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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 169, January 22, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 169, January 22, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are indicated by footnotes to the relevant item.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 169.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Blackguard, by Sir J. Emerson Tennent                         77

  Predictions of the Fire and Plague of London, No. I.,
    by T. Sternberg                                             79

  Notes and Queries on Bacon's Essays, No. II., by,
    P. J. F. Gantillon, B.A.                                    80

  FOLK LORE:--Irish Superstitious Customs--Charm for,
    Warts--The Devil--"Winter Thunder," &c.                     81

  Malta the Burial-place of Hannibal                            81

  MINOR NOTES:--Waterloo--"Tuch"--The Dodo--Francis I.          82


  Dr. Anthony Marshall                                          83

  Lindis, Meaning of                                            83

  MINOR QUERIES:--Smock Marriage in New York--The broken
    Astragalus--Penardo and Laissa--St. Adulph--St. Botulph--
    Tennyson--"Ma Ninette," &c.--Astronomical Query--Chaplains
    to Noblemen--"More" Queries--Heraldic Query--"By Prudence
    guided," &c.--Lawyers' Bags--Master Family--Passage in
    Wordsworth--Govett Family--Sir Kenelm Digby--Riddles--
    Straw Bail--Wages in the West in 1642--Literary Frauds
    of Modern Times                                             84

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"Very like a Whale"--Wednesday
    a Litany Day--"Thy Spirit, Independence," &c.--"Hob and
    nob," Meaning of                                            86


  Wellesley Pedigree, by John D'Alton                           87

  Consecrated Rings for Epilepsy                                88

  Turner's View of Lambeth Palace, by J. Walter, &c.            89

  Etymological Traces of the social Position of our Ancestors,
    by C. Forbes, &c.                                           90

  Goldsmiths' Year-marks, by W. Chaffers, Jun., and H. T.
    Ellacombe                                                   90

  Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to 1662, by W. Sparrow
    Simpson, B.A.                                               91

  PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES:--Originator of the Collodion
    Process--Mr. Weld Taylor's Process--Dr. Diamond's Services
    to Photography--Simplification of the Wax-paper Process     92

  The Burial Service said by Heart, by Mackenzie Wallcott,
    M.A., &c.                                                   94

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Mary Queen of Scots' Gold
    Cross--Jennings Family--Adamson's "England's Defence"--
    Chief Justice Thomas Wood--Aldiborontiphoscophornio--
    Statue of St. Peter at Rome--Old Silver Ornament--
    "Plurima, pauca, nihil"--"Pork-pisee" and "Wheale"--Did
    the Carians use Heraldic Devices?--Herbert Family--
    Children crying at Baptism, &c.                             95


  Notes on Books, &c.                                           97

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  98

  Notices to Correspondents                                     98

  Advertisements                                                99

       *       *       *       *       *



In some of the earlier numbers of "N. & Q.," there occur disquisitions as
to the origin of the term _blackguard_, and the time at which it came into
use in England in its present sense. But the communications of your
correspondents have not been satisfactory upon either point--they have not
shown the period at which the word came to be accepted _in its present
sense_; and their quotations all apply to its use in a much more simple
meaning, and one totally different from that which we now attach to it.

One class of these quotations (Vol. ii., pp. 171. 285.), such as the
passages from BUTLER and FULLER, refer obviously to a popular superstition,
during an age when the belief in witchcraft and hobgoblins was universal;
and when such creatures of fancy were assigned as _Black Guards_ to his
Satanic majesty. "Who can conceive," says FULLER in the paragraph
extracted, "but that such a Prince-principal of Darkness must be
proportionally attended by a Black Guard of monstrous opinions?" (_Church
History_, b. ix. c. xvi.) And in the verses of BUTLER referred to,
Hudibras, when deceived by Ralpho counterfeiting a ghost in the dark,--

 "Believed it was some drolling sprite
  That _staid upon the guard_ at night:"

and thereupon in his trepidation discourses with the Squire as follows:

 "Thought he, How does the _Devil_ know
  What 'twas that I design'd to do?
  His office of intelligence,
  His oracles, are ceas'd long since;
  And he knows nothing of the Saints,
  But what some treach'rous spy acquaints.
  This is some petty-fogging _fiend_,
  Some under door-keeper's friend's friend,
  That undertakes to understand,
  And juggles at the second hand:
  And now would pass for spirit Po,
  And all men's dark concerns foreknow.
  I think I need not fear him for't;
  These rallying _devils_ do not hurt.
  With that he roused his drooping heart,
  And hastily cry'd out, What art?--
  A wretch, quoth he, whom want of grace
  Has brought to this unhappy place.
    I do believe thee, quoth the knight;
  Thus far I'm sure thou'rt in the right,
  And know what 'tis that troubles thee,
  Better than thou hast guess'd of me.
  Thou art some paltry, _blackguard sprite_,
  Condemn'd to drudg'ry in the night;
  Thou hast no work to do in th' house,
  _Nor half-penny to drop in shoes_;
  Without the raising of which sum
  You dare not be so troublesome;
  To pinch the slatterns black and blue,
  For leaving you their work to do.
  This is your business, good Pug Robin,
  And your diversion, dull dry bobbing."
    _Hudibras_, Part III. Canto 1. line 1385, &c.

It will be seen that BUTLER, like FULLER, uses the term in the simple sense
as a _guard_ of the Prince of Darkness. But the concluding lines of
Hudibras's address to Ralpho explain the process by which, at a late
period, this term of the _Black Guard_ came to be applied to the lowest
class of domestics in great establishments.

The Black Guard of Satan was supposed to perform the domestic drudgery of
the kitchen and servants' hall, in the infernal household. The extract from
HOBBES (Vol. ii., p. 134.) refers to this:--

    "Since my Lady's decay, I am degraded from a cook; and I fear the Devil
    himself will entertain me but for one of his _black guard_, and he
    shall be sure to have his roast burnt."

Hence came the popular superstition that these goblin scullions, on their
visits to the upper world, confined themselves to the servants' apartments
of the houses which they favoured with their presence, and which at night
they swept and garnished; pinching those of the maids in their sleep who,
by their laziness, had imposed such toil on their elfin assistants; but
_slipping money into the shoes_ of the more tidy and industrious servants,
whose attention to their own duties before going to rest had spared the
goblins the task of performing their share of the drudgery. Hudibras
apostrophises the ghost as--

 "... some paltry _blackguard_ sprite
  Condemn'd to drudgery in the night;
  Thou hast no work to do in th' house
  Nor half-penny to drop in shoes;"

and therefore, as the knight concluded--"this devil full of malice" had
found sufficient leisure to taunt and rally him in the dark upon his recent

This belief in the visits of domestic spirits, who busy themselves at night
in sweeping and arranging the lower apartments, has prevailed in the North
of Ireland and in Scotland from time immemorial: and it is explained in SIR
WALTER SCOTT'S notes to the _Lay of the Last Minstrel_, as his
justification for introducing the goblin page Gilpin Horner amongst the
domestics of Branksome Hall. Perhaps, from the association of these elves
with the lower household duties, but more probably from a more obvious
cause, came at a later period the practice described by GIFFORD in his note
on BEN JONSON, as quoted by your correspondent (Vol. ii., p. 170.), by

    "in all great houses, but particularly in the Royal Residences, there
    were a number of mean dirty dependents, whose office it was to attend
    the wool-yard, sculleries, &c. Of these, the most forlorn wretches seem
    to have been selected to carry coals to the kitchens, halls, &c. To
    this smutty regiment, who attended the progresses, and rode in the
    carts with the pots and kettles, the people, in derision, gave the name
    of the _black guards_."

This is no doubt correct; and hence the expression of BEAUMONT and
FLETCHER, quoted from the _Elder Brother_, that--

 "... from the _black guard_
  To the grim Sir in office, there are few
  Hold other tenets:"

meaning from the lowest domestic to the highest functionary of a household.
This too explains the force of the allusion, in Jardine's _Criminal
Trials_, to the apartments of Euston House being "far unmeet for her
Highness, but fitter for the Black Guard"--that is, for the scullions and
lowest servants of an establishment. SWIFT employs the word in this sense
when he says, in the extract quoted by Dr. Johnson in his _Dictionary_ in
illustration of the meaning of _blackguard_,--

    "Let a black-guard boy be always about the house to send on your
    errands, and go to market for you on rainy days."

It will thus be seen, that of the six authors quoted in "N. & Q." no one
makes use of the term _black guard_ in an opprobrious sense such as
attaches to the more modern word "blackguard;" and that they all wrote
within the first fifty years of the seventeenth century. It must therefore
be subsequent not only to that date, but to the reign of Queen Anne, that
we are to look for its general acceptance in its present contumelious
sense. And I believe that its introduction may be traced to a recent
period, and to a much more simple derivation than that investigated by your

I apprehend that the present term, "a blackguard," is of French origin; and
that its importation into our language was subsequent to the Restoration of
Charles II., A.D. 1660. There is a corresponding term in French, _blague_,
which, like our English adaptation, is not admissible in good society. It
is defined by Bescherelles, in his great _Dictionnaire National_, to mean
"fanfaronnade, hâblerie, mensonge; bourde, gasconade:" and to {79} be "un
mot populaire et bas, dont les personnes bien élevées évitent de se
servir." From _blague_ comes the verb _blaguer_, which the same authority
says means "dire des blagues; mentir pour le plaisir de mentir." And from
_blaguer_ comes the substantive _blagueur_, which is, I apprehend, the
original of our English word _blackguard_. It is described by Bescherelles
as a "diseur de sornettes et de faussetées; hâbleur, fanfaron. Un
_blagueur_ est un menteur, mais un menteur qui a moins pour but de tromper
que de se faire valoir."

The English term has, it will be observed, a somewhat wider and more
offensive import than the French: and the latter being rarely to be found
amongst educated persons, or in dictionaries, it may have escaped the
etymologists who were in search of a congener for its English derivative.
Its pedigree is, however, to be sought in philological rather than
archæological records. Within the last two centuries, a number of words of
honest origin have passed into an opprobrious sense; for example, the
oppressed tenants of Ireland are spoken of by SPENSER and SIR JOHN DAVIES
as "_villains_." In our version of the Scriptures, "_cunning_" implies
merely skill in music and in art. SHAKSPEARE employs the word "_vagabond_"
as often to express pity as reproach; and I think it will be found, that as
a _knave_, prior to the reign of Elizabeth, meant merely a serving man, so
a _blackguard_ was the name for a pot-boy or scullion in the reign of Queen
Anne. The transition into its more modern meaning took place at a later
period, on the importation of a foreign word, to which, being already
interchangeable in sound, it speedily became assimilated in sense.


       *       *       *       *       *


    "It was a trim worke indeede, and a gay world no doubt for some idle
    cloister-man, mad merry friers, and lusty abbey-lubbers; when
    themselves were well whittled, and their paunches pretily stuffed, to
    fall a prophesieing of the woefull dearths, famines, plagues, wars, &c.
    of the dangerous days imminent."--Harvey's _Discoursive Probleme_,
    Lond. 1588.

Among the sly hits at our nation, which abound in the lively pages of the
Sieur d'Argenton, is one to the effect that an Englishman always has an old
prophecy in his possession. The worthy Sieur is describing the meeting of
Louis X. and our Henry II. near Picquini, where the Chancellor of England
commenced his harangue by alluding to an ancient prophecy which predicted
that the Plain of Picquini should be the scene of a memorable and lasting
peace between the two nations. "The Bishop," says Commines, "commença par
une prophétie, dont," adds he, _en parenthèse_, "les Anglois ne sont jamais
despourveus."[1] Even at this early period, we had thus acquired a
reputation for prophecies, and it must be confessed that our chronicles
abound in passages which illustrate the justice of the Sieur's sarcasm.
From the days of York and Lancaster, when, according to Lord Northampton
"bookes of beasts and babyes were exceeding ryfe, and current in every
quarter and corner of the realme,"[2] up to the time of Napoleon's
projected invasion, when the presses of the Seven Dials were unusually
prolific in visions and predictions, pandering to the popular fears of the
country--our national character for vaticination has been amply sustained
by a goodly array of prophets, real or pretended, whose lucubrations have
not even yet entirely lost their influence upon the popular mind. To this
day, the ravings of Nixon are "household words" in Cheshire; and I am told
that a bundle of "Dame Shipton's Sayings" still forms a very saleable
addition to the pack of a Yorkshire pedlar. Recent discoveries in
biological science have given to the subject of popular prophecies a
philosophical importance beyond the mere curiosity or strangeness of the
details. Whether or not the human mind, under certain conditions, becomes
endowed with the prescient faculty, is a question I do not wish to discuss
in your pages: I merely wish to direct attention to a neglected and not
uninteresting chapter in the curiosities of literature.

In delving among what may be termed the popular religious literature of the
latter years of the Commonwealth, and early part of the reign of Charles,
we become aware of the existence of a kind of nightmare which the public of
that age were evidently labouring under--a strong and vivid impression that
some terrible calamity was impending over the metropolis. Puritanic
tolerance was sorely tried by the licence of the new Court; and the pulpits
were soon filled with enthusiasts of all sects, who railed in no measured
terms against the monster city--the city Babylon--the bloody city! as they
loved to term her: proclaiming with all the fervour of fanaticism that the
measure of her iniquities was well nigh full, and the day of her extinction
at hand. The press echoed the cry; and for some years before and after the
Restoration, it teemed with "warnings" and "visions," in which the
approaching destruction is often plainly predicted. One of the earliest of
these prefigurations occurs in that Leviathan of Sermons, _God's Plea for
Nineveh, or London's Precedent for Mercy_, by Thomas Reeve: London, 1657.
Speaking of London, he says:

    It was Troy-novant, it is Troy le grand, and it will be Troy
    l'extinct."--P. 217.

{80} And again:

    "Methinks I see you bringing pick-axes to dig downe your owne walls,
    and kindling sparks that will act all in a flame from one end of the
    city to the other."--P. 214.

And afterwards, in a strain of rough eloquence:

    "This goodly city of yours all in shreds, ye may seek for a threshold
    of your antient dwellings, for a pillar of your pleasant habitations,
    and not find them; all your spacious mansions and sumptuous monuments
    are then gone.... Wo unto us, our sins have pulled down our houses,
    shaken down our city; we are the most harbourlesse featlesse people in
    the world.... Foxes have holes, and the fowls of the air nests, but we
    have neither; our sins have deprived us both of couch and covert. What
    inventions shall ye then be put to, to secure yourselves, when your
    sins shall have shut up all the conduits of the city, and suffer only
    the Liver conduit to run[3]; when they allow you no showers of rain,
    but showers of blood; when ye shall see no men of your incorporation,
    but the mangl'd citizen; nor hear no noise in your streets but the
    crys, the shrieks, the yells and pangs of gasping, dying men; when,
    amongst the throngs of associates, not a man will own you or come near
    you," &c.--Pp. 221. _et seq._

After alluding to the epidemics of former ages, he thus alludes to the
coming plague:

    "It will chase men out of their houses, as if there was some fierce
    enemy pursuing them, and shut up shop doors, as if execution after
    judgment was served upon the merchants; there will then be no other
    music to be heard but doleful knells, nor no other wares to be born up
    and down but dead corpses; it will change mansion houses into
    pest-houses, and gather congregations rather into churchyards than
    churches.... The markets will be so empty, that scarce necessaries will
    be brought in, a new kind of brewers will set up, even apothecaries to
    prepare diet drinks."--P. 255.

The early Quakers, like most other religious enthusiasts, claimed the gift
of prophecy: and we are indebted to members of the sect for many
contributions to this branch of literature. Humphrey Smith was one of the
most celebrated of the vaticinating Quakers. Little is known of his life
and career. He appears to have joined the Quakers about 1654; and after
enduring a long series of persecutions and imprisonments for the sake of
his adopted creed, finally ended his days in Winchester gaol in 1662. The
following passage, from a _Vision which he saw concerning London_ (London,
1660). is startling[4]:

    "And as for the city, herself and her suburbs, and all that belonged to
    her, a fire was kindled therin; but she knew not how, even in all her
    goodly places, and the kindling of it was in the foundation of all her
    buildings, and there was none could quench it.... And the burning
    thereof was exceeding great, and it burned inward in a hidden manner
    which cannot be described.... All the tall buildings fell, and it
    consumed all the lofty things therein, and the fire searched out all
    the hidden places, and burned most in the secret places. And as I
    passed through her streets I beheld her state to be very miserable, and
    very few were those who were left in her, who were but here and there
    one: and they feared not the fire, neither did the burning hurt them,
    but they walked as dejected mournful people.... And the fire continued,
    for, though all the lofty part was brought down, yet there was much old
    stuffe, and parts of broken-down desolate walls, which the fire
    continued burning against.... And the vision thereof remained in me as
    a thing that was showed me of the Lord."

Daniel Baker, Will Lilly, and Nostradamus, I shall reserve for another


[Footnote 1: _Mémoires_, p. 155.: Paris, 1649.]

[Footnote 2: _Defensative against the Poyson of supposed Prophecies_, p.

[Footnote 3: "It was a great contributing to this misfortune that the
Thames Water House was out of order, so that the conduits and pipes were
almost all dry."--_Observations on the burning of London_: Lond. 1667, p.

[Footnote 4: For a sight of this extremely scarce tract, I am indebted to
the courtesy of the gentleman who has the care of the Friends' Library in
Devonshire House, Bishopsgate.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 6.)

Essay I. p. 2. "One of the fathers." Who, and where?

Ditto, ditto. The poet. Lucretus, ii., init. "Suave mari magno," &c.

Ditto, p. 3. (note i). Plutarch. Does Montaigne allude to Plutarch, _De
Liberis educandis_, vol. ii. (ed. Xyland.) 11 C.: "[Greek: to gar
pseudesthai douloprepes k.t.l.]"?

Essay II. p. 4. "You shall read in _some_ of the friars' books," &c. Where?

Ditto, ditto. "Pompa magis," &c. Does Bacon quote this from memory,
referring to "Tolle istam pompam, sub quâ lates, et stultos territas"? (Ep.
XXIV. vol. ii. p. 92.: ed. Elzev. 1672.)

Ditto, p. 5. "We read," &c. Tac. _Hist._, ii. 49. "Quidam milites juxta
rogum interfecere se, non noxâ neque ob metum, sed æmulatione decoris et
caritate principis." Cf. Sueton. _Vit. Oth._, 12.

Ditto, ditto. "Cogita quamdiu," &c. Whence is this?

Ditto, ditto. "Augustus Cæsar died," &c. Suet. _Vit. Octav._, 99.

Ditto, ditto. "Tiberius in dissimulation." Tac. _Ann._, vi. 50.

Ditto, ditto. "Vespasian." Suet. _Vit. Vespas._, 23.

Ditto, ditto. "Galba." Tac. _Hist._, i. 41.

Ditto, ditto. "Septimus Severus." Whence is this?

Ditto, p. 6. (note _m_). "In the tenth Satire of Juvenal." V. 357., _seq._

Ditto, ditto. "Extinctus amabitur idem." Hor. _Epist._ ii. l. 14.


Essay III. p. 8. "A master of scoffing." Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, book ii.
cap. viii. (p. 339. vol. i. ed. Bohn, 1849.)

Ditto, p. 9. "As it is noted by one of the fathers." By whom, and where?

Ditto, p. 10. "Lucretius." I. 102.

Ditto, p. 11. "It was a notable observation of a wise father." Of whom, and

Essay IV. p. 13. "For the death of Pertinax." See _Hist. Aug. Script._,
vol. i. p. 578. (Lugd. Bat. 1671.)

Ditto, ditto, (note _f_). "The poet." Ovid, _Ar. Am._, i. 655.

Essay V. ditto. "Bona rerum secundarum," &c. Does Bacon allude to Seneca
(Ep. lxvi. p. 238., _ut sup._), where, after stating that "In æquo est
moderatè gaudere, et moderatè dolere;" he adds, "Illa bona optabilia sunt,
hæc mirabilia"?

Ditto, ditto. "Vere magnum habere," &c. Whence is this?

Ditto, ditto. "The strange fiction of the ancient poets." In note (_a_) we
find "Stesichorus, Apollodorus, _and others_" named. Whereabouts?

Ditto, p. 11. (note _c_). "This fine passage has been quoted by Macaulay."
_Ut sup._, p. 407.

Essay VI. p. 15. "Tacitus saith." _Ann._, v. 1.

Ditto, ditto. "And again, when Mucianus," &c. Ditto, _Hist._, ii. 76.

Ditto, ditto. "Which indeed are arts, &c., as Tacitus well calleth them."

Ditto, p. 17. "It is a good shrewd proverb of the Spaniard." What is the

Essay VII. p. 19. "The precept, 'Optimum elige,' &c." Whence? though I am
ashamed to ask.

Essay VIII. p. 20. "The generals." See Æsch. _Persæ_, 404. (Dindf.), and
Blomfield _in loc._ (v. 411. ed. suæ).

Ditto, ditto. "It was said of Ulysses," &c. By whom? Compare _Od._, v. 218.

Ditto, p. 21. "He was reputed," &c. Who?

(_To be continued._)


       *       *       *       *       *


_Irish Superstitious Customs._--The following strange practices of the
Irish are described in a MS. of the sixteenth century, and seem to have a
Pagan origin:

    "Upon Maie Eve they will drive their cattell upon their neighbour's
    corne, to eate the same up; they were wont to begin from the rast, and
    this principally upon the English churl. Onlesse they do so upon Maie
    daie, the witch hath power upon their cattell all the yere following."

The next paragraph observes that "they spitt in the face; Sir R. Shee spat
in Ladie ---- face."

Spenser alludes to spitting on a person for luck, and I have experienced
the ceremony myself.


_Charm for Warts._--I remember in Leicestershire seeing the following charm
employed for removal of a number of warts on my brother, then a child about
five years old. In the month of April or May he was taken to an ash-tree by
a lady, who carried also a paper of fresh pins; one of these was first
struck through the bark, and then pressed through the wart until it
produced pain: it was then taken out and stuck into the tree. Each wart was
thus treated, a separate pin being used for each. The warts certainly
disappeared in about six weeks. I saw the same tree a year or two again,
when it was very thickly studded over with old pins, each the index of a
cured wart.

T. J.


_The Devil._--

    "According to the superstition of the west countries if you meet the
    devil, you may either cut him in half with a straw, or force him to
    disappear by spitting over his horns."--_Essays on his own Times_, by
    S. T. Coleridge, vol. iii. p. 967.

J. M. B.

If you sing before breakfast you will cry before supper.

If you wish to have luck, never shave on a Monday.

J. M. B.

_"Winter Thunder," &c._--I was conversing the other day with a very old
farmer on the disastrous rains and storms of the present season, when he
told me that he thought we had not yet seen the worst; and gave as a reason
the following proverb:

 "Winter thunder and summer flood
    Bode England no good."

H. T.

Ingatestone Hall, Essex.

       *       *       *       *       *


Malta affords a fine field for antiquarian research; and in no part more so
than in the neighbourhood of Citta Vecchia, where for some distance the
ground is dotted with tombs which have already been opened.

Here, in ancient times, was the site of a burial-place, but for what
people, or at what age, is now unknown; and here it is that archæologists
should commence their labours, that in the result they may not be
disappointed. In some of the tombs which have been recently entered in this
vicinity, fragments of linen cloth have been seen, in which bodies were
enveloped at the time of their burial; in others glass, and earthen
candlesticks, and jars, hollow throughout and of a curious shape; while in
a few were earrings and finger-rings made of the purest gold, but they are
rarely found. {82}

There cannot be a doubt that many valuable antiquities will yet be
discovered, and in support of this presumption I would only refer to those
now known to exist; the Giant's Tower at Gozo, the huge tombs in the
Bengemma Hills, and those extensive and remarkable ruins at Krendi, which
were excavated by order of the late Sir Henry Bouverie, and remain as a
lasting and honourable memento of his rule, being among the number.

An antiquary, being at Malta, cannot pass a portion of an idle day more
agreeably than in visiting some singular sepulchral chambers not far from
Notabile, which are built in a rocky eminence, and with entrances several
feet from the ground. These are very possibly the tombs of the earliest
Christians, who tried in their erection "to imitate that of our Saviour, by
building them in the form of caves, and closing their portals with marble
or stone." When looking at these tombs from a terrace near the Cathedral,
we were strongly reminded of those which were seen by our lately deceased
friend Mr. John L. Stephens, and so well described by him in his _Incidents
of Travel_ in eastern lands. Had we time or space, we should more
particularly refer to several other interesting remains now scattered over
the island, and, among them, to that curious sepulchre not a long time ago
discovered in a garden at Rabato. We might write of the inscription on its
walls, "In pace posita sunt," and of the figures of a dove and hare which
were near it, to show that the ashes of those whom they buried there were
left in peace. We might also make mention, more at length, of a tomb which
was found at the point Beni Isa in 1761, having on its face a Phoenician
inscription, which Sir William Drummond thus translates:

    "The interior room of the tomb of Ænnibal, illustrious in the
    consummation of calamity. He was beloved. The people, when they are
    drawn up in order of battle, weep for Ænnibal the son of Bar Malek."

Sir Grenville Temple remarks, that the great Carthaginian general is
supposed, by the Maltese, to have been a native of their island, and one of
the Barchina family, once known to have been established in Malta; while
some writers have stated that his remains were brought from Bithynia to
this island, to be placed in the tomb of his ancestors; and this
supposition, from what we have read, may be easily credited.

Might I ask if there is any writer, ancient or modern, who has recorded
that Malta was not the burial-place of Hannibal?

W. W.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Waterloo._--I do not know whether, in any of the numerous lives of the
late Duke of Wellington, the following fact has been noticed. In Strada's
History of the Belgian war (a work which deserves to be better known and
appreciated than it is at present), there occurs a passage which shows
that, about three hundred years since, Waterloo was the scene of a severe
engagement; so that the late sanguinary struggle was not the first this
battle-ground has to boast of. The passage occurs in _Famianæ Stradæ de
Bello Belgico, Decas prima_, lib. vi. p. 256., edit. Romæ, 1653; where,
after describing a scheme on the part of the insurgents for surprising
Lille, and its discovery by the Royalists, he goes on:

    "Et Rassinghemius de Armerteriensi milite inaudierat: nihilqve moratvs
    selectis centvmqvinqvaginta peditibvs et equitibus sclopetariis fermè
    qvinqveginta prope _Waterlocvm_ pagvm pvgnam committit."

What makes this more curious is, that, like the later battle, neither of
the contending parties on this occasion were natives of the country in
which the battle was fought, they being the French Calvinists on one side
and the Spaniards on the other.


"_Tuch._"--In "The Synagogue," attached to Herbert's _Poems_, but written
by Chr. Harvie, M.A., is a piece entitled "The Communion Table," one verse
of which is as follows:

 "And for the matter whereof it is made,
      The matter is not much,
      Although it be of _tuch_,
  Or wood, or mettal, what will last, or fade;
            So vanitie
  And superstition avoided be."

S. T. Coleridge, in a note on this passage, printed in Mr. Pickering's
edition of Herbert, 1850 (fcap. 8vo.), says:

    "_Tuch_ rhyming to _much_, from the German _tuch_, cloth: I never met
    with it before as an English word. So I find _platt_, for foliage, in
    Stanley's _Hist. of Philosophy_, p. 22."

Whether Coleridge rightly appreciated Stanley's use of the word _platt_, I
shall not determine; but with regard to _touch_, it is evident that he went
(it was the tendency of his mind) to Germany for error, when truth might
have been discovered nearer home. The context shows that _cloth_ could not
have been intended, for who ever heard of a table or altar made of cloth?
The truth is that the poet meant _touchstone_, which the author of the
_Glossary of Architecture_ (3rd edit., text and appendix) rightly explains
to be "the dark-coloured stone or marble, anciently used for tombstones. A
musical sound" (it is added) "may be produced by touching it sharply with a
stick." And this is in fact the reason for its name. The author of the
_Glossary of Architecture_ cites _Ben Jonson_ by Gifford, viii. 251., and
_Archæol._, xvi. 84.


Lincoln's Inn.


_The Dodo._--Among the seals, or rather sulphur casts, in the British
Museum, is one of Nicholas Saumares, anno 1400. It represents an esquire's
helmet, from which depends obliquely a shield with the
arms--supporters--dexter a unicorn, sinister a greyhound; crest, a bird,
which from its unwieldy body and disproportionate wings I take to be a
Dodo: and the more probability attaches itself to this conjecture, since
_Dodo_ seems to have been the surname of the Counts de Somery, or Somerie
(query Saumarez), as mentioned in p. 2. of Add. MSS. 17,455. in the British
Museum, and alluded to in a former No. of "N. & Q." This seal, like many
others, is not in such a state of preservation as to warrant the assertion
that we have found a veritable Dodo. I only offer it as a hint to MR.
STRICKLAND and others, that have written so learnedly on this head. Burke
gives a falcon for the crest of Saumarez; but the clumsy form and figure of
this bird does not in any way assimilate with any of the falcon tribe.

Dodo seems also to have been used as a Christian name, as in the same
volume of MSS. quoted above we find Dodo de Cisuris, &c.


_Francis I._--Mention has been made in "N. & Q." of Francis I.'s celebrated
"Tout est perdu hormis l'honneur!" but the beauty of that phrase is lost in
its real position,--a long letter to Louisa of Savoy, his mother. The
letter is given at full length in Sismondi's _Histoire des Français_.

M--A L.

       *       *       *       *       *



In 1662 Anthony Marshall, D.D., was Rector of Bottesford, in
Leicestershire. Nichols adds a _query_ after his name; whether he were of
the Bishop of Exeter's family? and a _note_, that Anthony Marshall was
created D.D. at Cambridge in 1661 by royal mandate (_Hist. Leic._, vol ii.
p. 77.); and again, Dr. Anthony Marshall preached a Visitation Sermon at
Melton in 1667, Aug. 11. I do not find that any Bishop of Exeter bore the
name of Marshall except Henry Marshall in 1191, of course too far back to
suppose that the Query could refer to him; but I have not introduced this
Note to quarrel with Mr. Nichols, but to ask if this is all that is known
of a man who must, in his day, have attained to considerable eminence. I
more than suspect that this Dr. Marshall was a native of Staveley in
Derbyshire. Sir Peter Frescheville, in his will, dated in 1632, gives to
St. John's College, Cambridge, 50l. "for the buying of bookes to furnish
some one of the desks in the new library lately built and erected in the
said college; and expresses his desire that the said money shall be layed
forth, and the bookes bought, provided, and placed in the said library by
the paines, care, and discression of his two loveing friends, Mr. Robert
Hitch, late Fellow of Trinity College in Cambridge; and Mr. Robert
Marshall, Fellow of St. John's College[5]; or the survivor of them,"--which
last Robert, I suspect, should be Anthony.

In 1677 Anthony Marshall, D.D., Rector of Bottesford, was a subscriber of
10l. towards a fund then raised for yearly distribution; and there is only
one name precedes his, or subscribes a larger amount, and that is Dr. Hitch
before named.

Mr. Bagshaw, in his _Spiritualibus Pecci_, 1701, p. 61., referring to
Thomas Stanley, one of the ejected ministers, says:

    "Mr. Stanley was born at Dackmonton, three miles from Chesterfield,
    where he had part of his education, as he had another part of it at
    Staley, not far from it. His noted schoolmaster was one Mr. Marshall,
    whose brother made a speech to King James I."

Is there any means of corroborating this incident? In 1682 I observe the
name of Dr. Marshall amongst the King's Chaplains in Ordinary, and a Dr.
Marshall (perhaps the same individual) Dean of Gloucester; but whether
identified in the Doctor about whom I inquire, remains a Query.

U. J. S.


[Footnote 5: [There is a Latin epigram, by R. Marshall of St. John's
College, Cambridge, prefixed to John Hall's _Poems_, published in

       *       *       *       *       *


We are told by Bede that _Lindisfarne_, now Holy Island, derives the first
part of its name from the small brook Lindis, which at high water is quite
invisible, being covered by the tide, but at low water is seen running
briskly into the sea. Now I should be glad to know the precise meaning of
_Lindis_. We are informed by etymologists, that _Lyn_ or _Lin_, in names of
places, signifies water in any shape, as lake, marsh, or stream: but what
does the adjunct _dis_ mean? Some writers assert that _Lindis_ signifies
the linden-tree; thus making the sound an echo to the meaning: and hence
they assume that Lindesey in Lincolnshire must signify an Isle of
Linden-trees. But it is very doubtful that such a tree ever existed in
Lincolnshire anterior to the Conquest. The _linden_ is rather a rare tree
in England; and the two principal species, the _Tilia Europea_ and the
_Tilia grandifolia_, are said by botanists not to be indigenous to this
country, but to have been introduced into our island at an early period to
adorn the parks of the nobles, and certainly not till after the Conquest.

Dr. Henry, in his _History of Britain_, vol. iv., gives the meaning of
"Marsh Isle" to Lindsey, and of "Lake Colony" to Lincolnia. This I consider
the most probable signification to a district {84} that abounded in marshes
at that early period, when the rude Briton or the Saxon applied names to
places the most consonant to the aspects they afforded them: nor is it
likely they would give the name of Lindentree to a small brook, where such
a tree never could have grown.

As to the antiquity of the name of Lindes or Lindesey, I should say
Lindentree must be of comparatively modern nomenclature. I should, however,
be glad to have the opinion of some of your better-informed etymologists on
the meaning of the word, as it may decide a point of some importance in

J. L.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Smock Marriage in New York._--In a curious old book, entitled _The
interesting Narrative of the Life of Oulandah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa,
the African, written by himself_, and published in London, by subscription,
in 1789, I find the following passage:

    "While we lay here (New York, A.D. 1784) a circumstance happened which
    I thought extremely singular. One day a malefactor was to be executed
    on a gallows, but with a condition that if any woman, having nothing on
    but her shift, married the man under the gallows, his life was to be
    saved. This extraordinary privilege was claimed; a woman presented
    herself, and the marriage ceremony was performed."--Vol. ii. p. 224.

Perhaps some of your New York correspondents can say whether the annals of
that city furnish evidence of so extraordinary an occurrence.


_The broken Astragalus._--Where was the broken astragalus, given by the
host to his guest, first used as the symbol of hospitality?


_Penardo and Laissa._--Who is the author of a poem (the title-page of which
is wanting) called _The Historye of Penardo and Laissa_, unpaged, in
seventeen caputs, with poems recommendatory, by Drummond of Hawthornden and
others, small 4to., containing many Scotticisms?

E. D.

_St. Adulph_ (Vol. v., pp. 566, 567.).--Capgrave, quoting John of Tynemouth
(?), says:

    "Sanctum igitur Adulphum audita ejus fama ad _trajectensem_[6]
    ecclesiam in episcopum _rex_ sublimavit."

Query 1. Who is the "rex" here mentioned?

Query 2. "Trajecteasem:" ought this to be applied to "Utrecht" or
"Maestricht," or either? Literally, it is "on the other side of the water."

A. B.

[Footnote 6: "trajectensem" (passim) corrected from "trajecteasem" by
erratum in Issue 170.--Transcriber.]

_St. Botulph_ (Vol. v., pp. 566, 567.).--Your correspondent C. W. G. says:

    "His (St. Botulph's) life was first put into regular form by
    Fulcard.... Fulcard tells us what his materials were.... An early MS.
    of _this_ life is in the Harleian Collection, No. 3097. It was printed
    by Capgrave in the _Legenda Nova_."

Query: _Fulcard's_ life of the saint, or the life by some other person:
John of Tynemouth to wit?

A. B.

_Tennyson._--Mr. Gilfillan, in his _Literary Gallery_, speaking of that
fine poem "The Two Voices," says that the following line--

 "You scarce could see the grass for flowers"--
                  P. 308. l. 18., 7th edit.

is borrowed from one of the old dramatists. Could you or any of your
correspondents tell me what the line is?

As also the Latin song referred to in "Edwin Morris:"

                   "Shall not love to me,
  As in the Latin song I learnt at school,
  Sneeze out a full God-bless-you right and left?"
                  P. 231. l. 10., 7th edit.

My last Tennyson Query is about the meaning of--

                   "She to me
  Was proxy-wedded with a bootless calf,
  At eight years old."
              _Princess_, p. 15. l. 18., 4th edit.

H. J. J.


_"Ma Ninette," &c._--Can any of your French readers tell me the
continuation, if continuation there be, of the following charming verses;
as also where they come from?

 "Ma Ninette a quatorze ans,
  Trois mois quelque chose;
  Son teint est un printemps,
  Sa bouche une rose."

H. J. J.

_Astronomical Query._--You style your paper a medium of communication
between literary men, &c. I trust this does not exclude one of my sex from
seeking information through the same channel.

We have had additions to our solar system by the discovery of four planets
within the last few years. Supposing that these planets obey the same laws
as the larger ones, they must be at all times apparently moving within the
zodiac; and considering the improvements in telescopes within the last
seventy years, and the great number of scientific observers at all times
engaged in the pursuit of astronomy both in Europe and North America, I am
at a loss to understand why these planets were not discovered before.

I suppose we may not consider them as new creations attached to our solar
system, because the law of perturbations on which Mr. Herschel {85}
discourses at length, in the eleventh chapter of his _Treatise on
Astronomy_, would seem to demonstrate that they would interfere with the
equilibrium of the solar system.

Would some of your scientific contributors condescend to explain this
matter, so as to remove the ignorance under which I labour in common with,
I believe, many others?



_Chaplains to Noblemen._--Under what statute, if any, do noblemen appoint
their chaplains? and is there any registry of such appointments in any
archiepiscopal or episcopal registry?


_"More" Queries._--

 "When _More_ some years had Chancellor been,
    No _more_ suits did remain;
  The same shall never _more_ be seen,
    Till _More_ be there again."

I infer from the first lines of this epigram that Sir Thomas More, by his
unremitting attention to the business of the Court of Chancery, had brought
to a close, in his day, the litigation in that department. Is there any
authentic record of this circumstance?

Are there, at the present day, any male descendants of Sir Thomas More, so
as to render possible the fulfilment of the prophecy contained in the last
two lines?


St. Lucia.

_Heraldic Query._--To what families do the following bearings belong? 1.
Two lions passant, on a chief three spheres (I think) mounted on pedestals;
a mullet for difference. The crest is very like a lily reversed. 2. Ermine,
a bull passant; crest, a bull passant: initials "C. G."

U. J. S.


_"By Prudence guided," &c._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." supply me
with the words deficient in the following lines, and inform me from what
author they are quoted? I met with them on an old decaying tomb in one of
the churchyards in Sheffield:

 "By prudence guided, undefiled in mind,
  Of pride unconscious, and of soul refined,
  . . . .  conquest  . . . . . . . . subdue
  With . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in view
  Here . . . . . . . .  the heaven-born flame
  Which  . . . . . . . from whence it came."

W. S. (Sheffield.)

_Lawyers' Bags._--I find it stated by Colonel Landman, in his _Memoirs_,
that prior to the trial of Queen Caroline, the colour of the bags carried
by barristers was green; and that the change to red took place at, or
immediately after, the event in question. I shall be glad of any
information both as to the fact of such change having taken place, and the
circumstances by which it was brought about and accompanied.

J. ST. J. Y.


_Master Family._--Can you refer me to any one who may be able to give me
information respecting the earlier history of the family of Master or
Maistre, of Kent, prior to 1550: and any suggestions as to its connexion
with the French or Norman family of Maistre or De Maistre? This being a
Query of no public interest, I inclose a stamped envelope, according to the
wish expressed by you in a recent Number.


Welsh-Hampton, Salop.

_Passage in Wordsworth._--Can any of your correspondents find an _older
original_ for Wordsworth's graceful conceit, in his sonnet on Walton's

 "There are no colours in the fairest sky
  As fair as these: _the feather whence the pen_
  _Was shaped, that traced the lives of these good men,_
  _Dropt from an angel's wing_"--

than the following:

                       "whose noble praise
  Deserves a quill pluckt from an angel's wing."

    Dorothy Berry, in a Sonnet prefixed to Diana Primrose's _Chain of
    Pearl, a Memorial of the peerless Graces, &c. of Queen Elizabeth_:
    published London, 1639,--a tract of twelve pages.

M--A L.


_Govett Family._--Can you inform me for what town or county Sir ----
Govett, Bart., was member of parliament in the year 1669, and what were his
armorial bearings? His name appears in the list of members given in page
496. of the Grand Duke Cosmo's _Travels through England_, published in
1821. Is the baronetcy extinct? If so, who was the last baronet, and in
what year? Where he lived, or any other particulars, will much oblige.


_Sir Kenelm Digby._--Why is Sir Kenelm Digby represented, I believe always,
with a sun-flower by his side?


_Riddles._--It would take up too much of your valuable time and space to
insert all the riddles for which correspondents cannot find answers; but
will you find means to ask, through your pages, if any clever Oedipus would
allow me to communicate to him certain enigmas which puzzle me greatly, and
which I should very much like to have solved.


_Straw Bail._--Fielding, in his _Life of Jonathan Wild_, book i. chap. ii.,
relates that Jonathan's aunt

    "Charity took to husband an eminent gentleman, whose name I cannot
    learn; but who was famous for {86} so friendly a disposition, that he
    was bail for above a hundred persons in one year. He had likewise the
    remarkable humour[7] of walking in Westminster Hall with a straw in his

What was the practice here referred to, and what is the origin of the
expression "a man of straw," which is commonly applied to any one who
appears, or pretends to be, but is not, a man of property?

Straw bail is, I believe, a term still used by attorneys to distinguish
insufficient bail from "justifiable" or sufficient bail.


[Footnote 7: "humour" corrected from "honour" by erratum in Issue

_Wages in the West in 1642._--The Marquis of Hertford and Lord Poulett were
very active in the West in the year 1642. In the famous collection of
pamphlets in the British Museum (113, 69.) is contained Lord Poulett's
speech at Wells, Somerset:

    "His lordship, with many imprecations, oaths, and execrations (in the
    height of fury), said that it was not fit for any yeoman to have
    allowed him from his own labours any more than the poor moiety of ten
    pounds a-year; and when the power shall be totally on their side, they
    shall be compelled to live on that low allowance, notwithstanding their
    estates are gotten with a great deal of labour and industry.

    "Upon this the people attempted to lay violent hands upon Lord Poulett,
    who was saved by a regiment marching in or by at the moment."

What was Lord Poulett's precise meaning? Do we not clearly learn from the
above, that the Civil War was due to more than a mere choosing between king
and parliament among the humbler classes of the remote country districts?


_Literary Frauds of Modern Times._--In a work by Bishop (now Cardinal)
Wiseman, entitled _The Connexion between Science and Revealed Religion_,
3rd edition, vol. ii. p. 270., occurs the following remark:

    "The most celebrated literary frauds of modern times, the _History of
    Formosa_, or, still more, the _Sicilian Code of Vella_, for a time
    perplexed the world, but were in the end discovered."

Will you, or any of your readers, kindly refer me to any published account
of the frauds alluded to in this passage? I have a faint remembrance of
having read some remarks respecting the _Code of Vella_, but am unable to
recall the circumstances.

I was under the impression that Chatterton's forgery of the Rowley poems,
Macpherson's of the Ossianic rhapsodies, and Count de Surville's of the
poems of Madame de Surville, were "the most celebrated literary frauds of
modern times." In what respect are those alluded to by Dr. Wiseman entitled
to the unenviable distinction which he claims for them?


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

"_Very like a Whale._"--What is the origin of this expression? It occurs in
the following doggerel verses, supposed to be spoken by the driver of a
cart laden with fish:

 "This salmon has got a tail;
  _It's very like a whale_;
  It's a fish that's very merry;
  They say its catch'd at Derry.
  It's a fish that's got a heart;
  It's catch'd and put in Dugdale's cart."


St. Lucia.

    [This expression occurs in _Hamlet_, Act III. Sc. _2._:

     "_Hamlet._ Do you see yonder cloud, that is almost in shape of a
      _Polonius._ By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed.
      _Hamlet._ Methinks it is like a weasel.
      _Polonius._ It is backed like a weasel.
      _Hamlet._ Or like a whale?
      _Polonius._ Very like a whale."

    Since Shakspeare's time, it has been used as a proverb in reply to any
    remark partaking of the marvellous.]

_Wednesday a Litany Day._--Why is Wednesday made a Litany day by the
Church? We all know why Friday was made a fast; but why should Wednesday be


    [Wednesdays and Fridays were kept as fasts in the primitive Church:
    because on the one our Lord was betrayed, on the other crucified. See
    Mant and Wheatley.]

_"Thy Spirit, Independence," &c._--Could you, or any of your readers,
inform me where are the following lines?--

 "Thy spirit, Independence, let me share,
    Lord of the lion heart and eagle eye!
  Thy steps I'll follow with my bosom bare,
    Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky."

I quote from memory.


    [In Smollett's _Ode to Independence_.]

_"Hob and nob," Meaning of._--What is the origin of these words as verbs,
in the phrase "Hob or nob," which means, as I need not inform your readers,
to spend an evening tippling with a jolly companion?

What is the origin of "nob?" And is either of these two words ever used



    [This phrase, according to Grose, "originated in the days of good Queen
    Bess. When great chimnies were in fashion, there was at each corner of
    the hearth, or grate, a small elevated projection, called _hob_, and
    behind it a seat. In winter-time the beer was placed on the hob to
    warm; and the cold beer was set on a small table, said to have been
    called the _nob_: so that the {87} question, Will you have hob or nob?
    seems only to have meant, Will you have warm or cold beer? _i.e._ beer
    from the hob, or beer from the nob." But Nares, in his _Glossary_, s.v.
    _Habbe_ or _Nabbe_, with much greater reason, shows that _hob_ or
    _nob_, now only used convivially, to ask a person whether he will have
    a glass of wine or not, is most evidently a corruption of the old
    _hab-nab_, from the Saxon _habban_, to have, and _nabban_, not to have;
    in proof of which, as Nares remarks, Shakspeare has used it to mark an
    alternative of another kind:

    "And his incensement at this moment is so implacable, that satisfaction
    can be none but by pangs of death and sepulchre: _hob, nob_ is his
    word; give't or take't."--_Twelfth Night_, Act III. Sc. 4.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., pp. 508. 585.)

There is an anxiety to obtain further particulars on this interesting
subject, and I have searched my Genealogical MSS. Collections for such; the
result has extended farther than I could have wished, but, while I am able
to furnish _dates_ and _authorities_ for hitherto naked statements, I have
inserted two or three links of descent not before laid down.

A member of the Somersetshire Wellesleighs is said to have accompanied
Henry II. to Ireland.

Walleran or Walter de Wellesley, living in Ireland in 1230 (Lynch, _Feud.
Dig._), witnessed a grant of certain townlands to the Priory of Christ
Church about 1250 (_Registry of Christ Church_); while it is more
effectively stated that he then "endowed the Priory of All Saints with 60
a. of land, within the manor of Cruagh, _which then belonged, with other
estates, to his family_, and that he gave to the said priory _free common
of pasture, of wood and of turbary, over his whole mountain there_."

His namesake and son (according to Lynch, _Feud. Dig._), "Walran de
Wylesley," was in 1302 required, as one of the "Fideles" of Ireland, by
three several letters, to do service in the meditated war in Scotland
(_Parl. Writs_, vol. i. p. 363.), and in the following year he was slain
(_MS. Book of Obits, T.C.D._). The peerage books merge these two Wallerans
in one.

William de Wellesley, who appears to have been son to Walleran, was in 1309
appointed Constable of the Castle of Kildare (_Rot. Pat. Canc. Hib._),
which he maintained when besieged by the Bruces in their memorable invasion
of Ireland, and their foray over that county. For these and other services
to the state he received many lucrative and honourable grants from the
crown, and was summoned to parliament in 1339. In 1347 he was slain at the
siege of Calais. (_Obits, T.C.D._)

Sir John de Wellesly, Knight, son of William, having performed great
actions against the O'Tooles and O'Byrnes of Wicklow, had grants of sundry
wardships and other rewards from the year 1335. In 1343 he became one of
the sureties for the appearance of the suspected Earl of Desmond, on whose
flight Sir John's estates were seised to the crown and withheld for some
years. (Lynch's _Feud. Dig._)

His successor was another John de Wellesley, omitted in the peerage books,
but whose existence is shown by _Close Roll 29 & 30 Edw. III., C. H._ He
died about the year 1355.

William Wellesley, son of John, was summoned to great councils and
parliaments of Ireland from 1372; he was also entrusted by the king with
various important commissions and custodies of castles, lands, and wards
(_Patent Rolls C. H._). In 1386 he was Sheriff of Kildare, and Henry IV.
renewed his commission in 1403.

Richard, son and heir of William de Wellesley, as proved by _Rot. Pat. 1
Henry IV., Canc. Hib._, married Johanna, daughter and heiress of Sir
Nicholas de Castlemartin, by whom the estates of Dangan, Mornington, &c.
passed to the Wellesley family; he and his said wife had confirmation of
their estates in 1422. (_Rot. Pat. 1 Henry VI., C. H._) He had a previous
grant from the treasury by order of the Privy Council, in consideration of
his long services as sheriff of the county of Kildare, and yet more
actively "in the wars of Munster, Meath, and Leinster, with men and horses,
arms and money." (_Rot. Claus. 17 Ric. II., C. H._) In 1431 he was
specially commissioned to advise the crown on the state of Ireland, and was
subsequently selected to take charge of the Castle of Athy, as "the fittest
person to maintain that fortress and key of the country against the malice
of the Irish enemy." (_Rot. Pat. et Claus. 9 Henry VI., C. H._) In
resisting that "malice" he fell soon after.

The issue of Sir Richard de Wellesley by Johanna were William Wellesley,
who married Katherine ----, and dying in 1441 was succeeded by his next
brother, Christopher Wellesley, whose recorded fealty in the same year
proves all the latter links; his succession to William as brother and heir,
and the titles of Johanna as widow of his father Richard, and of Katherine
as widow of William, to dower off said estates. (_Rot. Claus. 19 Henry
VI._, _C. H._) At and previous to this time, another line of this family,
connected as cousins with the house of Dangan, flourished in the co.
Kildare, where they were recognised as Palatine Barons of Norragh to the
close of the seventeenth century. William Wellesley of Dangan was the son
and heir of Christopher. An (unprinted) act of Edward IV. was passed in
1472 in favour of this William; and his two marriages are stated by Lynch
(_Feud. Dig._): the first was to {88} Ismay Plunkett; the second, to Maud
O'Toole, was contracted under peculiar circumstances. The law of Ireland at
the time prohibited the intermarriages of the English with the natives
without royal licence therefor being previously obtained, and not even did
the licence so obtained wash out the _original sin_ of Irish birth; for, as
in this instance, Maud, having survived her first husband, on marrying her
second, Patrick Hussey, had a fresh licence to legalise that marriage. It
is of record (_Rot. Pat. 21 Henry VII., C. H._), and proves the second
marriage of Sir William clearly: yet it is not noticed in any of the
peerage books, which derive his issue from the first wife, and not from the
second, as Lynch gives it, that issue being Gerald the eldest son, Walter
the second, and Alison a daughter.

Gerald had a special livery of his estate in 1539; Walter the second son
became Bishop of Kildare in 1531, and died its diocesan in 1539 (see Ware's
_Bishops_); and the daughter Alison intermarried with John Cusack of
Cushington, co. Meath. (Burke's _Landed Gentry_, Supp. p. 88.)

Gerald, according to all the peerage books, married Margaret, eldest
daughter of Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, who was Lord Chancellor of Ireland in
1483, and had issue William, his eldest son, Lord of Dangan, who married
Elizabeth Cusack, of Portrane, co. Dublin, and died previous to 1551 (as I
believe is proveable by _inquisitions_ of that year in the office of the
Chief Remembrancer, Dublin), leaving Gerald, his eldest son and heir. An
inquiry taken in 1579 as to the extent of the manor of Dangan, finds him
then seised thereof (_Inquis. in C. H. 23 Eliz._). Previous to this he
appears a party in conveyances of record, as in 1564, &c. He had a son
Edward (not mentioned in the peerage books), who joined in a family
conveyance of 1599, and soon after died, leaving a son, Valerian Wellesley.
Gerald himself died in 1603, leaving said Valerian, his grandson and heir,
then aged ten (_Inquis. 5 Jac. I. in Rolls Office_), and _married_, adds
the Inquisition; and Lynch, in his _Feudal Dignities_, gives interesting
particulars of the betrothal of this boy, and his public repudiation of the
intended match on his coming to age. This Valerian is traced through Irish
records to the time of the Restoration; he married first, Maria Cusack (by
whom he had William Wellesley, his eldest son), and, second, Anne Forth,
otherwise Cusack, widow of Sir Ambrose Forth, as shown by an Inquisition of
1637, in the Rolls Office, Dublin.

William Wellesley, son and heir of Valerian, married Margaret Kempe
(_Peerage Books_), and by her had Gerald Wellesley, who on the Restoration
petitioned to be restored to his estates, and a Decree of Innocence issued,
which states the rights of himself, his father, and his grandfather in
"Dingen." This Gerald married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Dudley
Colley, and their first daughter was baptized in 1663 by the name of
Margaret, some evidence, in the courtesy of christenings, of Gerald's
mother being Margaret. (_Registry of St. Werburgh's._) Gerald was a suitor
in the Court of Claims in 1703: he left two sons; William the eldest died
_s. p._, and was succeeded by Garrett, his next brother, who died also
without issue in 1728, having bequeathed all the family estates to Richard
Colley, second son of the aforesaid Sir Dudley Colley, and testator's
uncle, enjoining upon said Richard and his heirs male to bear thenceforth,
as they succeeded to the estates, the name and arms of Wellesley.

This Richard Colley Wellesley married Elizabeth, daughter of John Sale,
LL.D. and M.P., by whom he had issue Garrett Wellesley, born, as the
_Dublin and London Magazine_ for 1735 announces, "19th July," when "the
Lady of Richard Colley Westley was delivered of a son and heir, _to the
great joy of that family_." This son was father of the Marquis Wellesley


48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 603.)

SIR W. C. T. has opened a very interesting field for inquiry regarding
these blest rings.

St. Edward, in his last illness (obiit January 5, 1066), gave a ring which
he wore to the Abbot of Westminster. The origin of this ring is surrounded
by much mystery. A pilgrim is said to have brought it to the king, and to
have informed him that St. John the Evangelist had made known to the donor
that the king's decease was at hand. "St. Edward's ring" was kept for some
time at Westminster Abbey, as a relic of the saint, and was applied for the
cure of the falling sickness or epilepsy, and for cramp. From this arose
the custom of our English kings, who were believed to have inherited St.
Edward's powers of cure, solemnly blessing every year rings for

It is said, we know not on what authority, that the ring did not always
remain at Westminster, but that in the chapel of Havering (so called from
_having the ring_), in the parish of Hornchurch, near Rumford in Essex
(once a hunting-seat of the kings), was kept, till the dissolution of
religious houses, the identical ring given by the pilgrim to St. Edward.
Weaver says he saw it represented in a window of Rumford Church.

These rings seem to have been blessed for two different species of cure:
first, against the falling sickness (comitialis morbus); and, secondly,
against the cramp (contracta membra). For the cure of the king's evil the
sovereign did not bless rings, but continued to _touch_ the patient. {89}

Good Friday was the day appointed for the blessing of the rings. They were
often called "medijcinable rings," and were made both of gold and silver;
and as we learn from the household books of Henry IV. and Edward IV., the
metal they were composed of was what formed the king's offering to the
cross on Good Friday. The following entry occurs in the accounts of the 7th
and 8th years of Henry IV. (1406): "In oblacionibus Domini Regis factis
adorando Crucem in capella infra manerium suum de Eltham, die Parascevis,
in precio trium nobilium auri et v solidorum sterlyng, xxv s.

"In denariis solutis pro eisdem oblacionibus reassumptis, pro annulis
medicinalibus inde faciendis, xxv s."

The prayers used at the ceremony of blessing the rings on Good Friday are
published in Waldron's _Literary Museum_. Cardinal Wiseman has in his
possession a MS. containing both the ceremony for the blessing the cramp
rings, and the ceremony for the touching for the king's evil. At the
commencement of the MS. are emblazoned the arms of Philip and Mary: the
first ceremony is headed, "Certain prayers to be used by the quenes heignes
in the consecration of the crampe rynges." Accompanying it is an
illumination representing the queen kneeling, with a dish, containing the
rings to be blessed, on each side of her. The second ceremony is entitled,
"The ceremonye for y^e heling of them that be diseased with the kynges
evill;" and has its illumination of Mary kneeling and placing her hands
upon the neck of the diseased person, who is presented to her by the clerk;
while the chaplain, in alb and stole, kneels on the other side. The MS. was
exhibited at a meeting of the Archæological Institute on 6th June, 1851.
Hearne, in one of his manuscript diaries in the Bodleian, lv. 190.,
mentions having seen certain prayers to be used by Queen Mary at the
blessing of cramp rings. May not this be the identical MS. alluded to?

But, to come to W. C. T.'s immediate question, "When did the use of these
blest rings by our sovereigns cease?" The use never ceased till the change
of religion. In addition to the evidence already given of the custom in the
fifteenth century, may be added several testimonies of its continuance all
through the sixteenth century. Lord Berners, when ambassador to the Emperor
Charles V., writing "to my Lord Cardinal's grace" from Saragossa, June 31,
1518, says, "If your grace remember me with some crampe ryngs, ye shall doo
a thing muche looked for; and I trust to bestowe thaym well with goddes
grace." (_Harl. MS._ 295. f. 119. See also Polydore Virgil, _Hist._ i. 8.;
and Harpsfield.) Andrew Boorde, in his _Introduction to Knowledge_,
mentions the blessing of these rings: "The kynges of England doth halow
every yere crampe rynges, y^e which rynges worne on one's finger doth helpe
them whych hath the crampe:" and again, in his _Breviary of Health_, 1557,
f. 166., mentions as a remedy against the cramp, "The kynge's majestie hath
a great helpe in this matter, in halowing crampe ringes, and so given
without money or petition."

A curious remnant or corruption of the use of cramp rings is given by Mr.
G. Rokewode, who says that in Suffolk "the use of cramp rings, as a
preservative against fits, is not entirely abandoned. Instances occur where
nine young men of a parish each subscribe a crooked sixpence, to be moulded
into a ring, for a young woman afflicted with this malady." (_History,
&c._, 1838, Introd. p. xxvi.)


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 15.)

L. E. X. inquires respecting the first work exhibited by the late J. M. W.
Turner, R.A. The statement of the newspaper referred to was correct. The
first work exhibited by Turner was a water-colour drawing of Lambeth
Palace, and afterwards presented by him to a gentleman of this city, long
since deceased. It is now in the possession of that gentleman's daughter,
an elderly lady, who attaches no little importance to it. The fact is, that
Mr. Turner, when young, was a frequent visitor at her father's house, and
on such terms that her father lent Mr. Turner a horse to go on a sketching
tour through South Wales. This lady has also three or four other drawings
made at that time by Turner,--one a view of Stoke Bishop, near Bristol,
then the seat of Sir Henry Lippincott, Bart., which he made as a companion
to the Lambeth Palace; another is a small portrait of Turner by himself, of
course when a youth. As the early indications of so great an artist, these
drawings are very curious and interesting; but no person that knows
anything of the state of water-colour painting at that period, and previous
to the era when Turner, Girtin, and others began to shine out in that new
and glorious style, that has since brought water-colour works to their
present style of splendour, excellence, and value, will expect anything
approaching the perfection of latter days.

J. WALTER, Marine Painter.

28. Trinity Street, Bristol.

Whether or not the work deemed by L. E. X. to be the first exhibited by
Turner may have been in water-colours, or be still in existence, I leave to
other replicants, availing myself of the occasion to ask him or you,
whether in 1787 two works of W. Turner, at Mr. G. Turner's, Walthamstow,
"No. 471. Dover Castle," "No. 601. Wanstead House," were not, in fact, his
first tilt in that arena of which he was the champion at the hour of his
{90} death? Whether in the two following years he appeared at all in the
ring; and, if not, why not? although in the succeeding 1790 he again threw
down the glaive in the "No. 644. The Archbishop's Palace, Lambeth," being
then set down as "_T._ W. Turner;" reappearing in 1791 as "W. Turner, of
Maiden Lane, Covent Garden," with "No. 494. King John's Palace, Eltham;"
"No. 560. Sweakley, near Uxbridge." In the horizon of art (strange to say,
and yet to be explained!) this luminary glows no more till 1808, when he
had "on the line" (?) several views of Fonthill, as well as the "Tenth
Plague of Egypt," purchased of course by the proprietor of that princely
mansion, as it is found mentioned in Warner's _Walks near Bath_ to be that
same year adorning the walls of one of the saloons.

J. H. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 13.)

I was preparing to answer your correspondent E. S. TAYLOR by a reference to
the conversation between Gurth and Wamba, _Ivanhoe_, chap. i., when a
friend promised to supply me with some additional and fuller information. I
copy from a MS. note that he has placed in my hands:

    "Nec quidem temerè contigisse puto quod animalia viva nominibus
    Germanicæ originis vocemus, quorum tamen carnem in cibum paratam
    originis Gallicæ nominibus appellamus; puta,--bovem, vaccam, vitulum,
    ovem, porcum, aprum, feram, etc. (an ox, a cow, a calf, a sheep, a hog,
    a boar, a deer, &c.); sed carnem bubulam, vitulinam, ovinam, porcinam,
    aprugnam, ferinam, etc. (beef, veal, mutton, pork, brawn, venison, &c.)
    Sed hinc id ortum putaverim, quod Normanni milites pascuis, caulis,
    haris, locisque quibus vivorum animalium cura agebatur, parcius se
    immiscuerint[8] (quæ itaque antiqua nomina retinuerunt) quam macellis,
    culinis, mensis, epulis, ubi vel parabantur vel habebantur cibi, qui
    itaque nova nomina ab illis sunt adepti."--Preface to Dr. Wallis's
    _Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ_, 1653, quoted by Winning, _Comparative
    Philology_, p. 270.



[Footnote 8: "immiscuerint" corrected from "immiscuerunt" by erratum in
Issue 170.--Transcriber.]

If your correspondent E. S. TAYLOR will refer to the romance of _Ivanhoe_,
he will find in the first chapter a dialogue between Wamba the son of
Witless, and Gurth the son of Beowulph, wherein the subject is fully
discussed as to the change of names consequent on the transmutation of live
stock, under the charge of Saxon herdsmen, into materials for satisfying
the heroic appetites of their Norman rulers. It would be interesting to
know the source from whence Sir Walter Scott derived his ideas on this
subject: whether from some previous writer, or "some odd corner of the

A. R. X.


See Trench _On Study of Words_ (3rd edit.), p. 65.


MR. TAYLOR will find in Pegge's _Anonymiana_, Cent. i. 38., and Cent. vii.
95., allusion to what he inquires after.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 604.)

In answer to MR. LIVETT'S Query, as to the marks or letters employed by the
Goldsmiths' Company to denote the year in which the plate was
"hall-marked," I subjoin a list of such as I am acquainted with, and which
might with a little trouble be traced to an earlier period: I have also
added a few notes relating to the subject generally, which may interest
many of your readers.

In the year 1596, the Roman capital A was used; in 1597, B; and so on
alphabetically for twenty years, which would bring us to the letter U,
denoting the year 1615: the alphabet finishing every twenty years with the
letter U or V. The next year, 1616, commences with the Old English letter
[Old English A], and is continued for another twenty years in the Old
English capitals. In 1636 is introduced another alphabet, called Court

  From 1656 to 1675 inclusive, Old English capitals.
       1676 to 1695     "      Small Roman letters.
       1696 to 1715     "      The Court alphabet.
       1716 to 1735     "      Roman capitals.
       1736 to 1755     "      Small Roman letters.
       1756 to 1775     "      Old English capitals.
       1776 to 1795     "      Small Roman letters.
       1796 to 1815     "      Roman capitals.
       1816 to 1835     "      Small Roman letters.
       1836 to 1855     "      Old English capitals.

The letter for the present year, 1853, being [Old English S].

In this list it will appear difficult, at first sight, in looking at a
piece of plate to ascertain its age, to determine whether it was
manufactured between the years 1636 and 1655, or between 1696 and 1715, the
Court hand being used in both these cycles: but (as will presently be
mentioned) instead of the lion passant and leopard's head in the former, we
shall find the lion's head erased, and Britannia, denoting the alteration
of the standard during the latter period.

The standard of gold, when first introduced into the coinage, was of 24
carats fine; that is, pure gold. Subsequently, it was 23½ and half alloy;
this, after an occasional debasement by Henry VIII., was fixed at 22 carats
fine and 2 carats alloy by Charles I.; and still continues so, being {91}
called the old standard. In 1798 an act was passed allowing gold articles
to be made of a lower or worse standard, viz., of 18 carats of fine gold
out of 24; such articles were to be stamped with a crown and the figures
18, instead of the lion passant.

The standard of silver has always (with the exception of about twenty
years) been 11 oz. 2 dwts., and 18 dwts. alloy, in the pound: this was
termed _sterling_, but very much debased from the latter end of Henry VIII.
to the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. In the reign of William III., 1697,
an act was passed to alter the standard of silver to 11 oz. 10 dwts., and
10 dwts. alloy: and instead of the usual marks of the lion and leopard's
head, the stamps of this better quality of silver were the figure of a
lion's head erased, and the figure of Britannia: and the variable letter
denoting the date as before. This act continued in operation for twenty-two
years, being repealed in 1719, when the standard was again restored.

A duty of sixpence per ounce was imposed upon plate in 1719, which was
taken off again in 1757; in lieu of which, a licence or duty of forty
shillings was paid by every vendor of gold or silver. In 1784, a duty of
sixpence per ounce was again imposed, and the licence still continued:
which in 1797 was increased to one shilling, and in 1815 to
eighteenpence--at which it still remains. The payment of this duty is
indicated by the stamp of the sovereign's head.

All gold plate, with the exception of watch-cases, pays a duty of seventeen
shillings per ounce; and silver plate one shilling and sixpence;
watch-cases, chains, and a few other articles being exempted.

The letters used as dates in the foregoing list (it must be remembered) are
only those of the Goldsmiths' Hall in London, as denoted by the leopard's
head crowned. Other Halls, at York, Newcastle, Lincoln, Norwich, Bristol,
Salisbury, and Coventry, had also marks of their own to show the year; and
have stamped gold and silver since the year 1423, perhaps earlier.
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Dublin have had the same privilege from a very
early period: and, more recently, Chester, Birmingham, and Sheffield. Thus
it will be seen that four marks or punches are used on gold and silver
plate, independent of the makers' initials or symbol, viz.:

_The Standard Mark._--For gold of the old standard of 22 carats, and silver
of 11 oz. 2 dwts.:

  A lion passant for England.
  A thistle for Edinburgh.
  A lion rampant for Glasgow.
  A harp crowned for Ireland.

For gold of 18 carats:

  A crown, and the figures 18.

For silver of 11 oz. 10 dwts.:

  A lion's head erased, and Britannia.

_The Hall Mark._--

  A leopard's head crowned for London.
  A castle for Edinburgh.
  Hibernia for Dublin.
  Five lions and a cross for York.
  A castle for Exeter.
  Three wheatsheaves and a dagger for Chester.
  Three castles for Newcastle.
  An anchor for Birmingham.
  A crown for Sheffield.
  A tree and fish for Glasgow.

_The Duty Mark._--The head of the sovereign, to indicate that the duty has
been paid: this mark is not placed on watch-cases, &c.

_The Date Mark_, or variable letter, denoting the year as fixed by each


Old Bond Street.

The table inquired for by MR. LIVETT, with a most interesting historical
paper on the subject, was published in the last _Archæological Journal_,
October, 1852.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564.; Vol. vii., p. 18.)

Since the publication of the professedly imperfect list of various editions
of the Prayer-Book, at page 564. of your last volume, which list was
compiled chiefly from liturgical works in my own possession, I have had
occasion to consult the _Catalogue_ of the British Museum, from which I
have gleaned materials for a more full and correct enumeration. All the
editions in the following list are in the library of the British Museum;
and in order to increase its value and utility, I have appended to each
article the press-mark by which it is now designated. In some of these
press-marks a numeral is subscript, thus:

  C. 25. h. 7.

In order to save space I have represented this in the following list thus,
(C. 25. h. 7) 1., putting the subscript numeral outside the parenthesis.

  1552. (?) 4to. B. L. N. Hyll for A. Veale. (3406. c.)
  1573. (?) fol. R. Jugge. (C. 24. m. 5.) 1.
  1580. (?) 8vo. Portion of Prayer-Book. (3406. a.)
  1584. 4to. Portion of Prayer-Book. (1274. b. 9.)
  1595. fol. Deputies of Ch. Barker. (C. 25. m. 5.) 2.
  1596. 4to. (C. 25 h. 7.) 1.
  1598. fol. (C. 25. 1. 10.) 1.
  1603. (?) 4to. Imperfect. (1275. b. 11.) 1.
  1611. 4to. (1276. e 4.) 1.
  1612. 8vo. (3406. a.)
  1613. 4to. (3406. c.)
  1614. 4to. Portion of Prayer-Book. (3406. c.) 1.
  1615. Fol. (3406. e.) 1.
        4to. (1276. e. 8.) 1.
  1616. Fol. (1276. k. 3.) 1.
        Fol. (1276. k. 4.) 1.
  1618. 4to. Portion of Prayer-Book. (3407. c.)
  1619. Fol. (3406. e.) 1.
  1628. 8vo. (3050. a.) 1.
  1629. 4to. (1276. f. 3.) 1.
  1630-29. Fol. (3406. e.) 1.
  1631. 4to. (1276. f. 1.) 1.
  1633. 12mo. (3405. a.) 1.
        8vo. (1276. b. 14.) 1.
  1633-34. Fol. (3406. f.) (With the "Form of Healing," two leaves.)
  1634. 8vo. (3406. b.) 1.
  1636. 4to. (1276. f. 4.) 2.
  1639. 8vo. (3050. b.) 1.
        8vo. (1274. a. 14.) 1.
  1642. (?) 8vo. (1276. c. 2.) 3.
  1642. 12mo. (3405. a.)
  1660. 12mo. (3406. b.) 1.

In Latin we have an early copy in addition to those already noted, viz.:

  1560. Reg. Wolfe. 4to. (3406. c.)

Of which the British Museum possesses two copies of the same press-mark,
one of which is enriched with MS. notes and sixteen cancelled leaves.
Besides the above we have also

  1589. 8vo. London. In French.
  1599. 4to. London. Deputies of Ch. Barker. In Welsh.

Allow me to take this opportunity of thanking ARCHDEACON COTTON for his
very valuable communication. I trust that he and others of your many
learned readers will lend a helping hand to the correction of this list,
and its ultimate completion; the notice of the editions of 1551 and 1617
(Vol. vii., p. 18.) is as interesting as it is important. It will be
perceived that editions of the Prayer-Book referred to in former lists are
not enumerated in the present one.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Originator of the Collodion Process._--All those who take any interest in
photography must agree with your correspondent G. C. that M. Le Gray is a
talented man, and has done much for photography. G. C. has given a very
good translation of M. Le Gray's _last published work_, p. 89., which work
I have: but I must take leave to observe, that it is no contradiction
whatever to my statement. The translations to which M. Le Gray alludes, of
1850, appeared in Willat's publication, from which I gave him the credit of
having first suggested the use of collodion in photography. The subject is
there dismissed in three or four lines.

M. Le Gray gave no directions whatever for its application to glass in his
work published in July 1851, wherein he alludes to it only as an
"encallage" for paper, classing it with amidou, the resins, &c., which he
recommends in a similar manner.

I had, four months previous to this, published the process in detail in the
_Chemist_. I never asserted that he had not tried experiments with
collodion in 1849; but he did not give the public the advantage of
following him: and I again repeat that the first time M. Le Gray published
the collodion process was in September, 1852,--a year and a half after my
publication, and when it had become much used.

It is obvious that if M. Le Gray had been in possession of any detailed
process with collodion on glass in 1850, he would not have omitted to
publish it in his work dated July, 1851.


105. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury.

G. C., claiming for Le Gray the merit of the first use of collodion upon
glass, states that a pamphlet upon the subject was published in 1850, and
which was _translated into English at the same time_. Will he oblige me by
stating who published this pamphlet, or where it may be obtained? I have
heard this statement before, and have used every endeavour to obtain a
sight of the publication, but without success. Were the facts as stated by
your correspondent, it would deprive MR. ARCHER undoubtedly of the merit
which he claims; but from all I have been able to learn, Le Gray mentioned
collodion as a mere agent for obtaining a smooth surface to paper, or other
substance, having no idea of making it the sole sensitive substance to be
employed. I have been informed that in Vienna, early in 1850, collodion was
tried upon glass by being first immersed in a bath of iodide of potassium;
and it was afterwards placed in a second bath of nitrate of silver. These
experiments had _very limited_ success, and were never published, and
certainly were unknown to MR. ARCHER.

H. W. D.

_Mr. Weld Taylor's Process._--In your 167th Number (Vol. vii., p. 48.) is a
communication from WELD TAYLOR on photographic manipulation, which, in its
present form, is perfectly unintelligible. At p. 48. he says: "Twenty
grains of nitrate of silver in half an ounce of water is to have half an
ounce of solution of iodide of potassium of fifty grains to the ounce
added." Now this is unnecessarily mystifying. Why not say: "Take equal
quantities of a forty-grain solution of nitrate of silver, and of a
fifty-grain solution of iodide of potassium;" though, in fact, an _equal_
strength would do as well, and be quite as, if not more, economical.

In the next place, he directs that cyanide of potassium should be added
_drop by drop_, &c. It {93} is to be presumed that he means a _solution_ of
this salt, which is a solid substance as usually sold.

What follows is so exceedingly droll, that I can do nothing more than
_guess_ at the meaning. How one _solution_ is to be floated on another, and
then, _after_ a bath of nitrate of silver, is to be _ready for the camera_,
surpasses my comprehension.

Also, further on, he alludes to _iodizing_ with the _ammonio-nitrate_ (I
presume of silver). What does he mean?


_Dr. Diamond's Services to Photography._--SIR, We, the undersigned amateurs
of Photography in the city of Norwich, shall be obliged if you will
(privately, or otherwise, at your own discretion) convey to DR. DIAMOND our
grateful thanks for the frankness and liberality with which he has
published the valuable results of his experiments in the pages of "N. & Q."
We have profited largely by DR. DIAMOND'S instructions, and beg to express
our conviction that he is entitled to the gratitude of every lover of the

  We are, Sir,
      Your obedient servants,
          T. LAWSON SISSON, Clk., (Edingthorpe Rectory).
          THOS. D. EATON.
          JAMES HOWES.
          T.G. BAYFIELD.
          G. BROWNFIELD.
          HENRY PULLEY.
          J. BLOWERS (Cossey).
          BENJ. RUSSELL.

    [Agreeing, as we do most entirely, with the Photographers of Norwich in
    their estimate of the skill and perseverance exhibited by DR. DIAMOND
    in simplifying the collodion and paper processes, and of his liberality
    in making known the results of his experiments, we have great pleasure
    in giving publicity to this recognition of the services rendered by DR.
    DIAMOND to this important Art.]

_Simplification of the Wax-paper Process._--At a late meeting of the
Chemical Discussion Society, Mr. J. How read the following paper on this

"The easiest way of waxing the paper is to take an iron (those termed
'box-irons' are the cleanest and best for the purpose) moderately hot, in
the one hand, and to pass it over the paper from side to side, following
closely after it with a piece of white wax, held in the other hand, until
the whole surface has been covered. By thus heating the paper, it readily
imbibes the wax, and becomes rapidly saturated with it. The first sheet
being finished, I place two more sheets of plain paper upon it, and repeat
the operation upon the top one (the intermediate piece serving to absorb
any excess of wax that may remain), and so on, sheet after sheet, until the
number required is waxed.

"The sheets, which now form a compact mass, are separated by passing the
iron, moderately heated, over them; then placed between folds of bibulous
paper, and submitted to a further application of heat by the means just
described, so as to remove all the superfluous wax from the surface, and
render them perfectly transparent--most essential points to be attended to
in order to obtain fine negative proofs.

"I will now endeavour to describe the method of preparing the iodizing

"Instead of being at the trouble of boiling rice, preparing isinglass,
adding sugar of milk and the whites of eggs, &c., I simply take some milk
quite fresh, say that milked the same day, and add to it, drop by drop,
glacial acetic acid, in about the proportion of one, or one and a half
drachm, fluid measure, to the quart, which will separate the caseine,
keeping the mixture well stirred with a glass rod all the time; I then boil
it in a porcelain vessel to throw down the remaining caseine not previously
coagulated, and also to drive off as much as possible of the superfluous
acid it may contain. Of course any other acid would precipitate the
caseine; still I give the preference to the acetic from the fact that it
does not affect the after-process of rendering the paper sensitive, that
acid entering into the composition of the sensitive solution.

"After boiling for five or ten minutes, the liquid should be allowed to
cool, and then be strained through a hair sieve or a piece of muslin, to
collect the caseine: when quite cold, the chemicals are to be added.

"The proportions I have found to yield the best results are those
recommended by Vicomte Veguz, which I have somewhat modified, both as
regard quantities and the number of chemicals employed. They are as follow:

  385  grains of iodide of potassium.
   60     "   of bromide.
   30     "   of cyanide.
   20     "   of fluoride.
   10     "   of chloride of sodium in crystals.
    1½ "   of resublimed iodine.

"The above are dissolved in thirty-five ounces of the strained liquid, and,
after filtration through white bibulous paper, the resulting fluid should
be perfectly clear and of a bright lemon colour.

"The iodized solution is now ready for use, and may be preserved, in
well-stopped bottles, for any length of time.

"The waxed paper is laid in the solution, in a flat porcelain or gutta
percha tray, in the manner described by M. Le Gray and others, and allowed
to remain there for from half an hour to an hour, according to the
thickness of the paper. It is then taken out and hung up to dry, when it
should be of a light brown colour. All these operations may be carried on
in a light room, taking care only that, during the latter part of the
process, {94} the paper be not exposed to the direct rays of the sun.

"The 'iodized paper,' which will keep for almost any length of time, should
be placed in a portfolio, great care being taken to lay it perfectly flat,
otherwise the wax is liable to crack, and thus spoil the beauty of the
negative. The papers manufactured by Canson Frères and Lacroix are far
preferable, for this process, to any of the English kinds, being much
thinner and of a very even texture.

"To render the paper sensitive, use the following solution:

  150 grains nitrate of silver crystals.
  3 fluid drachms glacial acetic acid, crystallizable.
  5 ounces distilled water.

"This solution is applied in the way described by Le Gray, the marked side
of the paper being towards the exciting fluid. The paper is washed in
distilled water and dried, as nearly as possible, between folds of bibulous
paper. It should be kept, till required for the camera, in a portfolio,
between sheets of stout blotting-paper, carefully protected from the
slightest ray of light, and from the action of atmospheric air. If prepared
with any degree of nicety, it will remain sensitive for two or three weeks:
indeed I have seen some very beautiful results on paper which had been kept
for a period of six weeks. At this time of year, an exposure in the camera
of from ten to twenty minutes is requisite.

"The picture may be developed with gallic acid, immediately after its
removal from the camera; or, if more convenient, that part of the process
may be delayed for several days. Whilst at this section of my paper, I may,
perhaps, be allowed to describe a method of preparing the solution of
gallic acid, whereby it may be kept, in a good state of preservation, for
several months. I have kept it myself for four months, and have found it,
after the lapse of that period, infinitely superior to the newly-made
solution. This process has, I am informed, been alluded to in photographic
circles; but not having seen it in print, and presuming the fact to be one
of great practical importance, I trust I shall be excused for introducing
it here, should it not possess that degree of novelty I attribute to it.

"What is generally termed a saturated solution of gallic acid is, I am led
to believe, nothing of the kind. In all the works on photography, the
directions given run generally as follow:--'Put an excess of gallic acid
into distilled water, shake the mixture for about five minutes, allow it to
deposit, and then pour off the supernatant fluid, which is found to be a
saturated solution of the acid.'

"Now I have found by constant experiment, that by keeping an excess of acid
in water for several days, the strength of the solution is greatly
increased, and its action as a developing agent materially improved. The
method I have adopted is to put half an ounce of crystallized gallic acid
into a stoppered quart bottle, and then so to fill it up with water as
that, when the stopper is inserted, a little of the water is displaced,
and, consequently, every particle of air excluded.

"The solution thus prepared will keep for several months. When a portion of
it is required, the bottle should be refilled with fresh distilled water,
the same care being taken to exclude every portion of atmospheric air,--to
the presence of which I am led to believe, is due the decomposition of the
ordinary solution of gallic acid.

"It will be needless to detain you further in explaining the
after-processes, &c. to be found in any of the recent works on the
Waxed-paper Process, the translation of the last edition of Le Gray being
the one to which I give the preference."

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 13.)

Southey has confounded two stories in conjecturing that the anecdote
mentioned by Bp. Sprat related to Bull. It was the _baptismal_ and not the
_funeral_ service that Bull repeated from memory.

I quote from his _Life_ by Robert Nelson:

    "A particular instance of this happened to him while he was minister of
    St. George's (near Bristol); which, because it showeth how valuable the
    Liturgy is in itself, and what unreasonable prejudices are sometimes
    taken up against it, the reader will not, I believe, think it unworthy
    to be related.

    "He was sent for to baptize the child of a Dissenter in his parish;
    upon which occasion, he made use of the office of Baptism as prescribed
    by the Church of England, which he had got entirely by heart. And he
    went through it with so much readiness and freedom and yet with so much
    gravity and devotion, and gave that life and spirit to all that he
    delivered, that the whole audience was extremely affected with his
    performance; and, notwithstanding that he used the sign of the cross,
    yet they were so ignorant of the offices of the Church, that they did
    not thereby discover that it was the Common Prayer. But after that he
    had concluded that holy action, the father of the child returned him a
    great many thanks; intimating at the same time with how much greater
    edification they prayed who entirely depended upon the Spirit of God
    for his assistance in their _extempore_ effusions, than those did who
    tied themselves up to premeditated forms; and that, if he had not made
    the sign of the cross, that badge of Popery, as he called it, nobody
    could have formed the least objection against his excellent Prayers.
    Upon which, Mr. Bull, hoping to recover him from his ill-grounded
    prejudices, showed him the office of Baptism in the Liturgy, wherein
    was contained every prayer that was offered up to God on that occasion;
    which, with farther arguments that he then urged, so effectually {95}
    wrought upon the good man and his whole family, that they always after
    that time frequented the parish-church; and never more absented
    themselves from Mr. Bull's communion."--Pp. 39--41., Lond. 1714, 8vo.

Some few dates will prove that Bull could not have been the person alluded
to. Bp. Sprat's _Discourse to the Clergy of his Diocese_ was delivered in
the Year 1695. And he speaks of the minister of the London parish as one
who "was afterwards an eminent Bishop of our Church." We must therefore
suppose him to have been _dead_ at the time of Bp. Sprat's visitation. Now,
in the first place (as J. K. remarks), "Bull never held a London cure."
And, in the second place, he was not consecrated Bishop until the 29th of
April, 1705 (ten years after Bp. Sprat's visitation), and did not die until
Feb. 1709-10. (_Life_, pp. 410--474.)

Southey's conjecture is therefore fatally wrong. And now as regards Bp.
Hacket. The omission of the anecdote from the _Life_ prefixed to his
_Sermons_ must, I think, do away with his claims also, though he was
restored to his parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, and was not consecrated
Bishop of Lichfield until December, 1661. Unfortunately, I have not always
followed Captain Cuttle's advice, or I should now be able to contribute
some more decisive information. I have my own suspicions on the matter, but
am afraid to guess in print.



The prelate to whom your correspondent alludes was Dr. John Hacket, Rector
of St. Andrews, Holborn, cons. to the see of Lichfield and Coventry on
December 22, 1661. The anecdote was first related by Granger. (Chalmers's
_Biog. Dict._, vol. xvii. p. 7.)

Bishop Bull, while rector of St. George's near Bristol, said the Baptismal
Office by heart on one occasion. (Nelson's _Life_, i. § ix. p. 34.;
_Works_, Oxford, 1827.)


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Mary Queen of Scots' Gold Cross_ (Vol. vi., p. 486.).--

    "Would it not facilitate the identification of the Gold Cross of Mary
    Queen of Scotts, in the possession of Mr. Price of Glasgow, if a
    representation of it was sent to _The Illustrated London News_, as the
    publication of it by that Journal would lead antiquaries to the
    identification of a valuable historical relic?"

I hope you will insert the above in "N. & Q." in the hope it may meet the
eye of MR. PRICE, and lead to a satisfactory result.

W. H. C.

_Jennings Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 362.).--This family is supposed to have
continued from some time in Cornwall, after the Visitation of 1620; but the
name is not now found there in any great respectability. William Jennings
of Saltash was sheriff of Cornwall, 1678; but his arms differ from those of
the Visitation: argent, a chevron gules between three mariners, plumets

Francis Jennnings, who recorded the pedigree of 1620, married the daughter
of _Spoure_ of Trebartha; and in a MS. book of that family, compiled about
the latter part of the seventeenth century, the same arms, strange to say,
are stated to be his, and not the lion rampant of the Jennings of
Shropshire. This seems to support the hypothesis that William Jennings, the
sheriff, was the same family. The _Spoure_ MSS. also mention "Ursula,
sister of Sir William Walrond of Bradfield, Devon, who married first,
William Jennings of _Plymouth_ (query, the sheriff?), and afterwards the
Rev. William Croker, Rector of Wolfrey (Wolfardisworthy?) Devon."


_Adamson's "England's Defence"_ (Vol. vi., p. 580.) is well worth attention
at the present time; as is also its synopsis before publication, annexed to
_Stratisticos, by John Digges, Muster Master_, &c., 4to., 1590, and filling
pp. 369. to 380. of that curious work, showing the wisdom of our ancestors
on the subject of invasion by foreigners.

E. D.

_Chief Justice Thomas Wood_ (Vol. vii., p. 14.).--In Berry's _Hampshire
Visitation_ (p. 71.), Thomas Wood is mentioned as having married a daughter
of Sir Thomas de la More, and as having had a daughter named Elizabeth, who
married Sir Thomas Stewkley of Aston, Devon, knight.

I am as anxious as N. C. L. to know something about Thomas Wood's lineage;
and shall be obliged by his telling me where it is said that he built Hall


_Aldiborontiphoscophornio_ (Vol. vii., p. 40.).--This euphonious and
formidable name will be found in _The Most Tragical Tragedy that ever was
Tragidized by any Company of Tragedians_, viz., _Chrononhotonthologos_,
written by "Honest merry Harry Carey," who wrote also _The Dragon of
Wantley_, a burlesque opera (founded on the old ballad of that name), _The
Dragoness_ (a sequel to _The Dragon_), &c. &c. While the public were
applauding his dramatic drolleries and beautiful ballads (of which the most
beautiful is "Sally in our Alley"), their unhappy author, in a fit of
despondency, destroyed himself at his lodgings in Warner Street,
Clerkenwell. There is an engraving by Faber, in 1729, of Harry Carey, from
a painting by Worsdale (the celebrated Jemmy!); which is rare.


    [We are indebted to several other correspondents for replies to the
    Query of F. R. S.]


_Statue of St Peter at Rome_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.).--This well-known bronze
statue is falsely stated to be a Jupiter converted. It is very far from
being true, though popularly it passes as truth, that the statue in
question is the ancient statue of Jupiter Capitolinus, with certain

Another commonly-received opinion regarding this statue is, that it was
cast for a St. Peter, _but of the metal of the statue of Jupiter
Capitolinus_. But this can scarcely be true, for Martial informs us that in
his own time the statue of the Capitoline Jupiter was not of bronze but of

 "Scriptus et æterno nunc primum Jupiter _auro_."
                                  Lib. xi. Ep. iv.

Undoubtedly the statue was cast for a St. Peter. It was cast in the time of
St. Leo the Great (440-461), and belonged to the ancient church of St.
Peter's. St. Peter has the nimbus on his head; the first two fingers of the
right hand are raised in the act of benediction; the left hand holds the
keys, and the right foot projects from the pedestal. The statue is seated
on a pontifical chair of white marble.


_Old Silver Ornament_ (Vol. vi., p. 602.).--This ornament is very probably
what your correspondent infers it is,--a portion of some military
accoutrement: if so, it may have appertained to some Scotch regiment. It
represents precisely the badge worn by the baronets of Nova Scotia, the
device upon which was the saltier of St. Andrew, with the royal arms of
Scotland on an escutcheon in the centre; the whole surrounded by the motto,
and ensigned with the royal crown. The insignia of the British orders of
knighthood are frequently represented in the ornaments upon the military
accoutrements of the present day.


"_Plurima, pauca, nihil_," (Vol. vi., p. 511.).--A correspondent asks for
the first part of an epigram which ends with the words "plurima, pauca,
nihil." He is referred to an epigram of Martial, which _I_ cannot find. But
I chance to remember two epigrams which were affixed to the statue of
Pasquin at Rome, in the year 1820, upon two Cardinals who were candidates
for the Popedom. They run as follows, and are smart enough to be worth


 "Sit bonus, et fortasse pius--sed semper ineptus--
    Vult, meditatur, agit, _plurima, pauca, nihil_."

                 "IN ALTERUM.

 "Promittit, promissa negat, ploratque negata,
    Hæc tria si junges, quis neget esse Petrum."


_"Pork-pisee" and "Wheale"_ (Vol. vi., p. 579.).--Has not MR. WARDE, in his
second quotation, copied the word wrongly--"pork-pisee" for pork-_pesse_? A
porpoise is the creature alluded to; or _porpesse_, as some modern
naturalists spell it. "Wheale" evidently means _whey_: the former
expression is probably a provincialism.


_Did the Carians use Heraldic Devices?_ (Vol. vi., p. 556.).--Perhaps the
following, from an heraldic work of Dr. Bernd, professor at the University
of Bonn, may serve to answer the Queries of MR. BOOKER.

Herodotus ascribes the first use, or, as he expresses it, the invention of
signs on shields, which we call arms, and of the supporter or handle of the
shield, which till then had been suspended by straps from the neck, as well
as of the tuft of feathers or horse-hair on the helmet, to the Carians; in
which Strabo agrees with him, and, as far as regards the supporters and
crest, Ælian also:

    "Herodot schrieb den ersten Gebrauch, oder wie er sich ausdrückt, die
    Erfindung der Zeichen auf Schilden, die wir Wappen nennen, wie auch der
    Halter oder Handhaben an den Schilden, die bis dahin nur an Riemen um
    den Nacken getragen wurden, und die Büsche von Federn oder Rosshaaren
    auf den Helmen, den Cariern zu, worin ihm Strabo (_Geogr._ 14. I. §
    27.), und was die Handhaben und Helmbüsche betrifft, auch Ælian (_Hist.
    Animal._ 12. 30.), beistimmen."--Bernd's _Wappenwissen der Griechen und
    Römer_, p. 4. Bonn, 1841.

On Thucydides i. 8., where mention is made of Carians disinterred by the
Athenians in the island of Delos, the scholiast, evidently referring to the
passage cited by MR. BOOKER, says:

    [Greek: Kares prôtoi heuron tous omphalous tôn aspidôn, kai tous
    lophous. tois oun apothnêskousi sunethapton aspidiskion mikron kai
    lophon, sêmeion tês heureseôs.]

From Plutarch's _Artaxerxes_ (10.) may be inferred, that the Carian
standard was a cock; for the king presented the Carian who slew Cyrus with
a golden one, to be thenceforth carried at the head of the troop.

For full information on the heraldry of the ancients, your correspondent
can scarcely do better than consult the above-quoted work of Dr. Bernd.



_Herbert Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 473.).--The celebrated picture of Lord
Herbert of Cherbury by Isaac Oliver, at Penshurst, represents him with a
small swarthy countenance, dark eyes, very dark black hair, and mustachios.
All the Herberts whom I have seen are dark-complexioned and black-haired.
This is the family badge, quite as much as the unmistakeable nose in the
descendants of John of Gaunt.

E. D.

_Children crying at Baptism_ (Vol. vi., p. 601.).--I am inclined to suspect
that the idea of its being lucky for a child to cry at baptism arose {97}
from the custom of _exorcism_, which was retained in the Anglican Church in
the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI., and is still commonly observed in
the baptismal services of the Church of Rome. When the devil was going out
of the possessed person, he was supposed to do so with reluctance: "The
spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one
dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead." (St. Mark, ix. 26.) The tears
and struggles of the infant would therefore be a convincing proof that the
Evil One had departed. In Ireland (as every clergyman knows) nurses will
decide the matter by pinching the baby, rather than allow him to remain
silent and unlachrymose.



_Americanisms_ (Vol. vi., p. 554.).--The word _bottom_, applied as your
correspondent UNEDA remarks, is decidedly an English provincialism, of
constant use now in the clothing districts of Gloucestershire, which are
called "The Bottoms," whether mills are situated there or not.

E. D.

_Dutch Allegorical Picture_ (Vol. vi., p. 457.).--In the account I gave you
of this picture I omitted one of the inscriptions, which I but just
discovered; and as the picture appears to have excited some interest in
Holland (my account of it having been translated into Dutch[9], in the
_Navorscher_), I send you this further supplemental notice.

I described a table standing under the window, on the left-hand side of the
room, containing on the end nearest to the spectator, not two pewter
flagons, as I at first thought, but one glass and one pewter flagon. On the
end of this table, which is presented to the spectator, is an inscription,
which, as I have said, had hitherto escaped my notice, having been
partially concealed by the frame--a modern one, not originally intended for
this picture, and partly obscured by dirt which had accumulated in the
corner. I can now make out very distinctly the following words, with the
date, which fixes beyond a question the age of the picture:

 "Hier moet men gissen
  Glasen te wasser
  Daer in te pissen
  En soú niet passen.

I may also mention, that the floor of the chamber represented in the
picture is formed of large red and blue square tiles; and that the folio
book standing on end, with another lying horizontally on the top of it,
which I said in my former description to be standing on the end of the
table, under the window, is, I now see, standing not on the table, but on
the floor, next to the chair of the grave and studious figure who sits in
the left-hand corner of the room.

These corrections of my first description have been in a great measure the
result of a little soap and water applied with a sponge to the picture.


Trin. Coll., Dublin.

[Footnote 9: With some corrections in the reading of the inscriptions.]

_Myles Coverdale_ (Vol. vi., p. 552.).--I have a print before me which is
intended to represent the exhumation of Coverdale's body. The following is
engraved beneath:

    "The Remains of Myles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter, as they appeared in
    the Chancel of the Church of St. Bartholomew, near the Exchange. Buried
    Feb. 1569. Exhumed 23d Sept. 1840.

      Chabot, Zinco., Skinner Street."

If I am not mistaken, his remains were carried to the church of St. Magnus,
near London Bridge, and re-interred.


Olney, Bucks.

       *       *       *       *       *



One of the most beautifully got up cheap publications which we have seen
for a long time, is the new edition of Byron's _Poems_, just issued by Mr.
Murray. It consists of eight half-crown volumes, which may be separately
purchased, viz. Childe Harold, one volume; Tales and Poems, one volume; and
the Dramas, Miscellanies, and Don Juan, &c., severally in two volumes. Mr.
Murray has also made another important contribution to the cheap literature
of the day in the republication, in a cheap and compendious form, of the
various Journals of Sir Charles Fellows, during those visits to the East to
which we owe the acquisition of the Xanthian Marbles. The present edition
of his _Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, and more particularly in the
Province of Lycia_, as it embraces the substance of all Sir Charles's
various journals and pamphlets, and only omits the Greek and Lycian
inscriptions, and lists of plants and coins, and such plates as were not
capable of being introduced into the present volume, will, we have no
doubt, be acceptable to a very numerous class of readers, and takes its
place among the most interesting of the various popular narratives of
Eastern travel.

Most of our readers will probably remember the memorable remark of Lord
Chancellor King, that "if the ancient discipline of the Church were lost,
it might be found in all its purity in the Isle of Man." Yet
notwithstanding this high eulogium on the character of the saintly Bishop
Wilson, it is painful to find that his celebrated work, _Sacra Privata_,
has hitherto been most unjustifiably treated and mutilated, as was noticed
in our last volume, p. 414. But here we have before us, in a beautifully
printed edition of this valuable work, the good bishop _himself_, what he
thought, and {98} what he wrote, in his _Private Meditations, Devotions,
and Prayers_, now for the first time printed from his original manuscripts
preserved in the library of Sion College, London. Much praise is due to the
editor for bringing this manuscript before the public, as well as for the
careful superintendence of the press; and we sincerely hope he will
continue his labours of research in Sion College as well as in other

There are doubtless many of our readers who echo Ben Jonson's wish that
Shakspeare had blotted many a line, referring of course to those
characteristic of the age, not of the man, which cannot be read aloud. To
all such, the announcement that Messrs. Longman have commenced the
publication in monthly volumes of a new edition of Bowdler's _Family
Shakspeare, in which nothing is added to the original text, but those words
and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read in a
family_, will be welcome intelligence. The work is handsomely printed in
Five-Shilling Volumes, of which the first three are already published.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Memoirs of James Logan, a distinguished Scholar and
Christian Legislator, &c._, by Wilson Armistead. An interesting biography
of a friend of William Penn, and one of the most learned of the early
emigrants to the American Continent.--_Yule-Tide Stories, a Collection of
Scandinavian and North German Popular Tales and Traditions._ The name of
the editor, Mr. Benjamin Thorpe, is a sufficient guarantee for the value of
this new volume of Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_. In his _Philological
Library_, Mr. Bohn has published a new and enlarged edition of Mr. Dawson
W. Turner's _Notes on Herodotus_: while in his _Classical Library_ he has
given _The Pharsalia of Lucan literally translated into English Prose, with
Copious Notes_, by H. T. Riley, B.A.; and has enriched his _Scientific
Library_ by the publication of Dr. Chalmers's _Bridgewater Treatise on the
Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Adaption of
External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man_, with
the author's last corrections, and a Biographical Preface by Dr. Cumming.

_Photographic Manipulation._ _The Wax-paper Process of Gustave Le Gray_,
translated from the French, published by Knight & Sons; and _Hennah's
Directions for obtaining both Positive and Negative Pictures upon Glass by
means of the Collodion Process, &c._, published by Delatouche & Co., are
two little pamphlets which will repay the photographer for perusal, but are
deficient in that simplicity of process which is so much to be desired if
Photography is to be made more popular.

       *       *       *       *       *



TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols, 4to. 1831-1839.



MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second Edition. 1813.

SPECTATOR. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753.

DE NOSTRE SEIGNEUR. 8vo. Anvers, Christ. Plantin.




WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, by a
Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848.





JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I.

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol. I. Macrone, 1840.

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 12mo. 1808.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789.

OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1768.




BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. wanted.

by TINDAL. 1744.

SHARPE'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols., 1819. Piccadilly.



*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

BACK NUMBERS. _Parties requiring Back Numbers are requested to make
immediate application for them; as the stock will shortly be made up into
Sets, and the sale of separate copies of the_ EARLY NUMBERS _will be

M. W. B._'s Note to_ J. B. _has been forwarded_.

A. T. F. (Bristol.) _Our Correspondent's kind offer is declined, with

SIGMA _is thanked: but he will see that we could not_ now _alter the size
of our volumes_.

W. C. H. D. _will find, in our_ 6th Vol, pp. 312, 313., _his Query
anticipated. The reading will be found in Knight's_ Pictorial Shakspeare.

H. E. _who asks who, what, and when_ Captain Cuttle _was? is informed that
he is a_ relation _of one of the most able writers of the day--Mr. Charles
Dickens. He was formerly in the Mercantile Marine, and a Skipper in the
service of the well-known house of_ Dombey and Son.

MISTLETOE ON OAKS. O. S. R. _is referred to our_ 4th Volume, pp. 192. 226.
396. 462., _for information upon this point_.

MR. SIMS _is thanked for his communication, which we will endeavour to make
use of at some future time_.

IOTA _is informed that the Chloride of Barium, used in about the same
proportion as common salt, will give the tint he desires. His second Query
has already been answered in our preceding Numbers. As to the mode of
altering his camera, he must tax his own ingenuity as to the best mode of
attaching to it the flexible sleeves, &c._

_We are unavoidably compelled to postpone until next week_ MR. LAWRENCE _on
the Albumen Process, and_ MR. DELAMOTTE_'s notice of a Portable Camera_.

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. _Particulars of this newly-formed Society in our

_We again repeat that we cannot undertake to recommend any particular
houses for the purchase of photographic instruments, chemicals, &c. We can
only refer our Correspondents on such subjects to our advertising columns._

OUR SIXTH VOLUME, _strongly bound in cloth, with very copious Index, is now
ready, price 10s. 6d. Arrangements are making for the publication of
complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _price Three Guineas for the Six

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_. {99}

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION No. 1. Class X., in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may
now he had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT. Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.

  H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
  William Cabell, Esq.
  T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. Henry Drew, Esq.
  William Evans, Esq.
  William Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  James Hunt, Esq.
  J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  James Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. Basley White, Esq.
  Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.;
  L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.;
  George Drew, Esq.

_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also, every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c., used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--A New Work, giving Plain and Practical Directions for
obtaining both Positive and Negative Pictures upon Glass, by means of the
Collodion Process, and a method for Printing from the Negative Glasses, in
various colours, on to Paper. By T. H. HENNAH. Price 1s., or by Post 1s.

    Published by DELATOUCHE & CO., Manufacturers of Pure Photographic
    Chemicals, Apparatus, Prepared Papers, and every Article connected with
    Photography on Paper or Glass.


       *       *       *       *       *

correct definition at the centre and margin of the picture, and have their
visual and chemical acting foci coincident.

_Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports_, p. 274.

    "Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture having the greatest intensity
    yet produced, by procuring the coincidence of the chemical actinic and
    visual rays. The spherical aberration is also very carefully corrected,
    both in the central and oblique pencils."

    "Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in the Exhibition. It is
    furnished with a double achromatic object-lens, about three inches
    aperture. There is no stop, the field is flat, and the image very
    perfect up to the edge."

A. R. invites those interested in the art to inspect the large Photographs
of Vienna, produced by his Lenses and Apparatus.

Catalogues sent upon Application.

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High Holborn

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

KERR & STRANG, Perfumers and Wig-Makers, 124. Leadenhall Street, London,
respectfully inform the Nobility and Public that they have invented and
brought to the greatest perfection the following leading articles, besides
numerous others:--Their Ventilating Natural Curl; Ladies and Gentlemen's
PERUKES, either Crops or Full Dress, with Partings and Crowns so natural as
to defy detection, and with or without their improved Metallic Springs;
Ventilating Fronts, Bandeaux, Borders, Nattes, Bands à la Reine, &c.; also
their instantaneous Liquid Hair Dye, the only dye that really answers for
all colours, and never fades nor acquires that unnatural red or purple tint
common to all other dyes; it is permanent, free of any smell, and perfectly
harmless. Any lady or gentleman, sceptical of its effects in dyeing any
shade of colour, can have it applied, free of any charge, at KERR &
STRANG'S, 124. Leadenhall Street.

Sold in Cases at 7s. 6d., 15s., and 20s. Samples, 3s. 6d., sent to all
parts on receipt of Post-office Order or Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

LOST.--Two Water-coloured Drawings by MR. DELAMOTTE [engraved in 2nd volume
of "Journal of Archæological Institute"] of distemper Paintings in Stanton
Harcourt Church. Any person having them, is requested to return them to
their owner, MR. DYKE, Jesus College, Oxford.

       *       *       *       *       *

now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS and VIEWS by the Collodion and Waxed Paper Process.
Apparatus, Materials, and Pure Chemical Preparation for the above
processes, Superior Iodized Collodion, known by the name of Collodio-iodide
or Xylo-iodide of Silver, 9d. per oz. Pyro-gallic Acid, 4s. per drachm.
Acetic Acid, suited for Collodion Pictures, 8d. per oz. Crystallizable and
perfectly pure, on which the success of the Calo-typist so much depends,
1s. per oz. Canson Frères' Negative Paper, 3s.; Positive do., 4s. 6d.; La
Croix, 3s.; Turner, 3s. Whatman's Negative and Positive, 3s. per quire.
Iodized Waxed Paper, 10s. 6d. per quire. Sensitive Paper ready for the
Camera, and warranted to keep from fourteen to twenty days, with directions
for use, 11×9, 9s. per doz.; Iodized, only 6s. per doz.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS (sole Agents for Voightlander & Sons' celebrated
Lenses), Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PURE CHEMICALS for the above Processes supplied at the following prices, by
JOHN J. GRIFFIN & CO., 53. Baker Street, Portman Square.--Superior Iodized
Collodion, in bottles at 2s. 6d.; Pyrogallic Acid, 4s. per drachm; Pure
Crystallizable Acetic Acid, 8d. per oz.; Iodide of Potassium, 1s. 6d. per
oz.; Canson Frères' Negative Paper, 3s.; Positive Ditto, 4s. per quire.

Bromine, 8s. 6d. per oz.; Iodine, 2s. 6d. per oz.; Charcoal, 1s. per
bottle; Rouge, 1s. per oz.; Tripoli, finely prepared, 6d. per oz.

An Illustrated priced List of Photographic Apparatus and Materials, post
free, 3d.

Nearly Ready, the Third much enlarged Edition of Professor HUNT'S MANUAL OF

JOHN J. GRIFFIN & CO., 53. Baker Street, London; and RICHARD GRIFFIN & CO.,


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, Sixth Edition, fcap. 8vo., 5s., of


Also, by the same Author,

THE CONQUERORS OF THE NEW WORLD and their BONDSMEN; being a Narrative of
the Principal Events which led to Negro Slavery in the West Indies and
America. Vol. II., post 8vo., 7s. Just published.

VOLUME I., post 8vo., 6s.

FRIENDS IN COUNCIL; a Series of Readings, and Discourse thereon. A New
Edition. Two vols., fcap. 8vo., 12s.

COMPANIONS of MY SOLITUDE. Fcap. 8vo., 6s. Third Edition.

THE CLAIMS OF LABOUR. An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the
Employed. Fcap. 8vo. Second Edition, with Additional Essay. 6s.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Third Edition, with considerable Additions, fcp. 8vo., 7s. 6d.

AN OUTLINE of the NECESSARY LAWS of THOUGHT. A Treatise on Pure and Applied
Logic. By the Rev. WILLIAM THOMSON, Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College,
Oxford. With an Appendix on Indian Logic, by Professor MAX MULLER.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the 31st inst. will be published, in fcp. 8vo., Vol. IV. of BOWDLER'S
FAMILY SHAKSPEARE. In which nothing is _added_ to the Original Text; but
those Words and Expressions are _omitted_ which cannot with propriety be
read aloud in a Family. A New Edition, to be completed in Six Monthly
Volumes, price 5s. each.


       *       *       *       *       *

MAGAZINE, one of the most popular, talented, and improvable of the present
day, is to be SOLD by PRIVATE BARGAIN. The Copyright, very numerous
Stereotype Plates (which are of _permanent_ value), and Stock of Sheets,
will require from 3000l. to 4000l., a portion of which may be taken on
approved bill.

Applications by letter, and from principals only, to be addressed to X. Y.,
care of MR. HODGSON, Auctioneer, 192. Fleet Street, corner of Chancery
Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

RALPH'S SERMON PAPER.--This approved Paper is particularly deserving the
notice of the Clergy, as, from its particular form (each page measuring 5¾
by 9 inches), it will contain more matter than the size in ordinary use;
and, from the width being narrower, is much more easy to read: adapted for
expeditious writing with either the quill or metallic pen; price 5s. per
ream. Sample on application.

ENVELOPE PAPER.--To identify the contents with the address and postmark,
important in all business communications; it admits of three clear pages
(each measuring 5½ by 8 inches), for correspondence, it saves time and is
more economical. Price 9s. 6d. per ream.

F. W. RALPH, Manufacturing Stationer, 36. Throgmorton Street, Bank.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the Press,

SELECTIONS, GRAVE AND GAY, From the Writings, published and unpublished, of
THOMAS DE QUINCEY, revised and enlarged by himself.



       *       *       *       *       *

THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, No. CXCVII., is just published.











London: LONGMAN & CO. Edinburgh: A. & C. BLACK.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, January 15, contains Articles on

  Agricultural Societies
  Arithmetic, Rational, rev.
  Botany, Cryptogamic
  Calendar, Horticultural
  Cattle, fat
  Chironia, the
  College, Cirencester
  Draining, Davis on
  England, climate of
  Estates, improvement of, settled
  Food, brewers' grains as
  Fruit trees, oblique (with engraving)
  Grapes, red Hamburgh
  Hyacinth, hints on
  ---- and liquid manure, by Mr. Mechi
  Labourers, employment of
  Larch, durability of
  Lime, to apply, by Mr. Summers
  Manure, liquid, by Mr. Mechi
  ---- lime as
  Mildew, effect of salt on, by Mr. Watson
  Montague, Dr.
  Narcissus, dormant, by Mr. George
  Pimelea, the
  Plant, Bed Mooshk
  Poultry, metropolitan show of
  ---- weights of
  Rain at Arundel
  Roots, branch
  Salt _v._ Mildew, by Mr. Watson
  Season, mildness of, by Mr. George
  Seed trade
  Shamrock, the
  Smithfield Club, cattle at
  Societies, agricultural
  ---- proceedings of the Kirtling Agricultural
  Temperature, our winter
  Tithe commutation, by Mr. Willich
  Trees, oblique fruit (with engraving)
  Vines, effect of soil on, by Mr. Urquhart
  Walls, ivy on
  ---- spring protection for
  Weather, the
  ---- in Sussex
  Zygopetalon Mackayii, by Mr. Woolley

       *       *       *       *       *

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.

  Volume Three, 1272-1377.
  Volume Four, 1377-1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

  Volume One, 1066-1199.
  Volume Two, 1199-1272.

    "A book which is essentially sound and truthful, and must therefore
    take its stand in the permanent literature of our country."--_Gent.

London: LONGMAN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to


Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the
Services, Responses to the Commandments, and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING,
by J. B. SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat,
in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office Order for
the amount; and by order, of the principal Booksellers and Music

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears."--_Musical

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

3 vols. 8vo. price 2l. 8s.

ARCHITECTURE. The Fifth Edition enlarged, exemplified by 1700 Woodcuts.

    "In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edition of the Glossary of
    Architecture, no pains have been spared to render it worthy of the
    continued patronage which the work has received from its first

    "The Text has been considerably augmented, as well by the additions of
    many new Articles, as by the enlargement of the old ones, and the
    number of Illustrations has been increased from eleven hundred to
    seventeen hundred.

    "Several additional Foreign examples are given, for the purpose of
    comparison with English work, of the same periods.

    "In the present Edition, considerably more attention has been given to
    the subject of Mediæval Carpentry, the number of Illustrations of 'Open
    Timber Roofs' has been much increased, and most of the Carpenter's
    terms in use at the period have been introduced with
    authorities."--_Preface to the Fifth Edition._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 22. 1853.

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