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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 172, February 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 172, February 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Libraries)



Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are indicated by footnotes to the relevant item.

       *       *       *       *       *


{149}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 172.]
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 12. 1853
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Italian English                                              149

  St. Nicholas Church, Brighton                                150

  Key to Dibdin's Bibliomania                                  151

  Parallel Passages, by Harry Leroy Temple                     151

  Antiquity of the Polka: a Note for the Ladies                152

  Seven Score Superstitious Sayings, by J. Westby Gibson       152

  MINOR NOTES:--Mormon Etymologies--Bandalore and Tommy
    Moore--Electric Clock--Desirable Reprints--The Earldom of
    Oxford--Literary Attainments of the Scottish Clergy in
    the Seventeenth Century                                    153

  QUERIES:--

  Queries as to Mr. Collier's "Notes and Emendations"          153

  Hone's "History of Parody," by James B. Murdoch              154

  The Countess of Pembroke's Letter to Sir Joseph Williamson   154

  MINOR QUERIES:--Mediæval Parchment--"Mater ait natæ"--Fox
    of Whittlebury Forest--Names and Numbers of British
    Regiments--Daughters of St. Mark--Kentish Fire--Optical
    Phenomenon--Cardinal Bentivoglio's Description of
    England--Remarkable Signs--Old Fable--Tide Tables--Passage
    in Ovid--Roger Pele, Abbot of Furness--Curtseys and
    Bows--Historical Proverb--Bishop Patrick's "Parable of a
    Pilgrim"--Dr. Parr's Dedications--"Königl. Schwedischer
    in Teutschland geführter Krieg"--"Officium Birgittinum
    Anglice"--Campbell's Hymn on the Nativity                  155

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"When Our Lord falls in Our
    Lady's Lap"--Hobnail-counting in the Court of
    Exchequer--A Race for Canterbury--Nose of Wax--"Praise
    from Sir Hubert Stanley!"--Rosary                          157

  REPLIES:--

  The Rod: a Poem                                              158

  The Dutch East-India Company                                 159

  "Its," by Thomas Keightley                                   160

  Commencement of the Year                                     161

  "Penardo and Laissa"                                         161

  Robin Hood, by John D'Alton and J. Lewelyn Curtis            162

  PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES:--Originator of Collodion
    Process--The Soiling of the Fingers--Sir W. Newton's
    Process: Chloride of Bromium--The Collodion
    Process--Portable Camera                                   162

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Chaplains to Noblemen--Mitigation
    of Capital Punishment to a Forger--Brydone the
    Tourist--Yankee--Miniature Ring of Charles I.--Bishop of
    Ossory: Cardinal's Hat--Hugh Oldham, Bishop of
    Exeter--"sic transit gloria mundi"--Wake--"Words given
    to Man to conceal his Thoughts"--Inscription on Penny of
    George III.--"Nine Tailors make a Man"--On Quotations--
    Rhymes on Places--Coins in Foundations--Fleshed, Meaning
    of--Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh--Flemish and
    Dutch Schools of Painting--Furmety or Frumenty--Etymology
    of Pearl, &c.                                              163

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          168

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 168

  Notices to Correspondents                                    169

  Advertisements                                               169

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

ITALIAN ENGLISH.

I have been favoured by a friend, who visited Italy last year, with the
perusal of a small guidebook, which has afforded me much amusement, and
from which I send you a few extracts for the gratification of your readers.
The title runs thus:

    "Description of the front and interior of the Cathedral of Milan the
    first edition corrected, and increased with interesting things Milan by
    the printer Luigi di Giacomo Pirola M.DCCC.XLVI."

The Preface is as follows:

    "In presenting to the learned and intelligent Publick this new and
    brief Description of the Cathedral of Milan, i must apprise that i do
    not mean to emulate with the works already existing of infinite merit
    for the notions they contain, and the perspicuity with which they are
    exposed. My idea only was to make an extract of them, not forgetting
    the principal things of observation, with the names of the most
    distinguished artists, and not to deprive them of all the digressions
    and explanations required by the Scientificals, or those skilled in the
    art, so that it might be contained in a Pamphlet, and of little
    expence, to be offered to the amateurs of fine arts, who come to visit
    this unique and magnificent Edifice. Therefore i have not failed to
    include in it, all that has been done subsequently to the publishment
    of the above works, with some other little trifles worthy to be seen,
    and in them not mentioned. Such has been my sole design, no other
    pretention has induced me to it, and with a similar premise, i hope to
    be pardoned by the indulgent Reader for all the errors in which i might
    have involuntarily incurred.

    G. P."

In the introductory portion, giving a general account of the building, "G.
P." says:

    "Under the direction of honest, intelligent and active Administrators,
    and by the pious munificence of our Gracious Sovereign, who bestowes an
    annual generous donation for completing the building of the Cathedral
    of Milan, one perceives tending with the greatest celerity to the
    perfection of this magnificent Edifice, founded by a special vow in
    1386 by the duke of Milan Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti. It is of fine
    white statuary marble, extracted from the quarry of mount Gandolia,
    which among many gifts was expressly regaled for the building by its
    generous founder the duke Visconti above mentioned."

{150}

In describing the "fore-front" he gives a catalogue of the "bass-riliefs,"
from which a few extracts are made:

    "1st. the Tobiolo assisted by the Angel in his jounrey to Rages, ...
    the second is the Angel that expells Adam and Eve from the Eden, by
    Carlo Maria Giudici. The two in the second order are: Daniel in the
    lake of the lions by the above Carabelli, and Job on the dunghill, by
    the above Giudici. The two upper Statues that figure Saint Bartholomew
    and Saint James Junior, are works by Buzzi Donelli and Buzzi Giuseppe.
    The Bass-Riliefs that follow aside of the Pilaster is God appearing to
    Moses in the ardent-brambles.... Over the great windout the Bass-Rilief
    representing Samuel while he oints Saul king of Israel is by Carlo
    Maria Giudici, and Angelo Pizzi a milanese, carved the vision of Jacob
    on the side of the following Pilaster. In sight of the same Moses who
    makes the water gush from the mountain is by Giuseppe Buzzi, and the
    other Bass-Rilief that is placed above, represents the prophet Elia
    presenting to the afflicted mother the resurrection of her Son, by
    Grazioso Rusca. By Canaillo Pacetti is the Statue of Saint James
    senior.... The Bass-Rilief over the great window represents the
    prophetess Debora providing captain Barach with arms.... Ornamented is
    the rest of the front with a great number of Statues managed with skill
    by intelligent Authors, and aside of the door are the Apostles Peter
    and Paul of ancient work and unknown Author ... as also of unknown
    chisel is Saul who tempts to kill David.... The Angel who assures
    Sampson's Father that his Wife, believed to be sterile, will generate
    the strongest of Israel's sons.... On reaching the fourth door one
    perceives in the frontispiece the Bass-Rilief that adorns it, which is
    by Lasagni; representing Givele that with a nail kills captain
    Sisara.... Esaù renouncing the primogeniture to his brother Jacob....
    Over the great window is painted Agar dying with thirst, with the son
    of Ismael in the desert, while an Angel appears indicating a fountain
    to her.... The first of the other four Bass-Riliefs in view figure
    Gedeone preparing to fight the Madianites, and the second Sampson
    suffocating the lion.... The Saints Philip and Thomas placed upwards
    are by the egregious Pompeo Marchesi ... the second is by Ribossi,
    representing Absatom suspended by his hair to a tree and pierced
    through by Jacob."

In describing the interior, "G. P." is rather more instructive, but not
quite so entertaining: however, a number of the peculiar expressions
already quoted are repeated with the same confiding simplicity. A few
extracts will suffice for this portion:

    "The ornaments of the five doors are the designment of Fabio Mangone,
    ... the surprising vault a _chiaro-scuro_, drawn and painted in part by
    our milanese Felice Alberti, who in the year 1827 was ravished from the
    living by a fatal misfortune in the flower of his age ... in the inward
    columns on both sides are two very fine Statues sitting in a very
    melancholy action, which represent military Peace and Virtue ... under
    the tomb-stone is another small and genteel Bass-Rilief representing
    the Saviour afflicted, sustained by two little Angels.... The Altar of
    Santa Tecla, which is part of the left arm of the cross, or form of the
    Church, as is mentioned above, representing the Saint in a seraglio of
    wild beasts, is by the Sculptor Carlo Beretta."

Lest I should have exhausted your patience, as well as that of your
readers, I will close with one more quotation, which displays what Mrs.
Malaprop calls "a nice derangement of epitaphs:"

    "The last altar that was seen not long since on this side was dedicated
    to the Blessed Virgin, whose image carved in wood dated a remote
    antiquity, but as to the remnant nothing was found to be appreciable in
    sort of art."

A. R. X.

Paisley.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH, BRIGHTON.

In matters touching the public weal, the Editor of "N. & Q." always finds
space for his correspondents: a few lines are asked for the present
subject, as being one on which his pages have already been earnestly
devoted.

The rebuilding of Brighton old church has been announced, and those who
have frequented the salubrious breezes of that unequalled marine residence
have often enjoyed the commanding view of the town and noble sea, which is
obtained from the hill on which this venerable fabric stands, and which is
about to disappear and perhaps "leave not a wreck behind."

The church is literally lined and flagged with monuments of the dead, more
or less noted; but all of whom have passed through the stage of this life
away from their native localities, and many falling where they went to seek
in vain renovated health.

The tombs in the churchyard, immediately adjoining the church, of Capt.
Tettersell, who conveyed King Charles to France after the battle of
Worcester; and Phoebe Hassell, who fought under the Duke of Cumberland at
Fontenoy, are continually surveyed by the old visitors. In a few months it
may be too late to suggest to your friends interested in the preservation
of monumental remains, and their inscriptions, to prevent such a similar
removal and destruction as has taken place at Lambeth, under the walls of
the Archbishop's residence, by the rector, church-wardens, and architects
of Lambeth new church.

A notice to those interested in the history of the county of Sussex may be
the means of preserving at least the inscriptions, and calling attention of
the amiable and respected vicar of Brighton to a consideration of the
subject.

K. N.

{151}

       *       *       *       *       *

KEY TO DIBDIN'S BIBLIOMANIA.

The following key to the characters in the _Bibliomania_ (edit. 1811) has
been collected with care, and will no doubt prove acceptable to some of the
readers of "N. & Q.":

       Atticus             Richard Heber, Esq.
       Aurelius            George Chalmers, Esq.
       Alphonso            Horne Tooke?
       Archimedes          John Rennie, Esq.
       Bernardo            Joseph Haslewood, Esq.
       Boscardo            James Boswell, Esq.?
       Coriolanus          John Ph. Kemble, Esq.
       Crassus             Watson Taylor, Esq.
       Eumenius            J. D. Phelps, Esq.
  (1.) Gonzalo             John Dent, Esq.
       Hortensius          W. Bolland, Esq.
       Honorio             George Hibbert, Esq.
       Hippolyto           Samuel Weller Singer, Esq.
       Leontes             James Bindley, Esq.
       Lepidus             Dr. Gosset.
       Lysander            Rev. T. F. Dibdin.
       Lorenzo             Sir Mark Sykes.
       Lavinia's Husband   J. Harrison, Esq.
       Lisardo             R. Heathcote, Esq.
       Licius              Francis Freeling, Esq.
       Marcellus           Edmond Malone, Esq.
       Mustapha            W. Gardiner of Pall Mall.
       Menander            Tom. Warton.
       Malvolio            Payne Knight or Townley?
       Menalcas            Rev. Henry Drury.
       Mercurii (III.)     Mr. Henry Foss, Mr. Triphook, and Mr. Griffiths.
       Meliadus            R. Lang, Esq.
       Nicas               G. Shepherd, Esq.
       Narcottus           Rev. J. Jones.
       Orlando             Michael Woodhull, Esq.
       Prospero            Francis Douce, Esq.
       Philemon            J. Barwise, Esq.
  (2.) Phormio             Rev. H. Vernon.
       Portius             Mr. John Cuthill.
       Palmeria            Robert Southey, Esq.
       Philelphus          Geo. Henry Freeling, Esq.
       Palermo             John North, Esq.
       Pontevallo          Duke of Bridgewater?
       Quisquilius         George Baker, Esq.
       Rinaldo             J. Edwards, Esq.
       Rosicrusius         Rev. T. F. Dibdin.
       Sir Tristram        Walter Scott, Esq.
       Sycorax             Joseph Ritson.
       Ulpian              Edw. Vernon Utterson, Esq.

  (1.) Attributed to       Birt    } In Sir Francis
  (2.) ----                Churton }  Freeling's copy.

  Page 164.
    Right-hand neighbor    Mr. George Nicol.
    Left-hand ditto        Mr. R. H. Evans.
    Opposite ditto         Mr. Thomas Payne.

  Page 249.
    Literary friend        Sir Henry Ellis.

W. P.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARALLEL PASSAGES.[1]

  1.  "In a drear-nighted December,
        Too happy, happy tree,
      Thy Branches ne'er remember
        Their green felicity," &c.--_Keats._

    "What would be the heart of an old weather-beaten hollow stump, if the
    leaves and blossoms of its youth were suddenly to spring up out of the
    mould around it, and to remind it how bright and blissful summer was in
    the years of its prime?"--Hare's _Guesses at Truth_, 1st series, p.
    244.

  2.  "Spake full well, in language quaint and olden,
        One who dwelleth by the castled Rhine,
      When he call'd the flowers, so blue and golden,
        Stars that on earth's firmament do shine."
                          Longfellow, _Flowers_.

     "And daisy-stars, whose firmament is green."
          Hood, _Plea of the Midsummer Fairies_, xxxvi.

[And see the converse thought,--

 "Stars are the daisies that begem
    The blue fields of the sky."

D. M. Moir, quoted in _Dubl. Univ. Mag._, Oct. 1852.]

  3.  "But she is vanish'd to her shady home
      Under the deep, inscrutable; and there
      Weeps in a _midnight_ made of her own hair."
                  Hood, _Hero and Leander_, cxvi.

     "Within the _midnight_ of her hair,
      Half-hidden in its deepest deeps," &c.
          Barry Cornwall, _The Pearl Wearer_.

                         "But, rising up,
      Robed in the long _night_ of her deep hair, so
      To the open window moved."
                      Tennyson, _Princess_, p. 89.

  4.  "He who for love hath undergone
        The worst that can befall,
      Is happier thousandfold than one
        Who never loved at all."
          M. Milnes, _To Myrzha, on returning_.

     "I hold it true, whate'er befall,
        I feel it when I sorrow most,--
     'Tis better to have loved and lost
        Than never to have loved at all."
          Tennyson, _In Memoriam_, xxvii.

5. Boileau, speaking of himself, when set in his youth to study the law,
says that his family--

 "... Palit, et vit en frémissant
  Dans la poudre du greffe un poëte naissant."

While Pope, in his _Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot_, speaks of--

 "Some clerk, foredoom'd his father's soul to cross,
  Who pens a stanza when he should engross."

HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

P.S.--At p. 123. of Vol. vi. are inserted some other parallels, noted by me
in the course of my reading. For one of these so inserted, that relating
{152} to Sylla, I was taken to task (see Vol. vi., p. 208.) by P. C. S. S.
Now, the parallel between the two passages ("_Parallel_, resemblance,
conformity continued through many particulars, likeness," Johnson's
_Dictionary_) is this: Both verses endeavour to picture the mingled red and
white of the "human face divine" (one satirically, the other
eulogistically), by comparing their combined effect to that of the red hue
of fruit seen through a partially superfused white medium--meal over
mulberries, cream over strawberries. If there is not sufficient
"resemblance" or "likeness" in the two (in the opinion of P. C. S. S.) to
justify me in placing them _alongside of one another_ ([Greek: parallêla]),
I really cannot help it.

I have now ascertained that the words

 "Sylla's a mulberry sprinkled with meal"

are to be found in Langhorne's _Plutarch_, as a translation of the original
Greek quoted by P. C. S. S.

[Footnote 1: Continued from Vol. iv., p. 435.; Vol. vi., p. 123.]

       *       *       *       *       *

ANTIQUITY OF THE POLKA: A NOTE FOR THE LADIES.

The description of the _lavolta_ in Sir John Davies's poem on dancing, _The
Orchestra_ (1596), shows that it must have closely resembled the dance
which we fondly boast of as one of the great inventions of the nineteenth
century. It runs as follows:

 "Yet is there one, the most delightful kind,
  A lofty jumping, or a leaping round,
  Where arm in arm two dancers are entwined,
  And whirl themselves with strict embracements bound;
  And still their feet an anapæst do sound;
  An anapæst is all their music's song,
  Whose first two feet are short, and third is long."

The "anapæst" is conclusive; it points exactly to the peculiar nature of
the polka, the pause on the _third_ step. Moreover, it appears, that as
there is no especial figure for the polka, so there was none for the
lavolta; for it is classed among those dances

 "Wherein that dancer greatest praise has won,
  Which, with best order, can all orders shun;
  For everywhere he wantonly must range,
  And turn and wind with unexpected change."

Who can doubt after that? The polka was certainly danced before Queen
Elizabeth!

To this valuable historical parallel I may add that the galliard and
coranto also were apparently danced _ad libitum_ (observing only a
particular measure), just as our waltz and galop also are:

 "For more diverse and more pleasing show,
  A swift, a _wandering_ dance, he [Love] did invent,
  With _passages uncertain_ to and fro,
  Yet with a certain answer and consent,
  To the quick music of the instrument."

B. R. I.

       *       *       *       *       *

SEVEN SCORE SUPERSTITIOUS SAYINGS.

My common-place books contain a goodly number of superstitious sayings,
noted down as heard at different times and in various places, chiefly
during the last ten or twelve years. I have made a selection from them, the
greater portion of which will probably come under the printer's eye for the
first time, should they be considered a fitting addition to the interesting
records of Folk Lore in the pages of "N. & Q." I reserve my comment or
attempted illustration for future opportunities.

_First Score._

1. _Adder._ "Look under the deaf adder's belly, and you'll find marked, in
mottled colours, these words:

 'If I could hear as well as see,
  No man of life [sic] should master me!'"

(This saying was related to me by a friend, a native of Lewes, Sussex,
where it is common.)

2. _Adder-skin._ "It'll bring you good luck to hang an ether-skin o'er the
chimbly [chimney-piece]." (Heard in Leicestershire.)

3. _Beanfield._ "Sleep in a beanfield all night if you want to have awful
dreams, or go crazy." (In Leicestershire.)

4. _Chime-hours._ "A child born in chime-hours will have the power to see
spirits." (A Somerset friend.)

5. _Egg-shells._ "Always poke a hole through your eggshell before you throw
it away."--Why? "If you don't, the fairies will put to sea to wreck the
ships." (Somerset. Query, For fairies, read witches?)

6. _Eyebrows._ "It's a good thing to have meeting eyebrows. You'll never
know trouble." (Various places.)

7. _Fern-root._ "Cut a fern-root slantwise, and you'll see a picture of an
oak-tree: the more perfect, the luckier chance for you." (Croydon and
elsewhere.)

8. _Flowering Myrtle._ "That's the luckiest plant to have in your window.
Water it every morning, and be proud of it." (Somerset.)

9. _Harvest Spider._ "The _harvest-man_ has got four things on its
back,--the scythe, the rake, the sickle, and [Query the fourth?] It's most
unlucky for the reaper to kill it on purpose." (From an Essex man.)

10. _Holly, Ivy, &c._ "All your _Christmas_ should be burnt on Twelfth-day
morning." (London, &c.)

11. _Lettuce._ "O'er-much lettuce in the garden will stop a young wife's
bearing." (Richmond, Surrey.)

12. _May-baby._ "A May-baby's always sickly. You may try, but you'll never
rear it." (Various.)

13. _May-kitten._ "You should drown a May-kitten. It's unlucky to keep it."
(Somerset.) {153}

14. _New Moon._ "You may see as many new moons at once through a silk
handkerchief, as there are years before you will marry." (Leicestershire.)

15. _Onions._ "In buying onions always go in by one door of the shop, and
come out by another. Select a shop with two doorways. These onions, placed
under your pillow on St. Thomas's Eve, are sure to bring visions of your
true-love, your future husband." (London, &c.)

16. _Parsley._ "Where parsley's grown in the garden, there'll be a death
before the year's out. (London and Surrey.)

17. _Ring-finger._ "The ring-finger, stroked along any sore or wound, will
soon heal it. All the other fingers are poisonous, especially the
fore-finger." (Somerset.)

18. _Salt._ "Help to salt, help to sorrow." (Various.)

19. _Three Dogs._ "If three dogs chase a rabbit or a hare, they can't kill
it." (Surrey.)

20. _White Cow._ "A child that sucks a white cow will thrive better."
(Wilts.)

J. WESTBY GIBSON.

12. Catherine Street, Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Mormon Etymologies._--W. Richards, "Historian and General Church Recorder"
of the Mormons, says:

    "Mormon is the name of an ancient prophet, and signifies _more good_.
    'Mormonism,' a new coined word by the enemy, signifies ALL TRUTH,
    PRESENT, PAST AND FUTURE; and the 'Mormon's' creed is _the truth, the
    whole truth, and nothing but the truth_. And this creed is what the
    devil and all his imps are eternally fighting against, and not against
    the believers of that creed only, so far as the _truth influences their
    actions_."--_Millenial Star_, 1850, p. 341.

This certainly displays the wisdom of the serpent, if not the meekness of
wisdom. Pray preserve it in your cabinet of literary curiosities.

B. H. C.

_Bandalore and Tommy Moore._--

    "What this toy was, we have no means of knowing," &c.--_Fraser's Mag._,
    January, p. 5.

Had our reviewer stepped in at Dunnett's toy-shop, instead of searching all
his French dictionaries, he would have learned, I doubt not, that bandalore
is still a living toy, just as it was when Moore was young.

At Tunbridge it is still made in their pretty ware; and sufficiently
portable for any kind-hearted grandpapa to carry in his pocket.

J. J. R.

_Electric Clock._--It is said that the electric telegraph will annihilate
time and space. Of the former we have visible proof. Look at the new clock
in West Strand. The minute-hand moves only once in each minute, and then it
jumps a whole minute at once, and occupies a second of time in doing so.
Now, supposing the clock to indicate true time at the instant of each
movement, it is obvious that it must indicate untrue time at every other
instant: hence it only indicates true time during one second in each
minute, twenty-four minutes in each day, and six days and two hours in the
whole year, or less than two years in a century; whilst, during the
remaining ninety-eight years and more, it is _annihilating_ true time, by
imposing upon an unwary public that which is false!

J. J. R.

_Desirable Reprints._--Will you allow me to commence a series of Notes,
which your readers can easily amplify, viz. suggestions of old books
deserving to be reprinted, with the authorities quoted recommending them.

1. Glanvil's _Scepis Scientifica_.

    "Few books, I think, are more deserving of being reprinted."--Hallam's
    _Literature of Europe_.

J. M.

_The Earldom of Oxford._--The following is so remarkable a coincidence,
that I am sure many of your readers will be obliged to me for bringing it
under their notice, particularly those who are interested in heraldry.

The same individual who has been for many years the nearest heir _male_ to
Aubery de Vere, twentieth and last earl of Oxford of that family, who died
in 1702, has become, by the recent death of Alfred, sixth Earl of Oxford
and Mortimer, the nearest heir _male_ to that race also, which title is
likewise extinct.

AN M. D.

_Literary Attainments of the Scottish Clergy in the Seventeenth
Century._--In a deed granted by Andro Andersone, minister of Loth, in
Sutherlandshire, anno 1618, wherein he is designated "Ministro veriti Dei
apud Loithe," the instrument is signed with his mark, after which is added,
"Cannot wreitt myself."

KIRKWALLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

QUERIES AS TO MR. COLLIER'S "NOTES AND EMENDATIONS."

Query 1. Does MR. COLLIER claim a copyright in the _Emendations on the Text
of Shakspeare_ lately published by him, and derived from MS. corrections in
his old copy of the folio of 1632? He seems to intimate as much in what he
says at p. 13. of his Introduction, when he speaks of a certain phrase
never being again seen in any edition of Shakspeare, "unless it be
reproduced by some one who, _having no right to use the emendations of our
folio 1632_, adheres _of necessity_ to the {154} antiquated blunder, and
pertinaciously attempts to justify it."

I doubt much whether he is entitled to any such privilege. If the words as
restored were really those of Shakspeare, as is alleged, I do not see how
the writer of the MS. corrections could _himself_ claim any property in
them; and if _he_ had none, much less can MR. COLLIER have. It would be a
pity were the public to be deprived of the benefit of the corrections by
the use of them being exclusively confined to MR. COLLIER'S editions.

Query 2. Does the writer of the MS. corrections occasionally give reasons
in support of the changes proposed? At p. 306., MR. COLLIER says: "The
manuscript corrector _assures us_ that although the intention of the
dramatist is evident, a decided misprint has crept into the line."

Again, at p. 305., MR. COLLIER says: "For 'senseless obstinate,' the
corrector of the folio 1632 _states that we must substitute_ words," &c.
Again, at p. 352.: "A _note_ in the folio 1632, induces us to believe that
Shakspeare did not use the term," &c. The MS. corrector is also sometimes
made to tell us, that a certain error is the printer's, and another that of
the copyist. Perhaps these are only rhetorical forms of expression, to
intimate that certain corrections appeared on the margin of the folio 1632,
and MR. COLLIER'S own opinion of their propriety.

SCOTUS.

Edinburgh.

       *       *       *       *       *

HONE'S "HISTORY OF PARODY."

A small collection of the political squibs and pamphlets published by Wm.
Hone about 1820, has lately come into my possession. An advertisement in
several of these announces that the large material collected for his
defence had induced him to prepare, and "very speedily" to publish, _A
complete History of Parody_, "with extensive graphic illustrations." This
on March 20. Again, on October 2, same year, he says: "I take this
opportunity of announcing that the work will appear in monthly parts, each
containing at least five engravings, and that it will probably be completed
in eight deliveries at 5s. each. I pledge myself that the First Part shall
be published, without fail, on the 1st January next, and respectfully
invite the names of subscribers. The money to be paid on the delivery of
each Part."

Lastly, in an "Explanatory Address," appended to No. 1. of his _Every-Day
Book_, dated 31st Dec., 1824, Hone says: "_The History of Parody_, with
enlarged reports of my three trials, a royal 8vo. volume of 600 pages,
handsomely printed, and illustrated by numerous engravings on copper and
wood, plain and coloured, is in considerable forwardness. The price will be
2l. 2s., in extra cloth boards," &c.

Thus, though advertised more than four years previously, this work had not
yet come out, and indeed, if not mistaken, I think it never appeared at
all. Will some of your bibliographical correspondents inform me if my
surmise is correct? and if so, what has become of Hone's MSS., and the
large collection he made on the subject of parody?

JAMES B. MURDOCH.

162. Hope Street, Glasgow.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE'S LETTER TO SIR JOSEPH WILLIAMSON.

Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of State to Charles II., having presumed
to recommend a candidate for her borough of Appleby, she wrote him the
following spirited and well-known reply:

    "I have been bullied by an usurper: I have been neglected by a court:
    but I will not be dictated to by a subject. Your man sha'n't stand.

    "ANNE DORSET, PEMBROKE, AND MONTGOMERY."

This statement is taken from _A Sermon preached at the Funeral of Anne,
Countess of Pembroke, &c._, by Bishop Rainbow; with _Biographical Memoirs_
(1839), page of the _Memoir_ xiii. In a note, it is observed that--

    "Mr. Lodge questions the genuineness of this letter, which appears to
    have been first published in _The World_ in 1753."

I concur with Mr. Lodge. The style of the letter is quite modern: the verb
"bully" seems also quite a modern coinage and the signature varies from the
usual setting forth and sequence of titles contained in the inscriptions
which the Countess placed over the gateways of her castles, as she repaired
them, and which ran thus, the peerages being placed in the order of their
creation, viz.: "Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery." In
support of the genuineness of the letter, it may be urged that Sir Joseph
Williamson, from an early period after the Restoration until 1674, when he
became Secretary of State, held various offices about the Court that might
have thus brought him into collision with the Countess; that he was not a
very scrupulous man; that he was the "son of a clergyman somewhere in
_Cumberland_;" and that his highest promotion took place before the death
of the Countess in 1675. (For some account of him, see Evelyn's _Memoirs_,
Index.) To this it may be added, that the letter accords with her
courageous spirit. Can no earlier authority be given for it than that of
_The World_ in 1753?

J. K.

    [Although this subject has been already briefly discussed in our
    columns (see Vol. i., pp. 28. 119. 154.), we think it of sufficient
    interest to be renewed, now that our increased circulation will bring
    it under the notice of so many more readers; among whom, {155} perhaps
    one may be found in a position to solve the mystery in which the
    authenticity of this oft-quoted letter is at present involved.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Mediæval Parchment._--In what way did mediæval illuminators prepare their
parchment? For our modern parchment is so ill prepared, that it gets
crumpled as soon as wet chalk for gilding, or any colour, is laid on it;
whilst the parchment in mediæval MSS. is quite smooth and level, as if it
had not been moistened at all.

Should a full answer to this Query take up too much of your valuable space,
I should be satisfied with the titles of any works on the art of
"illumination," in which special mention is made of the way of preparing
parchment.

F. M. (A Maltese.)

"_Mater ait natæ._"--Where can the following lines, thus "Englished by
Hakewill," be found?

 "Mater ait natæ, dic natæ, filiâ, natam
  Ut moneat natæ plangere[2] filiolam."

 "The aged mother to her daughter spake,
    Daughter, said she, arise;
  Thy daughter to her daughter take,
    Whose daughter's daughter cries."

My object in asking the above question is for the purpose of discovering if
such a relationship ever existed.

W. W.

Malta.

[Footnote 2: "plangere" corrected from "piangere".--Transcriber.]

_Fox of Whittlebury Forest._--In Mr. Jessie's _Life of Beau Brummel_, I met
with a passage which spoke about the "well-known fox of Whittlebury
Forest." Can any of your readers kindly inform me in what the celebrity of
this animal consists, that Mr. Jessie takes for granted is so well known?

A FOX HUNTER.

_Names and Numbers of British Regiments_ (Vol. iv., p. 368.; Vol. vi, p.
37.).--I feel disappointed that none of your numerous and well-informed
readers have responded to my inquiries on this subject. Hoping, however,
that answers may still be obtained, I venture to repeat the questions for
the _third_ time, viz.:

1. What was the origin of giving British regiments the _name_ of a certain
officer, instead of _numbering_ them as at present?

2. If in honour of an officer commanding the corps, was the name changed
when that officer died or removed to another regiment; or what was the
rule?

3. _When_ did the present mode of _numbering_ regiments begin; and by whom
was it introduced?

4. What was the rule or principle laid down in giving any regiment a
certain _number_? Was it according to the length of time it had been
embodied?

5. What is the guide now, in identifying a _named_ with a _numbered_
regiment? For example, at the battle of Culloden, in 1746, "Wolfe's,"
"Barrell's," and "Howard's Foot" were engaged. Now, what is the rule for
ascertaining the _numbers_ of these, and other old regiments, in the
British army at the present day?

I shall feel greatly obliged by the above information.

Z.

Glasgow.

_Daughters of St. Mark._--How many were adopted as daughters of the
Republic of St. Mark? Catherine Cornaro was one, and, I believe, Bianca
Capello another. I think there were but one or two more: but who were they?

ROSA.

_Kentish Fire._--What is the origin of the term "Kentish fire," signifying
energetic applause?

ROSA.

_Optical Phenomenon._--On the afternoon of the 20th January, at one
o'clock, as I stood on the beach of Llandudno Bay, North Wales, I observed
a rainbow, from the circumference of which passed a number of bright
pencils of light, apparently converging to a point near the invisible
centre of the rainbow. What is the explanation of this phenomenon?

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Cardinal Bentivoglio's Description of England._--A MS. of this interesting
work exists among Bishop Tanner's MSS. in the Bodleian Library. Has it ever
been printed? The account is said to have been drawn up with great care and
accuracy, and betrays no sinister views.

Did Cardinal Bentivoglio visit England in person, or how did he collect his
information?

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Remarkable Signs._--Can any of the learned contributors of the "N. & Q."
oblige a CONSTANT READER with the probable meanings or origins of the
following signs, all of which are to be found in the London Directories:

  Anti-Gallican (four taverns of this name).
  Bombay Grab.
  Essex Serpent.
  Fortune of War (five).
  George and Guy (two).
  Moonrakers (two).
  Grave Maurice (two).
  Sun and Thirteen Cantons (two).

J. E.

Fleet Street.

_Old Fable._--There is a fable in the _Vicar of Wakefield_ of two brothers,
a dwarf and giant, going out to battle, and sharing the victory but not the
wounds.

There is another, perhaps a sequel to it, which relates that the dwarf,
"tot bellorum superstitem," {156} was choked in the fraternal embrace, with
the sorry consolation that it was "the giant's nature to squeeze hard."

Are these fables wholly modern or not? I have thought that some such are
the key to Juvenal's meaning:

 "Malim fraterculus esse gigantis;"

to the ordinary construing of which there are positive objections.

J. E. G.

_Tide Tables._--Can you, or any of your subscribers, give me a rule for
ascertaining the heights of tides and times of high water, the
establishment of the port, and rise of springs and neaps, being known? One
divested of algebraic formulæ would be preferred: say--

  Establishment        10 h. 58 m.
  Springs' rise        8½ feet.
  Neaps'    "          2 feet.

R.

Lancaster.

_Passage in Ovid._--In speaking of the rude and unscientific state of the
early Romans, in the third book of his _Fasti_, Ovid has the following
verses:

 "Libera currebant, et inobservata per annum
    Sidera: constabat sed tamen esse Deos.
  Non illi coelo labentia signa tenebant;
    Sed sua: quæ magnum perdere crimen erat."
                                  V. 111-114.

The idea expressed in this passage is that the primitive Romans cared more
about war than astronomy. They did not observe the stars, though they
believed them to be deities. The pun upon the word _signa_--constellations
and military standards--is worthy of notice. But what is the meaning of
_libera_, in the first verse? Is it nearly equivalent to _inobservata_, and
does it denote the absence of the prying curiosity of men? It cannot be
intended that the courses of the stars were less regular before they were
the subjects of observation, than after the birth of astronomy.

L.

_Roger Pele, Abbot of Furness._--Is anything known of the antecedents of
Roger Pele, last abbot of Furness, who, after years of trouble and
persecution, was at length constrained to execute a deed, dated 5th April,
28 Hen. VIII., whereby he did "freely and hollie surrender, giff, and
graunt unto the Kynges highnes and to his heyres and assignes for evermore
... all his interest and titill in the said monasterie of ffurness, and of
and in the landes, rentes, possessions, revenous, servyce, both spirituall
and temporall," &c.? This deed is, I believe, given at length in the Cotton
MSS., Cleopatra E. IV. fol. 244.

Roger Pele was elevated about 1532, and became rector of Dalton, a village
near his old abbey, 9th Nov., 29 Hen. VIII. This rectory he held, I
believe, during the remainder of his life, in spite of all the efforts made
to dispossess him. (See Beck's _Annales Furnessienses_, p. 346. et seq.)

What was the origin and early history of this man, remarkable for the
firmness and ability which so long baffled all the power and might of
Henry, whose vengeance pursued him even into obscurity.

ABBATI.

_Curtseys and Bows._--Why do ladies curtsey instead of bow? Is the
distinction one which obtains generally; and what is the earliest mention
of curtseys in any writer on English affairs?

E. S.

Hampton Court.

_Historical Proverb._--I have frequently in youth heard the proverb, "You
may change _Norman_ for a worser (worse) horse." This sounds like the wise
saying of some unpatriotic Saxon, when urged to revolt against the
conquering invaders. If so, it is an interesting relic of the days when
"Englishrie," though suppressed, yet became peacefully victorious in
transmuting the intruders into its own excellent metal.

J. R. P.

_Bishop Patrick's "Parable of a Pilgrim."_--Can any of your contributors
inform me of any bibliographical notice of Bishop Patrick's _Parable of a
Pilgrim_? Its singular title, and the suggested plagiarism of Bunyan,
lately attracted my attention; but I incline to the belief that we may
still regard the _Pilgrim's Progress_ to be as original as it is
extraordinary. Patrick's work appears to have been written in 1663, while
Bunyan was not committed to prison until 1660, and was released in 1673:
having written, or at least composed, his extraordinary work during the
interval. Bunyan might therefore have seen and read Patrick's book; but,
from a careful comparison of the two works, I am satisfied in my own mind
that such a supposition is unnecessary, and probably erroneous. I may add
that Patrick honestly confesses, that not even his own work is entirely
original, but was suggested by an elder "Parable of the Pilgrim" in Baker's
_Sancta Sophia_.

GEORGE WM. BELL.

_Dr. Parr's Dedications._--Dr. Parr has dedicated the three parts of
_Bellendences de Statu_ respectively to Burke, Lord North, and Fox,
subscribing each dedication with the letters A. E. A. O. Can any of your
correspondents explain them?

BALLIOLENSIS.

"_Königl. Schwedischer in Teutschland geführter Krieg_, 1632-1648, von B.
Ph. v. Chemnitz."--As is known, the first two parts of this important work
were printed in 1648 and 1653. The continuation of the original manuscript
exists now in the Swedish Record Office, with the exception, unfortunately,
of the third part. The Curator of the Royal Library in Hanover, however, J.
Dan, {157} Grueber, testifies, in his _Commercium Epistolare
Leibnitianinum_, Pars 1^{ma}, p. 119., Hanoviæ, 1745, in 8vo., that the
missing part was then in that library:

    "Tertius tomus excusus non est, quippe imperfectus; Manuscriptum tamen
    quoad absolutus est, inter alia septentrionis cimelia nuper repertum,
    Bibliothecæ Regiæ vindicavimus."

But this manuscript is no longer to be found there. Is it possible it may
have been removed to England, and still to be found in one of the public
collections? An answer to any of the above questions would deeply oblige

  G. E. KLEMMING,
  Librarian in the Royal Library at Stockholm.

"_Officium Birgittinum Anglice._"--

    "Integrum Beatæ Virginis Officium quod à S. Birgitta concinnatum,
    monialibus sui ordinis in usu publico fecit, Anglice ab anonymo quodam
    conversum, Londini prodiit ante annum 1500 in folio, ex Caxtoni, uti
    videtur, prælo editum."

is the notice of the above translation occurring in an old Swedish author.
Information is requested as to whether any more detailed account can be
obtained of the book referred to.[3] For any such the Querist will be
especially thankful: if it should be possible to procure a copy of the
same, his boldest hopes would be exceeded. If no English translation of S.
Birgitta's revelations, or of the prayers and prophecies extracted
therefrom--the latter known under the name of _Onus Mundi_, should exist,
either in print or in old manuscript, this, in consideration of the very
general circulation which these writings obtained in the Middle Ages, would
be a very peculiar exception. The book named at the head of this Query
would appear to be a translation of the _Breviarium S. Birgittæ._

  G. E. KLEMMING,
  Librarian in the Royal Library at Stockholm.

[Footnote 3: [See Wharton, in his Supplement to Usher, _De Scripturis et
Sacris Vernaculis_, p. 447., edit. 1690.--ED.]]

_Campbell's Hymn on the Nativity._--The hymn, of which the following are
the first two verses, is said to have been written by Campbell. Can any
correspondent of "N. & Q." say which Campbell is the author, and when and
where the hymn was first printed?

 "When Jordan hush'd his waters still,
  And silence slept on Zion's hill,
  When Bethlehem's shepherds thro' the night
  Watch'd o'er their flocks by starry light,

 "Hark! from the midnight hills around,
  A voice of more than mortal sound
  In distant hallelujahs stole,
  Wild murmuring o'er the raptur'd soul."

H. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_When Our Lord falls in Our Lady's Lap._--Seeing that Good Friday in this
year falls on Lady Day, may I beg to ask if any of your contributors could
inform me where the following old saying is to be met with, viz.:

 "When Good Friday falls in a Lady's lap,
  To England will happen some mishap,"

or to whom the prophecy (I hope a false one) may be attributed? I have seen
it some years since, and have lately been asked the origin of the saying.

J. N. C.

Hull.

    [Our correspondent has not quoted this old proverb correctly. It is
    thus given by Fuller (_Worthies of England_, vol. i. p. 115. ed. 1840):

     "When Our Lady falls in Our Lord's lap
      Then let England beware a sad { clap
                                    { mishap,

                  _alias_

      Then let the clergyman look to his cap."

    But Fuller shows that it refers to Easter Day, not Good Friday, falling
    on the 25th March, when he remarks:--"I behold this proverbial
    prophecy, or this prophetical menace, to be not above six score years
    old, and of Popish extraction since the Reformation. It whispereth more
    than it dares speak out, and points at more than it dares whisper; and
    fain would intimate to credulous persons as if the Blessed Virgin,
    offended with the English for abolishing her adoration, watcheth an
    opportunity of revenge on this nation. And when her day (being the
    five-and-twentieth of March, and first of the Gregorian year) chanceth
    to fall on the day of Christ's resurrection, then being, as it were,
    fortified by her Son's assistance, some signal judgment is intended to
    our state, and churchmen especially."

    He then gives a list of the years on which the coincidences had
    happened since the Conquest, to which, if our correspondent is curious
    on the subject, we must refer him. Can he, or any other of our readers,
    furnish any proof of the existence of this proverb before the
    Reformation, or the existence of a similar proverb on the Continent?]

_Hobnail-counting in the Court of Exchequer._--I shall feel obliged by your
informing me from what circumstance originates the yearly custom of the
lord mayor of London counting six horse-shoes and sixty-one hobnails at the
swearing in of the sheriff?

A CONSTANT READER.

Chertsey.

    [The best explanation of this custom will be found in the _Gentleman's
    Magazine_ for 1804, where we read: "The ceremony on this occasion in
    the Court of Exchequer, which vulgar error supposed to be an unmeaning
    farce, is solemn and impressive, nor have the new sheriffs the least
    connexion either with chopping of sticks, or counting of hobnails. The
    tenants of a manor in Shropshire are directed to come forth and do
    their suit and service; on which the senior alderman below {158} the
    chair steps forward and chops a single stick, in token of its having
    been customary for the tenants of that manor to supply their lord with
    fuel. The owners of a forge in the parish of St. Clement (which
    formerly belonged to the city, and stood in the high road from the
    Temple to Westminster, but now no longer exists) are then called forth
    to do their suit and service; when an officer of the court, in the
    presence of the senior alderman, produces six horse-shoes and sixty-one
    hobnails, which he counts over in form before the cursitor baron, who
    on this particular occasion is the immediate representative of the
    sovereign."]

_A Race for Canterbury._--I have just met with a little volume of sixteen
pages entitled _A Race for Canterbury or Lambeth, Ho!_ It is dated 1747,
and was evidently written on the death of Archbishop Potter; and describes
four aspirants to the see of Canterbury as four rowers on the Thames:

 "No sooner Death had seized the seer,
  Just in the middle of his prayer,
  But instantly on Thames appear'd
  Four wherries rowing very hard."
    &c.  &c.  &c.

The first is thus introduced:

 "Sh----, though old, has got the start,
  And vigorously plays his part."

The second:

 "H---- in order next advances,
  And full of hopes he strangely fancies,
  That he by dint of merit shall
  Get first to land by Lambeth wall."

The third:

 "M--s--n moves on a sober pace,
  And sits and rows with easy grace.
  No ruffling passion's in him seen,
  Indifferent if he lose or win."

The fourth:

 "Next Codex comes with lab'ring oar,
  And, envious, sees the three before;
  Yet luggs and tuggs with every joint,
  In hopes at length to gain the point."

Having no list of the bishops by me, of the above-mentioned date, to which
I can refer, I should be glad if any of your correspondents can tell me who
these four bishops are. May I ask likewise, if it is known who was the
author of this not very refined or elegant composition?

JOHN BRANFILL HARRISON.

Maidstone.

    [The four aspirants probably were, 1. Sherlock of Salisbury; 2. Herring
    of York, the next primate; 3. Mawson of Chichester; 4. Gibson of
    London.]

_Nose of Wax._--In so famous a public document as the _Nottingham
Declaration of the Nobles, Gentry, and Commons_, in November, 1688, against
the Papistical inroads of the infatuated King James, I find in the Ninth
Resolution that he is accused of "rendering the laws a _nose of wax_," in
order to further arbitrary ends. I have often heard the phrase familiarly
in my youthful days; may I ask of you to inform me of its origin? Its
import is plain enough,--a silly bugbear, of none effect but to be laughed
at.

W. J.

    [Nares explains it more correctly as a proverbial phrase for anything
    very mutable and accommodating; chiefly applied to flexibility of
    faith. He adds, "It should be noticed, however, that the similitude was
    originally borrowed from the Roman Catholic writers, who applied it to
    the Holy Scriptures, on account of their being liable to various
    interpretations."]

"_Praise from Sir Hubert Stanley!_"--I have somewhere heard or read this,
or a very similar phrase, ironically expressive of surprise at approbation
from an unexpected quarter. I would much like a clue to its source and
correct shape.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

    [This is from Morton's _Cure for the Heart Ache_, Act V. Sc.
    2.:--"Approbation from Sir Hubert Stanley is praise indeed."]

_Rosary._--What is the origin of the term _rosary_? Is it derived from the
Latin _rogare_?

G. C. C.

    [Richardson derives it from Fr. _Rosaire_; Ital. and Sp. _Rosario_; Low
    Lat. _Rosarium, corona rosacea_, a garland or chaplet of roses. The
    definition of it by the Abbé Prevost is this:--"It consists," he says,
    "of fifteen tens, said to be in honour of the fifteen mysteries in
    which the Blessed Virgin bore a part. _Five_ Joyous, viz. the
    annunciation, the visit to St. Elizabeth, the birth of our Saviour, the
    purification, and the disputation of Christ in the temple. _Five_
    Sorrowful: our Saviour's agony in the garden, his flagellation,
    crowning with thorns, bearing his cross, and crucifixion. _Five_
    Glorious: his resurrection, ascension, the descent of the Holy Ghost,
    his glorification in heaven, and the assumption of the Virgin
    herself."--_Manuel Lexique._ Nares, quoting this passage, adds, "This
    is good authority; but why each of the fives is multiplied by ten the
    Abbé does not explain; probably to make the chaplet of a sufficient
    length."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

THE ROD: A POEM.

(Vol. vi., p. 493.)

My copy of this poem bears date 1754, and is not stated to be a second
edition. It has "an advertisement" of three pages, deprecatory of the
imputation of any personal allusions, or design to encourage school
rebellions. It has also a frontispiece ("Jas. Green, sculp., Oxon."),
representing two youths, one standing, the other sitting, on a form; and
before them the figure of an ass, erect on his hind legs, clothed in a
pallium. A birch, doctorial hat, and books, lettered Priscian and {159}
Lycophron, form the base; and on a ribbon above is the legend, "An ass in
the Greek pallium teaching." In other respects my copy agrees with MR.
CROSSLEY'S description of his, except that the argument (p. 7.) commences,
"_The great and good_ King Alfred," &c.

Perhaps the following lines (though I doubt their having been written at
the age of thirteen) may be received as germane to the subject:

              THE BIRCH: A POEM.
          _Written by a Youth of thirteen._

  Though the _Oak_ be the prince and the pride of the grove,
  The emblem of power and the fav'rite of Jove;
  Though Phoebus his temples with _Laurel_ has bound,
  And with chaplets of _Poplar_ Alcides is crown'd;
  Though Pallas the _Olive_ has graced with her choice,
  And old mother Cybel in _Pines_ may rejoice,
  Yet the Muses declare, after diligent search,
  That no tree can be found to compare with the _Birch_.
    The Birch, they affirm, is the true tree of knowledge,
  Revered at each school and remember'd at college.
  Though Virgil's famed tree might produce, as its fruit,
  A crop of vain dreams, and strange whims on each shoot,
  Yet the Birch on each bough, on the top of each switch,
  Bears the essence of grammar and eight parts of speech.
 'Mongst the leaves are conceal'd more than mem'ry can mention,
  All cases, all genders, all forms of declension.
    Nine branches, when cropp'd by the hands of the Nine,
  And duly arranged in a parallel line,
  Tied up in nine folds of a mystical string,
  And soak'd for nine days in cold Helicon spring,
  Form a sceptre composed for a pedagogue's hand,
  Like the Fasces of Rome, a true badge of command.
  The sceptre thus finish'd, like Moses's rod,
  From flints could draw tears, and give life to a clod.
  Should darkness Egyptian, or ignorance, spread
  Their clouds o'er the mind, or envelope the head,
  The rod, thrice applied, puts the darkness to flight,
  Disperses the clouds, and restores us to light.
  Like the Virga Divina, 'twill find out the vein
  Where lurks the rich metal, the ore of the brain.
  Should Genius a captive in sloth be confined,
  Or the witchcraft of Pleasure prevail o'er the mind,
  The magical wand but apply--with a stroke
  The spell is dissolved, the enchantment is broke.
  Like Hermes' caduceus, these switches inspire
  Rhetorical thunder, poetical fire:
  And if Morpheus our temples in Lethe should steep,
  Their touch will untie all the fetters of sleep.
    Here dwells strong conviction--of Logic the glory,
  When applied with precision _à posteriori_.
  I've known a short lecture most strangely prevail,
  When duly convey'd to the head through the tail;
  Like an electrical shock, in an instant 'tis spread,
  And flies with a jerk from the tail to the head;
  Promotes circulation, and thrills through each vein,
  The faculties quickens, and purges the brain.
    By sympathy thus, and consent of the parts,
  We are taught, _fundamentally_, classics and arts.
    The Birch, _à priori_, applied to the palm,
  Can settle disputes and a passion becalm.
  Whatever disorders prevail in the blood
  The birch can correct them, like guaiacum wood:
  It sweetens the juices, corrects our ill humours,
  Bad habits removes, and disperses foul tumours.
  When applied to the hand it can cure with a switch,
  Like the salve of old Molyneux, used in the itch!
  As the famed rod of Circe to brutes could turn men,
  So the twigs of the Birch can unbrute them again.
  Like the wand of the Sybil, that branch of pure gold,
  These sprays can the gates of Elysium unfold--
  The Elysium of learning, where pleasures abound,
  Those sweets that still flourish on classical ground.
  Prometheus's rod, which, mythologists say,
  Fetch'd fire from the sun to give life to his clay,
  Was a rod well applied his men to inspire
  With a taste for the arts, and their genius to fire.
    This bundle of rods may suggest one reflection,
  That the arts with each other maintain a connexion.
  Another good moral this bundle of switches
  Points out to our notice and silently teaches;
  Of peace and good fellowship these are a token,
  For the twigs, well united, can scarcely be broken.
    Then, if such are its virtues, we'll bow to the tree,
  And THE BIRCH, like the Muses, immortal shall be.

I copy from a MS. extract-book, and shall be glad of a reference to any
place in which these lines have appeared in print.

BALLIOLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE DUTCH EAST-INDIA COMPANY.

(Vol. vi., p. 316.)

These folio volumes appeared in 1646, without name or place of either
author or printer, under the title--

    "Begin ende Voortgang van de Vereenighde Nederlandsche Geoctroyeerde
    Oost-Indische Compagnie, vervattende de voornaemste Reysen, by de
    inwoonderen derselver provincien derwaerts gedaen, alles nevens de
    {160} beschryvinghen der Rycken, Eylanden, Hovenen, Rivieren, Stroomen,
    Rheden, winden, diepten, ondiepten, mitsgaders religien, manieren,
    aerdt, politie, ende regeeringhe der volckeren, oock mede haerder
    Specerÿen, drooghen, geldt ende andere koopmanschappen; met veele
    discoursen verryckt, nevens eenighe koopere platen verciert. Nut ende
    dienstig alle curieuse ende andere zee-varende. Met dry besondere
    tafels ofte registers; in twee Delen verdeelt, waer het eerste begrypt
    veerttien voyagien den meerendeelen voor desen noyt in 't licht
    geweest. Gedrukt in den jaere 1646."

    (_Translation._)

    Commencement and progress of the United Dutch Chartered East-India
    Company, containing the principal travels made among the inhabitants of
    the provinces there, together with a description of the kingdoms,
    courts, islands, rivers, roadsteads, winds, deeps, shallows, as well as
    religions, manners, character, police, and governments of the people;
    also their spices, drugs, money, and other merchandise, enriched with
    many discourses, and adorned with copperplates. Useful and profitable
    to all curious and seafaring virtuosi. With three separate tables or
    registers; divided into two parts, of which the first contains fourteen
    voyages, the most part never before published. Printed in the year
    1646.

The compiler, however, goes too far in asserting that the greatest part of
these voyages had never been printed. The contrary appears when we open the
folio catalogue of the Leyden Library, containing a fine collection of
these early voyages of our ancestors.

These voyages were printed consecutively in small folio before 1646; as
also the _Oost Indische en West Indische Voyagien_, Amsterdam, by Michel
Colyn, boekverkooper (_East Indian and West Indian Voyages_, Amsterdam, by
Michel Colyn, bookseller), anno 1619, one volume, in the same form and
thickness as those of 1646: some of the plates also in this volume are
similar to those of 1646.

This work was dedicated, 28th February, 1619, to the Heeren Gecommitteerde
Raden ter Admiraliteit residerende te Amsterdam (Advising Committee to the
Admiralty residing at Amsterdam), and begins with the _Reis naar Nova
Sembla_ (_Voyage to Nova Zembla_), printed at Enkhuizen in 1617, by Jacob
Lenaertsz Meijn, at the Vergulde Schryfboek (Gilt Writing-book), so that it
is not improbable that the whole work was printed at Enkhuizen. Michel
Colyn also published other Dutch voyages in 1622.

Concerning Cornelis Claesz (_i.q._ son of Nicholas), printer at Amsterdam,
I have to observe that he died before 1610, but that the late Lucas Jansz.
Wagenaer had bought all his plates, maps, privileges, &c.

By a notarial act passed 16th August, 1610, at Enkhuizen, Tryn Haickesdr.,
widow of the above-named Wagenaer, declared that the widow of Cornelis
Claesz might make over to Jacob Lenaertsz all the above-mentioned maps,
privileges, &c. See a resolution of the States-General of 13th September,
1610, in Dodt's _Kerkelÿk en Wereldlÿk Archief_, p. 23. (_Ecclesiastical
and Civil Archives_).--_From the Navorscher._

ELSEVIER.

Leyden.

J. A. de Chalmot, in his _Biographical Dictionary of the Netherlands_, vol.
vii. p. 251., names as author, or rather as compiler of this work, Isaak
Commelin, born at Amsterdam 19th October, 1598, died 3rd Jan. 1676, and
quotes Kasp. Commelin's _Description of Amsterdam_, which I have not at
hand to refer to. The work was printed at Amsterdam without printer's name:
each _voyagie_ or description is separately paged; some places have a
French text. In the second volume is a _Generale beschryvinghe van Indien,
&c._, naer de copÿe ghedruckt tot Batavia in de druckerÿe van Gansenpen,
anno 1638 (_General Description of India, &c._, according to the copy
printed at Batavia at the office of the _Goose Quill_). Whether any other
pieces which Commelin compiled had been earlier printed, I have not been
able to discover.--_From the Navorscher._

J. C. K.

       *       *       *       *       *

"ITS."

(Vol. vi., p. 509.)

The following are earlier instances of the employment of _its_ by the
poets, than any that your correspondent seems to have met with:

 "How sometimes nature will betray _its_ folly,
  _Its_ tenderness, and makes itself a pastime
  To harder bosoms!
                  _Winter's Tale_, Act I. Sc. 2.

                 "Each following day
  Became the next day's master, till the last
  Made former wonders _its_."
                  _Henry VIII._, Act I. Sc. 1.

 "On the green banks which that fair stream in-bound,
  Flowers and odours sweetly smiled and smell'd,
  Which, reaching out _its_ stretched arms around,
  All the large desert in _its_ bosom held."
    Fairefax, _Godfrey of Bulloigne_, xviii. 20., 1600.

I doubt if there are any earlier instances among the poets. I have had no
opportunity of examining the prose writers of the sixteenth century, but
think they must have employed _its_ earlier than the poets. As we may see
in the version of the Bible, and other works of the time, the English, like
the Anglo-Saxon, long continued to use the genitive _his_ for neuters as
well as for masculines; and _thereof_ for our present _of it_, _its_.

_Its_ leads me to reflect how ignorant people were of the old languages in
the last century. If ever there was a palpable forgery, it is the Poems of
Rowley: yet, if my memory does not deceive me, {161} Tyrwhitt regarded them
as genuine; and Malone authoritatively affirmed that "no one except the
nicest judges of English poetry, from Chaucer to Pope, was competent to
test their genuineness." Why, this little word _its_ might have tested it.
You see we have not been able to trace it in poetry higher up than the end
of the sixteenth century; and I am quite sure that it is not to be found in
either Chaucer or Spenser: and yet, in the very first page of Rowley, we
meet with the following instances of it:

 "The whyche in _yttes_ felle use doe make moke dere."

 "The thynge _yttes_ (_ytte is?_) moste bee _yttes_ owne defense."

But there is a still surer test. We can hardly read a line of Chaucer,
Gower, or any other poet of the time, without meeting with what the French
term the feminine _e_, and which must be pronounced as a syllable to make
the metre. From one end to the other of the Poems of Rowley, there is not a
single instance of it!

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMMENCEMENT OF THE YEAR.

(Vol. vi., p. 563.)

It may be of service to the inquirer as to the commencement of the year, to
call his attention to the note appended to the "Table of moveable Feasts"
in editions prior to 1752. As given by Keeling, from the editions
antecedent and subsequent to the last review, in 1662, they are as follows:

    "_Note._--That the supputation of the year of our Lord in the Church of
    England beginneth the xxvth day of March, the same day supposed to be
    the first day upon which the world was created, and the day when Christ
    was conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary" [1604].

    "_Note._--That the supputation of the year of our Lord in the Church of
    England beginneth the xxvth day of March" [1662].

Of course, after the act for alteration of the style (24 Geo. II. c. 23.)
was passed, this note was omitted. But up to that date the old supputation
was authoritative and legal. Reference to Hampson's _Medii Ævi Kalendarium_
might further illustrate the point.

To this Note allow me to append a Query. After the collect for St.
Stephen's Day follows this rubric:

    "Then shall follow the collect of the Nativity, which shall be said
    continually until New Year's Eve."

Query, Was this collect to be repeated from December 25 to March 24? for,
according to the above supputation, that would be New Year's Eve.

The following note, from the preface to Granger's _Biographical History_,
may not be out of place:

    "The following absurdities, among many others, were occasioned by these
    different computations. In 1667 there were two Easters, the first on
    the 25th of April, and the second on the 22nd of March following; and
    there were three different denominations of the Year of our Lord
    affixed to three state papers which were published in one week, viz.
    his Majesty's Speech, dated 1732-3; the Address of the House of Lords,
    1732; the Address of the House of Commons, 1733."--Page xxiii., edit.
    1824.

BALLIOLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

"PENARDO AND LAISSA."

(Vol. vii., p. 84.)

Your correspondent E. D. is fortunate in the possession of a rare book,
worth a "jew's eye" in the good old days of the Bibliomania. It formed a
part of the Heber Collection, where (see Part iv. p. 111.) it figures under
the following quaint title:

    "The First Booke of the Famous Historye of Penardo and Laissa,
    other-ways called the Warres of Love and Ambitione, wherein is
    described Penardo his most admirable deeds of Arms, his ambition of
    glore, his contempt of love, with loves mighte assalts and ammorous
    temptations, Laissa's feareful inchantment, hir relief, hir travells,
    and lastly, loves admirabel force in hir releiving Penardo from the
    fire. Doone in Heroik Verse by Patrik Gordon.

    Printed at Dort by George Waters, 1615."

This copy, which was originally John Pinkerton's, cost Mr. Heber 21l., and
was resold at his sale for 12l. 5s., for the library of Mr. Miller, of
Craigentenny; another is in the possession of Dr. Keith, Edinburgh.
Pinkerton, in his _Ancient Scottish Poems_, London, 1792, thus describes
_Penardo and Laissa_:

    "Rare to excess; nor can more than two copies be discovered, one in the
    editor's possession, another in that of an anonymous correspondent in
    Scotland. The author was probably so ashamed of it as to quash the
    edition, for it is the most puerile mixture of all times, manners, and
    religions that ever was published; for instance, the Christian religion
    is put as that of Ancient Greece."

Of the author, Patrick Gordon, little or nothing seems to be known beyond
the fact of his styling himself "gentleman," probably the only ground for
Pinkerton calling him "a man of property." The fame of Gordon, however,
rests upon a better foundation than the above work, he having also "doone
in heroik verse _The Famous Historie of the Renouned and Valiant Prince
Robert, surnamed the Bruce, King of Scotland_," "a tolerable poem," says
the same critic, "but not worth reprinting, although it had that compliment
twice paid to it." {162}

The "Bruce" of our author is a concoction from Barbour and a certain _Book
of Virgin Parchment_, upon the same subject, by Peter Fenton, known only to
Gordon, and, like _Penardo_, sets propriety at defiance, "Christ and
Jupiter being with matchless indecorum grouped together:"[4] it, too, came
originally from the press of Dort, 1615; again from that of James Watson,
Edinburgh, 1718; and a third time, Glasgow, by Hall, 1753.

J. O.

[Footnote 4: Irving's _Scottish Poets_.]

       *       *       *       *       *

ROBIN HOOD.

(Vol. vi., p. 597.)

Ireland, too, is associated with the fame of this renowned wood-ranger.
This "_pen_-ultima Thule," which received and protected the refugees of
Roman oppression and the victims of Saxon extermination, was looked to in
later times as a sanctuary where crime might evade punishment; and in the
_Annals of Robin Hood_ this national commiseration was evinced.

    "In the year 1189," writes Holinshed, "there ranged three robbers and
    outlaws in England, among which 'Robert' Hood and Little John were
    chieftains, of all thieves doubtless the most courteous. Robert, being
    betrayed at a nunnery in Scotland, called Bricklies, the remnant of the
    'crue' was scattered, and every man forced to shift for himself;
    whereupon Little John was fain _to flee the realm_ by sailing into
    Ireland, where he sojourned for a few days at Dublin. The citizens
    being 'doone' to understand the wandering outcast to be an excellent
    archer, requested him heartily to try how far he could shoot at random,
    who, yielding to their behest, stood on the bridge of Dublin and shot
    to a hillock in Oxmantown (thereafter called Little John's shot),
    leaving behind him a monument, rather by posterity to be wondered than
    possibly by any man living to be counterscored."--_Description of
    Ireland_, fol., p. 24.

The danger, however, of being taken drove Little John thence to Scotland,
where, adds the annalist, "he died at a town or village called Moravie."

JOHN D'ALTON.

I may perhaps be allowed to subscribe to the opinion expressed by H. K.,
that "though men of the name of Robin Hood may have existed in England,
that of itself could afford no ground for inferring that some one of them
was the Robin Hood of romantic tradition;" and at the same time to express
my dissent from the conclusion, that "any pretence for such a supposition
is taken away by the strong evidence, both Scotch and French," which H. K.
has "adduced in support of the opposite view."

The inferences which I draw from the facts adduced by H. K. are, that the
fame of the hero of English ballads probably extended to France and
Scotland, and that the people of Scotland probably sympathised with this
disturber of the peace of the kingdom of their "aulde ennemies."

I must, however, confess that I have not met with any portion of "the
discussion about the nature of Robin Hood," excepting that contained in
Ritson's Notes and Hunter's Tract, and that the evidence adduced in the
latter publication, in support of the tradition handed down to us in the
ballad entitled _A Lyttel Geste of Robyn Hode_, seems to me to
satisfactorily show that "the Robin Hood of romantic tradition really
existed in England in the time of Edward II."

J. LEWELYN CURTIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES.

_Originator of Collodion Process_ (Vol. vii., pp. 47. 92. 116.).--The
fairest way of deciding M. Le Gray's claims would be, to quote what he
really says.

Willat's pamphlet, published in 1850, entitled _A Practical Treatise, &c._,
by Gustave Le Gray, translated by Thomas Cousins, ends with an appendix,
which runs thus:

    "I have just discovered a process upon glass by hydrofluoric ether, the
    fluoride of potassium, and soda dissolved in alcohol 40°, mixed with
    sulphuric ether, and afterwards saturated with collodion; I afterwards
    re-act with aceto-nitrate of silver, and thus obtain proofs in the
    camera in five seconds in the shade. I develope the image by a very
    weak solution of sulphate of iron, and fix with hyposulphite of soda. I
    hope by this process to arrive at great rapidity. Ammonia and bromide
    of potassium give great variations of promptitude. As soon as my
    experiments are complete I will publish the result in an appendix. This
    application upon glass is very easy: the same agents employed with
    albumen and dextrine, give also excellent results and very quick. I
    have also experimented with a mucilage produced by a fucus, a kind of
    sea-weed, which promises future success. I hope by some of these means
    to succeed in taking portraits in three or four seconds."

I know not at what time of the year the pamphlet came out, nor whether the
appendix was subsequently added; but any copy containing it was bought
about the middle of August, 1850.

THOS. D. EATON.

    [We have much pleasure in inserting this communication, as it may be
    the means of drawing fresh attention to the other substances mentioned
    by Le Gray; for we are strongly of opinion that, notwithstanding the
    advantages of collodion, there are other _media_ which may prove
    preferable.--ED.]

_The Soiling of the Fingers_ may be entirely avoided by a simple expedient.
Use a slightly concave horizontal dish for sensitizing, and a depth of
solution not sufficient to wet the back of the collodionized plate, and
after the impressed plate {163} has been placed on the levelled stand and
developed, proceed thus: instead of holding the plate by the fingers to
perform the subsequent processes, take a strip of glass (say five inches
long and one and a half wide for the ordinary portrait size), put a single
drop of water on it, and carefully pass it beneath the developed plate;
lift the glass thereby; the adhesion is sufficiently firm to sustain the
plate in any required position for the remaining manipulations till it is
washed and finished.

COKELY.

_Sir W. Newton's Process.--Chloride of Bromium._--May I ask, through the
medium of your very excellent journal, what purpose SIR W. NEWTON intends
to meet by the application of his wash of chloride of barium previous to
iodizing?

F. MAXWELL LYTE.

_The Collodion Process._--Absence from London has prevented my seeing your
Numbers regularly; but in one for December I see MR. ARCHER has used my
name in connexion with the collodion process. He states that he called
several times, and made me familiar with the process; by which he would
lead persons to suppose that he taught me in fact to take pictures. Now I
beg most distinctly to state that this is incorrect. MR. ARCHER made, it is
true, several attempts in my glass room to take a picture, but totally
failed. And why? Because he attempted to follow out the process as he
himself had published it. From that time I worked it out by myself,
assisted by hints from Mr. Fry, who at the time I allude to was a
successful manipulator, and had produced and exhibited many beautiful
pictures, and at whose suggestion I commenced it in the first instance.

There is also another portion of MR. ARCHER'S letter incorrect; but as this
relates to the sale of collodion, I will let it pass, trusting, as you have
given insertion to his, you will not refuse space for mine.

F. HORNE.

123. Newgate Street.

_Portable Camera_ (Vol. vii., p. 71.).--If India rubber should turn out to
be what H. Y. W. N. thinks he has found it to be, it would be capable of
being turned to excellent account. For instance, instead of having a single
"portable camera," which is on many accounts very awkward to use, why
should not the tourist have a light framework constructed, and covered
entirely with this India rubber: in fact, an India rubber box, in which his
camera, and a partitioned shelf containing his collodion, developing fluid,
hypo-soda solution, &c., might be easily packed, and in which, by the aid
of sleeves, &c., he might coat his plates, and develop and fix them, quite
apart from his camera? He _must_ have _something_ to pack his camera, &c.
in; and the above-described packing-case would be very light, and also
waterproof.

J. L. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Chaplains to Noblemen_ (Vol. vii., p. 85.).--The statute in which
chaplains to noblemen are first named is 21 Henry VIII. c. 13. (1529); in
which, by sect. 11., it is enacted, "that every Archbysshop and Duke may
have vj chapleyns;" "every Markes and Erle may have fyve chapleyns;" "every
vycecount and other Byshop may have foure chapleyns;" and "the Chancellour
of England for the tyme beying and every Baron or Knyght of the Garter may
have thre chapleyns:" and one chaplain of each order, whether Duke,
Marquess, Earl, Viscount, or Baron, is thereby authorised to purchase
"lycence or dispensacion to take, receyve, and kepe two parsonages or
benefices with cure of souls" (_Stat. of the Realm_, vol. iii. p. 294.). I
believe that X. will find a regular registry of these appointments in
Doctors' Commons.

It may be interesting to add, that among the other persons named in this
statute are the Master of the Rolls, who may have "two chapleyns;" and the
"Chefe Justice of the Kinges Benche," who may have "one chapleyn." By
another statute, 25 Henry VIII. c. 16. (1533-4), this last power to have
one chaplain is extended to "every Jugge of the seid high courtes" (King's
Bench and Common Pleas), "the Chaunceller and Cheffe Baron of the
Exchequer, the kynges generall attorney and generall soliciter" (_Ibid._ p.
457.)

EDWARD FOSS.

_Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger_ (Vol. vi., p. 614.).--I have
been and still am inquiring into the two cases of mitigation, intending to
send the result, when I have found satisfactory evidence, or exhausted my
sources of inquiry. The communication of WHUNSIDE is the first direct
testimony, and may settle the Fawcett case. As he was "resident at Mr.
Fawcett's when the circumstances occurred," perhaps he will be so kind as
to state the date and place of the conviction, and the name of the convict.
By adding his own name, the facts will stand upon his authority.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

_Brydone the Tourist_ (Vol. vii., p. 108.).--A. B. C. inquires the
birthplace of Brydone, "the tourist and author." I presume he refers to
Patrick Brydone, who wrote _Travels in Sicily and Malta_, and who held, I
believe, an appointment under the Commissioners of Stamps, and died about
thirty years ago. Some four-and-twenty years back, I arrived, late in the
evening, at the hospitable cottage of Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, at
Altrieve, in the vale of Yarrow. It happened to be, as it often was, too
full of guests to afford me a bed; and I was transferred by my host to the
house of a neighbouring gentleman, where I slept. That gentleman was Mr.
Brydone, of Mount Benger, {164} who I found was a near relative of Brydone
the tourist, whose birthplace was in the Forest of Ettrick.

M. R--SON.

_Yankee_ (Vol. vii., p. 103.).--I am afraid MR. BELL'S ingenious
speculations must give way to facts. Our transatlantic brethren do _not_,
either willingly or unwillingly, adopt _Yankee_ as their "collective name."
_Yankee_ was, and is, a name given exclusively to the natives of the New
England States, and was never therefore applied, by an American, to the
people of New Amsterdam or New York. Here, in England, indeed, we are
accustomed to call all Americans _Yankees_; which is about the same thing
as to call all Englishmen Devonians or Lancastrians.

Y. A.

_Miniature Ring of Charles I._ (Vol. vi., p. 578.).--One of the four rings
inquired for is in the possession of Mrs. Andrew Henderson, of 102.
Gloucester Place, Portman Square, formerly Miss Adolphus. It came to her in
the female line, through her mother's family. The unfortunate Charles I.
presented it to Sir Lionel Walden, on the morning on which he lost his
life. It bears (as the other one alluded to in Hulbert's _History of
Salop_) a miniature likeness of the king, set in small brilliants. Inside
the ring are the words, "Sic transit gloria regum." Mrs. Henderson
understood the four rings to have been presented as follows:--Bishop Juxon,
Sir Lionel Walden, Colonel Ashburnham, and Herbert his secretary. Which of
the four is now in the possession of the Misses Pigott is not mentioned.

ANON.

_Bishop of Ossory--Cardinal's Hat_ (Vol. vii., p. 72.).--A. S. A. is quite
correct, that the _hat_ is common to all prelates, and that the distinction
is only in the number of the tassels to the hat-strings; but I think he is
wrong in attributing the hat to _priors_. I believe it only belonged to
_abbots_, who had _black_ hats and tassels; while the colour of the
prelatical hats and tassels was green. (See Père Anselme's _Palais
d'Honneur_, chap. xxii. and plate.)

C.

_Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter_ (Vol. vii., p. 14.).--Hugh Oldham bore for
his arms, Sa. a chevron or, between three owls proper on a chief of the
second, three roses gu. (See Isaacke's _Memorials of the City of Exeter_;
and also Burke's _Armory_, under the name _Oldom_.) I have endeavoured to
find some pedigree or particulars of his family, but as yet without
success. The following Notes from what I have collected may, however,
assist J. B. in his inquiries. He was of Queen's College, Cambridge, and
chaplain to the Countess of Richmond (King Henry VII.'s mother), and by her
interest was installed Bp. of Exeter, April 3, 1507. He was a great
benefactor to Brazenose College, Oxford, and joint founder (with Richard
Fox, Bishop of Winchester) of Corpus Christi. He also founded and endowed a
school at Manchester, for educating boys in good and useful literature. He
died June 25, 1523, under sentence of excommunication, in consequence of an
action at law then pending between him and the Abbot of Tavistock; but the
Pope's sanction being obtained, he was buried in a chapel built expressly
for the purpose, at the upper end of the south aisle of his own cathedral.

J. T--T.

"_Sic transit gloria mundi_" (Vol. vi., pp. 100. 183.).--I have lately
found two additional passages, which speak of this line being used at the
Pope's inauguration. The first is amongst the writings of Cornelius à
Lapide:

    "_Datus est mihi stimulus carnis meæ Angelus Satanæ, qui me
    colaphizet._" ... "Datus est non a Diabolo sed a Deo; non quod Deus
    tentationis sit auctor, sed quia diabolo tentare Paulum parato, id
    permisit, idque tantum in specie et materia libidinis ad eum
    humiliandum. Ita August. _de Natura et Grat._, c. 27. _Hic monitor_,
    ait Hieron., Epist. 25., ad Paulum de obitu Blæsillæ, _Paulo datus est,
    ad premendam superbiam, uti in curru triumphali triumphanti datur
    Monitor suggerens: hominem te esse memento_. Uti et Pontifici cum
    inauguratur, stupa accensa et mox extincta accinitur:

       "Pater sancte sic transit gloria mundi."

      _Commentaria_ in 2nd. Epist. ad Cor. cap. xii. 7.
        vol. ix. p. 404.: Antwerpiæ, 1705, fol.

The second passage is merely a repetition of the above-quoted words of A
Lapide, but I may as well subjoin a reference to it: Ursini _Paralipomena_,
lib. ii., Meletematum, p. 315.: Norimbergæ, 1667, 12mo.

RT.

Warmington.

_Wake_ (Vol. vi., p. 532.).--In a Wake pedigree in my possession, the name
of the wife of Sir Hugh Wake, Knight, Lord of Blisworth, who died May 4,
1315, is stated to be "Joane, daughter and co-heiress of John de
Wolverton." I am unable to say now on what authority.

W. S. (Sheffield.)

Sir Hugh Wake, Lord of Deeping in Lincolnshire and Blyseworth in
Northamptonshire, married Joane, daughter and co-heiress of John de
Wolverton. (See Kimber and Johnson's _Baronetage_, 3 vols. 1771.)

BROCTANA.

Bury, Lancashire.

"_Words are given to man to conceal his thoughts_" (Vol. vi., p.
575.).--This saying _may_ be anterior to Dr. South's time, as the first
number of _The World_, under the assumed name of Adam Fitz-Adam, Thursday,
January 4, 1753, begins with the following:

    "At the village of Arouche, in the province of Estremadura (says an old
    Spanish author), lived Gonzales {165} de Castro, who from the age of
    twelve to fifty-two years was deaf, dumb, and blind."

After relating the sudden restoration of his faculties, "Fitz-Adam"
proceeds:

    "But, as if the blessings of this life were only given us for
    afflictions, he began in a few weeks to lose the relish of his
    enjoyments, and to repine at the possession of those faculties, which
    served only to discover to him the follies and disorders of his
    neighbours, and to teach him that _the intent of speech was too often
    to deceive_."

It may serve to probe the matter of _age_ to ask, Who was "the old Spanish
author" alluded to? Also, where may be found the hexameter line--

 "[Greek: hos ch' heteron men keuthei eni phresin allo de bazei.]"

equivalent to the common expression, "He says one thing and means another,"
and of which the maxim attribute to Goldsmith, Talleyrand, the _Morning
Chronicle_, and South, seems only a stronger form?

FURVUS.

St. James's.

_Inscription on Penny of George III._ (Vol. vii., p. 65.).--"Stabit
quocunque jeceris" (_it will stand in whatever way you throw it_) is the
well-known motto of the Isle of Mann, and has reference to the arms of the
island, which are--Gules, three armed legs argent, flexed in triangle,
garnished and spurred or. I venture to conjecture that the three legs of
Mann were also on the penny J. M. A. mentioned.

Some curious lines about this motto are to be found in _The Isle of Mann
Guide_, by James Brotherston Laughton, B.A. (Douglas, 1850): one verse is--

 "With spurs and bright cuishes, to make them look neat,
  He rigg'd out the legs; then to make them complete,
  He surrounded the whole with four fine Roman _feet_.
        They were 'Quocunque jeceris stabit,'
          A thorough-paced Roman Iamb."

The fore-mentioned work also contains a song entitled "The Copper Row,"
referring to the disturbances occasioned by the coinage of 1840.

THOMPSON COOPER.

Cambridge.

This is, I suppose, a Manx penny, with the reverse of _three legs_, and the
motto, which is usually read "Quocunque jeceris stabit."

C.

"_Nine Tailors make a Man_" (Vol. vi., pp. 390. 563.).--I extract the
following humorous account of the origin of this saying from _The British
Apollo_ (12mo., reprint of 1726, vol. i. p. 236.):

    "It happen'd ('tis no great matter in what year) that eight taylors,
    having finish'd considerable pieces of work at a certain person of
    quality's house (whose name authors have thought fit to conceal), and
    receiving all the money due for the same, a virago servant maid of the
    house observing them to be but slender-built animals, and in their
    mathematical postures on their shop-board appearing but so many pieces
    of men, resolv'd to encounter and pillage them on the road. The better
    to compass her design, she procured a very terrible great
    black-pudding, which (having waylaid them) she presented at the breast
    of the foremost: they, mistaking this prop of life for an instrument of
    death, at least a blunder-buss, readily yielded up their money; but
    she, not contented with that, severely disciplin'd them with a cudgel
    she carry'd in the other hand, all which they bore with a philosophical
    resignation. Thus, eight not being able to deal with one woman, by
    consequence could not make a man, on which account a ninth is added.
    'Tis the opinion of our curious virtuosos, that this want of courage
    ariseth from their immoderate eating of cucumbers, which too much
    refrigerates their blood. However, to their eternal honour be it spoke,
    they have been often known to encounter a sort of cannibals, to whose
    assaults they are often subject, not fictitious, but real man-eaters,
    and that with a lance but two inches long; nay, and although they go
    arm'd no further than their middle-finger."

SIGMA.

Sunderland.

_On Quotations_ (Vol. vi., p. 408.).--There can be no doubt that quotations
have frequently been altered, to make them more apt to the quoter's
purpose, of which I believe the following to be an instance. We frequently
meet with the quotation, "Nullum numen _abest_, si sit prudentia," with a
reference to Juvenal. I have not been able to find the passage in this
shape, and presume it is an alteration from the address to Fortune, which
occurs twice in his _Satires_, Sat. x. v. 365, 366., and Sat. xiv. v. 315,
316.:

 "Nullum numen _habes_, si sit prudentia: nos te
  Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam, coeloque locamus."

The alteration is evidently not a mere verbal one, but changes entirely the
meaning and allusion of the passage.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. v., pp. 293. 374. 500.).--In addition to the local
rhymes given in your pages, I call to mind the following, not inserted in
Grose. They are peculiar to the North of England:

 "Rothbury for goats' milk,
    And the Cheviots for mutton;
  Cheswick for its cheese and bread,
    And Tynemouth for a glutton."

 "Harnham was headless, Bradford breadless,
    And Shaftoe pick'd at the craw;
  Capheaton was a wee bonny place,
    But Wallington bang'd them a'."

The _craw_, in the second rhyme, alludes to the _Crasters_, anciently
_Crancester_, an old family in the parish of Hartburn, who succeeded to the
estates of the Shaftoe family.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

{166}

_Coins in Foundations_ (Vol. vi., p. 270.).--I have a manuscript notice of
an early example of this custom. It is in a hand of the earlier half of the
seventeenth century. The Bostonians knew better, however, than to bury
their "great gifts;" and all who travel the Great Northern Railway will be
glad to preserve the names of the great givers, who afforded so noble a
relief to the tedium of Boston station.

    "_The buylding of Boston Steeple._

    "_Md._ That in the yeere of o^r Lord God 1309, the steeple of Boston,
    on the Monday next following Palme Sunday, was digged wt many myners
    till Mydsomer; and by that time they were deeper than the bottom of the
    haven by fyve fote, and there they found a ball of sande nigh a fote
    thick, and that dyd lye uppon a spring of sand neere three fote thick,
    and that dyd lye uppon a bed of clay, the thicknesse thereof could not
    be known. And there, uppon Monday nexte after the feast of St. John
    Baptist, was layd the first stone, and that stone layd Dame Margaret
    Tylney, and thereuppon layd she vl. sterling. The nexte stone was layd
    by S^r John Tattersall, prson of Boston, who layd down thereuppon vl.
    sterling. And Richard Stevenson, merchant of the Staple, layd the third
    stone, and thereuppon vl. sterling. And these were all the great guifts
    that at that time were given thereunto. Remaining amongst the records
    at Lincolne.

    THO. TURNER."

H. T. H.

Sheffield.

_Fleshed, Meaning of_ (Vol. vi., p. 578.).--Johnson (edit. 1823) glosses
_to flesh_ (from Sidney), to harden in any practice. An old author, in a
passage which I have lately read, though I cannot now refer to it, talks of
vice being _fleshed_ (_i.e._ ingrown) in a man.

W. BARNES.

Dorchester.

_Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh, 1543_ (Vol. vii., p. 66.).--I know
of no detailed account of this prelate, and am unable to furnish any
particulars in addition to those stated by A. S. A., except that "he died
in a convent of Jesuits at Paris, on the 10th of November, 1551," as stated
by Ware, vol. i. p. 94. of his _Works_, Dublin, 1739. I may also add the
following remark, which I find in a note, by M. Le Courayer, to his French
translation of Fra-Paolo Sarpi's _History of the Council of Trent_ (London,
1736), tome i. p. 221.:

    "La raillerie que fait de lui Fra-Paolo, en le louant de bien courir la
    poste, et qu'il a tirée de Sleidan, vient apparemment du nombre de
    voyages qu'il fit en Allemagne, en France, et ailleurs, pour exécuter
    différentes commissions, dont il fut chargé par les Papes."

TYRO.

Dublin.

_Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting_ (Vol. vii., p. 65.).--Karelvan
Glander, _Leven der beroemdste Schilders, Hollandsche en Vlaamsche_ (Lives
of the most celebrated Dutch and Flemish Painters). This work is of the
beginning of the seventeenth century. A better work is the _Levens der
beroemdste Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Schilders_, by Immerzeel, published in
1836.

H. v. L.

_Furmety or Frumenty_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.).--ERICA asks if _furmety_ can
claim descent from the once popular dish plum-porridge, mentioned in the
_Tatler_ and _Spectator_.

Though not a direct answer, the following quotation from Washington
Irving's _Sketch Book_ will show that it was in request at the season when
_plum-pudding_ abounds, notwithstanding the orthodoxy of its use on
Mid-Lent Sunday. In his account of the Christmas festivities at Bracebridge
Hall, speaking of the supper on Christmas Eve, he says:

    "The table was abundantly spread with substantial fare, but the Squire
    made his supper of _frumenty_, a dish made of wheat cakes boiled in
    milk, with rich spices, _being a standing dish in old times for
    Christmas Eve_."

W. H. COTTON.

_Etymology of Pearl_ (Vol. vi., p. 578.; Vol. vii., p. 18.).--SIR EMERSON
TENNENT inquires as to the antiquity of the word _pearl_ in the English
language. _Pærl_ occurs in Anglo-Saxon (Bosworth in v.), and corresponding
forms are found in the Scandinavian languages, as well as in the Welsh and
Irish. The old German form of the word is _berille_. Richardson in v.
quotes an instance of the adjective _pearled_ from Gower, who belongs to
the fourteenth century. The use of _union_ for _pearl_, cited by SIR E.
TENNENT from Burton, is a learned application of the word, and never was
popular in our language.

I may add that Muratori inserts the word _perla_ in the _Italian Glossary_,
in his 33rd Dissertation on Italian Mediæval Antiquities. He believes the
origin of the word to be Teutonic, but throws no light on the subject. It
appears from Halliwell's _Arch. and Prov. Dictionary_, that white spots in
the eyes were anciently called _pearls_. McCulloch, _Commercial Dictionary_
in v., particularly speaks of the pear-shaped form of the pearl; and, on
the whole, the supposition that _perula_ is equivalent to _pear-ling_,
seems the most probable.

L.

_Folkestone_ (Vol. vi., p. 507.).--Various etymologies have been given with
a view of arriving at the right one for this town. I have to inform you
that the places of that part of Kent where Folkeston, so properly spelt on
the seal of the ancient priory, is situated, receive their etymologies from
local or geological distinctions. Folkeston forms no exception to the
general rule. The soil consists of a most beautiful yellow sand, such as
the {167} Romans distinguished by the word _Fulvus_. This the Saxons
contracted into Fulk, which word has become a family prenomen, as in
Fulke-Greville, Fulk-Brooke; in other terms, the yellow Greville or yellow
Brook; and Folkeston is nothing more than the yellow town, so called from
the nature of the soil on which it is built.

S.

_The Curfew Bell_ (Vol. vi., p. 53.).--

    "During the last 700 years, the curfew bell has been regularly tolled
    in the town of Sandwich: but now it is said it is to be discontinued,
    in consequence of the corporation funds being at so low an ebb as not
    to allow of the payment of the paltry sum of some 4l. or 5l. per
    annum."--_Kentish Observer._

ANON.

_Confirmation Superstition_ (Vol. vi., p. 601.).--It is singular, that
though the office is called "the laying on of _hands_," the rubric says,
"the bishop shall lay his _hand_ on the head of every one severally." When
was the [Greek: epithesis cheirôn] (Heb. vi. 2.) changed into an [Greek:
epithesis cheiros]?

A. A. D.

_Degree of B.C.L._ (Vol. vii., p. 38.).--On Feb. 25, 1851, a statute was
passed at Oxford, by Convocation, which requires that the candidate for the
degree of B.C.L. should have passed his examination for the degree of B.A.,
and attended one course of lectures with the Regius Professor of Civil Law.
In the case of particular colleges, twenty terms must have been kept: by
members of other colleges, twenty-four terms must have been completed. The
examination is upon the four books, or any part of them, of the _Institutes
of Justinian_, or works which serve to illustrate them in the science of
civil law, of which six months' notice is previously given by the Regius
Professor.

At Cambridge, a B.A. of four years' standing can be admitted LL.B. The
candidate must have passed the previous examination; attended the lectures
of the professor for three terms; be examined; and after four years'
standing, and residence of three terms, keep his act.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

_Robert Heron_ (Vol. vi., p. 389.).--The literary career of this individual
in London is selected by D'Israeli as an illustration of his _Calamities of
Authors_. Some farther particulars of him, in an editorial capacity, will
be found in _Fraser's Magazine_, vol. xx. p. 747.

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

_Shakspeare's "Twelfth Night"_ (Vol. vii., p. 51.).--If the term "case," as
applied to apparel, requires any further elucidation, it may be found in
the "Certaine opening and drawing Distiches," prefixed to Coryat's
_Crudities_, 4to., 1611. And the engraved title, which the verses are
intended to explain, places before the eye, in a most unmistakeable form,
the articles which compose a man's "case."

F. S. Q.

_Catcalls_ (Vol. vi., pp. 460. 559.).--For a long and humorous dissertation
upon this instrument, I beg to refer your sceptical correspondent M. M. E.
to page 130. of a scarce and amusing little work, entitled _A Taste of the
Town, or a Guide to all Publick Diversions, &c._; London, printed and sold
by the booksellers of London and Westminster, 1731, 12mo. The passages are
not unworthy of transcription; but, I fear, would be too long for insertion
in your columns.

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

"_Plurima, pauca, nihil_," (Vol. vi., p. 511.; Vol. vii., p. 96.).--The
following couplet will be found in Jo. Burch. Menckenii _De Charlataneria
Eruditorum Declamationes_, page 181. of the edit. Amst. 1727. The lines are
there given as a specimen of "versus quos Galli vocant _rapportez_:"

 "Vir simplex, fortasse bonus, sed Pastor ineptus,
    Vult, tentat, peragit, plurima, pauca, nihil."

N. B.

I have met with the following metrical proverb, which may afford
satisfaction to your correspondent, which dates certainly before 1604:

 "Modus retinendorum amicorum.

  Temporibus nostris quicunque placere laborat,
  Det, capiat, quærat, plurima, pauca, nihil."

Also this:

 "Plurima des, perpauca petas, nil accipe: si nil
  Accipias, et pauca petas, et plurima dones,
  Gratus eris populo, te mille sequentur amici.
  Si nihilum trades, citò eris privatus amico:
  Plurima si quæres, multam patiêre repulsam:
  Si multa accipias, populus te dicet avarum.
  Nil cape, pauca petas, des plurima, habebis amicos."

W. C. H.

_Ben Jonson's adopted Sons_ (Vol. v., pp. 537. 588.).--I had made some
Notes on this subject, but have never seen stated that their number was
limited to _twelve_. I have got _ten_ on _my_ list, but am unable at
present to give my authorities; but I can assure your INQUIRER, at p. 537.,
that their names are _honestly_ come by:

    "Thomas Randolph, Richard Brome, William Cartwright, Sir Henry
    Morrison, James Howell, Joseph Rutter, Robert Herrick, Lord Falkland,
    Sir John Suckling, Shackerly Marmion."

S. WMSON.

_Mistletoe_ (Vol. vi., p. 589.).--Mistletoe grows on _one oak_ in Hackwood
Park, near Basingstoke, where it is extremely plentiful on hawthorns.

J. P. O.

{168}

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

The Camden Society has, after a long silence, just issued a volume, _The
Camden Miscellany, Volume the Second_, which from the variety and interest
of its contents, cannot but be acceptable to all the members. These
contents are, I. _Account of the Expenses of John of Brabant, and Henry and
Thomas of Lancaster, 1292-93._--II. _Household Account of the Princess
Elizabeth, 1551-52._--III. _The Bequeste and Suite of a True-hearted
Englishman, written by William Cholmeley, 1553._--IV. _Discovery of the
Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell in March, 1627-28._--V. _Trelawny
Papers._--VI. _Autobiography of William Taswell, D. D._ This, which is the
first book for the year 1852-53, will be immediately followed by a volume
of _Verney Papers_, editing by Mr. Bruce; and this probably by _The
Domesday of St. Paul's_, editing by Archdeacon Hale, or _The Correspondence
of Lady Brilliana Harley_, editing by the Rev. T. T. Lewis. Early in the
ensuing Camden year, which commences on the 1st of May, two volumes of
considerable interest may be looked for, namely, _The Roll of the Household
Expenses of Richard Swinfield, Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289-90,
with illustrations from other and coeval Documents_ by the Rev. John Webb;
and _Regulæ Inclusarum, The Ancren Rewle, A Treatise on the Rules and
Duties of Monastic Life, addressed to a Society of Anchorites by Simon of
Ghent_, a work valuable for philology, for it is written in the semi-Saxon
dialect of the thirteenth century, and curious for its illustration of
ancient manners. It will be accompanied by a translation by the Rev. James
Morton, the editor.

_The Architectural, Archæological, and Historic Society for the County,
City, and Neighbourhood of Chester_, has just published the Second Part of
its Journal, in which objects of local interest are made available for much
instructive information; and to accomplish which the conductors have, and
as we think wisely, preferred a great number of apt illustrations, executed
without any pretence to artistic skill, to a _few_ expensive and
highly-finished engravings.

Our Dutch neighbours seem to enjoy as much as ourselves the humour of
Charles Dickens. Not only is _Bleak House_ regularly translated as it
appears, but in a bookseller's circular which has just reached us, we see
announced translations of the _Sketches by Boz_, and of a _Selection from
Household Words_.

There is much tact required in writing for children, and no small share of
this is exhibited in a _History of France for Children_, which Viscount
Cranborne has just compiled for the use of his nieces. The principal events
are brought forward in succession, and related in a plain, unaffected
style, well calculated for youthful readers.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Joan of Arc, by Lord Mahon_, the new number of Murray's
_Railway Library_, is a reprint, from the noble author's _Historical
Essays_, of his careful summary of Joan's extraordinary
history.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica, a Library Manual of Theological and
General Literature_, the fifth part of Mr. Darling's most useful guide for
authors, preachers, students, and literary men.--_Synodalia, a Journal of
Convocation_, Nos. 1. to 4.; four parts of a monthly periodical, instituted
not so much for the purpose of securing immediately synodical action in the
Church, as with the view of preparing the public mind for its
reception.--_Ferdinand I. and Maximilian II. of Austria, or a view of the
Religion and Political State of Germany after the Reformation._ An able and
instructive essay by Professor Von Ranke, well translated for _Longman's
Traveller's Library_ by Sir A. and Lady Duff Gordon.--_Kidd's Own Journal
for January, 1853_. The new number of a journal which deserves the notice
of all lovers of natural history and keepers of pets.--_Remains of Pagan
Saxondom, principally from Tumuli in England_, by J. Y. Akerman; Part III.,
containing _Beads, Crystal Ball, and Bulla_ from Breach Down, and _Glass
Vase_ from Cuddesden, drawn of their original size and coloured.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

CHRONON-HO-TON-THOLOGOS, by H. CAREY.

THE DRAGON OF WANTLEY, by H. CAREY.

GAMMER GURTON'S STORY BOOKS, edited by AMBROSE MERTON. 13 Parts (Original
Edition).

HAYWARD'S BRITISH MUSEUM. 3 Vols. 12mo. 1738.

THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED. 4to. 1726.

ILLUSTRATED COMMENTARY ON THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. Vol. I. 1840. Knight.

HISTORY OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT, by PRIDEAUX. Vol I. 1717-18.

MENAGERIES--QUADRUPEDS: "Library of Entertaining Knowledge," Vol. II.

PETER SIMPLE. Illustrated Edition. Saunders and Otley. Vols. II. and III.

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS OF QUEENS OF ENGLAND, by HANNAH LAWRANCE. Vol. II.

INGRAM'S SAXON CHRONICLE. 4to. London, 1823.

NEWMAN'S FERNS. Large Edition.

ENIGMATICAL ENTERTAINER. Nos. I. and II. 1827 and 1828. Sherwood & Co.

NORTHUMBRIAN MIRROR. New Series. 1841, &c.

BRITISH DIARY FOR 1794, by COTES and HALL.

REUBEN BURROW'S DIARIE, 1782-1788.

MARRAT'S SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL. New York.

MATHEMATICAL CORRESPONDENT (American).

LEEDS CORRESPONDENT. Vol. V., Nos. 1, 2, and 3.

MATHEMATICAL MISCELLANY. 1735.

WHITING'S SELECT EXERCISES, with KEY.

WALTON AND COTTON'S ANGLER, by HAWKINS. Part II. 1784.

DE LA CROIX'S CONNUBIA FLORUM. Bathoniæ, 1791. 8vo.

REID'S HISTORICAL BOTANY. Windsor, 1826. 3 Vols. 12mo.

ANTHOLOGIA BOREALIS ET AUSTRALIS.

FLORILEGIUM SANCTARUM ASPIRATIONUM.

LADERCHII ANNALES ECCLESIASTICI, 3 tom. fol. Romæ, 1728-1737.

TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 1831-1839.

THE BOOK OF ADAM.

THE TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS, THE SONS OF JACOB.

MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second Edition. 1813.

SPECTATOR. Vols. V and VII. 12mo. London, 1753.

COSTERUS (FRANÇOIS) CINQUANTE MEDITATIONS DE TOUTE L'HISTOIRE DE LA PASSION
DE NOSTRE SEIGNEUR. 8vo. Anvers, Christ. Plantin.; or any of the works of
Costerus in any language.

GUARDIAN. 12mo.

WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, by a
Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848.

LETTER OF CHURCH RATES, by RALPH BARNES. 8vo. London, 1837.

COLMAN'S TRANSLATION OF HORACE DE ARTE POETICA. 4to. 1783.

BOSCAWEN'S TREATISE ON SATIRE. London, 1797.

JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I.

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol. I. Macrone, 1840.

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 12mo. 1808.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789.

{169} OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1768.

EDMONDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780.

SERMONS AND TRACTS, by W. ADAMS, D.D.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. wanted.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES" 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

J. F. (Halifax). _How can a letter be addressed to this Correspondent?_

J. O., _who inquired respecting_ Johanna Southcote. _How can we forward a
letter to him?_

MOUSEY. _A cat is called_ Grimalkin, _or more properly_ Gray Malkin, _from
the name of a Fiend supposed to assume the shape of a cat. Shakspeare, in
his_ Macbeth, _makes the First Witch exclaim_,

 "I come, Graymalkin."

E. J. G. _We must refer our Correspondent to the critical commentators on
the passage: Lowth or Wintle, for instance._

INQUISITOR, _who writes respecting_ Rotten Row, _is referred to our_ 1st
Vol., p. 441.; 2nd Vol., p. 235.; _and our_ 5th Vol., pp. 40. 160.

F. R. D. (Dublin). _The arms on the impression of the seal forwarded by our
Correspondent are obviously German, from the helmet, the style of
lambrequin, and more particularly from the charges or bearings of which the
coat is composed. It is probably of the date assigned to it by_ F. R. D.

SHAW'S STAFFORD MSS. _We have a note for our Correspondent on this
subject_, N. C. L. _Where shall it be sent?_

O. G. _Will our Correspondent kindly favour us with the notices of Dr.
Deacon contained in Townshend's_ Common-Place Book, _for the benefit of
another member of the literary brotherhood, who, we know, has been for some
time past making collections for a Life of that remarkable Nonjuring
bishop?_

REPLIES TO PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENTS _next week_.

AN ANXIOUS INQUIRER _should state more precisely what branch of Photography
he intends to pursue. Professor Hunt's_ Manual of Photography, _of which
the Third Edition has just been published, is the fullest which has yet
appeared in this country. He will obtain Lists of Prices of Lenses,
Cameras, &c. from any of the Photographic Houses whose Advertisements
appear in our columns._

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. _All communications respecting this Society should be
addressed to the Honorary Secretary, "Roger Fenton, Esq., 2. Albert
Terrace, Albert Road, Regent's Park."_

_Errata._--No. 171. p. 136. col. 2. line 48. for "with" read "in;" and p.
137. col. 1. l. 18. for "remark" read "mask."

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


M. GUIZOT ON THE FINE ARTS.

Now ready, medium 8vo., cloth extra, 14s.

THE FINE ARTS: THEIR NATURE AND RELATIONS. With detailed Criticisms on
Certain Pictures of the Italian and French Schools. By M. GUIZOT.
Translated from the French, with the assistance of the Author, by GEORGE
GROVE. With 17 Illustrations, drawn on Wood by GEORGE SCHARF, Jun.

London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 215. Regent Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c.

ASHBEE & DANGERFIELD, LITHOGRAPHERS, DRAUGHTSMEN, AND PRINTERS, 18. Broad
Court, Long Acre.

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that they devote particular attention
to the execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FAC-SIMILES, comprising Autograph
Letters, Deeds, Charters, Title-pages, Engravings, Woodcuts, &c., which
they produce from any description of copies with the utmost accuracy, and
without the slightest injury to the originals.

Among the many purposes to which the art of Lithography is most
successfully applied, may be specified,--ARCHÆOLOGICAL DRAWINGS,
Architecture, Landscapes, Marine Views, Portraits from Life or Copies,
Illuminated MSS., Monumental Brasses, Decorations, Stained Glass Windows,
Maps, Plans, Diagrams, and every variety of illustrations requisite for
Scientific and Artistic Publications.

PHOTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS lithographed with the greatest care and exactness.

LITHOGRAPHIC OFFICES, 18. Broad Court, Long Acre, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may
now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas: Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published, 8vo., sewed, price 2s. 6d., or by Post, 3s.

THE GHOST OF JUNIUS: or, the Author of the celebrated "Letters" by this
Anonymous Writer identified with Lieut.-General Sir Robert Rich, Bart. By
FRANCIS AYERST.

 "Look, my Lord, it comes!"
              _Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 4.

London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 215. Regent Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 8vo., price 6s. 6d., the Third Edition of

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE WRITINGS AND OPINIONS OF JUSTIN MARTYR. By JOHN KAYE,
D.D., Lord Bishop of Lincoln.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had, by the same Author,

1. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

2. TERTULLIAN. Third Edition. 11s. 6d.

3. THE COUNCIL OF NICÆA, in Connexion with the LIFE of ATHANASIUS. (Nearly
ready.)

       *       *       *       *       *


This day, fcap. 8vo., 3s.

ON THE LESSONS IN PROVERBS. Five Lectures. By RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCH, B.
D., Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Oxford; and Professor of
Divinity, King's College, London.

By the same Author.

ON THE STUDY of WORDS. Six Lectures. Fourth Edition. 3s. 6d.

NOTES on the PARABLES. Fifth Edition. 12s.

NOTES on the MIRACLES. Third Edition. 12s.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


On 1st of February, price 1s., No. II. New Series.

THE ECCLESIASTIC.

          CONTENTS:

  The Religion of the Fine Arts.
  Master on the Occasional Services of the Church.
  Bishops, Patrons, and Presentees.
  The New Editions of Bishop Wilson.
  Greek Hymnology.
  Cambridge Edition of Minucius Felix.
  Religious Opinions in Ireland.
  Reviews and Notices.

Also, price 1s. 6d. No. XCIV. (LVIII. New Series) of

THE ECCLESIOLOGIST. Published under the Superintendence of the
Ecclesiological, late Cambridge Camden Society.

CONTENTS:--Ely Cathedral; The Rood-Screen and the Iconostasis (No. I.); Mr.
Beckman on Swedish Churches and Church Offices; "Godwin's History in
Ruins;" The Department of Practical Art and the Architectural Museum; The
Ecclesiological Motett Society; Messrs. Bowman and Crowther; "Churches of
the Middle Ages;" English Service Books at Cambridge; The Munich Glass in
Kilndown Church; Architectural Institute of Scotland; Transactions of the
Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society; New Churches and Restorations; Mr.
Helmore's Lecture at Brighton; Wells Cathedral; Reports, &c.

London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street, and New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


MONASTICON DIOCOESIS EXONIENSIS.

THE REV. DR. G. OLIVER'S MONASTICON DIOCOESIS EXONIENSIS: being a
Collection of Records and Instruments illustrating the Ancient Conventual,
Collegiate, and Eleemosynary Foundations in Devon and Cornwall. Folio,
cloth boards (published at 4l.), now reduced to 1l. 16s. 1846. The same,
half bound in morocco, tops gilt, 2l. 6s. 1846.

Just published, gratis, and post free,

A. HOLDEN'S EXETER BOOK CIRCULAR. Parts II. and III. A Catalogue of
Second-hand Books, of all classes, in good condition.

Exeter: A. HOLDEN. London: NATTALI & BOND.

{170}

       *       *       *       *       *


ROSS'S PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE LENSES.--These lenses give
correct definition at the centre and margin of the picture, and have their
visual and chemical acting foci coincident.

_Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports_, p. 274.

    "Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture having the greatest intensity
    yet produced, by procuring the coincidence of the chemical actinic and
    visual rays. The spherical aberration is also very carefully corrected,
    both in the central and oblique pencils."

    "Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in the Exhibition. It if
    furnished with a double achromatic object-lens, about three inches
    aperture. There is no stop, the field is flat, and the image very
    perfect up to the edge."

Catalogues sent upon Application.

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

The WAXED-PAPER PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY. New Edition.
Translated from the last Edition of the French.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS., Foster Lane, London.

Manufacturers of Photographic Apparatus and Materials, consisting of
Cameras, Stands, Coating Boxes, Pressure Frames, Glass and Porcelain
Dishes, &c., and pure Photographic Chemicals, suited for practising the
Daguerreotype, Talbotype, Waxed-Paper, Albumen and Collodion Processes,
adapted to stand any Climate, and fitted for the Requirements of the
Tourist or Professional Artist.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, has
now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to
    yours.

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall
Mall.

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
Photography, according to the instructions of Hunt, Le Gray, Brébisson, &c.
&c., may be obtained of WILLIAM BOLTON, Manufacturer of pure chemicals for
Photographic and other purposes.

Lists of Prices to be had on application.

146. Holborn Bars.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.

HONORARY PRESIDENTS.

  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan

LONDON BOARD.

_Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
_Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.

MEDICAL OFFICERS.

_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.
James's.
_Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as
follows:--

  ---------+----------+--------------------+----------
    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
  ---------+----------+---------+----------+----------
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0
  ---------+----------+---------+----------+----------

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident
Director.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE GERMAN LANGUAGE.--MR. EGESTORFF, translator of Klopstock's Messiah,
respectfully announces that he is forming Classes for reading the German
Drama, his own English versions, and the German original. The Readings may
take place either at his Lodging, No. 8. Gillingham Street, Pimlico, or at
the residence of one of the members.

Particulars may be obtained on application to MR. EGESTORFF. The Readings
will commence with Schiller's Wallenstein, Mary Stuart, the Maid of
Orleans, some Lyric Poems, &c. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--To be sold, a splendid Achromatic Double Combination
Lens. The apertures, seven and eight inches, applicable for portraits, or
one of the Lenses for views; the Proprietor leaving England. Apply
immediately to A.B., 3. Jewin Crescent, Aldersgate Street. To save trouble,
price 60l.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

                           _Trustees._
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       * {171}


INCORPORATED ACCORDING TO ACT OF PARLIAMENT.

ATHENÆUM INSTITUTE FOR AUTHORS AND MEN OF SCIENCE, 30. SACKVILLE STREET,
LONDON.

  _Vice-Presidents._
  The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bristol, &c.
  The Right Hon. the Lord Justice Knight Bruce, &c.
  The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, M.P., &c.
  Lieut.-General Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, G.C.H., &c.
  The Right Hon. Viscount Goderich, M.P., &c.
  The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Monck, M.P.
  Sir George Thomas Staunton, Bart., D.C.L, F.R.S., M.P., &c.

  _Honorary Directors._
  The Hon. J. Master Owen Byng.
  William Coningham, Esq.
  William Ewart, Esq., M.P.
  Charles Kemble, Esq.
  Edward Miall, Esq., M.P.
  Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., M.P.
  Apsley Pellatt, Esq., M.P.
  Henry Pownall, Esq.
  Wm. Scholefield, Esq., M.P.
  The Hon. C. Pelham Villiers, M.P.
  James Wyld, Esq.

  _Treasurer._
  Sir John Dean Paul, Bart.

  _Trustees._
  Thomas J. Arnold, Esq.
  Herbert Ingram, Esq.
  F.G.P. Nelson, Esq., F.L.S.

  _Auditors._
  Alexander Richmond, Esq.
  William Smalley, Esq.

  _Business Directors._
  _Chairman._--Lieut.-General Palby, C.B.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--J. Stirling Coyne, Esq.

  Bayle Bernard, Esq.
  Shirley Brooks, Esq.
  W. Downing Bruce, Esq.
  J. B. Buckstone, Esq.
  Thornton Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Lewes, Esq.
  Cyrus Redding, Esq.
  Angus B. Reach, Esq.

  _Managing Director._
  F. G. Tomlins, Esq.

  _Secretary._
  Wm. Dalton, Esq.

  _Solicitor._
  G. E. Dennes, Esq., F.L.S.

  _Consulting Actuary._
  R. Thompson Jopling, Esq., F.S.S.

  _Bankers._
  Messrs. Strahan, Paul, Paul, and Bates. 217. Strand.

  _Agent._
  Mr. C. Mitchell, Newspaper Press Directory Office, Red Lion Court, Fleet
      Street.

CONSTITUTION.

The Athenæum Institute is legally incorporated as a Mutual Benefit Society,
and the rank and public status of its Vice-Presidents, Honorary Directors,
Trustee, and Treasurer, and the well-known character of its business
Directors, present a security to Authors, Journalists, and all connected
with Literature, that it is based on sound principles, and will be
conducted with fidelity and honour.

It consists of two classes of Supporters.

    _Non-Participating or Honorary Subscribers_, who, it is hoped, may
    include THE ROYAL FAMILY and great Officers of the state, on account of
    the political and moral influences of Authors; NOBLEMEN and MEN OF
    FORTUNE who have manifested a marked predilection for Literature;
    AUTHORS OF FORTUNE and others sympathising with, and interested in the
    labours of literary men.

    _Participating Subscribers_, consisting of PROFESSIONAL AUTHORS, and
    that large mass of writers who produce the current literature of the
    age in Works of Science, Imagination, Education, and the Periodical and
    Newspaper Press of the Empire.

The Constitution of the Society is such that the general body of its
members hold the directing power. The Board of Business Directors is
elected by it, and their powers and duties, as well as those of the
officers, are clearly defined by the laws and rules of the Institute, which
are in strict conformity with the elaborate requirements of the Friendly
Societies' Act (14th and 15th Victoria, chap. 115.).

THE QUALIFICATION OF MEMBERSHIP is authorship in some shape, but a large
and liberal will be the most just interpretation of the term. As close a
definition as can be given perhaps is, that it intends to include all who
use the pen with an intellectual aim, women as well as men. The printed
forms (which can be had on application) will show more minutely what is
required to constitute membership.

REVENUE.

The distinguishing feature of the Institute is its applying the principle
of Life Assurance in all its transactions.

The _Subscriptions_ of the _Honorary Subscribers_ are applied to an
Assurance of the Life of the Donors.

For instance,--The Right Honourable Benjamin Disraeli, Esq., sends a
Donation of Twenty-five Pounds, which is immediately invested on an
Assurance on his life, and will ultimately produce to the Institute an
Endowment of 42l. Or to take another instance,--The Right Hon. Lord
Viscount Goderich subscribes Two Guineas per year, which is invested in
like manner on an Assurance on his life, and will ultimately Endow the
Institute with 100l. And thus the Honorary Subscriptions, instead of being
spent as soon as received, are made to form a Capital Fund, which will be
ultimately available, as the Lives fall in, to the Provident Members and
Participating Subscribers.

The application of the subscriptions of the Honorary Members to assuring
their lives, has these advantages:--It tends to create a large capital
fund--It enables the Honorary subscribers to see that the undertaking is
successful, before their money is expended--It transforms such
subscriptions from being an alms-giving for personal purposes, into an
Endowment for the general benefit of Literature--It is not like most alms
subscriptions to go in casual relief, but to produce a permanent result;
such as the foundation of a Hall and chambers, and ultimately the complete
organisation of Literature as a recognised profession; to endow permanent
annuities, and otherwise aid Literature by succouring Authors.

By this arrangement a very strong inducement is given to the Working
Literary Men to subscribe to this Institute and Society beyond all others:
as they will not only have all the benefits and profits arising from their
own subscriptions, but participate in the Capital Fund, which, there can be
no doubt, will be augmented by Donations, Legacies, and Endowments. There
is also the special advantage peculiar to such an Institution, of
NOMINATING A WIFE OR CHILD to receive immediately the Amount ASSURED at
decease IRRESPECTIVE OF ALL OTHER CLAIMS.

_The Subscriptions of the Participating Class_ are as follows:--

ONE GUINEA must be subscribed by every member, which goes towards the
expenses of the Institute and the support of the Philanthropic Fund. For
this he is entitled to be a candidate for assistance from the Philanthropic
Fund; has a Vote at all the General Meetings of the Institute; and will be
entitled to certain benefits from the Education and Protective Branches of
the Institute when they are brought into operation.

EVERY GUINEA SUBSCRIBED ANNUALLY _beyond_ the first Guinea above mentioned,
produces the Subscriber an Assurance on his life, according to the Tables
specially calculated by the Consulting Actuary of the Institute, and which
are in compliance with the Act of Parliament regulating such matters. The
Policies are issued by the Institute under the Friendly Societies' Act, and
which are legally guaranteed by the Athenæum Life Assurance Society, which,
also appealing more particularly to Literary and Scientific Men, has made
an arrangement that is liberal and advantageous to the Athenæum Institute.

By this arrangement every Provident Member is equally safe, whether the
members of the Institute be few or many.

One Subscriber is thus rendered as secure as a thousand.

Annual Subscribers of Two Guineas or more are entitled to become Directors:
and in awarding relief, regard will always be had to the amount subscribed.

It will be perceived by these arrangements, that every member of the
Athenæum Institute has the full value returned to him of _every_ Guinea
subscribed _beyond_ the first, in a Policy on his life; and that he also
has a participation in the Capital Fund formed by the Subscriptions,
Donations, and Endowments of the Honorary Subscribers; a privilege which it
is probable will add from fifty to a hundred per cent. to his individual
contributions.

The Friendly Societies' Act, under which the Institute is registered, will
not permit a member to make an Assurance beyond 100l., the Institute is
therefore limited to this amount: but the Athenæum Life Assurance Society,
which so liberally assists the Institute, will insure to any amount, and in
any mode. It is desirable that the members of the Institute should assure
up to the 100l. allowed by the Act, and the Tables will shew the annual
amount required, according to the Age of the Subscriber. The power of
NOMINATING A WIFE OR CHILD, irrespective of all other claimants, is also a
great inducement to assure in the Institute to the utmost amount, namely,
100l.

It is contemplated, as the Institute progresses, to add PROTECTIVE and
EDUCATIONAL Branches.

The union of numbers has established the various Commercial and
Philanthropic Institutions of the Empire, and it is earnest urged that
Authors and Journalists should take advantage of their numbers. Nothing can
be accomplished without numbers--with them everything. The appeal now made
is universal in its application to Literary workers, and it is hoped it
will be responded to so as to neutralise all cliquism, whether arising from
literary sectarianism, or the antagonism of political sentiments.

  F. G. TOMLINS, Manager,
      30. Sackville Street, London.

*** Members are admitted by the Directors (who meet monthly) according to
forms which will be transmitted on application.

Post Office Orders to be made payable to the Managing Director at Charing
Cross Money Order Office.

The Rules of the Institute, as legally drawn up by high professional
authority, and as certified by the Registrar, can be had, price 1s. 6d., or
2s. by post, pre-paid.

Prospectuses (with Tables calculated especially for this Society) may be
had, gratis, at the Office, 30. Sackville Street, or of Mr. Charles
Mitchell, Agent to the Institute, Newspaper Press Directory Office, 12. Red
Lion Court, Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{172}

NEW WORKS.

I.

LIFE OF JOAN OF ARC. An Historical Essay. By LORD MAHON. Fcap. 8vo. 1s.
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