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Title: King Horn, Floriz and Blauncheflur, The Assumption of Our Lady
Author: Various
Language: English
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circumflexes in modern French citations and the word “rôle”. The
character shown here as e͞o was printed as “eo” joined by a single
circumflex. In the Trentham MS. of Floriz and Blauncheflur, and
a few times in the Assumption, some letters were printed with “end
flourishes” (see Introduction under “Manuscripts”). All are shown here
as a free-standing tilde ~ after the letter. In the same passages, the
double letter “ll” printed with a joining wavy line is shown as łł.

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shown with {braces}. Roman (non-italic) words within italic passages are
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  King Horn,
  Floriz and Blauncheflur,
  The Assumption of our Lady.

  Early English Text Society.
  Original Series, No. 14

  1866 (re-edited 1901; reprinted 1962)

  Price 30s.

                   KING HORN,



             First Edited in 1866
              BY J. RAWSON LUMBY,

    And Now Re-Edited From The Manuscripts,
    With Introduction, Notes, And Glossary,
              GEORGE H. McKNIGHT.

                _Published for_
                    _by the_
          London   New York   Toronto

  First Published (Edited by J. Rawson Lumby) 1866
  Re-edited by George H. McKnight 1901
  Reprinted (1901 Version) 1962

  Original Series, No. 14

  Reprinted in Great Britain by Richard Clay and Company, Ltd.,
  Bungay, Suffolk.


  Preface                                                 vi
  Introduction                                           vii
  King Horn, from three MSS.:
      Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2                        1
      Laud Misc. MS. 108                                   1
      Harl. MS. 2253                                       1
  Floris and Blauncheflur, from three MSS.:
      Trentham Ms                                         71
      Ms. Cott. Vitell. D. III                        74, 84
      Cambridge MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2                          80
  The Assumption of Our Lady, from three MSS.:
      Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2                      111
      Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 10,036                         111
      Harl. MS. 2382                                     118
  Notes                                                  137
  Glossary                                               155


The triple labour involved in editing three independent works in one
volume will, it is hoped, serve as an excuse for some of the
shortcomings of the present publication. Under the circumstances it has
been impossible to make the work as definitive as might have been the
case with a single text. For example, while I have been able to print
the three existing manuscript texts of King Horn, of the other two
poems, the textual material is not nearly so complete.

The texts, it is hoped, are accurately printed. The credit for this is
due, in large measure, to Dr. Furnivall,--who has read with the MSS. the
proofs of all the British Museum texts,--and to the proof-readers at
Oxford and Cambridge. The notes to King Horn represent a good deal of
labour, and may, I trust, prove useful. The glossary, though not so
complete as that in Wissmann’s excellent critical edition of King Horn,
is intended to fit the volume, and to supply explanation of words and
uses of words not intelligible to ordinary readers of Early English

It is my pleasant duty to acknowledge assistance from various quarters.
I am indebted to the libraries of the British Museum and Cambridge
University, and the Bodleian library at Oxford for the use of
manuscripts; also to the Duke of Sutherland for permission to copy the
text of Floris and Blauncheflur from the manuscript in his private
library; also to the Cornell University library for conveniences placed
at my disposal in the preparation of this volume. I must also
acknowledge timely words of advice from Prof. J. M. Hart, notes on
Layamon from Dr. B. S. Monroe, and assistance in proof-reading by Prof.
W. Strunk, jr. But above all I must acknowledge the less apparent work
of Dr. Furnivall in preparing the texts for press, a work the amount of
which one who has not edited for the E.E.T.S. is not likely to realize.

  G. H. M. K.

  _Ithaca, N.Y., July 8, 1901._



  § 1. _Setting of the Story_, p. vii.
  § 2. _Versions_, p. viii.
  § 3. _Elements of the Story_, p. xvi.
  § 4. _Topography_, p. xvii.
  § 5. _Style_, p. xx.
  § 6. _Versification_, p. xxi.
  § 7. _Dialect_, p. xxiv.
  § 8. _Manuscripts_, p. xxviii.


By the beginning of the 13th century, when literature in the English
tongue began to show some signs of revival, the earlier English epic
tales seem to have been almost entirely obliterated from memory. A
solitary survival seems to have been the story of the dragon-killing
Wade with his famous boat Guingelot; but even this story is lost to us
save for occasional references,[I-1] and from these we must infer that
all definite idea of its origin was lost, since Wade is associated, now
with Weyland, now with Horn and Havelok, now with Lancelot. The place of
these earlier epic tales was filled in Middle English times by a new set
of tales for the most part no longer of purely native, popular origin.
Tales were imported from every conceivable quarter, though usually by
way of France, and even in the popular romances of Guy of Warwick and
Bevis of Hampton, which are supposed to contain a kernel of genuine
English tradition, the original story is almost unrecognizable amid the
embellishments added. Similarly in the stories of Waldef and Hereward
the historical facts are almost lost amid this mass of added foreign
matter, and in the late romance of Richard Cœur de Lion we have to do,
not with the historical Richard, but with a conventionalized hero of
mediæval romance.

Standing apart from these largely conventionalized tales are the stories
of Havelok and King Horn. These are supposed to have been among the
first products of the second growth of English story. They seem to
preserve, more than the other, later romances, their primitive traits,
and are hence usually classed as English, or Germanic, in origin.

    [Footnote I-1: Cf. Skeat’s Chaucer. Note to Marchaundes Tale 1424,
    and Tr. and C. iii, 614.]


The story of Horn is known in several different versions. Of these the
one printed in the present volume is the oldest and in many respects the
most archaic. The story, which it will be unnecessary to summarize here,
is told in a simple, direct style with a noticeable lack of unnecessary
description inserted for embellishment. The explanation of the peculiar
features of this version is no doubt to be found in the purpose for
which this version was used. It was probably intended to be sung, as one
would infer from the opening lines, and perhaps is such a song, or
ballad, as the one which, as the French version informs us (R. H. 2776
ff. cf. p. xiv. below), Horn sang about his love Rigmenil. The manner of
the narrative is determined by the song character of the poem. There is
more detail than in a modern song, at the same time less detail than in
a modern story. Events are sometimes simply referred to as though
already known instead of being fully described. The bravery of Murry,
Horn’s father, is alluded to in such a manner as to lead one to expect
to hear more about his feats of prowess. No motive is given for the
journey to Ireland. We are conducted from place to place with Horn, from
Aylmer’s court in Westernesse to that of Thurston, or from Horn’s
wedding feast at Aylmer’s court to the annihilation of the Saracen
invaders of Suddenne, almost in a breath. In this way sometimes
incidents are thrown absurdly out of perspective. For instance, when
Horn wishes to ‘prove his knighthood’ (v. 588), while the others are at
table, he sets out on his ‘fole,’ and at the seashore finds a shipload
of _heþene honde_. He slays about a hundred of them. _At eureche dunte
þe heued of wente._ He fixes the leader’s head on the point of his sword
and thus returns to the hall. All this, which forms the matter for about
four hundred twelve-syllabled lines in the more prolix French version,
is here related in an off-hand manner, in about forty short lines. The
pitched battle of the French version becomes here a mere after-dinner
recreation. It would be possible to multiply instances (cf. pp. x-xii)
showing the abridged character of the present version.

Very different from the English gleeman’s version, is the highly
elaborated French version of the story. This version,[I-2] which is
preserved in three MSS. at Oxford, at Cambridge, and at London, consists
of about 5250 lines of twelve syllables, arranged in _laisses_, or
strophes, of about twenty lines bound together by a single rime. Here we
have a full-fledged romance, with descriptions of rich adornments, of
feastings, of battles, of games, and of tournaments quite in the manner
of the contemporary romances current in France and in Norman England.
The archaic traits of the English King Horn are no longer so obvious.
The names of persons and of places, with the exception of those of Horn,
Rymenhild : Rigmel (Rigmenil), Fiken(h)ild : Wikele, Modi : Modin,
Westernesse : Westir (Yrlaunde), and Sudden(n)e, are quite different in
the two versions.

But with all this difference of detail, the story in its essential
elements is the same in the two versions. Wissmann,[I-3] in the
introduction to his critical edition, says, “der französische roman
(R. H.) weist kein einziges notwendiges bindeglied, keinen schönen
altertümlichen zug auf, den das englische gedicht, King Horn (K. H.)
nicht enthielte; dieses dagegen hat trotz seines geringen umfanges, eine
reiche von alten, wahrhaft poetischen motiven jenem voraus.” And
further, “aus alle dem ergibt sich, dass K. H. keine bearbeitung des
französischen romans sein kann.” Wissmann’s further conclusions,
however, are less tenable, when he continues: “das umgekehrte
verhältniss dagegen ist nicht nur denkbar, sondern bis zu einem gewissen
grade sogar notwendig; eine ältere quelle als das lied von King Horn für
R. H. vorauszusetzen sind wir durch nichts berechtigt.”

Limited space forbids a thorough-going comparison of the two versions.
The essential elements of the story are in each case nearly the same. In
the French version (R. H.) again Horn the prince with his companions is
set afloat from Suddenne in an open boat, arrives in Bretaigne, is
hospitably received by King Hunlaf, is loved by the princess Rigmenil,
from whom he receives a magic ring, is betrayed by Wikele, one of his
companions, and is exiled from Bretaigne. He takes ship for Westir, the
court of King Godreche, and is well received by the king and his two
sons. He distinguishes himself in all things, and is loved and wooed by
the princess Lemburc. But after delivering the Irish kingdom (Westir)
from an African invasion, he is recalled by a messenger to Bretaigne,
where, after vanquishing his rival Modun in a tournament, he rescues
Rigmenil and himself plays the part of bridegroom at the wedding
prepared. He then repairs to Suddenne, and after ridding his father’s
kingdom of the invaders, is warned in a dream of Wikele’s second
treachery, and returns again just in time to save his bride from a
forced marriage with Wikele. With the death of Wikele and the
establishment of Horn’s loyal friend Haderof (Athulf) in Ireland and of
Horn and Rigmenil in Suddenne, the French story ends.

In addition to this similarity in general outline must be mentioned
occasional parallelism between the two versions in minor details or even
in phraseology. As instances of the first we may cite: _Of his feire
siȝte Al þe bur gan liȝte_ K. H. 385-6; _De la belte de horn tute la
chambre resplent._ R. H. 1053. _Drink to horn of horne_ K. H. 1145; _Mes
com apelent horn li engleis naturer_ R. H. 4206. _He lokede on his rynge
And þoȝte on Rymenhilde_ K. H. 873-4; _Si regarde sa main e lanel kest
gemmeȝ_. _Ke li fud de Rimel al departir doneȝ_ R. H. 3166-7. _And whan
þu farst to woȝe tak him þine gloue_ K. H. 793-4; _Mes une rien uus di
joe dont seieȝ purgardez, Si alez donneier ke oue uus nel menez Kar il
est de beaute issi enluminez ke uus la v il iert petit serreȝ preiseȝ_
R. H. 2323-6. _Biuore me to kerue And of þe cupe serue_ K. H. 233-4;
_Horn me seruira vi de ma cupe portant_ R. H. 463. As instances of
phrases from King Horn reflected in R. H., we may cite: _Stiwarde, tak
nu here Mi fundlyng for to lere Of þine mestere, Of wude and of riuere_
K. H. 227-30; _De bois de riueer refet il altre tal_ R. H. 377. _Wiþute
sail and roþer_ K. H. 188; _Kil naient auirun dunt a (!) seient aidanȝ
Sigle ne guuernad (!) dunt il seint naianȝ_ R. H. 60-61. _Ston he dude
lade, ant lym þerto he made_ K. H. 1502 H. _Vn castel ad ia fet de pere
e de furment_ R. H. 5097. These instances, which might be multiplied,
will serve to show how closely related in origin are these two versions,
English and French.

The identity of the two versions is, however, by no means complete. The
more condensed version (K. H.) presents some traits not to be found in
R. H. We may mention: Horn’s farewell to his boat, 139 ff.; Rimenhild’s
assistance in bringing about the dubbing of Horn, 435 ff.; Rimenhild’s
dream, 651 ff.; Horn’s charge to Athulf to care for Rimenhild, 743 ff.;
the drowning of the messenger from Rimenhild to Horn, 968 ff.; the
palmer’s account of Rimenhild’s grief, 1035 ff.; Athulf’s watching from
the tower, 1091 ff.; Horn’s fictitious tale to Rimenhild of his own
death, 1175 ff.

If K. H. offers these few traits independent of R. H., the latter,
longer narrative introduces episode after episode either barely
suggested in a single line of K. H., or entirely foreign to the English
version. For example, we may mention: the more circumstantial account of
Horn’s descent, and of the heroic death of Aaluf, 250 ff.; Rimel’s
amusing method of wheedling Athelfrus into bringing Horn to her, 604
ff.; her confidences to her maid Herselot, 729 ff.; the elaborate
account of Horn’s victory over Malbroin and Rodmund, 1295 ff.; Wikele’s
contrived pretext for a quarrel with Horn, 1839 ff.; Horn’s loathness to
take oath, though he is willing to vindicate his word by meeting in
combat any two or even five or six chosen antagonists, 1924 ff.; the
love of princess Lemburc for Horn, 2394 ff.; the stone-throwing contest,
2568 ff.; the game of chess, 2696 ff.; Lemburc’s apartments, 2709 ff.;
the harp-playing, 2776 ff.; the elaborate battle description once more,
3234 ff.; the death of Egfer, 3358 ff.; the meeting of Horn with Wikele
and Modin, 4094 ff.; the tournament at Rimil’s wedding, 4456 ff.; the
victory, with Hardre’s aid, over the Saracens in Suddenne, 4604 ff.; the
touching description of Horn’s meeting with his mother, 4882 ff.; the
besiegement of Hunlaf and Rimel by Wikele, 5100 ff.; the intervention of
Wikele’s brother, Wothere, 5052 ff., etc.[I-4]

If the subject matter in the two versions is different, the style is far
more so. The simple, condensed, somewhat archaic manner of K. H. stands
in marked contrast to the sophisticated style of the French romance. The
difference is perhaps that to be expected between two versions, one
intended for English-speaking, the other for French-speaking
people.[I-5] But the difference is perhaps more largely that between
ballad and romance. In K. H. the author gives no evidence of himself
directly or indirectly, whereas Thomas, the author of R. H., continually
addresses his public in the second person and directly introduces his
personal opinion. The incidents which in K. H. are condensed almost to
unintelligibility, in R. H. are liberally supplied with motives and
explanations. The character of Rimenhild in K. H., almost wild in its
naturalness, suggests somewhat one of the female divinities of Germanic
mythology. Rimel, of the French romance, is an eminently sophisticated,
almost modern young woman who understands the arts of coaxing and of

The luxury and refinement described in the French version, contrast[I-6]
markedly with the primitive manners and surroundings suggested in the
English version. Rimenhild shares her single sleeping-room with her six
maidens; Rimel has so many maids that these have private rooms, Rimel
keeping by her only her one trusted maid. Rimenhild on her wedding day,
has four maid attendants; Rimel, thirty. King Murry’s retinue consists
of two knights, and the sons of the king of Westir appear to have been
without retinue; in R. H. the two princes in their _mesnée privée_ have
_vingt de gens ben escernée_. Even the seneschal of King Hunlaf has
twenty knights in his retinue. Stimming further points out the
feudalistic relations existing between Horn and his companions in R. H.
(as well as in H. C.) of which one can hardly detect a trace in K. H.
Further the author of the romance, quite in keeping with the conventions
of contemporary romances, has introduced and elaborated descriptions of
battles and of sports and tournaments on every possible occasion. In
R. H. Horn is a _curteis_ knight, whose knightly honour forbids him to
take oath.

Stimming further points out the difference in cultivation of manner as
reflected in the love-making scenes of the two versions. When Athulf is
introduced to Rimenhild’s bower, _Anon vpon Aþulf child Rymenhild gan
wexe wild_, K. H. 295-6, she has him seat himself on her bed, embraces
him, and offers herself as his bride. Rimel, on the other hand, who
before Aþulf’s coming has carefully regarded the glass, _pur veer sa
belted, Pur saver de su vis cum il est culured_, on his appearance,
takes him by the hand, leads him to a seat, seats herself beside him,
and then expresses the wish, “_Bels amis, dès ore voil estre mise en
vostre justise_,” politely adding, “_si vostre plaisir est_.”

All this, Stimming concludes, is an unmistakable evidence of the later
time of R. H.’s composition. Granting the truth of this conclusion, the
difference of treatment in the two versions is also no doubt in part due
to the difference in the public for which each version was intended, and
also still more, perhaps, to the difference in function of the two
works. It must be noted that K. H. is a popular ballad-like poem perhaps
of the kind referred to in R. H., while the French R. H. is an
artificial and conventionalized romance of prowess and love.

That the ballad-like version K. H., simple, even primitive in matter, in
manner, and in metrical form, should have been derived from the
sophisticated, artificial romance, R. H. deserves little consideration.
On the other hand that the artificial romance should have been derived
from the simple ballad-like story, incomplete in its record of details,
is even more unworthy of consideration, though quite probably Thomas,
the French romancer, may have been to some extent influenced by this
English version, with which he was probably acquainted, as we may infer
from the following passage:

  _Mes un lai ai oi dunt ioe sai la meitie
  Si iol sousse tut, par ma crestiente
  En cest nostre pais nad taunt bone cite
  Ki tant me fust a main e á ma uolente
  Ke ainz ne la perdisse ke lousse ublie
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  Mut en auez oi parler en cest regne
  E de lamur de horn ke ele od taunt ame
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  Coe est ueir dist Guffer, Rigmel est mut loéé
  Bele soeur de beaute en meinte cuntréé
  E de horn ai oi meinte feiz renoméé
  Quil est pruz e uallanz e corteis sanz pounéé._

    R. H. 2783-2801.

The French romance is no doubt constructed from an English story, as we
may infer from the proper names, which in general seem to be Germanic
in origin, from occasional English words, _e.g._ _welcumeȝ_ 800, _wite
God_, _wrec_ 150, etc., from references to English such as, _Mes com
apelent horn li engleis_, R. H. 4206, and especially from the general
features of the story which seem to be Germanic. Further, “in the
introduction to the French romance of Waldelf we are informed that the
romance of Horn was taken from an English original” (T. Wright, Essays
on Middle Ages, I, 102. London, 1846). The English gleeman’s version
quite likely was composed directly from oral tradition, while the
romance rests upon some version of the story, the “_parchemin_” so often
referred to. This hypothetical version, judging from the identity of the
story in its main outline with that in K. H., must be the version upon
which R. H. rests also, or must rest upon the same tradition with K. H.

A third version of the story of Horn is the romance of Horn Childe and
Maiden Rimnild, the only copy of which is the incomplete one contained
in the famous collection of the Auchinleck MS. of the 14th century. (One
leaf lost in the middle and one or two at the end.) Of this romance,
which is composed in twelve-lined strophes, _rime couée_, there are
preserved 1136 lines, that is to say, 96 strophes, not all complete. The
story, very briefly summarized, is as follows:

Haþeolf, king of “_al Ingelond fram Humber norþ_,” has one son named
Horn. To Horn Haþeolf gives eight companions and puts all under the
instruction of Arlaund. Haþeolf annihilates a host of Danish invaders,
but within nine months is again attacked, this time by three kings from
Ireland, and after an heroic fight, in which he slays five thousand, is
stoned to death, and “_an erle of Northumberland_” seizes the kingdom.

Herlaund conducts the nine boys “_fer souþe in Inglond_,” where they
are received by Houlac the king. The king’s only daughter, Rimneld,
loves him and asks Herlaund to bring Horn to her bower. As in the other
versions, Arlaund first brings Haþerof, but the second time brings Horn
to Rimneld, and the princess gives Horn rich presents, and promises to
be his if he shall be dubbed knight. But Wikard and Wikel, two of Horn’s
companions, calumniate Horn and Rimneld to the king, and Horn is
banished. After vain attempts at a reconciliation with the king, he
takes leave of Rimneld, who gives him a ring with a magic stone:

  “_When þe ston wexeþ wan
  Þan chaungeþ þe þought of þi leman
  When þe ston wexeþ rede
  Þan haue y lorn mi maidenhed._”

Horn takes the name of Godebounde, has heroic adventure in the forest,
wins a great tournament in Wales, then crosses over to Ireland, and
delivers king Finlawe (Finlak) from his enemy, Malkan, the one who had
slain Horn’s father. Atula, Finlak’s daughter, loves Horn, but he
remains true to Rimneld, notices that the stone in his ring has turned
pale, and with a hundred knights, crosses over into England in time to
save Rimneld from marrying King Moioun, overthrows Moioun in the
tournament, slays Wigard and smites out the eye of the false Wiȝel,
Wigard’s brother. Horn marries Rimneld, and, after five days of
feasting, makes ready a force to go into _North-Humberland_ to win back
his father’s kingdom. The single MS. ends abruptly at this point.

It will be seen that the main outline of the story as told in the other
two versions, is here preserved, but with many modifications, with some
omissions and some additions. The scene of action has shifted. We hear
no more of the to us obscure names Suddenne and Westir; the whole action
takes place in the British isles. The names of the persons, too, are
greatly transformed, Horn and Rimneld, and possibly Moioun being about
the only names common to all the versions. The whole introduction of the
present version, dealing with the bravery and death of Haþeolf, Horn’s
father, which forms about a quarter of this romance version as preserved
to us, is entirely strange to K. H. and to R. H. Other features peculiar
to H. C. are: Haþeolf’s instructions to the boy companions of Horn, to
bear fealty to Horn, 137 ff.; the fine gifts and rich entertainment by
Rimnild of Herlaund and Haderof and, later, of Horn, 330 ff., 377 ff.;
the manner of the courtship, where Horn no longer plays the reluctant
part, urging his poverty as an excuse, 373 ff.; the episode of the
departure of Horn’s companions Tebeaud, Winwald, Garins and Aþelston for
foreign lands, 445 ff. Wikel here does not accuse Horn of designs on the
king’s life and kingdom, 486 ff. Horn remains at home from the hunting,
not to visit Rimnild, but “_for blodeleteing, Al for a maladye_.” 485
ff. There is no Saracen invasion of Houlac’s kingdom. Horn tries to
appease the king, 541 ff. The ring has a different function, 571 ff. The
ring it is that prompts Horn’s return to Rimnild. Still other features
peculiar to this edition are: the heroic adventure in the forest, 613
ff.; the tournament at the court of Elidan in Wales, 664 ff.; and the
whole account of Horn’s experiences in Ireland, the occasion of his
journey there, the character of the battle (in which Horn is wounded),
and the absence of mention of king Finlak’s proposal to give his
daughter and kingdom to Horn.

All these independent traits in H. C. lead us to conclude that this
version must rest, directly or indirectly, on a tradition different from
that underlying K. H. and R. H. That, as Stimming thinks probable, the
writer “unmittelbar aus der sage selbst geschöpft” seems unlikely
considering the highly sophisticated[I-7] nature and artificial form of
this version, and the frequent remarks of the author, “_in boke as we
rede_,” etc. More likely it rests directly on an earlier version of the
story, which in its turn rests on a Northern tradition of the story.
That such a Northern tradition existed we have evidence in the Scottish
ballads of Hind Horn [Child’s (F. J.) English and Scottish Ballads.
Boston, 1882-84], which while emphasizing only one element, the
separation of the two lovers and their reunion through the agency of the
magic ring, agree with the H. C. version rather than with that of K. H.
and R. H.

What, then, is the relation of H. C. to K. H. and to R. H.? Wissmann
says, apparently with truth: “Das Gedicht von Horn Childe hat von dem
Gehalt des K. H. nichts bewahrt, was nicht auch R. H. hätte.” On the
other hand H. C. has a number of important traits in common with R. H.,
for instance, the names: Herland (R. H.); Herlaund, Arlaund, Harlaund,
Arlond, etc. (H. C.); Allof (R. H.); Haþeolf (H. C.); Wikel (R. H.);
Wiȝel (H. C.); Haþerof (R. H.); Haderof (H. C.) and Hunlaf (R. H.);
Houlac (H. C.); further, Haderof’s ignorance of Herland’s intention to
palm him off as Horn, the love of the Irish princess for Horn, Horn’s
meeting with Moioun (Moging) and Wikard, and his riddle of the net told
here, the tournament and the contest between Horn and Moioun, Horn’s
thanks to king Houlac (Hunlaf). From the considerable French element in
the vocabulary of H. C., including frequent rime words, the French form
Cornwayle riming with the French phrase _saun faile_, it is reasonable
to suppose that the author was acquainted with French, and the general
tone of the romance, the feudalism inculcated by King Haþeolf, 133 ff.,
the tournaments and the general air of luxury in addition to the
above-mentioned striking traits in common with R. H., suggest almost
inevitably that the author of H. C. must have been acquainted with, and
influenced by, the French version.

The Scottish ballads of Hind Horn (cf. Child, as above, I, 187), as said
above, emphasize only one element of the original story, namely, the
separation of Horn and the princess, and their reunion through the
agency of the magic ring. The story in Hind Horn agrees more closely
(notably in the function of the ring, peculiar to the Northern versions)
with H. C. than with R. H. or K. H., and seems to rest, along with H.
C., on a northern version of the story.

The later French romance _Ponthus et la belle Sidoine_ is an adaptation
of the French version (R. H.) of the Horn story. It is purely an
artificial product based on R. H., and has little bearing on the origin
and history of the version in hand. It is interesting in this connection
as showing how possible it is to tell the same story with different
names, the only name in common between R. H., and the adaptation being
that of the steward Herlant. (Cf. English translation, King Ponthus and
the Fair Sidone, edited by F. J. Mather, Publ. of the Mod. Lang. Assoc.
of America, xii, 1-150.) The story of Ponthus also appears in a German
_Volksbuch_ (cf. Simrock, I. 1 ff.).

    [Footnote I-2: Brede (R.) und Stengel (E.). _Das agn. Lied vom
    wackern Ritter Horn._ Ausg. u. Abh. VIII. Marburg, 1883. Also Fr.
    Michel. For the Bannatyne Club, 1845.]

    [Footnote I-3: Wissmann (Th.), Quell. u. Forsch. XVI. Strassburg,

    [Footnote I-4: For complete list of traits peculiar to R. H. cf.
    J. Caro, in Eng. Stud. xii, 331-2.]

    [Footnote I-5: Cf. the relation of the English version of Fl. and
    Bl. to the French original.]

    [Footnote I-6: Cf. Stimming. Review of Wissmann’s ed. of K. H.
    Engl. Stud. i, 357 ff.]

    [Footnote I-7: The author of H. C. endeavours to be realistic.
    There are no more vague terms, like _Sarazins_, etc. Further,
    there is a parallelism with the story of Harold, suggesting that
    this version has been influenced by historical events.]


The story of Horn, it is generally believed, had its origin in the
turbulent times of the Danish invasions, but the kernel of genuine
historical tradition is probably small. How the different elements in
such a story aggregate, we can plainly see in the case of the
_Hereward_: “The writer of the life of Hereward,” according to Wright,
“had, among other sources of information, the work of the presbyter,
Leofric, Hereward’s archdeacon. This Leofric, he tells us, occupied
himself in collecting for the edification of his hearers, all the acts
of the giants and warriors from the fables of the ancients, or, in the
instance of more modern heroes, from the trustworthy relations of those
who had known them, and in writing them in English that they might be
preserved in people’s memories.” In this way grew the _Hereward_ story,
and in a similar manner, we may suppose, that the story of Horn
attracted to itself many new and foreign elements, receiving its
development and final form probably at the hands of the _jongleurs_, or
gleemen, whom we are to think of as wandering widely and gathering
romantic material from the most remote regions.

In another place (Publ. of the Mod. Lang. Assoc. of America, xv.
221-232) I have attempted to point out some of the ‘Germanic elements’
in the story. It seems possible to distinguish two essential elements in
the story: (1) Horn’s expulsion from his kingdom and his return and
avengement of his father’s death; (2) the separation and reunion of the
faithful lovers. Of these elements the first seems to be especially
Germanic. At least historic incidents which might supply the nucleus for
such a tale were particularly common in connection with the continual
wars between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and also with the invasions of
England, Danish and Norman. (Cf. the death of Beaduheard. Eng. Chron.
(Winch.) a. 787, also the death of Aethelwulf at hands of Danes, avenged
by his brother Aethelstan. Gaimar, 2391 ff.) The second element also may
have been of Germanic origin, though it has become greatly
conventionalized and has come to be the more prominent element in the
story. The minor features of the story, though often purely
conventional, and, therefore, belonging to no distinct nationality, at
times show Germanic traits, as for instance in the _comitatus_ relation
existing between Horn and his followers, in the manner of wooing and of
wedding, in the etiquette of the feasts, in the etiquette of the duel,
and in the formal challenge on the part of a champion of an invading
host, to a duel upon the result of which shall depend the marriage of a
princess or the fate of a kingdom (cf. Mod. Lang. Assoc. Publ., as
above, pp. 228-231).

The story as it is preserved in K. H., the earliest of existing
versions, is no doubt a greatly expanded form of the original nucleus.
The timely rescue of the princess from a forced marriage, which in the
Scottish ballad has been preserved at the expense of the complete loss
of the other element, the recovery of the kingdom and the avengement of
the father’s death, even in the earlier K. H. version has come quite to
overshadow the recovery and revenge element. It seems very probable also
that there has been a duplication of the rescue scene, due either to the
desire of the _jongleur_, or minstrel, to repeat a successful climax, or
to a blending of two versions of the same story, a not at all uncommon
feature in such romances,[I-8] and that the second rescue scene, with
its more archaic and more particularly Germanic features, represents the
sole turning-point in an earlier and simpler version, the first and more
conventional rescue scene being an expansion contributed by a later
composer. All this, which rests largely on conjecture, would assume for
the nucleus of the story a relatively simple incident in which there are
involved only two places, the kingdom from which the prince is expelled
and which he regains, and the kingdom where he finds refuge.

    [Footnote I-8: Cf. the seeming duplication of names, Rymenhild,
    Reymyld etc.; Reynild, Ermenyld, etc., all of which may have come
    from an original Eormenhild (cf. OE. Leechdoms), the variants
    being due to metathesis as in OE. _yrnan_ : _rinnan_. Cf. also the
    explanation of Westernesse below, p. xx.]


The topography of the Horn story offers some difficult but interesting
problems. In the northern version (H. C.) all is made relatively clear.
The author of this version assigns the events to very definite places.
Horn’s father is king of “_al Ingelond fram Humber norþ_.” He repels a
Danish invasion on the east coast, and is slain by invaders from
Ireland. Horn and his companions take refuge “_fer souþe in Inglond_.”
Thence Horn goes in exile to Wales and later into Ireland. The Norman
_trouvère_, also, clarifies matters somewhat by assigning definite names
to two of the three kingdoms involved, Bretaigne and Westir (_Ki ore est
Hirlonde lors westir fu apelee_, 2184, H). But both the Norman and the
older English versions have consistently the perplexing name Sudenne
(Sodenne); and the earlier English version has also the vague name
Westernesse (Westnesse), leaving as a certain starting-point in our
study of the topography only Yrlonde, also referred to as _westene lond_
(754 H).

From internal evidence in King Horn we learn little that is definite
about the situation of Suddenne. In drifting from Suddenne to
Westernesse, Horn and his companions spend “_Al þe day and al þe niȝt,
Til hit sprang dai liȝt_,” K. H. 122-3; and again we are told of the
same voyage “_Dai hit is igon and oþer, Wiþute sail and roþer_,” 187-8.
On the return voyage to Suddenne, _Biþinne daies fiue, þat schup gan
ariue_, 1295-6. On hearing of Fikenhild’s second treachery Horn
exclaims, “_Crist for his wundes fiue, To niȝt me þuder driue_,” 1423-4,
and then, _Er þan horn hit wiste, To fore þe sunne vpriste, His schup
stod vndur ture At Rymenhilde bure_, 1435-39. From all which we can only
conclude that ideas of direction and distance are very vague in the mind
of the English composer.

In regard to the kingdom of Suddenne, some have thought that the name
must be connected with _Suðdene_ mentioned in Beowulf, which would make
Suddenne refer to some place in northern Europe, possibly in Denmark.
(Parallelism with the _Havelok_ would also support this opinion.) But
neither the proper names of the story, nor the phonology of the word
Suddenne itself, support this view. Ward[I-9] suggests that the name is
a mere vague poetical designation, and brings together historical facts
and internal evidence in the attempt to determine the definite place. He
cites the name Hornesbeorh on the Isle of Purbeck, Dorsetshire, calls
attention to the phrase in King Horn, “_y come into þis yle_,” referring
to the Sarazin incursion in which Horn’s father was killed, and from the
fact that “it was upon Dorsetshire that a descent of the Northmen took
place, which was the first recorded appearance in Wessex, and which
evidently made a great impression upon the people,” concludes that
“Dorsetshire has a very fair claim to be considered the birthplace of
the Horn legend.”

One is loath, however, to let go the only thread that seems to lead to
an explanation of the name Suddenne itself. Francisque Michel was the
first to point out that in the Brit. Mus. text of Gaimar’s _L’estorie
des Engleis_, one reads that “_Edelbrit fu feit reis de Kent E de
Sudeine ensement_,” vv. 955-6. In spite of the fact that the other three
versions have; one, Surrie, the other two Suthreie, one is tempted to
cling to this clew, and the fact that in the same manuscript later,
Gaimar, in referring to the same political division says,[I-10] “_Puis
regnat son fiȝ, E Adelstán, un rei gentils, Li uns out Westsexe, e
laltre Kent, Suthdreie, e Suthsexe ensement_, vv. 2388-91, gives ground
for the supposition that Sudeine[I-11] may refer collectively to Surrey
and Sussex. In that case the coast of Sussex was probably the scene of
the first act in the Horn drama.

Whichever of these views is the true one, we may be reasonably certain
that the Suddenne in the mind of the composer of K. H. lay on the south
coast of England. Knowing this, we may perhaps determine, at least
approximately, the situation of Westernesse. In the Harleian and Laud
MSS., the messenger sent to seek Horn, says, _Ich seche from Westnesse
horn knight of estnesse_,” which indicates that the composer conceives
Westernesse to be west of Suddenne. Further it is very certain, as Ward
(as above, p. 449) points out, that an early version of the Horn story
has supplied several of the incidents of the _Hereward_. The influence
of the story of Horn on the _Hereward_ is particularly obvious in
chapters 4-6, where Hereward gets into trouble at the court of a king of
Cornwall named Alef, by killing a champion who had claimed the princess
in marriage; Hereward is imprisoned, but is released by the princess,
who sends him to her chosen lover, the son of a king of Ireland; a
letter subsequently reaches him, saying that she is about to be forced
into marriage with another Irish prince. Hereward reaches Cornwall
again, visits the bridal feast in disguise, and is presented with the
cup by the princess. “This,” as Ward remarks, “is certainly some
evidence that the Westnesse or Westernesse of our poem may be taken to
signify Cornwall. The name, Aylmar (_i.e._ Athelmar), also does not
oppose this view. The name was a very common one in South England, and
was borne by two of the Aldermen of Devonshire, who seem to have had
some authority over Cornwall also, one about 930, another in the early
part of the 11th century, and both bearing the epithet ‘Ailmer the

Another possible explanation of Westernesse may be suggested. The
duplication of names and incidents in Westernesse and Ireland has been
referred to above. The _-er_ suffix of Westernesse certainly suggests
the _-r_ termination in Westir (the name in R. H.), which is probably a
Norse name for Ireland (cf. the other Norse names in Ireland: Thurston,
Regnild, = Norse Ragnhilda, and Harild. Cf. also R. H. 2184 H, quoted
above, p. xviii), and it is not at all impossible to conceive that in
the original, simpler form of the story, there were but two scenes to
this drama, and that Westernesse of the English version, and Westir of
the Norman version, alike refer to Ireland, only that on account of the
amplification of the story, one came to think of Aylmar’s kingdom as in
England, and added a _-nesse_ to the Norse form Westir (Vestr) so as to
make the term fit a promontory on the western end of the south coast of
England, in Devonshire or in Cornwall.

    [Footnote I-9: Ward (H. L. W.), Catalogue of Romances in the
    British Museum, I, 450.]

    [Footnote I-10: Aethelwulf was King of Kent, Surrey and Sussex
    (Gaimar, 2391. Cf. also 2476, 2480-82). Aethelstan had Wessex, for
    see 2480-82. Aethelwulf was defeated by the Danes (2440-46), and
    was avenged by his brother Aethelstan, who defeated the Danes

    [Footnote I-11: All three MSS. of K. H. say of Horn’s father,
    “_king he wes by weste_,” perhaps referring to this western
    division of the eastern kingdom. Asser visits Alfred at the
    latter’s royal ‘vill’ which is called Denne. East Dene (or Dean)
    and West Dene are two villages near Chichester. There are also two
    villages of the same name near Eastbourne.]

§ 5. STYLE.

As we have seen, the story of Horn belongs to a second growth of English
story. The manner of expression, and the general movement of the story
are quite different from those peculiar to Anglo-Saxon poetry, lacking
almost entirely the parallelism,--the appositional construction and the
heaped-up epithets, or _kennings_ of the earlier stories. With the large
French element in the vocabulary, there seems to have been introduced a
manner of expression more like the French than like the earlier English.
The movement is direct, and the imagery very simple and popular. Cf. _He
was briȝt so þe glas. He was whit so þe flur, Rose red was his colur_,
14-16, _Also blak so eny cole_, 624. _Also he sprunge of stone_, 1102,
etc. In this respect King Horn is less closely linked with the past than
is Layamon’s Brut, which was composed in the West Midlands, where the
OE. traditions in poetry persisted the longest. The Brut, while
presenting many of the modern features of manner and of phrase, still
preserves much of the manner of the past. There are in King Horn a
number of the conventionalized phrases, to be found also in Layamon
(cf. Notes to vv. 11, 67, 69, etc.), but the number of such instances is
much smaller than one would have expected, and if Layamon’s West Midland
work represents an earlier stage than King Horn in the development from
the Anglo-Saxon manner of writing, the composer of Horn has certainly
been subjected to many new and modernizing influences.

The very element in common between Layamon and King Horn is, perhaps,
the new, the modern phraseology more often than the old phraseology
rooted in the past. While, then, there are but few traces of the older
English poetic phraseology, there is much in common between King Horn
and the romances of the 13th and 14th centuries. The language in King
Horn seems to be already again crystallizing into new conventional
forms. In spite of the different demands of the metre of Horn from those
of the later, more regular, forms of versification, there are a very
great number of stereotyped phrases common to King Horn and to the
contemporary and succeeding romances composed in the other metre. I have
brought together in the Notes a number of instances of this agreement in
phraseology. The minor elements, also, are often rather mediæval than
Anglo-Saxon, and the customs described, the princess’s manner of
receiving visitors, the manner of salutation in meeting and in parting,
etc., if truly representing the manners of the time of the composition
of King Horn, soon became conventionalized and common to the whole body
of Middle English romance. (Cf. Notes to vv. 315, 319, 321, 403, 537,
739, etc.) In these respects the composer of K. H. no doubt at times
follows the conventional mode of composition of his time, but he is
probably also at times an innovator, for several scenes in Horn seem to
have been prototypes directly imitated in later romances in the
_Ipomydon_ and in the _Richard Coeur de Lion_. (Cf. Notes to 239 ff.,

On the whole, then, we see that the language of King Horn is much less
influenced, than one would expect, by older English models. The language
of the second growth of story seems to have fallen into new conventional
moulds quite independent of the older tradition.


As we have seen, the phraseology of King Horn shows relatively little
trace of influence by the older English traditional stereotyped forms of
expression. In this respect if Layamon is the link connecting native
English poetry with the past, King Horn is the link joining to the newer
traditions of poetry, which were forming. For, as we have seen, if King
Horn has some phrases in common with Layamon, these are the modern forms
of expression more often than the phrases rooted in the older English
tradition. And, as we have seen, while King Horn has relatively little
of phraseology inherited from the past, it has a multitude of
stereotyped phrases in common with the poetry of contemporary and later
composition (cf. Notes). In the same way in versification, if Layamon is
the link connecting with the Anglo-Saxon mode of versification, King
Horn is the link connecting with the newer mode, of Romance or mediæval
Latin origin.

The exact theory of the versification of King Horn remains yet to be
established. Luick in his article in Paul’s Grundriss offers the very
ingenious hypothesis that in the ‘beginnings of English as well as of
German rimed verse, we have before us the coming to light again of the
primitive Teutonic measured song verse.’ This hypothesis, though
ingenious and plausible, does not admit of verification, and it is
perhaps safer to adhere to the view of Schipper (Grundriss der
englischen Metrik), who sees in Layamon’s verse the direct traditional
descendants of the OE. types, and in King Horn a further development of
the versification of Layamon.

We see then, probably, in the versification of King Horn a transitional
stage in the development of native English metre, connecting, as we have
seen, more closely with the future than with the past. It was probably
the occurrence in each verse of two syllables marked from the other
syllables by a stronger stress, that gave rise to a feeling of
uniformity in rhythm. This tendency toward uniformity in rhythm was
fostered by the regular introduction of rime, for since the riming
syllable naturally bore one of the two verse accents, and since the
riming syllables in two riming verses would occupy the same relative
position, hence in a riming verse the second of the two verse accents
must balance with that in the other verse of the pair, and the balance
established between the second pair of accents would naturally lead to a
complete balance between the two verses. In other words the two verses
would be levelled to the same rhythm.

The regular introduction of rime was, no doubt, attended by the gradual
loss of alliteration, which would cease to be significant as marking the
verse accent, since it could hardly be made to fall regularly on the
same syllable with the rime, and would hence be merely an unorganic
adornment of the verse. As the position of the two verse accents came to
be a fixed one, there seems to have been a tendency by raising some of
the syllables bearing merely a logical stress, to rhythmic importance,
thus to bring about a verse with regular measure.

The most natural products of this development are the two types: (1)
with three accents and feminine rime, the natural product of the OE. A,
D, and C metrical types, (2) with four accents and masculine rime, the
natural product of the OE. B and E types. These forms of verse were very
similar, as Schipper has pointed out (as above, § 39), to two popular
Romance forms of verse--namely: the first form, three accents with
feminine ending, to the half verses of the Alexandrine; and the second
form, four accents with masculine ending, to the verses of the short
riming couplets and to the first member of the septenar. The development
toward regular measure, which had its origin as explained above, was
furthered by the influence of the Romance and Mediæval Latin forms of
verse. In certain ME. poems, notably the _Bestiary_, there are to be
found verses constructed regularly after Romance or Mediæval Latin
models along with native forms in all the stages of development:

  1. His muð is yet wel unkuð
  Wið _pater noster_ and crede;
  Faren he norð, er fare he suð
  Leren he sal his nede.   vv. 112-15.

  2. Ðe mire muneð us
  Mete to tilen,
  Longe liuenoðe,
  ðis little wile.   vv. 273-6.
  Ðe leun stant on hille
  And he man hunten here.   vv. 1-2.

The native forms must have been influenced by this close association
with foreign forms.

To these conditions and to this course of development we must probably
attribute the origin of the versification in King Horn. The rime has
become a regular and essential element, the alliteration, a rare and
unessential element in the verse. The forms mark a transitional stage in
development, but are more closely related to the new than to the old.
There has been a half-hearted attempt to introduce regularity of
measure, but the rhythm of the OE. types has still influenced the ear of
the composer. The most frequent verse form is the one with three accents
and feminine rime, about 1300 verses (Schipper). This is developed from
the OE. through a stronger accent on one of the original theses; e.g.,
_king he was biweste so longe so hit laste_, vv. 5, 6 C, where the
measure has been developed from the OE. #A.# type through stronger
stress on _was_ and _so_ respectively. Sometimes the original OE. #A.#
type is preserved; e.g., _Hi slóȝen and fúȝten þe níȝt and þe úȝten_,
1473-4 C. But that this was not considered normal is shown by the fact
that the other two texts, #L# and #H#, have made these two verses
quoted, fit into the new normal form, by adding a new syllable in each
verse, so that we have in MS. L, _He smýten ánd he foúten þe nýȝt and
éke þe oúȝten_, vv. 1473-4 L. Cf. also H. The next most frequent type is
the one with four accents and masculine rime; e.g., _Here sone hauede to
name horn; Feyrer child ne micte ben born_, 9, 10 L. Less frequent types
are; that with three accents and masculine ending, e.g., _þu art gret
and strong, Fair and euene long_, 99-100 C; and that with four accents
and feminine rime, e.g., _To deþe he hem alle broȝte, His fader deþ wel
dere hi boȝte_, 951-2 C (but cf. #L# and #H#, which have more normal

While nearly all the verses may be made to fit into one of the types
mentioned above, there are some which do not fit naturally into any one
of the new types, but which seems rather to be a stereotyped form handed
down from OE. tradition; e.g., _Bi þe se side_ (OE. #C# type) 35, _of
alle wymmanne_ (OE. C type) 71, _Wringinde here honde_ (OE. E type) 118,
_Bi þe se brinke_ 151, _In to a galeie_ 199, _He was þe faireste_ 187 C.
(OE. #C# types). (Cf. L which tries to make this verse fit better into
the new versification, _For þat he was fayrest_), _We ben of sodenne_
189 L, _Of Cristene blode_ (OE. type E) 191 C. _And þi fairnesse_ 227 C.
_þoru out westnesse_ 228 L (MS. C adapts the verse by changing the
_westnesse_ of L. H. to _West{er}nesse_).

Compound proper names seem to have been a source of confusion. Should
both[I-12] elements of the name receive stress, primary and secondary,
as in OE., or should only one? Notice the struggles of the scribes with
verse 169: _Hy metten wiþ almair king_ C, _Metten he with aylmer king_
L, _metten hue Eylmer, þe kyng_ H. Also 257. _Ailbrus gan lere_ C, _And
aylbrous gan leren_ L, _Aþelbrus gon leren_ H. On the whole the scribes
have been fairly successful in making the native material fit into the
new forms, but not unfrequently may be detected traces of the rhythm of
the native OE. types, especially of the C type.

    [Footnote I-12: The rimes throughout indicate that the second
    syllables in compound words and the more important suffixes still
    bore an accent. Cf. 169-70, 199-200, 209-10, 219-20, 1353-4, etc.]


In what dialect King Horn was originally composed, it is not easy to
determine. This is a particularly difficult matter because the real
pronunciation is disguised behind a great diversity of written forms.
Under the circumstances the only safe guide is to be found in the rimes.
Even these are very unsatisfactory since they are too few to permit any
safe generalizations. For instance, it is impossible to apply
satisfactorily Prof. Hempl’s -wǭ-, -wō- test (cf. _Journ. of Germ.
Phil._ I, pp. 14-30). In a similar way it is impossible to apply
Pogatscher’s ingenious test by means of the shortened product of WG.
_ā_, WS. _ǣ_ (cf. _Anglia_, xxiii, pp. 301 ff.) because of want of rime
material. Another difficulty in using the rime-test is the double
pronunciation indicated, notably in the case of WS. -eald-, éa- as the
result of contraction (_e.g._ WS. _sléan_), and of words with initial
palatal ȝ- (_e.g._, WS. _geong_). Cf. examples below.

From a consideration of the phonology of the poem Wissmann concludes
(King Horn, Untersuchungen, Strassburg, 1876, p. 33) that, “Im
Allgemeinen ist der Charakter des Vocalismus ein südöstlicher, der
jedoch von dem kentischen in vielen Punkten sich unterscheidet. Die
grösste Wahrscheinlichkeit hat Essex als Gegend der Entstehung für
sich.” A further investigation reveals to me no reason for dissenting
from this view. Some of the more prominent features of the phonology are
as follows:

In all of the three MSS. the sign _æ_ has been disused. In its place
occurs, now _a_, now _e_, so that the indication of pronunciation is
often ambiguous. That the letter _a_ sometimes denotes the _æ_ sound
seems certain (cf. Wissmann, Untersuchungen, as above, p. 10). The
original pure #ă#, as in some districts of America, had nearly
disappeared, or been lengthened, or become _o_ or part of a diphthong.
The letter _a_ was thus left free to denote the _æ_ sound, though
sometimes assisted in this function by the letter _e_.

OE. _æ̆_ and OE. _ǣ_ (_ē_) shortened.

In the North and the Midland, OE. _æ̆_ and _ǣ_ (umlaut of WG. _ai_)
shortened, appear as _a_, OE. (WS.) _ǣ_ (= WG. _ā_) shortened usually as
_e_. In the West-Southern and Middle-Southern, (1) early writings have
_e_ (_æ_, _ea_), (2) later writings have _a_. In Kentish and
East-Southern the prevailing vowel is _e_. (Cf. Morsbach, §§ 96-105.)

In K. H. OE. _æ̆_ appears (1) in C usually as _a_ (one exception _bed_
536), (2) in H as _e_, e.g., _sumwet_ : _net_ 725-6, (3) in L as _a_ or
_e_. OE. _ǣ_ (i-umlaut) shortened seems to have been written the same.
Cf. 5-6, 653-4, 1249-50, with some variations from the rule in 21-2,
553-4, 1305-6, 701-2 C H. The pronunciation of this shortened OE. _ǣ_
(_i_-umlaut) seems to have been _e_. Cf. _geste_ : _feste_ 553-4,
1305-6, _biweste_ : _laste_ 5-6. Apparent evidence to the contrary are
_haste_ : _laste_ 653-4 C L (but _beste_ : _leste_ H), and _icaste_ :
_ilaste_ 701-2 C H (but _keste_ L), _hadde_ : _ladde_ 21-2, _hadde_ :
_dradde_ 1249-50 C L, but _hedde_ : _dredde_ 1249-50 H.

Note 1. OE. (WS.) _ǣ_ must have had a close pronunciation (_ẹ̄_) if we
may judge from the rimes; _here_ : _lere_ 241-2, _lede_ : _ȝede_
309-10 C, _ete_ : _suete_ 1349-50, _lere_ : _yfere_ 257-8, _swete_ :
_forlete_ 231-2, _seche_ : _speche_ 183-4, 483-4, etc. Or perhaps we
must conclude that _ẹ̄_ close and _ę̄_ open were not carefully
distinguished in rime, for cf. _stede_ : _drede_ 273-4 C, and Note 2.

Note 2. OE. _a_ when lengthened in open syllables seems to have had an
open _ę̄_ sound. Cf. _makede_ : _verade_ 179-80, _þere_ : _fare_ 497-8 L
H, _speke_ : _take_ 567-8, _þere_ : _aylmere_ 537-8 L, C H, 1613-14,
_ȝate_ : _late_ 1123-4 C, 1593-4 C, _brake_ : _gate_ 1157-8 C, _lede_ :
_made_ 1501-2 L H, _slape_ : _rape_ 1531-2 C. Cf. also the _ai_ : _ei_
rimes. L and H write _ai_, _ay_, _ei_, and _ey_ without distinction. Cf.
1087-8 L, 1361-2 C, 1399-1400, etc.

Note 3. Pogatscher’s ingenious test (_Anglia_, xxiii, 301 ff.) can not
be applied here, because, so far as I can see, there are no instances of
rimes with shortened OE. _ǣ_ (WG. _ā_). This _ǣ_ with original length
occurs in rime, now with _a_ lengthened in open syllable (cf. Note 2,
above), now with _ē_. Cf. _seche_ : _speche_ 183-4, _swete_ : _forlete_
231-2, etc.

On the whole, then, we may conclude that it is possible to assume for
K. H. the East-Southern product _e_, but that if we do so we must also
assume either inaccuracy in the rimes or a mixed dialect.

WS. _ea_ before _l_ + consonant is written, sometimes _eld_, sometimes
_old_. It seems also to have had a double pronunciation. Both
pronunciations are supported by rimes. Such rimes as _welde_ : _ȝelde_
513-14 C H, _felde_ : _welde_ 451-2 H, _bihelde_ : _felde_ 901-2,
support one pronunciation based on the OE. (WS.) breaking _ea_ before
_l_ + cons., while _Admirad_ : _bald_ C, _amyraud_ : _baud_ L,
_Admyrold_ : _bold_ H 95-6, seem to testify to the unbroken sound in OE.
lengthened before _-ld_ to _ā_ and then opened to _ǭ_. For other
instances with varying spelling cf. 17-18, 323-4, 397-8, 639-40,
1499-1500. In v. 497 the L reading _talede_ seems to represent the OE.
broken form as opposed to the unbroken form _tolde_ in #C# and #H#.

OE. _ĕ_. There are many instances of _e_ : _i_ rimes. But it is
seemingly impossible to determine thereby much concerning the dialect.
(Cf. Morsb. §§ 109, 114, N. 1.) For examples of this rime, cf. _wïlle_ :
_telle_ 383-4, 1015-16 C; _stille_ : _duelle_ 393-4 C; _þikke_ : _nekke_
1327-8; _snelle_ : _wille_ 1581-2 C, etc.

The form _sigge_ seems to belong especially to the South-East. (Morsb.
114, N. 1, 109, N. 4, also Wissman, King Horn, p. xiv.) Cf. K. H. vv.
1367-8, _ligge_ : _wiþsegge_ C, _ligge_ : _sigge_ L; _lygge_ :
_wiþsugge_ H.

OE. _ȳ̆_, umlaut of _ū̆_ offers many difficulties. It is represented in
writing by _y_, _i_, _u_, _e_. The rimes show the prevailing sound to
have been _e_; e.g., _Suddenne_ : _kenne_ 155-6, 923-4, _pelle_ :
_fulle_ 421-2, _leste_ : _beste_ 505-6, also 617-18, 671-2, 647-8,
703-4, 917-18, 919-20 L, 805-6, 795-6, 1479-80, 1637-8, 1341-2, 1367-8,
etc. But cf. _y_ : _i_ in _kesse_ : _ywisse_ 461-2 C H, _liȝte_ :
_driȝte_ 1405-6 C. That _y_ : _i_ rimes should occur, might be expected
in view of the vague distinction between _e_ and _i_ as shown by the
_e_ : _i_ rimes, but the number of _y_ : _e_ rimes attests to a
pronunciation _e_. This is the strongest available evidence that K. H.
was composed in the south-eastern district.

That the dialect of King Horn is a mixed dialect is supported by the
treatment of _æ_ above, by the double pronunciation of WS. _-eald_, and
by further double pronunciations. OE. (WS.) _slēan_, _flēan_ seem to
have had double pronunciations. The _ō_ pronunciation is attested to by
the rime, _slon_ : _vpon_ C, _slon_ : _on_ L H, 47-8. The OE. _e͞a_ is
rendered probable by the written forms, _sle_ : _fle_ 1467-8 C, etc.
Other double pronunciations are _ȝonge_ : _ispronge_ 579-80, and more
frequently the _i_ rime _ȝonge_ : _bringe_ 295-6, _ringe_ : _ȝonge_

Prof. Hempl’s _-wǭ-_, _-wō-_ test does not yield very definite results
in this text, but seems to indicate a southern dialect. Cf. _two_ : _þo_
53-4 C, 37-8 L H, _go_ : _also_ 103-4, 107-8 L H, _wo_ : _þo_ 121-2,
279-80. But cf. _wo_ : _do_ 291-2. This might perhaps be cited as
another evidence of mixed dialect.

For consonants we have no definite rime tests, and consequently can
learn concerning them little more than the scribal preferences. In all
three texts, however, the southern forms are the favoured ones; e.g.
_ȝeue_, _ȝate_. Here again, however, we have double forms; e.g.
_wurche_ : _chirche_ 1481-2, but _werke_ : _derke_ 1547-8 C H;
_yliche_ : _riche_ 19, 20, 357-8; _ilike_ : _biswike_ 305-6, though,
perhaps, we are to seek the explanation of these double forms in
difference of vowel-ending rather than in difference of dialect.

From the inflections as from the consonants we can gain no very exact
information, and for the same reason. The evidence, however, such as it
is, points in the same direction, toward the south. The regular endings
of the present indicative seem to be _-e_, _-est_, _-eþ_ for the
singular and _-eþ_ for the plural. The forms are not numerous on account
of the infrequent use of the present tense. There are some departures
from these normal endings. _ben_ occurs occasionally in the plural of
the verb ‘be’; _e.g._ 882 L, 1643 C L, 177 H. Other traces of the
Midland ending _-en_ are to be seen, _wilen_ 2 L, 7 H, etc. Such forms
as _þou seydes_ 588 L, _þou biginnes_ 608 L, _wepes þou_ 696 L, are
probably to be explained as mistakes of the scribe of this MS., who
frequently leaves off a final consonant.

The conservative forms of the past participle, preserving the old prefix
as _i-_ or _y-_, also indicate a southern dialect for the scribes at

The personal pronouns preserve the conservative southern forms, rare
exceptions being _sche_ 380 L, in place of the normal _he_, and _þei_
1557 C, _þe_ 55 L, for the normal _hi_.

From what has been said above, it seems fairly certain that the original
dialect was a southern one, and probably a south-eastern one. There are,
however, some features which distinguish the dialect of Horn from the
Kentish. (Cf. Morsbach, § 9, b.) For instance, I may cite the history of
the breaking _ea_ before _r_ + cons. In K. H. this is usually written
_a_. (Cf. 481-2, 751-2, 1147-8.) But in case of lengthening before
_-rn_, we see that the OE. broken _ea_ pronunciation must have been the
basis; e.g., _werne_ : _berne_ C L, _werne_ : _berne_ H, 753-4, 985-6,
749-50 L, 1513-14 H, _erne_ : _werne_ 937-8 H. The combinations _ē̆o_,
_ī̆o_, _ēa_ are very regularly monophthonged, not preserving any of the
Kentish diversity of form.

The time of composition must have been fairly late, as we must infer
from the number of French words even in the rimes. That K. H. was
composed later than the beginning of the 13th century, we may conclude
from the fact that OE. _ā_ has been regularly converted into _-ǭ-_. Cf.
_drof_ : _of_ 129-30, _forsoke_ : _loke_ 799-800, etc. That it was
composed in the second half of the century seems certain from the
regularity of the conversion of _ā_ to _ǭ-_, and further from the
lengthening of short vowels in open syllables. Of this latter phenomenon
we have very few certain instances. Such rimes, however, as _þere_ :
_fare_ 497-8 L H and _stede_ : _drede_ 273-4 C, seem to be certain
enough. (Cf. also 179-80, 537-8, 567-8, 1123-4 C, 1157-8 C, 1501-2 L H,
1531-2 C, 1613-14.)


The English story of King Horn is preserved in three MSS.

1. The Cambridge University MS. Gg. 4. 27, 2, which forms the nucleus of
the present volume, is merely a fragment of fourteen folios. It contains
on its first folios the latter part of the story of Floris and
Blauncheflur, which is printed in the present volume. This is followed
by King Horn entire, which is followed by the fragment, printed in this
volume, of the Assumption.

The Cambridge MS. is written in a very plain book-hand, apparently of
the latter half of the 13th century. The folios are written in double
columns, and occasionally, since the lines are short, two lines are
joined in one. The initial letters are written a little apart from the
rest, and are marked with strokes of red.

This text of King Horn is the one printed by Lumby in the first edition
of the present volume.

2. Laud Misc. MS. 108 is well known because containing one of the
earliest collections of legends. It contains sixty-one legends (the
Southern Cycle) followed by three religious poems, these in turn
followed by the romances of Havelok and Horn, and these followed by
three further legends, in a later hand of the 15th century.

The MS. is written in double columns on parchment, and probably dates
back to 1325. The texts of Horn and Havelok are written in a fine
book-hand. The lives that are appended are written in a later, much less
formal hand.

[For full description of the MS. and its contents, see C. Horstmann,
Altenglische Legenden, pp. x-xii, Paderborn, 1875.]

This text of King Horn is printed by C. Horstmann in Herrig’s Archiv,
1872, pp. 39-58.

3. Harleian MS. 2253 is well known to all connoisseurs of early lyric
poetry. It seems to be the collection of a genuine lover of poetry. In
the words of the Brit. Mus. Catalogue it is, “A parchment book in small
folio, written by several hands, upon several subjects; partly in old
French, partly in Latin, and partly in old English; partly in prose,
partly in verse.” The lyrical poems have been reprinted by T. Wright
(Specimens of Lyric Poetry, Percy Society, London, 1842), who believes
that the collection had its origin in the Abbey of Leominster in
Herefordshire. The English poems have also been published by Dr. K.
Böddeker (Altenglische Dichtungen des MS. Harl. 2253. Berlin, 1878).

The MS. is written in an informal, but legible hand, probably of the
early 14th century. The writer of the text of King Horn seems to have
been acquainted with the French version of the story, as we must infer
from his substitution of Allof (R. H. aaluf) for Murry. The word _geste_
in the heading, and the French orthography throughout, together with
occasional forms as _enimis_ 1024 H, nom. sing. of enemy (cf. Note),
659 H, _maister_ gen. sing., 123 L, Horns, nom. sing. go along with the
evidence of the French associations of the MS., to make us believe that
the scribe was an Anglo-Norman.

This text of King Horn has been printed by J. Ritson (Anc. Engl. Metr.
Rom., London, 1882, II, pp. 91-155).

We thus see that for the preservation of King Horn we are indebted to
(1) a fragment of a collection of stories, (2) a southern collection of
legends, to which have been appended Havelok and Horn, (3) a genuine
literary collection probably made in Herefordshire by an Anglo-Norman.

Of these MSS. no one is derived from either of the others. To indicate
their interrelations, I will borrow the diagram of Wissmann expressing
the result of his studies in this matter. (Cf. Wissmann, King Horn, p.
v, Strassburg, 1881.)


                             /   \__
                            /       \_
                           /        __x
                          /     ___/  |
                         /  ___/      |
                        /  /          |
                        _y_           |
                     __/   \___       |
                  __/          \___   |
               __/                 \_z_
              /                 ___/   \___
             H              ___/           \___
                           /                   \
                          L                     C ]


  § 1. _Introductory_, p. xxx.
  § 2. _History_, p. xxx.
  § 3. _English Version_, p. xxxvii.
  § 4. _Dialect_, p. xxxix.
  § 5. _Date of Composition_, p. xli.
  § 6. _Versification_, p. xlii.
  § 7. _Manuscripts_, p. xlii.


If in King Horn we have a story Germanic in descent, and betraying
everywhere traces of its Germanic origin, in Floris and Blauncheflur we
have a romance of extraneous, probably ultimately of oriental origin,
and the contrast is in many ways interesting and instructive. The love
element, which in King Horn plays so large a part, in Fl. and Bl. is the
all in all. This story of all-absorbing passion, which in spite of
seemingly insurmountable obstacles and desperate perils, in the end
reunites the devoted lovers, was one of the most popular during the
Middle Ages, and one of the earliest to be imported from the East. The
history of the tale vies in interest with the story itself. The story in
a perplexing variety of versions spread over all the countries of
Christendom, as we shall see later. It seems to be the basis of the
charming _chantefable_, Aucassin and Nicolete, which Andrew Lang and
Walter Pater have made so well known to the modern world. The English
version, which unfortunately is incomplete at the beginning in each one
of the four manuscripts in which it has been written down, was probably
derived directly from one of the French versions, as we shall see.


_(a) Origin._

The story of Floris and Blauncheflur is probably an oriental product,
and shows many traces of Byzantine influence. It was one of the first of
these oriental tales to be retailed in the Occident and had a wide
circulation in all the countries of western Christendom, from Spain and
Italy to the Scandinavian North. Its route from East to West it is not
easy to trace with certainty, though the Crusades were quite probably
the means of its importation. Further than this it is not easy to
determine. The Provençals, whose active part in the Crusades is well
known, may have been the agents, or, as is so often the case with the
oriental tales, it may have been imported in a Latin dress.

The history of the story in the West is complicated on account of the
puzzling multiplicity of versions among which it is sometimes
exceedingly difficult to determine the interrelations. The clue to the
difficulty was early hinted at by Sommer (E. Sommer, Einl. zu R. Fleckes
Flore und Blaunscheflur, Quedlingburg und Leipzig, 1846), and more
recently the matter has been very thoroughly explained by Herzog
(H. Herzog, Die beiden Sagenkreise von Flore und Blanscheflur, Wien,
1884) in his investigation of the subject. Herzog points out that there
are to be distinguished in the Occident, two distinct general versions
of the story. In the first of these, #A#, seems to be preserved the
story in its original and genuine form. The second of these versions,
#B#, seems to be a remodelling of the original version in the attempt to
adapt to common folk a story in its existing form intended for higher
circles of society.[I-13] For this purpose slight allusions in #A#, are
expanded in #B# into striking incidents. To bring out into strong light
the injustice of Floris’s father and the final triumph of true love,
supernatural and horrible elements and episodes are introduced. Since
these new elements are of a kind common in other Byzantine tales, it is
concluded that the remodelling of the story had already taken place
before the importation from the East.

The second of these imported versions, #B#, first circulated in Italy,
in Spain and in Greece. It also seems, somewhat indirectly as we shall
see, to have served as a basis for the second French version and for one
group of the German _Volksbücher_. The versions of #B#, if we leave the
second French version out of consideration, all represent the parents of
Blauncheflur as Italian, and in part have the same names for the
characters. This circumstance, with other corroborating facts, seems to
indicate that version #B# first took root in Italy, and from there
spread into Spain and into Greece, possibly its original home.

Version #A#, on the other hand, seems first to have been imported into
France, the great jobbing nation of the Middle Ages in all sorts of
romantic stuffs and materials. From France it was early retailed to
Germany, to England, to Scandinavia, and, possibly, to Italy. From
Germany in turn it was re-exported into Bohemia. Version #A# was without
doubt the first to become known, since we find it not only in the Old
French, but in the Germanic versions springing from a French source, in
an unperverted state. All the different versions of #B#, on the other
hand, have been very noticeably influenced by #A#, indicating that the
arrival of #B# was after #A# had become established and well known.

_(b) In France._

We encounter the story of _Floris and Blauncheflur_ earliest in France,
and the French seem to have been the first to make the story a subject
for poetic treatment. The story appears in French, besides in two songs
celebrating episodes in this tale of true love, in two distinct
versions. The earliest of these versions, which we may designate as I.,
had its origin, it seems, about 1160.[I-14] (Cf. F. Steinmeyer, H Z,
xxi, 319.) Certain it is that a French version of #A# must have existed
about 1170, to serve as a basis for one of the German (the low Rhenish)
versions, Floyris und Blanscheflur. This French version, #I#, seems to
represent fairly well the #A# general form of the story. As so often in
the case of other romances, the _jongleurs_ tried to bring this foreign
importation into the cycle of French story by connecting in bonds of
kinship, its characters with the names celebrated in French epic.
Blauncheflur is represented as being the mother of Bertha of the big
foot, the wife of Pepin, father of Charlemagne.[I-15]

Du Méril (E. du Méril, Floire et Blancheflor, Paris, 1876) in discussing
the interrelations of the two French versions, characterizes one as a
version for a select public, “_version aristocratique_,” and the second
as a version for the entertainment of the masses, “_version populaire_.”
The French II. version, the “_version populaire_,” is, according to
Herzog, p. 4, the result of a sort of fusion of the #A# and #B# general
forms of the story,[I-16] with which have been woven in various episodes
which elsewhere are not known to either general form of the story, #A#
or #B#. Herzog further on continues (p. 11), “Ich halte dafür dass
dieselbe (the OF. II. version) ebenfalls aus Italien nach Frankreich
hinübergewandert ist, wo ihr Bearbeiter den Inhalt des zweiten Kreises
mit dem ihm geläufigen ersten Kreise so verschmolzen hat, dass dieser
einige nur dem zweiten Sagenkreise angehörige Züge ganz verdrängte.”

The general style and manner of handling the story is quite different in
the two French versions. The “_version aristocratique_” preserves the
traits of an oriental romance, and Floire is represented as a love-sick
youth. “_Sans li ne puis jou pas aprendre_” he replies when his father
proposes to educate him alone. There is hardly a more sentimental
passage in literature than the one in I. (212-266) describing the
school-days of the children:

  _Ensamble vont, ensamble vienent
  Et la joie d’amor maintient
  Nus d’aus deus chose ne savoit
  Que lués a l’autre ne disoit.
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  On ooient parler d’amors.
  Ensamble lisent et aprendent;
  A la joie d’amor entendent:
  Un vergier a li peres Floire
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  D’amors i chantent li oisel.
  Quant il mangoient et bevoient
  Li oisel seure aus se séoient;
  Des oiseles oent les chans:
  Cou est la vie as deus enfans.
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  Et quant a l’escole venoient
  Lor tables d’yvoire prenoient,
  Adont lor veissiez escrire
  Letres et vers d’amors en cire.
  Letres et salus font d’amors
  Du chant des oisiaus et des flors._

The writer of I. is evidently a genuine poet, though perhaps somewhat of
the ‘spring poet’ order. He exalts the sentiment of love, as we have
seen, and feelingly describes the elaborately constructed tomb
(vv. 530-652), the finely wrought cup (vv. 431-498), and the birds and
flowers and fountains and trees of the gardens of the king and of the
‘Admiral.’ He dwells in sensuous fondness in his enumeration equally of
the fine stuffs and precious stones; the _mantiaus_, _vairs osterins_
and _bliaus indes porprins_ (429-30), or the _saffirs_ and _calcidoines_
and _boines jagonses_ and _sardoines_, etc. (1755-77), and of flowers
and trees; the “_poivre, canele et garingal_,” or the “_encens, girofle
et citoval_,” or the _beuns_, the _plantoine_, the _alïer_, the _boins
figiers_, the _peschiers_, the _periers_ and the _noiers_ (1761-8).

The “_version populaire_,” on the other hand, seems to be adapted
somewhat to the ideal of the native French epic, and Floire is
represented as a model of courage and knightly virtue, in a class with
the _douze pers_ and the other heroes of the Charlemagne cycle of
stories. The writer interpolates scenes in which Floire may display his
fighting qualities. In the early part of the story, he returns from
school just in time to rescue Blauncheflur, who is about to be committed
to the flames. He accomplishes her rescue by acting as her champion and
fighting the seneschal, who has accused her of attempting to poison the
king. The combat is a stirring one quite in the manner of the _Chansons
de geste_ (vv. 920-1160). On the journey to Babylon, Floire has heroic
adventures in a battle with Diogenes, son of Samones, king of the city
of Fusis (1854-1984). Later, when the trial of Fl. and Bl. is
interrupted by the arrival of an invader, Jonas de Handreas, Fl. offers
to vanquish the invaders if his life be spared. At first he is
unsuccessful in his attempt, but after being taken prisoner by the
invaders, he is aroused by the reproachful words of Bl. and breaking
loose, slays Jonas, thus delivering the city and winning Bl.
(3120-3410). The writer of II. emphasizes the battle scenes at the
expense of the descriptive passages, devoting to the description of the
tomb only 32 verses, and to that of the wonderful cup, only 14. He seems
also to be of a practical turn of mind, and instead of fondly
enumerating the gems received for Bl., describes rather the
circumstances of the sale. Babyloine is a rich city with no poor, and
has a rent of three thousand ounces of gold each day (vv. 2319, 2342).
From all these instances one can see that the sweet and sentimental tale
of the I. version is quite modified in II. If we agree with Herzog that
this version was the result of the blending of the #B# version imported
from Italy, with the #A# version, which was already well known in
France, we must conclude also that this “_version populaire_” is
influenced by the ideals of contemporary French poetry of native origin,
by the manners and conventions of the _chansons de geste_, and the
heroic romances springing from or influenced by them.

_(c) Provence._

Among the troubadours of Provence the story of Fl. and Bl. was early
known and popular, as one must judge from the very frequent allusions.
There is, however, no proof of the existence of a Provençal romance.

_(d) In Germany._

In Germany are to be encountered many versions of the popular story. The
earliest one seems to have been the Low Rhenish poem Floyris and
Blaunchiflur, of about 3700 lines, translated by an unknown poet about
1170 (Steinmeyer, H. Z. xxi, 307-331). To the middle of the 13th century
belongs the MHG. poem in 8006 lines by Konrad Fleck, composed, quite
independently of the Low Rhenish version above mentioned, after an OF.
original. (Ed. by E. Sommer, Quedlingburg u. Leipzig, 1846.) Somewhat
younger is the Mid. Low Germ. poem, _Floris ende Blancefloer_ of 3983
lines (Ed. by H. von Fallensleben, Leipzig, 1836, and by H. E. Moltzer,
Groningen, 1879, in the _Bibl. van Middelnederlands Letterkunde_). The
poet, Dideric van Assenede, says, himself, that he derived his material
from the “Walsche.”[I-17] As a matter of fact his original seems to have
been French. To the third half of the 14th century belongs the Low Germ.
poem _Flosse un Blankflosse_ of 1534 lines (Ed. by Stephan Waetzoldt,
Bremen, 1880), which also seems to go back to a French original.[I-18]

If we look more closely into the question of the French original of the
German poems, we must assume a version, χ, earlier than the version
preserved in the three existing MSS. of French I. version. These three
MSS. may be classed into a group, _z_, whose chief characteristic is the
attempted suicide of Floris in the Lion pit. This scene appears in two
of the existing MSS., and the writer of the third MS. seems to have had
the scene in his original but to have left it out. (Cf. H. Sundmacher,
_Die altfrz. u. mittelhd. Bearbeitung der Sage von Fl. und Bl._, diss.
Göttingen, 1872.) Among the German versions it appears only in the LG.
_Flosse un Blankflosse_. The other German versions must rest on an OF.
version, χ, which at the hands of Fleck[I-19] underwent an artistic
reconstruction, but at the hands of Dideric was translated simply,
without the addition of any new ideas by the adapter.

In addition to these early German versions must be mentioned two groups
of _Volksbücher_: (1) from Boccaccio’s Filocolo, (2) from Fleck’s poem,
also a Bohemian adaptation and a German Jewish adaptation,
(Cf. Hausknecht, ed. of Fl. u. Bl., pp. 13-20, Berlin, 1885.)

_(e) In Scandinavia._

Our story had a wide circulation also in the North, as one must infer
from the number of Scandinavian versions preserved: (1) the old Norweg.
fragment of a saga (ed. by G. Storm, _Nordisk Tidskrift for Filologi og
Pædagogik_, Copenhagen, 1874, pp. 24-28), (2) the complete Icelandic
saga of _Flóres ok Blankiflúr_, (3) the fragments of a second Icelandic
Saga (ed. by Brynjolf Snorrason, _Annaler for nordisk old kyndighed og
historie_, 1850); (4) the Old Swed. poem (ed. by E. Klemming, _Samlingar
utgifna af svenska formskrift-sällskapet_, I., Stockholm, 1844); and (5)
the Danish translations from the Swedish (ed. by C. J. Brandt,
_Romantisk Digtning fra Middelalderen_, I. and II. København, 1869-77).
The distinguishing characteristic of the Northern versions is the
conclusion. According to the Norse version, Floris, to refute the charge
that he has gained admittance to Bl.’s tower by the use of magic tricks,
offers to fight in single combat the bravest of the Admiral’s knights.
In the ensuing combat he overcomes the Admiral’s champion, and receives
as his guerdon, Blauncheflur. If we accept Herzog’s conclusions (pp. 15,
35, 45-6, 66) we must assume as an original for the Scandinavian
versions, a French original, N, with the ending peculiar to the Northern
versions. The development from this original is shown by the following
plan (also borrowed from Herzog, p. 92).


        Fr. N
        Norw. M*
       /        \
      /          \
     /            \
  Icel. M       Norw. N*
                 /   \
                /     \
               /       \
         Icel. N       Swed.
                        Dan. ]

_(f) In Italy._

In Italy also the story of Fl. and Bl. enjoyed great popularity. The two
chief versions were: (1) the _Cantare_, written by a popular poet in
_ottave rime_; and (2) Boccaccio’s youthful production, his first prose
romance, _Filocolo_. That the I. version of the story, the one most
popular in France, was also current in Italy, we see in these two
versions, both of which show, in addition to the special traits of II.,
many traits peculiar to version I. To determine exactly the
interrelations of these two versions is no easy matter. From allusions
in the _Filocolo_ we know that the _Cantare_ was the older. Internal
evidence, however, forbids the supposition that the _Filocolo_ has
sprung from the _Cantare_. Rather the two versions go back to a common
source. This Italian, or Franco-Italian, version, which probably had no
differences of real moment from the _Cantare_ in its present form, must
in many points have been more ample and complete, and in individual
instances nearer the French tradition, than the _Cantare_ is.

In connection with the Italian group must also be mentioned the Greek
poem of Florios and Platziaflore, composed in the 14th century and
founded upon the _Cantare_.

_(g) In Spain._

In Spain we find allusion to our story already in the 13th century, when
the _Gran conquista de Vltramar_ refers to Fl. and Bl. as the most
devoted pair of lovers that one had ever heard of. But there is no proof
of the existence of a Spanish version of the story as early as this. In
the year 1512, appeared at Alcala the prose romance, _Flores y
Blancaflor_, which is current to the present day. The close relationship
of this to the Italian versions is very evident. Its source, however,
seems hardly to be directly the _Cantare_. The beginning of the Spanish
romance, which is entirely peculiar to this version, points rather to a
version in the North of Italy, which the Spanish adapter has quite
probably translated into Spanish without important alteration.

    [Footnote I-13: G. Paris distinguishes three general versions, two
    French versions and a third, “Roman” version, in which the parents
    of Blauncheflur are not French but Roman.]

    [Footnote I-14: The evidence cited by G. Paris, consists of
    allusions to--(1) History of Troy, (2) Siege of Troy, (3) Aeneid,
    etc. The place of origin, according to G. Paris, was probably in
    the region about Beauvais, lying between Normandy, Picardy and the
    Île de France.]

    [Footnote I-15: Perhaps this is a mere coincidence, since in a
    poem about Berthe, her father happens to be named ‘Florie,’ a
    Florie with a different history, _roi de Hongrie_. Later this
    relationship was commonly assumed. In the _Gran Conquista de
    Vltramar_, the story of Berthe is intercalated. She is daughter of
    Blancaflor and Flores.]

    [Footnote I-16: G. Paris makes this II. version the sole
    representative of a third distinct form of the story, the 2^o of
    his general classification, 1^o, 2^o, 3^o.]

    [Footnote I-17: That is to say, French or Italian.]

    [Footnote I-18: This version was evidently not translated from a
    French MS. but written from memory. The details are not always
    exactly identical with those of the French, though often so,
    enough so to make the origin of the poem unmistakable though it is
    much condensed and the order of events somewhat transposed.]

    [Footnote I-19: Fleck’s work is a paraphrase. The details are
    identical but are amplified to 8006 verses.]


The story of Fl. and Bl. found its way into England in the 13th century,
that is to say, when it had been for a hundred years familiar to French
hearers and after it had already spread into many lands outside of
France. As has been said, the English version goes back to a French
original. This original was certainly of the I. form. Of the features
peculiar to the French II. version, the English version does not show
one, while it agrees with the French I. version to the extent of exact
translation of many phrases and verses and even of reproduction of
French rime-words. At the same time the French original that lay before
the English adapter can not have been the text exactly as it is
preserved in any one of the three extant French MSS., but rather an
older, or purer text which we have designated by χ, a distinguishing
feature of which is the absence of the attempted suicide of Floris in
the lion pit. The text that must be assumed as the original of the
English poem must have been very similar to the original from which
Fleck and Dideric derived their German versions, but not exactly
identical as is evidenced by frequent slight divergences.

The English poet has not expanded and amplified by the addition of
further details or by the introduction of personal reflections, as the
German Fleck has done. He has presented the essential features of the
love story as it impressed him, in a condensed form to be sure, at the
same time without bareness or baldness. Unlike the adapter of the Low
Rhenish condensed version, he has preserved the original order of
incidents, and has usually preserved faithfully the smallest details
that have any essential bearing on the plot.

Some idea of the English writer’s fidelity to the details and even to
the phraseology of his French original, and of his method of
translating, may be gained from the following parallel passages:

  _Que bien sorent parler latin_
  _Et bien escrivre en parchemin_
          vv. 263-4.

    _Inouȝ þey couþ of latyne_
    _And wel wryte on parchemyn_
            vv. 33-4.

  _Faites la moi tost demander_
  _Ja li ferai le chief couper._
          vv. 399-400.

    _Let do bryng forþ þat mayde,_
    _Fro þe body þe heved schal goo._
            vv. 140-41.

  _Et il l’a tant bien acatée_
  _Qu’a fin or l’a sept fois pesée._
          vv. 507-8.

    _Þe amyral hur bouȝt anoon_
    _And gafe for hur, as she stood upryȝt,_
    _Seven sythes of gold her wyȝt._
            vv. 194-6.

  _Ci gist la bele Blanceflor_
  _A cui Floires ot grant amor._
          vv. 651-2.

    _Here liþ swete Blauncheflur_
    _Þat Floris loved par amur._
            vv. 217-18.

  _Un grafe a trait de son rapier_
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  _En son cuer bouter le voloit,_
  _Quant sa mere cou apercoit._
          vv. 787-890.

    _His knif he droȝ ut of his scheþe_
    _And to his herte hit hadde ismite,_
    _Nadde his moder hit underȝite._
            vv. 308-10.

The _grafe_ is elaborately described in vv. 788-98:

  _Li roi li done un palefroi,_
  _Qui d’une part estoit tous blans,_
  _De l’autre rouges comme sans._
          vv. 964-6.

    _Þe king let sadel a palfray_
    _Þe oon half white, so mylke_
    _And þat oþer reed, so sylk._
            vv. 382-4.

  _Fius, fait ele, gardez le bien;_
  _Tant com l’aurez, mar _cremez_ rien;_
  _Car vous ja rien ne requer(r)iez_
  _Que tost ou tard vous ne l’aiez_
          vv. 1003-6.

    _Mi sone, he rede, have þis ring;_
    _While he is þin, ne dute noþing._
      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
    _And be hit erli and be hit late_
    _To þi wil þu schalt habbe whate._
            vv. 393-8.

  _La le troevent ou siet, sous l’arbre,_
  _Sor un perron qui fu de marbre._
          vv. 1355-6.

    _Þe briggere he fond ate frome,_
    _Sittinde on a marble ston._
            vv. 558-9.

  _Le millor conseil que jou sai_
          v. 1858.

    _Þe beste red þat ihc þe can_
            v. 742.

  _Si maudient qui s i foula_
          v. 2060.

    _Hi beden God ȝive him wel fin_
    _Þat so manie flures dide þerin_
            vv. 855-6.

  _Des flors sali un paveillon_
  _Des eles feri mon menton;_
  _Del paveillon tel paor oi,_
  _Que m’escriai plus tost que poi_
          vv. 2093-6.

    _Þer fliste ut a buterfliȝe,_
    _Are ihc wiste, on mine iȝe._
    _So sore ihc uas offerd of þan,_
    _Þat ihc loude crie bigan_
            vv. 889-92.

  _Bele compaigne, Blanceflor,_
  _Volez vous veoir bele flor?_
          vv. 2117-18.

    _And sede, “Swete Blauncheflur,_
    _Wiltu se a wel fair flur?”_
            vv. 897-8.

  _Damoisele qui a amor_
  _Et joie en soi, doit avoir flor._
          vv. 2124-30.

    _Ho þat loveþ par amur,_
    _An haþ þerof joie, mai love flur._
            vv. 903-4.

In spite of this number of tolerably exact correspondences, in word and
phrase, with the French original, the English poem is a condensed
adaptation rather than a slavish translation. As in the French II.
version, the tender and sentimental element is much condensed; but the
English writer, unlike the writer of French II., does not introduce the
heroic and warlike element in the form of duels and battles. He does not
amplify by adding new details, as Fleck did, nor does he confuse the
order of incidents as does the adapter of the Low Rhenish version. He
makes rather a faithful condensation quite after the manner of English
adapters from the French, which is no doubt to be explained as due not
so much to difference between the writers, English and French, as to a
difference between the hearing publics, French and English, for whom the
production was intended.[I-20]

No doubt with his English public in mind, the English poet, in adapting
the story from the French, has modified to some extent the tenderness
and sentimentality, even at times the poetic descriptions, of his French
original (compare vv. 1117-1194 of the French with the corresponding
English vv. 457-72), and has omitted the enumeration of gems and of
precious stuffs suggestive of an elegance perhaps unintelligible to an
English speaking and hearing public at this time. The wonderful cup, to
the description of which 67 verses (431-498) are devoted in the French
romance, in the English poem is dismissed with 17 verses (163-184). The
garden so elaborately described in the French, vv. 1724-1835, in the
English poem occupies only vv. 685-732. The description of the knife
(_grafe_), which serves no other purpose than that of external adornment
in the French version (vv. 788-799), is entirely neglected in the
English translation. The translator’s method is well illustrated in the
case of the description of Floris’s equipage preliminary to setting out
on his journey. The description of the saddle and harness occupies 37
verses (964-1000) of the French poem, and is dismissed by the English
translator with 5 (vv. 382-389), _I ne can telle ȝou noȝt Hu richeliche
þe sadel was wroȝt_, and three verses following.

To sum up, the English version is a free, somewhat condensed,
translation from the French I. version. The translator has introduced
almost no new traits, and the extent of the condensation may be judged
by considering the 1296 verses of the English as compared with the 2974
verses in the French I. version. The manner of the condensation has been
indicated. But with all the condensation, especially in the descriptive
passages, it is important to note that in the essential features of the
story, the translator follows his original faithfully, so that the main
outline of the story is preserved as accurately in English as in French.

    [Footnote I-20: This same consideration, as we have seen, probably
    explains _in part_ the difference between the English King Horn
    and the Norman French _Horn et Rigmenil_.]


In Fl. and Bl. as in King Horn it is difficult to distinguish certain
criteria of dialect on account of the variety of orthography in the
different manuscripts. Here again the only safe guide is the rimes, and
the evidence of these is not entirely uniform for the different texts.
There is a great difference in age between MS. C, the oldest, and MS. T,
probably the youngest of the four MSS. Further there is a difference in
the dialects represented by the different scribes. The scribes of MSS. C
and Cott. were evidently southerners, and seem, here and there, to have
twisted the verses around to make them fit the Southern dialect. On the
other hand the later scribe of MS. T seems to have changed verses to
make them fit his later dialect. Either the phrases are less stereotyped
than in Horn or the poem was not so well known; in any event the scribes
of the individual texts seem to have allowed themselves greater
independence. The result is that the rime test here is not a sure one.
The evidence of rimes in MS. C is not necessarily valid for MS. T, and
_vice versā_; and which rimes indicate the pronunciation of the original
composer, it is often difficult to say. If we bear these points in mind
we may perhaps draw some satisfactory conclusions from the following

1. OE. _ȳ̆_ seems to have been pronounced _ī̆_. e.g.; _cusseþ_ :
_blisse_, _custe_ : _wiste_ 549-52 C, _ywys_ : _kysse_ 1067 T, _winne_ :
_kinne_ 806 C, _blisse_ : _kisse_ 786 C, _fylle_ : _wylle_ 738 T,
_lyke_ : _lyte_ 782 T. Only apparent exceptions are _meene_ : _kyne_
274 T (these words do not rime together in the original), and _bygge_ :
_segge_ 989 T. _Ostesse_ : _kysse_ belongs only to MSS. T and Auch.

2. If we apply Prof. Hempl’s _-wǭ-_, _-wọ̄-_ test we find some evidence
of a Midland dialect, e.g.; _too_ : _soo_ 94 T, _vndoo_ : _soo_ 74 T,
_also_ : _doo_ 224 T, 764 C, _soo_ : _doo_ 64 T, 336 T, 624 T, _so_ :
_fordo_ 307-8 C. This test applied to Fl. and Bl. is not certain in
itself, but supports the other evidence. That the test is uncertain we
see from the occurrence of apparently inaccurate rimes such as _hoom_ :
_doom_ 1079 T, 802 C, and from a few rimes which oppose the evidence of
those above cited, e.g., _þoo_ : _twoo_ 30 T, _two_ : _mo_ 218 T (and
Cott.), _so_ : _go_ 438 C, 824 C, _bo_ : _atuo_ 548 C, 614 C, _þo_ :
_so_ 666 C, _also_ : _bo_ 780 C, _whoom_ : _froom_ 70 T. It would seem
then that the change had affected the _ā_ in OE. _swā_ but not in _twā_
and _hwā_. It must be noted that all the quoted _so_ rimes with _ọ̄_
occur in MS. C, which, as we shall see later, has a strong Southern

3. The product of OE. _a_ before _l_ + cons. seems to be _a_, or with
lengthening before _-ed_, _ō_. e.g.; _wal_ : _cristal_ 273-4 C (also
609-10 T), _wolde_ : _golde_ 208 T, _tolde_ : _holde_, _sholde_ :
_holde_ 435-6 T (also 77-80 C), _wolde_ : _beholde_ 751 T (also
449-50 C), 769-70 T (also 471-2 C). Exceptions occur in the Southern
MSS. e.g.; _elde_ : _helde_ 102 Cott., _halle_ : _welle_ 230 C,
_welle_ : _alle_ 224 C, 280 C, but are not paralleled in MS. T.[I-21]

4. The inflectional endings of the pres. indic. seem to be _-e_, _-est_,
_-eþ_ for the singular. There are rimes to prove the 3rd sing. in _-eþ_;
_seith_ : _withe_ 106 T, _he sit_ : _nabit_ 40 C, _geþ_ : _deþ_ 200 C
(also T and Cott.), 422 C (also T). The plural ending is less evident.
The Cambr. MS. has rcularly _-eþ_. e.g.; _habbeþ_ 20, _serueþ_ 1256,
_beoþ_ 294, 295, _weneþ_ 314, _leteȝ_ 448, _chaungeþ_ 510, _goþ_,
_seoþ_, _spekeþ_ 708 C, _crieþ_ 526; the T. MS. _-en_, e.g.; _seruen_
590 T, _cryen_ 815 T, _ben_ 909 T, etc. That the _-eþ_ ending did not
belong to the original we may probably infer from the fact that while
the _-eþ_ of the 3rd sing. counts metrically, the _-eþ_ of the plural
usually does not. Cf. 20 C, 256 C, 448 C, 526 C, 708 C, etc. But cf.
_springeþ_ 296 C, _bisecheþ_ 765 C, _falleþ_ 786 C. These endings, then,
point to an East Midland dialect. Cf. also the rimes; _wepinge_ :
_bringe_ Cott. p. 105, _cusseþ_ : _blisse_ 549-50 C.

5. OE. _æ̆_ (_e_) and shortened OE. _ǣ_, umlaut of WG. _ai_, or WG. _ā_.

The OE. short _æ_ appears regularly as _a_. _trespas_ : _was_ 1043 T,
_orgas_ : _was_ 102 T, _Cesar_ : _bar_ 182 T, are probably to be
explained as due to one of the Southern scribes of MSS. C and Cott. e.g.
_vnderȝet_ : _set_ 166 C (but cf. _vnderȝat_ : _sat_ 98 C). The
shortening of OE. _ǣ_ (umlaut of WG. _ai_) also appears regularly as
_a_. e.g.; _glade_ : _ladde_ 480 T, _ilast_ : _cast_ 338 C, _glad_ :
_ilad_ 114 C. But cf. _lasse_ : _wytnesse_ 952 T. In the rime, _rest_ :
_mest_ 120 C, 384 C, it is impossible to determine whether the _ǣ_ is
shortened to _ĕ_, as in parts of the South, or the _ĕ_ is lengthened to
_ē_. The shortening of OE. _ǣ_ (WG. _ā_) does not occur in rime often
enough to permit any safe conclusion. The rimes _radde_ : _madde_ 826 T
and _radde_ : _hadde_ 1025 T, seem to show that the product of
shortening was _a_. That the representative of WG. _ā_ was the Saxon _ǣ_
rather than the Anglian, and Kentish _ē_, seems probable from the rimes
_rede_ : _seide_ 21-2 T, 51-2 T, 215-16 T, 263-4 T (66 Cott.); _reede_ :
_deede_ 45-6 T, 53-4 T.

From these criteria, which seem to be the best available, we may infer
that Fl. and Bl. belongs further north than King Horn. Further, the
inflections seem to point to the Eastern rather than to the Western
Midland, so that we may feel fairly safe in attributing Fl. and Bl. to
the East Midland.

    [Footnote I-21: That the Cambr. scribe was from the South is very
    apparent from: (1) the pres. indic. plur. endings in eþ, e.g.
    _comeþ_ 282, etc., (2) the above rimes of OE. _call_ : _ell_, (3)
    _axede_ 576, 602, etc., (4) _rede_ : _hadde_ 453-4, (5) _hi_ for
    ‘they’ 284, etc., _heo_ for ‘she’ 303, etc., (6) _ifere_ 502 C, in
    fere 827, 280 T, (7) _vaire_ 16, _wuder_ 114, etc.]


We shall probably be safe in setting the date of composition in the
second half of the 13th century. Lengthening in open syllables seems to
have taken place, e.g.; _coome_ : _soone_ 100 T, _grome_ : _coome_
112 T, _come_ : _hoome_ 500 T, _wite_ : _vnderȝete_ 556 C (also Cott.),
_wite_ : _wite_ 756 C, _þerone_ : _stone_, 112 T, _vppone_ : _stone_
172 T, 212 T, _þare_ : _ware_ 1036 T, etc. From this we must conclude
that the date of composition is not earlier than 1250. On the other hand
the earliest MS. (C) dates back to the second half of the 13th century.
Indeed in this MS. there are still traces of the old distinction of
grammatical gender, and OE. _ū_ is still always represented by _u_;
while the second oldest MS. (Cott.) has the newer writing _ou_.
(Cf. Hausknecht, ed. of Fl. and Bl. p. 130, Berlin, 1885.)


The poem is composed in short rimed couplets. The normal verse has four
stresses. In no one of the MSS., however, are all the verses perfectly
regular, due largely, no doubt, in part to the variety of forms
available to each composer and to the variety of spellings to choose
from, also to the attempts of each scribe to make the verses of the
original fit into his own dialect. The rimes may be masculine or
feminine. At times they are mere assonances, e.g.; _first_ : _lyst_
693-4, _furste_ : _luste_ 377-8 C, _lyke_ : _lyte_ 781-2 T, _longe_ :
_sonde_ 795-6 C, _coome_ : _soone_ 100 T, etc. At times they are
inaccurate, e.g.; _grunde_ : _honde_ 303-4 C, _meene_ : _kyne_ 273-4 T.
Peculiar are the rimes; _þerate_ : _gate_ 153-4 C, etc., _fyne_ :
_þeryne_ 369-70 T, 441-2 C, etc., _þerone_ : _stone_ 112 T, 212 T.


Floris and Blauncheflur appears in four MSS., in each of the four with a
greater or smaller part of the beginning lost.

1. #T.#, the Trentham MS., is in the library of the Duke of Sutherland
at Trentham Hall in Staffordshire. The MS. is a relatively late one
(about 1440), and is written in a very legible, informal running hand,
with loops to the _b_’s, _l_’s, etc. It contains a series of metrical
romances; besides Floris and Blauncheflur, also Kyng Rychard, Bevous of
Hampton, The Batell of Troye, Amys and Amylion, and Sir Eglamoure. Our
poem stands on folios 98-111. The headings to the pages are; on the
even, left-hand pages, _Florence_, on the odd, right-hand pages, _&
Blanchefloure_. The MS. contains 1083 lines of our poem. The beginning
of the poem is lost in this MS., as in the three others, and the first
preserved folio is an odd, right-hand page, with the heading, _&
Blanchefloure_. The first verse in this MS. corresponds to verse 193 of
the French.

The reading of the MS. is made difficult and uncertain by the end
flourishes to certain letters, e.g.; _gold~_, _stoon~_, _vppon~_, which
it is hard to interpret. It has been collated with the three others by
Hausknecht, in his admirable critical edition of the poem.

2. #Cott.#, the Brit. Mus. MS. Cott. Vitell. D. III., which probably
belongs to the second half of the 13th century, suffered badly from fire
in 1731. Of the original 219 folios of this parchment MS., 26 remain,
and these are in many parts exceedingly difficult to read, so that the
readings here offered, which are based mainly on Lumby’s text, are
offered with apologies, and may no doubt be bettered here and there by
comparison with the other MSS. Our poem, which occupies folios 6a-8b of
the existing MS., is preceded by _Versus de historibus sacris veteris et
novi Testamenti, veteri lingua Gallicana_ (O. French), and in the same
handwriting with Fl. and Bl. The following folios (9-26) contain in
Latin prose, _Expositiones quaedam sive comentarii in Macrobii

Of our poem only 451 lines are preserved in this MS., and of these only
180 are completely legible. The first verse corresponds to about v. 508,
and the last to about v. 2514 of the French. The writing is in a fine,
apparently French, book hand.

This MS. has been printed by Lumby in the original to the present
edition for the E.E.T.S., and has been used by Hausknecht in collation.

3. #A.#, the celebrated Auchinleck MS. of the Advocates’ Library in
Edinburgh, is a veritable mine of romance. Perhaps the best description
is still that given in Sir Walter Scott’s introduction to _Sir
Tristrem_, where is to be found an enumeration of the 44 different
articles, mostly romances, still contained (besides 13 lost). It is a
large quarto on vellum, and according to Ellis, belongs to the very
first of the 14th century. Of our poem, which occupies five
double-columned folios (100-104), 861 verses are contained, of which the
first corresponds to v. 1001 of the French.

Fl. and Bl. has twice been reprinted from the Auchinleck MS.: (1) C. H.
Hartshorne, Ancient Metrical Tales, London, 1829, (2) David Laing,
A Penni Worth of Witte, etc., Abbotsford Club, Edinburgh, 1857.

4. #C.#, the Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2, has already been described.
(See page xxviii.) Of the fragment of a MS. that now exists, the final
824 verses of Fl. and Bl. occupy folios 1a-5b. The first verse preserved
corresponds to verse 1001 of the French poem.

The interrelations of these four MSS. have been carefully studied by
Hausknecht (as above, pp. 98-108), whose results may be summarized as
follows: MSS. A., Cott., T form a group _x_. Now #C.#, now group _x_ has
gaps, and neither is free from individual changes.

Within the group _x_, #A# and Cott. form a special sub-group, _y_ going
back to a common origin, but at the same time independent of each other.

We may borrow from Hausknecht the following diagram representing the


                 __/   \__
              __/         \__
             /               \__
           _X_                  |
          /   \__               |
         /       \              |
        /        _y_            |
       /       _/   \_          |
      /       /       \_        |
     /       A          \_      |
    /                     V     |
   /                            |
  T                             C ]

As regards the relative value of the different MSS., it must be said
that #T# is the least to be depended on for accuracy, but is valuable
because it preserves more of the early part of the story than is
preserved in any of the other MSS. As regards the relative value of #C#
and _x_ it is hard to decide. Still the instances in which #C#, in
opposition to #A#, agrees with the French are more numerous than are the
instances of the contrary case.


  § 1. _Introductory_, p. xlv.
  § 2. _Setting_, p. xlv.
  § 3. _The rise of the Legend_, p. xlvii.
  § 4. _The place of our Legend of the Assumption_, p. xlix.
  § 5. _Origin_, p. xlix.
  § 6. _Other English Versions_, p. lii.
  § 7. _Manuscripts_, p. liv.
  § 8. _The Time and Place of Composition_, p. lvi.
  § 9. _Versification_, p. lviii.


From the valorous atmosphere of King Horn and the sentimental atmosphere
of Floris and Blauncheflur, to the devout atmosphere of the
“Assumption,” is a very appreciable change. At the same time the
oriental romance of Floris and Blauncheflur and our legend, also, no
doubt, of eastern origin, betray their common descent in a certain
similarity of sentimental tone; and further, both romances, Germanic and
oriental, share to some extent their romantic colour with the religious
legend. It is perhaps the love of this romantic colour, which the three
poems have in common, that has brought them together in the Cambridge
MS. (Gg. 4. 27. 2) which forms the nucleus of the present volume, though
the fact that the existing manuscript is but a fragment, forbids any
certain conclusion as to the tastes and probable purpose of the


In turning from the romances of King Horn and Floris and Blauncheflur to
the legend of the Assumption we are entering the most productive field
of early English literature. The religious element is the predominant
element in Anglo-Saxon poetry. Christianity, from the very first, was
received in England with an extraordinary warmth. In the year closely
following the conversion of England there came into bloom a rich
Christian poetry which soon took the place of, almost displaced, the
earlier national epos.

The Norman Conquest was the means of introducing a flood of romances of
every conceivable origin, and probably explains the slight revival of
genuine English romantic traditions such as those of Horn, Havelok and
Waldef, and possibly of Wade. But through the period, immediately
following the Conquest, of the domination of the French and Latin
languages in English literature, there had persisted a thread of the old
English tradition in the homilies which continued for a long time to be
industriously read and copied. With these in the 12th century were
associated new homilies (cf. R. Morris, Old English Homilies), the
direct lineal descendants of those of Alfric and Wulfstan, and in the
beginning of the 13th century, in the northern midlands the metrical
Ormulum, which betrays some French influence in a somewhat scanty French
element in its vocabulary and in its proper names (cf. F. Kluge, Engl.
Stud. xxii), but which nevertheless is composed quite in the style and
manner of the earlier time.

When, after two centuries, the English language had to some extent come
back into use as a language of literature, Cynewulf also found
successors, and the legend flourished once more. Indeed in this new
period it came to flourish to an extent hitherto unparalleled. This
revival was due in part, no doubt, to the story-telling spirit so
manifest in this period, and in part to the fact that this period marks
the highest point in the progress of saint worship.

Probably the earliest of these newer legends were those of St. Juliana,
St. Margeret and St. Katherine, which are written in rhythmical
alliterative prose clearly manifesting the earlier English tradition,
but which give premonition of a new era in the ring of a lyrical tone
and in the already richer, more highly coloured diction. (Cf. C.
Horstmann, Altenglische Legenden, Neue Folge, p. xv, Heilbronn, 1881.)
Quite romantic in tone and colour are the very early, fine poems, in
four-line strophes, of Katerine, Gregory, Mergrete, and the Magdalen,
all of which unfortunately are preserved only in later, remodeled forms,
and are perhaps only scant remains of an originally much richer
literature. (Cf. Horstmann, as above, p. xlii, 225, 242.) According to
Horstmann, the poems of Margaret and Gregory belong to the most
beautiful productions of the early English language. Even more finely
constructed, but rather lyric than narrative in form, are the few
legends which fall in with the movement, influenced by French and
especially strong in the South of England shortly before 1250, toward
the development of the religious lyric. (Cf. R. Morris, Old English
Miscellany.) Of these semi-lyrical legends, Eustas (MS. Digby 86) and
the legends of the Psalter (MSS. Digby and Auchinleck) are composed in
six-line strophes. (Cf. Horstmann, pp. 211, 228.) Other poems of this
period, such as the _xi Pains of Hell_, already have the short riming
couplet. Nearly to this same time belongs the Assumption of our Lady, in
riming pairs and also in the Southern dialect.

The Assumption thus finds its setting among the very finest of the
English legendary poems. According to Horstmann (as above, p. xliii):
‘Never again has legendary poetry reached the same height of pathos, the
same purity and beauty of form as in these older legends. The period
immediately following shows a decided falling off in poetic power and in
talent for form. The tone loses in depth and warmth, the style in
fullness and swing.’ In the last quarter of the 13th century, as we
shall see, the legendary poetry entered the service of the church, and
was worked over by the monks into great collections for reading in the
services. This no doubt explains the remarkable falling off in poetic
style and quality.


The story of the rise[I-22] of the legend from the _Acta Martyrorum_,
the earliest records concerning the saints, to the martyrologies, the
records of the recognized martyrs in each individual church, which in
turn were expanded after the 8th century, from mere lists of names to
the Latin legendaries upon which rest the OE. collections of
legends,--all this forms an interesting chapter in the history of the
church and in the history of literature, but has no place here except in
so far as it throws light on the origin of the poem with which we are
concerned. The relation too of the legend to the service of the church
has a very much involved history. The _Lectiones_ or ‘readings’ in the
daily offices of the church were of three kinds: either (1) selections
from the Scriptures, or (2) selections from the commentaries or homilies
of the church fathers, or (3) the _Acta Sanctorum_. The last kind came
generally to be denoted as _Legenda_, or ‘legends.’ At first treated
with distrust, in time the legend came to play an important part in the
service of the church. It seems to have first found its full development
in the ‘nocturns,’ into which it was admitted apparently by the
Benedictines in the 8th century. There it first appeared in an amplified
and extended form.

The height of the legend’s development lies in the 12th and 13th
centuries, and coincides with the period (Horstmann, as above, p. xv) of
full bloom of the cult of the saints. At this time the number of saints’
days multiplied. Each church honoured its special saints. One celebrated
not alone the death-day of the saint, but that of the burial and the
translation. New saints came to be venerated, and long-forgotten ones
were again brought to memory. The relics and traditions were collected,
and the lives were written. Special church offices were made for them,
and hymns and songs were written in their praise. In these new _offices_
of the church the legend found its use. These special festivals often
fell on week-days, and one had to fill in _lectiones_ for which nothing
was ready. Under these circumstances the legend offered itself as if
expressly fitted, and became the key to the entire religious
celebration. In this situation, amid these most favourable
circumstances, the legend developed its full power, and must have been
an important factor in the religious life of the period.

In addition to this place of the legend in the offices of the church, it
came later to be read within, or instead of the sermon, after the
_Evangelium_ during the mass, and in the popular language. From very
early times it was permitted to the clergy, in place of original
productions to read the homilies of others, and to this usage, no doubt,
we owe such collections as the Blickling Homilies, Bede’s _Homiliae de
tempore_, Aelfric’s collections, the Ormulum, etc. That the early
legends were intended to be delivered as sermons, or in sermons, is
apparent from the frequent direct appeals to the congregation, and from
their association, in the MSS., with homilies.

During the 11th and 12th centuries the homily, the older element,
continued to prevail even on saints’ days, but in the 13th and 14th
centuries the homily came to be in great measure displaced by the legend
on the festival days of the saints, and was used only for Sundays and
for the _Festae Christi_. To make a complete _liber festivalis_, either
to the book of homilies was joined a legendary for saints’ days, or
later the legendary, on the other hand, absorbed the book of homilies,
as happened for instance in the case of the _Legenda aurea_, which marks
the final step in the development of the Latin legendary, and which
presents the homilies of the _Festae Christi_, perhaps the remains of
the book of homilies, side by side with the legends. In the north of
England the collection of _Evangelia dominicalia_, that is to say the
gospels for Sundays and _Festae Christi_, which, according to the
original plan, embraced only the Sunday gospel readings with their
_expositio_ and a _narratio_ (_i.e._ a legendary narrative as an
illustration) came in later MSS. to be supplemented by a collection of
legends, evidently intended to complete the work by providing also for
the saints’ days something in the place of the _proprium sanctorum_
(_i.e._ gospels for saints’ days). In the South of England, on the other
hand, the complete _liber festivalis_ grows out of the legendary, which
comes to include the homilies.

To sum up, the place of the _evangelium_ in the mass for saints’ days
comes to be filled by the legend, while in the mass on Sunday, the
_evangelium_ is still retained, though probably often supplemented by an
_expositio_ and a _narratio_, or legendary tale as illustration for the
_expositio_. In consequence the _liber festivalis_ falls into two parts,
the _temporal_ (for Sundays and _Festae Christi_) and the _sanctoral_,
or legendary for the saints’ days.

    [Footnote I-22: Cf. Horstmann, as above, pp. xxviii ff.]


What then was the original function of our legend of the Assumption? The
_evangelium_ and the homily, as we have seen, still retained their
places, in part at least, in the _temporal_, where the Assumption would
belong, but were supplemented by legendary anecdotes, or even by entire
legends. Was our poem originally intended for a place in the religious
service, or was it rather a lyrico-romantic production with a sacred
theme? What was the original purpose of the poem, it is not easy to
determine. In actual use, however, it seems to have played a double
role. In two of the six MSS. in which the present version of the story
is preserved (viz. the Chetham MS. and Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2.),
the legend is associated with romances, and we must infer that it is the
romantic quality of the legend that has appealed to the collectors.
(Cf. also the slightly different version in the Auchinleck MS.) In the
other four MSS., however, the associations, as will be seen later, are
distinctly religious, though Harl. MS. 2382 seems rather a literary
collection than one designed for church use. In all of the MSS. the poem
is referred to as a tale (cf. Harl. MS. 2253, near the end, where occurs
the line, _This tale y haue tolde wit mouthe_), and as a _lesson_, that
is to say a ‘reading,’ and if we may judge by the general tone of the
different versions, the place for this ‘reading’ was quite likely the
church. Even if the reading was not confined to the church, it usually
was of a professionally religious character as we must judge from the
remarkable conclusion in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 10036:

  We biseche þee for alle þat hereþ þis vie
  Off oure ladi seynt marie,
  That Ih{es}u schelde hem fram g{ra}me
  Fro dedly synne {and} fro schame,
  Ne mysauenture schal bi falle þ{a}t man
  That þis a vie here can.
  Ne no womman þat ilke dai,
  That of oure ladi hereþ þis lai,
  Dien ne schal of hure childe;
  For oure ladi hure schal be mylde.
  Ne noone mys-auenture schall be-falle,
  In felde, in strete, ne in halle,
  In stede þer þis vie is rad,
  For oure ladi hure sone it bad,
  And þe archibisshop, seynt Edmou{n}d,
  Haþ g{ra}unted xl. daies to p{ar}dou{n}
  To alle þat þis vie wol here,
  Or with good wille wol lere. vv. 879-896.

§ 5. ORIGIN.

The legend of the Assumption, according to ten Brink (Geschichte der
engl. Litt. I, p. 331), had its origin in the second half of the 4th
century. Tischendorf (Act. Apocr. p. xxxiv, Leipzig, 1866) believes a
still earlier origin to be not impossible. The story had a wide
circulation in the East. Besides the Greek versions we know (cf. F.
Gierth, Engl. Stud. vii, pp. pp. 1-33) of three Syriac, one Arabic, and
one Sahidic version. Even in Ethiopia there exists a similar tale
(Journ. of Sacr. Lit. and Bibl. Rec., Jan. 1865, p. 48). From the orient
the legend spread into the literatures of western Christendom.
Tischendorf (as above, p. xliii.) gives a list of a dozen Latin
manuscripts of the legend, and from these he offers critical editions of
two versions, which, with Gierth, we may indicate as: (1) _Transitus
Mariae_, #A# (Tischendorf, pp. 113 ff.) in Latin prose; (2) _Transitus
Mariae_, #B#, a fuller version differing from #A# in some respects,
notably in the absence of the scene in which Thomas appears.

Other Latin versions are those published by Th. Graesse: (1) The
section, _De assumtione beatae Mariae virginis in Jacobi a Voragine
Legenda Aurea_,[I-23] ed. Th. Graesse, _Dresdae et Lipsiae_, 1846, pp.
504 ff., (2) _De modo assumtionis beatae Mariae_, published by Graesse,
as above, pp. 517 ff.

In French may be mentioned the version by Wace (_L’Établissement de la
fête de la conception Nôtre-Dame dite la fête aux Normands_. Caen, 1842,
or, in another edition, _Vie de la vierge Marie_, Tours, 1859). For
account of other unpublished French versions cf. E. Stengel,
_Mittheilungen aus franz. hss._, etc., Halle, 1873, pp. 20 ff.

In German we may mention the version by Conrad v. Heimesfurt, about 1200
(HZ. viii, pp. 150 ff.).

Our story in its present form seems to have made its first appearance in
England in the French version, above mentioned, by Wace, in the second
quarter of the 12th century. (Cf. however, _Assumptio sanctae Mariae
virginis_, Blickling Homilies, E.E.T.S. 58, 63, 73.) Of an English
version of the present form of the legend, for English hearers, we have
no trace before the middle of the following century, from which it seems
we are to infer that the legend remained the property of the French
clericals about a century before coming into general circulation in the
English-speaking world. This earliest English version of the story is
the one of the present edition in short riming couplets.

What then was the source of this earliest English version? Was it
derived from Wace, or does it rest on one of the Latin versions? Wace’s
poem consists of three parts (cf. Gierth, Engl. Stud. vii, p. 6): (1)
the institution of the feast of the Conception of Mary, (2) her birth,
rearing and marriage, (3) her death and burial. For the first part his
source seems to have been the _Miraculum de conceptione sanctae Mariae_;
for the second part, the _Evangelium de nativitate Sanctae Mariae_.
About these two works, which he has followed almost word for word, Wace
grouped a number of minor anecdotes and commentary notes from Anselm,
Eadmer, and other of the church writers of the 11th and 12th centuries.
For part (3) Wace seems certainly to have used the Latin version of the
story, designated by Tischendorf as _Transitus Mariae_, #B#.

The English version has in common with Wace’s poem some traits that in
the other versions are wanting. For instance, only in these two versions
is it related that Mary cared for and instructed the maidens in the
temple. (Engl. vv. 60 ff.) Another feature in common is contained in the
speech of Christ to his mother shortly before her death, in which he
promises her, _La porte d’aidier auras A trestous ceus que tu vorras_
(Wace, p. 71, vv. 6, 7), which the English poet seems to have expanded
into a number of verses, in which is promised pardon to every sinner who
will betake himself to Mary.

On the other hand, in several instances the English agrees more closely
with the Latin, where Wace has considerably abridged, and in these
instances the French cannot have been the original of the English poem.
A Latin original seems much more probable. The first two-thirds of the
English poem corresponds almost exactly with the Tischendorf Latin #B#
version. On the other hand, the introduction of Thomas in the last
one-third of the poem is a feature of the Latin #A# version, but is
foreign to #B#. In other respects the English poem corresponds more
closely to a third Latin version from which Tischendorf quotes variants,
the _Codex Laurentius_. The English has in common with the _Legenda
Aurea_ the peculiar trait of making no mention of the miraculous transit
of John from Ephesus. Again, some traits in Latin #B# do not appear in
the English version, and, on the other hand, the English version
contains a few traits not to be found in any of the other versions
spoken of.

From the above we must conclude either that the English version rests on
a very composite version of which we do not know, or that the composer
of the English version was very eclectic, and selected his material from
very different sources. The latter explanation seems the more probable
one. In this connection it is important to note an observation first
made by Zarncke and afterwards corroborated by Kölbing (Engl. Stud. ii,
pp. 281-2) that the different prose versions of legends influence each
other reciprocally, producing mixed or composite forms of the legend
(_mischredactionen_) whose exact descent it is impossible to trace. It
is here that the learned element makes itself felt and differentiates
the tradition of a legend from the tradition of a romance or of a song.
The influence of this learned element we must probably assume in
explaining the tradition of our legend of the Assumption, which seems to
be a _mischredaction_.

    [Footnote I-23: A legend cycle composed in Latin prose by the
    Italian Jacobus a Voragine, Bishop of Genoa.]


The story of the Assumption seems to have circulated, as we have seen,
both as a romantic story and as a devout legend. It must have been in
the first of these two _rôles_ that it was admitted to the famous
collection of romances in the Auchinleck MS. Here the story appears in a
new dress, composed in six-line strophes, with _rime couée_, probably
under the influence of the ballad singers. The content of this version
(cf. M. Schwarz, Engl. Stud. viii, pp. 428 ff.) seems to be
substantially that of the earlier version of the present volume. The
first stanza of this version is,--

  Who so bereȝ palm, þe tokne is þis,
  Þat in clene lif he is;
  Þat is to vnderstonde:
  Hit is tokning of loue,
  Þat god him haueȝ wraththe forȝoue,
  Þat bereȝ palm on honde.

The Assumption also forms a member of the Southern cycle of legends,
which go to form a legendary. In this _rôle_ it appears in Harl. MS.
2277, “a parchment book in a long 4to, imperfect at the beginning and
elsewhere; which formerly contained the legends of the Saints, etc.,
according to the course of the year, written in very old English
verse.... The handwriting of this MS. seems to be older than that year”
(1320). The MS. contains 69 legends, of which number 38 is _Assumpcio S.
Marie_, in 246 long riming lines, the first two of which are,--

  Seinte marie godes moder : f{ra}m þaposteles nas noȝt
  Þo þe holi gost a wit sonedai : among hem was ibroȝt.

This version seems to rest on the _Legenda Aurea_[I-24] as an original,
although the incident of the tardy arrival of Thomas, which is contained
in the Latin, is wanting in this version.

This same version appears in a later MS., Bodl. 779,[I-25] of the 16th
century. In this MS. the legend cycle is greatly extended by the
addition of a whole new series of legends. The number of legends in this
MS. reaches the number of 135, of which the version of the Assumption is
number 57.

Another version of our legend is that belonging to the Northern legend
cycle, and preserved in two MSS.: Harl. 4196 and Cott. Tiber. E.
VII,[I-26] of which the latter is the older, but the former the more
complete. These two texts correspond word for word, and apart from
possible scribal blunder, letter for letter, abbreviation for
abbreviation. Harl. MS. 4196 is a large folio on parchment, evidently of
about the middle of the 14th century, and written in a beautiful large
hand of the Northern type. It has 258 double-columned leaves, and
contains (1) several parts of the gospel in verse, which end at fol. 132
_a_, then after a blank page, (2) collection of legends in verse, with
special title and an introduction of eight verses (folios 133-205), then
as a sort of appendix, (3) a metrical gospel of Nicodemus (folios
206-215 _a_), and (4) the Prick of Conscience in verse. This version,
which appears as number 8 in the second division, the legend collection
of the Harl. MS., and whose text is identical in the two MSS. above
mentioned, opens as follows,--

  Of mari milde now will I mene
  Þat of all heuyns es corond quene
  And lady of all erth to tell
  And also Emp{er}ise of hell.

Another version belonging to the Southern cycle is that contained in the
younger MS. of this cycle, Lambeth MS. 223, a 4to parchment from the
beginning of the 15th century. (Cf. Horstmann, Neue Folge, p. xlvii. and
Notes.) In this MS. the Assumption appears, not in the legendary itself,
but as the fifth and last division in the _temporal_, which is prefixed
to the Southern cycle of legends. This version has frequent rimes within
the verse, and the last half verse has four stresses. The version agrees
in many respects with the Northern one just described and also with the
earlier Southern version, the one of our present volume. The opening
lines are as follows,--

  Herkkenes alle gode men, ȝif ȝe ben wise and slye
  And I wole to ȝow rede þe assumpcioun of Marie
  How she was from erþe taken into heuen on hegh
  And þere she shal euer wone and sitte Ihesu negh.

Another English version of our legend is that incorporated into the
Cursor Mundi (vv. 19993-20064). This version is translated into a
Northern dialect from a Southern English poem. (Cf. Cursor Mundi, ed. by
R. Morris, Introduction by Dr. Haenisch, pp. 42 ff.)

  And sant edmund o ponteni
  Dais o pardun þam gis tuenti
  In a writt þis ilk i fand,
  He-self it wroght, ic understand.
  In sotherin englis was it draun
  And turnd it haue i till our aun
  Langage o northrin lede,
  Þat can nan oþer englis rede.
  vv. 20057-64.

The poet of Cursor Mundi follows the Southern author nearly line for
line, so that there cannot be the slightest doubt that he refers to the
Southern English version of the present volume. But now and then he has
made additions, for some of which Haenisch finds no source. (Horstmann
believes this version to have been translated from Wace.)

The fact that the poet of Cursor Mundi “attributes his original to
Edmund of Pontenay was caused by a misunderstanding of the lines 893-96
of the SE. Assumption” (Haenisch).

  Cursor Mundi, vv. 20057-60.

  And sant edmund o ponteni
  Dais o pardun þam gis tuenti;
  In a writt þis ilk i fand
  He self it wroght, ic understand.

    Assumption, vv. 893-6.

    And þe archibisshop seynt Edmound
    Haþ graunted xl. daies to pardoun
    To alle þat þis vie wol here
    Or with good wille wol lere.

Still another version, which formed part of a work by Barbour, the
author of the Scotch collection of legends, is mentioned in his
prologue, but, along with the rest of this work referred to, is
unfortunately lost.

Still further deserving of mention are (1) the prose version contained
in the ‘Festial’ of Johannes Mirkus (Horstmann, Neue Folge, pp.
cix. ff.), a collection of sermons, derived for the most part from the
_Legenda Aurea_ and written about 1400 for the festivals of the church,
Festae Christi and Saints’ days;[I-27] and (2) that contained in the
English translation of the _Legenda Aurea_ (cf. Horstmann, Neue Folge,
pp. cxxx ff.). “The Assumption of oure ladi” stands 111 in Harl. MS.

The above enumeration of versions of our legend will demonstrate
effectively its popularity in England, also its use in the service of
the church. Further investigation is needed to determine more exactly
the interrelations of the various versions, though it is doubtful if
such an investigation would produce any very conclusive results, since,
as suggested above, many versions of the legends were probably mixed
versions (_mischredactionen_).

    [Footnote I-24: Cf. M. Schwarz, Engl. Studien, viii, pp. 461 ff.
    But cf. ten Brink, I, p. 336; Horstmann, Neue Folge, p. xxxix.]

    [Footnote I-25: Cf. C. Horstmann, Altengl. Legenden, p. xxxiv,
    Paderborn, 1875.]

    [Footnote I-26: Cf. Horstmann, Neue Folge, pp. lxxviii ff., Text,
    pp. 112 ff.]

    [Footnote I-27: The sermons are arranged according to the
    calendar, so that here the book of homilies and the legendary are
    at length completely formed into one. In the oldest and best MS.,
    Cott. Claud. A. II, the Assumption is number 52.]


The earliest English version, the one of the present volume, is known to
exist in six manuscripts.

1. Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2. (For description cf. introduction to
King Horn, p. xxviii.) This fragmentary text (240 lines) is printed in
the present volume.

2. Chetham MS. 8009, Manchester, a collection of romances and legends.
(For description cf. Engl. Stud. vii, 195 ff., viii, pp. 1 ff.)

3. Cambr. Univ. MS. Dd. 1. 1., a long narrow MS. from about the middle
of the 14th century and written in a large, informal, very legible hand.
The content of the MS. is the Northern collection of _Evangelia
dominicalia_, with which is included, in addition to the sermons with
legends attached for the festivals of John and Peter and Paul, also our
Southern legend poem of the Assumption, which is perhaps to be
attributed to the scribe (named Staundon), who is Southern. (For a full
account of this MS. cf. Horstmann, Neue Folge, p. xxvi. and pp.
lxvii. ff.) This text of 544 verses has not been printed.

4. Cambr. Univ. MS. Ff. 2. 38, a paper MS. in an informal but legible
hand by a Southern scribe. It contains miscellaneous religious writings,
the list of which I neglected to copy. Our poem is followed by “þe lyfe
of seynt Kateryn.” This text of 770 verses has not been printed.

5. Harl. MS. 2382, a paper book in 4to, in an informal hand, and
containing nine miscellaneous theological poems by Lydgate, Chaucer,
etc. Poem number 1 is Lydgate’s Life of the Virgin Mary, four books at
the end of which stands this note, _Explicit quartus liber de sancta
Maria_. The second poem is our present version of the Assumption,
evidently the end of a sequel to Lydgate’s poem, for at the end stands
the note, _Explicit Sextus liber Sancte Marie_, which shows that two
other books were added to the original four of Lydgate, written in
stanzas, to King Henry V. The other contents of this MS. seem also to be
literary, and are as follows: 3. _Oracio ad Sanctam Mariam_, 4. _The
Testament of Dan Johan Lydgate_, 5. _Fabula Mornalis de Sancta Maria_,
Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale, 6. _Vita Sancte Cecilie_, Chaucer’s Second
Nonne’s Tale, 7. _De Sancto Erasmo Martire_, 8. _Testamentum Cristi_, 9.
_The Childe of Bristow_. This text of 710 verses is in part reprinted in
the present volume.

6. Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 10036, a small parchment volume (about 8 × 4) of
100 folios, written in black letter, perhaps in the second half of the
14th century, and containing a miscellaneous religious collection: (1)
History of the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Vespasian
(ff. 1-61), (2) The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (ff. 62-80), (3)
A question of the peynes of helle (prose, ff. 81-84), (4) Here bigynneth
the thre arowis that God schal schete at domys-dais apon hem that
schullen be dampned (prose, ff. 85-91), (5) The seven petitions in the
Pater Noster (prose, ff. 91-94), (6) Ave Maria, Pardons and Indulgences
for repeating (prose, f. 94), (7) Ten Commandments trans. and expl.
(prose, ff. 94-96), (8) The 51st Psalm, _Miserere mei_, trans. into
English verse (96-100). This text, in 904 verses, is printed in the
present volume.

If for the sake of conformity with the German investigations, we
designate Cambr. MS. Gg. 9. 27. 2. as #A#, Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 10036 as
#B#, Harl. MS. 2382 as #C#, Cambr. MS. Dd. 1. 1. as #D#, Cambr. MS. Ff.
2. 38. as #E#, and Chetham MS. as #Ch.#, then the interrelations of the
different texts of this version are about as follows (F. Gierth, Engl.
Stud. vii, pp. 1 ff.). #A# and #B# form a special group as opposed to
#C#, #D#, #E#, on the one hand, and to #Ch.# alone, on the other. No one
of these versions is the direct source of any other. The different texts
may be characterized somewhat as follows:

#A# offers the best text as far as it goes.

#B# introduces many important changes, and seems to be somewhat confused
in the order of events, but in the passages preserved intact, preserves
the text and the rime better than do #C#, #D#, or #E#.

#C# gives best the true course of the story, but often alters the rime,
in particular, individual rime words.

#D# has many gaps, and is particularly defective after the entrance on
the scene of Thomas.

#E# stands in closer relation to #D# than to #C#, and often takes an
intermediate position between #C# and #D#. #Ch.# (cf. M. Schwarz, Engl.
Stud. viii, p. 460) we must regard as a compilation of different MSS.,
and owes its origin perhaps to oral tradition. In the case of #Ch.#, as
in the case of the other texts of this version, it will be safer not to
set up any diagram representing the interrelations of MSS., since these
MSS. are no doubt all of them influenced by written as well as by oral
tradition, and, as has been pointed out above, there is at least a
possibility, as in the case of #Ch.#, of mixed versions. In dealing with
legend, even less than in dealing with romance, does one have to do with
a purely epic growth.


We have already seen that the author of Cursor Mundi attributes the
authorship of this version of the Assumption to Edmund of Pontenay
(pp. liii, liv, above). But we have also seen the probable source of his
error. In one thing the Northern writer is no doubt right, when he says
(v. 20061), “In sotherin englis was it draun.” The poem is undoubtedly
Southern in origin. To gain more definite knowledge is not easy. The
rimes, our usual guide in such cases, in this poem are very uncertain.
The writer’s ear seems to have been not a delicate one. He does not
distinguish carefully open _ę̨̄_ and close _ẹ̄_, e.g. _here_ : _lere_ 4
Add., _wel_ : _del_ 212 C, 206 D, 218 Add., 256 C, 262 Add., _were_ :
_here_ 716 Add., etc.

In a similar way he does not distinguish carefully open _ǭ_ and close
_ọ̄_, e.g. _gone_ : _done_ 86 Add., 594 H, _done_ : _one_ 416 Add.,
562 H, 588 H, 750 Add., _anon_ : _done_ 530 Add., _sloo_ : _doo_ 508 H,
_þo_ : _do_ 262 D, etc. In consequence we are not able to apply the
_-wǭ-_, _-wọ̄-_ test with any degree of certainty. OE. _-wā_ rimes, now
with _ǭ_, now with _ọ̄_, e.g. _fro_ : _so_ 342 Add., 324 D, _so_ : _fo_
374 Add., _tho_ : _so_ 278 H, _also_ : _mo_ 17 C, etc.; but _so_ : _to_
179 C, 184 Add., 214 C, 296 C, 300 Add., 314 H, 344 Add., 718 Add., 904
Add., _atwo_ : _do_ 280 H, _whom_ : _come_ 306 F (_wham_ : _cam_ 336
Add.), etc.

In the same way OE. _æ_, and shortened OE. _ǣ_, rimes now with _a_, now
with _e_, e.g. _was_ : _gracias_ 310 Add., 774 Add., _Thomas_ : _was_
656 C, _Iosephas_ : _was_ 582 H; but _fless_ : _was_ 34 C, _best_ :
_lest_ 392 H, _fed_ : _bed_ 124 C, 132 A, _les_ : _wes_ 566 D.

In the same way OE. _y_ rimes now with _e_, now with _i_, e.g. _stede_ :
_dude_ 57 C, 62 Add., 88 Add., 800 Add., 82 C, 624 Add., _kyng_ : _geng_
220 C, _him_ (= ‘them’) : _kyn_ 642 Add.; but _mankyne_ : _pyne_ 426 A,
_Inne_ : _kynne_ 430 A, 478 A, 360 H, 338 D, 346 D, _it_ : _pytt_ 506 H,
_þerynne_ : _synne_ 604 H, _blisse_ : _gladnesse_ 384 H, etc.

In the same way in the 3rd plur. pres. indic., the ending is sometimes
_-eþ_, sometimes _-n_, e.g. _listneþ_ 8 C, _serueþ_ 418 H, _goth_ 476 H,
593 A, _buþ_ 22 C, 26 C, etc.; but _ben_ 25 A, _beon_ 141 C, 149 A,
etc., and the rime _kenesmen_ : _ben_ 122 C, 130 A.

Details may be multiplied indefinitely to show the general Southern
character of the language, _e.g._ the verbal endings in _-i_ or _-y_, as
_blessi_ : _herkni_ 7, 8 C, _loky_ 47 C, _gladie_ 75 C, etc.; the
infinitive preserving its final _-n_, as _quene_ : _bene_ 6 Add.,
_bene_ : _ysene_ 40 A, _gon_ : _on_ 140 C, _quen_ : _ben_ 98 C, 104 A,
114 C, 120 A, etc.; but _beo_ : _gleo_ 10 C, etc.; the present
participle in _-and_, as _lepand_ : _hande_ 614 A, etc.; the use of the
palatalized consonants, as in _yyeue_ 566 H, _ayene_ 597 H, etc.

The dialect then certainly is of the Southern part of England; but the
rimes do not enable one to locate the dialect more exactly. The
composition is undoubtedly that of a scholar in whom one might expect a
wider range in pronunciation. Doubtless both Southern and Midland
dialects were familiar to him. The pronunciation, however, of OE. _y_ as
_e_ and of OE. _æ_ as _e_ belongs to the East Southern, and we shall
probably be safe in calling the dialect a compromise between East
Southern and East Midland.

The time of composition was probably not later than 1250. The OE. _ā_
had regularly changed to _ǭ_ (if we neglect an isolated instance like
_thomas_ : _ras_ 822 A); but I find no certain instance of lengthening
in open syllables, and further, the oldest MS. (C) is not much later
than 1250, as we have seen. It preserves the unmonophthonged _eo_, e.g.
_weop_ 29, _treo_ 35, _heo_ 36, _beo_ 37, _iseo_ 38, etc.


The legend, like the romance of Floris and Blancheflur, is composed in
short riming pairs. Each verse nominally has four metrical stresses. The
rime may be either masculine or feminine. Frequently assonance takes the
place of perfect rime; e.g. _weop_ : _fet_ 30 C, _gode_ : _fote_ 70
Add., _þolen_ : _y-boren_ 220 Add., etc.


  [Transcriber’s Note:

  Line-initial þ was corrected to capital Þ on the assumption that
  capitalization was editorial. Individual changes are noted at the
  end of the e-text. Line-initial y was retained for consistency.]

  _Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2._

  Alle beon he bliþe
  Þat to my song lyþe,
  A sang ihc schal ȝou singe
  Of Murry þe kinge.                                       4

    _Laud Misc. MS. 108_, fol. 219 _b_.

    +++Alle ben he bliþe
    Þat to me wile{n} liþe,
    A song ich wille you si{n}ge
    Of morye þe kinge.                                     4

      _Harl. MS. 2253._

_The | corresponds to a sign used in the MS. to mark the divisions
between the lines._

      [[See Transcriber’s Note about e-text format.]]

      [Sidenote: [leaf 83]]
      Her bygynneþ þe geste of kyng Horn.

      ¶ Alle heo ben blyþe
      þat to my song ylyþe,
      a song ychulle ou singe
      of Allof þe gode kynge.                              4

[Sidenote: King Murry and his queen, Godhild, have a son named Horn.]

  King he was biweste
  So longe so hit laste.
  Godhild het his quen;
  Faire ne miȝte non ben.                                  8
  He hadde a sone þ{a}t het horn;
  Fairer ne miste no{n} beo born,
  Ne no rein vpon birine,
  Ne su{n}ne vpon bischine.                               12

    King he was bi westen
    Wel þat hise dayes lesten,
    And godild hise gode quene;
    Feyrer non micte bene.                                 8
    Here sone hauede to name horn;
    Feyrer child ne micte ben born.
    Ne reyn ne micte upon reyne,
    Ne no so{n}ne by schine.                              12

      kyng he wes by weste
      þe whiles hit yleste,
      ant godylt his gode quene;
      no feyrore myhte bene.                               8
      ant huere sone hihte horn;
      feyrore child ne myhte be born.
      for reyn ne myhte by ryne
      ne sonne myhte shyne.                               12

[Sidenote: He is marvellously fair and fifteen years old.]

  Fairer nis no{n} þane he was;
  He was briȝt so þe glas.
  He was whit so þe flur,
  Rose red was his colur.                                 16
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  In none kinge riche
  Nas no{n} his iliche.                                   20

    Fayrer child þa{n}ne he was,
    Brict so eu{er}e any glas,
    Whit so any lili flour,
    So rose red was hys colur.                            16
    He was fayr and eke bold
    And of fiftene winter hold.
    Was noma{n} him yliche
    Bi none kinges riche.                                 20

      feyrore child þen he was,
      bryht so euer eny glas,
      so whit so eny lylye flour,
      so rose red wes his colour.                         16
      He wes feyr {ant} eke bold
      ant of fyftene wynter old.
      [Sidenote: [leaf 83, back]]
      Nis non his yliche
      in none kinges ryche.                               20

[Headnote: _Saracens invade the land._]

[Sidenote: Horn has twelve companions.]

  Twelf feren he hadde
  Þ{a}t alle wiþ him ladde,
  Alle riche ma{n}nes sones,
  {And} alle hi were faire gomes,                         24
  Wiþ him for to pleie.
  {And} mest he luuede tweie;
  ++Þat on him het haþulf child,
  {And} þ{a}t oþ{er} ffikenild.                           28

    xij feren he hadde
    Þat he mid him ladde,
    And alle rich ki{n}ges sones,
    And alle swiþe fayre gomes,                           24
    Mid hym forto pleye.
    But mest he louede tueye;
    Þat on was hoten ayol child,
    And þat oþer fokenild.                                28

      tueye feren he hadde
      þ{a}t he wiþ him ladde,
      alle richemenne sones,
      {ant} alle suyþe feyre gomes,                       24
      wyþ him forte pleye.
      mest he louede tueye;
      Þ{a}t on wes hoten Athulf chyld,
      {ant} þ{a}t oþer Fykenyld.                          28

[Sidenote: Athulf the best, and Fikenhild the worst.]

  Aþulf was þe beste
  {And} fikenylde þe werste.
  Hit was vpon a som{er}es day,
  Also ihc ȝou telle may,                                 32

    Ayol was þe beste
    And fokenild þe werste.
    ++Hit was sone som{er}es day,
    Also ich nou telle{n} may,                            32

      Athulf wes þe beste
      ant fykenyld þe werste.
      Hyt was vpon a someres day,
      also ich ou telle may,                              32

[Sidenote: King Murry while riding, finds fifteen ships arrived on the

  Murri þe gode king
  Rod on his pleing
  Bi þe se side,
  Ase he was woned ride.                                  36

    Þat moye þe gode kinge
    Rod on his pleyhinge
    Bi þe se syde,
    Þer he was woned to ryde.                             36

      Allof þe gode kyng
      rod vpon ys pleyȝyng
      bi þe see side,
      þer he was woned to ryde.                           36

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  He fo{n}d bi þe st{ro}nde,
  Ariued o{n} his lo{n}de,                                40
  Schipes fiftene,
  Wiþ sarazins kene.

    With him ride{n} bote tvo;
    Al to fewe ware þo.
    He fond bi þe stronde,
    Ariued on his londe,                                  40
    Schipes xv,
    Of sarazines kene.

      wiþ him ne ryde bote tuo;
      al to fewe hue were þo.
      he fond by þe stronde,
      aryued on is londe,                                 40
      shipes fyftene,
      of sarazynes kene.

  He axede what isoȝte
  Oþ{er} to londe broȝte.                                 44
  ++A Payn hit of herde
  And hym wel sone answarede,
  “Þi lo{n}d folk we schulle slon
  And alle þ{a}t Crist luueþ vpon,                        48
  And þe selue riȝt anon;
  Ne schaltu todai henne gon.”

    He acsede wat he sowte
    Oþer to londe broucte.                                44
    A peynym it yherde
    And sone answerede,
    “Þi lond folc we wile{n} slon
    And al þat god leuet on;                              48
    And þe we solen sone anon;
    Sald þou neuere henne gon.”

      he askede whet hue sohten
      oþer on is lond brohten.                            44
      a payen hit yherde
      {ant} sone him onsuerede,
      “þy lond folk we wolleþ slon
      þ{a}t euer c{ri}st leueþ on;                        48
      {ant} þe we wolleþ ryht anon;
      shalt þou neuer henne gon.”

[Headnote: _Saracens kill Horn’s father._]

[Sidenote: After a brave defence, the king and his two companions are

  Þe kyng aliȝte of his stede,
  For þo he hauede nede,                                  52
  {And} his gode kniȝtes two;
  Al to fewe he hadde þo.
  Swerd hi gu{n}ne g{ri}pe
  {And} to gadere smite.                                  56
  Hy smyten vnder schelde
  Þat sume hit yfelde.
  Þe king hadde al to fewe
  Toȝenes so vele schrewe.                                60

    Þe king licte adoun of his stede,
    For þo he hauede nede,                                52
    And hise gode knictes ij,
    But ywis he{m} was ful wo.
    Swerdes þe go{n}ne g{r}ipe
    And to gydere smyte.                                  56
    He foute{n} an ond{er} selde
    Some of hem he felde.
    He weren al to fewe
    Ayen so fele srewe.                                   60

      þe kyng lyhte of his stede,
      for þo he heuede nede,                              52
      ant his gode feren tuo;
      mid ywis huem wes ful wo.
      swerd hy gonne g{ri}pe
      {ant} to gedere smyte.                              56
      hy smyten under shelde,
      þ{a}t hy somme yfelde.
      ¶ þe kyng hade to fewe
      aȝeyn so monie schrewe.                             60

[Sidenote: and the Saracens begin to waste the land.]

  So fele miȝten yþe
  Bringe hem þre to diþe.
  ¶ Þe pains come to londe
  {And} neme hit in here honde.                           64
  Þ{a}t folc hi gu{n}ne quelle
  {And} churchen for to felle.

    Sone micte{n} atteþ[KH-1]
    Bri{n}gen þre deþe.
    Þe paynimes come{n} to londe
    And nome{n} hyt al to honde.                          64
    Cherches he go{n}ne{n} felle,
    And folc he go{n}ne quelle.

    [Footnote KH-1: after þ a letter erased]

      so fele myhten eþe
      bringe þre to deþe.
      þe payns come to londe
      {ant} nomen hit an honde.                           64
      þe folk hy gonne quelle
      {ant} sarazyns to felle.

  Þer ne moste libbe
  Þe fremde ne þe sibbe,                                  68
  Bute hi here laȝe asoke
  {And} to here toke.
  Of alle wymmanne
  Wurst was godhild þanne.                                72

    Þer ne micte libbe
    Þe fremde ne þe sibbe,                                68
    Bote he here ley forsoken
    And to here token.
    Of alle wi{m}menne
    Verst was godyld o{n}ne.                              72

      þer ne myhte libbe
      þe fremede ne þe sibbe,                             68
      bote he is lawe forsoke
      {ant} to huere toke.
      of alle wymmanne
      werst wes godyld þanne.                             72

[Sidenote: Godhild grieves much,]

  For Murri heo weop sore
  {And} for horn ȝute more.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                    76

    For moy he wep sore
    And for horn wel more.
    Godild hauede so michel sore
    Micte no wimma{n} habbe more.                         76

      for Allof hy wepeþ sore
      {ant} for horn ȝet more.
      Godild hade so muche sore
      þ{a}t habbe myhte hue na more.                      76

[Headnote: _Godhild takes refuge in a cave._]

[Sidenote: but retires alone to a cave, where she continues to observe
the Christian religion.]

  He wenten vt of halle,
  Fram hire Maidenes alle,
  Vnder a roche of stone.
  Þer heo liuede alone.                                   80
  Þer heo s{er}uede gode,
  Aȝenes þe paynes forbode.

    Þe vente hout of halle,
    Fram hire maydenes alle,
    In to a roche of stone.
    Þar he wonede allone.                                 80
    Þer he seruede god,
    Ayenes þe houndes forbod.

      hue wente out of halle,
      from hire maidnes alle,
      vnder a roche of stone.
      þer hue wonede al one.                              80
      þer hue seruede gode,
      aȝeyn þe payenes forbode.

  Þer he seruede c{ri}ste,
  Þ{a}t no payn hit ne wiste.                             84
  Eu{e}re heo bad for horn child,
  Þ{a}t Iesu c{ri}st him beo myld.
  Horn was in paynes honde
  Wiþ his feren of þe londe.                              88
  Muchel was his fairhede,
  For ih{es}u c{ri}st hi{m} makede.

    Þer he s{er}uede c{r}iste,
    Þat paynimes ne wiste,                                84
    And eu{er}e bed for horn child,
    Þat ih{es}u c{r}ist him were mild.
    Horn was i{n} peynims honde,
    Mid his feren of þe londe.                            88
    Miche was his fayrhede,
    So ih{es}u him hauede made.

      þer hue seruede c{ri}st,
      þ{a}t þe payenes hit nust.                          84
      ant euer hue bad for horn child,
      þ{a}t c{ri}st him wrþe myld.
      ¶ Horn wes in payenes hond,
      mid is feren of þe lond.                            88
      muche wes þe feyrhade
      þ{a}t ih{es}u c{ri}st him made.

[Headnote: _Saracens deliberate over Horn._]

[Sidenote: The pagans save Horn and his companions on account of Horn’s

  Payns him wolde slen
  Oþ{er} al quic flen.                                    92
  Ȝef his fairnesse nere,
  Þe children alle aslaȝe were.
  Þa{n}ne spak on Admirad,
  Of wordes he was bald,                                  96

    Þo hundes wolde slon,
    And some him wolde flon.                              92
    Ȝif hornes fayrede nere,
    Þe child yslawe ware.
    ++Uan bi spek him amyraud,
    Of wordes he was swiþe baud,                          96

      payenes him wolde slo
      {ant} summe him wolde flo.                          92
      ȝyf hornes feyrnesse nere,
      yslawe þis children were.
      þo spec on Admyrold,
      of wordes he wes swyþe bold,                        96

  “Horn, þu art wel kene,
  {And} þ{a}t is wel isene;
  Þu art gret {and} st{ro}ng,
  fair {and} euene lo{n}g.                               100
  Þu schalt waxe more
  Bi fulle seue ȝere.

    “Horn, þou art swiþe scene,
    And follyche swiþe kene;
    Þou art fayr and eke strong,
    Þou art eueneliche long.                             100
    Þou scald more wexe
    In þis fif yere þe nexte.

      “horn, þou art swyþe kene,
      bryht of hewe {ant} shene;
      þou art fayr {ant} eke strong
      {ant} eke eueneliche long.                         100
      [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: at the same time with forebodings that if Horn lives, he will
take revenge.]

  Ȝef þu mote to liue go,
  {And} þine feren also,                                 104
  Ȝef hit so bi falle,
  Ȝe scholde slen vs alle.
  Þaruore þu most to stere,
  Þu {and} þine ifere.                                   108
  To schupe schulle ȝe funde
  {And} sinke to þe grunde.

    Ȝif þu to liue mictest go,
    An þine feren also,                                  104
    Þat micte so bifalle
    Þou suldes slen us alle.
    Þe for þou scald to stron go
    And þine feren also.                                 108
    To schip ye schule{n} sto{u}nde
    A sinke{n} to þe grunde.

      ȝef þou to lyue mote go,
      ant þyne feren also,                               104
      þat ymay byfalle
      þ{a}t ȝe shule slen vs alle.
      [Sidenote: [leaf 84]]
      þare fore þou shalt to streme go,
      þou ant þy feren also.                             108
      to shipe ȝe shule founde
      {ant} sinke to þe grounde.

  Þe se ȝou schal adrenche;
  Ne schal hit us noȝt of þinche.                        112
  For if þu were aliue,
  Wiþ swerd oþ{er} wiþ kniue
  We scholden alle deie,
  {And} þi fader deþ abeie.”                             116

    Þe se þe sal adrinke;
    Ne sal hit us of þinke.                              112
    For yf þou come to liue,
    With suerdes or with cniue
    We sholde alle deye,
    Þi fad{er}es det abeye.”                             116

      þe see þe shal adrenche;
      ne shal hit vs of þenche.                          112
      for ȝef þou were alyue,
      wiþ suerd oþer wiþ knyue
      we shulden alle deȝe,
      þy fader deþ to beye.”                             116

[Headnote: _Horn is put to sea in a boat._]

[Sidenote: Grieving sorely, the children are put aboard the boat,]

  ++Þe children hi broȝte to st{ro}nde,
  Wringinde here honde,
  Into schupes borde
  At þe furste worde.                                    120
  Ofte hadde horn beo wo,
  At neure wurs þan him was þo.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . .
  . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . .]

    Þe childre yede to stronde,
    Wringende here honde.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . .]
    Ofte hauede horn child be wo,
    Bute neu{er}e werse þa{n} þo.
    Horns yede in to þe shipes bord
    Sone at þe firste word,                              124
    And alle hise feren,
    Þat ware him lef and dere.

      þe children ede to þe stronde,
      wryngynde huere honde,
      ant in to shipes borde
      at þe furste worde.                                120
      ofte hade horn be wo,
      ah neuer wors þen hi{m} wes þo.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

  Þe se bigan to flowe
  {And} hornchild to rowe.                               128
  Þe se þ{a}t schup so faste drof,
  Þe children dradde þer of.
  Hi wenden to wisse
  Of here lif to misse,                                  132

    Þe se bigan to flowen
    And horn faste to rowen.                             128
    And here schip swiþe drof;
    Þe childre{n} adred þer of.
    Þei wende{n} alle wel ywis
    Of here lif haued ymis,                              132

      ¶ þe see bygon to flowen
      {ant} horn faste to rowen                          128
      ant þ{a}t ship wel suyþe drof,
      {ant} horn wes adred þer of,
      hue wenden mid ywisse
      of huere lyue to misse.                            132

[Sidenote: and the following morning see land.]

  Al þe day {and} al þe niȝt,
  Til hit sprang dai liȝt.
  ¶ Til horn saȝ on þe st{ro}nde
  Men gon i{n} þe londe.                                 136
  “Feren,” q{ua}þ he, “ȝo{n}ge,
  Ihc telle ȝou tiþinge.

    Al þe day and al þe nict,
    Til him sprong þe day lyt.
    Til horn bi þe stro{n}de
    Seth me{n} gon alonde.                               136
    “Feren,” he seyde, “singe,
    Y telle ȝou a tidinge.

      al þe day {ant} al þe nyht,
      o þ{a}t sprong þe day lyht,
      Flotterede horn by þe stronde,
      er he seye eny londe.                              136
      “feren,” quoþ horn þe ȝynge,
      “y telle ou tydynge.

[Sidenote: Horn announces land to his companions.]

  Ihc here foȝeles singe
  {And} þ{a}t gras him springe.                          140
  Bliþe beo we on lyue,
  Vre schup is on ryue.”
  Of schup hi gu{n}ne funde
  {And} setten fout to grunde.                           144

    Ych here foules singe
    And so þe g{ra}s him sp{r}inge.                      140
    Bliþe be we o liue,
    Houre schip hys come ryue.”
    Of schip þe gon fonde
    An sette fot on grunde.                              144

      Ich here foules singe,
      {ant} se þe grases sp{ri}nge.                      140
      blyþe be ȝe alyue,
      vr ship is come to ryue.”
      of shipe hy gonne founde
      {ant} sette fot to grounde.                        144

[Headnote: _Horn’s farewell to the boat._]

[Sidenote: All disembark, and Horn bids the boat a touching farewell,
wishing it ‘_dayes gode_,’]

  Bi þe se side
  Hi lete{n} þ{a}t schup ride.
  Þanne spak him child horn,
  In suddene he was iborn,                               148
  “Schup, bi þe se flode,
  Daies haue þu gode;
  Bi þe se brinke
  No wat{er} þe na drinke.                               152
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Bi þe se side
    Here schip bigan to glide.
    Þa{n}ne spek þe chid horn,
    In sodenne he was yborn,                             148
    “Go nou, schip, by flode,
    And haue dawes gode.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    Softe mote þou stirie,
    No wat{er} þe derie.

      by þe see syde
      hure ship bigon to ryde.
      þenne spec him child horn,
      in sudenne he was yborn,                           148
      “nou, ship, by þe flode,
      haue dayes gode,
      by þe see brynke
      no water þe adrynke.                               152
      softe mote þou sterye,
      þ{a}t water þe ne derye.

[Sidenote: and charging it with messages to his mother and friends.]

  Ȝef þu cume to Suddenne,
  Gret þu wel of myne ke{n}ne;                           156
  Gret þu wel my moder,
  Godhild, quen þe gode.
  And seie þe paene kyng,
  Iesucrist{e}s wiþering,                                160
  Þat ihc am hol {and} fer
  On þis lond ariued her.
  And seie þ{a}t hei schal fonde
  Þe dent of myne honde.”                                164

    Wa{n}ne þou comes to sodenne,
    Gret wel al mi kinne,                                156
    And grete wel þe gode
    Quen godild, my mod{er}.
    And sey þat heþene king,
    Ih{es}u c{r}istes wiþerling,                         160
    Þat ichc lef and dere,
    On londe am riued here.
    And sei þat he shal fo{n}ge
    Þe deth of mine honde.”                              164

      ȝef þou comest to sudenne,
      g{re}t hem þ{a}t me kenne.                         156
      gret wel þe gode
      quene godild, mi moder.
      ant sey þene heþene kyng,
      ih{es}u c{ri}stes wytherlyng,                      160
      þ{a}t ich hol {ant} fere,
      in londe aryuede here.
      ant say þ{a}t he shal fonde
      þen deþ of myne honde.”                            164

[Headnote: _King Aylmer welcomes the children._]

[Sidenote: The children set out from the shore and meet King Aylmer,]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Þe children ȝede to Tune
  Bi dales {and} bi dune.                                168
  Hy metten wiþ almair king,
  Crist ȝeue{n} him his blessing,
  King of West{er}nesse,
  Crist ȝiue him Muchel blisse.                          172

    Þe schip biga{n} to flete
    And horn child forto wepe.
    Þe children yede to towne
    Bi dales and bi downe.                               168
    ++Metten he with aylm{er} king,
    God him yeue god timing,
    King of westnesse,
    God him yeue blisse.                                 172

      ¶ Þe ship bigon to fleoten
      {ant} horn child to weopen.
      by dales {ant} by dounes
      þe children eoden to tounes.                       168
      metten hue Eylmer, þe kyng,
      c{ri}st him ȝeue god tymyng,
      kyng of westnesse,
      c[{ri}]st him myhte blesse.                        172

[Sidenote: who greets them kindly and asks their history.]

  He him spac to horn child
  Wordes þat were Mild,
  “Whannes beo ȝe, faire gumes,
  Þ{a}t her to londe beoþ icume,                         176
  Alle þrottene
  Of bodie swiþe kene?
  Bigod þ{a}t me makede,
  A swihc fair verade                                    180
  Ne sauȝ ihc in none stunde
  Bi westene londe.
  Seie me wat ȝe seche.”

    For he spek to horn child
    Wordes wel swiþe mild,
    “We{n}ne be ye, fayre grome,
    Þat here to londe ben ycome,                         176
    Alle xiij
    Of bodi swiþe schene?
    Bi ih{es}u þat me made,
    So fayre on ereþ clade,                              180
    Ne say neu{er}e stonde
    In al westnesse londe.
    Sey me wat ye seche.”

      he spec to horn child
      wordes suyþe myld,
      “whenne be ȝe gomen,
      þat bueþ her a londe ycomen,                       176
      alle þrettene
      of bodye suyþe kene?
      by god þat me made,
      so feyr a felaurade                                180
      ne seh y neuer stonde
      in westnesse Londe.
      say me whet ȝe seche.”

  Horn spak here speche,                                 184
  He spak for he{m} alle,
  Vor so hit moste biualle.
  He was þe faireste
  {And} of wit þe beste.                                 188

    Horn spak here speche,                               184
    Hor spak for hem alle,
    So hit moste by falle,
    For þat he was fayrest
    And of witte wisest.                                 188

      horn spec huere speche.                            184
      ¶ Horn spac for huem alle,
      for so hit moste byfalle;
      he wes þe wyseste
      {ant} of wytte þe beste.                           188

[Headnote: _Horn tells his history._]

[Sidenote: Horn tells the king about their adventures,]

  ¶ “We beoþ of Suddenne,
  Icome of gode kenne,
  Of Cristene blode
  {And} kynges suþe gode.                                192
  Payns þer gu{n}ne ariue
  {And} duden hem of lyue.
  Hi sloȝen {and} to droȝe
  Cristenemen inoȝe.                                     196

    “We ben of sodenne,
    ycome{n} of godeme{n}ne,
    Of c{r}istene blode
    And of swiþe gode.                                   192
    Paynims þer were riued
    And broucte{n} men of liue.
    He slowe and to drowe
    C{r}istene men hy nowe.                              196

      “we bueþ of sudenne,
      ycome of gode kenne,
      of c{ri}stene blode,
      of cunne swyþe gode.                               192
      payenes þer connen aryue
      {ant} c{ri}stine brohten of lyue,
      slowen {ant} to drowe
      c{ri}stinemen ynowe.                               196

  So crist me mote rede,
  Vs he dude lede
  In to a galeie,
  Wiþ þe se to pleie.                                    200
  Dai hit is igon {and} oþer
  Wiþute sail {and} roþer.

    So god me mote rede.
    Vs he deden lede
    In to salyley,
    Wit þe se to pleye.                                  200
    Day igo and oþer
    Wit ute{n} seyl and roþer.

      so c{ri}st me mote rede,
      ous hy duden lede
      [Sidenote: [leaf 84, back]]
      In to a galeye,
      wiþ þe see to pleye.                               200
      day is gon {ant} oper
      wiþ oute seyl {ant} roþer.

[Sidenote: and bids him do his will with them.]

  Vre schip bigan to swymme
  To þis londes brymme.                                  204
  Nu þu miȝt vs slen, {and} binde
  Vre honde bihynde.
  Bute ȝef hit beo þi wille,
  Helpe þ{a}t we ne spille.”                             208
  ¶ Þanne spak þe gode kyng,
  I wis he nas no Niþing,

    And hure schip swemme gan,
    And he to londe it wan.                              204
    Nou men us binde
    Oure honde{n} us bi hinde{n},
    And yf it be þi wille,
    Help us þat we ne spille.”                           208
    Þo bispac aylm{er} king,
    Was he neu{er}e nyþing,

      vre ship flet forþ ylome,
      {ant} her to londe hit ys ycome.                   204
      Nou þou myht vs slen, {ant} bynde
      oure honde vs bihynde.
      ah ȝef hit is þi wille,
      help vs þ{a}t we ne spille.”                       208
      ¶ Þo spac þe gode kyng,
      he nes neuer nyþyng,

[Headnote: _Horn tells his name._]

[Sidenote: Aylmer asks Horn’s name,]

  “Seie me, child, what is þi name?
  Ne schaltu haue bute game.”                            212
  Þe child him answerde,
  Sone so he hit herde,
  “Horn ihc am ihote,
  Icomen vt of þe bote,                                  216
  Fram þe se side,
  Kyng, wel mote þe tide.”

    “Sey me, child, wat is þi name,
    Ne schal þe tide bote game.”                         212
    Þat child him answerede,
    Sone so hit herde,
    “Hor hich am hote,
    Ycome out of þe bote,                                216
    Fram þe se syde,
    King, wel þe bityde.”

      “sey, child, whet is þy name,
      shal þe tide bote game.”                           212
      þe child him onsuerede,
      so sone he hit yherde,
      “Horn ycham yhote,
      ycome out of þis bote,                             216
      from þe see side,
      kyng, wel þe bitide.”

[Sidenote: and learning it, puns upon it,]

  Þanne hym spak þe gode king,
  “Wel bruc þu þin eueni{n}g.                            220
  Horn, þu go wel schulle
  Bi dales {and} bi hulle.

    “++Hon child,” qwad þe king,
    “Wel brouke þou þi nami{n}g.                         220
    Horn him goth snille
    Bi dales an bi hulle;

      “horn child,” quoþ þe kyng,
      “wel brouc þou þy nome ȝyng.                       220
      horn him goþ so stille
      bi dales {ant} by hulles.

[Sidenote: predicting that Horn’s fame shall spread like the sound of a

  Horn, þu lude sune
  Bi dales {and} bi dune.                                224
  So schal þi name springe
  Fram kynge to kynge,
  {And} þi fairnesse
  Abute West{er}nesse,                                   228
  Þe strengþe of þine honde
  Into Eurech londe.

    And þoruuth eche toune
    Horn him shilleþ soune.                              224
    So shal þi name springe
    Fram kinge to kinge,
    And þi fayrnesse
    Þoru out westnesse,                                  228
    And stregþe of þine honde
    Þoruouth eu{er}ich londe.

      horn haþ loude soune
      þurh out vch a toune.                              224
      so shal þi nome sp{ri}nge
      from kynge to kynge,
      ant þi feirnesse
      aboute westnesse.                                  228
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: He then leads Horn home.]

  Horn, þu art so swete
  Ne may ihc þe forlete.”                                232
  Hom rod Aylmar þe kyng,
  {And} horn mid him his fundyng
  {And} alle his ifere,
  Þ{a}t were him so dere.                                236

    Horn þu art so swete
    No schal yþe for lete.”                              232
    Hom rod him aylm{er} king,
    And wit horn þe sweting
    And alle hyse feren,
    Þat weren lef and dere.                              236

      horn þou art so suete,
      ne shal y þe forlete.”                             232
      Hom rod Aylmer þe kyng,
      {ant} horn wiþ him, his fundlyng,
      {ant} alle his yfere,
      þat him were so duere.                             236

[Headnote: _Arrangements for education of the children._]

[Sidenote: The king entrusts Horn to Athelbrus, the steward, charging
the latter to give Horn full instruction in hunting, fishing,]

  ¶ Þe kyng com in to halle
  Among his kniȝtes alle;
  Forþ he clupede aþelbrus,
  Þat was stiward of his hus.                            240
  “Stiwarde, tak nu here
  Mi fundlyng for to lere
  Of þine mest{er}e,
  Of wude {and} of riu{er}e,                             244
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Þe king com in to halle
    Amo{n}g hise kinctes alle.
    He bad clepen aybrous,
    Þe heye stiward of his hous.                         240
    “Stiward, haue þou here
    Horn chil for to lere
    Of þine mestere,
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .]
    Of wode and of felde                                 244
    To riden wel wit shelde.

      þe kyng com in to halle
      among his knyhtes alle.
      forþ he clepeþ Aþelbrus,
      his stiward, {ant} him seide þus,                  240
      “stiward, tac þou here
      my fundlyng, forto lere
      of þine mestere,
      of wode {ant} of ryuere,                           244
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: playing the harp, and in serving with the cup.]

  {And} tech him to harpe
  Wiþ his nayles scharpe,                                248
  Biuore me to kerue
  {And} of þe cupe serue.
  Þu tech him of alle þe liste
  Þat þu eure of wiste.                                  252

    Tech him of þe harpe,
    Wit his nayles sharpe                                248
    Biforn me for to harpen,
    And of þe cuppe seruen,
    And of alle þe listes
    Þat þou on erþe vistes.                              252

      and toggen o þe harpe
      wiþ is nayles sharpe;                              248
      and tech him alle þe listes
      þ{a}t þou euer wystest,
      byfore me to keruen
      {ant} of my coupe to seruen.                       252

  In his feiren þou wise
  In to oþere s{er}uise.
  Horn þu vnderuonge
  {And} tech him of harpe {and} songe.”                  256
  ¶ Ailbrus gan lere
  Horn {and} his yfere.

    His feren deuise
    Of oþer seruise.
    ++Horn child þou vnderfonge;
    Tech him of harpe and so{n}ge.”                      256
    And aylbrous gan leren
    Horn and hise feren.

      ant his feren deuyse
      wiþ ous oþer seruise.
      horn child þou vnderstond,
      tech him of harpe {ant} of song.”                  256
      ¶ Aþelbrus gon leren,
      horn {ant} hyse feren.

[Headnote: _Rymenhild loves Horn._]

[Sidenote: Horn learns readily and becomes a general favourite.]

  Horn in herte laȝte
  Al þat he him taȝte.                                   260
  In þe curt {and} vte,
  {And} elles al abute,
  Luuede men horn child;
  {And} mest him louede Rymenhild,                       264
  Þe kynges oȝene dofter.
  He was mest in þoȝte.

    Horn in h{er}te laucte
    Al þat men him taucte.                               260
    Wit hine þe curt and wit oute,
    And alle veie aboute,
    Men louede{n} alle horn child,
    And mest him louede rimenild,                        264
    Þe kinge owne dout{er}.
    He was eu{er}e in þoute.

      horn mid herte lahte
      al þ{a}t mon him tahte.                            260
      wiþ inne court {ant} wiþ oute
      {ant} oueral aboute,
      Louede men horn child;
      {ant} most him louede rymenyld,                    264
      Þe kynges oune dohter,
      for he wes in hire þohte.

[Sidenote: Rymenhild falls passionately in love with him,]

  Heo louede so horn child,
  Þat neȝ heo gan wexe wild;                             268
  For heo ne miȝte at borde
  Wiþ him speke no worde,
  Ne noȝt in þe halle
  Amo{n}g þe kniȝtes alle,                               272
  Ne nowhar in non oþ{er}e stede,
  Of folk heo hadde drede,
  Bi daie ne bi niȝte,
  Wiþ him speke ne miȝte.                                276
  Hire soreȝe ne hire pine
  Ne miȝte neure fine.
  In heorte heo hadde wo,
  {And} þus hire biþoȝte þo.                             280

    So hye louede horn child,
    Þat hye wex al wild.                                 268
    Hye ne micte on borde
    Wit horn speken no worde,
    Noþer in þe halle
    Among þe kinctes alle,                               272
    Ne nower i{n} no stede,
    For for folc þer was so meche.
    Hire sorwe and hire pyne
    Nolde he neu{er}e fine.                              276
    Bi day ne bi nicte
    Wit him speke ne micte.
    In h{er}te hye haue kare and wo;
    Þus he hire bi þoucte þo.                            280

      hue louede hi{m} in hire mod,
      for he wes feir {ant} eke god.                     268
      {ant} þah hue ne dorste at bord
      mid hi{m} speke ner a word,
      ne in þe halle
      among þe knyhtes alle,                             272
      hyre sorewe ant hire pyne
      nolde neuer fyne
      bi daye ne by nyhte,
      for hue speke ne myhte                             276
      wiþ horn þ{a}t wes so feir {ant} fre,
      þo hue ne myhte wiþ him be.
      In herte hue hade care {ant} wo,
      {ant} þ{us} hue biþohte hire þo.                   280

[Sidenote: and sends to Athelbrus.]

  Heo sende hire sonde
  Aþelbrus to honde,
  Þ{a}t he come hire to,
  {And} also scholde horn do                             284
  Al in to bure,
  ffor heo ga{n} to lure.
  {And} þe sonde seide
  Þ{a}t sik lai þ{a}t maide,                             288
  {And} bad him come swiþe
  For heo nas noþing bliþe.

    He sende hire sonde
    Aylbrous to honde.
    And be, he schold hire come{n} to,
    And also scholde horn do                             284
    In to hire boure,
    For hye gan to loure.
    And ysonde seyde
    Wel riche was þe mede,                               288
    And bed him come{n} swiþe,
    For hye nas naut bliþ.

      Hue sende hyre sonde
      Athelbrus to honde,
      [Sidenote: [leaf 85]]
      þat he come hue to,
      {ant} also shulde horn do                          284
      in to hire boure,
      for hue bigon to loure.
      {ant} þe sonde sayde
      þ{a}t seek wes þe mayde,                           288
      {ant} bed him come suyþe,
      for hue nis nout blyþe.

[Sidenote: Rymenhild bids Athelbrus bring Horn to her bower,]

  Þe stuard was in herte wo,
  For he nuste what to do.                               292
  Wat Rymenhild hure þoȝte,
  Gret wunder him þuȝte.
  Abute horn þe ȝonge
  To bure for to bringe,                                 296

    Þe stiward was i{n} h{er}te wo,
    He ne wiste wat he micte do.                         292
    Wat reymnyld wroute,
    Mikel wond{er} him þoute.
    Abote horn þe ȝenge
    To boure for to bringe,                              296

      ¶ Þe stiward wes in huerte wo,
      for he nuste whet he shulde do.                    292
      what rymenild bysohte,
      gret wonder him þohte,
      aboute horn þe ȝinge
      to boure forte bringe.                             296

[Headnote: _Athelbrus brings Athulf to bower._]

[Sidenote: but he, fearing some evil consequence, takes Athulf instead.]

  He þoȝte upon his mode
  Hit nas for none gode.
  He tok him anoþer,
  Athulf, hornes broþer.                                 300

    He þoucte on his mode
    Hit nas for none gode.
    He tok wit him anoþer,
    Þat was hornes wed broþer.                           300

      he þohte on is mode
      hit nes for none gode.
      he tok wiþ him an oþer,
      aþulf, hornes broþer.                              300

  ¶ “Aþulf,” he sede, “riȝt anon
  Þu schalt wiþ me to bure gon,
  To speke wiþ Rymenhild stille
  {And} witen hure wille.                                304
  In hornes ilike
  Þu schalt hure biswike.
  Sore ihc me ofdrede
  He wolde horn misrede.”                                308

    “Ayol,” he seyde, “ryt anon
    Þou shalt wit me to boure gon,
    To speke wit reymyld stille
    And witen al hire wille.                             304
    In hornes ylyche
    Þou schalt hir{e} bi swike.
    Wel sore y me of drede
    Þat hye wile horn mis rede.”                         308

      “Athulf,” quoþ he, “ryht anon
      þou shalt wiþ me to boure gon,
      to speke wiþ rymenild stille,
      to wyte hyre wille.                                304
      þou art hornes yliche,
      þou shalt hire by suyke;
      sore me adrede
      þ{a}t hue wole horn mys rede.”                     308

[Headnote: _Reception of Athulf._]

[Sidenote: Athelbrus and Athulf go to Rymenhild’s bower, and Rymenhild,
mistaking Athulf for Horn, embraces him]

  Aþelbrus gan Aþulf lede
  {And} in to bure wiþ him ȝede.
  Anon vpon Aþulf child
  Rymenhild gan wexe wild.                               312
  He we{n}de þ{a}t horn hit were
  Þ{a}t heo hauede þere.
  Heo sette him on bedde,
  Wiþ Aþulf child he wedde.                              316
  On hire armes tweie
  Aþulf heo gan leie.

    Aylbrous, and ayol hi{m} myde,
    Boþe he to bour{e} ȝede.
    Opon ayol childe
    Reymyld was naut wilde.                              312
    Hye wende horn hit were
    Þat hye hadde þere.
    Hye sette him on bedde,
    With ayol he gan wedde.                              316
    In hire armes tweye
    Ayol he gan leye.

      Athelbrus {ant} Athulf bo
      to hire boure beþ ygo.
      vpon Athulf childe
      rymenild con waxe wilde.                           312
      hue wende horn it were
      þ{a}t hue hade þere.
      hue seten adoun stille
      ant seyden hure wille.                             316
      In hire armes tueye
      Athulf he con leye.

[Sidenote: and declares her love.]

  “Horn,” q{ua}þ heo, “wel longe
  Ihc habbe þe luued st{r}onge.                          320
  Þu schalt þi trewþe pliȝte
  On myn hond her riȝte,
  Me to spuse holde,
  {And} ihc þe lord to wolde.”                           324
  ¶ Aþulf sede on hire ire,
  So stille so hit were,

    “Horn,” hye seyde, “so longe
    Ich habbe yloued þe stronge.                         320
    Þou schalt me treuþe plyȝte
    In mine honde wel ryhcte,
    Me to spouse welde,
    And ich þe louerd to helde.”                         324
    And seyde in hire here,
    So stille so it were,

      “horn,” quoþ he, “wel longe
      y haue loued þe stronge;                           320
      þou shalt þy treuþe plyhte
      in myn hond wiþ ryhte,
      me to spouse welde,
      {ant} ich þe louerd to helde.”                     324
      so stille so hit were
      athulf seyde in hire eere,

[Sidenote: Athulf discloses his identity, and bids her desist.]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  “Þi tale nu þu lynne,
  For horn nis noȝt her in{n}e.

    “Ne te þou more speche,
    Su{m} ma{n} þe wile bi keche.                        328
    Þi tale bi gyn to lynne,
    For horn nis nouth heri{n}ne.

      “ne tel þou no more speche,
      may, y þe by seche.                                328
      þi tale gyn þou lynne,
      for horn nis nout her ynne.

[Sidenote: Athulf declares himself in every way inferior to Horn, and
his unwillingness to deceive.]

  Ne beo we noȝt iliche,
  Horn is fairer {and} riche,                            332
  Fairer bi one ribbe
  Þane eni Man þ{a}t libbe.
  Þeȝ horn were vnder Molde,
  Oþ{er} elles wher he wolde,                            336
  Oþer henne a þuse{n}d Mile,
  Ihc nolde him ne þe bigile.”
  ¶ Rymenhild hire biwente,
  {And} Aþelbrus fule heo schente.                       340

    Horn his fayr and riche,
    Be we naut yliche,                                   332
    Fayror hond{er} ribbe
    Þan onyman þat libbe.
    Þei horn were hond{er} molde
    Oþer elles qwere e wolde,                            336
    Hanne ou{er} a þousond mile,
    Ne schulde ich him bigile.”
    Reymyld hire bi wende,
    Þe stiward sone he schende.                          340

      ne be we nout yliche,
      for horn is fayr {ant} ryche,                      332
      fayrore by one ribbe
      þen ani mon þat libbe.
      þah horn were vnder molde,
      {ant} oþer elle wher he sholde,                    336
      hennes a þousent milen,
      y nulle him bigilen.”
      ¶ rymenild hire by wente,
      ant Athelbrus þus heo shende,                      340

[Headnote: _Rymenhild rages at Athelbrus._]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild storms at Athelbrus, and drives him from the

  “He{n}nes þu go, þu fule þeof,
  Ne wurstu me neure more leof
  Went vt of my bur,
  Wiþ muchel mesauenteur.                                344
  Schame mote þu fonge
  {And} on hiȝe rode anhonge.
  Ne spek ihc noȝt wiþ horn,
  Nis he noȝt so vnorn.                                  348
  Hor[n] is fairer þane beo he,
  Wiþ muchel schame mote þu deie.”

    “Aylbrous, þu foule þef,
    Ne worstu me neu{er}e lef.
    Wend out of mi bour{e},
    Wyt muchel mesaue{n}ture.                            344
    Heuele ded mote þou fonge
    And on heuele rode on honge.
    Spak ich nou with horn,
    His he nowt me biforn.                               348
    He his fayror of liue;
    Wend out he{n}ne bilyue.”

      “Aþelbrus, þou foule þef,
      ne worþest þou me neuer lef.
      went out of my boure,
      shame þe mote by shoure,                           344
      ant euel hap to vnderfonge
      {ant} euele rode on to honge.
      Ne speke y nout wiþ horne,
      nis he nout so vnorne.                             348
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Headnote: _Athelbrus promises to bring Horn._]

  ¶ Aþelbrus in a stunde
  Fel anon to grunde.                                    352
  “Lefdi, Min oȝe,
  Liþe me a litel þroȝe.

    Þo aylbrous a stounde
    On kneus fel to grunde.                              352
    “A, leuedy, min howe,
    Lyþe a litel þrowe.

      ¶ Þo Athelbrus astounde
      fel aknen to grounde.                              352
      “ha, leuedy, myn owe,
      me lyþe a lutel þrowe,

[Sidenote: Athelbrus explains his fears,]

  Lust whi ihc wonde
  Bringe þe horn to honde.                               356
  For horn is fair {and} riche,
  Nis no whar his iliche.
  Aylmar, þe gode kyng,
  Dude him on mi lokyng.                                 360

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .]
    To bringe þe horn to honde.                          356
    Horn hys fayr and riche,
    His no man hys liche,
    And aylm{er}, þe gode king,
    Dede him in Mi loking.                               360

      ant list were fore ych wonde
      to bringen horn to honde.                          356
      for horn is fayr {ant} riche,
      nis non his ylyche.
      Aylmer þe gode kyng
      dude him me in lokyng.                             360

  Ȝef horn were her abute,
  Sore y me dute
  Wiþ him ȝe wolden pleie
  Bitwex ȝou selue tweie.                                364
  Þa{n}ne scholde wiþuten oþe
  Þe kyng maken vs wroþe.

    Ȝyf horn þe were aboute,
    Wel sore ich me doute
    Þat ye schulde{n} pleye
    Bitwen hou one tweye.                                364
    Þan scholde wit oute{n} oþe
    Þe king hus maken wroþe.

      Ȝif horn þe were aboute,
      sore ich myhte doute
      wiþ him þou woldest pleye
      bituene ou seluen tueye.                           364
      þenne shulde wiþ outen oþe
      þe kyng vs make wroþe.

[Sidenote: but asks Rymenhild’s forgiveness, and promises to bring Horn
in all events.]

  Rymenhild, forȝef me þi tene,
  Lefdi, my quene,                                       368
  And horn ihc schal þe fecche,
  Wham so hit recche.”

    For ȝyf me þi tene,
    My leuedi and my quene,                              368
    And horn ich wolle feche,
    Wam so hit eu{er}e reche.”

      [Sidenote: [leaf 85, back]]
      Ah, forȝef me þi teone,
      my leuedy Ant my quene.                            368
      Horn y shal þe fecche,
      wham so hit yrecche.”

[Sidenote: Rymenhild is glad, and bids him bring Horn as a squire.]

  ¶ Rymenhild, ȝef he cuþe,
  Gan lynne wiþ hire Muþe.                               372
  Heo makede hire wel bliþe
  Wel was hire þ{a}t siþe.

    Reymyld, ȝyf hye cowþe,
    Gan leyhe wyt hire mouþe.                            372
    Hye lowe and makede blyþe
    Wel was hire swiþe.

      rymenild, ȝef heo couþe,
      con lyþe wiþ hyre mouþe.                           372
      heo loh {ant} made hire blyþe,
      for wel wes hyre olyue.

  “Go nu,” q{ua}þ heo, “sone,
  {And} send him aft{er} none                            376
  Whane þe kyng arise,
  On a squieres wise.
  To wude for to pleie.
  Nis no{n} þ{a}t him biwreie;                           380
  He schal wiþ me bileue
  Til hit beo nir eue,
  To hauen of him mi wille.
  Aft{er} ne recchecche what me telle.”                  384

    “Go,” hye seyde, “sone,
    And bring him aft{er} none,                          376
    In a sq{u}ieres wise,
    Wan þe king aryse.
    He wende forþ to horne;
    Ne wolde sche him werne.                             380
    “He schal mid me bi leue
    Til hyt be ner heue.
    Had ich of hym my wille,
    Ne reche y wat men telle.”                           384

      “go þon,” quoþ heo, “sone,
      {ant} send him after none,                         376
      a skuyeres wyse,
      when þe king aryse.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               380
      he shal myd me bileue
      þ{a}t hit be ner eue.
      haue ich of hi{m} mi wille,
      ne recchi whet men telle.”                         384

[Headnote: _Athelbrus invites Horn to Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: Athelbrus finds Horn in hall, serving the king.]

  ¶ Aylbrus wende hire fro;
  Horn in halle fond he þo,
  Bifore þe kyng on benche,
  Wyn for to schenche.                                   388
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Aylbrous fram boure wende,
    Horn i{n} halle he fonde,
    Bi forn þe king abenche,
    Red win to schenche,                                 388
    And aft{er} mete stale,
    Boþe win and ale.

      ¶ Athelbrus goþ wiþ alle;
      horn he fond in halle,
      bifore þe kyng o benche,
      wyn forte shenche.                                 388
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: He bids him go to Rymenhild’s bower, at the same time urging
him to be discreet.]

  “Horn,” q{ua}þ he, “so hende,
  To bure nu þu wende,                                   392
  Aft{er} mete stille,
  Wiþ Rymenhild to duelle.
  Wordes suþe bolde
  In herte þu hem holde.                                 396

    “Horn,” he seyde, “so hende,
    To bour{e} þo most wende,                            392
    Aft{er} mete stille, _wit_
    With reymild to dwelle.
    Wordes swiþe bolde
    In h{er}te gon þu holde.                             396

      “Horn,” quoþ he, “þou hende,
      to boure gyn þou wende,                            392
      to speke wiþ rymenild þe ȝynge,
      dohter oure kynge,
      wordes suyþe bolde;
      þin horte gyn þou holde.                           396

  Horn, beo me wel trewe;
  Ne schal hit þe neure rewe.”
  Horn in herte leide
  Al þ{a}t he him seide.                                 400
  He ȝeode in wel riȝte
  To Rymenhild þe briȝte.

    Hor, be me wel trewe;
    Ne schal it þe nouth rewe.”
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                 400
    ++Horn him we{n}de forþricte
    To reymyld þe brycte.

      Horn, be þou me trewe,
      shal þe nout arewe.”
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               400
      He eode forþ to ryhte
      to rymenild þe bryhte.

[Headnote: _Rymenhild’s reception of Horn._]

[Sidenote: Horn greets Rymenhild with fair words.]

  On knes he him sette,
  And sweteliche hure grette.                            404
  Of his feire siȝte
  Al þe bur gan liȝte.
  He spac faire speche;
  Ne dorte him noman teche.                              408

    Hon kneus he him sette
    And rimyld fayre grette.                             404
    Of þat fayre wihcte
    Al þe halle gan licte.
    He spak fayre speche;
    Ne þar him no ma teche.                              408

      a knewes he him sette
      {ant} suetliche hire grette.                       404
      of is fayre syhte
      al þ{a}t bour gan lyhte.
      he spac faire is speche;
      ne durþ non him teche.                             408

  “Wel þu sitte {and} softe,
  Rymenhild þe briȝte,
  Wiþ þine Maidenes sixe
  Þ{a}t þe sitteþ nixte.                                 412
  Kinges stuard vre
  Sende me in to bure.
  Wiþ þe speke ihc scholde;
  Seie me what þu woldest.                               416
  Seie, {and} ich schal here,
  What þi wille were.”

    “Wel þou sitte and softe,
    Reymyld, kinges dout{er},
    With þine maydnes syxe
    Þat sittet þe nexte.                                 412
    Þe kinges stiward and hour{e}
    Sente me to boure.
    With þe hy speke schulde;
    Sey me wat þou wolde.                                416
    Sey, and ich schal here,
    Wat þi wille were.”

      “wel þ{o}u sitte {ant} soþte,
      rymenild, kinges dohter,
      ant þy maydnes here
      þat sitteþ þyne yfere.                             412
      Kynges styward oure
      sende me to boure,
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               416
      forte y here, leuedy myn,
      whet be wille þyn.”

[Headnote: _Conversation between Horn and Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: She takes Horn by the hand and embraces him.]

  ¶ Rymenhild vp gan stonde
  {And} tok him bi þe honde.                             420
  Heo sette him on pelle,
  Of wyn to drinke his fulle.
  Heo makede him faire chere
  {And} tok him abute þe swere.                          424
  Ofte heo him custe,
  So wel so hire luste.

    Reymild up gan sto{n}de
    And tok him bi þe honde.                             420
    Sette he him on palle;
    Wyn hye dide fulle,
    Makede fayre chere,
    And tok him bi þe swere.                             424
    Often hye him kiste,
    So wel hire luste.

      rymenild vp gon stonde
      {ant} tok him by þe honde.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      heo made feyre chere
      {ant} tok him bi þe suere.                         424
      ofte heo him custe,
      so wel hyre luste.

[Sidenote: Rymenhild tells Horn of her love for him, and bids him plight
her his troth.]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    “Wel come, horn,” hye seyde,
    “So fayr so god þe makede.                           428
    An heue and amorwe
    For þe ich habbe sorwe.
    Haue ich none reste;
    Slepe me ne liste.                                   432
    Leste me þis sorwe,
    Lyue hy nawt to morwe.
    Horn, þou schalt wel swiþe
    My longe sorwe liþe;                                 436

      “Wel come, horn,” þus sayde
      rymenild, þ{a}t mayde,                             428
      “an euen {ant} a morewe
      for þe ich habbe sorewe,
      þ{a}t y haue no reste,
      ne slepe me ne lyste.                              432
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      Horn, þou shalt wel swyþe
      mi longe serewe lyþe;                              436

  “Horn,” heo sede, “wiþute strif
  Þu schalt haue me to þi wif.
  Horn, haue of me rewþe,
  {And} plist me þi trewþe.”                             440
  ¶ Horn þo him biþoȝte
  What he speke miȝte.

    Þou schalt, wit ute{n} st{r}iue,
    Habben me to wiue.
    Horn, haue on me rewþe,
    And plyct þou me þi trewþe.”                         440
    Horn child him bi þoute
    Wat he speke myȝte.

      þou shalt wyþ-oute st{ri}ue
      habbe me to wyue.
      horn, haue of me reuþe,
      {ant} plyht me þi treuþe.”                         440
      ¶ horn þo him byþohte
      whet he speken ohte.

[Sidenote: Horn urges his low birth and foundling state in objection.]

  “Crist,” q{ua}þ he, “þe wisse,
  {And} ȝiue þe heuene blisse                            444
  Of þine husebonde,
  Wher he beo i{n} lo{n}de;
  Ihc am ibore to lowe
  Such wi{m}man to knowe.                                448

    “God,” qwad horn, “þe wisse,
    And ȝyue þe ioye and blisse                          444
    Of þine hosebonde,
    Whare he be in londe.
    Ich am hy bor{n} to lowe
    Such a wyf to owe.                                   448

      “c{ri}st,” quoþ horn, “þe wisse,
      {ant} ȝeue þe heuene blisse                        444
      of þine hosebonde,
      who he be a londe.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               448

  Ihc am icome of þralle,
  {And} fu{n}dli{n}g bifalle.
  Ne feolle hit þe of cu{n}de
  To spuse beo me bunde.                                 452
  Hit nere no fair wedding
  Bitwexe a þral {and} a king.”
  ¶ Þo gan Rymenhild mis lyke,
  {And} sore gan to sike.                                456

    Ich am bor{n} þralle,
    And fundlynge am bi falle.
    Ich am nawt of kende
    Þe to spouse welde.                                  452
    Hit were no fayr wedding
    Bituene a þral and þe king.”
    Reymyld ga{n} to mys lyke,
    And sore forto syke.                                 456

      ich am ybore þral,
      þy fader fundlyng wiþ-al.
      of kunde me ne felde
      þe to spouse welde.                                452
      Hit nere no fair weddyng
      bituene a þral {ant} þe kyng.”
      þo gon rymenild mis lyken,
      {ant} sore[KH-2] bigon to syken.                   456

      [Footnote KH-2: _to syken_ crossed out after _sore_.]

[Headnote: _Horn asks Rymenhild’s assistance._]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild swoons when she hears Horn’s reply.]

  Armes heo gan buȝe;
  Adun he feol iswoȝe.
  ¶ Horn in herte was ful wo,
  {And} tok hire on his armes two.                       460
  He gan hire for to kesse,
  Wel ofte mid ywisse.

    Armes hye na{m} boþe,
    And doune he fel yswowe.
    Hor hire ofte wende,
    And in hys armes trende.                             460
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      armes bigon vnbowe,
      {ant} doun heo fel y swowe.
      Horn hire vp hente
      {ant} in is armes trente.                          460
      he gon hire to cusse,
      {ant} feyre forte wisse.

[Sidenote: Horn caresses her, and promises that if she will help him to
become dubbed knight, he will do her will.]

  “Le{m}man,” he sede, “dere,
  Þin herte nu þu stere.                                 464
  Help me to kniȝte,
  Bi al þine miȝte
  To my lord þe ki{n}g,
  Þ{a}t he me ȝiue dubbi{n}g.                            468

    “Le{m}ma{n},” qwat he, “dere,
    Þin h{er}te gyn þou to stere,                        464
    And hep þou me to knicte,
    Oppe þine myȝte
    To my louerd þe kinge,
    Þat he me ȝyue dobbinge.                             468

      “rymenild,” quoþ he, “duere,
      help me þ{a}t ych were                             464
      [Sidenote: [leaf 86]]
      Ydobbed to be knyhte,
      suete, bi al þi myhte
      to mi louerd þe kyng,
      þ{a}t he me ȝeue dobbyng.                          468

  Þa{n}ne is mi þralhod
  Iwe{n}t i{n} to kniȝthod,
  {And} i schal wexe more,
  {And} do, le{m}ma{n}, þi lore.”                        472
  ¶ Rymenhild, þ{a}t swete þing,
  Wakede of hire swoȝning.

    And þa{n}ne hys my þralhede
    yterned in knyt hede,
    And þe{n}ne hy schal wite more,
    And don aft{er} þi lore.”                            472
    Þo reymyl þe ȝenge
    Com of hire swohinge,

      þenne is my þralhede
      al wend in to knyhthede.
      y shal waxe more
      {ant} do, rymenild, þi lore.”                      472
      Þo rymenild þe ȝynge
      a-ros of hire swowenynge.

[Headnote: _Rymenhild instructs Horn what to do._]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild promises Horn that he shall be made knight within a

  “Horn,” q{ua}þ heo, “vel sone
  Þ{a}t schal beon idone.                                476
  Þu schalt beo dubbed kniȝt
  Are come seue niȝt.
  Haue her þis cuppe,
  {And} þis Ring þer vppe,                               480
  To Aylbrus {and} stuard,
  {And} se he holde foreward.

    And seyde, “horn, wel ricte,
    Þou art so fayr and briycte,                         476
    Þou schalt worþe to knyte,
    hyt comeȝ sone nyȝte.
    Nym þou here þis coppe,
    And þis ryng þer oppe,                               480
    And beryt hour{e} styward,
    And bid helde foreward.

      “Nou, horn, to soþe,
      y leue þe by þyn oþe,                              476
      þou shalt be maked knyht
      er þen þis fourteniht.
      ber þou her þes coppe,
      {ant} þes ringes þer vppe,                         480
      to Athelbrus þe styward,
      {ant} say him he holde foreward.

[Sidenote: and tells him to bid Athelbrus fall on his knees before the
king, in his behalf.]

  Seie ich him biseche,
  Wiþ loueliche speche,                                  484
  Þ{a}t he adu{n} falle
  Bifore þe ki{n}g i{n} halle,
  {And} bidde þe king ariȝte
  Dubbe þe to kniȝte.                                    488
  Wiþ seluer {and} wiþ golde
  Hit wurþ him wel iȝolde.

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                 484
    Bid hym for þe falle
    To kinges fot i{n} halle,
    Þat he dubbe þe to knicte
    Wyt hys swerde so bricte.                            488
    Wyt siluer and wit golde
    Hyt worþ him wel hyȝolde.

      Sey ich him biseche,
      wiþ loueliche speche,                              484
      þ{a}t he for þe falle
      to þe kynges fet in halle,
      þ{a}t he wiþ is worde
      þe knyhty wiþ sworde.                              488
      wiþ seluer {ant} wiþ golde
      hit worþ him wel yȝolde.

[Sidenote: Horn seeks out Athelbrus and tells his errand.]

  Crist him lene spede
  Þin ere{n}de to bede.”                                 492

    ++Horn, god lene þe wel spede
    Þi h{er}dne forto bede.”                             492

      nou c{ri}st him lene spede
      þin erndyng do bede.”                              492

  ¶ Horn tok his leue,
  For hit was neȝ eue.
  Aþelbr{us} he soȝte
  {And} ȝaf him þ{a}t he broȝte,                         496
  {And} tolde hi{m} ful ȝare
  Hu he hadde ifare,
  {And} sede hi{m} his nede,
  {And} bihet him his mede.                              500

    Horn tok hys leue,
    For it was ney eue.
    Aylbrous he sowte
    And tok him þat he browte.                           496
    He talede to him þere
    hou he hauede hy fare.
    He telde him of his nede,
    And bi het him his mede.                             500

      ¶ Horn tok is leue,
      for hit wes neh eue.
      Athelbrus he sohte
      {ant} tok him þ{a}t he brohte,                     496
      ant tolde him þare
      hou he hede yfare.
      he seide him is nede,
      {ant} him bihet is mede.                           500

[Headnote: _The King promises to knight Horn._]

[Sidenote: Athelbrus goes before the king in hall,]

  ¶ Aþelbrus also swiþe
  We{n}te to halle bliue.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                   504
  “Kyng,” he sede, “þu leste
  A tale mid þe beste.
  Þu schalt bere c{ru}ne
  Tomoreȝe i{n} þis tune.                                508

    Aylbrous wel bliþe
    To halle he ȝede wel swiþe,
    And sette him on kneuling,
    And grette wel þe king.                              504
    “Syre,” he seyde, “wiltu luste
    Ane tale wit þe beste?
    Þou schalt bere corune
    In þis hulke toune.                                  508

      Athelbrus so blyþe
      eode in to halle swyþe,
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               504
      ant seide, “kyng, nou leste
      o tale mid þe beste.
      þou shalt bere coroune
      to marewe in þis toune.                            508

[Sidenote: and urges him to knight Horn at the feast the following day.]

  Tomoreȝe is þi feste;
  Þ{er} bihoueþ geste.
  Hit nere noȝt for loren
  For to kniȝti child horn                               512
  Þine armes for to welde;
  God kniȝt he schal ȝelde.”

    To morwe worþe þi festes;
    Me by houed gestes.
    Ich þe wolde rede ate lest
    Þat þou horn knict makedest.                         512
    Þi armes to him welde;
    God knict he schal be{n} helde.”

      to marewe is þi feste;
      þe bihoueþ geste.
      Ich þe rede mid al my myht
      þ{a}t þou make horn knyht.                         512
      þin armes do him welde;
      god knyht he shal þe ȝelde.”

[Sidenote: The king accedes to the request, and promises that Horn and
his twelve companions shall be knighted.]

  ¶ Þe ki{n}g sede sone,
  “Þ{a}t is wel idone.                                   516
  Horn me wel iq{ue}meþ;
  God kniȝt hi{m} bisemeþ.
  He schal haue mi dubbing
  {And} aft{er}ward mi derling.                          520

    Þe king seyde sone,
    “Þat hys wel to done.                                516
    Horn me wole ben queme,
    To be knict him by seme.
    He schal habbe my dubbing
    And be my nowne derling.                             520

      þe kyng seide wel sone,
      “hit is wel to done.                               516
      Horn me wel quemeþ;
      knyht him wel bysemeþ.
      He shal haue mi dobbyng
      {ant} be myn oþer derlyng.                         520

  {And} alle his feren twelf
  He schal kniȝten him self.
  Alle he schal hem kniȝte
  Bifore me þis niȝte.”                                  524

    And his feren xij
    Ich schal dobbe My selue.
    Alle ich hem schal knicte
    Bi for me to fyte.”                                  524

      {ant} hise feren tuelue
      he shal dobbe him selue.
      alle y shal hem knyhte
      byfore me to fyhte.”                               524

[Headnote: _Horn is dubbed Knight._]

[Sidenote: On the morrow, Horn with his twelve companions presents
himself before king Aylmer,]

  Til þe liȝt of day sprang
  Ailmar hi{m} þuȝte la{n}g.
  Þe day bigan to spri{n}ge,
  Horn co{m} biuore þe ki{n}ge,                          528
  Mid his twelf yfere;
  Sume hi were luþ{er}e.

    Amorwe her þe dey sp{r}onge
    ++Aylm{er} king þoute wel lo{n}ge.
    Þe day by gan to spri{n}ge,
    Horn cam bi forn þe kinge.                           528
    Wit swerde horn he girde
    Rit hond{er} hys h{er}te.

      al þ{a}t þe lyhte day sprong
      aylmere þohte long.
      þe day bigon to sp{ri}nge;
      horn com byfore þe kynge,                          528
      wiþ his tuelf fere;
      alle þer ywere.

[Sidenote: and the king sets him on a red steed and dubs him knight.]

  Horn he dubbede to kniȝte
  Wiþ swerd {and} spures briȝte.                         532
  He sette him on a stede whit;
  Þernas no kniȝt hym ilik.
  He smot him alitel wiȝt
  {And} bed him beon a god kniȝt.                        536

    He sette him on stede
    Red so any glede,                                    532
    And sette on his fotes
    Boþe spores and botes,
    And smot alitel with,
    And bed him ben god knict.                           536

      Horn knyht made he
      wiþ ful gret solempnite,                           532
      Sette him on a stede
      red so eny glede,
      Smot him a lute wiht,
      {ant} bed him buen a god knyht.                    536

[Sidenote: Athulf falls on his knees, and asks that Horn may dub him and
the other companions.]

  ¶ Aþulf fel a knes þar
  Biuore þe ki{n}g Aylmar.
  “King,” he sede, “so kene,
  G{ra}nte me a bene.                                    540
  Nu is kniȝ[t] sire horn
  Þ{a}t i{n} sudde{n}ne was iboren.

    Ayol fel on knes þere
    By forn þe king aylm{er}e,
    And seyde, “king so kene,
    Graunte me my bene.                                  540
    Þou hast knicted sire horn
    Þat i{n} sodenne was hy born.

      Athulf vel a kne þer
      {ant} þonkede kyng Aylmer.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               540
      ¶ “Nou is knyht sire horn
      þ{a}t in Sudenne wes yborn.

  Lord he is of lo{n}de,
  Ou{er} us þ{a}t bi hi{m} stonde.                       544
  Þin armes he haþ {and} scheld,
  To fiȝte wiþ vpon þe feld.
  Let him vs alle kniȝte,
  For þ{a}t is vre riȝte.”                               548

    Louerd he hys in londe,
    Of vs þat bi him sto{n}de,                           544
    Mid spere and wit scelde
    To fyte{n} in þe felde.
    Let him os alle knicte,
    So hyt hys hise ricte.”                              548

      Lord he is of londe
      {ant} of vs þat by him stonde.                     544
      þin armes he haueþ {ant} þy sheld,
      forte fyhte in þe feld.
      Let him vs alle knyhte,
      so hit is his ryhte.”                              548
      Aylmer seide ful ywis,
      “nou do þ{a}t þi wille ys.”

[Sidenote: Horn knights his twelve companions.]

  ¶ Aylmar sede sone ywis,
  “Do nu þat þi wille is.”
  Horn adun liȝte
  {And} makede he{m} alle kniȝtes.                       552
  M{ur}ie was þe feste,
  Al of faire gestes.

    Þo seyde þe king wel sone wis,
    “Do horn as hys wil hys.”
    Horn adown ga{n} lycte
    And makede hem to knicte.                            552
    Comen were þe gestes,
    Amorwe was þe feste.

      Horn adoun con lyhte
      {ant} made hem alle to knyhte,                     552
      [Sidenote: [leaf 86, back]]
      for muchel wes þe geste
      {ant} more wes þe feste.

[Headnote: _Rymenhild reminds Horn of his promise._]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild becomes impatient and sends for Horn.]

  Ac Rymenhild nas noȝt þer,
  {And} þ{a}t hire þuȝte seue ȝer.                       556
  Aft{er} horn heo sente,
  {And} he to bure we{n}te.

    Reymyld was nowt þere,
    Hire þoute seue yere.                                556
    Aft{er} horn hye sende;
    Hor to bour{e} wende.

      þ{a}t rymenild nes nout þere
      hire þohte seue ȝere.                              556
      efter horn hue sende;
      horn in to boure wende.

[Sidenote: He takes Athulf as companion.]

  Nolde he noȝt go one;
  Aþulf was his mone.                                    560
  Rymenhild on flore stod,
  Hornes come hire þuȝte god,

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    He na{m} his felawe i{n} hys honde,
    And fonde Reymyld i{n} bour{e} sto{n}de.

      He nolde gon is one;
      Athulf wes hys ymone.                              560
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild bids Horn fulfil his share of the compact by
marrying her.]

  And sede, “Welcome, sire horn,
  And Aþulf, kniȝt þe biforn.                            564
  Kniȝt, nu is þi time
  For to sitte bi me.
  Do nu þat þu er of spake,
  To þi wif þume take.                                   568
  Ef þu art trewe of dedes,
  Do nu ase þu sedes.
  Nu þu hast wille þine,
  Vnbind me of my pine.”                                 572

    “Welcome art þou, sire horn,
    And ayol chil þe bi forn.                            564
    Knict, nou it his tyme
    Þat þo sitte by me.
    Yf þou be trewe of dedes,
    Do þat þou arr{e} seydes.                            568
    Do nou þat we speke,
    To wif þou schalt me take.”
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                 572

      ¶ rymenild welcomeþ sire horn,
      {ant} aþulf knyht hi{m} biforn.                    564
      “knyht, nou is tyme
      forto sitte byme.
      do nou þ{a}t we spake;
      to þi wyf þou me take.                             568
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      Nou þou hast wille þyne,
      vnbynd me of þis pyne.”                            572

[Headnote: _Horn proposes first to prove his Knighthood._]

[Sidenote: Horn replies that it is the custom for a knight to fight for
his leman with some other knight,]

  ¶ “Rymenhild,” quaþ he, “beo stille;
  Ihc wulle don al þi wille.
  Also hit mot bitide,
  Mid sp{er}e ischal furst ride,                         576
  {And} mi kniȝthod proue,
  Ar ihc þe ginne to woȝe.

    “Reymyld,” qwat horn, “be stille;
    Hy schal don al þi wille.
    Hat first hyt mote by tyde
    Mid spere þat ich ride,                              576
    Mi knicthede for to p{ro}ue,
    Herst, here ich þe wowe.

      “rymenild, nou be stille,
      ichulle don al þy wille.
      ah her hit so bitide,
      mid spere ichulle ryde                             576
      ant my knyhthod proue,
      er þen ich þe wowe.

  We beþ kniȝtes ȝo{n}ge,
  Of o dai al isp{ru}nge,                                580
  And of vre mest{er}e
  So is þe man{er}e,
  Wiþ sume oþere kniȝte
  Wel for his lemman fiȝte,                              584
  Or he eni wif take;
  For þi me stondeþ þe more rape.

    We beþ kinctes yonge,
    Alto day hy spronge;                                 580
    Of þe mestere
    Hyt hys þe man{er}e,
    Wyt som oþer knicte
    For hys lema{n} to fycte,                            584
    Her ich eny wif take.
    Þer fore ne haue ich þe forsake.

      we bueþ nou knyhtes ȝonge,
      alle to day yspronge,                              580
      ant of þe mestere
      hit is þe manere,
      wiþ sum oþer knyhte
      for his lemmon to fyþte,                           584
      er ne he eny wyf take
      oþer wyþ wymmon forewart make.

[Sidenote: and promises that after he has accomplished an act of
prowess, he will make her his wife.]

  Today, so crist me blesse,
  Ihc wulle do pruesse                                   588
  For þi luue in þe felde,
  Mid spere {and} mid schelde.
  If ihc come te lyue,
  Ihc schal þe take to wyue.”                            592
  ¶ “Kniȝt,” quaþ heo, “trewe,
  Ihc wene ihc mai þe leue.

    To day, so god me blisse,
    Ich sal do pruesce,                                  588
    For þe lef wyt schelde,
    In mideward þe felde.
    And hy come to liue
    Ich take þe wiue.”                                   592
    “Knict,” qwat reymyl, þe trewe,
    “Yich wene ich may þe leue.

      to day, so c{ri}st me blesse,
      y shal do pruesse,                                 588
      for þi loue mid shelde
      amiddewart þe felde.
      ȝef ich come to lyue
      ychul þe take to wyue.”                            592
      “knyht, y may yleue þe,
      why aut þou trewe be.

[Headnote: _Rymenhild gives Horn a Ring._]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild gives Horn a ring, which she bids him wear for her

  Tak nu her þis gold ring,
  God him is þe dubbing.                                 596
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Þer is vpon þe ringe
  Ig{ra}ue, ‘Rymenhild þe ȝonge.’                        600
  Þer nis no{n} bet{er}e anonder su{n}ne,
  Þ{a}t eni man of telle cu{n}ne.
  For my luue þu hit were,
  {And} on þi fing{er} þu him bere.                      604

    Haue nou here þis gold ring,
    He his god to þi dobbing.                            596
    Ne hys none swilk vnder so{n}ne,
    Þat man may offe konne.
    Hy g{ra}ue hys on þe Ringe,
    ‘Rymyld þi lef þe yenge’;                            600
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      ¶ Haue her þis goldring;
      hit is ful god to þi dobbyng.                      596
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      yg{ra}ued is on þe rynge,
      ‘rymenild þy luef þe ȝynge.’                       600
      nis non betere vnder sonne
      þ{a}t enymon of conne.
      For mi loue þou hit were,
      {ant} on þy fynger þou hit bere.                   604

[Sidenote: and which will protect him if he will look on it and think of

  Þe stones beoþ of suche g{ra}ce,
  Þ{a}t þu ne schalt in none place
  Of none du{n}tes beon ofdrad,
  Ne on bataille beon amad,                              608
  Ef þu loke þ{er}an
  {And} þe{n}ke vpo{n} þi le{m}man.
  ¶ And sire Aþulf, þi broþer,
  He schal haue anoþer.                                  612

    Þe ston him hys of swiche g{ra}ce,
    Þat þou ne schal i{n} none place
    Of none do{n}te fayle,
    Þer þou bigi{n}nes batayle.                          608
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    And sire ayol, þi broþer,
    He sal haue anoþer.                                  612

      þe ston haueþ suche g{ra}ce,
      ne shalt þou in none place
      deþ vnderfonge,
      ne buen yslaye wiþ wronge,                         608
      ȝef þou lokest þeran
      {ant} þenchest o þi lemman.
      ant sire aþulf, þi broþer,
      he shal han en oþer.                               612

[Sidenote: She then mournfully prays for Christ’s blessing on Horn’s

  Horn, ihc þe biseche
  Wiþ loueliche speche,
  Crist ȝeue god erndinge,
  Þe aȝen to bringe.”                                    616
  ¶ Þe kniȝt hire gan kesse,
  {And} heo hi{m} to blesse.

    Horn, god hy þe bi teche,
    Wit morninde speche.
    God þe ȝyeue god endynge,
    An hol þe aȝen bringe.”                              616
    Þe knict hyre gan to kusse,
    And reymyld him blisse.

      Horn, c{ri}st y þe byteche,
      mid mourninde speche.
      c{ri}st þe ȝeue god endyng,
      {ant} sound aȝeyn þe brynge.”                      616
      þe knyht hire gan to cusse,
      {ant} rymenild him to blesse.

[Sidenote: Horn takes leave, arms himself, mounts his black steed, and
sets out in search of adventure.]

  Leue at hire he nam
  {And} i{n} to halle cam.                               620
  Þe kniȝtes ȝeden to table,
  {And} horne ȝede to stable.
  Þar he tok his gode fole,
  Also blak so eny cole.                                 624
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Leue at hire he nom,
    And in to halle com.                                 620
    Þe knictes ȝyede to table,
    And horn i{n} to stable.
    He tok forþ his gode fole,
    So blac so eny cole.                                 624
    In armes he him schredde,
    And hys fole he fedde.

      leue at hyre he nom,
      {ant} in to halle he com.                          620
      knyhtes eode to table,
      {ant} horn eode to stable,
      þer he toc his gode fole,
      blac so euer eny cole.                             624
      wiþ armes he him sredde,
      ant is fole he fedde.

  Þe fole schok þe brunie,
  Þ{a}t al þe curt gan denie.                            628
  Þe fole bigan to springe,
  {And} horn murie to singe.
  Horn rod in a while
  More þan a myle.                                       632

    Hys fole schok hys brenye,
    Þat al þe court gan denye.                           628
    Hys fole gan forþ sp{r}inge,
    And horn merie to synge.
    He rod one wile
    Wel more þan a mile.                                 632

      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               628
      þe fole bigon to springe
      {ant} horn murie to synge.
      Horn rod one whyle
      wel more þen a myle.                               632

[Headnote: _Horn meets some Saracen invaders._]

[Sidenote: He finds at the seashore a ship filled with Saracens, and
asks their purpose.]

  He fond o schup stonde
  Wiþ heþene honde.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                   636
  He axede what hi soȝte,
  Oþ{er} to londe broȝte.
  ¶ An hu{n}d him gan bihelde
  Þ{a}t spac wordes belde,                               640
  “Þis lond we wulleȝ wynne,
  {And} sle þ{a}t þ{er} is inne.”

    He sey a schip rowe,
    Mid wat alby flowe,
    Of out londisse ma{n}ne,
    Of sarazine kenne.                                   636
    Hem askede qwat he hadde,
    Oþer to londe ladde.
    A geant him gan by holde,
    And spek wordes bolde.                               640
    “Þis lond we wile winne,
    And slen al þat þer ben hi{n}ne.”

      he seh a shyp at grounde,
      wiþ heþene hounde.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                               636
      He askede wet hue hadden,
      oþer to londe ladden.
      an hound him gan biholde,
      {ant} spek wordes bolde.                           640
      “þis land we wolleþ wynne,
      {ant} sle þ{a}t þer bueþ inne.”

[Sidenote: Horn slays the Saracen leader, and then, after]

  Horn gan his swerd g{ri}pe
  {And} on his arme wype.                                644
  Þe sarazins he smatte,
  Þat his blod hatte.
  At eureche dunte
  Þe heued of wente.                                     648
  Þo gu{n}ne þe hu{n}des gone,
  Abute horn al one.

    Horn gan hys swerd gripe,
    And on his arm hyt wipe.                             644
    Þe sarazin so he smot,
    Þat al hys blod was hot.
    At þe furste dunte
    Hys heued of gan wente.                              648
    Þo go{n}ne{n} þo hundes gon
    Aȝenes horn alon.

      Horn gan is swerd g{ri}pe,
      ant on is arm hit wype.                            644
      þe sarazy{n} he hitte so,
      þ{a}t is hed fel to ys to.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      þo gonne þe houndes gone
      aȝeynes horn ys one.

[Headnote: _Horn bears the leader’s head before the king._]

[Sidenote: looking on his ring, slays a hundred more.]

  He lokede on þe ringe,
  {And} þoȝte on rimenilde.                              652
  He sloȝ þer on haste
  On hundred bi þe laste.
  Ne miȝte noman telle
  Þ{a}t folc þ{a}t he gan quelle.                        656
  Of alle þ{a}t were aliue
  Ne miȝte þer non þriue.

    He lokede on his gode ringe,
    And þoute on reymild þe yenge.                       652
    He slow þer on haste
    An hundred at þe leste.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                 656
    Of þat þe were aryue,
    Fewe he leued on liue.

      [Sidenote: [leaf 87]]
      He Lokede on is rynge,
      ant þohte o rymenyld þe ȝynge.                     652
      he sloh þer of þe beste
      an houndred at þe leste.
      ne mihte no mon telle
      alle þ{a}t he gon quelle.                          656
      of þ{a}t þer were o ryue
      he lafte lut o lyue.

[Sidenote: Horn fixes the leader’s head on the point of his sword, and
bears it before the king.]

  Horn tok þe maist{er}es heued,
  Þ{a}t he hadde him bireued,                            660
  And sette hit on his swerde,
  Anouen at þan orde.
  He verde hom in to halle,
  Among þe kniȝtes alle.                                 664

    Þe meyst{er} kinges heued
    He haddit him by reued.                              660
    He settit on hys swerde,
    Anoven on þe horde,
    Til he com to halle,
    Among þe knictes alle.                               664

      ¶ Horn tok þe maister heued,
      þat he hi{m} hade byreued,                         660
      ant sette on is suerde,
      abouen o þen orde.
      he ferde hom to halle,
      among þe knyhtes alle,                             664

[Headnote: _Horn relates his adventure._]

[Sidenote: Horn relates his adventure.]

  “Kyng,” he sede, “wel þu sitte,
  And alle þine kniȝtes mitte.
  To day, after mi dubbing,
  So irod on mi pleing,                                  668
  I fond o schup Rowe,
  Þo hit gan to flowe,
  Al wiþ sarazines kyn,
  And none londisse Men.                                 672
  To dai, for to pine
  Þe {and} alle þine.

    He seyde, “king, wel mote þou sitte,
    An þine knictes mitte.
    Þer y rod on my pleying,
    Sone haft{er} my dobbing,                            668
    Y say a schip rowe
    Mid wat{er}e al by flowe,
    Of none londische me{n}ne,
    Bote sarazines ke{n}ne,                              672
    To deye, for to pyne
    Þe and alle þine.

      “Kyng,” quoþ he, “wel þou sitte,
      {ant} þine knyhtes mitte.
      to day ich rod o my pleyyng,
      after my dobbyng,                                  668
      y fond a ship rowen,
      in þe sound byflowen,
      Mid vnlondisshe menne,
      of sarazynes kenne,                                672
      to deþe forte pyne
      þe {ant} alle þyne.

  Hi gonne me assaille.
  Mi swerd me nolde faille;                              676
  I smot he{m} alle to grunde,
  Oþer ȝaf he{m} diþes wunde.
  Þ{a}t heued iþe bri{n}ge
  Of þe maist{er} ki{n}ge.                               680
  Nu is þi wile iȝolde,
  King, þat þu me kniȝti woldest.”

    He go{n}ne{n} me asaylen.
    My swerd me ne wolde fayle;                          676
    Ich broute he{m} alto grunde
    In one lite stounde.
    Þe heued ich þe bringe
    Of þe meyst{er} kinge.                               680
    Nou ich haue þe yolde,
    Þat þu me knicte{n} wolde.”

      hy gonne me asayly.
      swerd me nolde fayly;                              676
      y smot hem alle to grounde
      in a lutel stounde.
      þe heued ich þe bringe
      of þe maister kynge.                               680
      nou haue ich þe ȝolde
      þat þou me knyhten woldest.”

[Sidenote: King Aylmar goes hunting.]

  ++A Moreȝe þo þe day gan sp{ri}nge,
  Þe king him rod an hu{n}tinge.                         684
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  At hom lefte ffikenhild,
  Þat was þe wurste moder child.                         688
  Heo ferde in to bure,
  To sen aue{n}t{ur}e.

    ++Þe day bi gan to sp{r}inge,
    Þe king rod on hunti{n}gg{e}.                        684
    To wode he gan wende,
    For to lacchen þe heynde.
    Wyt hym rod fokenild,
    Þat alþe werste mod{er} child.                       688
    And horn we{n}te in to boure,
    To sen auenture.

      þe day bigon to sp{ri}nge,
      þe kyng rod on hontynge                            684
      to þe wode wyde,
      ant Fykenyld bi is syde,
      þat fals wes ant vntrewe,
      whose him wel yknewe.                              688
      ¶ Horn ne þohte nout him on,
      ant to boure wes ygon.

[Sidenote: Horn proceeds to Rymenhild’s bower, and finds her weeping.]

  Heo saȝ Rymenild sitte
  Also he were of witte.                                 692
  Heo sat on þe sunne,
  Wiþ tieres al biru{n}ne.
  Horn sede, “lef þinore,
  Wi wepestu so sore?”                                   696

    He fond Reymild sitte{n}de,
    Sore wepende,                                        692
    Whit so eny sonne,
    Wit teres albi ronne.
    He seyde, “le{m}man, þin ore,
    Wy wepes þou so sore?”                               696

      he fond rymenild sittynde
      {ant} wel sore wepynde,                             692
      so whyt so þe sonne,
      mid terres al byronne.
      Horn seide, “luef, þyn ore,
      why wepest þou so sore?”                            696

[Headnote: _Rymenhild tells Horn her Dream._]

[Sidenote: She tells him her dream, how a great fish broke her net.]

  Heo sede, “noȝt ine wepe;
  Bute ase ilay aslepe,
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  To þe se my net icaste,
  {And} hit nolde noȝt ilaste.

    Hye seyde, “ich nawt ne wepe,
    Bote ich schal her ich slepe.
    Me þoute in my metynge,
    Þat ich rod on fischinge.                            700
    To se my net ich keste;
    Ne Mict ich nowt lache.

      Hue seide, “ich nout ne wepe,
      ah y shal er y slepe.
      me þohte o my metyng,
      þat ich rod ofysshyng.                             700
      to see my net ycaste,
      ant wel fer hit laste.

  A gret fiss at þe furste,
  Mi net he gan to berste.                               704
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Ihc wene þ{a}t ihc schal leose
  Þe fiss þat ihc wolde cheose.”                         708

    A gret fys ate furste
    Mi net he makede berste.                             704
    Þe fys me so by laucte,
    Þat ich nawt ne kaucte.
    Ich wene ich schal forlese
    Þe fys þat ich wolde chese.”                         708

      a gret fyssħ at þe ferste
      my net made berste.                                704
      þ{a}t fyssħ me so bycahte,
      þ{a}t y nout ne lahte.
      y wene y shal forleose
      þe fyssħ þ{a}t y wolde cheose.”                    708

[Sidenote: Horn comforts her.]

  ¶ “Crist,” q{ua}þ horn, “{and} seint steuene,
  Turne þine sweuene.
  Ne schal iþe biswike,
  Ne do þ{a}t þe mislike.                                712

    “God and seynte steuene,”
    Qwad horn, “terne þi sweuene.
    Ne shal ich neu{er}e swike,
    Ne do þat þe mis like.                               712

      ¶ “C{ri}st {ant} seinte steuene,”
      quoþ horn, “areche þy sweuene.
      no shal y þe byswyke,
      ne do þat þe mis lyke.                             712

[Sidenote: Horn plights his troth to Rymenhild, but both weep and
forebode evil from the dream.]

  I schal me make þinowe,
  To holden {and} to knowe,
  For eurech oþ{er}e wiȝte;
  {And} þarto mi treuþe iþe pliȝte.”                     716
  Muchel was þe ruþe
  Þ{a}t was at þare truþe,
  For Rymenhild weop ille,
  {And} horn let þe tires stille.                        720

    Ich nime þe to my nowe,
    To habben and to howe,
    For euerich wyȝte;
    Þarto my treuwþe ich plicte.”                        716
    Miche was þat rewþe
    Þat was at here trewþe.
    Reymyld wel stille,
    And horn let teres spille.                           720

      ich take þe myn owe,
      to holde {ant} eke to knowe,
      for eueruch oþer wyhte;
      þerto my trouþe y plyhte.”                         716
      wel muche was þe reuþe
      þ{a}t wes at þilke treuþe.
      rymenild wep wel ylle,
      ant horn let terres stille.                        720

  “Le{m}ma{n},” q{ua}þ he, “dere,
  Þu schalt more ihere.
  Þi sweuen schal wende,
  Oþer sum Man schal vs schende.                         724
  Þe fiss þ{a}t brak þe lyne,
  Ywis he doþ us pine.
  Þ{a}t schal don vs tene
  {And} wurþ wel sone isene.”                            728

    He seyde, “le{m}ma{n} dere,
    Þou schalt more here.
    Þy sweuene ich schal schende.                        724
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . . . . . . . .]
    Þe fis þat brac þi seyne,
    Hy wis hyt was som ble[y]ne
    Þat schal us do som tene;
    Hy wis hyt worþ hy sene.”                            728

      “Lemmon,” quoþ he, “dere,
      þou shalt more yhere.
      þy sweuen shal wende;
      summon vs wole shende.                             724
      þat fyssħ þ{a}t brac þy net,
      ywis it is sumwet
      þ{a}t wol vs do sum teone;
      ywys hit worþ ysene.”                              728

[Headnote: _Fykenhild calumniates Horn._]

[Sidenote: Fykenhild tells the king that Horn is plotting to kill him
and to marry Rymenhild.]

  ¶ Aylmar rod bi sture,
  {And} horn lai i{n} bure.
  Fykenhild hadde enuye
  {And} sede þes folye:--                                732
  “Aylmar, ihc þe warne,
  Horn þe wule berne.
  Ihc herde whar he sede,
  {And} his swerd forþ leide,                            736
  To bringe þe of lyue,
  And take Rymenhild to wyue.

    Þe king rod bi his toure,
    And horn was in þe boure.
    Fykenyld hadde envie,
    An seyde hise folye:--                               732
    “Aylm{er}e, king, ich wole warne,
    Horn chil þe wile berne.
    Ich herde qware he seyde,
    And his swerd leyde,                                 736
    To bringe þe of liue,
    And take rimenyld to wiue.

      ¶ Aylmer rod by stoure,
      ant horn wes yne boure.
      Fykenild hade enuye
      {ant} seyde þeose folye:--                         732
      “Aylmer, ich þe werne,
      horn þe wole forberne.
      Ich herde wher he seyde,
      ant his suerd he leyde,                            736
      to brynge þe of lyue
      ant take rymenyld to wyue.

  He liþ in bure,
  Vnder cou{er}ture,                                     740
  By Ryme{n}hild, þi doȝt{er};
  {And} so he doþ wel ofte.
  And þider þu go al riȝt;
  Þer þu him finde miȝt.                                 744

    Nou he hys in boure,
    Al hond{er} cou{er}ture,                             740
    By reymyld, þi dout{er};
    And so he hys wel oft{er}.
    Ich rede þat þu wende;
    Þer þu myct him schende.                             744

      [Sidenote: [leaf 87, back]]
      He Lyht nou in Boure,
      vnder couertoure,                                  740
      by rymenyld, þy dohter;
      ant so he doþ wel ofte.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

  Þu do him vt of londe,
  Oþ{er} he doþ þe schonde.”
  ¶ Aylmar aȝen gan turne,
  Wel Modi {and} wel Murne.                              748
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Do him out of þi londe,
    Her do more schonde.”
    Aylm{er} king him gan torne,
    Vel mody and wel Mourne.                             748
    To bour{e} he gan ȝerne,
    Durst hym noma{n} werne.

      do him out of londe,
      er he do more shonde.”
      ¶ Aylmer gan hom turne,
      wel mody {ant} wel sturne.                         748
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Headnote: _King Aylmar banishes Horn._]

[Sidenote: Aylmar finds Horn in Rymenhild’s embrace, and bids him leave
the land at once.]

  He fond horn in arme,
  On Ryme{n}hilde barme.                                 752
  “Awei vt,” he sede, “fule þeof,
  Ne wurstu me neuremore leof.
  Wend vt of my bure,
  Wiþ muchel messauent{ur}e.                             756

    He fond horn wit arme,
    In rimenyldes barme.                                 752
    “He{n}ne out,” qwad aylm{er} king,
    “Henne, þou foule wendling,
    Out of boure flore,
    Fram Reymyld, þi hore.                               756

      he fond horn vnder arme,
      in rymenyldes barme.                               752
      “go out,” quoþ aylmer, þe kyng,
      “Horn, þou foule fundlyng.
      forþ out of boures flore,
      for rymenild, þin hore.                            756

  Wel sone bute þu flitte,
  Wiþ swerde ihc þe anhitte.
  Wend ut of my londe,
  Oþ{er} þu schalt haue schonde.”                        760
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Sone bote þe flecte,
    Wit swerd hy wole þe hette.
    Hout of londe sone,
    Here hauest þou nowt to done.”                       760
    Horn cam i{n} to stable,
    Wel modi for þe fable.

      wend out of londe sone;                            759
      her nast þou nout to done.                         760
      wel sone bote þou flette,                          757
      myd suert y shal þe sette.”                        758
      Horn eode to stable,
      wel modi for þat fable.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Here and in next section, lines rearranged by editor.]

[Sidenote: Horn saddles his horse, arms himself, and then visits

  ¶ Horn sadelede his stede,
  {And} his armes he gan sprede.                         764
  His brunie he gan lace,
  So he scholde, in to place.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  His swerd he gan fonge;
  Nabod he noȝt to longe.

    He sette sadel on stede,
    With armes he hym gan schrede.                       764
    Hys brenye he gan lace,
    So he scholde, i{n} to place.
    Þo hyt þer to gan ten,
    Ne durst hi{m} noma{n} sen.                          768
    Swerd he gan fonge;
    Ne stod he nowt to lo{n}ge,

      he sette sadel on stede,
      wiþ armes he gon him shrede.
      his brunie he con lace,
      so he shulde, in to place.                         766
      his suerd he gon fonge;                            769
      ne stod he nout to longe.                          770
      to is suerd he gon teon;                           767
      ne durste non wel him seon.                        768

[Headnote: _Horn takes leave of Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: He tells her that her dream has come true,]

  He ȝede forþ bliue
  To Ryme{n}hild his wyue.                               772
  He sede, “le{m}man, derling,
  Nu hauestu þi sweuening.
  Þe fiss þ{a}t þi net rente,
  Fram þe he me sente.                                   776
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    And ȝyede forþ ricte
    To reymyld þe bricte.                                772
    He seyde, “leman, de{r}ling,
    Now hauestu þi meting.
    Þe fys þi net to rente,
    Fram þe he me sente.                                 776
    Þe king gynneþ wiht me st{r}iue;
    Awey he wole me driue.

      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      He seide, “lemmon, derlyng,
      nou þou hauest þy sweuenyng.
      þe fyssħ þ{a}t þyn net rende,
      from þe me he sende.                               776
      þe kyng wiþ me gynneþ st{ri}ue;
      a wey he wole me dryue.

[Sidenote: that he is going to an unknown country for seven years.]

  Rymenhild, haue wel godne day,
  No leng abiden ine may.                                780
  In to vncuþe londe,
  Wel more for to fonde.
  I schal wune þere
  Fulle seue ȝere.                                       784

    Reymyld, haue god day,
    For nov ich founde awey,                             780
    In to onekuþ londe,
    Wel more forto fonde.
    Ich schal wony þere
    Fulle seve ȝere.                                     784

      þare fore haue nou godneday;
      nou y mot fonnde {ant} fare away                   780
      In to vncouþe londe,
      wel more forte fonde.
      y shal wonie þere
      fulle seue ȝere.                                   784

[Sidenote: He bids her not to await him longer than seven years.]

  At seue ȝeres ende,
  Ȝef ine come ne sende,
  Tak þe husebo{n}de,
  ffor me þu ne wo{n}de.                                 788
  In armes þu me fonge,
  {And} kes me wel longe.”

    Ate vij ȝeres hende,
    Bot ȝyf hy come oþer sende,
    Tac þou hosebonde,
    For me þat þou wonde.                                788
    I armes þou me fonge,
    An kusse swiþe longe.”

      at þe seueȝeres ende,
      ȝyf y ne come ne sende,
      tac þou hosebonde,
      for me þ{a}t þou no wonde.                         788
      In armes þou me fonge,
      ant cus me swyþe longe.”

[Sidenote: Rymenhild faints.]

  He custe him wel a stunde,
  {And} Rymenhild feol to grunde.                        792
  Horn tok his leue;
  Ne miȝte he no le{n}g bileue.
  He tok Aþulf, his fere,
  Al abute þe swere,                                     796

    He kusten one stunde,
    And reymyld fel to gru{n}de.                         792
    Horn tok his leue,
    For hyt was ney heue.
    He nam ayol, trewe fere,
    Al aboute þe swete,                                  796

      hy custen hem a stounde,
      {ant} rymenyld fel to grounde.                     792
      ¶ Horn toc his leue;
      he myhte nout byleue.
      He toc Aþulf, is fere,
      aboute þe swere,                                   796

[Sidenote: Horn entrusts his ‘new love’ to Athulf.]

  {And} sede, “kniȝt so trewe,
  Kep wel mi luue newe.
  Þu neure me ne forsoke,
  Rymenhild þu kep and loke.”                            800
  His stede he gan bist{ri}de,
  {And} forþ he ga{n} ride.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                   804

    And seyt, “knict so trewe,
    Kep Mi leue wiue.
    So þou me neu{er}e forsoke,
    Reymyl kep and loke.”                                800
    ++Horn gan stede by stride,
    And forþ he gan ride.
    Ayol wep wit heye,
    And alle þat hym seye.                               804

      ant seide, “knyht so trewe,
      kep wel loue newe.
      þou neuer ne forsoke
      rymenild to kepe ant loke.”                        800
      his stede he bigan stryde,
      ant forþ he con hym ryde.
      Aþulf wep wiþ eyȝen,
      ant alle þat hit yseyȝen.                          804

[Headnote: _Horn sets sail from West[er]nesse._]

[Sidenote: He sets sail.]

  To þe hauene he ferde,
  {And} a god schup he hurede,
  Þ{a}t hi{m} scholde lo{n}de
  In westene lo{n}de.                                    808
  ¶ Aþulf weop wiþ iȝe,
  {And} al þ{a}t hi{m} isiȝe.

    Horn chil forþ hym ferde;
    A god schip he him herde,
    Þat hym scholde wisse
    Out of westnisse.                                    808
    Þe whyȝt him gan sto{n}de,
    And drof tyl hirelonde.

      Horn forþ him ferde;
      a god ship he him herde,
      Þat him shulde passe
      out of westnesse.                                  808
      Þe wynd bigon to stonde,
      ant drof hem vp o londe.

[Sidenote: Horn reaches land.]

  To lo{n}d he hi{m} sette,
  {And} fot o{n} stirop sette.                           812

    To londe he gan flette,
    And out of schip him sette.                          812

      to londe þat hy fletten;
      fot out of ship hy setten.                         812

[Headnote: _Horn is received by Harild and Berild._]

[Sidenote: He meets two princes, Harild and Berild.]

  He fo{n}d bi þe weie,
  Kynges sones tweie;
  Þ{a}t on hi{m} het harild,
  {And} þ{a}t oþ{er} berild.                             816
  Berild gan him preie
  Þ{a}t he scholde him seie
  What his name were,
  {And} what he wolde þere.                              820

    He mette by þe weye,
    Kingges sones tweye;
    Þat on was hoten ayld,
    And þat oþer byrild.                                 816
    Byrild him gan preye
    Þat he scholde seye
    Wat hys name were,
    And qwat he wolde þere.                              820

      he fond bi þe weye,
      kynges sones tueye;
      Þ{a}t on wes hoten Aþyld,
      ant þ{a}t oþer beryld.                             816
      beryld hym con preye
      þat he shulde seye
      what he wolde þere,
      ant what ys nome were.                             820

[Sidenote: He gives his name as Cutberd (Godmod),]

  “Cutberd,” he sede, “ihc hote,
  Icome{n} vt of þe bote,
  Wel feor fram biweste,
  To seche mine beste.”                                  824
  Berild gan him nier ride,
  {And} tok him bi þe bridel.
  “Wel beo þu, kniȝt, ifounde;
  Wiþ me þu lef a stunde.                                828

    “Cuberd,” he seyde, “ich hote,
    Come{n} fram þe bote,
    Fer fram bi weste,
    To chesen mine beste.”                               824
    Byryld him gan ryde,
    And tok hym by þe b{r}idel.
    “Wel be þou, knict, her{e} founde;
    Whyt me bileuest a stounde.                          828

      ¶ “Godmod,” he seid, “ich hote,
      ycomen out of þis bote,
      wel fer from by weste,
      to seche myne beste.”                              824
      beryld con ner him ryde,
      ant toc hi{m} bi þe bridel.
      “wel be þou, knyht, yfounde;
      wiþ me þou lef a stounde.                          828

[Sidenote: and is conducted by the princes before the king.]

  Also mote i st{er}ue,
  Þe ki{n}g þu schalt s{er}ue.
  Ne saȝ i neure my lyue
  So fair kniȝt aryue.”                                  832
  Cutb{er}d heo ladde in to halle,
  {And} he a kne gan falle.

    So ich ne mote st{er}ue,
    Þe kyng þou schal s{er}ue.
    Ne sey ich neu{er}e on lyue
    So fayr knyt aryue.”                                 832
    Cub{er}t he ledde to halle,
    And adoun gan falle.

      also ich mote sterue,
      þe kyng þou shalt serue.
      ne seh y neuer a lyue
      so feir knyht her aryue.”                          832
      godmod he ladde to halle,
      ant he adoun gan falle,

[Sidenote: Cutberd greets the king.]

  He sette him a knewelyng,
  And grette wel þe gode kyng.                           836

    He sette hym on knewlyng,
    And grette wel þe gode king.                         836

      [Sidenote: [leaf 88]]
      Ant sette him a knelyng,
      ant grette þene gode kyng.                         836

[Sidenote: Berild asks that he be taken into the king’s service.]

  Þa{n}ne sede Berild sone,
  “Sire king, of him þu hast to done.
  Bitak him þi lond to werie;
  Ne schat hit noman derie,                              840
  For he is þe faireste man
  Þ{a}t eureȝut on þi londe cam.”

    Þo seyde byrild wel sone,
    “Whit hym haue{n} to done.
    Tak hym þi lond to werye;
    Ne schal hym noma{n} derye.                          840
    He hys þe fayreste man
    Þat eu{er}e in þis londe cam.”

      þo saide beryld wel sone,
      “kyng, wiþ him þou ast done.
      þi lond tac hi{m} to werie;
      ne shal þe nomon derye,                            840
      for he is þe feyreste man
      þat euer in þis londe cam.”

[Headnote: _Horn enters the service of the king._]

[Sidenote: The king welcomes Cutberd.]

  ¶ Þa{n}ne sede þe ki{n}g so dere,
  “Welcome beo þu here.                                  844
  Go nu, Berild, swiþe,
  {And} make him ful bliþe.
  And whan þu farst to woȝe,
  Tak him þine gloue.                                    848
  Ime{n}t þu hauest to wyue,
  Awai he schal þe dryue;
  For Cutberdes fairhede
  Ne schal þe neure wel spede.”                          852

    Þo seyde þe king so dere,
    “Wel come be he here.                                844
    Go nov, byryld, swyþe,
    An mak him glad and blyþe.
    Wan þou farest awowen,
    Tak hym þine glouen.                                 848
    Þer þou hauest Mynt to wyue,
    Awey he schal þe dryue.”
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      ¶ þo seide þe kyng wel dere,
      “welcome þe þou here.                              844
      go, beryld, wel swyþe,
      {ant} make hy{m} wel blyþe,
      ant when þou farest to wowen,
      tac him þine glouen.                               848
      þer þou hast munt to wyue,
      a wey he shal þe dryue;
      for godmodes feyrhede
      shalt þou no wer spede.”                           852

[Sidenote: At the Christmas feast a giant appears.]

  ++HIt was at Cristesmasse,
  Neiþer more ne lasse,
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Hyt was at C{r}istesmesse,
    Naþer more ne lesse.
    Þe king hym makede a feste,
    Wyt hyse knyctes beste.                              856

      hit wes at c{ri}stesmasse,
      nouþer more ne lasse.
      þe kyng made feste,
      of his knyhtes beste.                              856

[Headnote: _The giant’s challenge._]

[Sidenote: The giant proclaims a challenge.]

  Þ{er} cam in at none,
  A Geau{n}t suþe sone,
  Iarmed fram paynyme,
  And seide þes ryme:--                                  860
  “Site stille, sire kyng,
  {And} herkne þis tyþyng.
  Her buþ pae{n}s ariued,
  Wel mo þane fiue.                                      864
  Her beoþ on þe so{n}de,
  Ki{n}g, vpon þi londe.

    Þer com ate none,
    A geaunt swiþe sone,
    Armed of paynime,
    And seyde i{n} hys rime,                             860
    “Syte, knytes, by þe king,
    And lusteþ to my tydyng.
    Her{e} beþ paynyms aryued,
    Wel mo þa{n}ne fyue.                                 864
    By þe se stronde,
    Kyng, on þine lo{n}de.

      þer com in at none,
      a geaunt suyþe sone,
      y-armed of paynyme,
      ant seide þise ryme:--                             860
      “Site, kyng, bi kynge,
      ant herkne my tidynge
      her bueþ paynes aryue,
      wel more þen fyue.                                 864
      her beþ vpon honde,
      kyng, in þine londe.

[Sidenote: One pagan will fight any three in the land,]

  On of he{m} wile fiȝte
  Aȝe{n} þre kniȝtes.                                    868

    One þer of wille ich fyȝte
    Aȝen þi þre knyctes.                                 868

      on þer of wol fyhte
      to ȝeynes þre knyhtes.                             868

[Sidenote: the combat to determine who shall possess the land.]

  Ȝef oþ{er} þre slen vre,
  Al þis lond beo ȝoure;
  Ȝef vre on ouercomeþ ȝour þreo,
  Al þis lo{n}d schal vre beo.                           872
  Tomoreȝe be þe fiȝti{n}ge,
  Whan þe liȝt of daye sp{ri}nge.”

    Ȝyf þat hour{e} felle þyne þre,
    Al þis lond schal vre be;
    Ȝyf þyne þre fellen houre,
    Al þys lond þa{n}ne be ȝyure.                        872
    To morwe schal be þe fyȝtyng,
    At þe so{n}ne op rysyng.”

      ȝef oure þre sleh oure on,
      we shulen of ore londe gon;
      ȝef vre on sleh oure þre,
      al þis lond shal vre be.                           872
      to morewe shal be þe fyhtynge,
      at þe sonne vpsp{ri}nge.”

[Headnote: _Horn, Berild and Alrid accept it._]

[Sidenote: King Thurston names Cutberd (Godmod), Harild and Berild as
the three defenders.]

  ¶ Þa{n}ne sede þe kyng þurston,
  “Cutb{er}d schal beo þ{a}t on;                         876
  Berild schal beo þ{a}t oþer;
  Þe þridde, Alrid, his broþer.
  For hi beoþ þe strengeste,
  {And} of armes þe beste.                               880
  Bute what schal vs to rede?
  Ihc wene we beþ alle dede.”

    Þo seyde þe king þurston,
    “Cubert he schal be þat on,                          876
    Ayld chyld þat oþer,
    Þe þrydde, byryld, hyse broþer.
    Hye þre beþ þe strengeste,
    And ín armes þe beste.                               880
    At wat schal do to rede?
    Ich wene we ben alle dede.”

      ¶ þo seyde þe kyng þurston,
      “godmod shal be þat on;                            876
      beryld shal be þat oþer;
      þe þridde, Aþyld, is broþer.
      for hue bueþ strongeste,
      ant in armes þe beste.                             880
      ah, wat shal vs to rede?
      y wene we bueþ dede.”

  ¶ Cutberd sat at borde,
  And sede þes wordes:--                                 884

    Cubert set on borde,
    And seyde þis worde:--                               884

      Godmod set at borde,
      ant seide þeose wordes:--                          884

[Sidenote: Cutberd says that it were shame for three Christians to fight
against one pagan, and offers to fight alone.]

  “Sire ki{n}g, hit nis no riȝte,
  On wiþ þ{re} to fiȝte;
  Aȝe{n} one hu{n}de,
  Þre c{ri}ste{n} me{n} to fonde.                        888
  Sire, ischal al one,
  Wiþute more ymone,
  Wiþ mi swerd wel eþe
  Bringe hem þre to deþe.”                               892

    “Syre kyȝeking, hyt no ryȝcte,
    On wiþ þre to fyȝcte.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                 888
    At wille ich alone,
    With oute{n} ma{n}nes mone,
    Mid my swerd wel heþe
    Bringe{n} hem alle to deþe.”                         892

      “sire kyng, nis no ryhte,
      on wiþ þre fyhte,
      aȝeynes one hounde,
      þre c{ri}stene to founde.                          888
      ah, kyng, y shal alone,
      wiþ-oute more ymone,
      wip my suerd ful eþe
      bringen he{m} alle to deþe.”                       892

[Headnote: _Preparations for the combat._]

[Sidenote: He arms himself,]

  ¶ Þe kyng aros amoreȝe,
  Þ{a}t hadde muchel sorȝe;
  {And} Cutb{er}d ros of bedde,
  Wiþ armes he him schredde.                             896
  Horn his brunie gan on caste,
  {And} lacede hit wel faste,

    Þe kyng ros a morwe,
    And hadde meche sorwe.
    Cubert ros of bedde;
    Wyt armes he hym schredde.                           896
    Hys brenye on he caste,
    Lacede hyt wel faste.

      þe kyng aros amorewe;
      he hade muche sorewe.
      godmod ros of bedde;
      wiþ armes he him shredde.                          896
      his brunye he on caste,
      {ant} knutte hit wel faste,

[Sidenote: visits the king,]

  {And} ca{m} to þe ki{n}ge,
  At his vp risinge.                                     900
  “Ki{n}g,” he sede, “cu{m} to fel[de],
  For to bihelde
  Hu we fiȝte schulle,
  {And} togare go wulle.”                                904

    He cam biforn þe godeking,
    At hyse op rysyng.                                   900
    He seyde, “king, com to felde,
    Me for to by helde,
    Hou we scholen fyȝte
    And to gydere hus dyȝcte.”                           904

      ant com hi{m} to þe kynge,
      at his vp rysynge.                                 900
      “kyng,” quoþ he, “com to felde,
      me forte byhelde,
      hou we shule flyten
      ant to gedere smiten.”                             904

[Sidenote: and with him rides to the combat.]

  Riȝt at p{ri}me tide,
  Hi gu{n}ne{n} ut ride,
  And fu{n}de{n} on a g{re}ne,
  A geau{n}t suþe kene,                                  908
  His fere{n} hi{m} biside,
  Hore deþ to abide.

    Ryȝt at p{r}ime tyde,
    He go{n}ne hem out ryde.
    He founden in a grene,
    A geant swyþe kene,                                  908
    Armed with swerd by side,
    Þe day for to abyde.

      ¶ riht at p{ri}me tide,
      hy gonnen out to ryde.
      hy fonnden in a grene,
      a geaunt swyþe kene,                               908
      his feren hi{m} biside,
      þat day forto abyde.

[Headnote: _The fight begins._]

[Sidenote: Cutberd strikes so hard, that the giant asks for a breathing

  ¶ Þeilke bataille
  Cutberd gan assaille.                                  912
  He ȝaf de{n}tes inoȝe;
  Þe kniȝtes felle iswoȝe.
  His dent he gan wiþdraȝe,
  For hi were neȝ aslaȝe.                                916

    Cubert him gan asayle;
    Wolde he nawt fayle.                                 912
    He keyte duntes ynowe;
    Þe geant fel hy swowe.
    Hys feren go{n}ne{n} hem wyt d{ra}we,
    Þo here mayst{er} wa slawe.                          916

      Godmod hem gon asaylen;
      nolde he nout faylen.                              912
      [Sidenote: [leaf 88, back]]
      he ȝef duntes ynowe;
      þe payen fel y swowe.
      ys feren gonnen hem wiþ drawe,
      for huere maister wes neh slawe.                   916

[Sidenote: and says he has never before experienced such blows, save at
the hand of King Murry.]

  {And} sede, “kniȝtes, nu ȝe reste
  One while, ef ȝou leste.”
  Hi sede, “hi neure nadde
  Of kniȝte dentes so harde.                             920
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  He was of hornes ku{n}ne,
  Iborn in suddenne.”                                    924

    He seyden, “knyct þo reste
    Awile ȝyf þe luste.
    We neu{er}e ne hente
    Of ma{n}[KH-3] so harde dunte,                       920
    Bute of þe king Mory,
    Þat was so swyþe stordy.
    He was of hornes kinne;
    We slowe hym in sodenne.”                            924

    [Footnote KH-3: MS. adds ‘nes honde’ underdotted as a mistake.]

      he seide, “knyht, þou reste
      a whyle, ȝef þe leste.
      y ne heuede ner of monnes hond
      so harde duntes in non lond,                       920
      bote of þe kyng Murry,
      þ{a}t wes swiþe sturdy.
      he wes of hornes kenne;
      y sloh him in sudenne.”                            924

[Sidenote: Horn is enraged,]

  ¶ Horn hi{m} ga{n} to ag{ri}se,
  {And} his blod arise.

    Cuberd gan ag{r}ise,
    And hys blod aryse.

      ¶ Godmod him gon agryse,
      ant his blod aryse.

[Sidenote: and renews the fight.]

  Biuo hi{m} saȝ he sto{n}de
  Þ{a}t driue{n} hi{m} of lo{n}de,                       928
  {And} þ{a}t his fader sloȝ.
  To hi{m} his swerd he droȝ.

    By for hym he sey stonde
    Þat drof hym out of londe,                           928
    And hys fad{er} aquelde.
    He smot hym hond{er} schelde.

      byforen him he seh stonde
      þat drof him out of londe,                         928
      ant fader his a-quelde;
      he smot him vnder shelde.

[Sidenote: Cutberd looks on his ring, then smites the giant through the

  He lokede on his rynge,
  {And} þoȝte on Rymenhilde.                             932
  He smot him þureȝ þe herte,
  Þ{a}t sore him gan to smerte.
  Þe paens þ{a}t er were so sturne,
  Hi gu{n}ne awei vrne.                                  936

    He lokede on hys gode ri{n}ge,
    And þoute on reymyld þe ȝo{n}ge.                     932
    Myd gode dunt ate furste,
    He smot hy{m} to þe herte.
    Þe hondes go{n}ne{n} at erne
    In to þe schypes sterne.                             936

      he lokede on is rynge,
      ant þohte o rymenild þe ȝynge.                     932
      mid god suerd at þe furste,
      he smot him þourh þe huerte.
      þe payns bigonne to fleon,
      ant to huere shype teon.                           936

[Headnote: _Horn kills the Giant._]

[Sidenote: The pagans flee to their ship.]

  Horn {and} his compaynye
  Gu{n}ne aft{er} he{m} wel swiþe hiȝe,
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    To schip he wolde{n} ȝerne,
    And cubert he{m} gan werne,
    And seyde, “kyng, so þou haue reste,
    Clep nou forþ ofi þi beste,                          940
    And sle we þyse hounden,
    Here we he{n}ne founden.”

      to ship hue wolden erne;
      godmod hem con werne.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: The king’s sons are slain, but Cutberd annihilates the pagan

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  {And} sloȝen alle þe hundes,
  Er hi here schipes funde.

    Þe houndes hye of laucte,
    An st{ro}kes hye þere kaute.                         944
    Faste aȝen hye stode,
    Aȝen duntes gode.
    Help nawht here wond{er};
    Cubert hem broute al hond{er}.                       948
    He schedde of here blode,
    And makede hem al wode.

      þe kynges sones tweyne
      þe paiens slowe beyne.                             944
      þo wes Godmod swyþe wo,
      ant þe payens he smot so,
      þ{a}t in a lutel stounde
      þe paiens hy felle to grounde.                     948
      godmod ant is men
      slowe þe payenes eueruchen.

[Headnote: _King Thurston’s two sons are slain._]

[Sidenote: thus avenging his father’s death.]

  To deþe he he{m} alle broȝte;
  His fader deþ wel dere hi boȝte.                       952
  Of alle þe kynges kniȝtes,
  Ne scapede þer no wiȝte.
  Bute his sones tweie
  Bifore him he saȝ deie.                                956

    To deþe he hem browte,
    Hys fad{er} deþ he bowten.                           952
    Of al þe kinges rowe,
    Þer nas bute fewe slawe.
    Bote hys sones tweye
    By fore he sey deye.                                 956

      his fader deþ {ant} ys lond
      awrek godmod wiþ his hond.                         952
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: The king mourns.]

  Þe ki{n}g biga{n} to grete,
  And teres for to lete.
  Me leide{n} he{m} in bare,
  {And} burde{n} he{m} ful ȝare.                         960
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Þe king bi gan to grete,
    And teres for to lete.
    Men leyde{n} hem on bere,
    And ledde he{m} wel þere                             960
    In to holy kyrke,
    So man scholde werke.

      þe kyng wiþ reuþful chere
      lette leggen is sones on bere,
      ant bringen hom to halle;
      muche sorewe hue maden alle.                       960
      in a chirche of lym {an}t ston
      me buriede hem wiþ ryche won.

[Headnote: _King Thurston offers Horn his kingdom._]

  ¶ Þe ki{n}g co{m} i{n} to halle,
  Amo{n}g his kniȝtes alle.                              964
  “Horn,” he sede, “i seie þe,
  Do as i schal rede þe.
  Aslaȝe{n} beþ mine heirs,
  {And} þu art kniȝt of muchel pris,                     968
  {And} of g{re}te st{re}ngþe,
  {And} fair o bodie lengþe.

    ++Þe king cam hom to halle,
    Among þe kniyctes alle.                              964
    “Do, cubert,” he seyde,
    “As ich þe wolle rede.
    Dede beþ myn heyres,
    And þou þe boneyres,                                 968
    And of grete strengþe,
    Swete and fayr of lengþe.

      ¶ Þe kyng lette forþ calle
      hise knyhtes alle,                                 964
      ant seide, “godmod, ȝef þou nere,
      alle ded we were,
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: He offers to make Horn (Cutberd) his heir,]

  MiRe{n}gne þu schalt welde,
  {And} to spuse helde                                   972
  Reynild, mi doȝt{er},
  Þ{a}t sitteþ on þe lofte.”

    Mi reaume þou schalt helde,
    And to spuse welde                                   972
    Hermenyl, my dout{er},
    Þat syt in bour{e} softe.”

      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      þou art boþe god {ant} feyr;
      her y make þe myn heyr;
      for my sones bueþ yflawe,
      ant ybroht of lyfdawe.                             976

[Sidenote: and to give him his daughter Reynild.]

  ¶ “O sire ki{n}g, wiþ wro{n}ge
  Scholte ihc hit vnd{er}fo{n}ge.                        976
  Þi doȝter þ{a}t ȝe me bede,
  Ower re{n}gne for to lede.
  Welmore ihc schal þe serue,
  Sire kyng, or þu sterue.                               980
  Þi sorwe schal wende
  Or seue ȝeres ende.

    He seyde, “king, wit wronge
    Scholde ich hire hond{er} fonge,                     976
    Þing þat þou me bede,
    And þy reaume lede.
    At more ich wile þe s{er}ue,
    And fro sorwe þe berwe.                              980
    Þy sorwe hyt schal wende
    Her þis seue ȝeres hende.

      dohter ich habbe one;
      nys non so feyr of blod ant bone.
      [KH-5](Ermenild, þat feyre may,
      bryht so eny someres day,)                         980
      hire wolle ich ȝeue þe,
      ant her kyng shalt þou be.”

      [Footnote KH-5: This line was at first left out by the scribe,
      and then written in the margin of the MS.]

[Sidenote: Cutberd declines, but offers to continue in the king’s

  Wanne hit is wente,
  Sire ki{n}g, ȝef me mi rente.                          984
  Wha{n}ne i þi doȝter ȝerne,
  Ne schaltu me hire werne.”

    And wa{n}ne he beþ wente,
    Kyng, ȝyf þou me my re{n}te.                         984
    Wan ich þi dout{er} h{er}ne,
    Ne schalt þou hire me werne.”

      he seyde, “more ichul þe serue,
      kyng, er þen þou sterue.                           984
      when y þy dohter ȝerne,
      heo ne shal me noþyng werne.”

[Sidenote: During seven years he does not communicate with Rymenhild.]

  Cutb{er}d wonede þere
  Fulle seue ȝere,                                       988
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Þ{a}t to Rymenild he ne sente,
  Ne him self ne wente.                                  992
  Rymenild was in West{er}nesse,
  Wiþ wel muchel sorinesse.

    ++Horn child wonede þere
    fulle sixe yere.                                     988
    Þe seuenþe, þat cam þe nexte
    Aft{er} þe sexte,[KH-4]
    To reymyld he ne we{n}de,
    Ne to hyr{e} sende.                                  992
    Reymyld was i{n} westnesse,
    Myd michel sorwenesse.

    [Footnote KH-4: MS. adds ‘yeres hende’ underdotted as a mistake.]

      ¶ godmod wonede þere
      fulle six ȝere;                                    988
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      ant þe seueþe ȝer bygon;
      to rymynyld, sonde ne sende he non.                992
      rymenyld wes in westnesse,
      wiþ muchel sorewenesse.

[Headnote: _A king sues for Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: A king sues for Rymenhild.]

  ¶ A king þ{er} gan ariue
  Þ{a}t wolde hire haue to wyue.                         996
  Aton he was wiþ þe ki{n}g,
  Of þ{a}t ilke weddi{n}g.
  Þe daies were schorte,
  Þ{a}t Rimi{n}hild ne dorste                           1000
  Lete{n} i{n} none wise.
  A writ he dude deuise;

    A kyng þer was aryuede
    Þat wolde hyre habbe to wyue.                        996
    At sone ware þe kynges
    Of hyre weddinges.
    Þe dawes weren schorte,
    And reymyld ne dorste                               1000
    Lette in none wise.
    A writ he dede deuise;

      a kyng þer wes aryue,
      ant wolde hyre han to wyue.                        996
      at one were þe kynges,
      of þ{a}t weddynge.
      þe dayes were so sherte,
      ant rymenild ne derste                            1000
      latten on none wyse.
      a wryt hue dude deuyse;

[Sidenote: Athulf writes a letter to Horn.]

  Aþulf hit dude write,
  Þ{a}t horn ne luuede noȝt lite.                       1004
  Heo se{n}de hire so{n}de
  To eu{er}eche londe,
  To seche horn, þe kniȝt,
  Þ{er} me hi{m} fi{n}de miȝte.                         1008

    Ayol hyt dide write,
    Þat horn ne louede nawt lite.                       1004
    And to eu{er}yche londe,
    For horn hym was so longe,
    Aft{er} horn þe knycte,
    For þat he ne Myȝte.                                1008

      Aþulf hit dude wryte,
      þ{a}t horn ne louede nout lyte.                   1004
      hue sende hire sonde
      in to eueruche londe,
      to sechen horn knyhte,
      whe so er me myhte.                               1008

[Headnote: _Horn meets Rymenhild’s messenger._]

[Sidenote: Horn, while hunting, meets a page, who says that he is
seeking Horn,]

  Horn noȝt þ{er} of ne herde,
  Til, o dai þ{a}t he ferde
  To wude for to schete,
  A knaue he gan imete.                                 1012
  Horn sede{n}, “Leue fere,
  Wat sechestu here?”
  “Kniȝt, if beo þi wille,
  I mai þe sone telle.                                  1016
  I seche fra{m} biweste,
  Horn of west{er}nesse,

    Horn þer of ne þoute,
    Tyl, on a day þat he ferde
    To wode for to seche,
    A page he gan mete.                                 1012
    He seyde, “leue fere,
    Wat sekest þou here?”
    “Knyt, feyr of felle,”
    Qwat þe page, “y wole þe telle.                     1016
    Ich seke fram westnesse,
    Horn, knyt of estnesse,

      Horn þer of nout herde,
      til, o day þ{a}t he ferde
      to wode forte shete,
      a page he gan mete.                               1012
      Horn seide, “leue fere,
      whet dest þou nou here?”
      [Sidenote: [leaf 89]]
      “Sire, in lutel spelle
      y may þe sone telle.                              1016
      Ich seche from westnesse,
      horn, knyht, of estnesse,

[Sidenote: and that Rymenhild is to marry King Mody of Reynes, on

  For a Maiden Rymenhild
  Þ{a}t for him gan wexe wild.                          1020
  A ki{n}g hire wile wedde,
  {And} bri{n}ge to his bedde,
  Ki{n}g Modi of Reynes,
  On of hornes enemis.                                  1024
  Ihc habbe walke wide
  Bi þe se side,

    For þe mayde reymyld,
    Þat for hym ney waxeþ wild.                         1020
    A kyng hire schal wedde,
    A soneday to bedde,
    Kyng mody of reny,
    Þat was hornes enemy.                               1024
    Ich haue walked wide
    By þe se syde.

      For rymenild, þ{a}t feyre may,
      soreweþ for him nyht {ant} day.                   1020
      A kyng hire shal wedde,
      a sonneday to bedde,
      Kyng Mody of reynis,
      þ{a}t is hornes enimis.                           1024
      ich habbe walked wyde
      by þe see side.

[Sidenote: The messenger laments that he cannot find Horn.]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                  1028
  Nis he no war ifu{n}de,
  Walawai þe stu{n}de.
  Wailaway þe while,
  Nu wurþ Rymenild bigiled.”                            1032
  Horn iherde wiþ his ires,
  {And} spak wiþ bidere tires,

    Ich neu{er}e myȝt of reche
    Whit no londisse speche.                            1028
    Nis he nower founde,
    A weylawey þe stounde.
    Reymyld worþ by gile,
    Weylawey þe wile.”                                  1032
    Horn hyt herde with eren,
    And wep with blody teren.

      ne mihte ich hi{m} neuer cleche,
      wiþ nones kunnes speche,                          1028
      ne may ich of him here
      in londe fer no nere.
      weylawey þe while,
      him may hente gyle.”                              1032
      ¶ Horn hit herde wiþ earen,
      ant spec wiþ wete tearen,

[Sidenote: Horn discloses his identity, and sends word to Rymenhild that
he will come Sunday before ‘prime.’]

  “Knaue, wel þe bitide,
  Horn sto{n}dep þe biside.                             1036
  Aȝe{n} to hure þu turne,
  {And} seie þat heo ne murne,
  For ischal beo þ{er} bitime,
  A soneday bi pryme.”                                  1040
  Þe knaue was wel bliþe,
  {And} hiȝede aȝen bliue.
  Þe se bigan to þroȝe
  Vnder hire woȝe.                                      1044

    “So wel þe, grom, by tide,
    Horn stant by þy syde.                              1036
    Aȝen to reymyld turne,
    And sey þat he ne morne.
    Ich schal ben þer by tyime,
    A soneday by p{r}ime.”                              1040
    Þe page was blyþe,
    And schepede wel swyþe.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1044

      “So wel, grom, þe bitide,
      horn stond by þi syde,                            1036
      aȝeyn to rymenild turne,
      {ant} sey þat hue ne murne.
      y shal be þer bi time,
      a sonneday er p{ri}me.”                           1040
      þe page wes wel blyþe
      {ant} shipede wel suyþe.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1044

[Headnote: _The messenger on his return journey is drowned._]

[Sidenote: The messenger is drowned, and Rymenhild looks for him in

  Þe knaue þer gan adrinke;
  Ryme{n}hild hit miȝte of þi{n}ke.
  Ryme{n}hild vndude þe dure pin
  Of þe hus þ{er} heo was in,                           1048
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Þe se hym gan to drenche;
    Reymyld hyt Myȝt of þinche.
    Þe se hym gan op þrowe,
    Hond{er} hire boures wowe.                          1048
    Reymyld gan dore vn pynne,
    Of boure þat he was ynne,

      þe see him gon adrynke;
      þ{a}t rymenil may of þinke.
      þe [see] him con ded þrowe
      vnder hire chambre wowe.                          1048
      rymenild lokede wide
      by þe see syde,

[Sidenote: Rymenhild grieves when she finds the drowned messenger.]

  To loke wiþ hire iȝe,
  If heo oȝt of horn isiȝe.                             1052
  Þo fo{n}d heo þe knaue adrent
  Þ{a}t he hadde for horn ise{n}t,
  {And} þ{a}t scholde horn bringe;
  Hire fingres he gan wri{n}ge.                         1056

    And lokede forþ riȝcte
    Aft{er} horn þe knyte.                              1052
    Þo fond hye hir{e} sonde
    Drenched by þe stronde,
    Þat scholde horn bringe;
    Hyre fingres hye gan wringe.                        1056

      ȝef heo seȝe horn come,
      oþer tidynge of eny gome.                         1052
      þo fond hue hire sonde
      adronque by þe stronde,
      þat shulde horn brynge;
      hire hondes gon hue wrynge.                       1056

[Headnote: _Horn asks King Thurston’s aid._]

[Sidenote: Horn discloses his identity to King Thurston]

  ¶ Horn cam to þurston þe kyng,
  {And} tolde him þis tiþing.
  Þo he was iknowe
  Þ{a}t Rim{en}h[ild] was hise oȝe,                     1060
  Of his gode ke{n}ne,
  Þe ki{n}g of suddenne,
  {And} hu he sloȝ in felde
  Þ{a}t his fader q{ue}lde,                             1064

    Horn cam to þurston þe kinge,
    And telde hym hys tydinge.
    So he was by cnowe
    Þat reymyld was his owe.                            1060
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1064

      ¶ Horn com to þurston þe kynge,
      ant tolde him þes tidynge.
      ant þo he was biknowe,
      þat rymenild wes ys owe,                          1060
      ant of his gode kenne,
      þe kyng of sudenne,
      ant hou he sloh afelde
      hi{m} þ{a}t is fader aquelde,                     1064

[Sidenote: and asks his pay and also aid to win Rymenhild.]

  And seide, “ki{n}g þe wise,
  Ȝeld me mi s{er}uise.
  Ryme{n}hild help me wi{n}ne;
  Þ{a}t þu noȝt ne li{n}ne,                             1068

    He seyde, “kyng so wise,
    Ȝeld me my seruyse.
    Reymyld me help to wi{n}ne;
    Þat þou ich nowt ne lynne,                          1068

      ant seide, “kyng so wyse,
      ȝeld me my seruice.
      rymenild, help me to wynne,
      swyþe þ{a}t þou ne blynne,                        1068

[Sidenote: He promises that Athulf shall marry Thurston’s daughter.]

  {And} ischal do to spuse
  Þi doȝt{er} wel to huse.
  Heo schal to spuse haue
  Aþulf, mi gode felaȝe,                                1072
  God kniȝt mid þe beste,
  {And} þe t{re}weste.”

    And hy schal to house
    Þy dout{er} do wel spuse.
    He schal to spuse haue
    Ayol, My trewe felawe,                              1072
    He hys knyt wyt þe beste,
    And on of þe treweste.”

      ant y shal do to house
      þy dohter wel to spouse,
      for hue shal to spouse haue
      Aþulf, my gode felawe.                            1072
      he is knyht mid þe beste,
      {ant} on of þe treweste.”

[Sidenote: The king consents.]

  Þe ki{n}g sede so stille,
  “Horn, haue nu þi wille.”                             1076

    Þo seyde þe kyng so stille,
    “Horn, do þine wille.”                              1076

      þe kyng seide so stille,
      “horn, do al þi wille.”                           1076

[Sidenote: Horn levies men, and sets sail.]

  He dude writes se{n}de
  Into yrlonde,
  Aft{er} kniȝtes liȝte,
  Irisse men to fiȝte.                                  1080
  To horn come inoȝe,
  Þ{a}t to schupe droȝe.
  Horn dude him in þe weie,
  On a god Galeie.                                      1084
  Þe him gan to blowe
  In alitel þroȝe.

    ++Horn se{n}te hys sonde
    In to eu{er}yche londe,
    After men to fyȝte,
    Hyrische men so wyȝte,                              1080
    To hym were come hy nowe,
    Þat in to schipe drowe.
    Horn tok hys p{re}ye.
    And dude hi{m} in hys weye.                         1084
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      he sende þo by sonde,
      ȝend al is londe,
      after knyhtes to fyhte,
      þ{a}t were men so lyhte.                          1080
      to him come ynowe,
      þ{a}t in to shipe drowe.
      ¶ Horn dude hi{m} in þe weye,
      in a gret galeye.                                 1084
      þe wynd bigon to blowe
      in a lutel þrowe.

[Headnote: _Horn arrives at the latest possible moment._]

[Sidenote: He arrives after the bells for the wedding have been rung.]

  Þe se bigan to posse
  Riȝt i{n} to West{er}nesse.                           1088
  Hi st{ri}ke seil {and} maste,
  {And} Ankere gu{n}ne caste,
  Or eny day was spru{n}ge
  Oþ{er} belle iru{n}ge.                                1092
  Þe word bigan to sp{ri}nge
  Of Ryme{n}hilde weddi{n}ge.
  Horn was i{n} þe wat{er}e;
  Ne miȝte he come no lat{er}e.                         1096

    Here scyp gan forþ seyle,
    Þe wynd hym nolde fayle.                            1088
    He striken seyl of maste,
    And anker he go{n}ne kaste.
    Þe soneday was hy sp[ronge],
    And þe messe hy songe,                              1092
    Of reymylde þe ȝonge,
    And of mody þe kinge;
    And horn was i{n} wat{er}e;
    Myȝt he come no lat{er}e.                           1096

      þe see bi-gan wiþ ship to gon,
      to westnesse he{m} brohte anon.                   1088
      hue st{ri}ken seyl of maste,
      ant ancre gonnen caste.
      matynes were yronge
      {ant} þe masse ysonge,                            1092
      of rymenild þe ȝynge
      {ant} of Mody þe kynge,
      ant horn wes in watere;
      ne mihte he come no latere.                       1096

[Sidenote: He leaves his ship, and comes to land.]

  He let his schup sto{n}de,
  {And} ȝede to londe.
  His folk he dude abide
  Vnder wude side.                                      1100

    He let scyp stonde,
    And ȝede hym op to londe.
    Hys folc he dide abyde
    Hond{er} þe wode syde.                              1100

      He let is ship stonde,
      ant com hi{m} vp to londe.
      His folk he made abyde
      vnder a wode syde.                                1100

[Headnote: _Horn meets a Palmer._]

[Sidenote: Horn sets forth alone, and meets a palmer,]

  Hor[n] him ȝede alone,
  also he spru{n}ge of stone.
  A palm{er}e he þar mette,
  {And} faire hine grette.                              1104
  “Palm{er}e, þu schalt me telle
  Al of þine spelle.”
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    He wende forþ alone,
    So he were spronge of stone.
    A palmere he mette;
    Wyt worde he hym g{r}ette,                          1104
    “Palm{er}e, þou schalt me telle,”
    He seyde, “on þine spelle,
    So brouke þou þi croune,
    Wi comest þou fram toune?”                          1108

      [Sidenote: [leaf 89, back]]
      ¶ Horn eode forh al one,
      so he sprong of þe stone.
      on palmere he y-mette,
      {ant} wiþ wordes hyne grette,                     1104
      “palmere, þou shalt me telle,”
      he seyde, “of þine spelle,
      so brouke þou þi croune,
      why comest þou from toune?”                       1108

[Sidenote: who tells him of the wedding]

  He sede vpon his tale,
  “I come fram o brudale,
  Ihc was at o weddi{n}g
  Of a Maide Ryme{n}hild.                               1112
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Þe palmere seyde on hys tale,
    “Hy com fram on bridale.
    Ich com fram b{r}ode hylde
    Of Mayden reymylde.                                 1112
    Fram hond{er} chyrche wowe,
    Þe gan louerd owe,

      ant he seide on is tale,
      “y come from a brudale,
      from brudale wylde
      of maide remenylde.                               1112
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: and of Rymenhild’s grief.]

  Ne miȝte heo adriȝe
  Þ{a}t heo ne weop wiþ iȝe.                            1116
  Heo sede þ{a}t ‘heo nolde
  Ben ispused wiþ golde;
  Heo hadde on husebonde,
  Þeȝ he were vt of lo{n}de.’                           1120

    Ne miyȝte hye hyt dreye
    Þat hye wep wyt eye.                                1116
    He seyde þat ‘hye nolde
    Be spoused Myd golde;
    Hye hadde hosebonde,
    Þey be nere nawt in londe.’                         1120

      ne mihte hue nout dreȝe
      þ{a}t hue ne wep wiþ eȝe.                         1116
      hue seide, ‘þ{a}t hue nolde
      be spoused wiþ golde;
      hue hade hosebonde
      þah he were out of londe.’                        1120

  {And} i{n} st{ro}ng halle,
  Biþinne castel walle,
  Þ{er} iwas atte ȝate;
  Nolde hi me in late.                                  1124
  Modi ihote hadde
  To bure þ{a}t me hire ladde.
  Awai igan glide;
  Þ{a}t deol inolde abide.                              1128
  Þe bride wepeþ sore,
  {And} þ{a}t is muche deole!”

    Mody Myd strencþe hyre hadde,
    And in to toure ladde,
    Into a stronge halle,
    Whit inne kastel walle.                             1124
    Þer ich was attegate;
    Moste ich nawt in rake.
    Awey ich gan glyde;
    Þe deþ ich nolde abyde.                             1128
    Þer worþ a rewlich dole,
    Þer þe bryd wepeþ sore.”

      ich wes in þe halle,
      wiþ-inne þe castel walle.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .                               1124
      . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      a wey y gon glide;
      þe dole y nolde abyde.                            1128
      þer worþ a dole reuly;
      þe brude wepeþ bitterly.”

[Headnote: _Horn exchanges clothes with the Palmer._]

[Sidenote: Horn changes clothes with the palmer,]

  ¶ Quaþ horn, “So c{ri}st me rede,
  We schulle chau{n}gi wede.                            1132
  Haue her cloþes myne,
  {And} tak me þi sclauyne.
  Today i schal þer drinke,
  Þ{a}t some hit schulle ofþinke.”                      1136
  His sclauyn he dude dun legge,
  {And} tok hit on his rigge.
  He tok horn his cloþes,
  Þ{a}t nere him noȝt loþe.                             1140

    “Palm{er}e,” qwad horn, “so god me rede
    Ich and þou wille{n} chaunge{n} wede.               1132
    Tac þou me þi sclauyne,
    And haue þou cloþes myne.
    To day ich schal þer{e} drynke;
    Som man hyt schal of þinke.”                        1136
    Þe sclavyn he gan doun legge,
    And horn hyt dide on rigge.
    Þe palmere tok hys cloþes,
    Þat ne were{n} hym nowt loþe.                       1140

      quoþ horn, “so c{ri}st me rede,
      we wolleþ chaunge wede.                           1132
      tac þou robe myne,
      ant ȝe sclaueyn þyne.
      to day y shal þer drynke,
      þat summe hit shal of-þynke.”                     1136
      sclaueyn he gon doun legge,
      {ant} horn hit dude on rugge,
      ant toc hornes cloþes,
      þat nout him were loþe.                           1140

[Sidenote: and blackens his face and neck with coal.]

  Horn tok burdon {and} scrippe,
  {And} wro{n}g his lippe.
  He makede him a ful chere,
  {And} al bicolmede his swere.                         1144
  He makede hi{m} vn bicomelich;
  Hes he nas neuremore ilich.

    ++Horn toc burdoun and sc{r}ippe,
    And gan wringe hys lippe.
    He makede a foul cher{e},
    And kewede hys swere.                               1144
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      ¶ Horn toc bordoun {ant} sc{ri}ppe,
      ant gan to wrynge is lippe.
      he made foule ch{er}e,
      {ant} bicollede is swere.                         1144
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: The gate-keeper forbids Horn entrance.]

  ¶ He co{m} to þe gateward,
  Þ{a}t hi{m} answerede hard.                           1148
  Horn bad undo softe,
  Mani tyme {and} ofte.
  Ne miȝte he awynne
  Þ{a}t he come þ{e}rinne.                              1152

    He cam to þe gateward,
    Þat hym answered hard.                              1148
    He bed on do wel softe,
    Fele syþe and ofte.
    Myȝte he nowt wynne
    For to come þeri{n}ne.                              1152

      he com to þe ȝateward,
      þ{a}t him onsuerede froward.                      1148
      horn bed vn-do wel softe,
      moni tyme ant ofte.
      ne myhte he ywynne
      forto come þer-ynne.                              1152

[Headnote: _Horn enters the hall, and sits with the beggars._]

[Sidenote: Horn breaks through the wicket, after having thrown the
gate-keeper over the bridge.]

  Horn gan to þe ȝate turne,
  {And} þ{a}t wiket vnspurne.
  Þe boye hit scholde abugge;
  Horn þreu him ouer þe brigge,                         1156
  Þ{a}t his ribbes him to brake;
  {And} suþþe com in atte gate.
  He sette him wel loȝe,
  In begg{er}es rowe.                                   1160
  He lokede him abute,
  Wiþ his colmie snute.

    Horn gan to þe yate turne,
    And þe wyket op spurne.
    Þe porter hyt scholde abygg{e};
    He pugde hym ofer þe b{r}igg{e},                    1156
    Þat hys ribbes go{n}nen krake;
    And horn i{n}to halle rake.
    He sette hym wel lowe,
    In beggeres rowe.                                   1160
    He loked al aboute,
    Mid hys kelwe snowte.

      horn þe wyket puste,
      þat hit open fluste.
      þe porter shulde abugge;
      he þrew him a-doun þe brugge,                     1156
      þat þre ribbes crakede.
      horn to halle rakede,
      ant sette him doun wel lowe,
      in þe beggeres rowe.                              1160
      he lokede aboute,
      myd is collede snoute.

[Sidenote: He sees Rymenhild weeping, but looks in vain for Athulf.]

  He seȝ Ryme{n}hild sitte
  Ase heo were of witte,                                1164
  Sore wepinge {and} ȝerne;
  Ne miȝte hure noman wurne.
  He lokede in eche halke;
  Ne seȝ he nowhar walke                                1168
  Aþulf his felawe,
  Þ{a}t he cuþe knowe.

    He sey Reymyld sytte
    Al so hy were of witte,                             1164
    Wyt droupnynde chere,
    Þat was hys le{m}ma{n} dere.
    He lokede in eche halke;
    Sey he nowere stalke                                1168
    Ayol hys trewe felawe,
    Þat trewe was and ful of lawe.

      þer seh he rymenild sitte
      ase hue were out of wytte,                        1164
      wepinde sore;
      ah he seh nower þore
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1168
      Aþulf is gode felawe,
      þat trewe wes in vch plawe.

[Headnote: _Athulf despairs of Horn’s coming._]

[Sidenote: Athulf from the tower watches in vain for Horn.]

  Aþulf was i{n} þe ture,
  Abute for to pure                                     1172
  Aft{er} his comynge,
  Ȝef schup hi{m} wolde bri{n}ge.
  He seȝ þe se flowe,
  {And} horn nowar rowe.                                1176

    Ayol was op i{n} tour{e},
    Aboute for to pour{e}                               1172
    Aft{er} hornes cominge,
    Ȝyf wat{er} hym wolde bringe.
    Þe se he sey flowe,
    And horn nower rowe.                                1176

      ¶ Apulf wes o tour ful heh,
      to loke fer {ant} eke neh                         1172
      after hornes comynge,
      ȝef water him wolde brynge.
      þe see he seh flowe,
      ah horn nower rowe.                               1176

[Sidenote: In his soliloquy he says that Horn will be too late.]

  He sede vpon his songe,
  “Horn, nu þu ert wel longe.
  Ryme{n}hild þu me toke,
  Þ{a}t i scholde loke.                                 1180
  Ihc habbe kept hure eure;
  Com nu oþer neure.
  I ne may no le{n}g hure kepe;
  For soreȝe nu y wepe.”                                1184

    He seyde in hys songe,
    “Horn, þou art to longe.
    Reymyld þou me by toke,
    Þat ich hyr{e} scholde loke.                        1180
    Ich haue hi{r}e yloked eu{er}e,
    And þou ne comest neu{er}e.”
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]

      he seyde on is songe,
      “horn, þou art to longe.
      rymenild þou me bitoke,
      þ{a}t ich hire shulde loke.                       1180
      Ich haue yloked euere,
      {ant} þou ne comest neuere.”
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: Rymenhild bears wine and beer to the guests.]

  ¶ Rymenhild Ros of benche,
  Wyn for to schenche,
  Aft{er} mete i{n} sale,
  Boþe wyn {and} ale.                                   1188
  On horn he bar anhonde,
  So laȝe was i{n} londe.

    Reymyld ros of benche,
    Þe knyȝtes for to schenche.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    An horn hye ber on honde,
    As hyt was lawe of londe.

      Rymenild ros of benche,
      þe beer al forte shenche,
      after mete in sale,
      boþe wyn {ant} ale.                               1188
      an horn hue ber an honde,
      for þ{a}t wes lawe of londe.

  Kniȝtes {and} squier
  Alle dronke{n} of þe ber;                             1192
  Bute horn al one
  Nadde þ{er}of no mone.
  Horn sat vpo{n} þe g{ru}nde;
  Him þuȝte he was ibu{n}de.                            1196

    Hye drank of þebere,
    To knyt and to squier{e}.                           1192
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    And horn set on þe grunde;
    Hym þoute he was bounde.                            1196

      hue dronc of þe beere,
      to knyht {ant} skyere.                            1192
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      horn set at grounde;
      him þohte he wes y-bounde.                        1196

[Headnote: _Horn addresses Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: Horn asks Rymenhild to serve the beggars.]

  He sede, “q{ue}n so he{n}de,
  To meward þu we{n}de.
  Þu ȝef vs wiþ þe furste;
  Þe beggeres beoþ of þurste.”                          1200

    He seyde, “quen so hende,
    To meward gyn þou wende.
    Schenk hus Myd þe furste;
    Þe beggeres beþ of þerste.”                         1200

      ¶ he seide, “quene so hende,
      to me hydeward þou wende.
      [Sidenote: [leaf 90]]
      þou shenh vs wiþ þe vurste;
      þe beggares bueþ afurste.”                        1200

[Sidenote: Rymenhild fills a gallon bowl with brown beer, and offers it
to Horn.]

  ¶ Hure horn heo leide adun,
  {And} fulde him of a brun,
  His bolle of a galun,
  For heo wende he were a glotoun.                      1204
  He seide, “haue þis cuppe,
  {And} þi{s} þi{n}g þ{er} vppe.
  Ne saȝ ihc neure, so ihc wene,
  Beggere þat were so kene.”                            1208

    Þe horn hye leyde adoune,
    And fulde hem of þe broune,
    A bolle of one galun;
    Hye wende he were a glotoun.                        1204
    “Nym þou þe coppe,
    And drinkyt al oppe.
    Sey ich neu{er}e, ich wene,
    Begger{e} so bold and kene.”                        1208

      hyre horn hue leyde a doune,
      ant fulde him of þe broune,
      a bolle of a galoun;
      hue wende he were a glotoun.                      1204
      hue seide, “tac þe coppe,
      ant drync þis ber al vppe.
      ne seh y neuer, y wene,
      beggare so kene.”                                 1208

[Sidenote: He refuses it, saying that he will have nothing ‘bote of
coppe white,’]

  Horn tok hit his ifere,
  {And} sede, “que{n} so dere,
  Wyn nelle ihc, Muche ne lite,
  Bute of cuppe white.                                  1212

    Horn tok þe coppe hys fere,
    And seyde, “quen so dere,
    No drynk nel ich bite,
    Bote of one coppe wite.                             1212

      horn toc hit hise yfere,
      {ant} seide, “quene so dere,
      no beer nullich i bite,
      bote of coppe white.                              1212

[Sidenote: and that he is no beggar, but a fisher.]

  Þu wenest i beo a beggere,
  {And} ihc am a fissere,
  “Wel feor icome bi este,
  For fissen at þi feste.                               1216
  Mi net liþ her bi honde,
  Bi a wel fair stronde.

    Þou wenst ich be a begger{e};
    For gode ich am a fyȝsser{e},
    Hy come fram by weste,
    To fyȝen an þi feste.                               1216
    My net hys ney honde,
    In a wel fayr ponde.

      þou wenest ich be a beggere;
      ywis icham a fysshere,
      wel fer come by weste,
      to seche mine bestee.                             1216
      Min net lyht her wel hende,
      wiþ-inne a wel feyr pende.

[Sidenote: Horn further alludes to her dream of the fish net, and bids
her ‘drynke to horn of horne.’]

  Hit haþ ileie þere
  Fulle seue ȝere.                                      1220
  Ihc am icome to loke
  Ef eni fiss hit toke.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Ihc am icome to fisse;
  Dri{n}k to me of disse.
  Drink to horn of horne,
  Feor ihc am i orne.”                                  1228

    Hyt hat hy be here
    Al þis seueȝere.                                    1220
    Hyc am hy come to loke
    Ȝif any he toke.
    Ȝyf any fyȝs hys þerynne,
    Þer of þou winne.                                   1224
    Ich am hy come to fyȝsse,
    Drink to me of þy disse;
    Drynk to horn of horn,
    For ich habbe hy ȝouren.”                           1228

      Ich haue leye þere,
      nou is þis þe seueþe ȝere.                        1220
      Icham icome to loke
      ȝef eny fyssħ hit toke.
      ȝef eny fyssħ is þer-inne,
      þer-of þou shalt wynne.                           1224
      For icham come to fyssħ,
      drynke nully of dyssħ.
      drynke to horn of horne;
      wel fer ich haue y-orne.”                         1228

[Sidenote: Rymenhild looks at him and trembles, not fully comprehending
his meaning.]

  Ryme{n}hild hi{m} gan bihelde;
  Hire heorte bigan to chelde.
  Ne kneu heo noȝt his fissing,
  Ne horn hymselue noþing;                              1232
  Ac wu{n}der hire gan þinke,
  Whi he bad to horn drinke.

    Reymyld hym gan by holde,
    And hyr{e} h{er}te to kolde.
    Neyȝ he nowt hys fyssing,
    Ne hym selue no þyng.                               1232
    Wond{er} hyre gan þynke,
    Wy he hyre bed drynke.

      ¶ Rymenild hi{m} gan bihelde;
      hire herte fel to kelde.
      ne kneu hue noht is fysshyng,
      ne hi{m} selue noþyng.                            1232
      ah wonder hyre gan þynke,
      why for horn he bed drynke.

[Headnote: _Horn puts the ring in the horn._]

[Sidenote: She fills the horn with wine and bids him drink his fill, and
then tell her if he knows aught of Horn.]

  Heo fulde hire horn wiþ wyn,
  {And} dronk to þe pilegrym.                           1236
  Heo sede, “dri{n}k þi fulle,
  {And} suþþe þu me telle
  If þu eure isiȝe
  Horn vnder wude liȝe.”                                1240

    He fulde horn þe wyn,
    And dronk to þe pyleg{r}im.                         1236
    “Palmere, þou d{r}inke þy fulle,
    And syþe þou schalt telle,
    Ȝyf þou horn awt seye
    Hond{er} wode leye.”                                1240

      hue fulde þe horn of wyne,
      ant dronk to þat pelryne.                         1236
      hue seide, “drync þi felle,
      {ant} seþþen þou me telle
      ȝef þou horn euer seȝe
      vnder wode leȝe.”                                 1240

[Sidenote: Horn drinks, then throws the ring in the horn.]

  Horn dro{n}k of horn a stu{n}de,
  And þreu þe ring to gru{n}de.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                  1244

    ++Horn d{ra}nk of horn a stounde,
    A{n}d þrew hys ryng to þe grounde.
    He seyde, “quen, nou seche
    Qwat hys in þy drenche.”                            1244

      ¶ Horn dronc of horn a stounde,
      ant þreu is ryng to grounde,
      ant seide, “quene, þou þench
      what y þreu in þe drench.”                        1244

[Sidenote: Rymenhild goes to her bower, and finds the ring.]

  Þe quen ȝede to bure,
  Wiþ hire maidenes foure.
  Þo fo{n}d heo what heo wolde,
  A ri{n}g ig{ra}uen of golde,                          1248
  Þ{a}t horn of hure hadde.
  Sore hure dr{a}dde
  Þ{a}t horn isteue were,
  For þe Ri{n}g was þere.                               1252

    Reymild ȝede to bour{e},
    Wyt hyre maydenes four{e}.
    He fond þat he wolde,
    A ryng hy g{ra}uen of golde,                        1248
    Þat horn of hyre hadde.
    Wel sore hyre of dradde
    Þat horn child ded were,
    For þe ry{n}g was þere.                             1252

      þe quene eode to boure,
      mid hire maidnes foure.
      hue fond þ{a}t hue wolde,
      þe ryng yg{ra}ued of golde,                       1248
      þat horn of hyre hedde.
      fol sore hyre adredde
      þat horn ded were,
      for his ryng was þere.                            1252

[Headnote: _Rymenhild summons Horn to her bower._]

[Sidenote: She sends for the palmer, and inquires where he got the

  Þo se{n}te heo a damesele
  Aft{er} þe palm{er}e.
  “Palm{er}e,” q{ua}þ heo, “trewe,
  Þe ri{n}g þ{a}t þu þrewe,                             1256
  Þu seie whar þu hit nome,
  {And} whi þu hider come.”

    Þo sende hye a damysele
    Adoun aft{er} þe palm{er}e.
    “Palm{er}e,” hye seyde, “so trewe,
    Þe ryng þou here þrewe,                             1256
    Sey war þou ith nome,
    And hyder wi þou come.”

      þo sende hue a damoisele
      after þilke palmere.
      “palm{er}e,” quoþ hue, “so trewe,
      þe ryng þ{a}t þou yn þrewe,                       1256
      þou sey wer þou hit nome,
      ant hyder hou þou come.”

[Sidenote: Horn says that in his wanderings he has met Horn by the

  He sede, “bi sei{n}t gile,
  Ihc habbe go mani Mile,                               1260
  Wel feor bi ȝonde weste,
  To seche my beste.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                  1264
  I fond horn child stonde,
  To schupeward in londe.

    He seyde, “bi seynt gyle,
    Ich aue hy go mani amyle,                           1260
    Wel fer her by weste,
    To seche my beste,
    My mete for to bidde,
    So hyt me by tidde.                                 1264
    Þat fond ich horn child stonde,
    To scyppeward on stronde.

      he seyde, “by seint gyle,
      ich eode mony a myle,                             1260
      wel fer ȝent by weste,
      to seche myne beste,
      Mi mete forte bydde,
      for so me þo bitidde.                             1264
      ich fond horn knyht stonde,
      to shipeward at stronde.

[Sidenote: He continues to relate how Horn, on ship board, fell ill and
died, and how Horn charged him to bear the ring to Rymenhild.]

  He sede he wolde agesse
  to ariue in west{er}nesse.                            1268
  Þe schip nam to þe flode,
  Wiþ me {and} horn þe gode.
  Horn was sik {and} deide,
  {And} faire he me p{re}ide,                           1272
  ‘Go wiþ þe ringe,
  To Ryme{n}hild þe ȝo{n}ge.’
  Ofte he hit custe,
  God ȝeue his saule reste.”                            1276

    He seyde he wolde agesce
    To ryuen in westnesse.                              1268
    Þat scyp hym ȝede to flode,
    Myd me and horn þe gode.
    Horn was sech and ded,
    And for his loue me bed,                            1272
    ‘To schipe with me þe ring
    To Reymyld quene þe ȝeng.’
    Ofte he me kuste,
    God ȝyue hys soule reste.”                          1276

      he seide he wolde gesse
      to aryue at westnesse.                            1268
      þe ship nom in to flode,
      wiþ me {ant} horn þe gode.
      Horn by-gan be sek {ant} deȝe,
      {ant} for his loue me preȝe                       1272
      to gon wiþ þe rynge,
      to rymenild þe ȝynge.
      wel ofte he hyne keste,
      c{ri}st ȝeue is soule reste.”                     1276

[Headnote: _Horn prevents Rymenhild from stabbing herself._]

[Sidenote: The princess raves with grief, and attempts to slay herself
with a knife, but is prevented by Horn,]

  ¶ Ryme{n}hild sede at þe furste,
  “Herte, nu þu berste,
  For horn nastu namore,
  Þ{a}t þe haþ pined þe so sore.”                       1280

    Reymyld seyde ate ferste,
    “Herte, nou to berste;
    Horn ne worþ me na more,
    For wam hy pyne sore.”                              1280

      ¶ Rymenild seide at þe firste,
      “herte, nou to berste.
      horn worþ þe no more,
      þat haueþ þe pyned sore.”                         1280

  Heo feol on hire bedde
  Þer heo knif hudde,
  To sle wiþ ki{n}g loþe,
  {And} hure selue boþe,                                1284
  In þ{a}t vlke niȝte,
  If horn come ne miȝte.
  To herte knif he sette;
  Ac horn anon hire kepte.                              1288

    Hye fel adoun on þe bed
    Þer hye hauede knyues leyd,
    To slen hire louerd loþe,
    And hyre selue boþe,                                1284
    In þat hulke [nyȝte],
    Bote horn come myȝte.
    Knyf to hyre h{er}te hye sette,
    And horn hire gan lette.                            1288

      [Sidenote: [leaf 90, back]]
      Hue fel adoun a bedde,
      ant after knyues gredde,
      to slein mide hire kyng loþe,
      {ant} hire selue boþe.                            1284
      wiþ-inne þilke nyhte,
      come ȝef horn ne myhte.
      to herte knyf hue sette,
      horn in is armes hire kepte.                      1288

[Sidenote: who then wipes away the black from his face.]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    Hys schirt lappe he gan take,
    And wiped awey þat blake

      his shurte lappe he gan take,
      {ant} wypede a wey þe foule blake

[Headnote: _Horn makes himself known._]

[Sidenote: Horn tells who he is, and bids Rymenhild kiss him.]

  He wipede þ{a}t blake of his swere,
  {And} sede, “Quen so swete {and} dere,                1292
  Ihc am horn þinoȝe;
  Ne canstu me noȝt knowe?
  Ihc am horn of west{er}nesse;
  In armes þu me cusse.”                                1296

    Þat was on hys swere,
    And seyde, “quene so dere,                          1292
    Canst þou me nawt knowe?
    Ne am ich al þyn owe?
    Ich am horn of estnesse;
    In þyn armes þou me kusse.”                         1296

      Þ{a}t wes opon his suere,
      ant seide, “luef so dere,                         1292
      ne const þou me yknowe?
      ne am ich horn þyn owe?
      Ich, horn of westnesse;
      in armes þou me kesse.”                           1296

[Sidenote: After fond embraces, he tells her that he has armed men by
the ‘wodes ende,’ who will prevent the wedding.]

  Hi custe he{m} mid ywisse,
  And makeden Muche blisse.
  ¶ “Ryme{n}hild,” he sede, “ywende
  Adun to þe wudes ende.                                1300
  Þer beþ myne kniȝtes,
  Redi to fiȝte,
  Iarmed vnder cloþe.

    Hye clepten and hye kuste
    Þe wile þat hem luste.
    “Reymyld,” qwad horn, “ich moste we{n}de
    To þe wodes hende,                                  1300
    After mine knyȝtes,
    Hyrische men so wyȝte,
    Armed hond{er} cloþe.

      yclupten {ant} kyste
      so longe so hem lyste.
      “Rymenild,” quoþ he, “ich wende
      doun to þe wodes ende,                            1300
      for þer bueþ myne knyhte,
      worþi men {ant} lyhte,
      armed vnder cloþe;

  Hi schulle make w{ro}þe                               1304
  Þe ki{n}g {and} his geste
  Þ{a}t come to þe feste.
  Today i schal he{m} teche,
  {And} sore he{m} areche.”                             1308

    He scholen make{n} wroþe                            1304
    Þe king and hyse gestes
    Þat sytten atte feste.
    To day we schole hem keche,
    Ryȝt nou ich wolle hem teche.”                      1308

      hue shule make wroþe                              1304
      þe kyng {ant} hise gestes
      þ{a}t bueþ at þise festes.
      to day ychulle huem cacche,
      nou ichulle huem vacche.”                         1308

[Sidenote: He leaves the bower, and Rymenhild sets out in search of

  ¶ Horn sprong ut of halle,
  {And} let his sclauin falle.
  Þe quen ȝede to bure,
  {And} fond Aþulf in ture.                             1312
  “Aþulf,” heo sede, “be bliþe,
  And to horn þu go wel swiþe.

    ++HOrn sprong out of halle;
    Þe sclavyn he let falle.
    And Reymyld wente to toure,
    And fond ayol lure.                                 1312
    “Ayol, be wel blyþe,
    And go to horn swyþe.

      ¶ Horn sprong out of halle;
      ys brunie he let falle.
      rymenild eode of boure;
      aþulf hue fond loure.                             1312
      “aþulf, be wel blyþe,
      {ant} to horn go swyþe.

[Sidenote: Athulf goes to find Horn, and embraces him.]

  He is vnder wude boȝe,
  {And} wiþ him kniȝtes Inoȝe.”                         1316
  ¶ Aþulf bigan to sp{ri}nge
  For þe tiþi{n}ge.
  Aft{er} horn he arnde anon,
  Also þ{a}t hors miȝte gon.                            1320
  He hi{m} ou{er}tok ywis;
  Hi makede suiþe Muchel blis.

    He hys hond{er} wode bowe,
    And Myd hym felawe ynowe.”                          1316
    Ayol forþ gan springe,
    Wel glad for þat tydyngge.
    Faste aft{er} horn he rende;
    Hym þoute hys h{er}te brende.                       1320
    Of tok he horn hy wys,
    And kuste hym wit blys.

      he is vnder wode bowe,
      wiþ felawes ynowe.”                               1316
      Aþulf gon froth sp{ri}nge,
      for þ{a}t ilke tydynge.
      efter horn he ernde;
      him þohte is herte bernde.                        1320
      he oftok hi{m} ywisse,
      ant custe him wiþ blysse.

[Headnote: _Horn breaks up the wedding feast._]

[Sidenote: Horn, with his armed men, breaks into the hall and slays many
of the guests,]

  Horn tok his preie,
  {And} dude hi{m} i{n} þe weie.                        1324
  He co{m} i{n} wel sone,
  Þe ȝates were vndone,
  Iarmed ful þikke
  Fra{m} fote to þe nekke.                              1328

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1324
    He com aȝen wel sone,
    Þe gates weren ondone.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1328

      horn tok is preye
      ant dude him in þe weye.                          1324
      hue comen in wel sone,
      þe ȝates weren vndone;
      y-armed suiþe þicke
      from fote to þe nycke.                            1328

  Alle þ{a}t were þ{er}in,
  Biþute his twelf ferin
  {And} þe ki{n}g Aylmare,
  He dude he{m} alle to kare                            1332
  Þ{a}t at þe feste were.
  Here lif hi lete þere.

    Hye þat ate feste heten,
    Here lyue he go{n}ne{n} þer leten.
    And þe kyng mody
    Hym he made blody.                                  1332
    And þe king aylm{er}e
    Þo hauede myche fere.

      alle þ{a}t þer euere weren,
      wiþ-oute is t{re}we feren
      ant þe kyng aylmare,
      ywis he hade muche care.                          1332
      monie þ{a}t þer sete,
      hure lyf hy gonne lete.

[Sidenote: but he does not understand Fikenhild’s treachery, for all
deny the treason.]

  Horn ne dude no wu{n}der
  Of ffike{n}hildes false tu{n}ge.                      1336
  Hi swore{n} oþes holde,
  Þat neure ne scholde

    ++Horn no wond{er} ne makede
    Of fykenildes falsede.                              1336
    He sworen alle and seyde
    Þat her{e} non hym by wreyde.

      Horn vnderstondyng ne hede
      of Fykeles falssede.                              1336
      Hue suoren alle, ant seyde,
      þ{a}t hure non him wreyede

[Sidenote: All swear that they have not betrayed Horn.]

  Horn neure bit{ra}ie,
  Þeȝ he at diþe laie.                                  1340
  Hi Ru{n}ge þe belle,
  Þe wedlak for to felle.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .                                   1344
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]

    And ofte he swore{n} hoþes holde,
    Þat þere non ne scholde                             1340
    No ware horn by wreyen,
    Þou he to deþe leyen.
    He rongen þe bellen,
    Þe wedding for to fulle{n},                         1344
    Of hor þat was so hende,
    And of reymyld þe ȝonge.

      ant suore oþes holde
      þat huere non ne sholde                           1340
      Horn neuer bytreye,
      þah he on deþe leye.
      þer hy ronge þe belle,
      þat wedlak{e} to fulfulle.                        1344
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Headnote: _Horn weds Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: The wedding is celebrated in the king’s palace.]

  Horn hi{m} ȝede with his,
  To þe ki{n}ges palais.                                1348
  Þer was brid {and} ale suete,
  For riche me{n} þ{e}r ete.
  Telle ne miȝte tu{n}ge
  Þ{a}t gle þ{a}t þ{er} was su{n}ge.                    1352

    Horn ledde hyre hom wit heyse,
    To hyr{e} fad{er} paleyse.                          1348
    Þer was brydale swete;
    Riche men þer hete.
    Tellen ne Myȝte no tonge
    Þe joye þat þer was songe.                          1352

      hue wenden hom wiþ eyse,
      to þe kynges paleyse.                             1348
      þer wes þe brudale suete,
      for richemen þer ete.
      telle ne mihte no tonge
      þe gle þat þer was songe.                         1352

[Sidenote: Horn addresses the king, and begins to recount his history.]

  ¶ Horn sat on chaere,
  {And} bad he{m} alle ihere.
  “Ki{n}g,” he sede, “þu luste
  A tale mid þe beste.                                  1356
  I ne seie hit for no blame,
  Horn is mi name.
  Þu me to kniȝt houe,
  {And} kniȝthod haue p{ro}ued.                         1360
  To þe ki{n}g me{n} seide
  Þ{a}t iþe bit{ra}ide;

    ++Horn set on hys cheyere,
    And bed he scholden alle here.
    He seyde, “kyng so longe,
    My tale þou hond{er}stonde.                         1356
    Hy was born i{n} sode{n}ne;
    Kyng was My fad{er} of kunne.
    Þo me to knyȝte þou ȝoue;
    My knyȝthede ich haue p{ro}ued.                     1360
    To þe of me men seyde
    War for þi h{er}te creyde.

      ¶ Horn set in chayere,
      {ant} bed hem alle yhere.
      he seyde, “kyng of londe,
      mi tale þou vnderstonde.                          1356
      Ich wes ybore in sudenne;
      kyng wes mi fader of kenne.
      þou me to knyhte houe;
      of knythod habbe y proue.                         1360
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: Horn explains to the king his innocence,]

  Þu makedest me fleme,
  {And} þi lo{n}d to reme.                              1364
  Þu we{n}dest þ{a}t iwroȝte
  Þ{a}t y neure ne þoȝte,
  Bi Ryme{n}hild for to ligge,
  {And} þ{a}t i wiþsegge.                               1368

    Þou makedest me to rewe,
    Þo þou bote me fleme.                               1364
    Þou wendes þat ich wroute
    Þat hy neu{er}e ne þoute,
    Wyt Reymyld for ligge.
    I wys ich hyt wyt sigge.                            1368

      þou dryue me out of þi lond,
      {ant} seydest ich wes t{r}aytour strong.          1364
      þou wendest þat ich wrohte
      þat y ner ne þohte,
      by rymenild forte lygge;
      ywys ich hit wiþsugge.                            1368

[Sidenote: and says that he will not take Rymenhild to wife until he has
regained his kingdom of Sudenne.]

  Ne schal ihc hit bigi{n}ne,
  Til i suddene wi{n}ne.
  Þu kep hure a stu{n}de,
  Þe while þ{a}t i funde                                1372
  In to min heritage
  {And} to mi baronage.

    Ich ne schal neu{er}e a gynne,
    Er ich sodenne wynne.
    Kep hire me a stounde,
    Þe wille ich he{n}nes founde                        1372
    In to myn h{er}itage,
    Mid myn hirysce page.

      [Sidenote: [leaf 91]]
      Ne shal ich hit ner agynne,
      er ich sudenne wynne.
      þou kep hyre me a stounde,
      þe while þ{a}t ich founde                         1372
      In to myn heritage,
      wiþ þis yrisshe page.

  Þ{a}t lond i schal ofreche,
  And do mi fader wreche.                               1376
  I schal beo ki{n}g of tune,
  {And} bere ki{n}ges crune.
  Þa{n}ne schal Ryme{n}hilde
  Ligge bi þe ki{n}ge.”                                 1380

    Þat lond ich schal of reche,
    And do my fad{er} wreche.                           1376
    Ich schal be kyng of tune,
    And wite of kynges r[?]owne.
    Þenne schal Reymyld þe ȝonge
    Lygge{n} by horn þe kynge.”                         1380

      þat lond ichulle þorhreche,
      {ant} do mi fader wreche.                         1376
      ychul be kyng of toune,
      {ant} lerne kynges roune.
      þenne shal rymenild þe ȝynge
      ligge by horn þe kynge.”                          1380

[Headnote: _Horn sets sail for Sudenne._]

[Sidenote: He sets sail with Athulf and his Irish companions, and has a
favouring wind.]

  ¶ Horn gan to schupe draȝe,
  Wiþ his yrisse felaȝes.
  Aþulf wiþ hi{m} his broþer;
  Nolde he no{n} oþer.                                  1384
  Þ{a}t schup bigan to crude,
  Þe wind hi{m} bleu lude.

    Hor gan to schipe ryde,
    And hys knyȝtes bi side.
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1384
    Here schip gan to croude,
    Þe wynd hym bleu wel loude.

      ¶ Horn gan to shipe drawe,
      wiþ hyse yrisshe felawe.
      Aþulf wiþ hi{m}, his broþer,
      he nolde habbe non oþer.                          1384
      þe ship by-gan to croude;
      þe wynd bleu wel loude.

[Sidenote: They reach Sudenne within five days.]

  Biþi{n}ne daies fiue
  Þ{a}t schup gan ariue,                                1388
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Abute middelniȝte.
  Horn hi{m} ȝede wel riȝte.                            1392

    Hond{er} sode{n}ne syde
    Here schip bi gan to glide,                         1388
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    Abowte myd niȝte.
    Horn hym yede wel ryȝte,                            1392

      wyþ-inne dawes fyue
      þe ship began aryue.                              1388
      vnder sudennes side
      huere ship by-gon to ryde,
      aboute þe midnyhte.
      horn eode wel rihte;                              1392

[Headnote: _He finds a knight sleeping by the wayside._]

[Sidenote: Horn and Athulf land, and find a goodly knight sleeping by
the wayside.]

  He tok aþulf bi ho{n}de,
  And vp he ȝede to lo{n}de.
  Hi fou{n}de vnder schelde,
  A kniȝt he{n}de i{n} felde.                           1396
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Þe kniȝt hi{m} aslepe lay
  Al biside þe way.                                     1400
  Horn hi{m} ga{n} to take,
  {And} sede, “kniȝt, awake.

    Na{m} ayol on hys honde,
    And yeden op hon londe.
    Hye found hond{er} schelde,
    A knyt liggen i{n} felde.                           1396
    Op þe scheld was drawe
    A crowch of ih{es}u c{r}i{s}tes lawe.
    Þe knyt hy lay on slepe,
    [KH-6]In armes wel ymete.                           1400
    Horn hym gan take,
    And seyde, “knyt, awake.

    [Footnote KH-6: Between vv. 1399 and 1400 stands in the MS. Laud
    the incomplete line _Horn hym gan m_, underdotted to indicate that
    it is due to a mistake of the scribe.]

      he nom aþulf by honde,
      {ant} ede vp to londe.
      hue fonden vnder shelde,
      a knyht liggynde on felde.                        1396
      o þe shelde wes ydrawe
      a c{ro}yz of ih{es}u c{ri}stes lawe.
      þe knyht hi{m} lay on slape,
      in armes wel yshape.                              1400
      ¶ Horn him gan ytake,
      {ant} seide, “knyht, awake.

[Sidenote: Horn bids him tell his business, under pain of death.]

  Seie what þu kepest,
  {And} whi þu her slepest.                             1404
  Me þinkþ, biþine crois liȝte,
  Þ{a}t þu lo{n}gest to vre d{ri}ȝte.
  Bute þu wule me schewe,
  I schal þe to hewe.”                                  1408
  Þe gode kniȝt vp aros;
  Of þe wordes hi{m} gros.

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1404
    Me þynkeþ, by þe crowches lyste,
    Þat þou leuest on c{r}iste.
    Bote þou hit raþe schewe,
    Wyt Mi swerd ich schal þe hewe.”                    1408
    Þe gode knyt op aros;
    Of hornes wordes hym agros.

      þou sei me whet þou kepest,
      {ant} here whi þou slepest!                       1404
      me þuncheþ, by crois liste,
      þ{a}t þou leuest on c{ri}ste;
      bote þou hit wolle shewe,
      my suerd shal þe to-hewe.”                        1408
      þe gode knyht vp aros;
      of hornes wordes hi{m} agros.

[Headnote: _The knight tells his story._]

[Sidenote: The knight says that he serves the Saracens against his

  He sede, “ihc haue, aȝenes my wille,
  Payns ful ylle.                                       1412
  Ihc was c{ri}stene a while,
  Þo i com to þis ille
  Sarazins blake,
  Þ{a}t dude me forsake.                                1416

    He seyde, “hy serue ylle
    Paynyms, aȝen My wille.                             1412
    Ich was c{r}istene som wyle,
    And þo were come i{n}to þis yle
    Sarazyns lodlike and blake,
    And dide me god forsake.                            1416

      he seide, “ich seruy ille
      paynes, toȝeynes mi wille.                        1412
      Ich was c{ri}stene sum while;
      y come in to þis yle.
      Sarazyns loþe {ant} blake
      me made ih{es}u forsake,                          1416

[Sidenote: and tells how the Saracens invaded the land and slew King

  On C{ri}st ihc wolde bileue;
  On hi{m} hi makede me reue,
  To kepe þis passage
  Fra{m} horn þ{a}t is of age,                          1420
  Þ{a}t wunieþ bieste,
  Kniȝt wiþ þe beste.
  Hi sloȝe wiþ here ho{n}de,
  Þe ki{n}g of þis lo{n}de,                             1424

    Bi god on wam yleue,
    Þo he makede{n} me reue,
    To loke þis passage
    For horn þat hys of age.                            1420
    He woneþ alby weste,
    God knyt myd þe beste.
    He slow Mid hys honde
    Þe kyng of þise londe,                              1424

      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]
      to loke þis passage
      for horn þ{a}t is of age,                         1420
      þ{a}t woneþ her by weste,
      god knyht mid þe beste.
      hue slowe mid huere honde,
      þe kyng of þisse londe,                           1424

[Sidenote: He wonders that Horn does not return to avenge his father’s

  {And} wiþ him fele hu{n}dred.
  {And} þ{er}of is wu{n}der
  Þ{a}t he ne comeþ to fiȝte;
  God se{n}de hi{m} þe riȝte,                           1428
  {And} wi{n}d hi{m} hider driue,
  To bri{n}ge he{m} of liue.
  Hi sloȝen kyng Murry,
  Hornes fader, king hendy.                             1432
  Horn hi vt of londe sente;
  Tuelf felaȝes wiþ him wente,

    And wyt hym me{n} an hundred.
    Þer fore me þinkeþ wond{er}
    Þat he comeþ fiȝþcte.
    God yeue hym þe miyȝte,                             1428
    Þat wynde hym driue
    To bringen hem of liue.
    He slowen þe kyng mory,
    Hornes fad{er} so stordy.                           1432
    Horn to wat{er} he sente,
    xij children myd hym we{n}te.

      ant wiþ hi{m} mony honder.
      þer fore me þuncheþ wonder
      þ{a}t he ne comeþ to fyhte;
      god ȝeue hi{m} þe myhte,                          1428
      þ{a}t wynd hi{m} hider dryue,
      to don hem alle of lyue.
      ant slowen kyng mury
      hornes cunesmon hardy.                            1432
      Horn, of londe hue senten;
      tuelf children wiþ hi{m} wenten.

[Headnote: _The knight proves to be Athulf’s father._]

[Sidenote: He continues to tell how his son, Athulf, is Horn’s faithful

  Amo{n}g hem aþulf þe gode,
  Min oȝene child, my leue fode.                        1436
  Ef horn child is hol and sund,
  {And} Aþulf biþute wund,
  He luueþ hi{m} so dere,
  {And} is him so stere,                                1440
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Miȝte iseo{n} he{m} tueie,
  For ioie i scholde deie.”                             1444

    Þer mong was ayol þe gode,
    Myn owe child, myn owe fode.                        1436
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    He louede horn wel derne,
    And horn hym also ȝerne.                            1440
    Ȝyf horn hys hol and sounde,
    Ayol ne tyt no wounde.
    Bote ich nou se hem tweye,
    I wys ich wolle deye.”                              1444

      wiþ he{m} wes aþulf þe gode,
      mi child, myn oune fode.                          1436
      ȝef horn is hol ant sounde,
      aþulf tit no wounde.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1440
      he louede horn wiþ mihte,
      {ant} he hi{m} wiþ ryhte.
      ȝef y myhte se hem tueye,
      þenne ne rohti forte deye.”                       1444

[Sidenote: The two make themselves known, and a joyful scene of
recognition follows.]

  ¶ “Kniȝt, beo þa{n}ne bliþe,
  Mest of alle siþe.
  Horn {and} Aþulf his fere,
  Boþe hi be{n} here.”                                  1448
  To horn he gan gon,
  {And} g{re}tte hi{m} anon.

    “Knyt, be swiþe blyþe,
    Mest of alle syþe.
    Ayol and horn yfere
    Boþe he ben here.”                                  1448
    Þe knyt to hem ga{n} steppe,
    And in armes cleppe.

      ¶ “knyht, be þenne blyþe,
      mest of alle syþe.
      Aþulf, {ant} horn is fere,
      boþe-we beþ here.”                                1448
      Þe knyht to horn gan skippe,
      {ant} in his armes clippe.

  Muche ioie hi makede þere,
  Þe while hi togadere were.                            1452
  “Childre,” he sede, “hu habbe ȝe fare?
  Þ{a}t ihc ȝou seȝ hit is ful ȝare.
  Wulle ȝe þis lo{n}de wi{n}ne,
  {And} sle þat þ{er}is i{n}ne?”                        1456

    Þe joie þat he made,
    Myȝte no ma{n} rede.                                1452
    He seyde wit steuene ȝare,
    “Children, hou abbe ȝe fare?
    Wolle ȝe þis lond wi{n}ne,
    And wonye þer inne?”                                1456

      Muche ioye hue maden yfere,
      þo hue to gedere y-come were.”                    1452
      [Sidenote: [leaf 91, back]]
      He saide wiþ steuene þare,
      “ȝungemen, hou habbe ȝe ȝore yfare?
      wolle ȝe þis lond wynne,
      {ant} wonie þer ynne?”                            1456

[Sidenote: The old knight informs Horn that his mother, the queen
Godhild, still lives.]

  He sede, “leue horn child,
  Ȝitt lyueþ þi moder Godhild.
  Of ioie heo miste,
  If heo þe aliue wiste.”                               1460

    He seyde, “leue horn child,
    Ȝet liueþ þy mod{er} godild.”
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1460

      he seide, “suete horn child,
      ȝet lyueþ þy moder godyld.
      of ioie hue ne miste,
      o lyue ȝef hue þe wiste.”                         1460

[Sidenote: Horn informs the old knight that he has with him many Irish

  ¶ Horn sede o{n} his rime,
  “Iblessed beo þe time
  I co{m} to sudde{n}ne,
  Wiþ mine irisse me{n}ne.                              1464
  We schulle þe hu{n}des teche
  To speken vre speche.
  Alle we he{m} schulle sle,
  {And} al q{ui}c hem fle.”                             1468

    Horn seyde on hys rime,
    “Hyblessed be þe tyme
    Ich am ycome to sode{n}ne,
    Wyt Myn hyrysce me{n}ne.                            1464
    Þis lond we schollen wi{n}ne
    And fle at þat þere ben i{n}ne.
    And so we scholen he{m} teche
    To speken our{e} speche.”                           1468

      Horn seide on is ryme,
      “yblessed be þe time
      Icham icome in to sudenne,
      wiþ fele yrisshemenne.                            1464
      we shule þe houndes kecche,
      {ant} to þe deȝe vecche.
      ánt so we shulen hem teche
      to speken oure speche.”                           1468

[Headnote: _Horn delivers Sudenne from the Saracens._]

[Sidenote: Horn blows his horn, and his men arrive;]

  Horn gan his horn to blowe;
  His folk hit gan iknowe.
  Hi come{n} vt of st{er}e,
  Fram hornes ban{er}e.                                 1472

    Horn gan hys horn blowe,
    Þat hys folc it gan knowe.
    He come{n} out of scyp st{er}ne,
    To horn ward wel ȝerne.                             1472

      ¶ Horn gon is horn blowe;
      is folc hit con yknowe.
      hue comen out of hurne,
      to horn swyþe ȝurne.                              1472

[Sidenote: and they attack and slay the Saracens, old and young.]

  Hi sloȝen {and} fuȝte{n},
  Þe niȝt {and} þe vȝten.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .                                   1476
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Þe Sarazi{n}s cu{n}de,
  Ne lefde þ{er} no{n} i{n} þe{n}de.                    1480

    He smyten and he fouten,
    Þe nyȝt and eke þe ouȝten.
    Myd speres hord he stonge,
    Þe held and eke þe ȝonge.                           1476
    Þat lond he þoru sowte{n};
    To deþe he hus brouten
    Sarazines kende,
    Þe leuede on þe fende.                              1480

      hue smiten {ant} hue fyhten,
      þe niht {ant} eke þe ohtoun.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1476
      þe sarazyns hue slowe,
      ant summe quike to drowe.
      mid sp{er}es ord hue stonge
      þe olde {ant} eke þe ȝonge.                       1480

[Sidenote: Then Horn causes chapels and churches to be built.]

  Horn let wurche
  Chapeles {and} chirche;

    Horn let sone werchen
    Chapeles and cherchen;

      ¶ Horn lette sone wurche
      boþe chapel {ant} chyrche.

[Sidenote: Horn causes the bells to be rung and masses to be

  He let belles ringe,
  {And} Masses let singe.                               1484

    Bellen he dide ryngen,
    And p{re}stes messe synge{n}.                       1484

      He made belle rynge
      ant p{re}stes masse synge.                        1484

[Sidenote: Then he seeks his mother, and all make merry.]

  He co{m} to his Mod{er} halle,
  In a roche walle.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                  1488
  Corn he let serie,
  And makede feste merie.
  M{ur}ie lif he wroȝte;
  Ryme{n}hild hit dere boȝte.                           1492

    He sowte hys mod{er} ou{er}alle,
    Wit i{n}ne eu{er}iche walle.[KH-7]
    He custe{n} and hye clete{n},
    And in to halle we{n}ten.                           1488
    Croune he go{n}ne{n} werie,
    And makede festes merye.
    Murye he þere wroute;
    Reymyld hyt aboute.                                 1492

    [Footnote KH-7: This line repeated in the MS.]

      He sohte is moder halle,
      in þe roche walle.
      He custe hire ant grette,
      ant in to þe castel fette.                        1488
      Croune he gan werie,
      ant make feste merye.
      Murie he þer wrohte,
      ah rymenild hit abohte.                           1492

[Headnote: _Fikenhild builds a strong castle._]

[Sidenote: In the meantime Fikenhild, by gifts, wins powerful support,]

  ¶ Fikenhild was prut on herte,
  {And} þat him dude smerte.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .                                   1496
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Ȝo{n}ge he ȝaf {and} elde,
  Mid hi{m} for to helde.                               1500

    Wile þat horn was oute,
    Fikenyld ferde aboute.
    To wiue he gan hire ȝerne;
    Þe kyng ne dorst hi{m} werne.                       1496
    Muche was hys prede;
    Þe ryche he ȝaf mede,
    Ȝonge and eke þe helde,
    Þat Mid hym scholde helde.                          1500

      ¶ Þe whiles horn wes oute,
      Fikenild ferde aboute.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1496
      þe betere forte spede,
      þe riche he ȝef mede,
      boþe ȝonge ant olde,
      wiþ him forte holde.                              1500

[Sidenote: and builds a castle entirely surrounded by the water.]

  Ston he dude lede,
  Þ{er} he hopede spede.
  St{ro}ng castel he let sette,
  Mid see hi{m} biflette.                               1504
  Þ{er} ne miȝte liȝte
  Bute foȝel wiþ fliȝte;
  Bute wha{n}ne þe see wiþ droȝe,
  Miȝte come men ynoȝe.                                 1508

    Ston he dede lede,
    And hym þerto he made.
    A kastel he dude feste
    Wit wat{er} alby sette.                             1504
    Miȝt no ma{n} hon on legge,
    By paþe ne by brigge;
    Bote wan þe wit drowe,
    Þer mu{n}the come.                                  1508

      Ston he dude lade,
      ant lym þerto he made.
      Castel he made sette,
      wiþ water by flette.                              1504
      Þ{a}t þer yn come ne myhte
      bote foul wiþ flyhte;
      bote when þe see wiþ-drowe,
      þer mihte come ynowe.                             1508

[Sidenote: Fikenhild then plots to wed Rymenhild, and sets the day for
the wedding.]

  Fikenhild gan we{n}de
  Ryme{n}hild to sche{n}de.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .                                   1512
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]                                  1516

    Þis fykenild ga{n}to we{n}de[KH-8]
    Reynyld for to wende.
    Þe day by ga{n} to wexe,
    Þat hem was by twexe.                               1512
    Fekenyld, her þe day gan sp{r}inge,
    Ferde to aylm{er} þe kynge,
    Aft{er} reynyld þe bryȝte,
    And spousede hire by niȝte.                         1516

    [Footnote KH-8: Written wē{n}de]

      þ{us} fykenild gon by-wende
      Rymenild forte shende.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1512
      to wyue he gan hire ȝerne;
      þe kyng ne durst hi{m} werne.
      ant habbeþ set þe day,
      Fykenild to wedde þe may.                         1516

[Sidenote: Rymenhild weeps tears of blood.]

  To woȝe he gan hure ȝerne;
  Þe kyng ne dorste him werne.
  Ryme{n}hild was ful of mode;
  He wep teres of blode.                                1520

    He ledde hyre hom i{n} derke,
    To his newe werke.
    Þe festes he by go{n}ne,
    Her{e} aryse þe so{n}ne.                            1520

      wo was rymenild of mode;
      terres hue wepte of blode.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Headnote: _Horn dreams of danger to Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: Horn dreams that Rymenhild is shipwrecked, that she tries to
swim to land, but that Fikenhild prevents her with his sword hilt.]

  Þ{a}t niȝt horn gan swete,
  And heuie for to mete
  Of Rymenhild his make,
  Into schupe was itake.                                1524
  Þe schup bigan to blenche;
  His le{m}man scholde adrenche.

    Þat nyȝt gan horn swete,
    And harde forto mete
    Of Reymyld hys make,
    Þat i{n} to schype was take.                        1524
    Þat schip scholde on hire blenche;
    Hys lema{n} scholde adrenche.

      þilke nyht horn suete
      con wel harde mete
      of rymenild his make,
      þ{a}t in to shipe wes take.                       1524
      þe ship gon ouerblenche;
      is lemmon shulde adrenche.

  Ryme{n}hild wiþ hire honde
  Wolde vp to londe.                                    1528
  Fikenhild aȝen hire pelte
  Wiþ his swerdes hilte.

    Reymyld wit hire honde
    Wolde sue{m}me to londe.                            1528
    Fykenyld hire ȝen pulte
    Wit his sword hylte.

      ¶ Rymenild mid hire honde,
      swymme wolde to londe.                            1528
      Fykenild aȝeyn hire pylte,
      mid his suerdes hylte.

[Sidenote: Horn awakes, and tells Athulf his dream.]

  ¶ Horn him wok of slape,
  So a man þ{a}t hadde rape.                            1532
  “Aþulf,” he sede, “felaȝe,
  To schupe we mote draȝe.
  Fikenhild me haþ idon vnder,
  {And} Rymenhild to do wunder.                         1536
  Crist, for his wu{n}des fiue,
  To niȝt me þuder driue.”

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    “Ayol,” qwat horn, “trewe felawe,
    Into schip go{n}ne we drawe.
    Fykenyld haueþ gon ond{er},
    And don Reynyld som wond{er}.                       1536
    God, for his wordes fiue,
    To nyȝt us þyder driue.”

      Horn awek in is bed;
      of his lemmon he wes adred.                       1532
      “Aþulf,” he seide, “felawe,
      to shipe nou we drawe.
      Fykenild me haþ gon vnder,
      ant do rymenild sum wonder.                       1536
      Crist, for his wondes fyue,
      to nyht þider vs dryue!”

[Headnote: _Horn sets out to the rescue of Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: He immediately sets sail, with a good wind.]

  Horn gan to schupe Ride,
  His fere{n} him biside.                               1540
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Fikenhild, or þe dai gan sp{ri}nge,
  Al riȝt he ferde to þe kinge,                         1544

    Horn ga{n} to Scype Ride,
    And his knyȝtes by side.                            1540
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1544

      [Sidenote: [leaf 92]]
      ¶ Horn gon to shipe ride,
      his knyhtes bi his side.                          1540
      þe ship bigon to sture,
      wiþ wynd god of cure.
      ant fykenild her þe day sp{ri}nge,
      seide to þe kynge,                                1544

[Sidenote: Fikenhild espouses Rymenhild by night, and leads her to his

  Aft{er} Rymenhild þe briȝte,
  To wedden hire biniȝte.
  He ladde hure bi þe derke,
  Into his nywe werke.                                  1548

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]                                1548

      After rymenild þe brhyte,
      ant spousede hyre by nyhte.
      he ladde hire by derke,
      in to is newe werke.                              1548

[Sidenote: They begin the feast before sunrise.]

  Þe feste hi bigu{n}ne,
  Er þ{a}t ros þe su{n}ne.
  Er þane horn hit wiste,
  To fore þe su{n}ne vpriste.                           1552

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    Here schip biga{n} to terne
    By þe wat{er}es sterne.                             1552

      þe feste hue bigonne,
      er þen aryse þe sonne.
      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]

[Sidenote: Horn’s ship arrives under the castle.]

  His schup stod vnder ture,
  At Rymenhilde bure.

    Hys schip stod i{n} store,
    Hond{er} fikenildes bour{e}.

      Hornes ship atstod in stoure,
      vnder fykenildes boure.

[Sidenote: Horn does not recognize the new castle, but meets Arnoldin,
who is awaiting him,]

  Rymenhild, litel weneþ heo
  Þ{a}t Horn þa{n}ne aliue beo.                         1556
  Þe castel þei ne knewe,
  For he was so nywe.
  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Horn fond sittinde Arnoldin,
  Þ{a}t was Aþulfes cosin,
  Þ{a}t þ{er} was in þ{a}t tide,
  Horn for tabide.                                      1564

    Ne wiste horn on liue
    Whar he was a Ryue.                                 1556
    Þe kestel he ne knewe,
    For he was so newe.
    Þe sond by gan to drye,
    And hyt hym makede weye.                            1560
    He fond stonde arnoldyn,
    Þat was ayolles cosyn,
    Þat was þere in tyde,
    Horn for to abyde.                                  1564

      Nuste horn a-lyue
      wher he wes aryue.                                1556
      þene castel hue ne knewe,
      for he was so newe.
      þe see bigon to wiþ drawe;
      þo seh horn his felawe,                           1560
      þe feyre knyht arnoldyn,
      þ{a}t wes aþulfes cosyn,
      þat þer set in þat tyde,
      kyng horn to abide.                               1564

[Headnote: _Arnoldin explains the situation to Horn._]

[Sidenote: and who tells him that Fikenhild that day has wedded

  “Horn kniȝt,” he sede, “kinges sone,
  Wel beo þu to londe icome.
  Today haþ y wedde fikenhild,
  Þi swete le{m}man, Rymenhild.                         1568
  Ne schal i þe lie;
  He haþ giled þe twie.

    He seyde, “horn, kynges sone,
    Wel be þou her{e} to londe come.
    Nou hat wedded fikenyld
    Þy nowe lemma{n}, Reymyld.                          1568
    Nele ich þe nowt lye;
    He haueþ þe gyled twye.

      he seide, “kyng horn, kyngessone,
      hider þou art welcome.
      to day haþ sire Fykenild
      yweddeþ þi wif, rymenild.                         1568
      white þe nou þis while;
      he haueþ do þe gyle.

  Þis tur he let make
  Al for þine sake.                                     1572
  Ne mai þ{er} come i{n}ne
  Noma{n} wiþ none gi{n}ne.
  Horn, nu crist þe wisse,
  Of Rymenhild þ{a}t þu ne misse.”                      1576

    Þis castel he dude make
    For Reymyldes sake.                                 1572
    Þer may mo man on legge,
    By paþe neby brigge.
    Horn, nou c{r}ist þe wisse,
    Of Reymyld þat þou ne misse.”                       1576

      þis tour he dude make
      al for rymenildes sake.                           1572
      ne may þer comen ynne
      no mon wiþ no gynne.
      ¶ Horn, nou c{ri}st þe wisse,
      rymenild þ{a}t þou ne misse.”                     1576

[Headnote: _Horn enters the castle, disguised as a harper._]

[Sidenote: Horn, and some companions, disguise themselves as harpers,
hiding their swords under their garments.]

  ¶ Horn cuþe al þe liste
  Þ{a}t eni man of wiste.
  Harpe he gan schewe,
  {And} tok felaȝes fewe,                               1580
  Of kniȝtes suiþe snelle,
  Þ{a}t schrudde he{m} at wille.

    Horn her kenede al þe lyste
    Þat any ma{n} of wiste.
    To herpe he gan drawe,
    And wyȝt hys tweye felawe,                          1580
    Knyȝtes swyþe felle,
    And schurde hem in pelle.

      Horn couþe alle þe listes
      þ{a}t eni mon of wiste.
      harpe he gon shewe,
      ant toc[KH-9] him to felawe,                      1580
      knyhtes of þe beste
      þ{a}t he euer hede of weste.

      [Footnote KH-9: MS. tot]

  [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
  . . . . . . . . . .]
  Hi ȝeden bi þe grauel,
  Toward þe castel.
  Hi gu{n}ne m{ur}ie singe,
  And makede here gleowinge.                            1588

    Wyt swerdes he hem gyrte
    Anouen here schirte.                                1584
    He wenden on þe g{ra}uel
    Toward þe castel.
    He go{n}ne murye synge,
    And makede here glewinge.                           1588

      ouen o þe sherte
      hue gurden huem wiþ suerde.                       1584
      hue eoden on þe g{ra}uele,
      towart þe castele.
      hue gonne murie singe,
      {ant} makeden huere gleynge,                      1588

[Sidenote: Fikenhild hears their singing, and bids bring them in.]

  ¶ Rymenhild hit gan ihere,
  {And} axede what hi were.
  Hi sede hi weren harpurs,
  {And} sume were gigours.                              1592
  He dude horn in late,
  Riȝt at halle gate.
  He sette hi{m} on þe benche,
  His harpe for to clenche.                             1596

    Þat fykenyld myȝt yhere;
    Hearkede wat hye were.
    Men seyde hyt harperes,
    Iogelours and fiþeleres.                            1592
    He dude hem in lete;
    At halle dore he sete.
    Horn set on þe benche;
    Hys harpe he gan clenche.                           1596

      þ{a}t fykenild mihte y-here;
      he axede who hit were.
      men seide hit were harpeirs,
      iogelers ant fyþelers.                            1592
      hem me dude in lete;
      at halle dore hue sete.
      horn sette hi{m} a benche;
      is harpe he gan clenche.                          1596

[Sidenote: Horn makes a lay to Rymenhild, and she falls in a swoon.]

  He makede Rymenhilde lay,
  {And} heo makede walaway.
  Rymenhild feol yswoȝe;
  Ne was þ{er} non þ{a}t louȝe.                         1600
  Hit smot to hornes herte
  So bit{er}e þ{a}t hit sm{er}te.

    He makede Reymyld a lay,
    And reynyld makede weylawey.
    Reymyld fel yswowe;
    Þo was þer non þat lowe.                            1600
    Hyt ȝede to hornes herte;
    Sore hym gan smerte.

      he made rymenild a lay,
      ant hue seide weylawey.
      ¶ Rymenild fel y swowe;
      þo nes þer non þ{a}t lowe.                        1600
      hit smot horn to herte;
      sore con hi{m} smerte.

[Sidenote: Horn looks on his ring and thinks of Rymenhild, then with his
good sword slays Fikenhild and all his men.]

  He lokede on þe ringe,
  {And} þoȝte on Ryme{n}hilde.                          1604
  He ȝede vp to borde,
  Wiþ gode suerdes orde.
  Fike{n}hildes c{ru}ne
  Þer ifulde adune,                                     1608
  {And} al his me{n} arowe
  Hi dude adun þrowe!

    Hey lokede on hys gode Ryng,
    And Reymyld þe ȝonge.                               1604
    Hey ȝede op to borde,
    Mid hys gode swerde.
    Fykenyldes crowne
    He leyde þere adowne;                               1608
    And alle hys men arewe
    He dide adoun þrewe.

      he lokede on is rynge,
      ant o rymenild þe ȝynge.                          1604
      he eode vp to borde,
      mid his gode suorde.
      Fykenildes croune
      he fel þer adoune;                                1608
      ant alle is men arowe
      he dude adoun þrowe.

[Headnote: _Horn slays Fikenhild, and makes Arnoldyn king._]

[Sidenote: He makes Arnoldin king there, after Aylmer,]

  Wha{n}ne hi were{n} aslaȝe,
  Fike{n}hild hi dude to d{ra}ȝe.                       1612
  Horn makede Arnoldin þare
  Ki{n}g, aft{er} ki{n}g Aylmare,
  Of al west{er}nesse,
  For his meoknesse.                                    1616
  Þe ki{n}g {and} his homage
  Ȝeue{n} Arnoldin t{re}wage.

    Þo he weren alle yslawe,
    Fykenyld he dide to drawe.                          1612
    He makede arnoldyn kyng þer{e},
    Aft{er} þe kyng aylm{er}e,
    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    Þe knytes and þe barnage
    Dude hym alle utrage.                               1616

      [_No gap in MS._ . .
      . . . . . . . . . .]                              1612
      ant made arnoldyn kyng þere,
      after kyng aylmere,
      to be kyng of westnesse,
      for his mildenesse.                               1616
      þe kyng ant is baronage
      ȝeuen him t{ru}age.

[Sidenote: and taking with him Athulf and Rymenhild, sets out for King
Modi’s kingdom.]

  ¶ Horn tok Rymenhild bi þe honde,
  {And} ladde hure to þe stronde,                       1620
  {And} ladde wiþ him Aþelbrus,
  Þe gode stuard of his hus.
  Þe se biga{n} to flowe,
  {And} horn gan to Rowe.                               1624

    Horn tok rymyld by þe hond,
    And ledde hire by þe se strond.                     1620
    He tok hym syre aylbrous,
    Stiward of þe kynges hous.
    He riuede in a reaume,
    In a wel fayr streume,                              1624

      ¶ Horn toc rymenild by honde,
      ant ladde hire to st{r}onde,
      Ant toc wiþ hi{m} Aþelbrus,
      þe gode stiward of hire fader hous.               1620
      [Sidenote: [leaf 92, back]]
      þe see bigan to flowen,
      ant hy faste to rowen.
      hue aryueden vnder reme,
      in a wel feyr streme.                             1624

[Sidenote: Horn slays King Modi, and makes Athelbrus king in his place.]

  Hi gu{n}ne for ariue
  Þ{er} ki{n}g modi was sire.
  Aþelfr{us} he makede þ{er} ki{n}g,
  For his gode techi{n}g.                               1628
  He ȝaf alle þe kniȝtes ore,
  For horn kniȝtes lore.

    Þer kyng mody was syre,
    Þat horn slow wyt yre.
    Aybrous he makede þer kyng,
    For hys gode tydyng;                                1628
    For syre hornes lore,
    He was kyng þore.

      kyng Mody wes kyng in þat lond;
      þ{a}t horn sloh wiþ is hond.
      Aþelbrus he made þer kyng,
      for his gode techyng;                             1628
      for sire hornes lore
      he wes mad kyng þore.

[Headnote: _Athulf weds Reynild, and Horn marries Rymenhild._]

[Sidenote: He then proceeds to Ireland, and causes Athulf to marry the
princess Reynild.]

  Horn ga{n} for to ride;
  Þe wi{n}d hi{m} bleu wel wide.                        1632
  He ariuede in yrlo{n}de,
  Þ{er} he wo fo{n}dede.
  Þ{er} he dude Aþulf child
  Wedde{n} maide Reynild.                               1636

    [_No gap in MS._ . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .]
    Horn ariuede in hyre londe,
    Þer he hadde woned so longe.
    Þer he dude ayol childe
    Wedden mayden h{er}menylde.                         1636

      ¶ Horn eode to ryue;
      þe wynd hi{m} con wel dryue.                      1632
      he aryuede in yrlonde,
      þer horn wo couþe er fonde.
      He made þer Aþulf chyld
      wedde mayden ermenyld,                            1636

[Sidenote: Then he returns to Sudenne, and makes Rymenhild his queen.]

  Horn co{m} to sudde{n}ne,
  Amo{n}g al his kenne.
  Ryme{n}hild he makede his quene,
  So hit miȝte wel beon.                                1640

    Horn wente to sodenne,
    To hys owe kunne.
    Reymyld he makede quene,
    So ich Miyȝte wel bene.                             1640

      ant horn com to sudenne,
      to is oune kenne.
      Rymenild he made þer is quene,
      so hit myhte bene.                                1640

[Sidenote: They live in true love, and cherish God’s law. ‘Nu ben hi
boþe dede.’]

  Alfolk he{m} miȝte rewe,
  Þat louede{n} he{m} so t{re}we;
  Nu be{n} hi boþe dede;
  Crist to heuene he{m} lede.                           1644
  Her endeþ þe tale of horn
  Þ{a}t fair was {and} noȝt vnorn.
  Make we vs glade Eure among,
  For þus him endeþ hornes song.                        1648
  Jesus þ{a}t is of heuene king,
  Ȝeue vs alle his suete blessi{n}g.
    EX--PLI--CIT. Amen.

    Alle folc hyt knewe
    Þat he hem louede trewe.
    Nou ben he alle dede;
    God hem to heuene lede.                             1644
    [_No gap in MS._  .  .  .  .
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                        1648
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .]
        Am . . . e . . . n.

      In trewe loue hue lyueden ay,
      ant wel hue loueden godes lay.
      Nou hue beoþ boþe dede,
      c{ri}st to heouene vs lede. AmeN!                 1644


  [Transcriber’s Note:
  In the Trentham MS., spelling is normally “þ{o}u”, rarely “þow”.
  Any variations are as printed.]

  _Trentham MS., fol. 98 a; vellum, c. 1440: beginning lost. Headlines
  ‘Florence and Blanchefloure.’_

  Ne thurst men[FB-1] neu{er} in londe
  After feirer Children fonde.
  Þe Cristen woma{n} fedde hem þoo,
  Ful wel she louyd hem boþ twoo.                          4
  So longe sche fedde hem in feere
  þat þey were of elde of seuen ȝere.
  Þe kyng behelde his sone dere,
  And seyde to him on this manere,                         8
  Þat harme it were muche more
  But his son{e} were sette to lore
  On þe book~ letters to know,
  As men don{e}, both hye and lowe.                       12
  “Feire sone,” she seide, “þ{o}u shalt lerne,
  Lo þ{a}t þ{o}u do ful ȝerne.”
  Florys answerd w{i}t{h} wepyng,
  As he stood byfore þe kyng~;                            16
  Al wepyng~ seide he,

  [Footnote FB-1: first ‘mey,’ then alterd]

[Sidenote: Floris says that he cannot learn unless Blauncheflur is with

  “Ne schal not Blancheflo{ur} lerne w{i}t{h} me?
  Ne can y noȝt to scole goon{e}
  W{i}t{h}-out Blanchefloure,” he seide þan{e}.           20
  “Ne can y in no scole syng~ ne rede
  W{i}t{h}-out Blancheflo{ur},” he seide.
  Þe king~ seide to his soon{e},
  “She shal lerne for þy loue.”                           24

[Sidenote: The two are put to school together, and make good progress.]

  To scole þey were put;
  Boþ þey were good of~ wytte.
  Wonder it was of~ hur lore,
  And of~ her loue wel þe more.                           28
  Þe Children louyd to-geder soo,
  Þey myȝt neu{er} p{ar}te a twoo.
  When þey had .v. ȝere to scoole goon{e}
  So wel þey had lerned þoo,                              32
  Inowȝ þey couþ of latyne,
  And wel wryte on p{ar}chemyn{e}.
  Þe kyng~ vnderstod þe grete Amoure
  Bytwene his son{e} and Blanchefloure,                   36
  And þouȝt when þey were of Age
  Þat her loue wolde noȝt swage;
  Nor he myȝt noȝt her loue w{i}t{h}drawe
  When Florys shuld~ wyfe after þe lawe.                  40
  [Sidenote: [98 _b_]]
  Þe king~ to þe Queene seide þoo,
  And tolde hur of~ his woo,
  Off~ his þouȝt and of his care,
  How it wolde of~ Floreys fare.                          44

[Sidenote: The king begins to devise to separate the two, and proposes
to put the maiden to death.]

  “Dame,” he seide, “y tel þe my reed{e},
  I wyl þat Blaunchefloure be do to deed{e}.
  When þat maide is y-slawe,
  And brouȝt of her lyf~ dawe,                            48
  As sone as Florys may it vnder ȝete,
  Rathe he wylle hur forȝete.
  Þan may he wyfe after reed{e}.”
  Þe Queene answerde þen and seid{e},                     52
  And þouȝt w{i}t{h} hur reed{e}
  Saue þe mayde fro þe deed{e}.
  “Sir,” she seide, “we auȝt to fond{e}
  Þat Florens lyf~ wit menske in lond{e},                 56
  And þat he lese not his hono{u}r
  For þe mayden Blauncheflo{u}r.
  Who so myȝt þat mayde clene,
  Þat she were brouȝt to deþ bydene,                      60
  Hit were muche more hono{u}r
  Þan slee þ{a}t mayde Blancheflo{u}r.”
  Vnneþes þe king~ g[{r}a]unt þ{a}t it be soo.
  “Dame, rede vs what is to doo.”                         64

[Headnote: _Floris is sent to Mountargis to school._]

[Sidenote: The queen suggests that Floris be sent away.]

  “Sir, we shul oure soon{e} Florys
  Sende into þe londe of Mountargis.
  Blythe wyl my suster be
  Þat is lady of~ þat Contree.                            68
  And when she woot for whoom~
  Þ{a}t we have sent him vs froom~,
  She wyl doo al hur myȝt,
  Boþ by day and by nyȝt,                                 72
  To make hur loue so vndoo
  As it had neu{er} ben soo.
  And, s{ir},” she seide, “y rede eke
  Þat þe maydens moder make hur seek~.                    76
  Þat may be þat other resoun~
  For þat ylk~ enchesou{n},
  Þat she may not fro hur moder goo.”
  Now ben þese Children swyþ woo,                         80
  [Sidenote: [99 _a_]]
  Now þey may not goo in fere
  Drewryer þinges neu{er} noon{e} were.
  Florys wept byfore þe kyng~,
  And seide, “S{ir}, w{i}t{h}-out lesyng~,                84
  For my harme out ȝe me sende,
  Now she ne myȝt w{i}t{h} me wende.
  Now we ne mot to-geder goo,
  Al my wele is turned to woo.”                           88
  Þe king~ seide to his soon{e} aplyȝt,
  “Sone, w{i}t{h}ynne þis fourtenyȝt,
  Be her moder quykke or deed{e},”
  “Sekerly,” he him seide,                                92
  “Þat mayde shal com{e} þe too.”

[Sidenote: Floris is sent to his aunt at Mountargis, with the promise
that Blauncheflur shall follow within fourteen days.]

  “Ȝe, s{ir},” he seid, “y p{ra}y ȝow it be soo.
  Ȝif þat ȝe me hur sende,
  I rekke neu{er} wheder y wende.”                        96
  Þat þe Child~ g{ra}unted þe kyng~ was fayn{e},
  And him betauȝt his Chamburlayn{e}.
  W{i}t{h} muche honoure þey þeder coom{e},
  As fel to a ryche kynges soon{e}.                      100
  Wel feire him receyuyd þe Duke Orgas,
  Þat king~ of þ{a}t Castel was,
  And his Aunt wiþ muche hono{u}r;
  But euer he þouȝt on Blanchefloure.                    104
  Glad and blythe þey ben him withe;
  But for no ioy þ{a}t he seith,
  Ne myȝt him glade game ne gle,
  For he myȝt not his lyf~ see.                          108
  His Aunt set him to lore
  Þere as other Children wore,
  Boþ maydons and grom{e};
  To lerne mony þeder coom{e}.                           112
  Inowȝ he sykes, but noȝt he lernes;
  For Blauncheflo{ur} eu{er} he mornes.
  Yf~ enyman to him speke
  Loue is on his hert steke.                             116
  Loue is at his hert roote
  Þ{a}t no þing~ is so soote:
  Galyngale ne lycorys
  [Sidenote: [99 _b_]]
  Is not so soote as hur loue is,                        120
  Ne nothing~ ne non{e} other.
  So much he þenkeþ on Blancheflo{ur},
  Of~ oo day him þynkeþ þre,
  For he ne may his loue see.                            124

[Headnote: _The King proposes to put Blauncheflur to death._]

[Sidenote: He grieves until the fourteen days are past.]

  Þus he abydeth w{i}t{h} muche woo
  Tyl þe fourtenyȝt were goo.
  When he saw she was nouȝt ycoom{e},
  So muche sorow he haþ noom{e},                         128
  Þ{a}t he loueth mete ne drynke,
  Ne may noon{e} in his body synke.

[Sidenote: The chamberlain reports Floris’s sorrow to the king.]

  Þe Chamberleyn{e} sent þe king~ to wete,
  His sones state al y-wrete.                            132

[Sidenote: The king is very angry, and again proposes to put
Blauncheflur to death.]

  Þe king~ ful sone þe waxe to-brake,
  For to wete what it spake:
  He begynneth to chaunge his mood{e},
  And wel sone he vnderstode,                            136
  And w{i}t{h} wreth he cleped þe Queene,
  And tolde hur alle his teene,
  And w{i}t{h} wraþ spake and sayde,
  “Let do bryng~ forþ þ{a}t mayde!                       140
  Fro þe body þe heued shal goo.”
  Þenne was þe Quene ful woo.
  Þan spake þe Quene, þ{a}t good lady,

[Sidenote: The queen proposes, instead, to sell the maiden.]

  “For goddes love, s{ir}, mercy.                        144
  At þe next hauen þ{a}t here is,
  Þ{er} ben chapmen ryche y-wys,
  Marchaundes of~ babyloyn{e} ful ryche,
  Þat wol hur bye blethelyche.                           148
  Than may ȝe for þ{a}t louely foode
  Haue muche Catełł and goode.
  And soo she may fro vs be brouȝt,
  Soo þat we slee hur nouȝt.”                            152
  Vnneþes þe king~ g{ra}unted þis;
  But forsoþ so it is,
  Þe king~ let sende after þe burgeise,
  Þ{a}t was hende and Curtayse,                          156
  And welle selle and bygge couth,
  And moony langages had in his mouth.

[Sidenote: This is done, and for the maiden they receive among other
things a magnificent cup with a romantic history.]

  Wel sone þat mayde was him betauȝt;
  An to þe hauen{e} was she brouȝt.                      160
  [Sidenote: [100 _a_]]
  Þer haue þey for þ{a}t maide ȝolde
  xx. Mark~ of reed golde,
  And a Coupe good and ryche,
  In al þe world~ was non{e} it lyche.                   164
  Þ{er} was neu{er} noon{e} so wel graue;
  He þ{a}t it made was no knave.
  Þ{er} was purtrayd on, y weene,
  How P{ar}yse ledde awey þe Queene;                     168
  And on þe Cou{er}cle a-boue
  Purtrayde was þ{er} both her love;
  And in þe Pomel þ{er}on{e}
  Stood a Charbuncle stoon{e}.                           172
  In þe world~ was not so depe soler,
  Þat it nold~ lyȝt þe Botelere,
  To fylle boþ ale and wyne,
  Of syluer and g{o}ld{e} boþ good and fyne.             176
  Enneas þe king~, þat nobel man,
  At Troye in batayle he it wan,
  And brouȝt it in-to Lumbardy,
  And gaf~ it his le{m}man, his Amy.                     180
  Þe Coupe was stoole fro king~ Cesar;
  A þeef~ out of his tresour hous it bar.
  And sethe þ{a}t ilke same þeef~
  For Blaunchefloure he it ȝeef~.                        184
  For he wyst to wynne suche þree,
  Myȝt he hur bryng~ to his contree.
  Now þese Marchaundes saylen ou{er} þe see,
  W{i}t{h} þis mayde, to her contree.                    188
  So longe þey han vndernome,

[Headnote: _Blauncheflur is sold and carried to Babylon._]

[Sidenote: Blauncheflur is taken to Babylon and sold to the Admiral.]

  Þ{a}t to Babyloyn{e} þey ben coom{e}.
  To þe Amyral of~ Babyloyn{e}
  Þey solde þat mayde swythe soon{e};                    192
  Rath and soone þey were at oon{e}.
  Þe Amyral hur bouȝt Anoon{e},
  And gafe for hur, as she stood vpryȝt,
  Seuyn{e} sythes of~ gold{e} her wyȝt,                  196
  For he þouȝt w{i}t{h}out~ weene
  Þat faire mayde haue to Queene;
  Among~ his maydons in his bo{ur}
  He hur dide w{i}t{h} muche hono{ur}.                   200

      _MS. Cott. Vitell. D. III., 6 a, col. 1._

      _The 3 leaves of this MS. are burnt and shrunk, and are hardly

      . . . . . [FB-2]so dere                           (196)
      . . . . wiþ þoute wene.
      . . þat maide to his quene.
      . his maidenes vp in is tur,                         4
      . hire wiþ muchel honur                           (200)

      [Footnote FB-2: _MS. note._ See Introduction; also _Floris et
      Blanch._, Paris 1856, p. 28, l. 673.]

  Now þese merchaundes þ{a}t may belete,
  [Sidenote: [100 _b_]]
  And ben glad of~ hur byȝete.
  ++nOw let we of Blauncheflo{ur} be,
  And speke of Florys in his contree.                    204
  Now is þe Bu[r]gays to þe king~ coom{e}
  W{i}t{h} þe gold{e} and his garyson{e},
  And haþ take þe king~ to wolde,
  Þe seluer and þe Coupe of golde.                       208

      . . marchans þis maide forlete,
      . . . bliþe mid here by-ȝete.
      . . . . we blancheflur be.                           8
      . . floires in his cu{n}tre.                      (204)
      . burgeys to þe king icome.
      . . . gold {and} þisse garisome.
      . . . þan king i ȝolde.                             12
      . . þo cupe of golde.                             (208)

[Sidenote: The king and queen cause to be made a supposititious tomb for

  They lete make in a Chirche
  As swithe feire g{ra}ue wyrche.
  And lete ley þ{er}-vppon{e}
  A new feire peynted stone,                             212
  W{i}t{h} letters al aboute wryte
  W{i}t{h} ful muche worshipp{e}.
  Who-so couth þe letters rede,
  Þus þey spoken, and þus þey seide:                     216
  “Here lyth swete Blaunchefloure
  Þat Florys louyd P{ar}amoure.”
  Now Florys haþ vndernome,

      . . . let at one chiriche.
      . . . . les wereche,
      . . . [þ]at anouen . .                              16
      . . pointe stonde                                 (212)
      . . . . bi write.
      . . . . . hele worþsipe
      . . . þe lett{er}s rede.                            20
      . . . . . . . . .                                 (216)
      . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . .
      . . [h]aueþ vnder-nome                              24

[Headnote: _Floris returns and inquires for Blauncheflur. ‘She is

[Sidenote: Floris returns, and asks his father and mother for
Blauncheflur in vain.]

  And to his Fader he is coome.                          220
  In his Fader halle he is lyȝt,
  His Fader him grette anoon{e} ryȝt,
  And his moder, þe Queene, also,
  But vnneþes myȝt he þ{a}t doo,                         224
  Þat he ne asked where his Le{m}man bee;
  Nonskyns answere chargeþ hee.
  So longe he is forth noom{e},
  In to Chamber he is coom{e}.                           228

      . . faderlonde he is icome                        (220)
      . . . halle he is alyȝt
      . . . . he grette anonryȝt
      . . þe quene he grette also                         28
      . . . haueþ his greti{n}ge ido,                   (224)
      . . . askeþ war þ{a}t maide beo
      . . . were no{u} targeþ heo.
      . . . res hit haueþ vnder nome                      32
      . . boure & a is icome                            (228)

[Sidenote: He then asks the girl’s mother.]

  Þe maydenys moder he asked ryȝt,
  “Where is Blauncheflo{ur}, my swete wyȝt?”
  “Sir,” she seide, “forsothe ywys,
  I ne woot where she is.”                               232
  She beþouȝt hur on þ{a}t lesyng~
  Þat was ordeyned byfoore þe king~.
  “Þ{o}u gabbest me,” he seyde þoo,
  “Þy gabbyng~ doþ me muche woo.                         236
  Tel me where my leman be.”
  Al wepyng~ seide þenne shee,

      . . . to hire ano{n}riȝt
      . [bl]ancheflur mi suete wiȝt
      . . . . . . ful iwis                                36
      . . . . . war heo is                              (232)
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 6, col. 2_]]
      Þine gabbinge deþ me wo;
      Tel me war my le{m}mon beo.
      Al wepinge onsuerede heo,                           40

[Sidenote: The mother at length tells Floris that Blauncheflur is dead.]

  “Sir,” shee seide, “deed{e}.” “deed!” seide he.
  “Sir,” sche seide, “for sothe, ȝee.”                   240
  “Allas, when died þ{a}t swete wyȝt?”
  [Sidenote: [101 _a_]]
  “Sir, w{i}t{h}ynne þis Fourtenyȝt
  Þe erth was leide hur aboute,
  And deed she was for thy loue.”                        244

      “Sire,” heo seyde, “ded.” “ded!” quad he.
      “Sire,” heo seyde, “for soþe ȝe,
      Alas, wenne deide my suete wyȝt?”
      “Sire,” heo seyde, “wiþ inne þis seueniȝt           44
      Þat vrþe hire was leyd aboue,
      And ded heo is for þine loue.

[Sidenote: Floris swoons.]

  Flores, þat was so feire and gent,
  Sownyd þ{er}e verament.
  Þe cristen woman began to crye
  To ih{es}u crist and seynt Marye.                      248
  Þe king~ and þe queene herde þ{a}t crye;
  In to þe Chamber þey ronne on hye.
  And þe Queene herde her byforn{e}
  On sowne þe Childe þat she had born{e}.                252

      Floyres þat was so fayr {and} ge{n}t,
      He fel iswoue vp on þe paueme{n}t.                  48
      And þe cristene wi{m}mon go{n} to crie
      To crist {and} to sey{n}temarie.
      Þe king & þe quene iherdde þ{a}t cri;
      In to þe bure þo vrne hy.                           52
      And þe quene ate frome
      By wepeþ hire dere sone.

  Þe kinges hert was al in care,
  Þat sawe his son{e} for loue so fare.
  When he a-wooke and speke moȝt,
  Sore he wept and sore he syȝt,                         256
  And seide to his moder ywys,
  “Lede me þ{er}e þat mayde is.”

      {And} þe kinges herte is ful of care
      Þat he sikþ is sone vor loue so fare.               56
      Anon he of swoninge awok {and} speke miste.
      Sore he wep {and} sore he syȝte,
      And on his moder he by siþt.
      “Dame,” he sayde, “led me þar þ{a}t mayde lyþ.”     60

[Sidenote: His mother comes to him, and conducts him to the
supposititious tomb.]

  Þeder þey him brouȝt on hyȝe;
  For care and sorow he wold{e} dyȝe.                    260
  As sone as he to þe graue com,
  Sone þ{er}e behelde he þen,

      Þider heo hine broute wel suþe,
      Vor care a[n]d sorwe of hire deþe.
      Ano{n} þ{a}t he to þe burles com,
      Wel ȝerne he bi-hul þer-on,                         64

[Headnote: _Floris reads the inscription on the monument, and swoons._]

[Sidenote: Floris reads the inscription, and then swoons three times.]

  And þe letters began to rede,
  Þat þus speke and þus seide:                           264
  “Here lytħ swete Blauncheflo{ur},
  Þat Florys louyd p{ar}amoure.”
  Þre sithes Florys sownydde nouth;
  Ne speke he myȝt not w{i}t{h} mouth.                   268
  As sone as he awoke and speke myȝt,
  Sore he wept and sore he syȝt~.

      And letteres bigon to rede.
      Þus spek {and} þus sede
      Þat þar lay suete blancheflur.
      [Þat] floyres louede par amur.                      68
      Þ . . . . swouneþ nouþe
      [[empty line]]
      And asone ase he speke myȝte.
      Sore he wep {and} sore he syȝte,
      And gon blancheflur bi mene                         72
      Wit teres riue ase a sc{ur} of r[e]ne.

[Sidenote: Floris weeps and sighs, and laments Blauncheflur’s death.]

  “Blauncheflo{ur}!” he seide, “Blauncheflo{ur}!”
  So swete a þing was neu{er} in boure.                  272
  Of Blauncheflo{ur} is þat y meene,
  For she was com{e} of~ good kyn{e}.

      “Blancheflur,” he seide, “blancheflur,
      So sute þing nas ner in bur,
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 6, back_]]
      Vor þou were ibore of gode cu{n}ne,                 76
      Vor in worle nes nere non
      Þine imake of no wimmon.
      Inouȝ þou cuþest of clergie
      And of alle curteysie.                              80

  Lytel and muche loueden þe
  For þy goodnesse and þy beaute.                        276
  Ȝif deþ were dalt aryȝt,
  We shuld be deed boþ on oo nyȝt.
  On oo day born{e} we were;
  We shul be ded boþ in feere.”                          280

      & muchel {and} litel hit louede þe
      Vor þi fayr hede {and} þi bunte.
      Ȝif þat deþ were ideld ariȝt,
      We scholden habbe idiȝed boþe in ar niȝt.           84
      Vor in one deye ibore we were;
      Mid riȝte we scholden deie ifere.”

[Sidenote: He apostrophizes death.]

  [Sidenote: [101 _b_]]
  “Deeþ,” he seide, “ful of~ enuye,
  And of alle trechorye,
  Refte þ{o}u hast me my le{m}man.”
  “For soth,” he seide, “þ{o}u art to blame.             284
  She wolde haue leuyd, and þu noldest,
  And fayn{e} wolde y dye, and þu woldest.

      “Deþ,” he seyde, “vol of enuie,
      {and} vol of alle tricherie,                        88
      Mid t{ra}isu{n} þ{o}u me hast mi lef binome.
      To bi-t{ra}ie þat folk hit is þi wone;
      Heo wolde libbe {and} þu noldest.
      Þou nelt me slen {and} ihc wolde;                   92

  [_No gap in MS._]

      Wiþ þere me wolde þat þou were.
      Nul tu no wiȝt come þere,
      {and} þer me wolde þ{a}t þou . . ne come,
      Þer þou wolt come Ilome.                            96
      Þilke þ{a}t buste best to libbe,
      Hem þou stikest under þe ribbe.
      {and} ȝif þer is eni forliued wrecche,
      Þat of is liue nouȝt ne recche,                    100
      Þat fawe wolde deie for sorewe & elde,
      On hem neltou nouȝht bi helde.
      No lengore ich nelle mi lef bileue,
      I chulle be mid hyre ere eue.                      104

  After deeþ clepe nomore y nylle,
  But slee my self~ now y wille.”                        288

      Nou after deþ clepie ich þe nulle,
      Ac mi sulue aslen ich wille.”

[Headnote: _He tries to stab himself, but is prevented by his mother._]

[Sidenote: He attempts to stab himself with a knife, but is prevented by
his mother.]

  His knyf~ he braide out of his sheth;
  Him self he wolde haue doo to deth.
  And to hert he had it smeten{e}
  Ne had his moder it vnder ȝeten{e}.                    292
  Þen þe Queene fel him vppon{e},
  And þe knyf~ fro him noom{e}.
  She reft~ him of~ his lytel knyf~,
  And sauyd þere þe Childes lyf~.                        296
  Forþ þe Queene ranne, al wepyng~,
  Tyl she com{e} to þe kyng~.

      Ase a mo{n} þat draȝh him sulue to þe deþe,
      His knif he draȝh out of his scheþe,               108
      {and} to his herte hit wolde habbe ismite,
      Nadde his moder hit vnder gete.
      Ac þe quene his moder . . fel vpon,
      & þis knif heo him binom.                          112
      Heo bi nom him his atel knif.
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 6, back, col. 2_]]
      Þat heo com bi . . . . . . .

[Headnote: _The queen discloses to Floris the deception._]

[Sidenote: The queen persuades the king to reveal the truth.]

  Þan seide þe good lady,
  “For goddes loue, s{ir}, mercy!                        300
  Of .xii. children haue we noon{e}
  On lyue now but þis oon{e}.
  And better it were she were his make,
  Þan he were deed for hur sake.”                        304

      Þanne spac þe quene þe . .
      {and} seyde to þe kinge, “sire, mercy,             116
      Sire, of þis children nabbe we non,
      Non aliue bote þis on,
      {and} bote hit were þ{a}t hit wer . .
      Þane eyþer deȝede vor oþer . . .                   120

  “Dame, þ{o}u seist soþ,” seide he;
  “Sen it may noon{e} other be,
  Leuer me were she were his wyf~,
  Þan y lost my sonnes lyf~.”                            308
  Of~ þis word þe Quene was fayn{e},
  And to her soon{e} she ran agayn{e}.

      “Dame, þou seist soþ,” þo seyde he,
      “Nu hit nele no{n} oþer bee.
      Leuere me were þ{a}t heo were
      Þane ihc for lore mine sone l[yf].”                124
      Of þisse wordes þe quene w . .
      To floyres, hire sone, . . .

[Sidenote: They tell him the facts, and together open the grave and find
it empty.]

  “Floryes, soon{e}, glad make the,
  Þy lef þ{o}u schalt on lyue see.                       312
  Florys, son{e}, þrouȝ engynne
  Of~ þy Faders reed and myne,
  Þis graue let we make,
  Leue son{e}, for þy sake.                              316
  Ȝif~ þ{o}u þ{a}t maide forgete woldest,
  After oure reed wyf~ þ{o}u sholdest.”

      “Floyres, sone, glad make þe .
      For ut þou schalt þi lef . .                       128
      Leue sone . . . . . . .
      . . . . fader rede {and} . .
      . . . . . wo . . .
      Leue sone so . . . . . .                           132
      Vor [_two lines illegible here_]
      . . . . . vre rede . . .

  Now eu{er}y word{e} she haþ him tolde,
  How þ{a}t þey þ{a}t mayden solde.                      320
  [Sidenote: [102 _a_]]
  “Is þis soth, my moder dere?”
  “For soth,” she seide, “she is not here.”
  Þe rowȝ stoon{e} adoun{e} þey leyde,
  And sawe þ{a}t was not þe mayde.                       324

      . . . word {and} ende him .
      Hou hei habbeþ þat mayde,                          136
      “{and} is þis soþ, mi moder dere?”
      “Ȝe, for soþe,” heo nis not .
      Þane stond hii panne . . . .
      He isay þ{a}t þere nas . . . .                     140

[Sidenote: Floris declares his resolve to find Blauncheflur.]

  “Now, moder, y þink þ{a}t y leue may.
  Ne shal y rest nyȝt ne day,
  Nyȝt ne day ne no stound{e},
  Tyl y haue my le{m}mon found{e}.                       328

      Nu me þencheþ . . . . .
      . . . ne schal ihc . . . .
      Niȝt ne da . . . . . .
      . . . ich . . . . . .                              144

      [_Some folios lost here. Continued at bottom of page 84._]

  Hur to seken y wołł wend{e},
  Þauȝ it were to þe worldes ende.”
  To þe king~ he goþ to take his leue,
  And his Fader bade him byleue.                         332
  “Sir, y wyl let for no wynne;
  Me to bydden it it were grete synne.”
  Þan seid þe king~, “seth it is soo,
  Seþ þ{o}u wylt noon{e} other doo,                      336
  Al þat þe nedeþ we shul þe fynde;
  Ih{es}u þe of~ care vnbynde.”

[Headnote: _Floris equips a company with which to search for

[Sidenote: He describes to the king the retinue that he would like.]

  “Leue Fader,” he seide, “y telle þe
  Al þ{a}t þ{o}u shalt fynde me.                         340
  Þ{o}u mast me fynde, at my deuyse,
  Seuen horses al of~ prys,
  And twoo y-charged vppon~ þe molde
  Boþ w{i}t{h} seluer and wyþ golde,                     344
  And two ycharged w{i}t{h} monay
  For to spenden by þe way,
  And þree w{i}t{h} clothes ryche,
  Þe best of~ al þe kyngryche,                           348
  Seuen horses and seuyn~ men,
  And þre knaues w{i}t{h}out hem,
  And þyn{e} own{e} Chamburlayn{e},
  Þat is a wel nobel swayn{e}.                           352
  He can vs wyssħ and reede,
  As marchaundes we shułł vs lede.”
  His Fader was an hynde king~,

[Sidenote: The king gives him also the marvellous cup, and an elegantly
caparisoned ‘palfray.’]

  Þe Coupe of golde he dide him bryng~,                  356
  Þat ilke self~ Coupe of golde
  Þat was Blauncheflo{ur} for ȝolde.
  “Haue þis, soon{e},” seide þe king~,
  “Herew{i}t{h} þ{o}u may þ{a}t swete þing~,             360
  [Sidenote: [102 _b_]]
  “Wynne so may betyde,
  Blauncheflo{ur} w{i}t{h} þe white syde,
  Blauncheflo{ur}, þ{a}t faire may.”
  Þe king let sadel a Palfray,                           364
  Þe oon{e} half so white so mylke,
  And þat other reed so sylk~.
  I ne can telle nouȝt
  How rychely þat sadel was wrouȝt.                      368
  Þe Arson~ was of gold{e} fyn{e},
  Stones of v{er}tu stode þ{er}yne,
  Bygon{e} aboute wit orfreys.

[Sidenote: The queen gives him a magic ring.]

  Þe Queene was kynde and curtays,                       372
  Cast hur toward þe kyng~
  And of~ hur fynger she brayde a ryng~:

    _Cambridge MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2._

    Heo tok forþ a wel fair þing,
    Of hire finger a riche Ryng.

  “Haue now þis ylke ryng~:
  While is it þyn{e}, douȝt no þyng~                     376
  Of~ fire brennyng~ ne water in þe See;
  Ne yren~ ne steele shal dere thee.”

    “Mi sone,” heo sede, “haue þis ring.
    “Whil he is þin, ne dute noþing,                       4
    Þ{a}t fur þe bre{n}ne ne adrenche se,
    Ne ire ne steil ne mai þe sle.
    And to þi wil þu schalt habbe g{ra}ce,
    Late {and} rathe in eche place.”                       8

[Headnote: _Floris and his company arrive at the haven._]

[Sidenote: Floris takes leave and comes to the haven, and lodges at the
same house where Blauncheflur had been.]

  He took~ his leue for to goo;
  Þ{er} was ful muche woo;                               380
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Þey made him noon~ other chere
  Þan her soon~ were leide in bere.

    ++Floris nimeþ nu his leue;
    No long{er} nolde he bileue.
    He custe he{m} wiþ softe muþe;
    Al wepinge hi dep{ar}teþ nuþe.                        12
    Ne makede his Moder no{n} oþ{er} chere,
    Bute also he were ileid on bere.
    For him ne wende hi neu{er}e mo
    Eft to sen; ne dude hi no.                            16

  Furþ he went w{i}t{h} al his mayn~;
  W{i}t{h} him went þe Chamberlayn~.                     384
  So haue þey her hauyn~ nome
  Þat þey ben to þe hauyn~ come
  Þere Blaunchefloure was alnyȝt,
  Wel rychely þey ben dyȝt;                              388

    Forþ he wende wiþ al his mein,
    And wiþ hi{m} his fader chau{m}berlein.
    Fort to þe hauene hi beoþ icume,
    And þ{er} habbeþ here in inome.                       20
    At þe selue huse hi buþ aliȝt
    Þ{a}t blau{n}cheflur was þ{a}t oþ{er} niȝt.
    Riche sop{er} þer was idiȝt,

[Sidenote: They find there good entertainment.]

  Þe lord of~ þe ynne was welle hende;
  Þe Child~ he sette next þe ende,
  In al þe feirest seete

    And m{ur}ie hi verde{n} þ{er} aniȝt.                  24
    Floriz ne let for ne feo
    To finden al þ{a}t neod beo,

[Sidenote: All make good cheer except Floris, who thinks ever on

  Alle þey dronken and al þey ȝete:                      392
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Ete ne drynke myȝt he nouȝt;
  On blauncheflour was al his þouȝt.

    Of fless, of fiss, of tendre bred,
    Of whit win, {and} eke red.                           28
    Glad {and} bliþe hi weren alle
    Þ{a}t were{n} wiþ he{m} in þe halle,
    And pleide {and} gamenede ehc wiþ oþ{er}.
    Ac floriȝ þe{n}cheþ al on oþ{er},                     32
    For he net ne dronk riȝt noȝt.
    On blau{n}cheflur was al his þoȝt.

[Headnote: _Floris mourns. He hears of Blauncheflur, and is glad._]

[Sidenote: The hostess observes his ‘mourning,’ and tells him that she
is reminded of the mourning of Blauncheflur.]

  Þe lady of þat vnderȝat
  Þ{at} þe Childe mornyng~ sat,                          396
  And seide to her lord w{i}t{h} styl dreme,
  “Sir, nym{e} now good{e} ȝeme
  How þe Child~ mo{ur}nyng syttes:
  Mete and drynke he forȝetes:                           400
  [Sidenote: [103 _a_]]
  Lytel he eteþ, and lasse he drynkeþ;
  He is a marchaund, as me þynkeþ.”

    Þe lefdi of þer inne vnderȝat
    Þ{a}t he m{ur}ni{n}ge sat.                            36
    To hire lou{e}rd heo sede wiþ stille dreme,
    “Sire, nimestu no ȝeme
    Hu þis child m{ur}ni{n}ge sit?
    Mete ne drinke he nabit.                              40
    He net mete ne he ne drinkeþ;
    Nis he no marchau{n}t, ase me þinkeþ.”

  To Flores þen seide she,
  “Al ful of~ mo{ur}nyng~ y the see.                     404
  Þ{er} sate þ{er} þis sender day,
  Blauncheflo{ur}, þ{a}t swete may.
  Heder was þ{a}t mayde brouȝt
  W{i}t{h} Marchaundes þ{a}t hur had bouȝt;              408
  Heder þey brouȝt þ{a}t mayde swete;
  Þey wold haue solde hur for byȝete;
  To Babyloyn{e} þey wyll{e} hur bryng{e},
  Boþ of semblant & of~ mornyng{e}.”                     412

    “Floriz,” heo sede, “what mai þe beo,
    Þus m{ur}ninge as ich þe seo?                         44
    Þus her inne þis oþ{er} day
    Sat blau{n}cheflur, þ{a}t faire may.”
    Ord {and} ende he haþ him told,
    Hu blau{n}cheflur was þari{n}ne isold.                48
    [_No gap in MS._]
    “Þu art hire ilich of alle þinge,
    Boþe of semblau{n}t {and} of m{ur}ni{n}ge,
    Of fairnesse {and} of muchelhede,
    Bute þu ert a man {and} heo a maide.”                 52

[Sidenote: Floris rejoices at the mention of the name. He gives the
hostess a silver cup, etc., and inquires further about Blauncheflur.]

  When Florys herd speke of~ his le{m}man,
  Was he neuer so glad a man,
  And in his hert bygan to lyȝt;
  Þe Coupe he let fulle anoon~ ryȝt:                     416

    Þo floriz iherde his le{m}ma{n} ne{m}pne,
    So blisful him þuȝte þilke steuene,
    He let fulle a cupe of win.

  “Dame,” he seide, “þe fessel is þyn{e},
  Boþ þe Coupe and þe wyn{e},
  Þe wyn{e} and þe gold eke,
  For þ{o}u of my leman speke:                           420
  On hur y þouȝt, for hur y syȝt;
  I ne wyst where I hur fynde myȝt;
  Wynde ne weder shal me assoyn{e},
  Þat y ne shal seche hur in Babyloyn{e}.”               424

    “Dame,” he sede, “þis hail is þin,                    56
    Þ{a}t win {and} þ{a}t gold eke,
    For þu of mi le{m}ma{n} speke.
    For hire iþoȝte, for hire isiȝte,
    For inot wher hire seche miȝte.                       60
    Hire to seche ihc wille i wende,
    Þeȝ heo beo at þe wordles ende.”

  Now Florys resteþ him al a nyȝt.

    Floriz geȝ to his rest;
    On blau{n}cheflur he þoȝte mest.                      64
    Ac rest ne miȝte he nabbe none,
    Fort þe dide slep hi{m} nome.

[Sidenote: Floris sets sail once more.]

  At morn{e}, when it was day lyȝt,
  He dide him in-to þe wylde flood~.
  Wynde and weder w{i}t{h} him stood;                    428
  Sone so Florys com{e} to londe,
  Þ{er}e he þanked goddes sonde

    A moreȝe so sone so hit was day
    He tok his leue {and} we{n}te his way,                68
    And dude him i{n}to þe salte flod;
    He hadde wind {and} weder ful god.
    Þe Marin{er} he ȝaf largeliche,
    Þ{a}t broȝte hi{m} ou{er} bluþeliche.                 72

[Headnote: _Floris reaches the land where his Leman is._]

[Sidenote: He arrives in the country where his leman is.]

  To þe londe þ{er} his lyf~ ynne is:
  Him þouȝt he was in paradyse.                          432

    Þ{er} hi wolde{n} he{m} self alonde,
    For hi fu{n}de{n} he{m} so hende,
    To þe lond þ{er} his le{m}ma{n} is;
    Hi{m} þuȝte he was i{n} p{ar}ais.                     76

  Sone to Florys tydyng men tolde
  Þ{a}t þe Amyral wold~ Fest holde;
  His Erls, Barons, comyn~ sholde,
  And al þ{a}t wold~ of him lond holde,                  436
  For to herkyn~ his hest
  And for to honoure his Feest.

    Ano{n} me hi{m} tiþi{n}ge tolde
    Þ{a}t þe admiral wolde feste h[olde].
    Erles, baruns þ{er} come sch[olde],
    And þat wolden of hi{m} h[olde].                      80

  Glad was Florys of þ{a}t tydyng~;
  He hoped to com{e} to þ{a}t gestyng~,                  440
  Ȝif~ he myȝt, in þ{a}t halle,
  His le{m}man see among hem alle.

    Bliþe was floriz of þe tiþinge;
    He hopede come to þ{a}t gesni{n}ge.
    Wel he hopede among he{m} alle
    His le{m}ma{n} sen in þe halle.                       84

  [Sidenote: [103 _b_]]
  ++nOW to þ{a}t Citee Florys is com{e};
  Feire he hath his ynne y-noom{e}                       444
  At a palaise; was non{e} it lyche;
  Þe lord of þ{a}t ynne was fulle ryche;
  He hadde ben ferre and wyde.

    To a riche Cite hi buþ icume;
    Vaire hi habbeþ here i{n} inome,
    At one paleis suþe riche;
    Þe lord of þ{er} i{n}ne nas no{n} his liche.          88
    Him feol gold inoȝ to honde,
    Boþe in water {and} in londe.

[Sidenote: At the inn there is good cheer, and Floris enters into
conversation with the host.]

  Þe Childe he set next his syde,                        448
  In al þe feirest seete.
  Alle þey dronken and ete,
  Al þat þ{er}ynne were,
  Al þey made good chere,                                452
  Þey ete and dronke echoon~ w{i}t{h} other;
  But Florys þouȝt al another,
  Ete ne drynke he myȝt noȝt,
  On Blauncheflo{ur} was al his þouȝt.                   456

    He hadde ilad his lif ful wide;
    Þis child he sette next his side.                     92
    Glad {and} bliþe hi weren alle,
    So fele so were in þe halle.
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Ac floriz net ne dronk noȝt;
    Of blau{n}cheflur was al his þoȝt.                    96

  Þan spake þe Burgays
  Þat was hende and Curtays:
  “Ow, child~, me þynkeþ welle
  Þ{a}t muche þ{o}u þynkest on my catell{e}.”            460
  “Nay, s{ir}, on Catel þenke y nouȝt,”
  (On Blauncheflo{ur} was al his þouȝt,)
  “But y þynke on al wyse
  For to fynde my marchaundise;                          464
  And ȝit it is þe most woo,
  When y it fynd, y shal it forgoo.”

    Þe lord of þ{er}inne vnderȝat
    Þ{a}t þis child m{ur}ninge sat.
    “Floriz,” he sede, “what mai þe beo,
    Þus m{ur}ni{n}ge þ{a}t ihc þe seo?                   100

  Þan spak~ þe lord of~ þ{a}t ynne,
  “Þis sender day, þ{er} sate hereyn{e}                  468
  Þat faire Maide Blauncheflo{ur},
  boþ in halle and in boure.
  Eu{er} she made mornyng chere,
  And bement Florys, her lyf~ fere;                      472
  Ioye ne blis made she noon~,
  But for Florys she made her moon~.”

    [Þ]us heri{n}ne þis oþ{er} day
    [S]at blau{n}cheflur þ{a}t faire may.
    [I]n halle ne in bur ne at bord,
    [O]f hire ne herde we neure a word.                  104
    [B]ute of floriz was hire mone;
    [Heo] nadde in herte ioie none.”

  Florys toke a Coupe of~ syluer clere,
  A mantyl of~ Scarlet w{i}t{h} menyuere:                476
  “Houe þis, s{ir}, to þyn~ hono{ur};
  Þ{o}u may þonke it Blauncheflo{ur}.
  He myȝt make myn~ hert glade,
  Þ{a}t couþ me tel wheder she is ladde.”                480

    [Whanne] herde he ne{m}pnen his le{m}man,
    [Bliþe] he was iwis for þan.                         108
    [He lat] bringe a cupe of seluer
    [And eke] a pane of menuuer.
    [Þanne] he sede, “haue þis to þin honur,
    [So þ]u speke of blau{n}cheflur.                     112
    [Þu mi]ȝtest make min heorte ful glad;
    [Þu tel]le me wuder heo were ilad.”
    [Þanne] sede þe burgeis,
    [Þat was] wel hende {and} c{ur}tais,                 116

[Headnote: _The innkeeper tells Floris how the Admiral bought

[Sidenote: The host tells him that Blauncheflur has been sold to the
Admiral at Babylon.]

  “Child~, to Babyloyne she is brouȝt;
  Þe Amyral hur haþ bouȝt:
  [Sidenote: [104 _a_]]
  He gaf~ for hur, as she stood vpryȝt,
  Seuen sithes of~ gold hur wyȝt;                        484
  For he þenkeþ w{i}t{h}-out weene,
  Þat faire may haue to Queene.
  Among~ his maydons in his toure
  He hur dide, w{i}t{h} much honoure.”                   488

    [“To Babi]lloigne he was ibroȝt;
    [Þe adm]iral hire haȝ iboȝt.”

  Now Flores resteþ him þ{er}e al nyȝt,
  Tyl on þe morrow þe day was lyȝt;
  He roos on þe morownyng~,
  He gaf~ his Ost an hundryd shelyng~,                   492
  To his ost and to his Ostesse,
  And toke his leue, and feire dide kysse;

    [Floriz go]þ to his rest;
    [On Blaunch]eflur he þoȝte mest.                     120
    Ac reste ne miȝte he habbe none;
    Fort þe dide slep him nome.
    Amoreȝe so sone so hit was day,
    He nem his liue, {and} we{n}de his way.              124

[Sidenote: Floris gives the host a hundred shillings, and asks his

  And ȝerne his ost he besouȝt,
  Þat he him help, ȝif he myȝt ouȝt,                     496
  Ȝif~ he myȝt~, w{i}t{h} any gynne,
  Þat feire may to him wynne.

    And for his niȝtes gestinge
    He ȝaf his oste an hundred schillinge.
    [_No gap in MS._]
    And ȝerne he haþ his oste bisoȝt
    Þ{a}t he him helpe wiþ al his þoȝt,                  128
    In Babilloine, oþ{er} wher a beo,
    Þ{a}t he miȝte hire iseo,
    Hu he miȝte mid sume ginne,
    His le{m}man blau{n}cheflur awinne.                  132
    Þa{n}ne sede þe burgeis,
    Þ{a}t was hende {and} curtais,

      _MS. Cott. Vitell. D. III._

      [Sidenote: [_leaf 7_]]
      . . . . . . . by souht
      . . . . . mid al his mauht
      . . frend in babiloyne hadde
      . . wisede {and} wel radde
      . . . he mihte mid eni ginne
      . . . blancheflour iwinne

[Headnote: _The innkeeper gives Floris instructions._]

  “Childe,” he seide, “to a brygge þ{o}u shalt com{e},
  The Senpere fynde at hoom{e}:                          500
  He woneth at þe brygges ende;
  Curtays man he is, and hende;
  We arn~ bretheren, and trouthes plyȝt:
  He can þe wyssh and rede a-ryȝt;                       504

    At babilloine atte frume,
    To one brigge þu schalt cume.                        136
    Whane þu comest to þe ȝate,
    Þe port{er} þu schalt find þarate.
    Wel hende man {and} fair he is;
    He is icluped sire daris.                            140
    Mi felaȝe he is þureȝ truþe ipliȝt,
    And he kan rede þe ariȝt.

      . . one longe brugge þou schalt come
      . . . ngere finde þer ate frome.
      . . . c is ate brugge ende
      . . . mon he is {and} hende
      . . . breþeren {and} treweþe ipliht
      . . . wisi {and} reden wel riht.

[Sidenote: The innkeeper sends him with a ring of introduction to the
bridge porter at Babylon.]

  Þ{o}u shalt bere him a rynge
  Fro my-self~ to tokenynge,
  Þat he help þe in boure and halle
  As it were my self~ befalle.”                          508
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Florys takeþ þe ryng~, and nemeþ leue,
  For long~ wold~ he nouȝt beleue.

    Haue {and} ber him þis ring,
    On mine halue to tokning,                            144
    Þ{a}t he þe helpe in alle halue,
    Ase he wolde me selue.”
    Floriz herof was wel bliþe,
    And þonkede his oste wel suiþe.                      148
    Feire of him he nimeþ leue;
    No lengur nolde he bileue.

      . . . bere him neseno[FB-3] ring
      . . . . . . to toking
      . . . . . elpe on eche halue
      . . . . . {and} takeþ is leue
      . . . . . . þer by sene

      [Footnote FB-3: ?]

[Sidenote: Floris takes leave, and by midday reaches the bridge and
finds the porter.]

  By þ{a}t it was vndern~ hyȝe,
  Þe Brygge com{e} he swyth nye.                         512
  Þe Senperes name was Darys.
  Florys gret him wel feire ywys,
  And he him þe ryng~ arauȝt,
  And ful feire it him betauȝt.                          516

    Biþ{a}t hit was middai hiȝ,
    Floriz was þe brigge niȝ.                            152
    Þe he com to þe gate
    Þe port{er} he fond anon þ{er}ate,
    Sittinde one a marbelston,
    Suþe fair {and} hende mon,                           156
    And so him sede child floriz,
    “Rest þe m{ur}ie, sire daris,”

      . . . . . . ondarne heyȝ
      . . . . . [bru]gge suiþe neyȝ
      . . . . . þane brugge icome
      . . . . . bruggere ate frome
      . . . . . . . a Marbreston
      . . . . . mon he was on
      . . . . . was of Muchel p{ri}s
      . . . . . . him sulf iwis
      . . . . . ys was i hote doyre
      . . . . . s him grette wel fayre
      . . . . . him þane ri{n}g arauht
      . . . [d] ayre hine him bi tauht

[Headnote: _Floris presents his ring of introduction to Daris._]

[Sidenote: Floris presents the ring, and is hospitably received.]

  Þrouȝ þe token of þ{a}t ilk~ ryng~
  Florys had ful faire gestnyng~
  Off~ Fyssħ and flessh and tender breed~,
  Of~ wyn~, both white and reed~:                        520

    And tok him to tokne þis ring;
    And þ{er}fore he hauede wel fair gestni{n}g.         160
    Glade {and} bliþe hi weren alle,
    So fele so weren in þe halle,

      . . . . þe tockne of þe ringe
      . hadde þ{er} aniht wel gode gistinge
      . . . . b of fles of tendre bred
      . . . . t win {and} eke of red

[Sidenote: Floris sits mourning.]

  And eu{er} Florys sate ful colde,
  And Dares bygan þe Childe beholde:

    Ac floriz net ne dronk noȝt;
    On blau{n}cheflur was al his þoȝt                    164
    Sire daris vnderȝet
    Þ{a}t floriz m{ur}ni{n}ge set.

      . . . . re floyres sike {and} colde
      . . . . gon þ{a}t chil by holde

[Sidenote: Daris asks if he is not pleased with his entertainment.]

  [Sidenote: [104 _b_]]
  “Leue Child, what may þis be,
  Þus þouȝtful as y the see?                             524
  And þ{o}u nouȝt al in feere,
  Þat þ{o}u makist þus sory chere,
  Or þ{o}u lykkest noȝt þis yn~?”

    “Floriz,” he sede, “what mai þe beo,
    So þoȝtful ase ihc þe seo?                           168
    Me þincheþ bi þine chire,
    Þu nert noȝt glad of þi sop{er}e,
    Oþ{er} þe ne likeþ noȝt þis in.”

      . . . . wat may þe be
      . . . . . þe i see
      . . . . . . . uoice al fere
      . . . . . . . . ele chere.
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 7, col. 2_]]
      . . . . . . . . þin in.”

  Þan Floreys answered him~:                             528
  “Ȝis, s{ir}, by goddes ore,
  So good ne had y mony day ȝore:
  God let me abyde þat daye
  Þat y þe quyte wel may:                                532

    Þo floriz ansuerede him:                             172
    “Sire,” he sede, “bi godes ore,
    So god in nauede ihc wel ȝore,
    Vre lou{er}d me lete ibide þe day
    Þ{a}t ihc hit þe ȝulde may.                          176

      Bot floyres onswerede him,
      “Nay, sire, bi godes ore,
      So god nadde [I] wel ȝore.
      God lete me abide þane day
      Þ{a}t ich hit þe ȝelde May.

[Sidenote: Floris tells him, in veiled words, his real trouble.]

  But y þenke on al wyse
  Most vppon~ my marchaundyse;
  [_No gap in MS._]
  And ȝit it is most woo,
  When y hit Fynde, y shal it forgoo.”                   536

    Ihc þenche, sire, on fele wise
    Nu vpon mi marchau{n}dise,
    Last ine finde noȝt atte frume
    Þ{a}t þing for whi ihc am hider icume.               180
    And þeȝ ihc hit finde hit is mi wo
    Lest ihc schulle hit forgo.”

      Ac ich þenche on alle wise
      Vppon mine Marchaundise
      Ware vore ich am hider icome,
      Lest ich ne feynde hit ate frome,
      {and} þ{a}t is ȝet mi meste wo,
      Ȝif ich hit finde {and} hit forgo.

[Sidenote: Daris bids him speak plainly, and Floris speaks out.]

  [_No gap in MS._]
  “Childe, woldest þ{o}u telle me my gryf~,
  To hele þe, me were ful lyf~.”

    Þo sede daris, þe freo burgeis,
    Þ{a}t was wel hende {and} curteis,                   184
    “Fain ihc wolde þe rede {and} lere,
    Þ{a}t þu muche þe bet{er}e were,
    Ȝef þu toldest me þi gref,
    To rede þe me were lef.”                             188

      Child, woldest þou telle me of þi gref
      To helpe þe me were lef.

[Headnote: _Floris tells his story to Daris._]

  Eu{er}y word he haþ him tolde,
  How þe mayde was fro him solde,                        540
  And how he was of~ Spayn~ a kynges son{e},
  For grete loue þider y-com{e},
  To fonde, w{i}t{h} quantyse and w{i}t{h} gyn~,
  Blauncheflo{ur} for to wynne.                          544

    Þo floriz bigan his consail schewe,
    {And} to daris beon iknewe.
    Ord {and} ende he haþ him told,
    Hu blau{n}cheflur was isold,                         192
    And hu he was a kinges sune,
    For hire luue þider icume,
    To fonde þureȝ sume cu{n}nes ginne
    His le{m}ma{n} blau{n}cheflur biwinne.               196

      And now floyres hi{m} haueþ itold
      Hou þ{a}t mayd from him wa sold,
      {and} hou he was of spayne one kinges sone,
      Vor hire loue þider icome.

[Headnote: _Daris begins to tell of the Admiral and the city._]

[Sidenote: Daris takes him to be a fool, and proceeds to tell the
strength of the Admiral and the size of the city.]

  “Now,” seith Dares, “þ{o}u art a Folt,”--
  And For a Foole þe Childe he halt,--
  “Now y woot how it gooth,
  Þ{o}u desirest þyn~ own~ death.                        548
  Þe Amyral haþ to his Iustinges
  Oþ{er} half~ hundred of ryche kinges;
  And þe Alder-rychest king~
  Durst not begynne suche a þing~.                       552

    Daris þa{n}ne floriz bihalt,
    {And} for more þane fol him halt.
    “Floriz,” he sede, “iseo hu hit geþ;
    Þu ert abute þinoȝe deþ.                             200
    Þe Admiral haueþ to his gestninge
    Oþ{er} half hu{n}dred of riche kinges.
    Ne þ{er} nis no{n} so riche king
    Þ{a}t dorste ent{er}met{en} of eni such þing,        204
    Þilke maide to awinne,
    Noþ{er} wiþ strengþe ne wiþ ginne,

      Nou doyres þ{a}t chil[d] by halt,
      {and} for a fol he hine halt.
      “Child, nou ich wot al hou hit geþ;
      Iwis þou welnest þin owene deþ.
      Þe amirel haueþ to his iustninge
      Oþ{er} half hondert of riche kinge,
      Þe alre richeste kinge
      Ne dorste bi ginne swch a þing.

  Ȝif~ Amyral myȝt it vnderstond{e},
  He shulde be drawe in his owne londe,
  A-bout Babyloyne, y wene,
  Six longe myle and tene;                               556
  At eu{er}y myle is a walle þ{er}ate,
  Seuen sithes twenty ȝate;
  And .xx. toures þ{er} ben ynne,
  Þ{a}t eu{er}y day chepyng is ynne;                     560

    And þe Admiral hit miȝte iwite,
    Þ{a}t he n{er}e of his lif aquite.                   208
    And Babilloine, ihc vnderstonde,
    Dureþ abute furte{n}niȝt gonde.
    Abute þe walle þ{er} buþ ate,
    Seuesiþe tuenti ȝates.                               212
    And ine þe bureȝ amidde riȝt
    Beoþ twe tures ipiȝt.

      And mihste þe amirayl hit vnder ȝete,
      Sone of his liue he were quite.
      Aboute babiloyne beþ to ȝonge wiþoute wene,
      Sixti longe Mile {and} tene,
      {and} ate walle þer beþ ate,
      Seuesiþe tuenti ȝate.
      And tueye toures þer beþ inne,
      Þ{a}t þe chepinge is eche day inne.

  Eu{er}y day and nyȝt þrouȝ-out þe ȝere
  Þe Chepyng~ is y-lyche plenere;
  [Sidenote: [105 _a_]]
  And þauȝ al þe men þ{a}t ben bore,
  Had on hur lyf~ swore                                  564
  To wynne þat maide feire and free,
  Al shul þey die, so moot y the.

    Eche day in al þe ȝere
    Þe feire is þ{er} iliche plenere.                    216
    Seue hu{n}dred tures {and} two
    Beoþ in þe burȝ, biþute mo.

      Nis þer day þoruh out þan ȝer,
      Þat þe chepinge is iliche plener.
      Seue hundred tures, wit oute{n} þan tuo,
      Þ[er] beþ in þan boruh {and} somdel mo.
      Þe alre febleste tour
      Nolde nouht duti þe amp{er}ur.

[Headnote: _Description of the maidens’ ‘tower.’_]

[Sidenote: Daris tells of the ‘towers,’ the spring, the wonderful

  In þ{a}t bo{ur}, in mydward pyȝt,
  Stondeþ a toure, y the plyȝt,                          568
  An hundryd fathum~ it is hye,--
  Who-soo beholdeþ hit, fer or nere,
  An hundred fathum it is y-fere;--
  It is made w{i}t{h}-out[en] pere,                      572

    And ine þe burȝ amidde riȝt,
    Beoþ twe t{ur}es ipiȝt,                              220

      Vor to come þer wiþ inne,
      No þ{er} wid stregþe ne wid ginne.
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 7, back_]]
      . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . aȝen woo
      . schal to iwinne þat Mayd al so sone
      . . . . . þe so{n}ne {and} mone.
      . . . þe bor . . mid rift
      . . . . . . . . aplyft
      . . hondred teyse þe to{ur} is heie
      . . . . by halt fur {and} nei.
      {and} an hundret teyse hit is wid,
      {and} imaked wiþ muchel pruid.

  Of lyme and of Marbulston{e};
  In al þis world~ is suche noon{e}.
  Now is þe morter made so wele,
  Ne may it breke, iren ne steele.                       576
  Þe Pomel þat aboue is leide,
  It is made w{i}t{h} muche p{r}ide;

    Of lym {and} of marbelston;
    In þe world nis swich t{ur} non.
    In þe tur þ{er} is a welle,
    Suþe cler hit is wiþ alle.                           224
    He vrneþ in o pipe of bras,
    Whider so hit ned was.
    Fra{m} flore in to flore
    Þe strimes vrneþ store,                              228
    Fram bure in to halle
    Þe st{ri}mes of þis welle.
    In þe tur is o kernel
    Of seluer {and} of crestel.                          232
    On þe tur anouenon
    Is a charbugleston
    Þ{a}t ȝiueþ leme day {and} niȝt,
    Ne bi hit neure so derk niȝt.                        236

      Of lym {and} of marbel ston;
      In cristiante nis swich non.
      Þ{a}t morter is i maked se wel,
      Ne May hit breke ire ne stel.
      And þe pomel about þe lede
      Is i wrouht mit so . . . . .

  Þ{a}t man ne þar in þe Tour bern{e}
  Nouther torcher[FB-4] ne lantern{e};                   580
  Suche a pomel was þ{er} bygo{n}e,
  Hit shyned a nyȝt so doþ þe soone.

  [Footnote FB-4: MS. torther]

    In þe bureȝ ne darf me berne
    Lampe ne torche ne lant{er}ne,
    Þ{a}t he ne ȝiueþ liȝt {and} leme
    As doþ a day þe su{n}ne beme.                        240

      Ne þarf me aniht . . . . .
      Nouþer torche . . . . . .
      . . . . . a pomel . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .

[Headnote: _How the maidens are guarded._]

[Sidenote: the porter on guard,]

  [_No gap in MS._]

    Þ{e} port{er} is prud wiþalle;
    Eche day he goþ on þe walle.
    And ef þ{er} comeþ eniman
    Biþi{n}ne þilke barbecan,                            244
    Bute he him ȝeue leue,
    He wule him boþe bete {and} reue.
    Þe port{er} is culuart {and} felun;
    He wule him sette areisun.                           248

[Sidenote: and the forty-four maidens kept in the ‘high tower.’]

  Now arn~ in þat ilk~ Tour
  Twoo and fourty nobełł boure;                          584
  Wel were þat ilke man
  Þ{a}t myȝt woon{e} in þ{a}t oon~!
  Ne durst him neu{er} more ywys
  Couete after more blysse.                              588

    “Þer buþ in þe hiȝe tur
    Forti Maidenes {and} four.
    Wel were þ{a}t ilke mon
    Þ{a}t miȝte winne wiþ þ{a}t on.                      252
    Ne þorte he neure ful iwis
    Wilne more of p{ar}adis.

      . . . . . beþ in þan . .
      Foure {and} fourti . . . . .
      [Þ]at wel were þ{a}t ilke . . .
      . . Mihte wonie . . . . .
      [_About twenty lines illegible here._]

  Naw arn~ þer Seriauntes in þ{a}t stage
  Þ{a}t s{er}uen þe maydons of hyȝe p{ar}age;
  But no s{er}ieaunt may s{er}ue þ{er}ynne
  Þ{a}t bereþ in his breche þat gynne                    592
  To s{er}ue hem day and nyȝt,
  But he be as a Capou{n} dyȝt.
  At þe gate is a ȝateward~;
  He is not a Coward~;                                   596
  He is wonder proude w{i}t{h} alle;
  Eu{er}y day he goþ in ryche palle.

    Þ{er} buþ seriau{n}s in þe stage
    Þ{a}t s{er}ueþ þe maidenes of p{ar}age.              256
    Ac ne mot þ{er} no{n} ben inne
    Þ{a}t one þe breche bereþ þe ginne,
    Noþ{er} bi daie ne biniȝt,
    Bute he also capun beo idiȝt.                        260

[Sidenote: The Admiral takes a new wife each year.]

  And þe Amyral haþ a wonder woon~,
  Þ{a}t he þ{a}t is com{e} of cristendom{e},             600
  Euery ȝere to haue a new wyf~,
  Þen he loueþ his Queene as his lyf~.

    And þe Admiral is such a gume,
    In al þe world nis such a sune.
    Ne bu his wife neure so schene,
    Bute o ȝer ne schal heo beon his q{ue}ne.            264
    Þeȝ heo luue him ase hire lif,
    Þ{a}t he nele habbe anoþ{er} wif.
    And, floriz, imai þe telle fore,
    Heo schal beon his quene icore.                      268

      Neuer . . [_leaf 7, back, col. 2_]
      To chesen hire . . . . . .
      Þeyȝ he louede is quene . . .

[Headnote: _Description of the wonderful orchard._]

[Sidenote: The maidens are brought down into a beautiful orchard in
which is a marvellous spring and a wonderful tree.]

  [Sidenote: [105 _b_]]
  Then shul men bryng{e} doun~ of þe Toure
  Al þe Maidens of grete honour,                         604
  And bryng{e} hem into an Orchard~,
  Þe feirest of al mydlerd~:
  Þeryn is mony fowles song~;
  Men myȝt leue þ{er}yn ful long~:                       608
  About þe Orchard is a walle,--
  Þe fowlest stone is Cristall{e},--

    Alle þe maidenes of p{ar}age
    Me schal bringe adu{n} of þe stage,
    And leden he{m} in to on orchard,
    Þe faireste of al þe Middellerd.                     272
    Abute þe orchard is a wal;
    Þe eþelikeste ston is cristal.
    Ho so wonede a moneþ in þ{a}t spray,
    Nolde him neure longe{n} away.                       276
    So m{er}ie is þ{er}i{n}ne þe foȝeles song,
    Þ{a}t ioie {and} blisse is eure among.

      Me schul fecche adoun of þe . .
      Alle þe maydenes of parage.
      {and} bringe hem in on orcharde
      Þe fayreste of þe middel[erd].
      Þer is fowelene song
      Ne mihte wel libbe hem a[mong]
      Abute þan orchard is a wa[l] .
      Su{m}me of þe stones be . . .
      Þ{er} me may ise uppon a . . .
      I write muchel of þe w . . .

  And a wełł spryngeþ þ{er}ynne,
  Þ{a}t is made w{i}t{h} muche gynne;                    612
  Þe wel is of~ muche prys,
  Þe stremes com froo P{ar}adyse;
  Þe grauel of~ þe ground is p{re}cious stoones,
  And al of v{er}tu for þe noones.                       616
  Now is þe wełł of much{e} auȝt;

    In þe orchard is a welle
    Þ{a}t is suþe cler wiþ alle.                         280
    Ihc mai seggen iwis,
    Þe st{ri}mes comeþ f{ra}m p{ar}adis.
    For in þe st{ri}mes þe smale stones,
    Hi beoþ þ{er} funden eurech one,                     284

      And a welle þ{a}t springeþ . . .
      Þ{a}t is i mad mid muchel . . .
      Þis welle is . . Muchel
      Þ{a}t grauel bi þe . . . . .
      And of v . eu . . . .
      Of safir . . {and} of . . .
      Of omcie {and} of . . . . .
      Þe welle is al . . . . . .

[Headnote: _The marvellous spring and marvellous tree._]

[Sidenote: If any maiden, who is not a virgin, approach the spring, the
water boils up as if mad.]

  Ȝif a woman com þ{a}t is for-lauȝt,
  And she be doo to þe streeme
  For to wesshe her honndes clene,                       620
  Þe wat{er} wylle ȝelle as it were wood~,
  And bycom{e} red as blood~.
  On what maide þe water fareþ soo,
  Sone she shal to deþ be doo.                           624
  Þoo þat ben maidens clene,
  Þey may wessh{e} þ{er}yn, y wene;
  Þe water wołł stonde feire and clere;
  To hem makeþ it no daungere.                           628
  At þe walles hed stondeþ a tree,
  Þe feirest þat on erthe may be;
  It is cleped þe tree of loue:
  Flowers and blossomes spryngen aboue;                  632

[Sidenote: The maiden upon whom first falls a blossom from this tree is
chosen queen.]

  Þen þey þat maydons clene bene,
  Þei shul be brouȝt vnder þe tren{e},
  And whicħ so falleþ þe floure,
  Shal be queene w{i}t{h} muche hono{ur}.                636

    Boþe saphirs {and} sardoines,
    And suþþe riche cassidoines,
    And Iacinctes and topaces,
    And onicle of muchel g{ra}ce,                        288
    And mani on oþ{er} direwerþe ston
    Þ{a}t ich nu ne{m}pne ne can.
    Aboue þe walle stant atreo
    Þ{a}t faireste þ{a}t miȝte in erþe beo.              292
    Hit is ihote þe treo of luue,
    For lef {and} blosme beoþ þ{er} buue.
    So sone so þe olde beoþ idon,
    Þer sp{ri}ngeþ niwe riȝt anon.                       296
    Alle þilke þ{a}t clene maidenes beo,
    Schulle sitte arewe vnder þat treo;
    And which falleþ on þ{a}t furste flur
    Schal beo q{ue}ne {and} fonge þonur.                 300
    Ȝef þ{er} is eni maide forleie,
    Þe wal is of so muchel eie,
    An heo stepe to þe gru{n}de,
    For to wassche hire honde,                           304
    Ha bulmeþ vp so he were wod,
    {And} chau{n}geþ f{ra}m wat{er} in to blod.
    On wuche þe welle fareþ so,
    Also suiþe he wurþ fordo.                            308

      Ȝif þer come . . . . . . .
      . . . ho . . . . . . .
      For . . . . . . . . .
      . . w . . wele . . . .
      . . come al so . . . . .
      . . wlyche w . . . . .
      Wel sone . . . . . . .
      Alle þ{a}t . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . wole . . . . . .

      [_About nine more lines illegible. Several folios lost here._]

  [_No gap in MS._]
  Ȝif~ any mayden þ{er} is
  Þat þe Amyral telleþ of~ more p{r}is,
  Þe flour shal be to her sent
  Þrouȝ art of~ enchauntement.                           640

    Ac ȝef þ{er} eni maide{n} is,
    Þ{at} þe Admiral luueþ mest of pris,
    On hire schal beo þ{at} flur i went,
    Þureȝ c{on}iureson {and} chau{n}tem{en}t.            312

  Þe Amyral cheseþ hem by þe flo{ur},
  And euer he herkeneþ after Blauncheflo{ur}.
  [Sidenote: [106 _a_]]
  Thre sithes Flores sownyd anoon~
  Riȝt byfore hem eu{er}ychoon~:                         644
  When he awoke, and speke myȝt~,
  Sore he wept, and sore he syȝt,

    Þus he cheoseþ his wif þureȝ þe flur;
    Alle weneþ hit schulle beo blau{n}cheflur.”
    Ihc wene ne darf me axi noȝt
    If floriz were of dreri þoȝt.                        316

[Headnote: _Daris suggests to Floris a plan._]

[Sidenote: Floris implores the aid of Daris.]

  And seide, “Dares, y worth now deed~,
  But þ{a}t y hope of þe som reed~.”                     648
  “Leue soon~, wyl ȝe see
  Þat þy trust is muche on me;
  Þen is þe best~ reed þat y can~--
  Other reed ne can y noon~--                            652

    “Daris,” he sede, “ihc wurthe ded
    Bute if þu do me summe red.”
    Þa{n}ne se Daris, þe freo burgeis,
    Þ{a}t was wel he{n}de {and} c{ur}teis,               320
    “Floriz,” he sede, “leue man,
    Þe beste red þ{a}t ihc þe can,

[Sidenote: Daris bids him go, disguised as a mason, to the tower,]

  Wende to-morn~ to þe toure
  As þ{o}u were a good gynoure;
  Take on þy honde squyer and scantlon~
  As þ{o}u were a free mason~;                           656
  Behold~ þe to{ur} vp and doun~,
  Þe porter is cruel and Feloun~;
  Wel sone he wyl com{e} to the,
  And aske what man{er} man þ{o}u be,                    660
  And bere on þe, Felonye,
  And sey þ{o}u art com{e} to be a spye.

    Wend tomoreȝe to þe Tur,
    Also þu were a gud ginnur.                           324
    Ber wiþ þe sq{ui}re {and} schau{n}tillun,
    Also þu were a gud Mascun.
    Bihold of þe ture þe hiȝhede,
    And wiþ þi fot met þe brede.                         328
    Þe port{er} is culuert {and} felun;
    Forþ he wule sette{n} his resun,
    And bere vpon þe felonie,
    And segge þ{a}t þu art a spie.                       332

  And þow shalt~ answere swetlych{e},
  And sey to him myldelych{e},                           664
  Sey þ{o}u art a gynoure,
  To beholde þat feire Toure,
  For to loke and for to fonde
  To make suche another in þy londe.                     668

    Ansuare him wel hendeliche,
    And spek wiþ him wel sueteliche,
    And seie þert icome fra{m} ferre{n} lo{n}de,
    For to seche {and} for to fonde,                     336

[Sidenote: and induce the porter to play at draughts.]

  [_No gap in MS._]
  Wel sone he wyl com þe nere,
  And wyl byd þe play at þe chekere.
  When þ{o}u art at cheker brouȝt,
  W{i}t{h}out seluer [be] þ{o}u nouȝt;                   672
  Þou shalt haue redy w{i}t{h} the
  XX. Marke beside þy knee;

    If mi lif so longe ilast,
    To makie atur aft{er} þis cast,
    In þine londe ate frume
    Wha{n}ne þu ert hom icume.                           340
    Whane he þe hireþ speke so he{n}deliche,
    And ansuerie so sueteliche,
    Þe{n}ne he wule come þe nier,
    And bidde þe pleie at þe escheker.                   344
    Whane þescheker is forþ ibroȝt
    Biþute panes ne plei þu noȝt.
    Þu most habbe redi mitte
    Twenti Marc ine þi slitte.                           348

  Ȝif~ þou wynne ouȝt of~ his,
  Þow tel þ{er}of~ lytel prys;                           676
  And yf~ he wynne ouȝt of~ þyn~,
  loke þow leue it with hym~;
  So þ{o}u shalt, al w{i}t{h} gynne,
  Þe porters loue forsoth wynne,                         680
  Þ{a}t he þe help on þis day:
  But he þe help{e}, no man may.

    Þeȝ þu biwi{n}ne oȝt of his,
    Hold hit of wel litel pris.
    If he biwi{n}neþ oȝt of þe,
    Ȝif hi{m} of þine suche þre.                         352
    Muche he wule þonki þe
    And of þe suþe iwu{n}dred beo,
    For he is suþe couet{us},
    And at þescheker enuius.                             356

[Headnote: _Details of the plan._]

[Sidenote: Manage him so as to secure an invitation for the morrow.]

  [Sidenote: [106 _b_]]
  Wel ȝerne he wyl þe bydde and p{ra}y
  Com{e} anoþer day to playe:                            684
  Þ{o}u shalt seye þ{o}u wylt soo;
  Þ{o}u shalt take w{i}t{h} þe suche twoo;

    Ȝerne he wile þe bidde {and} p{re}ie
    Þ{a}t þu come amoreȝe {and} pleie.
    G{ra}nte hi{m} þ{a}t þu wilt so,
    And tak mid amoreȝe suche two.                       360

  [_No gap in MS._]
  Þe þrydde day take an hundred pound~,

    And wel þi nedes for to do
    Þ{a}t þridde day þu wend hi{m} to,
    And ber wiþ þe forti pund,

[Sidenote: Show him your cup, and he will be greedy for it.]

  And þy Coupe hool and sound~:                          688
  Ȝeue him markes & pound{es} of þy male;
  Of~ þy tresour tel þ{o}u no tale;
  Wel ȝerne he wyl þe bydde and p{ra}y
  To lay þy Coupe, and to play.                          692
  Þ{o}u shalt answere alþ{er}first,
  Lenger to play þe ne lyst.
  Ful muche he wylle for þe Coupe bede,
  Ȝif~ he myȝt þe better spede;                          696

    And þine cupe hol {and} sund.                        364
    Wha{n}ne þu lest lest him þe cupe iseo,
    Wel angussus he wile beo.
    He wile beo wel coveitus,
    And hire to bigge suþe fus.                          368
    Muchel he þe wule beode
    If him miȝte þe bet{er}e spede.
    Ihc wot he wille þilke day
    Hon{ur}e þe so muche so he may.                      372

[Sidenote: At length give him the cup.]

  Þ{o}u shalt it blethly ȝeue him
  Ȝif it be of~ gold fyne;
  And he wol ful moche loue þe,
  And to þe bowe also, p{ar}de,                          700

    He wule þe lede to his i{n}ne
    Þe cupe of þe to biwi{n}ne.
    Ȝerne he wule þe bidde and p{re}ie
    Þ{a}t þu legge þe cupe to pleie.                     376
    Þu hi{m} ansuere atte furste,
    Þ{a}t no leng pleie þe ne luste.
    Ansuere hi{m} wel he{n}deliche,
    ‘Þin beo þe cupe,’ seie bluþeliche.                  380
    For his gode co{m}paygnie
    A wu{n}ne he haþ þi druerie.

  [_No gap in MS._]

    Ihc wot þ{a}t he mai alrebest
    Of þine neode helpe þe mest.                         384
    Þu miȝt segge, ‘þe ne faileþ non
    Gold ne selu{er} ne riche won.’
    Seie þu wilt p{ar}te wiþ him of þan,
    Þ{a}t he schal eure beo riche man.                   388
    Whanne he hereþ þe speke so richeliche,
    And ansuerie so hendeliche,
    Þa{n}ne he wile beo wel bliþe,
    And bigi{n}ne to luuie þe suiþe,                     392

[Sidenote: Promise him unlimited gold and silver if he will aid you. He
will then fall at your feet and be your man.]

  Þat he wyl falle to þy foote,
  And become þyn~, ȝif~ he moote.
  And homage þ{o}u shalt fonge,
  And þe trouþ of his honde.”                            704

    And falle he wile to þi fote,
    And bicome þi man, if he mote.
    His ma{n}rede þu schalt fonge,
    And his truþe of his ho{n}de,                        396
    Þ{a}t he þe bere al þe helde
    Þ{a}t man schal to his lou{er}d ȝelde.
    And þus þureȝ þe cupe and his gi{n}ne
    Þu miȝt þi le{m}man best awi{n}ne.                   400
    Þa{n}ne þu miȝt beon iknewe,
    And þi cu{n}sail to hi{m} schewe.”

[Headnote: _By this plan Floris wins over the ‘porter.’_]

  As he seide, he dide ywys;
  And as he ordeynd, so it is:
  Þe Porter ys Florys man bycom{e},
  For his gold~ and his waryson{e}.                      708

    And alþus floris hath iwroȝt,
    As daris hi{m} haþ itaȝt.                            404
    Ac þureþ (_sic_) þe cupe {and} þureȝ g{er}sume,
    Þe port{er} is his man bicume.

[Sidenote: Then reveal to him your wishes.]

  Florys seide, “now art þ{o}u my moon~,
  Al my trust is þe vppon~;
  Now my consel y wyl þe shewe;
  Rede me ryȝt, ȝif~ þ{o}u be trew.”                     712

    ¶ Nu quaþ floriz, “þu art mi man;
    Al mi trest is þe vpon.                              408
    Þ{er}uore þu most me helpe nede;
    Biþute þe ne mai me spede.”

[Sidenote: Floris acts as advised, and discloses his identity.]

  Now eu{er}y word he haþ him tolde,
  How þe mayde was fro him sholde,
  And how he was of~ Spayn~ a kynges soon~,
  For grete loue þeder ycoom~                            716
  To fonden, w{i}t{h} som{e} gynne,
  Þat feire mayde for to wynne.

    Ord {and} ende he haþ him told,
    Hu þ{a}t maide was isold,                            412
    And hu he was of spaygne a kinges sune,
    For hire luue he was þider icume,
    To fo{n}de mid sume ku{n}nes ginne,
    Hu he miȝte hire awinne.                             416

[Headnote: _The porter covers Floris in a basket of flowers._]

[Sidenote: The porter at first reproaches himself, but presently
promises his aid.]

  Þe Porter þat herde, and sore syȝt,
  And seide, “y am betrayde aryȝt;                       720
  Þrouȝ þy Catel, y am dismayde;
  Þerfore y am wel euyl a-payde
  [Sidenote: [107 _a_]]
  Now y woot how it gooþ;
  For þe shal y suffre deth;                             724
  I shal þe faile neuer moo,
  Þe while y may ryde and goo;
  Þy forwardes shal y holde alle,
  What-so-eu{er} may befalle.                            728

    I-wend nu, floriz, to þin i{n}ne,
    While i biþenche of sume gi{n}ne.                    428
    Ihc wulle fonde what ido may
    Bituene þis {and} þe þ{ri}dde day.”
    Floriz siȝte {and} weop among
    Þulke t{er}me him þuȝte long.                        432
    ++ÞE port{er} þoȝte what to rede;
    He let flures gadere on þe mede.
    Cupen he let fulle of flures,
    To strawe{n} in þe maidenes bures.                   436

  Wynde now hoom~ to þyn~) ynne
  While y beþenke me of su{m} gynne;
  Bytwene þis and þe þrydde day.
  Fonde y shal, what y do may.                           732
  Flores spake and wept among{e}
  And þouȝt þe terme al to long{e}.
  Þe Porter þouȝt þe best reed,
  And let geder floures in a meed~;                      736
  He wist it was þe maydons wylle.
  To lepes he lete of floures fylle:

    Þo þe port{er} iherde þis, he siȝte,
    “Ihc am,” he sede, “bitraid wiþ riȝte,
    Þ{a}t þureȝ þis cupe {and} þis g{er}sume
    Ihc am nu þi man bicume.                             420
    Nu ihc seo hu hit geþ;
    For þe ihc drede þolien deþ.
    Noȝt for þan while ihc mai go,
    I ne schal þe failli neure mo.                       424
    What me bitide oþ{er} bifalle,
    Ihc schal þe foreward holde{n} alle.

[Sidenote: He covers Floris in a basket of flowers, which is borne

  Þat was þe best reed, as him þouȝt þoo,
  Floures in þat oon~ lep to doo.                        740
  Twoo maydens þe lepe bore;
  So heuy charged neuer þey wore,
  And bade god ȝeue hem euyl fyn{e};
  To mony floures he dide þ{er}ynne.                     744

    Þ{a}t was his red to helpe him so;
    He let floriz on þ{a}t on cupe go.
    Tuei gegges þe cupe bere,
    And for heuie wroþ hi were.                          440
    Hi bede{n} God ȝiue hi{m} vuel fin,
    Þ{a}t so manie flures dude þ{er}in.

  To Blaunchefloures Chamber þey shuld{e} tee;
  Þey ȝede to anoþ{er}, and let þ{a}t be:
  Þey shuld haue gon{e} to Blauncheflo{ur},
  And ȝede to swete Clarys boure,                        748

    To þe chau{m}bre þ{er} hi scholde go,
    Ne ȝeden hi ariȝt no.                                444
    To anoþ{er} chau{m}bre hi beoþ agon,
    To blau{n}cheflures chau{m}bre no{n}.

[Sidenote: Floris mistakes another maiden for Blauncheflur and leaps

  And cursed him so fele brouȝt to honde;
  Þey ȝede hoom~, and lete hem stonde.
  Clarys to þe lepe com{e} wolde,
  Þe Flores to hondel and to be-holde;                   752
  Florys wende it hadde be his swete wyȝt;
  Of~ þe lepe he stert vpryȝt;

    Þe cupe hi sette to þe grunde,
    And goþ forþ {and} leteȝ hire stonde.                448
    O maiden com {and} wolde
    Þe flures handlen {and} biholde.
    Floriz we{n}de hit were his swete wiȝt;
    Vt of þe cupe he lep ariȝt;                          452

[Sidenote: The maiden cries out.]

  And þe mayde, al for drede,
  Bygan to shrell{e} and to grede.                       756

    And þ{a}t maide, for þe drede,
    Bigan to crie {and} to grede.

[Sidenote: Floris covers himself again.]

  When he sawȝ it was not shee,
  In-to þe lepe aȝen~ stert he,
  And held~ him betrayde clene;
  Of~ his lyf~ tolde he not a beene.                     760

    Þo nuste floriz what to rede,
    For þe ferlich þ{a}t he hadde.                       456
    Into þe cupe he sterte aȝen,
    And wiþ þe flures he hudde him.
    Þis maide þoȝte anon riȝt
    Þ{a}t hit was floriz, þ{a}t suete wiȝt,              460
    For here chau{m}bres niȝ were;
    Selde was þ{a}t hi togadere nere;
    And ofte blau{n}cheflur hire hadde itold
    Hu heo was fram him isold.                           464

[Headnote: _Claris discovers Floris._]

  Þ{er} com{e} maydons, and to Clarys lepe
  by ten, by twelf~, on an heepe
  [Sidenote: [107 _b_]]
  And þey asked what hur were,
  And why she made suche a bere.                         764
  Clarys byþouȝt hur anoon{e}ryȝt
  Þ{a}t hit was Blauncheflo{ur} þe white,

    Nu Maidenes comeþ in to hire lepe,
    Wei fiftene in on hepe,
    And axede hire what hire were,
    And whi heo makede suche bere.                       468
    Wel heo was biþoȝt {and} whare,
    To finde{n} he{m} ansuare.

[Sidenote: The maiden conceals the fact by a clever story.]

  And gaue þe Maydons answere anoon~,
  Þat to her Chamber were goon~,                         768
  Þat to þe lepe com{e} she wold{e},
  Þe Flowres to hondel and to beholde;
  “And, or y it ere wyst,
  An Ott{er} fleyȝ a-geynst my brest:                    772
  I was so soore a-drad þan,
  Þ{a}t y loude crye can.”
  Þe Maydons þ{er}of~ hadden glee,
  And turned hem, and lete hur be.                       776

    [_No gap in MS._]
    “To þe cupe,” heo sede, “ihc com {and} wolde
    Þis flures handlen {and} biholde,                    472
    Þer fliste vt a but{er}fliȝe,
    Are ihc wiste, on min iȝe.
    So sore ihc was offerd of þan,
    Þ{a}t ihc crie bigan.”                               476
    Þis oþ{er}e loȝen {and} hadde gleo,
    And goþ aȝen {and} leteþ beo.

[Sidenote: Claris bids Blauncheflur come see a ‘well fair flower.’]

  As sone as þe maydons were gon~,
  To Blauncheflo{ur} she ȝede anoon~,
  And seide boldly to Blauncheflo{ur},
  “Felow, com{e} and see a feire Flo{ur}!                780
  Suche a flo{ur} þe shal wel lyke,
  Haue þ{o}u it sene a lyte.”

    ++CLarice hatte þ{a}t maide hende:
    To blau{n}cheflures chau{m}bre heo ga{n} we{n}de,    480
    And sede, “suete blau{n}cheflur,
    Wiltu seo a wel fair flur?
    Hit ne greu noȝt on þis londe,
    Þat flur þ{a}t ihc bringe þe to honde.”              484

[Sidenote: Blauncheflur bids Claris depart, and reproaches Floris for
his inconstancy.]

  “Awey, Clarys!” q{uo}d Blauncheflo{ur};
  “To scorne me, it is none honoure.                     784
  [_No gap in MS._]
  I here, Clarys, w{i}t{h}out gabbe,
  Þat þe Amyral wyl me to wyf~ habbe;

    “Away, Clariz,” quaþ blancheflur;
    “Ho þ{a}t luueþ p{ar} amur
    And haþ þ{er} of ioye, mai luue flures;
    Ac ic libbe in soreȝe in þis tures,                  488
    For ihc wene bithute gabbe,
    Þ{a}t þe Admiral me wule habbe.

  But þ{a}t day shal neuer be,
  Þ{a}t he shal eu{er} haue me,                          788
  Þ{a}t y shal be of~ loue so vntrewe,
  Ne chaunge my loue for no newe;
  For no loue, ne for noon~ aye,
  Forsake Florys in his Contraye.                        792
  Now y shal swete Florys mysse,
  Ne shal noon~ other of me haue blysse.”

    Ac þilke day ne schal neure be;
    Ne schal me neure at-wite me,                        492
    Þ{a}t ihc beo of luue vntrewe,
    Ne chau{n}ge luue for no newe,
    Ne lete þe olde for no newe be,
    So doþ floriz on his Contre.                         496
    Ac þeȝ floriz forȝe me,
    Ne schal ihc neure forȝete þe.”

[Headnote: _Claris brings Blauncheflur to Floris._]

[Sidenote: Claris further urges Blauncheflur, who at length comes.]

  Clarys stood and beheld þat rewth,
  And þe trewnesse of~ hur trewth,                       796
  And seide, “lady Blaunchefloure,
  Goo we see þ{a}t ilk~ floure.”

    Clariz iherde þes ille reuþe,
    Of trewnesse {and} of trewþe.                        500
    Þe t{er}res glide of hire lere;
    “Blau{n}cheflur,” he sede, “go we ifere,
    Leue suete blau{n}cheflur,
    Cu{m} {and} se a well fair flur.”                    504

  To þe lepe þey went both.
  Ioyful man was Florys þoo,                             800
  For he had herde al þis.

    To gedere hi goþ nu iwis,
    And floriz haþ iherd al þis.

[Sidenote: Floris springs forth, and they embrace one another.]

  Of~ þ{a}t lepe he stert y-wys:
  [Sidenote: [108 _a_]]
  Wel sone Blauncheflo{ur} chaunged hewe;
  Ayther of~ hem other knewe:                            804
  W{i}t{h}oute speche togeder þey lepe,
  And klippt~ and kyst~ wonder swete.

    Vt of þe cupe he lep anon,
    {And} to blau{n}cheflur he gan gon.                  508
    Eiþ{er} oþ{er} sone ikneu;
    Boþe nuþe hi chau{n}geþ heu.
    To gadere wiþute word hi lepen,
    Klepte {and} keste {and} eke weopen                  512
    Here kessinge ileste a mile;
    And þ{a}t he{m} þuȝte litel while.

[Headnote: _Joyful reunion of the lovers._]

[Sidenote: Claris asks Blauncheflur if she knows this flower.]

  Clarys beheld~ al this,
  Her countenaunce and her blysse,                       808
  And seide þen to Blaunchefloure,
  “Felow, knowist þ{o}u auȝt þis flo{ur}?
  [_No gap in MS._]
  She shul konne ful muche of~ Art
  Þat þ{o}u woldest þ{er}of~ geue part~.”                812

    Clarice biheold al þis,
    Here cu{n}tenau{n}ce {and} here blis.                516
    Seide Clarice to blau{n}cheflur,
    “Knowestu oȝt ȝete þis flur?
    A litel er þu noldest hit se;
    Nu ne miȝte hit lete fram þe.                        520
    He moste ku{n}ne muchel of art
    Þ{a}t þu woldest ȝeue þ{er} of part.”
    “Certes,” q{ua}þ blau{n}cheflur to Clariz,
    “Þis is min oȝene suete floriz.”                     524

      [_MS. lf. 8: Fr. p. 32, l. 522._]
      . . . . wel muchel of art
      . . woldest ȝeue þer of eny part.
      . . . . de blancheflur to clarise
      . . . min owene leue floyres

[Sidenote: Both beg Claris not to betray them.]

  Now Blauncheflo{ur} and Florys,
  Boþ þese swete þinges ywys,
  Cryen her m{er}cy, al wepyng~,
  Þat she ne wrey hem to þe king~.                       816

    Nu boþe tuo, þes suete þinges,
    Crieþ hire m{er}ci, al wepinge,
    To þe Admiral þ{a}t hem ne wreie,
    For þe{n}ne were here soreȝe niwe.                   528

      . . . . þis ilke swete þinges
      . . . . clarisse merci . .
      Vnto þe amyrayl noȝt ne wreye
      . . . . . . scholden deȝe

[Sidenote: Claris promises silence.]

  [_No gap in MS._]
  “Ne douȝt no more of~ me in alle,
  Þan it were myself~ byfalle.
  Wete ȝe wel weturly,
  Heele y wyl ȝoure drury.”                              820

    Clarice hadde of hem pite;
    “Noþing,” heo sede, “ne dute ȝe,
    Ne dute ȝe na{m}more wiþ alle,
    Þ{a}t hit were to me bifalle.                        532
    Hele ihc wulle {and} noþing wreie,
    Ower beire cu{m}paignie.”

      . . . . . namore mid alle
      . . . hit were to me by falle
      . . . . . wel wytterli
      . . . . . beyre drewori

  To a bedde þey ben brouȝt,
  Þat is of palle and of~ sylke wrouȝt;
  And þ{er}e þey sette hem doun~
  And drouȝ hem self~ al a room~:                        824

    Clarice he{m} haþ to bedde ibroȝt,
    Þ{a}t was of pal {and} selc iwroȝt.                  536
    In bedde heo broȝte he{m} adun,
    An hure self we{n}de he{m} fram.

      . . bedde heo hem haueþ ibrouȝt
      . . selk {and} pal i wrouht
      . . heo sette hem þer adou{n}
      . . . . . . wende aroum
      . . . more bote cluppe {and} cusse
      . . . blancheflur hit wiste

[Sidenote: The two rejoice together greatly.]

  Þ{er} was no man þ{a}t myȝt radde
  Þe ioye þ{a}t þey twoo madde.
  Florys þen to speke bygan~,
  And seide, “lord þat madest man,                       828
  I it þonke goddes sone
  Þat al my care I haue ou{er}com{e};
  Now my leue I haue y-founde,
  Of~ al my care y am vnbounde.”                         832

    [_No gap in MS._]
    Þo floriz furst speke bigan.
    “Vre lou{er}d,” he sede, “þ{a}t makedest man,        540
    Þe ihc þonki, godes sune,
    Þ{a}t ihc am to mi leof icume.
    Mi leof, nu ihc habbe þe ifunde,
    Of al mi care ihc am vnbu{n}de.”                     544

      . . . . formest speke bigon
      . . . d þ{a}t makedest mon
      . . . . nou godes sone
      . . . . he is ouer [c]ome
      . . . . habbe ifounde
      . . . . . am vnbounde

[Headnote: _The maidens are at mornings to assist at the ‘Admiral’s’

  Clarys hem s{er}uyd al at wylle,
  Boþ dernlyche and stylle.
  ++cLarys w{i}t{h} þe white syde
  Rose vp on morn{e} tyde,                               836
  And cleped after Blaunchefloure
  To wende w{i}t{h} him in to þe Toure:
  She seide “y am co{m}maund~”;
  But her answere was slepaund~.                         840

    Nu aiþ{er} haþ oþ{er} itold
    Of here soreȝe {and} care cold,
    Þ{a}t hi hadde ifunde bo
    Suþþe hi were ideld atuo.                            548
    Nu hi cluppeþ and cusseþ
    And makeþ togadere muchel blisse.
    If þ{er} was aȝt bute custe,
    Swete blau{n}cheflur hit wiste.                      552
    Non oþ{er} heuene hi ne bede,
    Bute eure swich lif to lede.
    Ac lo{n}ge ne miȝte hi hem wite
    Þ{a}t hi neren vnderȝete.                            556

      . . . . . oþer haueþ told
      . . . . . kare ful cold
      . . . . . me wel stronge
      . . . . . rt so longe
      . . . . . serueþ al to wille
      . . . . [dern]eliche {and} stille
      . . . . heo noȝh longe wite
      . . . . eren vnder ȝete

[Sidenote: Each morning two maidens went to the Admiral’s tower to comb
his hair and wash his hands,--]

  Þe Amyral had such a woon{e},
  Þ{a}t eu{er}y day shulde com{e}
  [Sidenote: [108 _b_]]
  Twoo maydons of~ hur bo{ur}
  Vp to him in to þe Toure,                              844
  [_No gap in MS._]
  W{i}t{h} water and clooth, and basyn~,
  For to wesshe his hondes ynne:

    Vor þe Admiral hadde such a wune,
    Ehc moretid þer moste cume
    Tuo maidenes wiþ muchel hon{ur}
    Into þe heȝeste Tur,                                 560
    Þ{a}t were feire {and} suþe hende,
    Þ{a}t on his heued for to kembe,
    Þ{a}t [oþer] bringe towaille {and} bacin,
    For to wasse his honden in.                          564

[Sidenote: but especially often, Claris and Blauncheflur.]

  Þat day þey s{er}uyd him feire;
  Anoþer day com{e} another peire;                       848
  But most were wonyd into þe Toure,
  Clarys and Blauncheflo{ur}.

    Swiche him s{er}ueþ a day so faire;
    Amoreȝe moste anoþ{er} peire.
    Ac mest were iwuned in to þe tur
    Maide Clariz {and} blau{n}cheflur.                   568

      . . . . wel hire mote bi tide
      . . . . . amorewe tide
      . . . . . ed blanche flur
      . . . . hire in to þan to{u}r
      . . . . ich am cominge
      . . . . . was slepinge

[Headnote: _Claris invents an excuse for Blauncheflur’s absence._]

[Sidenote: The next morning Claris calls Blauncheflur, but she falls
asleep again.]

  Clarys com{e} þenne aloon~:
  Þe Amyral asked a-noon~,                               852
  [_No gap in MS._]
  “Where is Blauncheflo{ur} so free?
  Why comeþ she not heder w{i}t{h} þe?”

    Clarice, ioie mote hire bitide,
    Aros vp in þe moreȝentide,
    And haþ icluped blau{n}cheflur
    To go wiþ hire in to þe tur.                         572
    Q{ua}þ blau{n}cheflur, “ihc am cominge.”
    Ac heo hit sede al slepinge.
    Clariz co{m} i{n} to þe Tur;
    Þe Admiral axede blau{n}cheflur.                     576

      . . . . . . ane wine
      . . . . . . . . come
      . . . . of herd . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 8, col. 2_]]
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      Þe amiral askede blanche[flur]

[Sidenote: Claris invents an ingenious excuse for her.]

  “Sir,” she seide anoon~ ryȝt,
  “She haþ wakyd al þis nyȝt,                            856
  And y-cryde and y-loke
  And y-redde on hur booke,
  And y-bede to god her orysou{n}
  Þat he geue þe his benysou{n},                         860
  And þat he holde long~ þy lyf~;
  And now þe mayde slepeþ swyth;
  She slepeþ so fast, þ{a}t mayde swete,
  Þat she may not com ȝete.”                             864

    “Sire, Alniȝt heo set at hire boke,
    And haþ þ{er}on irad {and} loke,
    And þ{er}on ibede hire oresun,
    Þ{a}t god, þ{a}t þolede passiun,                     580
    Þe holde, sire, longe aliue;
    And nu heo is asleped suiþe,
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Þ{a}t heo ne mai come to þe.”

      {and} clarisse seyde anonriȝht,
      “Sire, he haueþ i waked al niȝht,
      {and} iwaked {and} iloked,
      {and} irad on hire boke,
      {and} ibede to god hire orison,
      Þ{a}t ȝeue þe his beniscun,
      {and} god þe holde longe aliue.
      {and} nou þat mayde slepeþ so suiþe,
      Heo slepeþ so faste, þ{a}t mayde suete,
      Þat heo ne may nouȝt come ȝete.”

  [_No gap in MS._]
  “Certes,” seide þe kyng~,
  “Now is she a swete þing~:
  Wel auȝt me ȝerne her to wyf~,
  Þat so preyeth for my lyf~.”                           868

    “Is þ{a}t soþ?” sede he.                             584
    Heo sede, “ȝe, sire, withute lesing.”
    “Heo is,” he sede, “a suete þing;
    Wel aȝte ihc willen hire to wif,
    Þ{a}t so ȝerne biddeþ mi lif.”                       588

      {and} þo bi spak him þe king
      Iwis heo is a swete þing.
      Wel auȝhte ich wilny habbe hire to wiue
      So ȝerne heo bit for mine liue.

[Headnote: _The ‘Admiral’ doubts Claris’s second story._]

[Sidenote: The following morning Claris again calls Blauncheflur in vain
to go with her.]

  Anoþ{er} day Clarys erly Aryst;
  Þ{a}t Blauncheflo{ur} wełł wyst,
  [_No gap in MS._]
  And seide, “y com{e} anoon~,”
  When Clarys her clepe bygan~,                          872
  And fel in a slepe newe.
  Sone after it made hem to rewe:

    Amoreȝe, þo Clariz arist,
    Blau{n}cheflur heo atwist
    Þ{a}t he makede so longe dem{ur}e.
    “Aris,” heo sede, “{and} go we ifere.”               592
    Q{ua}þ blau{n}cheflur, “ich come anon.”
    Ac floriz cleppe{n} hire bigon,
    And he him also vnwise
    And feolle aslepe one þis wise.                      596

      Clarisse a noþer day arist,
      {and} haueþ blancheflur at wist
      Þat heo haueþ so longe de mere,
      “Aris vp nou {and} g[on]e ifere.”
      Þer heo seyde ich come anon
      . . . floyres hire . . . .
      Abode þe children ase don wise.
      Vell aslepe on þisse wise
      On þisse wise hey . . . . .
      Sone þer . . . . . . . .

  Clarys to þe Pyler cam~;
  A basyn~ of gold~ in hond she nam~,                    876
  And Cleped after Blaunchefloure
  To wende w{i}t{h} hur in to þe Toure.

    Þo Clarice to þe piler com,
    And þe bacin of golde nom,
    To bere wiþ into þe Tur,
    Heo lokede aft{er} blau{n}cheflur.                   600

      Clarise to þe piler wende anon
      A basin of gold þer heo nom,
      {and} haueþ ycleped [blanchef]lur
      To wende . . . . . . .
      Heo ne . . uerede ȝe ne . .
      Þo wende clarisse þ{a}t heo were ago.

[Sidenote: The Admiral again inquires for Blauncheflur, and not content
with Claris’s story,]

  Þe Amyral asked after Blauncheflo{ur},
  [_No gap in MS._]
  “What! is she not com{e} ȝet?                          880
  Now she me douteþ al to lyte.”

    Þo Clarice com into þe tur,
    He axede aft{er} blau{n}cheflur.
    “Sire, ihc wende hire finde here;
    He was arise are ihc were.                           604
    Nis heo noȝt icume ȝete?”
    Q{ua}þ he, “heo duteþ me to lite.”

      Þo clarisse com in to þe tur,
      Þe amiral askede blanchefl[ur],
      {and} askede whi heo ne come,
      Also heo was woned to done.
      “Heo was arise are ich were,
      Ich wende hire habbe ifunde þere.
      What nis heo . . icome . .
      Wod heo . . . me to . .

[Headnote: _The ‘Admiral’ finds the children in bed together._]

[Sidenote: sends his chamberlain, who finds the two children in bed

  Forþ he cleped his Chamburlayn~,
  And bade him wende w{i}t{h} his mayn~
  [Sidenote: [109 _a_]]
  To wete why she wyl not com{e}                         884
  As she was wonyd to doon~.
  Þe Chamburlayn~ is forth noom~;
  In to Chambre he is coom~,

    He clupede to hi{m} his chau{m}berlayn,
    And het hi{m} go wiþ alle mayn,                      608
    For to wite whi heo ne come
    To his heste suthe sone.
    Forþ he wende sone anon
    To hire chau{m}bre þ{a}t he com.                     612

      . . . . . . . chaumberlen
      . . . . . . . his . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      So heo was . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .

  And stondeþ byfore hur bedde,                          888
  And fyndeþ þere, nebbe to nebbe,
  Nebbe to nebbe, and mouþ to mouþ.
  To þe Amyral it was sone couþ;
  Vp in to þe Toure he steyȝ,                            892
  And told his lord al þ{a}t he seyȝ.

    In hire bedde he fond tuo,
    Wel faste iclupt, aslepe bo,
    Neb to neb {and} muþ to muþ;
    Sone were here soreȝ{er}en cuþ.                      616
    [T]o þe Admiral sone he teȝ
    [A]nd tolde him what he iseȝ.

      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 8, back_]]
      . . . . . a ȝe . . . .
      . . his louerd wat he i aȝheþ
      {and} ȝet he þouhte, are he hem quelle,
      Wat he were hui scholden telle.
      {and} seþþe he þoute he{m} to deþe don.

[Sidenote: The Admiral then goes with drawn sword and finds the

  Þe Amyral late him his swerd bryng{e},
  For wete he wolde of~ þat tydyng{e}:
  [_No gap in MS._]
  He went to hem þ{er}e þey lay:                         896
  Ȝit was she a-slepe þ{er}e ay.

    [Þe] Admiral het his suerd bringe;
    [Iw]ite he wolde of þus þinge.                       620
    [Fo]rþ he wende wiþ al his mayn,
    [He] {and} his chaumberlayn.
    [In] þe bed heo fond tueie;
    [Ȝit] was þe slep in here eie.                       624

      Þe amirayl bed his swerd him bringe
      W[i]te he wolde of þisse tiþinge.
      Vorþ he wende mid al his mayn,
      Þat he com þer hei boþe leie.
      Þe ȝet was þe slep in here eȝe.

  The Amyral lete þe clothes doun~ cast
  A lytel by-nethe hur brest,
  And sone he knew anoon~                                900
  Þ{a}t oon~ was woman, & þ{a}t oþ{er} groom~.
  He quaked for tene þere he stood;
  Hem to sloon~ was in his mood~;
  Ȝit he þouȝt, or he hem quelde,                        904
  What þey were, þey shuld him telle,
  And seth he wyl w{i}t{h} dome hem done.

    [He] let Adu{n} þe cloþes caste
    [Bin]eþen here breste.
    Bi here breste he kneu anon
    Þ{a}t on was maide {and} þ{a}t oþ{er} a mon.         628

      Þe amiral het here cloþes adou{n} caste
      A lutel bi neþe here breste.
      Þo iseih he wel anon
      Þon was may {and} þoþer mon.
      Þe amirayl quakede, for angys þe astod,
      Hem to quelle, hit was on his mod.

[Sidenote: They awake and cry for mercy.]

  Þe Children wakyd swyth soone,
  And saw þe swerde ouer hem drawe;                      908
  Þey ben adrad, and in awȝe.
  Þan seide Florys to Blauncheflo{ur},
  “Of~ oure lyf~ is no soco{ur}.”
  But þey cryde him m{er}cy swyth,                       912
  For to length her lyue.

    Þe children awoke þo anon
    And seȝe þe Admiral biuore he{m} gon,
    Wiþ his suerd al adraȝe;
    Sore hi beoþ offerd {and} wel maȝe.                  632
    “Seie,” q{ua}þ þe Admiral, “belamy,
    Ho makede þe so hardy,
    For to come in to mi Tur
    And to ligge bi blau{n}cheflur?”                     636
    Hi crieȝ him “m{er}ci,” boþe suiþe,
    Þ{a}t he ȝiue hem furst of liue.

      Þe children a woken vnder soon (?)
      And seȝen þ{a}t swerd ou{er} hem a drawe,
      Hij weren agr . . {and} eþe hui mawe.
      . . . . . . . . belami
      Who makede þe so hardi
      . . . . . . . in my tour
      . . . . . . . blancheflur.
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . þe . . . . fore.
      Þo seyde floyres to blancheflur,
      “Of vre liue nis no socur.”
      Ak hei crieþ him merci so suiþe
      Þ{a}t he ȝaf hem furst of here liue.

  Vp he bade hem sytte booth,
  And do on boþ her cloþ;
  Seþ he dide hem bynde fast,                            916
  And in p{r}ison~ lete hem be cast.

      Vp he bad hem sitte boþe,
      {and} don on here beyre cloþe,
      {and} þo he bad hem binde faste,
      {and} in to one p{ri}sun he het hem cast.

[Headnote: _The ‘Admiral’ summons his counsellors._]

[Sidenote: The Admiral summons his counsellors and tells them the case.]

  Now haþ he after his Barons sent,
  To wreke him after Iugement,
  Now han þe Barons vndernome,                           920
  And to þe Amyral þey ben coom{e}.

    Aft{er} his barnage he haþ isend,
    To awreke him wiþ iugem{en}t.                        640
    And let he{m} þe while binde faste,
    And in to p{ri}son ben icaste.
    His palais þ{a}t was so faire ibuld,
    Of Erles {and} barons hit was ifuld.                 644

      . . . he . . after his barenage
      . . . . he him . . . .
      . . . barenage . . . . .
      Þ{a}t to nan amyrayl abeþ nome .
      . . . . . . . . . ibuld
      . . . . . . . . was ifuld.

  He stood vp a-mong{e} hem al,
  W{i}t{h} semblant wroþ w{i}t{h}alle,
  [Sidenote: [109 _b_]]
  And seide: “Lordynges, w{i}t{h} much hono{ur},         924
  Ȝe herde speke of Blauncheflo{ur},
  Þ{a}t y bouȝt hur dere a plyȝt
  For seuen sithes of golde hur wyȝt;
  For y wende w{i}t{h}-out wene                          928
  Þat feire mayde to haue had to Quene.

    Vp he stod among he{m} alle,
    Bi semblau{n}t wel wroþ wiþ alle.
    “Lordinges,” he sede, “wiþ muchel hon{ur},
    Ȝe habbeþ iherd of blau{n}cheflur,                   648
    Hu ihc hire boȝte apliȝt,
    For seuesiþe of gold hire wiȝt.
    To hire was mi meste wene,
    For to habbe to mi quene.                            652

      Þe amiral stod up among he{m} alle
      . . . . . . wreþ mid [alle]
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . .
      [Sidenote: [_leaf 8, back, col. 2_]]
      . . . . . . wiþoute w[ene]
      To habben hire to mi quene

[Headnote: _The trial of the children._]

  Among~ my maydons in my Toure
  I hur dide, w{i}t{h} muche honoure;
  Byfore her bedde my self~ y coom~;                     932
  I fonde þ{e}ryn a naked man.
  Þan were þey to me so looþ,
  I þouȝt to haue sleyn~ hem booþ,
  I was so wroþ and so wood~.                            936

    [_No gap in MS._]
    Nis noȝt ȝore þ{a}t i ne com
    And fond hire wiþ hordom,
    Me to schame {and} deshonur,
    In hire bedde on mi Tur.                             656

      . . . hire bedde miself ich co[me]
      . . . hire ane naked grome
      . . . . . . . me wel loþe
      . . . . . . . he{m} boþe.
      {and} ich was so wroþ {and} wod

  Ȝit y w{i}t{h}drowȝ myn~ hoot blood~
  Tyl y haue sende after ȝow, by assent,
  To wreke me w{i}t{h} Iugement.
  Now ȝit ȝe woot how it is goon~,                       940
  Wreke me soon~ of~ my foon~.”

    [_No gap in MS._]
    Ihc habbe ȝou told hu hit is went;
    A wrekeþ me wiþ Jugem{en}t.”

      {and} ȝet ihc wiþ drou . . . .
      Þ{a}t ich hadde after . . . .
      To wreke me þo{r}uh iugem[ent].
      Nou ȝe habbeþ iherd hou it is.
      Awrekeþ me of mine fon.”

[Sidenote: One suggests that the children be heard before being judged.]

  Þan spake a kyng~ of þat londe,
  “We haue herd al þis shame and shonde;
  But, or we hem to deth deme,                           944
  Lat vs hem see, ȝif it þe Queeme,
  What þey wolde speke or sygge,
  Ȝif~ þey wyl auȝt ageyn~ vs legge:
  Hit were nouȝt ryȝt iugement,                          948
  W{i}t{h}out answere make acoupement.

    Þa{n}ne spak a freo burgeis,
    Þ{a}t was hende {and} curt[eis],                     660
    “Sire, are hi beo to diþe awreke,
    We mote ihere þe childre{n} speke.
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Hit nere noȝt elles rist iugem{en}t,
    Biþute{n} ansuare to acupem{en}t.”                   664

      ¶ Þo spak a king of þulk . .
      “Ȝe habbeþ iherd þis . . . .
      Ak are we he{m} to deþe . . .
      We schullen i heren þe . . .
      What huy wolleþ speke . . .
      {and} ȝif huy wolleþ ou . . .
      Hit nis no riȝht iugem[ent].”
      Wiþ oute onsuere . . . . .

[Headnote: _The trial continued._]

[Sidenote: The king of Nubia advises that they be instantly burned.]

  Til þis is herde of~ more and lasse,
  What myster is, to bere wytnesse?”

    Þe king of Nubie sede þo,
    “For soþ, ne schal hit noȝt go so.
    Hit is riȝt þureȝ alle þing
    Felons inome hond habbing,                           668
    For to suffre Jugeme{n}t
    Biþute ansuere oþ{er} acupeme{n}t.”

      ¶ Þe king of nubie . . . .
      “Sire, so ne schal hit . . . .
      Trait{ou}r þat is nome hond . .
      Hit is riȝht þo{r}u alle þ . . .
      To beo for don oþ{er} i sch . .
      Wiþ outen oni here of . . .
      Al þis ihe . . {and} lag . .
      {and} bereþ him þer of w . . .

  After þe Children haue þey sent,--                     952
  To brenne hem was his entent;--
  Two s{er}ieauntes hem gan bryng{e}
  Toward~ hur al wepyng{e}.
  Drery booþ þese children goo;                          956
  Ayther bemeneþ oþ{er}is woo.

    Aft{er} þe children nu me sendeþ;
    Hem to berne fir me tendeþ.                          672

      After þes childeren . . . .
      Hem to for berne þer . . . .
      Twene seriauns hem forþ bringe
      To fonge here dom sore wepin[ge]
      Dreri weren þo chyldren . .
      Her eyþer by wepeþ oþer . .

[Sidenote: Floris reproaches himself to Blauncheflur.]

  Þan seide Florys to Blauncheflo{ur},
  “Of~ oure lyf~ is no soco{ur}:

    Seide floriz to blau{n}cheflur,
    “Of vre lif nis no sucur;
    Ac min is þe guld {and} þe vnmeþ,
    Þ{a}t þu for me schalt þolie deþ.                    676

      ¶ Þo seyde floyres to blanche[flur]
      Of vre liue nis no soc[ur].

  Yf~ kinde of~ man it þole myȝt,                        960
  Twyes y shuld dye w{i}t{h} ryȝt,
  Oones for my self~, anoþ{er} for the,
  For, þy deeþ þ{o}u hast for me.”
  [Sidenote: [110 _a_]]
  Blauncheflo{ur} seyde þoo,                             964
  “Þe gylt is myn~, of oure woo.”

    Ac if cu{n}de hit þolie miȝte,
    Ihc oȝte deie tuye wiþ riȝte.
    O deþ for þe, on oþ{er} for me;
    For þis þu þolest nu for me.                         680
    For if i nere i{n} to þis t{ur} icume,
    Wiþ mireȝþe þu miȝtest her i{n}ne wune.”

[Sidenote: He gives her the ring, telling her of its properties.]

  Florys drouȝ forþ þ{a}t ryng
  Þat his moder him gaff at her p{ar}tyng~:
  “Haue þis ryng~, le{m}man myn{e};                      968
  Þ{o}u shalt not dye while it is þyn{e}.”
  Blaunchefloure seide þoo,
  [_No gap in MS._]
  “So ne shal it neu{er} goo,
  Þat þis ryng~ shal help me,                            972
  And þe deed on þe see.”

    He droȝ forþ a riche ring,
    His moder him ȝaf at his p{ar}ting.                  684
    “Haue þis ring, le{m}man min,
    Þu ne miȝt noȝt deie þe while he is þin.”
    Þe ring he haueþ forþ araȝt
    And to blau{n}cheflur bitaȝt.                        688
    “Þe ring ne schal neure aredde me;
    For deþ ne mai ihc se on þe.”

[Sidenote: She attempts to force the ring back on him; it falls to the
ground and is picked up by an earl.]

  Florys þ{a}t ryng~ hur rauȝt,
  And she it him agayn~ betauȝt,
  Nouther ne wyl other deed seene;                       976
  Þey let it falle hem bytwene;
  A king~ com~ after; a ryng~ he fonde,
  And brouȝt it forth in his honde.

    Þe ring heo wolde aȝe reche,
    And to floriz hi{m} biteche.                         692
    Ac for al þ{a}t heo miȝte do,
    He hi{m} nolde aȝen ifo.
    And þe ring bi one stunde,
    Fel adu{n} to þe grunde.                             696
    A duc stupede {and} hi{m} vp nom,
    And was þer of wel bliþe mon.

  Þus þe Children wepyng~ com~                           980
  To þe fire and hur doom~.
  Byfore þe folk~ þey were brouȝt;
  Drery was her bothes þouȝt;

    Nu þes childre forþ me bri{n}geþ
    To here dom, al wepinge.                             700

[Headnote: _The ‘fairness’ of the children excites compassion._]

[Sidenote: The ‘fairness’ of the children excites compassion.]

  Þ{er}e was noon~ so stern{e} man                       984
  Þat þe Children loked oon~,
  Þ{a}t þey ne wolde, al wel fawe,
  Her iugement haue w{i}t{h}drawe,
  And w{i}t{h} grete Catel hem bygge,                    988
  Ȝif~ þey durst speke or sygge;
  For Flores was so feire a ȝonglyng~,
  And Blaunchefloure so swete a þing~,
  Þ{er} wyst no man whor hem were woo,                   992
  For no semblaunt þ{a}t þey made þoo.

    Ac þ{er} nas no{n} so st{ur}ne mon,
    Þ{a}t he{m} lokede vpon,
    Þ{a}t nolde þo suþe saȝe
    Þ{a}t iugem{en}t were wiþdraȝe.                      704
    [_No gap in MS._]
    For floriz was so fair ȝongling,
    And blau{n}cheflur so suete þing,
    Of me{n} {and} wi{m}me{n} þ{a}t buþ nuþe,
    Þ{a}t goþ {and} seoþ {and} spekeþ wiþ muþe,          708
    Ne buþ so faire in here gladnesse,
    So hi were in here sorinesse.

[Sidenote: But the Admiral is very wroth.]

  Þe Admyral was so wood~,
  Ne myȝt he nouȝt kele his hoot blood~;
  He bade þe Children fast be bound~,                    996
  And in to þe fire slong~.

    Ac þe admiral was so wroþ {and} wod,
    He q{ua}kede for g{ra}me þ{er} he stod.              712
    And het he{m} binde wel faste
    And i{n} to þe fire caste.

[Sidenote: The earl with the ring steps forward and speaks in behalf of
the children.]

  Þat ilk{e} king~ þ{a}t þe ryng~ fond~,
  To Amyral he spake and round~,
  And wolde hem saue to þe lyf~,                        1000
  And told~ how for þe ryng~ þey gon~ stryf~.
  Þe Amyral lete hem ageyn~ clepe,
  For he wolde here hem speke,
  [Sidenote: [110 _b_]]
  And asked Florys what he heete:                       1004
  And he tolde him ful skeete:

    Þe duc þ{a}t þe ring fu{n}de,
    Com to þe Admiral {and} runde,                       716
    And al to gad{er}e he gan him schewe;
    Of þ{a}t þe children were biknewe.
    Þe Admiral let he{m} aȝe{n} clepe,
    For he wolde wiþ floriz speke.                       720

[Headnote: _The ‘Admiral’ is touched with pity._]

[Sidenote: Floris asks clemency for the maiden, and the maiden prays for

  “Sir,” he seide, “yf~ it were þy wylle,
  Þ{o}u ne getest not þ{a}t maide to spylle;
  But, good sir, quel þ{o}u me,                         1008
  And lete þ{a}t maide on lyue be.”
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Blauncheflo{ur} seide byne,
  “Þe gilt of~ oure dedes is moyne.”

    “++Sire,” q{ua}þ floriz, “forsoþ ihc telle,
    Þu noȝtest noȝt þ{a}t maide quelle.
    Of al þis gilt ihc am to wite;
    Ihc oȝte deie {and} he go quite.”                    724
    Q{ua}þ blau{n}cheflur, “aquel þu me,
    And let floriz aliue be.
    Ȝef hit n{er}e for mi luue,
    He n{er}e noȝt fram his londe icome.”                728

  Þe Admyral seide þoo                                  1012
  “I-wys ȝe shul dye boo.”
  His swerd he breide out of his sheeth,
  Þe Children to haue don{e} to deeth.
  Blaunchefloure put forþ hur swire,                    1016
  And Florys dide her agayn~ to tyre,
  And seide, “I am man; I shal byfore,
  W{i}t{h} wrong hast þ{o}u þy lyf loore.”
  Florys forth his swerd putte,                         1020
  And Blauncheflo{ur} agayn~ him tytte.

    Q{ua}þ þe Admiral, “so ihc mote go,
    Ȝe schulle deie togadere bo.
    Miself ihc wulle me awreke;
    Ne schulle ȝe neure go ne speke.”                    732
    Floriz forþ his nekke bed,
    And blau{n}cheflur wiþd{ra}ȝe hi{m} ȝet.
    Blau{n}cheflur bid forþ hire suere,
    And floriz aȝen hire gan tire.                       736
    Neiþ{er} ne miȝte þ{er}e þole
    Þ{a}t oþ{er} deide bifore.

[Sidenote: The Admiral is at length touched with pity.]

  Þe king~ seide, “dredry mot ȝe be,
  Þis rouþ by þis Children to see.”
  Þe king~ þat þe ryng~ hadde,                          1024
  For routh of~ hem sone he radde,
  And at þe Amyral wyl he spede,
  Þe Children fro þe deþ to lede.

    Þo þe Admiral, þeȝ he wroþ were,
    Þ{er} he chau{n}gede his chere.                      740
    For he seȝ þ{a}t eyþ{er} wolde for oþ{er} deie,
    And for he seȝ mani wepinde eie,
    And for he luuede so muche þ{a}t mai,
    Al wepinge he t{ur}nde away.                         744
    His swerd fel of his hond to gru{n}de;
    Ne miȝte he hit holde þulke stu{n}de.

[Sidenote: The earl with the ring speaks for the children.]

  “Sir,” he seide, “it is lytel prys,                   1028
  Þese Children for to slee y-wys;
  And it is wel more worship,
  Florys counsel þ{a}t ȝe weete,
  Who him tauȝt þ{a}t ilke gynne,                       1032
  Þy toure for to com{e} ynne,
  And who him brouȝt þare,
  And other, þ{a}t ȝe may be ware.”

    Þe duc þ{a}t here ring hadde,
    For he{m} to speke wille he hadde.                   748
    “++Sire Admiral,” he sede, “iwis
    Hit is þe wel litel pris
    Þis feire childre{n} for to quelle.
    Ac bet{er}e hit is þ{a}t hi þe telle                 752
    Hu he com in to þi tur,
    To ligge þ{er} bi blau{n}cheflur.
    His engin whan þu hit wite,
    Þe bet{er}e wiþ oþ{er}e þu miȝt þe wite.”            756

  Þan seide þe Amyral, “as god me saue,                 1036
  Florys shal his lyf~ haue,
  Ȝif~ he me telle who him tauȝt þ{er}to,
  Of Florys, þat shal y neuer doo.”

    Alle þ{a}t herde wordes his,
    Bisecheþ þ{a}t he g{ra}nti þis.
    He het hi{m} telle his engin,
    Hu he to blau{n}cheflur co{m} in,                    760
    And to hi{m} radde {and} help þarto.

[Headnote: _Floris tells his story._]

[Sidenote: Floris refuses to tell how he gained entry to the tower until
pardon has been promised the porter.]

  Now þey bydden al y-wys                               1040
  Þ{a}t þe Admyral g{ra}unted þis,
  To forȝeue þ{a}t trespas
  Ȝif~ Florys told how it was.

    “Þ{a}t,” q{ua}þ he, “nelle ihc neure do,
    For þing þ{a}t me mai me do,
    Bute hit he{m} beo forȝiue also.”                    764
    Alle þoþ{er}e bisecheþ þis,
    And of þe Admiral ig{ra}nted is.

[Sidenote: He then tells his story.]

  [Sidenote: [111 _a_]]
  Now eu{er}y word~ he haþ him tolde,                   1044
  How þ{a}t maide was for him solde,
  And how he was of~ spayn~ a kynges sone,
  For grete loue þeder y-com{e},
  For to fonde, w{i}t{h} sum gynne,                     1048
  Þat feire maide for to wynne,
  And how þe porter was his man by-com{e},
  For his gold and for his warysoun~,
  And how he was in þe Florys born{e}.                  1052
  Alle þe lordinges lowȝ þ{er}forn{e}:

    Nu ord {and} ende he haþ he{m} itold,
    Hu bla[un]cheflur was fram him isold,                768
    And hu he was of spaygne a kinges sone,
    For hire luue þuder icume,
    To fo{n}den wiþ sume gīnne,
    Hu he miȝte hure awi{n}ne,                           772
    And hu þureȝ þe cupe {and} þureȝ þe g{er}sume,
    Þe port{er} was his man bicume,
    And hu he was in a cupe ibore;
    Alle þes oþ{er}e lowe þ{er}uore.                     776

[Headnote: _Scene of reconciliation._]

[Sidenote: The Admiral lifts them up, dubs Floris knight, and causes
them to be married in church with a ring.]

  Now þe Admyral wol him tyde;
  Florys setteþ next his syde,
  And efte he made him stonde vpryȝt,                   1056
  And dubbed him þere knyȝt,
  And bade he shulde w{i}t{h} him be,
  Þe furthermost of his meyne.

    ++Þe Admiral þo, wel hi{m} bitide,
    Þ{a}t Child he sette bi his side,
    And haþ forȝiue his wraþþe bo,
    Floriz {and} blau{n}cheflur also.                    780
    And sede wiþ him hi scholde be,
    Þe beste of al his maine.

  Florys falleþ doun~ to his feet,                      1060
  And p{ra}yeþ geue him his sweet.
  Þe Amyral gaf~ him his le{m}man~:
  Al þ{a}t þ{er}e were, þankyd him þanne.
  To a Chirche he let hem bryng{e},                     1064
  And dede let wed hem w{i}t{h} a ryng{e}.
  Boþ þese twoo swete þinges y-wys
  Fel his feet for to kysse;

    And floriz he makeþ stonde vpriȝt,
    And þ{er} he dubbede him to kniȝt.                   784
    Nu boþe togadere þes childre for blisse
    Falleþ to his fet hem to kisse.
    He let he{m} to one Chirche bringe,
    And spusen he{m} wiþ one gold ringe.                 788

[Sidenote: The Admiral takes Claris to be his queen.]

  And þrouȝ consel of Blauncheflo{ur},                  1068
  Clarys was fet doun~ of þe Toure,
  And Amyral wedded hur to queene.
  Þ{er}e was fest swythe breeme;
  I can not telle al þe sonde,                          1072
  But rycher fest was neu{er} in londe.

    Þureȝ þe red of blau{n}cheflur,
    Me fette Clariz adun of þe Tur.
    Þe Admiral hire nam to quene.
    Þilke feste was wel breme,                           792
    For þ{er} was alle ku{n}nes gleo,
    Þ{a}t miȝte at eni briddale beo.

[Sidenote: Messengers come to Floris announcing his father’s death.]

  Was it nouȝt longe after þan~,
  Þat to Florys tydyng~ cam~,
  Þ{a}t þe king~ his Fader was deed~.                   1076

    Hit nas þ{er} aft{er} noþing longe
    Þ{a}t þ{er} co{m} floriz writ {and} sonde,           796
    Þ{a}t þe king his fader was ded,

[Sidenote: The Admiral tries in vain to induce him to remain.]

  Þe Baronage gaf~ him reed
  Þat he shuld wende hoom~,
  And fonge his feire kyngdoom~.
  At þe Amyral þey toke leue,                           1080
  And he byddeþ þem byleue.

    And þ{a}t he scholde nime{n} his red.
    Þa{n}ne seide þe Admiral,
    “If þu dost bi mi consail,                           800
    Bilef wiþ me; ne wend naȝt hom,
    Ihc wulle ȝeue þe a kinedom
    Also long {and} also brod,
    Also eure ȝet þi fader ibod.”                        804

[Sidenote: Floris makes rich presents in parting,]

  Hom{e} he went w{i}t{h} royal array,
  And was crownyd w{i}t{h}-in a short day.

  (_Follows. _The batełł of Troye_,
    sithe þ{a}t god þis world~ wrouȝt~
    Heuen and erthe made of~ nouȝt~
  leaves 111-134. Then _Amys and Amylion_, leaves 134-147. MS. ends
  with one leaf of _Sir Eglamour_._)

    Ac floriz nolde for no wi{n}ne;
    Leu{er}e hi{m} were wiþ his ki{n}ne.
    Þe Admiral he bid god day,
    And þo{n}kede Clariz þ{a}t faire may,                808
    And to hire he haþ iȝolde
    Twenti pond of ride golde.
    And to Daris þ{a}t hi{m} so taȝte,
    Twenti pund he araȝte.                               812
    And alle þ{a}t for him dude{n} eidel,
    He ȝeld here while suþe wel.

[Headnote: _Floris and Blauncheflur depart for their native land._]

[Sidenote: and comes home, where he and Blauncheflur reign as king
and queen.]

    He bitaȝte he{m} alle godalmiȝte
    And com hom whane he miȝte.                          816
    He was king wiþ Muchel hon{ur},
    And heo his quene blau{n}cheflur.
    Nu ȝe habbeþ iherd þane ende
    Of floriz {and} his le{m}man hende,                  820
    Hu aft{er} bale comeþ bote;
    God leue þ{a}t vs so mote,
    Þ{a}t we him mote louie so,
    Þ{a}t we mote to heuene go.   AMEN.                  824



  _Cambr. Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2._

  ++MErie tale telle ihc þis day
  Of sei{n}te Marye þ{a}t swete may.
  Al is þe tale {and} þis lescoun
  Of hire swete asso{m}pcioun,                             4
  Hu heo was fram erþe ynome
  In to blisse wiþ hire sone.
  Þe kyng of heuene hem blessi
  Þ{a}t þis listneþ {and} wel herkni.                      8
  Alle moten hi iblessed beo,
  Þat vnderstonde wel þis gleo.


    _Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 10,036, lf. 62._

    ++IN honorance of ih{es}u cryst
    Sitteþ stille {and} haueþ lyst;
    And ȝif ȝe wille to me here,
    Off oure ladi ȝe mai lere,                             4
    Floure of heuene, ladi {and} quene,
    As sche auȝt wel to bene,
    To wham au{n}geles dou{n} here myȝt
    To serue hure boþe day {and} nyȝt.                     8
    P{ar} auent{ur}e ȝe haue noȝt iherde
    How oure ladi went out of þ{i}s werde:
    Sitteþ stille {and} herkeneþ to me;
    Now ih{es}u cryst oure helpe be!                      12

  ¶ Whan ih{es}u c{ri}st was don on rode,
  {And} þolede deþ for vre gode,                          12
  He clepede to hym sei{n}t Iohan
  Þ{a}t was his oȝe qenes man,
  {And} his oȝene moder also;
  Ne clepede he hym fere{n} no mo.                        16

    ¶ Whan ih{es}u c{ri}st was dou{n} on þe rode
    And þolede deþ for oure goode,
    He callide to hym seynt Iohan,
    That was his fleschli kynnes man.                     16
    His moder swete he dide also;
    He callid no men mo him to.

  And sede, “wif, lo her þi child,
  Þ{a}t on þe rode is ispild.
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Nu ihc am ho{n}ged on þis tre,
  Wel sore ihc wot hit reweþ þe.                          20
  Mine fet {and} honden of blod [buþ red];
  Biþute gult ih[c] þolie þis ded.

    And seide, “wo{m}man, lo here þi sone,
    And, man, take hure to mod{er} i{n} good wone.        20
    And þenkeþ on my sorwe nowe
    How I hange here abowe,
    How I hange apon{e} a tre,
    Ful sore, I wote, hit reweþ þee.                      24
    [Sidenote: [leaf 62, back]]
    Myn feet, myn hondes, of blode ben rede;
    With owte gilt I þole dede.

  Mine men þ{a}t aȝte me to loue,
  For whan ihc co{m} fram heuene abuue,                   24
  Me haueþ idon þis ilke schame,
  Ihc naue no gult; hi buþ to blame.
  To mi fader ihc bidde mi bone
  Þ{a}t he forȝiue hit hem welsone.”                      28

    But þei haue wille to louen me
    For wham I hange on þis tree.                         28
    The Iewis me deden mychel schame;
    Ther of hadde I neu{er} blame.”

[Headnote: _Jesus entrusts Mary to John._]

  ¶ Marie stod {and} sore weop;
  Þe t{er}res feolle to hire fet.
  No wu{n}der nas þeȝ heo wepe sore;
  Of soreȝe ne miȝte heo wite nomore,                     32
  Whe{n}ne he þ{a}t of hire nam blod {and} fless,
  Also his suete wille was,
  He{n}g Inayled on þe treo.

    ++MArie his moder sore dide wepe;
    The teeres fellen at hure fete.                       32
    Nas no wondre þouȝ sche wepe sore;
    Of sorwe wist sche neu{er} more.
    When he þat of hure flesche nam,
    For his holi swete nam,                               36
    Honge þ{er} nailed to a tre,

  “Alas, my sone,” seide heo,                             36
  “Hu may ihc liue? hu may þis beo?
  Hu mai ihc al þis soreȝe iseo?
  Ne cuþe ihc neure of soreȝe noȝt;
  Mi leue sone, wat hastu þoȝt?                           40
  Hou schal ihc lyue biþute þe?
  Leue sone, what seistu me?”

    “Alas, my sone,” þo saide sche,
    “How mai I lyue? how mai I bene?
    How mai I þis sorwe ysene?                            40
    Neu{er} ere wist I of sorwe nouȝt;
    Leue sone, what hauest þou þouȝt?
    How schal I leue w{i}t{h} oute þee?
    Leue sone, what saist þou to me?”                     44

  ¶ Þo spac ih{es}u wordes gode,
  Þ{er} he heng vpon þe rode,                             44
  {And} sede to his moder dere,
  “Ihc schal þe teche a trewe ifere,
  Þ{a}t trewliche schal loky þe,
  Þe while þ{a}t þu in erþe be.”                          48

    Ih{es}u spak þo wordes goode,
    As he henge on þe rode,
    And seide to his moder dere,
    “I schal þee take a trewe fere,                       48
    [Sidenote: [leaf 63]]
    That trewly schal kepen þee,
    While in erþe þou schalt be.”

  ¶ Þo seide vre lord to sei{n}t Iohan,
  “For my loue qep me þis wymman.
  Ȝem hire wel wiþ al þi miȝte
  Þ{a}t noman do hure non vnriȝte.”                       52

    Than seide Ih{es}u to seynt Iohan,
    “For my loue kepe wel þis wo{m}man.                   52
    Kepe hure wel w{i}t{h} al þi myȝt,
    That no man do hure vnryȝt.”
    ¶ Þan nam þe apostel, seynt Iohan,
    On his kepynge þis wo{m}man.                          56
    He kept hure wel w{i}t{h} al his myȝt,
    That no man do hure none vnryȝt.[A-1]

    [Footnote A-1: MS. viryȝt]

  In to þe te{m}ple mid hire he nam,
  {And} also sone so he þar cam,
  Amo{n}g þe lefdis in þe stede,
  God to s{er}ui he hire dude.                            56

    To þe temple he hure nam,
    And also sone as he þer cam,                          60
    God to serue he hure dede,
    Amonge þe nu{n}nes in þat stede.

  Þ{er} bilefte heo al hure lif;
  Ne louede he noþ{er} fiȝt ne st{ri}f,
  Þeo þ{a}t in þe temple were,
  Ne miȝte noȝt hire forbere.                             60
  Wiþ al hure miȝte þe while heo was þore,
  Heo s{er}uede boþe lasse {and} more;
  Poure {and} sike he dude god,
  {And} seruede he{m} to hond {and} fot.                  64

    Ther sche bileft al hure lyfe,
    Ne loued sche noþ{er} fiȝt ne stryf.                  64
    ¶ The ladies þat þ{er} Inne weren,
    Ful wel þei ne myȝt hure forberen,
    For eu{er} þe while sche was þore,
    Sche wolde serue las {and} more.                      68
    Seke {and} hole sche dide gode
    And seruede hem to hande {and} fote.

  Poure {and} hu{n}grie wel faire he fedde,
  {And} sike heo broȝte in here bedde.
  Nas þ{er} non so hol ne fer,
  Þ{a}t to hire nadde mester.                             68
  Hi louede hure alle wiþ here miȝte,
  For heo seruede he{m} wel riȝte.

    Naked {and} hungry sche cloþed {and} fedde;
    Colde {and} seke sche brouȝt to bedde.                72
    [Sidenote: [leaf 63, back]]
    Ne was þ{er} noþ{er} seke ne fere,
    That þei nadde to hure mystere.
    Thei louede hure wel w{i}t{h} al here myȝt;
    Sche it serued {and} þat was ryȝt.                    76

  He wakede more þane slep;
  Hire sone to s{er}ui was al hire kep.                   72
  To him heo clupede wiþ Murie steuene,
  {And} hire he sente an au{n}gel fram heu{e}ne,
  Te gladie hire him self he cam,
  Crist þ{a}t fless of hire nam.                          76

    Sche woke more þan sche slepe;
    Hure sone to serue was al hure kepe,
    To hym sche callid w{i}t{h} rewful steuene,
    And he hure sent an angel fro heuene,                 80
    To glade hure, hym self he cam,
    That of hure bodi flesche nam.

[Headnote: _Christ sends to Mary an angel messenger._]

  ¶ Sei{n}t Ion hire kepte {and} was hire dere;
  He was hire eure a trewe fere.
  Nolde he neure fram hire gon;
  Al þ{a}t heo wolde he dude anon.                        80
  Þe whiles hi were in þ{a}t stede,
  Al þ{a}t heo wolde he hit dede.
  Whane heo hadde beo þ{er} longe,
  Ten wynt{er}e he{m} amonge,                             84
  Hire sone wolde heo come hym to,
  Whane he hit wolde, hit was ido.

    Seynt Io{ha}n hure kep{er} was hure dere,
    And to hure was a trewe fere.                         84
    Ne wolde he neu{er} fro hure gone;
    Al þat sche wolde he wolde done.
    While sche was in þat stede,
    Al þat sche wolde he hure dede.                       88
    When sche hadde þ{er} longe ben,
    That faire ladi, heuene quen,
    Than wolde hure sone sche com hi{m} to.
    When he wolde, hit was do.                            92

  ¶ He sente hire on Au{n}gel of heuene,
  {And} grette hire wiþ murie steuene.                    88
  In þe temple he bad hire bede;
  Þ{er} liȝte þe au{n}gel i{n} þ{a}t stede,
  {And} sede, “lefdi ful of grace,

    He sent to hure an angel of heuene,
    That gret hure w{i}t{h} myry steuene,
    Ther sche was {and} bad hure bede,
    Lyȝth an angel in þat stede,                          96
    [Sidenote: [leaf 64]]
    And seide, “ladi, ful of g{ra}ce,

[Headnote: _The angel announces that Mary will be summoned to heaven._]

  “Wel þe beo in eche place.                              92
  Ne beo noȝt of drad þeȝ ihc beo her;
  Ihc am þi sones Messager.
  Fram hym to þe ihc am icome
  Þe grette wel þi dere sone.                             96
  Flur of erþe, of heuene quen,
  Iblessed mote þu eure ben.

    “Blessed be þou in eche place.
    Be nouȝt adrad þouȝ I be here;
    I am þi sones messagere.                             100
    Fro hym I am to þee come;
    He gret þee wel, þi dere sone.
    Floure of erþe, heuene quene,
    Blessed mote þ{o}u euer bene.                        104

  Wel beo þe time þ{a}t þu were ibore,
  For al þis wordle were forlore;                        100
  Ef þu nere {and} þ{a}t frut of þe,
  Marie lefdi, wel þe be.
  Lefdi, best of alle þinge,
  Wel bliþe bode ihc þe bringe,                          104
  Nym þis palm wiþ þi riȝt honde;
  Hit is þi dere sones sonde.

    Wel be þat tyme þat þ{o}u was born,
    For al þis worlde hit was forlorn,
    Ȝif þou ne were {and} þe fruyt of þee;
    Marie, ladi, wel þee be.                             108
    Ladi, best of al þinge,
    Bliþe tiþynges I þee brynge,
    Thou take þis palme þ{a}t I brynge þee;
    Thi dere sone haþ sent it þee.                       112

  He þinkeþ lo{n}g hym to se;
  Ne schaltu her no leng{er} beo.                        108
  He wile senden aft{er} þe,
  Fram heuene adun of his meigne,
  {And} fecche þe in to his blisse,
  Þ{a}t eure schal leste wiþute misse.                   112
  Þer he is kyng þu schalt beo quen;
  Al heuene for þe schal bliþe beon.”

    The þynkeþ longe hi{m} to see;
    Ther fore most I no lengere be,
    He schal sende after þee
    Of heuene ferde moche plente,                        116
    And brynge þee in to his blisse,
    That euer was {and} now is.
    Þer he is kyng, þou schalt be quene;
    Al heuen ryche bliþe schal bene.                     120
    [Sidenote: [leaf 64, back]]
    And alle him þenkeþ swiþe longe
    Til þou comest hem amonge.”

  ¶ Þa{n}ne ansuaredi vre lefdi,
  To þe au{n}gel þat stod hire by,                       116
  “Artu Mi sones Messager,
  Þ{a}t bringest me þis greting her?
  Haþ he set me any day
  Aȝenes þ{a}t ihc me greþi may,                         120
  {And} nyme lyue of mine kenesmen,
  {And} myne frend þ{a}t wiþ me beon,
  {And} of him þ{a}t haþ me cloþed {and} fed,
  {And} don also my sone hym bed?”                       124

    Than answerede oure ladi,
    And seide to þe angel, “belamy,                      124
    Art þou my sones massagere,
    That bryngest me þis bodes here?
    Haueþ he me sette any day,
    Aȝens when I me greithe may,                         128
    W{i}t{h} my frendes {and} my kynnes men,
    And w{i}t{h} hem þat I in erþe haue ben,
    And hem þ{a}t I haue fedde {and} clad,
    And don al þat my sone hem bad?”                     132

  ¶ Þo sede þe aungel, “ihc telle þe;
  Þu ne schalt beo her bute daȝes þre.
  Þe þridde day we schulle come,
  Au{n}gles f{ra}m heuene aboue,                         128
  “And fette þe wiþ m{ur}ye song;
  For aft{er} þe us þinket long.”

    Tho seide þe angel, “I sei þee;
    Thou schalt be here but daies þre.
    The þridde dai we schal come,
    Alle ix. ordres fram heuen a boue,                   136
    “And fecche þee with myry songe;
    For after þee vs þinketh longe.”

  ¶ Þanne ansuarede vre lefdy,
  “What is þi name, belamy?”                             132
  He sede, “my name ne telle ihc þe noȝt;
  Bute nym þis palm þ{a}t ihc habbe þe broȝt
  {And} kep hit wel ihc bidde þe;
  Ne let hit neure f{ra}m þe be.                         136

    To þat aungel seide oure ladi,
    “What is þi name, þat standeþ me bi?”                140
    “My name seie I þee nouȝt;
    But take þis palme þ{a}t I haue brouȝt.
    Kepe it wel, I bidde þee,
    Ne lete it neu{er} be fro þee.                       144

  I ne dar no le{n}g dwelle her,
  For ihc was sent as Messager.
  To þe apostles ihc schal gon,
  {And} bidde he{m} alle, eurech on,                     140
  Þ{a}t hi beon her þe þridde day;
  No leng abiden I ne may.”

    [Sidenote: [leaf 65]]
    Ne mai I no lengere abide here,
    For I am sent a massagere.
    I schal to þe apostles sone anone,
    And seie to hem sundry, on {and} one,                148
    That þei ben here þe þridde dai;
    No leng{er}e abide I ne mai.”

[Headnote: _Mary attires herself, then prays to her Son._]

  ¶ Þo he hadde ydon, to heuene he steȝ;
  Marie abod {and} was wel sleȝ,                         144
  {And} na{m} þ{a}t palm þ{a}t hire was broȝt,
  {And} of þ{a}t bode heo hadde gret þoȝt,
  In to hire Chau{m}bre stille he nam;
  {And} so sone so heo þar cam,                          148
  He dude of al hire hat{er}e,
  {And} wessch hire body wyþ clene wat{er}e,
  Þo heo hauede so idon,
  Al y newe schrud heo dude hire on.                     152

    When he had iseide, to heuene he steie;
    And marie þ{er} bi-left he.                          152
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Vn-til hure chambre sone sche nam;
    And also sone as sche þider cam,
    Sche dide of hure cloþes alle,
    And wasche hure w{i}t{h} wat{er} of wille.           156
    So sone as sche hadde dou{n},
    Newe cloþes sche dide hure apou{n}.

  Þo heo was schurd {and} faire iclad,
  To ih{es}u c{ri}st abone heo bad,
  {And} sede, “sone, ihc þonky þe
  Þ{a}t þu hauest iþoȝt of me.                           156
  Sone, þu ert of heuene kyng,
  Ihc bidde þe þi blessing;
  Sone, for þin holy name,
  Schild me fram pine {and} fram schame,                 160
  Þ{a}t þe deuel ne habbe no myȝt;

    When sche was faire schred {and} clad,
    To ih{es}u cryst aboue sche bad,                     160
    And seide, “sone, I þanke þee,
    That þou hast yþouȝt on me,
    My sone, þat is heuene kynge,
    I p{ra}ie þee of þi blessing.                        164
    Sone, for þyn hye name,
    Schelde my bodi fro payne {and} schame,
    That þe deuel haue no myȝt;

  To derie me hit were vnriȝt.
  Sone, help me nu ihc haue ned,
  Þat ine haue of þe feond no dred,                      164
  For wiþ þe giles þ{a}t he can,
  He bit{ra}ieþ many man.

    To reyue þee hit were no ryȝt.                       168
    [Sidenote: [leaf 65, back]]
    Kepe me, sone; now is nede
    That I ne haue of þe deuel no drede.
    For with þe wiles þat he can,
    He bigileþ many a man.                               172

[Headnote: _She announces her departure to her friends._]

  “Leue sone, ne ȝef him noȝt,
  Þ{a}t þu hauest so dere iboȝt.                         168
  Sune, þu art ful of pite;
  For senful manne bid ihc þe,
  Þ{a}t þu for þin holy g{ra}ce,
  ȝef he{m} boþe wille {and} space,                      172

    “Leue sone, ȝeue hym nouȝt
    Man kynde þat þou hast bouȝt.
    Mi sone, þat art ful of pite,
    For man kynne I p{ra}ie þee,                         176
    That þou, for þi holi g{ra}ce,
    Ȝeue hem boþe myȝt {and} space,

  Hem to am{en}dy er hy beo ded,
  Þ{a}t þe deuel he{m} do no qued.
  Þenk, sone, þ{a}t þu hast hem wroȝt,
  {And} þ{a}t þu hauest hem dere iboȝt.                  176
  For he{m} þu þoledest pine {and} wo;
  Wite he{m} wel f{ra}m here fo.”

    Hem to amende or þei ben dede,
    That þei haue of þe deuel no drede.                  180
    Thynke, leue sone, þ{o}u hast he{m} wrouȝt,
    And dere þat þou hast hem bouȝt.”

  ¶ Þo heo hadde bisoȝt so,
  Hire frend he clupede hire to,                         180
  Boþe sibbe {and} fremde Men,
  Wiþ reuful speche heo spak wiþ he{m},
  And sede, “leue frend, my sone
  Nele no leng þ{a}t ihc her wone;                       184
  He wile ihc wende {and} mid him be.

    When sche hadde p{ra}ied so,
    Hure frendes sche callid hure to,                    184
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Hure sibbe {and} hure kynnes men.
    W{i}t{h} reuful steuene sche spak to he{m},
    An seide, “leue frendes, my sone
    Wol no leng{er} þat I here wone.                     188
    He wol þat I with hi{m} be;

  And bidde ihc ȝou p{ar} charite,
  Ȝef ihc habbe eny þing mis wroȝt,
  Telleȝ hit me, ne heleþ hit noȝt.                      188
  Ihc wulle ame{n}de, {and} þ{a}t is riȝt
  Þ{a}t my saule ne beo idriȝt.

    Where fore I p{ra}ie ȝow p{ar} charite,
    Ȝif I any þinge haue mys wrouȝt,
    Seieþ me now; for-hele ȝe nouȝt.                     192
    [Sidenote: [leaf 66]]
    I it wole amende with my myȝt,
    That my soule haue no vnplyȝt,

  Þat god ȝe habbeþ me ydon,
  Mi sone þ{a}t was in rode ydon,                        192
  Man to bigge fram þe ded,
  Ȝelde hit ȝou at ower ned,
  {And} bringe ȝou in to þat blis
  Þ{a}t eure ilest þar my sone is.”                      196

    The good þat ȝe haue dou{n} me,
    My sone þat was doun on þe tree,                     196
    Man to bigge fro þe quede,
    He ȝelde it ȝow at ȝoure nede,
    And brynge ȝow in to his blis,
    Ther I schal be {and} my sone is.”                   200

  ¶ Alle þ{a}t stoden hire by,
  Of þ{a}t tiþinge were sory,
  {And} sede, “lefdi, hu mai hit be?
  Hu schulle we liue wiþ oute{n} þe?                     200
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Lefdi dere, what hastu þoȝt?
  Reu of vs; ne wend þou noȝt.
  “In soreȝe {and} in Muche wo
  Schulle we lyue beo þu vs fro.”                        204

    ++Alle þat weren hure bi,
    Off suche tiþinges weren sori,
    And saide, “lady, how mai þis be?
    How schulle we lyuen w{i}t{h} oute þee?              204
    Ladi, þou hast vs serued so;
    Alas, how schulle we p{ar}te a two?
    Swete ladi, what is þi þouȝt?
    Rewe on vs; departe vs nouȝt.                        208
    “In moche sorwe {and} in myche wo
    Schulle we lyue, be þou a go.”

[Headnote: _John comes and inquires the cause of her grief._]

  ¶ Þanne spak vre lefdy
  To hem þ{a}t were hire by,
  “Leteȝ beon; ower wepinge ne helpeþ noȝt;
  Habbeþ ioye in ower þoȝt.                              208
  Þe while ihc am her, wakeþ wiþ me;
  Hit doþ me god þ{a}t ihc ȝou se.

    Þan answerede oure ladi
    To þat folke þat stode hure bi,                      212
    “Lateþ be ȝo{ur} greding~ hit helpeþ noȝt;
    And haueþ blis in ȝoure þouȝt.
    Whiles I am here, wakeþ w{i}t{h} me;
    Hit doþ me good þat I ȝow se.                        216

  Nabbeþ no drede ac witeþ hit wel;
  Of pine ne schal ihc þole no del.                      212
  Ne schal no soreȝ come me to,
  For my sone hit wule so,
  Mi body ne schal no pine þole,
  For he was þ{er} of ibore,                             216
  He þolede pine him self for me,
  Þo he deide vpon þe tre.

    [Sidenote: [leaf 66, back]]
    Haueþ no drede in wel;
    Of peyne schal I þole no del.
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Mi bodi mai no peyne þolen,
    For he was þ{er} of y-boren.                         220
    He þoled deþ him self for me;
    He honged nailed on þe tree.

  He þ{a}t is almiȝtful kyng,
  Schal me sende of his geng.                            220
  Ioh{a}n {and} þe apostles, whei hy be,
  Alle hi schulle come to me.”

    Mi sone þat is kyng~ of heuene,
    Schal me sende worde wel euene;                      224
    Ioh{a}n {and} þe apostles, where so þei bene,
    Schulle alle come for to sene.”

  Þe while he spac þus to þis men,
  Of al þ{a}t þing nuste noȝt Ion.                       224
  He com to speke wiþ vre lefdi,
  {And} hym þuste heo was sori,

    As sche so spak to þe mon,
    Off al þat wist nouȝt seynt Ion.                     228
    He come to speke w{i}t{h} oure ladi;
    Ferli him þouȝt þat sche was sory,

  And sede, “lefdy, what is þe?
  For my s{er}uise tel hit me.                           228
  Lefdi, what is þe ised?
  Me were leffre to beo ded,
  Þane iseo þe make such chere.
  What is þe, my lefdi dere?                             232
  [_No gap in MS._]
  Ne schal ihc neure habbe blis,
  Fort þ{a}t ihc wite what þe is.”

    And seide, “ladi, what is þee?
    What is þis folk þat I here se?                      232
    Seie me, ladi, what is þee?” he sede;
    “For me were leu{er} þat I were dede,
    Than I þee se suche semblau{n}t make,
    “For schal I neu{er} suche a ladi take.              236
    Hastou ouȝt herde þat I ne can,
    Off me or of any oþ{er} man?
    Schal I neu{er} haue blis
    Til I wite, ladi, what þee is.”                      240

[Headnote: _Mary consoles John._]

  Vre lefdi wep {and} Ioh{a}n also;
  Trewe loue was bituex he{m} tuo.                       236
  “Lefdi,” he sede, “what is þe?
  For my loue, tel hit me.”
  Marie ansuerde wiþ Milde steu[ene],
  “A sonde Me ca{m} while er fram h[euene],              240

  _The MS. ends here. Continued from Harl. MS. 2382._

    [Sidenote: [leaf 67]]
    Oure ladi wept and Ioh{a}n also,
    For trewe loue was bitwene he{m} two.
    Ioh{a}n seide, “ladi, what is þee?
    For þi sones loue, seie þou me.”                     244
    Marie answerde w{i}t{h} rewful steuene,
    And seide, “me cam bode fram heuene,

  _Harl. MS. 2382, lf. 78, bk._

  fro my sone a messynger;
  he wołł no leng{er} that y be here.
  but y wote that rueth me,
  that y shałł dep{ar}te fro the;                        244
  for thi loue and thi s{er}uice
  that thu me dost in al wise.
  thu hast made me ofte glad;
  thu has don{e} as my sone bad.                         248
  my sone shal it yelde to the;
  y wol hym p{ra}y when y hym se.”

    Fro my sone a massagere;
    He wol no lengere þat I be here,                     248
    Wite þou wel hit rewiþ me
    That I schal, Ioh{a}n, p{ar}te fram þee.
    For þi loue {and} þi seruyce
    That þou hast dou{n} on eche wise,                   252
    Thou hast me boþe fed {and} clad,
    And doun also my sone þee bad.
    My sone schal it wel ȝelde þee;
    I schal him telle when I him se.”                    256

  [Sidenote: Ioh{ann}es]
  Tho answerd to her{e} seynt Ioh{a}n,
  and was a fułł sory man~,                              252
  “A, lady Marie, what shal y be
  when y shałł the no leng{er} se?
  my ioye thu art eu{er}y dełł;
  no leng{er} in erthe worth y wełł,                     256
  now we shul dep{ar}te a two.”

    Than answerde seynt Iohan,
    That was a ful sori man,
    And seide, “ladi, how mai þis be
    That I schal þee no more se?                         260
    Mi ioie, my blis, is do{u}n eche del;
    Ne schal me neu{er} worþen wel,
    Sithen we ben p{ar}ted atwo.”

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  Then seid Marie, “whi seist þ{o}u so?
  for sothe, thogh y go be-fore,
  yet shal thu not be for-lore.                          260
  y shall p{ra}y my lef sone,
  that thu may vnto vs come.
  And o thyng, Ioh{an}, y bidde the,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 79]]
  for the loue thu hast to me,                           264

    Þo seide our ladi, “why saistou so?                  264
    [Sidenote: [leaf 67, back]]
    Wite þou wel, I go be-forn;
    Thi seruyse schal noȝt be forlorn;
    I schal to my sone seie of þee
    That þou with hym {and} me schal be.                 268
    But herestou now, my frende Io{ha}n,
    When þou sest þat I am gon,

  [Sidenote: no{t}a hic v{er}b{is} Marie]
  loke anon{e} when y am nome,
  that the fals Iewys ne come
  my body for to don{e} shame,
  for thei haten moche my name.                          268
  thei wole feyn shame me,
  that honged my sone on þ{e} rode tre.
  y wote wełł thei loue me noght;
  ther-for thei ben{e} mysthought.                       272

    Kepe my bodi þat I ne be binomen,
    When þe fellon Iewes comen,                          272
    Mi bodi forto doun no schame,
    For þei hate no þing~ more þan my name.
    Mi sone þei hongen on a tre;
    Wel I wote so wolde þei me.                          276
    I wote wel þei louen me nouȝt;
    But þ{er} of be þi most þouȝt.

  when y am be-nome fro the,
  to my body they do no foly.
  Ih{es}u Crist our{e} aller{e} dright,
  gef ham neu{er} that ilke myght.”                      276

    When I am p{ar}ted, Ioh{a}n, fram þee,
    That þei do my bodi none euelte.                     280
    My sone, þat woneþ i{n} heuene liȝt,
    Lete hem neu{er} þ{er} to haue myȝt.”

[Headnote: _The apostles arrive from distant regions._]

  [Sidenote: Ioh{ann}es]
  seynt Ioh{an} answerd tho,
  “sey me, lady, if it is so,
  that we shall dep{ar}te atwo.
  “swete lady, how shałł y do?                           280
  sey me þe tyme when it shal be,
  that thu shalt to heuene te.”

    “Ladi, sithen hit is so,
    That we schal dep{ar}te a two,                       284
    Seie me how long hit is to þan.”

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  she seid, “Ioh{a}n, that þ{o}u shałł se;
  ne bide y here but dayes thre.”                        284
  Then was Ioh{an} ful hertely sory.

    “For soþe,” marie seide to Iohan,
    “Bi þis {and} þe þridde day,
    No leng{er} abide I ne may.”                         288
    [Sidenote: [leaf 68]]
    When he it herde, he was sory;

  [Sidenote: Ioh{ann}es]
  wepand he seyd, “dame, m{er}cy!
  how shal y leue? how shal y fare?
  now cometh al my sorow {and} care.                     288
  my lord was hard y-broght to detħ,
  thurgh fals Iewis that couthe no metħ.
  now shal our{e} lady me fro;
  now cometh to me al my woo.                            292
  wold god that y wer{e} ded,
  for right now can y no red.”

    He wept, {and} seide, “ladi, mercy.
    How schal I lyue? how schal I fare?
    How schal I blis or ioie haue?                       292
    Furst my lord was brouȝt to dede,
    Thorw þe felun iewes rede,
    And now my ladi wil me fro,
    Swete lord, now me is wo.                            296
    Wolde my lord I wolde be dede,
    For I ne can no bett{er} rede.”

  [Sidenote: [leaf 79, back]]

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  “Nay,” she seid, “whi seist thu so?
  angelis the shałł come to,                             296
  and loke to the wher{e} thu be,
  erlich and late to comfort the.”

    “Ioh{a}n,” sche seide, “whi seistou so?
    Th[e] aungeles schal þee come to,                    300
    To kepe þee where so þou be,
    Erliche {and} late to gladen þee.”

  [Sidenote: no{t}a de ap{osto}lis om{n}ib{us} mirac{u}lose.]
  when she spake to seynt Ioh{a}n,
  thapostellis cam yn eu{er}ychon~,                      300
  and none of hem wiste be-forn~,
  how thei wer{e} thed{er} y com,

    Whiles he spak so to seynt Ion,
    Come þe apostles eu{er}ychon,                        304
    To gidre; but þei wist nouȝt
    How þei weren to gidre brouȝt;

  and seid, “lady, ne drede þ{o}u noght,
  thi sone hath vs hider broght,                         304
  to knowe the for our{e} lady,
  while that we ben{e} the by.”

    Off oþ{er}es come ne wist none;
    But of hure come bliþe was Ion.                      308
    He cust hem alle, so fayn he was,
    And seide, “deo gracias;
    Blessed, ih{es}u, be þi myȝt,
    For it is faire and hit is ryȝt                      312
    [Sidenote: [leaf 68, back]]
    That þi moder come to þee,
    That sche faire welcom be
    Of þine apostles þ{a}t most þee louen,
    I ne wote how þei ben hidre ycomen.”                 316
    Than seide Petyr to seynt Ion,
    “Whi art þou so sory A mon?

[Headnote: _John bids them go and greet Mary._]

  (_Not in Harl. 2382_)

    “Whi wepistou, {and} what is þee?
    For felaschip telle þou me.                          320
    I schal þee seie, seynt Ion,
    Whi I am so sory a mon,
    But seie me furst, for godes loue,
    Whi ȝe arn hider icome,                              324
    And weryn so wide isprad:
    Seieþ what haþ ȝou hidre ilad.”

    Tho seide Petyr a ferli þinge:
    “I was fer hens atte my p{re}chinge.                 328
    I was so henne i{n} anoþer londe
    And helde my boke in my honde,
    And tauȝt men of my sermo{u}n,
    I ne wote how I cam to þis toun.”                    332
    So seide alle þat weren þere,
    Suche wondre sawe I neu{er} ere.

    None of hem ne wist þorw wham,
    [Sidenote: [leaf 69]]
    Ne what wai þei þidre cam,                           336
    Than seide seynt Io{ha}n, “for soþe, I wys,
    I schal ȝow telle what it is.
    Comeþ wiþ me in to þis hous;
    Oure ladi þer abideþ vs.                             340
    Sche ordeyneþ hure to fare vs fro,
    For hure sone hit wolle so.
    Hure sone haþ sent his messagere;
    He wol no lengere þat sche be here.                  344
    And hider he haþ ȝow alle ysent
    To kepe hure bodi when sche is went.
    Bi fore hure knele ȝe alle bi-dene
    And seieþ, ‘ladi, heuene quene,                      348
    Off alle wy{m}men, best þee be;
    Thi sone vs haueþ sent to þee,
    To kepe þee {and} do þi wille:
    Vs þenkeþ wel þat it is skille,                      352
    That heuene {and} erþe bowe þee to,
    For þi sone hit wol so,
    Thi sone, þat is heuene kynge,
    And alle þing haþ in his kepinge.’”                  356
    Than comen þe apostles alle,
    And bi hure bigan to falle.
    Vp ros oure swete ladi
    And kist þe apostles bi {and} bi.                    360
    [Sidenote: [leaf 69, back]]
    Off here come sche was glad;
    Alle þei dide þat sche bad.
    Sche asked hem how þei come þere,
    That sprad so sundry were.                           364
    The seide in ful good þouȝt,
    “Thi sone vs haþ hidre ybrouȝt
    To kepe þee, {and} by þee by;
    Ther fore we comen to þe, lady.”                     368

[Headnote: _Mary bids them keep her body from the Jews._]

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  “Blessid,” she seid, “be my sone.”
  glad was she was of her{e} come.                       308
  “y am his mod{er},” so seid he,
  “glad ther for may y be.
  now when it is my sones wille
  to hym y come, {and} that is skyle,                    312
  to my body ye loke al so,
  that my foos ne come ther to.

    Ful bliþe sche was of here come;
    “Blessed,” sche seide, “be my sone!
    [_No gap in MS._]
    When it is my sones wille
    That I come him to, hit is skille.                   372
    Mi bodi ȝe schal kepe so
    That þ{er}-to come nouȝt my fo.
    Kepeþ faire my body,
    That none do me no vilany.                           376
    The Iewis ben ful of felony;
    My sone þei slow þorw enuye.

  moche hateth they my name;
  ther for wold thei do me shame.                        316
  y you bidde p{ur} charite,
  for the loue ye haue to me,
  when y fare to heuene blisse,
  waketh ther my body ys.                                320

    The haten no þing more þan my name,
    God late hem neu{er} do me schame.                   380
    Ther fore I p{ra}ie ȝow, p{ur} charyte,
    And for þe loue þat ȝe haþ to me,
    When I am faren to heuen blis,
    Wakeþ alle þ{er} my body is.                         384

  loketh bothe nyght {and} day,
  that þ{e} Iewis bere it not away.
  thay wold it brenne or do shame.
  Ih{es}u, for thi holy name,                            324
  gef ham neu{er} strengthe to haue
  my bodi in erthe for to laue.”

    [Sidenote: [leaf 70]]
    Kepiþ it boþe nyȝt and dai,
    That no Iewe stele it awai.
    Thei wolde it brenne or do it schame;
    But ih{es}u, for þi holi name,                       388
    Late hem neu{er} þ{er}-to haue myȝt,
    For sikirli hit were vnryȝt.”

  [Sidenote: [leaf 80]]
  Thei answerd, “for sothe, y-wys,
  it shal be as thi wille ys.”                           328
  The whiles Marie badde her{e} bone
  to the apostellis eu{er}ychone,

    Thei seiden, alle soþe, I wys,
    “Hit schal be, ladi, as þi wille is.”                392
    Whiles oure ladi spak~ so
    To þe apostles þat come hure to,

  [Sidenote: Angelus]
  an Angel a-light on that stede,
  and seid, “Marie, god herd þ{i} bede,                  332
  and all they that ben{e} w{i}t{h} the;
  “loke that thu arayed be.
  thu shalt to heuene {and} be quene;
  ful blithe may thi hert bene.                          336
  thu shalt in hast be in heuene.”

    Come an aungel {and} stode hure bi,
    And seide, “wel þee be, ladi,                        396
    And so be alle þat ben þee bi;
    “Loke þou be ful redi.
    Þou schalt to heuene {and} be made quene;
    Ful bliþe mai þine hert bene.                        400
    Alle schal þee s{er}ue, þe company of heuene.”

  when o{ur} lady herd this steuene
  the angel seid her{e} then to,
  ful of blisse was she tho.                             340
  to her{e} bed she went to aray,
  a-boute þ{e} tyme of hy mydday.
  Ioh{a}n the apostell sate her{e} by,
  to kepe her{e} body sikerly.                           344

    As soone oure ladi herd þat steuene
    That þe aungel seide hure to,
    Wel ful of Ioie was sche þo;                         404
    Sche ȝede to hure bedde {and} lai,
    A bowte þe tyme of myddai;
    Ioh{a}n {and} þe apostles weren hure bi,
    To kepen hure as oure ladi.                          408
    [Sidenote: [leaf 70, back]]
    Sche badde Io{ha}n {and} þe apostles alle,
    To kepen hure what so bi falle.

[Headnote: _Jesus tells the angels about His life on earth._]

    ++Sitteþ now stille, boþe more {and} lesse,
    And herkeneþ of þe moche blesse                      412
    Off Ih{es}u, þ{er} he come so lyȝt:
    He dide his mod{er} ful moche riȝt,
    As a sone auȝt his moder to done,
    He callid þe aungeles eu{er}ychone,                  416
    And alle þe mayne þat was i{n} heuene,
    And seide to hem with mury steuene:
    “Co{m}meþ with me to my le{m}man!
    Sche is my moder; hure sone I am;                    420
    Off hure I toke flesche {and} blode.
    And sithen I hange on þe rode,
    I þ{a}t eu{er} was {and} ay schal ben,
    In al þis blisse þat ȝe here sen,                    424
    I hadde reuþe on al mankyne,
    That alle went to helle pyne.
    I made man to serue me,
    And þorw þe appel of a tre,                          428
    That adam toke {and} ete it Inne,
    To helle he went, {and} al his kynne.

  [Sidenote: odor suauissim{us} de p{a}radiso venit]
  emonge them alle sone ywys,
  a swete smełł cam fro p{ar}adys,
  swete it was, and ferly,
  that alle þ{a}t wer{e} tho her{e} by,                  348
  bothe yong {and} olde {and} eu{er}ychon{e},
  thei fełł a-slepe, {and} þ{a}t anon{e}.
  alle the slepte, saue our{e} lady.

    “Hit rewid me, and for-þouȝt sore,
    And I it wolde þole no more.                         432
    [Sidenote: [leaf 71]]
    I lyȝt doun, {and} man bi-cam,
    And of þat maide flesche nam.

[Headnote: _He announces that He will bring Mary to heaven._]

  [Sidenote: no{t}a de t{ra}nsitu s{an}c{t}e Marie]
  herkeneth now, y tełł yow why.                         352
  and als sone thei wer{e} a-slepe,
  it gan to thondr{e} al vnmete,
  and the erthe so swithe gan quake,
  as al the world shuld to-shake.                        356
  Marie awaked then seynt Ioh{a}n
  and the apostels eu{er}ychon,
  thre maydens þ{a}t wer{e} the[re]-ynne,
  and no man els of hir{e} kynne.                        360
  “waketh now, and slepe ye nought!
  Sone y worth to heuene be broght;
  now is tyme y wer{e} a fare,
  Shałł y neu{er} more suffre care.”                     364

    “Bi fore alle oþ{er} I hure ches,
    And I was born of hure flesches.                     436
    Thritti wynt{er} {and} so{m}me del more,
    Men to wissen, I was þore.
    Men dide me moche euelte;
    Myn owyn þat ouȝt for to be,                         440
    Thei token me {and} bette me sore,
    And atte þe last þei dide wel more,
    With oute gult þei me swongen,
    And to a piler þei me bounden.                       444
    Nailes þei smyten in my fette;
    Off blode myne handes weren rede.
    Myn hert þei stongen w{i}t{h} a spere;
    That sawe alle þat weren þere.                       448
    Ther I hange nailed on þe tree,
    My modre was wel wo for me,
    And also was hure cosin Ion.
    I callid hure to me soone anon,                      452
    And seide, ‘Io{ha}n, for my loue,
    Kepe wel þis wyf; I am hure sone.’
    Boþe þei wenten þo fro me;
    Al one I hanged on þe tree,                          456
    [Sidenote: [leaf 71, back]]
    Mi soule fram my bodi I nam,
    In to þe pyne of helle sone I came.
    Alle my frendes þat I þer fonde,
    I toke hem oute w{i}t{h} my ryȝt honde,              460
    Adam {and} Eue {and} many mo,
    I dide hem oute of helle go.
    When I hadde harwed helle,
    And don as I ȝow telle,                              464
    And fet adam fro þe quede,
    The þridde dai I ros fro dede.
    Fram erþe to heuene I cam;
    God {and} man, bothe I am,                           468
    In heuene {and} in erþe is my myȝt;
    “Now I wol forþe in ryȝt,
    That my modre be me bi;
    This tyme I wol for þi,                              472
    Comeþ with me with mury songe,
    And do we hure come vs amonge.”

[Headnote: _Conversation between Jesus and Mary._]

  [Sidenote: Ih{es}us]
  Tho cam Iesus from heuene,
  w{i}t{h} angelis {and} archangelis seuene,
  yn to hir{e} bour{e} w{i}t{h} mery song;
  moche merthe was them among.                           368
  no wond{er} thogh ther be blisse
  in eche place ther Ih{esus} ys.

    Than cam ih{es}u w{i}t{h} his mayne,
    Aungeles, archaungeles, moche plente,                476
    In to þe chambre þ{er} sche was Inne,
    with ful many of hure kynne.
    That chambere was ful of moche blis,
    As eu{er} is þer ih{es}u is.                         480

  none of them that wer{e} there
  a soche blisse saw they ner{e}.                        372
  amonge al blisses of the trone
  Mary knew her{e} leue sone.

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  when she hym saw, she was ful glad,
  he herd the bone that she bad.                         376

    [Sidenote: [leaf 72]]
    Tho seide alle þat were þere,
    Suche a blis sawe þei neu{er} ere.
    Amonge þat Ioie {and} þat glewe,
    Oure ladi, hure sone knewe.                          484
    When sche hi{m} sawe, sche was glad;
    Listeneþ þe bede þat sche bad:

  “y-blessed mote that tyme be
  that thu wer{e} born{e} of me.
  hit is sene, y am thi moder
  when thu comest þi self hider.                         380
  Furst þ{o}u sendest thyn apostelis to me;
  now thu comest w{i}t{h} thi meyne,
  to fette me vnto that blisse
  that eu{er} lasteth w{i}t{h} ałł gladnesse.            384
  Sone thu art hider y-come
  w{i}t{h} thyn angelis from a-bone.
  do þ{o}u now what thi wille ys;
  me hath longed to the, y-wys.”                         388

    “Sone, blessid mote þou be,
    That þou bicome man of me;                           488
    Hit is wel sene, I am þee dere,
    Now þi self art comen here.
    Thine apostles þou sendist furst to me,
    And now þou art come w{i}t{h} þi meyne,              492
    To fecchyn me in to þi myȝt:
    Was neu{er} modre sone so bryȝt.
    Mi leue sone, now art þou come
    With þi meyne, here a bone.                          496
    Do, my sone, þat þi wille is;
    To þee me þinkeþ longe I wis.”

  [Sidenote: Ih{es}us]
  Then Iesus to Marie sede,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 81]]
  “Moder, w{i}t{h} ioye y wołł the lede.
  of all wy{m}men the worth best,
  in heuene blisse that shal lest.                       392
  ther y am kyng; thu shalt be quene;
  in grete ioye thu shałł bene.”

    [_No gap in MS._]
    “Modre,” he seide, “come with me;
    Of alle wymen best þee be.                           500
    [_No gap in MS._]
    Thou schalt to heuen {and} be made quene;
    Wel bliþe may þine hert bene.”

  [Sidenote: Maria]
  “leue sone, y be-seche the
  o thyng that thu telle me.                             396
  shall y any deuyłł se,
  or any w{i}t{h} the shałł be?
  “for y loue them neu{er} on{e},
  thei ben{e} noght, so mote y gon{e}.”                  400

    “Sone,” sche seide, “I be-seke þee
    O þing þat þou graunt me,                            504
    [Sidenote: [leaf 72, back]]
    That I noȝt þe deuel se,
    Ne none þat eu{er} w{i}t{h} him be.
    “I loue hem nouȝt; þei arn my fone;
    Ne wolde I neuer sene hem none.”                     508

[Headnote: _Jesus promises mercy to man for Mary’s sake._]

  [Sidenote: Iesus]
  “Moder, y sey, drede thu noght;
  ne stode it neu{er} on my thoght,
  for thu shalt no deuyłł se,
  y wołł go be-fore the;                                 404
  ne þ{o}u shalt no deuyłł heren{e},
  but only me {and} my feren{e}.
  Maiden {and} mod{er}, eu{er} thu be wełł;
  thu shalt of sorwe wete no dełł.                       408
  alle the spirettes that meten w{i}t{h} the,
  buxom to the shałł they be.
  Moder, one thyng y gef to the;
  thu shalt be in heuene w{i}t{h} me.                    412

    “Moder,” he seide, “ne drede þee nouȝt;
    Ne come it neu{er} in my þouȝt;
    Ne wille I neu{er} more þole
    That any of hem come þee bi fore;                    512
    Ne schal þou neu{er} se-ne here
    But me {and} aungeles, þine fere.
    Moder, a ȝift I schal þee ȝyue,
    Thou schalt with me in heuene lyue,                  516
    And more schal I ȝeue þee;
    Al heuene companye schal s{er}ue þee.

  “mod{er}, for the loue of the,
  y wołł haue m{er}cy and pite
  of al man kynde thurgh þ{i} p{ra}y{e}re,
  yf þ{o}u ne were, they wer{e} for-lore.                416

    “Modre, for þe loue of þee
    I schal haue m{er}cy {and} pite                      520
    Off al man kynne for þi p{ra}iere,
    That were forlorn ȝif þou ne were.

  [Sidenote: no{t}a bene de seruientib{us} s{an}c{t}e Marie deuote]
  “and of them namelich
  that the serueth trulich,
  and that to the don{e} m{er}cy crye
  and sey, ‘help vs, dere ladye,’                        420
  In what synne that thei be,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 81, back]]
  mod{er}, for the loue of the,

    “Alle þat dou{n} þee worschipe,
    And seruen þee wel, {and} treuliche                  524
    Bi seke to þee, {and} m{er}cy will crie,
    And seyn, ‘help, seynt marie,’
    In what peyne so he be,
    Moder, for þe loue of þee,                           528
    [Sidenote: [leaf 73]]
    I schal hem reles sone anon;
    For þi loue I schal þus done.

  “thogh a man had lad his lyf
  in onde, in synne, {and} in strif,                     424
  yf he on his last dawe
  wepe {and} crye, {and} to the be-knawe,
  and telle it oute vnto the preste,

    “Ȝif any haue ben al his lyue
    In hede synne, maide or wyue,                        532
    And he wille, on his last þrowe,
    Schryue him {and} ben y-knowe,
    And telle it, ȝif he haue þe p{re}st,

  [Sidenote: no{t}a bene de co{n}fessione]
  “or in case, vnto his nexte,                           428
  yf that he may do no more,
  but that he aruwe it sore,
  in what synne that he be,
  moder, for the loue of the,                            432
  I wołł of hym haue mercy.
  and sitthe he shałł come me by,

    “Or a noþer man þat is him nest,                     536
    And ȝif he ne mai do no more,
    But þat him forþinkeþ sore,
    In what synne so he be,
    Moder, for þe loue of þee,                           540
    I schal on him haue m{er}cy,
    And sithen þei schulle wone þee bi.

[Headnote: _Mary is borne to Heaven._]

  “thogh a man had fully wroght
  all the synne that he had thought,                     436
  and he on his laste day
  in none other wise may,
  yf he wepe and telle to the,
  in what synne that he be,                              440

    “Ȝif a man hadde al one wrouȝt
    Alle þe synnes þat myȝt be þouȝt,                    544
    And he on his last dai,
    Ȝif he none ere ne mai,
    Repent him, {and} calle to þee,
    In what synne so he be,                              548

  full wełł y shałł his bone here,
  for thi loue, my moder dere.

    I schal here his p{ra}iere,
    For þi loue, modre dere,
    Al þat þou wolt bi seke fore,
    Be it lasse, be it more,                             552
    [Sidenote: [leaf 73, back]]
    Hit schal ben aftur þi wille,
    For I it wille, {and} þat is skille,
    Þat no þing with seie þee,
    Off þat þou wolt biseke me.”                         556

  Alle tho that thu wolt bidde fore
  and blesse the tyme þ{a}t thu wer{e} bore.             444
  of all{e} thyng y-blessid thu be,
  for that y bidde, thu g{ra}untes me.”

    ++Oure ladi knelid him bi forn,
    And seide, “þe tyme þ{a}t þ{o}u were born,
    Ou{er} alle oþ{er} blessed þou be,
    For alle þat I wol, þou g{ra}untest me.”             560

  Then Ih{esus} his hand vp heue,
  and to his mod{er} his blessyng yeue,                  448
  and called to hym seynt Mighełł,
  and seid, “kep thu my mod{er} wełł,
  that she fele no man{er} fere;
  ther is no thyng to me so dere.”                       452

    ¶ “So I auȝt, moder, {and} so I wille;”
    He left vp his hond {and} blessed hure stille;
    His blessing sche þouȝt good,
    And he hure soule vndrestode.                        564
    He callid to him seynt myȝhel,
    “Thou kepe me þis soule wel,
    Thou and alle þine fere;
    Is no þinge me so dere.”                             568

  [Sidenote: Ih{esus} assu{m}psit a{n}i{m}am matris]
  and when he had the soule hent,
  and she was fro the body went,
  Then all the verdoun{e} of heuene
  [Sidenote: [leaf 82]]
  fett that soule full aboue;                            456
  w{i}t{h} the verdoun{e} to heuene thei come,
  w{i}t{h} gret ioye she was yn nome.
  she was made quene of heuene
  and blessid hir{e} sone w{i}t{h} mylde steuene.        460

    Alle þat mayne þat cam fro heuene,
    Thei syngen w{i}t{h} a myry steuene;
    Men myȝt wite bi here songe
    That moche ioie was hem amonge.                      572
    With alle þat mayne to heue{n} he hure nam;
    And as soone as he þer cam,
    He made hure quene of heuen liȝt;
    Blessid be hure sones myȝt! amen!                    576

[Headnote: _The apostles in procession bear the body through

  [Sidenote: no{t}a modum assumpc{i}onis anime Marie p{er} ih{es}um]
  ++Now shałł ye here how she was nome,
  wher she was, {and} whed{er} be-come.
  when þe soule fro þe body was nome,
  god bede seynt Petr{e} to hym come:                    464
  “for the loue y owe to the
  my mod{er}-is body thu kep to me.

    [Sidenote: [leaf 74]]
    ++Now schal we here of þe bodi,
    Where it bi cam, {and} where it li.
    When þe soule was þ{er}e fro hure nomen,
    Than bad god Pet{er} to him comen,                   580
    And seide, “Pet{er}, I comaunde þee,
    Mi moder bodi kepe þou me.
    Ioh{a}n {and} alle þine fere,
    Nis no þinge me so dere;                             584

  when y first to erthe came,
  of this body flesħ y name.                             468
  y was of this body bore,
  ther-for, Petr{e}, go thu be-fore,
  and thi bretheren forth w{i}t{h} the
  vnto Iosaphatħ that vale,                              472
  and leueth it ther{e} sone anon{e};

    When I furst in þis worlde cam,
    Off hure bodi flesche I nam;
    Off hure bodi, I was born,
    Petyr, go forþe þou be forn,                         588
    Thou {and} alle þine feres w{i}t{h} þee,
    To Iosephat, to þat vale,
    And leiþ þe bodi in a stone;

  and drede ye nothyng of yo{ur} foon{e},
  To Ierusalem thurgh that toun{e}
  goth feire w{i}t{h} your{e} p{ro}cession{e}.           476

    Haueþ no drede of ȝoure fone;                        592
    Goth with faire processioun
    To ier{usa}l{e}m þorwe þe toun.
    Doþ þe belles alle to ryngen,
    And loke þat ȝe mury syngen.                         596
    Loke þat ȝe haue candele,
    Torches boþe faire {and} fele.

  foure of them shul bere þ{e} bere,
  for one shal kepe my mod{er} dere.
  and for no thyng dredeth ye,
  for y my self wol w{i}t{h} yow be.”                    480
  when Ih{esus} had thus y-seyd,
  and the body in bere was leyd,
  he yeaue them alle his blessyng,
  and styed to heuene, þ{er} he was kyng.                484
  which blessyng he geue tiłł vs,
  our{e} blessid lord, swete Iesus.

    Foure of þe apostles schal bere þe beere;
    Ther-on schal ligge me modre deere.                  600
    [Sidenote: [leaf 74, back]]
    Haueþ no drede of no Iew,
    For I my self schal be w{i}t{h} ȝow.”
    When ih{es}u hadde him so seide,
    And þe bodi was on bere leide,                       604
    He ȝaf hem alle his blessinge
    And stye to heuen, þ{er} he is kynge.

  Tho to them seyd seynt Ioh{a}n,
  “go we thed{er} right anon{e},                         488
  and g{ra}y we tħis p{ro}cessioun{e},
  [Sidenote: [leaf 82, back]]
  And go we syngand thurgh þ{e} toun{e}.”

    ¶ To hym þo seide seynt Ion,
    “Felawes, go we soone anon,                          608
    And t{ur}ne we þis p{ro}cessioun,
    And synge we faire þorw þis toun.”

  four{e} of the apostelis that ther wer{e},
  that holy body fourth dud ber{e}.                      492
  ful mery thei song, {and} that was right;
  many tapers ther-w{i}t{h} thei light.
  The Iewis that wer{e} Cristes foon{e},
  this thei herd sone anon{e}.                           496

  [_See the parallel lines to these, below, on page 130, col. 2._]

  [[a491-516 = h689-704]]

[Headnote: _The Jews attack the procession, but are rendered

  thei asked what was the crye.
  we seid it was seynt Marie,
  that seynt Petr{e} and his fere
  bare Marye apon{e} a bere.                             500

  [Sidenote: no{t}a cont{r}a iudeos]
  “Allas,” q{uo}d the Iewis, “for shame,
  yf thei scape, we ben{e} to blame.
  arme we vs swithe anon{e}
  and let vs take them eu{er}ychon{e}.                   504
  that body also, take we it,
  and cast it in-to a foule pytt.
  Cast we it in a foule sloo,
  and moche shame we it do.”                             508
  Tho cam thei lepe thedeward;
  that be-fełł them swithe hard.
  two of the Iewis that ther{e} wer{e},
  wer{e} honged ouer the bere.                           512

  [Sidenote: no{t}a mirac{u}l{u}m]
  Ih{esus} Crist wold se no shame,
  by his mod{er} swetely came.
  ful sone had thei godd{es} g{ra}me;
  he them made bothe holt {and} lame.                    516

[Headnote: _A Jew repents and receives his strength again._]

  of alle þ{e} Iewes ther was none
  that eu{er} myghte further gone.
  one of them that ther{e} wer{e},
  had knowed Petr{e} be-fore.                            520

    Ther was a Iew hem amonge,
    Off þe apostles harde þe songe.                      612
    To þe beere he cam lepand,
    And as he wolde lai on his hande;

  [Sidenote: Iudeus]
  the Iewe gon clepe to Petr{e} sone,
  and seid to hym w{i}t{h} wepand bone:
  and seid then, “knowest þ{o}u noght,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 83]]
  when Crist was to deth broght,                         524
  how thu hym folwest, and y þe knew,
  now, y the p{ra}y, on me th{o}u ruwe,
  and pray to Crist, if it may be,
  that he now haue m{er}cy on me.”                       528

    To þe bere he cleued fast,
    And to Petir he criede atte þe last,                 616
    And seide, “Petir, þenkest þou nouȝt,
    When þi lord was to vs brouȝt,
    Thou him forsoke, {and} I þe knewe?
    P{ra}ie for me,” seide þe Iewe,                      620
    “P{ra}ie þi lord, ȝif I mai so be,
    That he haue m{er}cy on me.

  [_No gap in MS._]

    Thenke,” q{uo}d þe Iewe, “what I þee dede.
    When þou was w{i}t{h} vs in þat stede,               624
    [Sidenote: [leaf 75]]
    When þi lord was ytakyn,
    And þou haddest him forsakyn,
    Oure mayne þee knewe þat ilke nyȝt
    Bothe bi speche {and} by syȝt,                       628
    And seiden alle, for I stode þee bi,

  [_No gap in MS._]

    That þou was of Ih{es}us companye.
    Thou seidest w{i}t{h} wordes {and} w{i}t{h} þouȝt,
    ‘For soþe þat þou knewe hi{m} nouȝt.’                632
    P{ra}ie þi lord of moche myȝt,
    And his moder þat art so bryȝt,
    That he me help at þis stounde,
    For I was neu{er} so harde ybounde.                  636
    As I þee helped atte þi nede,
    Ȝelde me, Petir, now my mede.”

  [Sidenote: Petrus]
  Seynt Petr{e} answerid tho
  to the Iewe that was so woo,
  “yf thu wolt on hym be-leve,
  whom thy kynne broght to dethe,                        532
  and that he is goddis sone,
  and sithens man for vs be come,
  and that Marie hy{m} bare hir{e} be best,
  a clene Maide {and} right honest,                      536
  and clene vnwe{m}med w{i}t{h} outen man,

    Seynt Petir answerde þo
    To þe Iewe þat was so wo,                            640
    “Ȝif þou woldest leue on him,
    That on þe rode dide þi kyn,
    That he is soþefast godes sone,
    God {and} man for him bi come,                       644
    That marie bare in hure lyf,
    Clene maide {and} clene wyf,
    Clene widewe w{i}t{h} oute wem,

  we shal alle bidde for þ{e} than,
  to Ih{es}u Crist that is a-boue,
  for his owne moder loue,                               540
  he gef the myght for to go,
  and brynge the oute of this woo.”

    For þee I wol p{ra}ie þen,                           648
    [Sidenote: [leaf 75, back]]
    Ih{es}u cryst vs liȝteþ aboue,
    That he, for his moder loue,
    So ȝeue þee myȝt for to go,
    And bringe þee oute of þi wo.”                       652

  [Sidenote: no{t}a {con}u{er}sione{m} Iudei]
  The Iewe that honged apon{e} the bere,
  answerd then as ye may here,                           544
  and seid, “y be-leue, vnd{er} that fourme,
  on Ih{es}u Crist, Maries sone,
  that Iewis peyned on the rode,
  w{i}t{h}-outen gilt, for our{e} gode,                  548
  and for vs he lost his lyf,
  that Marie bare, maide {and} wif.
  y be-seche that he me brynge
  of this peyne, thurgh yo{ur} biddynge.”                552

    The Iewe þat henge apou{n} þe bere,
    Answerde anone as ȝe mai here,
    “I leue wel, {and} bett{er} I schal done,
    On ih{es}u crist, godes sone,                        656
    That Iewes diden on þe rode,
    And for vs he schedde his swete blode,
    That marie bare in hure lyf,
    Clene maiden {and} clene wyf;                        660
    He brynge me, I p{ra}ie it him,
    Oute of þe wo þat I am Inne.”

[Headnote: _Peter christens the Jew and ordains him priest._]

  Crist vnd{er}stode the Iewis bone.
  he was holpe, and that anone;
  on feet {and} hand he yeaue hy{m} myght,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 83, back]]
  and alle his lymes for to right.                       556
  he gan to stonde vp anon{e}
  before the Iewis eu{er}ychon{e}.
  he that was bothe halt {and} lame
  be gan to p{re}che in Cristes name,                    560
  and seid, “worship we eu{er}ychon{e}
  that soche a miracle hath don{e}.”

    As soone as he hadde seide þis bede,
    He was al hole in þat stede:                         664
    Off fote, of honde, he hadde myȝt;
    Alle his lymes bi come ful ryȝt.
    He stode vp swiþe anone
    Bi-fore þe Iewes eu{er}echone,                       668
    That suche a myracle haþ done,
    Ih{es}u crist, godes sons,
    Of a wilde hou{n}de haþ made a lomb,
    To p{re}che his worde in eche a lond.                672

  Tho seynt Petr{e}, that holi man{e},
  that Iewe Crystened aft{er} anon{e};                   564
  he taught hym his by-leue;
  he knew he was to god y-yeue;
  he ordeyned hym to prest anon{e},
  and bade hym that he shuld gon{e},                     568
  and p{re}che ou{er}ałł, of goddis sone,
  in eu{er}y lond where he be-come.

    [Sidenote: [leaf 76]]
    Seynt Petir, þat holi man,
    The Iew he crystened anone,
    He tauȝt him al his bi leue;
    He wist he was to godes biheue;                      676
    He ordeyned him to p{re}st anone,
    And bad him soone for to gone
    And p{re}chen al of godes sone,
    In eche a lond where he come.                        680

  The palme þ{a}t Petr{e} had in hond,
  he toke it hym, thurgħ godd{es} sond,                  572
  and bade hym godd{es} word to telle
  to the Iewis that wer{e} so felle.

    That palm þat Petir helde in his honde,
    He toke it him þorw godes sonde,
    And bad him godes wordes telle
    Among þe Iewes þat were so felle.                    684

  [Sidenote: Iudeus conu{er}sus p{re}dicabat i{ta} {christu}m]
  Tho he spake the fourthe day,
  he t{ur}ned into goddes fay                            576
  xx thousant, {and} somdel mo,
  thurgh the word þ{a}t he spake tho.
  all the apostolis that þ{er} were,
  that holy body fourth thei bere                        580

    So he spak þe furst day,
    That he t{ur}ned to godes lay
    Twenty þousand {and} so{m}medel mo,
    Thorw wordes þat he spak þo.                         688

    [_See the parallel lines to these, on p. 127, col. 1, at foot,
    and p. 128, col. 1, at top._]

    [[a495-516 = h689-704]]

    Foure of þe apostles þat were þere,
    That swete bodi forþe þei bere,
    The Iewes þat were godes fone,
    Thei herde þe cri sone anone,                        692
    And þei asked what was þat crie,
    And men seiden it was mari,
    That seynt Petir {and} his fere
    Bare þare apou{n} a beere.                           696
    [Sidenote: [leaf 76, back]]
    “Alas,” seide þei, “for schame,
    Ascape þei vs, we schulle haue blame.
    Arme we vs alle sone anone,
    And take we hem alle þ{er} þei gone.                 700
    That bodi þ{a}t þei bere, nyme we it,
    And cast we it in a foule pit,
    Or brenne we it, {and} do it so{m}me where,
    Or cast we it in a foule sere.”                      704

  [_Not in it_]

    Thei comen lepand þiderwarde,
    And þat hem fel swiþe harde.
    Ih{es}u wolde nouȝt þ{a}t schame;
    He made hem boþe blynde {and} lame.                  708
    Off hem alle, was þ{er} none
    That myȝt a fote on erþe gone.
    Here mouþes were to here nek went;
    Thei þouȝt alle þat þei were schent.                 712
    Boþe here feet {and} here handes
    Where bounde w{i}t{h} stronge bandes:
    Ful sore bounden þei were,
    For þei ne myȝt go ne here.                          716
    Than comen here frendes hem to,
    And seide, “alas, whi leie ȝe so,
    In ȝoure armo{ur} so fast ycliȝt,
    That beþ so faire {and} so bryȝt?                    720
    [Sidenote: [leaf 77]]
    Ȝoure speres, ȝo{ur} schildes, helpeþ ȝow nouȝt;
    Telleþ vs what ȝe haue þouȝt.”
    Thei answerd nouȝt þat leyen þere,
    For þei ne myȝt hem noȝt here,                       724
    But so{m}me of hem þat myȝt speke
    Seide, “alas! who schal vs wreke?”
    And eu{er} þei cryede many a stounde,
    “Alas, how harde we lie here ybounde!”               728
    Off fyue þousand was þer none
    That myȝt of þat stede gone.
    Than seide some þat stode hem bi,
    That hadde ysene þat ferli,                          732
    That ‘seynt Petir {and} his fere
    Bare oure ladi on a beere,
    “Thise men wolde hure haue nomen,”
    And þus þei ben ou{er} comen.                        736
    The ladi þei wolde haue dou{n} schame;
    Ther fore þei hauen godes grame.’
    The folke hem bad m{er}cy to crie
    To ih{es}u cryst of here folie,                      740
    And leue þat he is godes sone,
    And siþen crysten men bi come.

[Headnote: _The Virgin Mary’s body is laid in the tomb._]

    “We hope þ{a}t ih{es}u schal sone tyme
    Delyuere ȝow of ȝoure pyne.”                         744
    [Sidenote: [leaf 77, back]]
    Thei criede “m{er}cy” with good wille,
    So{m}me lowde {and} so{m}me stille,
    And ih{es}u, þorw his mochil myȝt,
    Here feet {and} handes gan to ryȝt.                  748
    Thorw myracle þat þer was doun,
    Bi-come cristene many on,
    And leuede on cryst and criede m{er}cy,
    That none oþ{er} god was so myȝty.                   752

  to the vale of Iosephas
  to ley her{e}, ther{e} her{e} wille was,
  [_No gap in MS._]
  and leid the body in a ston{e},

    The apostles went forþe on here way,
    To Iosephat, to þat Valay.
    When þe apostles comen were,
    Wel softe þei setten doun þe beere.                  756
    With gret deuocioun, eu{er}ychone,
    Thei leide þe bodi in a stone,

  [Sidenote: Sepultu{r}a s{an}c{t}e M{ar}ie]
  ther-in was body neu{er} non{e}.                       584
  frendes and sibbe that þ{er} were,
  for her{e} wepte many a tere.
  [Sidenote: [leaf 84]]
  when she was in the ston don{e},
  ayen{e} thei turned eu{er}ychon{e}.                    588
  all the apostelis then wer{e} sory
  for the deth of our{e} lady;
  and ther a voice cam them among,
  that ne lasted not full long,                          592
  and bade them alle for to gon{e}
  wher{e} thei had for to don{e}.
  The apostelis went hem ayen{e}
  in-to the Burgħ of Ierusalem;                          596
  and as thei sate atte mete,
  of many thynges thei gon speke.
  als thei wer{e} out of that place,

  [Sidenote: resussitac{i}o corp{or}is M{ari}e]
  Iesus, w{i}t{h} his holy grace,                        600
  he gon to take vp anon{e}
  his moder body of the ston{e}.
  he hym self dud þ{er}ynne,
  that neu{er} had y-don{e} synne.                       604
  he wolde not in no manere
  that the body lafte there.
  in that body he dud a leme,
  bright{er} then the sonne beme,                        608
  and made her{e} quene of heuene blisse;
  in that place she was and ys.

    And bileft alle in þat stede,
    As oure ladi hadde hem bede,                         760
    And woke þ{er} al þat nyȝt
    With many torches {and} candle lyȝt.
    On þe morwe when it was dai,
    Thei loked where þat bodi lai.                       764
    Thei ou{er}t{ur}ned þ{a}t ilke stone;
    Bodi þei founde þ{er} none;
    But þei sawe in þat stede þana
    Liand as it were a mana.                             768
    [Sidenote: [leaf 78]]
    That ma{n}na bitokned hure clene lyf,
    That sche was modre, maide, {and} wyf.
    Tho wist þe apostles, I wis,
    The bodi was in to p{ar}adis,                        772
    Also godes wille was.
    Thei seide, “Deo gracias.”

[Headnote: _Mary lets fall her girdle to Thomas._]

  [Sidenote: Thomas yndie]
  Seynt Thom{a}s of ynde thed{er}ward com,
  also swithe as he myght gon{e},                        612
  and wold haue ben{e} at her{e} berying,
  yf he myght haue come be tyme.
  as he loked hym be syde,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 84, back]]
  he saw then a bright thyng glide                       616
  in that stede as he come,
  ther our{e} lady to heuene was nome.

    Seynt Thom{a}s of ynde þiderward cam
    Also blyue as he myȝt gan,                           776
    And wolde haue ben at hure fyne,
    Ȝif he myȝt haue come bi tyme.
    As he loked him bi side,
    He sawe a briȝtnesse bi hi{m} glide;                 780
    Bi þat stede þer he come,
    Oure ladi to heuene was nome.

  he kneled adoun{e} {and} seid, “lady,
  now on me thu haue mercy.                              620
  lady, quene of heuene bright,
  for thi mochel holy myght,
  send me a token this ilke day,
  soche thyng þ{a}t y bryng may                          624
  to my felawes, ther y ham fynde,
  that y was toward þ{i} berynge:
  thei wol not leue þ{a}t y was there;
  now g{ra}unte me, lady, my p{ra}yere.”                 628

    He knelede do{u}n {and} seide, “ladi,
    Off me, I p{ra}ie ȝow, haue m{er}cy.                 784
    Ladi, quene of heuene lyȝt,
    For þine swete mychel myȝt,
    Sende me token þis ilke day,
    What þing þat I say may                              788
    To myn felawis, þ{er} I hem fynde,
    That I was toward þi buriynge.
    Thei wil nouȝt leue þat I were;
    Now g{ra}unt me, ladi, my p{ra}iere.”                792

  [Sidenote: no{t}a de zona s{an}c{t}e Marie]
  a-boute her{e} gurdel a mydełł sought,
  that she hir{e} self had y-wroght,
  of siluer {and} gold wonde in palle;
  a-doun{e} to hym she lete it falle.                    632
  he toke that gurdełł in his hond,
  and thanked her{e} of her{e} sond.

    [Sidenote: [leaf 78, back]]
    A-bowte hure myddel a seynt sche souȝt,
    That sche hure self hadde wrouȝt,
    Off silk {and} gold wounden in pal;
    Doun to thomas sche lete it fal.                     796
    He toke þ{er} þe gurdel in his honde,
    And þanked hure of hure sonde.

  fourth he went of that stede;
  toward the toun{e} he hym yede.                        636
  his felaus then he dud seche
  yf he myght hem ou{er} mete.
  atte temple of dominus
  he them founde alle in ane ho{us}.                     640
  ther ful feire he them grette;
  and ayenward thei hym chidde.

    Forþe he went of þat stede;
    Toward þe toune he him dede,                         800
    His felawis for to seke on his fete,
    Ȝif he hem ouȝt myȝt mete.
    Atte þe temple dominus
    He fonde hem alle in an hous.                        804
    When he hem sawe, he gret hem,
    And þei answerde alle hym,
    And seiden, “thom{a}s of ynde,
    Eu{er} art þou bi-hynde.                             808

[Headnote: _The apostles find the tomb empty._]

  “wher{e} has thu so long y-ben{e}?
  we haue beried o{ur} heuene quen{e}.                   644
  “thu lakkest eu{er} at euery nede;
  thu helpest neu{er} at gode dede.”
  “sore me thenketh þ{a}t y nas here;
  [Sidenote: [leaf 85]]
  but y ne myght come no nere.                           648
  I-blessid be the quene of blys,
  in the place ther{e} she ys,
  for wełł y wote in my thought,
  there ye her{e} layde is she nought.”                  652

    “Whare hast þou so longe bene?
    We haue buried heuene quene.
    Thou helpest noȝt at no good dede;
    Thou failest eu{er} at most nede.”                   812
    “Sore me forþinkeþ þat I ne was here,
    But I ne myȝt come no nere.
    Blessed be sche, quene of blis,
    In þat stede þ{er} now sche is!                      816
    [Sidenote: [leaf 79]]
    For wel I wote bi my þouȝt,
    Ther ȝe hure left, is sche nouȝt.”

  Thei seid to hym swithe anon{e},
  bothe Petr{e} and seynt Ioh{a}n,
  “thow woldest not be-leue, Thom{a}s,
  that our{e} lord y-nayled was.                         656
  eu{er} thu leuys amysse in mynde,
  and tales y-now thu dos fynde.
  thu bi-leuest in god right noght;
  soche tales ne kepe we noght.”                         660

    Than seide to him sone anone,
    Bothe Petir {and} seynt Ione,                        820
    “Thou ne woldest, leue thomas,
    That oure lord fram deth ras.
    Come, þou art mys bileuyd,
    And tales ynow þou canst fynde,                      824
    Thou leuest nouȝt on godes craft;
    Swylk felawis wille we nauȝt.”

  [Sidenote: no{t}a de v{er}bis s{an}c{t}i Thome ap{osto}li.]
  “be stille,” he seid, “brother Ioh{a}n,
  why chide ye me so, one {and} on{e}?
  me thenketh ye can litel good,
  for y her{e} saw bothe flesħ {and} blood,              664
  how our{e} lady to heuene wend;
  her{e} is the token that she me send.”

    “Be stille,” he saide, “broþ{er} Io{ha}n.
    Whi chyde ȝe me eu{er}ychone?                        828
    I am ful wery man for-gone;
    Me ne list answeri neu{er} one.
    But I thanke oure lord god,
    I sawe hure w{i}t{h} flesche {and} blood,            832
    Ther oure ladi to heuene went:
    Here is þe token þat sche me sent.”

  Then seid seynt Petr{e}, “that is soth;
  this ilke webbe her{e} self woof.                      668
  w{i}t{h} her{e} y dud it on the bere;
  wond{er} me the thenketh þ{a}t it is here.
  go we swithe in-to the vale,
  to knowe the sothe of this tale                        672
  that he hath vs now y-sayde,
  for it was in the tombe y-laide.”

    Quath seynt Petir, “þat is sothe.
    This seynt sche hure self wof.                       836
    We dide it on hure in þe beere;
    Wonder me þinkeþ þat it is here.
    Go we swiþe in to þe vale,
    To wite þe sothe of þis tale                         840
    [Sidenote: [leaf 79, back]]
    That he haþ vs here yseide,
    For it was in þe tumbe ylaide.”

[Headnote: _Jesus appears to the apostles and blesses them._]

  [Sidenote: no{t}a de sepulc{r}o Marie vacuo.]
  owte of þ{a}t that place then they yede,
  and the tumba they vndede.                             676
  nothyng ther-on ther{e} thei founde
  [Sidenote: [leaf 85, back]]
  but a flour{e} atte grounde.

    Oute of þe place swiþe þei ȝede,
    And þe tumbe þei vndede;                             844
    No þing þ{er} Inne þei ne fou{n}de,
    But a manere floure at þe grounde.

  [Sidenote: Manna]
  That flo{ur} manna was cleped
  that in the tumba was steked.                          680
  they went ałł a-boute þe tumbe
  and kneled on the bare g{ro}unde,
  and seid, “Ih{es}u, goddis sone,
  ałł that thu sendes, it is wel-come.                   684
  Mightefułł is the heuene kyng;
  and that we know bi thi sayng.
  no man may know his p{ri}uyte,
  nother his swete dignite.”                             688

    That floure was ‘manna’ yclepid;
    Hit was in þe tumbe ystekyd.                         848
    Thei ȝeden alle abowte þe tumbe
    And knelede on þe bare grounde,
    And seiden, “ih{es}u, godes sone,
    Al þi sonde be welcome.                              852
    Myȝtful art þou, heuene kynge;
    That mai we wite bi þis tokenynge;
    For no man mai wite ne se
    What is þi derne p{ri}uete.”                         856

  Amonge þe apostolis alle a light,
  the kyng that is in heuene bright,
  and blessid ham alle in fere
  emonge the angelis þ{a}t ther{e} were,                 692
  and seid, “my pees be w{i}t{h} yow nowthe,
  blessid ye be of goddis mowthe.”

    Cryst of heuene, þat is so bryȝt,
    Amonge þe apostles sone he lyȝt,
    And gret hem alle yfere,
    W{i}t{h} aungeles fele þ{a}t w{i}t{h} hi{m} were,    860
    And seide, “now pees be w{i}t{h} vs!
    Blessed be ȝe,” seide Ih{es}us.

  [Sidenote: no{t}a miracul{u}m ap{osto}lor{um}.]
  A mysty cloude cam aft{er} than{e},
  and ou{er}sprad them eu{er}ychon{e},                   696
  and bare them alle þ{er} they wer{e},
  in-to the stede that they wer{e} er{e}.

    A lyȝt cloude come aft{er} þan,
    And ou{er} sprad hem eu{er}y man,                    864
    [Sidenote: [leaf 80]]
    And bar hem alle þat ben þere,
    In to here stedes þ{er} þei p{re}ched ere;
    And fonden alle þat folke ȝete,
    Sittand stille atte here fete.                       868
    And þei bigo{n}ne for to p{re}che,
    And þe folke for to teche.

  moche wond{er} then hem thought
  how thei wer{e} thed{er} y-brought,                    700
  for thei ne wiste whi ne whan{e};
  and thei seid euerychon{e}
  that rightfull is heuene kyng,
  Ih{es}us lord ou{er} ałł thyng.                        704

    Moche wondre hem þo þouȝt
    How þei weren þidre brouȝt.                          872
    Miȝtful art þou, heuene kynge,
    Ih{es}u Crist, in alle þinge!
    The apostles kneled in þat stede;
    To ih{es}u þei bede a bede.                          876
    Ih{es}u herde here p{ra}iere,
    For þei were hi{m} leue {and} dere.

[Headnote: _Conclusion and invocation._]

  ¶ This tale y haue tolde w{i}t{h} mouthe,
  w{i}t{h} wordes that ben{e} ful couthe.
  it is cleped the Assumpciou{n};
  Iesus gef vs his benesou{n}.                           708
  Iesu crist, for his myght,
  [Sidenote: [leaf 86]]
  we p{ra}y to hym w{i}t{h} herte light,
  and w{i}t{h} his holy grace,
  gef vs bothe myght {and} space,                        712
  soche workes for to worche,
  thurgh the lore of holy churche,
  that we may to heue[ne] wende,
  that is w{i}t{h} oute begy{n}nyng {and} ende.          716

  Explicit Sextus liber s{an}c{t}e Marie.

    ++WE biseche þee for alle þ{a}t hereþ þ{i}s vie
    Off oure ladi seynt marie,                           880
    That Ih{es}u schelde hem fram g{ra}me,
    Fro dedly synne {and} fro schame.
    Ne mys auent{ur}e schal bi falle þ{a}t man
    That þis a vie here can.                             884
    Ne no wo{m}man þat ilke dai
    That of oure ladi hereþ þis lai,
    Dien ne schal of hure childe,
    For oure ladi hure schal be mylde.                   888
    [Sidenote: [leaf 80, back]]
    Ne none mys auenture schal be-falle
    In felde, in strete, ne in halle,
    In stede þ{er} þis vie is rad,
    For oure ladi hure sone it bad.                      892
    And þe archibisshop seynt Edmou{n}d
    Haþ g{ra}unted xl. daies to p{ar}dou{n}
    To alle þat þis vie wol here
    Or with good wille wol lere.                         896
    Ih{es}u, for þi modre loue,
    That woneþ in heuene vs aboue,
    Graunt vs, ȝif þi wille is,
    The mochil Ioye of p{ar}adis!                        900
    A p{ra}ier þer-to seie alle we,
    A Pater n{oste}r p{ur} charite,
    And an Aue marie þer-to,
    That Ih{es}us vs graunt so. Amen!                    904
    ¶ Celi regina sit sc{ri}ptori medicina.



4, H. _Allof_. An undoubted trace of the influence of the French version
on the H text of the English version. The French has _Aaluf_.

6. _laste_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 7017: _þe while þe hit ilæste_.

8. _Fairer ..._ Cf. ‘The Erl of Tolous’ (ed. by G. Lüdtke, Berlin,
1881): _were no fayrer undyr hevyn, That any man myght see, Fayre myght
none bee_. 354. Cf. also 980-1. Further, ‘The King of Tars.’ (Engl.
Stud. xi. pp. 1 ff.): _Feirer miȝt non ben oliue_ 8.

10, C. _miste_. In many southern texts the _s-_ initial has the phonetic
value _sh-_. Hence here it is to be assumed that medial _-st-_ has the
pronunciation _-sht_, a loose way of representing the pronunciation of
the _-ht_, _-ȝt_ like German _-cht_ in _nicht_, etc.

11, 12. _rine_ : _schine_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 31889-90: _þa sunne gon to scine,
Þe rein bigon to rine_; 28303, _muchel rein him gon rine_; 31086-7, _nis
nan feirure wifmon þa whit sunne seineð on_.

14. _briȝt so þe glas_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ (Weber, Early Engl.
Romances, II.). 75. _And a lady þerinne was bryght as the sunne thorough

15. _whit so þe flur_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’: _off that lady whyt so
flour_, 128.

17, 18. _bold_ : _old_. Cf. ‘The Erl of Tolous’: _He was a feyr chyld
and a bolde, Twenty wyntur he was oold_, 712-13; Reinbroun 4, 4. _Faire
child he was and bolde, He was boute seue winter olde._ ‘Beues’
3899-3900: _Be þat he was seue winter old, He was a fair child and a

19, 20. _iliche_. Cf. ‘Guy of Warwick’ 1336: _In all þys worlde ys none
hym lyke_.

21, H. _tueye feren_. The H text here lacks one of the archaic features
of the story, referring to only two companions, viz., Aþulf and
Fikenhild. The other ten, save for the abrupt introduction of Arnoldin
at the conclusion, play no active part in the present version.

23. _riche menne sones_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28932-3: _monies riches monnes sune,
monie hæðene gume_.

25. _for to_ with infinitive. This is frequent, especially in H, and is
probably due to French influence, _por à_. Cf. 166 L, 242 H, 388 C H,
902, 1011, 1186, etc.

27. _him het_. For frequent use of reflexives cf. 134 L, 140 C L, 147 C,
173 C, 233 L, 293 C, 294, 526 C, 307 C, 364, 398 C, 426, 806 L, 802 L,
1250, 1269, 1297-8, 1386, 1410, 1545.

27, H. _Athulf_. In the early part of the H text _th_ is used in proper

31-35. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 181-3: _So hyt befell upon a day, The erl
and he went to play, Be a reuer syde_. Cf. also ‘Lyb. Disc.’ 25, 26
(Ritson): _As hyt befelle upon a day, To wode he wente on hys play_;
also ‘Lay.’ 25661 A, _bi þere sæ side_; ‘Lyb. Disc.’ 645-6: _Yesterday
yn the mornynge y wente on my playnge_.

42. _sarazins_. The conventional enemy in mediaeval romance. Probably
due to French influence and ultimately due to the stories originating in
the crusades and in the struggles between Mohammedans and Christians
culminating in the Battle of Tours.

44. _Oþer to londe brohte_. Murry mistakes them for merchants (cf. also
637-8). The whole incident, vv. 39-62, reminds one of the quite parallel
historical incident of the first landing of the Northmen in 787, and the
death of Beaduheard and his retinue.

45. _Payn_. Cf. Note on _Sarazins_, 42. _of herde_, an unusual
combination. This is the only instance cited in Bradley-Stratmann.

55. _gunne_ = ‘did’ intensive, as frequently. See _gan_ in Glossary,
also _con_, _couþe_, _began_.

57. _vnder schelde_ means perhaps ‘in arms.’ Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’
5691-3: _And yiff the sawdon off that land Myghte sloo Richard in that
feeld With swerd or spere undyr scheeld_. Cf. also Wissmann’s note.

67-8. _libbe_ : _sibbe_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 11605-6: _þenne maȝen we libben mid
sæhten & mid sibben_ (Wissmann).

69. _hi here_. The representatives of the OE. forms of the personal
pronouns are usually very strictly adhered to. _þei_, _þe_ occurs twice
(55 L and 1557 C), _sche_ once (380 L), ‘their’ and ‘them,’ not at all.

69, 70. _asoke_ : _toke_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 12114-16: _& sūme heo god wiðsoken
& to haðenescipe token_ (Wissmann). Also ‘Lay.’ 29187-8: _for crist
seolue he for soc, and to þon wursen he tohc_.

82, L. _hundes_. Cf. also 91 L, 634 C H, 887, 1465, etc. For a possible
explanation of the term cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 337-40: _Upon his creste a
rede hounde. The tayle henge to the grounde. That was Sygnyfycacioun The
hethene folke to brynge down._ Cf. 634 Note.

89, 90. _made_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28067-8: _deoren swið hende, þa ure drihten
make_ (Wissmann). The contracted form _made_ of L H, is that of the
original as shown by the rime and rhythm.

92. _quic flen_ perhaps a trace of a primitive custom in this
crystallized phrase (cf. also 1468 C).

98. _iseene_. Cf. Chaucer, ‘Knight’s Tale’ 65: _Now be we caytifs as it
is wel seene_ (Wissmann).

100. _strong_ : _long_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 2242-3: _Non so fayr, ne non so
long, ne non so mikel ne non so strong_.

107, C. _stere_. Cf. Glossary.

109. Cf. the parallel historical incident where Aethelstan sets his
brother Eadwine adrift, in Thorpe’s translation of Lappenberg’s England
under the Anglo-Saxon Kings, II, iii, London, 1845 (Wissmann).

118. _wringinde_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 152: _He wrungen hondes and wepen sore_

121-122. _wo_ : _þo_. A stereotyped couplet in romance. Cf. ‘Lay.’
8429-30, 20383-4, 8677-8, ‘Sir Isumbras’ 380-1, 759-60, ‘Rich. C. de L.’

123. _Horns_. Perhaps a scribal error, so common in this MS.; perhaps a
trace of the OF. inflection with _-s_ in the nom. sing. Cf. _Horns_
1560 H, _enimis_ 1023 C, 1024 H; also _page_ and _crois_ in Glossary.

127. _flowe_. Cf. ‘Proverbs of Alfred,’ v. 197 (M. and S. selections):
_Uppe þe see þat floweþ_. Kölbing (Eng. Stud. vi. 154) thinks _flowe_
means ‘flood’ as distinguished from ‘ebb.’

128. _rowe_. The ‘ship’ was a ‘galeie,’ cf. 199, 1084, 1086, etc.: cf.
also ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 2521-4: _They rowede hard, and sungge ther too
With henelow and rumbelooo. The galeye wente also faste As quarrel dos
off the arweblast._

131-2. _ywis_ : _ymis_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 19067-8: _for æuere heo wende ful
iwis þat it weoren þe eorl Gorlois_.

134. _sprang_. Cf. ‘Owl and Nighting.’ 734: _Wane þe liȝt of daie
springe_. Also ‘Ipomydon’ 776: _To-morrow, or the day sprynge_. Hence
the modern word ‘dayspring.’ For reflexive phrase, _him sprong_, cf. 27

150, L. _dawes_, the natural phonetic development from OE. nom. accus.
plur. _dagas_. The more usual forms _daies_, _dayes_, are formed by
analogy with the singular.

161, C H. _hol and fer_. Cf. ‘Ass.’ 62 Cambr.: _so hol ne fer_.

168. _dales and dune_. A common collocation of words. Cf. ‘Lay.’
27352-3: _iseȝen alle þa dales, alle þa dunes_ (Wissmann).

170. _blessing_. The accent on the second syllables of dissyllabic words
as revealed by the rimes in ‘Horn’ is an interesting feature. This
accent is no doubt in part to be explained as a French characteristic,
in part as the survival of an OE. secondary accent. For further
instances cf. 209-10, 219-20, 233-4, 239-40, 243-4, 253-4, 263-4,
359-60, 467-8, 529-30, 609-10, 859-60, 1169-70, 1235-6, etc.

174. _mild_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 6887-8: _Tho sayde to hym with mylde
stevene_, also a frequent phrase in the ‘Assumption.’

176. _beoþ icumene_. For other examples of _beon_ as auxiliary cf. _beþ
ygo_ 310 H, _am iorne_ 1228 C, etc. Cf. also ‘Lay.’ 13838-9: _whæt
cnihten ȝe seon & whænnenen ȝe icumen beon_.

175 ff. Compare with Aylmer’s greeting the in many ways similar greeting
of Vortiger to Hengest and Horsa. ‘Lay.’ 13826 ff.

180-2. _Ne sauȝ ihc ..._ Cf. 180-2 Note.

202. _sail and roþer_. Cf. ‘R. H.’ 60-61: _Kil naient auirum dunt a (!)
seient aidanȝ sigle ne guuernad (!) dunt il seient naianȝ_.

204. _brymme_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 272: _ferde bi þere sæ brimme_ (Wissmann).

206. _honde bihynde_. Cf. Wissmann’s parallel citations from Alexander
(Weber, as above I.) 2013 ff. and ‘Chron. of Engl.’ (Ritson II.) 873.

208. _spille_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 242: _Helpe me nu in þis nede and late ye
nouth mi bodi spille_ (Wissmann).

210. _Niþing_. Cf. Wissmann’s note.

221. _schulle_. Cf. Wissmann’s note and citation from ‘Oct. Imp.’ (Weber
III.). 535. _to blowe swyþe schylle_.

239 ff. Horn’s education. Cf. the similar scene in the later romance,
‘Ipomydon’ 32 ff., which, like ‘Rich. C. de L.,’ has many traits in
common with King Horn, and was no doubt influenced by King Horn. (Weber,
as above, II, pp. 281 ff.):

  _A feyrer child myght no man see_
  _Tholomew a clerk he toke,_
  _That taught the chyld vppon the boke,_
  _Bothe to synge and to rede;_
  _And after he taught hym other dede;_
  _Aftirward to serve in halle_
  _Bothe to grete and to smalle_
  _Before the kyng mete to kerve,_
  _Hye and lowe feyre to serve:_
  _Bothe of howndis and haukis game_
  _Aftir he taught hym, all and same._
  _In se, in feld, and eke in ryuère_
  _In wodde to chase the wild dere_
  _And in the feld to ryde a stede_
  _That all men had joy of his dede_

Verses 67-70 of ‘Ipomydon’ remind more directly of the French version,
‘R. H,.’ so that perhaps it was by this version of the Horn story that
the composer of ‘Ipomydon’ was influenced.

244. _Of wude and of riuere_. Cf. the similar phrase in ‘R. H.’ 377: _De
bois e de riuere, refait il autre tal_.

247 ff. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 4893 ff.: _Brennes wes swiðe hende [v] his hap wes þe
betere. Brennes cuðe on hundes, Brennes cuðe on hauekes, he cuðe mid his
honden hanlie þa harpe._

250. _Cupe serue_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ (as above) 295, where the princess
says to Ipomydon, “_Of the cuppe ye shall serve me_,” and 320 where
Ipomydon does serve with the cup. Cf. also ‘R. H.’ 471: _Horn serui le
rei bien de la cupe acel ior_.

264 ff. Cf. the apparently borrowed scene in ‘Rich. C. de L.’ vv. 879
ff., where the princess falls in love with the captive Richard and bids
the jailer, “_And aftir soper, in the evenyng, To my chaumbyr thow hym
bryng In the atyr of a squyer_” (909-11).

266. _He_ = ‘she’ as elsewhere (OE. _hēo_): _mest in þoȝte_. For similar
phrase cf. Wissmann 254 Note.

268 _wexe wild_. A popular word combination. Cf. ‘Proverbs of Hendyng’
(Böddeker’s ed.) 121: _Ne wax þou nout to wilde_ (Wissmann).

275. _Bi daie ne bi niȝte_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 42: _Be dayes and be
nyght_. ‘Launfal’ 412: _Be dayes ne be nyȝt_. ‘Lay.’ 13829: _bi dæie no
bi nihtes_, etc.

282. _him þuȝte_. Cf. Wissmann’s note with incorrect reference to ‘Lay.’
312. See present volume, 268 Note.

300. _wed broþer_. Cf. Glossary.

315. _sette him on bedde_. The usual mode of entertainment. Cf. ‘Beues
of Hampton’ (E.E.T.S.) 1090; ‘Guy of W.’ (E.E.T.S.) 3043; ‘Sir Eglamour’
679: _sche sett hym on hur beddys syde_.

319 ff. For other instances of the maiden wooing the man see ‘Beues of
H.’ 1093 ff.; ‘Amis and Amiloun’ 550 ff.: ‘Sir Eglamour’ 674 ff., etc.

321. _trewþe pliȝte_. Cf. ‘Sir Eglamour’ 674: _Therto ther trowthys they
plyght_. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 210: _Therto my trouth y plyght_, etc.,

333. _bi one ribbe_. Not clear. Cf. Wissmann’s Note, also Kölbing (Engl.
Stud. vi. 155), who translates _bi_, ‘_im bezug auf_,’ ‘with reference

341. _fule þeof_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 1780: _Goth henne swiþe fule þeues_

350. _mote þu deie_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 6858: _God geve the wel evyl
pyne_; 6862, _God geve you wel evyl endyng_.

364. _hou one_. Cf. 559 C H, 650 C H, also Glossary. The OE. weak form
_āna_ seems to have the same experience as _seolfa_, ‘self.’

366. _vs wroþe_. _wroþe_ means ‘fearful’ (Mätzner).

373. _makede hire bliþe_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 2244, ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 1606

378. _squieres wise_. Cf. 264 Note.

379, C. _pleie_. Cf. ‘Lyb. Disc.’ 25-26: _As hyt befelle upon a day To
wode he wente on hys play_.

387-8. _kyng on benche_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 14963-4: _& heo gon scenchen, on þas
kinges benche_. Also ‘Ipomydon’ 229: _Of þe cuppe ye shall serve me_.
Cf. also 1185.

403. _On knes he him sette_. The conventional mode of salutation. Cf.
‘Lay.’ 22147-8: _Comen to þan ki[n]ge, & setten an heore cneowen_. Cf.
also ‘Lay.’ 13821 and ‘King of Tars.’ 719: _& gret hir feir vpon his
kne_, also 90, 221. ‘Guy of Warwick’ 161-2: _Gye on his kneys sone hym
sett, And that mayden feyre he grett_. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 891-3, 1591;
‘Ypotis’ 15: _On his kne he hym sette. Well fayr þe emperour þer he
grette._ ‘Ipomydon’ 267-8: _Ipomydon on knees hym sette And the lady
feyre grette_. 187-8: _Vppon {his} knees he hym sette, And þe kyng full
feyr he grette_. Cf. also 902-3, also ‘Erl of Tolous’ 1066: _To the
emperour he knelyd blyve_. Cf. Wissmann’s Note.

405-6. _of his feire siȝte ..._ Cf. ‘R. H.’ 1053: _De la belte de horn
tute la chambre resplent_. Compare with this the flame which came from
Havelok’s mouth when he slept.

420. _honde_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 2164: _Ipomydon toke hyr by the hond_. Cf.
also ‘Havelok’ 408; ‘Amis and Am.’ 550 ff.; ‘Guy of W.’ 217 ff.; ‘Rich.
C. de L.’ 891-3: _Fayr he grette that lady bryght, And sayde to her with
herte free, What is thy wille, Lady, with {me}_.

425. _ofte heo hine custe ..._ Cf. ‘Lay.’ 5012-14: _bitwixen hire ærmes
heo hine nom, ofte heo hine clupte, & ofte heo hine custe_.

436. _liþe_. Cf. ‘Life of Alex.’ 431: _He wol solace me and lythe and in
this care make me blythe_, and ‘Will. de Shoreham’ (ed. Wright), p. 19:
_and lytheth oure pyne_.

437. _wiþute strif_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 240: _Wythoute any stryfe_.
‘Ipomydon’ 1607-8: _He sayd, he wold haue hyr to wyffe, If she wold
withouten stryff_.

440. _plist_. Cf. 10 Note: _trewþe_. Cf. 321 Note, also Wissmann’s Note.

441-2. _biþoȝte_ : _miȝte_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28410-11: _Modred þa þohte, what
he don mihte_ (Wissmann).

450, H. _þy fader fundlyng_. An instance of the preservation of the OE.
‘irregular’ genitive form. Cf. also 116 C H, 951 H; _moder_ 1485 C.

451. _... cunde_. ‘It would not be in keeping with thy rank’ (Mätzner).

452. _welde_. Cf. 324.

454. _wedding_. Cf. Wissmann’s ref. to Grimm, Rechtsalt. 439.

458. _iswoȝe_. Swoons are frequent in mediaeval romance. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’
873-8: _Uppon hyr bedde she gan downe falle On swoone, afore hyr maydens
alle_. Cf. also Wissmann’s Note.

464. _stere_. Cf. ‘Ritson’ III. 35, 825: _Ther myght no man hure stere_

473, C. _þat swete þing_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 1021: _Than sory was that swete
thynge_. ‘King of Tars.’ 374: _For Maries loue, þat swete þing_; ‘Lyb.
Disc.’ 2127, ‘Fl. and Bl.’ 272 T, etc.

474. _swoȝning_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 875: _And whan she roos of swounynge_.

478, C. _seue niȝt_, a ‘week,’ like ‘fortnight.’

480. _cuppe_ : _vppe_. Cf. also 1205-6, where the couplet is a
stereotyped one and does not fit.

482. _foreward_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’: _Yschall hold thy forward {god}_;
also ‘Lay.’ III. 177 (Wissmann).

485. _adun falle_. Cf. 403 Note.

486. _halle_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 157: _Bifore þe king into þe halle_

492. _bede_. Cf. Wissmann’s Note.

506. _mid þe beste_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 20449: _cniht mid þam beste_, also

520. _derling_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ A. 28342: _i-sloȝen is Angell þe king, þe wes
min aȝen deorling_.

524. _sprang_. Cf. 134 Note, also ‘Lay.’ A. 28314: _ase þe dæi gon

526. _þuȝte lang_. ‘Lay.’ A. 28297: _feouwertyne niht him þuhte to lōg_.

537. _fel a knes_. Cf. 403 Note.

562, C. _þuȝte god_. Cf. ‘Life of Alex.’ 1145 (Wissmann); also
‘Ipomydon’ 599: _And of his comyng she was glad_; and ‘Lay.’ 13832; _for
eouwer cumen ich æm bliðe_.

572. _vnbynd me of my pine_. Cf. ‘Fl. and Bl.’ 308: _of care vnbynde_.

573-4. _stille_ : _wille_. Cf. ‘Seven Sages’ (Weber III.) 485

581. _mestere_. Cf. ‘Sir Eglamour’ 252, The knight must accomplish
“_dedes of armys thre_” before he can marry the princess. Cf. the
similar conditions in ‘Guy of Warwick.’

586, L. _forsake_, ‘give up,’ ‘renounce.’ Cf. Wissmann’s Note and Ritson
II. 70 ff., 159.

595. _gold ring_. The ring element is almost invariably present in
mediaeval romance. Cf. ‘Guy of W.’ 7264; ‘Sir Eglamour’ 617-21;
‘Ipomydon’ 2060 ff.; ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 1635 ff.; ‘Erl of Tolous’ 392,
1029, 1077; ‘Fl. and Bl.’ etc. Cf. also discussion of the subject in
Child’s Engl. and Scot. Metr. Ballads I. pp. 194 ff.

607, C. _of drad_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 278: _Al Engelond was of him adrad_

619. _Leue at hire he nam_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 745-6: _They toke there leve
at the quene. And wente forthe all by dene._

624. _blak so eny cole_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 2182: _rede as any blode_.
‘Rich. C. de L.’ 1515: _Vpon a stede whyt so mylke_. ‘Ipomydon’ 645:
_That one_ (steed) _was white as any mylke_. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 824: _ded
as ony stone_. ‘K. Horn’ 532 L H: _red so eny glede_.

628. _gan denie_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 27441: _þa eorðen gon to dunien_
(Wissmann). ‘Beowulf’ 226: _syrcan hrysedon_.

631-2. _while_ : _myle_. Cf. Wissmann’s Note with parallel references to
‘Lay.’ I. 248; ‘Squyr of Lowe Degree’ 489; ‘Lyb. Disc.’ 5, v. 103
(Ritson II.); also Wolfram’s Parz. 132, 16.

634. _heþene hunde_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28982, 29202, etc.: _heðene hundes
alle_; ‘King of Tars.’ 92 (Ritson II.).

637-8. Cf. 44 Note.

640. _wordes bolde_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 2407: _And I say thee wordes

641-2. _wynne_ : _inne_. Cf. ‘Chron. of Engl.’ 465-6: _Engelond to
bywynne And sle that ther weren ynne_ (Wissmann).

643. _swerd gripe_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 4471: _Her wepene he gunne þer
to gripe_; also 5070.

649-50. _Abute horn al one_. Cf. ‘Beues’ 3885, 4403: _Al aboute þai
gonne þringe_. Also ‘Guy of W.’ 1072: _And þey aboute syr Gye can goo_.

659, H. _maister_ gen. sing. Another trace of French influence on this
text, the French gen. sing. without ending. Cf. _enimis_ 1024 H, Horns
123 L.

678, L H. _lite stounde_. Cf. ‘Life of Alex.’ 947; ‘Chron. of Engl.’ 469

681, C. _wile iȝolde_. Cf. ‘worth while.’ Cf. Wissmann’s parallel
citations; ‘Life of Alex.’ 734; ‘Chron. of Eng.’ 871, etc.

684. _huntinge_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 937: _He rod on huntyng on a day_.
‘Guy of W.’ 1315: _On huntyng Gye went on a day_. Hunting was a
favourite amusement at the time of the Danish invasions, as we know from
the life of Alfred.

692, C. _sat on þe sunne_. The sun shone in the bower. Cf. Wissmann’s
citation from The Squire of L. D.: _Anone that lady, fayr and fre, Vndyd
a pynne of yvere, And wyd the windowes open set; The sonne schone in at
her closet_.

710. _turne þine sweuene_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 25573: _Let þu mi sweuen to selþen
iturnen_ (Wissmann).

716. _treuþe iþe pliȝte_. Cf. 321 Note.

729. _bi sture_ refers to one of the rivers Stour. Cf. like opinions of
Mätzner and Wissmann.

731 ff. Cf. ‘Guy of W.’ 3065 ff.; ‘Amis and Amil.’ 781 ff.; and ‘Rich.
C. de L.’ 1000, for other instances of betrayal.

734. _berne_. Not clear. Cf. Mätzner, Ae. Sprachproben, p. 219.

740. _Vnder couerture_. Cf. ‘Life of Alex.’ 549: _In he cam to here bur
and crape under hire couertour_ (Wissmann).

767-8, L H. Meaning somewhat obscure. Cf. Wissmann’s Note with somewhat
parallel citation from ‘The Squire of L. D.’. 507 ff.: _his drawen swerd
in his hande, There was no more with him wolde stande_.

779. _haue wel godneday_. Common form of parting salutation. Cf. ‘Lay.’
26002, 32187 (Wissmann); also ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 106: _Lemman haue thou
good day_. ‘Ipomydon’ 463: _Have good day; noue wille I fare_, etc.

780. _No leng abiden_. Cf. ‘King of Tars.’ 283, 314, 760: _The
messengers nold no leng abide_. Also ‘Yw. and Gaw.’ (Ritson I.) 2673-4:
_He said, No lenger dwell I ne may Beleves wele, and haves goday_. Cf.
also ‘Assumption’ 142 C, 288 A.

783-4. _wune þere_ : _seue ȝere_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 29437-8, also 30088-9
(Wissmann). Seven years, like seven days, is a period of time
conventional in romance. Cf. ‘Squire of L. D.’ 117: _I haue thee loved
this seven yere_. Also ‘Beues’ 1274, 3835, 3897, etc. Cf. also Grimm,
Rechtsalt. 214.

798. _Kep wel_. Cf. ‘Beues’ 2372: _I pray þe kepe wel Iosian_.

808. _westene londe_. Ireland, without a doubt. Westnesse as
distinguished from estnesse; Aylmer’s kingdom as distinguished from

809, L H. _stonde_, spring up, rise. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 20509: _wind stod_.

827 ff. Cf. the description of the coming of Hengest (‘Lay.’ 13785 ff.).

829. _Also mot i sterue_. For other forms of asseveration cf. 179, 197,
365, 437, 709, 1131, 1259, etc.

831. _Ne saȝ i neure_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 13830-1: _bi dæie no bi nihtes ne sæh
ich nauere ær swulche cnihtes_. Cf. also 180-2, also ‘Beowulf’ 246-7:
_Næfre ic māran geseah eorla ofer eorþan þonne is ēower sum_.

834. Cf. 403 Note.

836. Cf. ‘Lay’ 13816 ff.

838, L. _hauen to done_. Cf. ‘Seven Sages’ 452: _With me ne hadde he
neuer to done_. ‘Life of Alex.’ 1429: _There he hadde thought to done,
Ac he hit aleyde sone_ (Wissmann).

839. _bitak ... to werie_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 3021 (Wissmann).

841. _faireste man_. ‘Lay.’ 13797-8: _þis weoren þe færeste men þat
auere her comen_.

848. _Tak him þine glorie_. Cf. Wissmann, Note, also Kölbing (Engl.
Stud. vi, 156). The glove had many significations. It might be used as a
sign of challenge (cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 1100); or it might signify a
handing over of authority from a superior to a subordinate (Grimm,
Rechtsalt. 154, 4). It is in this latter way that Kölbing believes the
word to be used here in Horn. When a prince for any reason left his
land, he must leave some one behind, _to hold the court_ (‘Sir
Tristrem,’ v. 1985), and must supply this one with the badge of
authority. This opinion of Kölbing’s seems very plausible. It is
interesting, however, to note two other uses of the glove. Cf. ‘Rich. C.
de L.’ 5696-1: _Thertoo I holde, Thertoo my glove_ (= ‘make agreement’).
And ‘R. H.’ 909-11 C: _E horn uent cuntre li cumme il iest costumez, E
lespée e les gaunz sire dist ca donez, Issil soleit faire ainz quil fust
encusez_. The clue to the meaning might be suggested by either one of
these phrases. One thing seems certain; in our poem (K. H.) the king’s
meaning is that Horn should be left at home. This is the meaning in
R. H. 2324-6: _Si alez doneer k’od vus ne le menez, K’il est de belté
issi inluminez. Ke vus là ù il ert, petit serrez preisez._

861, C. _site stille_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28173, 24866: _sitteð adun stille
cnihtes inne halle_ (Wissmann).

867 ff. Regarding the custom of single combat, cf. ‘Publ. of Mod. Lang.
Assoc. of America’ xv. pp. 228, 230. Cf. also the triple combat in
‘Rich. C. de L.’ 5691 ff. Cf. also the Arundel MS. version (French) of
‘Havelok,’ in which Havelok overcomes Hadulf in single combat and thus
regains his Danish kingdom.

876-7. _þat on_ : _þat oþer_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 29215-16: _him seoluen he heol
þat ane, Isembard þat oðer_.

881-2. _to rede_ : _alle dede_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 118: _Louerd what schal me
to rede_; Böddeker, G. L., ix. 16, _sone, what shal me to rede_
(Wissmann). Also ‘Lay.’ 13904-5: _her-of þou most ræden, oðer alle we
beoð dæden_.

886. _wiþ_ used in the OE. sense ‘against.’ Cf. the use of _on_ (= ‘in’)
and _at_, 619 Note. (= ‘from’) in Glossary.

895, H. _ros of bedde_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 6717: _þe king aros of bedde_

904, H. _to gedere smiten_. ‘Lay.’ 25605: _heo smiten heom to-gaderen_

909. _on a grene_. Inconsistent with ‘_at Cristesmasse_,’ v. 853.

911 ff. Cf. Wissmann’s Note.

921-2. _King Mory_. This is one of several references to a fuller,
longer tale, in which Murry must have played a more important rôle. Cf.
vv. 4 ff. and the abrupt introduction of Arnoldin, 1561.

925. _agrise_. Cf. ‘King of Tars.’ 1202: _so sore hem gan agrise_.

931. _rynge_. Unlike the ring in the Scotch ballads and in H. C. the
ring in this version serves as a protection.

933-4. _smerte_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 2646: _þorw þe brest unto þe herte þe
dint bigan ful sore to smerte_ (Wissmann).

935. _sturne_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 25841, 6732 (Wissmann).

947-8, H. _stounde_ : _grounde_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 4537-8: _Soone,
withinne a lytyl stounde The moste party yede to grounde_.

952. _fader_. OE. gen. sing. Cf. 116 ‘C. H.’

964 ff. Cf. the similar offer made to Brennes by Sequin, ‘Lay.’ 4919 ff.

974. _lofte_. In the sense ‘women’s apartments’ seems to be of Norse
origin. Cf. Skeat, Etymol. Dict., also Wissmann, 928 Note. Cf. also
1050 L. It seems probable that the women’s apartments were in the
‘tower.’ Cf. also Kölbing (Engl. Stud. vi. 155).

1002-3. _dude_ seems to be used in the modern, intensive sense, and not
as ‘cause to’ or ‘put.’

1010-11. For similar situations cf. ‘Guy of W.’ 1315-16: _On huntyng Gye
went on a day, He mett a palmer by the way_. Also ‘Erl of Tolous’ 937-8:
_He rode on huntyng on a day, A marchand mett he be þe way_. Cf. also
‘Beues’ 1300 ff.

1021-2. _wedde_ : _bedde_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 31126-7 B: _he þat maide weddede,
and nam hire to his bedde_.

1024, H. _enimis_. Perhaps trace of OF. nom. sing. ending in _-s_, due
to French scribe. Cf. 123 Note.

1034. _bidere_, error for _bitere_ (?).

1056. _wringe_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 876: _Hir handes fast gan she wrynge_.

1068. _linne_. Hortative (?).

1073. _kniȝt mid þe beste_. A common phrase. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 20449, etc.

1077-8. _sonde_ : _londe_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 28676-7: _and sende his sonde wide
ȝeond his londe_.

1089. _striken_. Stratmann suggests ‘strip.’

1091-2, H. _yronge_ : _ysonge_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 29441-2: _no belle irungen.
no masse isunge._

1093. _word bigan to springe_. Cf. ‘Havel.’ 959: _of him ful wide þe
word sprong_. ‘Lay.’ 26242: _Wel wide sprong þas eorles word_
(Wissmann). Also ‘King of Tars.’ 1065: _þe word wel wide sprong_. ‘Lyb.
Disc.’ 264 ff.: _Hys name ys spronge wide_.

1102. _sprunge of stone_. The simile is one of quickness that of a spark
from the stone in striking a light, like modern “quick as a flash.” Cf.
_He sprange als any spark one glede_, ‘Sir Isumbras,’ 451.

1103-4. _mette_ : _grette_. A very common rime. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 31041-2: _þer
he hine mette and fæire hine grette_. ‘Beues’ 2051-2: _þar wiþ a palmer
he mette, And swiþe faire he him grette_.

1117. _nolde_. Cf. ‘Lay’ 28900: _and seiden þat he nolde_.

1118 L. _ispused wiþ golde_. Reference, probably, to an old custom of
buying the bride.

1121. _Myd strencþe_. Cf. ‘Squire of L. D.’ 443 (Wissmann).

1132 ff. _chaungi wede_. Compare with this ‘Beues’ 2051 ff., where Beues
meets a palmer, learns from him the news, exchanges garments with him,
and in disguise goes to see Iosiane after an absence of seven years.
Disguises are an almost universal feature of these mediaeval tales. Cf.
Brian’s disguise in ‘Pierre de Langt.’ (Rolls Series), pp. 248-350. Cf.
also disguises in ‘Guy of W.’, ‘Layamon’ (17637 ff.), ‘Ypomydon,’ ‘Rich.
C. de L.,’ ‘Isumbras,’ etc. They are frequent in Germanic story from the
stories of Thor down.

1134. _sclauyne_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 611-12: _with pyke and with
sclavyn, As palmers were in Paynim_.

1139. _horn his_ = Hornes, evidently due to scribe’s mistake in hearing.

1144. _bicolmede_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 17700-1, _iblæcched he hæfde his licame:
swulc ismitte of cole_.

1147-8. _gateward_. Cf. ‘Ipomydon’ 245-6: _They com to the
castelle-gate, The porter was redy there at_.

1155. _abugge_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 3841, 8159 (Wissm.).

1158, L. _rake_. Cf. ‘Beues’ 2183: _Let me wiþ þe reke_.

1164. _ȝerne_. Cf. Ritson, II. 25, 589: _þe mayde cryde yerne_ (Wissm.).

1184 ff. Cf. the story of Brian, ‘Lay.’ III., pp. 234-8: Brian,
disguised as a palmer, enters the banqueting hall. Galarne, his sister,
the queen, serves the guests to drink from a bowl. She recognizes Brian,
and gives him a ring in token of recognition.

1185-6. _benche_ : _schenche_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 14963-4: _& heo gon scenchen
on þas kinges benche_. Cf. also ‘Beowulf,’ 1226-54.

1190. _so laȝe was in londe_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’: _Thenne as hit was
lawe of land_ (Wissm.).

1191-2. _Hye drank of þe bere To knyt and to squiere_. An old Germanic
custom. Cf. Wissmann, ‘Untersuchungen’ (‘Q. u. F.’ xvi. Strassb., 1876),
p. 110.

1202. _brune_. Cf. Wissm., 1142 Note, also Kölbing (‘Engl. Stud.’ vi.
156). Wissmann takes _brun_ to be a collective referring to ‘beer.’
Kölbing, with greater probability, takes _brun_ to mean an ordinary
brown horn, as distinguished from the _cuppe white_, which she has laid
down, 1201.

1204. _glotoun_. The same phrase in Wolfram’s ‘Parz.’: _si wænde, er
wære ein garzūn_ (Wissm.).

1206. _þing_, probably a mistake for _ring_. Cf. 479-80.

1240. _vnder wude liȝe_. Cf. ‘Lay’: _Ich eou wille leden forð to mine
lauerd i þon wade rime þer he under rise lið_ (Wissm.).

1259. _bi seint gile_. Cf. Wissm. 1197 Note. Cf. also 829 Note.

1275. _custe_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 401: _And kyssyde hyt fele sythe_.
Cf. also 425 Note.

1281-2. _Heo feol on hire bedde_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 871, 875: _He hent
a knyfe with all his mayn ... And fell {in} swoun upon hys bedd_; also
‘Ipomydon’ 871 ff.: _Uppon hyr bedde she gan downe falle_. Cf. also 458,

1282, H. _gredde_. Cf. ‘Beues’ 2151: _After Bonefas ȝhe gan grede_.

1297, L, H. _kuste_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 15017-18, 5012-14.

1304. _wroþe_. Cf. 366 Note.

1311-12. _bure_ : _ture_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 2072-3: _I shal lene þe a bowr
þat is up in þe heye tour_.

1321-2. _ywis_ : _blis_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 7605-7 B: _Mochel was þe blisse þat
hii makede mid iwisse_.

1335. _wunder_. Cf. Mätzner 1247 Note.

1336. _falsede_. Early instance of a hybrid word.

1398. _crouch_. Lat. _crucem_, OE. _cruce_.

1410. _hym agros_. Cf. 925 Note.

1419. _kepe þis passage_. Cf. ‘Beowulf’ 230 ff.: _se þe holmclifu
healdan scolde_, etc.

1420. _of age_. This phrase seems to have very nearly its modern
meaning, and if so, is probably the earliest recorded instance. Cf. New
Oxford Dict.

1422. _bi este_ C, _by weste_ L H. This confusion, here as elsewhere,
seems due to changing points of view. _Westernesse_ is of course west to
_Suddenne_, and both are east to _Yrlonde_.

1428. _þe riȝte_, direct. Cf. Wissmann, 1356 Note.

1462. _I blessed beo þe time_. Cf. ‘Havel.’ 1215; ‘Chron. of Engl.’ 705

1465-6. _teche_ : _speche_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 26544: _for þus we eou scullen
techen ure Bruttisce speche_, and 26834: _Nu is we wulle teche Bruttisce
spæche_. For a very similar use cf. ‘Lay.’ 18424-25: _we scullen heom to
teon & tiðende tellen_; 20605-6, _and we heom sculleð tellen Bruttisce
{spelles}_; 21698, _sorhfulle spelles_; 24942, _ȝeomere spelles_. In all
these instances, as in the phrase in K. H., the meaning seems to be to
inflict dire punishment. Cf. also ‘Lay.’ 23503-4: _& techen heō to riden
þene wæi touward Romen_.

1467-8. _sle_ : _fle_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 6417-18: _oðer mid fure he lette hom
slæn · oðer he heom lette quic flan_. Cf. also ‘Lay.’ 27376-7, 29049-50;
‘Life of Alex.’ 1734 (Wissmann). Cf. also ‘Havelok,’ 612: _He shal hem
hangen, or quik flo_. For details of the flaying, cf. ‘Havelok’ 2492 ff.

1469. _horn to blowe_. In both French versions of ‘Havelok,’ Havelok
proves his identity in Denmark by his ability to blow the horn which
Sigar presents to him, and which no one else can blow. Cf. also ‘Beues’
3377: _Saber is horn began to blow, þat his ost him scholde knowe_. Cf.
also Roland’s horn in the Song of Roland and a similar incident in the
German romance, ‘König Rother.’

1481-2. _wurche_ : _churche_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 10205-6: _chirchen he lettē
areren monie & wel iwhare_; also 29531-2.

1483-4. _ringe_ : _singe_. Cf. ‘Havelok’ 242: _Belles he deden sone
ringen, monkes and prestes masse singen_ (Wissmann).

1487, L. _cleten_. Scribal error for _clepten_.

1501-2, L H. _ston ... lym ..._ The combination of stone and lime is
probably a sign of French influence on MSS. L and H. Cf. R. H. 5047: _de
pere e de furment_. Cf. also ‘Erl of Tolous’ 467: _Was made of lyme and
stone_; also ‘Sir Eglamour,’ 252.

1509-10. _wende_ : _schende_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 1793-9: _Þe kaisere wende
Walwaī to scende_.

1516-17. For mode of marriage cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’ 185-8.

1518. _newe werke_. Cf. ‘Rob. of Glouc.’ p. 449 (Wissmann).

1536. _wunder_ = harm, evil. Cf. Mätzner, 1247 Note, 1422 Note.

1537. _wundes fiue_. Cf. ‘King of Tars.’ 57: _þat suffred wowndes fiue_.

1574. _ginne_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 30567: _þurh nanes cunnes giñe_ (Wissmann).


2, T. _þe cristen woman_, the captive mother of Blauncheflur.

28, T. _louyd togeder_, a French idiom, _s’entr’amoient_.

72, T. _Boþ by day and by nyȝt_. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 275 Note.

77, T. _þat oþer_, preservation of the OE. definite inflected form,
_þæt_, source of modern English dialect ‘tother.’

80, T. _ben ... wo_. Cf. 142 T, and ‘K. Horn,’ 121 Note.

100, T. _fel to_, was due. Cf. Bradl.-Stratm. _fallen_.

110, T. _wore_ : _lore_. Cf. _were_ : _fere_, 82.

113-14, T. _sykes_, _lernes_, _mornes_. These forms seem due to Northern
influence on MS. T.

140, T. _Let do bring forth_. A curious combination. ‘Let’ is beginning
to usurp the place of ‘do’ in the sense of ‘cause to.’ Cf. 155 T, 211 T,
434 C, etc.

168, T ff. In these allusions to other romances are to be found the most
certain clues as to the time of composition of ‘Fl. and Bl.’

193, T. _at oone_. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 997 Note.

194, T. _Amyral_, emir, saracen ruler.

210, T. _wyrche_. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 1481.

226, T. _chargeþ_. Error for _targeþ_. Cf. MS. Cott.

227, T. _noome_, gone. Cf. _vndernome_, 152, 219 T.

250, T. _ronne on hye_, ran to the chamber above.

270, T. _wept_. Cott. has the older form _wep_. Cf., however, _Aryst_ (:
_atwist_), 869 T and 589 C, and Cott.

272, T. _So swete a þing_. Cf. v. 525, also ‘K. Horn,’ 473 C, Note.

338, T. _care vnbynde_. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 572.

341-2, T. _devyse_ : _prys_. These words have a meaning somewhat
different from the modern meaning. _Deuyse_ means direction,
supervision; _prys_ means value. Like _charged_ 343, and _monay_ 345,
they are French words with French meanings.

343, T. _charged_, loaded. Fr. influence.

345, T. _monay_, small money. Fr. influence.

376, T. _douȝt_. This use of _ȝ_ where it has no right etymologically
shows that it was no longer pronounced. Cf. _anooneryȝt_ : _white_
766 T.

40, C. _nabit_. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 1211 L., H.

67, C. _Fort he dide slep him nome_. ‘Until the dead sleep seized him.’
_Fort he_ comes from _for to he_ (Hausknecht).

76, C. _parais_. A French form. The _-d-_ shaded out in French about

110, C. _pane of meniuier_. Cf. Hausknecht’s Note. Hausknecht reads:
_I paned al wiþ meniver_, supplied with panes of meniver. _Meniuier_
(_menu_ + _vair_) means a kind of fur, probably of squirrel.

145, C. _in alle halue_. Cf. Map, 338, _on alle halve_ (Bradl.-Stratm.).

173, C. _furtenniȝt_, a journey of a fortnight. (?)

176, C. _amidde riȝt_, right in the middle of. Cf. also 182.

231, C. _kernel_ (_kanel_), canal (Hausknecht).

275, C. _spray_. Cf. Bradl.-Stratm.

300, C. _þonur_ (_þe_ + _honur_).

304, C. _bulmeþ_, error for _welmeþ_. (?)

308, C. _for do_, old force of _for-_. Cf. Germ. _ver-_.

448, C. _hire stonde_. Trace of gram. gender. Cf. Hausknecht, 854 Note.

465, C. _lepe_. Cf. Hausknecht, 875 Note.

486, C. _Ho_, who so. Early instance of loss of _w-_.

497, C. _forȝe me_ (_forȝete me_).

513, C. _ileste a mile_, time to go a mile. Cf. ‘K. Horn,’ 631-2 Note.

536, C. _pal_. Cf. Hausknecht, 952 Note.

589, C. _arist_ (: _atwist_). Early instance of a strong verb become

597, C. _piler_, the pillar in the tower, the one in which the
water-pipe runs. Cf. 223-232 C.

937, T. _withdrowȝ_, restrained. Rare in this sense.

941, T. _soord_. Hausknecht reads _soon_.

960, T. _kinde of man_. Fr. _nature_. _Kind_ is felt to be no longer an
exact equivalent of _nature_; hence in T, _of man_ is added.

692, 697, C. _him_. Further traces of grammatical gender. Cf. 448, C

988, T. _lygge_. Read _bygge_. French _racatassent_.

718, C. _biknewe_. Cf. Glossary.

1007, T. _ne getest not_. Scribal error. Cf. C and A.

1009, T. _on lyue_. Mod. Engl. alive. Cf. _adown_, _a-fishing_, etc.

1011-12, T. _byne_ : _moyne_. _byne_ not clear; _moyne_ error for
_myne_. (?)

1017, T. _tyre_ (tear), did struggle toward her.

814, C. _ȝeld here while_, paid for their pains. Cf. ‘worth while.’


4, C. _lescoun_, reading. Lat. _lectiones_.

7, 8, C. _blessi_ : _herkni_. Cf. _blessyth_ : _herkenythe_ F, _blis_ :
_herkenis_ D.

15, 16, C. _also_ : _mo_. H and F have _also_ : _two_.

19-22. Add. Not in H or D, or F.

21-2, C. _red_ : _ded_. The scribe has neglected to cross his _d_ to
make _ð_. D 21-2 has _beth_ : _deth_.

17-44, C. Omitted in F.

29-30, C. _weop_ : _fet_. _let_ : _fet_ in H and D.

33-4, C. _fless_ : _was_. H and D have _blode_ : _mode_.

41-2, C. Not in H, or F, or D.

51-56, C. In D (49-54) all is told in a command to John. F (25-32)
follows D rather than C in rimes.

59-60, C. _were_ : _forbere_. F (35-5) has _saumpull_ : _tempull_. D
(57-8) has _exemple_ : _temple_.

61-2, C. _þore_ : _more_. Cf. F (37-8) _more_ : _ore_, D (59-60) _more_
: _lore_.

63-4, C. Not in F or D.

69-70. _fedde_ : _bedde_. Cf. F (43-4), D (65-6): _Therfore þey loued
hur well all_ (D is substantially, not exactly, the same as F): _And
sche hyt seruyd wele with all_ F.

  [[The rimes are at 65-66, C, and 71-72, A.]]

70-1, C. _slep_ : _kep_. Cf. F (45-6) and D (67-8):

  _Besy sche hur made þat swete may_
  _hur sone to serue nyght and day._ F.

and H 67-8:

  _besy shee was day and nyght_
  _for to serue god almyght._

75-88, C. Not in F.

80-86, C. Cf. D (76-80):

  _al þat sche wolde he dide sone_
  _Crist hem sette boþe Iliche_
  _In to þe blisse of heuene riche_
  _But whan mane þat mayden hende_
  _Schulde out of þis world wende._

Cf. also H (75-78):

  _Crist ham blessid bothe y liche_
  _that sone hem brought to heuen riche._
  _Tho Marie that mayden hende_
  _shuld out of this world wende,_
  _Crist here sent an Angel fro heuen._

97-8, C. _quen_ : _ben_. Cf. F (57-8):

  _That hye flowre þat groweþ on a tree_
  _Mary modyr he sent to the._

also D (91-2):

  _þe lilye flour þat grew on the_
  _Mayden & moder wel the be._

also H (89-90):

  _lady þe flour that come of the_
  _mayde and moder y-heried þu be._

103-4, C. _þinge_ : _bringe_. Cf. _brynge_ : _tithynge_. F (61-2), D
(97-8), H (95-6).

107-8, C. _beo_ : _þe_. Cf. _come_ : _wone_. F (65-6), D (101-2), H

110, C. _meigne_. Cf. F 68, D 104, H 102, _plente_.

121-2, Add. F, D, and H have these verses and an additional couplet:
_lady swete y say to the That here schall þow no lengur be_. F (75-6.) D
and H have substantially the same.

116, C. _hire by_. F, D, and H have _belamy_ in agreement with Add.

121-2, C. _kenesmen_ : _beon_. Cf. H 118: _and of my frendes that y

127-8, C. _come_ : _aboue_. Cf. H (123-4), _come_ : _doune_.

131-2, C. _lefdy_ : _belamy_. Cf. H (127-8):

  _Then seid Marie to þat angel fre._
  _What is thi name tel thu me._

139-146, C. Cf. F (101-4):

  _The aungell to heuene wande_
  _Whan he had seyde hys errande_
  _Mary toke that palme in honde_
  _and thoght moche of þat sonde._

D (135-8) has substantially the same. H (135-8) has, _yede_ : _seide_,
_hond_ : _sond_.

151-2, C. _idon_ : _on_. Cf. F (109-10) _ydo_ : _to_, D (143-4) _ido_ :

162, C. _vnriȝt_. Cf. F (154): _boþe be dayes & be nyght_; do. D (154),
H (154).

164, C. _dred_. H, F, and D have _qued_ : _for I dowte me of þe quede_,
F 156.

177-180 C. _wo_ : _fo_, _so_ : _to_. F (137-40) has _bone_ : _sone_,
_also_ : _to_. D (171-4) has the same rimes. H (171-4) has _bone_ :
_sone_, _also_ : _tho_.

190, C. _idriȝt_. F (148), D (172), and H (182) have _plight_.

193-4, C. _ded_ : _ned_. F (151-2), D (185-6) have _pyne_ : _tyme_. H
does not have these verses.

199-200, C. Cf. F (157-60):

  _And sayde lady how may thys be_
  _yf thow wynde sory we bee._
  _lady thou haste seruyd vs so_
  _allas how schall we the for goo._

D (191-4) has _be_ : _we_, _so_ : _go_. H (189-92) has:

  _and seid lady how may this be_
  _Yf þu wendist how shal we do_
  _lady whi dos thu serue vs so_
  _how shal we then lady do._

213-14, C. _to_ : _so_. Cf. F (173-4):

  _ye schall see a wondur dreche_
  _whan my sone wole me fecche._

D (207-8):

  _schal no sorwe me drecche_
  _for my sone wile me fecche._

H (203-6):

  _ther shal me no sorow dery_
  _for my sone wol me wery._
  _my body shal haue no woo_
  _for Ihesus sake to whom y go._

219-20, C. _kyng_ : _geng_. Cf. F (179-80):

  _he þat y bare my leue sone_
  _schall sende me aungellys {soon}_

D (213-14):

  _he þat I bar my leue sone_
  _wile þat good folk to me come._

H (209-10):

  _he þat y bare my lef sone_
  _he wol sende other come._

226, C. Two lines are omitted here. Cf. F (187-8).

  _Seynt John wyste ther of noght._
  _what tydyng þat the angell broȝt._

With F agree D (221-2) and H (217-18).

231-4, C. _chere_ : _dere_, _blis_ : _is_. Cf. F (193-96):

  _Than thou haddyst ony schame_
  _where þorow Ihc myȝt me blame._
  _and y schall neuyr blythe bee_
  _Tyll y wott what eyleyth {the}._

D (227-30) agrees with F. H (223-26) has the rimes, _shame_ : _blame_,
_the_ : _be_.

247, H. _glad_. F (210) has:

  _Thou haste me bothe fedd and ladd._

C (244) has:

  _boþe þou feddist me & clad._

251-262, H. Not in D.

261-2, H. _sone_ : _come_. F 223-4 has _abouen_ : _comen_.

274, H. _foly_. F (236) and D (258) have _velane_.

275, H. _oure allere dright_. F (237) has: _that ys so bryght_. D (199)
has: _king ful of Right_.

277-80, H. D has only two lines (261-2):

  _Seynt John answerid tho_
  _Swete ladi what schal I do._

289-92 H. _deth_ : _meth_, _fro_ : _woo_. Not in D. F (251-4) has
_dyght_ : _ryght_, _froo_ : _twoo_.

298, H. At this point there follow in D (277-80):

  _For soþe þouh I go before_
  _Schalt þou no þing ben for lore._
  _I schal bidde my leue sone,_
  _þat þou may to vs come._

301-2, H. _beforn_ : _com_. D (283-4) has _manere_ : _there_.

303 ff., H. From this point F and D follow Add. (309-340).

320, Add. Here D (299-300) has two lines not in Add. or F:

  _Telle þou me my leue fere_
  _Whi þou makist so drere chere_

322, Add. _mon_. F (240): _Why I wepe anone_.

332, Add. F (301-2) and D (313-14) have two extra lines here:

  _So helpe me Ihesus_
  _y not how y come to thys howse._

355-6, Add. _wham_ : _cam_. F (305-6) _whom_ : _come_. D 317-18
_nouht_ : _brouht_.

347 ff., F. At this point there is a transposition in Add. D and F agree
in the main. After 346 A there follow in F (317-337):

  _Come now forthe now with me_
  _all before hur knele wee_
  _And seyde lady well thou be_
  _Thy sone vs hath sent to the_                         320
  _To serue the & be the by_
  _For now we be come to the lady_
  _anodur thyng seynt John_
  _To {the} apostolys oon be oon_
  _loke whan ye come ther yn_                            325
  _ye schall see many of hur kynne_
  _That sory semblant they make_
  _and sore wepe for hur sake_
  _But make we alle feyre chere_
  _For hur frendys that ben there_                       330
  _Than went þe apostelys oon lasse þen {xii}_
  _Euyn before oure lady hur selfe_
  _Into the chaumbur þat sche was ynne_
  _and many moo of hur kynne_
  _On kneys they sett them ylke oon_                     335
  _As them badd seynt John_
  _They seyde lady heuene queue_ etc.

357-8, Add. _alle_ : _falle_. Cf. 331-2 above; also D 343-4.

360, Add. _bi and bi_. Cf. F 348: _And welcomyd þe apostelys tendurly_.
D 358: _& welcomid hem hendeli_.

363-6, Add. _þere_ : _were_, _þouȝt_ : _ybroȝt_. F (351-4) has _forme_ :
_come_, _noght_ : _broght_. 363-4, Add. are wanting in D. For 365 Add.,
D has: _þei seyde_ : _ladi doute þow nouht_.

369, Add. _come_. D 365 has: _Than seyde oure ladi as was hire wone_.

309-10, H. _he_ : _be_. F (359-60) has:

  _I am hys modur þat he me cutt_
  _Full fayne I am þat he me fett._

D (367-8) has:

  _I am his modur þat is full of myght_
  _ful fayne he haþ ȝow to me dight._

375-8, Add. Not in F or D.

315-16, H. _name_ : _shame_. Not in D.

326, H. _laue_. F (376) has _scathe_. D (382) _gabbe_.

329, H. _badde here bone_. F (383) has _speke theron_.

327-30, H. Not in D.

331-2, H. _stede_ : _bede_. F (381-2) and D (383-4) have _hur by_ :

339-40 H. Not in D.

341, H. _went to aray_. F (391) _dud hur ley_. D (391) _ȝede and ley_.

344, H. _here body sikerly_. F (344) _hur os hys lady_. D (394) _wiþ al
hire myght oure ladi_.

409 ff., Add. F and D agree with H here. The address of Jesus to the
angels is peculiar to Add.

365-6, H. _heuene_ : _seuene_. F (415-16) _meyne_ : _plente_.

348, H. Some leaves in D at this point are lost. D resumes at 477 H.

373-4. _trone_ : _sone_. F (423-4) _blys_ : _with owt mys_.

379-80, H. _dere_ : _here_. F (429-30) _moder_ : _hider_.

382, H. _now thu comest with thi meyne_. F (432) _and thy aungels with
mery glee_.

384 H. _with all gladnesse_. F (434) _with owt mys_.

394, H. _thu shall bene_. F (444) _schalt þere seene_.

398, H. _or any with the shall be_. F (448) _The syght of hym þou do fro

399-400, H. _one_ : _gone_. F (499-50) agrees in thought with Add.
_foone_ : _oone_.

403-4, H. _se_ : _the_. F (453-4) agrees with Add. _thole_ : _before_.

405-6, H. Not in F.

409-10, H. _the_ : _be_. F (457-8):

  _all the goostys that wrathedd mee_
  _Blynde schall they all bee._

411-12, H. _the_ : _me_. F (459-60) _yeue_ : _leue_.

416, H. _forlore_. F (464): _That were forlorne nere thow were_. Cf.
Add. (467-70).

419-22, H. F. transposes order, _mary_ : _ynne_, _crye_ : _thee_.

529-30, Add. _anon_ : _done_. F (471-2):

  _I schall them helpe sone_
  _Swythe modur for þy louen._

424, H. _and in strif_. F (474) has: _In deedly synne man or wyfe_.

425-6, H. _dawe_ : _be-knawe_. F (475-6), _throwe_ : _a knowe_.

433-4, H. _mercy_ : _me by_. F (483-4):

  _y schall haue of them pete_
  _and sone they schall sauyd bee._

444-6 H. _bore_, _be_ : _me_. F (494-98):

  _Schall they neuer be for lore_
  _All hyt schall be at thy wylle_
  [Sidenote: Cf. Add. 552-6:]
  _So hyt schall be & þat ys skylle,_
  _Modur y wyll no thyng geyn sey the_
  _What thyng ryghtfull þow aske of me._

451-2, H. _fere_ : _dere_. F (507-8):

  _Thou and all thy felaschypp_
  _That no wyght do hyt no dyspyte._

452, H. _hent_. F (509): _to heuene sente_.

455-60, H. Cf. F (511-18):

  _all the aungels of heuen_
  _songyn wyth a mery stevyn_
  _hyt was well seene in ther songe_
  _That moche yoye was þem among_
  _With all þe aungels of heuen sche wan_
  _and as sone as sche thedur came_
  _Sche was made heuene quene_
  _Soche a sone blessyd muste bene._

461-2, H. _nome_ : _be-come_. F (519-20):

  _Now ye schall here a ferly case_
  _how the body kepte was._

583-4, Add. Not in F.

473, H. _and leueth it_. F 531: _Do delue a pytt sone anoone_.

485-6, H. _vs_ : _Iesus_. Not in F or D.

488, H. _theder right anone_. F 544, _frendys ylkeson_.

491-2, H. Not in D.

504, H. _euerychone_. D (420), _as þei gon_.

505-6, H. Not in D.

507-8, H. _it_ : _pytt_. D (421-2):

  _& caste we hem in a slouh_
  _& do we hem schame I nouh._

509-10, H. Not in D.

511-12, H. Not in D.

514-15, H. Not in F or D.

516, H. _holt and lame_. D (426), _blynd & lame_.

519, H. _there were_. F (573), _hyng on þe bere_.

520, H. _before_. D (430), _ere_.

623-638, Add. Peculiar to Add. Not in H, or F, or D.

535-6, H. _be best_ : _honest_. F (589-90), D (443-4), _that here
lythe_ : _and clene wyfe_.

537-8, H. Not in D.

539-40, H. _aboue_ : _loue_.

F (593): _ys owre be houe_.

D (445-6):

  _Ihesu þat was of hire born_
  _& ellis we had alle ben {lorn}._

544, H. _as ye may here_. D (450), _as anoþer it were_.

545-6, H. _fourme_ : _sone_. D (451-2):

  _I beleue at þe forme come_
  _þat ihesu crist is goddis sone_

551-2, H. Not in D.

552, H. _thurgh your biddynge_. F (606), _þat y am yn_.

554, H. _anone_. D (458), _swiþe sone_.

561-2, H. Not in D.

562, H. Here follows in F (617-18):

  _Of an hounde he hath made hys knyȝt_
  _To preche of hym day and nyght._

565-6, H. _by-leue_, _y-yeue_. F (621-2):

  _he wyste he was to goddys be hove_
  _he taght hym all goddys beleue._

569-72, H. D (471-4):

  _In eueri lond wher he becam_
  _ouer al to preche {in} goddis name_
  _a good palme of þe lond_
  _he betauht him in his hond._

571-2, H. Not in F.

574, H. _that were so felle_. D (476), _for to spelle_.

576, H. _fay_. F (630), D (478), _lay_.

577-8, H. Not in D.

691 ff., Add. The order here is peculiar to Add. F and D agree with H.

581-2, H. _Iosephas_ : _was_. F (635-6):

  _In to the vale of Joseph_
  _Os ihesu cryste them badd hath._

D (481-2):

  _to þe vale of Josaphath þei lad_
  _as ihesu crist him self bad._

587-94. Not in D.

587-8, H. _done_ : _euerychone_. F (641-2):

  _Whan þey had beryd þat body_
  _home þey goon sekurlye._

592, H. _long_. F (646), _and a full mery songe_.

598, H. Here follow in F (653-4):

  _as soone as they were at þe borde_
  _They began goddys worde._

603-4, H. Not in F or D.

607-8, H. _leme_ : _beme_. F (661-2):

  _he broght the sowle in to þe body aȝen_
  _That was bryghter þen þe sunne beme._

D (499-500) has the same as F transposed, _beme_ : _aȝen_.

609-10, H. _blisse_ : _ys_. F (663-4) _has ywys_ : _ys_. D (501-2),
_quen Iwis_ : _heuene blis_.

611-16, H. F (665-72):

  _Thedurward come seynt Thomas_
  _as soone as he myght passe_
  _he was not at hur forthfare_
  _Therfore he was in moche care_
  _he wolde fayne haue be there,_
  _yf that goddys wyll hyt were._
  _as he thedur toke the way_
  _a bryghtnes hym thoght he say._

D (503-10) agrees in thought and rime with F, save in verses 509-10,
which are:

  _& as he thedirward went_
  _a brightnes he saw in þe firmamente._

625-632, H. Cf. F 681-90:

  _To my felows some tokenyng_
  _That y was toward thyn endyng_
  _lady graunte me my boone_
  _Ellys y not what y schall done_
  _They will not leue for nothyng_
  _That y was at thy berying_
  _abowte hur myddyll was a gyrdyll_
  _That hur selffe louydd mekyll_
  _Of sylke ymade wele wythall_
  _adowne to Thomas sche let hyt falle._

D (519-24) has:

  _to my felawis sum tokenyng_
  _of thi bodili vpsteyeng._
  _and certis þer aboute hire myddil_
  _sche had vpon a wel good girdil_
  _al of silk well wrouht wiþ alle_
  _& doun to Thomas sche lete it falle._

636, H. _yede_. D (528) has _dede_.

639-642. F (697-702) has:

  _In the tempull of Jerusalem_
  _at mete he fonde them_
  _Whan he þem sye he grett þem anoon_
  _and they hym chydd euerychon_
  _and sayde all to Thomas of ynde_
  _Euyr more thow art be hynde._

D (531-6) agrees in thought with F, and has, _ierusalem_ : _hem_,
_Inouh_ : _wouh_, _Inde_ : _behynde_.

645-6, H. Not in D.

647-50, H. F (707-712):

  _Sore me for thynkyth quod Thomas_
  _That y was not there sche beryed was_
  _as y myght not there come_
  _That wyste wele goddys sone_
  _I blessyd be that quene so mylde_
  _That ys in heuyn wyth hur chylde._

D (539-544) agrees in matter with F, and has, _Thomas_ : _was_, _come_ :
_sone_, _quen_ : _schen_.

657-60, H. F (719-24) has:

  _Or thou sye hys blody syde_
  _and hys wounde depe and wyde_
  _Of false be leue thou haste ybee_
  _Thou art so we may well see_
  _Thou art of an euyll beleue_
  _we kepe no soche maner fere._

D (551-6) agrees with F, save in v. 555: _þou art of a lither manere_.

662, H. F (726), _wole ye all vpon me goone_. D (558), _I wile answer
the a non_.

Here follow in F (727-8):

  _Be iħc þat was in bedlem borne_
  _me lyste to answere of yon neuer oon._

664, H. F (730) has, _os me thynkyth in my mode_.

Then follow in F (731-2):

  _I sey hyt yow be my hode_
  _In the place there y stode._

D (559-62) has, _gode_ : _mode_, _hode_ : _blode_.

667-8, H. Cf. D (565-8):

  _Quod petir this is no les_
  _In þis seynt sche beryed wes_
  _Me þinkiþ wunder þat it is here_
  _for it was beried with bere._

F (735-38) agrees with H in thought, but inverts the last two lines, the
last of which reads: _For hyt was beryed with hur in fere_.

675, H. _yede_. Cf. D (573): _Ferth þei went of þat stede_.

679-82, H. Not in D. D ends thus (576 ff.):

  _But a flour in þe grounde_
  _þei seyde ihesu goddis sone_
  _þi sonde to vs is welcome_
  _Jhesu crist ful of myght_
  _among þe apostlis þer a light_
  _& þe aungelis þat wiþ him were_
  _Grette þe apostelis alle in fere._
  _& þan oure lord ihesu crist_
  _hem ouersprad wiþ a myst_
  _& brouhte hem alle in a stounde_
  _In selcouth place fro þe toumbe_
  _þei com alle to hire contray_
  _but non wiste be what way._
  _Beseke we now þat swete may_
  _þat sche prey for vs nyght & day_
  _& bere oure arnde to hire sone_
  _þat we may to him come._
  _In to heuene þer he is king_
  _& ȝeue vs alle good ending. amen._

686, H, _sayng_. F (754) reads: _and þat þou wolde sende vs good

687-8, H. Not in F.

689-90, H. F (755-6):

  _cryste of heuyn full ryght_
  _among þe apostelys he sente a lyght._

695 ff., H. F ends thus (761-790):

  _Soone aftur to heuyn wente cryste_
  _Vpon the apostelys spreed a myste_
  _and broȝt them all fro þat grounde_
  _In to sondry placys in a stounde_
  _Come they all in to ther cuntrey_
  _wyste noon how thedur come they._
  _moche wondur þan þem thoght_
  _how they were thedur broght._
  _cryste we thanke in euery place_
  _That hath sent vs thys grace._
  _here endyth thys lesson_
  _That ys clepydd the assumpcion_
  _Of seynt mary meke and mylde_
  _That ys in heuyn wyth hur chylde._
  _Beseche we all that swete may_
  _To pray for vs nyght and day_
  _and pray for vs to hur sone_
  _That we may to heuyn come_
  _To haue þat blys þere he ys kyng_
  _and gyf vs all goode endynge. amen._



  Add. Brit. Mus. Add. MS. of Ass.

  Ass. Assumption of our Lady.

  C. Cambridge Univ. MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2. of King Horn and Assumption.

  Cott. Cottonian MS. of Floriz and Bl.

  F. & B. Floriz and Blancheflur.

  H. Harleian MSS. of King Horn and of Assumption.

  KH. King Horn.

  L. Laud Misc. MS. 108 of King Horn.

  OE. Old English.

  OF. Old French.

  T. Trentham MS. of Floriz and Bl.

  V. Cottonian MS. of Floriz and Bl.

[Transcriber’s Note:

Yogh ȝ and thorn þ are alphabetized as “g” and “t”. I and J are
alphabetized together. U/V as a vowel is alphabetized before V as
a consonant.]

abegge, abeie, _see_ beien.

abide, _see_ bide.

acupement, _sb._ accusation, F. & B. 664, 670, etc., C. OF.

Adam, Ass. 429, 461, 465 Add.

Admiral, _sb._ emir, F. & B. 164, 170 C.; amirel, amirayl, F. & B. 175,
179 Cott.; Admirad, amyraud, Admyrold, KH. 95.

adrenche, _see_ drenche.

adriȝe, _see_ dreȝe.

adrinke, _see_ drinke.

adun, _adv._ down, KH. 458 C, 485 C; adune, adowne, adoune, KH. 1608 C L
H; adun, adoun, KH. 1610.

age, _sb._ be of ----, KH. 1420, F. & B. 37 T, of age. Cf. KH. 1420

aȝenes, _see_ ȝen.

agesse, _see_ gesse.

agrise, _see_ grise.

Ailbrus, Aylbrus, _see_ Aþelbrus.

Ailmar, Aylmar, Almair, Eylmer, King of Westernesse, KH. 169, 233, 359,
526, 538, 549, 729, 733, 747, 753, 1331, 1514, 1614, etc. OE.

al, _adv._ all, quite, KH. 38 L H.

alle veile, everywhere, KH. 262 L.

Allof, father of Horn, KH. 4, 33, 73 H.

also, _conj._ as, KH. 32, 1102 etc. OE. _eal swā_.

angussus, _adj._ full of anguish, F. & B. 366 C. OF. _angoissous_.

anhitte, _see_ hitten.

apliȝt, _adv._ on one’s faith; aplyȝt, F. & B. 88 T; aplyst, F. & B. 200
Cott.; apliȝt, F. & B. 649 C. OE. _on_ + _pliht_.

aquelde, _see_ quelle.

aquite, _see_ quite.

araȝte, _see_ areche.

areche, _v._ explain, recount; _infin._, KH. 1308 C.; 3 _sing. pret._
araȝte, F. & B. 812 C. OE. _areccean_.

arecche, _see_ recche.

areche ?, _see_ reche.

aredde, _infin._ rid, deliver, F. & B. 689 C. OE. _ahreddan_.

Arnoldin, Arnoldyn, KH. 1561, 1613, 1618.

aroum, _adv._ apart; aroom~, F. & B. 824 T; aroum, Cott. Cf. Gen. & Ex.
4000, 4021. OE. _on rum_, apart.

arre, _see_ er.

arson, _sb._ saddle bow; _n. s._, F. & B. 369 T. OF. _arçon_.

aslawe, _see_ slon.

asoke, _see_ sake.

assoine, _infin._ prevent, F. & B. 423 T.

at, _prep._ from. KH. 619 etc. OE. _æt_.

atel, _adj._ dreadful, cruel, F. & B. 113 Cott. OE. _atol_, _eatol_.

Aþelbrus, Aylbrous, Ailbrus, etc., KH. 239, 257, 282, 309, 351, 385,
481, 495, 501, 1621, 1627.

Aþulf, Haþulf, ayol, KH. 27, 29, 300, 309, 311, 316, 537, etc. OE.
_Æthelwulf_, _Aþulf_, or _Eadwulf_.

aton, _adj._ (at + one) agreed, KH. 997 C H.

at wite, _v._ find fault with, twit; _infin._ F. & B. 490 C.; 3 _s.
pret._ atwist, F. & B. 490 C. OE. _ætwītan_.

awreke, _v._ avenge; _infin._, F. & B. 731 C.; 3 _s. pret._ awrek, KH.
952 H. OE. _wrecan_.

axede, askede, 3 _s. pret._ asked, KH. 43; askede H, axede C, acsede L.
OE. _āscian_, _āxian_.

aye, _see_ eie.

Babylon, _dat._ F. & B. 147 T; Babyloyn, 190 T, 191 T; -loigne, 119 C.;
babyloyne, 147 T, 191 T; Babyloyne, 153 T; Babilloine, 172 C.;
Babiloyne, 181 Cott.; Babilloigne, 120, 129 C.; Babilloine, 129 C, etc.
French version has _Babiloine_, 406, 505, etc.

bale, _sb._ bale, calamity, F. & B. 821 C. OE. _bealu_.

barbecan, _sb._ outer work of a fortress, F. & B. 207 C. OF.

barm, _sb._ lap, bosom; in bearme, KH. 752. OE. _bearm_.

barnage, _sb._ baronage, F. & B. 639 C. OF. _baronage_.

bede, _sb._ prayer, Ass. 89 C, 95 Add., 332 H, 486 Add. etc. OE. _bēd_.

bede, _v._ present, offer; _infin._, KH. 492; 2 _pl. pres._, KH. 977 C
L. OE. _bēodan_.

beien, _v._ buy; 3 _s. pret._ boȝte, KH. 1442 C. abeie, _v._ atone for,
expiate; _infin._ abeie C; abeye L, KH. 116; abugge C H; abygge L 1155;
3 _s. pret._ aboute L; abohte H, KH. 1493. OE. _bycgan_.

belamy, _sb._ good friend, F. & B. 633 C. OF. _bel ami_.

belde, _see_ bolde.

belete, _see_ leten.

bemeneþ, _see_ bimene.

bene, _sb._ petition, KH. 590 C L. OE. _bēn_.

beode, _v._ offer; _infin._, F. & B. 369 C.; 3 _s. pret._ bed, F. & B.
733 C. OE. _bēodan_.

Berild, byrild, beryld, Byryld, KH. 816, 817, 825, 837, 845, 877, 878.

berwe, _v._ protect; _infin._, KH. 980 L. OE. _beorgan_.

beyne, _num._ both, KH. 949 H. OE. _bēgen_.

bi, by, _prep._ by, along, in, KH. 5, 20, etc. OE. _be_.

bicolwede, _see_ colwen.

bidde, _v._ pray, beg; _infin._ bidde, bydde, KH. 1263; 1 _s. pres._
bidde, Ass. 135 C, 143 Add.; bid, 170 C; 3 _s. pres._ biddeþ, F. & B.
588 C.; byddeþ, F. & B. 1081 T; 3 _s. pret._ bad, bed, KH. 85, 1272;
bad, badde, Ass. 90 C, 95 Add., 329, C; _pp._ ibede, F. & B. 579 C.;
ybede, 859 T. OE. _biddan_.

bide, abide, _v._ (1) wait, (2) expect, (3) wait for, KH. 910, 1099,
1564. OE. _ābīdan_.

bidene, by dene, _adv._ at once, F. & B. 60 T, Ass. 347 Add.

bihelde, biholde, _v._ look on, behold, F. & B. 102 Cott., KH 639. OE.

biheue, _adj._ profitable, Ass. 676 Add. OE. _behēfe_.

bihoten, _v._ promise; 3 _s. pret._ bihet, KH. 500. OE. _hātan_.

biknewe, _pp._, _see_ knowe.

bileue, _see_ leue.

biliue, bliue, _adv._ quickly, KH. 350 L, 502 C, 771 C, 1042 C; blyue,
Ass. 776 Add. OE. _bī līfe_.

bimene, _v._ bemoan, lament; _infin._, F. & B. 72 Cott.; 3 _s. pres._
bemeneþ, F. & B. 957 T. OE. _bimǣnan_.

binom, 3 _s. pret._ took away from, F. & B. 112 Cott.; _pp._ binomen,
benome, Ass. 271 A, 273 C. OE. _biniman_.

birine, _see_ reyne.

bisemen, _v._ befit, beseem; 3 _s. pres._ bisemeþ C, byseme L, bysemeþ
H, KH. 518. Icel. _sǣma_.

bispac, _see_ speke.

biswike, _see_ swike.

bite, _infin._ bite, partake of as food, KH. 1211 L, H. OE. _bītan_.

biteche, 1 _s. pres._ entrust, KH. 613 L, H. OE. _tǣcan_.

bitide, _see_ tide.

biþinne, _prep._ within, KH. 1122 C, 1387 C.

bitwexe, _prep._ between, KH. 454 C. OE. _betweox_, _betwux_.

biwente, _see_ wende.

biwreien, _see_ wreien.

Blancheflour, Blauncheflur, etc., _nom._ 18 T, 46 T, 22 V, 34 V; _dat._
20 T, 22 T, 36 T, 58 T, 114 T, 122 T, 34, 46, 48, 64, 96, 102, 112 etc.,
C. Fr. _Blanceflors_, _Blanceflor_.

blenche, _infin._ overturn, KH. 1525 C L; ouerblenche, 1525 H. OE.

blesse, _infin._ bless, KH. 17 L H. OE. _bletsian_.

blessing, _sb._ blessing, KH. 170 C. OE. _bletsung_.

blethelyche, _adv._ blithely. OE. _blīðelīce_.

ble[y]ne, _sb._ whale, KH. 727 L. OF. _baleine_.

bliþe, blyþe, _adj._ blithe, KH. 1, 141, etc.

blynne, _see_ linnen.

bode, _dat. sing._ message, Ass. 146 C; _accus._ bodes, Ass. 126 Add.
OE. _bod_.

bold, bald, baud, _adj._ bold; _sing._ KH. 96; _pl._ belde, bolde, KH.
640. OE. _beald_.

bone, _sb._ prayer, boon, Ass. 522 H, 27 C, 329 C, 441 C. ON. _bōn_.

boneyres, _adj._ devoted, good looking, debonair, KH. 968 L. OF.

bord, _sb._ (ship) board; _dat. sing._ borde, KH. 119, 123.

bord, _sb._ table, F. & B. 103 C, KH. 269, 1605.

bote, _sb._ remedy, redress, F. & B. 821 C. OE. _bōt_.

bote, KH. 1364 L; _v._ baddest, or scribal error.

bote, _see_ bute.

braide, breide, 3 _s. pret._ draw, brandish, F. & B. 289 T, 1014 T. OE.

breche, _dat. sing._ breeches, F. & B. 258 C. OE. _brēc_.

breme, _adj._ valiant, spirited, famous, F. & B. 792 C, 1071 T. OE.

brenie, brunie, _sb._ coat of mail, KH. 627, 765, 897, 1310. OE.

bruken, _v._ use, enjoy; _imper._ 3 _sing._ bruc C, brouke L, brouc H,
KH. 220. OE. _brūcan_.

brun, _sb._ beer (?); of a brun C, of þe broune L, H, KH. 1202.

brymme, _sb._ edge, shore, KH. 204 C.

buȝe, _v._ bow, writhe, twist, let fall (Mätzner); _infin._ buȝe C,
unbowe H, KH. 458. OE. _būgan_.

bulmeþ, 3 _sing. pres._ boils, F. & B. 305 C. Probable error for welmeþ.
Cf. _ȝelle_.

bur, _sb._ bower, women’s quarters, KH. 285. OE. _būr_.

burdon, _sb._ staff, KH. 1141. OF. _burdoun_.

burgeis, _sb._ burgess, citizen, F. & B. 115 C, 155 T, etc. Bugays, F. &
B. 207 T. OF. _burgeis_.

burȝ, bureȝ, boruh, _sb._ castle, F. & B. 176, 181, 182 C.; boruh, F. &
B. 190 Cott. OE. _burg_, _burh_.

burles, _sb._ tomb, sepulchre, F. & B. 63 Cott. OE. _byrgels_.

bute, bote, but, _conj._ but, unless, KH. 26 L, 69, 207 C, 37 L, H, etc.
OE. _būtan_, except, unless.

buxom, _adj._ flexible, obedient, Ass. 410 H. OE. _būhsum_.

byȝete, _sb._ acquisition, F. & B. 202 T, and Cott. OE. _begietan_.

bygone, _pp._ surrounded, F. & B. 371 T. OE. _bigān_.

byne, (?), F. & B. 1010 T.

cacche, _v._ catch; _infin._ KH. 1307, 1465 H; 3 _pl. pret._ kaute, KH.
944 L.; _infin._ bikeche, KH. 328 L. OF. _cachier_.

can, _v._ can, know; 3 _s. subj. pres._ cunne; conne, KH. 602 C, H;
_infin._ konne, KH. 598 L; 3 _pl. pret._ couþ, couth, F. & B. 33 T,
157 T. OE. _cann_.

care, _sb._ care, sorrow, KH. 279. OE. _cearu_.

catel, _sb._ property, capital, F. & B. 150 T, 988 T. OF. _catel_.

kele, _infin._ cool, F. & B. 995 T. OE. _cēlan_.

kelwe, _see_ colmie.

ken, kenne, kunne, _sb._ race, people, KH. 156, 190, 1358. OE. _cynn_.

kende, cunde, _sb._ birth, kind, Nature, KH. 451, 1479 C, L; F. & B.
677 C, 960 T. OE. _cynd_.

kene, _adj._ keen, brave, KH. 42, 97, 178, 539, 1208, etc. OE. _cēn_.

kepe, _v._ (1) keep, (2) guard, protect, KH. 800, 1288 C H, Ass. 49
Add., 52 Add., 271 Add. OE. _cēpan_.

kep, _sb._ heed, care, Ass. 72 C, 78 Add.

kerue, _v._ carve, KH. 249. OE. _ceorfan_.

Cesar, F. & B. 181 T. French version has _Cesar_, v. 494.

chaere, _sb._ throne (?), KH. 1353. OF. _chaere_.

ycharged, _pp._ loaded, F. & B. 343 T. OF. _charger_.

chelde, kolde, kelde, _infin._ become cold, KH. 1230. OE. _cealdian_.

chepinge, _sb._ market, fair, F. & B. 186, 188 Cott. OE. _cēapung_.

chere, _sb._ mien, facial expression, KH. 1143, 1165 L. OF. _chere_.

child, _sb._ (1) child, (2) youth, KH. 10, 13, 27, 99, etc. OE. _cild_.

Claris, Clarice, Clariȝ, Clarys, F. & B. 895 T, 901 T, 905 T, 915 T,
931 T, etc.; C. 479, 485, 529, etc. French has Claris, 2125, 2131, 2115,
2339, etc.

cleche, _infin._ reach (with nails), KH. 1027 H ; _pp._ ycliȝt, Ass. 719

clef, scribal blunder (?), _c_ + _lef_, KH. 161 L.

clenchen, _infin._ make to clink, KH. 1596.

clene, _adj._ pure, F. & B. 297 C. OE. _clǣne_.

clepe, clepen, clepede, clupede, cleped, icluped, etc., _v._ call, KH.
239, 840 L; F. & B. 137 T, 287 T, 137 T, 837 T; 607 C, 140 C, etc.; Ass.
707 H, 847 Add., 73 C, 180 C, etc. OE. _cleopian_.

clergie, _sb._ learned knowledge, F. & B. Cf. Hausknecht’s note.

cleppe, clippe, cluppe, klippt, klepte, iclupt, etc., _v._ embrace, KH.
1297 H, 1450; F. & B. 549 C, 594 C, 614 C, 806 T, 512 C, etc. OE.

ycliȝt, _see_ cleche.

knaue, _sb._ boy, servant, KH. 1012 C, 1095 C; F. & B. 166 T. OE.

knowe, _v._ (1) know, (2) recognize, KH. 1294; (3) beon biknowe of =
acknowledge (cf. Mätzner, KH. 983 Note; Lay. II. 355, III. 51;
Alisaunder 724, etc.); _pp._ was iknowe C, was by cnowe L, was biknowe
H, KH. 1059 = confessed. OE. _cnāwan_, _becnāwan_.

knyhty, _v._ knight, KH. 488 H, 547, 682.

colmie, kelwe, _adj._ sooty, KH. 1162, _see_ colwen.

colwen, bicolwede, _v._ smear, blacken, KH. 1144, 1162.

con, _v. auxil._ = did, KH. 817 H, 825 H, 938 H, 1470 H, 1549 H, 1632 H;
3 _s. pluperf._ couþe, 1634 H, _see_ gan.

icore, _pp._ chosen, F. & B. 268 C. OE. _gecoren_.

creyde, 3 _s. pret._ cried, KH. 1362 L. OF. _crier_.

crois, _sb._ cross, KH. 1405 C H; croyȝ, KH. 1398 H. OF. _crois_.

crowch, _sb._ cross, KH. 1398 L, 1405 L. Lat. _crucem_.

crude, _infin._ press, crowd, KH 1385. OE. _crūdan_.

crune, _sb._ skull, head, KH. 1607. ON. _kruna_.

culuart, _adj._ false, faithless, F. & B. 210, 329 C. OF. _culvert_.

cupe, _sb._ basket, F. & B. 435, 438, 452, 471 C, etc. OE. _cȳpe_, Lat.

cuppe, cupe, coupe, _sb._ cup, KH. 250, 479; coupe, F. & B. 163 T,
181 T, 208 T, etc. OE. _cuppa_.

Cutberd, Cuberd, Cubert, KH. 876, 833, 851 C, 882, 895, 912, 938, 948,
965 L, 981. OE. _Cūþbeorht_.

cuþe, 1 _s. pret._ knew, Ass. 39 C; 3 _pl. pret._ couthe, Ass. 290 C.

cuþe, cowþe, couþe, 3 _s. pret. subj._ could, KH. 371.

dales, _pl._ valleys, dales, KH. 168. OE. _dæl_.

dar, _v._ dare, 3 _s. pres._ durþ, KH. 408 H; 3 _s. pret._ dorte,
dorste, F. & B. 167 C, 204 T; 3 _s. pret. subj._ þorte, F. & B. 216 C,
KH. 408 C. OE. _dearr_, _dorste_.

Daris, Dares, Dayre, daye, Darys, doyres, Darie, F. & B. 561, 570, 599,
737, 816. French has _Daires_, _nom._ 1470, 1531, 1853, etc. _Dairon_,
_accus._ 1931.

dawes, _pl._ days, KH. 999 L; _nom. sing._ day. OE. _pl._ _dagas_.

ded, deed, _sb._ death, KH. 345 L.; _dat. sing._ deede, F. & B. 46 T.

deie, deye, deȝe, _infin._, KH. 115. ON. _deyja_.

del, _sb._ part, portion, deal, Ass. 212 C, 218 A, 261 A; _dell_, 225 C.
OE. _dǣl_.

ideld, _p. pl._ separated, F. & B. 598 C. OE. _dǣlan_.

demure, demere, _sb._ delay, F. & B. 591 C. and Cott. OF. _demeurer_.

denie, _v._ din, rattle, KH. 628. OE. _dynian_.

dent, dunt, _sb._ stroke, blow, KH. 164 C, 607, 647, 913, 920, 933, 946.
OE. _dynt_.

deol, dole, _sb._ grief, KH. 1128, 1129. OF. _doel_, _duel_.

dere, _adj._ dear, beloved, KH. 161 L, etc. OE. _dēore_.

derie, dere, _infin._ injure, harm, KH. 840, F. & B. 378 T, Ass. 162 C.
OE. _derian_.

derne, _adj._ secret, hidden, Ass. 856 Add. OE. _dierne_.

deuise, 2 _s. pres. subj._ devise, KH. 253 L, H. OF. _deviser_.

direwurþe, _adj._ precious, F. & B. 289 C. OE. _de͞orwyrðe_.

don, dede, dude, _v._ (1) cause to, KH. 148, 284, 1069, Ass. 462 Add.,
474 Add., etc. (2) put, KH. 360, 745, 1332 C; F. & B. 46 T, 200 T,
69 C.; Ass. 61 Add., etc. (3) _intens._ do, did, KH. 1003 (?), F. & B.
16 C, Ass. 17 Add., 80 C, etc. (cf. dede let wed, F. & B. 1065 T). OE.
_dōn_, _dyde_.

dreden, 3 _pl. pret._ fear, dread, KH. 130; dradde C, adred L; _pp._
adred H; 1 _sing. pres._ of drede. C L; adrede H, KH. 307. OE. _drǣdan_.

dreȝe, adriȝe, _infin._ suffer, endure, KH. 1115. OE. _dre͞ogan_.

dreme, _sb._ sound, F. & B. 37 C, 397 T. OE. _drēam_.

drenche, _v._ drown; _infin._ adrenche, KH. 111 C H, 1526; to drenche,
KH. 1045 L; _pp._ adrent, KH. 1053 C; drenched, KH. 1054 L. OE.

dright, driȝte, _sb._ lord, Ass. 275 C, KH. 1406 C. OE. _drihten_.

idriȝt, _pp._ troubled, Ass. 190 C. OE. _gedreccan_.

drinke, _v._ drink; _infin._ adrinke, adrynke, drown, KH. 111 L, 1045 C
H. OE. _drincan_.

druerie, drury, _sb._ love, F. & B. 382 C, 820 T. OF. _druerie_.

dun, doun, down, _sb._ dune, hill, KH. 168. OE. _dūn_.

dunt, _see_ dent.

dureþ, 3 _sing. pres._ extendeth, F. & B. 173 C. OF. _durer_.

durþ, _see_ dar.

dute, _v._ fear, be afraid; _infin._ duti, F. & B. 4 C, 192 Cott.; 1
_sing. pres._ dute, doute, KH. 362; 2 _pl. imper._ douȝt, dute, F. & B.
817 T, 531 C. OF. _douter_.

dyȝcte, _infin._ arrange, KH. 904 L; _pp._ idiȝt, F. & B. 23, 260 C. OE.

ede, _see_ ȝede.

Edmound, seynt, Ass. 893 Add.

eidel, _sb._ anything, F. & B. 813 C. OE. _ǣnig dǣl_.

eie, aye, _sb._ fear, F. & B. 791 T. OE. _ege_.

eke, _adv._ also, KH. 17, 99, 1474, etc. OE. _e͞ac_.

enchesone, _sb._ occasion, F. & B. 78 T. OF. _enchaisoun_.

engynne, _sb._ device, scheme, artifice, F. & B. 313 T; engin, Ass. 755,
759 C. OF. _engin_.

Enneas, F. & B. 177 T. French version _Eneas_, 489.

entermeten, _infin._ meddle with, F. & B. 167 C. OF. _entremetre_.

er, arre, her, or, _conj._ before, ere, KH. 136 H, 567 C; arre, 567 L.

Ermenild, _see_ Reynild, KH. 979 H. Cf. Eormenhild, daughter of
Eorcenbriht, king of Kent, Leechdoms iii, index.

erndinge, _sb._ result of undertaking. OE. _ǣrendung_.

erne, _v._ run; _infin._ vrne, erne, KH. 936; 3 _s. pret._ arnde C,
rende L, ernde H, KH. 1314; _pp._ iorne C, hy ȝouren L, yorne H, KH.
1228. OE. _yrnan_.

escheker, _sb._ chess board, F. & B. 344 C, etc. OF. _eschekier_.

Estnesse, KH. 1018 L H, 1295 L.

eþe, yþe, _adv._ easily, KH. 61, 891. OE. _e͞aðe_.

eþelikeste, _superl._ most precious, F. & B. 274 C. OE. _æðel_.

Eue, Ass. 461 Add.

euene, eueneliche, _adv._ equally, symmetrically, KH. 100.

euerich, _adj._ every, KH. 230. OE. _ǣfrǣlc_.

eure ȝut, ever yet, KH. 842.

fable, _sb._ story, KH. 762 L.

fader, _sb._ father; _gen. sing._ fader, C H; faderes L, KH. 116; fader,
1622 H.

fairhede, fayrhede, feyrhade, _sb._ fairness, KH. 89.

falle, _v._ fall; bifalle, biualle, happen, occur, become; _infin._, KH.
105, 186; _pp._ 450 C, L.

fawe, fain, F. & B. 986 T. OE. _fægn_.

fay, _sb._ faith, Ass. 576 C. OF. _fei_.

fayne, _adj._ glad, F. & B. 97 T. OE. _fægn_.

fayne, _adv._ gladly, F. & B. 286 T.

fecche, fette, _infin._ fetch, Ass. 129 C, 137 Add.; 3 _pl. pret._ fett,
Ass. 456 C. OE. _fetian_.

feere, _see_ fere.

feire, _sb._ market, fair, F. & B. 179 C. OF. _feire_.

felaurade, _sb._ company, KH. 180 H. ON. _fēlagi_.

yfelde, 3 _pl. pret._ feel, KH. 58. OE. _gefēlan_.

fele, vele, _adj._ many, KH. 60, 1425 C, 1464 H. OE. _fela_.

felle, _v._ fell, slay; _infin._, KH. 66; 3 _pl. pret._ felde, KH. 58.

felle, _sb._ skin, KH. 1015 L. OE. _fell_.

felle, _adj. pl._ fierce, cruel, fell, KH. 1581 L, Ass. 574 C, 684 Add.
OE. _fel_.

felun, _adj._ savage, cruel, F. & B. 210, 329 C. OF. _felon_, _felun_.

fende, feond, _sb._ fiend, devil; _dat. sing._ KH. 1480 L, Ass. 164 C.
OE. _fēond_.

feo, _dat. sing._ money, expense, F. & B. 25 C. OE. _feo(h)_.

fer, _adj._ unharmed, sound, KH. 161 C, H; Ass. 67 C, 72 A. OE. _fēre_,
Icel. _færr_.

veracle, _sb._ company, KH. 180 C. OE. _ferræden_.

ferde, _sb._ host, army; _dat. sing._, Ass. 116 Add. OE. _ferd_, _fyrd_.

ferde, 3 _s. pret._ went, KH. 663, 805, 1010. uerden, 3 _pl. pret._
behaved, F. & B. 24 C. OE. _fēran_.

fere, ifere, _sb._ companion, comrade; _sing. accus._ fere, Ass. 78 C,
84 Add., 78 Add.; ifere 46 C; _dat. sing._ ifere C, fere L, yfere H, KH.
1209; _plur._ feren, KH. 21, 53 H, 88, 108, 235 L, etc.; ifere C, yfere
L, KH. 235; ferene, Ass. 406 C. OE. _fēra_, _gefēra_.

fere, feere, _sb._ companionship, F. & B. 5, 81, 280 T, etc. OE.

ferli, ferlich, _sb._ miracle, wonder, F. & B. 456 C, Ass. 732 Add. OE.

ferli, ferly, _adj._ (1) fearful, (2) unexpected, sudden, (3) rare,
wonderful, Ass. 327, Add. 347 C.

fett, _see_ fecche.

Fikenhild, fykenyld, fykenild, fokenild, Fykenhild, Fekenyld, etc., KH.
28, 30, 731, 1336, 1493, 1509, 1513, 1516, 1543, 1554, 1567, 1589, 1613;
_gen._ 1554, 1607.

fine, _infin._ end, KH. 274. OF. _finer_.

fiþeleres, fyþelers, _sb._ fiddler; _nom. pl._ KH. 1592. OE. _fiðelere_.

fle, _infin._ flay, KH. 1468 C. OE. _flēan_.

fleme, _sb._ fugitive, exile, KH. 1363 C, L. OE. _flēma_.

fleoten, flete, _v._ flow, float, swim; _infin._ flete, L; fleoten H,
KH. 165; flette 811 L; 3 _s. pret._ flet, KH. 203 H; 3 _pl. pret._
fletten, 811 H; _pp._ bi flette, KH. 1504 C. OE. _flēotan_.

flitte, flecte, flette, 2 _s. subj. pres._ leave, depart, KH. 757. ON.

Floris, Florys, Floreys, Florens, Floyres, Floriȝ, Florice, Floures,
Florisse, etc., F. & B. 40 T, 44 T, 49 T, 56 T, 65 T, etc. French
version has _Floires_, _Floire_.

flotterede, 3 _sing. pret._ was tossed in the waves, KH. 135 H.

flur, flour, _sb._ flower, KH. 15, F. & B. 780 T, 482 C, etc.

flyten, _infin._ combat, KH. 903 H. OE. _flītan_.

fode, foode, _sb._ food, child, KH. 1436, F. & B. 149 T.

foȝel, foul, _sb._ bird, KH. 139, 1506; F. & B. 277 Cambr., etc. OE.

fole, _sb._ foal, horse, KH. 623. OE. _fōla_.

follyche, KH. 98 L. (?). OE. _fūllīce_.

fond, _pret. sing._ found, KH. 39. OE. _findan_.

fonde, _v._ try, experience, prove; _infin._, KH. 163 C H, 782, 1634 H;
F. & B. 2 T, 55 T, 158, 399 C, etc.; 3 _sing. pret._ fonde, fondede, KH.
1634 C. OE. _fandian_.

fonge, underfonge, _v._ receive, take; _infin._ fonge, KH. 345 C L,
163 L, 769; F. & B. 300, 395 C. etc.; vnderfonge, KH. 607 H, 255, 976 C,
etc. OE. _fōn_.

forbere, _infin._ do without, dispense with, Ass. 60 C, 66 Add. OE.

forbod, forbode, _acc. sing._ forbiddal, prohibition, KH. 82.

fordo, _pp._ destroyed, F. & B. 308 C. OE. _fordōn_.

foreward, forewart, _sb._ agreement, pledge, KH. 482, 586 H; F. & B.
426 C. OE. _foreweard_.

forȝolde, _pp._ paid for, F. & B. 388 T. OE. _forgieldan_.

forgone, _pp._ distressed, Ass. 829 Add.

forhele, 2 _sing. imper._ conceal, Ass. 192 Add. OE. _forhelan_.

forleie, forlauȝt, _pp._ commit adultery, F. & B. 301 Cambr., 618 T. OE.

forlesen, _see_ lesen.

forliued, _pp._ mislived, F. & B. 99 Cott.

forloren, _see_ lesen.

fort (for + to), until, F. & B. 66, 122 C.; fort he = for to þe.

forþinkeþ, 3 _sing. pres., reflex._, repent, Ass. 538 Add., 813 Add. ON.

forto, forte, _conj._ in order to, KH. 25.

forto, _prep._ to, for to, KH. 166 L.

fremde, fremede, _sb._ foreigner, stranger, KH. 68. OE. _fremede_.

fremde, _adj._ strange, foreign, Ass. 181 C. OE. _fremede_, _fremde_.

frume, atte, first, F. & B. 135, 179, 345 C. OE. _fruma_.

ful, foul, foule, _adj._ foul, dirty, KH. 1143. OE. _fūl_.

fulde, 3 _sing. pret._ filled, KH. 1202. OE. _fyllan_.

funde, fonde, founde, _v._ go, KH. 109, 143, 780, 888, 942, 1372. OE.

fundlyng, fundyng, etc., _sb._ foundling, KH. 234 C H, 242 C, 450.

furst, _sb._ space of time, respite, F. & B. 638 C. OE. _fyrst_.

furthermost, foremost, F. & B. 1059 T.

fus, _adj._ ready, F. & B. 368 C. OE. _fūs_.

fyȝen, fissen, _infin._ fish, KH. 1216. OE. _fiscian_.

gabbe, joking, F. & B. 785 T.

gabbest, 2 _sing. pres._ (1) ridicule, (2) deceive, (3) chatter, F. & B.
235 T. ON. _gabba_.

gabbing, _nom. sing._, (1) deceit, (2) babble, F. & B. 236, T and Cott.

galeie, _sb._ galley, KH. 199, 1084 C, 1086 H. OF. _galee_.

game, _sb._ joy, pleasure, KH. 211. OE. _gamen_, _gomen_.

gan, _v. auxil._ did; gan, gon, KH. 257, 268, 312 C, 318 C, etc.;
_plur._ gunne, gonne, gunnen, gonnen, KH. 55, 65, 193, 675, 1090, etc.;
_imper._ gyn, KH. 329 H, 396 H; bigyn, KH. 329 L; bigan, began, did, KH.
127, 146 L, 203 C, 1271 H; con, did, KH. 372 H, 817 H, 825 H, 938 H,
1049 H, 1470 H, 1632 H, etc.; _pluperf._ couþe, KH. 1634 H.

ȝare, _adv._ quickly, KH. 497 C, 960 C, 1453 L. OE. _gearu_.

garysone, garisone, _sb._ treasure, F. & B. 206, T and Cott. OE.
_gersum_, _gersuma_. OF. _garison_. Cf. _gersume_.

ȝede, yede, eode, _v. pret._ went; 3 _sing._ ȝede C, eode H, KH. 621,
622; yede Ass. 636 H; 3 _pl._ yede L, ede H, KH. 117; ȝede C, yede L,
eoden H, KH. 167, 621; yede Ass. 634 H, ȝede Ass. 843 Add., ȝeden Ass.
849 Add., F. & B. 444 C.

gegges, _sb._ frivolous women (?), F. & B. 439 C.

ȝelde, yelde, _v._ (1) yield, (2) pay for; _infin._, KH. 514 C H, Ass.
249 C, 255 Add.; _pp._ iȝolde C, yolde L, ȝolde H, KH. 681; iȝolde C,
hyȝolde L, yȝolde H, KH. 490; F. & B. 161 T, 809 C; 2 _sing. subj._ or
_imper._ ȝeld, pay for, KH. 1066. OE. _gieldan_.

ȝelle = welle (?), F. & B. 621 T.

ȝem, 2 _sing. imper._ protect, care for. OE. _gīeman_.

ȝeme, _sb._ care, F. & B. 38 C.

ȝen, against; aȝeyn KH. 60, aȝenes C, ayenes L, aȝeyn H, KH. 82. OE.
_gegn_, _gēn_.

ȝend, gonde, _prep._ throughout, KH. 1078; _adv._ yonder, far away;
ȝent, KH. 1261 H; gonde, beyond, F. & B. 210 C. OE. _geond_.

geng, _dat. sing._ company, Ass. 220 C. OE. _genge_.

gent, _adj._ noble, F. & B. 47 Cott. OF. _gent_.

ȝere, yere, _sb._ year; _pl._ ȝere C, yere L, KH. 102. OE. _ge͞ar_.

ȝerne, _v._ desire, ask for; 1 _sing. pres._ ȝerne C H, herne L, KH.
985; _infin._ KH. 1495 L, 1517 C. OE. _geornian_.

ȝerne, _adj._ willing, desirous, eager, KH. 1165 C, 1472 H, etc. OE.

ȝerne, _adv._ eagerly, F. & B. 127, 375, 588 C. OE. _georne_.

(þureȝ) gersume, reward, F. & B. 405, 419, 773 C. Cf. _garisone_.

gesninge, gestinge, iustinge, _sb._ entertainment, F. & B. 82, 125,
164 C., 175 Cott.

gesse, _infin._ guess (?), agesse C, agesce L, gesse H, KH. 1267.

ȝeuen, _v._ give, KH. 170, 172, etc. OE. _giefan_, _gifan_.

gigours, _nom. plur._ violin players, KH. 1592 C. OF. _gigueour_.

ginne, gynne, _sb._? (1) contrivance, scheme. (2) tool, penis, KH.
1574 C H; F. & B. 131, 195, 206, 258 C., etc.; F. & B. 1032, 1048 T. ON.
_ginna_, Lat. _ingenium_.

ginnur, _sb._ engineer, workman, F. & B. 324 C.

gle, glewe, _sb._ song, joy, KH. 1352 C H; Ass. 483 Add. OE. _glēoẉ_,

glede, _sb._ coal, KH. 532 L H. OE. _glēd_.

gleowinge, glewinge, gleynge, _sb._ play, KH. 1588.

glide, _infin._ (1) glide, (2) slip away, KH. 146 L, 1127. OE. _glīdan_.

gloue, glouen, _acc. plur._ gloves, KH. 848. OE. _glōfa_.

Godhild, Godild, Godyld, Godylt, KH. 7, 72, 75, 158, 159, 1458.

Godmod, Horn’s assumed name, KH. 821, 833, 879, 883, 895, 911, 925, 949,
952, 965, 987.

ȝonge, ȝynge, _adj._ young, KH. 137, etc. OE. _geong_.

ȝore, _adv._ long ago, F. & B. 174 C. OE. _gēara_.

grace, _sb._ virtue, power, KH. 605. OF. _grace_.

grame, _sb._ anger, wrath, F. & B. 712 C.; Ass. 515 H, Ass. 738 Add. OE.

igraue, hygraue, ygraued, _pp._ scratched, engraved, KH. 599. OF.

grede, _v._ cry out; _infin._ F. & B. 454 C.; 3 _sing. pret._ gredde,
KH. 1282 H. OE. _grædan_.

greding, _sb._ clamour, lamentation, Ass. 213 Add.

greithe, greþi, _infin._ prepare, make ready, Ass. 120 C, 128 Add. ON.

grete, _infin._ weep, KH. 957 C L. OE. _grētan_.

gripe, _infin._ grip, seize, KH. 55. OE. _grīpan_.

grisen, _v._ feel horror; _infin._ agrise C L; agryse H, KH. 925; 3
_sing. pret._ gros C, agros L, H, KH. 1410. OE. _āgrīsan_.

grom, _sb._ boy; _nom. sing._ grom, KH. 1035 L H; _nom. pl._ grome, KH.
175, F. & B. 111 T. ON. _gromr_.

grunde, grounde, _sb._; _dat. sing._ ground, bottom, KH. 110, 144, 352,

gume, _sb._ man; _nom. sing._ gume, F. & B. 261 C.; _nom. plur._ gomes,
KH. 24, gumes C, gomen H; grome L, KH. 175. OE. _guma_.

halke, _dat. sing._ corner, KH. 1167 C L. OE. _healoc_.

Harild, Alrid, Ayld, Aþyld, KH. 815, 877, 878.

harwed, 1 _sing. pret._ harrowed, Ass. 463 Add. OE. _hergian_.

hatere, _sb._ garments, Ass. 149 C. OE. _hæteru_.

hatte, 3 _sing. pret._ became hot, KH. 646 C. OE. _hǣtan_.

heele, 1 _sing. pres._ conceal, F. & B. 820 T, 533 C. OE. _helan_.

heete, 3 _sing. pret._ was named, F. & B. 1004 T. Cf. _hoten_.

helde, _v._, _see_ holde.

helde, _sb._ faith, allegiance, F. & B. 397 C. OE. _hyldo_.

heleþ, 3 _sing. imper._ conceal, Ass. 188 C, _see_ heele.

hende, _adj._ (1) prompt, gracious, alert, KH. 391, 1197, 1345, etc., F.
& B. 156 T, etc.; (2) near, ready, KH. 1217 H. OE. _(ȝe)hende_.

henne, hanne, hennes, _adv._ hence, KH. 50, 337, 341 C.

hente, _v._ grasp, receive, get; _infin._ KH. 1032 H; 1 _pl. pret._ KH.
919 L; _pp._ hent, Ass. 453 C.

hepe, _dat. sing._ throng, crowd, F. & B. 466 C. OE. _hēap_.

her, _see_ er.

here, _poss. pron._ their; _nom. sing._, KH. 9, etc.

heren, _v._ hire; 3 _sing. pret._ hurede C, herde L, herde L H, KH. 806.
OE. _hȳrian_.

heste, _dat. sing._ command, hest, F. & B. 610 C. Cf. Skeat.

het, 3 _sing. pret._ bade, F. & B. 608, 619 C. OE. _hātan_.

heynde, _sb._ hind (?), KH. 686 L. OE. _hind_.

hiȝe, _v._ hasten, hie; 3 _sing. pret._ KH. 1042 C. OE. _higian_.

hiȝhede, _sb._ height, F. & B. 327 C.

hitten, _v._ hit, strike; 1 _sing. pres._ anhitte C; _infin._ hette L,
KH. 758. ON. _hitta_.

hol, _adj._ safe, KH. 161 C H etc. OE. _hāl_.

holde, helde, _v._ hold, KH. 323, 482. OE. _healdan_.

holde, _adj._, _accus. pl._ faithful, KH. 1339 L H. OE. _hold_.

holt, _adj._ lame, halt, Ass. 516 H. OE. _healt_, _halt_.

hondhabbing, having in the hand, in the act, _en flagrant delit_, F. &
B. 668 C. OE. _hondhæbbende_.

Horn, 9, 74, 121, 128, 135, 184, etc.; horn child 121 L, 128 C, 173,
etc.; Horns 123 L; horn þe ȝynge 137 H; Hor 185 L, 397 L, 459 L, 558 L.

hoten, _v._ be called; 1 _sing. pres._ hote, KH. 821; 3 _sing. pret._
het C, hihte H, KH. 9, 27 C; _pp._ ihote C, hote L, yhote H, KH. 215,
1125 C. OE. _hātan_.

houe, 2 _sing. pret._ raised, KH. 1359 C H; ȝoue L. OE. _hebban_.

hurne, _dat. sing._ corner, KH. 1471 H. OE. _hyrne_.

hynde, _adj._ kind (?), F. & B. 355 T.

I--, I lome, etc., _see_ lome, etc.

Ierusalem, Ass. 475 C, 594 Add.

Iewes, Iewis, Iewys, _nom. sing._ Iewe, Ass. 620 Add., 564 H, Iew 674
Add.; _dat. sing._ Iewe, Ass. 530 H, Iew, Ass. 620 Add.; _gen. sing._
Iewis, Ass. 553 H, etc.

Ihesu, Ass. 51 Add., 324 C, 388 Add., Ihesus 481 C, Iesus 486 C; _gen._
Ihesus 624 Add., Crist 76 C, Ihesu crist 248 T, etc.

ilk, ylk, _adj._ same; _dat. sing._ ilke, KH. 948 C, ylke F. & B. 78 T,
vlke C, hulke L, KH. 1285, etc. OE. _ilca_.

ynde, India, Ass. 611 C, 775 Add., 807 Add.

Iogelours L, iogelers H; _nom. pl._ jugglers, KH. 1592. OF. _jongleor_.

Iohan, Ion, Ass. 14 C, 15 Add., 49 C, 52 Add., 55 Add., 77 C, 224 C, 228
Add., etc.; _nom. sing._ seynt Ione, 820 Add.

Iosaphath, Iosephas, Iosephat, Ass. 472 C, 581 C, 754 Add.

Irisse, yrisse, yrisshe, Hyrische, KH. 1080, 1302 L, 1382, 1464.

Irlond, hirelonde, yrlonde, KH. 810 L, 1078 C, 1633 C H.

lacchen, _v._ catch, take; _infin._ lacchen, KH. 686 L, lache KH. 702 L;
3 _sing. pret._ laȝte C, laucte L, lahte H, KH. 259; 3 _pl. pret._
laucte, KH. 943 L, by laucte 705 L; 3 _pl. pret._ of laucte, 943 L. OE.

laȝe, lawe, _sb._ (1) law, (2) religion, (3) custom, KH. 69 C H, 1190.
OE. _lagu_.

largeliche, _adv._ liberally, F. & B. 71 C. OF. _large_.

laste, leste, _v._ last, endure, KH. 6, 433 L, etc. OE. _lǣstan_.

lay, ley, _sb._ law, religion, KH. 69 L, 1642 H, Ass. 686 Add. OF.

lef, leue, leof, luef, _adj._ dear, KH. 126 L, 342, 695, 754, 1013,
1457, etc.; F. & B. 151 C., 321 C., etc.; Ass. 40 C, 167 C, 42 Add., 173
Add., etc. OE. _lēof_.

lef, leue, leof, lyfe, _sb._ dear one, darling, F. & B. 108 T, 89, 103
Cott., 312 T, 831 T, 542 C. OE. _lēof_.

leue, _v._ believe, F. & B. 325 T. OE. _lēfan_, _lȳfan_.

bileue, _v._ remain; _infin._ KH. 381, F. & B. 103 Cott., 51 C.; 3
_sing. pret._ bilefte, Ass. 57 T, bileft 63 Add., 151 Add.; 3 _pl.
pret._ bileft, Ass. 759 Add., etc. OE. _belǣfan_.

leiȝe, leyhe, _v._ laugh; _infin._ leyhe L (lyþe H?), KH. 372; 3 _sing.
pret._ lowe L, loh KH. 373, louȝe C, lowe L H, KH, 1600; 3 _plur. pret._
lowȝ, F. & B. 1053 T, 776 C. OE. _hlehhan_.

leme, _sb._ light, brightness, F. & B. 198 C, Ass. 607 H. OE. _lēoma_.

lemman, leman, _sb._ dear one, leman, KH. 463, 589, 721. OE. _le͞ofmon_.

lene, _v._ lend, KH. 491. OE. _lǣnan_.

leng, _compar._ longer, KH. 1183 etc. OE. _leng_.

lep, lepe, _sb._ basket, F. & B. 465 C., 738, 740, 741 T, 753 T, 758 T.
OE. _le͞ap_.

lere, _sb._ cheek, F. & B. 501 C. OE _hlēor_.

lere, _v._ teach, KH. 257, F. & B. 148 C, Ass. 896 Add. OE. _lǣran_.

lese, leose, forlese, _v._ lose; _infin._ leose C. forlese L, forleose
H, KH. 707; _pp._ forloren, KH. 511 C. OE. _forle͞osan_.

leste, luste, _v._ listen, KH. 355, 505, 1355 C. OE. _hlystan_.

leste, luste, _v._ desire, hanker, lust, KH. 426, 433, 918, 1298. OE.

lesing, lesyng, _sb._ falsehood, F. & B. 84 T, 233 T, 585 C. OE.

lete, late, _v._ let, permit, leave, lose, KH. 1124 C, 1330 L; belete,
leave behind, F. & B. 201 T, 1593; forlete, desert, KH. 232, F. & B. 201
Cott. OE. _lǣtan_.

let, lette, _v._ hinder, retard, impede, KH. 100, F. & B. 333 T, 25 C.
OE. _lettan_.

yliche, iliche, _sb._ like, equal, KH. 20, 305, 331, etc. OE. _gelīca_.

licte, lyhte, _v._ alight, KH. 51 etc; 3 _sing. pret._ aliȝte, KH. 51 C.
OE. _lihtan_.

linne, lynne, blynne, _v._ cease, KH. 329, 372, 1068. OE. _linnan_.

list, _sb._ art, KH. 251, 1577. OE. _list_.

lite, lyte, _adj._, _adv._ little, KH. 1004, 678 L, 1211 C. ON. _lītt_.

liþe, lyþe, _v._ listen, KH. 2, 354, 372 H, 436 L. ON. _hlȳða_.

lodlike, _adj._ loathsome, hateful, KH. 1415 L.

lofte, _sb._ loft, upstairs, women’s apartments, KH. 974 C. OE. _loft_.
ON. _lopt_. The peculiar turn of meaning is Scandinavian.

loke, loky, _v._ watch, guard, KH. 800, 1180, 1181 L H, 1419 L H, Ass.
47 C. OE. _lōcian_.

loking, lokyng, _sb._ care, watch, KH. 360.

ilome, _adv._ frequently, F. & B. 96 Cott. OE. _gelōme_.

londiss, _adj._ native, KH. 671. Cf. vnlondisshe, KH. 672 H. OE.

longest, 3 _sing. pres._ belongest, KH. 1406 C. OE. _longian_.

lore, _sb._ teaching, bidding, KH. 472. OE. _lār_.

loþe, _adj._ hateful, KH. 1140, 1283. OE. _lāð_.

Lumbardy, F. & B. 179 T. French version has (En)Lombardie 49.

lure, _v._ (1) lour, look sullen (?), (2) lie in wait, set trap (?), KH.
286, 1312.

luste, _impers._ be pleasing, F. & B. 378 C.

lut, _sb._ little, KH. 658 H. OE. _lȳt_.

luþere, _adj._ evil, bad; _nom. plur._, KH. 530 C. OE. _lȳðer_. Cf. _of
þan luþer folke_ (= accursed), Lay. 29576 B.

lyst, _sb._ desire, pleasure, Ass. 2 Add. OE. _lyst_.

maine, meyne, meigne, _sb._ household, Ass. 110 C, 417, 475, 569, 573
Add.; F. & B. 782 C, 1059 T. OF. _maisnee_.

maister, _sb._ leader, KH. 659; maister-king, KH. 659 L, 680. OF.

make, _sb._ wife, spouse, KH. 1523, F. & B. 78 Cott., 303 T. OE.

make, _v._ pretend to be, F. & B. 76 T.

male, _sb._ bag, pouch, F. & B. 689 T. OF. _male_.

manrede, _sb._ homage, F. & B. 395 C. OE. _manrǣden_.

Marie, Marye, _gen._ Maries, Ass. 29 C, 31 Add., 239 C, 241 Add., 253 C,
498 H, 500 H, 546 C, etc.; seynt Marye, F. & B. 248 T; seynte-marie, F.
& B. 49 V.

may, _sb._ may, maid, KH. 329, 979 H, 1019 H, 1516 H; F. & B. 201 T,
393 T, 46, 102 C., etc.; Ass. 4 C, etc. OE. _mǣg_.

me, _indef. pron._ one, KH. 1008 C H, 1126 C; F. & B. 671, 672, 699 C.,
etc. OE. _man(n)_.

mede, _sb._ mead, meadow, F. & B. 434 C. OE. _mǣd_.

mede, _sb._ reward, KH. 288 L, 500, 1498 L, Ass. 638 Add. OE. _mēd_.

meene, _v._ mourn, lament, 1 _sing. pres._ F. & B. 273 T. OE.

meigne, meyne, _see_ maine.

meniuer, _sb._ a kind of fur, F. & B. 110 C. Cf. Hausknecht’s Note. Lat.
_minutus varius_.

menske, _sb._ honour, F. & B. 56 T. OE. _menniscu_, humanity; Icel.
_menska_, honour.

mesauenture, _sb._ ill luck, KH. 344 C L. OF. _aventure_.

mest, _superl. adj._ most, KH. 26.

mester, mystere, _sb._ (1) office, trade, (2) need, necessity, KH. 243,
581. OF. _mestier_.

mete, _v._ meet, encounter, 3 _plur. pret._ metten. KH. 169. OE.

ymete, _adj._ fit, reasonable, KH. 1401 L. OE. _gemǣte_.

mete, _v._ dream, KH. 1522. OE. _mǣtan_.

meting, metyng, _sb._ dream, KH. 699. OE. _mǣtan_.

mid, _prep._ with, KH. 22 L, 25 L, etc. OE. _mid_.

middelerd, _sb._ earth, world, F. & B. 272 C. OE. _middangeard_.

misliken, _v._ misplease, KH. 455. OE. _mislīcian_.

mod, _sb._ mood, mind, KH. 297, 1579 C H. OE. _mōd_.

modi, mody, _adj._ full of passion, angry, KH. 748. OE. _mōdiȝ_.

Modi, Mody, KH. 1023, 1094, 1121 L, 1331 L, 1626.

molde, _sb._ earth, KH. 335, F. & B. 343 T. OE. _molde_.

mone, ymone, _sb._ companion, KH. 560, 840 C L. OE. _gemāna_.

mone, _sb._ companionship, communion, participation, KH. 890 L, 1149 C.

mote, moste, _v._ may, might, was to; mote, KH. 197, 218 C, 829; moste,
KH. 67 C, 186; munthe (?), KH. 1508 L.

Mountargis, F. & B. 66 T. French version, Montoire, 174, 316, etc.

murne, _adj._ troubled, KH. 748. OE. _(un)murne_.

Murry, Murri, morye, moye, moy, Mory, mury, KH. 4, 33, 73, 921, 1431.
Cf. Maurius (Maurus), son of Aruiragus, Lay. 9895 ff. He defeats the
invading Picts, and sets up a stone with runes to commemorate the

nabod (ne + abod).

neb, nebbe, _sb._ face, F. & B. 615 C, 890 T. OE. _nebb_.

nime, _v._ take; _infin._ nyme, Ass. 121 C; 2 _sing. subjunct._ or
_imper._ nym, KH. 1205 L; 1 _sing. pres._ nime, KH. 713 L; 3 _sing.
pret._ nam, nom, KH. 619, 1269, Ass. 33 C, 35, 59 Add., etc.; 3 _pl.
pret._ neme C, nomen L H, KH. 64; _pp._ ynome, Ass. 6 C; vndernome, F. &
B. 128 T, 189 T, 219 T, 227 T, 920 T, etc.; nam = went, Ass. 53 C. Cf.
vndernom. OE. _niman_.

niþing, _sb._ wretch, villain, evil man, KH. 210. OE. _nīðing_.

noȝ, enough, KH. 196; inoȝe C, hy nowe L, ynowe H. OE. _genōh_.

nonskyns, _adj._ of no kind, F. & B. 226 T. OE. _nānes cynnes_.

noþing, _adv._ not at all, KH. 290 C.

Nubil, F. & B. 665 C. French, (de) Nubie, 2492.

O, _prep._ until, KH. 134 H. OE. _oð_.

of drede, _see_ dreden.

of reche, _see_ reche.

on, _prep._ on, in; on mi lokyng, KH. 360 C; on kneuling, KH. 503 L.

onde, _sb._ envy, Ass. 424 C. OE. _anda_, _onda_.

one, _sb._ alone, solitary; hou one KH. 364 L, is one 559 L, go one
559 C, al one C, alon L, ys one H 650. Cf. Bradley-Stratmann.

oppe, _prep._ upon, KH. 466, 480 L.

or, _see_ er, or oþer.

ord, _sb._ point, beginning; _dat. sing._ orde C H, horde L, KH. 662;
_dat. sing._ ord H, hord L, KH. 1475; _accus. sing._, F. & B. 48 C. OE.

ore, _sb._ favour, grace, KH. 695, 1629 C, F. & B. 173 C. OE. _ār_.

orfreys, _sb._ orfrey, gold fringe, F. & B. 371 T. OE. _orfreis_.

Orgas, F. & B. 101 T. French, _Li dus Joras_, 357.

oþer, _num._ second, KH. 201. OE. _ōðer_.

oþer, _conj._ or, KH. 44. OE. _oððe_.

oþer, _pr._ other, KH. 28. OE. _ōðer_.

otter (buterfliȝe C), _sb._ butterfly (?), F. & B. 772 T.

oueral, _adv._ everywhere, KH. 262 H. Cf. Germ. _überall_.

out londisse, _adj._ foreign, KH. 635 L.

ower, _gen. plur._ your, F. & B. 534 C. OE. _e͞ower_.

paene, _adj._ pagan, KH. 159 C.

payn, peynim, payen, pain, paynim, paen, etc., _sb._ paien, pagan,
heathen, KH. 45, 63, 82, 87, 193, 935, 948, 950, 1412, etc.

paynime, _sb._ heathen land, KH. 859.

page, _sb._ boy, servant, KH. 1012 L H, 1379 H. OF. _page_.

pal, palle, _sb._ costly sort of cloth, F. & B. 822 T, and Cott.; Ass.
631 H, 795 Add. OE. _pæll_, OF. _pal_.

parage, _sb._ high birth, F. & B. 256, 269 C., etc. OF. _parage_.

paramur, _adv._ passionately, F. & B. 486 C., etc.

Paryse, _nom. sing._, F. & B. 168 T. Fr. _Paris_, 449, etc.

pel, pelle, _sb._ skin, KH. 421, 1582 L. OF. _pel_.

pelte, pulte, pylte, 3 _sing. pret._ pushed, KH. 1529.

pilegrim C, pylegrim L, pelryne H, KH. 1236 pilgrim. OF. _pelegrin_.

Petir, Petyr, Peter, Petre, Ass. 317, 327, 580, 581, 638, 639, 673 Add.,
464, 470, 529 C, 499, 563 H, etc.

ipight, _pp._ placed, F. & B. 117, 183 C.

pine, pyne, _v._ pain; _infin._ KH. 726 C; 1 _sing. pres._, KH. 1280 L;
_pp._ pined C, pyned H, KH. 1280. OE. _pīnian_.

pyne, _sb._ pain, torture, KH. 277 C H, Ass. 426, 458 Add. OE. _pīn_.

plawe, _sb._ sport, fight, KH. 1170 H. Cf. Bradley-Stratmann, _plaȝe_.

pleie, pleye, _v._ play, KH. 25, 200, 363. OE. _plegian_.

pleing C, pleyhunge L, pleyȝyng H, KH. 34, playing.

plener, plenere, _adj._ full, F. & B. 179 C., 188 Cott. OF. _plenier_.

pliȝte, _v._ plight; _infin._ pliȝte, plyȝte, plyhte, KH. 321; 2 _sing.
imper._ plist, plyct, plyht, KH. 440; 1 _sing. pres. indic._ pliȝte C,
plicte L, plyhte H, KH. 716; _pp._ ipliȝt, F. & B. 141 C. OE. _plihtan_.

pomel, _sb._ pommel, F. & B. 209, 213 Cott. OF. _pomel_.

porter, _sb._ doorkeeper, F. & B. 329 C. OF. _portier_.

posse, _v._ push; _infin._ KH. 1087 C; 3 _sing. pret._ puste, KH.
1153 H; pugde 1156 L. OF. _pousser_.

poure, pure, _infin._ pore, look, KH. 1172 C L.

prede, _sb._ pride, KH. 1497 L. OE. _prȳta_.

prime, _sb._ first quarter of the day, name of one of the offices of the
Church, after ‘lauds,’ KH. 1040; _at prime tide_, KH. 905.

pris, prys, _sb._ value, worth, KH. 968 C, F. & B. 310, 350, 750 C.,
1028 T. OF. _pris_.

pruesse, _sb._ brave deed, prowess, KH. 588. OF. _proesse_.

pugde, _see_ posse.

quantyse, _sb._ cleverness, F. & B. 543 T.

qued, _sb._ bad, Ass. 174 C, 197, 465 Add. etc. OE. _cwēd_.

quelle, _v._ kill; _infin._ KH. 65, 656 C; 2 _sing. imper._ quel, F. &
B. 1008 T, aquel 725 C.; 3 _sing. pret._ quelde, F. & B. 904 T, aquelde
KH. 929 L H, aquelde H, quelde C, KH. 1064. OE. _cwellan_.

queme, _v._ please, KH. 517. OE. _cwēman_.

queme, _adj._ pleasing, KH. 501 L. OE. _(ge)cwēme_.

queþe, _v._ say; 3 _sing. pret._ quaþe, quoþ H, KH. 137, etc. OE.

quic, quike, _adj._ alive, KH. 92 C, 1468 C, 1478 H. OE. _cwic_.

quite, aquite, _pp._ through with, quit of, F. & B. 171, 724 C., 180
Cott. OF. _aquiter_.

qware, where, KH. 735 L.

rake, _infin._ hasten, KH. 1126 L, 1158 L. OE. _rācian_.

rape, _sb._ haste, KH. 586 C, 1532 C.

rathe, _adv._ soon, quickly, KH. 1407 L, F. & B. 24 T, 193 T, etc. OE.

recche, rekke, _v._ reck, care for; 3 _sing. pres._ recche C, reche L,
yrecche H, KH. 370; 3 _sing. subj._ arecche, KH. 710 H; 1 _sing. pres._
rekke, F. & B. 96 T. OE. _reccan_.

reche, areche, ofreche, þorhreche, _v._ reach; _infin._ areche, KH.
1308 C; of reche, gain, KH. 1375 C L; þorhreche, traverse, KH. 1375 H;
_pp._ araȝt, F. & B. 687 C, rauȝt F. & B. 974 T. OE. _rǣcan_.

rede, reed, reede, _sb._ counsel, opinion, F. & B. 45 T, 50 T, 53 T,
314 T, Ass. 294, 298 Add., etc. OE. _rǣd_.

rede, _v._ (1) read, (2) counsel, advise; _infin._ KH. 308, 511 L, 881,
966 L, F. & B. 21 T, 148, 151 C.; 1 _sing. pres._ KH. 966 C, F. & B.
75 T; _pp._ rad, Ass. 891 Add., irad F. & B. 578 C., yredde 858 T. OE.

rein, _sb._ rain, KH. 11.

reme, _sb._ coast (?), OE. _rima_; or realm (?), OF. _reaume_, KH.
1625 H (reaume 1623 L).

rende, _see_ erne.

rende, _v._ rend, tear; 3 _sing. pret._ rente C H, to rente L, KH. 775.

rente, _sb._ pay, wages, KH. 984 C L. OF. _rente_.

reue, _sb._ reeve, guard, KH. 1418. OE. _(ge)rēfa_.

reue, reyue, _infin._ rob, plunder, F. & B. 209 C., Ass. 168 Add. OE.

rewe, _infin._ rue, repent, KH. 398. OE. _hrēowan_.

rewlich, _adj._ sad, KH. 1129. OE. _hre͞owlīc_.

reyne, ryne, birine, _infin._ rain, KH. 11.

Reynes C, reny L, Raynis H, KH. 1023.

Reynild, Hermenyl, hermenylde, ermenyld, KH. 973, 1636. ON. _Ragnhilda_,
OE. Eormenhild, daughter of Eorcenbriht, king of Kent.

riche, _sb._ kingdom, KH. 20. OE. _rīce_.

rigge, _sb._ back, KH. 1138. OE. _hrycg_.

rime, ryme, _sb._ rime, speech, KH. 860, 1461.

rive, _adj._ abundant, F. & B. 73 Cott. OE. _rīf_.

riuen, ariuen, _v._ arrive, land; _infin._ ariue C, aryue H, KH. 193;
_pp._ riued, KH. 162 L, 193 L, ariued, aryued, KH. 40, 162.

riȝte, _adv._ direct, at once, KH. 1428 C.

roche, _sb._ rock, KH. 79.

rode, _sb._ cross, rood, KH. 346, Ass. 12, 19 C, 44 C, 46 Add., 270 C,
etc. OE. _rōd_.

roþer, _sb._ rudder, KH. 202. OE. _rōðer_.

roune, rowne, _sb._ counsel, KH. 1378. OE. _rūn_.

runde, rounde, 3 _sing. pret._ whispered, F. & B. 716 C., 999 T. OE.

Rymenhild, rimenild, rymenyld, reymnyld, rymenild, reymild, reymyld,
Rymyld, rimenyld, etc., KH. 264, 293, 393, 472, 600, 652, 691, 738, 741,
1510, etc. Rimhild, OE. _nomen mulieris_.

ryue, _sb._ shore, KH. 142.

sake, _v._ contend, fight; 3 _pl. pret._ asoke C, forsoken L H, KH. 69,
gave up. OE. _sacan_.

sale, _sb._ hall, KH. 1187 C H. OE. _sal_.

salyley, scribal error (?), KH. 199 L.

Sarazin, sarazyn, KH. 42, 636, 645, 671, 1415, 1477 H, 1479.

scene, schene, _adj._ beautiful, KH. 97 L, 178 L, F. & B. 263 C. OE.

schauntillun, _sb._ model, F. & B. 325 C.

schenche, _v._ give, serve, dispense; _infin._ schenche, shenche, KH.
1186; 2 _sing. subjunct._ or _imper._ shenh, KH. 1199 H. OE. _scencan_.

schende, _v._ (1) scold, (2) injure; _infin._ KH. 747 L, 724; 3 _sing.
pret._ schente, schende, shende, KH. 340. OE. _scendan_.

schete, _v._ shoot, KH. 1011. OE. _sce͞otan_.

schillen, _v._ sound; 3 _sing. pres._ shilleþ, KH. 224 L. OE. _scillan_.

schonde, _sb._ harm, disgrace, KH. 746, 760 C, F. & B. 942 T. OE.
_scand_, _sceand_.

schrede, _v._ clothe; 3 _sing. pret._ schredde L, sredde H, KH. 625,
schredde C L, shredde H, KH. 896; 3 _pl. pret._ schrudde C, schurde L,
KH. 1582. OE. _scrȳdan_.

schrewe, _sb._ shrew, evil person, KH. 60. OE. _scre͞awa_, barn mouse.

schulle, _adv._ shrill, sonorous, KH. 221 C. OE. _scylle_, _scelle_.

sclauyne, _sb._ pilgrim’s cloak, KH. 1134, 1137, 1310. OF. _esclavine_.

scrippe, _sb._ scrip, sack, KH. 1141. ON. _skreppa_.

scur, _sb._ shower, F. & B. 73 Cott. OE. _scūr_.

sekerly, _see_ sikirli.

senpere, _sb._ bridge keeper (?), F. & B. 500 T, 513 T.

sere, _sb._ apparel (?), contrivance (?), Ass. 704 Add. OE. _searo_.

seriauns, _sb._ sergeant, man at arms, F. & B. 218 C. OF. _sergant_,

serie, _infin._ dispense, KH. 1489 C. OE. _scerwen_, ‘a scattering.’

seyne, _sb._ snare, fishing net, KH. 726 L. OE. _segne_, OF. _seine_.

shrelle, _infin._ cry, F. & B. 756 T.

sib, sibbe, _sb._ kinsman, kindred, KH. 68, Ass. 181 C, 185 Add., 585 H.
OE. _sibb_.

side, syde, _sb._ (1) side, (2) shore, KH. 35, 145. OE. _sīde_.

sike, syke, syken, _v._ sigh, KH. 456; 3 _sing. pres._ sykes, F. & B.
113 T; 3 _sing. pret._ syȝt, syȝte, F. & B. 256, 270 T, 417, 431 C. OE.

sikirli, sekerly, _adv._ certainly, Ass. 390 Add., F. & B. 92 T. OE.

siþe, syþe, _sb._ time, KH. 374 C, 1446, F. & B. 196 T. OE. _sīð_.

sithen, _conj._ since, Ass. 283, 422 Add. OE. _siððan_.

siþþe, sitthe, sithen, _adv._ afterwards, KH. 1185 C, 1238, Ass. 542
Add., 434 C. OE. _siððan_.

skeete, soon, quickly, F. & B. 1005 T. OE. _scēot_, ON. _ski͞otr_.

skille, skyle, _sb._ right, reason, Ass. 312 H, 352 Add. Icel. _skil_.

slitte, _sb._ opening in garment, pocket, F. & B. 348 C.

slon, _v._ slay; _infin._ slen C, slon L, slo H, KH. 91, 47; 3 _pl.
pret._ sloȝen C, slowe L, slowen H, KH. 195; _pp._ aslaȝe C, yslawe L H,
KH. 94. OE. _slēan_.

sloo, _sb._ slough, Ass. 507 H. OE. _slōh_.

smerte, _v._ pain, KH. 1602. OE. _smeortan_.

snelle, _adj._ quick, KH. 1581 C. OE. _snell_.

so, _conj._ as, KH. 14, 15, etc.

soler, _sb._ upper room, summer room, F. & B. 173. OF. _solier_, Lat.

sond, sonde, _sb._ (1) message, (2) dish at table, Ass. 634 H, 798 Add.,
F. & B. 1072 T.

sonde, _sb._ messenger, KH. 281, 287, (ysonde 287 L), 992 H, 1005 C H,
etc., F. & B. 796 C., Ass. 106 C, 682 Add. OE. _sand_, _sond_.

sore, _sb._ pain, KH. 75 L H. OE. _sār_.

sore, _adv._ much, very, KH. 73, 362. OE. _sāre_.

soth, soþ, soþe, _adj._ true, F. & B. 321 T, etc. OE. _sōð_.

soune, _sb._ sound, KH. 224 H. Fr. _son_.

soune, _adv._ clearly, KH. 224 L.

Spaine, Spayne, Spaygne, Speine, F. & B. 413, 769 C., 1046 T.

spede, _sb._ speed, good luck, KH. 491. OE. _spēd_.

spede, _infin._ speed, have good fortune, KH. 852 C H, F. & B. 1026 T.
OE. _speke_, _bispac_, _spēdan_.

spell, spelle, _sb._ tale, KH. 1015 H, 1106. OE. _spell_.

spille, spylle, _v._ perish, kill, KH. 208, 720 L, F. & B. 1007 T; _pp._
ispild, killed, Ass. 19 C. OE. _spillan_.

squire, _sb._ square, F. & B. 325 C. OF. _esqvarre_.

stage, _sb._ upper floor of a house, F. & B. 218, 270 C. OF. _estage_.

stede, _sb._ horse, steed, KH. 51. OE. _stēda_.

stede, _sb._ place, KH. 273, Ass. 730, 866 Add. OE. _stede_.

steke, _v._ pierce; 2 _sing. pres._ stikkest, F. & B. 98 Cott.

stere, _sb._ rudder, ship, KH. 107 C, 1471 C. OE. _stēor_.

stere, _v._ lead, command, KH. 464 C, L. OE. _ste͞oran_.

sterne, _adj._ stern, insolent, KH. 935 C, 784 H. OE. _sterne_,

sterte, _v._ start, leap, F. & B. 457 C. ON. _sterta_.

sterue, _v._ die, KH. 829, 980 C, 984 H, 1253 C. OE. _steorfan_.

steuene, _sb._ voice, KH. 1453 L, F. & B. 54 C., Ass. 73, 239 C, 79, 245
Add., etc. OE. _stefn_.

steyȝ, 3 _sing. pret._ climbed, F. & B. 892 C. OE. _stīgan_.

stonde, _infin._ spring up, rise, KH. 809 L, H. Cf. Lay. 20509.

stonge, 3 _pl. pret._ pierced, KH. 1475 L H, Ass. 447 Add. OE.

store, _adj._, _nom. plur._ great, strong, F. & B. 19 C. OE. _stor_.

stounde, stunde, _sb._ point of time, period of time, F. & B. 327 T,
Ass. 635, 727 Add., KH. 181 C, 351, 791, 1030, 1371. OE. _stund_.

striken, 3 _pl. pret._ struck, stripped (Stratmann)?, striken L H,
strike C, KH. 1089. OE. _strīcan_.

sture, _infin._ stir, move, KH. 1541 H. OE. _styrian_.

Sture, name of a river, KH. 729, 1551.

Suddene, Sodenne, Sudenne, Suddenne, KH. 155, 189, 542, 929, 1062, 1351,
1370, 1389, 1463, 1637.

sundry, _adj._ separate, apart, Ass. 148, 364 Add. OE. _syndrig_.

sune, 2 _sing. subj. pres._ sound, KH. 223 C. OF. _soner_.

swage, _infin._ assuage, abate, F. & B. 38 T. OF. _asuager_.

swere, swire, suire, _sb._ neck, KH. 796, 1144, 1291, F. & B. 1016 T.
OE. _swira_, _sweora_.

sweting, _sb._ favourite, KH. 234 L.

sweuen, _sb._ dream, KH. 710, 723. OE. _swefen_.

sweuening, _sb._ dream, KH. 774.

swike, swyke, _infin._ deceive; biswike C L, bysuyke H, KH. 306; biswike
C, swike L, byswyke H, KH. 711. OE. _swīcan_.

swilc, swihc, such, etc., such. OE. _swylce_.

swiþe, swyþe, suþe, _adv._ (1) very, KH. 96, 98 L H, 172, 192, etc.,
Ass. 355 C, F. & B. 87, 280 C.; (2) soon, quickly, rapid, KH. 129 L H,
374 L, 435 L, 289, 845, 1042, etc., F. & B. 148, 308 C., Ass. 612,
671 H, 839 Add., etc. OE. _swīðe_.

iswoȝe, yswowe, _pp._ in a faint, KH. 458, 914.

swoȝning C, swohinge L, swowenynge H, _sb._ fainting spell, swoon, KH.

swongen, 3 _pl. pret._ suspended, (?) Ass. 443 Add. OE. _swingan_.

swymme, swemme, _infin._ move on water, KH. 203. OE. _swimman_.

take, _v._ take, give, KH. 568, 834, 1134, 1204, F. & B. 207 T, 159 C.,
Ass. 48, 682 Add., 572 H, etc.; bitak, KH. 839 C, bytoke L, bitoke H,
KH. 1179. Cf. teche, biteche. ON. _taka_.

targeþ, _v._ delay, F. & B. 226 Cott. OF. _targier_.

te, ten, _v._ draw; _infin._ te, Ass. 282 C, ten KH. 767 T, teon 767 H;
3 _sing. pret._ teȝ, F. & B. 617 C.; 2 _sing. imper._ te, KH. 327 L. OE.

teche, _v._ usually ‘teach,’ sometimes ‘give’ (cf. take); _infin._
teche, give, Ass. 46 C; 1 _sing. pres._ biteche, KH. 619 L H.

tendeþ, _v._ set on fire, burn, F. & B. 672 C. OE. _(on)tendan_.

tene, teone, _sb._ injustice, harm, KH. 367, 727; anger, F. & B. 902 T.
OE. _te͞ona_.

terme, _sb._ term, period, F. & B. 432 Cambr. OF. _terme_.

teyse, _sb._ measure of three yards, F. & B. 201, 203 Cott. OF. _toise_.

þar, _v._ need, KH. 408 L. OE. _þearf_.

þat, (1) _demonstr._ the, that, KH. 27, 28; (2) _rel._ that, KH. 2, 22;
(3) _conj._ that, KH. 33 L; (4) _comp. rel._ him, who, KH. 1064 C.

the, _infin._ prosper, thrive, F. & B. 566 T. OE. _ðēon_.

þinke, _v._ seem; _infin._ KH. 1233; 3 _sing. pres._ þinkþ, KH. 1405 C,
etc.; þincheþ, F. & B. 169 C.; of þinke, misplease, repent, _infin._,
KH. 112, 1046 C H, 1136. OE. _þyncean_.

þo, _adv._ then, KH. 52, etc. OE. _ða_.

þole, þolie, _v._ endure, suffer; _infin._, F. & B. 422, 677, 678,
737 C., Ass. 22, 215 C, 26, 217, 219 Add.; 3 _sing. pret._, F. & B.
580 C., etc. OE. _þolian_.

Thomas, F. & B. 611 C, 659, 775, 796, 807, 821 Add.

þorhreche, _see_ reche.

þral, þralle, _sb._ slave, thrall, KH. 449. OE. _þrǣl_.

þroȝe, _sb._ period of time, KH. 354, 1036. OE. _þrāge_.

þrottene, þrettene, _num._ thirteen. OE. _þrēotȳne_.

þulke (þe + ulke), the same, F. & B. 746 C., etc.

þurston, KH. 875, 1057. Seems to be Norse. A frequent name of Hus Carls.
Thurstan (Turstayn) is one of two tax collectors sent by Hardicanute to

tide, _sb._ time, KH. 1563. OE. _tīd_.

tide, bitide, _v._ happen, betide; _infin._, KH. 212 L H, 218 C; 3
_sing. pres._, tit, tyt, KH. 1442 L H; bitide, _infin._ KH. 218 L H,
575. OE. _tīdian_.

timing, tymyng, _sb._ success, KH. 1701 C H. OE. _tīmian_.

tire, tyre, _infin._ tear, F. & B. 736 C., 1017 T. OE. _teran_.

tiþing, tidinge, etc., _sb._ tiding, KH. 138, 1058, 1318.

to, (1) _prep._ to, KH. 2; (2) _adv._ too, KH. 37 L H; (3) _prefix_
apart, asunder.

to-brake, 3 _sing. pret._ broke apart, F. & B. 133 T.

to-draȝe, to drawe, _infin._ draw to pieces (cf. draw and quarter), KH.
1612; 3 _pl. pret._ KH. 195. Cf. _alle þa chirchen he to droh_, Lay.
29135 A.

toȝenes, _see_ ȝen.

to-shake, _v._ shake to pieces. Ass. 356 C.

trende, 3 _sing. pret._ roll, KH. 460 H. OE. _trendan_.

trewage, truage, _sb._ tribute, homage, KH. 1618. OF. _truage_.

trewþe, _sb._ truth, troth, KH. 321. OE. _trēowð_.

Troye, _dat. sing._, F. & B. 178 T.

Tune, _sb._ town, city, KH. 168. OE. _tūn_.

tweie, tueye, tweyne, _num._ two, twain, KH. 943 H, 955. OE. _twēgen_.

twie, twye, _adv._ twice, KH. 1570 C L. OE. _tuwa_, _twiwa_.

tytte, 3 _sing. pret._ pull tightly (Bradley-Stratmann).

vȝten, _sb._ morning, dawn, KH. 1474. OE. _ūhte_.

uncuþe, vncouþe, _adj._ unknown, KH. 781. OE. _cūð_.

vnderfonge, _see_ fonge.

vnderȝete, _v._ perceive, learn; _infin._ F. & B. 49 T; 3 _sing. pret._
vnderȝat, F. & B. 35 C., etc.; _pp._, F. & B. 292 T, and Cott. 556 C.
OE. _undergietan_.

vndern, _sb._ noon, F. & B. 511 T; ondarne, Cott. OE. _undern_.

vndernome, _pp._ journeyed, F. & B. 189, 219 T; vndernome, set out,
gone, 920 T. Cf. noome, gone, F. & B. 227 T.

vndrestode, 3 _sing. pret._ received, Ass. 564 Add.

vnmete, _adv._ violently, Ass. 354 C. OE. _unmete_.

vnmeþ, _sb._ immoderation, F. & B. 675 C. OE. _unmet_.

vnneþes, _adv._ with difficulty, F. & B. 63 T. OE. _une͞aðe_.

unorne, _adj._ old, ugly, KH. 348, 1646 C. OE. _unorne_.

vnpliȝt, _sb._ peril, Ass. 194 Add.

unspurne, _infin._ kick open, KH. 1159. OE. _spurnan_.

vnwemmed, _adj._ spotless, Ass. 537 C. OE. _wamm_.

vrne, _see_ erne.

utrage, _sb._ error for truage (?), KH. 1618 L.

verde, _see_ ferde.

verdoune, _sb._ troop, company (?), Ass. 455, 457 H.

vertu, _sb._ power, strength, F. & B. 370 T. OF. _vertu_.

vie, _sb._ life, Ass. 879, 889, 891 Add. OF. _vie_.

warysoun, _sb._ reward, F. & B. 1051 T, _see_ gersume, garisone.

wat, water, KH. 634 L.

waxe, wexe, _v._ grow, wax; _infin._, KH. 101, 268 C, 312 C; 3 _sing.
pret._ wex, KH. 268 L. OE. _weaxan_.

wed-broþer, _sb._ pledged brother, KH. 300 L. Cf. Lay. 14469 and Note
32209. Sax. Chron. 30, brother by baptism. Wace has for Layamon’s
wed-broðer, in one instance ‘cousin,’ in another ‘nephew.’ Cf. also
Plummer, Two Saxon Chronicles, p. 25, bottom. ON. _veð brōðar_.

wedde, _v._ wed, marry; _infin._, KH. 1021; 3 _sing. pret._ wedde (wax
mad?); _pp._ wedde, KH. 316 C, L. OE. _weddian_.

wede, _sb._ clothes, KH. 1132. OE. _wǣd_.

wel, _adv._, (1) well, KH. 374 etc., (2) very, KH. 74 L, 97 L, 98 C,
131, F. & B. 147 C. OE. _wēl_.

welde, wolde, _infin._ wield, rule, KH. 324, 452 L, 972 L, F. & B.
207 T. OE. _wealdan_.

wem, _sb._ spot, stain, Ass. 647 Add. OE. _wamm_.

wende, _v._ turn, wend, go; _infin._, KH. 971 C L, F. & B. 60 C.; 2
_sing. imper._ went C H, wend L; go, KH. 343, 755 C, 759 C H; _pp._ wend
H, I wend C, turned, KH. 1170; went, turned, Ass. 346 Add.; biwente C,
bywende L, bywente H; 3 _sing. pret._ turned around, KH. 339. OE.

wendling, _sb._ vagrant (?), KH. 754 L.

wene, _v._ think, KH. 131, 313, 1204, 1207, 1213, 1365. OE. _wēnan_.

wene, weene, _sb._ (1) thought, F. & B. 651 C.; (2) doubt, F. & B.
197 T, 181 Cott. OE. _wēn_.

were, 2 _sing. pres. subj._ wear. OE. _werian_.

werie, werye, _infin._ protect, KH. 839. OE. _werian_.

werne, wurne, _v._ prevent, KH.; _infin._, KH. 938 L H, 1166 C, 1496 L,
1518 C. OE. _wyrnan_.

werþe, _v._ become, shall be; 2 _sing. pres._ wurstu C, worstu L,
worþest þou H, KH. 342; 3 _sing. pres._ wurþ C, worþ L H, KH. 490, 728.
worþe, KH. 509. OE. _weorðan_.

westernesse, westnesse, westene londe, westnesse londe, westnisse, KH.
172, 182, 228, 808, 993, 1017, 1088 C H, 1268, 1295 C H, 1615 C H.

whannes, wenne, whenne, _inter. adv._ whence, KH. 175. OE. _hwanne_,

weturly, wytterli, _adv._ surely, F. & B. 819 T, Cott. ON. _vitrliga_.

wif, _sb._ woman, Ass. 18 C. OE. _wīf_.

wiȝt, _sb._ (1) bit, KH. 535; (2) being, person, KH. 715. OE. _wiht_.

wis, ywis, _adv._ certainly, indeed; KH. 131 C, 54 L H, 131 L H, 210 C,

wise, _sb._ guise, KH. 378. OF. _guise_.

wise, wisse, _v._ conduct, direct, KH. 253 C, 443, 807 L, 1575. OE.

wit, witte, wytte, _sb._ intelligence, understanding, wit, KH. 188,
692 C, 1164. OE. _witt_.

wite, _v._ 1 know; _infin._ KH. 309, 471 L, F. & B. 170, 609, 620 C.; 1
_sing. pres._ wole, Ass. 332 Add.; 2 _pl. pres._ woot, F. & B. 940 T; 2
_pl. subj._ weete, F. & B. 1031 T; 2 _sing. subj._ wite, 755 C.: 3
_sing. pret._ wiste, C L, nust H, KH. 84. Cf. also Ass. 32 C, 240 Add.,
etc. OE. _witan_.

wite, iwite, _v._ 2 guard, keep; 2 _sing. subj._ white, KH. 1569 H;
_infin._ wite, F. & B. 555, 756 C. OE. _wītan_, _gewītan_.

wiþerling C, wiþering L, wytherlyng H, _sb._ enemy, foe, KH. 160.

wiþsegge, _v._ deny, KH. 1368. OE. _secgan_.

wode, _adj._ mad, KH. 950 L. OE. _wōd_.

woȝe, wowe, awowen, wowen, _infin._ woo, KH. 578, 847, 1517 C. OE.

woȝe, wowe, _sb._ wall, KH. 1048. OE. _wāg_.

wolde, _see_ welde.

won, _sb._ store, quantity, pomp (?); wiþ ryche won, KH. 962 H, F. & B.
386 C.

wonde, _v._ hesitate, delay, KH. 355, 788. OE. _wandian_.

wone, wonie, wune, _v._ dwell, be accustomed to; _infin._ KH. 783, 1456,
F. & B. 218 Cott., Ass. 184 C; _pp._ wonede, KH. 80 L H, iwuned, F. & B.
567 C., etc. OE. _wunian_.

wone, wune, _sb._ custom, practice, F. & B. 557 C., 90 Cott., Ass. 20
Add. OE. _(ge)wuna_.

wood, _adj._ mad, F. & B. 936, 994 T. OE. _wōd_.

worship, _sb._ dignity, honour, F. & B. 1030 T. OE. _weorðscipe_.

worstu, thou shalt be, _see_ werþe.

wreche, _sb._ vengeance, KH. 1376. OE. _wrǣc_.

wreie, wreye, _v._ (1) bewray, (2) accuse, KH. 1338, 1341 L, F. & B.
816 T. biwreie, bewray, accuse, KH. 380 C. OE. _wrēgan_.

wreke, _infin._ avenge, Ass. 726 Add., F. & B. 919 T; awreke, 640 C. OE.

wringe, _v._ wring, twist; _infin._ wringe, wrynge, KH. 1142 H; 3 _sing.
pret._ wrong, 1142 C; _pr. part._ wringinde C, wringende L, wryngynde H,
KH. 118. OE. _wringan_.

wroþe, _adj._ fearful, afraid, KH. 366, 1304. OE. _wrāð_.

wunder, wonder, _sb._ wonder, harm, KH. 1335, 1536. OE. _wundor_. Cf.
Mätzner, King Horn, 1247 Note, 1422 Note.

wyȝte, _adj._ brave, dexterous, KH. 1080 L, 1302 L.

wynne, _sb._ joy, pleasure, F. & B. 333 T. OE. _wynn_.

y-, _see_ i-.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

[_Differences between this e-text and the printed book_

Sidenotes giving leaf-and-column information were often abbreviated for
space. The forms “lf.” and “bk.” have been silently regularized to
“leaf” and “back”. The full word “leaf” has been supplied where missing,
except in references to the Trentham MS., where it was consistently
omitted in the original.

Notes were variously printed in the side margin or at the bottom of
the page, depending on space constraints. They have been treated as
footnotes or sidenotes according to their function: information about
the text or MS. (footnote), leaf- or column numbering (sidenote),
narrative summary (sidenote). Where more than one MS was used, narrative
sidenotes are shown at the beginning of each group of lines.

The recurring words “No gap in MS.” are in the original; they are
generally followed by one or more blank lines inserted to keep the texts
parallel. The words are retained in _King Horn_ to preserve the editor’s
line numbering; in the other texts they were retained only when needed
to prevent ambiguity. The notation [[empty line]] in double brackets was
added by the transcriber.

Line numbering is as in the original. Printed numbers have been silently
regularized to the EETS-standard multiple of 4.

Each page of _King Horn_ was divided into three: the Cambridge and Laud
versions in adjoining columns, and the Harleian across the bottom, with
lines printed in pairs separated by a | divider. For this e-text, the
Harleian text has been broken into single lines to match the other two.
General sidenotes were originally printed in the Harleian section.

Except for footnote markers and Transcriber’s Notes, all brackets [ ]
are in the original.

_Other Texts_

At time of preparation, the three diagrams shown in the Preface were
available online at The Internet Archive:

  Wissmann on King Horn:
  (page n16)

  Herzog on Floris and Blancheflur in Scandinavia:
  (page n100)

  Hausknecht on Floris and Blancheflur:
  (page n131)

In the Introduction to Floris and Blancheflur, the English passages
printed alongside the French version are from Hausknecht’s edition.



The forms “H Z”, “HZ.” and “H. Z.” (for “Haupt’s Zeitschrift für
deutsches Alterthum”) each appear once.

The term “X type” (of OE. rime) appears both with and without period,
and in both bold and ordinary type.

Some references to Hempl’s test have “_-wǭ-_, _-wō-_” instead of the
expected “_-wǭ-_, _-wọ̄-_”. These are shown as printed.

In a few paragraphs, the abbreviation “O.E.” has been silently
regularized to “OE.”


The abbreviations “V.” and “Cott.” (see beginning of Glossary) refer to
the same MS., Cott. Vitell. D. III.

“MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2.” is written both with and without final period
(full stop).

When the editor is writing in his own voice, the Introduction uses “æ”
while the notes use “ae”. Middle English is always “æ” (one letter);
Latin is always “ae” (two letters).

The Laud MS. always has “c{r}ist...” instead of the more common

In the Notes, anomalous quotation marks such as ‘R. H.’ for R. H.
(without quotes) are unchanged.

_Typographical Errors_

Introduction: King Horn

  K. H. 385-6;  [K. H. 385-6:]
  “_Crist for his wundes fiue, To niȝt me þuder driue_,
    [_missing close quote_]
  made a great impression upon the people,
    [_missing close quote_]
  (umlaut of WG. _ai_)  [WG,]
  by the treatment of _æ_ above, by the double pronunciation of
    [_comma missing_]
  123 L, Horns, nom. sing.  [123 H]
    [_the note to l. 659 has the same error_]
  [_in the stemma, MS. “x” (above y and z) was missing. It has been
  supplied from Wissmann_]

Introduction: Floris and Blancheflur

  _Nordisk Tidskrift for Filologi og Pædagogik_  [Paadagogik]
  Footnote I-16 ... 1^o, 2^o, 3^o.  [2^o.]
  _Ostesse_ : _kysse_ belongs only to MSS. T and Auch.  [MSS. T.]
  [Hausknecht diagram]
    [_in the bottom row, T is printed as I_]

Introduction: Assumption

  the Sunday gospel readings with their _expositio_ and a _narratio_
  Conrad v. Heimesfurt, about 1200 (HZ. viii, pp. 150 ff.).
    [_text unchanged; correct reference is 156ff._]
  a misunderstanding of the lines 893-96 of the SE. Assumption”
    [893-960 the]
  Cambr. MS. Ff. 2. 38. as #E#  [Ff. MS.]
  we must regard as a compilation of different MSS.  [off]
  He does not distinguish carefully open _ę̨̄_ and close _ẹ̄_  [open _ē_]
  _Inne_ : _kynne_ 430 A, 478 A, 360 H, 338 D, 346 D,  [346, D]
  § 9. VERSIFICATION.  [§ 8.]
  _gode_ : _fote_ 70 Add., _þolen_ : _y-boren_ 220 Add., etc.
    [_text has “Ass.” for “Add.” both times_]

King Horn

_As noted in the body text, line-initial þ was changed to Þ on the
assumption that capitalization was editorial._

  111 Þe se ȝou schal adrenche;  [þe]
  161 Þat ihc am hol {and} fer  [þat]
  219 “++Hon child,” qwad þe king,  [_spelling unchanged_]
  274 For for folc þer was so meche.
    [_text unchanged: error for single “For” as in Hall and Wissman
  393 Aft{er} mete stille, _wit_
    [_underlining in original represents expunctuation in MS_]
  464 Þin h{er}te gyn þou to stere,  [þin]
  579 We beþ kinctes yonge,  [_text unchanged: error for “knictes”?_]
  630 {And} horn murie to singe.  [{An}d]
  [759-60, 757-758]
    [_lines transposed by editor_]
  961 in a chirche of lym {an}t ston
    [_text unchanged: apparent error for “{ant}”_]
  971 MiRe{n}gne þu schalt welde,  [_text unchanged_]
  1047 Ryme{n}hild vndude þe dure pin  [_“e” in “dure” invisible_]
  1152 Þ{a}t he come þ{e}rinne.
    [_text unchanged: error for “þ{er}inne”?_]
  1191 Hye drank of þe bere,  [þebere]
  1299 ¶ “Ryme{n}hild,” he sede, “ywende
    [_text unchanged: may be error for “y wende”_]
  1350 For riche me{n} þ{e}r ete.
    [_text unchanged: error for “þ{er}”?_]
  1417 On C{ri}st ihc wolde bileue;  [{Cr}ist]

Floris and Blancheflur

  [Footnote FB-1: first ‘mey,’ then alterd]
    [_editor’s orthography and punctuation unchanged_]
  V 75 [Sidenote: [_leaf 6, back_]]
    [_printed “leaf 6/3”_]
  T 334 Me to bydden it it were grete synne.”
    [_text unchanged: error for single “it” as in Hausknecht?_]
  T 545 “Now,” seith Dares, “þ{o}u art a Folt,”--  [art a “Folt,--]
  T 673 Þou shalt haue redy w{i}t{h} the
    [_text unchanged: error for “Þ{o}u”?_]
  T 675 Ȝif~ þou wynne ouȝt of~ his,
    [_text unchanged: error for “þ{o}u”?_]
  V 365 Wha{n}ne þu lest lest him þe cupe iseo,  [_text unchanged_]
  T 712 Rede me ryȝt, ȝif~ þ{o}u be trew.”  [_close quote missing_]
  V [= T860] Þ{a}t ȝeue þe his beniscun,
    [_text unchanged: error for “benisoun”?_]
  T 933 I fonde þ{e}ryn a naked man.
    [_text unchanged: error for “þ{er}yn”?_]
  T 963 For, þy deeþ þ{o}u hast for me.”  [_single for double quote_]
  C 764 Bute hit he{m} beo forȝiue also.”  [_close quote missing_]
  T 1044 [Sidenote: [111 _a_]]  [110 _a_]


  C 143 ¶ Þo he hadde ydon, to heuene he steȝ;  [heueue]
  C 172 ȝef he{m} boþe wille {and} space,
    [_text unchanged: error for “Ȝef”?_]
  C 358
    [_sidenote for “leaf 80, back” missing: should be near here_]
  H 442 for thi loue, my moder dere.  [dere.”]
  A 670 Ih{es}u crist, godes sons,
    [_text unchanged: error for “sone” as in Hackauf?_]
  A 679 And p{r}echen al of godes sone,
    [_text unchanged: error for “p{re}chen”?_]

In the Notes section, missing commas in note references have been
silently supplied.

Notes: King Horn

  15. _whit so þe flur_. Cf. ‘Rich. C. de L.’:  [_close quote missing_]
  17, 18. _bold_ : _old_. ... _He was a fair child and a bold_.  [a{n}d]
    [_in this section, “Faire child he was ...” is Beues l. 52;
    “Be þat he was ...” is Reinbroun st. 4 l. 4._]
  123. ... Cf. _Horns_ 1560 H  [_body text has “horn” alone_]
  128. ... With henelow and rumbelooo.  [_text unchanged_]
  176. _beoþ icumene_.  [_body text has “icume”_]
  175 ff. Compare ...  [175. ff.]
  180-2. _Ne sauȝ ihc ..._ Cf. 180-2 Note.  [_printed as shown_]
  247 ff. ... Brennes wes swiðe hende [v] his hap wes þe betere.
    [247. ff.]
    [_the symbol shown as [v] is a punctuation mark resembling
    an inverted caret_]
  659, H. ... Cf. _enimis_ 1024 H, Horns 123 L.
    [_text has “123 H” as in Preface_]
  684. _huntinge_. Cf. ‘Erl of Tolous’ 937  [Erl.]
  831. ... also ‘Beowulf’ 246-7  [_close quote missing_]
  921-2. _King Mory_.  [991-2]
  1121. _Myd strencþe_. Cf. ‘Squire of L. D.’ 443 (Wissmann).
  1144. _bicolmede_. Cf. ‘Lay.’ 17700-1,  [97700-1]
  1275. _custe_.... Cf. also 425 Note.  [426 Note]
  1410. _hym agros_. Cf. 925 Note.  [924 Note]
  1536. _wunder_ = harm, evil. Cf. Mätzner, 1247 Note, 1422 Note.
    [_printed after note to l. 1574_]
  1537. _wundes fiue_.  [1536.]

Notes: Floris and Blancheflur

  227, T.
  513, C.
  589, C.
    [_MS. references missing in all_]
  692, 697, C. _him_.  [677]

Notes: Assumption

  19-22. Add. Not in H or D, or F.  [Ass.]
  97-8, C. ... also H (89-90):  [89-10]
  121-2, Add. F, D, and H have ...  [Ass.]
  116, C. ... in agreement with Add.  [Ass.]
  277-80, H.  [C.]
  303 ff., H. From this point F and D follow Add. (309-340).  [ff,]
    [_text ends with colon: see next item_]
  320, Add. Here D (299-300) has two lines not in Add. or F:
    [_following pair of lines printed before note_]
  347 ff., Add.  [347 ff., F.]
  565-6, H. _by-leue_, _y-yeue_. F (621-2):  [by-leue-]
  607-8, H. ... D (499-500) has the same as F transposed, _beme_ :
    _aȝen_.  [_final . missing_]
  61-2, C.
  373-4, H.
  587-94, H.
  639-642, H.
    [_MS. references missing in all_]


  arson, _sb._ saddle bow; _n. s._, F. & B. 369 T. OF. _arçon_.  [OE.]
  belamy, _sb._ good friend, F. & B. 633 C. OF. _bel ami_
    [_final . missing_]
  belde, _see_ bolde  [_final . missing_]
  Blancheflour, Blauncheflur, etc. ... C. Fr. Blanceflors, Blanceflor.
    [_printed in roman (non-italic) type_]
  dyȝcte, _infin._ arrange, KH. 904 L  [404 L]
  follyche, KH. 98 L. (?). OE. _fūllīce_.
    [_text unchanged: apparent error for “fullīce” (“fūl” with long ū
    is “foul”)]
  gabbest, 2 _sing. pres._ (1) ridicule, (2) deceive, (3) chatter.
    [3 chatter]
  ginne, gynne, _sb._? ... F. & B. 131, 195, 206, 258 C., etc.;
  F. & B. 1032, 1048 T.
    [F. & B. 131, 158, 169, ... Ass. 1032]
  ginnur, _sb._ engineer, workman, F. & B. 324 C.  [329]
  grom, _sb._ boy; _nom. sing._ grom, KH. 1035 L H;   [1035 L H:]
  halke, ... OE. _healoc_  [_final . missing_]
  hende, _adj._ ... OE. _(ȝe)hende_.  [_(ȝe) hende_]
  heren, _v._ hire; 3 _sing. pret._ hurede C, herde L, herde L H,
  KH. 806. OE. _hȳrian_.  [_text unchanged_]
  I--, I lome, etc., _see_ lome, etc.  [lome, etc,]
  Iewes, Iewis, Iewys
    [_almost every citation in this entry is wrong:_
    “674 H” error for 564 H = 674 Add.
    “Ass. 530 C” error for H
    “Ass. 620 Add.” is an error
    “Ass. 553 C” error for H]
  leng, _compar._ longer, KH. 1183 etc. OE. _leng_.  [etc OE.]
  leste, luste, _v._ desire, hanker, lust  [hanker.]
  Lumbardy, F. & B. 179 T. French version has (En)Lombardie 49.
    [_text unchanged_]
  maister, _sb._ leader, KH. 659; maister-king, KH. 659 L
    [_body text has “maister king” as two words_]
  sikirli, sekerly, _adv._ certainly  [certainty]
  sonde, _sb._ ... Ass. 106 C  [Ass 106 C]
  spede, _infin._ speed, have good fortune, KH. 852 C H, F. & B.
  1026 T. OE. _speke_, _bispac_, _spēdan_.
    [_last three words printed as shown; expected following entry
    “speke” is missing_]
  tide, bitide, _v._ happen, betide
    [_entry printed as two paragraphs with duplicate “OE.”_:
    tide, bitide, _v._ happen, betide; _infin._, KH.
      212 L H, 218 C; 3 _sing. pres._, OE.
    tit, tyt, KH. 1442 L H; bitide, _infin._
      KH. 218 L H, 575. OE. _tīdian_.]
  vndernome, _pp._ journeyed, F. & B. 189  [152]
  wite, iwite, _v._ 2 guard, keep  [_missing “2”_]
  wreke, _infin._ avenge  [wreke.]

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