like the Lesser Burnet (p. 301) in general appearance, but
much taller and larger. It is a smooth plant, with an erect stem from
one to two feet high, the upper part of which is almost leafless. The
leaves are mostly radical or on the lower part of the stem, and are
pinnate, with from seven to thirteen oval or oblong, toothed leaflets.
The long peduncles each bear an oval head of crowded flowers of a dark
purple colour. Each flower has a calyx of four coloured lobes, enclosed
within bracts; and four stamens. There are no petals. The plant is
moderately common in the damp meadows of England and South Scotland, and
flowers from June to August.

The Lady's Mantle (_Alchemilla vulgaris_) is a common plant in the hilly
pastures of North England, but is much less frequent in the South. It
varies from six to eighteen inches in height, and bears loose, terminal
clusters of small yellowish-green flowers from June to August. The
little flowers have a free calyx of eight segments in two whorls of
four, the outer ones smaller than the inner; no petals; a few stamens;
and an ovary of one or two one-seeded carpels enclosed in the tube of
the calyx.

In moist meadows and other damp places we commonly see the fragrant
Meadow Sweet or Queen of the Meadows (_Spiræa Ulmaria_), of the same
order. This is an erect plant, from two to four feet high, bearing
densely-crowded cymes of small, creamy-white flowers from June to
August. Its stem is rather thick, often reddish in colour; and the
leaves are large, pinnate, with from five to nine ovate,
irregularly-toothed leaflets, two or three inches long, and also several
smaller leaflets at the base of the stalk or between the larger ones.
Each of the little flowers has a five-lobed, free calyx; five petals;
numerous stamens; and an ovary that ripens into from five to eight
little twisted capsules.

[Illustration: THE MEADOW SWEET.]

The Burnet Saxifrage (_Pimpinella Saxifraga_), of the order
_Umbelliferæ_, is a common plant in dry pastures, and is very generally
distributed. Its stem is from one to two feet high, and but little
branched; and the leaves are very variable in form--the radical ones
usually pinnate, with from three to nine oval or round leaflets that are
either lobed or deeply toothed; and the upper also pinnate, with the
segments of the leaflets few and very narrow. The umbels are terminal,
with from eight to sixteen slender rays, and no bracts. The flowers are
small and white, and appear from July to September.

The Wild Carrot (_Daucus Carota_) of the same order is also common in
pastures. It is an erect plant, with a tap root, and a branching stem
from one to two feet high. The lower leaves are two or three times
pinnate, with segments pinnately divided into narrow lobes. The upper
leaves are much smaller, with narrower divisions. The umbels are large
and terminal, on long stalks. The rays are numerous and crowded; the
middle ones being shorter, with pale purple flowers; and the outer ones
longer, with white flowers. After flowering the rays close together,
forming a dense, globular mass, or an inverted cone, concave at the top,
thus more or less covering the fruits, in which they are aided by the
long, narrow lobes of both the primary and secondary bracts. The fruits
are covered with little hooked prickles.

[Illustration: THE BURNET SAXIFRAGE.]

The Devil's-bit Scabious (_Scabiosa succisa_--order _Dipsaceæ_) is very
common in the pastures of almost all parts of Britain, and much
resembles the Field Scabious (p. 290) in general habit. Its stem
is erect, branching, from one to two feet high. The radical leaves are
stalked, ovate or oblong, and generally quite entire; and the
stem-leaves, which are few, are of the same general form, but are
sessile, and sometimes slightly toothed. The heads of purple-blue
flowers are on long peduncles, and each one is surrounded at the base
by about three whorls of bracts which decrease in length inwards, the
outer and longest being about as long as the flowers. The flowers of the
head are all nearly of the same size and form. Each one is enclosed in a
tubular whorl of united bracts with small teeth. This whorl might easily
be mistaken for a calyx by those who are not acquainted with the general
features of the flowers of this order, but the calyx is really combined
with the ovary, its four bristly teeth being very conspicuous round the
top of the fruit. The corolla is tubular, deeply cleft into four lobes;
and four stamens are inserted into its tube. The fruit is small and
seedlike, and does not split. This plant flowers from July to September
or October.

[Illustration: THE WILD CARROT.]

Coming now to the _Compositæ_, we have a considerable number of meadow
flowers to describe; and we assume that the reader has already made
himself acquainted with the nature of the flowers of this order as given
on p. 175. If such is not the case, we advise him to refresh his
memory with regard to them, in order that the terms used in the
following descriptions may be thoroughly understood.

[Illustration: THE DEVIL'S-BIT SCABIOUS.]

Our first species is the Rough Hawkbit (_Leontodon hispidus_), which is
very abundant in all parts of Britain except the extreme north, its
rather large, yellow flower-heads being often mistaken for those of the
Dandelion that are frequently seen in company with them on pasture land.
Its specific name is due to the short, stiff hairs, often more or less
branched, that clothe all parts of the plant. The leaves are all
radical, long and narrow, decreasing in width towards the base, and
either coarsely toothed or deeply cut into pointed lobes. The
flower-stalk widens immediately below its solitary head, which is
surrounded by hairy bracts--two or three whorls of short ones without,
and a whorl of long ones within. All the florets are ligulate or
strap-shaped, and yellow. The fruits are long achenes, narrower towards
the top; and the pappus consists of a few short, outer hairs,
surrounding about twice the number of brown, feathered ones three or
four times as long. The flower stalks vary from a few inches to a foot
or more in height, and the flowers bloom from June to September.

[Illustration: THE ROUGH HAWKBIT.]

Equally abundant is the Autumnal Hawkbit (_Leontodon autumnalis_), which
is also found in pastures. It is a very similar plant in many respects,
but may be easily distinguished by its smaller heads of flowers on
branching stalks. The flowering stems are erect, from six to eighteen
inches high, each with one or two branches bearing a few small scales
and a single head of flowers. The involucre consists of several rows of
smooth, closely-overlapping bracts, and is narrowed at the base into the
enlarged upper part of the stalk. The florets are all ligulate, as in
the last species; and the pappus consists of brown, feathery hairs, all
of the same length. The flowers appear during August and September.

The Meadow Thistle (_Carduus pratensis_) is abundant in some of the
southern counties of Britain and Ireland, but is rarely seen in the
north. Nearly all the leaves of this plant are radical, and these are
long, narrow, and covered with cottony hairs. The few leaves of the stem
are narrow, with short teeth that are only slightly prickly. The stem
itself grows from twelve to eighteen inches high, and is usually
unbranched, with a single head of flowers; sometimes, however, it has
one or two branches, each terminating in a flower-head. The involucre is
globular in form, covered with cottony hairs, and composed of
closely-placed bracts. The flowers are purple. The plant grows chiefly
in moist pastures, and flowers from June to August.

[Illustration: THE AUTUMNAL HAWKBIT.]

The Black Knapweed or Hardhead (_Centaurea nigra_) is a very common
flower of meadows and pastures, flowering from June to September. Its
stem is erect, tough, branched, from a few inches to three feet in
height. The leaves are long and narrow; the upper ones entire or nearly
so, and clasping the stem; and the lower coarsely toothed or divided
into lobes. The flower-head has somewhat the appearance of a purple
thistle, but the involucre is not prickly. The latter consists of an
almost globular mass of closely-overlapping bracts, the visible
portions of which are dark brown or black fringes. The florets are
generally all equal, but the outer ones are sometimes larger than the
others, and sterile.

[Illustration: THE MEADOW THISTLE.]

The Great Knapweed (_Centaurea Scabiosa_) is a somewhat similar plant,
but usually larger, its stout, branched stem being generally two or
three feet high. It may be easily distinguished by its larger
flower-heads, the outer, neuter florets of which are considerably
enlarged. As a rule the florets are all purple, but occasionally all are
white, or the outer ones white and the others purple. The bracts of the
involucre are broad, with a green centre and a dark, downy margin. The
fruit is surmounted by a pappus of stiff, bristly hairs of about its own
length. This plant is common in the south of Britain, and flowers during
July and August.

Two species of Fleabane have to be noticed. They belong to the genus
_Inula_, and are distinguished by a distinct division of the flower-head
into disc and ray, and also by two minute 'tails' at the bottom of the
anthers.

One of these is the Common Fleabane (_I. dysenterica_)--a woolly plant,
abundant in the moist pastures of the southern counties, flowering from
July to September. Its erect stem is loosely branched, from six inches
to two feet high. The leaves are oblong and wavy--the lower ones
stalked, and the upper clasping the stem with rounded lobes at the base.
The flower-heads are yellow, about three-quarters of an inch in
diameter, arranged singly on the tips of the branches, or on stalks
arising from the axils of the upper leaves. The florets of the ray are
spreading, and much longer than those of the disc; and the fruits have a
minute cup at the top, from the inside of which spring the hairs of the
pappus. The smoke arising from the burning Fleabanes was supposed to
kill fleas and other vermin; and the specific name _dysenterica_ is due
to the fact that this species has been used as a medicine in cases of
dysentery.

[Illustration: THE BLACK KNAPWEED.]

[Illustration: THE GREAT KNAPWEED.]

The Small Fleabane (_I. Pulicaria_) is a similar plant, but smaller
(from six to twelve inches high) and less woolly. Its flower-heads are
yellow, much smaller, on terminal and axillary stalks; and the florets
of the ray are only slightly longer than those of the disc. The hairs of
the pappus are not surrounded at the base by a little cup, but by a few
minute and distinct scales. This species grows in the south-eastern
counties of England, and flowers during August and September.

The White Ox-eye Daisy (_Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum_) is one of the
largest and most conspicuous of our composite flowers, and is abundant
in dry pastures all over Britain. The plant is generally smooth; and its
erect stem, either simple or slightly branched, is from one to two feet
high. The lower leaves are obovate, coarsely toothed, on long stalks;
and the upper ones are narrow and sessile, with a few teeth. The
flower-heads are large, and placed singly on long, terminal stalks. The
bracts are closely overlapping, with narrow, brown margins; the ray
florets white, strap-shaped, over half an inch long; and the disc
florets numerous and tubular. The flowers bloom from June to August.

[Illustration: THE COMMON FLEABANE.]

Our last composite flower is the Sneezewort (_Achillea Ptarmica_), which
is common in the hilly pastures and meadows of most parts of Britain. It
has an erect stem, one to two feet high. The leaves are sessile, narrow,
with fine, regular teeth, and a smooth surface. The flower-heads are
arranged in a loose, terminal, flat-topped corymb. Each is surrounded by
an involucre of overlapping bracts; and consists of numerous little
disc-florets, intermixed with small scales, and about twelve short,
broad, white florets of the ray. The time of flowering is July and
August.

The Common Centaury (_Erythræa Centaurium_), of the order
_Gentianaceæ_, is a very common plant in dry pastures. Its stem is
erect, simple below, freely branched towards the top, from six to
eighteen inches high; and the leaves are ovate, spreading and closely
placed below, narrow and more distant above. The flowers are rose-red or
pink, in a dense corymb, with a calyx of five very narrow segments, and
a corolla consisting of a narrow tube and five spreading lobes.

[Illustration: THE OX-EYE DAISY.]

Of the order _Convolvulaceæ_ we shall note one species--the Small
Bindweed (_Convolvulus arvensis_), so well known as a troublesome weed
in cultivated fields. It has a creeping rootstock, and a twining stem,
from a few inches to two feet in length, that sometimes climbs, but
more commonly trails along the ground and over low-growing plants. The
leaves are stalked, arrow-shaped, about an inch and a half long, with
sharp, spreading lobes at the base. The axillary peduncles are usually
forked, with a single flower on each of the two branches; and there are
two small bracts at the angle of the fork, and another one or a pair
above these, but some distance below the flower, on each branch. The
calyx is very small, but the salver-shaped corolla is usually over an
inch in diameter, either pink or pinkish white. The plant flowers from
June to August.

[Illustration: THE SNEEZE-WORT.]

The Meadow Clary (_Salvia pratensis_--order _Labiatæ_), shown on Plate
IV, Fig. 6, is a rather rare plant, apparently to be seen only
in the dry fields of Oxfordshire, Kent, Surrey, and the extreme
south-west of England; but it is one of the most handsome of the
Labiates. Its stem is erect, from one to two feet high. The radical
leaves are large, stalked, ovate or cordate, toothed, and much wrinkled;
and the stem-leaves few, ovate or lanceolate, acute, the upper ones
sessile. The flowers are arranged in whorls of from four to six at
regular distances, the whole forming a long, simple or branched spike.
The calyx is divided into two lips, the upper of which has often three
small teeth, while the lower is divided into two lobes; and the corolla
is of a bright blue colour, about three times as long as the calyx, with
a long, arched upper lip and a three-lobed lower lip. There are two
stamens, each with a fertile and an abortive anther connected by a thin
stalk which is fastened to the short filament in such a manner that it
rocks. This plant flowers from June to August.

[Illustration: THE SMALL BINDWEED.]

The peculiar arrangement of the stamens above described is sufficient in
itself to distinguish the genus _Salvia_ from all the other Labiates,
and the importance of the peculiarity in connexion with the pollination
of the flower is so interesting that we may well spend a few minutes in
studying it before passing on to other species. In the first place it
should be mentioned that the stamens of _Salvia_ are mature before the
stigma, and that, as a consequence, self-pollination is impossible. The
lower, abortive anthers of the two stamens are joined together and form
a little valve which closes the throat of the corolla tube. Each one,
however, has a notch in its inner side, and the two notches, meeting in
the middle, form a little hole. When a bee visits the flower, it alights
on the lower lip of the corolla, and thrusts its tongue through the
hole to reach the nectar at the base of the tube. In doing this it
pushes the abortive anthers backwards, and the upper, fertile anther
cells, which rest under the arched upper lip, are thus made to swing
downwards and forwards so that they touch the bee's back; and, if they
are ripe, to deposit some pollen. After the pollen has been thus
removed, the style lengthens and curves downward, bringing the stigma,
which is now mature, to the position previously occupied by the fertile
anther cells at the time they were made to swing downwards by the bee.
Thus, if a bee which has previously visited a flower with mature anthers
now comes to one in which the stigma is ripe, the pollen dusted on its
back by the former is rubbed against the stigma of the latter, and
cross-fertilisation is the result.

[Illustration: SECTION OF THE FLOWER OF _Salvia_.
1. Stigma--not yet mature. 2. Stamen.]

[Illustration: THE SELF-HEAL.]

The Common Marjoram (_Origanum vulgare_) is an aromatic plant that often
grows in great abundance on dry hilly pastures, especially in limestone
and chalky districts. Its stem is thin and hairy, a foot or more in
height; and the leaves are stalked, ovate, blunt, slightly toothed,
downy, and about an inch in length. The flowers, which bloom from July
to September, are of a rosy purple colour, in numerous globular
clusters, the whole inflorescence forming a leafy panicle. The
overlapping bracts are about as long as the calyx, and usually tinged
with red or purple; the calyx has five, short, equal teeth, and is very
hairy in the throat; the corolla is about twice the length of the
calyx, and has four lobes, the upper of which is a little broader than
the others; and the stamens are in two pairs, one pair longer than the
other. It will be noticed that some of the flowers are larger than
others, and that these are perfect, while the smaller ones have no
stamens.

In the same order (_Labiatæ_) there is the Self-Heal (_Prunella
vulgaris_), a very common plant in moist meadows, flowering from July to
the end of the summer. The lower portion of the stem of this plant
usually rests on the ground and roots at the nodes, but from this arises
the erect branches, four to ten inches high, bearing pairs of oval or
oblong, slightly-toothed leaves; and a dense terminal spike of whorled
flowers immediately above the last pair. The lipped corolla is of a
violet or purple colour, usually about half an inch long. During the
flowering stage the spike is very short, but as the fruits ripen it
lengthens out to about an inch and a half or two inches.

[Illustration: THE RIBWORT PLANTAIN.]

Coming now to the Plantains (order _Plantaginaceæ_) we have two species
to note, both of which are very abundant on pasture land. One is the
Greater Plantain (_Plantago major_)--a very low plant, with a short,
thick rootstock, and a radical cluster of spreading or ascending leaves
with grooved stalks. These leaves are ovate, nearly as broad as long,
and traversed by five, seven, or nine strong parallel veins which
converge into the stalk at the base. Each little flower of the long,
slender spike has four sepals; a corolla with a tube and four spreading
lobes; and four stamens that project beyond the corolla. The fruit is a
small capsule which splits transversely when ripe. The plant flowers
from June to August.

The other is the Ribwort Plantain (_P. lanceolata_), a somewhat similar
plant, the leaves of which are narrow, tapering at both ends, with three
or five strong, parallel ribs. Each flower-stalk bears a globular or
oval spike from half an inch to an inch in length. This species also
flowers from June to August.

[Illustration: THE BUTTERFLY ORCHIS.]

[Illustration: 1. CAT'S-TAIL GRASS. 2. MEADOW BARLEY.]

There are a few summer-flowering species of Orchids that are more or
less common in fields and pastures. One of these is the Marsh Orchis
(_Orchis latifolia_), a plant so closely resembling the Spotted Orchis
(p. 277) that it is sometimes regarded as a variety of the
latter. Its tubers are palmately divided; and its stem, which is hollow,
is usually from twelve to eighteen inches high. The leaves are large,
sometimes spotted; and the spike of flowers is large, with leafy bracts
longer than the ovaries. The flowers vary in colour from white to a
deep purple, have a spur usually thicker than that of the Spotted
Orchis, and a lip indistinctly divided into three lobes, with its sides
curved backwards. The flower, which is represented on Plate VI,
grows in moist meadows, marshes, and on moors, flowering during June and
July.

[Illustration: RYE GRASS OR DARNEL.]

[Illustration: SHEEP'S FESCUE.]

Another species--the Butterfly Orchis (_Habenaria bifolia_)--has
(usually) undivided tubers; a stem from six to twelve inches high with
two broad leaves near the base, and surrounded below by a few sheathing
scales; and a rather loose spike of white or greenish flowers with
narrow bracts about as long as the ovaries. The petals and upper sepals
are arched, the lateral sepals spreading, the lip narrow and undivided,
and the spur about twice as long as the ovary. This flower is not
uncommon in moist meadows, where it blooms from June to August. A large
variety, with greener flowers, is sometimes known as the Great Butterfly
Orchis.

A considerable number of summer-flowering grasses are more or less
common in fields and meadows. We have not space for the descriptions of
these, but introduce illustrations of a few, including the Cock's-foot
Grass (_Dactylis glomerata_) which appears on Plate IV.



XV

BOGS, MARSHES AND WET PLACES--SUMMER


The Crowfoot group of the _Ranunculaceæ_ contains two bog-plants
popularly known as Spearworts on account of their spear-like leaves. One
of these--the Lesser Spearwort (_Ranunculus Flammula_)--is abundant in
wet places, especially the edges of muddy pools and ditches, where its
buttercup-like flowers may be seen from June to September. It is a
slender, smooth plant, with a branched stem, more or less decumbent at
the base, from four to twelve inches high. Its leaves are narrow-oval in
form, stalked, and either slightly toothed or quite entire; and the
yellow flowers are about half an inch in diameter, on long peduncles.

The other is the Greater Spearwort (_R. Lingua_), a much larger species,
varying from two to four feet in height, and flowering during the same
months. It has stout, hollow, erect stems which throw off whorls of root
fibres from the lowest joints; and the glossy, yellow flowers vary from
one to one and a half inches in diameter. This species is not nearly so
common as the other, but occurs more or less in most parts of Britain.

Taking next the cruciferous plants (_Cruciferæ_), we have first to note
a few species of the _Nasturtium_ genus, including the Water-cress and
the Yellow-cress. These are all smooth plants, with small yellow or
white flowers. They may be distinguished from other crucifers by their
loose calyx; simple, rounded stigma on a very short style; and their
oblong or narrow pods with the seeds arranged in two rows on each side
of the membranous partition. The species with which we are at present
concerned are:--

1. The Water-cress (_Nasturtium officinale_).--A succulent plant, with a
branched stem rooting at the base, growing freely in ditches, shallow
streams and muddy places, and flowering from May or June to the end of
the summer. Its leaves are pinnately divided into from seven to eleven
wavy or slightly-toothed segments, the terminal one of which is usually
larger than the others and nearly round. The flowers are small, white,
in short, crowded racemes; and the pods are spreading, more than half an
inch long.

[Illustration: _Plate V._
FLOWERS OF BOGS AND MARSHES.
1. Marsh Gentian. 2. Marsh Marigold. 3. Marsh Orchis. 4. Marsh Mallow.
5. Marsh Vetchling. 6. The Marsh St. John's-wort. 7. Bog Pimpernel.]

[Illustration: THE LESSER SPEARWORT.]

2. The Marsh Yellow Cress (_N. palustre_), common in muddy places.--A
slender plant with a fibrous root, and pinnate leaves with
irregularly-toothed segments which are smaller towards the base. The
flowers are yellow, about an eighth of an inch in diameter, with petals
no longer than the sepals. They bloom from June to September. The pods
are oblong, swollen, slightly curved, a quarter of an inch long.

3. The Amphibious Yellow Cress (_N. amphibium_).--An erect plant, two or
three feet high, with fibrous root and creeping runners, flowering from
June to September, moderately common on the banks of muddy streams. Its
leaves are narrow-oblong, three or four inches long, deeply toothed, or
cut into narrow lobes; and the flowers are yellow, similar to those of
the other species, and similarly arranged, but with petals twice as long
as the sepals. The pods are broad, only about a sixth of an inch long,
with a rather long style.

In the marshes of the South of England we may often see the Marsh Mallow
(_Malva officinalis_ or _Althæa officinalis_), of the order _Malvaceæ_,
flowering during August and September. Its stem is hairy, with erect
flowering branches two or three feet high; and the leaves are shortly
stalked, thick, velvety, broadly ovate, and sometimes divided into three
or five lobes. The flowers are shortly stalked in the axils of the upper
leaves, or sometimes collected into a terminal raceme. Round each one is
a whorl of several narrow bracts, shorter than the calyx, and united at
their bases. The calyx is five-lobed; and the corolla consists of five
broad, rose-coloured petals. This plant is shown on Plate V, Fig. 4.

[Illustration: THE GREAT HAIRY WILLOW-HERB.]

The Marsh St. John's-wort (_Hypericum Elodes_--order _Hypericaceæ_) is a
somewhat shaggy little plant, common in the bogs of many parts of
Britain, more especially in West England and Ireland. It varies from a
few inches to a foot in length; with prostrate stems rooting at the
base; and rounded, opposite leaves without stipules. Both stem and
leaves are clothed with white, woolly hairs, the latter on both
surfaces. The flowers, which bloom during July and August, are of a pale
yellow colour, and form a few-flowered, terminal panicle. They have five
small, oval sepals, fringed with little red-stalked glands; five
petals, about three times as long as the sepals; and many stamens,
united to more than half way up into three bundles. (See Plate V, Fig.
6.)

The Blue Marsh Vetchling or Marsh Pea (_Lathyrus palustris_--order
_Leguminosæ_) is occasionally to be met with in boggy places, flowering
from June to August. It is a smooth plant, with a weak, winged stem, two
or three feet long; and pinnate leaves consisting of from two to four
pairs of narrow, sharp leaflets, and terminating in a branched tendril.
At the base of each leafstalk are two narrow, half arrow-shaped
stipules. The flowers are of a bluish purple colour, and are arranged in
one-sided racemes, of from two to six flowers on long stalks. The pods
are smooth and about an inch in length. This plant is represented on
Plate V, Fig. 5.

[Illustration: THE PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE.]

Some of the Willow-herbs (_Onagraceæ_) are very partial to wet and boggy
places. A few species of other habitats are described in Chapters X and
XI, and these, together with the members that come within the range of
the present chapter, are readily distinguished by their willow-like
leaves and the very long inferior ovaries of their flowers. We shall
here note three species--

1. The Great Hairy Willow-herb or Codlins and Cream (_Epilobium
hirsutum_).--A large, erect, hairy plant, from three to six feet high,
with numerous underground suckers, and a stout, round, branched stem.
Its leaves are opposite, sessile, often clasping the stem, narrow, and
finely toothed. The flowers are nearly an inch in diameter, of a deep
rose colour, arranged in terminal, leafy racemes. They have four broad,
notched, spreading petals; eight erect stamens; and a four-lobed stigma.
The plant is common in wet places, and flowers during July and August.

2. The Narrow-leaved or Marsh Willow-herb (_E. palustre_).--A smaller
plant, seldom exceeding eighteen inches in height, frequent in bogs and
marshes, flowering during June and July. Its stem is round, with two
lines of downy hairs on opposite sides; and its leaves are sessile,
opposite, very narrow, tapering towards the base, and sometimes slightly
toothed. The flowers are small, pink, nodding when in bud, arranged in a
terminal raceme. Both flowers and fruit resemble those of the last
species except that the stigmas of the former are not divided.

3. The Square-stalked Willow-herb (_E. tetragonum_ or _E. adnatum_).--A
similar plant, from one to two feet high, common in bogs and ditches,
and easily distinguished from other species of the genus by the four
angles of the stem formed by the downward continuation of the margins of
the leaves. The flowers are small, in terminal, leafy racemes, and erect
when in bud. The petals are of a rose-pink colour, deeply notched; and
the stigma is not divided. This species flowers in July and August.

Our next flower is the beautiful Purple Loosestrife (_Lythrum
Salicaria_--order _Lythraceæ_), which is abundant in the marshes,
ditches, and wet places of most parts of Great Britain. It has a
creeping rootstock; a stout, erect, slightly-branched, four-angled stem,
from two to four feet high; and sessile, narrow, clasping, entire, acute
leaves, two or three inches long, arranged in opposite pairs or in
whorls of three or four. The flowers are of a reddish purple or pink
colour, nearly an inch across, arranged in whorls on a long, tapering,
leafy spike. They have a toothed and ribbed, tubular calyx, with broad
inner, and narrow outer segments; oblong, wavy, wrinkled petals; twelve
stamens in two whorls of different lengths; and a superior ovary. The
time of flowering of this species is July to September.

We have now to note several species of umbelliferous plants that grow in
bogs and other wet places. The general features of the order
(_Umbelliferæ_) will be found on p. 167, and the reader should
refer to these, if necessary, before attempting to identify the
following:--

The Procumbent Marsh-wort (_Helosciadium nodiflorum_ or _Apium
nodiflorum_) is a creeping plant, abundant in ditches and other wet
places, rooting at the base, with erect flowering stems that are
sometimes very short, but often reach a height of three feet. The whole
plant is smooth, with hollow stems; pinnate leaves with from three to
nine or more pairs of ovate, bluntly-toothed leaflets; and almost
sessile umbels of small, white flowers either opposite the leaves or in
the angles of the upper branches. These umbels are compound, with about
five or six rays, usually without primary bracts, but with several,
narrow, secondary ones. The petals have their points turned inwards; and
the carpels are oval, each with five narrow ribs. This plant is commonly
seen growing in company with the Water-cress and the Brooklime, and
blooms in July and August.

[Illustration: THE WATER HEMLOCK.]

In ditches we occasionally meet with the Water Hemlock or Cowbane
(_Cicuta virosa_)--a tall plant, from three to four feet high, bearing
large, flat umbels of small, white flowers from June to August. Its stem
is hollow, furrowed, and branched; and the leaves are large, twice
pinnate or ternate, with lanceolate, acute leaflets, generally over an
inch in length, the margins serrate or (sometimes) doubly serrate.
Comparing this plant with the Common Hemlock (p. 169), we should
note that the secondary bracts of the latter are three in number, almost
invariably turned to the outside; and that its calyx teeth are very
indistinct, while in the present species they are prominent above the
ovary.

Next follow three species of Water Dropwort (genus _[OE]nanthe_)--smooth
plants, with much-divided leaves and compound umbels of white flowers,
with secondary, and sometimes also primary, narrow bracts. In all three
species the central flowers of each secondary umbel are perfect and
shortly stalked, while the outer ones are on longer stalks, and usually
staminate. The petals are notched, with points turned inwards; and the
fruits have two rather long styles, are crowned by the five minute teeth
of the calyx, and their carpels have each five blunt ribs. The three
species referred to are:--

[Illustration: THE COMMON WATER DROPWORT.]

1. The Common Water Dropwort (_[OE]. fistulosa_).--An erect plant, from
two to three feet high, with a fleshy, fibrous root; creeping runners;
and a thick, hollow, slightly-branched stem. Its radical leaves are
bipinnate, with segments cut into three or five narrow lobes; and the
stem leaves have long, hollow stalks, with a few narrow segments at the
top. The umbels have from three to five rays, usually with no primary
bracts, and a few, narrow secondary ones.

2. The Hemlock Water Dropwort (_[OE]. crocata_) is a larger plant, from
two to five feet high, with a tuberous root and a thick, branched stem.
Its leaves are bipinnate, with stalked, shining leaflets that are
irregularly cut. The umbels are on long stalks, and have nearly twenty
rays, several narrow secondary bracts, and sometimes a few primary ones.
The middle flowers of each secondary umbel are perfect and almost
sessile, but the outer ones are stalked and staminate.

3. The Fine-leaved Water Dropwort (_[OE]. Phellandrium_) grows from one
to four feet high, and has an erect, creeping or floating stem with
runners at the base. The upper leaves are bipinnate, with small, cut
segments; and the submerged ones are deeply cut into very narrow, almost
hair-like lobes. The umbels are small, on short stalks in the angles of
the branches or opposite the leaves. They have about ten rays, narrow
secondary bracts, but no primary ones.

[Illustration: THE MARSH THISTLE.]

All three of the above species flower from July to September.

Next follow a few composite flowers (order _Compositæ_), the first of
which is the Marsh Thistle (_Carduus palustris_) that varies from two to
eight feet in height, and bears dense clusters of purple (occasionally
white) heads during July and August. Its stem is stiff, hollow, slightly
branched, and thickly covered with very prickly wings that are
continuous with the margins of leaves above them. The leaves are narrow,
wavy, deeply divided into prickly lobes, with scattered hairs on both
surfaces; the lower ones often seven or eight inches long; and the upper
much smaller and narrower. The flower-heads are ovoid, surrounded by an
involucre of many closely-overlapping bracts with prickly tips.

The two Bur Marigolds (_Bidens_) are more or less common in marshes and
other wet places. They are both smooth plants with opposite leaves, and
hemispherical heads of yellowish flowers surrounded by two or three rows
of bracts, the outer of which are spreading. The receptacle is flat,
with membranous scales between the florets; and the fruits are crowned
by from two to five stiff, prickly bristles. The more abundant of these
is the Nodding Bur Marigold (_B. cernua_), a stout plant, from one to
two feet high, distinguished by its narrow, entire, sessile leaves, and
its drooping flower-heads. The other--the Trifid Bur Marigold (_B.
tripartita_)--has three-cleft, stalked leaves, and heads erect or only
slightly drooping.

[Illustration: THE BROOKLIME.]

The Common Ragwort of waste places, described on p. 187, is
represented in marshes and wet places by a very similar plant called the
Marsh Ragwort (_Senecio aquaticus_), which varies from one to three feet
in height, and flowers in July and August. Its stem is more slender than
that of _S. Jacobæa_, and is usually more branched. The leaves are
either deeply toothed, or pinnately cut into segments which decrease in
size towards the base. The yellow flower-heads are not so densely
crowded as in the Common Ragwort, and have longer stalks.

The _Scrophulariaceæ_ contains three common plants of the _Veronica_
genus that grow in wet places. All three are similar in that they have
opposite leaves; a corolla with a short tube, and four spreading limbs,
of which the lowest is narrowest; two stamens; and a capsular fruit,
flattened at right angles to its partition, opening by two valves, and
containing a few seeds.

One of these is the Marsh Speedwell (_Veronica scutellata_), abundant in
the marshes and ditches of most parts of Britain. It has a weak,
straggling stem, from four to eight inches high, with creeping runners
at the base; narrow, smooth, sessile leaves, either uncut or only
slightly toothed; and slender racemes of pale pink or white flowers on
axillary peduncles arranged alternately, there being only one raceme at
each node.

The second is the Water Speedwell (_V. Anagallis_), a smooth plant,
varying from six inches to two feet high, abundant in marshes and
ditches, bearing small lilac or white flowers in July and August. Its
stem is stout, succulent, hollow, erect, and slightly branched; the
leaves narrow, acute, toothed, sessile, sometimes clasping the stem; and
the racemes axillary and opposite. The flowers are only a fifth of an
inch across.

[Illustration: THE WATER FIGWORT.]

The third is the Brooklime (_V. Beccabunga_), a very abundant plant
commonly seen growing in ditches in company with the Water Cress and the
Marsh-wort. It is a smooth plant, with a stem from one to two feet long,
procumbent at the base and rooting at the joints; erect, succulent
flowering branches; thick, elliptical, blunt, slightly-toothed leaves on
short stalks; and opposite, axillary racemes of blue (occasionally pink)
flowers about a third of an inch across.

Two of the Figworts, belonging to the same order (_Scrophulariaceæ_),
are abundant in wet places all over Britain. They are both tall erect
plants, with opposite leaves, and peculiar greenish brown or dull purple
flowers. In both the corolla is almost spherical and shortly lipped. Two
of the five lobes form the upper lip; two are at the sides; and the
other, forming the lower lip, is turned down. There are five stamens,
four of which are fertile and turned down, while the fifth is barren and
scale-like, under the upper lip of the corolla.

[Illustration: THE GIPSY-WORT.]

One species--the Water Figwort (_Scrophularia aquatica_)--grows in
marshes and on the banks of ditches and streams. It has a stout, angular
stem, the angles of which are drawn out into narrow wings; smooth,
opposite, blunt leaves, cordate at the base, with crenate or toothed
margins; and long, narrow panicles of flowers with blunt bracts. The
five lobes of the calyx are fringed with a conspicuous, transparent,
membranous border.

The other is the Knotted Figwort (_S. nodosa_), which is much like the
last, but emits a disagreeable odour, and may be further distinguished
by the little green, fleshy knots of its rhizome. Its stem is sharply
four-angled, but not winged; its leaves are acute, and doubly toothed;
and the panicle has small, narrow, sharp bracts.

Passing now to the order _Labiatæ_, we come first to the Gipsy-wort
(_Lycopus europæus_), an erect, branched, slightly hairy plant, from one
to three feet high, bearing dense whorls of small, white, sessile
flowers from June to September. The calyx has five equal teeth with
stiff points; and the corolla, which is only slightly longer than the
calyx, has four nearly equal lobes. This plant is abundant in most parts
of Britain, and is generally seen on the banks of ditches.

[Illustration: THE ROUND-LEAVED MINT.]

In the same order we have the Mints (genus _Mentha_)--strongly-scented
plants with creeping rootstocks and runners; and small flowers in dense,
axillary whorls, or in terminal spikes or clusters. In all the calyx has
five equal teeth; and the corolla is bell-shaped, with a short tube, and
four lobes of which the upper is broader. There are four erect, equal
stamens; and the fruit consists of four small, smooth nuts. Three
species, more or less abundant, occur in marshy or other wet places.
They are:--

1. The Round-leaved Mint (_Mentha rotundifolia_).--A moderately common,
erect, hairy plant, from one to three feet high, with a powerful but
hardly agreeable odour. Its stem is green, hairy, and branched; and the
leaves are sessile, broadly ovate or round, blunt, wrinkled, green
above, and whitish and shaggy beneath. The flowers are small, lilac
(occasionally white), in dense, cylindrical, leafy spikes from one to
two inches long. The bracts are rather narrow and sharply pointed, and
the corolla is hairy. The time of flowering is August and September.

2. The Water Mint (_M. aquatica_).--An abundant marsh plant, from one to
three feet high, flowering from July to September, possessing a strong,
pleasant odour. Its stem is much branched, generally clothed with soft
hairs; and its leaves are stalked, ovate, serrate, the upper ones
passing into bracts which are shorter than the flowers. The latter are
lilac, and form dense, terminal, oblong or globular clusters, with,
frequently, two or three dense, axillary whorls beneath. The calyx is
tubular, about an eighth of an inch long, with very sharp teeth.

3. The Marsh Whorled Mint (_M. sativa_).--A very similar plant, common
in wet places, flowering during July and August. It grows from two to
five feet high; and its elliptical, toothed leaves are hairy on both
sides. The flowers are lilac, in dense, axillary whorls, without any
terminal cluster.

There is yet another marsh plant of the _Labiatæ_ to be considered, and
that is the Marsh Woundwort (_Stachys palustris_), which is very much
like the Hedge Woundwort described on p. 199. It has a stout,
hollow, hairy stem, from one to three feet high; and narrow,
coarsely-toothed leaves, from two to four inches long, the upper ones
sessile and the lower shortly stalked. The flowers are pale purple or
dull, light red, arranged in whorls of from six to ten in the axils of
the upper leaves. The calyx is bell-shaped, with ten ribs and five long,
acute teeth; and the lower lip of the corolla has its side lobes turned
back.

[Illustration: THE FORGET-ME-NOT.]

We now reach the interesting _Myosotis_ genus of the _Boraginaceæ_,
containing the favourite Forget-me-not and the similar Scorpion-grasses.
They are all rather low and weak plants, with small, sessile, narrow
leaves; and small flowers in one-sided, curved racemes without bracts.
The calyx is cleft into five; and the corolla has a short tube,
partially closed by five little scales, and five spreading or concave
lobes. The stamens are enclosed in the tubes of the flower. Three
species are common in wet places. They are--

1. The Forget-me-not (_Myosotis palustris_).--An abundant plant, growing
to a foot or more in height, and bearing, from June to August, bright
blue flowers, nearly half an inch across, with a yellow centre. It has a
creeping rootstock, with runners, and rather weak ascending stems
clothed with spreading hairs. The leaves are blunt, and often covered
with hairs that lie close against the surface. The calyx is divided to
about a third of its length into short, triangular teeth, and is covered
with closely-pressed hairs.

[Illustration: THE WATER PEPPER OR BITING PERSICARIA.]

2. The Creeping Water Scorpion-grass (_M. repens_).--A very similar
plant, sometimes regarded as a variety of the last. Its stock emits
leafy runners above the ground, and the stem is more hairy. The flowers,
too, are of about the same size, but of a sky-blue colour, and their
stalks are longer, bending downwards when in fruit. The calyx is divided
to about the middle into narrow teeth.

3. The Tufted Water Scorpion-grass (_M. cæspitosa_).--Also a similar
plant, often regarded as a variety of _M. palustris_; but its flowers
are only about half the size, of a sky-blue colour, with narrow calyx
teeth almost as long as the corolla. It is of a paler green colour, and
the stems are tufted by a free branching at the base.

All three of these flower at the same time, and grow in similar
situations. Several intermediate forms occur, and thus it is often a
difficult matter to distinguish between them.

We must here mention the Butterwort (_Pinguicula_) as a summer-flowering
plant of marshy places; but this is a carnivorous species; and as such
is described, together with other plants of similar habits, in Chapter
XXIV.

In most parts of Britain we may meet with the pretty little Bog
Pimpernel (_Anagallis tenella_) of the _Primulaceæ_. It is a delicate,
creeping plant (see Plate V, Fig. 7), only about three or four
inches long, with a slender, decumbent stem; and very small, opposite,
rounded leaves on short stalks. Its flowers are funnel-shaped, of a pale
pink colour, on long, slender, erect, axillary peduncles. The calyx is
cut into five pointed lobes; and the corolla is deeply cleft into five
segments which are much longer than the calyx. The fruit is a globular
capsule that splits transversely into two hemispheres, like that of the
Scarlet Pimpernel.

Ditches are frequently quite overgrown with the Water Pepper or Biting
Persicaria (_Polygonum Hydropiper_), which is very much like the Spotted
Persicaria (p. 205) of the same order (_Polygonaceæ_), but is
much more slender, is creeping and rooting at the base, and more or less
biting to the taste. Its stem is freely branched, from one to three feet
high; its leaves narrow and wavy, with membranous stipules much fringed
at the top; and the little pinkish-green flowers are in slender,
drooping, interrupted spikes, leafy at the base.

Of the _Orchidaceæ_ we shall note here but one species--the Marsh
Helleborine (_Epipactis palustris_), which is widely distributed, and
really abundant in places, flowering during July and August. It is very
much like the Broad-leaved Helleborine described on p. 308, and
represented on Plate II, but is not so tall, being only about a
foot high, and its leaves are narrow. The flowers, too, are fewer than
in the Broad-leaved Helleborine, and the raceme is not one-sided. The
sepals are narrow, of a pale green colour, striped with red or purple;
and the petals are white, striped with red at the base. The lower lobe
of the lip is blunt and thick; and the bracts are shorter than the
flowers.

Rushes and Sedges are so abundant in marshes and other wet places that
they form quite a characteristic feature of these localities; and the
number of common species is so large that we must necessarily confine
our attention to a very small proportion.

The Rushes, which constitute the order _Juncaceæ_, are stiff, smooth
plants, often of such social habits that they cover large patches of wet
or watery soil. Their stems are usually erect, and seldom branched; and
their stiff, smooth leaves are frequently cylindrical, like the stems,
with a soft, pith-like tissue within, but occasionally flat and narrow
like those of grasses. The flowers are perfect, with a regular, inferior
perianth of six dry segments; and they have generally six stamens, a
three-celled ovary, and three slender stigmas. They are very small,
either separate or in clusters; and each flower or cluster has a dry,
sheathing bract at its base.

[Illustration: THE BOG ASPHODEL.]

The pretty little Bog Asphodel (_Narthecium ossifragum_) shall first
receive our attention because botanists are not yet in agreement as to
its correct position among the monocotyledonous plants. It is certainly
allied to the rushes, but on account of its larger and more succulent
flowers it is often included among the lilies. It has a creeping
rootstock, and stiff, erect stems from six to ten inches high. Its
bright yellow, starlike flowers form a stiff, terminal raceme, with a
bract at the base, and another one above the middle of each pedicel. The
segments of the perianth are about a third of an inch long, yellow above
and greenish below. The stamens are a little shorter than the perianth
segments; and their filaments are clothed with white woolly hairs. This
plant is common on wet moors and in mountain bogs, flowering from June
to August.

[Illustration: THE COMMON RUSH.]

The Common Rush (_Juncus communis_) is a very abundant species, to be
found in almost all wet and marshy places, flowering during July and
August. Its stems are round, leafless, soft, faintly furrowed, solid,
with a continuous pith. They are from one to three feet high, and are
sheathed at the base by a few brownish scales, but the plant has no true
leaves. Most of the stems bear a panicled cluster of green or brown
flowers about six inches from the top. These panicles are very variable
in form and size, being either loose or dense, and varying from one to
three inches in diameter.

The Hard Rush (_Juncus glaucus_) is a very similar plant, flowering at
the same time; but its stem is slender, rigid, deeply furrowed, with the
pith interrupted by air spaces. It is generally from one to two feet
high; and, like the last species, has no true leaves. The panicle is
looser than that of _J. communis_, with fewer and larger flowers; and it
is never more than two or three inches below the top of the stem.

A few of the Rushes form a group known collectively as the Jointed
Rushes, because their cylindrical or slightly-flattened, hollow leaves
are divided within by transverse partitions of pith which give them a
jointed appearance, especially when they are dried. Two or three of the
species referred to are very common in wet places. They are very similar
in general appearance, and one of them--the Shining-fruited Jointed Rush
(_Juncus lamprocarpus_) is selected for illustration.

Another species is the little pale-coloured Toad Rush (_J. bufonis_),
which grows to a height of only a few inches. It has tufted stems that
branch from near the base; and its flowers are either solitary or in
clusters of two or three.

As regards the Sedges (order _Cyperaceæ_), the species are so numerous
that it is impossible to do them justice in a work of this nature.

[Illustration: THE SHINING-FRUITED JOINTED RUSH.]

Their stems are solid, usually more or less triangular, not swollen at
the nodes as in grasses; and the sheaths of the leaves which surround
the stems are not split. The flowers are in little green or brown
spikelets that are either solitary at the top of the stem, or collected
into a cluster, spike, panicle, or umbel. Each spikelet is in the axil
of a scaly or leafy outer bract, and consists of several scales or
glumes, each with a single sessile flower in its axil. The flowers have
no perianth, but there are often a few very small scales or bristles at
their base. They have two or (generally) three stamens; a one-celled
ovary; and a style that is more or less deeply cleft into two or three
slender stigmas. The fruit is a small, one-seeded nut, usually flattened
in the species which have two stigmas, and triangular where the stigmas
are three.

[Illustration: THE COMMON SEDGE.]

The reader should make himself thoroughly acquainted with the above
features of the sedges, in order to avoid any confusion with the rushes,
on the one hand, and with the grasses on the other; and he must not be
led astray by the fact that some of the sedge family are popularly known
as rushes.

Of this order the pretty Cotton Grasses (_Eriophorum_) often form a very
conspicuous feature of marshes and other wet places. They are tufted or
creeping plants with terminal spikelets, very much like those of the
other sedges, but their flowers are perfect, and the bristles which
represent the perianth grow to a considerable length as the flowering
advances, protruding far beyond the overlapping glumes, and at last
forming dense tufts of fine cottony hairs.

Two species are decidedly common and widely distributed, more especially
the Common Cotton Grass (_Eriophorum polystachyon_), which is often so
abundant as to give a general whitish appearance to whole patches of
boggy land. It is a creeping plant, with solid, rigid, solitary stems,
from six inches to over a foot in height; a few shorter, radical leaves;
and a few leaves on the stem. Its spikelets, three to twelve in number,
form a terminal cluster, the inner ones sessile, or nearly so, and the
outer stalked and more or less drooping. They are at first oval or
oblong, about half an inch long; but in fruit, usually in the month of
June, they form dense cottony tufts from one to two inches in length.

[Illustration: THE MARSH SEDGE.]

The other is the Hare's-tail or Sheathing Cotton Grass (_E.
vaginatum_)--a tufted species, common on boggy moors, with many stems
which are round below and triangular above, at first about six or eight
inches high, but lengthening as the flowering advances. At the top of
each stem is a solitary oval spikelet, of a dark brownish-green colour,
over half an inch long, with many straight bristles that eventually form
a dense, globular, cottony tuft about an inch in diameter. This is an
earlier species, flowering during April and May.

The large genus _Carex_ contains many common sedges with grass-like
leaves springing from the base or the lower part of the stem. Some of
them have a solitary spikelet; others have several spikelets in a
terminal cluster or spike, with, sometimes, stalked spikelets below; or
they are arranged in a compound spike or panicle. The flowers are all
imperfect, without perianth; and the male and female flowers are either
in separate spikelets or in different parts of the same one. The glumes
overlap all round the axis of the spikelet; there are generally three
stamens; and the ovary is enclosed in a little vase-shaped covering with
a little hole at the top through which the two or three stigmas
protrude.

We give illustrations of two of the commonest species; the Common Sedge
(_Carex vulgaris_), which flowers from June to August; and the Marsh
Sedge (_C. paludosa_), that flowers in May and June. The former grows to
a height varying from six inches to two feet; and the latter to from two
to three feet.

[Illustration: _Plate VI._
FLOWERS OF DOWN, HEATH AND MOOR.
1. Musk Thistle. 2. Clustered Bell-flower. 3. Spiny Rest Harrow. 4.
Hairy Hawkbit. 5. Sheep's-bit. 6. Spotted Orchis. 7. Heath Rush.]



XVI

ON HEATH, DOWN AND MOOR


On the exposed and more or less bleak heath, down and moor we do not
meet with many species of spring flowers, and for this reason we have
included both spring and summer blossoms in the same chapter.

It must not be supposed, however, from the above statement, that we
regard these exposed situations as devoid of interest, or even lacking
in flowers, for the small number of species flowering early in the
season is often compensated for by the profusion in which their blossoms
are produced.

The golden blaze of the Furze or Gorse, aided more or less by the
similar flowers of its little relative--the Petty Whin, is alone
sufficient to add a charm to the scene, while the large yellow blossoms
of the Broom often take the place of, or add to, the glorious display,
which is frequently varied by the globular flowers of the Whortle, and
the catkins and early leaves of the Dwarf Willow. Occasionally the scene
is still further varied by the evergreen, needle-like foliage of the
Juniper, intermixed with the little axillary catkins; while among the
surrounding grass we see the pretty flowers of the little Eyebright; the
brown flowers and hairy leaves of the Field Woodrush, often growing as
thickly as the grass itself; and the short, stiff leaves and sessile
spikelets of the Spring Sedge.

Among the more gaudy flowers we may note the large purple heads of the
Musk Thistle, a common plant on the heaths of some southern counties;
and in boggy districts we may see the abundant white, silky tufts of the
Hare's-tail Cotton Grass; and the flower-clusters of the Yellow Sedge.

These and the few other spring flowers of heaths and moors are
described, in their order, among the summer flowers of the present
chapter. Some of them are exclusively spring blossoms, and are to be
seen only in their fruiting stages during the summer months, but a few
continue to bloom after spring has ended, and even far into the summer.
The Furze, which often commences to flower during the first few weeks of
the year, may be seen, still in bloom, during July and early August; and
the Eyebright may be found in flower even to the beginning of autumn.
The Musk Thistle, too, though its first flower-heads may be observed in
May, or, sometimes, even in April, will continue producing new flowers
well into October.

[Illustration: THE MILKWORT.]

A good many species are included in the present chapter, and most of
these, at least, will be easily identified by the descriptions given.

On almost all heaths and downs we may see the pretty little Milkwort
(_Polygala vulgaris_)--the only British representative of its order
(_Polygalaceæ_), unless we regard some varieties of this variable plant
as distinct species, according to the opinions of some authorities. It
is a smooth or slightly hairy plant, with a woody stem that gives off
several spreading branches varying from two to nine inches in length.
The nature of the leaves and the arrangement of the flowers are shown in
our illustration. The latter are very variable in colour, ranging from a
pure white to lilac and a deep, rich blue; and each has five sepals, of
which the two inner ones are wing-shaped, persistent, and coloured like
the corolla; and at its base are three bracts, the middle and largest of
which is as long as the short pedicel. The petals, three to five in
number, are united, smaller than the wing-sepals, and the lowest is
keel-shaped. The plant blooms from June to August; and the drooping
flowers, though small, are often so abundant as to distinctly modify the
general colouring of patches of heath and moor.

[Illustration: THE BROOM.]

Two small species of St. John's Wort (order _Hypericaceæ_) are
moderately abundant on downs and commons, especially in South Britain.
The flowers of this order are all yellow, and may be easily recognised
by their stamens, three or five in number, which are so much branched
that they give the appearance of a large number of stamens arranged in
three or five clusters. In the two species we have to consider these
stamens are three in number. One is the Trailing St. John's Wort
(_Hypericum humifusum_), a little tufted, prostrate plant, with small
oblong leaves marked by minute transparent spots, and by black dots
under the margins; and flowers with unequal sepals. The other is the
Small St. John's Wort (_H. pulchrum_) which is erect, from one to two
feet high, with cordate leaves that embrace the stem, and panicled
flowers which are tipped with red when in the bud. Both species flower
during July and August.

Passing now to the _Leguminosæ_, we take first the Broom (_Sarothamus
scoparius_ or _Cytisus scoparius_)--a smooth or slightly hairy shrub,
from two to six feet high, bearing large, yellow flowers during May and
June. Its branches are long, erect, angular and green; and the leaves
are small, ternate, with obovate, silky leaflets, or sometimes reduced
to a single leaflet. The large flowers are either solitary or in pairs,
shortly stalked, and arranged in the axils of the leaves of the previous
summer. The fruits are black pods, usually more than an inch long, hairy
round the edges of the valves, and surmounted at first by a
spirally-curved style.

[Illustration: THE FURZE OR GORSE.]

The Furze, Gorse, or Whin (_Ulex europæus_) is a bush of about the same
size, with more or less erect branches that all terminate in a sharp,
rigid point. Sometimes little lanceolate leaves may be seen near the
bases of the short branches, but normally all the leaves are reduced to
sharp, green spines, about half an inch long. The flowers, usually more
than half an inch long, are placed singly in the axils of the thorny
leaves of the previous season, and are often so abundant as to form
dense, showy clusters. The Furze is abundant in all parts of Great
Britain with the exception of North Scotland, and may be seen in flower
from February (or even January if the weather is mild) to July.

[Illustration: THE TOREMENTIL.]

The Dwarf Furze (_Ulex nanus_), also abundant on the heaths of most
parts of Britain, commences to flower in July--just about the time that
the last species ceases to produce its blossoms, and continues in bloom
almost to the end of the year. It is a much smaller shrub, usually from
one to two feet high, of a deeper green colour. Its stem is usually
procumbent; its spines weaker, and generally turned downward; and its
flowers smaller, and of a deeper, golden yellow.

On heaths and downs of most parts of England and Scotland we may meet
with the Needle Green-weed, Needle Whin, or Petty Whin (_Genista
anglica_)--a little spiny shrub, varying from a few inches to two feet
in height, with erect stem and spreading branches. Its lower branches
are simple, or are reduced to branched thorns, while the upper are
compound, bearing small ovate or narrow leaves; and solitary, axillary,
pale yellow flowers in short, leafy clusters. This species flowers
during May and June.

In the same order (_Leguminosæ_) are two species of Rest Harrow, common
on heaths and stony banks. One of these--the Common Rest Harrow (_Ononis
arvensis_)--is a very variable plant, with pink or rose-coloured flowers
that bloom from June to September. Its stem is sometimes procumbent and
rooting at the base, sometimes ascending or nearly erect, and is thinly
clothed on all sides by soft, spreading hairs. The leaves are usually
trifoliate, with obovate or oblong, toothed leaflets, but the lateral
leaflets are often very small or altogether wanting. The flowers are
solitary, sessile or shortly-stalked, on short, lateral branches; and
the standard (upper petal) is streaked with a darker colour.

The other species, shown on Plate VI, Fig. 3, is the Spiny Rest
Harrow (_O. spinosa_), which, however, is sometimes regarded as a
variety of the last. Its flowers are very similar in form and colour,
and appear during the same time; but the stem is erect, spiny, without
runners, seldom more than a foot high, and has two longitudinal rows of
hairs.

Passing next to the order _Rosaceæ_, we first note the Dropwort (_Spiræa
Filipendula_), of the same genus as the Meadow Sweet, frequently met
with on the downs and dry pastures of England and Scotland. Its leaves
are mostly radical, three or four inches long, interruptedly pinnate,
with many oval or narrow segments which are themselves pinnately lobed
or deeply toothed. At the base of each is a pair of stipules which are
attached to the leaf-stalk throughout their length. The flowers, which
appear during June and July, are white, and very much like those of the
Meadow Sweet (p. 219), but are larger, without scent, and
generally pink when in the bud. The height of the plant is usually from
twelve to eighteen inches.

In the same order we have the Tormentil (_Potentilla Tormentilla_),
which is very abundant on heaths, dry pastures and stony banks,
flowering from June to August. This plant has a prostrate (rarely
erect) stem, from six to ten inches long, repeatedly forked, and clothed
with silky hairs. The leaves are compound, with three or five
deeply-toothed leaflets; the lower ones sometimes shortly stalked, but
the upper always sessile. The flowers are rather small, yellow,
generally with four petals, on slender peduncles arising from the axils
of the leaves or from the forks of the stem.

Our last example of the _Rosaceæ_ is the Blackberry (_Rubus
fruticosus_); but it should be mentioned at once that the popular name
of Blackberry embraces quite a number of shrubs, often estimated at some
scores of species and varieties. We cannot here, however, attempt to
divide and classify the group; but we shall simply point out the
features by which the shrubs in question may be distinguished,
collectively, from allied shrubs that are not properly included under
the same popular name. The stem of the Blackberry grows to from three to
twelve feet long, and has stiff or downy hairs in addition to the
prickles. It is sometimes quite prostrate, sometimes erect, but more
commonly arched, and rooting at the tips as they bend to the ground. The
leaves are very variable, but usually consist of three or five large,
ovate leaflets, with toothed edges, more or less downy, having curved
prickles along the midrib and stalks. The flowers are white or pink, in
terminal panicles, with five free sepals, five distinct petals, and many
stamens. The fruit is black, and consists of several one-seeded carpels
which do not readily separate from the receptacle when ripe; and the
persistent sepals are usually bent downward below it.

Coming now to the _Rubiaceæ_, we have to note four species, all
characterised by whorled leaves; a corolla of four, united petals;
stamens attached to the corolla; and an inferior ovary, of two carpels,
that ripens to a dry fruit. Three of the four belong to the Bedstraw
genus (_Galium_), in which the corolla is wheel-shaped. They are:--

1. The Yellow or Ladies' Bedstraw (_G. verum_), very abundant on downs
and dry banks, flowering from June to September. It has a prostrate or
semi-erect, smooth stem, from six inches to two feet in length; and
small, narrow leaves, six to eight in a whorl, generally slightly rough
on the edges. The flowers are pale yellow, golden yellow, or greenish,
arranged in dense, terminal and axillary panicles. The fruit is small
and smooth.

2. The Smooth Heath Bedstraw (_G. saxatile_).--Abundant on downs,
flowering from June to August. Its stem is prostrate, smooth, from four
to six inches long; and the leaves are generally in whorls of five or
six. The flower-stalks are numerous, erect, weak, angled, smooth, each
bearing a terminal panicle of many small, white flowers. The fruit is
small, with a granulated surface.

3. The Upright Bedstraw (_G. erectum_).--Not so common as the preceding,
but often found on downs and hilly pastures, flowering from June to
August. It is sometimes regarded as a variety of the Great Hedge
Bedstraw (_G. Mollugo_), described on p. 172. Its stem is erect,
from one to two feet high; and the leaves, six to eight in a whorl, are
very narrow, with marginal prickles pointing forwards. The flowers are
white, in a panicle with slender, erect branches; and the fruit is
smooth.

[Illustration: THE SMOOTH HEATH BEDSTRAW.]

The remaining plant of this order is the Small Woodruff or
Squinancy-wort (_Asperula cynanchica_), which is common in many parts of
England and Ireland. Its stem is smooth, sometimes erect with scattered
leaves, and sometimes prostrate, leafy and tufted. It varies in length
from six to ten inches. The leaves are very narrow, usually four in a
whorl, and very unequal. At the upper nodes two of each whorl are often
reduced to mere scales, or are absent altogether. The flowers, which
appear during June and July, are white or pinkish, and are clustered at
the tips of the erect stems. The fruit is small, with a granulated
surface.

[Illustration: THE DWARF THISTLE.]

The Small Scabious (_Scabiosa Columbaria_), of the order _Dipsaceæ_, is
common on the dry heaths of England, and is readily distinguished from
the Devil's-bit Scabious, which it somewhat resembles, by its
deeply-divided leaves and pale purple or lilac flowers. Its stem is
erect, from one to two feet high. The lower leaves are rather crowded,
and usually have a large, oval or oblong, terminal segment, deeply
toothed or lobed, and some smaller ones below it. The stem leaves are
cut into very narrow segments which are either entire or pinnately
lobed. The flowers are in dense, terminal heads, surrounded by a whorl
of short bracts, and intermixed with the little, narrow scales of the
receptacle, the outer flowers of each head being larger than the others,
and very irregular. This plant flowers during July and August.

Of the _Compositæ_ we shall first take the Hairy Hawkbit (_Leontodon
hirtus_), which is very common on moors in most parts of Great Britain,
flowering during July and August. Although known as the _Hairy_ Hawkbit,
this plant is sometimes quite smooth; more commonly, however, the leaves
and peduncles are clothed with thinly-scattered, stiff, forked hairs.
Its leaves are all radical, either oblong or very narrow, with
coarsely-toothed or wavy margins. The flower-heads are solitary, on
peduncles from three to eight inches long, and of a bright yellow
colour. Each head is surrounded by a whorl of about a dozen green,
smooth bracts, outside which are several shorter ones. All the florets
are strap-shaped and perfect; and the fruits, which taper at the top,
are mostly crowned by a pappus of feathery hairs as long as the achene
itself, with a few shorter ones outside. This species appears on Plate
VI, Fig. 4.

We have next to note a few thistles that are more or less common on
downs and moors, the first being the Musk Thistle (_Carduus nutans_),
common in the South of England, but much less frequent in the North. It
is a stout plant, usually scantily covered with a loose, cottony down,
with a furrowed stem from one to three feet high. The leaves are very
deeply divided pinnately, very prickly, and extend down the stem in the
form of narrow, prickly wings. The flower-heads are very large, of a
purple or crimson colour, drooping, usually solitary, but sometimes in
loose clusters of from two to four. Each head is surrounded by numerous
very narrow, stiff bracts, more or less covered with cottony down. All
of these terminate in a sharp prickle which is erect on the inner
bracts, but spreading or turned backward in the case of the outer ones.
This thistle may be seen in flower from May to October. It appears on
Plate VI, Fig. 1.

The next species--the Dwarf Thistle (_Carduus acaulis_)--is found only
in the southern and midland counties of England, but is very common on
some of the elevated downs of the South-East, especially on chalky
soils. It has a very thick and hard rootstock, but hardly any trace of a
stem, so that its spreading tuft of radical leaves lie close on the
ground, around the large, purple, stemless, and, usually, solitary
flower-head. The plant flowers from July to September.

[Illustration: THE CARLINE THISTLE.]

The Carline Thistle (_Carlina vulgaris_), as its name shows, does not
belong to the same genus as the others, from which it differs
principally in having its inner bracts coloured and spreading. It is an
erect plant, with a stiff stem, usually branching, from six to eighteen
inches high. Its leaves are very prickly, and do not form wings down the
stem. The flower-heads are particularly interesting, having much the
appearance of everlasting flowers. In fact, the whole plant is of such a
stiff and dry nature that it undergoes but little change in appearance
when cut and preserved. The outer bracts are leafy and spreading, with
strong, prickly teeth or lobes; and the inner ones are very narrow,
entire, white or pale yellow, of a chaffy nature and very glossy. The
latter are very sensitive to atmospheric conditions, spreading
horizontally when the air is dry, and closing over the florets in humid
air; and they respond so readily to the changed conditions that their
movements may be watched as they are transferred from warm, dry air to a
moist chamber, or _vice versa_. This plant is common on the downs of
England and Ireland, and flowers from July to September.

[Illustration: THE COMMON CHAMOMILE.]

Our last Composite flower is the Common Chamomile (_Anthemis nobilis_),
which is abundant on the downs of the southern counties of England,
flowering from July to September. It is an aromatic herb, with a
procumbent stem, from six to twelve inches long, and ascending, leafy,
flowering branches. The leaves are bipinnate, slightly downy, with very
fine, almost hairlike, segments. The flower-heads are terminal, with a
white ray and yellow disc, surrounded by blunt bracts the inner of which
have membranous tips. On the receptacle are little broad scales, nearly
as long as the disc florets.

On heaths almost everywhere we may see the pretty Roundleaved
Bell-flower or Harebell (_Campanula rotundifolia_), which displays its
gracefully drooping bells from July to September. It has a slender,
smooth, erect or ascending stem, from six to twenty inches high, which
is usually branched. Its popular and scientific names both appear to be
inappropriate if we examine the plant during its flowering season, for
the only leaves then usually observable are the very narrow ones,
generally quite entire, attached to the stem; earlier in the year,
however, it has a few round or heart-shaped leaves, with long stalks,
close to the base of the stem; but these commonly die about the time
that the flowers commence to appear. The flowers are sometimes solitary,
but often form a loose raceme of several bells.

[Illustration: THE HAREBELL.]

The Clustered Bell-flower (_Campanula glomerata_) is common on the downs
of most parts of England, and often very abundant in the South. It has a
stiff, hairy, erect, angular, unbranched stem, from three to eighteen
inches high. On some of the dry, chalky downs of the South the plant is
often very dwarfed, being scarcely noticeable among the rather
closely-cropped grass. The leaves are oblong or lanceolate, with crenate
margins, rough and hairy, the lower ones stalked, but the upper sessile
and clasping the stem. The flowers are about three-quarters of an inch
in diameter, and form a dense cluster among the upper leaves. The
corolla is blue, bell-shaped, with five spreading lobes; and the fruit
is a short, broad capsule, surmounted by the teeth of the calyx, and
opens, when ripe, by slits near the base. This species flowers during
July and August. It may be identified by reference to Fig. 2 of Plate
VI.

The same order includes the Sheep's-bit (_Jasione montana_), also known
as the Sheep's Scabious. It certainly resembles a Scabious in general
appearance (see Fig. 5 of Plate VI), with its dense clusters of blue or
deep lilac flowers, but may be readily distinguished from it by the
united anthers of its five stamens, and by the absence of the involucel
that surrounds the individual flowers of the Scabious flower-head. The
dense cluster of flowers, surrounded by a whorl of many ovate bracts,
might also be mistaken for that of a Composite at first sight; but here
again we find exclusive distinguishing features, for the flowers of the
cluster are not sessile on a common receptacle; and the fruits, instead
of being one-seeded achenes, are two-chambered capsules. The plant is
from six to twelve inches high; and its leaves are oblong or very
narrow, wavy, blunt, and hairy. The flower-heads are hemispherical,
about half an inch in diameter. Both calyx and corolla have five narrow,
spreading lobes. The plant is common on heaths, and flowers from June to
September.

[Illustration: THE CROSS-LEAVED HEATH.]

We now come to those interesting plants known collectively as Heaths,
and which add so much beauty to our heaths and moors. They belong to the
order _Ericaceæ_, and are all readily distinguished by their bushy
appearance, hard woody stems, and small, simple leaves arranged in pairs
or whorls. The flowers, too, are very characteristic, each one having an
inferior calyx of four sepals; a bell-shaped or pitcher-shaped,
persistent corolla, with five lobes; eight stamens free from the
corolla; and a four-chambered ovary that ripens to a capsule.

The Cross-leaved Heath (_Erica Tetralix_) is common all over Britain,
especially so in the West. It is a wiry little shrub, from a foot to
eighteen inches high, much branched at the base. Its leaves are short,
narrow, downy above, fringed with stiff hairs, and arranged in whorls
of four, each whorl forming a cross. The drooping flowers, which appear
during July and August, are usually rose-coloured, occasionally white,
and are arranged in close, terminal, one-sided clusters.

The Ciliated Heath (_Erica ciliaris_), perhaps the most beautiful of the
British species, is found only in the West of England, but is really
abundant on some of the Devon and Cornwall moorlands. It is of a
somewhat straggling nature, and its ovate leaves, which are downy above,
and fringed with stiff hairs, are in whorls of three or four. The
flowers are sometimes nearly half an inch long, of a bright rose or
crimson colour, and are arranged in broken, one-sided racemes. The
corolla is pitcher-shaped, with four lobes round the narrow mouth. The
plant reaches a length of from twelve to eighteen inches, and flowers
from June to September.

[Illustration: THE BELL HEATHER OR FINE-LEAVED HEATH.]

Our last example of this genus--the Bell Heather or Fine-leaved Heath
(_E. cinerea_)--is, perhaps, the commonest of all, for it abounds on the
moors and heaths of nearly all parts of Britain. It is a very tough and
wiry shrub, from one to two feet high, with narrow leaves in whorls of
three or four, and smaller leaves in their axils. The flowers vary in
colour, being either purple, crimson, rose, or occasionally white. They
are in dense, leafy racemes, not one-sided, but rather regularly
whorled. The time of flowering is from July to September.

In the same order is the Common Ling (_Calluna vulgaris_)--a straggling
shrub, from one to three feet high, bearing rose-coloured, lilac or
white flowers from July to September. This shrub may be identified at
once by its leaves, which are very small, and closely overlapping in
four rows. Its flowers are small, drooping, shortly stalked, each with
two pairs of small bracts at its base; and are arranged in irregular,
leafy racemes on the topmost branches.

Still in the same order (_Ericaceæ_), but quite distinct from the
Heaths, are a few moorland shrubs the berries of which are largely eaten
by the country-folk. They belong to the genus _Vaccinium_, and have
scattered, deciduous or evergreen leaves. We have noticed that in the
heaths the ovary is superior, but in the present genus it is inferior;
that is, it is situated below the calyx and corolla, which parts are
attached to its upper border. The calyx has four or five lobes; and the
corolla, which is bell-shaped or pitcher-shaped, has the same number of
lobes or teeth. The stamens, eight or ten in number, are usually
rendered peculiar by the tubular bristles that extend upwards from the
anther cells. The berries are globular or nearly so, and contain several
seeds. Some species of this genus are rare, but three, at least, may be
included here. They are--

1. The Whortleberry or Bilberry (_Vaccinium Myrtillus_).--A smooth
shrub, from six to eighteen inches high, common everywhere except in
some of the eastern counties, flowering from April to June. Its stem is
erect or spreading, branched, green, and sharply angular. The leaves are
shortly stalked, ovate, serrate, seldom more than an inch long; and the
flowers are nearly globular, with small teeth, drooping on short stalks,
and placed singly in the axils of the leaves. They are of a greenish
rose or flesh-colour, often tinged with red, and have a very waxy
appearance.

2. The Great Bilberry or Bog Whortleberry (_Vaccinium uliginosum_).--A
smaller and more woody shrub, from six to ten inches high, growing only
in the moorland bogs of North Britain. Its stem and branches are round
or scarcely angular, and usually procumbent and crooked. The leaves are
small, obovate or round, entire, thin, deciduous, with the veins
strongly marked on the under side; and the flowers are globular, of a
pale pink colour, smaller than those of the last species. This species
flowers during May and June.

3. The Red Whortleberry or Cowberry (_V. Vitis-idæa_).--A straggling,
much branched, and woody shrub, from six to eighteen inches high, found
chiefly on the mountainous heaths of the North. Its leaves are
evergreen, obovate, dotted beneath, with the margins slightly rolled
back; and the flowers are bell-shaped, of a pale pink or flesh-colour,
arranged in rather dense, drooping clusters. The latter, which bloom
from June to August, are followed by red, globular berries.

On wet, marshy heaths we occasionally meet with the Marsh Gentian
(_Gentiana Pneumonanthe_). It is a very local plant, growing chiefly,
though not exclusively, in the northern and midland counties of England.
Its stem is erect, stiff, leafy and unbranched, usually from six to ten
inches high; and its leaves are sessile, linear, obtuse, rather thick,
the lower ones broader than the upper. The flowers, which bloom during
August and September, are represented on Plate V.

[Illustration: THE EYEBRIGHT.]

In the same order (_Gentianaceæ_) is the Autumn or Small-flowered
Gentian (_Gentiana Amarella_)--a little erect plant, from three to
twelve inches high, common on dry heaths and stony pastures. Its stem is
square, very leafy, simple or branched, often of a blue-green or purple
colour; and the leaves are sessile, opposite, ovate or lanceolate. The
flowers are of a pale purple colour, from half to three-quarters of an
inch long, arranged in an oblong, leafy cluster. The calyx is divided
quite half way down into five unequal, narrow segments; and the corolla
has a broad tube with four or five ovate lobes that spread only in the
direct rays of the sun. The time of flowering is August and September.

One of the Dodders--the Lesser Dodder (_Cuscuta Epithymum_)--is
essentially a plant of heaths and moors, where it is parasitic on
Heaths, Thyme, and other shrubby plants. It is described in Chapter
XXIII, where will also be found a short account of its growth and
parasitic habits.

Our only example of the _Scrophulariaceæ_ as far as this chapter is
concerned--the Eyebright (_Euphrasia officinalis_)--is also a partial
parasite, and is referred to, with other plants of the same nature, in
Chapter XXIII. It is a little plant, the general appearance of which is
shown in our illustration. It varies from one to eight inches high, and
bears little lilac, lipped flowers, streaked with purple, with a rather
large yellow spot at the base of the lower lip.

One of the Mints--_Mentha Pulegium_ (order _Labiatæ_)--well-known as a
garden herb under the name of Pennyroyal, is to be found on damp heaths.
Though not very common, it is widely distributed, occurring in nearly
all parts of Great Britain. It is very aromatic, and is largely
cultivated for use as a remedy for colds. The flowers are of a lilac
colour, arranged in dense, distant whorls in the axils of the upper
leaves. The calyx is downy without, hairy at the throat within; and the
corolla has almost equal lobes, the upper of which is notched. The plant
flowers in August and September.

In the same order is the Wild Thyme (_Thymus Serpyllum_)--a little,
wiry, prostrate plant, with an aromatic odour, very abundant on the dry
heaths of most parts of Britain, flowering from June to August. Its stem
is thin but hard, and much branched, the numerous flowerless branches
usually forming a dense tuft close to the ground. The flowers are
purple, in whorls of five or six in the axils of the upper leaves. The
calyx is lipped, of a deep red colour, and its mouth is closed with
hairs after the corolla is shed. The corolla is of a paler colour, and
indistinctly divided into two lips, the upper of which is erect and
notched, while the lower is cleft into three lobes. The time of
flowering is from June to August.

The Wood Sage or Wood Germander (_Teucrium Scorodonia_) is very abundant
on damp heaths, and is also commonly seen in hedgerows and on banks,
especially in hilly and heathy districts. It is an erect plant, from one
to two feet high, with a hard, hairy, slightly-branched stem. Its paired
leaves are stalked, ovate or cordate, toothed, downy, and much wrinkled
like the leaves of the true Sages. The flowers are yellowish white,
arranged in pairs on terminal and axillary racemes, with a small bract
at the foot of each short flower-stalk. Although not very conspicuous,
they are very attractive to bees, providing abundance of nectar. There
is no true upper lip to the corolla, the upper part being deeply cleft,
with a small lobe on each side; and the stamens and stigma project
beyond the petals. This plant flowers during July and August.

[Illustration: THE WILD THYME.]

On moist heaths, especially in the west of Britain, we commonly meet
with the Lesser Skull-cap (_Scutellaria minor_), another of the
Labiates. It is a little plant, seldom more than six inches high, with
pale pink flowers that bloom from July to October. The stem is rather
slender, and branched; and the paired leaves are broadly ovate below,
narrower above, obtuse, very shortly stalked, and either entire or
slightly toothed. The flowers are only a quarter of an inch long,
shortly stalked, and usually placed singly in the axils of the leaves.
The calyx has two lips, the upper of which bears, on the middle of its
back, a prominent hollow scale; and the corolla has a long tube with two
small lips, the lower of which is divided into three lobes.

[Illustration: THE AUTUMNAL LADY'S TRESSES.]

The Dwarf Silky Willow (_Salix repens_--order _Salicaceæ_) is very
common on heaths. It is a small, straggling shrub, from one to three
feet high, sometimes erect, but more commonly procumbent and rooting at
the base, with slender branches. Its leaves are often less than an inch
in length, oblong or narrow, with recurved margins, shining above and
silky below. When young, the leaves are silky on both sides; and the
young twigs and the buds are also clothed with a silky down. The flowers
are imperfect, and are in short, sessile, erect, oblong catkins, which
appear in April and early May, before the leaves. The male and female
flowers grow on different shrubs; but in both cases the catkins are
about half an inch long, with a few leafy bracts at the base, and the
flowers are intermixed with silky scales. The capsules split when ripe,
liberating numerous minute seeds that are tufted with long, white, silky
hairs.

The Juniper (_Juniperus communis_), one of the few British conifers, is
not uncommon on dry, gravelly or chalky downs, more especially in the
North. It is a profusely-branched, evergreen shrub, either erect or
procumbent, and usually from one to five feet high. Its leaves are very
narrow, half an inch or less in length, concave above, terminating in a
very sharp point, and arranged three in a whorl. The male and female
flowers grow on separate shrubs, and are clustered in minute catkins,
about a twelfth of an inch long, sessile in the axils of the leaves. The
fruit is a bluish-black, berrylike cone, about a third of an inch in
diameter. The Juniper flowers during May and June.

[Illustration: THE BUTCHER'S BROOM, IN FRUIT.]

Passing now to the _Orchidaceæ_ we have to note two species, the first
of which is the Autumnal Lady's Tresses (_Spiranthes autumnalis_), a
moderately common plant on the dry downs of South Britain, flowering
from August to October. It has two or three thick, oval tubers; and a
slender stem, from four to eight inches high, with sheathing, acute
scales. The radical leaves, four or five in number, are about an inch
long, ovate, sharp, and form a tuft by the side of the stem. The flowers
are small, white, scented, and form a single, spiral line on the stem;
but while each flower is turned to one side, its bract is erect on the
other side of the stem. The sepals and petals are much alike. The upper
sepals are joined to the petals, and the lateral ones curve over the
base of the lip of the corolla.

The other plant of this order is the very common Spotted Palmate Orchis
(_Orchis maculata_), abundant on the moist heaths and commons of most
parts of Britain, flowering from June to August. Its root has two or
three flattened tubers with long, finger-like lobes; and the stem is
solid, erect, from six inches to more than a foot high. The leaves are
ovate below, narrow above, and usually marked with many dark spots. The
spike of flowers is dense, oblong or pyramidal in form, and two or three
inches long. At the base of each flower is a bract usually shorter than
the ovary. The flowers are pale purple, lilac, or (occasionally) white,
and are generally conspicuously marked with irregular lines and spots of
a deeper tint. The sepals are spreading, about a quarter of an inch
long; and the petals are arched over the column. The lip is broad,
deeply three-lobed, more or less toothed, either flat or with the
lateral lobes slightly turned back. The spur is slender and a little
shorter than the ovary. This Orchis is represented on Fig. 6 of Plate
VI.

[Illustration: THE COMMON QUAKING GRASS.]

Our single example of the _Liliaceæ_ is the Butcher's Broom (_Ruscus
aculeatus_), the only British monocotyledonous shrub. It is of a very
dark green colour, varies from one to four feet in height, and is
occasionally met with on the wooded heaths of the southern counties. Its
rigid, evergreen, leaflike appendages, which are ovate in form,
terminating in a sharp spine, are not really leaves, but leaflike
branches or _cladodes_; for, it will be observed, they bear the flowers
and fruits, which are attached to their centres. The only leaves
possessed by the plant are the minute, deciduous scales, from the axils
of which the cladodes grow. The flowers are white, very small, with a
deeply six-cleft, persistent perianth, each one attached to the centre
of a cladode by a very minute stalk. They are always on the upper side
of the cladode, though it generally happens that they are turned
downwards by a twisting of the base of the leaflike branch. The flowers
are always imperfect, the male and female blossoms growing on separate
shrubs, and both have a small bract at the base. The ovary of the latter
develops into a rather large, scarlet, berry-like fruit containing one
or two seeds. The flowers appear during March and April.

[Illustration: THE COMMON MAT GRASS.]

Two of the Rushes (order _Juncaceæ_) are very common on heaths and
moors. One of these is the Heath Rush (_Juncus squarrosus_), which
appears on Plate VI. This is a rigid Rush, varying from four to
ten inches high, flowering in June and July. Its stems are stout, solid,
and generally leafless; and the leaves are narrow, grooved, usually less
than half the length of the stem. The flowers are brown, either distinct
or in clusters of two or three, arranged in a compound raceme, with a
perianth of shining segments membranous at the margins, and about a
sixth of an inch long. The capsules are blunt, but terminate in a
pointed bristle.

The other is the Field Woodrush (_Luzula campestris_), a small plant,
usually from four to six inches high, flowering from March to June, and
often very abundant among the grass of hilly pastures and heaths. Its
leaves are fringed with long, soft, white hairs; and the flowers, which
are of a very dark brown colour, are arranged in three or four round or
oval spikes. The segments of the perianth are very sharp, about an
eighth of an inch long, with membranous margins; and the capsules are
blunt.

We conclude this chapter with a brief notice of two of the Grasses of
heaths and downs. One of these is the Common Quaking Grass or Totter
Grass (_Briza media_).--A very pretty, erect grass, rather rigid, from
six to eighteen inches high, common on dry downs except in the extreme
North of Britain, flowering during June and July. Its stems are tufted,
or sometimes slightly creeping; and its leaves are narrow and flat. The
spikelets are round or broadly ovate, nearly a quarter of an inch long,
more or less tinged with purple, on the long, slender branches of a
loose, spreading panicle three or four inches long. The broad glumes are
all similar in shape, but decrease in size upwards, and are not
bristled.

The other is the Common Mat Grass (_Nardus stricta_), a densely tufted,
wiry grass, from four inches to a foot in height, common on heaths and
moors, flowering in June and July. The leaves are very fine and stiff,
quite bristle-like. The flowers are in a one-sided spike, from one to
three inches long, the one-flowered spikelets being placed alternately
in two rows, in the notches of the central axis. The spikelets are often
of a reddish or purplish colour, and each has a single, narrow, pointed
glume, about a third of an inch long, an inner glume with a short
bristle, three stamens, and a single style.

[Illustration: _Plate VII._
FLOWERS OF THE CORNFIELD.
1. Long Smooth-headed Poppy. 2. Field Scabious. 3. Corn Cockle. 4. Corn
Marigold. 5. Flax. 6. Corn Pheasant's-eye.]



XVII

IN THE CORN FIELD


The flowers included in the present chapter are to be found principally
in cultivated fields; but since they are more particularly associated
with corn crops, or occur so commonly in those fields in which grain is
one of the products included in the rotation adopted, we separate them
from the other flowers of the field, and consider them under the above
head.

It will be observed that the majority of the flowers thus dealt with are
summer-bloomers that flower while the ears of corn are filling out, and
consequently are in fruit at the time of harvest. Hence, when the corn
is cut, their seeds are shaken from the ripe fruits, or the fruits are
themselves levelled to the ground, with the result that those which are
not ploughed too deeply into the soil spring up almost in the same
position in the following season.

Starting with the species of the Buttercup family (order
_Ranunculaceæ_), we take first the beautiful Pheasant's Eye (_Adonis
autumnalis_), which is sometimes seen among the corn, especially in the
fields of the southern counties. The plant is not a native, but has
become well established as a wild flower in several parts, though it is
common in only a few localities. It is erect, from six to twelve inches
high, and flowers in summer and autumn. The coloured illustration on
Plate VII, Fig. 6, renders a written description unnecessary.

The little Mouse-tail (_Myosurus minimus_) of the same order is a very
different kind of plant. It seldom exceeds a height of five or six
inches, and is commonly only two inches high. Its leaves are all
radical, very narrow, fleshy, and measure only from one to three inches,
including the stalk; and the little yellowish-green flowers, which bloom
from April to June, are solitary on radical stalks. Each flower has five
spreading sepals which are prolonged downward at the base into a short
spur; five very narrow, tubular petals; a few stamens; and a spike-like
cluster of many carpels in the centre. As the fruit ripens the cluster
of carpels lengthens into a slender spike from an inch to an inch and a
half long. This species is rather common in the South and South-East of
England, and is to be seen most frequently in moist fields.

The Corn Crowfoot (_R. arvensis_) is a slightly hairy plant, with a
branched stem from six to eighteen inches in height. The whole is of a
pale green colour, and the leaves are deeply cut into narrow, lobed
segments. The flowers are pale yellow, about half an inch in diameter,
with spreading sepals; and are usually placed opposite the leaves. Their
carpels are few in number, comparatively large, flattened, and covered
with hooked spines. This is an abundant species, especially in the
southern counties, and is most common in weedy fields in which
corn-crops have been previously raised. It flowers from May to July.

[Illustration: THE MOUSE-TAIL.]

The same order (_Ranunculaceæ_) includes the Field Larkspur (_Delphinium
Ajacis_) which sometimes grows wild in corn-fields. It is not
indigenous, but has been introduced from South Europe; and the wild
plants are probably escapes from cultivation. The stem is from nine to
eighteen inches high, with a few spreading branches; and the leaves are
all deeply cut into very narrow segments. The flowers are blue, pink or
white, and are arranged in a long, terminal raceme. The five sepals are
coloured, the posterior one prolonged into a narrow, hollow spur about
half an inch long. There are only two petals, and these are united into
a narrow spur which lies within that of the calyx. The fruit consists of
a single, downy follicle that contains several seeds. This plant flowers
during June and July.

We have now to notice a few of the favourite Poppies (order
_Papaveraceæ_); and although these are generally easily distinguished,
even by the tyro, from the flowers of other orders, we think it
advisable to call attention to the leading features of the group. These
plants have a milky sap, and leaves without stipules. Their flowers are
large, regular, on long stalks, and droop when in the bud. There are
only two sepals, and they generally drop very early. The petals, four in
number, are very thin and delicate, crumpled in the bud; and the stamens
are numerous. The ovary is peculiar, consisting of one cell that is
partially divided by a number of membranes (_placentas_) which pass from
the wall towards the centre. It is surmounted by a disc on which are
several radiating stigmas, corresponding in number with the membranes
within. The fruit opens when ripe by the formation of pores just under
the edge of the disc.

The most abundant species is undoubtedly the Common Red Poppy (_Papaver
Rhæas_), which is to be found in almost every corn-field, as well as in
other fields and waste places in cultivated districts, flowering from
May to July. It is from one to two feet high, covered with rather stiff
spreading hairs; and its leaves are pinnately divided into narrow,
pointed lobes which are themselves more or less cut. The beautiful, rich
scarlet flowers are about three inches in diameter, often with a black
patch at the base of each petal, and are solitary on long peduncles that
are covered with hairs. The fruit is almost globular, tapering towards
the bottom; and on its disc are from eight to twelve radiating stigmas.

The Long-headed Poppy (_P. dubium_) is a very similar plant, but is
generally rather more slender, with hairs that do not spread so much;
and its leaves are often more deeply cut into narrower lobes. Its
flowers are a little smaller, with two opposite petals larger than the
other two; and the hairs of the peduncles lie close against the surface.
The fruit is oblong, tapering towards the bottom, the length being
nearly three times the greatest width. This poppy also flowers from May
to July. It is represented in Fig. 1. of Plate VII.

A third species--the Long Prickly-headed Poppy (_P. Argemone_), also
known as the Pale Poppy, is a small, weak plant, seldom exceeding nine
inches in height, with leaves divided into a few narrow segments. The
flowers are of a pale red colour, usually less than two inches in
diameter; and, like those of the commonest species, have usually a dark
patch at the base of each petal. The fruit is narrow-oblong, tapering
below, in fact, almost club-shaped, and is clothed with a few stiff,
bristly hairs. The time of flowering is the same as that of the
preceding species.

[Illustration: THE COMMON RED POPPY.]

In the corn-fields of several parts of England we may meet with the
White or Opium Poppy (_P. somniferum_) which is largely grown in warmer
countries for the opium it produces, and which was probably introduced
into Britain from the Mediterranean region. It is generally about two
feet in height, and quite smooth with the exception of a few spreading,
stiff hairs on the flower stalks. The whole plant is of a glaucous green
colour. The flowers are large, generally of a bluish white colour, often
with a purple patch at the base of each petal; and the fruit is large,
globular and smooth. This species flowers from June to August.

[Illustration: THE WHITE OR OPIUM POPPY.]

The pretty little Fumitory (_Fumaria officinalis_--order _Fumariaceæ_)
is abundant in most of the cornfields and other cultivated places of
most parts of Britain, flowering from June to September. It is a very
variable plant, quite smooth, and of a delicate, pale green colour. Its
stem varies from six inches to over two feet in length, sometimes erect,
with spreading branches, but often climbing among the neighbouring
vegetation, supported by the twisted leafstalks. The leaves are
pinnately divided into stalked leaflets which are further cut into
three-lobed segments; and the flowers are in racemes that are either
terminal or opposite the leaves. At first the racemes are short, but
they lengthen out considerably as upper flowers open and the lower ones
fruit. Each flower has a short pedicel that arises from the axil of a
whitish or coloured bract; and the two small sepals are either white or
coloured like the bracts. The corolla is oblong, tubular, formed of four
petals in two pairs, with a short, blunt spur at the base; and its
colour is very variable--usually cream-coloured or pink, and often
tipped with crimson.

Some of the Mustards are very common weeds in corn-fields. They belong
to the genus _Brassica_, of the order _Cruciferæ_, and are distinguished
by their long siliquas, almost cylindrical in form, terminating in a
'beak' which is formed entirely of the persistent style, or of this
together with a modified portion of the fruit containing one or more
seeds.

One of the commonest of these is the Wild Mustard or Charlock (_Brassica
arvensis_ or _B. Sinapis_), a very abundant weed in most cultivated
fields, probably introduced originally from South Europe. It is a very
coarse plant, with scattered, bristly, spreading hairs, growing from one
to two feet high, and bearing racemes of yellow flowers that generally
exceed a diameter of half an inch. The leaves are ovate, with short,
stiff hairs; all are pinnately lobed, and the lower ones have generally
a large oval lobe, with coarsely-toothed segments, and a few narrower
segments along the stalk. The fruits are spreading, many-angled pods,
usually about an inch in length, constricted between the seeds when
ripe, with a beak about a third the length of the whole pod enclosing a
single seed at its base. The plant flowers from May to August.

The White Mustard (_Brassica alba_ or _Sinapis alba_) is not so common;
but it is somewhat largely cultivated for its seedlings, which are used,
with those of cress, as salad; and the plant is not unfrequently found
as a weed in corn-fields and on other cultivated ground. The whole plant
is clothed with rather stiff hairs that are directed downwards, and its
height varies from one to two feet. Its leaves are pinnately divided
into ovate, coarsely-toothed segments, the terminal one largest. The
flowers are bright yellow, about half an inch in diameter, in racemes.
The pods are usually near an inch long, on spreading stalks; with a
stout, flattened beak, longer than the pod itself, containing a single
seed. They are constricted between the seeds, and both valves and beak
are clothed with stiff, whitish hairs. The plant flowers during June and
July.

[Illustration: THE FUMITORY.]

A third member of the same genus--the Black Mustard (_Brassica nigra_ or
_Sinapis nigra_)--is also cultivated for its seeds, which are used in
the preparation of table mustard, and it is also a moderately common
weed of cultivation in many parts. It is a hairy plant, from one to
three feet high. Its lower leaves are rough, and deeply divided into a
large terminal and small lateral lobes; and the upper ones are small,
very narrow, smooth and undivided. The flowers are yellow, usually less
than half an inch across, in long, narrow racemes; and the
shortly-stalked pods are four-angled, smooth, and about half an inch
long. They do not spread much, and the short beak consists only of the
narrow style. This species flowers from June to August.

[Illustration: THE BLACK MUSTARD.]

The Wild Radish or White Charlock (_Raphanus Raphanistrum_) is a common
corn-field weed, somewhat resembling the mustards just described in
general appearance, but its pods are distinctly constricted between the
seeds, and often split when ripe into from three to seven one-seeded
joints. The plant is bristly, and grows from one to two feet high,
flowering from May to September. The petals are either white with
purplish veins, or pale yellow, or lilac; and the pods, over an inch
long, are tipped by the conical style, which is about twice as long as
the last joint.

Coming now to the order _Caryophyllaceæ_ we have to note the pretty Corn
Cockle (_Lychnis Githago_), which is commonly seen in the midst of the
corn, often growing so tall that its pale purple flowers peep above the
ears. Its stem is clothed with long, soft, white hairs; and the leaves
are all long, narrow and entire. The flowers, which appear during July
and August, are usually over an inch in diameter, and are solitary on
long, leafless peduncles. This flower appears on Plate VII.

[Illustration: THE CORN SPURREY.]

The same order includes the Corn Spurrey (_Spergula arvensis_), a low,
procumbent plant, with small, white flowers that bloom from June to
August. Its slender stem varies from six to eighteen inches long, and
the narrow, whorled leaves from one to two inches. The flowers are only
a quarter of an inch in diameter, with sepals usually a little shorter
than the petals.

In the order _Linaceæ_ we have the Common Flax or Linseed (_Linum
usitatissimum_), which is cultivated in some districts, and often
appears as a weed in fields. It is an erect, smooth plant, with a
slender stem about a foot high, and very narrow, entire, acute leaves,
about an inch long. The flowers are in a loose, terminal corymb, and
have five acute sepals; five bright blue petals over half an inch long,
which fall early; five perfect and five imperfect stamens; and an ovary
with five styles. It flowers during July. (See Plate VII.)

The Shepherd's Needle or Venus's Comb (_Scandix Pecten-Veneris_) of the
order _Umbelliferæ_ derives its name from the long, flat, needle-like
beaks of the fruits that are placed almost parallel like the teeth of a
coarse comb. The plant is erect, branched, from three to twelve inches
high; and the general character of its leaves and inflorescence may be
gathered from our illustration. The flowers are small, white, with
larger outer petals; and the carpels of the fruit are cylindrical, about
a third of an inch long, with beaks about an inch and a half. The plant
flowers from June to September.

[Illustration: THE SHEPHERD'S NEEDLE OR VENUS'S COMB.]

Of the order _Rubiaceæ_ we shall include the common Field Madder
(_Sherardia arvensis_), a little plant, varying from five to ten inches
high, the minute lilac flowers of which may be seen from April to
October. Its branched stems are often decumbent; and the little, narrow,
sharply-pointed leaves, rough on the edges, are placed in whorls of from
four to six. The umbels are very small, terminal, and surrounded by a
leafy involucre that is divided into several lobes longer than the
flowers. The corolla consists of an exceedingly slender tube, at the top
of which are four spreading lobes; and the fruit is crowned by the five
or six teeth of the calyx, which enlarges as the former ripens.

The Field Knautia or Field Scabious (_Knautia arvensis_ or _Scabiosa
arvensis_), shown on Plate VII, is very common on cultivated
ground, particularly in corn-growing districts. It is a
slightly-branched plant, from one to four feet high, clothed with stiff,
bristly hairs. Its lower leaves are stalked, simple, narrow, and usually
but little cut; and the upper ones sessile, broader at the base, and
either coarsely toothed or deeply cut. The flower-heads are large,
lilac, on long peduncles. The outer florets are much larger than the
inner, and all have four-lobed corollas. The fruit is angular, and is
surmounted by the eight or ten bristles of the calyx. This plant flowers
from June to August.

[Illustration: THE VENUS'S LOOKING-GLASS OR CORN BELLFLOWER.]

Two of the Sow Thistles (order _Compositæ_) have already been noticed
among the flowers of waste places (p. 179), and a third, known
as the Corn Sow-Thistle (_Sonchus arvensis_), falls within the range of
the present chapter, being a very common corn-field weed. It is an erect
plant, from one to four feet high, with a hollow, angular stem, branched
only towards the top. Its lower leaves are large, stalked, more or less
divided into triangular, sharply-toothed lobes that are curved
downwards; and the upper ones are sessile, less divided, with broad
lobes which clasp the stem. The flower-heads are bright yellow, large,
and arranged in a loose, terminal corymb. Their stalks and bracts are
rough with stiff brown or black hairs; and the pappus of the wrinkled
fruits consists of a dense mass of white, silky hairs. The plant blooms
during August and September.

The Bluebottle or Cornflower (_Centaurea Cyanus_) is a pretty cornfield
Composite, not uncommon in many parts, blooming from June to August. The
plant, represented on Plate IV, is covered with loose, cottony
hairs, and grows from one to two feet high. The heads of flowers are
about an inch in diameter, solitary on long, terminal stalks, surrounded
by an oval involucre of closely-overlapping bracts with sharp points and
toothed, membranous margins. The receptacle is flat, with silvery
bristles between the florets. All the florets are tubular; the central
ones of a bluish-purple colour, with purple anthers; and the outer ones
much larger, curved, irregular, and bright blue. The fruit is surmounted
by a pappus of short, simple hairs.

One of the most beautiful of the corn-field flowers is the Corn Marigold
or Yellow Ox-eye Daisy (_Chrysanthemum segetum_), easily distinguished
by its rather large flower-heads, solitary on terminal peduncles, with
bright golden-yellow ray and disc. It grows from twelve to eighteen
inches high, and flowers from May to July. It may be identified by the
aid of the coloured illustration on Plate VII.

[Illustration: THE SCARLET PIMPERNEL.]

The Corn Chamomile (_Anthemis arvensis_), of the same order, is not
unfrequently seen in corn fields, flowering from June to August. It is
much like the Scentless Mayweed (p. 188) and the Common Chamomile (p.
268) in general appearance, but may be easily distinguished with a
little care. It is a rather coarse plant, more or less clothed with a
silky down; and its freely-branched stem is usually erect, and from one
to two feet high. The leaves are pinnate, with leaflets divided into
very narrow, almost hairlike segments; and the flower-heads are rather
large, with white ray and yellow disc, solitary on the tops of leafy
stalks. The involucre bracts are acute; the receptacle conical; and ray
florets always possess a style.

[Illustration: THE CLIMBING BISTORT.]

The Stinking Chamomile or Stinking Mayweed (_Anthemis Cotula_) is
another similar corn-field plant, but it may be readily recognised by
the minute glands dotted over its surface, the acrid secretion of which
emits a f[oe]tid odour when rubbed, and often blisters the hand. The
plant is generally smooth, with an erect, branched stem, from nine to
fifteen inches high; and pinnate leaves with leaflets divided into
short, narrow, pointed lobes. The flowers are similar to those of the
previous species, on the tops of long, leafy stalks; but the receptacle,
at first convex, lengthens to a tall cone; and the white ray-florets
have no style. The involucre bracts are also very narrow, bristly at the
top; and the fruits are rendered rough by numerous little glandular
projections. This plant flowers from June to September.

The Corn Bellflower or Wild Venus's Looking-glass (_Campanula hybrida_),
of the order _Campanulaceæ_, is not uncommon in the cornfields of the
chalky districts of South and East England. It is an erect plant, from
six to ten inches high, bearing purple, blue, or (occasionally) white
flowers from July to September. In addition to the general features
shown in our illustration we may note that its long, inferior ovary is
three-angled; and that the fruit splits, when ripe, by the formation of
slits near the top.

In the order _Boraginaceæ_ we have the Small Bugloss (_Lycopsis
arvensis_), a branched plant, from six inches to two feet in height,
covered all over with stiff bristles that are swollen at the base. Its
leaves are oblong or very narrow, wavy, and sometimes toothed; the upper
ones sessile and often clasping the stem; and the lower frequently
shortly stalked. The flowers are small, pale blue, in simple or
branched, one-sided spikes. They have a deeply-cleft calyx of five
segments; and the species may be distinguished from other, somewhat
similar plants of the same order by the form of the tube of the corolla,
which is always bent in the middle. This plant is very common in the
corn fields of most parts; and flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE DWARF SPURGE.]

Our next flower is the pretty little Scarlet Pimpernel or Poor Man's
Weather Glass (_Anagallis arvensis_) of the Primrose order
(_Primulaceæ_), which is very common in cornfields and on other
cultivated ground, flowering from May to very late in the autumn. The
stem of this plant is procumbent and much branched, the branches
sometimes reaching a length of considerably more than a foot; and its
leaves are opposite, sessile, broadly ovate, undivided, and dotted
beneath. The little flowers are solitary in the axils of the leaves, on
long, slender peduncles that are always curved backwards as the fruits
ripen. The calyx is deeply cleft into five pointed segments; and the
bright scarlet (occasionally pink or white) corolla, fringed with minute
hairs, spreads its five lobes only in sunny weather. The fruit is a
little globular capsule, enclosed in the persistent calyx, splitting
transversely into two hemispheres when ripe.

The Climbing Bistort (_Polygonum convolvulus_--order _Polygonaceæ_),
also known as the Climbing Buckwheat, Climbing Persicaria, and Black
Bindweed, is a very troublesome corn-field weed, with the climbing habit
of the Convolvulus, often strangling the plants round which it twines
its angular stem. It varies from one to four feet in height; and its
alternate leaves are heart-shaped or arrow-shaped, pointed, with short
membranous stipules at the base of the stalk. The flowers are small,
pale green, in little loose clusters of from four to twelve. The lower
clusters are stalked in the axils of the leaves, and the upper ones form
irregular, terminal racemes. The five segments of the calyx are bluntly
keeled, and occasionally winged; and the three outer ones closely
envelop the fruit--a triangular nut. The plant flowers from July to
September.

At least two or three of the Spurges (_Euphorbiaceæ_) are commonly seen
in cultivated fields, but one in particular--the Dwarf Spurge
(_Euphorbia exigua_)--is common in corn fields. It is a slender, smooth
plant, usually from two to ten inches high, with several ascending stems
diverging from near the base. The little yellow flowers are in terminal
umbels of from three to five rays, sometimes very much contracted; and
their glands (see p. 207) are crescent-shaped, with their fine
points turned outwards. The time of flowering is July to October.

Our last example of the corn-field plants is the Wild Oat Grass or
Havers (_Avena fatua_)--an erect grass, two or three feet high, with
rough leaves, and stem hairy at the joints. Its flowers form a loose,
spreading panicle, from six to nine inches long; with three-flowered
spikelets, about an inch long, on very slender stalks, erect at first
but afterwards drooping. The outer glumes are about three quarters of an
inch long, tapering to a bristly point, often tinged with purple; and
the inner ones, two or three in number, are a little shorter, cleft at
the top into pointed lobes, and covered outside with yellowish-brown
hairs. The awn is about twice as long as the spikelet, twisted at the
base, and usually bent near the middle. This grass flowers during June
and July.



XVIII

ON THE CHALK


While some flowers are so universally distributed that they may be
described as existing almost everywhere, others are restricted to
certain kinds of localities, outside which they seldom occur. This
restriction is sometimes merely one of light and shade, the same species
growing almost equally luxuriantly in open spaces, or, in shady places,
regardless of other conditions. Some plants, however, are particularly
partial to certain conditions of soil, situation, or climate, and are
consequently more strictly confined to limited districts.

We have already referred to several species which are essentially
flowers of the woods, but even these are not distributed evenly in
wooded districts; for while some seem to be more universally scattered
throughout our wooded parts, others show a decided partiality to
particular soils, being found exclusively, or almost so, either in sandy
woods, clayey woods, or woods in limestone districts, &c. In fact, the
nature of the soil is such an important factor in determining plant
distribution that we naturally associate many species with the
particular rock strata on which we almost invariably find them.

So intimately is the distribution of plants connected with that of the
geological strata that when, in the course of a day's ramble, we find a
more or less sudden change in the nature of the flora, we may be almost
sure that there is a corresponding change in the nature of the rocks or
soil over which we have strayed; and the young botanist will find much
to interest him in the study of this relation between vegetable life and
geological structure. Of course we do not mean that the botanist must
necessarily be also a geologist, but that he should, at least, be always
ready to observe the nature of the habitats of the flowers he finds,
noting particularly the kind of soil on which they grow.

[Illustration: _Plate VIII._
FLOWERS OF CHALKY SOILS.
1. Red Valerian. 2. Narrow-leaved Flax. 3. Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch. 4.
Spiked Speedwell. 5. Pasque Flower. 6. Bee Orchis. 7. Yellow Oat
Grass.]

Chalky districts are notably attractive to the lover of flowers; for,
not only do they yield a number of species that are almost essentially
the offspring of calcareous soils, but also produce other blossoms,
often in rich profusion, that are less restricted in their habitats.

[Illustration: THE ROCK ROSE.]

In the present chapter we shall note the principal flowers that grow
principally or entirely in calcareous districts, the first being the
Pasque Flower (_Anemone Pulsatilla_--order _Ranunculaceæ_), rare, it is
true, but too beautiful to be omitted from our selection. This flower,
shown on Plate VIII, Fig. 5, may be seen on some chalky hills during May
and June. It is of a silky nature, and the lovely purple blossoms often
reach a diameter of an inch and a half. The leaves are doubly or trebly
pinnate, with very narrow segments which increase in length after the
flowers have faded. The bracts, which are some distance below the
flower, have also linear segments; and the flowers droop while still in
the bud, but the peduncle becomes erect as they expand. The stamens are
yellow, and the fruits are provided with feathered hairs.

On chalky, sandy, and other dry soils we may meet with the Round
Prickly-headed Poppy (_Papaver hybridum_--order _Papaveraceæ_), very
much like the Common Poppy in general appearance, but readily
distinguished by its general hairy character, and, more especially, by
the globular, furrowed fruit covered with spreading bristles. The
flowers vary from one to two inches in diameter, and the crimson or deep
scarlet petals are often black at the base.

The Bitter Candytuft (_Iberis amara_--order _Cruciferæ_), which is so
well known as a border-flower of our gardens, grows freely in some of
the chalk districts of the South and East of England. Unlike most of the
Crucifers, the flowers are not symmetrical, the two outer petals being
much larger than the others. The inflorescence is a raceme, which, like
that of the Wallflower, becomes longer as the flowering proceeds; and
the colour of the petals is white, lilac or red. The height of this
plant varies from six to nine inches, and the flowers bloom during July
and August.

The Wild Mignonette (_Reseda lutea_--order _Resedaceæ_) is very common
in some chalky districts, generally in fields and other open ground, and
may be easily recognised by its close resemblance to the well-known
Sweet Mignonette (_R. odorata_), which is so highly valued as a garden
flower on account of its pleasant perfume. It is of a shrubby nature,
from one to two feet high, with scattered, stipuled leaves, the lower of
which are pinnate, while the upper are three-lobed. The flowers are
irregular, yellow, and arranged in short, conical racemes. The six
sepals are unequal and linear; and the petals, also six in number, are
very unequal, while the posterior one is divided into many parts. The
flowers bloom throughout the summer.

One of the most characteristic flowers of the chalk is the pretty Rock
Rose (_Helianthemum vulgare_--order _Cistaceæ_), which is often so
abundant that it completely covers large patches of banks and
pasture-land. The plant is of a procumbent nature, with woody stems, and
opposite, flat, oval or oblong leaves, green above and hoary beneath.
The yellow flowers are from three-quarters to an inch in diameter, and
are arranged in racemes. There are five sepals, two of which are very
small; and the numerous stamens are sensitive, spreading out and lying
on the petals when the flower is squeezed. The time of flowering is from
June to September.

An allied species--the Hoary Rock Rose (_H. canum_ or _H.
marifolium_)--may be found in the limestone districts of the West of
England, flowering from May to July. The plant is very similar to the
last, but the leaves are not stipuled, are smooth or hairy above, and
very hoary beneath. The flowers, too, are much smaller.

A species of Violet--the Hairy Violet (_Viola hirta_--order
_Violaceæ_)--may be found in some limestone and chalk districts, and
also on some dry soils removed from calcareous rocks. It has no runners
like those of other species, and its cordate leaves are very hairy, on
petioles covered with spreading hairs. The flowers are scentless, pale
violet or white, with bracts below the middle of the peduncle; and the
spur of the corolla is long, blunt, flattened, and hooked.

Two species of Flax (order _Linaceæ_) are to be found on chalky soils.
One--the Perennial Flax (_Linum perenne_)--grows in hilly districts, but
is not at all common. It is a slender plant, with numerous wiry stems
from one to two feet high; and sessile, linear, acute leaves. The petals
are of a beautiful sky-blue colour, but so lightly attached that it is
difficult to secure a perfect specimen. The other species--the
Narrow-leaved Flax (_L. angustifolium_)--is moderately common on
calcareous hills of the South and West of England. It is very similar to
the last, and grows to about the same height, but its many stems are
more irregularly branched, and the alternate leaves are
linear-lanceolate. The corolla is of a lighter lilac-blue colour. _L.
perenne_ blooms during June and July, and the narrow-leaved species from
June to September. The latter is shown on Plate VIII.

Quite a number of species of leguminous plants (order _Leguminosæ_),
may, as a rule, be met with on dry soils, but only two common ones may
be described as particularly partial to chalk and limestone localities.
These are the Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch (_Hippocrepis comosa_) and the
Sainfoin or Cock's-head (_Onobrychis sativa_). The former, represented
on Plate VIII, is a low, smooth, prostrate plant, six to eighteen inches
long, with yellow flowers that bloom from May to August. This plant is
sometimes confused with the Bird's-foot Trefoil, which it rather closely
resembles in general appearance, but it may be readily distinguished by
the pinnate leaves and the peculiar form of the pods. The latter are
flattened, and break up, when ripe, into from three to six one-seeded,
horse-shoe-shaped segments--a feature which has given rise to the
popular name.

The Sainfoin is often cultivated in the South-East of England as fodder
for cattle, but may frequently be found growing wild. It is a very
pretty, erect plant, from one to two feet high, with dense racemes of
rosy-red flowers beautifully striped with a darker tint. The stem is
stout and downy, and the pinnate leaves have membranous stipules and
numerous oblong leaflets which terminate abruptly in a point. The pod
is compressed, semicircular in form, indehiscent, and toothed along the
lower edge. This species flowers during June and July.

[Illustration: THE SAINFOIN.]

On some chalky heaths the True Sweet-briar (_Rosa rubiginosa_--order
_Rosaceæ_) is a common shrub, growing from three to six feet high, and
flowering during June and July. It is an erect and compact bush, with
numerous prickles of varying shapes--the larger ones being hooked, while
the smaller are straight and very unequal. The leaves are compound and
stipuled, and the leaflets are rounded at the base, downy, and doubly
serrate. The flowers often grow singly, but more commonly from two to
four together; they are of a deep rose colour, and the persistent sepals
are pinnately divided. The fruit is at first pear-shaped, but afterwards
becomes almost globular, and turns red when ripe.

[Illustration: THE SALAD BURNET.]

In similar situations we may find the Lesser Burnet or Salad Burnet
(_Poterium Sanguisorba_) of the same order. This plant is so different
in general appearance from the majority of the Rose family that the
amateur would hardly associate it with the others. The flowers are
small, and collected together in dense, purple cymes on the top of long,
angular stalks. They have no petals, and the four overlapping sepals are
usually deciduous. The stamens, five to thirty in number, are pendulous
on long, slender filaments; and the upper flowers display their crimson
stigmas before the lower ones produce their stamens. The stem is erect,
from six to eighteen inches in height; and the pinnate leaves have many
small, sessile, oblong leaflets with coarsely-serrate edges. This plant
flowers during June, July, and August.

[Illustration: THE FIELD GENTIAN.]

The Bedstraw Family (order _Rubiaceæ_) is represented on the chalk by
the Rough-fruited Corn Bedstraw (_Galium tricorne_), which is common in
fields. It is a spreading plant, with procumbent stems, one to three
feet long; and small, long, narrow leaves, rough with recurved prickles,
arranged in whorls of from six to eight. The flowers are small and
white, grouped in little cymes of three. The fruit is comparatively
large, and granulated, but not bristly, and it droops by the bending of
the pedicel. The plant flowers from June to October.

The Red Spur Valerian (_Centranthus ruber_--order _Valerianaceæ_) is a
glaucous, leafy plant (see Plate VIII), sometimes growing to a
height of two feet or more, often to be seen in chalk-pits and limestone
quarries, and frequently on old walls. It is not indigenous, but is
cultivated largely as a garden flower, and has now become naturalised.
Its corolla, which is sometimes white, has five unequal lobes, a long,
flattened tube, and a slender spur. The plant flowers from June to
September.

Of the Composite flowers we shall note two species, the first being the
Woolly-headed Plume-thistle (_Carduus eriophorus_), common in chalky
fields, where it throws up its large, cottony heads to a height of from
three to five feet during July and August. In order to distinguish it
from other similar thistles we must note that its stem is not winged,
and that the deeply-divided leaves, with bifid lobes, half clasp the
stem at the base; also that the involucre bracts are lanceolate, with
long, reflexed spines. The heads of this thistle are of a pale purple
colour, of a globular form, two to three inches in diameter, and covered
with a thick, cottony growth.

[Illustration: THE YELLOW-WORT.]

Our other example of the Composite flowers is the Ploughman's Spikenard
(_Inula Conyza_), which is common on chalky banks and pastures,
flowering from July to September. It is an erect, downy plant, from two
to five feet high, with oval, lanceolate, downy leaves of a dull green
colour. The upper leaves are entire and sessile, while the lower are
toothed and stalked. The numerous flower heads are of a dull yellow
colour, with leaflike bracts, arranged in a branched corymb. The
involucre bracts are linear and reflexed, and the ray florets are
inconspicuous.

Two representatives of the order _Gentianaceæ_ are commonly found on
chalk hills and pastures; they are the Field Gentian (_Gentiana
campestris_), and the Perfoliate Yellow-wort (_Chlora perfoliata_, or
_Blackstonia perfoliata_). The former is an erect plant, from four to
ten inches high, with a branched stem; opposite, sessile leaves; and
conspicuous, bluish-purple flowers, blooming in August and September.
The calyx is cleft into four, the two outer segments being large and
ovate. The corolla is also four-cleft, and salver-shaped.

[Illustration: THE GREAT MULLEIN.]

The Yellow-wort is an erect, glaucous plant, with an unbranched stem
from six to eighteen inches in height, and beautiful yellow flowers,
from four to nine in number, arranged in a cyme. The leaves are in
widely-separated pairs, united at their bases, so that the stem
penetrates them. The calyx is deeply divided, and the limbs of the
corolla are spreading. This plant flowers from June to September.

Some species of Mullein (_Verbascum_) are particularly partial to chalk
and limestone districts. They are handsome plants, belonging to the
order _Scrophulariaceæ_, rendered conspicuous by their woolly leaves and
spikes of yellow or white flowers. The Great Mullein (_V. Thapsus_) is
common on banks and roadsides, and flowers from June to August. Its stem
is stout, erect, very woolly, and varies from two to five feet in
height. The leaves are very large and thick, and are so woolly on both
sides that they resemble flannel. The flowers form a large, dense,
club-shaped spike. Each has a corolla with five spreading lobes; and
five stamens, with white hairs on their filaments, two longer than the
other three. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds and splitting
longitudinally.

The White Mullein (_V. Lychnitis_) is not at all common, but may be
found in similar situations. Its stem is angular, seldom more than three
feet high, the leaves nearly smooth above, and the flowers white or
cream, blooming from June to August.

A third species--the Yellow Hoary Mullein (_V. pulverulentum_)--grows on
banks, chiefly in Norfolk and Suffolk, flowering during July and August.
It is about three feet in height; the stem is round, with a mealy
surface; and the leaves, which are not continued down the stem, are
covered both above and below with starlike hairs that give them a mealy
appearance. The flowers form a pyramidal panicle, and are of a bright
yellow colour, with scarlet stamens covered with white hairs.

[Illustration: THE RED HEMP-NETTLE.]

There is yet another species to be found on chalky soils, more
especially in hedges and on banks and roadsides. It is the Dark Mullein
(_V. nigrum_), so called on account of the darker hue of the stem and
leaves. It grows to a height of about three feet and flowers from June
to September. It is a beautiful plant, not so strong in build as the
Great Mullein, with an angular stem, and oblong heart-shaped leaves,
nearly smooth above, and covered with starlike hairs which give it a
downy appearance, especially on the under surface. The leaves are not
continued down the stem, and the lower ones have long stalks. The
flowers are bright yellow, very numerous, and form a spike-like panicle.
The stamens are covered with purple hairs.

The Spiked Speedwell (_Veronica spicata_), of the same order, neither
common nor widely distributed, is to be found chiefly in the chalk and
limestone districts of the South and West of England, flowering during
July and August. It has a long, dense, terminal spike of blue or pink
flowers about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The corolla has a long
tube, and unequal, narrow lobes; and the flattened capsules split into
two valves when ripe. A large variety of this species, known as the Tall
Spiked Speedwell, occurs in limestone districts of the West. The normal
form is shown in Fig. 4, of Plate VIII.

Of the Labiates perhaps the one most partial to the chalk is the Wild
Sage or Clary (_Salvia Verbenaca_); and even this is not confined to
calcareous soils, but thrives in dry pastures in many parts of the
country, particularly near the sea. It is an aromatic herb, from one to
two feet in height, with long spikes of bluish purple flowers that bloom
from May to September. The leaves, which are not numerous, are
oblong-cordate (the upper ones broadly cordate), blunt, coarsely
toothed, and wrinkled. Other Labiates are very similar to this species,
but the Clary may be distinguished by its two ovate, cordate bracts at
the base of each flower, and by its narrow corolla, which is a little
shorter than the calyx.

The Red Hemp-nettle (_Galeopsis Ladanum_), of the same order, is common
in chalky fields. It is about a foot in height, and displays its
_rose-coloured_ flowers from July to October. The plant is covered with
very soft hairs, and the stem is not swollen at the joints. These two
features serve to distinguish the species from the Common Hemp-nettle
(_G. tetrahit_) and the Large-flowered Hemp-nettle (_G. versicolor_) of
the same genus. It should also be noted that the corolla is not really
red, as the common name suggests, but rose-coloured, while in _G.
tetrahit_ it is purple or white, and in _G. versicolor_ it is yellow.
The upper lip of the flower, too, is only slightly notched.

The Viper's Bugloss (_Echium vulgare_--order _Boraginaceæ_) is common on
dry soils, especially in calcareous districts, where it is often found
close to the sea, even on the beach very near high-water level. It is a
very peculiar plant, both stem and leaves being thickly covered with
stiff, sharp bristles. The stem is unbranched, from two to three feet
high; and the leaves are lanceolate. The flowers are of a bright
rose-colour when they first open, and afterwards change to a bright
purple-blue; they are arranged in short, lateral, curved, one-sided
spikes. Both leaves and flowers droop very rapidly after they have been
gathered. This plant flowers from June to August.

Another species of the same genus, known as the Purple Viper's Bugloss
(_E. Plantagineum_), is common in the Channel Islands. It may be
distinguished by its branched stem and longer spikes of flowers. The
lower leaves, too, are oblong and stalked, while the upper ones are
cordate and half clasp the stem.

No doubt the reader is already acquainted with the commoner Plantains
(order _Plantaginaceæ_), so easily distinguished by their spreading
radical leaves, with prominent, parallel ribs, and their dense spikes of
greenish flowers. There are five British species, one of which--the
Hoary Plantain or Lamb's-tongue (_Plantago media_) is particularly
partial to chalky districts, where it grows in pastures and on dry
banks. Its flowering stems grow from three inches to a foot in height,
and the flowers bloom from June to September. The leaves are elliptical,
either sessile or shortly stalked, and have from five to nine ribs. They
lie so closely on the soil that nothing can grow beneath them, and even
present the appearance of having been pressed against the ground. They
also have a downy surface; and the stalk, where it exists, is flattened.
The flowering stem is round, and the spike cylindrical. The calyx is
cleft into four, with its segments turned backward; and the sepals are
not keeled as they are in some other species. The corolla is tubular,
with four spreading limbs; and the cream-coloured anthers are displayed
on the tips of long filaments.

[Illustration: AN ORCHIS FLOWER.

S, sepals. P, petals. L, lip. C, spur. A, pollen masses. B, stigma.]

We have now to consider several representatives of the _Orchidaceæ_, and
it will be well here to note the general characters of this remarkable
order as a whole. The Orchids have rounded or palmate tuberous roots, a
few glossy leaves which sheath the stem, and simple spikes or racemes of
flowers, the prevailing colours of which are red, pink, green and white.
The sepals, three in number, often partake more of the nature of petals.
There are three petals, the lowest one, forming the lower lip of the
flower, often prolonged into a spur, and frequently assuming a
remarkable form resembling an insect or some other member of the animal
creation. The stamens are united to the style, and form with it a solid
_column_, but usually only one produces pollen, and this one commonly
consists of one or two club-shaped masses. The ovary is inferior, often
twisted so as to invert the flower, and sometimes so long as to be
mistaken for a flower stalk. The stigma is hollow, sticky, and situated
just in front of the column above mentioned. The fruit is a three-valved
capsule, containing many seeds.

Orchids are generally scented flowers, and produce nectar which is
stored either in the cavity of the spur, or within the tissue of the
same. In the latter case it cannot be obtained by insects unless they
bore into the substance of the spur, and the delay caused renders the
removal of the pollen more certain. While the nectar is being withdrawn,
the head of the insect is pressed against a sticky disc at the base of
the pollen masses, with the result that both disc and pollen masses are
bodily removed, and the insect leaves the flower with the whole attached
to its head. It often happens, too, that the pollen masses bend forward
as the insect flies through the air, and thus they are more likely to be
pressed against the stigma when another flower is visited. Here, then,
is another wonderful contrivance for the purpose of securing
cross-fertilisation, and the whole process may be imitated by thrusting
the point of a pencil into the spur of a flower which has not been
previously visited by an insect, and then inserting the point into the
spur of a second flower. It should be noted, also, that the pollen is
not all removed by contact with the sticky surface of a stigma against
which the pollen masses are pressed, and thus the pollen obtained from
one flower will often fertilise several others.

Our first species--the Broad-leaved Helleborine (_Epipactis latifolia_),
is common in hilly woods, where it flowers during July and August. Its
single stem grows from one to three feet high, and the leaves are
broadly ovate and ribbed. The flowers are greenish, with reddish-purple
lips, and are arranged in a long, loose, one-sided raceme. The sepals
are ovate, longer than the acute lower lobe of the lip; and the bracts
are generally longer than the flowers. The ovary is downy, and not so
long as the bracts. (Plate II, Fig. 5.)

The somewhat similar Large White Helleborine (_Cephalanthera
grandiflora_), which bears creamy white flowers in May and June, is also
common in some of the woods on calcareous soils.

The Pyramidal Orchis (_O. pyramidalis_) grows in limestone pastures,
flowering during July and August. This species varies from six to
eighteen inches in height, and has linear, acute leaves. The spike of
flowers is very dense, of a pyramidal form, and the individual blooms
are small, usually of a rose colour, but occasionally white or nearly
so. The sepals are spreading, and the lip of the flower has three equal
lobes which are oblong and abruptly cut at the tips. The spur is slender
and longer than the ovary.

The Fragrant Gymnadenia or Sweet-scented Orchis (_Habenaria conopsea_ or
_Gymnadenia conopsea_) is common on chalky heaths and hilly pastures. It
grows from twelve to eighteen inches high, has palmate, tuberous roots,
and oblong-lanceolate, acute, keeled leaves. The flowers appear from
June to August, and are in a dense, elongated spike. The buds are of a
deep rose colour, and the open flowers are very fragrant, of a lighter
colour, and not spotted. The bracts have three veins; the lateral sepals
are spreading; the spur long and slender, much longer than the ovary;
and the lip of the flower has three, equal, undivided lobes.

[Illustration: THE SWEET-SCENTED ORCHIS.]

The Green Man Orchis (_Aceras anthropophora_), though rather rare, and
confined to the dry, chalky pastures of East England, is too interesting
to be omitted from our selection. The plant is from six to twelve inches
high, with palmate tubers, and mostly radical leaves. The flowers are
sessile, forming a loose spike, and are strange caricatures of the human
figure. Each has a comparatively large green hood, a slender yellowish
lip with two lateral lobes to represent the arms, and two similar
terminal lobes for the legs. The lateral sepals are green, ovate and
convergent; and the flower has no spur. The time of flowering is June
and July.

The Green Musk Orchis (_Herminium Monorchis_), also rather rare, is to
be found in chalky pastures of the South, flowering in June and July. It
has oval, stalked tubers; two lanceolate, radical leaves, and generally
only one leaf on the slender stem. The spike is loose and slender; and
the flowers, which are small and green, are sessile, and emit a musky
odour during the night. The sepals are broad ovate; the petals narrower;
and the lip is three-lobed, pouch-like at the base, with terminal lobe
longer than the other two.

One of the most remarkable, and, at the same time, one of the most
beautiful of Orchids is the Bee Orchis (_Ophrys apifera_). Although not
to be described as common, it is frequently to be seen in moderate
numbers on banks and in open ground in calcareous districts. Its height
is from six to twelve inches, and it flowers during June and July. The
leaves are short, oblong, and mostly radical; the bracts large and
leafy; and the flowers, numbering from two to six, are arranged in a lax
spike, and very closely resemble certain species of bees. The sepals are
spreading, oval, and pink inside; and the petals are linear and downy.
The lip of the flower is swollen and broad, very velvety, and of a rich
brown colour variegated with yellow. It is not longer than the sepals,
and has four lobes, the two lower of which are hairy, while the other
two are bent under. There is also a sharp, reflexed appendage in the
notch. The flower is shown on Plate VIII.

A rare variety, very much like the commoner type just described, is
occasionally seen in Kent and Surrey. It is called the Late Spider
Orchis (variety _arachnites_), and is supposed to resemble a spider more
than a bee. The petals are more triangular than in the Bee Orchis, and
the lip is longer than the sepals. It may also be distinguished by the
appendage in the notch, which is cordate in form, and flat.

Another rare plant--the Spider Orchis (_Ophrys aranifera_) is to be
found in chalky pastures of the South-East. Its flowers are smaller, and
generally fewer in number. The sepals are yellowish-green inside, and
the petals smooth and linear. The lip is swollen and four-lobed, but
without any appendage in the notch, and is of a deep purple-brown, with
yellowish markings. This is an earlier species, flowering during April
and May.

Our last example of this order is the pretty little Fly Orchis (_Ophrys
muscifera_). It is a slender plant, with a few oblong leaves, and
usually from two to ten flowers arranged in a loose spike. The sepals
are yellowish-green, and the very slender petals resemble the antennæ of
an insect. The lip of the flower is of a brownish purple colour, with a
blue blotch in the middle; and is oblong, with three lobes, the middle
of which is divided into two. This species grows from six inches to a
foot in height, and flowers from May to July. It is moderately common in
the open spaces and on the banks of some calcareous districts.

Although a great variety of Grasses (order _Gramineæ_) are to be found
on calcareous soils, there are two common species which are almost
exclusively confined to dry, chalky pastures. One is the Downy Oat Grass
(_Avena pubescens_), which flowers in June and July. It has a creeping
stem, and grows from one to two feet high. The radical leaves are short,
hairy, with sharply-pointed ligules, and terminate abruptly in a sharp
point. The flowers are arranged in a nearly simple panicle, with erect
spikelets of five or six flowers. The glumes are nearly equal, the inner
one with three ribs. The flowering glume is divided at the tip, and
provided with a long, bent, twisted bristle.

The other, numbered 7 on Plate VIII, is the Yellow Oat Grass
(_A. flavescens_), which grows to about the same height, and flowers at
the same time. In this species the radical leaves are hairy, and also
terminate suddenly in a sharp point. The panicle is much branched, with
erect spikelets of five or six flowers. In this one, too, the inner
glumes have three ribs, but it may be distinguished from the last by the
two terminal bristles of the inner scales, and by the blunt ligules
(appendages at the base) of the sheathing leaves.



XIX

BY THE RIVER SIDE


We have already dealt with flowers that grow in various damp situations,
as moist meadows, woods, &c.; but there are a few such which seem to be
particularly partial to the banks of rivers, streams, and ditches: short
descriptions of these will be placed separately in the present chapter.

It will be understood from the foregoing remark that the species taken
here form only a small proportion of the flowers that actually grow by
the river side; for although the numerous species commonly seen in moist
fields and meadows may flourish quite to the water's edge, yet there are
not many which require the extreme wetness of soil that restricts them
to the sodden banks of rivers and streams.

Our first example is the Common Meadow Rue (_Thalictrum flavum_). It
belongs to the order _Ranunculaceæ_, but its pale yellow flowers do not,
at first sight, suggest a resemblance to the buttercups, anemones, and
other favourite flowers of this group, for they have no petals, very
small sepals, and are rendered conspicuous only by their
densely-clustered stamens, with their long, projecting, bright yellow
anthers. The plant is erect, from two to four feet high; and flowers
during July and August.

Passing over the Monk's-hood (_Aconitum Napellus_), so well known as a
garden flower, which is occasionally seen wild near the banks of streams
and ditches, we come to the Blue Meadow Crane's-bill (_Geranium
pratense_)--one of the several species of pretty Wild Geraniums (order
_Geraniaceæ_). It is a downy plant, varying from one to four feet high,
with an erect stem, swollen at the nodes; and opposite, roundish leaves,
deeply divided into five or seven lobes with sharp segments. The flowers
are of a bluish purple colour, an inch or more in diameter, usually
arranged two on a stalk, the two pedicels spreading while in flower,
but turned downwards when in fruit. The five sepals have long points,
and the five petals are slightly notched. As in other species of the
genus there are ten stamens, five shorter than the other five; and a
five-lobed ovary, with an equal number of long styles, all attached to a
long, central beak. The five carpels separate when ripe, and are raised
by the curling of their styles. This flower is common in wet meadows,
especially in the southern counties, and is usually more frequent along
the banks of rivers and ditches, but it is sometimes also seen in wet
thickets. It flowers in June and July.

[Illustration: THE COMMON MEADOW RUE.]

The Hemp Agrimony (_Eupatorium cannabinum_), of the order _Compositæ_,
is very common along the banks of streams and on the borders of wayside
ditches all over Britain. It would hardly be taken for a composite
flower by those who are acquainted only with the more typical members of
the order, but an examination of its rather dull lilac blossoms will
soon reveal its affinity to the other members of the group, for the
compact, terminal corymb is formed of numerous small heads, each
consisting of about five tubular, perfect florets of equal size,
surrounded by an involucre of a few overlapping bracts, and remarkable
on account of their projecting styles, which are deeply divided into
club-shaped branches. The plant is a large one, with erect, reddish
stems, varying from two to six feet in height; and it flowers from July
to September.

[Illustration: THE HEMP AGRIMONY.]

We have already noticed the Lesser Skull-cap (p. 275), which is
rather common on damp heaths, and there is another British member of the
same genus--the Common Skull-cap (_Scutellaria galericulata_)--that is
frequently seen on the banks of streams and in other wet places. The
latter is a slightly downy plant, with a creeping stock, and a slender,
branched stem from eight to sixteen inches high. Its leaves are
opposite, as in other plants of the same order (_Labiatæ_), with very
short stalks, and crenate or slightly-toothed edges. The flowers are in
pairs in the axils of the leaves, almost sessile, and all turned towards
the same side of the stem. On the back of the two-lipped calyx is a
hollow, scale-like projection which gave rise to the popular name, for
when the corolla falls, the lips of the calyx close over the ripening
fruit, and the projection above mentioned then presents somewhat the
appearance of a cap. The corolla is over half an inch long, of a dull
blue colour without, but much paler inside. This plant flowers from
July to September.

On the banks of streams and ditches we may often meet with the Comfrey
(_Symphytum officinale_)--a coarse and rough but pretty plant belonging
to the _Boraginaceæ_. It has a stout, branching stem, two or three feet
high; and the stem-leaves extend downward on its surface forming
wing-like ridges. The lower leaves are stalked, broader than the upper
ones, generally from six to eight inches long; and all the leaves are
rough with bristly hairs. The flowers are of a yellowish white or,
sometimes, of a purple colour, and are arranged in forked, drooping,
one-sided racemes. The calyx is deeply cleft into five lobes; and the
corolla consists of a tubular portion, the top of which is closed by
five narrow, fringed scales; and, above this, a wider bell-shaped part,
of about the same length, with five small, reflexed teeth. This plant
blooms during May and June.

[Illustration: THE COMMON SKULL-CAP.]

The Yellow Loosestrife (_Lysimachia vulgaris_), of the order
_Primulaceæ_ is a beautiful river-side plant, common in most parts,
flowering during July and August. Its stem is stout, erect, branched,
slightly downy, from two to three feet high; and its leaves are ovate or
lanceolate, sessile, and arranged in opposite pairs or in whorls of
three or four. The flowers are rather large, of a bright yellow colour,
dotted with orange, and arranged in a large, pyramidal, leafy panicle.
The calyx is deeply cleft into five pointed segments with hairy margins;
and the broadly bell-shaped corolla is deeply divided into five wide
lobes. All the five stamens are united by their filaments, forming a
kind of cup around the ovary.

[Illustration: THE COMFREY.]

There is another beautiful Loosestrife--the Purple Loosestrife--that is
often seen on river-banks; but as it is not particularly partial to this
habitat, but rather grows in marshes and wet places generally, it is
described in another chapter (XV). It should be noted, however, that the
two plants are not so nearly allied as the popular names suggest; for
while the one described above is of the Primrose family, the latter is a
member of the _Lythraceæ_, and differs in having a corolla of free
petals.

Passing now to the order _Polygonaceæ_ we have to note the Great Water
Dock (_Rumex Hydrolapathum_)--a smooth plant, varying from three to six
feet in height, much resembling other Common Docks in general
appearance, but found almost always on the borders of streams and ponds.
Its leaves are lanceolate in form, usually pointed, and either flat or
slightly curled at the margins. The upper ones taper down into the
stalk; but the lower ones, which are from one to two feet long, are
often heart-shaped at the base. The reddish-green flowers are
closely-whorled, and form long panicles. The perianth is cleft into six
parts, of which the three outer are smaller and covered with little
tubercles, while the inner become enlarged and close over the triangular
fruit. Each flower has six stamens and three very short styles. This
plant is in flower during July and August.

A few species of Willows and Sallows that grow on the banks of streams
belong to the order _Salicaceæ_, and have the following features in
common:--Their leaves are simple, stipulate, and deciduous. The flowers
are imperfect, in erect catkins with small scales at the base, the male
and the female flowers being produced on separate trees or shrubs. Each
male flower consists only of a small scale and two or more stamens; and
the female of a similar scale, and a conical ovary of one cell with a
forked style. The fruit is a conical capsule of two valves, containing
several seeds that are covered with white, silky hairs. The species
referred to are the Almond-leaved and the Bay-leaved Willows, the
Dark-leaved Sallow, and the Purple Osier, but we refrain from
introducing descriptions since the identification of these trees is
somewhat difficult for a beginner.



XX

ON WALLS, ROCKS, AND STONY PLACES


Several of our flowering plants are to be seen most frequently on walls
and rocks, or in other situations where there is hardly a trace of soil
of any kind. Some of these thrive in such dry spots, with often such
free exposure to the rays of the spring or summer sun, that it is
difficult to understand how they manage to survive the periods of
drought through which they live until we become acquainted with certain
peculiarities of their form and structure.

In the first place we must recall the fact that plants lose a
considerable amount of moisture by evaporation from the transpirating
surfaces of their leaves, and that this loss must necessarily be
greatest when the air is warm and dry unless there is some means by
which the transpiration is automatically regulated according to the
requirements of the plant and to the varying conditions under which it
has to exist.

The leaves of plants are covered with a thin skin or _epidermis_ which
consists of a single layer of cells, and which is practically
impermeable to moisture. In this epidermis, however, on one or both
sides of the leaf, are minute pores (_stomata_) through which water
vapour is free to pass; and beneath the porous epidermis is a loose,
cellular tissue, with air-spaces, from which the moisture can readily
pass, in the form of vapour, to these stomata.

Each of the stomata is bordered by a pair of crescent-shaped
_guard-cells_, placed with their concave sides towards each other, and
joined at the ends. Further, the guard-cells are capable of changing
their form, becoming straighter, and thus reducing or even closing the
aperture between them; and becoming again curved, opening or enlarging
the pore. The former change takes place during darkness, thus preserving
the plant from the cooling effects of evaporation during the chilly
nights; and also during dry weather when the plant is in danger of
losing much more moisture than the roots can absorb.

So far, however, we have been dealing with a regulating process that is
common to green plants in general; but we must look for some additional
protection against loss of moisture in the plants which grow in such
places that they have to live through longer or shorter periods during
which the roots have little or no moisture within reach.

From what has been said concerning the structure of the leaf it will be
understood that, as a rule, the larger the surface the greater will be
the loss of water in a given time. But when we examine the leaves of the
plants that grow on dry walls and rocks, we frequently find that they
are more or less thick and fleshy--that the material of the leaf is
disposed in such a manner as to reduce the area of the surface as
compared with other leaves made up of the same amount of tissue.

In some species this diminution of surface is carried to the extreme,
and the leaves have become very thick, assuming a cylindrical or almost
globular form; and such leaves are capable of absorbing and retaining
large supplies of water that serve to maintain the plant during those
periods in which the roots have no moisture within their reach.

We also find that many of the plants in question are further protected
from a dangerous loss of moisture by the peculiar arrangement of their
leaves, which are often so closely applied to the stem, or so closely
overlapping one over another, that the total area of exposed surface is
considerably reduced; and it frequently happens that the stem of the
plant becomes thick and succulent, as well as the leaves, thus adding to
the store of moisture kept in reserve for the rainless days.

While some plants are almost invariably found in dry, stony places,
others are very diverse in their habitats, sometimes growing in moist
and shady places, and sometimes on cliffs or other rocky situations. In
the latter we often find considerable modifications of size, form and
structure, the same species being more or less luxuriant and thin-leaved
when in damp soils, while in rocky places it becomes more or less
stunted, with a tendency to produce thick and succulent leaves.

A few of the plants that we include in the present chapter are to be
found only on wet rocks, and are therefore of a nature very different
from that of the species growing in dry places. They are always well
supplied with moisture; and, being usually surrounded by a damp
atmosphere, they lose but little water by evaporation, and thus require
no reserves within their leaves or stems.

Our first species is the well-known Wallflower (_Cheiranthus cheiri_),
of the order _Cruciferæ_. It is a rather shrubby plant, frequent on old
walls and ruins, where it flowers during April and May. Though too
familiar to need any description, we may note that in the wild state it
varies from six to twelve inches high, and bears sweetly-scented, yellow
or orange flowers. The plant is not indigenous, but has now become
naturalised as a wild flower in most parts of Britain.

The Wall Rocket (_Diplotaxis tenuifolia_ or _Brassica tenuifolia_), of
the same order, is a very similar plant, growing in similar situations,
but it does not commence to flower till the summer is somewhat advanced.
Its stem is leafy, branched, smooth, woody towards the base, but more
slender than that of the Wallflower; and its very variable leaves are
generally three or four inches long, deeply divided pinnately into
narrow segments with irregularly-toothed margins, and emit a rather
unpleasant odour when rubbed. The flowers are of a pale yellow colour,
fragrant, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, in terminal
racemes, with sepals more or less spreading; and the fruits are narrow,
flattened siliquas, with membranous valves, about an inch and a half
long. The plant is to be found principally in the southern counties of
England, and flowers from July to September or early October.

On dry rocks, chiefly in the hilly and mountainous districts of North
and West Britain, we meet with the Vernal Sandwort (_Arenaria verna_) of
the order _Caryophyllaceæ_. This is a little tufted plant, only from two
to four inches high, with branched stems more or less decumbent at the
base; and small, sessile, opposite, very narrow leaves, each with three
veins. The starlike, white flowers are about a third of an inch across,
on slender stalks, and grouped in terminal, loose, few-flowered cymes.
They have five pointed sepals, less than a quarter of an inch long, each
with three prominent veins; five spreading petals, a little longer than
the sepals; ten stamens; and a superior ovary with three narrow styles.
The fruit is a short ovate capsule which opens, when ripe, by three
valves.

One of the Geraniums--the Shining Crane's-bill (_Geranium lucidum_)--is
almost essentially a plant of walls and rocks. It is a beautiful
species, smooth and shining in all its parts, with a tendency to turn
red, like the Herb Robert; and, as in other plants of its order
(_Geraniaceæ_), distinguished by the swollen joints of its stem. The
leaves are almost round in general outline, but are deeply divided into
five, broad, coarsely-toothed segments. The flowers are small,
rose-coloured, and generally grow in pairs on axillary stalks. They have
five, erect, wrinkled sepals, with long points; and five short, rather
broad, entire petals. This species is common in most parts of Britain.
It varies in height from six to eighteen inches, and flowers from May to
September.

[Illustration: THE BITING STONECROP OR WALL PEPPER.]

We have now to consider a few species of the order _Crassulaceæ_, which
includes some very interesting succulent plants that are peculiarly
adapted to a life in the dryest of situations on walls, roofs, &c. In
addition to the thick, fleshy nature of their stems and leaves, these
plants are distinguished by terminal cymes or corymbs of flowers with
(usually) five sepals, the same number of distinct petals, twice as many
stamens arranged in two whorls, and carpels equal in number to the
petals. Three of the plants referred to are known as Stonecrops, and may
be recognised by the following descriptions:--

1. The English Stonecrop (_Sedum anglicum_).--A smooth plant, two or
three inches high, abundant in rocky and stony places, especially in the
West and near the sea, flowering from June to August. Its stems are more
or less decumbent, much branched and rooting at the base; and its leaves
are small, thick, almost globular, of a pale green colour with, often,
a tinge of red. On the small flowerless branches the leaves are very
crowded and overlapping; but on the taller, flowering stems they are
more scattered and placed alternately. The little starlike flowers are
white, frequently tinged with pink or spotted with red, and arranged in
a short, two-forked panicle. They have short, green sepals; narrow,
sharply-pointed petals about twice the length; and stamens with bright
red anthers.

[Illustration: THE WALL PENNYWORT OR NAVELWORT.]

2. The White Stonecrop (_S. album_).--A somewhat similar plant, from
three to seven inches high, sometimes seen in large clusters on rocks,
walls, and roofs, bearing white or pinkish flowers during July and
August. The whole plant is smooth; and its short creeping stock gives
rise to short barren stems with crowded leaves, and erect flowering
stems with scattered leaves. The leaves are very thick, of a bright
green colour, about a third of an inch long, and oblong or cylindrical
in form. The panicles are much branched, with, usually, reddish stems;
and each consists of numerous flowers with short, blunt sepals, and
narrow, oblong petals about three times as long. This species is not so
common as either the last or the following.

3. The Biting Stonecrop or Wall Pepper (_S. acre_).--A smooth plant, of
a yellowish green colour, biting to the taste, very common on rocks,
walls and roofs, bearing golden yellow flowers during July and August.
It has short, barren stems, covered with closely-overlapping leaves
arranged in six rows; and erect flowering branches from two to four
inches in height. The leaves are very small, thick, succulent, oval or
almost globular in form. The flowers, which are in small, terminal,
three-cleft panicles, have very short, blunt sepals; and much longer,
narrow, pointed petals.

The same order (_Crassulaceæ_) includes the House Leek (_Sempervivum
tectorum_)--a plant which has been introduced into Britain, and is now
commonly seen growing wild on rocks and on the roofs of country houses.
Its spreading offsets give rise to globular tufts of flowerless shoots,
and to thick, succulent, flowering stems that grow to a foot or more in
height. The lower leaves are ovate, acute, thick, fleshy, edged with
red, and arranged in a dense rosette; and the flowering stem, with its
sessile leaves, is covered with a short, sticky down. The flowers are of
a dull pink or purple colour, and are sessile along the spreading
branches of the stem. They have usually about twelve short sepals; the
same number of pointed petals, two or three times the length of the
sepals; about twice as many stamens; and an ovary of as many carpels as
there are petals and sepals. It is interesting to note that half the
stamens--those forming the inner whorl--produce no pollen, and that
their anthers are often modified into ovaries, the ovules of which,
however, do not mature. This plant flowers in July and August.

[Illustration: THE LONDON PRIDE OR ST. PATRICK'S CABBAGE.]

Our last selection from this order is the Wall Pennywort or Navelwort
(_Cotyledon umbilicus_)--a peculiar plant, common on rocks and walls in
the South and West of England. It has a hard stock, producing an
abundance of fleshy leaves early in the year, and flowering stems, from
six to eighteen inches high, from June to August. The lower leaves are
round, wavy, smooth, very succulent and brittle, and depressed in the
centre where the long fleshy stalks are attached. Those of the stem have
shorter stalks which are more and more removed from the centre from
below upwards. The stem is thick and succulent, and bears a long raceme
of pendulous yellow-green flowers on short stalks. Each flower has a
very small calyx of five sepals; a cylindrical corolla, about a quarter
of an inch long, with five short teeth; ten stamens, attached to the
tube of the corolla; and a superior ovary.

[Illustration: THE MOSSY SAXIFRAGE.]

Several of the Saxifrages grow in rocky and stony places, and four or
five species are sufficiently common to demand a notice here. The
flowers of this group have a calyx of five sepals that is either quite
free or more or less adherent to the ovary; a corolla of five petals;
ten stamens, attached with the petals at the base of the calyx; and a
two-celled ovary, with two distinct styles, containing several seeds.

Our first species is the London Pride, None-so-Pretty, or St. Patrick's
Cabbage (_Saxifraga umbrosa_), a native of Irish mountains which has
been introduced into Britain as a garden flower, and has now become
established as a wild flower in many parts. Its flowering stem grows
from six to twelve inches high; and the small white or pink flowers
bloom during June and July.

[Illustration: THE IVY-LEAVED TOADFLAX.]

The Starry Saxifrage (_S. stellaris_) is a somewhat similar plant, but
much smaller, rarely exceeding six inches in height. It is frequent on
wet rocks in the North, flowering in July and August. Its leaves are
sessile, oblong or obovate, tapering towards the base, thin, and
arranged in spreading rosettes; and the stem is leafless with the
exception of little bracts at the base of the pedicels. The starlike
flowers, larger than those of the last species, are white, with two
yellow spots on each petal, and are arranged in a loose panicle on
spreading pedicels. The calyx is adherent to the ovary only at the base,
with its segments turned down on the pedicels; and the petals are narrow
and spreading.

Another Northern species--the Yellow Mountain Saxifrage (_S.
aizoides_)--is abundant on the wet rocks of mountainous districts,
flowering from June to September. It is a tufted plant, with branched,
decumbent, leafy stems, about six inches long; and crowded, narrow,
fleshy leaves, about half an inch long, fringed with hairs at the base.
The flowers are yellow, in a loose panicle. The calyx is yellow, like
the petals, but much shorter, and erect; and the ovary is adherent to
the short tube of the calyx to about half way up.

The Rue-leaved or Three-fingered Saxifrage (_S. tridactylites_) is a
small species, rarely exceeding four or five inches in height, common on
walls in most parts of Britain, flowering from April to July. The whole
plant is usually more or less tinged with red, and its erect stem is
covered with fine glandular hairs. The radical leaves are very small,
stalked, and undivided; those of the upper part of the stem are also
small and entire, but sessile; and the intermediate leaves, lower on the
stem, are palmately divided into three or five narrow segments. The
small white flowers are placed singly on rather long terminal and
axillary stalks; and the hairy calyx, which adheres to the ovary, has
five blunt lobes less than half the length of the petals.

[Illustration: THE WALL PELLITORY.]

Our last example of this order is the Cut-leaved or Mossy Saxifrage (_S.
hypnoides_), a very variable plant, from three to ten inches high,
rather rare in South England, but much more common in the rocky parts of
North England and Scotland. It has numerous procumbent, barren stems
with tufted leaves; and erect flowering stems bearing a few small leaves
and a loose cyme of a few white flowers. Most of the leaves are narrow,
pointed, entire, about a quarter of an inch long; but the larger ones,
at the base of the plant, are about twice as long, and divided into
three or five narrow lobes. The calyx adheres to the ovary to about
two-thirds of the length of the latter, and has five lobes about
one-third as long as the petals. This species flowers from May to July.

Old walls, ruins, and limestone cliffs are frequently adorned with the
pretty flowers of the Snapdragon (_Antirrhinum majus_--order
_Scrophulariaceæ_) which bloom from July to September. The plant varies
from one to two feet in height, is tufted and leafy at the base, and has
erect stems which bear racemes of large flowers. The leaves are very
narrow and entire; and the flowers, which are usually white, pink or
crimson, are shortly stalked in the axils of the small upper leaves. The
calyx is deeply divided into broad lobes very much shorter than the
corolla; and the latter consists of a broad tube and two lips, the whole
being over an inch in length. The mouth of the flower is closed by a
projecting 'palate,' but is easily opened by pressing the flower at the
sides between finger and thumb. There are four stamens on the corolla,
two longer than the others; and the fruit is an unsymmetrical capsule
that opens when ripe by a few holes near the top.

The Ivy-leaved Toadflax or Mother of Thousands (_Linaria Cymbalaria_),
of the same order, is a pretty little trailing plant very commonly seen
on old walls in many parts of Britain, particularly in the South-West.
It will grow luxuriantly in places where there is no soil other than
that afforded by the crumbling mortar, and will often establish itself
even on new walls so compactly built that it is difficult to see how the
plant can find the necessary moisture or how its roots can penetrate the
hard material to which it is attached. Its slender stems vary from a few
inches to two feet in length, often rooting at the nodes; and its little
leaves are smooth, with three or five lobes, and generally of a purplish
colour on the under side. The little flowers, which bloom from May to
September, are of a pale blue or lilac colour. The lipped corolla is
very similar to that of the last species, with a yellowish palate
closing the mouth, but it has a short spur at the base.

The one remaining flower of this chapter is the Wall Pellitory
(_Parietaria officinalis_), which belongs to the Nettle family
(_Urticaceæ_). It is a somewhat bushy plant, varying from six inches to
two feet in height, bearing axillary clusters of small, sessile, green
flowers from June to September, and is common on walls and stony banks,
more especially in the South of England. Most of the flowers are usually
imperfect, and the clusters are surrounded by a whorl of a few divided
bracts. The males are few in number, each consisting of a hairy
perianth, and four stamens which are jointed and very elastic, springing
suddenly and shedding their pollen when touched; the females have a
tubular, hairy perianth of four lobes, and a single tufted stigma.



XXI

FIELD AND WAYSIDE IN AUTUMN


From the end of September onward the number of wild flowers is rapidly
decreasing, but still there is much to be seen that will be interesting
to the observant student of Nature. Many of the summer flowers are quite
over, while others continue to bloom till, at last, they succumb to the
intensifying frosts; but hundreds of species of the summer-flowering
plants are now in fruit, and some of these are almost as interesting in
this stage as when in flower. Many plants will have been observed in
flower before any of their fruits were fully formed, but autumn is the
season when a large number of these may be seen in full fruit, and
watched as they make arrangements for the dispersal of their seeds.

We have already given (p. 12) an outline classification of the
various kinds of fruits, and if the reader will study this during the
autumn months, and examine the field and woodland plants that fall in
his way, he will find abundance of work awaiting him on every country
ramble.

A large number of wind-dispersed fruits and seeds are ripe long before
the autumn sets in, and have already been distributed by the summer
breezes; but now, with fewer flowers to attract attention, one can give
more time to the observations of the movements of tufted and winged
seeds and fruits as they sail through the air. And, as we brush by the
hedgerows and the borders of fields in search of various flowers and
fruits, we soon become acquainted with a variety of bristled, hooked,
and barbed fruits that are effectually dispersed by the agency of
animals, quite a large number of these having securely fastened
themselves to our clothing.

Many fruits remain attached to their plants long after the last flowers,
and even the leaves, have entirely disappeared. Some of these await the
gales of late autumn and winter, and being now no longer sheltered from
the wind, are carried to the spots where they are to produce new plants
in the following spring; while sheep and other animals, wandering
farther afield in search of food, carry away numerous hooked fruits in
their woolly or hairy coats.

The feathered fruits of the Wild Clematis adorn the hedgerows throughout
the greater part of the cold season, and form a striking feature of the
wayside until they have been dispersed by the winter storms; and the
hips of the Wild Rose, as well as the berries and drupes of various
shrubs, now rendered more conspicuous by their bright colouring and the
absence of foliage, are devoured by birds which afterwards deposit the
indigestible and, therefore, uninjured seeds, with their excrement, at
some distant spot.

Should the reader be interested in the various ways in which the
dehiscent fruits discharge their seeds, he will do well to collect a
number of species, as yet unopened, and expose them to the sun in a dry
place. He will then be able to note not only the directions and extent
of the dehiscence, but also to observe the forcible ejection of seeds by
those which split elastically, or which, by other mechanical
contrivances, have the power of throwing their seeds a considerable
distance.

We may find still another subject for study in the beautiful autumn
tints assumed by the leaves of many plants. Such tints are, of course,
most conspicuous in the foliage of our forest trees and shrubs; and,
when speaking of these, we shall have a word or two to say with regard
to the nature of the internal changes that give rise to the beautiful
display of colours; but not a few of the hedgerow herbs and shrubs
exhibit tints equally rich and varied. Note, for instance, the pretty
Herb Robert, still in flower in sheltered places, its blossoms standing
out beyond a background of richly-coloured leaves.

The vigorous summer growth of flowery banks and hedgerows is often
closely trimmed with the sickle for the greater convenience of
pedestrians and vehicular traffic, all the flowers and overhanging twigs
being closely cut, and the wayside thus destroyed from the
Nature-student's point of view; but the ground so denuded has recovered
itself by the autumn, and a second crop of flowers, arising from the old
stocks, often later than their normal season, is frequently the result.

A considerable number of summer flowers continue to bloom during the
autumn months, while a few are truly autumnal, and are not to be found
till the summer has nearly or quite passed.

In corn-fields we may still meet with the beautiful Pheasant's-eye
(_Adonis autumnalis_), and in fields the Hairy Buttercup (_Ranunculus
hirsutus_), the Daisy (_Bellis perennis_) and the Red Hemp-nettle
(_Galeopsis Ladanum_) are yet in flower, while the Annual Meadow Grass
(_Poa annua_) continues to produce new flowers to the end of the year.

On sunny banks in chalk districts we still see the delicate Rock Rose
(_Helianthemum vulgare_); and on banks almost everywhere the Wild Clary
(_Salvia Verbenaca_), and the still more hardy Milfoil (_Achillea
millefolium_), Knapweeds (_Centaurea nigra_ and _C. Scabiosa_), Field
Scabious (_Knautia arvensis_), Dark Mullein (_Verbascum nigrum_) and the
Toadflax (_Linaria vulgaris_).

Then, on downs and heaths we find the Yellow Bedstraw (_Galium verum_),
the crimson flowers of the Fine-leaved Heath (_Erica cinerea_), and the
rose-coloured or white blossoms of the Heather or Ling (_Calluna
vulgaris_): also the Carline Thistle (_Carlina vulgaris_), with its
inner involucral bracts broadly spreading while the sun shines, but bent
inwards to protect the florets during dull weather when the insects are
at rest, the lilac flower-heads of the Devil's-bit Scabious (_Scabiosa
succisa_) and the Small Scabious (_S. Columbaria_), and the conspicuous
flowers of the Chamomile (_Anthemis nobilis_), all standing out in bold
relief against the background of autumnal foliage.

Still more numerous are the autumn flowers of the waysides. By the dry
and dusty roadside we see the yellow flowers and silvery leaves of the
Silver-weed (_Potentilla anserina_), the little starlike flowers of the
Chickweed (_Stellaria media_), the yellow flower-heads of the Dandelion
(_Taraxacum officinale_), Sow Thistle (_Sonchus oleraceus_) and
Groundsel (_Senecio vulgaris_), the straggling Knot-grass (_Polygonum
aviculare_), the Spotted Persicary (_Polygonum Persicaria_), the
Shepherd's Purse (_Capsella Bursa-pastoris_), the Scentless Mayweed
(_Matricaria inodora_), the Chamomile (_Anthemis nobilis_), the White
Goose-foot (_Chenopodium album_), and Oraches (_Atriplex hastata_ and
_A. patula_). Where the soil is more generous we find the Herb Robert
(_Geranium Robertianum_), the Fleabane (_Inula dysenterica_), Red and
White Dead-nettles (_Lamium purpureum_ and _L. album_), and the Petty
Spurge (_Euphorbia Peplus_); while on old walls the Pellitory
(_Parietaria officinalis_) is still in flower.



XXII

AUTUMN IN THE WOODS


Although several of the flowers mentioned in the last chapter as
blooming during the present season may be seen along the borders of
woods, yet within the wood itself we are struck by the almost total
absence of flowers. This loss, however, is compensated for by the
beautiful and varied tints assumed by the leaves of the trees and
shrubs.

Important changes are now taking place in these perennial members of the
vegetable world in preparation for the coming winter. The temperature of
the soil is becoming considerably reduced, and, as a result, the
absorbing activity of the roots is greatly decreased, while the winter
is coming, when the temperature will be so low at times that the
circulation of the sap will practically cease. If the leaves remained on
the trees, they would give off from their surfaces more water than the
trees could obtain from the soil through their inactive roots, thus
endangering the lives of the trees. The leaves, therefore, must be shed.
But these leaves contain a considerable amount of nutritious material
which they themselves have built up, and which should not be lost. They
contain starch, albumen, and other compounds which would be entirely
lost to the trees if the leaves were shed in their present condition,
except that a small proportion, in the form of products of
decomposition, might be re-absorbed.

This being the case, arrangements must be made, first, for the passage
of the nutritious material in the leaves to some other part of the tree
where it can be stored for the winter; and, second, for the removal of
the leaves as the roots become less active.

So, before the time of leaf-fall, the nutritious substances in the
leaves, including the _chlorophyll_ to which the leaf owes its green
colour, become changed, and pass back to the stems or the root, where
they can be safely stored for the winter. The leaves, thus impoverished,
become mere skeletons--mere collections of empty, lifeless cells; and if
no further change takes place, they assume a very pale colour, like the
leaves of the Hornbeam, Birch, and the Willows.

But the transfer of the nutrient matter from leaf to stem or root is
accompanied by numerous chemical changes by which new compounds are
formed. Among these new substances a dark blue compound called
anthocyanin is produced in some plants; and where this exists in
considerable quantities we find the leaves of a dark bluish-green
colour, like that of the autumn foliage of the Pine.

Acids are also sometimes formed as a result of the complicated chemical
changes that take place during the transfer above described; and these
react on the anthocyanin present, changing its colour to a tint that
varies according to the proportion and quantity in which they exist.

Thus, if anthocyanin is present, together with a small amount of acid,
the leaves are turned violet, as in the case of the autumn leaves of the
Dogwood and the Spindle Tree; or purple, like those of the Service Tree.
A larger proportion of acid produces, with the anthocyanin, the brownish
green tint of the Alder leaves; or the brownish yellow of the Oak; while
still larger proportions will turn the anthocyanin yellow, orange, red,
or scarlet, according to the quantity in which the latter is present.
Thus we can account for the rich yellow of the Maple in autumn, the
orange of the Aspen leaves, the beautiful scarlet tints of the Mountain
Ash and the Barberry, and the grand display of varied colours exhibited
by the autumn Beeches.

Again, before the leaves are shed, the buds that are destined to produce
the new branches of the following spring are already formed. These may
be seen on all deciduous trees and shrubs, some of them in the axils of
the leaves, and others at the tips of the present twigs. Each bud is the
embryo branch of the following year. Some of them are destined to
produce leafy branches only; some are to develop into branches bearing
both floral leaves and flowers; while others are to produce flowers
without floral leaves; and it is interesting to note that, even at this
stage, sections of the buds, examined with the aid of a microscope, will
reveal the future leaves and flowers compactly concealed within their
scaly, protective coverings.

In October we may see the well-formed catkins of the Birch that are to
bloom in the following April, in company with the ripe fruiting catkins
of the present year. The Alder also bears its catkins that are to flower
five months later, together with the woody remains of the female catkins
of the previous spring; and the Hazel may be seen with its ripe nuts and
its future flowers both on the same twig.

[Illustration: THE ALDER IN AUTUMN, WITH THE CATKINS WHICH MATURE IN THE
FOLLOWING SPRING.]

The leaves, having manufactured the materials necessary for the
formation of the buds that are to produce the leaves and flowers of the
following year, and then transferred their remaining store of nutrient
matter to a suitable storehouse for the winter, are now practically
empty and lifeless. Had they remained alive and active, they would have
endangered the life of the tree by giving off more moisture than could
be replaced by the inactive roots. In their present, lifeless condition
they are useless to the tree; but by falling to the ground, and
decomposing where they lie, they improve the soil by the addition of
organic matter as well as of the mineral salts they contained.

In countries where a moderate temperature is maintained throughout the
year, the growth of plants and trees goes on without interruption, and
the fall of the leaf is hardly noticeable; for the older leaves die and
fall one by one, as they become incapable of performing their functions
for want of light, and new ones are being continuously formed close to
the tips of the twigs. But where the growth is interrupted, either in
hot countries during periods of drought, or in temperate countries by
the approach of a cold season, the whole of the foliage is shed within a
short period, and new leaves as suddenly appear when favourable
conditions return.

In our own latitudes, as we all know, the defoliation of the trees is
caused by the approach of cold weather, which decreases the activity of
the roots, so that the leaves become dry and lifeless. It is very
commonly supposed that the fall of the leaf is caused by frost; but this
is not the case. The leaves are shed during the cool days of autumn,
even though the temperature does not fall to freezing point; but it is
equally certain that the leaf-fall is accelerated by the frost when it
comes, for the little moisture remaining in the leaves is then frozen,
rendering the structures so brittle that they are easily snapped by the
wind.

The real cause of the rupture of the leaf is the formation of what is
called the '_separation layer_.' This consists of soft, succulent cells,
really in several layers, which are formed across the leaf-stalk,
usually at the base, where the bundles of vessels passing from the twig
to the leaf are narrower. The walls of these cells are thin, and are
easily separated; and as they extend inwards from the surface all round,
they break through the old cells, thus weakening the junction. When the
growth of the separation layer is complete, it requires very little
force to break off the leaf, and the process is aided by the formation
of certain organic acids which act on the cell-walls, causing them to
dissolve; and when the leaf has finally separated from the twig, it will
be found that the scar left is a clean-cut surface, such as would be
produced by the incision of a sharp knife.

The recognition of the above facts introduces to us a difficulty for
which we can find no explanation:--If the leaf-fall is not caused by
frost, but by certain structural alterations that take place in the tree
itself, how are we to account for the fact that the tree produces the
changes which are necessary for its own preservation every year, just at
the proper season? Plants and trees do not foresee the coming period of
cold weather that necessitates the performance of the functions which
they execute, and yet they instinctively prepare for the winter in the
manner described above.

Our autumn observations teach us that there are interesting differences
in the times and progress of leaf-fall of different species of trees,
and also of trees of the same species when exposed to different external
conditions. On open ground, where the trees are fully exposed both to
the sun's rays and to the cool autumn breezes, the leaves lose their
moisture and fall earlier than would the same species in more sheltered
situations; and they retain their moisture and position latest in damp,
shady woods. On high hills, where the exposure is extreme, the leaves,
which, by the way, do not appear till late in the spring, fall early on
account of the low temperature, and consequent decrease of root
activity, in the autumn.

Further, we note that while in some trees, such as the Ash, Hornbeam,
Beech and Hazel, the leaves fall first at the tips of the branches, and
the defoliation extends fairly regularly towards the trunk, in other
species, including Willows, Poplars, and the Lime, the branches become
bare first at their bases, and finally at their tips.

Even during the depths of winter we may see a number of dead leaves
still attached to the twigs of certain trees, notably the Oak and the
Beech; but where we find practically all the foliage remaining on the
tree or on special branches of a tree, we may generally assume that the
tree, or the branches in question, are dead--that they died during the
summer, before the separation layers of the leaves had been formed. We
can also understand, from what has been said, why the dead leaves remain
attached to a cut branch, and yet fall from the living tree from which
it was severed.

In our own country some plants and trees retain their leaves throughout
the year, so that we speak of them as evergreens. Many of these include
herbaceous plants of a hardy nature, some of which remain fresh and
green even in exposed situations, while others grow in more sheltered
places. In either case they are plants whose roots remain more or less
active in the cold season; and some of them, especially the evergreen
shrubs, have rather thick leaves which contain a considerable quantity
of sap, and which are surrounded by an outer covering or epidermis that
does not allow the water within to pass out so readily as in the case of
the deciduous leaves.

In addition to the observations previously mentioned, we should do well,
at this season of the year, to study the autumn fruits of our trees and
shrubs, most of which still remain attached to the twigs.

[Illustration: THE ASH IN AUTUMN, WITH ITS 'KEYS.']

Some of these fruits lose most of their moisture as they ripen, thus
becoming very light, and are provided with wings that cause them to be
dispersed more or less by the wind.

The so-called 'keys' of the Ash are one-seeded fruits, extended at the
end into a long, narrow wing with a slight twist. As a result of this
peculiarity they usually fall less rapidly to the ground, spinning as
they descend, and are thus carried farther than they otherwise would be
by the wind. The fruits of the Sycamore and the Maple are somewhat
similarly winged, and each of these consist of two carpels which
separate sooner or later--generally after they have reached the ground.

[Illustration: THE MAPLE IN FRUIT.]

On the Birch trees we may now see the ripe female catkins, consisting of
hundreds of minute fruits, closely packed together, each provided with a
wing on either side. They are very light, and easily blown a
considerable distance by the wind; and late in the autumn we may observe
the stalks of the catkins, from which some of the fruits have been
blown, still on the trees.

The wings that thus aid in the dispersion of fruits are not always part
of the fruit itself. In the Hornbeam it is a three-lobed, persistent
bract that performs this function; and the fruits of the Lime are also
blown away by the aid of a large bract from the middle of which the
fruit-stalk projects.

[Illustration: THE WAYFARING TREE, IN FRUIT.]

Some of our trees present a glorious aspect during the autumn months,
displaying conspicuous and more or less brightly-coloured fruits in
combination with the varied autumn tints of their leaves. The red
foliage of the Mountain Ash or Rowan is accompanied by the still
brighter clusters of scarlet fruits--little apple-like pomes, about the
size of holly 'berries'; and the Wayfaring Tree bears pretty clusters of
flattened, oval, one-seeded berries which are first red, and then nearly
black. The Guelder Rose, while still in full leaf, is often very heavily
laden with its bright red, semi-transparent berries; and the violet
foliage of the Dogwood is intermingled with clusters of little
berry-like drupes which, at first green, have now changed to a rich
purple-black. Then there is the Spindle Tree, with its pretty red lobed
capsules which split, when ripe, at its angles, disclosing as many cells
as there are lobes (usually four), each with a single seed enclosed in
an orange jacket. Occasionally we meet with the Strawberry Tree, during
early autumn, bearing both flower and fruit at the same time. This tree
flowers in September and October, but the fruits which accompany the
flowers are those of the previous year, for they require more than
twelve months to come to maturity. The fruit is a large berry, of an
orange-red colour, with a granulated surface that gives it somewhat the
appearance of the strawberry. It should be mentioned that the
Strawberry Tree is not indigenous to England, and is seldom seen outside
parks and gardens; but it grows wild in Ireland, and is very abundant
round Killarney and in other parts.

In conclusion, we must note one autumn flower of the woods which is
exceedingly common--that of the Ivy (_Hedera Helix_), belonging to the
order _Araliaceæ_. The Ivy is an evergreen climber, fixing itself by
means of little rootlike suckers attached to the main stem and its
branches, while the lower branches trail along the ground. The leaves
are thick and glossy, usually of a deep green colour, but often
beautifully variegated. Those attached to the trailing and climbing
stems have three or five lobes, are always turned with one surface
towards the light, and are so arranged as to obtain the maximum of
light, the less exposed leaves below catching the rays which pass
between the lobes of those which are more favourably situated.

[Illustration: THE STRAWBERRY TREE IN FLOWER, WITH THE FRUITS (ALMOST
RIPE) OF THE PREVIOUS YEAR.]

The branches of the tree do not, as a rule, produce flowers as long as
they are able to climb; but as soon as they reach the summit of the tree
or wall to which they cling, or reach a situation where there is a
sufficient abundance of light and air, they change their character in a
remarkable way. They now become bushy, cease to produce suckers, and
give rise to undivided leaves that turn in all directions for light and
air. At the tip of each twig is formed a cluster of yellowish-green
flowers, arranged in a short raceme or in an umbel. These flowers have
an inconspicuous calyx which forms a border round the middle of the
ovary, and five short petals. There are also five stamens, and united
styles. The fruit is a smooth, black berry, containing from two to five
seeds.



XXIII

PARASITIC PLANTS


A number of plants extract more or less of the organic material they
require from other plants, and thus save themselves the labour of
building up this material themselves. These are termed parasites; but we
must be careful to distinguish between them and certain other plants
which, though apparently parasitic, are not really so. One plant may
climb on another, perhaps even producing "rootlets" by which it clings
to its living support, and yet it may not be a parasite in the proper
sense of the term, for it may not absorb the slightest amount of
nutritious matter except from the soil and the air. It is not at all
uncommon for the Honeysuckle to twine its stems round the trunk and
branches of a young tree, with the result that the tree becomes stunted,
and assumes a starved appearance, especially in its lower parts; and yet
the Honeysuckle is not a parasite. It has withdrawn nothing from the
tree which supports it, but has coiled itself so tightly round it as to
interfere with the circulation of its sap. The lower part of the tree is
especially affected because the strangulating coils of the climber
prevent the downward flow of the sap contained in the vessels of the
bast or inner bark, and this is the sap which holds the constructive
materials that have been built up in the leaves, under the influence of
light.

Many of the parasitic plants are of microscopic dimensions, and others
are larger species belonging to the Fungi or Mushroom group. Some,
however, are flowering plants, and these only fall within the scope of
our work.

We shall first deal with parasites which have no green leaves or
chlorophyll, and are therefore entirely dependent on outside sources for
their supply of organic material, starting with the interesting Dodders
(_Cuscuta_), which coil themselves round herbs, shrubs, or even trees,
and produce sucking organs on their stems that come in contact with
their host.

These are all smooth plants, with globular clusters of yellowish-pink
flowers, the calyx being of the same colour as the corolla. The former
is deeply divided into four or five parts, and the corolla has four or
five spreading lobes with as many scales inside its broad tube. The
ovary has two distinct styles, and the fruit is a globular capsule. The
following summary of distinguishing features will enable the reader to
identify the British species of the genus:--

1. The Greater Dodder (_Cuscuta europæa_).--A plant of a greenish yellow
colour, generally more or less tinged with red, with flowers in sessile,
globular clusters nearly half an inch in diameter, each individual
flower being about a tenth of an inch. This species is not abundant. It
may be met with in hop-fields, and is also parasitic on nettles, various
shrubs, and trees, including the elder and the ash.

2. The Flax Dodder (_C. Epilinum_).--Very much like _C. europæa_, but
the flowers are fewer in number, larger, and more fleshy. The calyx is
nearly as long as the corolla, with sharply-pointed segments; and the
corolla tube is always globular. This species is not indigenous, but is
sometimes met with in flax-fields.

3. The Lesser Dodder (_C. Epithymum_).--A more slender plant, with
thread-like stems, and flowers in small, compact, globular heads, with
red calyx and cylindrical corolla. This species occurs principally on
sunny heaths, where it is parasitic on shrubby plants, such as thyme and
ling. It is much more common than the foregoing.

4. The Clover Dodder (_C. Trifolii_).--Very much like the Lesser Dodder,
of which it is sometimes regarded as a variety. Its calyx is of a very
pale colour, and is almost as long as the tube of the corolla, which is
cylindrical in form. It is rare, but sometimes appears in undesirable
numbers in clover fields.

All the species produce their flowers in August and September, but _C.
europæa_ may often be seen in bloom very early in July.

The seeds of the Dodder fall from the opened capsules during late summer
and early autumn, alighting on the soil, or on the decomposing foliage
that covers the ground, or on the rough barks of the tree that served as
a host for the parasitic plant. The seeds of many other plants fall
about the same time, but those of the Dodder do not begin to germinate
until about a month later than the majority of these, in the following
season, and consequently the young Dodder plants do not appear before
their future hosts have had time to grow sufficiently large to support
and nourish them. Perennial plants, too, which are attacked by the
Dodder, have also produced strong shoots and leaves from their roots or
underground stems by the time that the parasite begins its search for
ready-made organic food; and it is clear that if the Dodder seeds
germinated earlier in the season, the young plants would starve for want
of suitable herbs to give them support and nourishment.

[Illustration: GREATER DODDER, ON NETTLE--A COMPLETE PLANT.]

When the seed germinates it sends out a filament which penetrates into
the soil and fixes the seedling firmly. The other end grows upward,
carrying up with it a little swollen mass of food-reserve, sufficient to
support the growing seedling until it has had some chance of reaching a
suitable host. The upper end of the seedling now sends out a filament
which rapidly elongates, and, growing upward, searches for some stem on
which to climb.

All this time the little mass of food-reserve is being rapidly
exhausted, and if the young seedling fails to reach a suitable plant on
which to climb it soon dies, for its lower extremity is unable to absorb
sufficient food material from the soil; and the plant itself, having no
chlorophyll, cannot decompose carbonic acid gas and build up organic
material to add to its substance.

[Illustration: THE CLOVER DODDER, WITH A SEPARATE CLUSTER OF FLOWERS
REPRESENTING THE NATURAL SIZE.]

Again, should the young plant fail to reach a favourable support, so
that it is of necessity compelled to trail along the ground, the
filaments which would soon produce suckers when attached to a living
plant have no power to form any structures capable of extracting food
material from a damp soil.

Circumstances being more favourable, however, the upper filament
eventually finds a stem, and immediately begins to twine itself round
it, making a few close coils in a clockwise direction. Should the
support prove to be a dead stem, little wartlike swellings are produced
at points where the two touch, and these serve as a means of attachment
for the climbing filament, but no suckers are formed. If, however, the
filament surrounds a living stem, each of the swellings gives rise to
suckers that penetrate into the tissues of the latter, and withdraw the
organic food necessary for the continued existence of the plant.

The Dodder now grows rapidly, giving off branches which search in all
directions for additional supports, sometimes climbing from one plant to
another, and producing new suckers whenever a favourable situation has
been reached. The plant has now all it requires both in the way of
mechanical support and nourishment, and its lower part, thus rendered
useless, soon withers, breaking all connexion with the soil on which the
seed originally germinated. New branches continue to form, each one
producing additional suckers for the extraction of food from the host or
hosts, until a tangled mass of clinging stems is the result. Then the
globular clusters of little flowers appear, followed by balls of small
capsules which throw off their lids when ripe, allowing the seeds to be
shaken out by the wind. The Dodder plant now withers, leaving, in the
autumn, its dead tangles of climbing filaments still attached to the
withered herbs on which it fed, or to the branches of the tree which
served as its host.

Other parasitic plants possessing no chlorophyll, and therefore
incapable of building up organic compounds for themselves, derive their
food from the roots of trees and shrubs.

Among these is the Toothwort (_Lathræa_), which is carnivorous as well
as parasitic, and is described in our chapter (XXIV) dealing with
carnivorous plants, so that we need only refer here to its habit as a
parasite.

The seed of this plant germinates on the damp ground to which it falls
in early summer. The young root penetrates into the soil, deriving its
nourishment entirely from the food reserve that was stored up in the
seed, and soon sends out lateral branches in search of the roots of a
suitable host. If it fails to attain this end by the time that the
reserve is exhausted, it dies; but if it succeeds in reaching the root
of an Elm, Hazel, Hornbeam, Ash, Poplar, or other tree, it fastens
itself to it, and develops suckers which penetrate into the substance of
the root to extract its sap. The parasite now grows very rapidly,
producing its underground stems, with their fleshy, overlapping scales,
as described on p. 352.

The Broomrapes of the same order (_Orobanchaceæ_) are very similar in
their parasitic habits to the Toothwort, and, like the latter, they
possess no chlorophyll. The seeds germinate on the damp soil, producing
a long, narrow embryo that grows downward into the ground until it
reaches the root of some herb or shrub. It then gives off suckers which
penetrate into the root, and, with the aid of the organic food thus
obtained, forms a tuberous swelling on its surface. Flowering stems are
afterwards produced, and these, rising above the soil, bear terminal
spikes of lipped flowers, followed by capsules containing many seeds.

[Illustration: THE GREAT BROOMRAPE.]

There are several British species of this genus (_Orobanche_), and their
flowering stems, which are usually unbranched, produce scale-like leaves
of the same colour as themselves. Each flower of the spike is in the
axil of a bract resembling the scales of the lower part of the stem; and
in some species there is a pair of smaller bracts close to the base of
the calyx. The corolla is either tubular or bell-shaped, and more or
less distinctly lipped. Each flower has four stamens, arranged in pairs,
and a two-lobed stigma. The following outline of leading features will
serve for the identification of the common Broomrapes:--

1. The Great Broomrape (_O. Rapum_).--A plant from twelve to eighteen
inches high, of a pale yellow colour at first, but afterwards turning to
a dull purple brown. Stem thick, especially below, and unbranched.
Scales lanceolate. Flowers sessile, whitish, with only one bract,
forming a spike from six to nine inches long. This species is moderately
common, and is parasitic on the roots of Furze and Broom. Time of
flowering--May to July.

2. The Clove Broomrape (_O. caryophyllacea_).--Very similar to the Great
Broomrape in colour, but usually smaller, and easily distinguished by
the sweet clove-like scent of its flowers. Spike not so dense as in the
last species, and the corolla tube not so broad. The plant is not
uncommon in the southern counties of England. It is parasitic on the
roots of the Great Hedge Bedstraw, and flowers from May to July.

3. The Tall Broomrape (_O. elatior_).--Also much like the Great
Broomrape, of which it is perhaps a variety. It retains its original
yellowish colour for a longer period, and is parasitic on the Great
Knapweed, flowering from June to August.

4. The Least Broomrape (_O. minor_).--A yellow or pale brown plant, from
six inches to over a foot in height, more slender than the preceding
species, with smaller flowers. The flowers are whitish, but more or less
tinged with purple, and bloom from June to October. It is parasitic on a
number of different plants, including the Ivy, Clovers, Hawkweed, Wild
Carrot, &c., and is found in many districts in South and Central
England.

       *       *       *       *       *

We have now to consider those parasites which bear leaves possessing
chlorophyll granules, and are therefore able to build up a portion of
the organic compounds necessary for their development. Most of these, at
least as far as the British flowering species are concerned, have also
true roots which grow into the soil and absorb mineral food, like those
of the non-parasitic plants allied to them, so that it is difficult to
understand why they should require the additional nourishment stolen
from the roots of neighbouring plants. One, however, the well-known
Mistletoe, grows on trees at a distance from the ground, and therefore
obtains the whole of its food, with the exception of carbonic acid gas,
direct from its host.

This plant--the Mistletoe (_Viscum album_), of the order
_Loranthaceæ_--is attached to the tree on which it grows by a thick stem
that becomes woody when old. Its branches are of a yellowish-green
colour, and are repeatedly forked in such a manner as to form a dense
tuft that often reaches a diameter of two feet or more. The leaves are
of the same colour as the branches, and are rather thick and fleshy. The
flowers grow in the forks of the branches, on very short stalks, and are
imperfect, the males and females being on separate plants. The former
are in clusters of about three or four, in a cuplike, fleshy bract, each
flower having four thick, triangular petals with an anther on the
middle. The females are either solitary or in clusters of two or three,
with a similar bract, and very small petals. The fruit is a white,
glutinous berry, almost transparent, with only one seed.

The Mistletoe grows on a variety of trees, including the Apple, Pear,
Black Poplar, and Oak; and thrives most luxuriantly on those which have
a soft tissue beneath the bark. It is found principally in the southern
and western counties of England, and flowers from March to May.

[Illustration: MISTLETOE.]

There is no doubt but that the seeds of the Mistletoe are distributed
from tree to tree by the agency of birds, especially the thrushes, which
devour the berries in large numbers. The seed of the berry is protected
by a covering which remains quite untouched by the digestive fluids of
the bird, and consequently it is expelled intact with the excrement, and
frequently drops to a branch of the tree, where it lodges in a crevice
of the bark, and is securely fixed in its place by the slimy excrement
in which it is embedded.

Here the seed germinates, sending out a little rootlet that always turns
towards the bark on which it rests, and subsists for a time on the
food-reserve that it contains. When the young root reaches the bark it
becomes flattened against the surface, and spreads out, forming a disc
that holds the seedling firmly to the tree.

A projection (the _sinker_) is then sent inwards from the disc, and this
penetrates the bark, reaching the wood beneath, but does not enter the
latter. This terminates the growth of the seedling for the first year,
but as soon as the warm weather of the following spring commences, the
sinker begins to spread over the surface of the outer ring of wood,
while at the same time a new annual ring of wood begins to form
outside, thus surrounding and banking in the sinker. It would appear, on
making a section of the tree, as if the sinker had actually pushed its
growth through the outer ring of wood, whereas it does not penetrate the
wood at all, but is only banked up by the new wood that grows round it.
This is repeated year by year, until the sinker is at last quite deeply
set in the branch, being surrounded by the wood of several annual rings.

[Illustration: A YOUNG MISTLETOE PLANT ON THE BRANCH OF A TREE. The
branch is cut longitudinally to show the suckers.]

During the second year's growth the sinker sends out little roots which
run up and down the stem, beneath the bark, and these give rise to new
sinkers that grow down to the surface of the wood, and become, in turn,
embedded in the new layers of wood that form round them. And while the
young Mistletoe plant is thus securing a firm hold on its host, and
withdrawing ready-made organic compounds from its sap, the outer green
stem develops, and soon gives rise to the first pair of leaves.

If food is obtained in abundance, as is the case when the host is a tree
of a soft and sappy nature, the growth is rather rapid; but otherwise
the development is comparatively slow. In any case the age of the
parasite may be ascertained by counting the number of annual rings of
wood that lie outside the deepest sinker; and by this means it has been
found that the Mistletoe may attain an age of over thirty years.

We have now to consider a group of plants, the parasitic habits of which
would scarcely be suspected by an ordinary observer. They are green
plants, with well-developed foliage leaves, and true roots which absorb
mineral food from the soil. Their seedlings grow in the same way as
those of non-parasitic species, deriving no nourishment from
neighbouring plants, but obtaining all their food from the air and the
soil, and building up all the organic compounds required for their
growth by the agency of their own chlorophyll.

It is difficult to understand why these plants should afterwards produce
suckers on their roots in order to obtain nourishment from other
species, but they do this, and experiments have proved that the food
thus obtained is more or less essential to their development. Some of
them die while still young if grown apart from other species, and the
others, under similar conditions, though they reach what we may term the
adult stage, remain somewhat weak and stunted, and produce but few
flowers and fruits.

Most of the plants referred to belong to the order _Scrophulariaceæ_,
and among them we may mention the Eyebright (_Euphrasia_), the Yellow
Rattle (_Rhinanthus_), the Cow-wheat (_Melampyrum_), and the Lousewort
(_Pedicularis_). They generally appear in large numbers close together,
often in such abundance as to determine the general colour of the ground
on which they grow, and yet they do not apparently cause much damage to
the grass and other plants which they rob.

These green parasites are described in various chapters, according to
their habitats and their flowering seasons; so we shall do no more here
than to briefly refer to their parasitic habits.

The Eyebright (p. 274) grows on heaths and downs, where it
derives organic food from the roots of the neighbouring grasses. The
Lousewort, too (p. 118), which grows in marshes and moist
meadows, is parasitic principally on the roots of grasses, apparently
without affecting the latter. The last-named species is a perennial, the
roots of which have to find hosts that are capable of supporting it year
by year. If the host of the present year should happen to die in the
autumn, the suckers that were attached to its roots soon die, and the
parasite has to seek a new source of supply. This it does by extending
its roots until it reaches a new host, and then producing new suckers.
Thus we are able to understand the origin of the long roots so often
seen on the Lousewort, and also the reason why these roots never grow
downwards into the soil, but always horizontally, just beneath the
surface. Further, since the roots extend themselves in search of food at
times when the supply is temporarily diminished or stopped, it is clear
that some reserve is necessary for the elongation referred to. Such a
reserve exists in the older, thick portion of the perennial root, near
the base of the stem.

In the case of the Cow-wheat (p. 146) no suckers are produced
until the lateral branches of the root of the seedling reach a moderate
length; but in order to increase the chances of finding a suitable host
these branches are developed in large numbers, and extend themselves in
all directions. The suckers produced on them cling very firmly to the
root-fibres of the host, which they almost completely embrace.

The suckers of the Yellow Rattle (p. 118) are globular, often
nearly one-eighth of an inch in diameter, and partly surround the
root-fibres of the plants to which they are attached.



XXIV

CARNIVOROUS PLANTS


Quite a number of plants, belonging to different orders, are provided
with the means of capturing small animals, and of digesting their prey
and absorbing the nutrient matter thus obtained into their own systems.
In this way they are enabled to obtain nitrogenous material which, in
the ordinary way, is absorbed in the form of mineral solutions, from the
soil, by the agency of the roots. The greater number of these
carnivorous plants are to be found in tropical lands; but a few are
British, and are of such an interesting nature that we propose to devote
a short chapter to a description of their peculiar structure and habits.

The plants to which we refer are often spoken of as insectivorous
species; but although in nearly all cases the animal food consists
almost entirely of insects, it is not entirely derived from this one
group of animal life, and therefore the term carnivorous is rather more
appropriate.

In pools we sometimes meet with floating plants that have no true roots,
at least at the time of flowering, but consist of a tuft of long,
rootlike, submerged branches, bearing much-divided leaves, and sending
leafless stalks of yellow flowers above the surface of the water. These
plants are the Bladderworts (_Utricularia_), of the order
_Lentibulaceæ_, and are so called because they have little air-bladders
either attached to the leaves or supported on leafless branches.

The leaves are divided into numerous very narrow segments, thus
presenting a proportionately large amount of surface to the water for
the absorption of dissolved gases required by the plant; and the flowers
consist of a deeply two-lobed calyx; a spurred corolla, with its mouth
closed or nearly closed by means of a convex 'palate'; two stamens; and
a one-celled ovary that ripens into a globular fruit.

[Illustration: THE GREATER BLADDER-WORT.]

As to the little air-bladders mentioned above, they form, perhaps, the
most interesting feature of the plant, for they are the traps by means
of which small aquatic creatures are caught, and also the organs
concerned in the absorption of nutritive products derived from the prey.
Each bladder has an opening, guarded by a kind of valve which allows
easy ingress, but no exit. It does not seem to produce any secretion
which would hasten the death of the creatures entrapped, nor does it
appear to produce any kind of digestive fluid, as is the case with other
carnivorous plants; but small aquatic creatures, such as water-fleas,
cyclops, very small larvæ, &c., entering the bladders for shelter or
some other purpose, are securely imprisoned until they die of starvation
or suffocation; and their bodies then decay, giving rise to soluble
gases and other products which are absorbed into the plant by special
cells within the bladder.

There are three British species of these plants--the Greater, the
Lesser, and the Intermediate Bladder-worts. The first of
these--_Utricularia vulgaris_--is rather local in its distribution, and
is easily distinguished from the other two by its superior size, having
floating branches from a few inches to a foot in length. The second (_U.
minor_) is much more common. Its floating branches are only two or three
inches long at the time of flowering, but they grow longer after; and
the flowers are pale yellow, with a short, broad spur. The third (_U.
intermedia_), which is very local, has also pale yellow flowers, but
with a much longer spur; and the bladders are at the ends of leafless
branches.

In the preceding chapter we gave an account of certain plants which are
parasitic on other plants and trees, deriving more or less of their
nutriment from their vegetable hosts. One of these--the Tooth-wort
(_Lathræa squamaria_), of the order _Orobanchaceæ_--is not only a
parasite, deriving nourishment from the roots of trees, but is also a
carnivorous species, feeding on minute animals which are captured and
digested by its peculiar leaves; and therefore it may be conveniently
considered here.

The whole plant is of a fleshy character, and lives entirely
underground, attached to the roots of the Hazel, Elm, or other tree,
except during April and May, when it sends up thick flowering stems,
from four to ten inches high, bearing a few broad, fleshy scales which
gradually pass into bracts, and a one-sided spike or raceme of flowers.
The stem and scales above ground are of a pale rose colour, and the
flowers are either brown, flesh-colour or slightly bluish. The latter
are numerous, closely placed, and either sessile or shortly stalked. The
calyx is bell-shaped, nearly half an inch long, with four broad lobes;
and the corolla, which is about half as long again as the calyx, is
distinctly lipped.

[Illustration: LONGITUDINAL SECTION (ENLARGED) THROUGH A LEAF OF THE
TOOTH-WORT.]

The whole plant is devoid of chlorophyll, and consequently has not the
power of building up organic compounds after the manner of green plants;
and, being parasitic on the roots of trees, it derives but little
organic material from its host. To compensate for this the underground
portion is so constructed that it can capture minute animals which exist
in the soil, and has the power of digesting them and of absorbing the
products of digestion.

The underground stems are quite white, and are thickly covered with
broad, cordate, fleshy leaves that closely overlap one another. There
appears to be nothing very remarkable in these underground leaves until
one has been removed from the stem and closely examined; and then we
find that what appears to be the apex of the leaf is really its middle;
and that what seems to be, at first sight, the under surface, is really
an extension of the upper side; for the leaf is bent backwards in such a
manner as to bring its apex close to the stem, immediately below its
base. This peculiar folding of the leaf results in the formation of an
irregular cavity, and the tip of the leaf, brought close to its base, is
curled upward, close to the stem, in such a way as to form a little
canal, with several small openings by which the cavity may be reached.
It will not be easy to make out this strange folding of the leaf by an
examination of the exterior only, but a longitudinal section, made with
a sharp knife or razor, will show it clearly.

[Illustration: COMMON BUTTERWORT.]

When minute animals enter the cavity of the leaf through the little
openings above mentioned, they are seized by means of small filaments
that protrude from the lining cells; and although no special digestive
secretion has been discovered in the leaves, it appears certain that the
creatures entrapped are really dissolved, for nothing remains of them
after a time except the harder, indigestible portions. Also, there is
every reason to believe that the products of digestion are absorbed,
probably by the same filaments that are concerned in the capture of the
microscopic prey.

Perhaps the most interesting of the carnivorous plants are those which
exhibit distinct movements in connexion with the capture of their prey,
and among these are the British Butterworts and Sundews, which grow in
bogs and other wet places.

There are three British species of Butterwort (_Pinguicula_), similar in
structure and habit, all growing in bogs and on wet rocks. They have
each a rosette of entire, radical leaves, the lowest of which lie close
against the soil or rock on which the plant grows; and violet or yellow
flowers on leafless peduncles. The calyx has four or five teeth,
arranged in two lips; and the corolla, which is also lipped, has a
broad, open throat, and a spur.

The commonest species is the Common Butterwort (_P. vulgaris_), which is
found in bogs and wet places, principally in the hilly, humid districts
of the West of Britain and Ireland, flowering from May to July. Its
leaves are succulent and clammy, of a pale green colour, and covered all
over with little glistening spots. The flower stems are three or four
inches high, each bearing a single violet flower. In this species the
throat of the corolla is bell-shaped, and the spur is as long as the
rest of the corolla.

A second species--the Alpine Butterwort (_P. alpina_)--with smaller,
pale yellow flowers appearing in June and July, is found only in
Scotland; while a third, known as the Pale Butterwort (_P. lusitanica_),
also with pale yellow flowers, and a curved spur, occurs in South-West
England as well as in the boggy districts of Ireland and the West of
Scotland, flowering from June to October.

The carnivorous habits of all species are the same. The horizontal
leaves lie flat on the wet soil, with their margins turned upward
forming a kind of shallow trough; and the upper surface of each is
dotted with many hundreds of minute glands which secrete a colourless,
sticky fluid, thus giving to the leaf its glistening and clammy
appearance.

If any mineral or other non-nutritious substance be placed on a leaf,
the contact stimulates the little glands, causing them to discharge a
larger quantity of fluid, but no change seems to take place in the
character or composition of the secretion. But if any nitrogenous
organic substance, such as an insect or a small piece of meat, be
brought in contact with the glands, not only will the secretion increase
in quantity, but it will also assume an acid character, and contain a
ferment which is capable of digesting the nitrogenous material. In fact,
the secretion produced under these circumstances possesses the same
properties as the gastric fluid of the stomachs of animals.

The animal food of the Butterworts consists of small insects and other
little creatures. If an insect alights on the leaf, it is caught by the
sticky secretion of the glands, and every effort to escape causes it to
become more and more besmeared with the mucilage, till, at last, it is
no longer able to move; and its death is probably hastened by the
stoppage of its spiracles or breathing-holes.

If the insect is a small one, and it settles near the edge of the leaf,
the curved margin slowly bends over it until it is more or less
enclosed, and the larger number of glands thus brought in contact with
its body pour out their digestive secretion, which slowly dissolves the
nourishing portions, leaving nothing but the legs, wings, and other
indigestible parts. A larger insect, alighting similarly near the edge
of the leaf, could hardly be enclosed by the bending of the margin near
it; but it is pushed towards the middle as the edge curls over, and then
the opposite side also bends over it, till the insect is more or less
enclosed, when it is digested as mentioned above.

The digestion of an insect and the absorption of nutrient matter by the
cells of the leaf occupy from twenty to thirty hours, and when the whole
is accomplished the leaf slowly expands, assuming its normal position,
and exposing the indigestible residue of its prey to be blown away or
washed off by the rain.

It has been observed that the Butterworts are not exclusively animal
feeders, for their leaves readily digest any pollen cells or the spores
of the lower plants that are carried to them by the wind.

[Illustration: THE ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW.]

Equally interesting are the habits of the Sundew (_Drosera_), of which
there are three species, all readily distinguished from every other
British plant by the glandular hairs that cover the long-stalked,
radical leaves. They have leafless flower-stalks, each bearing a
one-sided spike or raceme of white flowers. The sepals, petals, and
stamens each number five; and the ovary, which ripens into a one-celled
capsule of three or four valves, has three or four forked styles.

The commonest species--the Round-leaved Sundew (_Drosera
rotundifolia_)--is abundant and widely distributed, and may be seen
among the bog-mosses, sometimes almost completely covering rather large
patches of marshland. Its leaves are round, from a quarter of an inch to
near half an inch in diameter, spreading in such a manner that they lie
close to or near the ground. The flower-stems are slender, erect, from
three to six inches long; and the white flowers, which are in a
one-sided raceme, bloom during July and August.

The Long-leaved Sundew (_D. longifolia_ or _D. intermedia_) has oval
leaves, tapering gradually into the stalk. They are more erect than the
leaves of the last species, and are not half so broad as they are long.
The plant flowers at the same time as the latter, but is not nearly so
common.

The third species--the Great English Sundew (_D. anglica_)--is still
rarer. Its leaves are still longer and narrower, being sometimes an inch
or more in length, and more erect; and the flower-stalk sometimes
attains a length of eight inches.

The carnivorous habits of these plants are very similar to those of the
Butterworts, but the movements connected with the capture of the prey
are more marked in the red filaments which cover the upper surface of
the leaves than in the leaves themselves. Those filaments which are
situated on the margin of the leaf are longest, and spread outwards,
while the others are erect and decrease in length from the edge towards
the middle.

Each filament is swollen at its extremity, and supports an enticing
globule of glistening fluid which it secretes, for the enlarged
extremity is really a minute gland. The fluid, though quite clear, is so
viscid that it can be drawn out into threads, and it serves a purpose
similar to that of the sticky globules on the spiral thread of a
spider's web.

If some grains of sand or other inorganic material be sprinkled on the
leaf, the sticky secretion of the glands is appreciably increased, and
at the same time assumes an acid character; but it contains no digestive
ferment, nor do the filaments change their position to any considerable
extent. When, however, a small insect alights on the leaf, attracted by
the glistening drops which are probably mistaken for nectar, the
secretion not only increases and becomes acid, but a digestive ferment
is produced, and the little creature is soon besmeared with the fluid,
its condition becoming more and more hopeless through its struggles,
till at last further movements are impossible and it dies of
suffocation.

A few minutes later the filaments of the leaf immediately around the
insect begin to bend towards it, and others a little farther off soon
partake in the movement, which may finally extend more or less to all
the filaments of the leaf, and thus a large number of glands are brought
in contact with the prey. The process of digestion now goes on, and, in
a day or two, all the digestible portions of the insect are dissolved
and absorbed, and the filaments that were concerned in the work have
resumed their original position, leaving the indigestible portions to
dry and to be eventually blown away.

The principal food of the Sundews consists of small insects such as
ants, midges, flies, small butterflies and moths, caddis-flies, and even
small species of dragon-flies. Some of these, more particularly the
long-bodied dragon-flies, the smallest of which are over an inch in
length, are much too large to be caught and devoured by a single leaf;
and in this case it is not at all uncommon for two or more leaves to be
concerned in the capture and digestion of a single insect, each one
converging its filaments towards the part of the body within its reach,
and each one digesting and absorbing the portion against which it can
apply its glands.

Insects, however, do not constitute the sole food of these plants, for
small worms, spiders, centipedes, &c., are caught and digested in the
manner described; and the plants may also be fed artificially on small
pieces of meat or other nitrogenous substances, which give rise to the
same processes and movements as we have observed in connection with the
natural mode of feeding.



LIST OF FLOWERS

CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR HABITATS AND HABITS


The following list of wild flowers, classified according to their habits
and principal habitats, will assist the student in his attempts to
identify unknown species. A general acquaintance with the chief
distinguishing features of the orders, or, failing this, a frequent
reference to these features as given in Chapter I, will be a valuable
help; and, the order once determined, the few particulars added to each
name will generally narrow the search down to one or two species,
leaving the final decision to the more detailed description given in the
text.

The first number given after each name is the height, or, in the case of
climbing and trailing species, the length of the plant; and this is
followed by the colour and diameter, of the flower, or, in the case of
the _Dipsaceæ_, _Compositæ_, and some other plants in which the flowers
are densely clustered, the diameter of the cluster or head.

Abbreviations are used as follows:--

  W. = white
  Y. = yellow
  G. = green
  R. = red
  P. = pink
  C. = crimson
  V. = violet
  Bl. = blue
  Br. = brown
  Pu. = purple
  Cr. = cream
  Li. = lilac
  Ro. = rose
  O. = orange
  Sc. = scarlet
  p. = pale
  d. = dark or deep.

A combination of two of the above denotes an intermediate colour.
Thus--G.Y. denotes a greenish yellow; Pu. Br., a purple-brown, &c.


  1. WOODS AND THICKETS--SPRING (HERBACEOUS PLANTS).

                                                                    PAGE

  Wood Anemone. 4-8 ins. W. 1 in.,                                    48

  Green Hellebore. 12-20 ins. G. 1 in.,                               49

  Stinking Hellebore. 1-2 ft. G. 1/2 in.,                             49

  Goldilocks. 6-10 ins. Y. 5/8 in.,                                   50

  Columbine. 1-2 ft. W., Bl. or Pu. 1 in.,                            50

  Dog Violet. 3-6 ins. Bl. or Pu. 5/8 in.,                            50

  Wood Sorrel. 4-6 ins. W. 5/8 in.,                                   52

  Wood Strawberry. 2-6 ins. W. 1/2 in.,                               53

  Sweet Woodruff. 8 ins. W. 1/4 in.,                                  54

  Lesser Periwinkle. 1-2 ft. Bl. 7/8 in.,                             54

  Toothwort. 5-10 ins. Pu.Br. 3/8 in.,                                54

  Bugle. 3-12 ins. Bl. or Pu. 3/8 in.,                                55

  Yellow Dead Nettle. 10-18 ins. Y. 5/8 in.,                          55

  Primrose. 4-7 ins. p.Y. 1 to 1-1/4 in.,                             56

  Lady's Slipper. 1 ft. Br. and Y. 2 ins.,                            58

  Broad-leaved Garlic. 6-12 ins. W. 3/4 in.,                          59

  Sand Garlic. 2-3 ft. R.Pu. 1/4 in.,                                 59

  Star of Bethlehem. 6-12 ins. W. 1 in. or more,                      59

  Blue-bell. 6-18 ins. Bl. 1/2 in.,                                   60

  Daffodil. 12-18 ins. Y. 2 ins.,                                     48

  Hairy Sedge.,                                                       60

  Wood Melic Grass,                                                   60


  2. SPRING FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS.

  Barberry. 4-7 ft. p.Y. 3/8 in.,                                     61

  Sycamore. 40-50 ft. Y.G. 1/4 in.,                                   62

  Maple. 15-20 ft. Y.G. 1/4 in.,                                      63

  Spindle Tree. 4-10 ft. Y.G. 3/8 in.,                                64

  Wild Cherry. 4-8 ft. W. 5/8 in.,                                    64

  Bird Cherry. 12-15 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                                  64

  Gean. 12-18 ft. W. 5/8 in.,                                         65

  Sloe or Blackthorn. 4-8 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                             65

  Bullace. 5-8 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                                        66

  Hawthorn. 12-20 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                                     66

  Wild Pear. 20-30 ft. W. 1 in.,                                      66

  Crab Apple. 10-20 ft. W. and P. 1-1/2 in.,                          66

  Service Tree. 12-20 ft. W. 5/8 in.,                                 67

  White Beam. 10-30 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                                   68

  Mountain Ash. 10-30 ft. Cr.W. 7/16 in.,                             68

  Black Currant. 3-5 ft. Y.G. 5/16 in.,                               69

  Red Currant. 3-5 ft. Y.G. 1/4 in.,                                  69

  Wayfaring Tree. 10-20 ft. W. 3/16 in.,                              69

  Ash. 40-50 ft. Br. 1/8 in.,                                         69

  Spurge Laurel. 2-4 ft. Y.G. 1/4 in.,                                70

  Mezereon. 2-4 ft. p.R. 3/16 in.,                                    70

  Common Elm. 50-120 ft. Br. Clusters 1/2 in.,                        71

  Wych Elm. 40-100 ft. Br. Clusters 1/2 in.,                          71

  Oak. 40-100 ft. G.,                                                 72

  Beech. 40-100 ft. G.,                                               73

  Hornbeam. 20-60 ft. G.,                                             74

  Hazel. 8-16 ft. Y.G.,                                               74

  Common Birch. 20-50 ft. G.,                                         75

  Dwarf Birch. 1-3 ft. G.,                                            75

  Alder. 20-50 ft. R.Br.,                                             75

  White Poplar. 60-100 ft. Pu.Br.,                                    76

  Grey Poplar. 60-100 ft. Pu.Br.,                                     76

  Aspen. 30-80 ft. d.Br.,                                             76

  Black Poplar. 50-60 ft. Pu.Br.,                                     77

  Scots Pine. 50-100 ft. G.Y.,                                        77

  Yew. 20-50 ft. G. 1/8 in.,                                          78

  NOTE.--The colours given above, in the case of trees bearing catkins,
  are generally those of the more conspicuous male flowers.


  3. WAYSIDES AND WASTE GROUND--SPRING.

  Celandine. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/4 in.,                                      81

  Shepherd's Purse. 6-18 ins. W. 1/10 in.,                            81

  Scurvy Grass. 4-8 ins. W. 1/4 in.,                                  82

  Whitlow Grass. 1-4 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                                 82

  Yellow Rocket. 1-2 ft. Y. 5/16 in.,                                 83

  Early Winter Cress. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/16 in.,                            84

  Garlic Mustard. 1-2 ft. W. 1/4 in.,                                 84

  Thale Cress. 6-10 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                                  84

  Rape. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/8 in.,                                           85

  Wild Turnip. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/8 in.,                                    85

  Sweet Violet. 3-6 ins. V., Li. or W. 3/4 in.,                       85

  Ciliated Pearlwort. 2-4 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                            85

  Procumbent Pearlwort. 2-3 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                          85

  Greater Stitchwort. 1-2 ft. W. 3/4 in.,                             86

  Lesser Stitchwort. 1-3 ft. W. 3/16 in.,                             87

  Chickweed. 3-12 ins. W. 3/16 in.,                                   87

  Clustered Mouse-ear Chickweed. 6-10 ins. W. 3/16 in.,               88

  Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed. 6-10 ins. W. 1/4 in.,            88

  Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. 8-12 ins. P. 3/8 in.,                     89

  Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill. 1-2 ft. R. 3/8 in.,                     89

  Herb Robert. 1-2 ft. P. 1/2 in.,                                    90

  Black Medick. 1/2-2 ft. Y. Heads 1/4 in.,                           90

  Grass Vetchling. 1-2 ft. C. 3/8 in.,                                92

  Bird's Foot. 6-18 ins. Cr. and C. Heads 1/4 in.,                    92

  Bush Vetch. 2-3 ft. p.Pu. 7/16 in.,                                 92

  Barren Strawberry. 2-6 ins. W. 1/2 in.,                             93

  Moschatel. 4-6 ins. Y.G. Heads 3/8 in.,                             93

  White Bryony. 6-12 ft. G.W. 5/8 in.,                                94

  Common Beaked Parsley. 2-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                          95

  Chervil. 3-4 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                        95

  Garden Beaked Parsley. 18 ins. W. 1/10 in.,                         96

  Gout-weed. 1-2 ft. G.W. 1/8 in.,                                    96

  Crosswort. 6-18 ins. Y. 1/10 in.,                                   97

  Mouse-ear Hawkweed. 2-10 ins. Y. Head 1 in.,                        98

  Groundsel. 6-12 ins. Y. Heads 3/16 in.,                             98

  Colt's-foot. 6 ins. Y. Heads 1 in.,                                 98

  Thyme-leaved Speedwell. 3-10 ins. Li. 1/4 in.,                     100

  Common Speedwell. 2-10 ins. p.Bl. 1/6 in.,                         100

  Germander Speedwell. 12-18 ins. Bl. 1/2 in.,                       100

  Wall Speedwell. 4-12 ins. p.Bl. 3/16 in.,                          101

  Grey Field Speedwell. 3-7 ins. Bl. 3/16 in.,                       101

  Green Field Speedwell. 4-8 ins. Bl. 3/16 in.,                      102

  White Dead Nettle. 6-18 ins. W. 5/8 in.,                           102

  Red Dead Nettle. 6-18 ins. Pu. 1/4 in.,                            103

  Cut-leaved Dead Nettle. 6-18 ins. Ro. 1/4 in.,                     103

  Ground Ivy. 8-20 ins. Bl.Pu. 5/16 in.,                             104

  Early Field Scorpion Grass. 4-10 ins. Bl. 1/16 in.,                104

  Yellow Pimpernel. 4-10 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                            105

  Dog's Mercury. 6-18 ins. G. 3/16 in.,                              105

  Black Bryony. 5-10 ft. Y.G. 3/16 in.,                              106

  Cuckoo Pint. 8-20 ins.,                                            106

  Annual Meadow Grass.,                                              107


  4. MEADOWS, FIELDS AND PASTURES--SPRING.

  Lesser Celandine. 3-6 ins. Y. 1 in.,                               108

  Creeping Buttercup. 6-12 ins. Y. 7/8 in.,                          109

  Bulbous Buttercup. 1-2 ft. Y. 1 in.,                               110

  Field Penny Cress. 6-24 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                           110

  Cuckoo Flower. 1-2 ft. W. or Li. 5/8 in.,                          111

  Wild Pansy. 4-10 ins. W.Y. and Pu. 3/4 in.,                        111

  Ragged Robin. 1-2 ft. R. or Ro. 1 in.,                             112

  Spotted Medick. 6-24 ins. Y. 3/16 in.,                             112

  Netted Medick. 10-20 ins. Y. 1/16 in.,                             112

  Subterranean Trefoil. 6-18 ins. W.P. or C. 1/8 in.,                113

  White Clover. 2-20 ins. W. 3/16 in. Heads 7/8 in.,                 113

  Hybrid Trefoil. 3-20 ins. W. or P. 3/16 in. Heads 7/8 in.,         113

  Purple Clover. 5-20 ins. Pu. 1/4 in. Heads 1-1/4 in.,              113

  Spring Vetch. 8 ins. Pu. 1/4 in.,                                  114

  Common Vetch. 1-2 ft. p.Pu. 3/8 in.,                               115

  Meadow Saxifrage. 6-10 ins. W. 5/8 in.,                            115

  Earthnut. 1-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                      116

  Daisy. 2-6 ins. W. and Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                           116

  Dandelion. 2-8 ins. Y. Head 1-1/2 in. or more,                     116

  Butter-bur. 4-12 ins. P. or Pu. Heads 3/8 in.,                     117

  Yellow Rattle. 6-18 ins. Y. 1/4 in.,                               118

  Field Louse-wort. 4-8 ins. Ro. 5/8 in.,                            118

  Henbit Dead Nettle. 5-10 ins. Ro. or Pu. 1/4 in.,                  119

  Changing Scorpion Grass. 4-10 ins. Y. or Bl. 1/10 in.,             119

  Cowslip. 6-12 ins. Y. 7/16 in.,                                    120

  Common Sorrel. 1-2 ft. R.Pu. 1/8 in.,                              120

  Sheep's Sorrel. 3-12 ins. R.Pu. 1/8 in.,                           121

  Twayblade. 1-2 ft. Y.G. 7/16 in.,                                  121

  Green-winged Orchis. 6-12 ins. G. and Pu. 1/2 in.,                 122

  Early Purple Orchis. 6-18 ins. Pu.P. or W., 5/8 in.,               122

  Fox-tail Grass.,                                                   122


  5. BOGS, MARSHES AND WET PLACES--SPRING.

  Marsh Marigold. 9-18 ins. Y. 1-1/4 in.,                            123

  Marsh Violet. 2-6 ins. Li. 5/8 in.,                                123

  Sundew. 2-6 ins. W. 3/16 in.,                                      355

  Marsh Stitchwort. 6-18 ins. W. 1/2 in.,                            124

  Bog Stitchwort. 4-12 ins. W. 3/16 in.,                             124

  Marsh Cinquefoil. 6-18 ins. Pu.Br. 7/8 in.,                        124

  Common Golden Saxifrage 2-5 ins. Y. 1/8 in.,                       125

  Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage. 2-5 ins. Y. 1/8 in.,            125

  Marsh Pennywort. Creeping. W. 1/16 in.,                            126

  Marsh Valerian. 6-8 ins. p.Ro. 1/8 in.,                            126

  Marsh Trefoil. 6-12 ins. P.W. 3/4 in.,                             127

  Red Rattle. 6-18 ins. C. 5/8 in.,                                  127

  Willows.,                                                          128

  Yellow Flag. 2-4 ft. Y. 3 ins.,                                    129


  6. WOODS, THICKETS AND COPSES--SUMMER.

  Lime Tree. 20-50 ft. Y.G. 3/8 in.,                                 130

  Tutsan. 1-3 ft. Y. 3/4 in.,                                        132

  Rose of Sharon. 10-18 ins. Y. 3 ins.,                              132

  Common St. John's Wort. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/4 in.,                        132

  Hairy St John's Wort. 1-3 ft. Y. 3/4 in.,                          133

  Wood Crane's-bill. 1-2 ft. Bl.Pu. 1 in.,                           133

  Dyer's Green-weed. 1-2 ft. Y. 5/8 in.,                             134

  Sweet Milk Vetch. 2-3 ft. p.Y. or Cr. 1/4 in.,                     135

  Tuberous Bitter Vetch. 6-12 ins. R.Pu. 3/8 in.,                    135

  Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea. 2-6 ft. p.Pu. 3/4 in.,              136

  Wild Raspberry. 3-5 ft. W. 7/16 in.,                               136

  Rose Bay Willow herb. 2-6 ft. Ro. 1 in.,                           137

  Pale Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. 1-2 ft. Ro. 3/8 in.,               137

  Enchanter's Nightshade. 1-2 ft. W. 1/4 in.,                        138

  Dogwood. 5-8 ft. Y.W. 1/2 in. (Shrub),                             138

  Wood Sanicle. 1-2 ft. P.W. 1/16 in.,                               139

  Angelica. 2-4 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                      139

  Elder Tree. 12-20 ft. W. or Cr. 1/4 in.,                           140

  Guelder Rose. 6-9 ft. W. 3/16 to 5/8 in. (Shrub).,                 141

  Great Valerian. 2-4 ft. P.W. 3/16 in.,                             142

  Succory-leaved Hawk's-beard 1-3 ft. Y. Head 7/8 in.,               142

  Saw-wort. 1-3 ft. Pu. or C. Heads 5/16 in.,                        142

  Golden Rod. 6-24 ins. Y. Heads 7/16 in.,                           142

  Great Leopard's-bane. 2-3 ft. Y. 1-1/2 ins.,                       143

  Plantain-leaved Leopard's-bane. 2-3 ft. Y. 2 ins.,                 143

  Giant Bell-flower. 3-5 ft. Bl. 1-1/4 ins.,                         144

  Creeping Bell-flower. 1-2 ft. Bl. 1 in.,                           144

  Nettle-leaved Bell-flower. 1-3 ft. Bl. 1 in.,                      144

  Ivy-leaved Bell-flower. Creeping. p.Bl. 5/16 in.,                  144

  Holly Tree. 10-30 ft. W. 5/16 in.,                                 145

  Privet (shrub). 4-12 ft. W. 5/16 in.,                              145

  Common Cow-wheat. 6-18 ins. p.Y. 1/4 in.,                          146

  Crested Cow-wheat. 6-20 ins. Y. and Pu. 3/16 in.,                  147

  Wood Cow-wheat. 6-20 ins. d. Y. 1/8-3/16 in.,                      147

  Foxglove. 2-6 ft. Pu. or W. 7/8 in.,                               148

  Wood Betony. 1-2 ft. Pu., C., P. or W. 3/8 in.,                    149

  Wood Forget-me-not. 1-2 ft. Bl. 3/8 in.,                           150

  Millet Grass.,                                                     150

  Bearded Wheat.,                                                    150

  Slender False Brome Grass.,                                        150


  7. WAYSIDES AND WASTE GROUND--SUMMER.

  Wild Clematis. 4-10 ft. W. 3/4 in.,                                151

  Hedge Mustard. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/10 in.,                                152

  Felix Weed. 1-2 ft. G.Y. 1/16 in.,                                 152

  Dyer's Weed. 2-3 ft. Y. 3/16 in.,                                  153

  Deptford Pink. 12-18 ins. Ro. 1/2 in.,                             153

  Red Campion. 1-2 ft. R. 7/8 in.,                                   153

  Common Mallow. 2-3 ft. Li. 1-1/4 in.,                              155

  Dwarf Mallow. 6-24 ins. Li. 5/8 in.,                               155

  Musk Mallow. 2-3 ft. Ro. or W. 1-1/2 in.,                          156

  Round-leaved Crane's-bill. 6-12 ins. P. 3/8 in.,                   158

  Bloody Crane's-bill. 1-2 ft. C. 1 in.,                             158

  Small-flowered Crane's-bill. 6-18 ins. Li. 1/3 in.,                158

  Hemlock Stork's-bill. 6-18 ins. Ro. or W. 1/2 in.,                 160

  Bird's-foot Trefoil. 6-15 ins. Y. or O. 1/2 in.,                   160

  Hairy Tare. 1-2 ft. p.Bl. 1/8 in.,                                 161

  Slender Tare. 1-2 ft. Bl. 1/8 in.,                                 161

  Tufted Vetch. 3-6 ft. Bl.Pu. 1/4 in.,                              162

  Herb Bennet. 1-2 ft. Y. 5/8 in.,                                   164

  Dog Rose. 4-8 ft. P. or W. 2 ins.,                                 164

  Silver Weed. 6-12 ins. Y. 7/8 in.,                                 165

  Hoary Cinquefoil. 6-18 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                            166

  Creeping Cinquefoil. 6-18 ins. Y. 3/4 in.,                         166

  Agrimony. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/8 in.,                                      166

  Broad Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. 1-2 ft. p.Pu. 3/8 in.,            166

  Orpine. 10-20 ins. R.Pu. 3/8 in.,                                  166

  Hemlock. 2-6 ft. W. 1/16 in.,                                      169

  Fool's Parsley. 12-18 ins. W. 1/16 in.,                            170

  Wild Parsnip. 2-3 ft. Y. 1/10 in.,                                 170

  Cow Parsnip. 4-5 ft. R.W. Outer flowers 3/8 in.,                   170

  Upright Hedge Parsley. 2-3 ft. W. or P. 1/8 in.,                   171

  Rough Chervil. 1-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                 171

  Honeysuckle. 10-12 ft. Y. and R. 1 in.,                            172

  Upright Honeysuckle. 3-6 ft. p.Y. 1/4 in.,                         172

  Perfoliate Honeysuckle. 10-12 ft. R.W. 1-1/4 in.,                  172

  Great Hedge Bedstraw. 2-5 ft. W. 3/16 in.,                         172

  Goose Grass. 2-5 ft. W. 1/10 in.,                                  173

  Teasel. 3-6 ft. p.Pu. Heads 2 ins.,                                173


  8. WAYSIDES AND WASTE GROUND--SUMMER.

  (COMPOSITE FLOWERS ONLY.)

  Yellow Goat's-beard. 1-2 ft. Y. Heads 1-1/4 in.,                   177

  Bristly Ox-tongue. 2-3 ft. Y. Heads 7/8 in.,                       177

  Hawkweed Picris. 2-3 ft. Y. Heads 1 in.,                           178

  Strong-scented Lettuce. 3-4 ft. p.Y. Heads 3/8 in.,                178

  Prickly Lettuce. 3-4 ft. Y. Heads 1/4 in.,                         179

  Sharp-fringed Sow Thistle. 2-3 ft. Y. Heads 3/4 in.,               179

  Common Sow Thistle. 2-3 ft. Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                      180

  Smooth Hawk's-beard. 1/2-3 ft. Y. Heads 1/2 in.,                   180

  Shrubby Hawkweed. 2-4 ft. Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                        181

  Nipplewort. 1-2 ft. Y. Heads 3/8 in.,                              181

  Chicory. 1-3 ft. Bl. Heads 1-1/2 in.,                              182

  Burdock. 2-6 ft. Pu. Heads 3/4 in.,                                182

  Welted Thistle. 1-3 ft. Pu. Heads 3/4 in.,                         183

  Spear Thistle. 1-5 ft. Pu. Heads 1-1/4 in.,                        183

  Creeping Thistle. 2-4 ft. Pu. Heads 3/4 in.,                       184

  Tansy. 3 ft. Y. Heads 1/2 in.,                                     185

  Mugwort. 2-4 ft. Br.Y. Heads 1/8 in.,                              185

  Wormwood. 1-2 ft. Y. Heads 3/16 in.,                               186

  Common Ragwort. 1-4 ft. Y. Heads 7/8 in.,                          187

  Feverfew. 1-2 ft. Y. and W. Heads 5/8 in.,                         187

  Scentless Mayweed. 1-2 ft. Y. and W. Heads 1-1/4-2 in.,            188

  Milfoil. 6-18 ins. W. Heads 5/16 in.,                              189


  9. WAYSIDES AND WASTE GROUND--SUMMER (_continued_).

  Rampion Bellflower. 2-3 ft. Bl. 5/8 in.,                           190

  Great Bindweed. 4-6 ft. W. 2 ins.,                                 190

  Great Dodder. Parasitic. P. Heads 1/2 in.,                         341

  Lesser Dodder. Parasitic. P. Heads 1/4 in.,                        341

  Flax Dodder. Parasitic. P. Heads 1/2 in.,                          341

  Clover Dodder. Parasitic. P. Heads 1/4 in.,                        341

  Henbane. 1-2 ft. Y. 7/8 in.,                                       191

  Black Nightshade. 1/2-2 ft. W. 7/16 in.,                           192

  Woody Nightshade. 3-6 ft. Pu. 7/16 in.,                            192

  Deadly Nightshade. 2-3 ft. Pu. 5/8 in.,                            194

  Red Bartsia. 6-18 ins. R. 1/4 in.,                                 195

  Yellow Toadflax. 1-3 ft. Y. 3/8 in.,                               195

  Vervein. 1-2 ft. Li. 1/8 in.,                                      196

  Common Calamint. 1-2 ft. Pu. 1/3 in.,                              198

  Lesser Calamint. 1-2 ft. Pu. 1/4 in.,                              198

  Balm. 1-3 ft. W. 3/8 in.,                                          198

  Black Horehound. 2-3 ft. Pu. 1/3 in.,                              199

  Hedge Woundwort. 1-3 ft. R.Pu. 1/3 in.,                            199

  Field Scorpion Grass. 6-18 ins. Bl. 3/16 in.,                      200

  Gromwell. 12-18 ins. P.Y. 3/16 in.,                                200

  Borage. 1-2 ft. B. 7/8 in.,                                        200

  Common Alkanet. 1-2 ft. B. 7/16 in.,                               201

  Evergreen Alkanet. 1-2 ft. B. 3/8 in.,                             201

  Hound's-tongue. 1-2 ft. R.Pu. 3/8 in.,                             201

  Buck's-horn Plantain. 2-9 ins. G. Spike 1-2 ins.,                  202

  Stinking Goose-foot. 6-15 ins. G. 1/16 in.,                        203

  Many-seeded Goose-foot. 8-20 ins. G. 1/16 in.,                     203

  Upright Goose-foot. 1-3 ft. G. 1/10 in.,                           203

  White Goose-foot. 1-3 ft. G. 1/10 in.,                             204

  Fig-leaved Goose-foot. 1-2 ft. G. 1/16 in.,                        204

  Red Goose-foot. 1-3 ft. G. 1/16 in.,                               204

  Mercury Goose-foot. 1-3 ft. G. 1/10 in.,                           204

  Orache. 1/2-3 ft. G. 1/16 in.,                                     204

  Spotted Persicaria. 1-2 ft. G.Ro. 1/8 in.,                         205

  Pale Persicaria. 2-4 ft. G.P. 1/8 in.,                             206

  Knot-grass. 2-3 ft. Variable 1/8 in.,                              206

  Broad-leaved Dock. 2-3 ft. R.G. 1/8 in.,                           206

  Curled Dock. 2-3 ft. R.G. 1/8 in.,                                 207

  Sun Spurge. 6-18 ins. G.Y. 1/4 in.,                                208

  Petty Spurge. 6-12 ins. Y. 1/6 in.,                                208

  Small Nettle. 1-2 ft. G. 1/10 in.,                                 209

  Great Nettle. 1-4 ft. G. 1/10 in.,                                 209

  Roman Nettle. 1-2 ft. G. 1/5 in.,                                  209

  Hop. 12-20 ft. G.Y. Male racemes 3-1/2 ins. long.
  Female heads 5/8 in.,                                              210

  Canary Grass.,                                                     210


  10. MEADOWS, FIELDS AND PASTURES--SUMMER.

  Upright Buttercup. 1/2-3 ft. Y. 7/8 in.,                           211

  Pale Hairy Crowfoot. 1/2-1 ft. p.Y. 3/4 in.,                       212

  Gold of Pleasure. 1-3 ft. Y. 1/8 in.,                              212

  Bladder Campion. 2-3 ft. W. 5/8 in.,                               213

  White Campion. 1-2 ft. W. 1 in.,                                   213

  Kidney Vetch. 6-12 ins. Y. or O. 1/4 in.,                          214

  Lucerne. 1-2 ft. Pu. or Bl. 1/4 in.,                               215

  Common Melilot. 2-4 ft. Y. 1/8 in.,                                215

  Field Melilot. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/16 in.,                                216

  White Melilot. 2-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                 216

  Clustered Clover. 6-12 ins. Pu. or P. 1/8 in.,                     216

  Strawberry Trefoil. 6-12 ins. Ro. 1/16 in. Heads 1/4 in.
  or more.,                                                          216

  Hare's-foot Trefoil. 6-12 ins. 1/16 in. Heads 3/8 in.,             217

  Crimson Clover. 6-16 ins. C. or P. 1/4 in. Heads 1 in.
  or more.,                                                          217

  Hop Trefoil. 6-20 ins. Y. 1/16 in. Heads 1/4 in.,                  217

  Lesser Yellow Trefoil. 6-18 ins. p.Y. 1/10 in. Heads 1/4 in.,      218

  Meadow Vetchling. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/2 in.,                              218

  Great Burnet. 1-2 ft. Pu. 1/8 in. Heads 5/8 in.,                   218

  Lady's Mantle. 6-18 ins. Y.G. 3/16 in.,                            218

  Meadow Sweet. 2-4 ft. Cr. W. 1/4 in.,                              218

  Burnet Saxifrage. 1-2 ft. W. 1/16 in.,                             219

  Wild Carrot. 1-2 ft. p.Pu. or W. 1/8 in.,                          220

  Devil's-bit Scabious. 1-2 ft. Bl.Pu. Heads 3/4 in.,                220

  Rough Hawkbit. 4-12 ins. Y. Heads 1-1/4 in.,                       222

  Autumnal Hawkbit. 6-18 ins. Y. Heads 1 in.,                        223

  Meadow Thistle. 12-18 ins. Pu. Heads 1-1/8 in.,                    224

  Black Knapweed. 1/2-3 ft. Pu. Heads 1-1/4 in.,                     224

  Great Knapweed. 2-3 ft. Pu. or W. Heads 2 ins.,                    225

  Common Fleabane. 1/2-2 ft. Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                       225

  Small Fleabane. 6-12 ins. Y. Heads 3/8 in.,                        226

  Ox-eye Daisy. 1-2 ft. Y. and W. 1-3/4 in.,                         227

  Sneeze-wort. 1-2 ft. W. 1/2 in.,                                   227

  Centaury. 6-18 ins. Ro. or P. 3/8 in.,                             227

  Small Bindweed. 1/2-2 ft. P. 1 in.,                                228

  Meadow Clary. 1-2 ft. Bl. 5/8 in.,                                 229

  Marjoram. 9-18 ins. Ro. Pu. 3/16 in.,                              231

  Self-heal. 4-10 ins. V. or Pu. 1/4 in.,                            232

  Greater Plantain. 2-9 ins. G. 1/8 in. Spike 5-8 ins.,              232

  Ribwort Plantain. 2-10 ins. G. 1/8 in. Spike 1 in.,                233

  Marsh Orchis. 1-2 ft. W. to Pu. 5/8 in.,                           233

  Butterfly Orchis. 6-14 ins. W. or G.W. 1/2-3/4 in.,                234

  Cat's-tail Grass.,                                                 233

  Meadow Barley.,                                                    233

  Sheep's Fescue Grass.,                                             234

  Rye Grass or Darnel.,                                              234

  Cock's-foot Grass.,                                           Plate IV


  12. BOGS, MARSHES, AND WET PLACES--SUMMER.

  Lesser Spearwort. 4-12 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                            236

  Greater Spearwort. 2-4 ft. Y. 1 to 1-1/2 ins.,                     236

  Water Cress. 1-3 ft. W. 1/4 in.,                                   236

  Marsh Yellow Cress. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/8 in.,                            237

  Amphibious Yellow Cress. 2-3 ft. Y. 1/4 in.,                       237

  Marsh Mallow. 2-3 ft. Ro. 1-3/8 in.,                               238

  Marsh St. John's Wort. 6-12 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                       238

  Marsh Pea. 2-3 ft. Bl.Pu. 1/2 in.,                                 239

  Great Hairy Willow-herb. 3-6 ft. d.Ro. 7/8 in.,                    239

  Marsh Willow-herb. 6-18 ins. P. 5/16 in.,                          240

  Square-stalked Willow-herb. 1-2 ft. Ro. 3/8 in.,                   240

  Purple Loosestrife. 2-4 ft. P. or Pu. 3/4 in.,                     240

  Procumbent Marsh-wort. 2-3 ft. W. 1/16 in.,                        240

  Water Hemlock. 3-4 ft. W. 1/16 in.,                                241

  Common Water Dropwort. 2-3 ft. W. 3/16 in.,                        242

  Hemlock Water Dropwort. 2-5 ft. W. 3/16 in.,                       242

  Fine-leaved Water Dropwort. 1-4 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                    243

  Marsh Thistle. 2-8 ft. Pu. or W. Heads 5/8 in.,                    243

  Nodding Bur Marigold. 1-2 ft. G.Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                  244

  Trifid Bur Marigold. 1-2 ft. G.Y. Heads 1/2 in.,                   244

  Marsh Ragwort. 1-3 ft. Y. Heads 1 in.,                             244

  Marsh Speedwell. 4-8 ins. p.P. or W. 5/16 in.,                     244

  Water Speedwell. 1/2-2 ft. Li. or W. 3/16 in.,                     245

  Brooklime. 1-2 ft. Bl. or P. 1/3 in.,                              245

  Water Figwort. 2-4 ft. G.Br. or Pu. 1/4 in.,                       246

  Knotted Figwort. 1-3 ft. G.Br. or Pu. 3/16 in.,                    246

  Gipsy-wort. 1-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                                    246

  Round-leaved Mint. 1-3 ft. Li. 1/10 in.,                           247

  Water Mint. 1-3 ft. Li. 1/8 in.,                                   247

  Marsh Whorled Mint. 2-5 ft. Li. 1/8 in.,                           248

  Marsh Woundwort. 1-3 ft. p.Pu. or R. 3/8 in.,                      248

  Forget-me-not. 12-18 ins. Bl. 3/8 in.,                             249

  Creeping Water Scorpion-grass. 4-12 ins. Bl. 5/16 in.,             249

  Tufted Water Scorpion-grass. 5-18 ins. Bl. 3/16 in.,               249

  Bog Pimpernel. 3-4 ins. P. 3/8 in.,                                250

  Water Pepper. 1-3 ft. P.G. 1/8 in.,                                250

  Marsh Helleborine. 6-18 ins. W. 5/8 in.,                           250

  Bog Asphodel. 6-10 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                                251

  Common Rush. 1-3 ft. Br. 1/8 in.,                                  252

  Hard Rush. 1-2 ft. Glossy Br. 1/8 in.,                             252

  Shining-fruited Jointed Rush. 1-2 ft. Br. 1/8 in.,                 253

  Toad Rush. 2-8 ins. Br. 1/10 in.,                                  253

  Common Cotton Grass.,                                              254

  Hare's-tail Cotton Grass.,                                         255

  Common Sedge.,                                                     256

  Marsh Sedge.,                                                      256


  13. HEATH, DOWN AND MOOR--SPRING AND SUMMER.

  Milkwort. 2-9 ins. W. Li. or Bl. 3/16 in.,                         259

  Trailing St. John's-wort. 3-10 ins. Y. 3/8 in.,                    260

  Small St. John's wort. 12-20 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                      260

  Broom. 2-6 ft. Y. 7/8 in. (Shrub),                                 260

  Furze. 2-5 ft. Y. 5/8 in. (Shrub),                                 260

  Dwarf Furze. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/2 in. (Shrub),                           261

  Needle Whin. 1/2-2 ft. Y. 3/8 in. (Shrub),                         262

  Common Rest Harrow. 1-2 ft. Ro. 5/8 in.,                           262

  Spiny Rest Harrow. 6-12 ins. Ro. 5/8 in.,                          262

  Dropwort. 12-18 ins. W. 3/8 in.,                                   262

  Tormentil. 6-10 ins. Y. 5/16 in.,                                  262

  Blackberry. 2-10 ft. W. or P. 1 in.,                               263

  Yellow Bedstraw. 1/2-2 ft. Y. or G. 1/8 in.,                       263

  Smooth Heath Bedstraw. 4-6 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                        263

  Upright Bedstraw. 1-2 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                              264

  Small Woodruff. 6-10 ins. W. or P. 3/16 in.,                       264

  Small Scabious. 1-2 ft. p.Pu. or Li. Heads 1-1/8 ins.,             265

  Hairy Hawkbit. 3-8 ins. Y. Heads 3/4 in.,                          266

  Musk Thistle. 1-3 ft. Pu. or C. Heads 1-3/4 ins.,                  266

  Dwarf Thistle. 1-8 ins. Pu. Heads 1-1/2 ins.,                      266

  Carline Thistle. 6-18 ins. Y. and Pu. Heads 1-1/4 in.,             267

  Chamomile. 6-12 ins. Y. and W. Heads 7/8 in.,                      268

  Harebell. 6-20 ins. Bl. 3/4 in.,                                   269

  Clustered Bell-flower. 3-18 ins. Bl. 5/8 in.,                      269

  Sheep's-bit. 6-12 ins. Bl. or Li. Heads 5/8 in.,                   270

  Cross-leaved Heath. 12-18 ins. Ro. or W. 1/8 in.,                  270

  Ciliated Heath. 12-18 ins. Ro. or C. 1/8 in.,                      271

  Bell Heather. 1-2 ft. Pu., Ro. or W. 1/8 in.,                      271

  Ling. 1-2 ft. Ro., Li. or W. 1/8 in.,                              271

  Whortleberry. 6-18 ins. P. or G. 3/16 in.,                         272

  Great Bilberry. 6-10 ins. p.P. 1/8 in.,                            272

  Red Whortleberry. 6-18 ins. p.P. 3/16 in.,                         272

  Marsh Gentian. 6-10 ins. d.B. 7/8 in.,                             273

  Small-flowered Gentian. 3-12 ins. p.Pu. 3/8 in.,                   273

  Lesser Dodder. Parasitic on Heaths, &c.,                           341

  Eyebright. 1-8 ins. P. or Li. 3/8 in.,                             274

  Pennyroyal. 2-10 ins. Li. 1/8 in.,                                 274

  Wild Thyme. 2-8 ins. Pu. 3/16 in.,                                 274

  Wood Sage. 1-2 ft. G.W. 5/16 in.,                                  274

  Lesser Skull-cap. 3-6 ins. p.P. 3/16 in.,                          275

  Dwarf Willow. 1-3 ft. (Shrub),                                     276

  Juniper. 1-5 ft. (Shrub),                                          276

  Autumnal Lady's Tresses. 4-8 ins. W. 3/16 in.,                     277

  Spotted Orchis. 6-15 ins. Pu., Li. or W. 1/2 in.,                  277

  Butcher's Broom. (Shrub). 3-4 ft. W. 1/6 in.,                      278

  Heath Rush. 4-10 ins.,                                             279

  Field Woodrush. 4-7 ins.,                                          279

  Quaking Grass.,                                                    280

  Mat Grass.,                                                        280


  14. CORN FIELDS.

  Pheasant's-eye. 6-12 ins. C. 5/16 in.,                             281

  Mouse-tail. 2-6 ins. Y.G. 5/16 in.,                                281

  Corn Crowfoot. 6-18 ins. p.Y. 3/8 in.,                             282

  Field Larkspur. 9-18 ins. Bl., P., or W., 1 in.,                   282

  Common Red Poppy. 1-2 ft. Sc. 2-3 ins.,                            283

  Long-headed Poppy. 1-2 ft. Sc. 2 to 2-1/2 ins.,                    283

  Long Prickly-headed Poppy. 6-10 ins. R. 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 ins.,       283

  Opium Poppy. 1-2 ft. W. or Bl. 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 ins.,                284

  Fumitory. 6-24 ins. P. or C. 1/16-3/16 in.,                        285

  Wild Mustard. 1-2 ft. Y. 1/2 in.,                                  286

  White Mustard. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/8 in.,                                 286

  Black Mustard. 1-3 ft. Y. 3/8 to 1/2 in.,                          287

  Wild Radish. 1-2 ft. W. Li., or p.Y., 3/4 in.,                     288

  Corn Cockle. 1-3 ft. p.Pu., 1 in. or more.,                        289

  Corn Spurrey. 6-18 ins. W. 1/4 in.,                                289

  Common Flax. 12-18 ins. Bl. 7/8 in.,                               289

  Shepherd's Needle. 3-12 ins. W. 1/16 in.,                          289

  Field Madder. 5-10 ins. Li., 1/8 in.,                              290

  Field Scabious. 1-4 ft. Li., Heads 1-1/2 in.,                      290

  Corn Sow-thistle. 2-4 ft. Y. Heads 1-3/4 ins.,                     291

  Corn Blue-bottle. 1-2 ft. Bl. Heads 1 in.,                         291

  Corn Marigold. 12-18 ins. Y. Heads 1-1/4 in.,                      292

  Corn Chamomile. 1-2 ft. Y. and W. Heads 1 in.,                     292

  Stinking Chamomile. 9-15 ins. Y. and W. Heads 1 in.,               293

  Corn Bellflower. 6-10 ins. Pu.Bl. or W. 5/16 in.,                  293

  Small Bugloss. 1/2-2 ft. p.Bl. 1/4 in.,                            294

  Scarlet Pimpernel. 5-20 ins. Sc. 3/8 in.,                          294

  Climbing Persicaria. 1-4 ft. p.G. 3/16 in.,                        295

  Dwarf Spurge. 2-10 ins Y. 1/8 in.,                                 295

  Wild Oat Grass. 2-3 ft.,                                           295


  15. ON THE CHALK.

  Pasque Flower. 5-8 ins. Pu. 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 in.,                    297

  Round Prickly-headed Poppy. 12-18 ins. C. 1-2 ins.,                297

  Bitter Candytuft. 6-9 ins. W., Li., or R., 1/4 in.,                298

  Wild Mignonette. 1-2 ft. Y. 3/16 in.,                              298

  Rock Rose. 3-9 ins. Y. 3/4-1 in.,                                  298

  Hoary Rock Rose. 5-8 ins. Y. 3/8 in.,                              298

  Hairy Violet. 3-6 ins. p.Bl., or W. 5/8 in.,                       298

  Perennial Flax. 1-2 ft. Bl. 1 in.,                                 299

  Narrow-leaved Flax. 1-2 ft. Li. or Bl. 3/8 in.,                    299

  Sain-foin. 1-2 ft. Ro.R. 1/2 in.,                                  299

  Tufted Horse-shoe Vetch. 5-20 ins. Y. 5/16 in.,                    299

  Sweet Briar. 3-6 ft. Ro. 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 in.,                       300

  Lesser Burnet. 6-18 ins. Pu. 1/8 in. Heads 1/2 in.,                302

  Rough-fruited Corn Bedstraw. 1-3 ft. W. 1/8 in.,                   302

  Red Spur Valerian. 1-3 ft. Ro.R. 3/16 in.,                         302

  Woolly-headed Plume Thistle. 3-5 ft. p.Pu. Heads 2-1/2 ins.,       303

  Ploughman's Spikenard. 2-5 ft. Y. Heads 3/8 in.,                   303

  Field Gentian. 4-10 ins. Bl. Pu. 7/16 in.,                         304

  Yellow-wort. 6-20 ins. Y. 5/8 in.,                                 304

  Great Mullein. 2-5 ft. p.Y. or W. 3/4 in.,                         304

  White Mullein. 2-3 ft. W. or Cr. 3/8 in.,                          305

  Yellow Hoary Mullein. 2-3 ft. Y. 5/8 in.,                          305

  Dark Mullein. 2-3 ft. Y. 1/2 in.,                                  305

  Spiked Speedwell. 6-12 ins. Bl., or P. 5/16 in.,                   305

  Wild Sage. 1-2 ft. Bl.Pu. 3/16 in.,                                306

  Red Hemp Nettle. 9-12 ins. Ro. 5/16 in.,                           306

  Viper's Bugloss. 1-3 ft. Ro. or Bl.Pu. 1/2 in.,                    306

  Purple Viper's Bugloss. 1-3 ft. Bl. 3/8 in.,                       307

  Lamb's-tongue. 3-12 ins. G. 1/8 in. Spikes 2-4 ins.,               307

  Broad-leaved Helleborine. 1-3 ft. G. and Pu. 1/4 in.,              308

  Large White Helleborine. 6-20 ins. Cr.W. 3/4 in.,                  308

  Pyramidal Orchis. 6-18 ins. Ro., or W. 5/16 in.,                   308

  Sweet-scented Orchis. 12-18 ins. Ro. 3/8 in.,                      309

  Green Man Orchis. 6-12 ins. G.Y. 5/8 in.,                          309

  Green Musk Orchis. 5-6 ins. G. 1/2 in.,                            309

  Bee Orchis. 6-12 ins. Pu., Br., and P. 5/8 in.,                    310

  Late Spider Orchis. 6-12 ins. Pu. 5/8 in.,                         310

  Spider Orchis. 6-10 ins. Pu.Br. 3/4 in.,                           310

  Fly Orchis. 6-12 ins. Br.Pu., and Bl. 5/8 in.,                     310

  Downy Oat Grass. 1-2 ft.,                                          311

  Yellow Oat Grass. 1-2 ft.,                                         311


  16. ON RIVER BANKS.

  Common Meadow Rue. 1-4 ft. p.Y. 1/2 in.,                           312

  Meadow Crane's-bill. 1-4 ft. Bl.Pu. 1 to 1-1/4 in.,                312

  Hemp Agrimony. 2-6 ft. Li. Flowers 1/8 in. in small heads.,        313

  Common Skull-cap. 8-16 ins. Bl. 1/4 in.,                           313

  Comfrey. 2-3 ft. Y.W., or Pu. 3/8 in.,                             315

  Yellow Loosestrife. 2-3 ft. Y. 5/8 in.,                            315

  Purple Loosestrife. 2-4 ft. P. or Pu. 3/4 in.,                     240

  Great Water Dock. 3-6 ft. R.G. 1/8 in.,                            317

  Willows and Sallows.,                                              317


  17. ON WALLS, ROOFS, AND ROCKS.

  Wallflower. 6-12 ins. Y. or O. 7/8 in.,                            320

  Wall Rocket. 1-3 ft. p.Y. 5/8 in.,                                 320

  Vernal Sandwort. 2-4 ins. W. 3/8 in.,                              320

  Shining Crane's-bill. 6-18 ins. Ro. 1/4 in.,                       320

  English Stonecrop. 2-3 ins. W. or P. 5/16 in.,                     321

  White Stonecrop. 3-7 ins. W. or P. 1/4 in.,                        322

  Biting Stonecrop. 2-4 ins. Y. 1/2 in.,                             322

  House Leek. 9-18 ins. Pu. or P. 3/4 in.,                           323

  Wall Pennywort. 6-18 ins. Y.G. 3/16 in.,                           323

  London Pride. 6-12 ins. W., or P. 1/4 in.,                         324

  Starry Saxifrage. 3-7 ins. W. 7/16 in.,                            325

  Yellow Mountain Saxifrage. 5-6 ins. Y. 5/8 in.,                    325

  Rue-leaved Saxifrage. 3-5 ins. W. 1/8 in.,                         325

  Mossy Saxifrage. 3-10 ins. W. 5/8 in.,                             326

  Snapdragon. 1-2 ft. W. to C. 3/4 in.,                              326

  Ivy-leaved Toadflax. 3-20 ins. Li. 3/16 in.,                       327

  Wall Pellitory. 6-24 ins. G. 1/16 in.,                             327


  18. AUTUMN FLOWERS.

  (Most of the following flowers bloom during the summer, and have been
  included in foregoing lists; but these, together with the few new
  species named, may be seen in flower during the autumn months.)

  Pheasant's-eye. 6-12 ins. C. 5/16 in. (Fields),                    281

  Hairy Crowfoot. 6-12 ins. Y. 3/4 in. (Fields),                     212

  Shepherd's Purse. 6-18 ins. W. 1/10 in. (Waysides),                 81

  Rock Rose. 3-9 ins. Y. 7/8 in. (Banks),                            298

  Chickweed. 3-12 ins. W. 3/16 in. (Waysides),                        87

  Herb Robert. 1-2 ft. P. 1/2 in. (Waysides),                         90

  Silver Weed. 6-12 ins. Y. 7/8 in. (Waysides),                      165

  Ivy. Climbing. p.G. 3/8 in. (Walls and Woods),                     339

  Yellow Bedstraw. 1/2-2 ft. Y. or G. 1/8 in. (Downs),               263

  Small Scabious. 1-2 ft. Li. Heads 1-1/8 in. (Heaths),              265

  Devil's-bit Scabious. 1-2 ft. Pu.Bl. Heads 3/4 in. (Pastures),     220

  Field Scabious. 1-4 ft. Li. Heads 1-1/2 ins. (Fields),             290

  Dandelion. 2-8 ins. Y. Heads 1-3/4 in. (Meadows, &c.),             116

  Carline Thistle. 6-18 ins. Y. and Pu. Heads 1-1/4 in. (Downs),     267

  Black Knapweed. 1/2-3 ft. Pu. Heads 1-1/4 in. (Meadows),           224

  Great Knapweed. 2-3 ft. Pu., or W. Heads 2 in. (Fields),           225

  Groundsel. 6-12 ins. Y. Heads 3/16 in. (Waysides),                  98

  Fleabane. 6-24 ins. Y. Heads 7/8 in. (Moist places),               225

  Daisy. 2-6 ins. Y. and W. Heads 3/4 in. (Pastures),                116

  Scentless Mayweed. 1-2 ft. Y., and W. Heads 1-1/4-2 ins.
  (Waysides),                                                        188

  Chamomile. 6-12 ins. Y. and W. Heads 7/8 in. (Waysides),           268

  Milfoil. 8-18 ins. W. Heads 5/16 in. (Waysides),                   189

  Ling. 1-2 ft. Ro. or W. 1/8 in. (Moors),                           271

  Fine-leaved Heath. 1-2 ft. P. or W. 1/8 in. (Moors),               271

  Strawberry Tree. 8-12 ft. Cr. 3/16 in. (Woods--Ireland),           338

  Dark Mullein. 2-3 ft. Y. 1/2 in. (On chalk),                       305

  Yellow Toadflax. 1-3 ft. Y. 3/8 in. (Waysides, fields),            195

  Wild Clary or Sage. 1-2 ft. Bl.Pu. 3/16 in. (On chalk),            306

  White Dead Nettle. 6-20 ins. W. 5/8 in. (Waste places),            102

  Red Dead Nettle. 6-18 ins. Pu. 1/4 in. (Waste places),             103

  Red Hemp Nettle. 8-12 ins. Ro. 5/16 in. (Fields, &c.),             306

  White Goose-foot. 1-3 ft. G. 1/10 in. (Waste places),              204

  Halberd-leaved Orache. 1/2-3 ft. G. 1/16. (Waste places),          204

  Spotted Persicaria. 1-2 ft. Ro. and G. 1/8 in. (Wastes),           205

  Knot-grass. 1-2 ft. Variable. 1/8 in. (Waste places),              206

  Petty Spurge. 6-12 ins. Y. 1/6 in. (Waste places),                 208

  Wall Pellitory. 1/2-2 ft. G. 1/16 in. (Walls),                     327

  Annual Meadow Grass. 3-10 ins.,                                    107


  19. PARASITIC PLANTS.

  Greater Dodder--On Hops, Nettles, and Trees.,                      341

  Flax Dodder--On Flax.,                                             341

  Lesser Dodder--On Thyme, Ling, &c.,                                341

  Clover Dodder--On Clover.,                                         341

  Toothwort--On roots of Trees.,                                     344

  Great Broomrape--On roots of Furze and Broom.,                     345

  Clove Broomrape--On roots of Bedstraw.,                            345

  Tall Broomrape--On roots of Knapweed.,                             346

  Least Broomrape--On various roots.,                                346

  Mistletoe--On branches of Trees.,                                  346

  Eyebright--On roots of Grasses, &c.,                               349

  Yellow Rattle--On roots of Grasses, &c.,                           349

  Cow-wheat--On roots of Grasses, &c.,                               349

  Lousewort--On roots of Grasses, &c.,                               349


  20. CARNIVOROUS PLANTS.

  Bladderworts--Aquatic.,                                            350

  Tooth-wort--At roots of Trees.,                                    351

  Butterworts--Marshes.,                                             353

  Sundews--Marshes.,                                                 353



LIST OF FLOWERS

CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR ORDERS AND GENERA


  RANUNCULACEÆ

                                                 PAGE
      _Clematis Vitalba_,                         151
      _Thalictrum flavum_,                        312
      _Anemone Pulsatilla_,                       297
           " _nemorosa_,                           48
      _Adonis autumnalis_,                        281
      _Myosurus minimus_,                         281
      _Ranunculus Ficaria_,                       108
           " _Lingua_,                            236
           " _Flammula_,                          236
           " _auricomus_,                          50
           " _acris_,                             211
           " _repens_,                            109
           " _bulbosus_,                          110
           " _hirsutus_,                          212
           " _arvensis_,                          282
      _Caltha palustris_,                         123
      _Helleborus viridis_,                        49
           " _foetidus_,                           49
      _Aquilegia vulgaris_,                        50
      _Delphinium Ajacis_,                        282


  BERBERACEÆ

      _Berberis vulgaris_,                         61


  PAPAVERACEÆ

      _Papaver hybridum_,                         297
           " _Argemone_,                          283
           " _dubium_,                            283
           " _Rhoeas_,                            283
           " _somniferum_,                        284
      _Chelidonium majus_,                         81


  FUMARIACEÆ

      _Fumaria officinalis_,                      285


  CRUCIFERÆ

      _Thlaspi arvense_,                          110
      _Capsella Bursa-pastoris_,                   81
      _Iberis amara_,                             298
      _Cochlearia officinalis_,                    82
      _Draba verna_,                               82
      _Camelina sativa_,                          212
      _Cardamine pratensis_,                      111
      _Barbarea vulgaris_,                         83
           " _præcox_,                             84
      _Nasturtium officinale_,                    236
           " _palustre_,                          237
           " _amphibium_,                         237
      _Sisymbrium officinale_,                    152
           " _Sophia_,                            152
           " _Thaliana_,                           84
           " _alliaria_,                           84
      _Cheiranthus cheiri_,                       320
      _Brassica napus_,                            85
           " _Rapa_,                               85
           " _arvensis_,                          286
           " _alba_,                              286
           " _nigra_,                             287
      _Diplotaxis tenuifolia_,                    320
      _Raphanus Raphanistrum_,                    288


  RESEDACEÆ

      _Reseda luteola_,                           153
           " _lutea_,                             298


  CISTACEÆ

      _Helianthemum vulgare_,                     298
            " _canum_,                            298


  VIOLACEÆ

      _Viola palustris_,                          123
           " _odorata_,                            85
           " _hirta_,                             298
           " _canina_,                             50
           " _tricolor_,                          111


  DROSERACEÆ

      _Drosera rotundifolia_,                     355
           " _intermedia_,                        355
           " _anglica_,                           355


  POLYGALACEÆ

      _Polygala vulgaris_,                        259


  CARYOPHYLLACEÆ

      _Dianthus Armeria_,                         153
      _Silene inflata_,                           213
      _Lychnis Flos-cuculi_,                      112
           " _diurna_,                            153
           " _vespertina_,                        213
           " _Githago_,                           289
      _Sagina ciliata_,                            85
           " _procumbens_,                         85
      _Spergula arvensis_,                        289
      _Stellaria media_,                           87
           " _Holostea_,                           86
           " _glauca_,                            124
           " _graminea_,                           87
           " _uliginosa_,                         124
      _Arenaria verna_,                           320
      _Cerastium glomeratum_,                      88
           " _triviale_,                           88


  LINACEÆ


      _Linum usitatissimum_,                      289
           " _perenne_,                           299
           " _angustifolium_,                     299


  MALVACEÆ

      _Malva moschata_,                           156
          " _sylvestris_,                         155
          " _rotundifolia_,                       155
      _Althæa officinalis_,                       238


  TILIACEÆ

      _Tilia vulgaris_,                           130


  HYPERICACEÆ

      _Hypericum Androsæmum_,                     132
           " _calycinum_,                         132
           " _perforatum_,                        132
           " _humifusum_,                         260
           " _pulchrum_,                          260
           " _hirsutum_,                           13
           " _Elodes_,                            238


  ACERACEÆ

      _Acer campestre_,                            63
          " _Pseudo-platanus_,                     62


  GERANIACEÆ

      _Geranium sanguineum_,                      158
            " _sylvaticum_,                       133
            " _pratense_,                         312
            " _rotundifolium_,                    158
            " _pusillum_,                         158
            " _molle_,                             89
            " _dissectum_,                         89
            " _Robertianum_,                       90
            " _lucidum_,                          320
      _Erodium cicutarium_,                       160


  OXALIDACEÆ

      _Oxalis Acetosella_,                         52


  CELASTRACEÆ

      _Euonymus europæus_,                         64


  LEGUMINOSÆ

      _Sarothamus scoparius_,                     260
      _Ulex europæus_,                            260
          " _nanus_,                              261
      _Genista tinctoria_,                        134
            " _anglica_,                          262
      _Ononis arvensis_,                          262
            " _spinosa_,                          262
      _Anthyllis Vulneraria_,                     214
      _Medicago sativa_,                          215
            " _lupulina_,                          90
            " _maculata_,                         112
            " _denticulata_,                      112
      _Melilotus officinalis_,                    215
      _Trifolium subterraneum_,                   113
            " _glomeratum_,                       216
            " _hybridum_,                         113
            " _repens_,                           113
            " _fragiferum_,                       216
            " _arvense_,                          217
            " _incarnatum_,                       217
            " _pratense_,                         113
            " _procumbens_,                       217
            " _minus_,                            218
      _Lotus corniculatus_,                       160
      _Astragalus glycyphyllos_,                  135
      _Ornithopus perpusillus_,                    92
      _Hippocrepis comosa_,                       299
      _Onobrychis sativa_,                        299
      _Vicia Cracca_,                             162
           " _lathyroides_,                       114
           " _sativa_,                            115
           " _sepium_,                             92
           " _hirsuta_,                           161
           " _tetrasperma_,                       161
      _Lathyrus Nissolia_,                         92
            " _pratensis_,                        218
            " _sylvestris_,                       136
            " _macrorrhizus_,                     135
            " _palustris_,                        239


  ROSACEÆ

      _Prunus spinosa_,                            65
            " _insititia_,                         66
            " _Padus_,                             64
            " _Cerasus_,                           64
            " _Avium_,                             65
      _Spiræa Ulmaria_,                           218
            " _Filipendula_,                      262
      _Geum urbanum_,                             164
      _Potentilla anserina_,                      165
             " _argentea_,                        166
             " _reptans_,                         166
             " _Tormentilla_,                     262
             " _Fragariastrum_,                    93
      _Comarum palustre_,                         124
      _Fragaria vesca_,                            53
      _Rubus Idæus_,                              136
           " _fruticosus_,                        263
      _Rosa rubiginosa_,                          300
          " _canina_,                             164
      _Agrimonia Eupatoria_,                      166
      _Sanguisorba officinalis_,                  218
      _Poterium Sanguisorba_,                     302
      _Alchemilla vulgaris_,                      218
      _Cratægus Oxyacantha_,                       66
      _Pyrus communis_,                            66
           " _Malus_,                              66
           " _torminalis_,                         67
           " _Aria_,                               68
           " _Aucuparia_,                          68


  ONAGRACEÆ

      _Epilobium angustifolium_,                  137
           " _hirsutum_,                          239
           " _montanum_,                          166
           " _roseum_,                            137
           " _palustre_,                          240
           " _tetragonum_,                        240
      _Circæa lutetiana_,                         138


  LYTHRACEÆ

      _Lythrum Salicaria_,                        240


  CUCURBITACEÆ

      _Bryonia dioica_,                            94


  GROSSULARIACEÆ

      _Ribes nigrum_,                              69
           " _rubrum_,                             69


  CRASSULACEÆ

      _Sedum Telephium_,                          166
           " _anglicum_,                          321
           " _album_,                             322
           " _acre_,                              322
      _Sempervivum tectorum_,                     323
      _Cotyledon umbilicus_,                      323


  SAXIFRAGACEÆ

      _Saxifraga umbrosa_,                        324
            " _stellaris_,                        325
            " _aizoides_,                         325
            " _granulata_,                        115
            " _tridactylites_,                    325
            " _hypnoides_,                        326
      _Chrysosplenium oppositifolium_,            125
             " _alternifolium_,                   125


  ARALIACEÆ

      _Adoxa Moschatellina_,                       93
      _Hedera Helix_,                             339


  CORNACEÆ

      _Cornus sanguinea_,                         138


  UMBELLIFERÆ

      _Cicuta virosa_,                            241
      _Hydrocotyle vulgaris_,                     126
      _Sanicula europæa_,                         139
      _Conium maculatum_,                         169
      _Helosciadium nodiflorum_,                  240
      _Ægopodium Podagraria_,                      96
      _Bunium flexuosum_,                         116
      _Pimpinella Saxifraga_,                     219
      _[OE]nanthe fistulosa_,                     242
            " _crocata_,                          242
            " _Phellandrium_,                     243
      _Æthusa cynapium_,                          170
      _Angelica sylvestris_,                      139
      _Pastinaca sativa_,                         170
      _Heracleum Sphondylium_,                    170
      _Daucus Carota_,                            220
      _Torilis Anthriscus_,                       171
      _Scandix Pecten-veneris_,                   289
      _Anthriscus vulgaris_,                       95
           " _sylvestris_,                         95
           " _cerefolium_,                         96
      _Chærophyllum temulum_,                     171


  LORANTHACEÆ

      _Viscum album_,                             346


  CAPRIFOLIACEÆ

      _Sambucus nigra_,                           140
      _Viburnum Opulus_,                          141
            " _Lantana_,                           69
      _Lonicera Periclymenum_,                    172
            " _Caprifolium_,                      172
            " _Xylosteum_,                        172


  RUBIACEÆ

      _Galium verum_,                             263
           " _Cruciatum_,                          97
           " _saxatile_,                          263
           " _erectum_,                           264
           " _Mollugo_,                           172
           " _Aparine_,                           173
           " _tricorne_,                          302
      _Sherardia arvensis_,                       290
      _Asperula odorata_,                          54
           " _cynanchica_,                        265


  VALERIANACEÆ

      _Centranthus ruber_,                        302
      _Valeriana dioica_,                         126
             " _officinalis_,                     142


  DIPSACEÆ

      _Dipsacus sylvestris_,                      173
      _Scabiosa succisa_,                         220
            " _Columbaria_,                       265
      _Knautia arvensis_,                         290


  COMPOSITÆ

      _Tragopogon pratensis_,                     177
      _Helminthia echioides_,                     177
      _Picris hieracioides_,                      178
      _Leontodon hirtus_,                         266
            " _hispidus_,                         222
            " _autumnalis_,                       223
      _Lactuca virosa_,                           178
            " _Scariola_,                         179
      _Sonchus arvensis_,                         291
            " _asper_,                            180
            " _oleraceus_,                        179
      _Crepis virens_,                            180
      _Hieracium Pilosella_,                       98
            " _boreale_,                          181
      _Taraxacum officinale_,                     116
      _Lapsana communis_,                         181
      _Cichorium Intybus_,                        182
      _Arctium Lappa_,                            182
      _Serratula tinctoria_,                      142
      _Carduus nutans_,                           266
            " _crispus_,                          183
            " _lanceolatus_,                      183
            " _eriophorus_,                       303
            " _palustris_,                        243
            " _arvensis_,                         184
            " _pratensis_,                        224
            " _acaulis_,                          266
      _Carlina vulgaris_,                         267
      _Centaurea nigra_,                          224
             " _Cyanus_,                          291
             " _Scabiosa_,                        225
      _Bidens cernua_,                            244
           " _tripartita_,                        244
      _Eupatorium cannabinum_,                    313
      _Tanacetum vulgare_,                        185
      _Artemisia Absinthium_,                     186
            " _vulgaris_,                         185
      _Petasites vulgaris_,                       117
      _Tussilago Farfara_,                         98
      _Solidago Virga-aurea_,                     142
      _Senecio vulgaris_,                          98
            " _Jacobæa_,                          187
            " _aquaticus_,                        244
      _Doronicum Pardalianches_,                  143
             " _plantagineum_,                    143
      _Inula Conyza_,                             303
           " _dysenterica_,                       225
           " _Pulicaria_,                         226
      _Bellis perennis_,                          116
      _Chrysanthemum segetum_,                    292
             " _Leucanthemum_,                    227
      _Matricaria Parthenium_,                    187
             " _inodora_,                         188
      _Anthemis nobilis_,                         268
            " _arvensis_,                         292
            " _Cotula_,                           293
      _Achillea Ptarmica_,                        227
            " _millefolium_,                      189


  CAMPANULACEÆ

      _Campanula rotundifolia_,                   269
            " _Rapunculus_,                       190
            " _latifolia_,                        144
            " _Rapunculoides_,                    144
            " _Trachelium_,                       144
            " _glomerata_,                        269
            " _hederacea_,                        144
            " _hybrida_,                          293
      _Jasione montana_,                          270


  ERICACEÆ

      _Erica Tetralix_,                           270
           " _ciliaris_,                          271
           " _cinerea_,                           271
      _Calluna vulgaris_,                         271


  VACCINIACEÆ (often included in the ERICACEÆ)

      _Vaccinium Myrtillus_,                      272
            " _uliginosum_,                       272
            " _Vitis-idæa_,                       272


  AQUIFOLIACEÆ

      _Ilex Aquifolium_,                          145


  OLEACEÆ

      _Ligustrum vulgare_,                        145
      _Fraxinus excelsior_,                        69


  APOCYNACEÆ

      _Vinca minor_,                               54
           " _major_,                              54


  GENTIANACEÆ

      _Gentiana Pneumonanthe_,                    273
            " _Amarella_,                         273
            " _campestris_,                       304
      _Erythræa Centaurium_,                      227
      _Chlora perfoliata_,                        304
      _Menyanthes trifoliata_,                    127


  CONVOLVULACEÆ

      _Convolvulus arvensis_,                     228
             " _sepium_,                          190
      _Cuscuta europæa_,                          341
            " _Epilinum_,                         341
            " _Epithymum_,                        341
            " _Trifolii_,                         341


  SOLANACEÆ

      _Hyoscyamus niger_,                         191
      _Solanum nigrum_,                           192
            " _Dulcamara_,                        192
      _Atropa belladonna_,                        194


  SCROPHULARIACEÆ

      _Verbascum Thapsus_,                        304
             " _Lychnitis_,                       305
             " _pulverulentum_,                   305
             " _nigrum_,                          305
      _Veronica spicata_,                         305
            " _serpyllifolia_,                    100
            " _scutellata_,                       244
            " _Anagallis_,                        245
            " _Beccabunga_,                       245
            " _officinalis_,                      100
            " _Chamædrys_,                        100
            " _arvensis_,                         101
            " _agrestis_,                         102
            " _polita_,                           101
      _Bartsia Odontites_,                        195
      _Euphrasia officinalis_,               274, 349
      _Rhinanthus Crista-galli_,             118, 349
      _Melampyrum cristatum_,                     147
            " _pratense_,                    146, 349
            " _sylvaticum_,                       147
      _Pedicularis palustris_,                    127
            " _sylvatica_,                   118, 349
      _Scrophularia nodosa_,                      246
            " _aquatica_,                         246
      _Digitalis purpurea_,                       148
      _Antirrhinum majus_,                        326
      _Linaria Cymbalaria_,                       327
            " _vulgaris_,                         195


  OROBANCHACEÆ

      _Orobanche Rapum_,                          345
            " _caryophyllacea_,                   345
            " _elatior_,                          346
            " _minor_,                            346
      _Lathræa squamaria_,                    54, 344


  VERBENACEÆ

      _Verbena officinalis_,                      196


  LABIATÆ

      _Salvia Verbenaca_,                         306
           " _pratensis_,                         229
      _Lycopus europæus_,                         246
      _Mentha rotundifolia_,                      247
           " _aquatica_,                          247
           " _sativa_,                            248
           " _Pulegium_,                          274
      _Thymus Serpyllum_,                         274
      _Origanum vulgare_,                         231
      _Calamintha officinalis_,                   198
           " _Nepeta_,                            198
      _Melissa officinalis_,                      198
      _Teucrium Scorodonia_,                      274
      _Ajuga reptans_,                             55
      _Ballota nigra_,                            199
      _Lamium album_,                             102
           " _Galeobdolon_,                        55
           " _amplexicaule_,                      119
           " _purpureum_,                         103
           " _incisum_,                           103
      _Galeopsis Ladanum_,                        306
      _Stachys Betonica_,                         149
           " _sylvatica_,                         199
           " _palustris_,                         248
      _Nepeta Glechoma_,                          104
      _Prunella vulgaris_,                        232
      _Scutellaria galericulata_,                 313
            " _minor_,                            275


  BORAGINACEÆ

      _Myosotis palustris_,                       249
            " _repens_,                           249
            " _cæspitosa_,                        249
            " _sylvatica_,                        150
            " _arvensis_,                         200
            " _versicolor_,                       119
            " _collina_,                          104
      _Lithospermum officinale_,                  200
      _Symphytum officinale_,                     315
      _Borago officinalis_,                       200
      _Anchusa officinalis_,                      201
            " _sempervirens_,                     201
      _Lycopsis arvensis_,                        294
      _Cynoglossum officinale_,                   201
      _Echium vulgare_,                           306
            " _Plantagineum_,                     307


  LENTIBULACEÆ

      _Pinguicula vulgaris_,                      353
             " _alpina_,                          354
             " _lusitanica_,                      354
      _Utricularia vulgaris_,                     351
             " _minor_,                           351
             " _intermedia_,                      351


  PRIMULACEÆ

      _Primula vulgaris_,                          56
            " _veris_,                            120
      _Lysimachia vulgaris_,                      315
            " _nemorum_,                          105
      _Anagallis arvensis_,                       294
            " _tenella_,                          250


  PLANTAGINACEÆ

      _Plantago major_,                           232
            " _media_,                            307
            " _lanceolata_,                       233
            " _Coronopus_,                        202


  CHENOPODIACEÆ

      _Chenopodium olidum_,                       203
            " _polyspermum_,                      203
            " _urbicum_,                          203
            " _album_,                            204
            " _ficifolium_,                       204
            " _rubrum_,                           204
            " _Bonus-henricus_,                   204
      _Atriplex patula_,                          204


  POLYGONACEÆ

      _Polygonum Persicaria_,                     205
             " _lapathifolium_,                   206
             " _Hydropiper_,                      250
             " _aviculare_,                       206
             " _Convolvulus_,                     295
      _Rumex obtusifolius_,                       206
           " _crispus_,                           207
           " _Hydrolapathum_,                     317
           " _Acetosa_,                           120
           " _Acetosella_,                        121


  THYMELACEÆ

      _Daphne Laureola_,                           70
           " _Mezereum_,                           70


  EUPHORBIACEÆ

      _Euphorbia Helioscopia_,                    208
            " _Peplus_,                           208
            " _exigua_,                           295
      _Mercurialis perennis_,                     105


  URTICACEÆ

      _Urtica dioica_,                            209
           " _urens_,                             209
           " _pilulifera_,                        209
      _Parietaria officinalis_,                   327
      _Humulus Lupulus_,                          210


  ULMACEÆ

      _Ulmus campestris_,                          71
           " _montana_,                            71


  CUPULIFERÆ

      _Quercus Robur_,                             72
      _Fagus sylvatica_,                           73
      _Carpinus Betulus_,                          74
      _Corylus Avellana_,                          74


  BETULACEÆ

      _Betula alba_,                               75
           " _nana_,                               75
      _Alnus glutinosa_,                           75


  SALICACEÆ

      _Populus nigra_,                             77
           " _tremula_,                            76
           " _canescens_,                          76
           " _alba_,                               76
      _Salix_, (_Willows_)               28, 276, 317


  CONIFERÆ

      _Pinus sylvestris_,                          77
      _Juniperus communis_,                       276
      _Taxus baccata_,                             79


  ORCHIDACEÆ

      _Spiranthes autumnalis_,                    277
      _Listera ovata_,                            121
      _Epipactis latifolia_,                      308
            " _palustris_,                        250
      _Orchis Morio_,                             122
           " _mascula_,                           122
           " _maculata_,                          277
           " _latifolia_,                         233
           " _pyramidalis_,                       308
      _Gymnadenia conopsea_,                      309
      _Habenaria bifolia_,                        234
      _Aceras anthropophora_,                     309
      _Herminium Monorchis_,                      309
      _Ophrys apifera_,                           310
           " _aranifera_,                         310
           " _muscifera_,                         310
      _Cypripedium Calceolus_,                     58


  IRIDACEÆ

      _Iris Pseudacorus_,                         129


  AMARYLLIDACEÆ

      _Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus_,                48


  LILIACEÆ

      _Allium Scorodoprasum_,                      59
           " _ursinum_,                            59
      _Ornithogalum umbellatum_,                   59
      _Hyacinthus nonscriptus_,                    60
      _Ruscus aculeatus_,                         278


  DIOSCOREACEÆ

      _Tamus communis_,                           106


  ARACEÆ

      _Arum maculatum_,                           106


  JUNCACEÆ

      _Narthecium ossifragum_,                    251
      _Juncus communis_,                          252
           " _glaucus_,                           252
           " _lamprocarpus_,                      253
           " _bufonius_,                          253
           " _squarrosus_,                        279
      _Luzula campestris_,                        279


  CYPERACEÆ

      _Eriophorum polystachyon_,                  254
             " _vaginatum_,                       255
      _Carex vulgaris_,                           256
           " _paludosa_,                          256
           " _hirta_,                              60


  GRAMINEÆ

      _Phalaris canariensis_,                     210
      _Phleum pratense_,                          233
      _Alopecurus pratensis_,                     122
      _Milium effusum_,                           150
      _Avena fatua_,                              295
      _Melica uniflora_,                           60
      _Poa annua_,                                107
      _Briza media_,                              280
      _Festuca ovina_,                            234
      _Brachypodium sylvaticum_,                  150
      _Triticum caninum_,                         150
      _Lolium perenne_,                           234
      _Hordeum pratense_,                         233
      _Nardus stricta_,                           280



GLOSSARIAL INDEX


                                                                  PAGE

  ACHENE. A dry fruit that does not open,                           13

  ACUTE. Sharp.

  ANTHER. The case at the top of the stamen containing
       the pollen,                                                   9

  AXIL. The angle formed between leaf-stalk and stem.

  AXILLARY. Situated in an axil,                                     6


  BAST. Inner bark.

  BERRY. A pulpy fruit containing several seeds,                    13

  BICRENATE. Doubly notched,                                         6

  BIFID. Divided into two parts.

  BISEXUAL. Including both male and female organs,                  11

  BRACT. A leaf or scale between flower and leaf,                   10

  BRACTEATE. Provided with one or more bracts,                      10


  CALYX. The outer whorl of a complete flower,                       9

  CAPITULUM. A head of flowers,                                 9, 175

  CAPSULE. A term applied to some fruits which open,                13

  CARPELS. Central parts of a perfect flower,                       10

  CATKIN. A spike of imperfect flowers,                             12

  CHLOROPHYLL. The green colouring matter of plants.

  COMPOSITE FLOWER. A head of 'florets' all sessile
       on a common receptacle,                                     175

  CORDATE. Heart-shaped,                                             7

  COROLLA. The second whorl of a complete flower,                    9

  CORYMB. A cluster of stalked flowers, the flowers
       being all at one level,                                       8

  COTYLEDONS. The lobes of the embryo plant, afterwards
       forming the 'seed-leaves',                               13, 47

  CRENATE. Notched.

  CUPULE. A cup, formed of bracts, surrounding a fruit.

  CYME. An arrangement of stalked flowers in which the
       terminal or central one is the first to open,                 9


  DECIDUOUS. Falling off. Applied to leaves, parts of
       flowers, &c.

  DEHISCENT. Splitting. Applied to fruits which open
       when ripe,                                                   12

  DICOTYLEDON. A plant with two cotyledons in the embryo,           13

  DIGITATE. Divided into finger-like lobes,                          7

  DISC. A fleshy ring or cup between the base of the
       stamens and that of the ovary.

  DRUPE. A stone-fruit,                                             13


  ENTIRE. Not divided,                                               6

  EPIDERMIS. The outer skin of a plant

  EXSTIPULATE. Without stipules,                                     5


  FILAMENT. The stalk which bears the anther of the stamen,          9

  FOLLICLE. A fruit which opens, when ripe, on one
       side only,                                                   13

  FRUIT. The ripened ovary of the flower,                           12


  GLUMES. The scaly bracts of sedges and grasses.


  HERBACEOUS. Green--not woody.

  HYBRID. The offspring of two different species.


  IMPERFECT FLOWER. A flower which does not possess both
       stamens and pistil,                                          12

  INDEHISCENT. Not splitting. Applied to fruits that do
       not open when ripe,                                          12

  INFERIOR. Below. Applied to the ovary when the calyx
       adheres to it; and to the calyx when it is free from and
       below the ovary,                                              6

  INFLORESCENCE. The arrangement of flowers,                        10

  INVOLUCRE. A whorl of bracts surrounding a single flower
       or a flower-head.


  LABIATE. Lipped. Applied to the calyx or the corolla of
       a flower when it is divided into two lips.

  LANCEOLATE. Long and narrow, like a lance-head,                    7

  LEAFLET. One of the distinct parts of a compound leaf,             5

  LEAVES--COMPOUND. Leaves which are divided, quite to the
       midrib, into distinct parts,                                  5

  LEAVES--SIMPLE. Leaves which are not divided quite
       to the middle,                                                5

  LEGUME. A pod--a fruit of one cell which splits, when
       ripe, on both sides,                                         12

  LIGULATE. Strap-shaped,                                          176

  LINEAR. Long and very narrow,                                      7

  LYRATE. A term applied to a leaf which has a rounded,
       terminal lobe and several lobes below.


  MICROPYLE. A small opening in the ovule or seed,                  26

  MIDRIB. The central vein of a leaf--a continuation
       of the stalk through the blade.

  MONOCOTYLEDON. A plant which has only one cotyledon
       in its embryo,                                               13


  NECTARY. A gland that produces nectar.

  NODE. The junction of leaf and stem.

  NUT. A dry fruit which does not split,                            13


  OBCORDATE. Inversely heart-shaped,                                 7

  OBOVATE. Inversely egg-shaped,                                     7

  OBTUSE. Blunt.

  ORBICULAR. Round,                                                  7

  OVARY. The part of the pistil which forms the fruit,              10

  OVATE. Egg-shaped,                                                 7

  OVULE. The unripened seed within the ovary,                       10


  PALMATE. A term applied to simple leaves with spreading
       divisions that radiate from one point,                        7

  PANICLE. A compound raceme,                                        9

  PAPPUS. A hairy calyx, which often grows into a silky
       tuft on the summit of the fruit,                            176

  PEDICEL. A secondary flower-stalk of a cluster of flowers,         8

  PEDUNCLE. The flower-stalk,                                        6

  PERFECT FLOWER. A flower with both stamens and pistil,            11

  PERIANTH. The parts of the flower outside the stamens,
       or outside the pistil if stamens are absent,                 11

  PERSISTENT. Applied to parts of a flower when they do
       not wither and fall.

  PETAL. One of the divisions of the corolla of a flower,            9

  PETIOLE. The leaf-stalk,                                           5

  PINNATE. Applied to a compound leaf when its leaflets
       are arranged along the midrib on each side,                   7

  PINNATIFID. A term applied to simple leaves when they
       are deeply divided into lateral lobes,                        7

  PISTIL. The inner part or whorl of a complete flower,             10

  PISTILLATE. Applied to a flower when it has a pistil
       and no stamens,                                              12

  PLACENTA. The part of the ovary to which the ovules
       are attached,                                                10

  POD. _See_ LEGUME.

  POLLEN. The cellular dust discharged by the anthers,           9, 25

  POLLINATION. The transfer of pollen from anther
       to stigma,                                                   26


  RACEME. An inflorescence in which the flowers are
       stalked along a common axis,                                  8

  RADICAL. Growing direct from a point near the summit
       of the root,                                                  4

  RAY. The outer, spreading florets of a composite flower,         175

  RECEPTACLE. The enlarged upper part of a flower-stalk
       that gives attachment to the parts of the flower.


  SAGITTATE. Arrow-shaped,                                           7

  SAMARA. A winged fruit,                                           13

  SEPAL. A part of the outer whorl (calyx) of a complete
       flower,                                                       9

  SERRATE. Sawlike,                                                  6

  SESSILE. Without a stalk,                                       5, 6

  SILICULA. A fruit resembling a siliqua, but shorter
       and broader,                                                 12

  SILIQUA. A pod-like fruit with two valves that separate
       from a central membrane to which the seeds are attached,     12

  SOLITARY. Arranged singly,                                         8

  SPATHULATE. Spoon-shaped,                                          7

  SPIKE. An inflorescence in which the flowers are sessile
       along a common axis,                                          8

  STAMENS. The flower organs that produce the pollen,                9

  STAMINATE. Applied to a flower that has stamens but
       no pistil,                                                   12

  STIGMA. The part of the pistil which receives the pollen,         10

  STIPULATE. Having stipules,                                        4

  STIPULES. Scaly or leafy organs at the base of a leaf,             4

  STOMATA. The openings in the epidermis of plants,                318

  STYLE. The stalk that supports the stigma,                        10

  SUPERIOR. Above. Applied to the calyx when it is on
       the ovary, and to the ovary when it is free from the
       calyx or perianth,                                           10


  TERNATE. Consisting of three parts,                                7


  UMBEL. An inflorescence in which the flower-stalks all
       radiate from one point,                                       9


  WHORL. A term applied to organs or parts arranged around
       a common centre,                                              5


THE END


  PRINTED BY
  SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. LTD., COLCHESTER
  LONDON AND ETON



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Inconsistent hyphenation in the original has been retained in this
version.

P. 24 "net veneid" changed to "net veined"

P. 40 "Lombardy Polar" changed to Lombardy Poplar

P. 75 "which peals off" changed to peels off

P. 78 "and peals off" changed to peels

P. 81 "of a glaucus green" changed to glaucous

P. 93 "Wild Strawbery" changed to Strawberry

P. 94 "Caprifoliacæ" changed to Caprifoliaceæ

P. 118 "stems each bears a" changed to bear

P. 119 "It leaves are" changed to Its

P. 124 "Glancous" changed to Glaucous

P. 207 "is usually nubranched" changed to unbranched

P. 228 "Convolvulacæ" changed to Convolvulaceæ

Plate VI caption. "Spring Rest Harrow" changed to "Spiny Rest Harrow"
as detailed in the Erratum.

P. 265 "which is somewhat resembles" changed to it

P. 272 "Vacciniam" changed to Vaccinium

P. 272 "Crowberry" changed to Cowberry

P. 304 "Great Mullien" changed to Mullein

P. 367 et seq. Section numbers corrected - 11 was omitted in original

P. 368 Added 253 to entry "Toad Rush"





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