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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 171, February 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 171, February 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are indicated by footnotes to the relevant item.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 171.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Jacob Grimm on the Genius and Vocation of the English
    Language                                                   125

  Preservation of valuable Papers from Damp; Drying Closets    126

  Position of the Clergy in the Seventeenth Century, by
    J. Lewelyn Curtis                                          126

  General Wolfe                                                127

  Inscriptions in Books                                        127

  FOLK LORE:--Baptismal Custom--Subterranean Bells--
    Leicestershire Custom--Hooping Cough: Hedera Helix         128

  MINOR NOTES:--The Aught And Forty Daugh--Alliterative
    Pasquinade--The Names "Bonaparte" and "Napoleon"--A
    Parish Kettle--Pepys's Diary; Battle of St. Gothard--
    First Folio Shakspeare--An ancient Tombstone               128


  Excessive Rainfall, by Robert Rawlinson                      130

  Baptist Vincent Lavall, by William Duane                     130

  Graves of Mickleton, co. Gloucester, by James Graves         130

  Searson's Poems                                              131

  MINOR QUERIES:--Haberdon or Habyrdon--Holles Family--"To
    lie at the Catch"--Names of Planets: Spade--Arms in
    painted Glass--The sign of "The Two Chances"--
    Consecrators of English Bishops--A nunting Table--John
    Pictones--Gospel Place--York Mint--Chipchase of
    Chipchase--Newspapers--On alleged historical Facts--
    Costume of Spanish Physicians--Genoveva--Quotation--
    "God and the World"--"Solid Men of Boston"--Lost MS.
    by Alexander Pennecuik--"The Percy Anecdotes"--Norman
    Song--God's Marks--The Bronze Statue of Charles I.,
    Charing Cross                                              132

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Hutter's Polyglott--Ethnology
    of England--Pitt of Pimperne--"The Bottle Department" of
    the Beer-trade                                             134


  Bishop Pursglove (Suffragan) of Hull, by John I. Dredge,
    &c.                                                        135

  The Gregorian Tones by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                    136

  Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. Sc. 2., by Thos. Keightley      136

  Niágara or Niagára, by Robert Wright                         137

  Drengage, by Wm. Sidney Gibson                               137

  Chatterton                                                   138

  Literary Frauds of Modern Times                              139

  Sir H. Wotton's Letter to Milton                             140

    Process--Collodion Film on Copper Plates--Treatment
    of the Paper Positive after fixing                         140

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Essay for a New Translation of
    the Bible--Touchstone--Early Edition of Solinus--Straw
    Bail--Doctor Young--Scarfs worn by Clergymen--Cibber's
    Lives of the Poets--"Letters on Prejudice"--Statue of
    St. Peter, &c.                                             142


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 146

  Notices to Correspondents                                    146

  Advertisements                                               146

       *       *       *       *       *



I send you a very eloquent tribute to the genius and power of the English
language by Jacob Grimm, extracted from a paper entitled "Ueber den
Ursprung der Sprache," read before the Royal Academy of Berlin, January 9,
1851, and contained in the _Transactions_ of that Society, "Section of
Philology and History for 1851," p. 135.: Berlin, 4to., 1852:--

    "Jacob Grimm _Ueber den Ursprung der Sprache_. Abhandlungen der K.
    Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1851.

    "Keine, unter allen neueren Sprachen, hat gerade durch das Aufgeben und
    Zerrütten alter Lautgesetze, durch den Wegfall beinahe sämmtlicher
    Flexionen, eine grössere Kraft und Stärke empfangen, als die Englische,
    und von ihrer nicht einmal _lehrbaren_, nur _lernbaren_ Fülle freier
    Mitteltöne ist eine wesentliche Gewalt des Ausdrucks abhängig geworden,
    wie sie vielleicht noch nie einer andern menschlichen Zunge zu Gebote
    stand. Ihre ganze überaus geistige, wunderbar geglückte Anlage und
    Durchbildung war hervorgeganen aus einer überraschenden Vermählung der
    beiden edelsten Sprachen des späteren Europas, der Germanischen und
    Romanischen, und bekannt ist, wie im Englischen sich beide zu einander
    verhalten, indem jene bei weitem die sinnliche Grundlage hergab, diese
    die geistigen Begriffe zuführte. Ja, die Englische Sprache, von der
    nicht umsonst auch der grösste und überlegenste Dichter der neuen Zeit
    im Gegensatz zur classischen alten Poesie, ich kann natürlich nur
    Shakespeare meinen, gezeugt und getragen worden ist, sie darf mit
    vollem Recht eine Weltsprache heissen, und scheint gleich dem
    Englischen Volke ausersehn künftig noch in höherem Masse an allen Enden
    der Erde zu walten. Denn an Reichthum, Vernunft und gedrängter Füge
    lässt sich keine aller noch lebenden Sprachen ihr an die Seite setzen,
    auch unsere Deutsche nicht, die zerrissen ist, wie wir selbst zerrissen
    sind, und erst manche Gebrechen von sich abschütteln müsste, ehe sie
    kühn mit in die Laufbahn träte."


    Of all modern languages, not one has acquired such great strength and
    vigour as the English. It has accomplished this by simply freeing
    itself from the ancient phonetic laws, and casting off almost all {126}
    inflections; whilst, from its abundance of intermediate sounds
    [_Mitteltöne_[1]], tones not even to be taught, but only to be learned,
    it has derived a characteristic power of expression such as perhaps was
    never yet the property of any other human tongue. Its highly spiritual
    genius, and wonderfully happy development, have proceeded from a
    surprisingly intimate alliance of the two oldest languages of modern
    Europe--the Germanic and Romanesque.[2] It is well known in what
    relation these stand to one another in the English language. The former
    supplies the material groundwork, the latter the higher mental
    conceptions. Indeed, the English language, which has not in vain
    produced and supported the greatest, the most prominent of all modern
    poets (I allude, of course, to Shakspeare), in contradistinction to the
    ancient classical poetry, may be called justly a LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD:
    and seems, like the English nation, to be destined to reign in future
    with still more extensive sway over all parts of the globe. For none of
    all the living languages can be compared with it as to richness,
    rationality, and close construction [Vernunft und gedrängter Füge], not
    even the German--which has many discrepancies like our nation, and from
    which it would be first obliged to free itself, before it could boldly
    enter the lists with the English.

I transmit the text, as many of your readers may prefer the extract--as
most "foreign extracts" are preferred--"neat as imported:" although, owing
to the kindness of a friend, it is fairly represented in the translation.
It is however very difficult to find words which precisely express the
meaning of German scientific terms.

S. H.

[Footnote 1: _Mitteltöne_ are those sounds which stand between the three
fundamental vowels, _a_, _i_, _u_, as pronounced by the continental

[Footnote 2: _Romanesque._ Those languages which have descended from the
Latin, as the Spanish, Frank, or French, &c.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The desiccative powers of lime are familiar to chemists, and, I believe, to
many practical men; but I do not know of lime having been used for the
above purpose.

A strong chest, in my possession, containing important papers (title-deeds,
marriage certificates, &c.), gradually became damp, and subjected its
contents to a slow process of decay. This arose, I found, from a defect in
its construction, wood having been improperly introduced into the latter,
and concealed; so that some singular chemical compounds would appear to
have been formed. The papers were gradually injured to an extent enforcing
attention; and the process continued in them after their removal into a
well-constructed chest, giving me the impression of a process resembling
the action of a ferment. Several attempts were made to dry them by fires,
the rays of the sun, &c.; but the damp was always renewed.

They were thoroughly dried in a very few days, and permanently kept dry, by
placing and keeping in the chest a box containing a little quicklime.

At a later period, a large closet, so damp as to render articles mouldy,
was thoroughly dried, and kept dry, by a box containing lime.

The chest was about 2 feet 6 inches, by 2 feet 1 inch, and 1 foot 8 inches;
and the box placed in it for several months was about 1 foot 2½ inches, by
8½ inches, and 3 inches. After about a year, although no very perceptible
damp was discovered, yet, in consequence of the value of the papers, and
the beauty of some of them as manuscripts, I introduced two such boxes.
These proportions were selected to enable the boxes to stand conveniently
on a shelf with account-books and packages of papers.

The closet is about 11 feet 4 inches, by 2, irregular dimensions, which I
estimate at about 6 feet, and 2 feet 4 inches. The box used in this case is
1 foot 4 inches, by 11 inches, and 7 inches.

The lime should be in pieces of a suitable size. For the chest, I prefer
pieces about the size of a large English walnut; for the closet, of an

It is necessary either that the box should be strongly made, or be formed
of tin, or other metal, on account of the lateral expansive force of the
lime. Room for expansion upwards is not sufficient protection. The same
expansion renders it necessary that the box should not be more than
two-fifths filled with fresh lime.

I leave the tops open. If covered, they must be so disposed that the air
within the boxes shall freely communicate with that of the chest or closet.

I have used these boxes several years, and only changed the lime once a

B. H. C.


       *       *       *       *       *


The _Proceedings and Papers_ of the Historic Society of Lancashire and
Cheshire, Session IV., 1851-2, include a paper contributed by Thomas
Dorning Hibbert, of the Middle Temple, Esq., being the second of a series
of "Letters relating to Lancashire and Cheshire, temp. James I., Charles
I., and Charles II."

One of these letters, written in or about the year 1605, by the Rev.
William Batemanne, from Ludgarsall (Ludgar's Hall), "a parish which lies in
the counties of Oxford and Bucks," and addressed "to his louinge father
Ihon Batemanne, alderman at Maxfelde" (Macclesfield), contains, as the
learned contributor remarks, "strong confirmation of Mr. Macaulay's
controverted statement, that the country clergy occupied a very humble
position in the sixteenth and seventeenth {127} centuries." He adds, that
"no clergyman could now be found who would think of sending his sister to
an inn to learn household matters."

The Rev. William Batemanne, "who appears to have been educated at Oxford,"
writes thus:

    "... My sister Katren is placed in a verie good house in Bissiter
    [Bicester], wher shea shall learne to doe all manner of thinges that
    belonge to a good huswyfe. It is a vitailinge house greatlie occupied.
    Shea shall not learne onelie to dresse meate and drinke excellent well,
    but allso bruinge, bakinge, winnowinge, with all other thinges
    theirunto appertaininge, for they are verie rich folkes, and verie
    sharpe and quicke both of them. The cause why my Ant received her not,
    as shea answered us, was because all this winter shea intendeth to have
    but one servant woman, and shea thought my sister was not able to doe
    all her worke, because shea imagined her to be verie raw in theire
    countrey worke, w^{ch} thinge trewlie shea that hath her now did
    thinke, and theirefore her wage is the slenderer, but xvj^s [16s.],
    w^{ch} in this place is counted nothinge in effecte for such a strong
    woman as shea is; but I bringinge her to Bissiter uppon Wednesday,
    beinng Michaelmas even, told her dame the wage was verie small, and
    said I trusted shea would mend it if shea proved a good girle, as I had
    good hope shea would. Quoth I, it will scarce bye her hose and shooes.
    Nay, saith shea, I will warrant her have so much given her before the
    yeare be expyred, and by God's helpe that w^{ch} wants I myselfe will
    fill upp as much as I am able...."


       *       *       *       *       *


I copy the following interesting Note from the _London Chronicle_, August
19, 1788:

    It is a circumstance not generally known, but believed by the army
    which served under General Wolfe, that his death-wound was not received
    by the common chance of war, but given by a deserter from his own
    regiment. The circumstances are thus related:--The General perceived
    one of the sergeants of his regiment strike a man under arms (an act
    against which he had given particular orders), and knowing the man to
    be a good soldier, reprehended the aggressor with much warmth, and
    threatened to reduce him to the ranks. This so far incensed the
    sergeant, that he took the first opportunity of deserting to the enemy,
    where he meditated the means of destroying the General, which he
    effected by being placed in the enemy's left wing, which was directly
    opposite the right of the British line, where Wolfe commanded in
    person, and where he was marked out by the miscreant, who was provided
    with a rifle piece, and, unfortunately for this country, effected his
    purpose. After the defeat of the French army, the deserters were all
    removed to Crown Point, which being afterwards suddenly invested and
    taken by the British army, the whole of the garrison fell into the
    hands of the captors; when the sergeant of whom we have been speaking
    was hanged for desertion, but before the execution of his sentence
    confessed the facts above recited."[3]

In Smith's _Marylebone_, p. 272., is a notice of Lieutenant McCulloch,
according to whose plan Wolfe attacked Quebec. McCulloch became destitute,
and died in Marylebone workhouse in 1793. A letter from Wolfe to Admiral
Saunders is in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1801; and one addressed by
him to Barré was sold by Puttick and Simpson about three years since.

A portrait of Wolfe by Sir Joshua Reynolds is in possession of Mr. Cole of

Since my last notice, I have heard that Mr. Henry George, proprietor of the
_Westerham Journal_, made some collections towards a life of Wolfe: if so,
it is not improbable that Mr. Streatfield obtained them at his sale in
1844. In conclusion, I beg to inquire, whence come the lines quoted by the
Marquis of Lansdowne?--

                     "Enough for him
  That Chatham's language was his mother-tongue,
  And Wolfe's great name compatriot with his own."

H. G. D.


[Footnote 3: [The incident related above has been preserved by Sir William
Musgrave, in his _Biographical Adversaria_ (Additional MSS., No. 5723.,
British Museum), who has added the following note:--"This account was had
from a gentleman who heard the confession." For some further notices of
Mrs. Henrietta Wolfe, the mother of the General, relative to her death and
the disposal of her property, see the Addit. MSS., No. 5832., p. 78.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


It occurs to me that an interesting collection might be formed of the
various forms and methods by which the ownership of books is sometimes
found to be asserted on their fly-leaves. _Borrowers_ are exhorted to
faithful restitution; and consequences are threatened to those who misuse,
or fail to return, or absolutely steal the valued literary treasure.

I forward a few such Notes as have fallen in my way, thinking they may
interest your readers, and shall be obliged by any additions. The first is
an admonition to borrowers, by no means a superfluous one, as I know to my
cost. It is _printed_ on a small paper, about the size of an ordinary
book-plate, with blank for the owner's name, to be filled up in manuscript:

         "THIS BOOK
        Belongs to . . . . . .

 "If thou art borrowed by a friend,
    Right welcome shall he be
  To read, to study--not to lend,
    But to return to me.

 "Not that imparted knowledge doth
    Diminish learning's store;
  But books, I find, if often lent,
    Return to me no more.

    .    .    .    .    .    .

 "Give your attention as you read,
    And frequent pauses take;
  Think seriously; and take good heed
    That you no _dog's-ears_ make.

 "Don't wet the fingers, as you turn
    The pages, one by one.
  Never _touch_ prints, _observe_: and learn
    Each idle gait to shun."

On the fly-leaf of a Bible I find the following, which, however, is taken
from _The Weekly Pacquet of Advice from Rome_, vol. ii. p. 198. No 15.,
dated Friday, Dec. 26, 1679:

 "Sancte Liber! venerande Liber! Liber optime, salve!
      O Animæ nostræ, Biblia dimidium!"

A very common formula, in works of a devotional nature, is as follows:

 "This is Giles Wilkinson his book.
  God give him grace therein to look."

We now come to some of a menacing description:

 "Si quis hunc furto rapiet libellum,
  Reddat:--aut collo dabitur capistrum,
  Carnifex ejus tunicas habebit,
              Terra cadaver."

And again:

 "Si quis hunc librum rapiat scelestus,
  Atque furtivis manibus prehendat,
  Pergat ad tetras Acherontis undas
              Non rediturus."

These last partake somewhat of the character of the diræ and anathemas
which are sometimes found at the end of old MSS., and were prompted,
doubtless, by the great scarcity and consequent value of books before the
invention of printing.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Baptismal Custom._--In many country parishes the child is invariably
called by the name of the saint on whose day he happens to have been born.

I know one called _Valentine_, because he appeared in the world upon the
14th of February; and lately baptized a child myself by the name of
Benjamin _Simon Jude_. Subsequently, on expressing some surprise at the
strange conjunction, I was informed that he was born on the festival of SS.
Simon and Jude, and that it was always _very unlucky to take the day from a



_Subterranean Bells._--Hone, in his _Year-Book_, gives a letter from a
correspondent in relation to a tradition in Raleigh, Nottinghamshire, which
states that many centuries since the church and a whole village were
swallowed up by an earthquake. Many villages and towns have certainly
shared a similar fate, and we have never heard of them more.

                 "The times have been
  When the brains were out the man would die,
  That there an end."

But at Raleigh, they say, the old church-bells still ring at Christmas
time, deep, deep in earth; and that it was a Christmas-morning custom for
the people to go out into the valley, and put their ears to the ground to
listen to the mysterious chimes of the subterranean temple. Is this a
tradition peculiar to this locality? I fancy not, and seem to have a faint
remembrance of a similar belief in other parts. Can any of your
correspondents favour "N. & Q." with information hereon?

J. J. S.

_Leicestershire Custom._--A custom exists in the town of Leicester, of
rather a singular nature. The first time a new-born child pays a visit, it
is presented with an egg, a pound of salt, and a bundle of matches. Can any
of your correspondents explain this custom?

W. A.

_Hooping Cough: Hedera Helix._--In addition to my former communications on
this subject, I beg to forward the following:--

Drinking-cups made from the wood of the common ivy, and used by children
affected with this complaint, for taking therefrom all they require to
drink, is current in the county of Salop as an infallible remedy; and I
once knew an old gentleman (now no more) who being fond of turning as an
amusement, was accustomed to supply his neighbours with them, and whose
brother always supplied him with the wood, cut from his own plantations. It
is necessary, in order to be effective, that the ivy from which the cups
are made should be cut at some particular change of the moon, or hour of
the night, &c., which I am now unable to ascertain: but perhaps some of
your readers could give you the exact period.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_The Aught and Forty Daugh._--The lordship of Strathbogie, now the property
of his Grace the Duke of Richmond, was anciently known by this name. It is
one of the toasts always drunk at the meetings of agricultural
associations, the anniversary of his Grace's birthday, &c., in the
district. The meaning has often puzzled newspaper readers at a distance. It
was the original estate of the powerful family of Gordon in the north of
Scotland. A _daugh_, or _davach_, contains 32 oxgates of 13 acres each, or
416 acres of arable land. At {129} this rate, the whole lordship was
anciently estimated at 20,000 acres of arable land, and comprehends 120
square miles in whole.


_Alliterative Pasquinade._--The following alliterative pasquinade on
Convocation, which I have cut from one of the newspapers, is, I think,
sufficiently clever to deserve preservation in the pages of "N. & Q.:"

    "The Earl of Shaftesbury has given notice that he will call the
    attention of the House to the subject of Convocation after the recess.
    The exact terms of his lordship's motion have not as yet been
    announced; but it is understood that it will be in the form of an
    abstract resolution, somewhat to the following effect:--

    "'That this House, considering the consanguinity and concordant
    consociation of Gog and Magog to be concludent to, and confirmatory of,
    a consimilar connatural conjunction and concatenation between
    Convocation and Confession with its concomitant contaminations, and
    conceiving the congregating, confabulating, and consulting of
    Convocation to be conducive to controversy and contention, and
    consequent conflicts, confusion and convulsion, concurs in the
    conviction that to convene, and to continue Convocation, is a
    contumacious contravention of the Constitution, and a contrivance for
    constraint of conscience, and that the contemptible conspiracy,
    concocted for concerting the constituting and conserving of the
    continuous concorporal consession and conciliar conference of
    Convocation, is to be contumeliously conculcated by the consentient and
    condign condemnation of this House.'"


_The Names "Bonaparte" and "Napoleon."_--Among the many fabulous tales that
have been published respecting the origin of the name of _Bonaparte_, there
in one which, from its ingeniousness and romantic character, seems
deserving of notice.

It is said that the "Man in the Iron Mask" was no other than the twin (and
elder) brother of Louis XIV.; that his keeper's name was _Bonpart_; that
that keeper had a daughter, with whom the Man in the Mask fell in love, and
to whom he was privately married; that their children received their
mother's name, and were secretly conveyed to Corsica, where the name was
converted into _Bonaparte_ or _Buonaparte_; and that one of those children
was the ancestor of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was thus entitled to be
recognised not only as of French origin, but as the direct descendant of
the rightful heir to the throne of France.

The Bonapartes are said to have adopted the name of _Napoleon_ from
Napoleon des Ursins, a distinguished character in Italian story, with one
of whose descendants they became connected by marriage; and the first of
the family to whom it was given was a brother of Joseph Bonaparte, the
grandfather of Napoleon I. Many are the _jeux de mots_ that have been made
on this name; but the following, which I have just met with in _Littérature
Française Contemporaine_, vol. ii. p. 266., is perhaps the most remarkable.

The word _Napoleon_, being written in Greek characters, will form seven
different words, by dropping the first letter of each in succession,
namely, [Greek: Napoleôn, Apoleôn, Poleôn, Oleôn, Leôn, Eôn, Ôn]. These
words make a complete sentence, and are thus translated into French:
"Napoléon, étant le lion des peuples, allait détruisant les cités."


St. Lucia.

_A Parish Kettle._--In the accounts of the churchwardens of Chudleigh in
Devonshire, during a period extending from 1565 to 1651, occasional mention
is made of "the church chyttel," "parish chettle," "parish chetell or
furnace," "parish crock;" and charges are made for malt and hops for
brewing ale; and the money received for ale sold is accounted for. There
may also have been provided, for the use of the parish, a vessel of smaller
dimensions than the crock, for in the year 1581 there is an entry of 1s.
2d. received "for the lone of the parish panne." As cyder must have been at
that time, as it is now, the common drink of the working-classes, the
parish "crock" must have been provided for the use of the occupiers of the
land. I suppose that the term _crock_, for a pot made of brass or copper,
had its origin in times when our cooking-vessels were made of crockeryware.

I have never seen, in the ancient accounts of churchwardens, any mention
made of a "town plough," which GASTROS notices (Vol. vi., p. 462.).

S. S. S. (2.)

_Pepys's Diary; Battle of St. Gothard._--LORD BRAYBROOKE, in a note on 9th
August, 1664, on which day Pepys mentions a great battle fought in Hungary,
observes, "This was the battle of St. Gothard, fought 1st August, so that
the news reached England in eight days." This would scarcely be possible
even in these days of railways. The difference of styles must have been
overlooked, which would make the intelligence arrive in eighteen days,
instead of eight.


_First Folio Shakspeare._--It would be extremely desirable that every one
who possesses, or knows of a copy of the _first folio_, would send to "N. &
Q." a note of the existence of such copy; its present owner's name; date of
acquisition; last owner's name; the price paid; its present condition; and
any other circumstances peculiar to the copy. When the editor should
receive an adequate number of replies to this suggestion, he might publish
a list in some methodised form, and subsequent lists as occasion might
require. I have examined the libraries of several great country-houses, and
have never found a first folio; not even at Wilton, {130} where, of all the
houses in England, we are most sure that it must have been.


_An ancient Tombstone._--In the month of December, 1851, a tombstone was
found at the quay of Aberdeen, near Weigh House Square, in excavating for a
common sewer. On it is carved a cross, and a shield containing the initials
"G. M.," a nameless instrument, or a couple of instruments, placed
crosswise, and a heart with a cross in the centre. Round the edge is cut
exquisitely, in Old English letters, with contractions such as we see in
old MSS., the following inscription, "Hic jacet honorabilis Vir Georgius
Manzs (Menzies?), civis de Abirden, cum uxore eius Anneta Scherar, qui
obiit XXVII die mensis Septembris, anno D. N. I. MIIIIXX." In former times,
the Menzieses, the Collisons, and the Rutherfords held ruling power in
Aberdeen, as in more recent times did the Gibbons, Bannermans, and


       *       *       *       *       *



The following quotation induces me to put a Query to the numerous
scientific readers of your widely-circulated publication:

    "It is a remarkable circumstance that an unprecedented quantity of rain
    has fallen during the last year (1852) all over the world,--England,
    Ireland, Europe generally, Africa, India, and even in Australia."

Query, Is it anywhere recorded that so widespread a rainfall has been
previously noticed? It is said that excessive rainfall has been general all
over the world; and it would appear to have been general over a great
portion of the land. This, however, does not constitute the whole world.
The area of our globe is composed of about four-fifths water to one-fifth
land; so that an excess of rain might fall upon every square mile of land,
and yet the _average_ rainfall of the whole world not be exceeded. This is
an important truth, and should be generally understood. Taking the surface
of the whole world, there is probably, year by year, the same amount of
sunshine and heat, the same quantity of evaporation, and the same volume of
rainfall; but there is inequality of distribution. We find a dry summer in
America, and a wet one in Europe; excessive wet in the south of Europe,
with excessive drought in the north; with similar excesses over much more
limited areas. This case holds good even for the extraordinary year of
1852. Excess of rain has fallen on most of the land over the earth's
surface; but there has been a minimum on the great oceans; as see the
accounts of the fine weather, light winds, and calms, experienced in the
voyages to Australia.

The question of general equality and local excesses may now, through our
commerce, have that attention given to it which has hitherto been
impossible. It is well worthy of study.


       *       *       *       *       *


I have in my possession a manuscript of about six hundred pages, entitled
"Lavall's Tour across the American Continent, from the North Pacific to the
Atlantic Ocean, in a more southern Latitude than any yet attempted:
performed in the Years 1809 and 1810." A map of the route accompanies it.

The accounts of the country, and of the Indian tribes, correspond with what
we learn from other sources; and gentlemen of information in Indian affairs
believe the work to be the genuine production of a person who has been over
the ground described.

According to this work, Lavall was a native of Philadelphia, and born in
1774. His father, who was a royalist, settled in Upper Canada, and engaged
in the fur trade. In 1809 Baptist Vincent Lavall visited England to receive
a legacy left him by a relation. Here he was persuaded to join a vessel
fitting out for the purpose of trading in the North Pacific. It was a
schooner of about two hundred tons, called the Sea Otter, commanded by
Captain Niles. This vessel was lost upon the coast of Oregon, on the 15th
of August, 1809, whilst Lavall and three of the crew were on shore hunting.
They made their way across the continent to New Orleans.

Can any information be furnished from any custom-house in England as to the
Sea Otter, Captain Niles?



       *       *       *       *       *


There are three portraits engraved by Vertue, which give the pedigree of
this family thus far:

  John Graves of York,  =
  born 1515, ob. 1616.  |
   ---- Graves =
  = Richard Graves of Mickleton, Esq., =
               ob. 1669.               |
         ---- Graves =
  Richard Graves of Mickleton, Esq. =
             ob. 1731.

The title engraved on the plate states that the first Richard Graves given
above, was twice {131} married, and had _six_ sons and _thirteen_
daughters. It does not give the Christian names of any of the children, and
leaves it uncertain whether the Richard Graves who died in 1731 was a child
of the first or second marriage. This last-mentioned Richard was an
antiquary of some note, and a correspondent of Hearne, who calls him
"Gravesius noster."

Query 1. Is the full pedigree of this family anywhere to be had? 2. Is
there a record of any of the six sons of the Richard who died in 1669
having settled in Ireland, as a soldier or otherwise, in the time of the
Commonwealth? According to Mr. Editor's excellent arrangement, I transmit
to him a stamped envelope, and shall feel much obliged to any correspondent
of "N. & Q." who will give me the desired information. In the life of the
Rev. Richard Graves, a younger son of Richard the antiquary (_Public
Characters_, Dublin, 1800 p. 291.), it is stated that his collections for
the History of the Vale of Gresham came, after his death, into the hands of
James West, Esq., President of the Royal Society, at whose death they were
purchased by the Earl of Shelburne, A.D. 1772. Query, Are they still in



       *       *       *       *       *


The Query of G. C. (Vol. vi., p. 578.) relative to Mrs. Mackey's _Poems_,
has induced me to trouble you with a similar one respecting the author of a
volume in my possession. It is entitled _Mount Vernon_, a Poem, &c. &c., by
John Searson, formerly of Philadelphia, Merchant; Philadelphia, printed for
the author by Folwell. After the title-page (which is too long to be given
_in extenso_) follows a dedication to General Washington, in which the
author, after recording that he last returned to America from Ireland in
1796, and that having been established for several years at Philadelphia as
a merchant, he had been subjected to unforeseen losses in trade and
merchandize, proceeds as follows:

    "Having a pretty good education in my youth, from an uncle, a clergyman
    of the Church of England, I published two poems in Ireland, was well
    received, and two publications since my last arrival in America, having
    disposed of the last copy of one thousand, _Art of Contentment_, and
    did myself the honour to visit your Excellency 15th May last [1799], so
    as to obtain an adequate idea of Mount Vernon, wishing to compose a
    poem on that beautiful seat, which I now most humbly dedicate to your
    Excellency, with your likeness," &c.

Next follows a "Preface to the readers of Mount Vernon, a Poem," in which
he says:

    "I published a rural, romantic, and descriptive poem of Down Hill, the
    seat of the Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Londonderry, in Ireland; for
    which the gentlemen of that country actually gave me a guinea per copy,
    and Sir George Hill, from Dublin, gave me five guineas in the city of
    Londonderry; more, I am assured, as feeling from my having seen better
    days, than from the intrinsic value of it."

Besides _Mount Vernon_, the book contains several other poems, &c., and
extends to eighty-three pages, 8vo., with four pages subsequently inserted
at the end. It is, I believe, a very scarce book in America, and the copy I
possess is probably unique in this country. Like Mrs. Mackey's poems, it
seems to have been written in earnest, and it is impossible within the
limits of an article of this nature to give an adequate idea of the vein of
self-complacency which pervades the book, or of the high estimation in
which the author evidently held his own productions both in prose and

A few quotations illustrative of his descriptive powers must suffice:

 "Mount Vernon! I have often heard of thee,
  And often wish'd thy beauties for to see."--P. 9.

 "The house itself is elegant and neat,
  And is two stories high, neat and complete."--P. 10.

 "A thought now strikes my mind, of Mount Vernon,
  That happiness may ever shine thereon;
  For, Nature form'd it pleasing to the mind;
  Therefore, true earthly bliss we here might find:
  Or, in a cottage, if our God be there,
  For He is omnipresent, everywhere.
  A garden was the first habitation
  Of our parents, and near relat'on," (_sic_) &c.--P. 14.

Of Alexandria he informs us that--

 "The buildings here are generally neat,
  The streets well pav'd, which makes walking complete.
  I've seen their houses, where they preach and pray,
  But th' congregation small on stormy day."--P. 38.

Of George Town he says:

 "A pleasing rural prospect rises here,
  To please th' enquiring mind as we draw near.
  The building in George Town is very neat;
  But paving of the streets not yet complete.
  Some rural seats near to the Town is fine,
  Which please the fancy and amuse the mind."--P. 39.

And lastly, from his _Valedictory_, we learn that--

 "Poets, like grasshoppers, sing till they die,
  Yet, in this life, some laugh, some sing, some cry."--P. 83.

These extracts are not given as the _worst_ specimens. Is anything more
known of John Searson, and of his other valuable productions, either in
Ireland or America? As I perceive you have correspondents at Philadelphia,
they will perhaps kindly afford me some information on the subject.


    [Another work by this author may be found in some of our public
    libraries, entitled _Poems on various {132} Subjects and different
    Occasions, chiefly adapted to Rural Entertainment in the United States
    of America_. 8vo. 1797. The Preface to this work also gives some
    account of Searson's residence in Ireland, where, he says, "I lived
    happily for fifteen years, till another king (or agent) arose, who knew
    not Joseph, who, in the most inhuman, cruel, and tyrannical manner,
    made use of his interest to have me put out of my place." The work
    concludes with the following advertisement respecting himself:--"Being
    unemployed at present, should any of my kind subscribers know of any
    vacancy as tutor in some gentleman's family, a place in some public
    office, genteel compting-house, or vacancy for a schoolmaster, the
    author will be grateful for the favour of acquainting him of it. He may
    be heard of by applying to Mr. Mathew Carey, of Market Street,

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Haberdon, or Habyrdon._--A manor now belonging to the school at Bury St.
Edmund's bears this name. Can any meaning be given to the word?

The land formerly belonging to the Abbey of St. Edmund, several registers
of that monastery, A.D. 1520 and 1533, let the said manor of Habyrdon, on
condition the tenant should yearly find one white bull, &c. The leases all
describe this manor of Habyrdon and make it specially necessary to find a
white bull. The land is contiguous to the town of Bury, and is called
Haberdon at the present time, presents a hilly appearance and remains of
ancient intrenchments. I have not heard of any other place by this name.

C. G.


_Holles Family._--I am very desirous of obtaining any information that can
be procured concerning the Holles family prior to the time of Sir William,
who was Lord Mayor of London in 1540. I should also be obliged if any of
your numerous correspondents can inform me, whether that member of the
family who married a lady named Gelks, I think since 1700, left any
posterity; from whom he was descended, and in what county he lived? Also,
who the Gelkses were, and whether the family is represented now; and, if
so, of what county they are?

The arms of the Holleses were--Ermine, two piles conjoining in the points
sable. The crest was a boar's head erased, azure, langued gules, pierced
with a pheon.

The Gelks bore--Ermine, three chevrons azure, charged with nine bezents
inter nine annulets gules.

M. T. P.


"_To lie at the Catch_" (Vol. vi., p. 56.).--From accidental circumstances
I have only lately seen the notice of my Query. Will you excuse my saying
that I do not yet understand the meaning of the phrase "To lie at the
catch," and that I shall be greatly obliged if you or any of your
correspondents will explain it further, or, in other words, give me a
paraphrase that will suit the two passages I have quoted.

M. D.

_Names of Planets--Spade._--Would any of your correspondents give me some
information respecting the _names_ of the different planets of our system,
whether their titles are coeval with the apotheosis of the various denizens
of Olympus whose names they bear; or whether such names were bestowed upon
the heavenly bodies at some later date in honour of those divinities?

I should also like to hear explained, how the word _spade_, which from its
affinities in other languages would appear to have originally meant
_sword_, ever came to be transferred from a weapon of war to the useful and
harmless implement it now designates.

[Greek: Ouden].

_Arms in painted Glass._--The following arms have recently been found in
some decorated windows of the early part of the fourteenth century.
Information as to whom belonging would be esteemed a favour.

1. Gules, a chevron, or.

2. Quarterly, first and fourth gules, a mullet, or, second and third sable,
a cross, or.

3. Argent, on a chevron, or, three bucks' heads caboshed, tincture
indistinct, probably sable.


_The Sign of "The Two Chances."_--An inn, at Clun, in this county, bears
the unusual sign of "The Two Chances." What can this mean? Mine host is
also Registrar of Births and Deaths for the district. Does it refer to
_these two chances_?


Welsh-Hampton, Salop.

_Consecrators of English Bishops._--It may appear a waste of space to
insert in your columns my Queries on this subject, but when you consider
that I have been an exile in India for the last eleven years, and
consequently unable to refer, in this country, to authorities, which are
easily accessible at home, I venture to hope that you will not only give a
place to this, but also that you, or some clerical reader of "N. & Q.,"
will afford me the required information.

I have continued Mr. Perceval's list of English consecrations, given in his
able work, _An Apology for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession_, 2nd
edition of 1841, but have been unable to complete it with the names of the
consecrators of the following prelates, the objects of my Query; viz. 1.
Bishop Gilbert, of Chichester, on 27th February, 1842; 2. Bishop Field, of
Newfoundland, 28th April, 1844; 3, 4, & 5. Bishops Turton of Ely, Medley of
Fredericton, and Chapman of {133} Colombo, on 4th May, 1845; 6. Bishop
Gobat, 5th July, 1846; 7 & 8. Bishops Smith of Victoria, and Anderson of
Rupert's Land, on 29th May, 1849; 9. Bishop Fulford of Montreal, 25th July,
1850; and 10. Bishop Harding of Bombay, on 12th August, 1851. The dates
are, I believe, correct, but if not, of course I should like the mistakes
to be pointed out. I also desiderate the date of Bishop Binney's (of Nova
Scotia) consecration, in March or April, 1851, with names of his
consecrators; and finally, the place of Bishop Lonsdale's (of Lichfield)
consecration, on 3rd December, 1843. If these data are supplied, the lacunæ
in my supplemental list of English consecrations, from the Reformation to
the present day, will be complete.

A. S. A.


_A nunting Table._--What is it? The word occurs in a quotation from Dr.
Newman in the _Irish Ecclesiastical Journal_ for December, 1852, describing
a modern English church. I suppose I shall be snubbed for not giving the
passage; but my copy of the journal has vanished.

A. A. D.

_John Pictones._--Is anything known of John Pictones, or Pyctones, a person
mentioned in a MS. as having taught languages to Queen Elizabeth when she
was young?

C. R. M.

_Gospel Place._--In a definition of the boundaries of Bordesley Abbey,
dated 1645, given in Nash's _Worcestershire_, there frequently occurs the
term "Gospel place," thus:

    "And so to a Cross or Gospel Place near to Brown's cottage, and from
    thence to a Gospel Place under a tree near to a mill ... thence to the
    old Gospel Place oak that standeth on the common."

I have heard that at each one of these "Gospel places" there was kept up a
mound on which it was usual to rest a corpse on its way to the churchyard,
during which time some portion of the gospel was read. Can any of your
correspondents say if such a practice was observed in any other part of the
country, its origin, its intention, and the period of its discontinuance?
And if not, can give any other explanation of the term?

G. R.

_York Mint._--Can any of your correspondents inform me of the names of the
officers of the local mint at York, instituted about 1696?

O. O. O.

_Chipchase of Chipchase._--I should be glad to learn if any pedigree exists
of the ancient family of Chipchase, or De Chipches (as the name is spelt in
pleadings and deeds of the fourteenth century). A family bearing that name
appears to have occupied or dwelt near the "Turris de Chipches," co.
Northumberland, so early as Edward I.; at which time the manor of Prudhoe,
of which Chipchase is a member, was held by the Umfravilles. The fact of
the principal charges in the armorial bearings of both families being
similar, seems to have led to the suggestion that the Chipchases were
cadets of the former; but this opinion is without sufficient foundation.

A. G. W.

_Newspapers._--Which is the oldest newspaper, town or country, daily or
weekly, now published? The _Lincoln, Rutland, and Stamford Mercury_
(weekly), published at Stamford, is the oldest paper I am acquainted with.
The paper for the 21st January, 1853, is numbered "Vol. 158. No. 8231."
This gives the year 1695 as the commencement of the paper. Perhaps other
readers of "N. & Q." will follow up this interesting subject. Vide Vol.
ii., p. 375., and Vol. iii., pp. 164. and 248.

L. L. L.

_On alleged historical Facts._--

    "During the troubles in the reign of Charles I., a country girl came up
    to London in search of a place as a servant-maid; but not succeeding,
    she applied herself to carrying out beer from a brewhouse, and was one
    of those then called 'tub-women.' The brewer observing a well-looking
    girl in this low occupation, took her into his family as servant, and,
    after a little while, she behaving herself with so much prudence and
    decorum, he married her; but he died when she was yet a young woman,
    and left her a large fortune. The business of the brewery was dropped,
    and the young woman was recommended to Mr. Hyde, as a gentleman of
    skill in the law, to settle her affairs. Hyde (who was afterwards the
    great Earl of Clarendon), finding the widow's fortune very
    considerable, married her. Of this marriage there was no other issue
    than a daughter, who was afterwards the wife of James II., and mother
    of Mary and Anne, queens of England."--_Newspaper Paragraph._

What truth is there in the foregoing statement; and if in any degree true,
what further is known of the fortunate "tub-woman?" Is her existence
ignored in the Hyde pedigree?

J. B.

_Costume of Spanish Physicians._--I have been informed that the Spanish
physicians for a very considerable period, and even until about forty years
ago, wore a dress peculiar to their profession. Can any of your readers
inform me where I can find a representation or a description of this dress;
and also whether it would be the one worn by a Flemish physician residing
in Spain about the middle of the sixteenth century?


_Genoveva._--Can any of your readers inform me what history or legend is
illustrated by a fine engraving in line, by Felsing after Steinbrück (size
13 × 11 inches), which has no other clue to its subject than the word
_Genoveva_, in the lower border. It represents a beautiful maiden, with a
sleeping child in her lap, at the foot of a beech-tree in {134} a forest,
and a hind or fawn in the background approaching from a cavern. It was
published some years ago at Darmstadt, and is not common: but beyond a
guess that it is meant for St. Genevieve, the printsellers can tell me
nothing about it; and I do not find in _her_ history, as given by Alban
Butler, any such incident.


_Quotation._--In the Miscellaneous Writings of the celebrated Franklin
(Chambers's People's Edition) I find the following anecdote, in an article
on "The Art of procuring Pleasant Dreams." Franklin says:

    "It is recorded of Methusalem, who, being the longest liver, may be
    supposed to have best preserved his health, that he slept always in the
    open air; for when he had lived five hundred years, an angel said to
    him, 'Arise, Methusalem, and build thee an house; for thou shalt live
    yet five hundred years longer.' But Methusalem answered and said, 'If I
    am to live but five hundred years longer, it is not worth while to
    build me an house: I will sleep in the open air as I have been used to

From what source did Franklin derive this information?


"_God and the World._"--I shall be obliged by being informed from what poet
are the following lines:

 "God and the world we worship both together,
    Draw not our laws to Him, but His to ours;
  Untrue to both, so prosperous in neither,
    Th' imperfect will brings forth but barren flowers;
  Unwise as all distracted interests be,
  Strangers to God, fools in humanity;
  Too good for great things, and too great for good,
  While still 'I dare not' waits upon 'I would.'"

W. H.

"_Solid Men of Boston._"--Where are the verses to be found of which the
following were part? I have an indistinct recollection that they were
quoted in parliament during the American revolution:

 "Solid men of Boston, make no long orations;
  Solid men of Boston, drink no strong potations;
  Solid men of Boston, go to bed at sundown,
  Never lose your way like the loggerheads of London.
                                  Bow, wow, wow.

 "Sit down neighbours all, and I'll tell you a merry story,
  About a disappointed Whig that wish'd to be a Tory,
  I had it piping hot from Ebenezer Barber,
  Who sail'd from Old England, and lies in Boston harbour.
                                  Bow, wow, wow."


_Lost MS. by Alexander Pennecuik._--In the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh,
is preserved a MS. in 4to., called _The whole Works of Alexander Pennecuik,
Gent._, vol. ii. It commences at p. 215. Upon the boards is written
"Edinburgh, January 1759. Ex dono viduæ J. Graham, Bibliopegi, cum altero
volumine." It is not known in what way the Faculty of Advocates became
possessed of this volume. Query, Where is the first?


"_The Percy Anecdotes._"--Who were the compilers of this excellent
collection, published about thirty years ago?


_Norman Song._--In the year 1198 there was a song current in Normandy,
which ran that the arrow was being made in Limousin by which Richard Coeur
de Lion was to be slain. Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." inform me
where the ballad is to be found, or if MS., give me a copy?

R. L.

_God's Marks._--In Roper's _Life of More_ there is an account of Margaret
Roper's recovery from an attack of the sweating sickness. The belief of the
writer was, that the recovery was miraculous; and to enforce that opinion
he asserts, that the patient did not begin to recover until after "God's
marks (an evident undoubted token of death) plainly appeared upon her."
(Roper's _More_, p. 29., Singer's edition.) Pray what is meant by "God's


_The Bronze Statue of Charles I., Charing Cross._--What is known of the
life and history of John Rivers[4], to whose loyalty the good people of
London are now indebted for the preservation of this bust, which the
Parliament in the time of Cromwell had ordered to be destroyed? That he was
a brazier, and a handy workman, is all that I know of him.

W. W.


[Footnote 4: [John _Rivett_, a brazier living at the Dial, near Holborn
Conduit. See Walpole's _Anecdotes of Painting_ vol. ii. p. 319.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Hutter's Polyglott._--Can any one inform me whether the following work was
ever completed, or give me any particulars respecting it? _Biblia Sacra,
Ebraice, Chaldaice, Græce, Latine, Germanice, Saxonice; Studio et Labore_
Eliæ Hutteri, Germani, Noribergæ, 1599. Of this work I have the first
volume--a splendid book, which recently came from abroad; but I cannot hear
of the other volumes: this includes the Pentateuch. A reply to this Query
will be thankfully received.

B. H. C.

    [We have an edition before us, printed at Noribergæ, 1599, to the end
    of the Book of Ruth, but without the Sclavonic column. According to
    Ebert (_Bibliog. Dict._) there is "a fourfold edition, differing only
    in the last column, and goes only as far as the Book of Ruth. Scarce,
    but of no value. The edition with the {135} Sclavonic column is the
    most scarce." In 1600, Hutter published a Polyglott of the New
    Testament, in twelve languages, viz. the Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Latin,
    German, Bohemian, Italian, Spanish, French, English, Danish, and
    Polish; which, in an edition printed in 1603, were reduced to the
    Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and German. He died at Nuremberg, about 1603.]

_Ethnology of England._--Will any of your readers favour me with a
reference to the best work or works which refer to the ethnology of this
island, more particularly in reference to the craniology of the different
races which have settled in it?

I beg to ask whether it is yet clearly settled that there are types of the
heads of Ancient Britons, Saxons, Danes, and other races, to be referred to
as standards or examples of the respective crania of those people? If so,
will any of your readers be kind enough to direct me to any work which
contains engraved outlines of such crania?


    [ETHNOLOGICUS is referred to the works of Dr. Prichard and Dr. Latham;
    more especially to _The Ethnology of the British Islands_, by the
    last-named writer, noticed in our 170th Number, p. 120. That types of
    the heads of the Ancient Britons, Saxons, Danes, &c. are to be found,
    there can be no doubt, though they have never hitherto been brought
    together for comparison. To do this is the object of the projected
    _Crania Britannica_, about to be published by Dr. Thurnam of Devizes,
    and Mr. J. B. Davis, of which some particulars will be found at p. 497.
    of our Sixth Volume.]

_Pitt of Pimperne._--Can any of your readers tell me what works of Mr.
Pitt, formerly Rector of Pimperne, Dorset, and translator of Virgil's
_Æneid_, &c., have been printed?



    [In addition to the _Æneid_, Christopher Pitt translated Veda's _Art of
    Poetry_, about 1724; and subsequently published a volume of _Poems and
    Translations_, 8vo. 1727. His _Poems_ will be found in the twelfth
    volume of Chalmers's Collection.]

_"The Bottle Department" of the Beer-trade_ was evidently _terra incognita_
in those days:

 "He that buys land buys many stones;
  He that buys flesh buys many bones;
  He that buys eggs buys many shells;
  But he that buys good ALE buys nothing else."

"A favourite proverbial rhyme among topers," quoth that most amusing of
lexicographers, old N. Bailey, [Greek: Philologos], who inserts it under
the word "Buy," folio edition.

Query, What was his Christian name?


    [Nathan Bailey. A short account of him will be found in Chalmers's
    _Biog. Dict._]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 65.)

Some time since, when at Tideswell (which is in Derbyshire, not
Devonshire), I made a rubbing from the brass of Bishop Pursglove, from
which I have copied the inscription asked for by A. S. A., on a plate of
brass underneath the figure.

 "Under this stone as here doth ly, a corps sumtime of fame,
  In Tiddeswall bred and born truely, ROBERT PURSGLOVE by name;
  And there brought up by parents' care, at schoole and learning trad;
  Till afterwards, by UNCLE dear, to London he was had,
  Who, WILLIAM BRADSHAW hight by name, in pauls w^{ch} did him place,
  And y^r at schoole did him maintain full thrice three whole years' space;
  And then into the Abberye was placed as I wish,
  In Southwarke call'd, where it doth ly, Saint MARY OVERIS.
  To Oxford then, who did him send, into that Colledge right,
  And there fourteen years did him find wh. Corpus Christi hight;
  From thence at length away he went, a Clerke of learning great,
  To GISBURN ABBEY streight was sent, and plac'd in PRIOR'S seat.
  Two GRAMER Schooles he did ordain with LAND for to endure,
  One HOSPITAL for to maintain twelve impotent and poor.
  O GISBURNE, thou, with TIDDESWALL TOWN, lement and mourn for may,
  For this said CLERK of great renoun lyeth here compact in clay.
  Though cruell DEATH hath now down brought this body w^c here doth ly,
  Yet trump of Fame stay can he nought to sound his praise on high."

 "Qui legis hunc versum crebro reliquum memoreris
  Vile cadaver sum, tuque cadaver eris."

The inscription is in black letter, except the words which are in small

On a fillet round the slab, with the evangelistic symbols at the corners,--

 "[Maltese cross] Christ is to me as life on earth, and death to me is
  Because I trust through Him alone saluation to obtaine;
  So brittle is the state of man, so soon it doth decay,
  So all the glory of this world must pas and fade away.

    "This Robert Pursglove, sometyme Bishoppe of Hull, deceased the 2 day
    of Maii, in the year of our Lord God, 1579."

Wood says (_Ath. Oxon._, edit. Bliss, ii. c. 820.), that about the
beginning of Queen Mary's reign he was made Archdeacon of Nottingham, and
suffragan Bishop of Hull; but Dr. Brett, in a letter printed in Drake's
_Eboracum_, 1736, fol., p. 539., says he was appointed in 1552, the last
year of the reign of Edward VI.


In Wharton's _List of Suffragan Bishops_, the following entry occurs:

    "Robertus Silvester, _alias_ Pursglove, ep[=u]s Hullensis, 1537, 38."

But this is probably a mistake, as, in a short account of his life by
Anthony à Wood (vol. ii. col. 820., _Athen. Oxon._, edited by Bliss), I
find it stated, that "on the death of Rob. Sylvester about the beginning of
Queen Mary's reign, he was made Archdeacon of Nottingham, and suffragan
Bishop of Hull, under the Archbishop of York." Wood afterwards adds:

    "After Queen Elizabeth had been settled in the throne for some time,
    the oath of supremacy was offered to him, but he denying to take it,
    was deprived of his archdeaconry and other spiritualities."


It appears, from Dugdale's _Warwickshire_, that Pursglove assented to the
suppression of Gisburne in December, 1540, and became a commissioner for
persuading other abbots and priors to do the same. It is doubtful at what
time he was appointed to the see of Hull; whether in the last year of
Edward VI. or in Queen Mary's reign, though it is certain, in 1559, he
refused to take the oath of supremacy to Elizabeth.

The hospital and schools mentioned in the epitaph are Gisborough and


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 99. 178.)

I have neither time nor inclination to expose all the errors and fallacies
of MR. MATTHEW COOKE'S article on "Gregorian Tones;" but I cannot resist
pointing out certain statements which are calculated to mislead the readers
of "N. & Q." in no trifling degree. The writer says:

    "The most ancient account we have is, that St. Ambrose of Milan knew of
    _four_ tones in his day, and that he added _four_ others to them; the
    former being those termed authentic, the latter the plagal modes."

Now the fact is, that St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (A.D. 374 to 397), chose
from the ancient Greek modes four series or successions of notes, and
called them simply the first, second, third, and fourth tones; laying
completely aside the ancient heathen names of Doric, Phrygian, Lydian,
Ionic, &c. St. Gregory the Great, who governed the Christian Church from
A.D. 591 to 604, added the _four additional_ tones. These eight
ecclesiastical successions or scales, which still exist as such in the
music of the Roman Liturgy, are called Gregorian after their founder. Thus
the old Ambrosian chant is known at present only through the medium of the

The writer continues his statement in these words--

    "Some years since, the renowned French theorist, Mons. Fetis, went to
    Milan for the express purpose of consulting the celebrated _Book of
    Offices_, written by St. Ambrose _in his own handwriting, which is
    there preserved_ [the Italics are added]; and in his work, published in
    Belgium, he says that he collated them with those known and received
    amongst us; and that the variations were of the slightest possible
    character, the tones being ostensibly the same."

This extraordinary statement cannot be accepted without the title of M.
Fetis' work, and the passage upon which it rests, _verbatim_ in the
author's own words. But I have no hesitation in saying that it is founded
in error.

Thibaut (_Ueber der Reinheit der Tonkunst_, pp. 28-30.) speaks of a MS. of
the Gregorian chants at St. Gall, in Switzerland, as old as the _ninth_
century. This is believed, by all accredited modern writers upon music, to
be the oldest MS. of the tones extant.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 268. 296.)

Of this passage we might almost say _conclamatum est_; for really no good
sense has yet been made of it, except by bold alterations. For my own part,
I agree with A. E. B., that _no alteration is required_ except in the
punctuation, and not much even then. The text of the folios is given by MR.
SINGER (Vol. vi., p. 268.), and I would read it thus:

 "Nay, my good lord, let me o'errule you now.
  That sport best pleases that doth least know how,
  Where zeal strives to content, and the contents
  Dies in[5] the zeal of that which it presents.
  Their form confounded makes most form in mirth,
  When great things labouring perish in the birth."

The whole difficulty seems to lie in the word _dies_ in the fourth line,
and that I think may be removed by merely changing _i_ into _y_, and
reading _dyes_. The meaning then will be: That sport will yield most
pleasure in which, though the actors are devoid of skill, they are zealous
and anxious to give pleasure for their zeal in the endeavour, {137} _dyes_,
or tinges (_i. e._ communicates its own hue to) the _contents_ or
satisfaction of the spectators (_i. e._ makes them sympathise with the
actors). While on the other hand: My good lord, when, as in your late
attempt, great things labouring perish in the birth, _their_ confusion
causes laughter and derision instead of pleasure, like the former simple

I take, as will be seen, _contents_, in the third line, as the substantive
of the preceding verb _content_, and not, with MR. KNIGHT and A. E. B., as
"things contained." The poet put it in the plural evidently for the sake of
the rhyme. In the next line, _zeal_ may not be the word actually written by
the poet, but it makes a very fair sense; and I know no word that could be
substituted for it with certainty--we still use the phrase, _to dye in_. In
understanding the last two lines of the mask[6] of the king and his lords,
I think I am justified by the remark of Byron:

 "A right description of our sport, my Lord."

Perhaps it is needless to add, that _labouring_ is i.q. _travailing_; and
that _most form in mirth_ means _the highest form in_ (i. e. _the greatest
degree of_) _mirth_.

In these, and any other remarks on Shakspeare with which I may happen to
trouble you at any time, I beg to be regarded as a mere _guerilla_ as
compared with regularly trained and disciplined Shakspearians like _Mr.
Singer_, MR. COLLIER, and others. I have never read the folios of 1623 or
1632. I do not even possess a _variorum_ edition of the poet; my only copy
being Mr. Collier's excellent edition. Finally, my studies have lain most
about the sunny shores of the Mediterranean; and I am most at home in the
literature of its three peninsulas, and the coasts of Asia.


[Footnote 5: "in" corrected from "with" by erratum in Issue

[Footnote 6: "mask" corrected from "remark" by erratum in Issue

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 552.; Vol. vii., p. 50.)

As I consider J. G.'s apology for the popular, though undoubtedly
erroneous, pronunciation of this word to be far from satisfactory, may I
trouble you with some evidence in favour of Niagára, which MR. W. FRASER
truly says is the Huron pronunciation? I also agree with him, that it is
"unquestionably the most musical." For my own part, the sound of Niágara is
painful to my ear; even Moore himself could not knock music out of it.
Witness the following lines:

 "Take, instead of a bowl, or a dagger, a
  Desperate dash down the Falls of Niágara."[7]

How very different is the measured, solemn sound, which the word bears in
the noble lines of Goldsmith, who, it is reasonable to suppose, was as well
informed of its proper pronunciation as of its correct interpretation.

Travelling a few years since in Canada, I was assured by an old gentleman,
who for many years held constant intercourse with the aborigines, that they
invariably place the accent upon the penult. If this be true, as I doubt
not, it is conclusive: and in order to testify to the correctness of the
assertion, I could cite numberless aboriginal names of places in "The
States," as well as in Canada: a few, however, will here suffice:


Now, I am aware that there are other Indian words which would seem, at
first sight, if not to contradict, to be at least exceptions to the rule,
but upon investigation they, I conceive, rather strengthen my argument: for
instance, Connécticut--the original of which is, Quonehtácut, the long

In conclusion, we should bear in mind that we have the prevalent
pronunciation of such words through either of two channels,--the French or
the American; consequently, in Canada, we find them Frenchified, and in
"The States" Yankeefied.

I therefore hold that Niágara is a most inharmonious Yankeefication of the
melodious aboriginal word Niagára.


40. Tavistock Street, Covent Garden.

[Footnote 7: I quote these lines from memory. They occur, I believe, in the
_Fudge Family_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 39.)

The tenure in _drengage_ was common in, if it was not confined to, the
territory which was comprised in the ancient kingdom of Northumbria.
_Drenghs_ are mentioned in Domesday on the lands between the Ribble and the
Mersey, which then formed part of Northumbria. They occur in Yorkshire; and
they are mentioned in the survey, called the _Boldon Book_, compiled in
A.D. 1183, by order of Hugh Pudsey, the great Bishop of Durham, which may
be termed the Domesday of the palatinate. Sir Henry Ellis, in his _General
Introd. to Domesday_, says, "The _drenchs_ or _drenghs_ were of the
description of allodial tenants ... and from the few entries in which they
occur, it certainly appears that the allotments of territory they possessed
were held as manors." (_Domesd._, tom. i. fo. 269.) But as menial services
(to be rendered, nevertheless, by the villans of the tenant in _drengage_)
were attached to the tenure, at all events in the county of Durham, it was
inferior to military tenure; and the instance in the Pipe Rolls of
Westmoreland, 25 Henry II., of the enfranchisement of _drenghs_, together
with the particulars {138} given in records of the palatinate of Durham and
the county of Northumberland, as to the services attached to _drengage_,
show that it was far from being a free tenure. Yet Spelman (_Gloss._, ed.
1687, p. 184.) speaks of _drenges_ as "tenantes per servitium militare;"
and Coke calls them "free tenants of a manor."[8] From the _Boldon Book_ we
learn, however, that the services of the _drengh_ were to plough, sow, and
harrow a portion of the bishop's land, to keep a dog and horse for the
bishop's use, and a cart to convey his wine; to attend the chase with dogs
and ropes; and perform certain "precaria," or harvest works. To take an
example from the roll of Bishop de Bury in 1336:--We find Nicholas de
Oxenhale held of the bishop in capite the manor of Oxenhale, performing,
amongst other services, "the fourth part of a _drengage_; to wit, he was to
plough four acres, and sow the land with seed of the bishop's, and harrow
it, and do four days' work in autumn." And in the Pipe Roll for
Westmoreland, already mentioned, we find eighteen _drenghs_ in the honour
held by Hugh de Morvill, who had not been enfranchised by him, and who
remained paying a fine to be exempt from foreign service. In Northumberland
the tenants in _drengage_ paid a fixed money-rent, and were subject to
tallage, heriots, merchet, &c. So, in the palatinate, in 25th Bishop
Hatfield (A. D. 1369), John Warde, of Hoton, died seised in his demesne of
a messuage and sixty acres which were held of the bishop in capite, by
homage and fealty in _drengage_, rendering six bushels of oats and three
bushels of barley, at the manor of Middleham. But the agricultural and
menial services were lighter than those of the villan, and, as already
stated, were not performed by the tenant in person, or by those of his
household. This tenure existed in Tynedale at the close of the thirteenth
century, as appears from _Rot. Orig. 20 Edw. I._, vol. i. p. 70., where the
"consuetudinem partium prædictarum" are mentioned. "A _drengage_," says
Blount, in his _Fragmenta Antiquitatis_, "seems to have consisted of
sixteen acres, to be ploughed, sown, and harrowed." The word _drengage_ is
derived, by the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, in the glossary to his recent valuable
edition of _Boldon Book_, from the Anglo-Saxon _dreogan_, to do, work,
bear; the root, according to Tooke, of our English word _drudge_.
_Drengage_ is, in Kelham's _Norman-French Dictionary_, explained to be "the
tenure by which the _drenges_ held their lands." In Lye's _Saxon
Dictionary_ I find "_Dreng_, miles, vir fortis."



[Footnote 8: Spelman says they were "E genere vassallorum non ignobilium,"
and such as, being at the Conquest put out of their estate, were afterwards

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 14.)

The following account of the whole of the proceedings at the inquest which
was held at the Three Crows, Brook Street, Holborn, on Friday, Aug. 27,
1770, before Swinson Carter, Esq., and ten jurymen, whose names are
mentioned, is from a MS. copy in my possession.

I am not acquainted with any printed work which contains a report of the
inquest. It is not in the large collection of Chatterton's _Works_ and
_Lives_, and the innumerable newspaper and magazine cuttings, which fill
several volumes, and which belonged to Mr. Haslewood; nor is it in
Barrett's _Bristol_, or Herbert Croft's _Love and Madness_.

    "Account of the Inquest held on the body of THOMAS CHATTERTON,
    deceased, at the Three Crows, Brook Street, Holborn, on Friday, the
    27th August, 1770, before Swinson Carter, Esq., and the following
    jury:--Charles Skinner, ---- Meres, John Hollier, John Park, S. G.
    Doran, Henry Dugdale, G. J. Hillsley, C. Sheen, E. Manley, C. Moore,
    ---- Nevett.

"MARY ANGELL, sack maker, of No. 17. Brook Street, Holborn, deposed, that
the deceased came to lodge at her house about nine or ten weeks ago; he
took the room below the garret; he always slept in the same room; he was
always very exact in his payments to her; and at one time, when she knew
that he had paid her all the money he had in the world, she offered him
sixpence back, which he refused to take, saying: 'I have that here
(pointing to his forehead) which will get me more.' He used to sit up
nearly all night, and she frequently found his bed untouched in the
morning, when she went to make it. She knew that he always bought his
loaves--one of which lasted him for a week--as stale as possible, that they
might last the longer: and, two days before his death, he came home in a
great passion with the baker's wife, who had refused to let him have
another loaf until he paid her 3s. 6d. which he owed her previously. He,
the deceased, appeared unusually grave on the 28th of August; and, on her
asking him what ailed him, he answered pettishly: 'Nothing, nothing--why do
you ask?' On the morning of the 24th August, he lay in bed longer than
usual; got up about ten o'clock, and went out with a bundle of paper under
his arm, which he said 'was a treasure to any one, but there were so many
fools in the world that he would put them in a place of safety, lest they
should meet with accident.' He returned about seven in the evening, looking
very pale and dejected; and would not eat anything, but sat moping by the
fire with his chin on his knees, and muttering rhymes in some old language
to her. Witness saw him for the last time when {139} he got up to go to
bed; he then kissed her (a thing he had never done in his life before), and
then went upstairs, stamping on every stair as he went slowly up, as if he
would break it. Witness stated that he did not come down next morning, but
she was not alarmed, as he had lain longer than usual on the day before;
but at eleven o'clock, Mrs. Wolfe, a neighbour's wife, coming in, they went
and listened at the door, and tried to open it, but it was locked. At last,
they got a man who was near to break it open; and they found him lying on
the bed with his legs hanging over, quite dead: the bed had not been lain
on. The floor was covered all over with little bits of paper; and on one
piece the man read, in deceased's handwriting, 'I leave my soul to its
Maker, my body to my mother and sister, and my curse to Bristol. If Mr.
Ca....' The rest was torn off. The man then said he must have killed
himself, which we did not think till then, not having seen the poison till
an hour after. Deceased was very proud, but never unkind to any one. I do
not think he was quite right in his mind lately. The man took away the
paper, and I have not been able to find him out.

"FREDERICK ANGELL deposed to the fact of deceased lodging at their house;
was from home when deceased was found. Always considered him something
wonderful, and was sometimes afraid he would go out of his mind. Deceased
often came home very melancholy; and, on his once asking him the reason, he
said, 'Hamilton has deceived me;' but could get no more from him. Deceased
was always writing to his mother or sister, of whom he appeared to be very
fond. I never knew him in liquor, and never saw him drink anything but

"EDWIN CROSS, apothecary, Brook Street, Holborn. Knew the deceased well,
from the time he came to live with Mrs. Angell in the same street. Deceased
used generally to call on him every time he went by his door, which was
usually two or three times in a day. Deceased used to talk a great deal
about physic, and was very inquisitive about the nature of different
poisons. I often asked him to take a meal with us, but he was so proud that
I could never but once prevail on him, though I knew he was half-starving.
One evening he did stay, when I unusually pressed him. He talked a great
deal, but all at once became silent, and looked quite vacant. He used to go
very often to Falcon Court, Fleet Street, to a Mr. Hamilton, who printed a
magazine; but who, he said, was using him very badly. I once recommended
him to return to Bristol, but he only heaved a deep sigh; and begged me,
with tears in his eyes, never to mention the hated name again. He called on
me on the 24th August about half-past eleven in the morning, and bought
some arsenic, which he said was for an experiment. About the same time next
day, Mrs. Wolfe ran in for me, saying deceased had killed himself. I went
to his room, and found him quite dead. On his window was a bottle
containing arsenic and water; some of the little bits of arsenic were
between his teeth. I believe if he had not killed himself, he would soon
have died of starvation; for he was too proud to ask of any one. Witness
always considered deceased as an astonishing genius.

"ANNE WOLFE, of Brook Street. Witness lived three doors from Mrs. Angell's;
knew the deceased well; always thought him very proud and haughty. She
sometimes thought him crazed. She saw him one night walking up and down the
street at twelve o'clock, talking loud, and occasionally stopping, as if to
think on something. One day he came in to buy some curls, which he said he
wanted to send to his sister; but he could not pay the price, and went away
seemingly much mortified. On the 25th August, Mrs. Angell asked her to go
upstairs with her to Thomas's room: they could make no one hear. And, at
last, being frightened, they got a man who was going by to break open the
door, when they found him dead on the bed. The floor was covered with
little bits of paper, and the man who was with them picked up several and
took away with him.

"_Verdict._--Felo de se."

J. M. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 86.)

It is not for P. C. S. S. to explain the grounds on which Cardinal Wiseman
considers the _History of Formosa_, and the _Sicilian Code of Vella_, as
the most celebrated literary frauds of modern times. But he thinks that
before he penned the Query, MR. BREEN might have recollected the well-known
name of _George Psalmanazar_, and the extraordinary imposture so
successfully practised in 1704 by that good and learned person; a fraud
scarcely redeemed by the virtue and merits of a man of whom Dr. Johnson
said, that "he had never seen the close of the life of any one that he so
much wished his own to resemble, as that of Psalmanazar, for its purity and

With respect to the _Sicilian Code of Vella_, MR. BREEN will find, on a
very little inquiry, that the work to which the Cardinal adverts (entitled
_Libro del Consiglio di Egitto, tradotto da Giuseppe Vella_) was printed at
Palermo in 1793; that the book, from beginning to end, is an entire fiction
of the learned canon; that the forgery was detected before the publication
of the second part--which, consequently, never saw the light; that the
detection was due to the celebrated orientalist Hager, whose account
thereof (a masterpiece of {140} analytical reasoning) was published in 1799
by Palm, the bookseller of Erlang (murdered in 1806 by order of the uncle
of the present French emperor). But this was not the only imposture of the
kind of which Vella was the author, and which his profound knowledge of
Arabic enabled him to execute in a way which it would scarcely have been
possible for any other European to have accomplished. He had published,
1791, at the Royal Press at Palermo, under the name of Alfonso Airoldi, a
fictitious _Codex Diplomaticus Siciliæ, sub Saracenorum Imperio_, to the
discovery of which ingenious fraud we are also indebted to the acute
Pyrrhonism of M. Hager.

P. C. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 5.; Vol. vii., pp. 7. 111.)

I am obliged to apologise for having made Sir Henry Wotton use the words
"some long time before," instead of "some good while before," and therefore
take the opportunity of saying that I think Sir Henry's allusion to "the
art of stationers," in binding a good and a bad book up together, almost
proves "our common friend Mr. R." to have been a bookseller.
Notwithstanding the very high authorities against me, I will then venture
to insinuate, that instead of John Rouse, or Robert Randolph, plain
Humphrey _Robinson_ is meant, by whom _Comus_ was printed in 1637, "at the
signe of the Three Pidgeons, in Paul's Church-yard."

Once grant the probability of this being the case, and we have no further
difficulty in understanding why _Comus_ should be stitched up "with the
late Rd. poems," or Wotton be left in ignorance of the author's name. Lawes
tells us in the dedication to _Comus_, that it was "not openly acknowledged
by the author;" and the publisher would naturally keep the secret: but why
Rouse or Robert Randolph should do so, appears to me inexplicable. I hope
soon to have access to some public libraries, and also to return to this
very interesting question again. Meanwhile, may I beg the forbearance of
your more learned correspondents?



       *       *       *       *       *


_Sir W. Newton's Process._--Having been requested by several friends to
give them a statement of my mode of proceeding with reference to the
calotypic art, and as I am of opinion that we ought to assist each other as
much as possible in the pursuit of this important branch of photography, I
beg therefore to offer the following for insertion in your "N. & Q.," if
you should deem them worth your acceptance.

_To iodize the Paper._--1st. Brush your paper over with muriate of barytes
(half an ounce, dissolved in nearly a wine-bottle of distilled water): lay
it flat to dry. 2nd. Dissolve sixty grains of nitrate of silver in about an
ounce of distilled water. Ditto sixty grains of iodide of potassium in
another bottle with the like quantity of water. Mix them together and shake
well: let it subside: pour off the water, and then add _hot_ water: shake
it well: let subside: pour off the water, and then add three ounces of
distilled water, and afterwards as much iodide of potassium as will
redissolve the iodide of silver.

Brush your previously prepared paper well with this, and let dry; then
place them in water, one by one, for about one hour and a half or two
hours, _constantly agitating the water_. As many as a dozen pieces may be
put into the water, one after the other, taking care that there are no
air-bubbles: take them out, and pin to the edge of a board at one corner.

When dry they will be ready for exciting for the camera by the following

(These are supposed to be in six 1-ounce bottles with glass stoppers.)

  |        1.         |         2.         |      3.      |
  | 1 drachm of No.   | 20 min. of No. 3., | A saturated  |
  | 4., 6 drachms of  | 6 drachms of       | solution of  |
  | distilled water.  | distilled water.   | gallic acid. |
  |        4.         |       5.       |        6.        |
  | 25 grains of      | 2 drachms of   | Equal parts of   |
  | nitrate of silver | No. 4., 6 drs. | Nos. 1. and 2.   |
  | to half an ounce  | of water.      |                  |
  | of water. Add 45  |                | N.B.--This must  |
  | minims of glacial |                | be mixed just    |
  | acetic acid.      |                | before using,    |
  |                   |                | and the bottle   |
  |                   |                | cleaned          |
  |                   |                | afterwards.      |

_To excite for the Camera._--Mix equal parts of Nos. 1. and 2., and with a
glass rod excite the iodized paper and blot off; and it may be put in the
slide at once, or the number you require may be excited, and put into a
blotting paper book, one between each leaf, and allowed to remain until
required to be placed in the slide.

_Time of Exposure._--The time varies from three minutes to a quarter of an
hour, according to the nature of the subject and the power of the sun; but
five minutes is _generally_ the proper time.

_To bring out._--Bring out with No. 3., and when the subject begins to
appear, add No. 5.; and when sufficiently developed hold it up, and pour
water upon it; and then put it into hyposulphite of soda to fix it, for
about half an hour {141} or more, and then into water: this is merely to
fix it for the after process at your leisure.

_To clean the Negative._--Get a zinc tray about three or four inches deep,
with another tray to fit in at the top, about one inch deep; fill the lower
tray with boiling water, so that the upper tray may touch the water; put
your solution of hyposulphite of soda, not strong, in the upper tray, and
then your negatives one by one, watching them with care until the iodine is
removed; then put them in hot water, containing a small piece of common
soda (the size of a nutmeg to about two quarts of water), for about ten
minutes; pour off the dirty water, and then add more hot water, shaking
them gently for a short time; pour off the water again, and then add fresh
hot water, and let it remain until it is cold, after which take them out
CAREFULLY, one by one, and put them in clean cold water for an hour or two;
then take them _all out together_, and hold up to drain for a short time,
and then put them between three or four thicknesses of linen, and press as
much of the water out as you can; then _carefully_ (_for now all the size
is removed_) lay them out flat upon linen to dry.

_Mode of Waxing the Negatives._--Melt the pure white wax over a lamp of
moderate heat, just merely to keep it in a liquid state; then fill the same
deep tray as above described with boiling water, and with _another_ similar
to the upper one before described (_which must be kept for this purpose
only_); put a clean piece of blotting-paper in this tray, and lay your
negative _face downwards_, and with a soft _flat_ hog's hair-brush, about
an inch wide, dip it into the liquid wax, and brush the negative over, when
it will be immediately transparent, and it can be done so that there is
very little redundant wax, after which it may be put between two or three
thicknesses of blotting-paper and ironed, if necessary, which, however,
should not be _very_ hot, when it is ready to take positives from.

_Positives on Negative Paper._--Take one part of the iodide of silver
before described, and add two parts of water; then add as much iodide of
potassium as will redissolve it. Brush your paper with the foregoing, let
dry, put into water, and proceed, in all respects, as above described for
the negatives.

_Excite for Positives._--Excite with No. 1.; blot off: lay it in your
press, place the negative face downwards: expose to the light from ten
seconds to half a minute, or more, according to the light (_not in the
sun_), and bring out with No. 3.; and when it is nearly developed add No.
1.; then take it up and pour water upon it, and then place it in
hyposulphite of soda (cold) until the iodine is removed; after which put it
into allum water, about half a teaspoonful of powdered allum in two quarts
of water; this will readily remove the hyposulphite, and also fix the
positive more particularly; it will also take away any impurities which
there may be in the paper, after which put it into clean cold water, and
change two or three times.

I have been thus particular in describing the process which I have adopted,
more especially for beginners; and with great cleanliness and care in each
process, and especially in keeping all the bottles with the chemicals free
from dirt of every kind, the foregoing will lead to favourable results.


I have been making some experiments in preparing the iodized paper in the
following manner, more especially in consideration of the present price of
iodide of potassium:--60 grains of nitrate of silver; 60 ditto of iodide of
potassium, cleaned and prepared as before described, by the addition of
three ounces of water,--that is 3 oz. altogether; 60 grains of cyanide of
potassium; add a little of this at a time, and shake it up; and I generally
find that this quantity is sufficient to redissolve the 60 grains of iodide
of silver. Brush the paper over with the above, and when the wet surface
disappears, dip it into cold water containing one drachm of dilute
sulphuric acid to one quart of water; and then into water for half an hour,
changing the water once: pin up to dry. I have not had an opportunity of
trying this for negatives, but I have taken some good positives with the
paper so prepared.

N.B.--I find that if the paper is allowed to dry with the cyanide of
potassium, or that it is allowed to remain in the dilute sulphuric acid
water too long, it weakens the paper so much as to be very absorbent. I
would therefore wish to know from any of your correspondents whether this
arises from taking away the size, or injuring the fibres of the paper? and,
if so, whether a paper prepared with starch, instead of size, would be
better? as it appears to me that this mode of iodizing might be an
improvement. At all events, it is an enormous saving of iodide of
potassium; as, for instance, to redissolve the 60 grains, it would take 1½
oz. of iodide of potassium (about four shillings); whereas 60 grains of
cyanide would not cost more than one penny or twopence.

W. J. N.

_Collodion Film on Copper Plates._--Would any of your correspondents kindly
describe the manner in which the collodion film may be transferred to
prepared copper plates?

It was noticed by your correspondent H. W. D. in Vol. vi., p. 470.

J. M. S.

_Treatment of the Paper Positive after fixing._--1. Is it absolutely
necessary for the preservation of the picture, that the size should be
wholly removed from the paper? It seems to me that the hot-water treatment
materially injures the tone. {142}

2. In re-sizing, what is the kind of size and degree of strength generally
made use of, and mode of application? I have tried gelatine and isinglass
size, of various degrees of strength, without satisfactory results.

3. Should the hot iron, used for improvement of tone, be applied previous
to the picture being re-sized, or as a finishing operation? I find much
difficulty from the liability of the paper to shrivel under it.

4. Is the glossy appearance, observed in finished photographs, attained
solely by use of the burnisher?

5. What is albumenized paper? used, I believe, by some in printing; and the
mode of its preparation?

H. B. B.

P.S.--If I am not presuming too much upon your kindness, I should feel
greatly indebted for information upon the above points, either privately or
through the medium of "N. & Q.," according to the importance you may attach
to them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Essay for a New Translation of the Bible_ (Vol. vii., p. 40.).--This work
was written by Charles Le Cene, a French Protestant minister, who, on the
revocation of the edict of Nantes, sought refuge in England, and died at
London in 1703. The translation was made by Hugh Ross, a Scotchman and
sea-chaplain, but who was not sufficiently ingenuous to tell his readers
that it was a translation. Orme says: "The essay contains a good deal of
valuable information; points out many erroneous renderings of passages of
Scripture; and suggests better meanings, and the means of correcting the
modern translations generally."--_Bibliothecha Biblica_, p. 94. A short
account of Le Cene will be found in Chalmers's _Biog. Dict._ See also
Lewis's _Translations of the Bible_, 8vo. 1818, p. 338.


I have a copy of the _Essay for a New Translation of the Bible_, second
edition, 1727 (not 1717), which your correspondent W. W. T. inquires about
(Vol. vii., p. 40.). It is the translation of a work of the Huguenot
refugee, Charles Le Cene, _Projet d'une nouvelle version françoise de la
Bible_. H. R., who signs the dedication, was Hugh Ross, according to a note
in my copy, which my father made on the authority of one of the clergy of
Norwich about twenty years ago, I believe of Dr. Charles Sutton. I have
been unable to ascertain anything about him, his name not appearing in any
biographical dictionary I have seen, and the book not being in the Museum
library. The _Biog. Universelle_ charges Le Cene with a tendency to
Pelagian or Socinian errors, both in his _Projet_, and in the _Version_ he
actually made, and which was printed at Amsterdam. This was a great
curiosity in its way, the ancient Oriental titles, &c. being rendered in
their corresponding modern analogues.


_Touchstone_ (Vol. vii., p. 82.).--I think your correspondent ALPHAGE is
mistaken in alleging that the word _touchstone_ is so called because it
"gives a musical sound when touched with a stick."

The _touchstone_ is the dark-coloured flinty slate or schistus (the _Lapis
Lydius_ of the ancients), which has been used from the remotest ages, down
even to our own days, for testing gold. By touching the black stone with
the metal, it leaves behind a clear mark, the colour of which indicates the
distinction between the pure and alloyed. Pliny describes it (lib. xxxiii.
cap. 43.):

    "Auri argentique mentionem comitatur lapis quem coticulam appellant,
    quondam non solitus inveniri, nisi in flumine Tmolo, ut auctor est
    Theophrastus: nunc vero passim; quem alii Heraclium, alii Lydium
    vocant. His coticulis periti, cum e vena ut lima rapuerint
    experimentum, protinus dicunt quantum auri sit in ea, quantum argenti
    vel æris, scripulari differentia, mirabili ratione, non fallente."

This is the substance referred to in the apothegms of Lord Bacon, that
"gold is tried by the _touchstone_, and men by gold."

The French, from the same practice, know the same substance by the name of
_Pierre de touche_. The use of the touchstone, at the present day, is thus
described by Ure in his _Dictionary of Arts and Mines_, under the head of

    "In such small work as cannot be assayed, by scraping off a part and
    cupelling it, the assayers endeavor to ascertain its fineness or
    quality by the touch. This is a method of comparing the colour and
    other properties of a minute portion of the metal, with those of small
    bars, the composition of which is known. These bars are called _touch
    needles_, and they are rubbed upon a smooth piece of black basaltes, or
    pottery, which _for this reason is called the touchstone_."

W. W. E. T.

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia.

_Early Edition of Solinus_ (Vol. vi., p. 435.).--"Solinus _de Situ et
Memor. Orbis_, editio princeps, folio, Venet. 1473." My copy was described
as above in the catalogue of the bookseller of whom I purchased it. It
contains a very fine illuminated initial letter, red, blue, and gold. It
has no pagination. At the end, in capitals:


Should any gentleman wish to see it, I shall be happy to oblige him. Mine
is marked "6s.," and below this price, "sold 10s."




_Straw Bail_ (Vol. vii., p. 85.).--Part of this Query may be answered by
the following extract:

    "For the bribery and perjury so painfully frequent in Attic testimony,
    the editor contents himself with quoting from an article in the
    _Quarterly Review_ (vol. xxxiii. p. 344.), in which the Greek courts of
    justice are treated of.--'We have all heard of a race of men who used,
    in former days, to ply about our own courts of law, and who, from their
    manner of making known their occupation, were recognized by the name of
    _Straw-shoes_. An advocate, or lawyer, who wanted a _convenient_
    witness, knew by these signs where to find one, and the colloquy
    between the parties was brief. 'Don't you remember?' said the
    advocate--(the party looked at the fee and gave no sign; but the fee
    increased, and the powers of memory increased with it). 'To be sure I
    do.' 'Then come into the court and swear it.' And Straw-shoes went into
    the court and swore it. Athens abounded in Straw-shoes."

See Mitchell's _Wasps_ of Aristophanes, note on line 945.



_Doctor Young_ (Vol. vii., p. 14.).--J. H. will find an account of Mrs.
Hallows, the lady meant as Young's housekeeper, in Boswell's _Johnson_, p.
351., ed. 1848; and I can add to Anderson's note, that in the Duchess of
Portland's correspondence with Young, of which I have seen the originals,
Mrs. Hallows is always mentioned by her Grace with civility and kindness.


_Scarfs worn by Clergymen_ (Vol. vii., p. 108.).--Your correspondent will
find the subject of his Query fully discussed in the _Quarterly Review_ for
June, 1851 (vol. lxxxix. p. 222.), the result being that the use of the
scarf, except by chaplains of peers, dignitaries, &c., is a wholly
unauthorised usurpation of very recent date.


_Cibber's Lives of the Poets_ (Vol. v., p. 161.; Vol. vii., p. 113.).--MR.
W. L. NICHOLS has transmitted to "N. & Q." what he calls a "curious letter
which appears to have escaped the notice of MR. CROKER, though it
corroborates his statement," relative to Dr. Johnson's mistake as to the
authorship of those _Lives_. MR. NICHOLS is informed that he will find this
"curious letter" _in extenso_ in Mr. Croker's last edition of _Boswell_, p.
504., with the date of 1846; the letter itself having been published in
1843. It is again referred to in p. 818. as decisive of the question.


"_Letters on Prejudice_" (Vol. vii., p. 40.).--I have always understood
from private and family sources, that _Letters on Prejudice_, inquired
after by W. W. T., were written by a Miss Mary Kenny, an Irishwoman of
great worth and ability. If I am right in this assertion, her brother, who
was some time a fellow of the Irish University, and, if not lately dead,
rector of one of the London churches, should be able to confirm it.

A. B. R.


_Statue of St. Peter_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.; Vol. vii., p. 96.).--On what
authority does CEYREP rest the confident statement, that this statue was
undoubtedly cast for a St. Peter "in the time of St. Leo the Great?" I have
always understood that it was an ancient statue which had been found in the
Tiber; but here is a distinct assertion as to the period of its origin, for
which some good authority would be very acceptable.

B. H. C.

_Lord Goring_ (Vol. ii., pp. 22. 65.).--I see him mentioned (in the
_Herstelde Leeuw_, fol. 122.) as having been present at the baptism of
William III. in 1651. He escorted Madam van Dhona, by whom the young prince
was carried to church.--_From the Navorscher_.

W. D. V.

_Revolutionary Calendar_ (Vol. vi., pp. 199. 305.).--The lines to which C.
refers may be seen in Brady's _Clavis Calendaria_, vol. i. p. 38. He gives
them as the lines of an English wit, thus:

 "Autumn, wheezy, sneezy, freezy,
  Winter, slippy, drippy, nippy;
  Spring showery, flowery, bowery;
  Summer hoppy, croppy, poppy."



_Scanderbags' Sword_ (Vol. vii., p. 35.).--This alludes to a proverb given
by Fuller, "Scanderbags' sword must have Scanderbags' arm."


_Rhymes upon Places_ (Vol. vii., p. 24.).--Lincolnshire:

 "Gosberton church is very high,
  Surfleet church is all awry;
  Pinchbeck church is in a hole,
  And Spalding church is big with foal."


_Nicknames_ (Vol. vi., p. 198.).--If your correspondent will look at Mr.
Bellenden Ker's _Archæology of Popular Phrases_, vol. i. p. 184., he will
find an attempt to show the origin of nickname; but, whether we agree or
not with Mr. Ker, the whole paragraph is worth reading for its comparative
philology: it may, perhaps, bear out that the "nic" in "pic-nic" is also



_Nugget_ (Vol. vi., pp. 171. 281.).--E. N. W. inquires the meaning of the
word _nugget_; and W. S. replies that in Persian _nuqud_ signifies "ready
money." This may have satisfied E. N. W., but it reminds me of Jonathan
Oldbuck and {144} A. D. L. L. I should have thought that any one who had
the slightest skill in etymology would have seen at once that _a nugget_ is
nothing more than a Yankee (?) corruption of _an ingot_. As many may be in
the case of E. N. W., you may as well, perhaps, give this a place in "N. &

T. K.

_Lawyers' Bags_ (Vol. vii., p. 85.).--I think the statement that "prior to
the trial of Queen Caroline, the colour of the bags carried by barristers
was _green_," will surprise some legal readers. I had been a barrister
several years when that trial took place, and cannot think that I had ever
seen (indeed that I have yet seen) a barrister or a barrister's clerk
carrying a green bag. I suspect it is a mere blunder arising out of the
talk about the "green bag" which was said to contain the charges against
the Queen. That, however, I apprehend was not a lawyer's bag, whatever some
lawyers might have to do with it.


J. ST. J. Y. may assure himself that Colonel Landman is mistaken. I have
been an attendant upon the Courts for fifty years, and therefore long
before the terrible green bag containing the charges against Queen Caroline
was brought into the House of Commons; and I can confidently assert that I
never saw a green bag borne by a barrister or solicitor during that time.
The only colours that were ever paraded in my experience by those legal
functionaries, were purple and crimson; and they have so continued till the
present time--I will not say without interruption, because I have been
grieved to see that tailors and small London pedlars have invaded the


_Catherine Barton_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 434.).--My attention has been drawn
to some questions in your early Numbers respecting this lady. She was the
daughter of Robert Barton of Brigstock, Northamptonshire, and Hannah Smith,
half-sister of Sir Isaac Newton. The Colonel Barton of whom she is said to
be the widow, was her cousin, Colonel Noel Barton, who served with
distinction under Marlborough, and died at the age of forty. He was son of
Thomas, eldest son of Thomas Barton of Brigstock.

The Lieutenant Matthew Barton mentioned by DE CAMERA was the son of Jeffery
Barton, Rector of Rashden, Northamptonshire, afterwards Admiral Barton.
Jeffery was the youngest son of Thomas Barton of Brigstock.

O. O. O.

_Bells and Storms_ (Vol. iv., p. 508.).--Wynkin de Worde, one of the
earliest of the English printers, in _The Golden Legend_, observes:

    "It is said, the evil spirytes that ben in the region of th' ayre,
    doubte moche when they here the belles ringen whan it thondreth, and
    when grete tempeste and rages of wether happen, to the ende that the
    feinds and wycked spirytes should ben abashed and flee, and cease of
    the movynge of tempeste."

We have, in Sir John Sinclair's statistical account of Scotland, an account
given of a bell belonging to the old chapel of St. Fillan, in the parish of
Killin, Perthshire, which usually lay on a gravestone in the churchyard.
Mad people were brought hither to be dipped in the saint's pool; the maniac
was then confined all night in the chapel, bound with ropes, and in the
morning the bell was set on his head with great solemnity. This was the
Highland cure for mania. It was the popular superstition of the district,
that this bell would, if stolen, extricate itself out of the thief's hands,
and return to its original place, ringing all the way.


_Latin Poem_ (Vol. vii., pp. 6, 7.).--LORD BRAYBROOKE does not appear to be
so correct as usual in his belief, that neither of the two Latin poems,
which he quotes, have been previously in print. Crowe's beautiful monody
will be found at p. 234. of his collected poems, published by Murray, 1827.
The printed copy, however, which is headed

 "Inscriptio in horto Auctoris apud Alton in Com.
                        M. S.
                  Gulielmi Crowe,
                  Signif. Leg. iv.
                Qui cecidit in acie,
        8 die Jan. A.D. 1815. Æt. s. 21."

has the following differences: line 7., "respexit" for "ascripsit;" l. 9.,
"solvo" for "pono." L. 10. and the following lines stand thus:

 "Quinetiam assidue hic veniam, lentæque senectæ,
  De Te, dulce Caput, meditando, tempora ducam:
  Sæpe Tuam recolens formam, moresque decentes,
  Dictaque, tum sancto, et sapienti corde profecta,
  Tum festiva quidem, et vario condita lepore.
  Id mihi nunc solamen erit, dum vita manebit.
    Tu verò, quicunque olim successoris Hæres,
  Sedibus his oro, moesti reverere parentis,"

and so on to the end, with one or two alterations; except in the
penultimate line, "sit" for "stet;" and, in the last, "jucundi" for


    [LORD BRAYBROOKE was certainly not aware that Crowe's monody had been
    published with his Poems. LORD BRAYBROOKE'S version was copied, about
    thirty years ago, _verbatim et literatim_, from a manuscript in the
    handwriting of the late Lord Glastonbury, who died in 1825.]

_Daubuz_ (Vol. vi., p. 527.).--An interesting notice of the Rev. Charles
Daubuz occurs in Hunter's _Hallamshire_, p. 175. It is unnecessary to quote
the whole, and I shall content myself with merely observing that if the
dates in the {145} _Hallamshire_ are to be depended upon, and I have almost
invariably found them correct, there is a slight inaccuracy in the note
copied from the commentary. Mr. Hunter writes--

    "He (Daubuz) was a native of Guienne, but at twelve years of age was
    driven from his native country, with his only surviving parent Julia
    Daubuz, by the religious persecution of 1686. In 1689 he was admitted
    of Queen's College, Cambridge, and remained in college till 1696, when
    he accepted the situation of head master of the (Grammar) School of
    Sheffield. He left Sheffield in 1699 on being presented to the Vicarage
    of Brotherton near Ferry-Bridge, where he was much loved and respected.
    He died there on the 14th of June, 1717," &c.

W. S. (Sheffield.)

When the Levant Company surrendered their charter to the crown in the year
1826, Mr. J. T. Daubuz was treasurer to the Company. He was a highly
respected merchant in the city of London, and had purchased the estate of
Offington, near Worthing in Sussex, an estate formerly belonging to the
Lords De la Warr. Mr. Daubuz still resides at Offington.

J. B.

_The Bride's Seat in Church_ (Vol. vi., p. 424.).--One of the sermons
mentioned in Surtees' note, and inquired after by J. R. M., M.A., was
written by William Whately, the learned and celebrated Puritan, who was
vicar of Banbury in Oxfordshire. It is entitled

    "A Bride Bush, or a Wedding Sermon, compendiously describing the duties
    of married persons. By performing whereof, marriage shall be to them a
    great helpe, which now find it a little hell. London, 1617. 4to. On
    Eph. v. 23."

I believe a copy of the sermon may be found in the Bodleian Library. Two
propositions contained in this sermon led to Whately's being convened
before the High Commission, when he acknowledged that he was unable to
justify them, and recanted May 4, 1621. (See Wood's _Ath. Oxon._ by Bliss,
vol. ii. col. 638.)


_Louis Napoleon, President of France_ (Vol. vi., p. 435.).--Modern history
furnishes more than one instance of the anomaly adverted to by MR. RELTON.
After the murder of Louis XVI., his son, though he never ascended the
throne, was recognized by the legitimists of the day as Louis XVII.; and on
the restoration of the family in 1815, the Comte d'Artois assumed the title
of Louis XVIII. In this way the revolutionary chasm was, as it were,
bridged over, and the dynasty of the elder Bourbons exhibited on an
uninterrupted line.

So it is as regards the Napoleon dynasty. The Duke de Reichstadt,
Napoleon's son, was in the same predicament as the son of Louis XVI. He
received from the Bonapartists the title of Napoleon II.; and Louis
Napoleon therefore becomes Napoleon III.

A similar case _might_ have occurred to the House of Stuart, if the
Pretender's son, who began by taking the title of Henry IX., had not
extinguished the hopes and pretensions of his ill-fated race, by exchanging
his "crown" for a cardinal's hat. And to-morrow (though that is perhaps a
little too soon) the same thing may happen again to the elder branch of the
Bourbons, should the Comte de Chambord (Henry V.) leave a son of that name
to ascend the throne as Henry VI.


St. Lucia.

_Chapel Plaster_ (Vol. vii., p. 37.).--For an explanation of the word
_plaster_, on which your correspondent has offered so elaborate a
commentary, I would beg to refer him to White's _Selborne_ (vol. i. p. 5;
vol. ii. p. 340., 4to. edit.):

    "In the centre of the village, and near the church, is a square piece
    of ground surrounded by houses, and vulgarly called _The Plestor_. In
    the midst of this spot stood, in old times, a vast oak.... This
    venerable tree, surrounded with stone steps, and seats above them, was
    the delight of old and young, and a place of much resort in summer
    evenings; where the former sat in grave debate, while the latter
    frolicked and danced before them.

    "This _Pleystow_ (Saxon, Plegstow), _locus ludorum_, or play-place,
    continues still, as in old times, to be the scene of recreation for the
    youths and children of the neighbourhood."

_Chapel Plaster_ is, I believe, an outlying hamlet belonging to the parish
of Box; and the name imports merely what in Scotland would be called "the
Kirk on the Green"--the chapel built on, or near to, the playground of the

The fascinating volumes above named will afford a reply to an unanswered
Query in your second volume (Vol. ii., p. 266.), the meaning of the local
word _Hanger_:

    "The high part to the S.W. consists of a vast hill of chalk, rising 300
    feet above the village; and is divided into a sheep down, the high
    wood, and _a long hanging wood_, called _The Hanger_."--Vol. i. p. 1.


Lansdown Place, Bath.

_Passage in Thomson_ (Vol. vii., p. 67.).--_Steaming_ is clearly the true
reading, and means that the exhalations which _steam_ from the waters are
sent down again in the showers of spring. This will appear still clearer by
reference to a similar passage in Milton's Morning Hymn, which Thomson was
evidently copying:

 "Ye mists and exhalations that now rise
  From hill or _steaming_ lake, dusky or grey," &c.



_Passage in Locksley Hall_ (Vol. vii., p. 25.).--If Tennyson really meant
his readers to gather from the lines in question, that the curlew's _call
gleams_ about the moorland, he used a very bold figure of speech, yet one
not uncommon in the vivid language of Greece. For example:

    "[Greek: Paian de lampei stonoessa te nêrus homaulos.]"

And again,

    "[Greek: Elampse ... artiôs phaneisa phama.]" (Sophocles.)

So also,

    "[Greek: Boa prepei.]" (Pindar and Æschylus.)

May it not, however, be just possible that Tennyson did not mean

A. A. D.

       *       *       *       *       *




NEWMAN'S FERNS. Large Edition.

ENIGMATICAL ENTERTAINER. Nos. I. and II. 1827 and 1828. Sherwood & Co.

NORTHUMBRIAN MIRROR. New Series. 1841, &c.






LEEDS CORRESPONDENT. Vol. V., Nos. 1, 2, and 3.





DE LA CROIX'S CONNUBIA FLORUM. Bathoniæ, 1791. 8vo.

REID'S HISTORICAL BOTANY. Windsor, 1826. 3 vols. 12mo.



LADERCHII ANNALES ECCLESIASTICI, 3 tom. fol. Romæ, 1728-1737.

TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 1831-1839.



MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second Edition. 1813.

SPECTATOR. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753.

DE NOSTRE SEIGNEUR. 8vo. Anvers, Christ. Plantin.; Or Any of the works of
Costerus in any language.


WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, by a
Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848.





JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I.

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol. I. Macrone, 1840.

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 12mo. 1808.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789.

OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1768.




BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 vols.) Vol. II. wanted.

by TINDAL. 1744.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

NOTES ON BOOKS, &C. _In consequence of the number of_ REPLIES _waiting for
insertion, we have thought it right this week to omit our usual_ NOTES ON
BOOKS, _&c._

J. L. (Islington). _The ordinary Spirits of Wine, sixty over proof, is that
referred to. The Ether is to be common rectified Ether, and_ not _the
washed Ether_.

A CONSTANT READER _is informed that Stereoscopic views may be taken in any
Camera. We must refer him for answers to his other Queries to any of the
numerous dealers in such objects_.

INQUIRER (Edinburgh)_'s Photographic difficulty shall be solved next week_.

H. H. H. (Ashburton). _It is only some specimens of Gutta Percha that can
be acted upon by Collodion, which then takes up a very minute portion of a
waxy substance which occurs in some Gutta Percha, and some other eastern
products. The advantages derived from its use are very questionable._

T. N. B._'s offer is accepted with thanks_.

T. K. G. _The enigma_

 "'Twas whisper'd in heaven"

_was certainly written by Miss Catherine Fanshawe. Another enigma from her
pen, "On the Letter_ I," _will be found in our_ 5th Vol., p. 427.

W. H. L. _The line_

 "To err is human, to forgive divine,"

_is the 525th of Pope's_ Essay on Criticism.

H. G. D. _We should be glad to see the Notes referred to._

VARRO. _We have a letter on the subject of the Reprint of the First Folio
Shakspeare for this Correspondent. Shall it be forwarded, or left at our

SHAKSPEARE. _We have in type, or in the printer's hands, two or three
articles on the text of Shakspeare, to which we propose to give immediate
insertion. After which we would suggest the propriety of our Correspondents
suspending their labour on this subject until the appearance of_ MR.
COLLIER_'s promised edition, which is to contain all the MS. emendations in
his copy of the Folio of 1632_.

PRESTONIENSIS. _A_ Tandem _was so named from some University wag, because
he drove his two horses not abreast, but_ at length.

W. L. C. (Preston). _A common brass medal, of no pecuniary value._

J. G. T. (near Eden Bridge). _The word_ Quarantine _is from the Italian_
Quaranto, _and refers to the forty days, after which it was supposed there
was no further danger of infection. The hymn "Rock of Ages" was written by
Toplady; and "Lo, he comes, in clouds descending!" by Oliver_.

T. F. (Taunton) _is thanked for his suggestions. The first and second shall
have due consideration. As to the third, the taking of it is in no case
intended to be compulsory._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG's, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

    BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
    Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *




Founded A.D. 1842.

  H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
  William Cabell, Esq.
  T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. Henry Drew, Esq.
  William Evans, Esq.
  William Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  James Hunt, Esq.
  J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  James Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. Basley White, Esq.
  Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.;
  L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.;
  George Drew, Esq.

_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--The AMMONIO-IODIDE OF SILVER in Collodion (price 9d. per
oz.), prepared by DELATOUCHE & CO., Photographic and Operative Chemists,
147. Oxford Street, has now stood the test of upwards of Twelve months'
constant use; and for taking Portraits or Views on Glass, cannot be
surpassed in the beautiful results it produces. MESSRS. DELATOUCHE & CO.
supply Apparatus with the most recent Improvements, PURE CHEMICALS,
PREPARED SENSITIVE PAPERS, and every Article connected with Photography on
Paper or Glass. Paintings, Engravings, and Works of Art copied in their
Glass Room, at Moderate Charges. Instruction given in the Art.

See HENNAH'S new work on the Collodion Process, price 1s., by post 1s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *

KERR & STRANG, Perfumers and Wig-Makers, 124. Leadenhall Street, London,
respectfully inform the Nobility and Public that they have invented and
brought to the greatest perfection the following leading articles, besides
numerous others:--Their Ventilating Natural Curl; Ladies and Gentlemen's
PERUKES, either Crops or Full Dress, with Partings and Crowns so natural as
to defy detection, and with or without their improved Metallic Springs;
Ventilating Fronts, Bandeaux, Borders, Nattes, Bands à la Reine, &c.; also
their instantaneous Liquid Hair Dye, the only dye that really answers for
all colours, and never fades nor acquires that unnatural red or purple tint
common to all other dyes; it is permanent, free of any smell, and perfectly
harmless. Any lady or gentleman, sceptical of its effects in dyeing any
shade of colour, can have it applied, free of any charge, at KERR &
STRANG'S, 124. Leadenhall Street.

Sold in Cases at 7s. 6d., 15s., and 20s. Samples, 3s. 6d., sent to all
parts on receipt of Post-office Order or Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, January 29, contains Articles on

  Agricultural Commissioners
  ---- College, Cirencester, Sessional Examination at
  ---- prize essays
  Allamanda neriifolia
  Apple trees, to graft
  Bee, cure for sting of, by M. Gumprecht
  Beet, sugar
  Birds, predatory
  Bird skins
  Butter, to make
  Cabbage Weevil (with engraving)
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Chemical works
  Cherry trees, to root-prune
  College, Cirencester, Agricultural Sessional Examination at
  Copings for walls
  Cottages, labourers'
  Cucumber, Hunter's
  Draining, experience in
  Drip, to prevent
  Dwyer on Engineering, rev.
  Euphorbia jacquiniflora, by Mr. Bennett
  Farming, year's experience in, by the Rev. G. Wilkins
  Fern, new British
  Floriculture, past and present
  Grapes, red Hamburgh, by Mr. Wheeler
  Gardeners, emigration of
  Gutters, zinc
  Henderson's (Messrs.) nursery
  Larch, rot in
  Lotus of ancients
  Manures, town
  Melons, Surda, by Lieut. Lowther
  Orchids, guano-water for
  Pigs, greaves for
  Pleuropneumonia, by Mr. Marnell
  Poppies, to sow
  Potatoes, luminous, by Mr. Grice
  Poultry dealers
  Rain, fall of
  Reviews, miscellaneous
  Roses in Derbyshire
  Season, mildness of
  Shows, reports of the Cornwall and Torquay Poultry
  Societies, proceedings of the Linnean
  Sugar beet
  Walls, coping for
  Wall trees, badly pruned
  Weather in Scotland
  Weevil, cabbage (with engraving)
  Wheat, system of growing at Lois Weeden
  ---- culture of
  Willow, weeping
  Woodland question, by Mr. Bailey Denton
  Wool, wood

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS and VIEWS by the Collodion and Waxed-Paper Process.
Apparatus, Materials, and Pure Chemical Preparations for the above
processes, Superior Iodized Collodion, known by the name of Collodio-iodide
or Xylo-iodide of Silver, 9d_._ per oz. Pyro-gallic Acid, 4s. per drachm.
Acetic Acid, suited for Collodion Pictures, 8d. per oz. Crystallizable and
perfectly pure, on which the success of the Calotypist so much depends, 1s.
per oz. Canson Frères' Negative Paper, 3s.; Positive do., 4s. 6d.; La
Croix, 3s.; Turner, 3s. Whatman's Negative and Positive, 3s. per quire.
Iodized Waxed Paper, 10s. 6d. per quire. Sensitive Paper ready for the
Camera, and warranted to keep from fourteen to twenty days, with directions
for use, 11 × 9, 9s. per doz.; Iodized, only 6s. per doz.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS (sole Agents for Voightlander & Sons' celebrated
Lenses), Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
Photography, according to the instructions of Hunt, Le Gray, Brébisson, &c.
&c., may be obtained of WILLIAM BOLTON, Manufacturer of pure chemicals for
Photographic and other purposes.

Lists of Prices to be had on application. 146. Holborn Bars.


       *       *       *       *       *


THE HOLY BIBLE, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal
Books, in the earliest English Versions made from the Latin Vulgate by John
Wycliffe and his Followers. Edited by the REV. JOSIAH FORSHALL, F.R.S.,
&c., and SIR FREDERIC MADDEN, K.H.F.R.S., &c. 4 vols. 4to. 5l. 15s. 6d. in

MDCCCL. With an Appendix containing Specimens of Translations and
Bibliographical Descriptions. Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged. By
the REV. HENRY COTTON, D.C.L., Archdeacon of Cashel, &c. 8vo. Price 8s. 6d.
in boards.

THE ORMULUM, now First Edited from the Original Manuscript in the Bodleian,
with Notes and a Glossary by ROBERT MEADOWS WHITE, D.D., late Fellow of St.
Mary Magdalene College, and formerly Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the
University of Oxford. 2 vols. 8vo. Price 1l. 16s. in boards.

CATALOGUS CODICUM MSS. qui in Collegiis Aulisque Oxoniensibus hodie
adservantur. Confecit HENRICUS O. COXE, M.A., Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ
Hypo-Bibliothecarius. 2 vols. 4to. 2l. 5s. in boards.

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 5 vols. 8vo., and a quarto volume
of Tables. Price 3l. 5s. in boards.

FASTI HELLENICI. The Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece and Rome, from
the CXXIVth Olympiad to the Death of Augustus. By HENRY FYNES CLINTON,
ESQ., M.A., late Student of Christ Church. Second Edition, with additions.
4to. Price 1l. 12s. in boards.

AN EPITOME of the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the
earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. By HENRY FYNES CLINTON, ESQ.,
M.A., late Student of Christ Church. 8vo. Price 6s. 6d. in boards.

CARTE'S LIFE OF JAMES DUKE OF ORMOND; containing an account of the most
remarkable affairs of his time, and particularly of Ireland under his
government; with an Appendix and a Collection of Letters, serving to verify
the most material facts in the said History. A new Edition, carefully
compared with the original MSS. 6 vols. 8vo. Price 2l. 6s. in boards.

Earl of Dartmouth, Speaker Onslow, and Dean Swift. Additional Observations
now enlarged. 8vo. Price 9s. 6d. in boards.

BISHOP BURNET'S Memoirs of the Lives and Actions of James and William Dukes
of Hamilton and Castle-Herald. A new Edition. 8vo. Price 7s. 6d. in boards.

PHILOSOPHUMENA ORIGENIS? (sive Hippolyti?) e Codice Parisino nunc primum
edidit EMMANUEL MILLER. 8vo. boards. 10s.

Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 377. Strand, London.

E. GARDNER, 7. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Vol. IV., containing the CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE, translated and edited, with
Notes (many additional), by the Right REV. CHARLES SUMMER, D.D., Bishop of
Winchester. Post 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d.


THEOCRITUS, BION, MOSCHUS, AND TYRTÆUS, literally translated into English
Prose, by the REV. J. BANKS, M.A. With the Metrical Versions of CHAPMAN.
Post 8vo. frontispiece, cloth, 5s.


beautiful steel Engravings. Post 8vo., cloth, 5s.


8vo., 5s.


J. DEVEY, M.A. Post 8vo., cloth, 5s.


TURNER'S LIBER FLUVIORUM: or River Scenery of France. Sixty-one highly
finished Line Engravings on Steel by WILLMORE, GOODALL, and others. To
which is prefixed, a Memoir of Turner (including a copy of his Will) by
ALARIC A. WATTS. Imp. 8vo. gilt cloth extra (a remarkably splendid volume),
1l. 11s. 6d.


HUMMING BIRDS. A General History of the Trochilidæ, or Humming Birds, with
especial reference to the Collection of J. GOULD, F.R.S., &c. (now
exhibiting in the Gardens of the Zoological Society, London), by W.C.L.
MARTIN, late one of the Scientific Officers of the Zoological Society of
London. Fcap. 8vo. with 16 plates, cloth gilt., 5s.--The same, with plates
beautifully coloured, heightened with gold, cloth gilt, 10s. 6d.


SOWERBY'S CONCHOLOGICAL MANUAL, New Edition, considerably enlarged, with
numerous Woodcuts in the Introduction, and additional plates, containing in
all upwards of 650 figures, 8vo., cloth, 18s.--The same, with the plates
beautifully coloured, gilt cloth, 1l. 16s.


THE WIDE, WIDE WORLD, by ELIZABETH WETHERELL. Complete in 1 vol. post 8vo.
blue cloth extra, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.--Or splendidly illustrated with 9
highly finished engravings on steel, post 8vo. richly bound in cloth, gilt
edges, 5s.

*** This by far the most elegant edition yet published.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 8vo., price 2s.

VOCABULAIRE ARCHEOLOGIQUE Français-Anglais, et Anglais-Français; par
ADOLPHE BERTY, Architecte: avec renvois au 1700 VIGNETTES illustrant le

J.H. PARKER, Editeur. 25. Quai Voltaire, Paris, et 377. Strand, Londres.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in 12mo., price 3s.

ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow of Trinity College,

Recently published in this Series:--





5. ---- PHILOCTETES, 3s.

6. ---- AJAX, 3s.

*** With ENGLISH NOTES translated from the German of SCHNEIDEWIN.


8. ---- (BIRDS), 3s. 6d.


RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, in 8vo., price Two Shillings,

A SECOND LETTER to the REV. S. R. MAITLAND, D.D., formerly Librarian to the
late Archbishop of Canterbury, on the Genuineness of the Writings ascribed
to Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage. By EDWARD JOHN SHEPHERD, M.A., Rector of
Luddesdown; author of "History of the Church of Rome to the end of the
Episcopate of Damasus."

*** A First Letter on the same subject, price 1s., may still be had.


       *       *       *       *       *

following articles:--

    1. Memorials of John Home, the Author of Douglas.

    2. The Roman Wall: with Engravings.

    3. Sonnet to Wordsworth, by the Rev. C. V. Le Grice.

    4. Giordano Bruno.

    5. Notices of the American Indians.

    6. The Baroness d'Oberkirch and Citizen Mercier.

    7. The Vale of York: with Engravings.

    8. The Life of Thomas Moore.

    9. Original Papers relative to Dr. Young, Dr. Akenside, and James

    10. A Journey from Paris to Italy in 1736.

Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: 1. Rise and Progress of the Dowlais
Ironworks. 2. Robin Hood and Sherwood Forest. 3. English Etymology: Amaze
and Amate, &c. 4. The Prince of Orange's March in 1688. 5. Posterity of
Ralph Thoresby. 6. Register of the Widdringtons. With Notes of the Month,
Proceedings of Antiquarian Societies, Historical Chronicle, and Obituary,
including Memoirs of Adm. Sir T. Briggs, Rear-Adm. Sir T. Troubridge, Dr.
Merriman, Professor Lee, J. M. Cripps, Esq., J. F. Stephens, Esq., G. M. C.
Burney, Esq., &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 5, 1853.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 171, February 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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