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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 167, January 8, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Libraries)



{33}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 167.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 8. 1853
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Autograph of Edward of Lancaster, Son of Henry VI., by Sir
    Frederic Madden                                             33

  Robert Bloomfield, by George Daniel                           34

  Note for London Topographers, by Lambert B. Larking           34

  Sermons by Parliamentary Chaplains, by R. C. Warde            34

  A Perspective View of Twelve Postage-stamps, by Cuthbert
    Bede, B.A.                                                  35

  MINOR NOTES:--Cremona Violins--Prices of Tea--
    Coleridge a Prophet--Lord Bacon's Advice peculiarly
    applicable to the Correspondents of "N. & Q."--Etymology
    of Molasses--A Sounding Name                                36

  QUERIES:--

  Roman Sepulchral Inscriptions, by Rev. E. S. Taylor           37

  Chapel Plaster, by J. E. Jackson                              37

  MINOR QUERIES:--Martha Blount--Degree of B.C.L.--
    The Word "anywhen"--Shoreditch Cross, &c.--Winchester and
    Huntingdon--La Bruyère--Sir John Davys or Davies--Fleshier
    of Otley--Letters U, V, W--Heraldic Queries--"Drengage"
    and "Berewich"--Sidney as a Female Name--"The Brazen
    Head"--Portrait of Baron Lechmere--"Essay for a New
    Translation of the Bible," and "Letters on Prejudice"--
    David Garrick--Aldiborontophoskophornio--Quotations
    wanted--Arago on the Weather--"Les Veus du Hairon," or
    "Le Voeu du Héron"--Inscription on a Dagger-case--Hallet
    and Dr. Saxby                                               38

  REPLIES:--

  Descent of the Queen from John of Gaunt, by W. Hardy          41

  Uncertain Etymologies: "Leader"                               43

  Lines of Tipperary                                            43

  Shakspeare Emendations, by Thomas Keightley                   44

  Statues represented on Coins, by W. H. Scott                  45

  Judge Jeffreys, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault, &c.                    45

  Dutch Allegorical Pictures, by Dr. J. H. Todd                 46

  The Reprint, in 1808, of the First Folio Edition of
    Shakspeare                                                  47

  PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES:--Le Grey and the
    Collodion Process--Ready Mode of iodizing Paper--
    After-dilution of Solutions--Stereoscopic Pictures from
    one Camera--Camera for Out-door Operations                  47

  "'Twas on the Morn"                                           49

  Alleged Reduction of English Subjects to Slavery, by
    Henry H. Breen                                              49

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Royal Assent, &c.--Can
    Bishops vacate their Sees?--"Genealogies of the Mordaunt
    Family," by the Earl of Peterborough--Niágara, or
    Niagára?--Maudlin--Spiritual Persons employed in Lay
    Offices--Passage in Burke--Ensake and Cradock Arms--Sich
    House--Americanisms so called--The Folger Family--Wake
    Family--Shakspeare's "Twelfth Night"--Electrical
    Phenomena--Daubuz Family--Lord Nelson--Robes and Fees
    in the Days of Robin Hood--Wray--Irish Rhymes               50

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes of Books, &c.                                           53

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  53

  Notices to Correspondents                                     54

  Advertisements                                                54

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

AUTOGRAPH OF EDWARD OF LANCASTER, SON OF HENRY VI.

In the Museum of Antiquities of Rouen is preserved an original document,
thus designated, "Lettre d'Edouard, Prince de Galles (1471)." It is kept
under a glass case, and shown as "an undoubted autograph of the Black
Prince," according to the testimony of the gentleman who has very
obligingly placed a transcript of this interesting relic at my disposal. It
is as follows:

    "Chers et bons amis, nous avons entendu, que ung nostre homme lige
    subject, natif de nostre pays de Galles, est occupé et détenu es
    prisons de la ville de Diepe, pour la mort d'un homme d'icelle ville,
    dont pour le dict cas autres ont esté exécutez. Et pour ce que nostre
    dict subject estoit clerc, a esté et est encores en suspens, parce
    qu'il a esté requis par les officiers de nostre très cher et aimé
    cousin l'archevesque de Rouen, afin qu'il leur fut rendu, ainsi que de
    droict; pourquoy nous vous prions, que icelui nostre homme et subject
    vous veuillez bailler et delivrer aux gens et officiers de mon dict
    cousin, sans en ce faire difficulté. Et nous vous en saurons un très
    grant gré, et nous ferez ung essingulier plaisir. Car monseigneur le
    roy de France nous a autorisez faire grace en semblable cas que celui
    de mon dict subject, duquel desirons fort la delivrance. Escript à
    Rouen, le onziesme jour de Janvier.

            (Signed) EDUARD.
      (Countersigned) MARTIN."

The error of assigning this signature to Edward the Black Prince is
sufficiently obvious, and somewhat surprising, since we here have an
undoubted, and, I believe, _unique_ autograph of Edward of Lancaster,
Prince of Wales, only son of Henry VI. by Margaret of Anjou. He was born at
Westminster, October 13th, 1453, and was therefore, in January, 1471 (no
doubt the true date of the document), in the eighteenth year of his age. He
had sought refuge from the Yorkists, in France, with his mother, ever since
the year 1462, and in the preceding July or August, 1470, had been
affianced to Anne Neville, the youngest daughter of the Earl of Warwick. At
the period when this {34} letter was written at Rouen, Margaret of Anjou
was meditating the descent into England which proved so fatal to herself
and son, whose life was taken away with such barbarity on the field at
Tewksbury, in the month of May following. The letter is addressed,
apparently, to the magistrates of Rouen or Dieppe, to request the
liberation of a native of Wales (imprisoned for the crime of having slain a
man), and his delivery to the officers of the Archbishop of Rouen, on the
plea of his being a clerk. The prince adds, that he was authorised by the
King of France (Louis XI.) to grant grace in similar cases. As the
signature of this unfortunate prince is at present quite unknown in the
series of English royal autographs, it would be very desirable that an
accurate fac-simile should be made of it by some competent artist; and
perhaps the art of photography might in this instance be most
advantageously and successfully used to obtain a perfect copy of the entire
document.

F. MADDEN.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROBERT BLOOMFIELD.

Presuming that some of the many readers of "N. & Q." may feel an interest
in the author of _The Farmer's Boy_, whom I knew intimately (a
sickly-looking, retiring, and meditative man), and have often seen trimming
his bright little flower-garden fronting his neat cottage in the City
Road--a pastry-cook's shop, an apple and oyster stall, and part of the
Eagle Tavern ("To what base uses," &c.) now occupy its, to me, hallowed
site,--I send you a few extracts from his sale catalogue, an interesting
and a rare document, as a mournful record of a genius as original and
picturesque, as it was beautiful and holy. His books, prints, drawings (215
lots), and furniture (105 lots) were sold in the humble house in which he
died, at Shefford, Beds, on the 28th and 29th May, 1824. The far greater
number of his books had been presented to him by his friends, viz. the Duke
of Grafton (a very liberal contributor), Dr. Drake, James Montgomery,
Samuel Rogers, Mrs. Barbauld, Richard Cumberland, Sir James Bland Burges,
Capel Lofft, &c. His autograph manuscript of _The Farmer's Boy_, elegantly
bound, was sold for 14l.; of _Rural Tales_, boards, for 4l.; of _Wild
Flowers_, for 3l. 10s.; of _Banks of the Wye_, for 3l.; of _May-day with
the Muses_ (imperfect), for ten shillings; and _Description of the Æolian
Harp_ (he was a maker of Æolian harps), for 15s. His few well-executed
drawings by _himself_ (views of his City Road cottage and garden, &c.)
produced from 5s. to 18s. each. Among his furniture were "A handsome
inkstand, presented to him by the celebrated Dr. Jenner" (in return for his
sweet poem of "Good Tidings"), and the "celebrated oak table, which Mr.
Bloomfield may be said to have rendered immortal by the beautiful and
pathetic poem inscribed to it in his _Wild Flowers_. The first was sold for
6l. 10s., the second for 14l. I am happy in the possession of the _original
miniature_ (an admirable likeness, and finely painted) of Robert
Bloomfield, by Edridge. It is the first and most authentic portrait of him
that was engraved, and prefixed to his poems:

 "And long as Nature in her simplest guise,
  And virtuous sensibility we prize,
  Of well-earn'd fame no poet shall enjoy
  A fairer tribute than _The Farmer's Boy_."

GEORGE DANIEL.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTE FOR LONDON TOPOGRAPHERS.

I send you a note for London topographers. The charter is dateless, but,
inasmuch as Walter de Langeton was appointed to the bishopric of Coventry
and Lichfield in 1295, and Sir John le Bretun was "custos" of London 22 to
25 Edw. I., _i.e._ 1294 to 1297, we may fairly assign it to the years 1296
or 1297:--

"Omnibus Christi fidelibus ad quos presentes litere pervenerint, Johannes
de Notlee salutem in domino. Noveritis me remisisse, et omnino quietum
clamasse pro me et heredibus meis, Domino Waltero de Langeton, Coventrensi
et Lichfeldensi episcopo, heredibus, vel assignatis suis, totum jus et
clameum quod habui, vel aliquo modo habere potui, in quadam placea terre
cum pertinenciis in vico Westmonasterio sine ullo retenemento, illam
videlicet que jacet inter exitum curie et porte domini Walteri episcopi
supradicti, ex una parte, et tenementum Henrici Coci ex altera, et inter
altum stratam que ducit de Charryngg versus curiam Westmonasterii, ex parte
una et tenementum domini Walteri episcopi supradicti, ex altera; Ita quod
ego predictus Johannes, aut heredes mei, sive aliquis nomine nostro
nuncquam durante seculo in predicta placea terre cum omnibus suis
pertinenciis, aliquod jus vel clameum habere, exigere, vel vendicare
poterimus quoquo modo in perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium, sigillum meum
apposui huic scripto. His testibus, Dominis Johanne le Bretun tunc custode
civitatis Londonii; Roberto de Basingg, militibus; Johanne de Bankwelle;
Radulpho le Vynneter; Adam de Kynggesheued; Henrico Coco; Reginaldo le
Porter; Henrico du Paleys; Hugone le Mareschal, et aliis."

LAMBERT B. LARKING.

       *       *       *       *       *

SERMONS BY PARLIAMENTARY CHAPLAINS.

Perhaps there is nothing in ecclesiastical writings more ludicrously and
rabidly solemn than the sermons preached before "The Honourable House of
Commons" during the Protectorate, by that warlike race of saints who figure
so extensively in the {35} history of those times. I possess some thirty of
these, and extract from their pages the following morsels, which may be
taken as a fair sample of the general strain:

From

    "'Gemitus Columbæ,' the Mournful Note of the Dove; a Sermon preached,"
    &c.: by John Langley, Min. of West Tuperley in the Countie of
    Southampton. 1644.

    "The oxen were plowing, the asses were feeding beside them ('twas in
    the relation of one of Job's messengers). By the oxen wee are to
    vnderstand the laborious Clergie; by the asses, that were feeding
    beside them, wee may vnderstande the Laity" (!).--P. 8.

    "The worde set on by the Spirit, as Scanderbags' sworde, by the arme of
    Scanderbags, will make a deepe impression."--P. 16.

Query, what is the allusion here?

    "We came to the height, shall I saye, of our fever (or frenzie,
    rather), when _wee began to catch Dotterills_, when wee fell to
    cringing and complimenting in worship, stretching out a wing to their
    wing, a legge to their legge."--P. 18.

    "Time was when the _Dove-cote was searched, the Pistolls were cockt;
    the Bloudie-birdes were skirring about_: then the Lord withdrew the
    birds."--P. 29.

    "When your ginnes and snares _catch any of the Bloudie-birdes, dally
    not with them, blood will have blood_; contracte not their
    bloude-guiltinesse vpon your owne soules, by an vnwarranted clemencie
    and mildnesse."--P. 30.

    "(_Note._--The 'Bloudie-birdes,' _i. e._ the cavaliers.)"

From

    "A Peace Offering to God: a Sermon preached," &c., by Stephen Marshall,
    B.D. 1641.

    "Not like tavernes, and alehouses, howses of lewd and debauched
    persons, where _Zim and Jim_ dwels, dolefull creatures, fitt only to be
    agents to Satan."--P. 50.

I conclude with a rather interesting scrap, which I do not remember to have
met with elsewhere, from

    "The Ruine of the Authors and Fomentors of Ciuill Warre; a Sermon,"
    &c., by Samuel Gibson. 1645.

    "There was a good motto written ouer the gates at Yorke, at King James
    the Firste his firste entraunce into that city:

     'Suavis Victoriæ amor populi.'

    _i. e._ the sweete victorie is the love of the people."--P. 27.

R. C. WARDE.

Kidderminster.

       *       *       *       *       *

A PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TWELVE POSTAGE-STAMPS.

In the advertising sheet of "N. & Q." for December 18, 1852, its unartistic
readers have the tempting offer placed before them of being taught "the art
of drawing and copying portraits, views, steel or wood engravings, with
perfect accuracy, ease, and quickness, _in one lesson_! And when the gentle
reader of "N. & Q." has recovered from the shock of this startling
announcement, he is further instructed that, "by sending a stamped directed
envelope and twelve postage-stamps, the necessary articles will be
forwarded with the instructions." Who would not, thinks the gentle reader,
be a Raphael, a Rubens, or a Claude, when the metamorphosis may be effected
for twelve postage-stamps? And then, delighted with the thought that no
expensive residence in Italy, or laborious application through long years
of study, will be required, but that the royal road to art may be traversed
by paying the small toll of twelve postage-stamps, he forthwith gives them
to "Mr. A. B. Cleveland, 13. Victoria Street, Brighton," and in due course
of time Mr. A. B. C. forwards him "the necessary articles with the
instructions," the former of which the gentle reader certainly finds to be
"no expensive apparatus," but as simple as A, B, C. The articles consist of
a small piece of black paper, and a small piece of common tissue paper,
oiled in a manner very offensive to a susceptible nose. The instructions
are printed, and are prefaced by a paragraph which truly declares them to
be "most simple:"

    "The outlines must be sketched by the following means, and may _be
    filled up according to pleasure_. In the first place, _lay what you
    intend to copy straight before you_; then _lay over it_ the transparent
    paper, and you will see the outlines most distinctly; pencil them over
    lightly, taking care to keep the paper in the same position until you
    have finished the outlines; after which, place the paper or card you
    intend the copy to appear on under the black tracing-paper, with the
    black side on it, and on which place the outlines you have previously
    taken, remembering to keep them all straight, and then, by passing a
    piece of wire (or anything brought to a point not sufficient to
    scratch) correctly over the said outlines, you will have an exact
    impression of the original upon the card intended, _which must then be
    filled up_. I would recommend a portrait _for the first attempt_, which
    can be done in a few minutes, and you will soon see your success. _Of
    course you can ink or paint the copy according to pleasure._"

"Why, of course I can," probably exclaims the now un-gentle reader; "of
course I can, when I have the ability to do it,--a consummation which I
devoutly wish for, and which I am quite as far from as when I was
weak-minded enough to send my twelve postage-stamps to Mr. A. B. C.; and
yet that individual encloses me a card along with his nasty oiled paper and
'instructions,' which card he has the assurance to head 'scientific!' and
says, 'the exquisite and beautiful art of drawing landscapes, &c. from
nature, in true perspective, with perfect accuracy, ease, and quickness,
taught to the most inexperienced person in ONE _lesson_.' {36}

"I should like to know how I am to lay the landscape straight before me,
and put my oiled paper on the top of it, and trace its outlines in true
perspective? I should like also to know, since Mr. A. B. C. recommends a
portrait for the first attempt, how I am to lay the transparent paper over
my wife's face, without her nose making a hole in the middle of it? It is
all very well for Mr. A. B. C. to say that he 'continues to receive very
satisfactory testimonials respecting the RESULT of his instructions, which
are remarkable for simplicity (I allow that), and invaluable for
correctness' (I deny that). But, although he prints 'result' in capital
letters, all the testimonial that I can give him will be to testify to the
(on his part) satisfactory result attending his 'art of drawing' twelve
postage-stamps out of my pocket."

Thus, can I imagine, would the gentle reader soliloquise, on finding he had
received two worthless bits of paper in return for his investment of
postage-stamps. My thoughts were somewhat the same; for I, alas! sent
"twelve postage-stamps," which are now lost to view in the dim perspective,
and I shall only be too happy to sell Mr. A. B. C. his instructions, &c. at
half-price. In the mean time, however, I forward them for Mr. Editor's
inspection.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Cremona Violins._--As many of your readers are no doubt curious about the
prices given, in former times, for musical instruments, I transcribe an
order of the time of Charles II. for the purchase of two Cremona violins.

"[_Audit Office Enrolments_, vi. 359.]

"These are to pray and require you to pay, or cause to be paid, to John
Bannester, one of his Ma^{ties} Musicians in Ordinary, the some of fourty
pounds for two Cremona Violins by him bought and delivered for his Ma^{ts}
Service, as may appeare by the Bill annexed, and also tenn pounds for
stringes for two yeares ending June 24, 1662. And this shall be your
warrant. Given under my hand, this 24th day of October, 1662, in the
fourteenth year of his Majesty's reign.

             "E. MANCHESTER.

 "To S^r Edward Griffin, Kn^t,
  Treasurer of his Ma^{ties} Chamber."

PETER CUNNINGHAM.

_Prices of Tea._--From Read's _Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer_,
Saturday, April 27, 1734:

 "Green Tea      9s. to 12s. per lb.
  Congou        10s. to 12s.    "
  Bohea         10s. to 12s.    "
  Pekoe         14s. to 16s.    "
  Imperial       9s. to 12s.    "
  Hyson         20s. to 25s.    "

E.

_Coleridge a Prophet._--Among the political writers of the nineteenth
century, who has shown such prophetic insight into the sad destinies of
France as Coleridge? It is the fashion with literary sciolists to ignore
the genius of this great man. Let the following extracts stand as evidences
of his profound penetration.

_Friend_, vol. i. p. 244. (1844):

    "That man has reflected little on human nature who does not perceive
    that the detestable maxims and correspondent crimes of the existing
    French despotism, have already dimmed the recollections of democratic
    phrenzy in the minds of men; by little and little have drawn off to
    other objects the electric force of the feelings which had massed and
    upholden those recollections; and that a favourable concurrence of
    occasions is alone wanting to awaken the thunder and precipitate the
    lightning from the opposite quarter of the political heaven."

Let the events of 1830 and 1848 speak for themselves as to the fulfilment
of this forecast.

_Biographia Literaria_, vol. i. p. 30. (1847), [after a most masterly
analysis of practical genius]:

    "These, in tranquil times, are formed to exhibit a perfect poem in
    palace, or temple, or landscape-garden, &c.... But alas! in times of
    tumult they are the men destined to come forth as the shaping spirit of
    ruin, to destroy the wisdom of ages in order to substitute the fancies
    of a day, and to change kings and kingdoms, as the wind shifts and
    shapes the clouds."

Let the present and the future witness the truth of this insight. We have
(in Coleridge's words) "lights of admonition and warning;" and we may live
to repent of our indifference, if they are thrown away upon us.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Lord Bacon's Advice peculiarly applicable to the Correspondents of "N. &
Q."_--Lord Bacon has written that--

    "A man would do well to carry a pencil in his pocket, and write down
    the thoughts of the moment. Those that come unsought for are generally
    the most valuable, and should be secured, because they seldom return."

W. W.

Malta.

_Etymology of Molasses._--The affinity between the orthography of this word
in Italian (melássa), Spanish (melaza), and French (mélasse), and our
pronunciation of it (m_e_lasses), would seem to suggest a common origin.
How comes it, then, that we write it with an _o_ instead of an _e_? Walker
says it is derived frown the Italian "mellazzo" (_sic_); and some French
lexicographers trace their "mélasse" from [Greek: melas], with reference to
the colour; others from [Greek: meli], in allusion to the taste. But these
Greek derivations are too recondite for our early sugar manufacturers; and
the likelihood {37} is, that they found the word nearer home, in some
circumstance which had less to do with literary refinement than with the
refining of sugar.

There is an expression in French which is identical in spelling with this
word, namely, "molasse" (softish--so to speak); and which describes the
liquidity of molasses, as distinguished from the granulous substance of
which they are the residue. As our first sugar establishment was formed in
1643, in an island (St. Christopher) one half of which was then occupied by
the French, it is possible that we may have adopted the word from them; and
this conjecture is supported by the following passage in Père Labat (vol.
iii. p. 93.), where he uses the word "molasse" in the sense of _soft_, to
describe a species of sugar that had not received, or had lost, the proper
degree of consistency.

    "Je vis leur sucre qui me parut très beau et bien gréné, surtout
    lorsqu'il est nouvellement fait; mais on m'assura qu'il devenait
    cendreux ou _molasse_, et qu'il se décuisait quand il était gardé
    quelques jours."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_A Sounding Name._--At the church of Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, is a
record of one John Chapman, whose name, it is alleged, "sounds in (or
throughout) the world," but for my own part I have never been privileged to
hear either the original blast or the echo. Perhaps some of the readers of
"N. & Q." can inform me who and what was the owner of this high-sounding
name. Was he related to Geo. Chapman, the translator of Homer? The
inscription is as follows:

    "Memoriæ defunctorum Sacrum

    [Greek: kai tuphônia]

    Siste gradum, Viator, ac leges. In spe beatæ Resurrectionis hic
    requiescunt exuviæ Johannis Chapmanni et Isabellæ uxoris, filiæ
    Gulielmi Allen de Wightford, in Comitat. War. ab antiquo Proavorum
    stemmate deduxerunt genus. Variis miseriarum agitati procellis ab
    strenue succumbentis in arrescenti juventutis æstate, piè ac peccatorum
    poenitentia expirabant animas.

          Maij 10 Die Anno Domini 1677.
      Sistite Pierides Chapmannum plangere, cujus
      Spiritus in coelis, _nomen in orbe sonat_."

J. NOAKE.

Worcester.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

ROMAN SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTIONS.

In the year 1847 I brought from the Columbaria, near the tomb of Scipio
Africanus at Rome, a small collection of sepulchral fictile vessels,
statuettes, &c., in terra cotta. Among these was a small figure, resembling
the Athenian Hermæ, consisting of a square pillar, surmounted by the bust
of a female with a peculiar head-dress and close curled coiffure. The
pillar bears the following inscription:

 "[Greek: YST]
  [Greek: RAN]
   [Greek: S]
  [Greek: ANI]
  [Greek: KÊT]
   [Greek: O.]"

--a translation of which would oblige me much.

Another, in the form of a small votive altar, bears the heads of the "Dii
Majores" and their attributes, the thunderbolt, two-pronged spear, and
trident, and the inscription--

 "DIIS PROPI
  M HERENNII
   VIVNTIS" (_i.e._ vivantis).

Of the meaning of this I am by no means certain; and I have searched
Montfaucon in vain, to discover anything similar.

A third was a figure of the Egyptian Osiris, exactly resembling in every
point (save the material) the little mummy-shaped figures in bluish-green
porcelain, which are found in such numbers in the catacombs of Ghizeh and
Abousir. As the Columbaria were probably the places of sepulture of the
freedmen, these various traces of national worship would seem to indicate
that they were still allowed to retain the deities peculiar to the
countries from which they came, through their master might be of a
different faith.

E. S. TAYLOR.

Ormesby, St. Marg., Norfolk.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAPEL PLASTER.

In North Wilts, between Corsham and Bradford, and close to the meeting of
five or six roads, there is a well-known public-house, contiguous to which
is an ancient wayside chapel bearing this peculiar name. Some account of
the place, with two views of the chapel, is given in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, February, 1835, page 143. The meaning of the word _plaster_ has
always been a puzzle to local antiquaries, and no satisfactory derivation
of it has yet been given. The first and natural notion is, that some
allusion is made to the material with which it may have been coated. But
this is improbable, the building being of good freestone, not requiring any
such external addition. Some have interpreted it to be the chapel of the
_plas-trew_, or "woody place." But this again is very unlikely; as the
place is not only as far as possible from being woody now, but can hardly
ever have been otherwise than what it is. The rock comes close to the
surface, and the general situation is on a bleak exposed hill, as
unfavourable as can be for the growth of trees. Leland, indeed, as he rode
by, took it for a hermitage, and does also say that the country beyond it
"begins to be woody." But {38} a point of meeting of five or six much
frequented roads, a few miles only from Bath and other towns, would be an
unsuitable spot for a hermit; besides which, the country _beyond_ a spot,
is not the spot itself. Others have thought it may have been built by a
person of the name of _Plaister_; one which, though uncommon, is still not
entirely extinct in the county. Of this, however, there is no evidence.

A derivation has occurred to me from noticing a slight variety in the
spelling and statement of the name, as it is given by one of the ancient
historians of Glastonbury. He calls it "the chapell of _playsters_," and
says that, like one or two houses of a similar kind, it was built for the
relief and entertainment of _pilgrims_ resorting to the great shrine at
that monastery. This indeed is the most reasonable and probable account of
it, as it lies on the direct road between Malmesbury and Glastonbury, and
the prevailing tradition has always been that such was the purpose for
which it was used. It is fair to presume that the name has some connexion
with the use.

Now, it is well known that pilgrimages were not in all respects very
painful or self-denying exercises, but that, with the devotional feeling in
which they took their origin, was combined, in course of time, a
considerable admixture of joviality and recreation. They were often, in
short, looked upon as parties for merry-making, by people of every class of
life, who would leave their business and duties, on pretence of these pious
expeditions, but really for a holiday, and, as Chaucer himself describes
it, "to _play_ a pilgrimage." ("The Shipmanne's Tale.") Many also were
pilgrims by regular profession, as at this day in Italy, for the pleasure
of an idle gad-about life at other people's expense. May not such
"play-ers" of pilgrimages have been called, in the vernacular of the times,
_play-sters_? The termination _-ster_, said to be derived from a Saxon
noun, seems in our language to signify a _habit_ or _constant employment_.
A _malt-ster_ is one whose sole business it is to make malt; a _tap-ster_,
one whose duties are confined to the tap; a _road-ster_ is a horse
exclusively used as a hack; a _game-ster_, the devotee of the gaming-table.
From these analogies it seems not unreasonable to suppose that the persons
who made a constant habit of attending these pleasant jaunts to
Glastonbury, may have been called by the now-forgotten name of
_play-sters_. If so, "the chapell of _play-sters_" becomes nothing more
than "the chapel of _pilgrims_," according to the best tradition that we
have of it. Perhaps some of your readers may have met with the word in this
sense?

J. E. JACKSON.

Leigh Delamere.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Martha Blount._--Is there any engraved portrait of this lady? and can any
of your numerous correspondents give me reasonable hope of finding
portraits of Mrs. Rackett and other connexions of Pope? I would suggest,
that when we are favoured with a new edition of the little great man's
works, each volume should contain a portrait, if procurable, of those who
catch a reflected ray of greatness from association with the poet.

A. F. WESTMACOTT.

Feltham House, Middlesex.

_Degree of B.C.L._--In Vol. vi., p. 534., an Oxford B.C.L. asked the
privileges to which a gentleman having taken this degree was entitled.
Perhaps your correspondent will inform me what is the least time of
_actual_ residence required at the university, and the kind of examination
a candidate for the honour has to be subjected to, before he becomes a
B.C.L.? also the way for a stranger to go about it, who wants to spend as
little money and time in the matter as is possible?

J. F.

Halifax.

_The Word "anywhen."_--Why should not this adverb, which exists as a
provincialism in some parts of England, be legitimatised, and made as
generally useful as _anywhere_, or _anyhow_, or _anyone_? If there be no
classical precedent for it, will not some of the many authors who
contribute to your pages take pity upon _anywhen_, and venture to introduce
him to good society, where I am sure he would be appreciated?

W. FRASER.

_Shoreditch Cross, &c._--Can any of your readers inform me where a model or
picture of the Cross which formerly stood near the church of St. Leonard,
Shoreditch, can be seen? Also, where a copy of any description can be seen
of the painted window in the said church?

Sir Henry Ellis, in his _History of the Parish_, gives us no illustration
of the above.

J. W. B.

_Winchester and Huntingdon._--I would with your permission ask, whether
Winchester and Huntingdon have at any time been more populous than they are
at present, and what may have been the largest number of inhabitants they
are supposed to have contained?

G. H.

_La Bruyère._--What is known concerning the family of Jean de la Bruyère,
author of _Les Caractères_? Did he belong to the great French house of that
name? One of the biographical dictionaries states that he was grandson of a
Lieutenant Civil, engaged in the Fronde; but M. Suard, in his "Notice"
prefixed to _Les Caractères_, says that nothing is known of the author
except his birth, death, and office. His grand-daughter, {39} Magdalen
Rachel de la Bruyère, married an officer of the name of Shrom, and died in
1780, at Morden in Surrey, where there is a handsome monument to her
memory. Being one of her descendants in the female line, I should feel much
obliged by any information respecting her father, the son of Jean de la
Bruyère; or tending to connect that writer with the family founded by
Thibault de la Bruyère, the Crusader.

URSULA.

_Sir John Davys or Davies._--I am very anxious to get any information that
can be procured about Sir John Davys or Davies, Knight Marshal of
Connaught, temp. Elizabeth. What were his arms? Any portions of his
pedigree would be _most_ desirable; also any notices of the various grants
of land given by him, particularly to members of his own family. I would
also give any reasonable price for John Davies' _Display of Heraldry of six
Counties of North Wales_, published 1716: or, if any of the readers of "N.
& Q." have the book, and would favour me with a loan of it, I would return
it carefully as soon as I had made some extracts from it.

SEIVAD.

_Fleshier of Otley._--What are the arms of Fleshier of Otley, Yorkshire?
They existed, not many years ago, in a window of a house built by one of
the above-named family, in Otley.

B. M. A.

Bingley, Yorkshire.

_Letters U, V, W._--Could any correspondent of the "N. & Q." give us any
clear idea of the manner in which we ought to judge of those letters as
they are printed from old MSS. or in old books. Is there any rule known by
which their pronunciation can be determined? For instance, how was the name
of Wales supposed to have been pronounced four hundred years ago, or the
name Walter? How could two such different sounds as _U_ and _V_ now
represent, come by the old printers both to be denoted by _V_? And is it
supposed that our present mode of pronouncing some words is taken from
their spelling in books? We see this done in foreign names every day by
persons who have no means of ascertaining the correct pronunciation. Can it
have been done extensively in the ordinary words of the language? Or can it
be possible, that the confusion between the printed _V_ and _W_ and _U_ has
produced the confusion in pronouncing such words now beginning with _W_,
which some classes of her Majesty's subjects are said to pronounce as if
they commenced with _V_? I ask for information: and to know if the question
has anywhere been discussed, in which case perhaps some one can refer me to
it.

A. F. H.

_Heraldic Query._--I should be greatly indebted to any of your
correspondents who will assist me in tracing the family to which the
following arms belong. Last century they were borne by a gentleman of the
name of Oakes: but I find no grant in the college, nor, in fact, can I
discover any British arms like them. Argent, a pale per pale or, and gules:
between two limbs of an oak fructed proper. On a chief barry of six of the
second and third; a rose between two leopards faces all of the last.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

_"Drengage" and "Berewich."_--In _Domesday_ certain tenants are described
as drenches or drengs, holding by drengage; and some distinction is made
between the drengs and another class of tenants, who are named _berewites_;
as, for instance, in Newstone,--

    "Huj' [manerium abbrev.] ali[=a] t'r[=a] xv ho[=e]s quos _Drenchs_
    vocabant pro xv [manerium abbrev.] tenet sed huj' [manerium abbrev.]
    _berewich_ erant."

I shall be glad if any information as to these tenures, and also as to the
derivation of the words "drengage" and "berewich," or berewite, both of
which may be traced, I believe, to a Danish origin.

JAMES CROSBY.

Streatham.

_Sidney as a Female Name._--In several families of our city the Christian
name of Sidney is borne by _females_, and it is derived, directly or
indirectly, from a traceable source.

The object of the present inquiry is to ascertain whether the same name,
and thus spelled, is similarly applied in any families of Great Britain? If
at all, it should be found in the north of Ireland. But your correspondent
would be pleased to learn, from any quarter, of such use of the name,
together with the tradition of the reason for its adoption.

R. D. B.

Baltimore.

"_The Brazen Head._"--Will any reader of "N. & Q." be good enough to inform
the undersigned where he can obtain, by purchase or by loan, the perusal of
any part or parts of the above-mentioned work? It was published as a serial
in 1828 or 1829.

A. F. A. W.

Swillington.

_Portrait of Baron Lechmere._--Can any of your correspondents inform me if
there is any engraved portrait in existence of the celebrated Whig, Lord
Lechmere, Baron of Evesham, who died at Camden House, London, in the year
1727, and lies buried in the church of Hanley Castle, near Upton-on-Severn,
co. Worcester?

While on the subject of portraits, some of your correspondents may be glad
to learn that an excellent catalogue of engraved portraits is now passing
through the press, by Messrs. Evans and Sons, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's
Inn Fields, of which forty-six numbers are issued.

J. B. WHITBORNE.

{40}

_"Essay for a New Translation of the Bible," and "Letters on
Prejudice."_--A friend of mine has requested me to inquire through "N. &
Q." who are the authors of the undermentioned books, in his possession?

    _An Essay for a New Translation of the Bible_, one volume 8vo.:
    "printed for R. Gosling, 1727." Dedicated to the Bishops: the
    dedication signed "H. R."--_Letters on Prejudice_, two volumes 8vo.:
    "in which the nature, causes, and consequences of prejudice in religion
    are considered, with an application to the present times:" printed for
    Cadell in the Strand; and Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1822.

W. W. T.

_David Garrick._--In the sale catalogue of Isaac Reed's books is a lot
described as "Letter of David Garrick against Mr. Stevens, with
Observations by Mr. Reed, MS. and printed." Can any of your correspondents
inform me in whose possession is this letter with Reed's observations;
whether Garrick's letter was published; and, if so, what public library
contains a copy?

G. D.

_Aldiborontophoskophornio._--Will you or some of your readers inform me in
what play, poem, or tale this hero, with so formidable a name, is to be
found?

F. R. S.

_Quotations wanted._--Will you or some of your correspondents tell _where_
this sentence occurs: "It requireth great cunning for a man to seem to know
that which he knoweth not?" Miss Edgeworth gives it as from Lord Bacon. _I_
cannot find it. Also, _where_ this very superior line: "Life is like a game
of tables, the chances are not in our power, but the playing is?" _This_ I
have seen quoted as from Jeremy Taylor, but _where_? I have looked his
works carefully through: it is so clever that it _must_ be from a superior
mind. And _where_, in Campbell, is "A world without a sun?" This, I
_believe_, is in _Gertrude of Wyoming_.

Excuse this trouble, Mr. Editor; but you are now become the general referee
in puzzles of _this_ kind.

A. B.

_Arago on the Weather._--I saw some of Arago's meteorological observations
in an English magazine some time ago, taken, I believe, from the
_Annuaire_. Can any one give me a reference to them?

ELSNO.

_"Les Veus du Hairon," or "Le Voeu du Héron."_--Is any more known of this
curious historical romance than Sainte Palaye tells us in the third volume
of his _Mémoires sur l'Ancienne Chevalerie_? He gives the original text (I
suspect not very correctly) from, he says, a MS. in the public library at
Berne. It is a poem in old French verse (something like Chaucer's English),
of about 500 lines, descriptive of a series of _vows_, by which Robert
Comte d'Artois, then an exile in England, engaged Edward III., his queen
and court, to the invasion of France:

 "Dont maint bon chevalier fu jété fort souvin;
  Mainte dame fu vesve, et maint povre orfelin;
  Et maint bon maronier accourchit son termin;
  Et mainte preude femme mise à divers destin;
  Et encore sera, si Jhesus n'i met fin."

The first lines of the poem give the place and date of the transaction,
"London, September, 1338," in King Edward's "palais marbrin." The
versification is as strange as the matter. The author has taken great pains
to collect as many words rhyming together as possible. The first twenty-six
lines rhyme to "in;" the hundred next to "is;" then fifty to "ent," and so
on: but the lines have all their rhythm, and some are smooth and
harmonious. Has any other MS. been discovered? Has it been elsewhere
printed? Has it been translated into English, or has any English author
noticed it? If these questions are answered in the negative, I would
suggest that the Camden, or some such society, would do well to reprint it,
with a translation, and Sainte Palaye's commentary, and whatever additional
information can be gathered about it; for although it evidently is a
_romance_, it contains many particulars of the court of England, and of the
manners of the time, which are extremely curious, and which must have a
good deal of truth mixed up with the chivalrous fable.

C.

_Inscriptions on a Dagger-case._--I have in my possession a small
dagger-case, very beautifully carved in box-wood, bearing the following
inscriptions on two narrow sides, and carved representations of Scripture
subjects on the other two broad sides.

              _Inscriptions._

 "DIE EEN PENINCK WINT ENDE BEHOVT DIE
  MACHT VERTEREN ALS HI WORT OWT HAD."

 "ICK DAT BEDOCHT IN MIN IONGE DAGEN SO
  DORST ICK HET IN MIN OVTHEIT NIET BEGLAGEN."

On the other sides the carvings, nine in number, four on one side, one
above another, represent the making of Eve, entitled "Scheppin;" the
Temptation, entitled "Paradis;" the Expulsion, "Engelde;" David with the
head of Goliath, "Davide." At the foot of this side the date "1599," and a
head with pointed beard, &c. beneath. On the other side are five subjects:
the uppermost, entitled "Hesterine," represents Queen Esther kneeling
before Ahasuerus. 2. "Vannatan," a kneeling figure, another stretching his
arm over him, attendants following with offerings. 3. "Solomone," the
judgment of Solomon. 4. "Susannen." 5. "Samson," the jaw-bone in his hand;
beneath "SLANG;" and at the foot of all, a dragon.

The case is handsomely mounted in silver. {41}

May I ask you or some of your readers to give me an interpretation of the
inscriptions?

G. T. H.

_Hallett and Dr. Saxby._--In the _Literary Journal_, July, 1803, p. 257.,
in an article on "The Abuses of the Press," it is stated:

    "Hallett, to vex Dr. Saxby, published some disgraceful verses, entitled
    '_An Ode to Virtue_, by Doctor Morris Saxby;' but the Doctor on the day
    after the publication obliged the bookseller to give up the author, on
    whom he inflicted severe personal chastisement, and by threats of
    action and indictment obliged both author and bookseller to make
    affidavit before the Lord Mayor that they had destroyed every copy in
    their possession, and would endeavour to recover and destroy the eight
    that were sold."

Can any of your readers throw a further light upon this summary proceeding,
as to the time, the book, or the parties?

S. R.

Rugby.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

DESCENT OF THE QUEEN FROM JOHN OF GAUNT.

(Vol. vi., p. 432.)

I have in my possession a pedigree, compiled from original sources, which
will, I believe, fully support your correspondent's opinion that the year
usually assigned for the death of Joan Beaufort's first husband (1410) is
inaccurate. Two entries on the Patent Rolls respectively of the 21st and
22d Richard II., as cited in the pedigree, prove that event to have taken
place before Lord Neville of Raby's creation as Earl of Westmoreland; and I
am inclined to think that his creation was rather a consequence of his
exalted alliance than, as the later and falsely assigned date would lead
one to infer, that his creation preceded his marriage by twelve or thirteen
years.

Robert Ferrers son and heir of Robert, first Lord Ferrers of Wemme (second
son of Robert, third Baron Ferrers of Chartley), and of Elizabeth, daughter
and heiress of William Boteler of Wemme, was born circa 1372, being eight
years old at his father's death in 1380 (_Esc._, 4 Ric. II., No. 25.). He
married Joan Beaufort, only daughter of John Duke of Lancaster by Catharine
Swynford, who became the duke's third wife, 13th January, 1396; their issue
before marriage having been made legitimate by a patent read in parliament,
and dated 9th February, 1397 (_Pat._, 20 Ric. II. p. 2. m. 6.). It might
almost be inferred from the description given to Joan, Lady Ferrers, in the
patent of legitimation, "dilectæ _nobis nobili mulieri Johannæ Beauford,
domicellæ_," that her first husband was not then living. We find, however,
that she had certainly become the wife of the Lord Neville before the 16th
of February following, and that Lord Ferrers was then dead (_Johanne qui
fuist femme de Monsieur Robert Ferrers que Dieu assoile_): _Pat._, 21 Ric.
II. p. 2. m. 22.; _Pat_., 22 Ric. II. p. 3. m. 23. The Lord Ferrers left by
her only two daughters, his coheirs, viz. Elizabeth, wife of John, sixth
Baron Greystock, and Mary, wife of Ralph Neville, a younger son of Ralph,
Lord Neville of Raby, by his first wife Margaret Stafford. The mistake in
ascribing Lord Ferrers' death to the year 1410, has probably arisen from
that being the year in which his mother died, thus recorded in the
pedigrees: "Robert Ferrers, s. & h. ob^t _vita matris_," who (_i.e._ the
mother) died 1410 (_Esc._, 12 Hen. IV., No. 21.). His widow remarried
Ralph, Lord Neville of Raby, fourth baron, who was created Earl of
Westmoreland, 29th September, 1397[1], {42} and died 1425. The Countess of
Westmoreland died 13th November, 1440.

As regards the Queen's descent from John, Duke of Lancaster, in the
strictly legitimate line, I may wish to say a word at another time. Allow
me now, with reference to the same pedigree, to append a Query to this
Reply: Can any of your learned genealogical readers direct me to the
authority which may have induced Miss A. Strickland, in her amusing
_Memoirs of the Lives of the English Queens_, to give so strenuous a denial
of Henry VIII.'s queen, Jane Seymour's claim to a royal lineage? Miss
Strickland writes:

    "Through Margaret Wentworth, the mother of Jane Seymour, a descent from
    the blood-royal of England was claimed, from an intermarriage with a
    Wentworth and a daughter of Hotspur and Lady Elizabeth Mortimer,
    grand-daughter to Lionel, duke of Clarence. This Lady Percy is stated
    by all ancient heralds to have died childless. Few persons, however,
    dared dispute a pedigree with Henry VIII.," &c.--_Lives of the Queens
    of England_, by Agnes Strickland, vol. iv. p. 300.

This is a question, I conceive, of sufficient historical importance to
receive a fuller investigation, and fairly to be determined, if possible.

The pedigree shows the following descent:--Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of
Clarence, third son of King Edward III. and Philippa of Hainault, left by
Elizabeth de Burgh (daughter of William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, and Maud
Plantagenet, second daughter of Henry, third Earl of Lancaster) an only
child, Philippa, married to Edmund Mortimer, third Earl of March (_Esc._, 5
Ric. II., No. 43.). The eldest daughter of Philippa Plantagenet by the Earl
of March was Elizabeth Mortimer, who married the renowned Hotspur, Henry
Lord Percy, son and heir apparent of Henry Lord Percy, created Earl of
Northumberland, 16th July, 1377, K. G. Hotspur was slain at the battle of
Shrewsbury, 7th September, 1403, _v.p._ His widow experienced the
revengeful persecution of King Henry (Rymer, viii. 334., Oct. 8, 1403), and
died, leaving by her said husband one son, Henry, who became second Earl of
Northumberland, and an only daughter, Elizabeth de Percy, who married
firstly, John, seventh Lord Clifford of Westmoreland, who died 13th March,
1422 (_Esc._, 10 Henry V., No. 37.), and secondly, Ralph Neville, second
Earl of Westmoreland (_Esc._, 15 Hen. VI., No. 55.), by whom she left an
only child, Sir John Neville, Knight, who died during his father's
lifetime, 20th March, 1451, _s.p._ (Will proved 30th March, 1451.) Lady
Elizabeth de Percy, who died in October, 1436, left by her first husband,
the Lord Clifford, three children: Thomas, eighth Lord Clifford; Henry, her
second son; and an only daughter, Mary, who became the wife of Sir Philip
Wentworth, Knight. The Lady Mary Clifford, who must have been born before
1422 (her father having died in that year), was probably only a few years
older than her husband Sir Philip, the issue of a marriage which took place
in June, 1 Henry VI., 1423 (_Cott. MSS. Cleop._, F. iv. f. 15.); she was
buried in the church of the Friars Minor at Ipswich, where her
mother-in-law directed a marble to be laid over her body. Sir Philip's
father, Roger Wentworth, Esq. (second son of John Wentworth of North
Elmsal, a scion of the house of Wentworth of the North), had married in
1423 Margery Lady de Roos, widow of John Lord de Roos, sole daughter and
heiress of Elizabeth de Tibetot, or Tiptoft (third daughter and co-heir of
Robert, Lord de Tibetot), and of Sir Philip le Despenser Chivaler (_Esc._,
18 Edw. IV., No. 35.). By this marriage came, first, Sir Philip Wentworth,
Knight, born circa 1424, and married when about {43} twenty-three years of
age, in 1447; he was slain in 1461, and attainted of high treason in the
parliament held 1 Edw. IV.; second, Henry Wentworth of Codham, in the
county of Essex; third, Thomas Wentworth Chaplain; and fourth, Agnes, wife
of Sir Robert Constable of Flamborough (_Harl. MSS._, 1560. 1449-1484, and
will of Margery, Lady de Roos, proved in the Prerogative Court of
Canterbury, 28th May, 1478). Sir Philip, about the year 1447, as before
stated, married the Lady Mary Clifford (_Harl. MSS._, 154. and 1484.),
sister of Thomas Lord Clifford, who was slain at the battle of St. Alban's
in 1454, and aunt of the Lord Clifford who stabbed the youthful Edmund
Plantagenet at the battle of Wakefield, and was himself slain and attainted
in parliament, 1st Edward IV. 1461. The issue of this marriage was Sir
Henry Wentworth of Nettlestead, in the county of Suffolk, Knight, his son
and heir (will of Margery, Lady de Roos, proved as above), born circa 1448,
being thirty years of age at his grandmother's death in 1478 (_Esc._, 18
Edward IV., No. 35.), and died in 1500. His will was proved in the
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 27th February, 1501. Sir Henry, son of Sir
Philip, was restored in blood by an act of parliament passed in the 4th of
Edward IV. (_Parliament Rolls_, v. 548.), and having married Anne, daughter
of Sir John Say, Knight (_Rot. Pat._, 1 Ric. II., p. 2., No. 86., 20th
February, 1484), left by her several children, viz. Sir Richard Wentworth,
Knight, son and heir, Edward Wentworth, and four daughters, the second of
whom, Margery, was married to Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall, in the county
of Wilts, Knight (_Harl. MSS._, 1449-1484. 1560., &c.), of which marriage,
among other children, were born Sir Edward Seymour, created Duke of
Somerset, and Jane, third wife of King Henry VIII., mother of Edward VI.

WM. HARDY.

[Footnote 1: There is amongst the Records of the Duchy of Lancaster an
interesting grant from John, Duke of Lancaster, to his daughter Joan
Beaufort, very soon after her marriage with Lord Neville of Raby. This
document, of which the following is a translation, proves that Robert
Ferrers died before 16th February, 1397.

"John, son of the king of England, Duke of Guienne and of Lancaster, Earl
of Derby, of Lincoln, and of Leicester, Steward of England, to all who
these our letters shall see or hear, greeting. Know ye that, of our
especial grace, and forasmuch as our very loved son, the Lord de Neville,
and our very loved daughter, Joan, his wife (sa compaigne), who was the
wife (femme) of Monsieur Robert Ferrers (whom God assoyl), have surrendered
into our Chancery, to be cancelled, our other letters patent, whereby we
formerly did grant unto the said Monsieur Robert and our aforesaid daughter
400 marks a-year, to be received annually, for the term of their two lives,
out of the issues of our lands and lordships of our honour of Pontefract,
payable, &c., as in our said other letters more fully it is contained: we,
willing that our abovesaid son, the Lord de Neville, and our aforesaid
daughter, his wife (sa compaigne), shall have of us, for the term of their
two lives, 500 marks a-year, or other thing to the value thereof, have
granted by these presents to the same, our son and daughter, all those our
lordships, lands, and tenements in Easingwold and Huby, and our three
wapentakes of Hang, Hallikeld, and Gilling, the which Monsieur John Marmyon
(whom God assoyl) held of us in the county of York: to have and to hold our
abovesaid lordships, tenements, and wapentakes, with their appurtenances,
to our said son and daughter, for the term of their two lives, and the life
of the survivor of them, in compensation for 100l. a-year, part of the
abovesaid 500 marks yearly. And also, we have granted by these presents to
the same, our son and daughter, the manor of Lydell, with appurtenances, to
have and to hold for their lives, and the life of the survivor, in
compensation for 40 marks a-year of the abovesaid 500 marks yearly, during
the wars or truces between our lord the king and his adversary of Scotland:
so, nevertheless, that if peace be made between our same lord the king and
his said adversary of Scotland, and on that account the said manor of
Lydell, with the appurtenances, shall be found lawfully to be of greater
and better yearly value than the said 40 marks a-year, then our said son
and daughter shall answer to us, during such peace as aforesaid, for the
surplusage of the value of the said manor, beyond the said 40 marks a-year,
and the yearly reprises of the said manor. And in full satisfaction of the
aforesaid 500 marks a-year we have granted to our abovesaid son and
daughter 206l. 13s. 4d. yearly, to be received out of the issues of our
honours of Pontefract and Pickering, by the hands of our receiver there for
the time being. In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be
made patent. Given under our seal, at London, on the 16th day of February,
in the twentieth year of the reign of our most dread sovereign lord King
Richard the Second after the Conquest" (A.D. 1397).

The above grant was confirmed on the 10th of September, in the
twenty-second of Richard the Second, 1398, by the eldest son of John of
Gaunt, Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, a few weeks only before the
duke's banishment, in the following words: "We, willing to perform and
accomplish the good will and desires of our said very honoured lord and
father, and in the confidence which we have in our said very loved brother,
now Earl of Westmoreland, that he will be a good and natural son to our
said very dread lord and father, and that he will be to us in time to come
a good and natural brother, and also because of the great affection which
we bear towards our said very loved sister, the countess his wife (sa
compaigne), do, for us and our heirs, as far as in us lies, ratify and
confirm to our said brother and sister the aforesaid letters patent, &c.
Given under our seal, at London, on the 10th day of September, in the
twenty-second year of the reign of our most dread lord King Richard the
Second after the Conquest."

King Henry the Fifth, on his accession, by a patent under the seal of the
duchy of Lancaster, dated at Westminster, on the 1st of July, in the first
year of his reign, confirmed the above letters "to the aforesaid earl and
Joan his wife;" and King Henry the Sixth in like manner confirmed his
father's patent on the 13th of July, in the second year of his
reign.--_Regist. Ducat. Lanc. temp. Hen. VI._, p. 2. fol. 41.]

       *       *       *       *       *

UNCERTAIN ETYMOLOGIES--"LEADER."

(Vol. vi., p. 588.)

I must differ from your correspondent C., in believing that the "N. & Q."
have effected much good service to etymology. Even the exposure of error,
and the showing up of crotchets, is of no inconsiderable use. I beg to
submit that C. himself (unless there are other Richmonds in the field) has
done good service in this way. See _Grummett_, _Slang Phrases_, _Martinet_,
_Cockade_, _Romane_, _Covey_, _Bummaree_, &c.

I do not, indeed, give implicit faith to his _Steyne_, and some more. He,
however, would be a rash man who should write or help to write a Dictionary
of the English language (a desideratum at present) without turning over the
indices of the "N. & Q." Even in the first volume, the discussions on
_Pokership_, _Daysman_, _News_, and a great many others, seem to me at
least valuable contributions to general knowledge on etymology.

As to my remark (Vol. vi., p. 462.) about the derivation of _leader_, C.
has, perhaps excusably, for the sake of the pun, done me injustice. I
hazarded it on the authority of one who has been in the trade, and, as I
believe, in the _cuicunque perito_. I beg to inclose his own account. He
says:

    "It is a fact, that when _editorial_ articles are sent to the printer,
    written directions are generally sent with them denoting what type is
    to be used: thus, _brevier leads_, or _bourgeois leads_, signifying
    that the articles are to be set in brevier or bourgeois type with
    _lead_ strips between the lines, to keep them further asunder. It is
    also a fact, that such articles are denominated in the printing-office
    'leaded articles'--hence, leaders."

I submit if this does not justify my Note. I grant, however, many of those
articles are entitled also to be called _leaden_, as C. will have it.

I do not think, however, that in tracing recent words, we should not give
possible as well as certain origins. Many words, if not a double, have at
least several putative origins.

Let me subscribe myself--_seu male seu bene_--

NOTA.

P. S.--I would like to suggest that this origin of the term "leading
article" is the most favourable to the modesty of any single writer for the
Press, who should hardly pretend to _lead_ public opinion.

       *       *       *       *       *

LINES ON TIPPERARY.

(Vol. vi., p. 578.)

These lines were said to have been addressed to a Dr. Fitzgerald, on
reading the following couplet in his apostrophe to his native village:--

 "And thou! dear Village, loveliest of the clime,
  Fain would I name thee, but I scant in rhyme."

I subjoin a tolerably complete copy of this "rime doggrele:"

 "A Bard there was in sad quandary,
  To find a rhyme for Tipperary.
  Long labour'd he through January,
  Yet found no rhyme for Tipperary;
  Toil'd every day in February,
  But toil'd in vain for Tipperary;
  Search'd Hebrew text and commentary,
  But search'd in vain for Tipperary;
  Bored all his friends at Inverary,
  To find a rhyme for Tipperary;
  Implored the aid of 'Paddy Cary,'
  Yet still no rhyme for Tipperary;
  He next besought his mother Mary,
  To tell him rhyme for Tipperary;
  But she, good woman, was no fairy,
  Nor witch--though born in Tipperary;--
  Knew everything about her dairy,
  But not the rhyme for Tipperary;
  {44}
  The stubborn muse he could not vary,
  For still the lines would run contrary,
  Whene'er he thought on Tipperary;
  And though of time he was not chary,
 'Twas thrown away on Tipperary;
  Till of his wild-goose chase most weary,
  He vow'd to leave out Tipperary.

    .    .    .    .    .    .

  But, no--the theme he might not vary,
  His longing was not temporary,
  To find meet rhyme for Tipperary.
  He sought among the gay and airy,
  He pester'd all the military,
  Committed many a strange vagary,
  Bewitch'd, it seem'd, by Tipperary.
  He wrote post-haste to Darby Leary,
  Besought with tears his Auntie Sairie:--
  But sought he far, or sought he near, he
  Ne'er found a rhyme for Tipperary.
  He travell'd sad through Cork and Kerry,
  He drove 'like mad' through sweet Dunleary,
  Kick'd up a precious tantar-ara,
  But found no rhyme for Tipperary;
  Lived fourteen weeks at Stran-ar-ara,
  Was well nigh lost in Glenègary,
  Then started 'slick' for Demerara,
  In search of rhyme for Tipperary.
  Through 'Yankee-land,' sick, solitary,
  He roam'd by forest, lake, and prairie,
  He went _per terram et per mare_,
  But found no rhyme for Tipperary.
  Through orient climes on Dromedary,
  On camel's back through great Sahara;
  His travels were extraordinary,
  In search of rhyme for Tipperary.
  Fierce as a gorgon or chimæra,
  Fierce as Alecto or Megæra,
  Fiercer than e'er a lovesick bear, he
  Raged through 'the londe' of Tipperary.
  His cheeks grew thin and wond'rous hairy,
  His visage long, his aspect 'eerie,'
  His _tout ensemble_, faith, would scare ye,
  Amidst the wilds of Tipperary.
  Becoming hypochon-dri-ary,
  He sent for his apothecary,
  Who ordered 'balm' and 'saponary,'
  Herbs rare to find in Tipperary.
  In his potations ever wary,
  His choicest drink was 'home gooseberry,'
  On 'swipes,' skim-milk, and smallest beer, he
  Scanted rhyme for his Tipperary.
  Had he imbibed good old Madeira,
  Drank 'pottle-deep' of golden sherry,
  Of Falstaff's sack, or ripe canary,
  No rhyme had lack'd for Tipperary.
  Or had his tastes been literary,
  He might have found extemporary,
  Without the aid of dictionary,
  Some fitting rhyme for Tipperary.
  Or had he been an antiquary,
  Burnt 'midnight oil' in his library,
  Or been of temper less 'camsteary,'
  Rhymes had not lack'd for Tipperary.
  He paced about his aviary,
  Blew up, sky-high, his secretary,
  And then in wrath and anger sware he,
  There was _no_ rhyme for Tipperary."

May we not say with Touchstone, "I'll rhyme you so, eight years together;
dinners, and suppers, and sleeping hours excepted: it is the right
butter-woman's rank to market."

J. M. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKESPEARE EMENDATIONS.

(Vol. vi., p. 312.)

I cannot receive MR. CORNISH'S substitution (p. 312.) of "chommer" for
_clamour_ in the _Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 3. In my opinion, _clamour_
is nearly or altogether the right word, but wrongly spelt. We have a verb
_to clam_, which, as connected with _clammy_, we use for sticking with
glutinous matter; but which originally must, like the kindred German
_klemmen_, have signified _to press_, _to squeeze_; for the kind of wooden
vice used by harness-makers is, at least in some places, called a _clams_.
I therefore suppose the clown to have said _clam_, or perhaps _clammer_
(_i.e._ hold) _your tongues._

Highly plausible as is MR. C.'S other emendation in the same place of _2
Henry IV._, Act III. Sc. 1., I cannot receive it either. In Shakspeare the
word _clown_ is almost always nearly equivalent to the Spanish _gracioso_,
and denotes humour; and surely we cannot suppose it to be used of the
ship-boy. Besides, a verb is wanted, as the causal particle _for_ is as
usual to be understood before "Uneasy lies," &c. I see no objection
whatever to the common reading, though _possibly_ the poet wrote:

 "Then, happy _boy_, lie down."

There never, in my opinion, was a happier emendation than that of _guidon_
for _guard_; _On_, in _Henry V._, Act IV. Sc. 2.; and its being made by two
persons independently, gives it--as MR. COLLIER justly observes of
_palpable_ for _capable_ in _As You Like It_--additional weight. We are to
recollect that a Frenchman is the speaker. I find _guidon_ used for banner
in the following lines of Clément Marot (Elégie III.):

 "De Fermeté le grand _guidon_ suivrons,"

and--

 "Cestuy _guidon_ et triomphante enseigne,
  Nous devons suyvre: Amour le nous enseigne."

The change of _a sea of troubles_ to _assay of troubles_ in _Hamlet_ is
very plausible, and ought perhaps to be received. So also is SIR F.
MADDEN'S of _face_ for _case_ (which last is downright nonsense) in
_Twelfth Night_, Act V. Sc. 1. But I would just hint that as all the rest
of the Duke's speech is in rhyme, it is not impossible that the poet may
have written--

 "O thou dissembling cub! what wilt thou be
  When time hath sow'd a grizzle upon thee?"

{45}

Allow me now to put a question to the critics. In the two concluding lines
of the _Merchant of Venice_ (the speaker, observe, is the jesting
Gratiano):

 "Well, while I live, I'll fear no other thing
  So sore, as keeping safe Nerissa's ring."

May there not be a covert allusion to the story first told by Poggio in his
_Facetiæ_, then by Ariosto, then by Rabelais, then by La Fontaine, and,
finally, by Prior, in his _Hans Carvel_? Rabelais was greatly read at the
time.

THOMAS KEIGHTLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

STATUES REPRESENTED ON COINS.

(Vol. vi., p. 485.)

Mr. Burgon (_Inquiry into the Motive of the Representations on Ancient
Coins_, p. 19.) says:

    "I do not believe that the types of coins are, on any occasion,
    original compositions; but always copied from some sacred public
    monument.... When we find Minerva represented on coins, we are not to
    understand the type as _a Minerva_, but _the Minerva of that place_;
    and in some cases which might be brought forward, the individual
    statues which are represented on coins, or ancient copies, will be
    found still to exist."

This opinion is certainly borne out by a very great number of proofs, and
may almost be considered demonstrated. The Farnese Hercules is found on
many coins, Roman and Greek. The commonest among the Roman are those of
Gordianus Pius, 1st and 2nd brass, with "VIRTVTI AVGVSTI." Three colonial
coins of Corinth, of Severus, Caracalla, and Geta (Vaillant, _Num. Imp.
Coloniis percuss_., ii. 7. 32. 54.), exhibit the same figure. As an
additional illustration of Mr. Burgon's view, I would advert to the
Corinthian coin of Aurelius (Vaill. i. 182.), which has a Hercules in a
different attitude; and which Vaillant regards as a copy of the statue
mentioned by Pausanias as existing at Corinth. Du Choul (_Religio vet.
Rom._, 1685, pp. 158, 159.) gives a coin representing Hercules killing
Antæus; and quotes Pliny for a statue representing this by Polycletus. Haym
also (_Tesoro_, i. 248.) gives a coin with a reversed view of the same
subject. The figures of Hercules on coins of Commodus are certainly copied
from the statues of that Emperor. Baudelot de Dairval (_De l'Utilité des
Voyages_) gives a small silver statuette of Commodus as Hercules, certainly
copied from the larger statues, and corresponding with those on coins.

I am not aware of any coins exhibiting exactly the Venus de Medici. It is
possible, however, that they exist, though I cannot at present find them.
Haym (_Tesoro_, ii. 246., tab. xvi. 3.) gives a coin of Cnidus, with a very
similar representation, the Cnidian Venus, known to be copied from a statue
by Praxiteles.

I must say the same as to the Apollo Belvidere.

I cannot at present refer to an engraving of the equestrian statue of
Aurelius, but Mr. Akerman (_Descr. Cat._, i. 280. 12. 14., 283. 10.)
describes gold coins and a medallion of Aurelius, representing him on
horseback; and I find in the plates appended by De Bie to _Augustini
Antiquatum ex Nummis Dialogi_, Antw., 1617, plate 47., one of these coins
engraved. I find the medallion engraved also by Erizzo (last edition, n.
d., p. 335.) who explains it as referring to this statue. He says, however,
that the attribution of the statue was uncertain; and that on a medallion
of Antoninus Pius, which he possessed, exactly the same representation was
found, whence he was inclined to suppose it rather erected for Antoninus
Pius.

I suppose the coins of Domna, alluded to by MR. TAYLOR, are those with the
legend "VENERI VICTRICI." In spite of the attitude, I can hardly think this
intended for Venus Callipyge, from the fact that Venus Victrix is found in
the same attitude on other coins, holding arms; and sometimes again holding
arms, but in a different attitude, and more or less clothed. The legend is
opposed also to this idea. See the coins engraved by Ondaan, or Oiselius,
Plate LII. The coin of Plantilla in Du Choul (l. c. p. 188.) is a stronger
argument; for here is seen a partially clothed Venus Victrix, with the same
emblems, leaning on a shield, as the Venus of Domna leans on a column, but
turned towards the spectator instead of away: thus demonstrating that no
allusion to Callipyge is to be seen in either.

Erizzo (l. c. p. 519.) mentions the discovery at Rome of a fragment of a
marble statue inscribed "VENERIS VICTRICIS."

In the British Museum (_Townley Gallery_, i. 95.) is a bas-relief
representing the building of the ship Argo. There is described in the
_Thomas Catalogue_, p. 22. lot 236., an unpublished (?) medallion of
Aurelius, possibly copied from this very bas-relief. A very doubtful
specimen exists in the Museum of the Scottish Antiquaries, which enables me
to make this assertion, although it is not minutely described in the
catalogue, and is otherwise explained. This is an additional confirmation
of the original statement, and many more might be added but for the
narrower limits allowed, which I fear I have already transgressed.

W. H. SCOTT.

Edinburgh.

       *       *       *       *       *

JUDGE JEFFREYS.

(Vol. vi., pp. 149. 432. 542.)

This extraordinary and inhuman man was the sixth son of John Jeffreys,
Esq., of Acton, near Wrexham, co. Denbigh, by Margaret, daughter of Sir
Thomas Ireland, Knight, of Bewsey, and was born _at his father's house_
about the year 1648. {46} He died on the 19th of April, 1689, at
thirty-five minutes past four in the morning. The tradition that his
remains were deposited at Enfield is incorrect. He was first interred in
the Tower privately, and after three years, when the day of persecution was
past, his friends petitioned that they might be allowed to remove the
coffin. This was granted, and by a warrant dated the 30th of September,
1692, signed by the queen and directed to the governor of the Tower, the
body of Lord Jeffreys was removed, and buried a second time in a vault
under the communion-table of St. Mary, Aldermanbury. As regards the number
of places pointed out as the residence of Judge Jeffreys, the following are
mentioned in the bill that was brought in for the forfeiture of his honour
and estate.

In Salop he had the manors of Wem and Loppington, with many other lands and
tenements; in Leicestershire the manors of Dalby and Broughton; he bought
Dalby of the Duke of Buckingham, and after his death it passed to Sir
Charles Duncombe, and descended to Anthony Duncombe, afterwards Lord
Feversham. In Bucks he had the manor of Bulstrode, which he had purchased
of Sir Roger Hill in 1686, and the manor of Fulmer, with other tenements.
He built a mansion at Bulstrode, which came afterwards to his son-in-law,
Charles Dive, who sold it in the reign of Queen Anne, to William, Earl of
Portland, in whose family, now aggrandised by a dukedom, it still
continues. And he had an inclination at one time to have become the
purchaser of another estate (Gunedon Park), but was outwitted by one of his
legal brethren. Judge Jeffreys held his court in Duke Street, Westminster,
and made the adjoining houses towards the park his residence. These houses
were the property of Moses Pitt the bookseller (brother of the Western
Martyrologist), who, in his _Cry of the Oppressed_, complains very strongly
against his tenant, the chancellor. Jeffreys's "large house," according to
an advertisement in the _London Gazette_, was let to the three Dutch
ambassadors who came from Holland to congratulate King William upon his
accession in 1689. It was afterwards used for the Admiralty Office, until
the middle of King William's reign.

    "The house is easily known," says Pennant, "by a large flight of stone
    steps, which his royal master permitted to be made into the park
    adjacent, for the accommodation of his lordship. These steps terminate
    above in a small court, on three sides of which stands the house."

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

The birthplace of Judge Jeffreys should not be a matter of doubt. The old
house at Acton in which his father lived, was in the parish of Wrexham, and
close to the confines of that parish and Gresford. It was pulled down about
seventy years ago, about the time when the present mansion bearing that
same name was built. Twenty years ago there were several persons living in
the neighbourhood who remembered that it stood in the parish of Wrexham.

Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the Lord Chancellors of England_, vol. iii.
p. 496., writes,--

    "He (Judge Jeffreys) of whom such tales were to be told, was born in
    his father's lowly dwelling at Acton in the year 1648."

And he subjoins the following note:

    "This is generally given as the year of his birth, but I have tried in
    vain to have it authenticated. There is no entry of his baptism, nor of
    the baptism of his brothers, in the register of Wrexham, the parish in
    which he was born, nor in the adjoining parish of Gresford, in which
    part of the family property lies. I have had accurate researches made
    in these registers by the kindness of my learned friend Serjeant
    Atcherley, who has estates in the neighbourhood. It is not improbable
    that, in spite of the Chancellor's great horror of dissenters, he may
    have been baptized by 'a dissenting teacher.'"

The fact is, however, and it is a fact known certainly twenty years ago to
several of the inhabitants of Gresford and Wrexham, that no register has
been preserved in the parish of Wrexham for a period extending from 1644 to
1662; and none in the parish of Gresford from 1630 to 1660. I may add that
no such registers have been discovered up to this time.

TAFFY.

When the family of Jeffreys became possessed of Acton is uncertain,
probably at a very early period, being descended from Cynric ap Rhiwallon,
great-grandson of Tudor Trevor.

George Jeffreys, afterwards Chancellor, was born at Acton, and was sixth
son of John Jeffreys and Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Ireland of Bewsey,
near Warrington, in Lancashire. In 1708 the estate passed into the family
of the Robinsons of Gwersyllt by the marriage of the eldest daughter and
heiress of Sir Griffith Jeffreys. Ellis Yonge, Esq., of Bryny Orchyn (in
the immediate neighbourhood), purchased the estate of Acton from the
trustees of the said Robinson. The Yonges were in no way related to the
Jeffreys, although bearing the same arms, as being also descended from the
same tribe.

GRESFORD.

       *       *       *       *       *

DUTCH ALLEGORICAL PICTURE.

(Vol. vi., pp. 458. 590.)

In answer to the obliging notice which your correspondent CUTHBERT BEDE
(Vol. vi., p. 590.) has taken of my description of the Dutch allegorical
picture, I beg to say that I agree with him, and admit myself to be
mistaken in supposing the {47} middle picture described (Vol. vi., p. 458.)
to represent St. John Baptist. On examining it again, I have no doubt it is
intended to denote the Ascension of our Lord. The right hand is raised as
in the act of benediction, and, as far as I can make it out (for the paint
is here somewhat rubbed), the fingers are in the position of benediction
described by your correspondent. I do not, however, concur in his
suggestions as to the meaning of the figures on the frame of the picture;
which is not shaped as a _vesica piscis_, but is (as I described it) a
lozenge. The female figure, holding a flaming heart, is, I would say,
_certainly not_ the Virgin Mary.

The appearance of my account of this picture in your pages has been the
occasion of a very agreeable correspondence with the Editor of the
_Navorscher_ (the Dutch daughter of "N. & Q."). That gentleman has taken a
great interest in the subject, and has enabled me to decypher the mottoes
on the scrolls which run across the three pictures on the right-hand wall
of the room, which, in my former communication, I said I was unable to
read.

The scroll on the picture nearest the fireplace contains these words:

 "Trouw moet blÿcken."

That on the second picture, noticed by CUTHBERT BEDE, is,

 "Liefde boven al."

And the scroll on the third bears the inscription, as I stated in my former
communication,

 "In Liefd' getrouwe;"

for so it ought to have been printed.

These, as the editor of the _Navorscher_ informs me, are the mottoes of
three Haarlem Societies of Rhetoricians called, 1. "De Pelicaen," whose
motto was, "_Trouw moet blÿcken_:" 2. "De Wyngaertrancken," whose motto
was, "_Liefde boven al_:" and, 3. "Witte Angiren," whose device was, "_In
Liefde getrouwe_."

I think you are entitled to have whatever information I may glean
respecting this picture, as you so kindly inserted my description of it in
your columns; and I have to thank you for procuring me the acquaintance and
correspondence of the editor of the _Navorscher_.

J. H. TODD, D.D.

Trin. Coll. Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE REPRINT, IN 1808, OF THE FIRST FOLIO EDITION OF SHAKSPEARE.

(Vol. vi., p. 579.)

In reply to the Query of VARRO, I beg to state that I possess the late Mr.
Upcott's collation of the reprint of the first folio edition of Shakspeare.
It consists of twenty-six folio leaves, exclusive of the fly-leaves, on the
first of which occur the following notes in the handwriting of the
collator:

     "London Institution,
     "Moorfields, Dec. 25, 1821.

    "Four months and twenty-three days were occupied, during my leisure
    moments, at the suggestion of our late Librarian, Professor Porson, in
    reading and comparing the _pretended_ reprinted fac-simile _First_
    Edition of Shakspeare with the original First Edition of 1623. With
    what _accuracy_ it passed through the Press, the following pages,
    noticing 368 typographical errors, will sufficiently show.

    WM. UPCOTT."

    "MS. note written in Mr. Dawson Turner's transcript of these errors in
    the reprint of Shakspeare, edit. 1623.

    "The contents of the following pages are the result of 145 days' close
    attention by a very industrious man. The knowledge of such a task
    having been undertaken and completed, caused some alarm among the
    booksellers, who had expended a considerable sum of money upon the
    reprint of Shakspeare, of which this MS. discloses the numerous errors.
    Fearful, therefore, lest this should be published, they made many
    overtures for the purchase of it, and at length Mr. Upcott was induced
    to part with it to John and Arthur Arch, Cornhill, from whom he
    expected a handsome remuneration; he received a single copy of the
    reprint, published at five guineas.

    "N.B. This copy, _corrected_ by myself from the above MS., I sold to
    James Perry, proprietor of the _Morning Chronicle_, for six guineas:
    which at his sale (Part III.) produced 12l. 1s. 6d.

    WM. UPCOTT."

At the end of the volume is written:

    "Finished this collation Jan. 28, 1809, at three minutes past 12
    o'clock.

    WM. UPCOTT."

Upon comparing these remarks of Mr. Upcott with Lowndes' _Bibliographer's
Manual_, p. 1645., col. 1., it will be seen that the latter was not
accurately informed as to Perry's copy; Professor Porson having had no
farther share in that laborious work than the recommending Mr. Upcott to
undertake the collation, from which Perry's copy was subsequently
corrected.

F. C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES.

_Le Grey and the Collodion Process._--As the claim to the invention of the
collodion process is disputed, I think, in justice to MR. LE GREY, whom all
will acknowledge as a talented man, and who has done much for photography,
that the claims he puts forth, and which I give, should be known to your
readers who have not got his work, as they are in direct contradiction to
MR. ARCHER'S letter in your 165th No. In his last published work, page 89.,
he states:

    "I was the first to apply collodion to photography. My first
    experiments were made in 1849. I used that substance then principally
    to give more equality and {48} fineness to the paper. I employed for
    that purpose a solution of iodide of potassium in alcohol of forty
    degrees saturated with collodion.

    "In continuing these studies I was induced to apply this body upon
    glass, to obtain more fineness, and I was soon in possession of an
    extremely rapid proceeding, _which I at last consigned to the pamphlet
    that I published in 1850, and which was translated into English at the
    same time_.

    "I had already at that time indicated the protosulphate of iron for
    developing the image, the ammonia and the fluorides as accelerating
    agents; and I was the first to announce having obtained by these means
    portraits in five seconds in the shade.

    "The pyro-gallic acid is generally used now in place of the sulphate of
    iron that I had indicated; but this is wrong, that last salt forming
    the image much more rapidly and better, it having to be left less time
    in the camera.

    "I believe, then, I have a right to claim for my country and myself the
    invention of this would-be English process, _and of having been the
    first to indicate the collodion, and of giving the best method that has
    been discovered up to the present time_.

    "From the publication of my process, till my return from the voyage
    that I had made for the minister, I was little occupied in practising
    it, my labours on the dry paper having taken all my time. This has been
    used as a weapon against me, to make out that the first trials before
    setting out had been quite fruitless, as they had heard nothing more
    about it.

    "Nevertheless, I have made my discovery completely public; and if I had
    practised it but little, leaving it to others to further develope, it
    has only been to occupy myself upon other works of which the public has
    still profited. It is then much more ungenerous to wish to take from me
    the merit of its invention."

G. C.

_Ready Mode of iodizing Paper._--The readiest way I have found of iodizing
the beautiful paper of Canson Frères, is the cyano-iodide of silver, made
as follows: Twenty grains of nitrate of silver may be placed in half an
ounce of distilled water, and half an ounce of solution of iodide of
potassa, fifty grains to the ounce, added to the silver solution. Cyanide
of potassa may then be added, drop by drop, till the precipitate is
dissolved, and the whole filled up with four ounces of water. This solution
requires but a very few minutes' floating upon water containing a small
quantity of sulphuric acid; and it is then ready, after a bath of nitrate
of silver, for the camera, and will not present any of the disagreeable
spots so noticed by most photographers. This paper is probably the best for
negative pictures we have at present; although, if very transparent paper
is required, oiled paper may be used for negative pictures very
successfully; or paper varnished is equally good. The oiled paper may be
prepared as follows: Take the best walnut oil, that oil having less
tendency to darken paper of any other kind, and oil it thoroughly. It must
then be hung up in the light for a few days, the longer the better, till
quite dry. It may then be iodized with the ammonio-nitrate, the ammoniated
solution passing more readily over greased surfaces. The varnished paper
may be prepared by half an ounce of mastic varnish and three ounces of
spirits of turpentine, hung up to dry, and treated as the oiled paper in
iodizing; but both are better for resting a short time previous to iodizing
upon water containing a little isinglass in solution, but used very
sparingly.

As I have experienced the excellence of these preparations, I hope they may
be useful to your photographic students.

WELD TAYLOR.

Bayswater.

_After-dilution of Solutions._--There are in general use two methods of
preparing sensitive paper. In one, as in Mr. Talbot's, the iodide of silver
is formed in a state of purity, before being rendered sensitive: and as,
for this end, a small quantity only of nitrate of silver is necessary, a
very dilute solution will answer the purpose as well, or even better, than
a strong one; but by the other method, the paper being prepared with iodide
of potassium only, or with some other analogous salt, the iodide of silver
has to be formed by the same solution that renders it sensitive. Now as for
every 166.3 parts of iodide of potassium 170.1 parts of nitrate of silver
are required for this purpose, it is evident that a dilute solution could
not be employed unless a very large bulk were taken, and the paper kept in
a considerable time.

The after-washing is to remove from the surface of the paper the great
excess of silver, which is of but little service, and prevents the paper
from keeping.

WILLIAM CROOKES.

Hammersmith.

_Stereoscopic Pictures from one Camera._--Your correspondent RAMUS will
easily obtain stereoscopic pictures by either of the following
plans:--After the first picture is taken, move the subject, as on a pivot,
either to the right or left, through an angle of about 15°; then take the
second impression: this will do very well for an inanimate object, as a
statue; but, if a portrait is required, the camera, after taking the first
picture, must be moved either to the right or left, a distance of not more
than one-fifth of the distance it stands from the sitter; that is, if the
camera is twenty feet from the face of the sitter, the distance between its
first and second position should not exceed four feet, otherwise the
picture will appear distorted, and the stereosity unnaturally great. Of
course it is absolutely necessary in this plan that the sitter do not move
his position between the taking of the two impressions, and also that the
distance between him and the camera be the same in both operations. {49}

In reply to the very sensible inquiry of SIMPLICITAS, there is an essential
difference between the calotype of Talbot and the waxed-paper process, the
picture in the first being almost entirely superficial, whilst in the
latter it is much more in the body of the paper; this causes the
modification of the treatment. A _tolerably-strong_ solution of (A_9O NO_5)
nitrate of silver is required to decompose the (KI) iodide of potassium,
with which the paper is _saturated_, in any reasonable time, but if this
were allowed to dry on the surface, stains would be the inevitable result;
therefore it is floated in distilled water, to remove this from the
_surface_; and it seems to me that the keeping of the paper depends on the
greater or less extent to which this surface-coating is removed. There can
be no doubt that the paper would be far more sensitive, if used
immediately, without the washing, simply blotting it off; but then the
great advantage of the process would be lost, viz. its capability of being
kept.

WILLIAM PUMPHREY.

_Camera for Out-door Operations._--I should be glad to see a clear
description of a camera so constructed as to supersede the necessity for a
dark room. Such a description has been promised by DR. DIAMOND (Vol. vi.,
p. 277.); and if he could be induced to furnish it at an early period, I at
least, amongst the readers of "N. & Q.," should feel much additionally
indebted to him.

E. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

"'TWAS ON THE MORN."

(Vol. vi., p. 556.)

This is a very celebrated Gloucestershire ballad, which though at one time
popular, is, I believe, rarely heard now. I have before me an old and much
mutilated broadside of it, which, at the conclusion, has the initials "L. &
B." I presume the words are wanted, and therefore send them; and not
knowing whether the tune has been published, will also forward it, if
wished for by your querist.

                  1.

 "'Twas on the morn of sweet May-day,
  When Nature painted all things gay,
  Taught birds to sing, and lambs to play,
      And gild the meadows fair;
  Young Jockey, early in the morn,
  Arose and tript across the lawn;
  His Sunday clothes the youth put on,
  For Jenny had vow'd away to run
      With Jockey to the fair.
  For Jenny had vow'd away to run
      With Jockey to the fair.

                  2.

  The cheerful parish bells had rung,
  With eager steps he trudg'd along,
  While rosy garlands round him hung,
      Which shepherds us'd to wear;
  He tapt the window: 'Haste, my dear;'
  Jenny impatient cry'd, 'Who's there?'
 ''Tis I, my love, and no one near;
  Step gently down, you've nought to fear,
      With Jockey to the fair.'
  Step gently, &c.

                  3.

 'My dad and mammy's fast asleep,
  My brother's up, and with the sheep;
  And will you still your promise keep,
      Which I have heard you swear?
  And will you ever constant prove?'
 'I will, by all the Powers above,
  And ne'er deceive my charming dove.
  Dispel those doubts, and haste, my love,
      With Jockey to the fair.'
  Dispel, &c.

                  4.

 'Behold the ring,' the shepherd cry'd;
 'Will Jenny be my charming bride?
  Let Cupid be our happy guide,
      And Hymen meet us there.'
  Then Jockey did his vows renew;
  He would be constant, would be true.
  His word was pledg'd; away she flew,
  With cowslips tipt with balmy dew,
      With Jockey to the fair.
  With cowslips, &c.

                  5.

  In raptures meet the joyful train;
  Their gay companions, blithe and young,
  Each join the dance, each join the throng,
      To hail the happy pair.
  In turns there's none so fond as they,
  They bless the kind, propitious day,
  The smiling morn of blooming May,
  When lovely Jenny ran away
      With Jockey to the fair.
  When lovely, &c.

H. G. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEGED REDUCTION OF ENGLISH SUBJECTS TO SLAVERY.

(Vol. v., p. 510.)

The crime imputed to the Dutch authorities (that of reducing English
subjects to slavery) is of so atrocious a character, that any explanation
that should place the matter in a less offensive light, would be but an act
of justice to the parties implicated. With this view I venture to submit to
URSULA and W. W. the following conclusions which I have arrived at, after a
careful consideration of all the circumstances.

I am of opinion that the writer of the letter in question (charging the
Dutch Governor with the above mentioned offence) was the officer commanding
the troops in the English division of St. Christopher; and, in that
capacity, invested with the civil government. At that period, the {50}
administration of our West Indian possessions was generally confided to the
military commandants: our policy, in that respect, being different from
that of the French, who have contrived at all times to maintain, in each of
their colonies, an uninterrupted succession of Governors appointed from
home.

The name of the Dutch Governor of St. Martin, to whom the letter was
addressed, has not been ascertained. He was probably some buccaneering
chief, who cared as little for the States-General as he did for the
Governor of St. Christopher. If not actually engaged in the piratical
enterprises of his countrymen, he certainly had no objection to receive,
according to usage, the lion's share of the booty as a reward for his
connivance.

It is very doubtful whether the outrage imputed, in this instance, to the
Dutch Governor, was perpetrated, or even attempted. The buccaneers,
English, French, and Dutch, began by uniting their efforts against the
Spaniards. After a time they "fell out" (as thieves will sometimes do),
and, turning from the common enemy, they directed their marauding
operations against each other. It was doubtless during one of these that
the Dutch captured the English ship in question; detaining the passengers
and crew at St. Martin, in the hope of extorting some considerable ransom
for their release. When, therefore, the English Governor threatened to
complain to the States-General of the "reduction to slavery of English
subjects," we must presume that, by the words "reducing to slavery," he
meant to describe the forcible _detention_ of the passengers and crew; and
that, in doing so, he merely resorted to the expedient of magnifying a
common act of piracy into an outrage of a more heinous character, with the
view of frightening the Dutch authorities into a compliance with his
wishes, and obtaining the restitution of the property and subjects of his
"dread Sovereigne Lord y^e King." The annals of that period are replete
with similar adventures; and Labat relates several of them which he
witnessed during a voyage to Guadaloupe in a vessel belonging to the French
buccaneers. As to the English, the daring exploits of Sir Henry Morgan and
his followers, and the encouragement which they received, both at home and
in the colonies, show that _we_ were not behind our neighbours in those
days of marauding notoriety.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Royal Assent, &c._ (Vol. vi., p. 556.).--

1. No such forms as those referred to by Clarendon are usual now.

2. The last time the prerogative of rejecting a bill, after passing both
Houses of Parliament, was exercised, was in 1692, when William III. refused
his assent to the bill for Triennial Parliaments. Two years after, however,
he was induced to allow the bill to become the law of the land.

J. R. W.

Bristol.

_Can Bishops vacate their Sees?_ (Vol. v., p. 156.).--R. C. C., in his
reply to this Query of K. S., writes, that he has never heard of any but
Dr. Pearce who wished so to do.

There is another instance in the case of Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, who,
having failed in his attempt to exchange his bishopric for some canonry or
headship at Oxford, applied to the Secretary of State for his majesty's
permission to resign his bishopric.

So extraordinary a petition excited his majesty's curiosity, and caused his
inquiry from whence it came; when, learning that the person was his old
acquaintance, Dr. Berkeley, he declared that he should die a bishop in
spite of himself, but gave him full power to choose his own place of
residence. This was in 1753.

The above is taken from Bp. Mant's _History of the Church of Ireland_, vol.
ii. p. 534.

RUBI.

_"Genealogies of the Mordaunt Family," by the Earl of Peterborough_ (Vol.
vi., p. 553.).--Bridges, in his _History of Northamptonshire_, vol. ii. p.
252., states that twenty-four copies of the work were printed. There is a
large paper copy of the work, in the library at Drayton House, the former
seat of the Mordaunts, now the property of W.B. Stopford, Esq.

J. B.

_Niágara, or Niagára?_ (Vol. vi., p. 555.).--An enthusiastic person, of the
name of Pemberton (who had spent much time at the Falls, and was so
enthusiastic in his admiration of them that he protested he _could not_
keep away from them, and went back and died there), informed me that the
proper name was _Ni-ágara_ or _aghera_,--two Indian words signifying "Hark
to the thunder."

J. G.

_Maudlin_ (Vol. vi., p. 552.).--Your Massachusetts correspondent comes a
long way for information which he might surely have obtained on his own
side of the Atlantic. Dr. Johnson says, "_Maudlin_ is the corrupt
appellation of _Magdalen_, who is drawn by painters with swollen eyes and
disordered look." And do we not know that Magdalene College is always
called _Maudlin_, and that _Madeleine_ is the French orthography? very
closely resembling our vernacular pronunciation?

J. G.

_Spiritual Persons employed in Lay Offices_ (Vol. vi., pp. 376.
567.).--Your correspondents W. and E. H. A. seem to have overlooked the
modern instances of this practice, which the _London Gazette_ has recently
recorded, in {51} announcing the appointment of several clergymen as
deputy-lieutenants. This is an office which is so far of a military
character, that it is supposed to place the holder in the rank of
lieutenant-colonel, and certainly entitles him to wear a military uniform.
If these members of the "church militant" should be presented at Her
Majesty's Court in their new appointment, will they appear in their
clerical or military habit?

[Omega]. [Phi].

_Passage in Burke_ (Vol. vi., p. 556.).--The reply to QUANDO TANDEM'S Query
is given, I imagine, by Burke himself, in a passage which occurs only a few
lines after that which has been quoted:

    "Little did I dream that she should ever be obliged to carry the sharp
    antidote against disgrace concealed in that bosom."

This means, I suppose, that Marie Antoinette carried a dagger, with which,
_more Romano_, she would have committed suicide, had her brutal persecutors
assaulted her.

ALFRED GATTY.

_Ensake and Cradock Arms_ (Vol. vi., p. 533.).--In a pedigree of the family
of Barnwell, of Cransley in Northamptonshire, now before me, I find
emblazoned the arms of Ensake: Paly of six azure and or, on a bend sable
three mullets pierced. Cradock: Argent, three boars' heads couped sable
armed or.

G. A. C.

_Sich House_ (Vol. vi., pp. 363. 568.).--_Sike_ or _syke_, a word in common
use in the south of Scotland, and on the Border, meaning a small water run.
In Jamieson's _Dictionary_ it is spelt "_Sike_, _syik_, _syk_, a rill or
rivulet; one that is usually dry in summer; a small stream or rill; a
marshy bottom with a small stream in it."

J. S.S.

_Americanisms so called_ (Vol. vi., p. 554.).--The word _bottom_,
signifying a piece of low ground, whether _upon_ a stream of water or not,
is English. I recollect two places at this moment (both dry), in the county
of Surrey, to which the word is applied, viz. Smitham Bottom, to the north
of Reigate, through which the railway runs; and Boxhill Bottom, a few miles
to the westward, in the same range of chalk hills.

_Sparse_ and _sparsely_, it is said by UNEDA of Philadelphia, _are_
Americanisms. This, however, is not so. There is a Query on the word
_sparse_ in Vol. i., p. 215. by C. FORBES: and on p. 251. of the same
volume J. T. STANLEY supposes it to be an Americanism, on the authority of
the _Penny Cyclopædia_.

I have a strong conviction that I then wrote to "N. & Q." to claim the word
_sparse_ as aboriginal to the British Isles, for I find memoranda I had
made at the time on the margin of my Jamieson's _Dictionary_ on the
subject; but I do not find that what I then wrote had been printed in "N. &
Q."

In the _Supplement to Jamieson's Dictionary_ is the following: "SPARS,
SPARSE, _adj._ widely spread; as, 'sparse writing' is wide open writing,
occupying a large space." The word is in common use throughout the south of
Scotland.

I have come to be of opinion that there are few, if any, words that are
real Americanisms, but that (except where the substance or the subject is
quite modern) almost every word and expression now in use among the
Anglo-Americans may be traced to some one of the old provincial dialects of
the British Isles.

J. S.S.

_The Folger Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 583.).--I do not know whether there are
any of that name in Wales, but there was a family of that name near Tregony
in Cornwall some years ago, and may be now. I am not quite certain whether
they spell it Folger or Fulger, but rather think the latter was the mode of
spelling it.

S. JENNINGS-G.

_Wake Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 290.).--The Rev. Robert Wake was vicar of
Ogbourne, St. Andrew, Wilts, from 1703 to 1715, N.S., during which time he
had these children:--Thomas, born the 17th of July, 1706, and baptized on
the 28th of the same month; Elizabeth and Anne, both baptized on the 16th
of July, 1711.

ARTHUR R. CARTER.

Camden Town.

_Shakspeare's "Twelfth Night"_ (Vol. vi., p. 584.).--Agreeing with MR.
SINGER in his doubts regarding the propriety of changing the word _case_
into _face_, in the line,--

 "When time hath sow'd a grizzle on thy _case_"--

I would instance a passage in _Measure for Measure_, where Angelo says--

                     "O place! O form!
  How often dost thou with thy _case_, thy habit,
  Wrench awe from fools," &c.

W. C.

_Electrical Phenomena_ (Vol. vi., p. 555.).--The case recorded by ADSUM is
not at all an infrequent one, and the phenomena alluded to have been
noticed for a very long period, and are of very common occurrence in dry
states of the atmosphere. The following, from Daniel's _Introduction to
Chemical Philosophy_ (a most useful work for general readers), will
probably explain all that ADSUM is desirous of knowing:

    "It was first observed by Otto de Guericke and Hawsbee, that the
    friction of glass and resinous substances not only produced the
    phenomena which we have just described (those of vitreous and resinous
    electricity), but, under favourable circumstances, was accompanied by a
    rustling or crackling noise; and, when the experiment was made in a
    dark room, by flashes and sparks of light upon their surfaces. When
    once the attention has been directed to the observation, {52} most
    persons will find that such phenomena of electrical light are familiar
    occurrences, and often present themselves in suddenly drawing off from
    the person a silk stocking, or a flannel waistcoat, or in the _friction
    of long hair by combing_. How small a degree of friction is sufficient
    to excite electricity in the human body, is shown in a striking way by
    placing a person upon an insulating stool (with glass legs). If in such
    a position he place his finger upon a gold-leaf electrometer, and
    another person flip him lightly with a silk handkerchief, the leaves
    will immediately repel each other" (resinous electricity has been
    excited).--Page 205. par. 307.

S. JENNINGS-G.

_Daubuz Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 527.).--Where are the descendants of this
worthy family (Daubuz)? It may possibly give MR. CORSER a clue to the
information he desires, if I tell him that there is a very respectable
family of that name in Cornwall. One lives in the neighbourhood of Truro,
and a brother is vicar of Creed, near Grampound, Cornwall. The father of
these gentlemen was the first of the family, I believe, who resided in
Cornwall, where he amassed a large fortune from his connexion with mining
speculations.

S. JENNINGS-G.

_Lord Nelson_ (Vol. vi., p. 576.).--I am obliged to MR. KERSLEY for giving
me an opportunity of reconciling my statement respecting Dr. Scott (Vol.
vi., p. 438.) with the inscription on Mr. Burke's monument. Both, I
believe, are true. I quote from the _Authentic Narrative of the Death of
Lord Nelson_, by William Beatty, M.D. &c. The copy of this work which is
before me has the following in Sir W. Beatty's own handwriting: "To the
Rev. Doctor Scott, with every sentiment of regard, by his friend and
messmate, the author." In this "narrative," Dr. Scott and Mr. Burke are
generally described as personally attending on Lord Nelson from the time of
his being brought down into the cockpit. And at p. 50. it is said: "Doctor
Scott and Mr. Burke, who had all along sustained the bed under his
shoulders," &c.: and again at p. 51. "His lordship breathed his last at
thirty minutes past four o'clock: at which period Dr. Scott was in the act
of rubbing his lordship's breast, and Mr. Burke supporting the bed under
his shoulders." All this is represented in West's beautiful picture, which
hangs, in a bad light, in the hall of Greenwich Hospital.

There is another claimant for the honour of having been Nelson's last
nurse, whose name I forget. His pretensions are recorded on a tablet to his
memory in the chapel of Greenwich Hospital. Dr. Scott's daughter, who was
with me there one day, remonstrated on the subject with old blue jacket who
lionised us. And I put in the lady's right to speak with some authority.
But "what is writ is writ," was enough for our guide: we could make nothing
of him, for he fought our arguments as if they had been so many guns of the
enemy.

ALFRED GATTY.

_Robes and Fees in the Days of Robin Hood_ (Vol. vi., p. 479.).--In
translating the ordinances and statutes against maintainers and
conspirators, MR. LEWELLYN CURTIS more than once translates "gentz de
_pais_," by "persons of _peace_." This is a material error: it should be
"_of the country_;" "pays," not "paix." For the subject referred to, Mr.
Foss's _Judges of England_, vol. iii., should be consulted.

J. BT.

_Wray_ (Vol. iv., p. 164.).--In one of the Wray pedigrees in Burke's
_Landed Gentry_, it is stated that the Yorkshire family of that name
originally resided in Coverdale in Richmondshire.

In Clarkson's _History of Richmond_ is a pedigree of the "Wrays," which
commences (if I rightly recollect) with an ancestor (six or eight years
before him) of Sir Christopher Wray, of whose fore-elders, some lived at
St. Nicholas, near to Richmond.

I have traced a family of the name of _Wray_ or _Wraye_ for three centuries
back, in Wensleydale, and at Coverham in Coverdale (both in Richmondshire),
but am unable to connect it by direct evidence with either of the pedigrees
above referred to; and should be much obliged for any information touching
any part of the family in Richmondshire, particularly such as might aid in
showing the relation of the several branches to one another.

With reference to the origin of the name, I may mention, that there is a
valley called Raydale, between Wensleydale and Craven, adjacent to
Coverdale and also a village in Westmoreland, near to the western extremity
of Wensleydale, called _Wray_ or _Ray_.

The arms of the Wensleydale Wrays are: azure, a chevron ermine between
three helmets proper on a chief or, three martlets gules; crest a martlet,
and motto "Servabo fidem."

I am informed that there is to be found, in the Heralds' College, an entry
of a _Wray_ pedigree with these arms; and I should be glad to have
particulars of such entry.

The motto of the St. Nicholas family is, to the best of my recollection,
"Et juste et vraye:" a canting motto, as is that of

PAK-RAE.

Calcutta.

_Irish Rhymes_ (Vol. vi., pp. 431. 539. 605.).--For the benefit of
Irishmen, I beg to adduce Shakspeare as a writer of _Irish Rhymes_. In that
exquisite little song called for by Queen Catharine, "to soothe her soul
grown sad with troubles," we have:

 "Everything that heard him _play_,
  Even the billows of the _sea_."

W. C.

{53}

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

We have received a copy of _Notes and Emendations on the Text of
Shakspeare's Plays from Early Manuscript Corrections in a Copy of the Folio
in the Possession of J. Payne Collier, Esq., F.S.A., forming a Supplemental
Volume to the Works of Shakspeare, by the same Editor, in Eight Volumes,
8vo._ With the nature of this volume the readers of "N. & Q." are already
so fully acquainted, from the frequent references which have been made to
it in these columns, that on this occasion we feel that we need do little
more than record its publication, and the fact that it appears to be edited
with the same scrupulous care, for which all works which appeared under the
superintendence of Mr. Collier are invariably distinguished. That all the
critics will agree either with the MS. corrections, or with Mr. Collier in
his estimate of the value of the emendations, is not to be expected; but
all will acknowledge that he has done good service to Shakspearian
literature by their publication.

"The New Year," observes _The Athenæum_, "opens with some announcements of
promise in our own literary world. Mr. Bentley announces the Memorials and
Correspondence of Charles James Fox, on which the late Lord Holland was
understood to be so long engaged. The work, however, is now to be edited by
Lord John Russell, and to extend to two volumes octavo. The same publisher
promises a history, in one large volume, of 'The Administration of the East
India Company,' by Mr. Kaye, author of the 'History of the War in
Affghanistan;' and a 'History (in two volumes octavo) of the Colonial
Policy of the British Empire from 1847 to 1851,' by the present Earl
Grey.--The fifth and concluding volume of 'The Letters of the Earl of
Chesterfield,' including some new letters now first published from the
original MSS., under the editorship, as before, of Lord Mahon, will, we
believe, shortly appear.--Two volumes of 'Letters of the Poet Gray,' so
often announced by Mr. Bentley, are to come out at last during the present
season. They will be edited by the Rev. J. Mitford, author of 'The Life of
Gray.'--Nor is Mr. Murray without his usual attractive bill of fare for the
literary appetite. The Lowe Papers, left in a mass of confusion at the
death of Sir Harris Nicolas, are now nearly ready; and the St. Helena Life
of Napoleon will appear, it is said, for the first time, as far as Sir
Hudson Lowe is concerned, in its true light. The Castlereagh Papers (now in
Mr. Murray's hands) will include matter of moment connected with the
Congress of Vienna, the Battle of Waterloo, and the occupation of Paris.
The same publisher announces The Speeches of the Duke of Wellington (to
which we called attention some time back):--also a work by Mr. George
Campbell, called 'India as it may be,'--and another by Captain Elphinstone
Erskine about the Western Pacific and Feejee Islands.--The Messrs. Longman
announce a Private Life of Daniel Webster, by his late Private Secretary,
Mr. Charles Lanman--and a new work by Signor Mariotti, 'An Historical
Memoir of Fra Dolcino and his Times.'--Mr. Bohn will have ready in a few
days 'Yule-Tide Legends,' a collection of Scandinavian Tales and Tradition,
edited by B. Thorpe, Esq.--Messrs. Hurst and Blackett--whose names now take
the place of Mr. Colburn's, as his successors--are about to publish Memoirs
of the Court and Cabinets of George the Third, to be compiled from original
family documents by the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos."

We need scarcely remind the Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries who may
have in their minds suggestions for the improvement of the Society, how
desirable it is that they should bring those suggestions at once under the
consideration of the Committee just appointed. We are sure that all such as
are submitted to Mr. Hawkins and his colleagues will receive every
attention; and we trust that the Committee will at once proceed to their
task, so that the Society may have time to well consider their Report
before the Anniversary in April.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, by various
Writers_. Edited by William Smith. Part V. The new issue of this most
useful work extends from _Campi Raudii_ to _Cimolus_.--_Cyclopædia
Bibliographica, a Library Manual of Theological and General Literature,
Analytical, Bibliographical, and Biographical._ Part IV. of this useful
guide for authors, preachers, students, and literary men, extends from
Henry Bull to Isaac Chauncy.--_The Journal of Sacred Literature._ New
Series. Edited by Dr. Kitto. No. VI.--_Swift and Richardson_, by Lord
Jeffrey, is the new Number of Longman's _Traveller's Library_.--_The Goose
Girl at the Well_, &c., completes the interesting collection of Grimm's
_Household Stories_.--_The Shakspeare Repository_ is the first Number of a
work especially devoted to Shakspeare, containing a great variety of matter
illustrative of his life and writings, by J. H. Fennell.--_The Chess
Player's Chronicle_, the first Number of which professes and appears to be
an improved series of this indispensable Chess Player's companion.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

LUD. GUICCIARDINI'S DESCRIP. BELGII.

RASTALL'S EXPOSITION OF WORDS.

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for January 1851.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. wanted.

THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE. (Original Edition.) Vol. I.

RAPIN'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 8vo. Vols. I., III. and V. of the CONTINUATION
by TINDAL. 1744.

SHARPE'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols. 1819. Piccadilly.

INCHBALD'S BRITISH THEATRE. Vol. XXIV. 25 Vols. Longman.

MEYRICK'S ANCIENT ARMOUR, by SKELTON. Part XVI.

DONNE, [Greek: Biathanatos], 4to. First Edition, 1644.

------ ------ ------ Second Edition, 1648.

---- PSEUDO-MARTYR. 4to.

---- PARADOXES, PROBLEMS, AND ESSAYS, &c. 12mo. 1653.

---- ESSAYS IN DIVINITY. 12mo. 1651.

---- SERMONS ON ISAIAH l. 1.

POPE'S WORKS, by WARTON. Vol. IX. 1797. In boards.

PERCY SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS. No. 94. Three copies.

MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESS OF ABRANTES. (Translation.) 8 vols. 8vo. Bentley.

POEMS OF "ALASDAIR MAC MHAIGHSTIR ALASDAIR" MACDONALD.

{54} SMITH'S COLLECTANEA ANTIQUA. 2 vols. 8vo.; or Vol. I.

BREWSTER'S MEMOIR OF REV. HUGH MOISES, M.A., Master of Newcastle Grammar
School.

RELIGIO MILITIS; or Christianity for the Camp. Longmans, 1826.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
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*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.--_In our early Numbers we inserted an address to
Correspondents, in which we observed, "Correspondents will see, on a very
little reflection, that it is plainly the Editor's interest to take all he
can get, and make the most and the best of everything; and therefore he
begs them to take for granted that their communications are received and
appreciated, even if the succeeding Numbers bear no proof of it. He is
convinced that the want of specific acknowledgment will only be felt by
those who have no idea of the labour and difficulty attendant on the
hurried management of such a work, and of the impossibility of sometimes
giving an explanation, when there really is one which would quite satisfy
the writer, for the delay or non-insertion of his communication.
Correspondents in such cases have no reason, and, if they understood an
Editor's position, they would feel that they have no right, to consider
themselves undervalued: but nothing short of personal experience in
editorship would explain to them the perplexities and evil consequences
arising from the opposite course." We have thought well to repeat this
general explanation because we have this week received two inquiries
respecting the non-insertion of communications, neither party giving us his
name nor the subject of the non-inserted communication._

H. H. H.'s (Ashburton) _letter has been forwarded to_ DR. DIAMOND. _It is
not the first by many which we have received expressive of the writer's
thanks for his valuable Photographic Papers._

ALPHA _complains in so generous a spirit that we regret we cannot agree
with him. We assure him that, on the first point on which he writes, he is
the only one who has so written, while we have had dozens of letters of
thanks; and he will see in the present No._ (antè, p. 34.) _the value of
the art recognised by a gentleman under whose notice it would probably
never have been brought in a purely scientific journal. The second
suggestion is one to which we, and many of our brethren of the Press, have
turned our attention frequently, but hitherto unsuccessfully. The
difficulties are greater than ALPHA imagines._

T. W. U. KEYE. _Will our Correspondent favour us with particulars?_

ENQUIRER _cannot do better than follow the directions for the Paper Process
given by_ DR. DIAMOND _in our last Number. We hope soon to be able to give
him satisfactory information on the other points of his communication_.

THE INDEX AND TITLE-PAGE _to our Sixth Volume will be ready for delivery on
Saturday next_.

_A neat case for holding the Numbers of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _until the
completion of each Volume, is now ready, price_ 1s. 6d., _and may be had,
by order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

ERRATUM. _In the Number of last week the passage from the Septuagint quoted
at_ p. 14. _ought to have stood thus_: "[Greek: gegraptai de, auton palin
agastêsesthai meth' hôn ho Kurios anistêsin]."--Cambridge edition of 1665.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY,

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

   _Directors._
  H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
  William Cabell, Esq.
  T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. Henry Drew, Esq.
  William Evans, Esq.
  William Freeman, Esq.
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   _Trustees._
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.;
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_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
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  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHAKSPEARE SOCIETY.

MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S Volume of Notes and Emendations on the Text of
SHAKSPEARE, derived from the unpublished and highly important manuscript
corrections, made by a cotemporary, in the Folio Edition of 1632, will be
ready on the 11th instant for delivery to the Subscribers who have paid
their Subscription for the year ending December, 1852, at the Agents', MR.
SKEFFINGTON, 192. Piccadilly.

F. G. TOMLINS, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


RALPH'S SERMON PAPER,--This approved Paper is particularly deserving the
notice of the Clergy, as, from its particular form (each page measuring 5¾
by 9 inches), it will contain more matter than the size in ordinary use,
and, from the width being narrower, is much more easy to read: adapted for
expeditious writing with either the quill or metallic pen; price 5s. per
ream. Sample on application.

ENVELOPE PAPER.--To identify the contents with the address and postmark,
important in all business communications; it admits of three clear pages
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more economical. Price 9s. 6d. per ream.

F. W. RALPH, Manufacturing Stationer, 36. Throgmorton Street, Bank.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
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       *       *       *       *       *


Foolscap 8vo. price 6s.

THE PRACTICAL WORKING of THE CHURCH OF SPAIN. By the Rev. FREDERICK
MEYRICK, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

    "Pleasant meadows, happy peasants, all holy monks, all holy priests,
    holy every body. Such charity and such unity, when every man was a
    Catholic. I once believed in this Utopia myself, but when tested by
    stern facts, it all melts away like dream."--_A. Welby Pugin._

    "The revelations made by such writers as Mr. Meyrick in Spain and Mr.
    Gladstone in Italy, have at least vindicated for the Church of England
    a providential and morally defined position, mission, and purpose in
    the Catholic Church."--_Morning Chronicle._

    "Two valuable works ... to the truthfulness of which we are glad to add
    our own testimony: one, and the most important, is Mr. Meyrick's
    'Practical Working of the Church of Spain.' This is the experience--and
    it is the experience of every Spanish traveller--of a thoughtful
    person, as to the lamentable results of unchecked Romanism. Here is the
    solid substantial fact. Spain is divided between ultra-infidelity and
    what is so closely akin to actual idolatry, that it can only be
    controversially, not practically, distinguished from it: and over all
    hangs a lurid cloud of systematic immorality, simply frightful to
    contemplate. We can offer a direct, and even personal, testimony to all
    that Mr. Meyrick has to say."--_Christian Remembrancer._

    "I wish to recommend it strongly."--_T. K. Arnold's Theological
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    "Many passing travellers have thrown more or less light upon the state
    of Romanism and Christianity in Spain, according to their objects and
    opportunities; but we suspect these 'workings' are the fullest, the
    most natural, and the most trustworthy, of anything that has appeared
    upon the subject since the time of Blanco White's
    Confessions."--_Spectator._

    "This honest exposition of the practical working of Romanism in Spain,
    of its everyday effects, not its canons and theories, deserves the
    careful study of all, who, unable to test the question abroad, are
    dazzled by the distant mirage with which the Vatican mocks many a
    yearning soul that thirsts after water-brooks pure and
    full."--_Literary Gazette._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{55}

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
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Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

THE WAXED-PAPER PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE LE GREY. New Edition.
Translated from the last Edition of the French.

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Manufacturers of Photographic Apparatus and Materials, consisting of
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ROSS'S PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE LENSES.--These lenses give
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A. R. invites those interested in the art to inspect the large Photographs
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Catalogues sent upon Application.

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *


VOLUME I. OF THE

RE-ISSUE OF LIVES

OF THE

QUEENS OF ENGLAND,

By AGNES STRICKLAND,

Comprising all the recent Important Additions, PORTRAITS of all the QUEENS,
&c.,

IS PUBLISHED THIS DAY,

To be completed in eight Monthly Volumes 8vo., price 10s. 6d. each,
handsomely bound.

Published for HENRY COLBURN, by his successors, HURST & BLACKETT, 13. Great
Marlborough Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 1 vol. 8vo., price 9s.

ANCIENT IRISH MINSTRELSY, by REV. W. HAMILTON DRUMMOND, D.D., M.R.S.A.

"A graceful addition to the lover of Ancient Minstrelsy, whether he be
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he need not be Irish to enjoy the fruits of Dr. D.'s labours."--_The Dublin
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    Dublin: HODGES & SMITH, Grafton Street. London: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, &
    CO., 4. Stationers' Hall Court.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
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Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

    BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
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       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS of absolute Purity, especially prepared for this
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Prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, Chemist, &c., 10. Pall Mall.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
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       *       *       *       *       *


THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for JANUARY 1853, which is the First Number of a
New Volume, contains the following articles:--

    1. King Charles I. in the Isle of Wight.

    2. Original Letters of Benjamin Franklin.

    3. Farinelli and Pompadour.

    4. Henry Newcome, the Manchester Puritan.

    5. A Journey to Paris in 1736.

    6. The Cloister Life of Charles V.

    7. The Hill Intrenchments on the Borders of Wales, by T. Wright, F.S.A.
    (with Engravings).

    8. Report of the Cambridge University Commission.

    9. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban:--1. Pictures of the Immaculate
    Conception. 2. The Relic of St. Mary Axe. 3. Harley Church, Salop. 4.
    Etymology of the word Many.

With Notes of the Month, Reviews of New Publications, Historical Chronicle,
and OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Earl of Shrewsbury, Countess of
Lovelace, Sir J. J. Guest, Miss Berry, Professor Empson, Mr. Serjeant
Halcomb, &c. &c.

A Specimen Number sent on the receipt of 2s. 6d. in Postage Stamps.

NICOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *


{56}

Now ready, in Seven Volumes, medium 4to., cloth, pp. 4,167, Price Fourteen
Guineas,

THE ANNALS OF IRELAND;

    From the Original of the Four Masters, from the earliest Historic
    Period to the Conclusion in 1616; consisting of the Irish Text from the
    Original MSS., and an English Translation, with copious Explanatory
    Notes, an Index of Names, and an Index of Places, by JOHN O'DONOVAN,
    Esq., LL.D., Barrister at Law; Professor of the Celtic Language,
    Queen's College, Belfast.

_Extract from the_ DUBLIN REVIEW.

    "We can but hope, within the limited space at our disposal, to render a
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    unexamined; many of them in a language which is to a great extent
    obsolete."

A Prospectus of the Work will be forwarded gratis to any application made
to the Publishers.

Dublin: HODGES & SMITH, Grafton Street, Booksellers to the University.

London: LONGMAN & Co.; and SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & Co.

       *       *       *       *       *


125. _Fleet Street, London_, Jan. 1. 1853.

_One Hundred Days' Sale of Books and other Property._

MR. L.A. LEWIS, Auctioneer of Literary Property (Established 1825, without
change of name or firm), will have SALES by AUCTION of LIBRARIES, SMALL
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  On THURSDAY, 12th, FRIDAY, 13th, and SATURDAY, 14th of May.
  On SATURDAY, 21st of May.
  On FRIDAY, 27th, and SATURDAY, 28th of May.
  On FRIDAY, 3rd, and SATURDAY, 4th of June.
  On FRIDAY, 10th, and SATURDAY, 11th of June.
  On THURSDAY, 16th, FRIDAY, 17th, and SATURDAY, 18th of June.
  On SATURDAY, 25th of June.
  On FRIDAY, 1st, and SATURDAY, 2nd of July.
  On FRIDAY, 8th, and SATURDAY, 9th of July.
  On FRIDAY, 15th, and SATURDAY, 16th of July.
  On THURSDAY, 21st, FRIDAY, 22nd, and SATURDAY, 23rd of July.
  On SATURDAY, 30th of July.
  On THURSDAY, 4th, FRIDAY, 5th, and SATURDAY, 6th of August.
  on FRIDAY, 12th, and SATURDAY, 13th of August.
  On FRIDAY, 19th, and SATURDAY, 20th of August.
  On FRIDAY, 26th, and SATURDAY, 27th of August.
  On SATURDAY, 3rd of September.
  On FRIDAY, 9th, and SATURDAY, 10th of September.
  On FRIDAY, 16th, and SATURDAY, 17th of September.
  On FRIDAY, 23rd, and SATURDAY, 24th of September.
  On FRIDAY, 30th of September, and SATURDAY, 1st of October.
  On SATURDAY, 8th of October.
  On FRIDAY, 14th, and SATURDAY, 15th of October.
  On FRIDAY, 21st, and SATURDAY, 22nd of October.
  On FRIDAY, 28th, and SATURDAY, 29th of October.
  On FRIDAY, 4th, and SATURDAY, 5th of November.
  On SATURDAY, 12th of November.
  On FRIDAY, 18th, and SATURDAY, 19th of November.
  On FRIDAY, 25th, and SATURDAY, 26th of November.
  On FRIDAY, 2nd, and SATURDAY, 3rd of December.
  On FRIDAY, 9th, and SATURDAY, 10th of December.
  On SATURDAY, 17th of December.
  On FRIDAY, 23rd, and SATURDAY, 24th of December.
  On FRIDAY, 30th, and SATURDAY, 31st of December.

MR. L. A. LEWIS will also have occasional Sales of Printing and
Book-binding Materials, Household Furniture, and General Effects.

       *       *       *       *       *


CLASSICAL EDUCATION IN FRANCE.--A married gentleman, of literary habits, a
graduate and repeated prizeman of Cambridge, who has resided many years in
France, receives into his family THREE PUPILS, to whom with his own younger
son he devotes the whole of his time. There are now vacancies: terms,
including masters for French, German, and Drawing, 100 guineas per annum.

Address H. I. D., at MR. BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OR GARDENS.

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE.

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, January 1, contains Articles on

  Agriculture, progress of
  Aphelexis
  Apple, golden pippin
  Birds, destructive, by Messrs. Hardy
  Calendar, Horticultural
  Carrots, cattle
  Cement for stoneware
  Chicory, to roast
  College, Cirencester, sessional examination at
  Drains, stoppage of, by Mr. Sherrard
  Eau de lessive
  Emigrant, the, Rev.
  Fairclough's (Mr.) farm
  Farm valuation, by Mr. Morton
  Farming, the year's experience in, by the Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt
  Flowers, florist, by Mr. Edwards
  Fruits, Syrian
  Gardenia Fortuni
  Gift Hall farm, cheese-making at
  Grapes, Red Hamburgh, by Mr. Thompson
  Hort. Society's Garden
  Land question
  Lanktree's Elements of Land Valuation, Rev.
  Larch, durability of, by Mr. Patterson
  Melons in St. Michael's, by Mr. Wallace
  Mildew
  Mushrooms, by Mr. Massey
  Nuts, cedar
  Plough, drain
  Poultry
  Primula sinensis
  Rabbits, rearing of
  Reptiles, temperature of, by M. Aug. Duméril
  Reviews, miscellaneous
  Roots, curious instances of formation of, by Mr. Booth (with engraving)
  Societies, Proceedings of the Caledonian; Horticultural; Fylde
      Agricultural
  St. Michael's, melons in, by Mr. Wallace
  Statistics, agricultural, by Dr. Mackenzie
  Tanks, water
  Tree-lifter, McGlashen's
  Turnips, Lois Weedon
  ---- at Kettering
  Wardian cases
  Wind gauge.

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to
the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 8. 1853.





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