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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 168, January 15, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Libraries)



{57}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 168.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 15. 1852
[With Index, price 10d. Stamped Edition 11d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Inedited Poem by Pope                                         57

  Southey's "Doctor:" St. Matthias' Day in Leap-year, by
    P. J. Yarrum                                                58

  Oxfordshire Legend in Stone, by B. H. Cowper                  58

  Lady Nevell's Music-Book                                      59

  Bishop Burnet, by Wm. L. Nichols                              59

  A Monastic Kitchener's Account                                60

  The Fairies in New Ross, by Patrick Cody                      61

  MINOR NOTES:--The Duke of Wellington and Marshal Ney:
    Parallel Passage in the Life of Washington and Major
    André--St. Bernard _versus_ Fulke Greville--St.
    Munoki's Day--Epitaph in Chesham Churchyard--Gentlemen
    Pensioners--Marlborough: curious Case of Municipal
    Opposition to County Magistracy--Wet Season in
    1348--General Wolfe                                         62

  QUERIES:--

  Pope and the Marquis Maffei                                   64

  The Church Catechism, by C. J. Armistead                      64

  A Countess of Southampton                                     64

  MINOR QUERIES:--Hardening Steel Bars--Pierrepoint--Ceylon--
    Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting--"To talk like a
    Dutch Uncle"--Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Belgium--
    Charter of Waterford--Inscription on Penny of George
    III.--"Shob" or "Shub," a Kentish Word--Bishop Pursglove
    (Suffragan) of Hull--Stewarts of Holland--Robert Wauchope,
    Archbishop of Armagh, 1543--Plum-pudding--"Whene'er I
    asked"--Immoral Works--Arms at Bristol--Passage in
    Thomson--"For God will be your King to-day"--"See where
    the startled wild fowl"--Ascension-day--The Grogog
    of a Castle                                                 65

  REPLIES:--

  Canongate Marriages                                           67

  Lady Katherine Grey                                           68

  Howlett the Engraver, by B. Hudson                            69

  Chaucer                                                       69

  PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES:--Pyrogallic Acid--
    Stereoscopic Pictures with One Camera--Mr. Crookes'
    Wax-paper Process--India Rubber a Substitute for Yellow
    Glass--Dr. Diamond's Paper Processes                        70

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Ancient Timber Town-halls--
    Magnetic Intensity--Monument at Wadstena--David Routh,
    R. C. Bishop of Ossory--Cardinal Erskine--"Ne'er to these
    chambers," &c.--The Budget--"Catching a Tartar"--The
    Termination "-itis"                                         71

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  73

  Notices to Correspondents                                     73

  Advertisements                                                74

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

INEDITED POEM BY POPE.

In an original letter from James Boaden to Northcote the artist, I find the
following passage; and I add to it the verses to which allusion is therein
made:

 "60. Warren Street, Fitzroy Square.
 "28th August, 1827.

 "My dear friend,

"The verses annexed are so fine, that you should put them into your copy of
Pope, among the Miscellanies. Dr. Warburton received them too late for his
edition of our poet, and I find them only in a letter from the prelate to
Dr. Hurd, dated 'Prior Park, June 24th, 1765.'

"I have used the freedom to mark a few of the finest touches with a pencil,
to show you _my_ feeling. These you can rub out easily, and afterwards
indulge your own. The style of interrogation seems to have revived in
Gray's Elegy. Hurd would send the verses to Mason as soon as he got them;
and Mason and Gray, as you know, were _one_ in all their studies.

         "I do not forget the Fables.
                 "Yours, my dear friend, always,
                         "J. BOADEN.
 "J. Northcote, Esq."

Not having by me any modern edition of Pope's _Works_, may I ask whether
these verses, thus transcribed for Northcote by his friend Boaden, have yet
been introduced to the public?

    _Verses by Mr. Pope, on the late Dean of Carlisle's (Dr. Bolton) having
    written and published a Paper to the Memory of Mrs. Butler, of Sussex,
    Mother to old Lady Blount of Twickenham._

    [They are supposed to be spoken by the deceased lady to the author of
    that paper, which drew her character.]

 "Stript to the naked soul, escaped from clay,
  From doubts unfetter'd, and dissolved in day;
  Unwarm'd by vanity, unreach'd by strife,
  And all my hopes and fears thrown off with life;
  Why am I charm'd by Friendship's fond essays,
  And tho' unbodied, conscious of thy praise?
  {58}
  Has pride a portion in the parted soul?
  Does passion still the formless mind control?
  Can gratitude outpant the silent breath,
  Or a friend's sorrow pierce the glooms of death?
  No, 'tis a spirit's nobler taste of bliss,
  That feels the worth it left, in proofs like this;
  That not its own applause but thine approves,
  Whose practice praises, and whose virtue loves;
  Who liv'st to crown departed friends with fame;
  Then dying, late, shalt all thou gav'st reclaim.
                                  MR. POPE."

A. F. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOUTHEY'S "DOCTOR;" ST. MATTHIAS' DAY IN LEAP-YEAR.

In looking over the 1848 edition of Southey's book, _The Doctor_, I observe
an error which has escaped the care and revision of the editor, the Rev. J.
W. Warter, B.D. At p. 199., where Southey is referring to the advantages of
almanacs, he writes:

    "Who is there that has not sometimes had occasion to consult the
    almanac? Maximilian I., by neglecting to do this, failed in an
    enterprise against Bruges. It had been concerted with his adherents in
    that turbulent city, that he should appear before it at a certain time,
    and they would be ready to rise in his behalf, and open the gates for
    him. He forgot that it was leap-year, and came a day too soon; and this
    error on his part cost many of the most zealous of his friends their
    lives. It is remarkable that neither the historian who relates this,
    nor the writers who have followed him, should have looked into the
    almanac to guard against any inaccuracy in the relation; _for they have
    fixed the appointed day on the eve of St. Matthias, which being the
    23rd of February, could not be put out of its course by leap-year_."

The words in Italics show Southey's mistake. This historian was quite
correct: as, according to the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church,
although the regular festival of St. Matthias is celebrated upon the 24th
of February, yet, "in anno bissextili Februarius est dierum 29, et Festum
S. Mathiæ celebratur 25 Februarii." Thus it will be seen, that the year
when Maximilian was to have appeared before Bruges being leap-year, and the
day appointed being the eve of St. Matthias, he should have come upon the
24th, not the 23rd of February: the leap-year making all the difference.

P. J. YARRUM.

Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

OXFORDSHIRE LEGEND IN STONE.

A few miles from Chipping-Norton, by the side of a road which divides
Oxfordshire from Warwickshire, and on the brow of a hill overlooking Long
Compton, stand the remains of a Druidical temple. Leland speaks of them as
"Rollright stones," from their being in the parish of Rollright. The temple
consists of a single circle of stones, from fifty to sixty in number, of
various sizes and in different positions, but all of them rough, time-worn,
and mutilated. The peasantry say that it is impossible to count these
stones, and certainly it is a difficult task, though not because there is
any witchcraft in the matter, but owing to the peculiar position of some of
them. You will hear of a certain baker who resolved not to be outwitted, so
hied to the spot with a basketful of small loaves, one of which he placed
on every stone. In vain he tried; either his loaves were not sufficiently
numerous, or some sorcery displaced them, and he gave up in despair. Of
course no one expects to succeed now.

In a field adjoining are the remains of a cromlech, the altar where, at a
distance from the people, the priests performed their mystic rites. The
superimposed stone has slipped off, and rests against the others. These are
the "Whispering Knights," and this their history:--In days of yore, when
rival princes debated their claims to England's crown by dint of arms, the
hostile forces were encamped hard by. Certain traitor-knights went forth to
parley with others from the foe. While thus plotting, a great magician,
whose power they unaccountably overlooked, transformed them all into stone,
and there they stand to this day.

Not far from the temple, but on the opposite side of the road, is a
solitary stone, probably the last of two rows which flanked the approach to
the sacred circle. This stone was once a prince who claimed the British
throne. On this spot he inquired of the magician above named what would be
his destiny:

 "If Long Compton you can see,
  King of England you shall be,"

answered the wise man. But he could not see it, and at once shared the fate
of the "Whispering Knights." This is called the "King's stone," and so
stands that, while you cannot see Long Compton from it, you can if you go
forward a very little way. On some future day an armed warrior will issue
from this very stone, to conquer and govern our land!

It is said that a farmer, who wished to bridge over a small stream at the
foot of the hill, resolved to press the "Whispering Knights" into the
service; but it was almost too much for all the horse power at his command
to bring them down. At length they were placed, but all they could do was
not sufficient to keep them in their place. It was therefore resolved to
restore them to their original post, when, lo! they who required so much to
bring them down, and defied all attempts to keep them quiet, were taken
back almost without an effort by a single horse! So there they stand, {59}
till they and the rest (for I believe the large circle was once composed of
living men) shall return to their proper manhood.

Other legends respecting this curious relic might, I doubt not, be obtained
on the spot. I obtained the above in answer to inquiries, when making a
pilgrimage to the place.

B. H. COWPER.

       *       *       *       *       *

LADY NEVELL'S MUSIC-BOOK.

The following contents of the Lady Nevell's music-book (1591) may be
interesting to many of your readers:

      "1. My Ladye Nevell's Grownde.
       2. Que passe, for my Ladye Nevell.
       3. The March before the Battell.
       4. The Battell.
          The March of Footemen.
          The March of Horsemen.
          The Trumpetts.
          The Irishe Marche.
          The Bagpipe and Drone.
          The Flute and Dromme.
          The Marche to Fight.
          Tantara.
          The Battells be ioyned.
          The Retreat.
       5. The Galliarde for the Victorie.
       6. The Barley Breake.
       7. The Galliarde Gygg.
       8. The Hunt's upp.
       9. Ut re mi fa sol la.
      10. The first Pauian.
      11. The Galliard to the same.
      12. The seconde Pauian.
      13. The Galliarde to the same.
      14. The third Pauian.
      15. The Galliarde to the same.
      16. The fourth Pauian.
      17. The Galliarde to the same.
      18. The fifte Pauian.
      19. The Galliarde to the same.
      20. The sixte Pauian.
      21. The Galliarde to the same.
      22. The seventh Pauian.
      23. The eighte Pauian.
          The passinge mesurs is,
      24. The nynthe Pauian.
      25. The Galliarde to the same.
      26. The Voluntarie Lesson.
      27. Will you walk the Woods soe wylde.
      28. The Mayden's Song.
      29. A Lesson of Voluntarie.
      30. The second Grownde.
      31. Have w^t you to Walsingame.
      32. All in a Garden greene.
      33. The lo. Willobie's welcome home.
      34. The Carman's Whistle.
      35. Hughe Ashton's Grownde.
      36. A Fancie, for my Ladye Nevell.
      37. Sellinger's Rownde.
      38. Munser's Almaine.
      39. The tenth Pauian, Mr. W. Peter.
      40. The Galliarde to the same.
      41. A Fancie.
      42. A Voluntarie.
                  Finis.

    Ffinished and ended the Leventh of September, in the yeare of our Lorde
    God 1591, and in the 33 yeare of the raigne of our sofferaine ladie
    Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queen of England, &c., by me, Jo.
    Baldwine of Windsore.

      Laudes Deo."

The songs have no words to them. Most of the airs are signed "Mr. William
Birde."

A modern MS. note in the book states that the book is "Lady Nevell's
Music-book," and that she seems "to have been the scholar of Birde, who
professedly composed several of the pieces for her ladyship's use;" and
that sixteen of the forty-two pieces are "in the Virginal Book of Queen
Elizabeth," and that "Jo. Baldwine was a singing-man at Windsor." The music
is written on four-staved paper of six lines, in large bold characters,
with great neatness. The notes are lozenge-shape. Can any of your
correspondents furnish rules for transposing these six-line staves into the
five-line staves of modern notations?

L. B. L.

       *       *       *       *       *

BISHOP BURNET.

Having but recently become acquainted with your useful and learned work
(for _scire ubi aliquid invenire possis, magna pars eruditionis est_), I
have been much interested in looking over the earlier volumes. Allow me to
add a couple of links to your _catena_ on Bishop Burnet. The first is the
opinion of Hampton, the translator of Polybius; the other is especially
valuable, it being nothing less than the portrait of Burnet drawn by
himself, but certainly not with any idea of its being suspended beside the
worthies of his "Own Time," for the edification of posterity.

Hampton's testimony is as follows:

    "His personal resentments put him upon writing history. He relates the
    actions of a persecutor and benefactor; and it is easy to believe that
    a man in such circumstances must violate the laws of truth. The
    remembrance of his injuries is always present, and gives venom to his
    pen. Let us add to this, that intemperate and malicious curiosity which
    penetrates into the most private recesses of vice. The greatest of his
    triumphs is to draw the veil of secret infamy, and expose to view
    transactions that were before concealed from the world; though they
    serve not in the least either to embellish the style or connect the
    series of his history, and will never obtain more credit than, perhaps,
    to suspend the judgment of the reader, since they are supported only by
    one single, _suspected_ testimony."--_Reflections on Ancient and Modern
    History_, 4to.: Oxford, 1746.

Let me now refer you to a document, written with his own hand, which sets
the question of {60} Burnet's truthfulness and impartiality in his
delineations of character completely at rest.

From the Napier charter-chest, "by a species of retributive justice," there
has recently risen up in judgment against him _a letter of his own, proving
his own character_. It is, I regret, too long for insertion in your pages
_in extenso_, but no abstract can give an adequate idea of its contents. It
is, in fact, so mean and abject as almost to overpass belief. I must refer
your readers to Mr. Mark Napier's _Montrose and the Covenanters_, vol. i.
pp. 13-21. All the reflections of the Whig historian Dalrymple, all the
severe remarks of Swift and Lord Dartmouth, as to Burnet's dishonesty and
malice, would now seem well bestowed upon a writer so despicable and
faithless, and the credit of whose statements, when resting _on his own
sole authority_, must be totally destroyed. This curious epistle was
written, in an agony of fear, on a Sunday morning, during the memorable
crisis of the Rye-House plot, and while Lord Russell was on the eve of his
execution. Addressed to Lord Halifax, it was intended to meet the eye of
the King. It evidently proves the writer's want of veracity in divers
subsequent statements in his history. The future bishop also protests that
he never will accept of any preferment, promises never more to oppose the
Court, and intimates an intention to paint the King in the fairest
light--"if I ever live to finish what I am about;" _i.e._ the _History of
his Own Time_, in which the villanous portrait of Charles afterwards
appeared.

    "Here, then," says Mr. Napier, "is Burnet _Redivivus_; and now the
    bishop may call Montrose a coward or what he likes, and persuade the
    world of his own super-eminent moral courage, if he can. For our own
    part, after reading the above letter, we do not believe one malicious
    word of what Burnet has uttered in the _History of his Own Time_
    against Charles I. and Montrose; and he has therein said nothing about
    them that is not malicious. We do not believe that the apology for
    Hamilton, which he has given to the world in the memoirs of that House,
    is by any means so truthful an exposition of the character of that
    mysterious marquis as the letters and papers entrusted to the bishop
    enabled him to give. We feel thoroughly persuaded that Bishop Burnet,
    in that work, as well as in the _History of his Own Time_, reversed the
    golden maxim of Cicero, '_Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non
    audeat_.' The marvellous of himself, and the malicious of others, we
    henceforth altogether disbelieve, when resting on the sole authority of
    the bishop's historical record, and will never listen to when retailed
    traditionally and at second-hand from him. Finally, we do believe the
    truth of the anecdote, that the bishop, 'after a debate in the House of
    Lords, usually went home and altered everybody's character as they had
    pleased or displeased him that day;' and that he kept weaving in secret
    this chronicle of his times, not to enlighten posterity or for the
    cause of truth, but as a means of indulging in safety his own
    interested or malicious feelings towards the individuals that pleased
    or offended him. So much for Bishop Burnet, whose authority must
    henceforth always be received _cum nota_."

WM. L. NICHOLS.

Lansdown Place, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *

A MONASTIC KITCHENER'S ACCOUNT.

(From a volume of memoranda touching the monastery of Whalley, temp. Henry
VIII., among the records of the Court of Augmentation.)

    "Dyv'se somes of money leid oute by me Jamys More, monke and kechyner
    to the late Abbot of Whalley, for and conc'nynge dyv'se caitts bought
    by the seid Jamys of dyv'se [p=]sons, as hereaft' dothe [p=]ticlerly
    appire by [p=]cells whiche came to thuse of the seid house, and spent
    yn the seid house from the last daye of December until the ---- daye of
    Marche then next folowynge yn the xxviij^{th} yere of the reign of
    Kynge Henry the viij^{th}, whiche somes of money the said Jamys asketh
    allowance.

  First payde to Edmunde Taillor Fischer
  for ---- salt salmons, spent in the seyd
  late abbott kechyn syns the tyme of his
  accompt                                               xxv^s

  Itm. Payde to the seid Edmunde for xj
  freshe salmons, bought of the said Edmunde
  to thuse, &c. of the seid house,
  there spent by the seid tyme                          xxv^s

  Itm. Payde to Will'm Newbbet for fresh
  fische                                                iij^s    iij^d

  Itm. Payde for vj capons, bought at Fastyngeseven
  of dyv'se [p=]sons                                     ij^s

  Itm. Payde for xxxv hennes, bought of
  dyv'se [p=]sons                                         v^s      x^d

  Itm. Payde for eggs, butter, chese, bought
  of dyv'se [p=]sons betwixt Cristmas and
  Fastyngsevyn, spent yn the seid house              xxiiij^s

  Itm. Payde for mustersede                               v^s

  Itm. Bought of Will'm Fische viij potts
  hony-pric                                               x^s

  Itm. Bought of Anthony Watson vij gallons
  hony                                                   ix^s   iiij^d

  Itm. Bought of John Colthirst ij gallons
  hony                                                   ij^s   iiij^d

  Itm. Payde to Richard Jackson for xvij^c
  sparlyngs                                              ix^s   viii^d

  Sum of the payments         vj^{li} xviij^d (sic in orig.)

  Itm. The same Jamys askyth allowance of xiiij^s, whiche
  the seid late abbott dyd owe hym at the tyme of his
  last accompt, whiche endyd at Cristmas last past, as
  yt dothe appire by the accompt of the seid Jamys
  More.

  Itm. The late abbott of Whalley dyd owe unto the
  seid Jamys More, for a grey stagg that the seid
  late abbott dyd by of the same Jamys by the space
  of a yere syns                                          x^s

                                  By me JAMES MOR."

The advowson of the parish church of Whalley having been bequeathed to the
White Monks of Stanlawe (Cheshire), they removed their abbey {61} there
A.D. 1206; it being dedicated to the Virgin Mary ("Locus Benedictus de
Whalley"), and having about sixty indwellers. (Tanner's _Notitia_.)

ANON.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE FAIRIES IN NEW ROSS.

     "When moonlight
      Near midnight
  Tips the rock and waving wood;
      When moonlight
      Near midnight
  Silvers o'er the sleeping flood;
      When yew tops
      With dew-drops
  Sparkle o'er deserted graves;
     'Tis then we fly
      Through welkin high,
  Then we sail o'er yellow waves."

  _Book of Irish Ballads._

There lived, some thirty years since, in the eastern part of the suburbs of
New Ross, in the county of Wexford, denominated the "Maudlins," a hedge
carpenter named Davy Hanlan, better known to his neighbours by the
sobriquet of "Milleadh Maide," or "Speilstick." Davy plied his trade with
all the assiduity of an industrious man, "and laboured in all kinds of
weather" to maintain his little family; and as his art consisted
principally in manufacturing carts, ploughs, and harrows (iron ploughs not
being then in use) for the surrounding farmers, and doctoring their old
ones, the sphere of Davy's avocations was confined to no mean limits.

It was a dry, sharp night, in the month of November, and darkness had set
in long before Davy left Mount Hanover, two miles distant from his home. At
length he started forward, and had already reached the bridge of the
Maudlins, when he stopped to rest; for besides his tools he carried a
bundle of wheaten straw, which he intended for a more than usually
comfortable "shake-down" for his dear rib Winny. The moon had by this time
ascended above the horizon, and by its silvery radiance depicted in
delicate outline the hills rising in the distance, while the tender rays
mixing with, and faintly illumining the gloom of the intermediate valleys,
formed a mass of light and shade so exquisitely blended as to appear the
work of enchantment. As Davy leaned on the parapet of the bridge, a thrill
of alarm involuntarily disturbed his feelings: he was about to depart when
he heard a clamorous sound, as of voices, proceeding from that part of the
valley on which he still gazed. Curiosity now tempted him to listen still
longer, when suddenly he saw a group of dwarfish beings emerging from the
gloom, and coming rapidly towards him, along the green marsh that borders
the Maudlin stream. Poor Davy was terror-stricken at this unusual sight; in
vain he attempted to escape: he was, as it were, spellbound. Instantly the
whole company gained the road beside him, and after a moment's consultation
they simultaneously cried out, "Where is my horse? give me my horse!" &c.
In the twinkling of an eye they were all mounted. Davy's feelings may be
more easily imagined than described, and in a fit of unconsciousness his
tongue, as it were mechanically, articulated "Where is my horse?"
Immediately he found himself astride on a rude piece of timber, somewhat in
shape of a plough-beam, by which he was raised aloft in the air. Away he
went, as he himself related, at the rate of nine knots an hour, gliding
smoothly through the liquid air. No aeronaut ever performed his expedition
with more intrepidity; and after about two hours' journeying the whole
cavalcade alighted in the midst of a large city, just as

 "The iron tongue of midnight had told twelve."

One of the party, who appeared to be a leader, conducted them from door to
door, Davy following in the rear; and at the first door he passed them the
word, "We cannot enter, the dust of the floor lies not behind the door."[1]
Other impediments prevented their ingress to the next two or three doors.

At length, having come to a door which was not guarded by any of these
insuperable sentinels which defy the force of fairy assault, he joyfully
cried out "We can enter here:" and immediately, as if by enchantment, the
door flew open, the party entered, and Davy, much astonished, found himself
within the walls of a spacious wine-store. Instantly the heads of wine
vessels were broken; bungs flew out; the carousing commenced; each boon
companion pledged his friend, as he bedewed his whiskers in the sparkling
beverage; and the wassail sounds float round the walls and hollow roof.
Davy, not yet recovered from his surprise, stood looking on, but could not
contrive to come at a drop: at length he asked a rather agreeable fairy who
was close to him to help him to some. "When I shall have done," said the
fairy, "I will give you this goblet, and you can drink." Very {62} soon
after he handed the goblet to Davy, who was about to drink, when the leader
gave the word of command:

 "Away, away, my good fairies, away!
  Let's revel in moonlight, and shun the dull day."

The horses were ready, the party mounted, and Davy was carried back to the
Maudlin bridge, bearing in his hand the silver goblet, as witness of his
exploit. Half dead he made his way home to Winny, who anxiously awaited
him; got to bed about four in the morning, to which he was confined by
illness for months afterwards. And as Davy "lived from hand to mouth," his
means were soon exhausted. Winny took the goblet and pledged it with Mr.
Alexander Whitney, the watchmaker, for five shillings. In a few days after
a gentleman who lived not twenty miles from Creywell Cremony came in to Mr.
Whitney's, saw the goblet, and recognised it as being once in his
possession, and marked with the initials "M. R.," and on examining it found
it to be the identical one which he had bestowed, some years before, on a
Spanish merchant. Davy, when able to get out, deposed on oath before the
Mayor of Ross (who is still living) to the facts narrated above. The
Spanish gentleman was written to, and in reply corroborated Davy's
statement, saying that on a certain night his wine-store was broken open,
vessels much injured, and his wine spilled and drunk, and the silver goblet
stolen. Davy was exonerated from any imputation of guilt in the affair, and
was careful, during his life, never again to rest at night on the Maudlin
bridge.

PATRICK CODY.

Mullinavat, county of Kilkenny.

[Footnote 1: Every good housewife is supposed to sweep the kitchen floor
previously to her going to bed; and the old women who are best skilled in
"fairy lore" affirm, that if, through any inadvertence, she should leave
the dust thus collected behind the door at night, this dust or sweepings
will have the power of opening the door to the fairies, should they come
the way. It is also believed that, if the broom should be left behind the
door, without being placed standing on its handle, it will possess the
power of admitting the fairies. Should the water in which the family had
washed their feet, before going to bed, be left in the vessel, on the
kitchen floor, without having a coal of fire put into it, if not thrown out
in the yard, it will act as porter to the fairies or good people.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The Duke of Wellington and Marshal Ney. Parallel Passage in the Life of
Washington and Major André._--J. R. of Cork (Vol. vi., p. 480.) tells how
Wellington was in his youth smitten with the charms of a lady, who, in
after-life having appealed to him to save the life of Ney, was not simply
unsuccessful in her object but was ordered to quit Paris forthwith. J. B.
Burke, in the _Patrician_, vol. vi. p. 372., tells how Washington
endeavoured to win the love of Mary Phillipse, and how he failed: how years
rolled on, and the rejected lover as Commander-in-Chief of the American
forces was supplicated by the same Mary, then the wife of Roger Morris, to
spare the life of Andre. The appeal failed, and one of the General's aides
was ordered to conduct the lady beyond the lines.

ST. JOHNS.

_St. Bernard versus Fulke Greville._--On lately reading over the fine
philosophical poem _Of Humane Learning_, by Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, I
was struck at finding that the 144th stanza was a literal transcript from
St. Bernard. Some of your readers may possibly be amused or interested by
the discovery:

     "Yet some seeke knowledge, meerely to be knowne,
      And idle curiositie that is;
      Some but to sell, not freely to bestow,
      These gaine and spend both time and health amisse;
      Embasing arts, by basely deeming so,
        Some to build others, which is charity,
        But those to build themselves, who wise men be."
                          _Workes_, p. 50.: Lond. 1633, 8vo.

    "Sunt namque qui scire volunt eo fine tantum, ut sciant: et turpis
    curiositas est. Et sunt item qui scire volunt, ut scientiam suam
    vendant, verbi causa pro pecunia, pro honoribus: et turpis quæstus est.
    Sed sunt quoque qui scire volunt, ut ædificentur: et prudentia
    est."--S. Bernardi _In Cantica Serm._ xxxvi. Sect 3. _Opp._, vol. i. p.
    1404. Parisiis, 1719, fol.

It is no mean eulogy upon Lord Brooke's poem just referred to, to say that
it stood high in the estimation of the late Rev. Hugh James Rose, and was
quoted approvingly by him in his lectures before the Durham University. My
acquaintance with it was first derived from that source, and I am confident
that many others of your readers sympathise with the wishes of MR.
CROSSLEY, for "a collected edition of the works of the two noble Grevilles"
("N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p. 139.). The facts upon which the tragedy of
_Mustapha_ is founded are graphically summed up by Knolles in his _Historie
of the Turkes_, pp. 757-65.: London, 1633, fol.

RT.

Warmington.

_St. Munoki's Day._--Professor Craik, in his _Romance of the Peerage_, vol.
ii. p. 337., with reference to the date of the death of Margaret Tudor,
Queen Dowager of Scotland, gives two authorities, namely, 24th November,
1541, from the _Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents_, and _St. Munoki's_ Day,
from the _Chronicle of Perth_, and then says: "I find no saint with a name
resembling _Munok_ in the common lists." Now this Note of mine has
originated in the belief that I _have found_ such a name in the _Calendar
of Saints_, or at any rate one very closely resembling it, if not the
identical _Munok_. "St. Marnok, B. patron of Killmarnock in Scotland,
honoured on the 25th October in the Scots Calendar." Now "Marnok" is most
probably _Munok_, the latter, perhaps, misspelt by a careless scribe in the
_Chronicle of Perth_. There is a discrepancy of a month certainly in these
two dates, 25th October and 24th November; but that is not very wonderful,
as a doubt of the exact day of Queen Margaret's decease evidently exists
among historians, for Pinkerton (vol. ii. p. 371.) conjectures June. The
above extract regarding St. Marnok is from a {63} curious old work in my
possession, published in 1761 in London, and entitled _A Memorial of
Ancient British Piety, or a British Martyrology_. It gives also the names
of St. Moroc, C., Nov. 8; St. Munnu, Ab., Oct. 21, both saints in the
Scottish calendar.

A. S. A.

Punjaub.

_Epitaph in Chesham Churchyard._--

             "As an
            Encouragement
        to Regularity, Integrity,
          and good Conduct,
              This Stone
  was erected at the general Expense
        of the Inhabitants of
        this Town and Parish
      to perpetuate the Memory of
          MATTHEW ARCHER,
  who served the Office of Clerk with
  the utmost Punctuality and Decorum
      for upwards of Thirty Years.
      He died 15th December, 1793."

F. B. RELTON.

_Gentlemen Pensioners._--

    "On Saturday last, the Secretary to the Band of Gentleman Pensioners
    did, by order of the Duke of Montague their Captain, dispatch circular
    letters to the said gentlemen, signifying his Grace's pleasure to
    revive the ancient rules and orders that were practised at the time of
    the first institution of the Band in the reign of King Henry VII., viz.
    that five of the said Gentleman Pensioners shall attend constantly
    every day in the antechamber of the palace where His Majesty shall be
    resident, from ten in the forenoon till three in the afternoon, the
    usual time of His Majesty's retiring to go to dinner; and on every
    Drawing Room night from eight to twelve."--_Weekly Journal_, Jan. 4,
    1735.

E.

_Marlborough; Curious Case of Municipal Opposition to County
Magistracy._--Shortly after the invasion of the elder Pretender, the
corporation of Marlborough so far defied the royal authority as to drive
the quarterly county sessions from the town; and high legal opinions were
not wanting to fortify the position thus assumed by the borough, on the
ground, namely, of its municipal charter, which secured to the town a court
of its own.

Now, we all know that in early times a borough's court-leet exempted the
burgesses from the jurisdiction of the sheriff's "tourn," and that up till
the period of the Municipal Reform bill, many charters still existed,
verbally sustaining such right of exemption; but the Queries which I wish
to put are the following. First, Though the crown's representative had no
jurisdiction, had he not a right to enter, and sit on cases foreign to the
borough? Secondly, What are the earliest instances of county quarter
sessions sitting in independent boroughs? Thirdly, Were the cases numerous
of similar acts of resistance at the period alluded to, viz. the reign of
George I.?

I take this occasion to state that I am drawing to conclusion a history of
Silkely Hundred, which includes Marlborough and Lord Ailesbury's seat; and
shall feel grateful for any information relating to the Pretender's
influence in that district. That it must have been considerable may be
argued from the Ailesbury alliance by marriage with the young Pretender.

J. WAYLEN.

Devizes.

_Wet Season in 1348._--Accidentally looking into Holinshed a few days ago,
I found that our present unusually wet season is not without a parellel,
indeed much exceeded; as on that occasion the harvest must have been a
complete failure, and dearth and disease consequently ensued. Providence,
however, has kindly blessed us with an average harvest; and, exclusive of
the disasters attendant upon storms and floods, I trust we shall escape any
further visitation. I annex an extract of the passage in Holinshed:

    "In this 22 yeare [of Edward III., A.D. 1348], from Midsummer to
    Christmasse, for the more part it continuallie rained, so that there
    was not one day and night drie togither, by reason whereof great flouds
    insued, and the ground therewith was sore corrupted, and manie
    inconueniences insued, as great sickenes, and other, insomuch that in
    the yeare following, in France, the people died wonderfullie in diverse
    places. In Italie also, and in manie other countries, as well in the
    lands of the infidels as in Christendome, this grieuous mortalitie
    reigned, to the great destruction of people. About the end of August,
    the like dearth began in diuerse places of England, and especiallie in
    London, continuing so for the space of twelue moneths following. And
    vpon that insued great barrennesse, as well of the sea as the land,
    neither of them yielding such plentie of things as before they had
    done. Wherevpon vittels and corne became scant and hard to come
    by."--_The Chronicles of Raphaell Holinshed_, fol., vol. iii. p. 378
    (black letter).

[Phi].

_General Wolfe._--It may interest many of your readers to know that a
portrait of General Wolfe, by Ramsay, 1758, is to be sold by Messrs.
Christie and Manson, at their rooms, 8. King Street, St. James's Square, on
Saturday, February 12.

The picture is marked No. 300 in the catalogue of the first two days' sale.
It formed part of the collection of a gentleman lately deceased, whom I had
the pleasure of knowing.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

{64}

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

POPE AND THE MARQUIS MAFFEI.

I would beg the insertion of the following Note, which occurs at p. 338. of
Walker's _Historical Memoir on Italian Tragedy_; with a view to
ascertaining whether any light has been thrown on the subject since the
publication of the work in question. I fear there is little chance of such
being the case, but still I would be glad to learn from any of your
correspondents, whether there is other evidence than the passage given from
the Marquis's letter to Voltaire, to prove that Pope was actually engaged
in the translation of his tragedy; or whether there is any allusion in the
cotemporary literature of the day, to such a work having been undertaken by
the bard of Twickenham.

    "It seems to have escaped the notice of all Pope's biographers, that
    when the Marquis Maffei visited Twickenham, in company with Lord
    Burlington and Dr. Mead, he found the English bard employed on a
    translation of his _Merope_: yet the public have been in possession of
    this anecdote about fifty years. The Marquis, in his answer to the
    celebrated letter addressed to him by Voltaire, says: 'Avendomi Mylord
    Conte di Burlington, e il Sig. Dottore Mead, l'uno e l'altro talenti
    rari, ed à quali quant' io debba non posso dire, condotto alla villa
    del Sig. Pope, ch' è il Voltaire dell Inghilterra, come voi siete il
    Pope della Francia, quel bravo Poeta mi fece vedere, che lavorava alla
    versione della mia Tragedia in versi Inglesi: se la terminasse, e che
    ne sia divenuto, non so.'--_La Merope_, ver. 1745, p. 180. With the
    fate of this version we are, and probably shall ever remain,
    unacquainted: it may, however, be safely presumed, that it was never
    finished to the satisfaction of the translator, and therefore committed
    to the flames."

T. C. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CHURCH CATECHISM.

Allow me to make the following inquiries through the pages of "N. & Q.,"
which may possibly elicit valuable information from some of your many
correspondents. In the Archbishop of York's questions put to candidates for
Holy Orders, Feb. 1850, occurred this Query: "The Church Catechism ... by
whom was the latter part added and put into its present form; and whence is
it chiefly derived?" The former part of this is readily answered; being, as
any one at all read in the history of the Prayer-Book well knows, added at
the Hampton Court Conference, 1603; and was drawn up by Bishop Overall, at
that time Dean of St. Paul's: but _whence is it chiefly derived?_ That is
the question for which I have hitherto sought in vain a satisfactory
solution, and fear his grace, or his examining chaplain, must have looked
in vain for a correct reply from any of his _quasi_ clergymen, college
education though they may have had. It is a point which seems to be passed
over entirely unnoticed by all of our liturgical writers and church
historians, as I have been at no little pains in searching works at all
likely to clear it up, but, hitherto, without success. It may be
conjectured that the part referred to, viz., on the Sacraments, was taken
from Dean Nowell's Catechism; or, at all events, that Overall borrowed some
of the expressions while he changed its meaning, as Nowell's was purely
Calvinistic in tendency. He may have had before him the fourth part of
Peter Lombard's _Liber Sententiarum_, or some such work. But all this is
mere supposition; and what I want to arrive at, is some correct data or
authoritative statement which would settle the point. Another interesting
matter upon which I am desirous of information, is, as to the protestation
after the rubrics at the end of the Communion Service. In our _present_
Prayer-Book it is in marks of quotation, which we do not find in the second
book of King Edward VI., where it originally appears--and the expressions
there admit the real presence. It was altogether left out in Elizabeth's
Prayer-Book, but again inserted in the last review in 1661, when the
inverted commas first appear: the sense being somewhat different, allowing
the spiritual but not the actual or bodily presence of Christ. Why are the
_commas_ or marks of quotation, if such they be, then inserted? I have
written to a well-known Archdeacon, eminent for his works on the
Sacraments, but his answer does not convey what is sought by

C. J. ARMISTEAD.

Springfield Mount, Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *

A COUNTESS OF SOUTHAMPTON.

I have just been reading, in the _Revue des deux Mondes_, an interesting
article upon the recently-published _Memoirs of Mademoiselle de
Koenigsmark_, in which I meet with the following passage:

    "Ce fut à Venise que Charles-Jean de Koenigsmark rencontra la belle
    Comtesse de Southampton, cette vaillante amoureuse qui, plantant la
    fortune et famille, le suivit désormais par le monde déguisée en page:
    romanesque anecdote que la princesse Palatine a consignée dans ses
    mémoires avec cette brusque rondeur de style qui ne marchande pas les
    expressions. 'Il doit être assez dans le caractère de quelques dames
    anglaises de suivre leurs amans. J'ai connu un Comte de Koenigsmark
    qu'une dame anglaise avait suivi en habit de page. Elle était avec lui
    à Chambord, et comme, faute de place, il ne pouvait loger au Château,
    il avait fait dresser dans la forêt une tente où il logeât. Il me
    raconta son aventure à la Masse; j'eu la curiosité de voir le
    soi-disant page. Je n'ai jamais rien vu de plus beau que cette figure:
    les plus beaux yeux du monde, une bouche charmante, une prodigieuse
    quantité de cheveux du plus beau brun, qui tombèrent en grosses boucles
    sur ses épaules. Elle sourit en me voyant, se doutant bien que je
    savais son secret. {65} Lorsqu'il partit de Chambord pour l'Italie, le
    Comte Koenigsmark se trouva dans une auberge, et en sortit le matin
    pour faire un tour de promenade. L'hotesse de cette maison courut après
    lui et lui cria: 'Montez vite là-haut, Monsieur, votre page accouche!'
    Le page accoucha en effet d'une fille: on mit la mère et l'enfant dans
    un couvent à Paris."

He afterwards went to England, where--

    "Les frères, cousins, et petits cousins de lady Southampton
    l'attendaient, et les duels se mirent à lui pleuvoir dessus. Comme son
    épée aimait assez à luire au soleil, il la tira volontiers, et avec une
    chance telle que ses ennemis, ne pouvant le vaincre par le fer,
    jugèrent à propos d'essayer du poison. Dégouté de perdre son temps à de
    pareilles misères, &c. &c. Tant que le comte a vecu il en a eu grand
    soin; mais il mourut en Morée, et le page fidèle ne lui survécut pas
    long-temps. Elle est morte comme une sainte."

Can you, or any of your correspondents, say _who_ this interesting
_Countess of Southampton_ was? She lived at the end of the seventeenth
century. In addition to these particulars, which are so nicely told that I
would not venture to alter them, as Orsino asks Viola, "What was her
history?"

W. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Hardening Steel Bars._--Can any of your readers inform me how thin, flat,
steel bars (say three feet long) can be prevented from "running" crooked
when hardened in water?

J. H. A.

_Pierrepont._--Who was John Pierrepont of Wadworth, near Doncaster, who
died July, 1653, aged 75.

A. F. B.

Diss.

_Ceylon._--I should be much obliged to SIR JAMES TENNENT, if he would
kindly inform me where the best map of Ceylon is to be got? such as are to
be found in the atlases within my reach are only good enough to try a man's
temper, and no more.

May I also take the liberty of asking how soon we may expect the appearance
of SIR JAMES TENNENT'S book on the history, &c. of Ceylon? a work which
will be a great work indeed, if we have at all a fair specimen of its
author's learning and powers in the _Christianity in Ceylon_.

AJAX.

_Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting._--Would any of your correspondents
direct me to some work giving me some information about the painters of the
Dutch and Flemish schools, their biographers, their peculiarities,
chefs-d'oeuvre, &c.?

AJAX.

"_To talk like a Dutch Uncle._"--In some parts of America, when a person
has determined to give another a regular lecture, he will often be heard to
say, "I will talk to him like a Dutch uncle;" that is, he shall not escape
this time.

As the emigrants to America from different countries have brought their
national sayings with them, and as the one I am now writing about was
doubtless introduced by the Knickerbockers, may I ask if a similar
expression is now known or used in Holland?

W. W.

Malta.

_Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Belgium_.--I want some work on this subject:
can any one tell me of one?

N.B.--A big book does not frighten me.

AJAX.

_Charter of Waterford._--I have a copy of the English translation of this
charter, published in Kilkenny, with the following note, written in an old
hand, on the title-page:

    "This was first translated by William Cunningham Cunningham (_sic_), a
    native of Carrick-on-Suir, born on Ballyrichard Road: his father and
    brother were blacksmiths; his grand-nephew Cunningham lives now a
    cowper (_sic_) in New Street in do. town."

I wish to know if this note is worth anything, and if the statement
contained in it is true?

R. H.

_Inscription on Penny of George III._--On an old penny of George III., on
the reverse, I find the following inscription:

 "STABIT QVOCVNQVE IECERIS."

What does this precisely mean; or why and when was it adopted?

J. M. A.

_"Shob," or "Shub," a Kentish Word._--Your correspondent on the Kentish
word _sheets_ (Vol. vi., p. 338.) may possibly be able to give some account
of another Kentish word, which I have met with in the country about
Horton-Kirby, Dartford, Crayford, &c., and the which I cannot find in
Halliwell, or any other dictionary in my possession,--viz. to _shob_ or
_shub_. It is applied to the trimming up elm-trees in the hedge-rows, by
cutting away all the branches except at the head: "to shob the trees" is
the expression. Now, in German we have _schaben_, v. r. to shave; but in
the Anglo-Saxon I find nothing nearer than _scaf_, part. _scof_, to shave.

A. C. M.

Exeter.

_Bishop Pursglove (Suffragan) of Hull._--This prelate is buried in
Tideswell Church, Devonshire, and a copy of his monumental brass is given
in _Illustrations of Monumental Brasses_, published in 1842 by the
Cambridge Camden Society. Perhaps some reader of "N. & Q." who has access
to that work will send the inscription for insertion in your columns. Any
information also as {66} to his consecration, character, and period of
decease, would be acceptable. What is the best work on English Suffragan
bishops? I believe Wharton's _Suffragans_ (which, however, I do not possess
to refer to) is far from being complete or correct. It would be interesting
to have a complete list of such bishops, with the names of their sees, and
dates of consecration and demise. I find no Suffragan bishop after Bishop
John Sterne, consecrated for Colchester 12th November, 1592, and this from
the valuable list in Percival's _Apol. for Ap. Suc._

A. S. A.

Punjaub.

_Stewarts of Holland._--In the year 1739 there lived in Holland a
Lieutenant Dougal Stewart, of the Dutch service, who was married to Susan,
daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Fairfowl, of Bracindam. He was descended
from the ancient Scottish family of Stewarts of Appin, in Argyleshire; and
this Query is to inquire whether anything is known regarding him or his
descendants, if he had such? This might find a reply in _De Navorscher_
perhaps.

A. S. A.

Punjaub.

_Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh, 1543._--Is there any detailed
account of this prelate extant? The few particulars I have been able to
glean respecting him are merely that he was a native of Scotland, and
Doctor in Divinity of the University of Paris, where he probably studied
theology, as was common with Scottish ecclesiastics of that day. He arrived
in Ireland about the year 1541, and is memorable for the glory, or shame,
of being the first who introduced the Jesuit order into that country. Pope
Paul III. nominated him to the primatial see of Armagh, after the death of
Archbishop Cromer in 1543, and during the lifetime of Archbishop Dowdal,
who was a Catholic also, but being appointed Archbishop of Armagh in
November 1543, by King Henry VIII., was not acknowledged at Rome as such.
_Waucup_, as his name is also spelt, and Latinized "Venantius," never
appears, however, to have been able to obtain regular possession of the see
of Armagh and primacy of Ireland, being merely titular archbishop. Some
accounts state that he was blind from his childhood, but others say, and
probably more correctly, that he was only short-sighted. He was present at
the Council of Trent in 1545-47, being one of the four Irish prelates who
attended there; and, in _Hist. del Concil. Trid._, l. ii. p. 144., he is
alluded to as having been esteemed the _best at riding post in the
world!_--"Huomo di brevissima vista era commendato di questa, di correr
alla posta meglio d'huomo del mondo." I should like much to ascertain the
date and place of his birth, consecration, and death.

A. S. A.

_Plum-pudding._--Can any of your readers inform me of the origin of the
following custom, and whether the ceremony is still continued? I can find
no mention of it in any topographical dictionary or history of Devon, but
it was copied from an old newspaper, bearing date June 7, 1809:

    "At Paignton Fair, near Exeter, the ancient custom of drawing through
    the town a plum-pudding of an immense size, and afterwards distributing
    it to the populace, _was revived_ on Tuesday last. The ingredients
    which composed this enormous pudding were as follows: 400 lbs. of
    flour, 170 lbs. of beef suet, 140 lbs. of raisins, and 240 eggs. It was
    kept constantly boiling in a brewer's copper from Saturday morning to
    the Tuesday following, when it was placed on a car decorated with
    ribbons, evergreens, &c., and drawn along the street by eight oxen."

EVERARD HORNE COLEMAN.

"_Whene'er I asked._"--I shall be very glad to know the author and the
exact whereabouts of the following lines, which I find quoted in a MS.
letter written from London to America, and dated 22nd October, 1767:

 "Whene'er I ask'd for blessings on your head,
  Nothing was cold or formal that I said;
  My warmest vows to Heaven were made for thee,
  And love still mingled with my piety."

W. B. R.

Philadelphia, U. S.

_Immoral Works._--What ought to be done with works of this class? It is
easy to answer, "destroy them:" but you and I know, and Mr. Macaulay has
acknowledged, that it is often necessary to rake into the filthiest
channels for historical and biographical evidence. I, personally, doubt
whether we are justified in destroying _any_ evidence, however loathsome
and offensive it may be. What, then, are we to do with it? It is impossible
to keep such works in a private library, even under lock and key, for death
opens locks more certainly than Mr. Hobbs himself. I think such ought to be
preserved in the British Museum, entered in its catalogue, but only
permitted to be seen on good reasons formally assigned in writing, and not
then allowed to pass into the reading-room. What is the rule at the Museum?

I ask these questions because I have, by accident, become possessed of a
poem (about 1500 lines) which professes to be written by Lord Byron, is
addressed to Thomas Moore, and was printed abroad many years since. It
begins,--

 "Thou ermin'd judge, pull off that sable cap."

More specific reference will not be necessary for those who have seen the
work. Is the writer known? I am somewhat surprised that not one of Byron's
friends has, so far as I know, hinted a denial of the authorship; for,
scarce as {67} the work may be, I suppose some of them must have seen it;
and, under existing circumstances, it is possible that a copy might get
into the hands of a desperate creature who would hope to make a profit, by
republishing it with Byron's and Moore's names in the title-page.

I. W.

_Arms at Bristol._--In a window now repairing in Bristol Cathedral is this
coat:--Arg. on a chevron or (_false heraldry_), three stags' heads
caboshed. Whose coat is this? It is engraved in Lysons' _Gloucestershire
Antiquities_ without name.

E. D.

_Passage in Thomson._--In Thomson's "Hymn to the Seasons," line 28, occurs
the following passage:

 "But wandering oft, with brute, unconscious gaze,
  Man marks not Thee; marks not the mighty hand
  That, ever busy, wheels the silent spheres;
  Works in the secret deep; shoots, _steaming_, thence
  The fair profusion that o'erspreads the spring," &c.

Can any of your readers oblige by saying whether the word _steaming_, in
the fourth line of the quotation, is the correct reading? If so, in what
sense it can be understood? if not, whether _teeming_ is not probably the
correct word?

W. M. P.

"_For God will be your King to-day._"--

 "For God will be your King to-day,
    And I'll be general under."

My grandmother, who was a native of Somersetshire, and born in 1750, used
to recite a ballad to my mother, when a child, of which the above lines are
the only ones remembered.

Do they refer to the rising under the Duke of Monmouth? And where can the
whole of the ballad be found?

M. A. S.

35. Dover Road.

"_See where the startled wild fowl._"--Where are the following lines to be
found? I copy them from the print of Landseer's, called "The Sanctuary."

 "See where the startled wild fowl screaming rise,
  And seek in martial flight those golden skies.
  Yon wearied swimmer scarce can win the land,
  His limbs yet falter on the wat'ry strand.
  Poor hunted hart! the painful struggle o'er,
  How blest the shelter of that island shore!
  There, while he sobs his panting heart to rest,
  Nor hound nor hunter shall his lair molest."

G. B. W.

_Ascension-day._--Was "Ascension-day" ever kept a close holiday the same as
Good Friday and Christmas-day? And, if so, when was such custom disused?

H. A. HAMMOND.

_The Grogog of a Castle._--It appears by a record of the Irish Exchequer of
3 Edw. II., that one Walter Haket, constable of Maginnegan's Castle in the
co. of Dublin, confined one of the King's officers in the _Grogog_ thereof.
Will you permit me to inquire, whether this term has been applied to the
prison of castles in England?

J. F. F.

Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

CANONGATE MARRIAGES.

(Vol. v., p. 320.)

I had hoped that the inquiry of R. S. F. would have drawn out some of your
Edinburgh correspondents; but, as they are silent upon a subject they might
have invested with interest, allow me to say a word upon these Canongate
marriages. I need not, I think, tell R. S. F. how loosely our countrymen,
at the period alluded to, and long subsequent thereto, looked upon the
marriage tie; as almost every one who has had occasion to touch upon our
_domestic_ manners and customs has pointed at, what appeared to them, and
what really was, an anomaly in the character of a nation somewhat boastful
of their better order and greater sense of propriety and decorum.

Besides the incidental notices of travellers, the legal records of Scotland
are rife with examples of litigation arising out of these irregular
marriages; and upon a review of the whole history of such in the north, it
cannot be denied that, among our staid forefathers, "matrimony was more a
matter of merriment"[2] than a solemn and religious engagement.

The Courts in Scotland usually _frowned_ upon cases submitted to them where
there was a strong presumption that either party had been victimised by the
other; but, unfortunately, the requirements were so simple, and the
facility of procuring witnesses so great, that many a poor frolicksome
fellow paid dearly for his joke by finding himself suddenly transformed,
from a bachelor, to a spick and span Benedict; and that too upon evidences
which would not in these days have sent a fortune-telling impostor to the
tread-mill: the lords of the justiciary being content that some one had
heard him use the endearing term of wife to the pursuer, or had witnessed a
mock form at an obscure public-house, or that the parties were by habit and
repute man and wife. How truly then may it have been said, that a man in
the Northern Capital, so open to imposition, scarcely knew whether he was
married or not.

In cases where the ceremony was performed, it {68} did not follow that the
priest of Hymen should be of the clerical profession:

 "To tie the knot," says John Hope, "there needed none;
  He'd find a clown, in brown, or gray,
  Booted and spurr'd, should preach and pray;
  And, without stir, grimace, or docket,
  Lug out a pray'r-book from his pocket;
  And tho' he blest in wond'rous haste,
  Should tie them most securely fast."
                      _Thoughts_, 1780.

In Chambers's _Traditions of Edinburgh_, there is a slight allusion to
these Canongate marriages:

    "The White Horse Inn," says he, "in a close in the Canongate, is an
    exceedingly interesting old house of entertainment. It was also
    remarkable for the runaway couples from England, who were married in
    its large room."

The White Hart, in the Grass-market, appears to have been another of these
Gretna Green houses.

A curious fellow, well known in Edinburgh at the period referred to, was
the high priest of the Canongate hymeneal altar. I need hardly say this was
the famous "Claudero, the son of Nimrod the Mighty Hunter," as he
grandiloquently styled himself: otherwise James Wilson, a disgraced
schoolmaster, and poet-laureate to the Edinburgh _canaille_. In the large
rooms of the above inns, this comical fellow usually presided, and
administered relief to gallant swains and love-sick damsels, and a most
lucrative trade he is said to have made of it:--

 "Claudero's skull is ever dull,
  Without the sterling shilling:"

in allusion to their being called half-merk or shilling marriages.

Chambers gives an illustrative anecdote of our subjects' matrimonial
practices in that of a soldier and a countryman seeking from Wilson a cast
of his office: from the first Claudero took his shilling, but demanded from
the last a fee of five, observing--

    "I'll hae this sodger ance a week a' the times he's in Edinburgh, and
    you (the countryman) I winna see again."

The Scottish poetical antiquary is familiar with this eccentric character;
but it may not be uninteresting to your general readers to add, that when
public excitement in Edinburgh ran high against the Kirk, the lawyers,
meal-mongers, or other _rogues_ in _grain_, Claudero was the vehicle
through which the democratic voice found vent in squibs and broadsides
fired at the offending party or obnoxious measure from his lair in the
Canongate.

In his _Miscellanies_, Edin. 1766, now before me, Claudero's cotemporary,
Geordie Boick, in a poetical welcome to London, thus compliments Wilson,
and bewails the condition of the modern Athens under its bereavement of the
poet:

 "The ballad-singers and the printers,
  Must surely now have starving winters;
  Their press they may break a' in splinters,
                      I'm told they swear,
  Claudero's Muse, alas! we've tint her
                      For ever mair."

For want of Claudero's _lash_, his eulogist goes on to say:

 "Now Vice may rear her hydra head,
  And strike defenceless Virtue dead;
  Religion's heart may melt and bleed,
                      With grief and sorrow,
  Since Satire from your streets is fled,
                      Poor Edenburrow!"

Claudero was, notwithstanding, a sorry poet, a lax moralist, and a sordid
parson; but peace to the manes of the man, or his successor in the latter
office, who gave me in that same long room of the White Horse in the
Canongate of Edinburgh the best parents son was ever blest with!

J. O.

[Footnote 2: _Letters from Edinburgh_, London, 1776. See also, _Letters
from a Gentleman in Scotland to his Friend in England_ (commonly called
_Burt's Letters_): London, 1754.]

       *       *       *       *       *

LADY KATHERINE GREY.

(Vol. vi., p. 578.)

There appears to be some doubt if the alleged marriage ever did take place,
for I find, in Baker's _Chronicles_, p. 334., that in 1563 "divers great
persons were questioned and condemned, but had their lives spared," and
among them--

    "Lady Katherine Grey, daughter to Henry Grey Duke of Suffolk, by the
    eldest daughter of Charles Brandon, having formerly been married to the
    Earl of Pembroke's eldest son, and from him soon after lawfully
    divorced, was some years after found to be with child by Edward Seymour
    Earl of Hartford, who, being at that time in France, was presently sent
    for: and being examined before the Archbishop of Canterbury, and
    affirming they were lawfully married, but not being able within a
    limited time to produce witnesses of their marriage, they were both
    committed to the Tower."

After some further particulars of the birth of a second child in the Tower,
the discharge of the Lieutenant, Sir Edward Warner, and the fining of the
Earl by the Star Chamber, to the extent of 5000l., the narrative proceeds:

    "Though in pleading of his case, one John Hales argued they were lawful
    man and wife _by virtue of their own bare consent, without any
    ecclesiastical ceremony_."

Collins, in his _Peerage_ (1735), states:

    "The validity of this marriage being afterwards tried at Common Law,
    the minister who married them being present, and other circumstances
    agreeing, the jury (whereof John Digby, Esq., was foreman) found it a
    good marriage."

{69}

Sharpe, in his _Peerage_ (1833), under the title "Stamford," says:

    "'The manner of her departing' _in the Tower_, which Mr. Ellis has
    printed from a MS. so entitled in the Harleian Collection, although
    less terrible, is scarcely less affecting than that of her heroic
    sister," &c.

Perhaps your correspondent A. S. A. may be enabled to consult this work,
and so ascertain further particulars.

BROCTUNA.

Bury, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *

HOWLETT THE ENGRAVER.

(Vol. i., p. 321.)

In your first Volume, an inquiry is made for information respecting the
above person. As I find on referring to the subsequent volumes of "N. & Q."
that the Query never received any reply, I beg to forward a cutting from
the Obituary of the _New Monthly Magazine_ for June, 1828, referring to
Howlett; concerning whom, however, I cannot give any further information.

    "MR. BARTHOLOMEW HOWLETT.

    "Lately in Newington, Surrey, aged sixty, Mr. Bartholomew Howlett,
    antiquarian, draughtsman, and engraver. This artist was a pupil of Mr.
    Heath, and for many years devoted his talents to the embellishment of
    works on topography and antiquities. His principal publication, and
    which will carry his name down to posterity with respect as an artist,
    was _A Selection of Views in the County of Lincoln; comprising the
    Principal Towns and Churches, the Remains of Castles and Religious
    Houses, and Seats of the Nobility and Gentry; with Topographical and
    Historical Accounts of each View_. This handsome work was completed in
    4to. in 1805. The drawings are chiefly by T. Girtin, Nattes, Nash,
    Corbould, &c., and the engravings are highly creditable to the burin of
    Mr. Howlett. Mr. Howlett was much employed by the late Mr. Wilkinson on
    his _Londina Illustrata_; by Mr. Stevenson in his second edition of
    Bentham's _Ely_; by Mr. Frost, in his recent _Notices of Hull_; and in
    numerous other topographical works. He executed six plans and views for
    Major Anderson's _Account of the Abbey of St. Denis_; and occasionally
    contributed to the _Gentleman's Magazine_, and engraved several plates
    for it. In 1817, Mr. Howlett issued proposals for _A Topographical
    Account of Clapham, in the County of Surrey, illustrated by
    Engravings_. These were to have been executed from drawings by himself,
    of which he made several, and also formed considerable collections; but
    we believe he only published one number, consisting of three plates and
    no letter-press. We hope the manuscripts he has left may form a
    groundwork for a future topographer. They form part of the large
    collections for Surrey, in the hands of Mr. Tytam. In 1826, whilst the
    Royal Hospital and Collegiate Church of St. Katharine, near the Tower,
    was pulling down, he made a series of drawings on the spot, which it
    was his intention to have engraved and published. But the greatest
    effort of his pencil was in the service of his kind patron and friend,
    John Caley, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., keeper of the records in the
    Augmentation Office. For this gentleman Mr. Howlett made finished
    drawings from upwards of a thousand original seals of the monastic and
    religious houses of this kingdom."

B. HUDSON.

Congleton, Cheshire.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHAUCER.

(Vol. vi., p. 603.)

In reference to the question raised by J. N. B., what authority there is
for asserting that Chaucer pursued the study of the law at the Temple, I
send you the following extract from a sketch of his life by one of his
latest biographers, Sir Harris Nicolas:

    "It has been said that Chaucer was originally intended for the law, and
    that, from some cause which has not reached us, and on which it would
    be idle to speculate, the design was abandoned. The acquaintance he
    possessed with the classics, with divinity, with astronomy, with so
    much as was then known of chemistry, and indeed with every other branch
    of the scholastic learning of the age, proves that his education had
    been particularly attended to; and his attainments render it impossible
    to believe that he quitted college at the early period at which persons
    destined for a military life usually began their career. It was not
    then the custom for men to pursue learning for its own sake; and the
    most rational manner of accounting for the extent of Chaucer's
    acquirements, is to suppose that he was educated for a learned
    profession. The knowledge he displays of divinity would make it more
    likely that he was intended for the church than for the bar, were it
    not that the writings of the Fathers were generally read by all classes
    of students. One writer says that Chaucer was a member of the Inner
    Temple, and that while there he was fined two shillings for beating a
    Franciscan friar in Fleet Street[3]; and another (Leland) observes,
    that after he had travelled in France, 'collegia leguleiorum
    frequentavit.' Nothing, however, is positively known of Chaucer until
    the autumn of 1359, when he himself says he was in the army with which
    Edward III. invaded France, and that he served for the first time on
    that occasion."

The following remarks are from the _Life of Chaucer_, by William Godwin,
Lond. 1803, vol. i. p. 357.:

    "The authority which of late has been principally relied upon with
    respect to Chaucer's legal education is that of Mr. Speght, who, in his
    _Life of Chaucer_, says, 'Not many yeeres since, Master Buckley did see
    a record in the same house [the Inner Temple], where Geoffrey Chaucer
    was fined two shillings for beating a Franciscane fryar in
    Fleet-streete.' This certainly {70} would be excellent evidence, were
    it not for the dark and ambiguous manner in which it is produced. I
    should have been glad that Mr. Speght had himself seen the record,
    instead of Master Buckley, of whom I suppose no one knows who he is:
    why did he not? I should have been better satisfied if the authority
    had not been introduced with so hesitating and questionable a phrase as
    'not many yeeres since;' and I also think that it would have been
    better if Master Buckley had given us the date annexed to the record;
    as we should then at least have had the satisfaction of knowing whether
    it did not belong to some period before our author was born, or after
    he had been committed to the grave. Much stress, therefore, cannot be
    laid upon the supposition of Chaucer having belonged to the Society of
    the Inner Temple."

TYRO.

Dublin.

[Footnote 3: "Speght, who states that a Mr. Buckley had seen a record of
the Inner Temple to that effect."--_Note by Sir H. N._]

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES.

_Pyrogallic Acid_ (Vol. vi., p. 612.).--In answer to the Query of your
correspondent E. S., I beg to give the following method of preparing
pyrogallic acid (first published by Dr. Stenhouse), which I have tried and
found perfectly successful.

Make a strong aqueous infusion of powdered galls; pour it off from the
undissolved residue, and carefully evaporate to dryness by a gentle heat:
towards the conclusion of the process the extract is very liable to burn;
this is best prevented by continued stirring with a glass or porcelain
spatula. Next, procure a flat-bottomed iron pan, about ten inches diameter
and five inches deep. Make a hat of cartridge paper pasted together, about
seven inches high, to slip over and accurately fit the top of the iron pan.
Strew the bottom of the pan with the gall extract to the depth of
three-quarters of an inch; over the top stretch and tie a piece of bibulous
paper pierced with numerous pin-holes; over this place the hat, and tie it
also tightly round the top of the pan.

The whole apparatus is now to be placed in a sand-bath, and heat cautiously
applied. It is convenient to place a glass thermometer in the sand-bath as
near the iron pan as possible. The heat is to be continued about an hour,
and to be kept as near 420° Fah. as possible; on no account is it to exceed
450°. The vapour of the acid condenses in the hat, and the crystals are
prevented from falling back into the pan by the bibulous paper diaphragm.
When it is supposed that the whole of the acid is sublimed, the strings are
to be untied, and the hat and diaphragm cautiously taken off together; the
crystals will be found in considerable quantity, and should be removed into
a stoppered bottle; they should be very brilliant and perfectly white; if
there is any yellow tinge, the heat has been too great.

I believe that close attention to the above details will ensure success to
any one who chooses to try the process, but at the same time I must remind
your correspondents that scarcely any operation in chemistry is perfectly
successful the first time of trial.

J. G. H.

Clapham.

_Stereoscopic Pictures with One Camera_ (Vol. vi., p. 587.).--In reply to
the inquiry of RAMUS, allow me to say the matter is not difficult. My plan
is as follows:--Suppose a piece of still-life to be the subject. Set up the
camera at such a distance as will give a picture of the size intended,
suppose it sixteen feet from the principal and central object; by means of
a measuring tape or a piece of string, measure the exact distance from the
principal object to the front of the camera. Take and complete the first
picture; if it prove successful, remove the camera about two feet either to
the right or left of its first station (_i.e._ according to the judgment
formed as to which will afford the most artistic view of the subject),
taking care by help of the tape or string to preserve the same distance
between the principal object and the camera, and that the adjustment of
focus is not disturbed. In other words, the camera must be moved to another
part of the arc of a circle, of which the principal object is the centre,
and the measured distance the radius. If the arc through which the camera
is moved to its second station be too large, the stereoscopic picture will
be unnaturally and unpleasingly distorted. The second picture is now to be
taken.

If the subject be a sitter, it is of the utmost importance to proceed as
quickly as possible, as the identical position must be retained movelessly
till both pictures are completed. This (in my experience) is scarcely
practicable with collodion pictures, unless by the aid of an assistant and
two levelled developing-stands in the dark closet; for the time occupied by
starting the first picture on its development, and preparing the second
glass plate (scarcely less than three or four minutes), will be a heavy tax
on the quiescent powers of the sitter. This difficulty is avoided by
adopting the Daguerreotype process, as the plates can be prepared
beforehand, and need not be developed before both pictures are taken. In
this case the only delay between the pictures is in the shifting the
position of the camera. This is readily done by providing a table of
suitable height (instead of the ordinary tripod), on which an arc of a
circle is painted, having for its centre the place of the sitter. If the
sitter be at the distance of eleven or twelve feet (my usual distance with
a 3¼ inch Voightlander), the camera need not be moved more than ten or
twelve inches; and even this distance produces some visible distortion to
an accurate observer.

The second levelling stand is required when using the collodion process,
because the second {71} picture will be ready for development before the
developing and fixing of the first has set its stand at liberty.

COKELY.

_Mr. Crookes' Wax-paper Process_ (Vol. vi., p. 613.).--R. E. wishes to know
the exact meaning of the sentence, "With the addition of as _much free
iodine_ as will give it a sherry colour." After adding the iodide of
potassium to the water, a small quantity of iodine (this can be proctored
at any operative chemist's) is to be dissolved in the mixture until it be
of the proper colour.

The paper is decidedly more sensitive if exposed wet, but it should not be
washed; and I think it is advisable to have a double quantity of nitrate of
silver in the exciting bath. I have not yet tried any other salt than
iodide of potassium for the first bath; but I hope before the summer to lay
before your readers a simpler, and I think superior wax-paper process, upon
which I am at present experimenting.

WILLIAM CROOKES.

Hammersmith.

P.S.--I see that in the tables R. E. has given, he has nearly doubled the
strength of my iodine bath. It should be twenty-four grains to the ounce,
instead of forty-four; and he has entirely left out the iodine.

_India Rubber a Substitute for Yellow Glass._--I think that I have made a
discovery which may be useful to photographers. It is known that some kinds
of yellow glass effectually obstruct the passage of the chemical rays, and
that other kinds do not, according to the manner in which the glass is
prepared.

I have never heard or read of India rubber being used for this purpose; but
I believe it will be found perfectly efficient, and will therefore state
how I arrived at this conclusion.

Having occasion to remove a slate from the side of my roof, to make an
opening for my camera, I thought of a sheet of India rubber to supply the
place of the slate, and thus obtain a flexible waterproof covering to
exclude the wet, and to open and shut at pleasure. This succeeded
admirably, but I found that I had also obtained a deep rich yellow window,
which perfectly lighted a large closet, previously quite dark, and in which
for the last ten days I have excited and developed the most sensitive
iodized collodion on glass. I therefore simply announce the fact, as it may
be of some importance, if verified by others and by further experiment. I
have not yet tested it with a lens and the solution of sulphite of quinine,
as I wished the sun to shine on the sheet of India rubber at the time,
which would decide the question. However, sheet India rubber can be
obtained of any size and thickness required: mine is about one-sixteenth of
an inch thick, and one foot square; and the advantages over glass would be
great in some cases, especially for a dark tent in the open air, as any
amount of light might be obtained by stitching a sheet of India rubber into
the side, which would fold up without injury. It is possible that gutta
percha windows would answer the same purpose.

H. Y. W. N.

Brompton.

_Dr. Diamond's Paper Processes._--We have been requested to call attention
to, and to correct several errors of the press overlooked by us in DR.
DIAMOND'S article, in the hurry of preparing our enlarged Number (No.
166.). The most important is in the account of the _exciting_ fluid,--the
omission, at p. 21. col. 1. l. 47. (after directions to take one drachm of
aceto-nitrate of silver), of the words "_one drachm of saturated solution
of gallic acid_." The passage should run thus: "Of this solution take one
drachm, and one drachm of saturated solution of gallic acid, and add to it
two ounces and a half of distilled water."

In the same page, col. 2. l. 13., "solvent" should be "saturated;" and in
the same article, _passim_, "hyposulphate" should be "hyposulphite," and
"solari_s_e" should be "solari_z_e."

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Ancient Timber Town-halls._--Since my account of ancient town-halls (Vol.
v., p. 470.) was written, one of these fabrics of the olden time noticed
therein has ceased to exist, that of Kington, co. Hereford, it having been
taken down early in November last, but for what reason I have not learned.
Another, formerly standing in the small town of Church Stretton, in the co.
of Salop, which was erected upon wooden pillars, and constructed entirely
of timber, must have been a truly picturesque building, was taken down in
September, 1840. A woodcut of the latter is now before me. Of the old
market-house at Leominster I possess a very beautiful original drawing,
done by Mr. Carter upwards of half a century ago.

J. B. WHITBORNE.

_Magnetic Intensity_ (Vol. vi., p. 578.).--The magnetic intensity is
greatest at the poles; the ratio may roughly be said to be 1.3, but more
accurately 1 to 2.906. This is found by observation of the oscillations of
a vertical or horizontal needle. A needle which made 245 oscillations in
ten minutes at Paris, made only 211 at 7° 1' south lat. in Peru. The
intensity and variations to which it is subject is strictly noted at all
the magnetic observatories, and I believe the disturbances of intensity
which sometimes occur have been found to be simultaneous by a comparison of
observations at different latitudes.

For the fullest information on magnetic intensity, ADSUM is referred to
Sabine's _Report on_ {72} _Magnetic Intensity_, also Sabine's
_Contributions to Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1843, No. V.

T. B.

_Monument at Wadstena_ (Vol. vi., pp. 388. 518.).--I have received the
following (which I translate) from my friend in Denmark, whom I mentioned
in my last communication on this monument:

    "It is only about a month since I saw Queen Philippa's tombstone in the
    church of Vadstena Monastery. It is a very large stone, on which the
    device and inscription are cut in outline, but there is no _brass_
    about it. King Erik Menved's and Queen Ingeberg's monument in Ringsted
    Church is the finest brass I ever saw, and I have seen many."

There is a good engraving of the brass alluded to, which is a very rich
one, in _Antiquariske Annaler_, vol. iii.: Copenhagen, 1820. The
inscriptions are curious, and the date 1319.

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington.

_David Routh, R. C. Bishop of Ossory_ (Vol. iii., p. 169.).--In the article
on a Cardinal's Monument, by MR. J. GRAVES, of Kilkenny, allusion is made
to the monument of the above Catholic Bishop Routh or Rothe, as being in
the Cathedral of St. Canice, Kilkenny, with his arms "surmounted by a
_cardinal's hat_," and that he died some years after 1643. If MR. GRAVES
would give the date of this prelate's decease, or rather a copy of the full
inscription on his monument, with a notice of the sculptured armorial
bearings thereupon, he would be conferring a favour on a distant inquirer;
and as MR. GRAVES is, apparently, a resident at Kilkenny, no obstacle
exists to prevent his complying with this request.

Any notices procurable regarding Bishop Routh are well deserving of
insertion in "N. & Q.," for he was a man of deep learning and research, and
is well known to have assisted the celebrated Archbishop Ussher of Armagh
in the compilation of his _Primordia_, for which he had high compliments
paid him by that eminent prelate, notwithstanding their being of different
religions.

Bishop Routh was also himself the author of a work on _Irish Ecclesiastical
History_, now very rare, and seldom procurable complete. He published it
anonymously, in two volumes 8vo., in the year 1617, at "Coloniæ, apud
Steph. Rolinum," with the following rather long title:

    "Analecta Sacra, Nova, et Mira, de Rebus Catholicorum in Hibernia:
    Divisa in tres partes, quarum I, Continet semestrem gravaminam
    relationem, secundâ hac editione novis adauctam additamentis, et Notis
    illustratam. II. Parænesin ad Martyres designatos. III. Processum
    Martyrialem quorundam Fidei Pugilium; Collectore et Relatore, T. N.
    Philadelpho."

I fear this has degenerated from a Note into a Query; however, I may state
in conclusion, that MR. GRAVES is in error in styling the hat on Bishop
Routh's monument a cardinal's, for all Catholic prelates, and abbots also,
have their armorial bearings surmounted by a hat, exactly similar to a
cardinal's hat, with this difference only, that the number of tassels
depending from it varies according to the rank of the prelate, from the
_cardinal's_ with fifteen tassels in five rows, down to that of a _prior_
with three only on each side in two rows.

A. S. A.

Punjaub.

_Cardinal Erskine_ (Vol. ii., p. 406.; Vol. iii., p. 13.).--Several notices
of this ecclesiastic have appeared in "N. & Q.," but as none of them give
the exact information required, I now do so, though perhaps tardily. He was
born 13th February, 1753, at Rome, where his father, Colin Erskine, a
Jacobite, and exiled scion of the noble Scottish house of Erskine, Earls of
Kellie, had taken up his residence. "Monsignor Charles Erskine," having
embraced the ecclesiastical life at an early age, and passed through
several gradations in the Church of Rome, was, in 1785, "Promotore della
Fede," an office of the Congregation of Rites; in 1794 auditor to Pope Pius
VI., and raised to the purple by Pope Pius VII., who created him a
_Cardinal_-Deacon of the Holy Roman Church, 25th February, 1801. Cardinal
Erskine accompanied the latter pontiff in his exile from Rome in the year
1809, and died at Paris, 19th March, 1811, in the fifty-eighth year of his
age, and eleventh of his cardinalate.

A. S. A.

Punjaub.

_"Ne'er to these chambers," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 14.).--In reply to ARAM'S
Query: "Where do these lines come from?" they come from Tickell's sublime
and pathetic "Elegy on the Death of Addison." ARAM ("Wits have short
memories," &c.) has _misquoted_ them. In a poem of so high a mood, to
_displace_ a word is to destroy a beauty. ARAM has _interpolated_ several
words. The following is the _true_ version:

 "Ne'er to these chambers, where the mighty rest,
  Since their foundation, came a nobler guest,
  Nor e'er was to the bowers of bliss convey'd
  A fairer spirit, or more welcome shade."

GEORGE DANIEL.

Canonbury.

These lines are taken from the "Elegy on the Death of Addison," written by
Tickell. They are, if I remember rightly, inscribed on the gravestone
recently placed over his remains by the Earl of Ellesmere, in the north
aisle of Henry VII.'s Chapel. The last two lines which your correspondent
quotes should be as follows:

 "Nor _e'er was to the bowers of bliss convey'd_
  A _fairer_ spirit, or more welcome shade."

J. K. R. W.

{73}

_The Budget_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.).--It may be useful to inform
PRESTONIENSIS, that, in a recent work on political economy, M. Ch. Coquelin
says, that the word _budget_, in its present signification, has passed into
France from England: the latter country having first borrowed it from the
old French language--_bougette_ signifying (and particularly in old Norman)
a leather purse. It was the custom in England to put into a leather bag the
estimates of receipts and expenditure presented to parliament: and hence,
as Coquelin observes, the term passed from the containant to the contained,
and, with this new signification, returned from this country into France;
where it was first used in an official manner in the _arrêtés_ of the
Consul's 4th Themidor, year X, and 17th Germinal, year XI.

F. H.

"_Catching a Tartar_" (Vol. vi., p. 317.).--This common and expressive
saying is thus explained in Arvine's _Cyclopædia_:

    "In some battle between the Russians and the Tartars, who are a wild
    sort of people in the north of Asia, a private soldier called out,
    'Captain, halloo there! I've caught a Tartar!' 'Fetch him along then,'
    said the Captain. 'Ay, but he won't let me,' said the man. And the fact
    was the Tartar had caught him. So when a man thinks to take another in,
    and gets himself bit, they say he's caught a Tartar."

Grose says that this saying originated with an Irish soldier who was in the
"Imperial," that is, I suppose he means the Austrian service. This is
hardly probable; the Irish are made to father many sayings which do not
rightly belong to them, and this I think may be safely written as one among
the number.

EIRIONNACH has now two references before him, Grose's _Glossary_ and
Arvine's _Cyclopædia_, in which his Query is partly explained, if he can
but find the dates of their publication. In this search I regret I cannot
assist him, as neither of these works are to be found in the libraries of
this island; at least thus far I have not been able to meet with them.

W. W.

Malta.

_The Termination "-itis"_ (Vol. vii., p. 13.).--ADSUM asks: "What is the
derivation of the term _-itis_, used principally in medical words, and
these signifying, inflammation?" If "N. & Q." were a medical journal, the
question might be answered at length, to the great advantage of the
profession; for, of late years, this termination has been tacked on by
medical writers, especially foreigners, to words of all kinds, in utter
defiance of the rules of language: as if a Greek affix were quite a natural
ending to a Latin or French noun. _-itis_ can with propriety be appended
only to those Greek nouns whose adjectives end in [Greek: -itês]: _e.g._
[Greek: pleura, pleuritês]; [Greek: keras, keratitês], &c. [Greek:
Pleuritis] is used by Hippocrates. [Greek: Pleura] means the membrane
lining the side of the chest: [Greek: pleuritis] ([Greek: nodos]
understood) is morbus lateralis, the side-disease, or pleurisy. In the same
manner _keratitis_ is a very legitimate synonym for disease of the horny
coat (cornea) of the eye. But medical writers, disregarding the rules of
language, have, for some years past, revelled in the use of their favourite
_-itis_ to a most ludicrous extent. Thus, from _cornea_, they make
"corneitis," and describe an inflammation of the crystalline lens as
_lentitis_. Nay, some French and German writers on diseases of the eyes
have coined the monstrous word "Descemetitis," on the ground that one
Monsieur Descemet discovered a structure in the eye, which, out of
compliment to him, was called "the membrane of Descemet."

JAYDEE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

DEFENCE OF USURY, by BENTHAM. (A Tract.)

TREATISE ON LAW, by MACKINLOCH.

TWO DISCOURSES OF PURGATORY AND PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD, by WM. WAKE. 1687.

WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, by a
Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848.

LETTER OF CHURCH RATES, by RALPH BARNES. 8vo. London, 1837.

COLMAN'S TRANSLATION OF HORACE DE ARTE POETICA. 4to. 1783.

CASAUBON'S TREATISE ON GREEK AND ROMAN SATIRE.

BOSCAWEN'S TREATISE ON SATIRE. London, 1797.

JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I.

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol. I. Macrone, 1840.

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON'S WORKS. Vol. IV. 8vo Edition. 1819.

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 12mo. 1808.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789.

OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1768.

EDMONDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780.

SERMONS AND TRACTS, by W. ADAMS, D.D.

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for January 1851.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. wanted.

THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE. (Original Edition.) Vol. I.

RAPIN'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 8vo. Vols. I., III. and V. of the CONTINUATION
by TINDAL. 1744.

SHARPE'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols. 1819. Piccadilly.

INCHBALD'S BRITISH THEATRE. Vol. XXIV. 25 Vols. Longman.

MEYRICK'S ANCIENT ARMOUR, by SKELTON. Part XVI.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_Owing to the necessity of infringing on the present Number for the
Title-page of our Sixth Volume, we are compelled to omit many interesting
communications, and also our usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS, _&c._

B. H. C._'s communication on the subject of "Proclamations" has been
forwarded to_ MR. BRUCE. {74}

A. S. T. _The line is from Prior_:

 "Fine by degrees and beautifully less."

T. M. G. (Worcester) _is thanked_. _As the entire document would not occupy
any great space, we shall be obliged by the opportunity of inserting it._

NOTES ON OLD LONDON _have only been thrust aside_. _They are intended for
early insertion._

M. B. C. _We fear this cannot be avoided. The only consolation is, the
additional interest with which the volumes will be regarded a century
hence._

N. C. L., _who writes respecting Shaw's_ Stafford MSS., _is requested to
say how a communication may be forwarded to him_.

A READER, _who writes respecting the "Arnold Family," the same_.

W. S.'s (Sheffield) _communications are at press, and shall have early
attention_.

J. E. L. _is thanked_. _We can assure him that the present result of much
consideration and many communications, both by letter and personally, is to
impress us with the feeling that the majority approve. The book-men shall,
however, be no losers._

NEW ORDINARY OF ARMS. _The anonymous Correspondent on this subject will
obtain the information of which he is in search on reference to its Editor,
Mr. J. W. Papworth, 14 A. Great Marlborough Street, London._

ALDIBORONTOPHOSKOPHORNIO--WORLD WITHOUT A SUN. _The many Correspondents who
have replied to these Queries are thanked._

C. (Pontefract) _is requested to forward copies of the Queries in
question_.

REV. E. B. (B***) _is requested to state the subject of his communication.
In his last very extraordinary letter he has omitted this important piece
of information._

C. E. F. _who complains of the disappearance of a portion of the collodion
film at the spot where the hyposulphite of soda is applied, is informed
that this is by no means an uncommon occurrence, and indicates the feeble
action of the light at the present time of year. By using the glass a
little larger than is required, as has been before recommended, and pouring
the hyposulphite of soda on the portion which is to be cut off, and
allowing it to flow over the picture, the defect will generally be avoided.
A much stronger solution of the hyposulphite of soda may be used--say, one
ounce to two ounces of water; and then, by preserving the solution, and
using it over and over again, a more agreeable picture is produced. The
solution, when it becomes weak, may be refreshed by a few crystals of the
fresh salt added to it._

F. W. _If the bath of nitrate of silver produces the semi-opaque appearance
upon the collodion, in all probability there is no hyposulphite of soda in
the bath: three or four drops of tincture of iodine added to each ounce of
the solution of nitrate of silver in the bath, often acts very
beneficially. All doubtful solutions of nitrate of silver it is well to
precipitate by means of common salt, collect the chloride, and reduce it
again to its metallic state. The paper process described by DR. DIAMOND in
our 166th Number is calculated both for positives and negatives._

"Notes and Queries" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE ECLECTIC REVIEW for JANUARY, price 1s. 6d., or by post 2s. (commencing
a new volume), contains:

     I. The Hungarian Struggle and Arthur Görgey.
    II. Scottish Preachers and Preaching.
   III. Thackeray's History of Colonel Esmond.
    IV. British South Africa.
     V. Solwan; or Waters of Comfort.
    VI. Religious Persecutions in Tuscany.
   VII. The Distribution of the Representation.
  VIII. Review of the Month, &c. &.c

This day is published, No. IX., price 1s. (80 pp.),

THE HOMILIST; and Bi-Monthly Pulpit Review.

    CONTENTS:

    HOMILY:--The Historic Forms of Anti-Theism.

    GERMS OF THOUGHT.

    THE GENIUS OF THE GOSPEL:--The Temptation of Christ; or, the Typal
    Battle of the Good.

    GLANCES AT SOME OF THE GREAT PREACHERS OF ENGLAND:--Hugh Latimer.

    THEOLOGICAL AND PULPIT LITERATURE:--Schleiermacher. Wellington and the
    Pulpit.

No. X. will be published on the 1st of March.

    WARD & CO., 27. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 1 vol. 8vo., price 9s.

ANCIENT IRISH MINSTRELSY, by REV. W. HAMILTON DRUMMOND, D.D., M.R.S.A.

    "A graceful addition to the lover of Ancient Minstrelsy, whether he be
    Irishman or not. A man need not be English to enjoy the Chevy Chace,
    nor Scotch to value the Border Minstrelsy. The extracts we have given
    from Dr. Drummond's work, so full of force and beauty, will satisfy
    him, we trust, he need not be Irish to enjoy the fruits of Dr. D.'s
    labours."--_The Dublin Advocate._

Dublin: HODGES & SMITH, Grafton Street. London: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO.,
4. Stationers' Hall Court.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, Vol. I., 2l. 12s. 6d.

DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, measured and drawn from existing Examples,
by J. K. COLLING, Architect.

No. XXV. of Vol. II. contains:

    West Doorway of North Aisle, Kingsbury Church, Warwick. South Doorway,
    Ebony Chapel, Kent.

    Corbel from the Mayor's Chapel, Bristol.

    Sedilia and Piscina in the Chantry Chapel, Bitton Church,
    Gloucestershire.

    Ditto, Ditto, Section and Details.

    Naves, Piers, and Arches, Wittersham Church, Kent. Ditto, Fishtoft
    Church, Lincoln, Ditto, St. Mary's Church, Scarborough.

Also,

GOTHIC ORNAMENTS,

Being a Series of Examples of enriched Details and Accessories of the
Architecture of Great Britain. Drawn from existing Authorities by JAMES K.
COLLING, Architect. 2 vols. 4to., 7l. 10s., cloth.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, and DAVID BOGUE.

       *       *       *       *       *


To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c.

ASHBEE & DANGERFIELD, LITHOGRAPHERS, DRAUGHTSMEN, AND PRINTERS, 18. Broad
Court, Long Acre.

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that they devote particular attention
to the execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FAC-SIMILES, comprising Autograph
Letters, Deeds, Charters, Title-pages, Engravings, Woodcuts, &c., which
they produce from any description of copies with the utmost accuracy, and
without the slightest injury to the originals.

Among the many purposes to which the art of Lithography is most
successfully applied, may be specified,--ARCHÆOLOGICAL DRAWINGS,
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Scientific and Artistic Publications.

PHOTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS lithographed with the greatest care and exactness.

LITHOGRAPHIC OFFICES, 18. Broad Court, Long Acre, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Twenty-five Letters of Nelson, near One Hundred interesting Letters of
    the Duke of Wellington, Important State Papers illustrative of the
    Reign of George III., and other very valuable Autographs.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, January 24, and
Two following Days, a Valuable Assemblage of Autograph Letters, in the
finest preservation; including the Joint Collections of S. J. PRATT and DR.
MAVOR; amongst which will be found many Letters of great Rarity and
Interest, Selections from the Fairfax and Rupert Correspondence, &c.

Catalogues will be sent on Application (if in the Country, on receipt of
Six Stamps).

       *       *       *       *       *


    Theology, Voyages and Travels, American History and Literature, and the
    celebrated Copy of the Scriptures known as "The Bowyer Bible."

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on SATURDAY, Feb. 26, and
Five following Days, an Extensive and Valuable Collection of Curious and
Interesting Voyages and Travels, many of which relate to America, the East
and West Indies, &c.: also valuable Theological Books, including a large
Collection of the Works of Puritan Writers; to which is added, the
Celebrated Copy of the Holy Scriptures, known as

"THE BOWYER BIBLE,"

the most extensively Illustrated Book extant formed at a cost of several
Thousand Pounds; the elaborately Carved Oak Case to contain the same, &c.

Catalogues are preparing, and may shortly be had.

       *       *       *       *       *


Recently published, price 2d.

DEATH THE LEVELLER. A Sermon preached in Ecclesfield Parish Church, by the
REV. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., Vicar, on the 21st of November, 1852, the Sunday
after the Funeral of the Duke of Wellington.

Published by Request.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


{75}

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
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Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. HENRI VAN LAUN assists Gentlemen in obtaining a critical knowledge of
the French, German, and Dutch languages. From his acquaintance with the
ancient as well as the modern literature of these three languages, and also
with the best English authors, he can render his lessons valuable to
gentlemen pursuing antiquarian or literary researches. He also undertakes
the translation of Manuscripts. Communications to be addressed, pre-paid.
ANDREW'S Library, 167. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY,

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

   _Directors._
  H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
  William Cabell, Esq.
  T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. Henry Drew, Esq.
  William Evans, Esq.
  William Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  James Hunt, Esq.
  J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  James Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. Basley White, Esq.
  Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

   _Trustees._
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.;
  L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.;
  George Drew, Esq.

_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
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  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
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       *       *       *       *       *


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Prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, Chemist, &c., 10. Pall Mall.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
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       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS and VIEWS by the Collodion and Waxed Paper Process.
Apparatus, Materials, and Pure Chemical Preparation for the above
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    GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS (sole Agents for Voightlander & Sons' celebrated
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       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
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       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
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       *       *       *       *       *


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Address H. W., care of Samuel Edwards, Esq., 16. Harpur Street, Red Lion
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       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *


ARCHER'S PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA.--This very useful apparatus for working the
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       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
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Lists of Prices to be had on application.

146. Holborn Bars.

       *       *       *       *       *


RALPH'S SERMON PAPER,--This approved Paper is particularly deserving the
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       *       *       *       *       *


{76}

Now ready, in Seven Volumes, medium 4to., cloth, pp. 4,167, Price Fourteen
Guineas,

THE ANNALS OF IRELAND;

    From the Original of the Four Masters, from the earliest Historic
    Period to the Conclusion in 1616; consisting of the Irish Text from the
    Original MSS., and an English Translation, with copious Explanatory
    Notes, an Index of Names, and an Index of Places, by JOHN O'DONOVAN,
    Esq., LL.D., Barrister at Law; Professor of the Celtic Language,
    Queen's College, Belfast.

_Extract from the_ DUBLIN REVIEW.

"We can but hope, within the limited space at our disposal, to render a
scanty and imperfect measure of justice to a work of such vast extent and
varied erudition.... We would beg the reader, if he be disposed to doubt
our opinion, to examine almost every single page out of the four thousand
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minute verbal criticisms; the elaborate topographical annotations with
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displayed. Let him remember the mines from which all those treasures have
been drawn are, for the most part, unexplored; that the materials thus
laudably applied to the illustration of the text are in great part
manuscripts which Ussher and Ware, even Waddy and Colgen, no to speak of
Lynch and Lanigan, had never seen or left unexamined; many of them in a
language which is to a great extent obsolete."

A Prospectus of the Work will be forwarded gratis to any application made
to the Publishers.

Dublin: HODGES & SMITH, Grafton Street, Booksellers to the University.

London: LONGMAN & Co.; and SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & Co.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, small 4to., handsomely bound in cloth, 2l. 2s. 6d.; morocco, 2l.
12s. 6d.

POETRY OF THE YEAR,

PASSAGES FROM THE POETS

DESCRIPTIVE OF THE SEASONS.

WITH TWENTY-TWO COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS FROM DRAWINGS BY THE FOLLOWING
EMINENT ARTISTS.

  T. CRESWICK, R.A.
  C. DAVIDSON.
  W. LEE.
  J. MULLER.
  E. DUNCAN.
  BIRKET FOSTER.
  D. COX.
  H. LE JEUNE.
  W. HEMSLEY.
  C. BRANWHITE.
  J. WOLF.
  C. WEIGALL.
  HARRISON WEIR.
  R. R.
  E. V. B.
  LUCETTE E. BARKER.

    "Christmas has seldom produced a gift-book more creditable to all
    concerned in it than this beautiful volume. The poetry is well chosen;
    the passages being for the most part bits of real description,
    excellent in their kind, from the writings of our poets, from the time
    of Lord Surrey to that of Tennyson, with two or three beautiful bits
    from American authors. Now and then a poem is inserted, which, if not
    descriptive, is in spirit and feeling akin to the season to which it is
    referred; and this gives variety to what might otherwise be too great a
    mass of description. As a book of extracts merely, it would be an
    intelligent and creditable selection, made upon a distinct and coherent
    plan. But the drawings of Messrs. Foster, Davidson, Weir, Creswick,
    Cox, Duncan, and Branwhite, are a great addition to the volume; and the
    coloured engravings have been happy in catching the spirit and
    character of the artist themselves.

    "Though on a small scale, the feeling of some of the designs is
    admirable, specially those devoted to the illustration of spring and
    summer--the seasons which, both in poetry and painting, have the
    greatest amount of honour in this volume. The publisher is entitled to
    the praise of great care and attention to the appearance of the book;
    the colour and texture of the paper, the type, and the binding are
    unexceptionable. It is a book to do credit to any
    publisher."--_Guardian._

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5 New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 15. 1853.





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