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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 174, February 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 174, February 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 174.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Mary Stuart's Chair, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.                  197

  Inedited Letter of Warren Hastings                           198

  Mediæval Emblems of the Passion, by Norris Deck              199

  Bookselling in Calcutta                                      199

  FOLK LORE:--Subterranean Bells--Old Weather Proverb--
    Primrosen--Harvest Home Song                               200

  Inedited Poem on Chaucer                                     201

  MINOR NOTES:--"Le Balafré"--Macpherson's "Ossian"--Epitaph
    from Tichfield--"A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a
    horse!"--Weight of American Revolutionary Officers--The
    Patronymic "Mac"--Erroneous Forms of Speech--Hexameters
    from Udimore Register--Dr. Johnson--Borrowed
    Thoughts--Suggested Reprints                               201


  Rigby Correspondence                                         203

  Heraldic Queries                                             203

  On a Passage in Acts xv. 23., by J. Sansom                   204

  MINOR QUERIES:--Belatucadrus--Surname of Allan--Arms of
    Owen Glendower--Tenent and Tenet--"I hear a lion,"
    &c.--"The Exercist Day" at Leicester--Ecclus. xlvi.
    20.--Etymology of Burrow--Alexander Adamson--
    Psalmanazar--Coleridge's "Christabel"--Beaten to a
    Mummy--Hanover Rats--Pallant--Curious Fact in Natural
    Philosophy--Drying up of the Red Sea--Joan d'Arc--Diary
    of Thomas Earl, &c.                                        205

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Game of the Whetstone--
    Meals--Haughmond Abbey, Salop--"As flies to wanton
    boys"--Quotation wanted--Thomas Stanley, Bishop of Man     208


  Old Satchels                                                 209

  Statue of St. Peter                                          210

  Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman                              211

  Discovery of Planets, by Henry Walter                        211

  Story of Genoveva                                            212

  Ancient Dutch Allegorical Picture, by Dr. J. H. Todd         213

  The "Percy Anecdotes," by John Timbs                         214

  Lady Nevill's Music-book: Mode of reading the ancient
    Virginal Music, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                      214

  Scarfs worn by Clergymen, by Rev. John Jebb                  215

  Unanswered Queries regarding Shakspeare, by J. Payne Collier 216

  The Passamezzo Galliard, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault               216

    Queries on Mr. Weld Taylor's Process--Difficulties in
    the Wax-paper Process--Mr. Archer's Services to
    Photography--Mr. Weld Taylor's Iodizing Process--
    Sir J. Newton's Process                                    217

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--A Race for Canterbury--
    "The Birch: a Poem"--Curtseys and Bows--Deodorising
    Peat--Jacobite Toasts--Consecrators of English
    Bishops--Chatham's Language, &c.                           219


  Notes on Books, &c.                                          224

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 224

  Notices to Correspondents                                    224

  Advertisements                                               225

       *       *       *       *       *



On the south side of the chancel of Conington Church, Hunts., stands a
handsome, massive, and elaborately-carved oaken chair, which has been
traditionally known as the very seat from which the unfortunate Mary Stuart
rose to submit her neck to the executioner. The chair was probably brought
from Fotheringay, and placed in Conington Church as a sacred relic, by Sir
Robt. Cotton, who built Conington Castle partly with the materials of
Fotheringay, and who (according to Gough, in his additions to Camden's
_Britannia_, vol. ii., "ICENI," ed. 1789) "brought from there _the whole
room_ where Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded." By this, perhaps, is meant,
the deeply-recessed arcade that now forms the two _exterior_ sides of the
ground-floor of Conington Castle; which arcade, doubtless, was on the
_interior_ walls of Fotheringay, the windows being above it: the principal
window being supposed to be that which now forms the staircase window of
the Talbot Inn, Oundle. Modern windows have been placed within the eleven
divisions of the arcade at Conington Castle.

In speaking of Conington Church, Gough says (see _Additions to Camden_)
that "Lord Coleraine saw a chair of an Abbot of Peterborough in this
church, 1743," which must have been the chair now under notice. The nature
of its decorations shows it to have been a chair used for religious
purposes; and the six principal figures that adorn it, are made to face at
right angles with the chair; so that when it was placed on the south side
of the altar, the faces of the figures would be turned towards the east.

A full description of the chair may not be without its interest to the
readers of "N. & Q.," since (as far as I am aware) it has never yet
received more than a passing notice from the historian; and if it indeed be
a relic of Mary Stuart--as there seems good reason to believe--it deserves
more attention (in these days of minute detail) than it has hitherto

The top of the chair is battlemented, and flanked by the two side-pieces
which terminate in pediments supporting figures. Both figures are seated on
{198} low chairs of a massive ecclesiastical character. The right-hand
figure (which is headless) holds an open volume, and is apparelled in
chasuble and alb. The left-hand figure is seated on a more highly-decorated
seat, wears a crown, and is bearded; is vested in chasuble, alb, and
dalmatic; and, though the hands are deficient, evidently did not, like the
other figure, bear an open volume. Both figures face to the east. The upper
part of the back of the chair is filled in with a pointed arch, cusped, and
highly ornamented; the arcs being divided into smaller cusps, which
terminate (as do the larger) with leaves and trefoils carved with great
richness. In the spandrels of the cusps are birds with outspread wings,
bearing labels. Those on the left appear to be eagles; those on the right
have long bills, and may be intended for pelicans. The large right-hand
spandrel of the arch contains a figure of the Virgin Mary, crowned as "the
Queen of Heaven," clad in long flowing drapery, with her hands upraised,
apparently in benediction, and her hair loose and streaming. Near to her is
her emblem, the pot of lilies; the pot being much decorated, the lilies
five in number. It stands upon a label, whose folds fill up the rest of the
spandrel. The left-hand large spandrel contains the figure of an angel
feathered to the elbow and knee, his wings outspread, and a label
proceeding from one hand. The arms of the chair are divided into two parts.
The first part terminates in a graceful curve, supporting a figure: the
second part is continued with a curve, carried on into the wings of a
figure kneeling upon one knee: the intervals are filled up with open Gothic
work. The four figures on the arms are all angels, whose wings are made to
rest upon, or join into, the curved form of the chair-arm. They all face to
the east, and are clad in loose drapery; the folds of which (as in the
cases of the other figures) are carved with great minuteness, and disposed
with much knowledge of artistic effect. The upper left-hand figure holds a
trumpet; that on the right a stringed instrument, which neither resembles
the Grecian, Roman, Jewish, or Egyptian lyre, but has precisely the same
form as the modern "banjo" of the negroes. Of the two angels on the lower
divisions of the arm, the one on the right bears a legend, and the one on
the left appears to have done the same, but the arms have been broken off.
These legends may have been illuminated with texts of Scripture, &c. The
sides of the chair are recessed, and filled in with a species of Gothic
tracery that is apparently of later date than the rest. The front of the
chair is panelled, and the foot is decorated with quatrefoils in high

During the sleep of indifferentism which fell upon the church towards the
close of the past century, all interest attaching to the chair seems to
have been forgotten; and, after a lapse of years, it was discovered by the
late Mr. Heathcote, of Conington Castle, in a room of the belfry of the
church, where it had been thrust aside with other things as useless lumber,
and daubed with the whitewash and paint of the generations of workmen who
had cleansed their brushes on its broad surface. Mr. Heathcote, with a
praiseworthy regard for a relic of so much interest, resolved to replace
the chair in the position it had formerly occupied in the chancel of the
church: but before this could be done, it was necessary to repair the ill
usage which the chair had received, and to restore it, as much as possible,
to its original condition. It was accordingly confided to trustworthy and
skilful hands; the old ornamental portions were replaced, and the chair was
in every way restored strictly in accordance with its original design. It
is now in a good state of repair, and will probably remain for many ages a
mute memorial of that tragic scene in which it once played its part.

And, could we imagine the Dryad that watched over its forest-birth had
filled its oaken frame with speech and feeling: or that a greater Power had
put a voice into its shape, and caused the beam out of its timber to cry
out against the cruel death-scene in the banquet-hall of Fotheringay, we
might almost suppose it to have denounced the English Queen in the words of
the Prophet Habakkuk (ii. 10, 11.):

    "Thou hast consulted shame to thy house by cutting off many people, and
    hast sinned against thy soul. For the stone shall cry out of the wall,
    and the beam out of the timber shall answer it."

And, so long as that chair remains in the church of Conington, and the
stones of the banquet-hall of Fotheringay form a portion of its castle, so
long shall that cry go up to heaven, and tell the hapless doom of Mary


       *       *       *       *       *


The subjoined letter, believed to be unpublished, is so characteristic of
the energy and decision of the great governor-general of India, that I
think it worth recording in your publication. It appears to be written and
signed by him immediately after, as when it came into my possession the
bright sand then in use was adherent more or less to the whole document.
Sir Philip Francis and the other signature are in a different ink, and were
so awkwardly in their place, that it would indicate that those signatures
were previously obtained.

H. W. D.

"_To Capt. Robinson, Commander of the Morning Star._

(_Secret Department._)


"You are hereby commanded to proceed down the River with this Tide, to
seize all the French {199} pilot vessels and pilots which you may be able
to find, and bring them up to Calcutta.

"A pilot will be sent on board you by the Master Attendant, who will
furnish you with orders to him to point to you such pilot vessels as may be
in the service of the French nation.

"In the execution of this service the utmost secrecy is to be observed.

          We are, Sir,
              Your most obedient servants,
                      WARREN HASTINGS.
                      P. FRANCIS.
                      EDW. WHEELER.

  Fort William, 9th July, 1778."

       *       *       *       *       *


The venerable Priory Church of Great Malvern contains a series of these
emblems, among which are some I have never before met with; and as they may
be interesting to some of your readers, I have made a note of them. They
have evidently been moved from some other part of the church to their
present position in St. Anne's Chapel, and as a few of the more usual
emblems are wanting, the series has probably been more complete than it is
now. The date of the glass is the latter half of the fifteenth century, and
consists of a series of demi-angels, each bearing a shield, upon which
these emblems are depicted.

On the first are two heads, representing Judas kissing his Master, the head
of the Saviour being surrounded by the usual cruciform nimbus.

2. The reed, here drawn as a bulrush with flag leaves, crossed by a mace.

3. The lantern.

4. Christ blindfolded; represented symbolically as having a thin muslin
bandage over His eyes, which are seen through it and depicted wide open, as
if not at all affected by it.

5. Two hands issuing from the dexter side of the shield, as if in the act
of buffeting; from the sinister side issues one hand pulling a beard or
lock of hair.

6. The spear of Longinus, with drops of blood and water trickling from it,
crossed by the reed and the sponge.

7. The cock that warned St. Peter.

8. The crown of thorns.

9. The cross.

10. The falchion of St. Peter crossed by another mace.

11. The seamless vest.

12. The hammer between _two_ nails only.

13. The purse of Judas overflowing with money, represented as a merchant's

14. The ladder.

15. Two scourges or flagelli crossing each other.

16. The sacred monogram, I.H.C.

17. The five wounds.

18. St. Veronica, with the napkin outspread impressed with the sacred head.

19. An impudent repulsive head in the act of spitting.

20. The lower portion of the pillar entwined with the cord.

To this Note I wish to add a Query. Have any of your correspondents ever
met with, in similar representations, the instruments I have described as
maces in shields 2. and 10.? The first has a round termination, with three
triangular-shaped spikes issuing from it, one at the end, and one on each
side of the ball; the second has a pointed oval, or egg-shaped end, and is
quite studded with spikes, not triangular, but straight like the teeth of a
woolcomb; they evidently refer to the "weapons" mentioned in St. John
xviii. 3., and I am not aware of the existence of any similar types. I may
also state that those mentioned on shields 1. 4. 5. and 19. are by no means

While on this subject I will add a list of the other emblems I have met
with not included in this series, and shall be glad to receive from any of
your readers any additions to it.

The ear of Malchus; the two swords which they showed the Lord when He said
"It is enough;" the three dice; the pincers; the thirty pieces of silver;
the pitcher of water which our Saviour used when He washed His disciples'
feet; the towel, generally represented hanging from a ring, with which He
wiped them; the fire at which St. Peter warmed himself, and the three
spice-boxes for embalming. I shall also be glad to hear if the
representation of _two_ nails only instead of the usual number of _three_,
occurs in any other instance.


Great Malvern.

       *       *       *       *       *


Looking over your Queries this morning, my attention was drawn to that now
in course of elucidation in your pages--the origin of the phrase "Sending a
man to Coventry." I am not about to offer any explanation thereof, but
simply to chronicle in your columns, more for the amusement than the
edification of your readers, a _reminiscence_ of an eccentric application
of a passage in Shakspeare bearing upon this popular dislike to Coventry.

Any of your readers who may have visited the capital of British India will
recollect the native _kitaub-wallahs_, or booksellers, who drive a good
trade in the streets of Calcutta by thrusting their second-hand literature
into the _palanquins_ of the passers, and their pertinacity and success in
fixing _master_ with a bargain. For the information of the untravelled, I
may further remark that these _flying bibliopoles_ draw their supplies from
{200} the daily auctions arising out of the migratory habits or the
mortality to which the residents in that city are subject; and it would
somewhat astonish our _Sothebys_ and _Putticks_ to see the extent of these
sales of literary property, and derange their _tympanums_ to hear the
clamorous competition among the aforesaid half-naked dealers for lots not
catalogued with their bibliographical precision. The books thus purchased,
I may further observe, are subject to the overhaul of the better-informed
of the tribe before they make their appearance in the streets; when
deficiencies are made good, bindings vamped, and lettering attempted:
finally, they are placed in the hands of the hawkers, when the following
peculiarities are detectable:--where a title or last leaf may have been
wanting, these _Calcutta editions_ occasionally display a _prophane_ book
with a _sacred_ title; or a _pious treatise_, for the sake of the word
"Finis," made complete by affixing the last leaf of _Tristram Shandy_ or
the _Devil on Two Sticks_! Less intelligent jobbers will open their book,
and, finding the first word "Preface," clap it incontinently in gilt
letters on the back! I leave the imagination of the reader to fill up the
_cross-readings_ which would likely result from such practices, and revert
to my anecdote, which I had almost lost sight of.

Some twenty years ago, then, the dingy tribes were startled, and the
auctioneer gratified by the appearance of a new face in the _bidders'
box_--a brisk little European, who contested every lot, aiming, apparently,
at a monopoly in the second-hand book trade. Shortly thereafter, this
individual, having located himself in a commanding position, came forth in
the daily papers as a candidate for public favour; and, in allusion to the
reformation he contemplated, and his sovereign contempt for his black
brethren, headed his address, to the no small amusement of the lieges, in
the _Falstoffian_ vein:

 "... No eyes hath seen such _scarecrows_.
  I'll not march thro' Coventry with them, that's flat!"

This joke was no doubt thrown away upon his Hindoo and Mussulman rivals,
but, alas for the reformer! he little knew the cold indifference of the
Anglo-Indian about such matters, and, as might have been expected, he
failed in establishing himself in business, and ultimately fell a victim to
the climate. Of the previous history of this one, among ten thousand, who
have left their bones in the land of cholera, I know nothing beyond the
fact that he was a son of Thomas Holcroft, a dramatist of repute in his

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Subterranean Bells_ (Vol. vii., p. 128.).--The tower and nave of Tunstall
Church, Norfolk, are in ruins; the chancel alone being used for divine
service. The village tradition says, that this calamity was caused by fire;
and that the parson and churchwardens quarreled for the possession of the
bells which were uninjured. During their altercation, the arch-fiend walked
off with the subjects of dispute; but being pursued, and overtaken by the
parson--who began to exorcise in Latin--he made a way through the earth to
his appointed dwelling-place, taking them with him. The spot where this
took place is now a boggy pool of water, called Hell Hole; and an adjoining
clump of alder-trees is called Hell Carr. In summer time, a succession of
bubbles--doubtless caused by marsh gas--keep constantly appearing on the
surface. Those who believe in the tradition, find in this circumstance a
strong confirmation. For, as it is the entrance to the bottomless pit, the
bells must be descending still; and the bubbles would necessarily be caused
by bells sinking in water.

In the adjoining village of Halvergate, on the largest bell, is the
following inscription:

 "Sit cunctis annis,
  Nobis _avita Joh[=s]_."

I suppose this must be "audita Johannes," but the inscription certainly is

On the second bell:

 "Intercede pia
  Pro nobis Virgo Maria."

On the third bell, founder's name, and date 1653,--a solitary instance, I
imagine, of an addition made to a peal of bells during the Puritan triumph
of the Great Rebellion.

E. G. R.

Fisherty Brow, near Kirkby Lonsdale, supplies such an instance as J. J. S.
inquires after. There is a sort of natural hollow scooped out there, where
a church, parson, and all the people, were swallowed up ages since; and any
one who doubts it, may put his ear to the ground on a Sunday morning and
hear the bells ring!

P. P.

_Old Weather Proverb._--The old monkish Latin rhyme is very plainly
verified this year:

 "Se Sol splendescat, Mariâ purificante,
  Major erit glacies post festum, quam fuit ante."

February 2nd was a most brilliant day here, where I live, not twenty miles
from London: the ground is now covered with snow, and the frost very sharp.

 "After Candlemas Day the frost will be more,
  If the sun then shines bright, than it has been before."

 "After Candlemas Day frost will follow more keen,
  If the sun then shines bright, than before it has been."

C-- S. T. P.

W---- Rectory, Feb. 12.


_Primrosen._--The early appearance of primroses this year induces me to
trouble you with some East-Anglian folk lore concerning them, premising
that here the word still forms its plural in _en_.

At Cockfield, Suffolk, there are none, nor, it is said, do they thrive when
planted; though they are numerous in all the surrounding villages, which do
not apparently differ from Cockfield in soil.

The village legend says that here, too, they once were plentiful, but when
Cockfield was depopulated by the plague, they also caught the infection and
died, nor have they flourished since that time.

In East Norfolk some old women are still found who believe that if a less
number of primrosen than thirteen be brought into a house on the first
occasion of bringing any in, so many eggs only will each hen or goose hatch
that season. When recently admitted into deacon's orders, my gravity was
sorely tried by being called on to settle a quarrel between two old women,
arising from one of them having given one primrose to her neighbour's
child, for the purpose of making her hens hatch but one chicken out of each
set of eggs. And it was seriously maintained that the charm had been

Since then I have heard that it only has an influence over geese. Perhaps
this may account in some measure for the belief. In early seasons, persons
are induced to carry in specimens of the first spring flowers that they
find. In such seasons, too, fowls lay early, and perhaps do not
sufficiently protect their eggs. The ungenial weather which too frequently
succeeds spoils the eggs, and the effect is attributed to the "primrosen"
of course; the cases where a few flowers are brought in, and the fowls have
numerous broods, remain unnoticed.

E. G. R.

_Harvest Home Song, sung in some Parts of Surrey._--

 "We have plough'd,
  We have sow'd,
  We have reap'd,
  We have mow'd;
    Ne'er a load
      Harvest Home!"

R. W. F.


       *       *       *       *       *


I lately bought a black-letter Chaucer (1561), in which I find MS. notes by
two or three writers. One is in rather a crabbed handwriting, and dates
from 1574. I must own to being unable to decipher this gentleman's notes to
my satisfaction; but the writing of another is clear and distinct. There
are a few emendations on the "Rime of Sire Thopas," and the following
"Eulogium Chaucerj." I do not know whether it has appeared anywhere in
print before; and as my reading in the British poets is too limited for me
to say anything about its author, I should be glad if you or any one of
your correspondents would inform me who the lines are by:--

          _Eulogium Chaucerj._

  Geffrye Chaucer, the worthiest flower
  Of English Poetrie in all the Bower.
  So as w^{th} hym we maye compare
  W^{th} Italy for Poet rare.
  Dant, nor Boccace, nor Petracqu fyne,
  But Chaucer he w^{th} them may syng.
  W^{th} woords so fitt and sense so deepe,
  His matters all he can so riepe,
  The Muses nyne, I thynck their teats
  To his sweete lypps did sweetly reatch.
  As Plato, in his cradle Nest,
  Is saied of Bees to haue bene blest.
  So as, by Nature, noe man can,
  W^{th}out rare guyst, prove such a man.
  The rare euents that haue bene sence,
  O how they call for his defence!
  Though many one hath done his parte,
  Yett he alone had toucht the harte.
  Sith he then is so peereles fownd,
  For hym lett bee the Laurell crowne,
  And all the Birds of pleasaunt laye,
  Therein lett them both syng and playe,
  As itt weare ioygnyng all there noats,
  W^{th} his sweet music and records.
  O that, as nowe he sounds w^{th} penn,
  His lyvely voice myght sownd agayne.
  But Natures debt we must pay all,
  And soe he hath, and soe we shall.
  Though for his other parts of grace
  Chaucer will live and shewe his face.

T. A. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

"_Le Balafré._"--I was surprised to see that Miss Strickland, in the three
volumes published of the _Lives of the Queens of Scotland_, always ascribes
this well-known sobriquet to Francis, second Duke of Guise, instead of his
son Henry, third duke. This is a mistake which I should have thought the
merest tyro in history could not have committed about persons of so much
note, and affords another instance of what Messrs. Macaulay and Alison had
already exemplified, that writers of the most profound research will often
err as to matters which lie, as it were, on the very surface.


_Macpherson's "Ossian."_--It would appear as if Macpherson had picked up
his information about British history in the pages of a kindred spirit,
Geoffrey of Monmouth, for certainly he could have found in no other writer
that Caracalla and Carausius were cotemporaries.



_Epitaph from Tichfield._--The curious epitaph which I inclose was copied,
as closely as possible, from a monument in Tichfield Church, Hants. You may
perhaps think it worthy of a place in "N. & Q."

   "The Hvsband, speakinge trewly of his Wife,
    Read his losse in hir death, hir praise in life.

  Heare Lucie Quinsie Bromfield buried lies,
  With neighbours sad deepe weepinge, hartes, sighes, eyes.
  Children eleaven, tenne livinge me she brought.
  More kind, trewe, chaste was noane, in deed, word, thought.
  Howse, children, state, by hir was ruld, bred, thrives.
  One of the best of maides, of women, wives,
  Now gone to God, her heart sent long before;
  In fasting, prayer, faith, hope, and alms' deedes stoare.
  If anie faulte, she loved me too much.
  Ah, pardon that, for ther are too fewe such!
  Then, reader, if thou not hard-hearted bee,
  Praise God for hir, but sighe and praie for mee.

    Here by hir dead, I dead desire to lie,
    Till, rais'd to life, wee meet no more to die.


_"A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!" Richard III., Act V. Sc.
4._--In the edition of the _Walewein_ published by Professor Jonckbloet,
Leyden, 1846, is found, vol. ii. p. 178., a remarkable parallel passage to
the world-famed line of Shakspeare, the verses 16007-8 of the _Lancelot_, a
romance of the Middle Ages:

   "Addic wapine ende een pard,
    In gaeft niet om een conincrike."

 "Had I weapons and a horse,
  I would not give them for a kingdom."
                  _From the Navorscher._

J. M.

_Weight of American Revolutionary Officers._--On the 10th of August, 1778,
the American officers at West Point were weighed, with the following

  Gen. Washington           209
  Gen. Lincoln              224
  Gen. Knox                 280
  Gen. Huntingdon           182
  Gen. Greaton              166
  Col. Swift                319
  Col. Michael Jackson      252
  Col. Henry Jackson        238
  Lt.-Col. Huntingdon       212
  Lieut.-Col. Cobb          182
  Lt.-Col. Humphreys        221

Only three of the eleven weighed less than two hundred pounds,--a result
which does not confirm the Abbé Raynal's theory of the deterioration of
mankind in America.



_The Patronymic "Mac."_--The _Inverness Courier_ of 1823 gives a list of
genuine Celtic surnames beginning with _Mac_, amounting to no less than


_Erroneous Forms of Speech._--Should you consider the following as worth a
place in your publication, they are at your service.

1. The much used word _Te_e_total_ is wrong: it ought to be written
_Te_a_total_. It implies the use of _tea_, instead of intoxicating liquors:
that was its original meaning. Let us return to the proper spelling. Better
late than never.

2. The expression, lately become very common, "_Up_ to the present time,"
and so forth, is wrong. It ought to be "_Down_ to the present time." The
stream of time, like all other streams, is always descending. In tracing a
thing backwards, from the present time, it is quite right to use the word

3. The words _down_ and _up_ are much misapplied by the inhabitants of the
provinces in another sense, not knowing, or forgetting that, _par
excellence_, London is considered the highest locality: _from_ every place,
how high soever its position, it is "_up_ to London," and _to_ every such
place, it is "_down_ from London." In London itself, St. Paul's Cathedral
is considered as the highest or central point; and in every street
radiating from that point, it is _up_ when going towards it, and _down_
when going from it. In going from St. Paul's to the Poultry we go _down

4. The inhabitants of provincial towns and cities are much in the habit of
saying such a person is not "in town" to-day. That is wrong: they ought to
say "in _the_ town." The word _town_ is, _par excellence_, applicable to
London alone.



_Hexameters from Udimore Register._--The following hexameters are copied
from the fly-leaf of a register-book which dates back to 1500. They were
written by a vicar in Elizabeth's reign. The burden of the lament is, that
the tithes, now worth about 500l. a-year, had been sold by a "sordid
unprophetick priest" for 30l. per annum, and that consequently all his
successors found themselves "vicars without tithes." The register-book is
in the church of Udimore, near Rye, in Sussex:

 "Udimer infelix! nimis est cui Presbyter unus;
  Presbyter infelix! cui non satis Udimer una;
  Impropriator habet Clero quæ propria durus,
  Atque alter Proprios Clerus peregrinus et hospes;
  Ex decimis decimis fruitur vir lege sacerdos
  Alter Evangelio reliquis prohibente potitur
  Eheu! quam pingui macer est mihi passer in arvo
  Idem est exitium fidei fideique ministro
                      Ita queritur
                          STEP. PARR, Vic."

J. MN.

_Dr. Johnson._--The parchment containing the grant of the freedom of the
city of Aberdeen to the "Literary Colossus," in 1773, once the property of
{203} Mrs. Piozzi, was sold in Manchester in August, 1823, to an eminent
bookseller in Bond Street.


_Borrowed Thoughts._--We often hear the man who, from his more advanced
position, looks with contempt on the wisdom of past ages, likened to the
child mounted on his father's shoulder, and boasting that he is the taller
of the two.

This no new idea. It is probably derived immediately from Mr. Macaulay, who
in his _Essay on Sir James Mackintosh_ says:

    "The men to whom we owe it that we have a House of Commons are sneered
    at because they did not suffer the debates of the House to be
    published. The authors of the Toleration Act are treated as bigots,
    because they did not go the whole length of Catholic Emancipation. Just
    so we have heard a baby, mounted on the shoulders of its father, cry
    out, '_How much taller I am than Papa!_'"

But it may be traced farther; for hear what Butler says (_Hudibras_, ii.

 "For as our modern wits behold,
  _Mounted a pick-back on the old_,
  Much farther off, much further he,
  Rais'd on his aged Beast, could see."



_Suggested Reprints._--Acting on the suggestion of J. M., I make a note of
the following:

    "Joshua Sprigge's _Anglia Rediviva_, London, 1647, gives a florid but
    authentic and sufficient account of this new-model army in all its
    features and operations by which England had come alive again. A little
    sparing in dates, but correct when they are given. None of the old
    books are better worth reprinting."--Carlyle's _Letters and Speeches of

I would remark, also, that there are very few collections of maxims so good
and profitable to the present time as Francis Quarles' _Enchiridion_,
London, 1702, 12mo. A reprint would be very useful. There is an article
thereon in the _Retrospective Review_, vol. v. p. 180.

K. P. D. E.

       *       *       *       *       *



In looking over old family papers, I find a bundle of letters, sixty-seven
in number, some of them very interesting, written to my grandfather by
Richard Rigby, commencing in the year 1758, and ending 1781. This Richard
Rigby, it appears, held the then sinecure office of Master of the Rolls in
Ireland, but resided altogether in England, and held office under several
administrations as Paymaster of the Forces. His letters from 1769 to 1781
are all dated from the Pay Office. He is the Mr. Rigby whose _awkward
integrity_ is alluded to by Philo-Junius in his letter of 22nd June, 1769,
and who is ironically styled "Modest" by Atticus in letter of 14th
November, 1768. My object is to endeavour to ascertain from some of your
correspondents whether there is any representative of Mr. Rigby who
possibly might have in his possession the counterpart of the correspondence
above alluded to, which to Irishmen could not fail to be of interest, and
probably of historic value. The writer was a member of the Irish House of
Commons, and, it appears, was in the habit of giving very graphic details
of Irish politics in general, and of the proceedings of the House of
Commons in particular. Under date of 8th December, 1769, Mr. Rigby thanks

    "For your constant accounts of what passes in your parliaments. If it
    was not for the intelligence I give the ministers from you and the rest
    of my friends, they would know no more of what is doing in the Irish
    Parliament than in the Turkish Divan. For (neither) the Lord Lieutenant
    nor his Secretary ever write a line to the Secretary of State."

Again, 2nd December, 1771:

    "I am much obliged to you for your constant intelligence, and so are
    greater persons than myself, for I happened to be with Lord Rochford
    to-day when his letters arrived from his Excellency, and he had sent no
    despatches of a later date than the 26th, so that his Majesty and his
    ministers would have known nothing of a report having been made by that
    committee, but for my information. Lord R. sent your letters with my
    leave to the King. They will do no discredit to the writer, especially
    when compared to that _blotting_ paper wrote by his Excellency."

In another letter he talks of the reports of speeches made by his
correspondent being far better than those of any _note-taker_; so that if
they are forthcoming, I have no doubt they would be of interest and value
to the historian of Ireland of that time.

K. K.

       *       *       *       *       *


Can any of your correspondents furnish me with the names to the following
coats of arms? Some are entire, others are lost, from the glass having been
cut to fit the divisions. These remnants form part of the chapel and hall
windows of the old Bishop's Palace (now the Deanery) at Worcester.

I. Quarterly 1 and 4. Barry of 6, azure and or, on a chief of 1st; 3
pallets between 2 gyrons of 2nd; over all an inescutcheon erm.

   Quarterly 2 and 3. Quarterly 1 and 4 a chevron between 3 roses or
cinquefoils; 2 and 3, a chevron between 3 martlets. (Colours obliterated.)

II. Sable, 3 church bells or, impaling a shield, per fess invecked (this
last cut off).

III. A saltire voided between 12 cross crosslets. {204}

IV. Quarterly 1 and 4. Arg. a chevron between 3 foxes' heads erased gu.

    Quarterly 2. Arg. on a bend sa., 3 dolphins or.

    Quarterly 3. Party per pale pily sa. and arg. impaling sa., a bordure

    Over all a crescent for difference, and shield surrounded with
following names, "Edmundus Fox secundus filius Charoli Fox, 1586." (Query,
Who were these people?)

V. Imperial crown over poppy head. (Query, Whose emblem or badge?)

VI. A bull's head sa., guttée, horned, and langued, or. (Query, Whose crest
or badge?)

VII. A chevron between 3 roundles, having for crest 2 lion's paws holding a

VIII. Sa. a chevron between 3 lions' faces or, crescent for difference,
having for crest a griffin.

IX. Or 3 Talbot's heads proper.

X. Quarterly 1. Sa. lion rampant, or.

   Quarterly 2. Paly of ---- gu. and arg. (Cut off.)

   Quarterly 3. Arg. a muscle ----. (Colour gone.)

   Quarterly 4. (Cut off.)

XI. ---- on a chevron between 3 lions' heads; 3 roses (colours gone), with
crest. A man's head and shoulders robed with eastern crown on head.

XII. Or six fleurs-de-lis sable, 3. 2. and 1., with motto "Argrete

XIII. Arg. on a chevron sa., 3 mullets of 1st between 3 lions' heads erased
of 2nd.

XIV. Sa. a chevron arg. between 3 porpoises or, impaling lion rampant.
(Colour gone.)

XV. Quarterly sa. and arg., a cross moline quarterly, erm. and ----.
(Colour gone.)

The names to these coats of arms might enable one to trace whence the
original bits came; it might be possible that the old windows of the
cathedral (said to have been destroyed) served for filling up the borders
of the old palace windows.

W. H. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


Dr. Burton (_Greek Test._, Oxford, 1848), in a note on the words [Greek:
hoi presbuteroi kai hoi adelphoi] (Acts xv. 23.), says: "Most MSS. read
[Greek: hoi presbuteroi adelphoi]." I should feel much obliged to any of
your readers who could kindly direct me to some particular manuscripts, to
which Dr. Burton may possibly have alluded when he wrote the above note; or
who could refer me to _any Greek MSS. of authority_, in which the [Greek:
kai] is not found. I have been enabled to consult the _Codex Laudianus_, a
MS. of the seventh century; also the _MS. Canon_, of the early part of the
tenth century; and the _Codex Ebner._, of the twelfth century. In neither
of these is the [Greek: kai] missing. Nor am I aware of any Greek Bible or
New Testament printed without the [Greek: kai]; nor indeed of any
translation without the conjunction (though there may be some such) in
Latin, or in any other language, with the single exception of the Vulgate
after St. Jerome, and its several versions. The Bibles of Sixtus V. and
Clement VIII., agreeing in this particular, read alike, "Apostoli et
seniores fratres." On the other hand, Vutablus, in his new translation,
reads, "Apostoli et presbyteri _et_ fratres;" which is likewise the reading
of the _interp. Syriac._, as given in the _Biblia Regia_; also of Beza, as
given in the edition of the Bible, _Oliva Roberti Stephani_, 1556; whilst
in the _Novum Testamentum e Græco archetypo Latino sermone redditum,
Theodoro Beza interprete_, ed. Hanov. 1623, the reading is, "Apostoli, et
seniores, et fratres;" which is also the reading in _Bibl. Sacr. ex
Sebastiani Castellionis interpretatione_, ed. Francofurti, 1697. To which
may be added the _Biblia Gallica_, 1580; the _Bibl. Belg._, ed. Leydæ,
1737; and Luther's German Bible,--all which retain the _and_.

I have also consulted a more important version, namely, the ancient Italic,
which also reads, "Apostoli, et seniores, _et_ fratres;" but which (in Pet.
Sabatier's edition, Par. 1751) has appended to the verse the following

    "V. 23.--_MS. Cantabr._ Scripserunt epistolam per manus suas
    continentem hæc, Apostoli, et presbyteri fratres, hiis qui sunt per
    Antiochiam, et Syriam, et Ciliciam, qui sunt ex gentibus fratribus,
    salutem.--_Græc. textui Laud._ consonat [versio _Italica_], nisi quòd
    habet [Greek: kata tên Antiocheian, kai Surian, kai Kilikian], pro
    Antiochiæ, et Syriæ, et Ciliciæ. _MSS. quidam_, pro [Greek: cheiros]
    manum, legunt [Greek: cheirôn], cum Vulg.; _aliique plures tollunt_
    [Greek: kai] _post seniores_. Irenæus, l. iii. c. 12. p. 199. a. legit:
    Apostoli, et presbyteri fratres, his qui sunt in Antiochia, et Syria,
    et Cilicia, fratribus ex gentibus salutem. S. Pacian., _Paræn. ad
    Poenit._, p. 315. h.: Apostoli, et presbyteri fratres, his qui sunt
    Antiochiæ, et Syriæ, et Ciliciæ, fratribus qui sunt ex gentibus
    salutem. Vigil. Taps. l. xii. _De Trin._, p. 329. c.: Apostoli, et
    presb. fratres, iis, qui Antiochiæ, et Syr., et Cilic. fratribus qui
    sunt ex gentibus salutem."

This note certainly goes far to corroborate (if indeed it was not the chief
authority for) Dr. Burton's assertion; but it does little to satisfy my
curiosity on a point, which I conceive to be of considerable interest, and
of no slight importance, at the present time. The Cambridge MS. appears to
be in Latin only; as is also the passage referred to in Irenæus, whose
original Greek is lost. So that, after all, there is some ground to suspect
that there in fact exists _no Greek manuscript whatsoever_ without the
[Greek: kai].

I will add another note, which I find at the passage in Irenæus (_Contr.
Hær._, lib. iii. cap. 14. p. 199., ed. Par. 1710):

    "Sic cum Irenæo habent codd. Cantabrig. et Alexand. et Vulgatus
    interpres. _At in editis Græcis_: [Greek: presbuteroi kai hoi




       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Belatucadrus._--In the _Poetical History_, by the French Jesuit, P.
Galtruchius, 5th edition, 1683, the sixteenth and closing chapter of the
first book of this history of the heathen gods is devoted to those
worshipped in England, and the last of whom mention is made is
Belatucadrus, being introduced and summarily disposed of as follows:

    "In time the idols did increase, and we find in ancient writers, some
    who have been transported hither by the eastern people, as the God
    (Abellio vocabatur in Gallia) Belenus, or Belatucadrus. The latter, to
    my knowledge, hath been adored in the north part of England; for
    lately, since the learned Camden hath mentioned him, there was a piece
    of his statue found in Westmoreland, near Brougham, a castle belonging
    to that bountiful and venerable lady, Anne Dorset, countess dowager of
    Pembrook and Montgomery, &c.; and in the bottom this inscription is to
    be seen: 'Sancto Deo Belatvcadro,' which idol was doubtless made by the
    Romans, for it was their custom to adore the gods of the country which
    they did conquer."

My object is to ascertain, if possible, if this portion of statue has been
preserved? Has any subsequent discovery been made in the same locality
respecting, or any additional light thrown upon, the one of which mention
is herein made?


_Surname of Allan._--Perhaps MR. LOWER, or some other etymological reader
of "N. & Q.," may kindly assist me in my endeavours to find out the correct
meaning and origin of this surname, variously spelt _Allen_, _Allan_,
_Allin_, _Alleyne_, &c.? My theory on the subject, from various researches,
is that it is a word of Celtic or Gaelic etymon, _Aluinn_, in that
language, signifying "delightful or pleasant." And again, several
islet-rocks romantically situated in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, are
called to this day _Allans_. I should much like, however, to have the
opinions of older and more experienced etymologists than I can pretend to
be; for few subjects present so interesting a field for different theories
as that regarding the origin of family names does. As I am naturally
interested in my own surname, I should also like to obtain a sketch of the
different British families of note bearing the surname and arms of _Allen_
or _Allan_, and references to those works which give their history and

A. S. A.


_Arms of Owen Glendower._--Could any of your correspondents inform me of
the blazoning of the arms of Owen Glendower, which, according to the copy
of his private seal, furnished by Meyrick to the editor of the _Poems of
Lewis Glyn Cottie_, are, Quarterly, four lions rampant; supporters, a
dragon (gules?) and a lion?


_Tenent and Tenet._--When did the use of tene_n_t (for opinion, dogma, &c.)
give place to tenet? Surely both forms should be retained, and used
according to circumstances. It is correct to speak of a tenet of John
_Wesley_. When attributing the same doctrine to _Wesleyans_, it becomes
their tene_n_t.

Y. B. N. J.

_"I hear a lion," &c._--Can any of your correspondents favour me with the
origin of the following _jeu d'esprit_, reputed to have been addressed to
the Speaker in the House of Commons?--

 "I hear a lion in the lobby roar!
  Say, Mr. Speaker, shall we shut the door
  And keep him _out_?
  Or shall we let him _in_,
  And see if we can get him _out_ again?"

To ascertain by whom, and upon what occasion, the above lines were uttered,
would considerably gratify


_"The Exercist Day" at Leicester._--In the Chamberlain's accounts for this
borough for the year 1604-5, I find the following entry:

 "_Item._ The vj^{th} of Novemb^r [1604], _being the
  exercist daye_, given to the preacher and mynist^{rs}
  at the exercistz, one pottell of clarett               s.     d.
  wyne and one quarte of sacke                           ij    iiij

There are also charges "for wyne drunk at the _exercist dinners_, on the
viij^{th} of Jan^y, the fyfthe of Marche, and the ix^{th} of April," 1605.
Were these meetings held for the purpose of _exorcising_ the evil spirits
and witches, the belief in which had at that time greatly increased in
England, through the recent accession of "the modern Solomon" to the
throne? and, if so, was the practice a general one, or were they merely for
religious _exercises_?

A few years afterwards nine unfortunate women were tried at our assizes for
witchcraft, and were convicted and executed!


_Ecclus._ xlvi. 20.--Why does the Church order this verse to be omitted in
the reading of the lessons? Is it because the passage assumes the fact that
Samuel himself appeared to Saul--a statement open to discussion?


Edgmond, Salop.

_Etymology of Burrow._--In the north of Gloucestershire I have met with the
word _burrow_ (I do not answer for the orthography), meaning sheltered,
secure from wind, &c. The side of a thick coppice was spoken of as "a very
_burrow_ place for cattle." Can any of your correspondents give the
etymology of the word, or other instances of its use?


_Alexander Adamson._--I should be glad to know who Alexander Adamson was
(the tutor who accompanied Wm. and Patrick Ruthven, the son of {206} the
Earl of Gowrie, in their flight into England in August 1600), and what
became of him? There was a Wm. Ruthven, of Scotland, married at Chitterton,
Northumberland, to Esther, daughter of Robert Adamson, vicar of that parish
in 1681. Was he any relation to the Gowrie family?

E. H. A.

_Psalmanazar._--The great literary abilities of Psalmanazar, and indeed all
the known circumstances of his life and history, excite some curiosity as
to his real name. Can any of your readers inform me of this?


_Coleridge's Christabel._--In the original edition of this poem, the
following lines are to be found at the beginning of Part II.:

 "Let it rain, however fast,
  Rest from rain will come at last;
  And the blaze that strongest flashes,
  Links at last, and ends in ashes!
  But sorrow from the human heart,
  And mists of care, will they depart?"

Now these lines, and a great many more which I cannot remember, as I have
not the original edition, are to be found in an old volume of _Blackwood's
Magazine_, in a review upon the poem. The poem, as published in the edition
of Coleridge's _Poems_ edited by D. and S. Coleridge (Moxon, 1852), does
not contain these lines, and no notice is taken of the fact by the editors.
Either Coleridge did or did not cancel the lines mentioned; if he did, can
any of your readers inform me in which of his works this fact is mentioned?
If he did not, then one of the most beautiful poems in the English language
has been edited in a manner that no one, I trust, will imitate.

S. Y.

_Beaten to a Mummy._--Whence comes this expression? It is used to signify,
beaten so that form and feature are no longer distinguishable; whereas the
immediate object of a mummy seems to be the preservation of the form and
features of the deceased. Is not the phrase a corruption of beaten to a
mammock, to a piece, to a scrap, to a fragment? And yet, in Marryatt's
_Pottery_ (Murray, 1850, p. 250.) is the following passage:

    "Diodorus Siculus (Book V. ch. i.), in speaking of the usages of the
    inhabitants of the Balearic Isles, states that these people were in the
    habit of beating with clubs the bodies of the dead, which, thus
    rendered flexible, were deposited in vessels of earthenware."

The Gloucestershire peasants frequently use the word mammock, which they
pronounce "mommock."


6. Chesterfield Street, May Fair.

_Hanover Rats._--It is said that the native rat was extirpated from this
country by the invading colonists from Hanover. What are the facts of this
case, and where may the best account of this extermination of the natives
be found? It is worth inquiring also, whether the aboriginal rat is now to
be met with in any part of Great Britain. I should think that rat-catchers
and farming folks could throw light on this interesting point of the
British fauna.


_Pallant._--In the town of Chichester there are four streets, north, south,
east, and west, to which the name of "Pallant" is attached.

This particular spot, which is close to the High Street, is always called
The Pallant.

Can any of your readers inform me of the origin and meaning of this word?

I have never met with any inhabitant of Chichester who could solve this


_Curious Fact in Natural Philosophy._--The _Exeter Alfred_ of 1828 has in
one of its numbers the following:

    "Cut a couple of cards each into a circle of about two inches in
    diameter; perforate one of these at the centre, and fix it on the top
    of a tube, say a common quill. Make the other card ever so little
    concave, and place it over the first, the orifice of the tube being
    that directly under, and almost in contact with the concave card. Try
    to blow off the upper card, you will find it impossible. We understand
    that the cause that counteracts the effect at first expected of this
    singular phenomenon, has lately puzzled all the members of the Royal
    Society. A medal and a hundred guineas are said to be the reward of the
    successful discoverer.

Could any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." give any additional
information on this rather curious point?


_Drying up of the Red Sea._--Will some of your correspondents kindly assist
me, by a reference to a passage in one of our modern historians, alluding
to the extraordinary drying up of the Red Sea on one occasion? I thought I
had read it in Rollin, as a quotation from Baronius, but cannot now find it
in either one or the other.



_Joan d'Arc._--Did Joan d'Arc (the Maid of Orleans) bear any heraldic
insignia; and if so, what?

Is the family from which she sprung now represented; and if they bear arms,
what are they?

Is there any family of this name (D'Arc), and if so, where? And what are
the arms belonging to it, if there are any?


_Diary of Thomas Earl._--Strype (_Annals_, vols. i. & ii.) sometimes refers
to a MS. No. 206. in the collection of Moore, Bishop of Ely, which he
describes as a Diary (vol. i. pp. 135. 180.) kept {207} by Thomas Earl, who
was made parson of St. Mildred's, Bread Street, at the beginning of Queen
Elizabeth's reign, and "seems to have been a diligent noter of matters of
remark concerning religion in his time" (vol. ii. p. 539.). In the _Catal.
Libr. MSS. Angl._, part ii. p. 366., it is described--

    "Short notes of matters relating to the church by way of annals,
    written by some that favoured Puritanism, from the year 1548 to 1599."

Bishop Moore left his library to the University of Cambridge. Is this MS.
in their possession, and is it a piece of historic value?

Q. Q.

"_Jenny's Bawbee._"--I would be glad if any of the readers of "N. & Q."
would inform me where the old Scottish song, "Jenny's Bawbee," is to be
found? It begins,

 "Your plack and my plack,
    And Jenny's bawbee,
  We'll put it i' the pint stoup,
    An' birl't a' three."

J. MN.

_Lord North._--In Forster's _Life of Goldsmith_, the following remark
occurs respecting Lord North, George III.'s premier:

    "North was the son of the princess dowager's intimate friend Lord
    Guildford, and scandal had not hesitated to find a reason for the
    extraordinary resemblance he presented to the king in his clumsy
    figure, homely face, thick lips, light complexion and hair, bushy
    eyebrows, and protruding large grey eyes."

Will some one of your readers favour me with an explanation of the meaning
of this insinuation? Is it really intended to say that "scandal" reported
Lord North to be the son of an illustrious lady of the royal family? It is
clear Lord North strikingly resembled George III.; did the latter "favour"
his father or his mother in physiognomy? Did George III. represent the
Guelphs or the Saxe-Gotha family?


_Ephippiarius._--What is the meaning of the word "Ephippiarius," occurring
as the description of a person in a Latin diploma of the seventeenth
century? Does it signify saddler, or, as has been suggested to me, esquire?


_Nixon._--Can any of your readers inform me if there was a painter of this
name living at Brighton in or about the year 1806, what pictures he
painted, &c., and when he died?



_Tuebeuf._--Where is it? A royal charter to the town of Doncaster, given by
the hand of Master Eustacius, Dean of Salisbury, Deputy-Chancellor, and
witnessed by an Archbishop of Canterbury and others, is dated at Tuebeuf,
22nd May, 5 Richard I. (1194). In Miller's _History of Doncaster_
(Appendix, Deed No. 1.), the name is printed "Tuke or Toke," but on a
reference to the original document it appears as above.

J. E. J.

_Tooth of Sir I. Newton._--

    "A tooth of Sir Isaac Newton was sold in 1815 for 730l.: a nobleman
    bought it, and had it set in a ring."

The above has gone the round of the papers without comment, contradiction,
or illustration. Lest it should become matter of history, I wish to ask
whether it is a new story or an old one; and whether it is a simple lie, or
has any foundation in fact?

H. B. C.

U. U. C.

_Thomas Ceeley._--Who was Thomas Ceeley, who defended Lyme Regis so
gallantly with the famous Blake, the former being governor? His exploits
have been recorded in the _History of Lyme Regis_, &c. Probably we must
look to Plymouth for his residence.

Mr. Christopher Ceeley was with Sir Francis Drake in his third voyage into
the West Indies in 1572-3. The "Elizabeth Drake," of sixty tons and thirty
men, under Sir Francis Drake, when acting against the Armada, was commanded
by _Thomas Sealye_, another way of spelling Ceeley. There were Ceeleys,
Sealeys, &c., in Devonshire and Somersetshire.

G. R. L.

_Marigmerii--Melinglerii--Berefellarii._--In Pirri's _Sicilia Sacra_
(Grævius, _Antiqu. Sicil._, ii. 425.) four officers of the inferior clergy,
called _marigmerii_, are enumerated among the members of the cathedral of
Montereale: and, in the same work (iii. 921.), two officers in the
cathedral of Cifalu called _melinglerii_. Can either or both of these words
be misprints, or corruptions of some word answering to the French
_marguillier_, which in parish churches means a churchwarden, in collegiate
churches a keeper of the relics? And what is the derivation of

In Dugd. _Monast._, edit. 1830, vi. 1308., seven of the inferior clergy of
the collegiate church of Beverley are called by what is said to be an
ancient name, _Berefellarii_. What does this word mean? Can it be a
blunder, in the original document, for _beneficiatii_?


Peterstow Rectory, Ross.

"_Judæus odor._"--

 "Abluitur Judæus odor baptismate divo,
  Et nova progenies reddita surgit aquis."

I have seen the above lines attributed to Vigilantius, but have not been
able to verify the quotation. Can any of your readers tell me where they
are to be found? I suspect they are not of so great antiquity, as Sir
Thomas Browne (_Vulgar Errors_, book iv. chap. 10.), though he investigates
{208} and denies the "Judæus odor," does not notice the opinion that it is
removed by baptism.


_Lord Lyon King-at-Arms, Scotland._--Where is there an account of the
origin of this office, and of the different possessors of it? Scotland does
not, I believe, possess any corresponding work to Noble's _History of the
College of Arms_, and I know of no history which contains the above-desired
information collectively. To trace the succession of the Lord Lyon
Kings-at-Arms would be interesting, as many celebrated, and even
illustrious, individuals held that high office in Scotland. Poets as well
as warriors might be mentioned amongst the number.

A. S. A.


_Louisa Lady Gordon of Gordonstoun, N. B._--This lady, who was the only
child of Dr. John Gordon, Dean of Salisbury in England, and Lord of
Glenluce in Scotland, married, 1653, Sir Robert Gordon, son of the Earl of
Sutherland (better known as the historian of that earldom), who was created
a baronet in 1625, and died in 1656. Their lineal male descendants became
extinct in 1795, in the person of their great-great-grandson, Sir William,
the sixth baronet. What I desire to ascertain is, who was Lady Gordon's
father, this dean of Salisbury; his marriage, death, &c., and more
especially how he was _Lord of Glenluce_? Perhaps some of your antiquarian
subscribers may be able to assist me in these inquiries.

A. S. A.


_Contested Elections._--What book gives an accurate account of all the
contested elections since the Restoration, and prior to the Reform Bill? I
have one or two wretched compilations; but it seems no Dod existed before
the _flood_.

X. Y. Z.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Game of the Whetstone._--In Lambarde's _Perambulation of Kent_ (page 110.,
ed. 1596), the author, remarking on Ealred's assertion that King Edward the
Confessor saw at mass the seven sleepers at Ephesus turn on one side after
having slept seventy years together on the other, says:

    "Which seeing it was within five years of so many as Epimenides slept,
    Ealred (in my phansie) is worthie to have the second game at the

In the margin the note to this is--

    "i Loue Lye or game for the whetstone."

Halliwell, in his _Dictionary_, says that in old authors frequent allusions
occur to the custom of decorating notorious liars with whetstones; but I
would thank any of your readers for a fuller account of "y^e game for y^e
whetstone." What is known of Lambarde, or Lambert, as Gervase Markham calls
him? Was his _Topographicall Dictionarie_ (mentioned, as prepared for the
press, in the _Perambulation_) ever published, and what other works by him

E. G. R.

    [The extracts from our early writers given by Brand and Nares furnish
    some clue to the origin and character of the game of the whetstone;
    when the social and convivial combatants sharpened their wits to see
    who could gain the satirical prize of the silver whetstone by telling
    the greatest lie. In Lupton's _Too Good to be True_, p. 80., is the
    following passage, somewhat illustrative of the game:

    "_Siuqila._ Merry and pleasant lyes we take rather for a sport than a
    sin. Lying with us is so loved and allowed, that there are many tymes
    _gamings_ and _prises_ therefore purposely, to encourage one to outlye

    "_Omen._ And what shall he gaine that gets the victorie in lying?

    "_Siuqila._ He shall have _a silver whetstone_ for his labour."

    WILLIAM LAMBARDE was born October 18, 1536. He was the eldest son of
    John Lambarde, alderman of London. In 1570 he resided at West Combe,
    near Blackheath, a manor he then possessed. He purposed publishing a
    general account of Great Britain, of which his _Perambulation of Kent_
    was but the specimen; and he was only deterred by learning that Camden
    was engaged on a similar task. His materials were published from the
    original manuscript in 1730, under the title of _Dictionarium Angliæ
    Topographicum et Historicum_, to which is prefixed a portrait of the
    author, engraved by Vertue. His first work was _Archaionomia, sive de
    priscis Anglorum legibus libri_, 1568, 4to. He also wrote _Eirenarcha_;
    or, the Office of the Justices of the Peace, and Duties of Constables:
    _Archeion_, a Discourse upon the High Courts of Justice. In 1600 he was
    appointed by Queen Elizabeth Keeper of the Records in the Tower; and in
    the following year he presented her Majesty with an account of them,
    under the title _Pandecta Rotulorum_. He died at his residence at West
    Combe, August 19, 1601, and was buried in the Church of St. Alphege,
    Greenwich, where a monument was erected to his memory. In after days
    this mortuary memorial was removed to the Church of Sevenoaks, in which
    parish the family now possesses a seat. Lambarde was the first
    Churchman after the Reformation who founded a hospital. It was called
    "The College of the Poor of Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich, Kent," and
    was opened in 1576.]

_Meals._--On the N.W. coast of Norfolk are certain sandbanks so called.
Brancaster Meals, Blakeney Meals, and Wells Meals are among those most
dreaded by the mariner.

In Bailey's _Dictionary_ occurs,

    "_Meales, Malls._ The shelves or banks of sand on the sea-coasts of

Can Norway be a misprint for Norfolk? It occurs Norway in ten or twelve
editions of Bailey which I have examined. I can find no mention of "meals"
or "malls" in any map of Norway, {209} except the whirlpool, the Maelström,
be connected with it. In Norfolk _ea_, _ee_ are frequently changed for
_oa_, _oo_. Thus "sheaf" and "reek" are in Norfolk "shoaf" and "roke;" and
"smeath," a table land, is evidently from "smooth."

Can this change of vowels have taken place in this word, and "meals"
signify "moles," from the shelf of sand projecting like a mole? or can any
correspondent suggest a better etymology?

E. G. R.

    [The quotation given above is omitted in the folio edition of Bailey,
    1736; but is correctly given in Phillips's _New World of
    Words_:--"MEALES, or MALES, the shelves or banks of sand on the
    sea-coasts of _Norfolk_: whence Ingom-meals, the name of a sandy shore
    in Lincolnshire." The word _Meales_, or _Malls_, is however obviously
    connected with the Icelandic _Möl_, which Helmboe, in his
    recently-published work, _Det Norske Sprogs_, &c., defines "coarse
    sand; a sandy or stony place."]

_Haughmond Abbey, Salop._--I should feel obliged for any particulars of the
history, or a reference to any work that contains a full account, of these
fine ruins. Hulbert does not give by any means a detailed notice in his
_History of Salop_.


    [Some account of this abbey, with two engraved views of it, will be
    found in the _Beauties of England and Wales_, vol. xiii. part i. pp.
    179-82. Consult also Dugdale's _Monasticon_, vol. vi. p. 107.]

"_As flies to wanton boys._"--Can you inform me from what writer is the
following quotation (in Mary Wolstoncraft's _Travels in Sweden_)?--

 "As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods;
  They kill us for their sport."

J. P.

    [Shakspeare's _King Lear_, Act IV. Sc. 1.]

_Quotation wanted._--Who is the author of the following lines?--

 "Three poets in three distant ages born,
  Greece, Italy, and England did adorn:
  The first in loftiness of thought surpassed,
  The next in majesty; in both the last.
  The force of Nature could no further go;
  To make a third, she joined the former two."

Of course it is obvious who were the three poets, the greatest the world
has produced.

A. S. A.


    [These lines are by Dryden, and are frequently prefixed to _Paradise
    Lost_. They are little more than a translation of a distich by

     "Græcia Mæonidem, jactet sibi Roma Maronem:
        Anglia Miltonum jactat utrique parem."]

_Thomas Stanley, Bishop of Man._--I feel much obliged by your prompt answer
to the Query about this prelate (Vol. vi., p. 130.); but some additional
information appears necessary. If Bishop Stanley was appointed to this see
in 1542, who was the possessor of it subsequently to the death of _Bishop
Huan Hesketh_, or _Blackleach_, in 1510, a period of thirty-two years?
Bishop Stanley's consecration does not appear in Cranmer's _Register_,
which throws some doubt on the year 1542 as having been that of his
appointment to the episcopate.

A. S. A.

    [Huan Hesketh, or Blackleach, was consecrated in 1487, and died in
    1510. The see was vacant twenty years. The next bishop was William
    Stanley, who was consecrated March 4, 1530.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., pp. 10. 160.)

Your correspondent SIGMA having called attention in your pages to that
respectable character Old Satchels, I should be sorry to see him dismissed
with the dry bibliographical Note of T. G. S. If any proof were wanting of
Captain Walter Scot's claim to more respectable notice, we have it in the
fact of his book having reached a third edition: and, with your permission,
I will take the liberty of supplying a few "jottings," furnished and
suggested on turning over the reprint of 1776.

The whole title, or titles, of this curious production runs thus:

    "A true History of several Honorable Families of the right honorable
    Name of Scot in the Shires of Roxburgh and Selkirk, and others
    adjacent. Gathered out of ancient Chronicles, Histories, and Traditions
    of our Fathers, by Captain Walter Scot,

      An old Soldier and no scholler,
      And one that can write nane,
      But just the letters of his name.

    4to., pp. 60. End of First Part. Edinburgh: Printed by the Heirs of
    And. Anderson, printer to his most sacred Majesty's City and College,
    1688, and reprinted by Balfour and Smellie, 1776."

    "Satchel's Post'ral, humbly presented to his noble and worthy Friends
    of the Names of Scot and Elliot, and others. Part II., 4to., pp. 97.
    Edinburgh as above, 1688 and 1776."

Lockhart, in his _Life of Scott_, has told us with what enthusiasm Sir
Walter welcomed a copy of the first edition of this "True History,"
procured for him by Constable; and its rarity is accounted for by the
author himself, when he says,--

 "Therefore begone, my book, stretch forth thy wings and fly
  Amongst the nobles and gentility:
  Thou'rt not to sell to scavingers and clowns,
  But giv'n to worthy persons of renown.
  _The number's few I've printed_ in regard
  My charges have been great, and I hope reward;
  _I caus'd not print many above twelve score,_
  _And the printers are engag'd that they shall print no
      more_."--_Post'ral_, p. 97.


SIGMA inquires why "this ancestor of Sir Walter's was called Old Satchels?"
Hear the poet himself upon this point:

 "Since the water of Ail Scots they are all chang'd and gone,
  Except brave Whitslade and Hardin;
  And Satchels his estate is gone,
  Except his poor designation;
  Which never no man shall possess,
  Except a Scot designed Satchels."--_Post'ral_, p. 97.

As a further sample of this old soldier's poetry, take his dedication "To
the truely Worthy, Honorable, and Right Worshipful Sir Francis Scot of
Thirlston, Knight Baronet, wishes Earth's honor and Heaven's happiness:"

 "This book, good Sir, the issue of my brain,
  Though far unworthy of your worthy view,
  In hope ye gently will it intertain,
  Yet I in duty offer it to you;
  Although the method and the phrase be plain,
  Not art, like writ, as to the style is due,
  And truth, I know, your favor will obtain:
  The many favors I have had from you
  Hath forc'd me thus to show my thankful mind;
  And of all faults I know no vice so bad
  And hateful as ungratefully inclined.
  A thankful heart is all a poor man's wealth,
  Which, with this book, I give your worthy self.
  I humbly crave your worthiness excuse
  This boldness of my poor unlearned muse,
  That hath presumed so high a pitch to fly
  In praise of virtue and gentility.
  I know this task's most fit for learned men,
  For Homer, Ovid, or for Virgil's pen;
  These lines I have presum'd to dite;
  It's known to your Honor I could never write.

 "Your Honor's most obed. servant,
 "WALTER SCOT of Satchels."

Satchels' chronicle deals largely in warlike matters. The Captain, indeed,
seems to have a contempt for all not of his own honorable profession;
consequently the book is full of the deeds, both foreign and domestic, of
the "Bold Buccleugh," and the clans Scott and Elliott. Instigated, no
doubt, by the example of John Barbour and Henry the Minstrel, the author
aimed at doing for the Scotts what his prototypes so worthily achieved,
respectively, for Robert Bruce and William Wallace.

As mentioned by T. G. S., there was another reprint of this curious book,
that of Hawick, by Caw, 1784. I know not to whom we owe either. Looking,
however, to the names of the printers and period of publication, I should
say that the earliest of these _may_ have been one of the publications of
that friend to the literature of his country, Sir David Dalrymple; and as
we know that Sir Walter Scott made his first appearance as a poet in the
_Poetical Museum_, printed at Hawick, by Caw, in 1786, may he not, with his
strong and early predilection for the honour of the clan Scott, and his
special affection for this "True History" of his namesake, have prompted
the worthy Mr. Caw to the enterprise? Any edition of the book is of rare
occurrence; and it has often surprised me that Captain Walter Scot should
have been overlooked, when the Bannatyne, Maitland, and Abbotsford Clubs
were so nobly employed in resuscitating the old literature of Scotland.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 604.; Vol. vii., pp. 96. 143.)

B. H. C. asks for the authority on which is based the statement, that this
statue was undoubtedly cast for a St. Peter, and cast in the time of St.
Leo the Great (440-461). As the subject involves three questions, I will
answer each separately.

1. Was this statue cast for a St. Peter, or is it an ancient statue that
had been found in the Tiber; or the ancient statue of Jupiter Capitolinus?
That it must have been cast for a St. Peter will be readily allowed, after
a careful examination, by any one at all accustomed to compare Pagan and
Christian statues. The left hand holding the keys and the right hand raised
in benediction, are unmistakeable evidences of the personage represented.

2. What authority is there for believing it to have been cast in the
pontificate of St. Leo? The authority is, first, a constant and very
ancient tradition to that effect; secondly, a tradition that this same
statue belonged to the ancient church of St. Peter's; and, thirdly, the
almost unanimous belief in this tradition amongst the antiquaries and
archæologists--local and at a distance, deceased and living.

This tradition is mentioned by most writers on the Basilica of St. Peter's:

    "A destra evoi, in somma venerazione tenata, una statua in bronzo dell'
    apostolo S. Pietro, _simulacro formato, secondo la pia tradizione, a
    tempi di S. Leone I._ detto il grande," &c.--_Melchiorri_, p. 181., ed.

    "On the right hand is a statue, held in very great veneration, of
    bronze, of the Apostle St. Peter: a figure cast, according to the pious
    tradition, in the time of St. Leo I., named the Great."

Tradition also asserts, that the statue belonged to the old church of St.

    "The seated bronze statue of St. Peter, _which belonged to the ancient
    church_, is said to have been cast in the time of Leo the
    Great."--_Rome, Ancient and Modern_, by J. Donovan, D.D., vol. i. p.

There may now be seen, in what was part of old St. Peter's, and is now
called the "Grotte Vecchie," where the old flooring still remains--the old
base of the bronze figure of St. Peter. It is {211} kept in the aisle to
the left, as you enter the Grotte Vecchie; and was the pedestal of the
statue till it was removed from the crypt by Paul V., as Melchiorri informs
us. The old base was left _in situ_, and a new one made, which is the chair
of white marble, with the whole surface wrought in arabesque bas-relief,
upon a pedestal of light coloured alabaster, with a central tablet of
granite, called "granito verde."

3. Was this statue cast from the metal of the Capitoline Jove? Melchiorri
almost favours the opinion that it was; but the evidence of Martial,
already quoted, seems fatal to this supposition. It occurs to me that the
idea of this statue being a Jupiter converted, either by melting down or
partial alteration, may have arisen from confounding this statue with
another statue of St. Peter, now kept in the crypt of the church under the
dome, and in the chapel of the Madonna della Bocciata or del Portico. This
is also a seated statue of St. Peter, and stood in the atrium of the
ancient basilica. _It seems to have been a Pagan figure converted_:--

    "There is reason to believe that this statue of St. Peter had been
    originally erected to some Gentile; and that the head, arms, and hands
    were changed in order to metamorphose it into a St. Peter. In the old
    church it was usual to vest it pontifically on the feast of St. Peter,
    as is now the case with the bronze statue above. The Isaurian
    iconoclast threatened St. Gregory II. with the demolition of this
    statue: but the impotent menace cost him the duchy of Rome, and placed
    the temporal power in the hands of the Popes."--_Rome, Ancient and
    Modern_, vol. i. p. 574.

Possibly enough, the fact of this figure of St. Peter having been
converted, may have led to the idea that it was the other and better known
statue. It may be well to add, that in St. Peter's there are _forty metal
statues_, in addition to one hundred and five in marble, one hundred and
sixty-one in travertine, and ninety in stucco.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 133.)

The newspaper paragraph in question is quoted, in a MS. note in my
possession, from the _Salisbury Journal_ of August 29, 1828. From what
source it was derived does not appear: the whole story is, however,
fabulous. Edward Hyde, first Earl of Clarendon, was twice married. His
first wife was the daughter of Sir George Ayliffe, of Foxley, in the county
of Wilts. He married her in 1628, when he was only twenty years old, and
she died of the small-pox six months afterwards, before any child was born.
In 1632 he married Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas and Lady Ailesbury, by
whom he had four sons and two daughters. Anne, the eldest daughter, became,
as is well known, the wife of the Duke of York, and the mother of Queen
Mary and Queen Anne. Sir Thomas Ailesbury, the father of Lord Clarendon's
second wife, was a person of some distinction, both social and
intellectual; of his wife, Lady Ailesbury, Pepys mentions in his _Diary_,
November 13, 1661, that the Duke of York is in mourning for his wife's
grandmother, "which (he however adds) is thought a piece of fondness." In
the collection of pictures at the Grove, the seat of the present Earl of
Clarendon, there are portraits by Vandyke of Sir Thomas and Lady Ailesbury,
and also a portrait, by an unknown artist, of Frances, the second wife of
the Lord Chancellor Clarendon. (See Lady Theresa Lewis's _Lives of the
Friends of Lord Chancellor Clarendon_, vol. iii. pp. 355, 356. 361.)

Mr. Hyde's two marriages are fully described by himself in his _Life_, vol.
i. pp. 12. 15, ed. 8vo. 1761.

The story of the tubwoman, the grandmother of queens, seems to have been a
legend invented for the purpose of exhibiting a contrast between the
exalted rank of the descendants and the plebeian origin of the ancestor.
Historical fiction and popular fancy delight in such contrasts. The story
of _date obolum Belisario_, and Pope's account of the death of the second
Duke of Buckingham, are more celebrated, but not more veracious, than the
story of the marriage of Lord Chancellor Clarendon with the tubwoman.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 84.)

LEONORA says, "supposing that the recently-discovered planets obey the same
laws as the larger ones, they must be at all times apparently moving within
the zodiac;" and she asks for an explanation of the fact of their not
having been discovered before.

Ancient astronomers having observed that the moon, and the planets visible
to them, were never seen at more than a small angular distance north or
south from the plane of the earth's orbit, they drew two circles parallel
to the ecliptic, at the distance which experience had shown them to be
sufficient for comprehending the apparent places of those heavenly bodies
at all times; and to the intervening space they gave the name of _zodiac_.
But there is no law of matter, or, in other words, it is no necessary
consequence of gravitation or planetary action, which confines the planets'
orbits within the zodiac. The fact can only be ascribed to the will of Him
who first projected them into their intended paths; though that will had
doubtless some wise and calculated end in view.

It was further observed, in the last century, that the increasing distance
of each successive planet {212} from the sun would follow an uniform rule,
if there were not one wanting between Mars and Jupiter, to fill up the
series. This put astronomers upon the search, and led to the discovery, in
1801, of four small planets, all at nearly the requisite distance, but
moving in paths inclined to the ecliptic at such large angles as carry them
beyond the zodiac, though they necessarily move across it. From hence it
was inferred that they were portions of a planet originally harmonising, in
size, position, and orbitual path, with the rest of our system, but burst
into fragments by an internal explosion, at some time prior to man's
recorded observations of the heavenly bodies. This supposition gains
strength from the continued discovery of more and still smaller fragments,
each still moving as a planet at nearly the same distance from the sun; and
each seeming to proclaim that there was a world, probably larger than our
earth, amongst whose inhabitants sin entered, as amongst us; but for whom
mercy was not in like manner procured.

As to the discoverer of a previously unknown planet, your inquirer should
be told, that more is necessary than its merely coming within the field of
an observer's telescope, even if it attracts his notice. Some years before
1781, the year in which Herschel discovered the planet which should
perpetuate his name, Lalande had noted down an observation of a star, of a
certain magnitude, in a position where afterwards no such star could be
found, but where calculations since made, from the known orbit of that
planet, prove that it must then have been. By failing to continue his
observation of it, till it should have changed its place amongst the fixed
stars, Lalande lost the discovery. And though Herschel's much more powerful
telescope enabled him to perceive, on a first inspection, that it had a
defined disc, more observations were required to enable him to say that it
could not be a comet shorn of his beams: whilst, as to the last discovered
planets, I think we have been told that their apparent size is but that of
a star of the ninth order, in decreasing magnitude; and no part of the
heavens has been so accurately mapped as to give an observer reason to
conclude, from catching sight of one of these planetary fragments, that he
has detected an obscure wanderer not usually seen in that locality. But if
its appearance leads his practised eye to suspect that it shines with but
borrowed light, and that induces him to continue his nightly watch, he
receives his reward, if it be so, and announces the existence of another


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 133.)

The story of Genoveva is a popular German legend, and is given in No. 8 of
the _Volksbücher_, published at Leipzig, 1838.

Genoveva was a daughter of the Duke of Brabant, and wife of Count
Siegfried, of Treves. When Charles Martel was attacked by the Saracens,
Siegfried went to his assistance, leaving his wife to the care of his
steward Golo. Golo fell in love with Genoveva, and being rejected, resolved
to destroy her. To do so, he got up a charge against her of incontinency
with the cook, and put both in confinement. On Siegfried's return, Golo
convinced him, by the help of a witch and false witnesses, that his wife
was guilty, and that the child to which she had given birth in prison was
born eleven months after her husband's departure. Siegfried ordered Golo to
bring the criminals to justice. He, fearing exposure, had the cook poisoned
in gaol, and commissioned two of his servants to take the countess and her
boy into a wood and kill them; but, moved by her tears, they left the
intended victims, and deceived their master. Genoveva took shelter in a
cavern, and lived upon roots; but her milk failing, the child was about to
die. She prayed fervently, and a beautiful doe, tame as a domestic cow,
came and suckled the child, and returned daily for that purpose for seven
years. The passage illustrated in SILURIAN'S picture is as follows:

    "Als die weinende Mutter dies gefleht hatte, sihe, da kam eine
    Hirschkuh zu ihr, welche sich als ein zahmes Vieh anstellte, und
    freundlich um sie herstrich; gleichsam, als wollte sie sagen: Gott habe
    sie dahin gesendet, dass sie das Kindlein ernähren sollte. Die betrübte
    Mutter erstaunte, und erkannte alsbald die Vorsehung Gottes, legte das
    Kind an die Zitzen des Wildes, und liess es so lange saugen, bis es
    wieder Kraft bekam. Durch diese himmlische Wohlthat wurde die liebe
    Genoveva so sehr erfreut, dass sie mit vielen süssen Thränen den
    gütigen Gott Dank sagte, und ihn demüthig um Fortsetzung solcher
    gnädigen Hilfe anflehte."--P. 24.

The story ends happily. Siegfried discovers that his wife is innocent,
takes her back, and punishes Golo: but for these matters I refer those who
are curious to the book, which is well worth reading. Genoveva died April
2, 750, and the doe pined to death at her grave.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

SILURIAN will find a very beautiful illustration of his engraving by
Felsing, after Steinbrück, in the little poem entitled _Genoveva_,
published by Moxon.


_Genoveva of Brabant_, a tale of old times, translated from the German of
Christopher Schmid, published by Burns or Masters, price 2s. 6d.
illustrated, will give SILURIAN the information required; as also will
_Genoveva_, a poem by the Rev. R. C. Trench, London, 1842, Moxon.




       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 457. 590.; Vol. vii., pp. 46. 97.)

My Query respecting this picture has been answered in the _Navorscher_ by a
learned gentleman who writes under the signature of CONSTANTER, in that
publication. The editor of the _Navorscher_ has communicated to me the name
of this gentleman, and also the following translation of his remarks on my
Query, and has also kindly permitted me to make what use of the latter I
think fit. I therefore transmit them to you, that you may, if you think the
subject of sufficient interest, insert them in your pages.


Trinity College, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Did not the whole arrangement of the picture give me reason to suppose that
it must be a kind of symbolical point (figuurlÿk punt), such as the
Rhetoricians were wont to show during their solemn processions--the
character also of the additional verses, and especially the description of
the paintings against the wall of the room, which is represented on the
piece, would corroborate this meaning. These pictures, with the arms
mentioned as making part of them, point directly at _Haarlem_ as the town
whence the painting must have had its origin; for who is not acquainted,
albeit only through the title of the _Opregte Haarlemsche Courant_[1],
with, "the sword proper, on a red field, between four stars, surmounted by
a cross, or?"

Now, in the seventeenth century there existed at Haarlem _three_ Societies
of Rhetoricians. One, the Oude Kamer[2], erected in 1503, had chosen for
its motto, _Trou moet blÿcken_; and for its symbol, the _pelican_ or
_speelkoornen_; whilst her shield was emblazoned as follows,--in the middle
our Saviour crucified, and, behind the cross, Æneas bearing his father. To
this _Kamer_ the painting alludes, of which Dr. James H. Todd says, "That
nearest the fire-place is oval, representing the crucifixion. There is a
white scroll across the picture, containing words which I cannot make out."
Had the sentence not been obliterated, the querist would have read, _Trou
moet blÿcken_. The second allegory, with illegible subscription, cannot be
anything but the ensign of the so-called _Jonge Kamer_ at Haarlem, _de
Wÿngaertrancken_, with the symbol, _Liefde boven al_ (Love above all). I
presume this on account of the framework of the painting, ornamented on
each side with bunches of red grapes (vine-branches) dependent from below.
These bunches have been figured in the identical way on a scutcheon of the
same _Kamer_, which is still preserved in the council-hall of _Beverwÿk_:
there also we see, to the right, a female statue representing _Faith_; and,
on the upper part, in the middle, another with a burning heart in her hand,
and two (not three) children at her side, representing _Charity_, who thus
has been placed _above all_ the rest, conformably to the motto of the
Society. But, in lieu of the third child, stands immediately under her on
the Beverwÿk blazon another woman, _Rhetorica_; and to the left, instead of
the man with the hawk (?), another female representing _Hope_, and
completing, in this manner, the Christian trilogy (1 Cor. xiii. 13.).
Besides, in the middle compartment, not John Baptist but our Lord is seen,
standing as victor over Hell, in which Satan is conspicuous. However,
notwithstanding these deviations, I think the resemblance too striking not
to consider the painting on the wall as the ensign of the _Jonge Kamer_.
The third or last picture, representing the _marriage of Christ with the
Church_, is the well-known blazon of the third _Rederÿkerkamer_ at Haarlem,
surnamed _de Flaamsche_ (the Flemish), which bore the _Witte Angieren_
(white _stock-flowers_, not lilies), with the motto, _In liefd getrouw_.
This shield too is still preserved in the town-hall at Beverwÿk.

Thus, the three Haarlem Societies of Rhetoricians are represented by their
shields in the room designed; nay, if I am not mistaken, the painter has
given us a delineation of their meeting-place. This appears: 1. By the
statue in the niche, _Rhetorica_. 2. By the two cup-boards, one of which
contains the prizes, carried by the _Kamers_ at various entries and
processions; to wit, silver and gold cups, flagons, and dishes: whilst in
the other, its books are deposited. 3. By the table under the window, well
to be distinguished from that around which the guests are seated, and used
by the Rhetoricians as a movable stage, on which to rehearse their plays
(whence Willems and Mone derive the name of _tafelspel_ [table-play]). 5.
By the broad roller under the pictures, that occupies the space, where
otherwise was commonly hung the _Keur_ (statutes) of the _Kamer_. This last
inscription, connected with what is to be read over the fire-place, fully
explains the meaning of the whole picture. The lines censure the disputes
regarding the dogmata of religion, because every body thinks _his_
conviction the best one; many controversies being carried on "Wanneer het
volck is vol" (whilst people are full), by incompetent and illiberal
critics, and these contentions alienating their hearts from _Charity_, the
chief commandment of Christ. In a word, the painting is the faithful
representation of what the Haarlem Rhetorician, Dirk Volkerts Coornhert,
professed {214} and advocated in his writings. Still the piece belongs to a
later period, perhaps between the years 1618 and 1630, when the disputes
with Remonstrants, Socinians, and _Kooledsjanten_ (_Collegianten_,
collegians, sectarians of the van der Kodde's) had reached their highest
point. It is known that the Rhetoricians frequently meddled with these
contending parties, to the great displeasure of the Synods, which more than
once contrived to elicit severe measures from the magistrates against them.
How far the Haarlem Societies made themselves justly liable to such
interferences, I have not been able to discover; but it might be
ascertained by means of one or other of their works published about that
time, as, _Der Wit-Angieren Eerenkrans: ghesproten nyt de Flaemsche Natie,
ter eeren der Slaghet van Rederÿcke tot Haerlem_, 1630, 4to, or the
_Refereinen en Liedekens van't Hemelert_, 1648.

The verses, excepting the last but one, which is sorely maimed, are easily
to be explained. Whether the figures be portraits, I cannot decide without
ocular inspection of the painting.



[Footnote 1: The first number of the still existing _Sincere Haarlem
Courant_ (I give you a literal translation of the title) must have appeared
before May 19, 1665, on which day its _nineteenth_ number was printed. See
the _Navorscher_, vol. ii. pp. 29. 96. 126.--J. H. V. L.]

[Footnote 2: See Ampzing, _Kronyk von Haarlem_, p. 398.; and A. van den
Willigen's monograph in Witsen Geysbeek's _Apollineum_, vol. iii. p.

This reply was written before the publication of your last notices ("N. &
Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 46. and 97.). The verses you mentioned in the
last-named part are, in English, "Here one must guess To wash glasses And
to p--s in them Would not be fit." I entirely agree with the poet.

Could you not acquaint me with the length, breadth, and height of the
picture, and with the painter's name?

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 134.)

I have much pleasure in replying to the inquiries of UNEDA. The _Percy
Anecdotes_, published in forty-four parts, in as many months, commencing in
1820, were compiled by "Sholto and Reuben Percy, Brothers of the
Benedictine Monastery of Mont Benger." So said the title-pages, but the
names and the locality were _supposé_. Reuben Percy was Mr. Thomas Byerley,
who died in 1824: he was the brother of Sir John Byerley, and the first
editor of the _Mirror_, commenced by John Limbird in 1822. Sholto Percy was
Mr. Joseph Clinton Robertson, who died in 1852: he was the projector of the
_Mechanics' Magazine_, which he edited from its commencement to his death.
The name of the collection of Anecdotes was not taken from the popularity
of the _Percy Reliques_, but from the Percy Coffee-house in Rathbone Place,
where Byerley and Robertson were accustomed to meet to talk over their
joint work. The idea was, however, claimed by my clever master and friend,
Sir Richard Phillips, who stoutly maintained that it originated in a
suggestion made by him to Dr. Tilloch and Mr. Mayne, to cut the anecdotes
from the many years' files of the _Star_ newspaper, of which Dr. Tilloch
was then editor, and Mr. Byerley assistant editor; and to the latter
overhearing the suggestion, Sir Richard contested, might the _Percy
Anecdotes_ be traced. I have not the means of ascertaining whether Sir
Richard's claim is correct; and I should be equally sorry to reflect upon
his statement as upon that of Mr. Byerley, my predecessor in the editorship
of the _Mirror_. The _Percy Anecdotes_ were among the best compilations of
their day: their publisher, Mr. Thomas Boys, of Ludgate Hill, realised a
large sum by the work; and no inconsiderable portion of their success must
be referred to Mr. Boys's excellent taste in their production: the portrait
illustrations, mostly engraved by Fry, were admirable.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 59.)

The index to _Lady Nevill's Music-book_, printed by your correspondent L.
B. L., was made known to the public in 1789, in the third volume of Dr.
Burney's _History of Music_. In addition to the information given in "N. &
Q.," the doctor adds:

    "Besides the great number of Bird's compositions for keyed instruments,
    which are preserved in the _Virginal book_ of Queen Elizabeth (now in
    the Fitzwilliam Museum), another manuscript collection of his pieces
    still subsists, under the title of _Lady Nevil's Music-book_. It is a
    thick quarto, very splendidly bound and gilt, with the family arms
    beautifully emblazoned and illuminated on the first page, and the
    initials H. N. at the lowest left-hand corner."--P. 91.

The MS. in question was the property of Dr. Burney, at whose sale, in 1814,
it was purchased for 10l. 10s. by Mr. Thomas Jones, of Nottingham Place. At
the sale of the latter, about ten years afterwards, it was bought by
Triphook, the bookseller, and by him sold to Lord Abergavenny. I remember
seeing the book when in Triphook's possession, since which time I had lost
sight of it, until the notice by L. B. L. in your pages.

Mr. Thomas Jones was a well-known musical antiquary, and possessed many
rare treasures in this department. One of the most important was the
_original_ MS. of _Lady Nevill's Music-book_, in the handwriting of William
Byrd the composer. This valuable relic is now in my library.

John Baldwine, the person who made the splendid copy for the use of Lady
Nevill, was a singular character. I have some materials for his biography
which may one day see the light. He was a poet in his own time, and wrote a
metrical {215} account of famous musicians. The latter part, which I
extract from the MS. now before me, relates to the composer of _Lady
Nevill's Music-book_:

 "An Englishe man, by name _William Birde_, for his skill,
  Which I shoulde have sett first, for so it was my will,
  Whose greate skill and knowledge dothe excell all at this tyme,
  And far to strange countries abroade his skill doth shyne.
  Famous men be abroade, and skilful in the arte,
  I do confesse the same, and will not from it starte,
  But in Europp is none like to our English man,
  Which doth so farre exceede, as trulie I it scan,
  As ye cannot finde out his equale in all thinges,
  Threwghe out the worlde so wide, and so his fame now ringes.
  With fingers and with penne he hathe not now his peere;
  For in this worlde so wide is none can him come neere:
  The rarest man he is in Musick's worthy arte
  That now on earthe doth live, I speak it from my harte,
  Or heere to fore hath been, or after him shall come,
  None such I feare shall rise that may be calde his sonne.
  O famous man! of skill and judgemente great profounde,
  Let heaven and earthe ringe out thy worthye praise to sounde;
  Nay, lett thy skill it selfe thy worthye fame recorde
  To all posteritie thy due desert afforde;
  And let them all which heere of thy greate skill then saie,
  Fare well, fare well, thou prince of musicke, now and aye;
  Fare well, I say, fare well, fare well, and here I ende,
  Fare well, melodious _birde_; fare well, sweet musick's frende.
  All these things do I speak not for rewarde or bribe,
  Nor yet to flatter him, or sett him upp in pride;
  Not for affection, or ought might move there too,
  But even the truth reporte, and that make known to you.
  So heere I end: fare well, committinge all to God,
  Who kepe us in his grace, and shilde us from his rodd."

As regards the ancient notation of _Lady Nevill's Music-book_, I will now
say a few words.

In the most ancient music for keyed instruments, such as the organ,
virginals, harpsichord, spinet, &c., a staff consisting of _eleven_ lines
was used, that is, five lines for the treble, and five lines for the bass,
and a _centre_ line, being the note C. This was improved upon by dividing
the staff into two sixes, and repeating the C line twice over, viz. in the
_lower_ part of the treble staff, and in _upper_ part of the bass staff. As
music progressed, and performers required more scope for the movement of
the hands, the staff of twelve lines was rent asunder, and the middle C
line excluded altogether. It then became the custom to print the five upper
lines and the five lower lines much more widely apart, as is now done in
modern music. But it ought not to be forgotten that there is only one line
really between them; that is to say, there are only three notes between the
two sets of five lines, viz. the note _below_ the upper five, the note
_above_ the lower five, and the note on that middle line, and that note is
middle C, or, more properly, _tenor_ C. A knowledge of this important fact
would much facilitate the student in learning to read in the tenor cleff.

In decyphering the old _virginal_ music, all we have to do is to leave out
the _lower_ line of the upper staff, and the _higher_ one of the lower
staff. It then reads like our modern music.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 143.)

The statement made in the _Quarterly Review_ for June, 1851, p. 222.,
referred to in "N. & Q.," is very inadequate. The scarf now worn by many
clergymen represents two ornaments very different, though now generally
confounded, viz. the broad and the narrow scarf. I can well remember, in my
boyhood, hearing mention made of the distinction between the _broad_ and
_narrow_ scarf, then customarily observed by many; and this at a time when
the _res vestiaria_, and matters connected with the ritual, had not become
objects of public attention. The broad scarf was the distinction (of what
standing I cannot pretend to say) used by chaplains of the king, and of
privileged persons, by doctors in divinity, and by the capitular members of
collegiate churches. It was worn with the surplice and gown; and, by
doctors in divinity only, with the scarlet academical robe. The narrow
scarf has been immemorially used by clergymen, whether priests or deacons,
in many large towns, and by the clergy in some cathedrals, and not
unfrequently by country clergymen. By custom, those who serve, or have
served, the office of junior dean in Trinity College, Dublin, wear a scarf.
In fact, it represents the stole, or that ornament (under whatever various
names it was known) which, all through Christendom, had been a badge of the
three orders of bishop, priest, and deacon. In the Church of England,
however, none of those variations in its mode of arrangement, which
elsewhere discriminates these three orders, have been retained. Is there
any proof that it has not been used ever since the Reformation? And may not
its very frequent disuse within memory {216} be attributable to that
well-known slovenliness in ritual matters which was but too characteristic
of the last century?


Peterstow Rectory, Ross.

       *       *       *       *       *


Domestic anxieties having unavoidably detained me in this place during the
last three or four months, I am necessarily without nearly all my books. My
corrected folio, 1632, is one of the very few exceptions; and as I have not
the No. of "N. & Q." to which A. E. B. refers, I am unable to reply to his
question, simply because I do not remember it.

To whomsoever these initials belong, he is a man of so much acuteness and
learning, that, although I may deem his conjectures rather subtle and
ingenious than solid and expedient, I consider him entitled to all the
information in my power. I do not, of course, feel bound to notice all
anonymous speculators (literary or pecuniary); but if A. E. B. will be good
enough to take the trouble to repeat his interrogatory, I promise him to
answer it at once.

My recent volume was put together with some rapidity, and under many
disadvantages: not a few of the later sheets were corrected, and several of
them written, two hundred miles from home. Such was the case with the note
on the suggestion I hastily attributed to MR. CORNISH, on the faith of his
letter in "N. & Q." I did not advert to the circumstance that Warburton had
proposed the same emendation; and it may turn out that a few other notes by
me are in the same predicament. The authority I usually consulted as to the
conjectures of previous editors was the _Variorum Shakspeare_, in
twenty-one volumes 8vo.

I need hardly add that I was acquainted with the fact that MR. SINGER had
published an edition of Shakspeare; but, like some others, it was not
before me when I wrote my recent volume, nor when I printed the eight
volumes to which that is a supplement. Even the British Museum does not
contain all the impressions of the works of our great dramatist; but I
resorted, more or less, to twenty or thirty of them in the progress of my

MR. SINGER'S edition, no doubt, deserves more than the praise he has given
to it: on the other hand, I am thoroughly sensible of the imperfectness of
my own labours, however anxious I was to avoid mistakes; and when I prepare
a new impression, I will not fail duly to acknowledge the obligations of
Shakspeare to MR. SINGER. One of my notes on a celebrated passage in _Timon
of Athens_ will have shown that there was no reluctance on my part to give
MR. SINGER full credit for a very happy emendation.

I hope and believe that he does not participate in the anger some have
expressed, because I have been merely the medium of making known other
emendations at least equally felicitous.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 311.)

The passage quoted by _Mr. Forbes_ from Richard Ligon's _History of
Barbadoes_, in illustration of a scene in the 2nd Part of _King Henry IV._,
was pointed out by Sir John Hawkins in his _History of Music_ (Vol. iii. p.
383., note).

For "passame sares galiard," as it stands in Ligon, we should read
"passamezzo galliard." Sir John Hawkins derives _passamezzo_ from _passer_,
to walk, and _mezzo_, the middle or half. The term is variously corrupted
by the English poets and dramatists,--_passy-measure_, _passa-measure_,
_passing-measure_, &c. Douce, in his valuable _Illustrations of Shakspeare_
(edit. 1839, p. 72.), has the following passage on the subject:

    "Florio, in his _Italian Dictionary_, 1598, has _passamezzo_, a
    _passameasure_ in dancing, a cinque pace; and although the English word
    is corrupt, the other contributes a part, at least, of the figure of
    this dance, which is said to have consisted in making several steps
    round the ball-room, and then _crossing it in the middle_. Brantôme
    calls it 'le _pazzameno_ d'Italie,' and it appears to have been more
    particularly used by the Venetians. It was much in vogue with us during
    Shakspeare's time, as well as the _pavan_; and both were imported
    either from France, Spain, or Italy. In a book of instructions for the
    lute, translated from the French by J. Alford, 1568, 4to., there are
    two _passameze_ tunes printed in letters according to the lute

The _passamezzo_ was sometimes sung as well as danced. Morley, in his
_Introduction to Practicall Musicke_, 1597, has an interesting passage
bearing on the point, which has been overlooked by modern writers:

    "There is likewise a kind of songs (which I had almost forgotten)
    called _Justinianas_, and are all written in the _Bergamasca_ language.
    A wanton and rude kinde of musicke it is, and like enough to carrie the
    name of some notable curtisan of the citie of _Bergama_; for no man
    will deny that _Justiniana_ is the name of a woman. There be also manie
    other kinds of songs which the Italians make; as _pastorellas_ and
    _passamesos_, with a dittie, and such like, which it would be both
    tedious and superfluous to dilate unto you in words; therefore I will
    leave to speak any more of them, and begin to declare unto you those
    kinds which they make without ditties."

MR. FORBES asks, "Is the tune of the _galliard_ known?" I know at least a
hundred different galliard tunes. They are distinguished by appellations
which seem to indicate their being the {217} favourites of particular
persons, as in these instances:--"The King of Denmark's Galliard," "The
Earl of Essex's Galliard," "Sir John Souch his Galliard," "Sir Henry Noell
his Galliard," &c.--See Douland's _Lachrymæ, or Seaven Tears_, 1603.

The _galliard_ is a lively air in triple time: Brossard intimates that it
is the same with the _Romanesca_, a favourite dance with the Italians. It
is graphically described in Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_:

    "Let them take their pleasures, young men and maides flourishing in
    their age, fair and lovely to behold, well attired, and of comely
    carriage, dauncing a _Greek galliarde_, and, as their dance required,
    kept their time, now turning, now tracing, now apart, now altogether,
    now a curtesie, then a caper, &c., that it was a pleasant sight."

Christopher Sympson, in his _Compendium of Practical Musick_ (ed. 1678, p.
116.), says:

    "A _pavan_ doth commonly consist of three strains, each strain to be
    play'd twice over.... Next in course after a _pavan_ follows a
    _galliard_, consisting sometimes of two, and sometimes of three

Specimens of the _passamezzo pavan_ and _galliard_ may be found in Queen
Elizabeth's _Virginal Book_, in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. One is
dated 1592. Others may be found in the Public Library, Cambridge (MS.
marked "D. d. 3, 18.") Also in two rare printed books,--Robinson's _School
of Musick_, fol. 1603; and _Neder-landtsche Gedenck-clanck_, Haerlem, 1626.
The latter work contains the "Passamezzo d'Anvers."


       *       *       *       *       *


_The Albumen Process._--In answer to MR. LAWRENCE'S Queries regarding the
albumen process (in Vol. vii., p. 116.), I think I can supply him with the
information he requires.

The albumen should be placed in a cup, or some wide-mouthed vessel, and,
after carefully removing from its surface every trace of air-bubbles, it is
to be poured carefully on the plate, and after being flooded over the
surface of it, the plate being tilted on one side, the greater portion of
the albumen may be run off into the cup again. The plate must not be held
sideways, however, for more than an instant; and it must be brought as soon
as possible into the _horizontal_ position, _face downwards_, between the
points of the wire support, as used by Messrs. Ross and Thompson; and being
held by the cord attached to the wire support, it must be given a slow
rotary motion. The rate at which to cause it to rotate must be a matter of
experience, but must be such as to keep the surface of albumen even, and
neither to let it settle in the centre, nor to leave that and pass
completely to the edges; neither must too much of it be allowed to flow
off, as then the coating will not be thick enough. The best plan is to fix
on the wire support at the corner of the plate, and then pour on the
albumen, and then no time need be lost between pouring off and giving the
rotary motion. The albumen will keep some time in a bottle; but as soon as
it begins to get curdy and opalescent, it begins to lose in sensitiveness.
The plate, if well prepared, will remain sensitive and in good order for
two days at least, and being kept in a dry and cool place is a great
assistance to its preservation. The addition of about five drops of
saturated solution of bromide of potassium to every ounce of
previously-iodized albumen causes great depth and brilliancy in the
negative. The same sensitive bath answers over and over again, as with
collodion. The time of exposure cannot be specified, as that varies almost
indefinitely from ten minutes to an hour and a half.

In regard to obtaining a greater sensitiveness, the addition of starch size
in the place of the water to the albumen appears to increase it, and
certainly gives great improvement in depth of the blacks. A very good way
of beating up the albumen is as follows:--Take a round stick, and having
cut several slits in it, from the bottom half-way up it, insert into these
several pieces of quill, so that they may project on each side of the stick
to the length of about half an inch or a little more, and tie up the bottom
of the stick with some string wound round it to keep the quills in place.
Take then the albumen, iodized as directed by Thornthwaite or any other
successful manipulator, and place it in a tall cylindrical glass vessel;
and taking the whisk as above prepared between the palms of the hands, roll
it backwards and forwards, keeping the part armed with the quills immersed
in the albumen. This is the most effective method I know, and much less
tiring than the old method with the common whisk.

In answer to another Querist, I have only to reply that the black tints in
the French positives are due to the presence of starch, used as a size for
the paper. I have lately succeeded in producing several very beautiful and
brilliant effects of this kind by passing the paper--French or English, it
does not much matter which--first over a size of starch, and next (after
being dried) over a combination of albumen and thin starch size, composed
of equal parts of each, to which, according to the process of M. Le Gray,
may be added one-fifth of a saturated solution of chloride of ammonium.
This is only an improvement in the process as described by M. Le Gray, and
the rest of the process will be found in his own book, or in Thornthwaite's

F. M. L.


_Queries on Mr. Weld Taylor's Process._--I hope MR. WELD TAYLOR will not
withhold (from those {218} who would most thankfully acknowledge the
favour) an amended description of his paper process, embracing replies to
the following Queries:

1. How strong should the cyanide solution be that is to be added "drop by
drop;" and how much of it is likely to redissolve the precipitate formed by
the first mixture?

2. Should the paper be brushed with, floated on, or immersed in the
solution? If either of the latter, for how long a time; and what then?

3. How is the bath of nitrate of silver prepared, and the mode of applying
it to the paper?

4. How much sulphuric acid is added to a given quantity of water, in which
the paper is placed after removal from the exciting bath; and is it
immersed or floated?

5. Is the paper, when removed from the water, to be partially dried with
blotting-paper, and used in its damp state? or will it keep, and how long?

6. What is the probable time of exposure in the camera?

7. How is the picture developed? and, finally, how fixed?


_Difficulties in the Wax-paper Process._--Can any of your photographic
correspondents give me some hints regarding the following difficulties,
which I (in common with many other amateurs) have met with in working
according to Le Gray's wax-paper process?

The proportions I used were exactly those published by Le Gray, and the
paper and other materials were of the description he recommends; but nearly
every picture, on being placed in the gallic acid, was spoiled, by the
appearance of numerous small black spots, all well defined on one and the
same side, but comparatively undefined on the other. These may possibly
have been owing to iron in the paper, and may therefore, perhaps, be
obviated by following the method of MR. CROOKES. But I am anxious to learn
if others have experienced these spots in their pictures, and to what they
attribute them, as well as how they can best be prevented.

My second difficulty was in the want of intensity in the pictures, which
completely prevented my obtaining even a tolerable impression from them. I
tried many different times of exposure, and even after working long with Le
Gray's slightly-different proportions, but always without success. The
margin of the pictures, however, which had been exposed to the daylight,
always became of the _most intense black_, after the picture had been

But my third difficulty was the most annoying of all, because the constant
source of failure, though in itself apparently the most easily obviated. It
was the difficulty of keeping the dishes which contained the solution
_clean_; the effect of this want of cleanliness being the _marbling_ of the
pictures whenever placed in the gallic acid and aceto-nitrate of silver.
This is a difficulty I never before encountered, during half a dozen years'
practice of photography (during which I used to be as successful as most of
my brother amateurs); and though I tried every plan I could think of to
insure cleanliness, such as washing the dishes with warm water, nitric and
muriatic acids, &c., and afterwards wiping them thoroughly with clean
cloths, still the mixture of gallic acid and aceto-nitrate of silver, for
developing the picture, brought out some marblings or blotches on the dish,
which were invariably communicated to the picture, even though it was only
floated on the surface of the solution, and prevented, with the greatest
care, from touching the bottom of the dish. Should the dishes be kept in
the dark constantly?

Have any of your correspondents tried Le Gray's plan of filtering the
nitrate of silver through animal charcoal; or do they find any occasion to
filter at all? With me, the animal charcoal seemed to increase the
sensibility greatly.

G. H.

_Mr. Archer's Services to Photography._--In Vol. vii., p. 163., MR. HORNE
seems very indignant at the idea that MR. ARCHER taught him to take
pictures, and says MR. ARCHER'S published account will not succeed. Now I
know that MR. ARCHER and myself did take pictures by his process as
published. I also assert that neither MR. HORNE nor Mr. Fry made any
collodion pictures before MR. ARCHER published his account in _The
Chemist_, and, with the ordinary camera, that process must be the one now
to give any chance of success, for without washing the plate the collodion
will not keep five or six hours without staining. But as that process was
not sufficiently quick, MR. ARCHER proposed to take the pictures in the
bath itself; and I have one which I took in that way on the 16th of May,

MR. HORNE, I think ungenerously, wishes to detract from MR. ARCHER'S merit,
and to exalt himself and Mr. Fry at MR. ARCHER'S expense. I have a letter
of Mr. Fry's, dated March 23, 1852, in which he says, "I with much pleasure
accord to MR. ARCHER the credit he is fairly entitled to, of being the sole
inventor of the collodion process." And another letter, wherein he says he
"never sanctioned the insertion in any work of any article connected with
the collodion process." I also know that MR. ARCHER prepared collodion for
Messrs. Horne; that Messrs. Horne advertised it as prepared by MR. ARCHER;
and that they were glad, when the thing was new, to avail themselves of MR.
ARCHER'S assistance.



_Mr. Weld Taylor's Iodizing Process._--The process I generally adopt in
iodizing paper by the {219} ammonio-nitrate of silver, I have found to be
the most certain of all, and I here give a formula for the benefit of your
readers. They will find it admirably adapted for any objects in the shade,
or any not lit by the sun's rays; it also has an excellent quality, of not
darkening by exposure in the camera, as most other papers do. I have taken
negatives with it all the winter, even at Christmas. It is rather slow, but
certain; and as your readers try it and improve it, I hope they will
communicate the results.

It rests alone on the superior sensitive property the nitrate of silver
possesses after being redissolved in ammonia, which every photographer must
have experienced. And it has, I believe, in prospect, the dispensing with
the crystals of nitrate of silver, and simply at last employing silver
leaves, which will save a great expense to the operator. The first solution
is, to the proportion of a wine-bottleful of water add three grains of pure
tannin, well dissolved in filtered water. Upon this float every sheet of
paper, taking care of bubbles when they are to be hung up to dry. Do a
great number; they will be ready for the ultimate process. Make now a
solution of nitrate of silver, twenty-six grains to the ounce: if three
ounces are to be made, dissolve the nitrate in half an ounce of distilled
water, and add liq. ammo. fortissimus till the precipitate is redissolved.
Then fill up with two and a half ounces of distilled water. This is the
formula of Mr. Alfred Taylor. With this solution pass over every sheet with
a brush: it cannot be floated, as exposure to the air precipitates the
silver. The iodizing solution is,--

  Iodide of potassium        250 grs.
  Fluoride of potassium       20 grs.
  Cyanide of potassium        15 grs.
  Muriate of soda             30 grs.

to a full half-pint of distilled water.

The success of the operation depends upon this point, that the latter
solution must be laid over the first, _before the first has entirely
dried_, or at that point when all appearance of wet is absorbed. Three
sheets of paper may be washed over at a time; and as the corner where the
solution runs to is apt to remain wet longer than the rest of the paper,
the drip may be assisted off with a bit of blotting-paper. Also, _before_
the second solution is dry, it is to be floated on water; but the same
conditions must be strictly observed. When it has floated a short time, "it
does not require so long a time as the acid process." It is, while wet,
floated again upon a weak solution of free iodine for about half a minute;
it may then be dried, and is ready for the sensitive solution. This last
must be acid, and any of the approved formulæ will suit it; but the
solution, whatever it is, must be allowed to dry before placing between the
white glasses, nor on any account ought it to be touched with
blotting-paper. The image is to be brought out with gallic acid and acetic
acid, laid over with a brush, and requires no heat. It is of a very red
colour generally, but that does not impair its effectiveness in taking the
positive impression.


7. Conduit Street West, Bayswater.

_Sir W. Newton's Process._--Will SIR W. NEWTON be kind enough, through the
mediums of "N. & Q.," to give the _rationale_ of the _action_ of the
_common soda_ and _powdered allum_ mentioned in his process published in
Vol. vii., p. 140. and why the _soda_ is used for _negatives_ and the
_allum_ for _positives_, both being produced on _iodized paper_?

Should these chemicals _destroy_ the power of the _hyposulphite of soda_, I
imagine the fading of _positives_ will no longer be a matter of uneasiness;
and I am sure all amateurs will be greatly indebted to him.


40. Sloane Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_A Race for Canterbury_ (Vol. vii., p. 158.).--In a copy of the tract
before me (4to., 1747) is a plate prefixed to the title, containing a view
of Lambeth Palace with four bishops, each in a wherry, striving hard to
reach the coveted God: Sherlock, Herring, Mawson, and Gibson, designated in
the poem as _Codex_. The contention for the see of Canterbury, on the death
of Archbishop Potter, was the subject of several squibs and satirical

I have two other plates, each representing three bishops in wherries; one
with three stanzas under it, commencing:

 "Pope Gregory's table was spread with a net,
  Till he the fish into his power could get;
  Pope E--nd to L--eth rows in a wherry,
  For the A--B--p's P--ce of C----."

In which Gibson and the two Sherlocks are alluded to. The other, a
broadside, headed by a woodcut with _three_ wherries, entitled "First Oars
to L--m--th, or who strives for Preferment?" with fourteen stanzas below
the cut; the first runs thus:

 "At L--m--th dwells, as fame reports,
    A P--i--st of spotless fame;
  Some annual thousands swell his worth,
    And spread abroad his name."

In the twelfth, the initials H--d--y appear:

 "H--d--y, with headstrong zeal inspired,
    Vows he'll complete the work,
  Whilst G--b--n tugs and boils in vain,
    T' o'ertake the furious Y--r--k."

Which would lead one to infer that Hoadley was a competitor with Herring
and Gibson.

J. F.



"_The Birch: a Poem_" (Vol. vii., p. 158.).--The poem entitled "The Birch,"
which you have printed at length in a recent Number, has long been familiar
to me, though I believe it has never before been printed; and was written
by the late _Rev. Thomas Wilson, B.D., head master of the Free Grammar
School of Clitheroe, Lancashire_. He was author of _An Archæological
Dictionary, or Classical Antiquities of the Jews, Greeks, and Romans_,
dedicated to Dr. Johnson; which was highly esteemed, and passed through two
editions: the first in 1782, the second, "with considerable additions," in

Mr. Wilson was a most amiable man, of great learning, taste, and humour;
and universally respected and beloved by all his scholars, by all his
townsmen, and by all the first families throughout the north of Lancashire.
During his time, the school of Clitheroe was in the highest repute; and the
annual return of the speech-day was the great local festival of the
year--the occasion of general conviviality and good neighbourhood among the
gentry of the district. On these occasions Mr. Wilson generally wrote a
copy of verses, to be recited by some of the scholars: and I have no doubt
that the statement in your correspondent's copy ought to be "_recited_ by a
boy of thirteen," for it was certainly _written_ by Mr. Wilson, the head

J. T. A.

_Curtseys and Bows_ (Vol. vii., p. 156.).--E. S. will find his Query
partly, if not altogether answered in a former note on salutations and
salutes (Vol. v., p. 157.). As to the date of the word _curtsey_ (a
contraction for _courtesy_), it is at least as early as Shakspeare.
Rosalind concludes the epilogue to _As You Like It_ by making her
_curt'sy_. It occurs also in a dozen other places.


_Deodorising Peat_ (Vol. vi., p. 509.).--A. A. D. inquires if this is found
to be a failure: to this I can answer safely, that it is _not_. As to the
second part of his Query, I would say, _if_ he means (as I am sure he does)
the "Peat Charcoal," he should apply to Jasper W. Rogers, Esq., C. E.,
Seville Place, Dublin, who is the patentee, and who will, I am sure, give
him every information. Before doing so, I would, however, suggest an
application to Professor Davy, Royal Dublin Society, who has strongly
maintained that _finely_ pulverised peat is fully equal to the peat
charcoal as a deodorising agent. He has published a small pamphlet on the
subject: to the best of my recollection it may be had through Messrs.
Hodges and Smith, Dublin.


_Jacobite Toasts_ (Vol. vii., p. 105.).--What is here called "Lord Duff's
toast" formed some of the toasts current among the Jacobites about the
period of the Rebellion of 1745. Lord Mahon alludes to the deep bumpers
which were drunk by the country gentlemen to the health of the young
prince, and probably by the country ladies also, "who were proud to sing
ditties to his praise." Lord Mar died in 1732, consequently the fourth
toast, "Keep Lord Mar," could not be drunk in 1745. The following list,
given to me by a Lancashire gentleman some years ago, varies a little from
your correspondent's, and may be acceptable both to him and to others of
your readers. As Lord Mar and the Duke of Ormond, who died in 1745, are
both omitted in this list of toasts, it may have been used subsequently to
the other.

  A. B. C.    A Blessed Change.
  D. E. F.    D-- Every Foreigner.
  G. H. J.    Get Home Jemmy.
  K. L. M.    Keep Loyal Ministers.
  N. O. P.    No Oppressive Parliaments.
  Q. R. S.    Quickly Return, Stuart; and
              Quell Rebellious Subjects.
  T. U. W.    Tuck Up Whelps (Guelfs).
  X. Y. Z.    Exert Your Zeal.

Your correspondents, myself among the number, in the case of Shenstone
(Vol. vi., pp. 414. 465.), ought well to consider the narrow limits which
can be afforded weekly in your pages, and not desire to insert in them what
may be easily found elsewhere. Bishop Pursglove's epitaph, which fills an
entire column at p. 135., has been given, 1. in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for December 1794, p. 1101.; 2. in Lysons's _Derbyshire_; and 3. in the
beautiful volume of monumental brasses published by the Cambridge Camden
Society, where it is accompanied by a most interesting memoir. When some of
your correspondents look with anxiety for the appearance of a Note and
Query of three lines, and do not find it, this occupation of space is
rather unreasonable, as well as needless.

J. H. M.

_Consecrators of English Bishops_ (Vol. vii., p. 132.).--I believe that the
following is, as far as it goes, a correct answer to the Query of A. S. A.
The bishops assisting the Primate were:

Feb. 27, 1842, Lincoln and Llandaff; April 28, 1844, London, Bangor,
Worcester; May 4, 1845, London, Lincoln, Lichfield, Rochester, Hereford,
and Bishop Coleridge late of Barbadoes; July 5, 1846, London, Lichfield,

The consecration of December 3, 1843, like all those before mentioned, took
place in the archbishop's private chapel in Lambeth Palace.


_Chatham's Language_ (Vol. vii., p. 127.).--I suppose you will receive many
answers to H. G. D.'s question, as to the authorship of the lines quoted by
Lord Lansdowne; but "what is everybody's business is nobody's;" and,
therefore, I venture to say that, with a slight difference, they are from
Cowper's _Task_, b. ii. 235. I think {221} the whole passage ought to be
embalmed in your pages amongst the other memorials of Wolfe:

 "Time was when it was praise and boast enough
  In every clime, and travel where we might,
  That we were born her children: _praise enough_
  To fill the ambition of a private man,
  _That Chatham's language was his mother tongue,_
  _And Wolfe's great name compatriot with his own_.
  Farewell those honours, and, farewell with them
  The hope of such hereafter. They have fallen
  Each in his field of glory: one in arms,
  And one in council. Wolfe upon the lap
  Of smiling victory, that moment won,
  And Chatham, heart-sick of his country's shame.
  They made us many soldiers. Chatham still
  Consulting England's happiness at home,
  Secured it by an unforgiving frown,
  If any wrong'd her. Wolfe, where'er he fought,
  Put so much of his heart into his act,
  That his example had a magnet's force,
  And all were swift to follow whom all lov'd."

Southey adds, in note:

    "Cowper wrote from his own recollection here. In one of his letters, he
    says: 'Nothing could express my rapture when Wolfe made the conquest of

C. W. B.

_Shakspeare Readings: "Love's Labour's Lost," Act V. Sc. 2._ (Vol. vi., pp.
268. 296.).--

 "That sport best pleases which the least knows how:
  Where zeal strives to content, and the contents
  _Dies_ in the _zeal_ of that which it presents."

The difficulty, as MR. KNIGHTLY says, is in the word _dies_, which is
unintelligible; for the meaning is obviously the reverse of _dies_, namely,
that the _contents_, that is, "the satisfaction of the audience, arises
from accepting the well-meant zeal of the poor performers." This sense will
be produced by the smallest possible typographical correction--_L_ for _D_.

  "The contents
  _Lies_ (i.e. exists) in the zeal," &c.

This at least is intelligible, which no other reading seems to be; and I
need not point out that there are no two letters so easily confounded,
either in MS. or type, as _L_ and _D_. Most editions now read _die_, to
agree with the plural _contents_; that question however, does not affect my
emendation, which seems to me very like some of the best in MR. COLLIER'S


_Inscriptions in Books_ (Vol. vii., p. 127.).--The following lines are
often written in Bibles, and other works of a devotional nature:

 "This is Giles Wilkinson his book.
  God give him grace therein to look:
  Nor yet to look, but understand,
  That learning's better than house and land:
  For when both house and land are spent,
  Then learning is most excellent."

I find that the following formula is much used among the poor in country

 "John Stiles is my name,
  England is my nation,
  ---- is my dwelling-place,
  But Christ is my salvation.
  And when I'm dead and in the grave,
  And all my bones are rotten;
  This when you see, remember me,
  Though I am long forgotten."

Another I am acquainted with is of as menacing a description as some of the
last quoted by BALLIOLENSIS. It is, however, so common as hardly to be
worth the notice of "N. & Q.":

 "Gideon Snooks,
          Ejus liber.
  Si quis furetur;
  Per collum pendetur,
  Similis huic pauperi animali."

Here follows a figure of an unfortunate individual suspended "in malam

F. M. M.

The Note of BALLIOLENSIS has reminded me of Garrick's book-plate, which I
found in a book purchased by me some years ago. The name David Garrick, in
capital letters, is surrounded by some fancy scroll-work, above which is a
small bust of Shakspeare; below, and on the sides, a mask, and various
musical instruments; and beneath the whole, the following sentence from

    "La première chose qu'on doit faire quand on a emprunté un livre, c'est
    de le lire afin de pouvoir le rendre plûtôt.--_Menagiana_, vol. iv.

The following admonition to book-stealers is probably not unknown to

 "Quisquis in hunc librum furtivos verterit ungues,
  [Pi] sibi pro merito littera Græca manet."

S. D.

_Anagrams_ (Vol. iv., p. 226.).--The following royal anagrams are worth
adding to your list. It is said that Charles I., on looking at a portrait
of himself the day before his execution, made this anagram on the Carolus
Rex inscribed on it, _Cras ero lux_. Again, Henry IV. of France is said to
have made the anagram _Je charme tout_, on the famous and beautiful Marie



_Dipping for Bite of Mad Dog, &c._ (Vol. vi., p. 483.).--When I was a boy,
probably therefore about thirty-five years ago, a mad dog appeared in
Brightwell, near Wallingford, which bit several other animals and some
human beings. I well remember seeing some pigs which became perfectly mad
in consequence of being so bitten. A horse, too, showed symptoms of
madness, and was immediately destroyed. All I can say of the _persons_
{222} bitten is, that they were sent (I think to the number of six or
seven) down to Southampton to be dipped, and that none of them was ever
attacked with hydrophobia. I have often, formerly, spoken to one of the
persons on the subject, a carpenter, named Eggleton.

I quite agree with all you have said on the propriety of appending real
names. Dropping, therefore, my cognomen of CORYLUS, I subscribe myself



"_Solid Men of Boston_" (Vol. vii., p. 134.).--Your correspondent will find
the whole of this song, which is one of Captain Morris's, in the _Asylum
for Fugitive Pieces_, published by Debrett, 1786, 12mo., vol. ii. p. 246.
It is entitled "Billy Pitt and the Farmer," and begins--

 "Sit down, neighbours all, and I'll tell a merry story,
  About a British farmer and Billy Pitt the Tory.
  I had it piping hot from Ebenezer Barber,
  Who sail'd right from England, and lies in Boston harbour."

It describes, very amusingly, an incident which was reported to have
occurred to Pitt and Dundas, on their return from a convivial meeting at
"Daddy Jenky's," and was for a long time a very popular song.


I have seen a song, with the music, directed against the Prince of Wales,
Charles Fox, and their party. It began,--

 "Come, listen neighbours all, and I'll tell you a story,
  About a disappointed Whig who wants to be a Tory.
  I had it from his bosom-friend, who very soon is going
  To Botany for seven years, for something he's been doing."

It ended,--

 "Solid men of Brighton, look to your houses;
  Solid men of Brighton, take care of your spouses;
  Solid men of Brighton, go to bed at sun-down,
  And do not lose your money to the blacklegs of London."

Which is the earlier version I do not know.

H. B. C.

_Degree of B.C.L._ (Vol. vi., p. 534.; Vol. vii., p. 38.).--In answer to J.
F.'s question, the examination is quite, and the amount of standing (viz.
seven years) required for taking a B.C.L in the University of Oxford is
almost, identical with those necessary for an M.A. degree. A knowledge of
the Civil Law never comes into requisition. There was a proposal, some
short time ago, for a statute requiring an examination in the Institutes,
&c., Heineccius, and other treatises on the Civil Law, before proceeding to
that degree, but it was never passed. The civilian's fees are rather more
than the Artist's. For information on some other minute particulars of
difference, I refer J. F. to the _Oxford Calendar_.

The Cambridge LL.B. is really examined in the Civil, though not in the
Canon Law, and is considered to obtain his degree with greater facility
than by going through Arts.

With respect to the privileges of the degree at Oxford, the B.C.L. is not a
member of Convocation, and has therefore no vote for the university; but
yet he takes precedence of M.A.'s, both by university and court etiquette.
The degrees in law and divinity used to confer the same privileges as a
chaplaincy with respect to holding pluralities; and they also give those
who take them the right of wearing a scarf. This will be an answer to C--
J. T. P. (Vol. vii., p. 108.), unless he has confounded the priest's
_stole_ with the chaplain's _scarf_. The civilian has also a distinguishing
gown and hood; but as to the right to a place among the members of the bar,
I am unable, though a B.C.L. myself, to give any assistance in the way of
information; but the silk gown of a queen's counsel is the same as a
civilian's gown.



_"Lay" and "Lie"_ (Vol. vi., p. 388.).--I have somewhere read the following
parliamentary anecdote:--A certain honourable member, in the course of a
speech, said, "the paper which _lays_ on the table," but was immediately
corrected by another honourable member, who said, "the honourable member
should say _lie_, hens _lay_." In the course of the evening, the second
honourable member was on his legs, and at the end of his speech said, "with
these observations I shall _set_ down;" but the first retorted on him with
the correction "the honourable member should say _sit_, hens _set_."


"_Banbury Cakes and Zeal_" (Vol. vii., p. 106.).--The following passage
from _Drunken Barnaby's Journey through England_ will show that Banbury was
famous for _zeal_:

 "To Banbury came I, O profane one!
  There I saw a puritane one
  Hanging of his cat on Monday
  For killing of a mouse on Sunday."

What the present estimation in which Banbury cakes are held may be I cannot
tell; but I can assure you that at the close of the last century, when I
was a schoolboy, they were deservedly in very high repute, at least among
us youngsters.


"_Hob and nob_" (Vol. vii., p. 86.).--In addition to your observations on
this expression, allow me to record the use of the term under circumstances
which some others of your sexagenarian readers may with myself be able to
call to mind. I well remember, when a boy at home from school, that {223}
my old uncle, who piqued himself on the correctness of his style in
manners, dress, and conversation, and whose portrait, in the ample sleeves,
capacious waistcoat, and formal head-dress of the last century, looks down
on me as I now write, being in company when wine was on the table, and each
person had supplied their glasses, would occasionally, as a mark of respect
or affection to any individual sitting near him, in a gentle tone of
solicitation mention the name of the party, and ask "Hob and nob?" On the
immediate compliance, which nothing short of hostility or ill manners could
refuse or avoid, the parties held out their glasses till they touched one
the other, health being at the same time invoked. But at this point always
ensued a little polite rivalry as to which of the parties should hold the
glass rather below that of the other as they came in contact. If a lady
were the challenged on the occasion, she would with simpering diffidence
allow of the superiority indicated by her glass being uppermost,
overwhelmed with my uncle's expressions of regard; if a gentleman, each
party got over the formality on as near a level as possible, amidst murmurs
and protestations of humble service and great esteem.

J. D. S.

_A Gentleman executed for flogging a Slave to Death_ (Vol. vii., p.
107.).--Mr. J. V. L. Gebhard, son of the Rev. Mr. Gebhard, was tried at
Cape Town, on Saturday, 21st September, 1822, at the instance of the
landrost of Stellenbosch, _ratione officio_ prosecutor, before a full
court, for the murder of a slave, by excessive and unlawful punishment. He
was found guilty, and sentenced to death. The sentence was carried into
effect on 15th November, amid an immense concourse of spectators.


_Mr. Henry Smith's Sermons preached by a Romanist_ (Vol. iii., p. 222.).--

    "As soon as he (_i. e._ Obadiah Walker) declared himself a Roman
    Catholic, he provided him and his party of Jesuits for their priests;
    concerning the first of whom (I think he went by the name of Mr.
    Edwards) there is this remarkable story, that having had mass said for
    some time in a [Greek: uperôon], or garret, he afterwards procured a
    mandate from King James to seize of the lower half of the side of the
    quadrangle next adjoining to the college chapel, by which he deprived
    us of two low rooms, their studies, and their bed-chambers; and after
    all the partitions were removed, it was some way or other consecrated,
    as we suppose, to Divine services; for they had mass there every day,
    and sermons, at least in the afternoons, on the Lord's Days: and it
    happening that the Jesuit preaching upon 1 Cor. ix. 24., 'So run that
    you may obtain,' many Protestants were hearkening at the outside of the
    windows, one of them discovering that it was one of Mr. Henry Smith's
    sermons, which he had at home by him, went and fetched the book, and
    read at the outside of the window what the Jesuit was preaching within.
    But this report raised such a noise in the town, that this priest was
    speedily dismissed, and another brought in his room."--Smith's _Annals
    of University College_, p. 258.

E. H. A.

_London Queries_ (Vol. vii., p. 108.).--An authentic account of one of the
earliest, if not the most early toll ever collected in England, is to be
found in the 5th tome of Rymer's _Foedera_, fo. 520. It was in the year
1346 that King Edward III. granted his commission to the master of the
hospital of St. Gyles (in the Fields), without the city of London, and to
John of Holbourn, to lay a toll on all sorts of carriage, for two years to
come, passing through the highway (via regia) leading from the said
hospital to the bar of the old Temple of London (_i. e._ the Holborn Bar,
near to which stood the old house of the Knights Templars); also through
another highway called Perpoole (now Gray's Inn Lane); which roads were, by
frequent passage of carts, waynes, and horses, to and from London, become
so miry and deep as to be almost impassable; as also the highway called
Charing. These tolls were as follow:

  1. For every cart or wayne, laden with wool,
  leather, wine, honey, wax, oyl, pitch, tar,
  fish, iron, brass, copper, or other metals,
  corn, &c., for sale, to the value of twenty
  shillings                                        1d.

  2. For every horse-load of merchandise           0¼

  3. For every horse used in carrying corn, or
  other provisions, per week                       0½

  4. For every load of hay                         0¼

  5. For carts used to carry charcoal, bark, &c.,
  per week                                         1

  6. For every horse, ox, or cow                   1

  7. For every score of hogs or sheep              0½

  8. And for all other merchandise of 5s. value    0½

But ecclesiastical persons, of both sexes, were to be exempt from this

About this time there was a considerable market or staple held at
Westminster; and in 1353 the same king, by an order in council, laid a tax
of 3d. on every sack (serplarium) of wool, and for every three hundred of
woolfels; 6d. on every last of leather; 4d. on every fodder of lead; 4d. on
every tun of wine; and ½d. on every twenty shillings value of all other
goods carried either by land or water to the staple of Westminster, in
order for repairing the highway leading from the gate of London called
Temple Bar to the gate of the abbey at Westminster.--See _Foedera_, vol. v.
p. 774.

From this record we learn that the gate called Temple Bar, as a western
boundary of the city of London, is of great antiquity as a gate.

I hope some of your readers skilled in architecture may answer the other
Queries of your correspondent.


Bury, Lancashire.


       *       *       *       *       *



Messrs. Longman have just published, in two thick and closely printed
volumes, _A New Gazetteer or Topographical Dictionary of the British
Islands and Narrow Seas, &c._, by James A. Sharp. When we tell our readers
that in these two volumes are recorded the name, position, history, &c. of
every city, town, village, hamlet, &c. which appears in the censuses of
1821, 1831, 1841; or in the works of Carlisle, Pott, Gorton, Lewis,
Fullarton, Chambers, Hall, and other general writers; and, indeed, that
among the sixty thousand articles of which these volumes consist, will be
found particulars not only of all the natural objects of the country--as
rivers, lakes, mountains, hills, passes, waterfalls, bays, ports,
headlands, islands, shoals--but also of every locality or object of
historical interest or antiquarian character: as Roman stations and camps,
Roman and British ways, Saxon towns, Druid stones, cromlechs, round towers,
Danish Raths, Picts' houses, castles, abbeys, &c., not to mention railway,
police, and coast-guard stations, hunting "fixtures," &c., they will at
once perceive what a vast amount of useful, indeed of most valuable,
information, the persevering industry of Mr. Sharp has enabled him to bring
together. That a work consisting of so large a mass of facts and figures
should contain some errors, is more than probable; but having tested it by
referring to localities with which we are personally acquainted, we are
enabled to say that it has stood that test in a manner to make us feel
assured that it is a book to be fully relied upon, and one, therefore,
which we have no doubt will eventually take its place in every
well-appointed library.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Tangible Typography, or How the Blind Read_, by E. C.
Johnson, is a little volume detailing various modes of printing books for
the blind, and well calculated to awaken an interest in the benevolent
objects of The Society for Printing and Distributing Books for the Use of
the Blind.--_The Ghost of Junius, &c._, by Francis Ayerst. This endeavour
to identity Junius with Lieut.-General Sir Robert Rich, on the strength of
a letter written by that officer to Viscount Barrington, years after the
celebrated _Letters of Junius_ had appeared, is the largest theory based on
the smallest fact with which we are acquainted.--Mr. Bohn has just issued
in his _Standard Library_ the fourth volume of his edition of _The Prose
Works of John Milton; containing the First Book of A Treatise on Christian
Doctrine, compiled from the Holy Scripture alone, translated from the
Original_ by the Lord Bishop of Winchester. The present edition has had the
advantage of a thorough revision.--Mr. Bohn has also enriched his
_Scientific Library_ by the publication of _The Physical and Metaphysical
Works of Lord Bacon, including his Dignity and Advancement of Learning, and
his Novum Organon, or Precepts for the Interpretation of Nature_, edited by
Joseph Devey, who has availed himself of the best translations, and
enriched the _Novum Organon_ with the remarks of the two Playfairs, Sir
John Herschel, and the German and French editors.--_Matthew Paris' English
History, from the Year 1235 to 1273; translated from the Latin_ by Dr.
Giles, _Volume the Second_, is the new issue of Bohn's _Antiquarian
Library_; while, in his _Classical Library_, he has published a volume
which will be, we doubt not, welcome to many: _The Idylls of Theocritus,
Bion, and Moschus, and the War Songs of Tyrtæus, literally translated into
English Prose_, by Rev. J. Banks; _with Metrical Versions_, by J. M.
Chapman.--_The Churchman's Magazine, a Monthly Review of Church Progress
and General Literature._ Judging from the January and February Numbers
which are now before us, we can have no doubt that this Magazine for
Churchmen will please those to whom it is addressed.

       *       *       *       *       *










BEDELL'S IRISH OLD TESTAMENT, Irish type, 4to., 1685. [A copy of
O'Domhnuill's "Irish _New_ Testament," Irish type, 4to., 1st edition, 1602
(_being rare_), is offered in exchange.]


SOUTHEY'S WORKS. Vol. X. Longmans. 1838.




HAYWARD'S BRITISH MUSEUM. 3 Vols. 12mo. 1738.



PETER SIMPLE. Illustrated Edition. Saunders and Otley. Vols. II. and III.


INGRAM'S SAXON CHRONICLE. 4to. London, 1823.

NEWMAN'S FERNS. Large Edition.

ENIGMATICAL ENTERTAINER. Nos. I. and II. 1827 and 1828. Sherwood & Co.

NORTHUMBRIAN MIRROR. New Series. 1841, &c.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We have this week the pleasure of presenting our Readers with an
additional eight pages. We do this from a desire that those who do not
participate in the interest which so many of them take in our endeavours to
popularise Photography, should from time to time receive compensation for
the space occupied by our_ Photographic Correspondence.

E. H. H. _Caxton's Press is certainly not in Westminster Abbey: we may add,
certainly not in existence._

TEE BEE. _The quotation is from Pope's_ Moral Essays, _Epist. IV._:

 "To rest the cushion and soft Dean invite,
  Who never mentions hell to ears polite."

S. JENNINGS-G. _We have a Note for this Correspondent. Where shall it be

H. E. P. T. (Woolwich). _What Numbers are wanted?_

EARLDOM OF OXFORD. M. D., _whose communication on this subject appears in
our_ No. for Feb. 12., p. 153., _writes to us that he has been misinformed,
inasmuch as two of the sisters of Alfred, the last Earl of Oxford and
Mortimer, have sons_. {225}

F. K. (Clonea) _is requested to state the subjects of the two Queries to
which he refers_.

J. M. (Bath). _The Note has been forwarded._

SHAW: SPINNEY: HURST. H. E. P. T. _will find, on reference to Richardson's
Dictionary, that_ Shaw _is from the A.-S._ Scua, _a Shadow_; _and_ Hurst
_from the A.-S._ Hurst, _a Wood_. Spinney _is probably from the Latin_
Spinetum, _a place where thorny bushes grow_.

J. G. (Dorchester)'_s Query on the Lisle Family shall appear next week_.

F. B. _The term_ Benedict, _applied to a married man, is doubtless derived
from Shakspeare's_ "_Benedict, the Married Man_."

TYRO. _The fault must be in your Chemicals, or in your manipulation. Try
again, with Chemicals procured from a different source._

E. B. S. _Dr. Diamond's result, and mode of arriving at it, will be given
in his forthcoming_ Photographic Notes.

_Erratum._--P. 105., Lord Duff's Toast, read "Q. R. S. Quickly _Restore_
Stewart," instead of "_Resolve_."

OUR SIXTH VOLUME, _strongly bound in cloth, with very copious Index, is now
ready, price_ 10s. 6d. _A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols.
I. _to_ VI., _price Three Guineas for the Six Volumes, may now be had; for
which early application is desirable_.

       *       *       *       *       *

  March 1st will be ready, Part I., price 1s.
  (To be continued in Shilling Monthly Parts,)

DEVOTIONAL READING. This Commentary will be particularly adapted to the
Wants of the Middle and Poorer Classes, and will be issued in Shilling
Monthly Parts. At the same time it is so arranged that any chapter can be
obtained separately, in the form of a Tract, and thus used for

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, in fcp. 8vo., handsomely bound in cloth, gilt, with woodcut
borders and illustrations, price 3s. 6d.

M. NEALE, M.A., for the use of Children of the Church of England.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


8vo. cloth, 8s. 6d.

BULSTRODE WHITELOCK'S MEMORIALS of the English Affairs from the beginning
of the Reign of Charles I. to the Restoration of Charles II. New Edition in
4 Vols. 8vo. cloth, 30s.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 377. Strand, London; and GARDNER, 7.
Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now Ready,


Practical Advice to Authors, inexperienced Writers, and Possessors of
Manuscripts, on the efficient publication of books intended for general
circulation or private distribution. Sent Post Free to orders enclosing Six
Stamps, addressed to MESSRS. SAUNDERS & OTLEY, Publisher, Conduit Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1 Class X., in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may
now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in fcp. 8vo., Vol. V. of

BOWDLER'S FAMILY SHAKSPEARE. In which nothing is _added_ to the Original
Text; but those Words and Expressions are _omitted_ which cannot with
propriety be read aloud in a Family. A New Edition, to be completed in Six
Monthly Volumes, price 5s. each.


       *       *       *       *       *

WONDERFUL DISCOVERY.--Portraits, Views, &c., taken on Glass by the Suns
rays. By this new process any person can produce in a few seconds, at a
trifling expense, truly Life-like Portraits of their Friends, Landscapes,
Views, Buildings, &c. No knowledge of drawing required to produce these
wondrous works of art and beauty. Printed instructions, containing full
particulars for practising this fascinating art with ease and certainty,
forwarded on receipt of Fifteen Postage Stamps.

  Address, WM. LANE, Photographer,
  No. 3. Market Street, Brighton.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c.

Court, Long Acre.

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that they devote particular attention
to the execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FAC-SIMILES, comprising Autograph
Letters, Deeds, Charters, Title-pages, Engravings, Woodcuts, &c., which
they produce from any description of copies with the utmost accuracy, and
without the slightest injury to the originals.

Among the many purposes to which the art of Lithography is most
successfully applied, may be specified,--ARCHÆOLOGICAL DRAWINGS,
Architecture, Landscapes, Marine Views, Portraits from Life or Copies,
Illuminated MSS., Monumental Brasses, Decorations, Stained Glass Windows,
Maps, Plans, Diagrams, and every variety of illustrations requisite for
Scientific and Artistic Publications.

PHOTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS lithographed with the greatest care and exactness.

LITHOGRAPHIC OFFICES, 18. Broad Court, Long Acre, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


_Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
_Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.
_Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *




  MR. G. PEARSE and MR. G. PINK.

ST. MARY'S CHURCH, Vincent Square, Westminster, was erected in the year
1837, and contains 1,200 sittings, of which 800 are free.

The pecuniary resources which were at the disposal of those by whose
efforts this spacious Church was built were only adequate to provide what
was absolutely requisite for the performance of Divine Service.

There was, however, much cause for thankfulness that so large and
commodious a Church was raised in so poor a district as St. Mary's; and a
hope was then entertained that the day would soon come when what was
necessarily left incomplete might be accomplished.

Fifteen years have passed away since the Church was consecrated; and the
time appears now to have arrived when an effort should be made to supply
what is wanting, and to render the interior more convenient, to paint,
cleanse, and colour it; and to impart to it that religious decency and
comeliness which befits the House of God.

An additional reason for this endeavour is supplied by recent events.
Churches have arisen in the neighbourhood of St. Mary's, erected by the
munificence of pious founders, which are adorned with architectural beauty,
and are among the best specimens of ecclesiastical fabrics that the present
age has produced. St. Mary's suffers from the contrast: its deficiencies
have become more manifest; and the need of such an effort as has been
mentioned is now felt more strongly.

While, however, the exigencies of the case have increased, the means of
satisfying them have become less. Some of the less indigent portions of St.
Mary's District have been detached from it, and have been annexed to the
other districts formed for more recent Churches. Thus the resources of St.
Mary's have been diminished; and circumstances of a local character render
it undesirable, in the opinion of legal advisers, to press for the levying
of a Rate for the improvement of the Church. Perhaps, however, the strength
of the present appeal may eventually be found to lie in these difficulties,
when they are more generally known.

A COMMITTEE, therefore, has been formed, consisting of the Churchwardens of
the District, and other inhabitants, and of some personal friends of the
Incumbent, the REV. A. BORRADAILE, whose zeal and energy in discharging the
duties of the pastoral office in St. Mary's District for more than ten
years, through many and great difficulties, have been greatly blessed to
his flock, and command the respect and sympathy of those who have witnessed
his persevering exertions, and have seen the fruit of his labours.

The Committee are now engaged in an endeavour to raise funds for the
reparation and improvement of the interior of St. Mary's Church; and they
trust that many may be found to approve and encourage the design.

An estimate has been prepared of the requisite expenditure by MR. H. A.
HUNT, of 4. Parliament Street, which amounts to FIVE HUNDRED AND FIFTY
POUNDS. This sum, it is anticipated, will suffice to provide for lowering
and refixing the whole of the Free Seats, and to make them more commodious
for the use of the poor; to improve the seats generally throughout the
Church; to alter and improve the position and character of the Pulpit and
Reading Desk; to paint, grain, and varnish the whole of the seats; and to
give an appropriate appearance to the Chancel of the Church.

*** Subscriptions are received for "ST. MARY'S VINCENT SQUARE FUND," at
MESSRS. HALLETT & CO., Little George Street, Westminster, or at 2. Warwick
Terrace, Belgrave Road; or by the CHURCHWARDENS of St. Mary's; or W. J.
THOMS, Esq., 25. Holywell Street, Millbank, Treasurer; or by REV. DR.
WORDSWORTH, Cloisters, Westminster, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


                                                  £   s.   d.
  Dean and Chapter of Westminster                50   0    0
  Rev. Dr. Woodsworth                            50   0    0
  Henry A. Hunt, Esq.                            25   0    0
  Rev. F. Secretan                                5   0    0
  Henry Stone Smith, Esq.                         5   0    0
  Miss J. F. Smith                                5   0    0
  F. Giffard, Esq.                                5   0    0
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.                        20   0    0
  James Hallett, Esq.                             5   0    0
  William J. Thoms, Esq.                          5   0    0
  The Hon. The Vice-Chancellor Wood              50   0    0
  Messrs. Hallett, Robinson, & Co.               10   0    0
  Venerable Archdeacon Bentinck                  45   0    0
  Mrs. Bentinck                                  15   0    0
  The Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol      10   0    0
  Joshua Watson, Esq.                            25   0    0
  Henry Hoare, Esq.                              10   0    0
  Rev. W. Tennant                                 5   0    0
  The Lord Bishop of London                      10   0    0
  Reginald Cocks, Esq.                           10   0    0
  Rev. George France                              3   3    0
  Mrs. Joyner                                     2   2    0
  By Rev. W. Jephson                              1   0    0
  Mrs. Blayney                                    1   0    0
  Miss Colquhoun                                  1   0    0
  Rev. R. Valentine                               1   0    0
  Anonymous                                       1   0    0
  Mr. Richardson                                  0   5    0
  W. Scott, Esq.                                  0   5    0
  G. Vacher, Esq.                                 5   0    0
  W. Spottiswoode, Esq.                           1   0    0
  George A. Spottiswoode, Esq.                    1   0    0
  J. H. Markland, Esq.                            3   0    0
  A. Hemsley, Esq.                                2   2    0
  Robert Arntz, Esq.                              1   0    0

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS., Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
Photography, according to the instructions of Hunt, Le Gray, Brébisson, &c.
&c., may be obtained of WILLIAM BOLTON, Manufacturer of pure chemicals for
Photographic and other purposes.

  Lists of Prices to be had on application.
  146. Holborn Bars.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

    BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
    Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *




  The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bristol, &c.
  The Right Hon. the Lord Justice Knight Bruce, &c.
  The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, M.P., &c.
  Lieut.-General Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, G.C.H., &c.
  The Right Hon. Viscount Goderich, M.P., &c.
  The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Monck, M.P.
  Sir George Thomas Staunton, Bart., D.C.L, F.R.S., M.P., &c.

  _Honorary Directors._
  The Hon. J. Master Owen Byng.
  William Coningham, Esq.
  William Ewart, Esq., M.P.
  Charles Kemble, Esq.
  Edward Miall, Esq., M.P.
  Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., M.P.
  Apsley Pellatt, Esq., M.P.
  Henry Pownall, Esq.
  Wm. Scholefield, Esq., M.P.
  The Hon. C. Pelham Villiers, M.P.
  James Wyld, Esq.

  Sir John Dean Paul, Bart.

  Thomas J. Arnold, Esq.
  Herbert Ingram, Esq.
  F.G.P. Nelson, Esq., F.L.S.

  Alexander Richmond, Esq.
  William Smalley, Esq.

  _Business Directors._
  _Chairman._--Lieut.-General Palby, C.B.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--J. Stirling Coyne, Esq.

  Bayle Bernard, Esq.
  Shirley Brooks, Esq.
  W. Downing Bruce, Esq.
  J. B. Buckstone, Esq.
  Thornton Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Lewes, Esq.
  Cyrus Redding, Esq.
  Angus B. Reach, Esq.

  _Managing Director._
  F. G. Tomlins, Esq.

  Wm. Dalton, Esq.

  G. E. Dennes, Esq., F.L.S.

  _Consulting Actuary._
  R. Thompson Jopling, Esq., F.S.S.

  Messrs. Strahan, Paul, Paul, and Bates. 217. Strand.

  Mr. C. Mitchell, Newspaper Press Directory Office, Red Lion Court, Fleet


The Athenæum Institute is legally incorporated as a Mutual Benefit Society,
and the rank and public status of its Vice-Presidents, Honorary Directors,
Trustee, and Treasurer, and the well-known character of its business
Directors, present a security to Authors, Journalists, and all connected
with Literature, that it is based on sound principles, and will be
conducted with fidelity and honour.

It consists of two classes of Supporters.

    _Non-Participating or Honorary Subscribers_, who, it is hoped, may
    include THE ROYAL FAMILY and great Officers of the state, on account of
    the political and moral influences of Authors; NOBLEMEN and MEN OF
    FORTUNE who have manifested a marked predilection for Literature;
    AUTHORS OF FORTUNE and others sympathising with, and interested in the
    labours of literary men.

    _Participating Subscribers_, consisting of PROFESSIONAL AUTHORS, and
    that large mass of writers who produce the current literature of the
    age in Works of Science, Imagination, Education, and the Periodical and
    Newspaper Press of the Empire.

The Constitution of the Society is such that the general body of its
members hold the directing power. The Board of Business Directors is
elected by it, and their powers and duties, as well as those of the
officers, are clearly defined by the laws and rules of the Institute, which
are in strict conformity with the elaborate requirements of the Friendly
Societies' Act (14th and 15th Victoria, chap. 115.).

THE QUALIFICATION OF MEMBERSHIP is authorship in some shape, but a large
and liberal will be the most just interpretation of the term. As close a
definition as can be given perhaps is, that it intends to include all who
use the pen with an intellectual aim, women as well as men. The printed
forms (which can be had on application) will show more minutely what is
required to constitute membership.


The distinguishing feature of the Institute is its applying the principle
of Life Assurance in all its transactions.

The _Subscriptions_ of the _Honorary Subscribers_ are applied to an
Assurance of the Life of the Donors.

For instance,--The Right Honourable Benjamin Disraeli, Esq., sends a
Donation of Twenty-five Pounds, which is immediately invested on an
Assurance on his life, and will ultimately produce to the Institute an
Endowment of 42l. Or to take another instance,--The Right Hon. Lord
Viscount Goderich subscribes Two Guineas per year, which is invested in
like manner on an Assurance on his life, and will ultimately Endow the
Institute with 100l. And thus the Honorary Subscriptions, instead of being
spent as soon as received, are made to form a Capital Fund, which will be
ultimately available, as the Lives fall in, to the Provident Members and
Participating Subscribers.

The application of the subscriptions of the Honorary Members to assuring
their lives, has these advantages:--It tends to create a large capital
fund--It enables the Honorary subscribers to see that the undertaking is
successful, before their money is expended--It transforms such
subscriptions from being an alms-giving for personal purposes, into an
Endowment for the general benefit of Literature--It is not like most alms
subscriptions to go in casual relief, but to produce a permanent result;
such as the foundation of a Hall and chambers, and ultimately the complete
organisation of Literature as a recognised profession; to endow permanent
annuities, and otherwise aid Literature by succouring Authors.

By this arrangement a very strong inducement is given to the Working
Literary Men to subscribe to this Institute and Society beyond all others:
as they will not only have all the benefits and profits arising from their
own subscriptions, but participate in the Capital Fund, which, there can be
no doubt, will be augmented by Donations, Legacies, and Endowments. There
is also the special advantage peculiar to such an Institution, of
NOMINATING A WIFE OR CHILD to receive immediately the Amount ASSURED at

_The Subscriptions of the Participating Class_ are as follows:--

ONE GUINEA must be subscribed by every member, which goes towards the
expenses of the Institute and the support of the Philanthropic Fund. For
this he is entitled to be a candidate for assistance from the Philanthropic
Fund; has a Vote at all the General Meetings of the Institute; and will be
entitled to certain benefits from the Education and Protective Branches of
the Institute when they are brought into operation.

EVERY GUINEA SUBSCRIBED ANNUALLY _beyond_ the first Guinea above mentioned,
produces the Subscriber an Assurance on his life, according to the Tables
specially calculated by the Consulting Actuary of the Institute, and which
are in compliance with the Act of Parliament regulating such matters. The
Policies are issued by the Institute under the Friendly Societies' Act, and
which are legally guaranteed by the Athenæum Life Assurance Society, which,
also appealing more particularly to Literary and Scientific Men, has made
an arrangement that is liberal and advantageous to the Athenæum Institute.

By this arrangement every Provident Member is equally safe, whether the
members of the Institute be few or many.

One Subscriber is thus rendered as secure as a thousand.

Annual Subscribers of Two Guineas or more are entitled to become Directors:
and in awarding relief, regard will always be had to the amount subscribed.

It will be perceived by these arrangements, that every member of the
Athenæum Institute has the full value returned to him of _every_ Guinea
subscribed _beyond_ the first, in a Policy on his life; and that he also
has a participation in the Capital Fund formed by the Subscriptions,
Donations, and Endowments of the Honorary Subscribers; a privilege which it
is probable will add from fifty to a hundred per cent. to his individual

The Friendly Societies' Act, under which the Institute is registered, will
not permit a member to make an Assurance beyond 100l., the Institute is
therefore limited to this amount: but the Athenæum Life Assurance Society,
which so liberally assists the Institute, will insure to any amount, and in
any mode. It is desirable that the members of the Institute should assure
up to the 100l. allowed by the Act, and the Tables will shew the annual
amount required, according to the Age of the Subscriber. The power of
NOMINATING A WIFE OR CHILD, irrespective of all other claimants, is also a
great inducement to assure in the Institute to the utmost amount, namely,

It is contemplated, as the Institute progresses, to add PROTECTIVE and

The union of numbers has established the various Commercial and
Philanthropic Institutions of the Empire, and it is earnest urged that
Authors and Journalists should take advantage of their numbers. Nothing can
be accomplished without numbers--with them everything. The appeal now made
is universal in its application to Literary workers, and it is hoped it
will be responded to so as to neutralise all cliquism, whether arising from
literary sectarianism, or the antagonism of political sentiments.

  F. G. TOMLINS, Manager,
      30. Sackville Street, London.

*** Members are admitted by the Directors (who meet monthly) according to
forms which will be transmitted on application.

Post Office Orders to be made payable to the Managing Director at Charing
Cross Money Order Office.

The Rules of the Institute, as legally drawn up by high professional
authority, and as certified by the Registrar, can be had, price 1s. 6d., or
2s. by post, pre-paid.

Prospectuses (with Tables calculated especially for this Society) may be
had, gratis, at the Office, 30. Sackville Street, or of Mr. Charles
Mitchell, Agent to the Institute, Newspaper Press Directory Office, 12. Red
Lion Court, Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


  March, 1853.



Kurdistan and the Desert: being the Result of a Second Expedition to
Assyria. By AUSTIN H. LAYARD, M.P. With nearly 400 Plates and Woodcuts. One
Volume. 8vo. 21s. (On Tuesday.)


Plates. Folio (Shortly.)


OPERATIONS. By GEN. SIR HOWARD DOUGLAS, Bart. Third Edition, enlarged.
Plates. 8vo. (Next Week.)


in the HIMALAYA, with Narrative of Adventures, and Description of the
Culture of the Tea Plant, &c. By ROBERT FORTUNE. Third Edition. Woodcuts. 2
Vols. Post 8vo. 18s. (On Tuesday.)


THE STORY OF JOAN OF ARC. By LORD MAHON. Fcap. 8vo. 1s. (Murray's "Railway


of Prisons. 8vo. 12s.


MY HOME IN TASMANIA, during a Residence of Nine Years. By MRS. CHARLES
MEREDITH, Author of "Notes and Sketches of New South Wales." Woodcuts. 2
Vols. Post 8vo. 18s.


LIVES OF THE EARLS OF ESSEX, in the Reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and
Charles I. Including many unpublished Letters and Documents. By HON. CAPT.
DEVEREUX, R.N. 2 Vols. 8vo. 30s.


THE FALL OF JERUSALEM. By REV. H. M. MILMAN, Dean of St. Paul's. Fcap. 8vo.
1s. (Murray's "Railway Reading.")


Contemporaries of Lord Chancellor Clarendon. By LADY THERESA LEWIS. 3 Vols.
8vo. 42s.


W. E. GLADSTONE, M.P. Vol. III. 8vo. 12s.


A CHURCH DICTIONARY. By REV. DR. HOOK, Vicar of Leeds. Sixth Edition,
enlarged. 8vo. 16s.


FERGUSON, Esq. Third Edition, with Additions. With Two Plans. 8vo. 3s.


RATIONAL ARITHMETIC. For Schools and Young Persons. By MRS. G. R. PORTER.
12mo. 3s. 6d.


New Edition. Post 8vo. 9s.


36 Plates. 8vo. 15s.


1713-83. By LORD MAHON. Third Edition, revised. Vols. I. and II. Post 8vo.
6s. each. (Published alternate months, and to be completed in Seven Vols.)


LIEUT-COL. BURN, R.A. Crown 8vo. 15s.


HANDBOOK of FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS. From English Authors. Fcap. 8vo. 5s.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY of INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with Descriptions
of all the Species, and Abstracts of the Systems of Ehrenberg, Dujardin,
Kützing, Siebold, &c. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, ESQ., M.R.I.

Also, price 5s.,


Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Microscopes.

  London: WHITTAKER & CO.,
  Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

published on March 3.

All communications to be sent to the Council, at No. 4. Trafalgar Square,
Charing Cross.

Members are requested to send their Addresses, that the Journal may be
forwarded to them; and those who have not paid their first Subscriptions
should do so immediately.

The Ordinary General Meetings will be held at the Society of Arts, John
Street, Adelphi, the first Thursday in each Month, during the Session, at 8
o'Clock, precisely. The next Meeting on Thursday, 3rd March.

Advertisements for the First Number of the Journal cannot be inserted
unless sent to the Publishers before 2 o'clock on Monday, the 28th

TAYLOR & FRANCIS, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

the entire THEOLOGICAL LIBRARY of a Clergyman deceased, may be had Gratis
on application.

19. Goswell Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

CATALOGUE OF ELZEVIR and other CLASSICS; Books from Pugin's Library; and
Miscellaneous, Curious, and Cheap English and Foreign Books. Also a
Catalogue of Cheap Engravings (No. 90. for March) will be sent Gratis and
Postage Free, Town or Country, on application to W. S. LINCOLN, Cheltenham
House, Westminster Road, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

JUST PUBLISHED.--A Catalogue of VALUABLE BOOKS from the Libraries of the
late KING LOUIS-PHILIPPE, from the Palais-Royal and the Chateau de Neuilly,
of the Earl of MOUNTNORRIS (Lord VALENTIA the Traveller), including some
others lately bought by THOMAS KERSLAKE, Bookseller, No. 3. Park Street,
BRISTOL, will be franked to any Gentleman's address accompanied by Four
Stamps for Postage.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 8vo., price 2s. 6d. (by post 3s.), the second edition, enlarged, of

on some Works of J. H. Frere, Esq. By the REV. S. R. MAITLAND, D.D.,
F.R.S., & F.S.A., sometime Librarian to the late Archbishop of Canterbury,
and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 5s. 6d.

SUPREME GOOD.) With a Preface, and English Notes, partly from Madvig and
others, by the REV. JAMES BEAVEN, D.D., late Professor of Theology in
King's College, Toronto.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had (in the same Series),


PART I. ORATIONS: the Fourth against Verres; the Orations against Catiline;
and that for the Poet Archias. 4s.

PART II. EPISTLES: arranged in the order of time; with Accounts of the
Consuls, events of each year, &c. 5s.


    "The Notes abound in critical and philological remarks of great value.
    They are copious without being redundant, clearly expressed, and always
    to the point. All allusions and technical expressions are fully
    explained. A master's hand is discernible in the translations
    occasionally given of particular portions that present any

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 26. 1853.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 174, February 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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