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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 175, March 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 175, March 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 175.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Cowper and Tobacco Smoking, by William Bates, &c.            229

  "Shakspeare in the Shades:" a Ballad, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault  230

  Swedish Words current in England, by Charles Watkins         231

  Sir David Lindsay's Viridarium, by Sir W. C. Trevelyan       231

  MINOR NOTES:--Unlucky Days--The Pancake Bell--Quoits--The
    Family of Townerawe--"History of Formosa"--Notes on
    Newspapers                                                 232


  Wild Plants and their Names                                  233

  Popular Sayings, by M. Aislabie Denham                       233

  MINOR QUERIES:--Hermit Queries--Derivation of "Cobb"--
    Play-bills--Sir Edward Grymes, Bart.--Smollett's
    "Strap"--The Iron Mask--Bland Family--Thomas Watson,
    Bishop of St. David's, 1687-99, &c.--Crescent--"Quod
    fuit esse"--"Coming home to men's business"--Thomas
    Gibbes of Fenton--"The Whipping Toms" at Leicester--
    The Trial of our Lord--Olney--Album--The Lisle Family--
    Wards of the Crown--Tate, an Artist--Philip d'Auvergne--
    Somersetshire Ballad--Lady High Sheriff--Major-General
    Lambert--Hoyle, Meaning of; and Hoyle Family--Robert
    Dodsley--Mary Queen of Scots--Heuristisch: Evristic        234

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"Eugenia," by Hayes and
    Carr--Claret--"Strike, but hear me"--Fever at Croydon--
    "Gesmas et Desmas"--Satirical Medal                        237


  The Gookins of Ireland                                       238

  "Stabat quocunque jeceris," by Dr. William Bell              239

  "Pic-nics"                                                   240

  "Coninger" or "Coningry"                                     241

  Names and Numbers of British Regiments, by Arthur Hamilton   241

  Vicars-Apostolic in England                                  242

  Smock Marriages: Scotch Law of Marriage                      243

    Process--Animal Charcoal in Photography--Sir W. Newton
    on Use of Common Soda and Alum--Difficulties in
    Photographic Practice                                      244

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--The Countess of Pembroke's
    Letter--Ethnology of England--Drake the Artist--
    Sparse--Genoveva of Brabant--God's Marks--Segantiorum
    Portus--Rubrical Query--Rosa Mystica--Portrait of
    Charles I.--"Time and I"--The Word "Party"--"Mater ait
    natæ," &c.--Gospel Place--Passage in Thomson--"Words
    are given to man to conceal his thoughts"--Folger Family   245


  Notes on Books, &c.                                          248

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 249

  Notices to Correspondents                                    249

  Advertisements                                               250

       *       *       *       *       *



The following genial and characteristic letter from the poet, having
escaped the research of the REV. T. S. GRIMSHAW, may be thought worthy of
transference from the scarce and ephemeral _brochure_ in which it has, as
far as I am aware, alone appeared, to your more permanent and attainable
repertory. The little work alluded to is entitled _Convivialia et
Saltatoria, or a few Thoughts upon Feasting and Dancing_, a poem in two
parts, &c., by G. Orchestikos: London, printed for the author, 1800, pp.
62. At page 39 will be found

    "Nicotiana: a Poetical Epistle in praise of Tobacco; intended as a
    refutation of the ill-founded remarks of William Cowper, Esq.
    respecting this plant, in his elegant poem on Conversation. By Phil.

     "The man I pity who abhors the fume
      Of fine _Virginia_ floating in his room;
      For, truly may Tobacco be defined,
      A Plant preserving Health and Peace of mind.

Next follows the poem, dedicated "To the Tobacconists in general of England
and its colonies," and consisting of some 350 lines, concluding with the

 "Now by way of a Postscript, for I cannot conclude
  Without _once more_ entreating, that you'll be so good
  As to favour me with an Epistle, and soon,
  Which in _my_ estimation will be such a boon
  That I'll _carefully_ keep it; and dying, take care
  To enjoin like Respect from my Son or my Heir;
  And lest He should forget its great Value to ask,
                    Shall say,
  It was wrote by the Hand, that first wrote out the Task:
  No more I need mention, its Worth will appear,
  And be kept as a Relic I _justly_ hold dear."

Next comes the poet's kindly response:

     "Dear Sir,

    "It is not in my power to send you an epistle that will entitle itself
    to any of the _honours_ which you are so good as to promise to one from
    me. My time is not my own, but is partly engaged in attendance on a
    dear friend, who has long been in a very helpless state, {230} and
    partly to the performance of what I owe to the public, a new edition of
    my Homer, and also of the poetical works of Milton.

    "With these labours in hand, together with the common avocations
    incident to everybody, it is hardly possible that I should have
    opportunities for writing letters. In fact, I am in debt to most of my
    friends, and to many of them have been long in debt, whose claims upon
    me are founded in friendship of long standing. To this cause you will
    be so good as to ascribe it, that I have not sooner thanked you for
    your humorous and pleasant contest with me on the subject of TOBACCO; a
    contest in which I have not, at present, leisure to exercise myself,
    otherwise I am hardy enough to flatter myself, that I could take off
    the force of some of your arguments.

    "Should you execute your design of publishing what you have favoured me
    with a sight of, I heartily wish success to your muse militant, and
    that your reward may be--many a pleasant pipe supplied by the profits
    of your labours.

    "Being in haste, I can add no more, except that I am, with respect, and
    a due sense of the honour you do me,

      Your obliged, &c.,

      Oct. 4, 1793."

I hope that the above will be interesting to your Nicotian readers, and not
trespass too far upon your valuable space.



_Snuff and Tobacco._--It is perhaps not generally known that the custom of
taking snuff is of Irish origin. In a "Natural History of Tobacco," in the
_Harleian Misc._, i. 535., we are told that--

    "The Virginians were observed to have pipes of clay before ever the
    English came there; and from those barbarians we Europeans have
    borrowed our mode and fashion of smoking.... _The Irishmen do most
    commonly powder their tobacco, and snuff it up their nostrils_, which
    some of our Englishmen do, who often chew and swallow it."

That the clay pipe was the original smoking apparatus in England, is
evident from the following lines in Skelton's _Eleanor Rummin_. After
lamenting the knavery of that age compared with King Harry's time, he

 "Nor did that time know,
  To puff and to blow,
  In a peece of white clay,
  As you do at this day,
  With fier and coale,
  And a leafe in a hole," &c.

These lines are from an edition of 1624, printed in the _Harl. Misc._, i.
415. Skelton died in 1529, and according to the generally received
accounts, tobacco was not introduced into this country till 1565, or
thereabouts; so the lines cannot be Skelton's. They are part of an
introduction to the tale of _Eleanor Rummin_. Is the author known?



       *       *       *       *       *


The ballad, entitled "Shakspeare's Bedside," inserted in your pages (Vol.
vii., p. 104.), was printed (probably for the first time) in a collection
of poems called _The Muse's Mirrour_, 2 vols. 8vo., printed for Robert
Baldwin, 1778. It occurs at p. 90. of the first volume; and at p. 159. of
the same volume I find another Shakspearian ballad, which, as the book is
rare, I transcribe for the benefit of your readers. The work in question
contains a number of clever effusions by the poets and wits of the last
half of the eighteenth century. The anonymous compiler thus commences his

    "The editor and collector of the following poems does not conceive it
    necessary to make any apology for what he has done; but arrogates to
    himself the right of some attention for the collecting of such pieces
    as would have died upon their births, although the productions of the
    best poets and men of genius _for the last twenty years_."


 "As Shakspeare rang'd over the regions below,
    With the Muses attending his side,
  The first of his critics he met with was Rowe,
    Tho' to keep out of sight he had try'd.

 'How comes it, friend Nicholas,' said the old bard,
    (While Nic was preparing a speech),
 'My ruins so coarsely by you were repair'd,
    Who grace to the Graces could teach?'

 'Had the time you employ'd when _The Biter_[1] you wrote,
    So hiss'd by the critical throng,
  Been spent upon mending the holes in my coat,
    It had not been ragged so long.'

  Rowe blush'd, and made way for diminutive Pope,
    Whom Shakspeare address'd with a frown,
  And said--'Some apology sure I may hope
    From you and your friend in the gown.'

 'Had the murderous knife which my plays has destroy'd,
    By lopping full many a scene,
  To make you a lover like him, been employ'd,
    How flat Cibber's letter had been.'

  Pope sneak'd off confounded; and Hanmer drew near,
    Whose softness a savage might melt;
  So Shakspeare said only, 'Sir Thomas, I fear,
    With gloves on, my beauties you felt.'

  Supported by Caxton, Wynkin upheld,
    Text Tibbald crept forward to sight.
 'Is this,' quoth the poet, 'the thing that rebell'd,
    And dar'd even Pope to the fight?

 'To Kennel, good Tib, for a time will arrive,
    When all in their senses shall know,
  That half of your consequence, Tib, you derive
    From the lash of so envied a foe.

 'Eight hundred old plays thou declar'st thou hast read[2];
    How could'st thou the public so cozen?
  Yet the traces I see (spite of what thou hast said)
    Of not many more than a dozen.

 'If all thou hast dug, how could Farmer, my Tib,
    Or Stevens, find gold in the mine?
  Thy trade of attorney sure taught thee to fib,
    And truth was no client of thine.

 'And yet, to appease me for all thou hast done,
    And show thou art truly my friend,
  Go watch, and to me with intelligence run,
    When Johnson and Capell descend.

 'For Johnson, with all his mistakes, I must love;
    Ev'n love from the injured he gains;
  But Capell a comrade for dulness will prove,
    And him thou may'st take for thy pains.'"


[Footnote 1: _The Biter; an attempt at Comedy_, by Rowe, which was received
with that contempt which it well deserved.]

[Footnote 2: Theobald, in the preface to his first edition of Shakspeare,
asserts that, exclusive of the works of Beaumont and Fletcher, and Ben
Jonson, he had read above eight hundred plays, to ascertain the uncommon
and obsolete phrases in his author. The reader who can discover the fruits
of this boasted industry in his notes may safely believe him; and those who
cannot may surely claim the liberty, like myself, to doubt somewhat of his
veracity. This assertion, however, Theobald had sufficient modesty to omit
in the preface to his second edition, together with all the criticisms on
Greek authors, which I am assured he had collected from such papers of Mr.
Wycherley as had been entrusted to his care for very different purposes. It
is much to be questioned whether there are five hundred old plays extant,
by the most accurate perusal of which the works of Shakspeare could receive
advantage; I mean of dramas prior, cotemporary, or within half a century
before and after his own.]

       *       *       *       *       *


In the summer of 1847 I mentioned to my friend Professor Retzius at
Stockholm, certain Scandinavian words in use at Whitby, with which he was
much pleased, they not being akin to the German. I have since been mostly
in the South of Europe, but have not lost sight of these words; and last
spring I wrote out in Switzerland upwards of five hundred Swedish words,
which greatly resemble the English, Lowland Scots, &c., but I doubt many of
them have the same root with the German correspondents. I now beg you
kindly to offer to the notice of our Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic scholars, as
well as the estimable Northern _savans_ at Copenhagen and elsewhere, the
following words in use at Whitby, and I believe throughout Cleveland and
Cumberland, where the local accent and manner of speaking is the same.

    "_Agg orm_, Swedish (viper), _agg worm_, Whitby (pron.
    w[=o]rrum).--_Bloa bær_ (bilbery), blue berry.--_By_ (village), as a
    termination to names of towns, occurs, perhaps, more frequently in this
    district than in others; there are some places in Cleveland called Lund
    and Upsal.--_Bæck_ (brook), beck.--_Djevul_ (devil), pronounced exactly
    in the Swedish manner at Whitby.--_Doalig_ (poorly), dowly.--_Eldon_
    (tinder-box), applied to faggots.--_Fors_ (waterfall), spelt force and
    foss in Yorkshire books.--_Ful_ (ugly), pron. fool, usually associated
    with bigness in Cleveland.--_Foane_ (silly), pron. fond at
    Whitby.--_Giller_ (snare), guilder.--_Gæpen_ (handful), gowpen.--_Harr_
    (grayling), carrling in Ryedale.--_Kætt_ (flesh), kett, applied to
    coarse meat.--_Lek_ (play), at Whitby, to lake.--_Leta_ (to seek), to
    late at Whitby.--_Lie_ (scythe), pron. lye.--_Lingon_ (red bilberry),
    called a ling berry.--_Ljung_ (ling).--_Lopp_ (a flea).--_Næbb_ (beak),
    neb.--_Skaft_ (handle), skaft.--_Skær_ (rock), Whitby skar.--_Smitta_
    (to infect), to smit.--_Strandgata_ (creek), at Whitby ghaut.--_Stæd_
    (anvil), steady.--_Sæf_ (a rush), siv.--_Tjarn_ (pool), tarn.--_Oenska_
    (to wish for), we say to set one an onska, _i.e._ longing or wishing."

Will any one inform me which of the above are Anglo-Saxon words? I may add
that there are many French words in the Swedish for aught I know, some of
them Norman. As we find German words in the Italian, we may expect to find
Scandinavian in the French.


       *       *       *       *       *


In Lord Lindsay's very interesting _Lives of the Lindsays_, vol. i. p.
347., after the description of the very curious "viridarium or garden" of
Sir David Lindsay at Edzell, and of the various sculptures and ornaments
with which its wall is decorated, the author says: "To show how insecure
was enjoyment in that dawn of refinement, the centre of every star along
the wall forms an embrasure for the extrusion, if needed, of arrow,
harquebuss, or pistol."

Some years before the book was published, I had visited this very
interesting spot, and examined these sculptures, and other ornaments,
amongst which the _pierced stars_ puzzled me much: however, after a
lengthened and very careful investigation, finding that, being at too great
a height from the ground, and, moreover, that as the holes in the centre of
the stars do not pass through the wall, but merely into small cavities in
it, they could not have been used as embrasures, or have served for warlike
purposes; and that, as there were no channels or pipes that could have
{232} conducted water to them, they could not have been connected with
fountains or water-works; I came to the conclusion that the planner of the
garden, or at least of its walls, must have been an ardent lover of birds,
and that these holes were for providing access for his beloved feathered
friends (they would only admit the passage of _small_ birds) to the secure
resting-places which the hollow stones afforded; for whose use other niches
and recesses seem also to have been planned (though some of the latter were
probably intended to hold bee-hives) with a philornithic indifference for
the security of the fruit tempting their attacks from all sides, but quite
in character with the portrait of Sir David, as depicted by his noble



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Unlucky Days._--The subjoined lines on certain days of the several months,
I copied some years ago from a MS. on the fly-leaf of an old Spanish
breviary, then in the possession of an Irish priest. Though neither their
grammar nor prosody are first-rate, yet they may be worthy of preservation
as a curiosity. I may add that they appear to have been written by a
Trinitarian Brother of Redemption, in the early part of the sixteenth

 "_January._ Prima dies mensis, et septima truncat in ensis.

  _February._ Quarta subit mortem, prosternit tertia sortem.

  _March._ Primus mandentem, disrumpit quarta bibentem.

  _April._ Denus et undenus est mortis vulnere plenus.

  _May._ Tertius occidet et septimus ora relidet.

  _June._ Denus pallescit quin-denus foedera nescit.

  _July._ Ter-decimus mactat, Julii denus labefactat.

  _August._ Prima necat fortem prosternit secunda cohortem.

  _September._ Tertia Septembris, et denus fert mala membris.

  _October._ Tertius et denus est sicut mors alienus.

  _November._ Scorpius est quintus, et tertius e nece cinctus.

  _December._ Septimus exanguis, virosus denus et anguis."



_The Pancake Bell._--At the Huntingdonshire village from which I now write,
the _little_ bell of the church is annually rung for ten minutes on Shrove
Tuesday, at eleven o'clock in the morning: this is called "the Pancake


_Quoits._--The vulgar pronunciation of the irons used in this game is
_quaits_. From the following passage in a letter from Sir Thomas Browne to
Ashmole, it is probable that the word was formerly thus spelt: "Count
Rosenberg played at _quaits_, with silver _quaits_ made by projection as



_The Family of Townerawe._--One great advantage of "N. & Q." is not only
that inquiries may be made and information obtained by those who are
engaged in any research, but also that such persons as happen to possess
information on a particular subject may make it known before it is sought
or asked for. I therefore beg to inform any person that may be interested
in the family of _Townerawe_, that there is in the library of Trinity
College, Dublin, a Latin MS. Bible, which belonged to "Raufe Townerawe,"
who on the 17th of June, 1585, was married to Anne Hartgrane, at Reavesbye,
in Lincolnshire, and that at the end of this Bible are recorded the births,
deaths and marriages of his children and other members of his family, from
the date above mentioned to 1638.


Trin. Coll. Dublin.

"_History of Formosa._"--The writer of the fictitious _History of Formosa_,
inquired about at Vol. vii., p. 86., was George Psalmanazar, himself a
fiction, almost. And this reference to Wiseman's Lectures reminds me that
your correspondent RT. (Vol. vii., p. 62.), who discovered the metrical
version of that passage of St. Bernard in Fulke Greville's poem, was (to
say the least) _anticipated_ by the Cardinal, in the magnificent peroration
to the last of those _Lectures upon Science and Revealed Religion_.


_Notes on Newspapers._--The following may be worth a place among your
Notes. I copied it from the _Evening Mail_ (a tri-weekly issue from _The
Times_ office), but unfortunately omitted to take the date, and the only
authority I can offer is _Evening Mail_, No. 12,686. p. 8. col. 2.

    "_The Times_ has its share of antiquities. Our office stands upon the
    foundations of Blackfriars, where for centuries Plantagenets, Yorkists,
    Lancastrians, and Tudors, held court. We have reason to believe that
    just about where we sit was heard that famous cause for annulling the
    marriage of Catherine, which led to the English Reformation. Under
    these foundations others still older are now open to view. First we
    have under us the Norman wall of the city, before it was extended
    westward to give more room to Blackfriars, and under that presents
    itself the unmistakeable material and composition of the old Roman



       *       *       *       *       *



In looking over some memoranda, I find the following Queries entered; and,
as it is more than probable that some of the readers of "N. & Q." who take
an interest in our wild flowers, and love the simple, homely names which
were given them by our fathers, will easily solve them, I send them for

1. _Capsella_, _Bursa pastoris_, "Shepherd's Purse." Why was this plant
called "St. James's Wort;" French, "Fleur de St. Jacques?" Was it used in
medicine? Its old name, "Poor Man's Parmacetic," would imply that it was.

2. _Veronica Chamædrys_, "Eye-bright," "Paul's Betony," and "Fluellin."
What was the origin of these two names?

3. _Primula veris_, "Cowslip," "Palsy Wort;" French, "Herbe de la
Paralysie." Is this plant used in any of our village pharmacopoeias as a
remedy for palsy; and if so, how? I may also add another Query on this
plant, and which I trust some _fair_ reader will answer; and that is, How
is the ointment prepared from the leaves (?), which is used to remove tan
and freckles from the sunburnt?

4. _Viburnum opulus_, "Guelder Rose." Was this plant originally a native of
the Low Countries? I am inclined to think that its distribution was of a
very wide range.

5. _Neottia spiralis_, "Ladies' Tresses," "Sweet Cods," "Sweet Cullins,"
and "Stander Grass." What is the origin of these names?

6. _Ribes nigrum_, "Black Currant," "Gazel" (Kent). Meaning?

7. _Stellaria holostea_, "Stitchwort," "All-bones." Meaning? The plant is
very fragile.

8. _Orobus tuberosus_, "Bitter Vetch," "Cormeille" (Highlands of Scotland),
and "Knapperts" (Scotland generally). Have these terms any signification?

9. _Sinapis arvensis_, "Wild Mustard," "Charlock," "Garlock," "Chadlock,"
and "Runsh." Derivation and meaning?

10. _Saxifraga umbrosa_, "London Pride," "Saxifrage," "St. Patrick's
Cabbage." Is there a legend in connexion with this name; and in what county
is this saxifrage so called?

11. _Geum urbanum_, "Yellow Avens," "Herb Bennet," "Star of the North,"
"Blessed Herb." These names would appear to point to some virtues supposed
to be attached to this herb. What are they?

12. _Linum catharticum_, "Purge Flax," "Mill Mountain"?

13. _Sedum acre_, "Biting Stone-crop," "Jack of the Buttery," "Pricket,"
"Bird's Bread"?

14. _Gnaphalium germanicum_, "Common Cudweed," "Wicked Herb" (_Herba
impia_), "Live-long," and "Chaff-weed."

15. _Euphorbia helioscopia_, "Sun Spurge," "Churn-staff"? juice milky, but

16. _Euphorbia cyparissius_, "Cypress Spurge," "Welcome to our House"?

17. _Chrysanthemum segetum_, "Wild Marigold," "Goules," "Goulans" (Query
remains of its old name gold?), "St. John's Bloom," "Ruddes"?

18. _Spergula arvensis_, "Spurrey Yarr" (Scotch)?

19. _Chenapodium Bonus Henricus_, "Mercury Goose-foot," "Good King Henry"?

To all the latter the same Query will apply, What is the origin of the
name? It is probable but few of the above names will be now found; or, if
found, it will be only in those districts where the march of intellect (?)
has not banished all traces of household surgery, home legends, and, I may
almost add, home feelings.

Much that is interesting to the antiquary and the naturalist is now fast
fading out of the land. The very existence of the cheap literature of the
day will rapidly root out all traces of traditionary lore; and strong,
_steady_ efforts should be made to rescue as much as possible of it from
oblivion. It is with this view I send these Queries; and in case they are
deemed worthy of insertion, I purpose to follow them up by a second list of
Queries, as to the medical virtues of our wild plants. In the mean time I
may add, that any Notes on them, whether as charms or cures, would be most



       *       *       *       *       *


I would feel obliged, Mr. Editor, if you or any of your North of England
readers would favour me direct, or otherwise through the medium of "N. &
Q.," with the origin and meaning of the following popular local sayings,
peculiar to the North Countrie.

Likewise permit me to observe, that if any of them can favour me, through
either of the above channels, with a few more of the "dark sayings of
antiquity," either in the form of plain prose or rude rustic rhymes,
peculiar to any or all of the five northern counties, to wit, York, Durham,
Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, they would not only be
conferring an obligation upon myself, but likewise upon every one of your
numerous readers who take pleasure in the fast-fading traditional relics of
our ancestors.

    1. As crafty as a Kendal fox.

    2. Like the parson of Saddleworth, who could read in no book but his

    3. Doncaster daggers.

    4. The woful town o' Wetherby.

    5. As sure as a louse in Pomfret. (Pontefract.)

    6. Like the mayor of Hartlepool, you cannot do that. (Co. Durham.)

    {234} 7. Looks as _vild_ (worthless) as a pair of Yorkshire sleeves in
    a goldsmith's shop.

    8. Hearts _is_ trumps at Eskett Hall. (Near Felton, Northumberland.)

    9. Silly good-natured, like a Hexham goose.

    10. There are no rats at Hatfield, nor sparrows at Lindham. (Co. Ebor.)

    11. A Dent for a Galloway, a Hind for an ass. (Ibid.)


Piersebridge, Darlington, Durham.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Hermit Queries._--1. Some years ago a hermitage existed in certain grounds
at Chelsea, the proprietor of which frequently advertised for a hermit,
and, I believe, never got one. Who was the proprietor of the said
hermitage; and did he ever succeed in getting his toy tenanted?

2. In Gilbert White's poem, _Invitation to Selborne_, the following lines

 "Or where the hermit hangs the straw-clad cell,
  Emerging gently from the leafy dell,
  By fancy plann'd," &c. &c.

The only edition of the "Letters" which I possess, is that by Sir William
Jardine and Mr. Jesse, which affords a note on the passage, to the effect
that the hermitage referred to was used by a young gentleman, who appeared
occasionally "in the character of a hermit." What was the name of the
eccentric, and what is known of his hermit life? Is the hermitage still in

3. Where is to be found the best account of anchorites, real and


_Derivation of "Cobb."_--What is the derivation of the word _Cobb_? There
is but one harbour of that name in England, that of Lyme Regis: there was
once another at Swanage. This was also styled, some three centuries ago,
the "Cobb or Conners."

Query: What is the derivation of the family name "Cobham?"

G. R. L.

_Play-bills._--Will any of your correspondents inform me in what year
play-bills were first introduced; and at what period the _year_ was added
to the day of the month and week, which only is attached to the early

J. N. G. G.

_Sir Edward Grymes, Bart._--A correspondent in a recent number of the
_Naval and Military Gazette_, asks who was Sir Edward Grymes, Bart., whose
appointment appeared in the _War Office Gazette_ of December 10, 1776, as
surgeon's mate to the garrison at Minorca, when the baronetcy came into the
family, when he died, and whether a gentleman of the same rank has ever,
before or since that period, served in a similar situation in the English

I have transferred these Queries to the columns of "N. & Q.," supposing
that they might be answered by some of its correspondents.

W. W.


_Smollett's Strap._--In "N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 123., is an extract from
the _Examiner_, March 26, 1809, relating to Hugh Hewson, who is there
mentioned as being "no less a personage than the identical Hugh Strap."

Mr. Faulkner, in his _History of Chelsea_, vol. i. p. 171., states that Mr.
W. Lewis, of Lombard Street, Chelsea, was the original of this character.
He established himself in Chelsea by Smollett's advice, and died there
about 1785. Faulkner states that he resided with his widow for seven years,
and thus having opportunities of being acquainted with the facts, I am
inclined to give his account the preference. Now that these different
accounts are brought forward, some reader of "N. & Q." may be enabled with
certainty to fix who was the identical.

H. G. D.

_The Iron Mask._--MR. JAMES CORNISH (Vol. v., p. 474.) says, that "after
half a century's active exertions, the Iron Mask was unveiled," and this
sanguine person gives it also as his opinion that the author of _Junius's
Letters_ will "eventually be unearthed." The last event may perhaps happen;
but what authority has he for asserting that the mysterious secret of the
"Masque de Fer" has ever been satisfactorily explained? Numerous, learned,
and ingenious, as many of the hypotheses on the subject have been for
upwards of a century, I have always imagined that an impenetrable veil of
secrecy still continued to cover this wonderful historical mystery.

A. S. A.


_Bland Family._--In the Carey pedigree in the _Ducatus Leodiensis_, it is
stated that Sir Philip Carey of Hunslet, near Leeds (brother of the first
Visct. Falkland), married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of _Rich. Bland
of Carleton_ (about A.D. 1600). Can any of your numerous readers inform me
_who_ this Mr. Bland was, _whom_ he married, and _which_ Carleton is meant?

I have searched the Yorkshire Visitations at the Museum, and consulted
Nich. Carlisle's _History of the Bland Family_, with no result.

Possibly MR. HUNTER, who is so deeply versed in Yorkshire matters, might
throw some light on the subject.


Oxford and Cambridge Club.

_Thomas Watson, Bishop of St. David's, 1687-99, &c._--No notice of the
period or place of his death has yet appeared, nor of the age of _Bishop
Turner of Calcutta_, 1829-31, as also that of _Bishop Gobat_. Regarding,
the latter prelate, as he is styled D.D. in the ecclesiastical almanacks
and {235} directories, I am anxious to learn whether that degree was
conferred upon him by any English university on his consecration in 1846?

A. S. A.


_Crescent._--The article under this head in the _Encyclopædia
Metropolitana_, asserts that the crescent was first adopted by the Ottomans
as a symbol after the taking of Constantinople in 1446. If so, the device
must have been unknown to the Saracens at the time of the Crusades. Can any
of your readers inform me whether this statement is correct?


"_Quod fuit esse._"--I should be glad to know the sense of the following
epitaph, copied at Lavenham Church, Norfolk, many years since; it has long
lain in my note-book, waiting for such a publication as "N. & Q.," through
which to inquire its meaning:

   "JOHN WELES, Ob. 1694.
  Quod fuit esse, quod est
  Quod non fuit esse, quod esse,
  Esse quod non esse,
  Quod est, non est, erit, esse."

A. B. R.


"_Coming home to men's business._"--Where does the phrase "coming home to
men's business and bosoms" first occur? I find it said of Bacon's Essays in
_Baconiana_, 1st edit. 1679?

J. P.


_Thomas Gibbes of Fenton._--Can any of your genealogical readers tell me
what other issue (if any) there was of the marriage of Thomas Gibbes of
Fenton, in the parish of Dartington, in the county of Devon, and Anne,
daughter of Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, besides their son William
Gibbes, who died in London A.D. 1570?

Also whether John Gibbes of Fenton, father of the above-named Thomas
Gibbes, who married the heiress of William May or Mey, had any other issue?


Frognal, Hampstead.

_"The Whipping Toms" at Leicester._--A singular annual custom, under the
above designation, formerly prevailed in this town, from time immemorial,
on Shrove Tuesday. It is unnecessary to take up your valuable space with a
detailed account of it, as it is fully described in Throsby's _History of
Leicester_, p. 356., and in Hone's _Year-Book_, p. 538.

My object is to inquire if any custom at all analogous to it is known to
have existed elsewhere, and, if so, what is the supposed origin of it?

Nothing whatever is known of the origin of the custom in this town, beyond
a vague popular tradition that it was instituted (like several other
curious customs) by John of Gaunt, during his lengthened residence in the
castle within what was then termed "The New-Works" of which (now called
"The Newarke") the gathering was held.

However venerable from its antiquity, it was, like too many of the sports
of the Middle Ages, a custom "more honoured in the breach than the
observance," and, as such, was put down in the year 1847 by a local act of
parliament; not, however, without a serious affray between the police and
the people.


_The Trial of Our Lord._--I have lately seen an old picture of the Trial of
Our Lord before Pilate, who sits in the midst of the Jewish Sanhedrim, each
member of which has a scroll over his head, giving his name and the
sentence he is said to have uttered on that occasion. I have been told
there is a large coarse engraving of this picture sometimes to be found in
cottages, but I have not been able to procure one. The names and sentiments
are of course fictitious; is anything known of their origin?

P. P.

_Olney._--Can any correspondent state what is the signification of this
name? The ancient spelling is _Olnei_ or _Olney_, not _Oulney_, as it has
sometimes been spelled of late years. The difficulty is not as to the
termination _ey_, but as to the first syllable.

The parish church, which stands at the southern extremity of the town, on
the banks of the Ouse, is entirely (modern alterations excepted) of the
fourteenth century. There is not a trace of any earlier work. Tradition
says that the church was formerly at the other, or northern end of the
town, where there is a place which is, as I am informed, described in the
deeds of some of the adjoining premises as the old churchyard, though it
has been desecrated time out of mind. Closely adjacent is a clear spring,
still called "Christenwell," and also the trunk of a very ancient elm.
Human bones are stated to have been occasionally dug up within the

There is a vague tradition that the town as well as the church has been
removed southward, _i. e._ nearer the river. Readers of "N. & Q." who can
supply any information respecting the removal of the church and town, or
any other particulars (in addition to those contained in Dr. Lipscomb's
_History of Bucks_) concerning the parish of Olney, including the hamlet
and manor of Warrington, and the now district parish of Weston-Underwood,
will greatly oblige


Olney, Bucks.

_Album._--What was the origin, and where do we find the earliest notice of
the kind of friendly {236} memorial book so well known among us as an
_album_? Was it not first used by the learned men of Germany as a
repository for the complimentary tributes of their foreign visitors? Is
there any mention of it in any English author earlier than Izaak Walton,
who tells us that Sir Henry Wotton, when ambassador at Venice, wrote in the
_album_ of Christopher Flecamore a Latin sentence to the effect that "an
ambassador is an honest man, sent to lie abroad for the good of his
country?" Where is the earliest _specimen_ of an English _album_, according
to the modern form and use of the scrapbook so called?


_The Lisle Family._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." give me some
fuller information than is to be found in Lyttleton's _History of England_,
or refer me to any authorities for such, concerning the family and
connexions of the following personages?

There was a Lady Lisle, who, temp. Jac. II., was tried at Winchester by the
notorious Judge Jeffries, and afterwards executed, for harbouring two
rebels after the battle of Sedgemoor. I believe she was beheaded as a
favour, instead of being burnt. She was the widow of one of the judges who
consented to the death of that ill-fated monarch Charles I.

I observe the barony of Lisle has been extinct, or in abeyance, on four or
five different occasions; was either about this time? The present peerage
appears to have been created circa 1758. Are these descendants of that

I possess portraits of Lord and Lady Lisle (size six feet by four), and
much wish to learn the above, together with any other particulars relating
to the family.



_Wards of the Crown._--I find the origin of this ancient prerogative of
royalty thus quaintly explained at p. 132. of King's _Vale Royall of
England_, 1656. Hugh Lupus, first Norman Earl of Chester, and nephew of the
Conqueror, at his death in 1101, left his son

    "Richard, then an infant of seven years of age, entituled then to his
    Earldome of Chester, and _married_ to Matilda, daughter to Stephen,
    Earl of Blois. And this Matilda was niece to King Henry I., by reason
    whereof the said king took into his tuition and custody the said young
    earl; from whence, they say, this of a custome grew to be a law, that
    young heirs in their nonage became pupils, or _wards_, unto the king. A
    very tender care had this king over this princely child, and brought
    him up in the company of his own children, with whom he sent him into
    Normandy, and with them there provided the most princely and best
    education for them."

Their after-history is well known. Having duly arrived at man's estate,
these promising young princes and their companion, Richard, the royal ward,
were sent for from Normandy by the affectionate king, whence, taking ship
at Harfleur, they set sail for England; but, through some mismanagement,
the vessel striking upon a rock, the entire company perished except one
butcher, who, by the help of a mast, swam safe to land. This tragedy
happened about December 7, 1120.

I believe this to be the first instance recorded in English history of a
ward to the king, but shall be happy to receive correction from any
better-informed correspondent of "N. & Q."



_Tate, an Artist._--A friend of mine has a very fine family portrait, very
much admired by judges, and generally ascribed to Reynolds, whose style it
greatly resembles. But I believe it has with some confidence been stated to
be the work of a pupil of Sir Joshua's, named Tate. The picture is about
seventy years old. Would you, or any of your readers, kindly inform me
whether an artist of that name lived at that time, and whether he was a
pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds?

A. W.


_Philip d'Auvergne._--

    "On the 12th of March, 1792, the King of Great Britain granted to
    Captain Philip d'Auvergne, R. N., his licence to accept the succession
    to the said duchy (Bouillon), in case of the death of the hereditary
    prince, only son of the reigning duke, without issue male, pursuant to
    a declaration of his Serene Highness, dated June 25th, 1791, at the
    desire, and with the express and formal consent of the nation."

I find this in Brooke's _Gazetteer_, under the heading of "Bouillon." Can
any of your correspondents give a further account of Captain d'Auvergne? I
suppose the troubles consequent upon the French Revolution would prevent
his accession to the duchy, even if he survived the hereditary prince?

E. H. A.

_Somersetshire Ballad._--I have a note of the following verse of an old
ballad. Where can I find the remaining verses?

 "Go ask the vicar of Taunton Deane,
  And he'll tell you the banns were askit,
  And a good fat ceapun he had for his peains,
  And he's carrit it whoom in his baskit."

S. A. S.

_Lady High Sheriff._--Can any of your Herefordshire readers inform me who
the lady was who served the office of high sheriff for that county,
somewhere about the years 1769 or 1770?

Her husband had been appointed, but dying shortly afterwards, his widow
took his place, and attended the judges with the javelin-men, dressed in
deep mourning. If any one could give me any {237} information about this
lady, I should be much obliged: I should be glad to know whether there is
another instance of a lady high sheriff on record?

W. M.

_Major-General Lambert_, the first president of Cromwell's council, after
the Restoration was exiled to Guernsey, where he remained for thirty years
a prisoner. Noble, in his _House of Cromwell_, vol. i. p. 369., says, Mrs.
Lambert has been supposed to have been partial to the Protector; "that her
name was _Fra._, an elegant and accomplished woman. She had a daughter,
married to a Welsh judge, whom she survived, and died in January, 1736-7."
Any of your correspondents who may be able, will oblige by informing me who
Mrs. Lambert was, when she and the general died, and to whom the daughter
was married. Noble evidently had not been able to ascertain who the
accomplished woman was.


_Hoyle, Meaning of; and Hoyle Family._--What is the English to the Celtic
word Hoyle; and was there any family of the name of Hoyle previous to the
year 1600? If so, can you give me any history of them, or say where same
may be found? Also, what is the arms, crest, and motto of that family?

F. K.

_Robert Dodsley._--In all the biographies, this amiable and worthy man is
said to have been born at Mansfield in Nottinghamshire. Does he anywhere
state this himself? If not, what is the evidence in favour of such
statement? Not the parish register of Mansfield certainly. I have often
thought that a Life of Dodsley _in extenso_ might be made an interesting
vehicle for illustrating the progress of an individual from the humble rank
of a livery servant to the influential position of a first-class London
bookseller in the Augustan age of English literature; including, of course,
all the reflex influences of the society of that period. There is plenty of
matter; and I think a well-known correspondent of "N. & Q." and _Gent's
Mag._, whose initials are P. C., would know where to find and how to use

N. D.

_Mary Queen of Scots._--In the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xcix. part ii.
p. 77., it is stated that the late Earl of Buchan (who died in April, 1829)
"in some letters warmly embraced the cause of Mary Queen of Scots against
Dr. Robertson;" but we are not informed whether they were ever printed, or
where they are to be found. As I have always felt a strong conviction of
the injustice done this unfortunate woman, I shall be gratified by any
communication stating where these letters can be met with.

F. R. A.

_Heuristisch--Evristic._--The word _heuristisch_ occurs four times in the
_Kritik der Reinen Vernunft_, pp. 480. 515. 520. 568., ed. Leipzig, 1838. I
cannot find it in any German Dictionary. Mr. Haywood (ed. 1838) translates
it _evristic_, which I cannot find in any English dictionary. I conjecture
that it may be [Greek: heuriskô] Germanised, and that it will bear the
translation _tentative_. Will some one, better versed than myself in the
language of German metaphysics, tell me whether I am right, and, if not,
set me so?

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

Minor Queries with Answers.

_"Eugenia," by Hayes and Carr._--Can any of your readers give me any
account of the following play, as to where the scene of it is laid, &c.?

_Eugenia_, a Tragedy, by Samuel Hayes and Robert Carr, 8vo. 1766.

This play, which appears to have never been acted, was written by the Rev.
Samuel Hayes, author of several of the Seatonian prize poems, and who was
at one time usher in Westminster School. Robert Carr, who assisted him in
writing it, appears to have been one of the Westminster scholars about
1766, but I am unable to give any further account of him.

A. Z.


    [The scene, as stated at the commencement of the play, was laid in and
    near the Mercian camp, on the confines of Wales, except the first act,
    and beginning of the third, which lies in the British camp, distant
    from the Mercian eight miles. The _dramatis personæ_ were:--_Britons_:
    Cadwallyne, king of the Britons; Ormanus, a noble captive; Albanact,
    Eliud, Edgar, officers; Eugenia, Althira, captives. _Mercians_: Penda,
    king of Mercia; Ethelred, his son; Osmond, nephew to the king; Offa,
    Egbert, Edwin, officers. British and Mercian officers, prisoners,
    guards, and other attendants.]

_Claret._--How, or from whence, have we adopted the word _Claret_, as
applied to the wines of the Bordeaux district, and which seems to be
utterly unknown in other parts of Europe?


    [Dr. Pegge, in his _Anonymiana_, cent. iii. sect. 57., says, "There is
    a place of the name of _Claret_ in the Duke de Rohan's _Mémoires_, lib.
    iv., from whence I conceive the French wine takes its name." It is
    stated in the _Mémoires_ as being five miles from Montpellier.]

"_Strike, but hear me._"--On what occasion, and by whom, were these words
first used? I have not been able to trace them.


    [These words occur in a conversation between Eurybiades and
    Themistocles, and will be found in Plutarch's _Life of Themistocles_,
    cap. xi.]

_Fever at Croydon._--In Camden's _Britannia_ before me, with date on
(written) title-page 1610, {238} Londini, Georgii Bishop, Joannes Norton,
p. 320., under county Svthrey, and against the marginal "Croidon," it is
thus stated:

    "As for that sudden swelling water or bourne, which the common people
    reports to breake foorth heere out of the ground, presaging, I wote not
    how, either dearth of corne or the pestilence, may seeme not worthy
    once the naming, and yet the euentes sometime ensuing hath procured it

I have heard it stated, without reference to the above, that the aforesaid
stream had risen during the last few months, and, if such be the case, the
fever that has been so prevalent in the town seems to bear out the above

Can any of your correspondents inform me whether the above fact is
mentioned in any other account of the place, and if so, where?

R. W. H.

    [It appears that our early ballad writers do not give a very favourable
    account of the locality of Croydon. Listen to Patrick Hannay, Gent., in

     "It seems of starved Sterilitie the seat,
      Where barren downs do it environ round;
      Whose parched tops in summer are not wet,
      And only are with snow in winter crown'd,
      Only with bareness they do still abound;
        Or if on some of them we roughness find,
        It's tawny heath, badge of the barren rinde.

     "In midst of these stands CROYDON cloath'd in black,
      In a low bottom sink of all these hills;
      And is receipt of all the dirty wracke,
      Which from their tops still in abundance trills,
      The unpav'd lanes with muddy mire it fills
        If one shower fall; or, if that blessing stay,
        You may well smell, but never see your way."]

"_Gesmas et Desmas._"--What is the meaning of two terms, _Gesmas_ and
_Desmas_, in the following couplet, which I transcribe from MS. entries in
an old and rare volume lately bought, of date 1564, and the handwriting
would seem coeval with the printing of the book? The lines evidently relate
to the crucifixion of our Lord between the thieves; but I have never seen
any appellations given to these last, and cannot fix a meaning for the
terms with any certainty: they may have reference to the penitence of one,
and the hardened state of the other still "tied and bound in the chain of
his sins," but I know not to what language to refer them:

 "Disparibus meritis pendit tria Corpora lignis
  _Gesmas_ et _Desmas_, medius Divina Potestas."

A. B. R.

    [Our correspondent is right in supposing that Gesmas and Desmas are the
    names traditionally assigned to the two malefactors, and which occur in
    the Old Mysteries, &c. _Desmas_ is that of the Penitent Thief. These
    names are, we believe, mentioned in the Pseudo-Gospel of Nicodemus; and
    some particulars of the legend, we believe, but we cannot just now
    ascertain, are preserved in Molan. _De Pictur. Sacris_, 1. iv. c. 9.]

_Satirical Medal._--1. I shall be glad to obtain some information
respecting a curious medal in my possession, bearing--

Obv. "Ecclesia perversa tenet faciem diaboli, 666." A face in profile,
crowned with the tiara: turned round, the same face becomes that of the

Rev. "Sapientes stulti aliquando." A head with a cardinal's cap, which
reversed becomes a face surmounted with a fool's cap and bells.

The medal is of silver, nearly the size of a crown piece; and from the form
of the letters is, I suppose, about two hundred years old.


    [This curious medal, which is figured in Rigollot's _Monnaies des Fous_
    (Pl. iv. fig. 10.), and the reverse of which has been engraved by
    Tilliot (_Fête des Foux_) as the seal of the _Mère Folle_ of Dijon, is
    a satirical medal issued by the Protestants. Their opponents retorted,
    or provoked its issue, by one which Riggolot has also figured (fig.
    11.): which has on one side the head of Calvin, crowned with the tiara,
    &c. (which, when turned, becomes that of the Devil), and the words
    "_Joan. Calvinus Heresiarch. pessimus_;" and on the reverse a
    Cardinal's head, which is turned into a fool's head, with the motto
    "_Et Stulti, aliquando sapite_."--Psalm xciii.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. i., pp. 385. 473. 492.; Vol. ii., p. 44.; Vol. iv., p. 103.)

Upon an examination of the ancient records which are preserved in the
Exchequer Record Office, at the Four Courts, Dublin, it will be found that
in the year 1632 Sir Vincent Gookin acquired, by purchase from David Earl
of Barrymore, the lands of Cargane in the county of Cork; and from Mr.
William Fitz John O'Hea, in the year 1633, the lands of Ballymacwilliam and
Cruary, in the same county; and that he died on the 7th of Feb.
1637[3];--that Captain Robert Gookin, in recompence for his services as a
soldier and adventurer, obtained an assignment from the Protector of an
estate in the same county, consisting of upwards of five thousand acres,
which he afterwards surrendered to Charles II.; and that thereupon the king
granted it to Roger Earl of Orrery;--that Vincent Gookin died on the 29th
of March, 1692, and that his son Robert, and Dorothy Clayton, were his
executors;--that in the year 1681 the collectors of quit rent made a demand
upon Thomas Gookin, one of Sir Vincent's sons, for the {239} rent of the
lands which his father had purchased from Mr. O'Hea, and that, upon proof
being made to the Court of Exchequer by Mr. John Burrowes, one of Sir
Vincent's executors, that the estate was a "Protestant interest," or, in
other words, that as the family had been of the Protestant religion, and
not implicated in the rebellion of 1641, the lands were therefore not
liable to the payment of quit rent, they were accordingly put out of
charge. It appears also by the records which are deposited in the same
office, that Thomas Gookin, gentleman, was indicted at the sessions held at
Bandon in the year 1671, "for that he, with several others, riotously and
unlawfully did assemble and associatt themselves together at Lislee, on the
27th of December, 1671, and in and uppon David Barry and Charles Carthy,
gentlemen, did make a cruell assaulte and affray, and did beate, wound, and
falsely imprison them, under colour of a warrant from Henry Bathurst, Esq.,
made and interlined by the said Thomas Gookin;" and that Elizabeth Gookin,
of Lislee, spinster, was one of his sureties. This Elizabeth was probably
descended from a Charles Gookin, who claimed the lands of Lislee in the
time of the Protector. By the records in the same department, it appears
that in and previous to the year 1719 a suit was pending in the Court of
Exchequer with respect to the lands of Courtmacsherry; and by the
Receiver's account, which bears the autograph of Robert Gookin, it is shown
that a payment was made to Mrs. Dorothy Gookin for maintenance, and that
there was an arrear due to Lady Mary Erwin, "at ye time of Captain Gookin's
death, which happened in September, 1709:" and in the same office there is
deposited a deed, dated the 30th of October, 1729, which relates to the
lands of Clouncagh, in the same county of Cork, whereto John Allin, an
alderman of the city of Cork, and Elizabeth Gookin, otherwise Towgood, his
wife, and Robert Gookin, Esq., eldest son and devisee of Robert Gookin
deceased, are parties. I have been informed that a lengthened account of
Sir Vincent Gookin is to be found in Lord Stafford's State Letters; that
much information may be gathered from the Privy Council Papers _tempore_
Cromwell, which are deposited in Dublin Castle, with respect to Captain
Robert Gookin; and that in the year 1620 Daniel Gookin was one of the
undertakers in the county of Longford, and that his estate of five hundred
acres afterwards passed to an ancestor of the late popular novelist Miss

J. F. F.


[Footnote 3: Amongst the Inquisitions of the county of Cork which are
preserved in the Rolls Office of Chancery, there is one which relates to
Vincent Gookin, and was taken at Mallow, on the 14th of August, 1638; and
is probably an inquisition _post mortem_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 65.)

This little Query may perhaps come under the category you mention in the
address of your opening Number for the year, although it might be a
sufficient reply merely to say that it was the legend round the common Manx
halfpenny, encircling the three legs of man on its reverse; but when we
consider these three conjoined limbs in their awkward and impossible
position, the propriety of the legend may be doubted, and its presence
attributable only to the numismatic necessity of accompanying the figure
with its motto. The following epigram has been composed by some Manxman
thoroughly convinced of the propriety of the application:

 "Reader! thou'st seen a falling cat,
  Light always on his feet so pat;
  A shuttlecock will still descend,
  Meeting the ground with nether end;
  The persevering Manksman thus,
  A shuttlecock or pauvre puss;
  However through the world he's tost--
  However disappointed, crost--
  Reverses, losses, Fortune's frown,
  No chance or change can keep him down.
  Upset him any way you will,
  Upon his _legs_ you'll find him still.
  For ever active, brisk, and spunky,
  _Stabit jeceris quocunque_."

Where, however, we perceive in the last line the rhyme has destroyed the
metre of the Latin poet, if the words be really a classical quotation,
which I should wish to form into a Query for some of your readers.

But the emblem, as the famous _Triquetra_, is one of the most ancient and
celebrated of antiquity. It figures on the oldest coins of Metapontum; and
subsequently on many of those of Sicily, particularly on those of Palermo
and Syracuse, as _island_ cities; for to islands, from one use of its name
in the Greek word [Greek: CHÊLÊ], as a jutting promontory, a break-water,
or a jetty, was it more especially appropriated. Hence it is even now borne
in the Neapolitan blazon for Sicily: as Britain, if she followed the
continental examples, would be entitled to quarter it in her full imperial
escutcheon, not only for Man, but for Malta; by which latter it was early
taken as the device. But under this distinctive name as _Chele_, it only
figured the potency which all pointed or angular forms and substances
possessed insensitively or in a triple degree. To understand this, we
should consider the force that all pointed or sharp instruments possess:
the awl, the wedge, the adze, are well known for their assistance to the
mechanic; and the transference of the idea to non-physical aid was so easy,
and so consonant to the human mind, that, when we speak of the acuteness of
an intellect, the point of an epigram, the keen edge of a sarcasm, we are
scarcely conscious that we indulge at all in the maze of metaphor.

Nor was the adaptation of the figure less suitable to the purposes of
superstition, by which it {240} was seized on, both for the purpose of
driving away the evil one or forcing him to appear: all edged tools, or
angular forms, gave complete mastery over him. Therefore, the best method
of obtaining sight of the otherwise invisible spirits of the air, is by
putting the head beneath the legs, the human fork or angle--the true Greek
_chele_--as it is also used by Saxo-Grammaticus in a dialogue between
Bearco and Ruta, to see Odin riding on the whirlwind:

   "_Bearco._ At nunc ille ubi sit qui vulgo dicitur Othin
  Armipotens, uno semper contentus ocello;
  Dic mihi Ruta, precor, usquam si conspicis illum?

    _Ruta._ Adde oculum proprius et _nostras prospice chelas_,
  Ante sacraturus victrici lumina signo,
  Si vis presentem tuto cognoscere Martem.

    _Bearco._ Sic potero horrendum Frigæ spectare maritum," &c.

So boys in the north put their heads between their legs to see the devil
looking over Lincoln: and I am indebted to a mention of my _Shakspeare's
Puck and his Folk-lore_ in the _Maidstone Journal_ for the proof that this
belief still exists in Ireland from an anecdote told by Curran, who, in the
absence of a Währwolf on which to try its efficacy, would prove it on a
large mastiff by walking backwards to it in this posture, "while the animal
made such a grip at the poor barrister's hinder region, that Curran was
unable to _sit_ with any gratification to himself for some weeks

Permit me to refer such readers as are curious to know more on this
subject, to the above work, p. 73. But if you still can find room for a
continental proof of the efficacy of a pair of shears as very powerful
_chele_, not only for driving away Satan, but altogether banishing him from
earth, allow me to adduce from a most excellent collection of tales,
Traditions of the Bavarian Territories (_Sagenbuch der Baierischen Lande_),
just published by Herr A. Schöppner, under the auspices of the ex-king, the
following tale, No. 757, "Die Scharfe Scheere" (The Sharp Scissors):

    "Outside the parish church of Münnerstadt, you see a gravestone with a
    pair of shears sculptured on it. He who rests under it was a pious
    tailor, who was often disturbed by the Devil in his devotions. The
    latter appeared to him frequently, and whispered him to throw plenty of
    cabbage into his hell (a technical German term for its receptacle, I
    know not if usual amongst the English gentle craft), and otherwise
    played him many insidious pranks. Our tired Schneider complained of the
    evil to a pious hermit, who advised him, the next time the Prince of
    Darkness made his appearance, to take the shears and _cut off his
    tail_. The tailor resolved to follow his advice; and, on the next
    visitation, he lopped the tail clean from his body. The Devil halloed
    out murder! went off, and ever afterwards left the tailor in peace. But
    the shears remained a long time as an heirloom in the family, and their
    form was sculptured on his tombstone in remembrance. Since then, the
    Devil walks through Münnerstadt without a posterial adornment, and
    therefore not now recognisable; which is the reason that many people
    assert that there is no longer any Devil."

Well might Herrick, in his _Hesperides_, inculcate:

 "Hang up _hooks and shears_ to scare
  Hence the hag that rides the mare."


17. Gower Place.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iv., p. 152.; Vol. vi., pp. 518. &c.)

Will you accept a French elucidation of the etymon of this word, which has
sorely puzzled your correspondents? What saith the _Encyclopédie des Gens
du Monde_, tom. xix. (1843):

    "PIQUE NIQUE.--Expression empruntée de l'Anglais, où elle est formée de
    _pick_, choisir, et _nick_, instant précis, et signifie choix judicieux
    où tout se rencontre bien. On se sert aussi en Français de cette
    locution pour désigner un repas où chacun paie son écot, ou bien auquel
    chacun contribue en fournissant un des plats."

The word is in Ménage (_Dictionnaire étymologique_, folio, 1694):

    "PIQUENIQUE.--Nous disons _faire un repas à pique-nique_, pour dire
    faire un repas où chacun paye son écot: ce que les Flamans disent,
    _parte bétal, chacun sa part_. Ce mot n'est pas ancien dans notre
    langue; et il est inconnu dans la plupart de nos provinces."

_Picnics_ were known and practised in the reign of James I. An amusing
description of one is given in a letter from Sir Philip Mainwaring, dated
Nov. 22, 1618. The knight is writing to Lord Arundel from Newmarket:

    "The Prince his birth-day hathe beene solemnised heare by those few
    Marquises and Lords which found themselves heare, and to supplie the
    want of the Lords, Knights and Squires were admitted to a consultation,
    wherein it was resolved that such a number should meete at Gamiges, and
    bring every man his dish of meate. It was left to their own choyces
    what to bring: some strove to be substantiall, some curios, and some
    extravagant. Sir George Goring's invention bore away the bell; and that
    was foure huge brawny piggs, pipeing hott, bitted and harnised with
    ropes of sarsiges, all tyde to a monstrous bag-pudding."

And on the 28th of the same month, Mr. Chamberlain wrote to Sir Dudley

    "We hear nothing from Newmarket, but that they devise all the means
    they can to make themselves merry; as of late there was a feast
    appointed at a farmhouse not far off, whither every man should bring
    his dish. The king brought a great chine of beef, the Marquis of
    Hamilton four pigs incircled with sausages, the Earl of Southampton two
    turkies, another six partridges, and one a whole tray full of buttered
    eggs; {241} and so all passed off very pleasantly."--Nichols's
    _Progresses of James I._, vol. iii. pp. 495. 496.

W. M. R. E.

    [MR. ARTHUR WILSON has written to us that this word is Swedish, and to
    be found in Widegren's _Swedish and English Dictionary_. We may add
    that it is also in Delens, but we do not believe it to be of Swedish
    origin. We believe it will eventually be traced to a French

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 182.)

The Latin word for a rabbit is _cuniculus_, as is shown in the following
couplet of Martial:

 "Gaudet in effossis habitare cuniculus antris:
    Monstravit tacitas hostibus ille vias."--xiii. 60.

The rabbit appears to have been originally peculiar to Spain, Southern
France, and the adjoining islands. Strabo (iii. 2. § 6.) says that it is
found nearly over the whole of Spain, and in the Balearic islands; and that
it reaches as far as Massilia. Polybius (xii. 3.) likewise states it to be
a native of Corsica. It was unknown to the Greeks, and is not mentioned by
Aristotle in his works on natural history (see Camus, _Notes sur l'Histoire
des Animaux d'Aristote_, p. 278.); nor does it ever occur in the Æsopian
fables, although the hare is frequently introduced. Hence it had no native
Greek name; and Polybius borrows the Latin word, calling it [Greek:
kuniklos] (compare _Athen._, ix. p. 400.). Strabo uses the periphrasis of
"burrowing hares," [Greek: geôruchoi lagideis]. Ælian, again, employs the
Latin name, which he considers to be of Iberian origin (_De Nat. Anim._,
xiii. 15.). If this be true, the sense of _subterranean passage_, which
_cuniculus_ also bears, is secondary, and not primary (compare Plin. _Nat.
Hist._, viii. 81.).

The language of Varro _de Re Rust._ (iii. 12.) likewise shows that the
rabbit was in his time peculiar to Spain, and had not been introduced into
Italy. The meaning of the Hebrew word _Saphan_, which is translated _cony_
in the authorised version of the Old Testament (Lev. xi. 5.; Deut. xiv. 7.;
Ps. civ. 18.; Prov. xxx. 26.), has been fully investigated by biblical
critics and naturalists. (See Bochart's _Hierozoicon_, vol. ii. pp.
409-429., ed. Rosenmüller; Winer, _Bibl. Real-Wörterbuch_, in SPRINGHASE;
_Penny Cyclopædia_, in HYRAX.) It is certainly _not_ the rabbit, which is
not a native of Syria and Palestine: but whether this ruminant quadruped,
which lives in the rocks, is the jerboa, or a species of hyrax, or some
other small edible animal of a like description, is difficult to determine.

From the manner in which Strabo speaks of Spain and the Balearic islands
being infested by large numbers of rabbits, it would appear (as Legrand
d'Aussy remarks, _Vie privée des Français_, tom. ii. p. 24.) that the
ancients did not eat its flesh. The rabbit is now so abundant in parts of
the south of France, that, according to the same author, a sportsman in the
islands near Arles who did not kill a hundred, would be dissatisfied with
his day's sport. A Provençal gentleman, who in 1551 went out to kill
rabbits with some of his vassals, and three dogs, brought home in the
evening not less than six hundred.

From the Latin _cuniculus_ have been formed, according to the proper
analogy, the Italian _coniglio_, the Spanish _conéjo_, and the French
_conil_, sometimes modified into _conin_ (see Diez, _Roman. Gramm._, vol.
ii. p. 264.). From the old French _conin_ was borrowed the English _coning_
or _conig_, afterwards shortened into _cony_: and from this word have been
formed _conigar_ and _coningry_ or _conigry_, for rabbit-warren (see
Halliwell's _Dict._, in CONIG). _Conillus_, for a rabbit-warren, occurs in
Ducange; _conejár_ is the Spanish term.

The Germans, like the English, had no native name for the rabbit; an animal
not indigenous in their country. Hence they borrowed the French name
_conin_, which they altered into _kanin_; and have since formed the
diminutive _kaninchen_. In Suabian, the form used is _küniglein_. See
Adelung in v. The Dutch word is _konÿn_.

The rabbit was probably introduced into England from France. Query: When
did that introduction take place? Also, when did the later term "rabbit"
supersede the old name _cony_? and what is the etymology of _rabbit_? The
French _lapin_, which has supplanted the old word _conin_, is said to be
formed from _lepinus_, an adjective of _lepus_.


Your solution of the etymology of this word, as coming from
_Coney_-borough, is no doubt correct: but I apprehend the last syllable has
a more specific derivation. On the opposite sides of the Lough of Belfast,
there are two localities in which this old English word is preserved. This
district was, as you are aware, colonised by English settlers about 1590
A.D., when large grants were made to Sir Arthur Chichester, ancestor of the
present Marquis of Donegal. At Carrickfergus, on the north side of the bay,
there is a spot called the _Connyberry_, which is a corruption of
"Coneyborough;" but on the opposite side, at Holyward, there is a populous
rabbit-warren, known as the "Kinnegar;" which I take to be the _conynger_
or _coningeria_ about which your correspondent asks.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 155.)

Z.'s _third_ application relative to the names and numbers of regiments has
roused me into activity, {242} and I now forward you the required
information, viz.:

Query 1. What was the origin of giving British regiments the name of
certain officers, instead of numbering them as at present?

Regiments were numbered, but it was generally customary to designate them
by the name of their colonel previous to 1751.

2. If in honour of an officer commanding the corps, was the name changed
when that officer died or removed to another regiment, or what was the

The name of the regiment changed by death or removal of the colonel.

3. When did the present mode of numbering regiments begin, and by whom was
it introduced?

1st July, 1751, by royal warrant of George II., when the number of the
regiment was directed to be embroidered on its standard; even after the
numbering became general, the names of colonels were for some time

4. What was the rule or principle laid down in giving any regiment a
certain number? Was it according to the length of time it had been

In 1694 a board of officers assembled to decide the relative rank of
regiments, and the regiments formed in England were placed by seniority of
raising, but those from Scotland or Ireland on their being placed upon the
English establishment.

5. What is the guide now in identifying a named with a numbered regiment;
for example, at the battle of Culloden in 1746, Wolfe's, Barrett's, and
Howard's Foot were engaged. Now, what is the rule for ascertaining the
numbers of these and other old regiments in the British army at the present

The Army List with colonels of that date. In 1746 Wolfe's was the 8th Foot,
Barrett's the 4th Foot, and Howard's the 3rd Foot. There were two Howards
of the same date (1746), Green and the Buff Howards, known by their


P.S.--I shall be happy to give further information and more details if
required, and inclose my card to the Editor.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 125. 297. 400.)

I send the following as some answer to the inquiries made by your
correspondent A. S. A. For the more ample account of Bishop Ellis, I am
indebted to an article in the _Rambler_, vol. vii. p. 313., entitled
"Collections illustrating the History of the English Benedictine

Richard Smith, appointed Bishop of Chalcis, Feb. 4, 1625, and
Vicar-Apostolic of England; he withdrew to France four years afterwards,
and died in Paris in 1655, aged eighty-eight, in a house belonging to the
English convent upon the Fossé St. Victor. He was probably buried in the
convent chapel, where a monument to his memory was erected. See the Rev.
Joseph Berington's _Memoirs of Panzani_, p. 109.

John Leyburn, consecrated Bishop of Adrumetum, and appointed
Vicar-Apostolic of England, 1685: on the country being divided into four
vicariats in 1688, he was appointed to the London, or southern district. On
the breaking out of the revolution in the same year, he was committed to
the Tower; but his peaceable and inoffensive conduct soon caused him to be
discharged, and he was suffered to remain unmolested until his death, which
occurred in 1703. He was greatly beloved and respected by his flock.

Bonaventure Giffard, of the ancient Roman Catholic family of the Giffards
of Chillington, Staffordshire, appointed Vicar-Apostolic of the Midland
District, 1688. Like Bishop Leyburn, on the breaking out of the revolution,
he was committed to the Tower, but was soon released, and on the condition
of always making the place of his abode known to the government, he passed
the remainder of his days unmolested. On the death of Bishop Leyburn in
1703, he was removed to the London, or southern district, where he died
March 12, 1734, aged ninety. There is a good portrait of Bishop Giffard at
the Roman Catholic College of Old Hall Green in Hertfordshire.

Philip Ellis, third son of Rev. John Ellis, Rector of Waddesden, Bucks, by
his wife Susanna Welbore, whilst a pupil in Westminster School, was called
to the Catholic faith, and to the grace of religion, in St. Gregory's
Convent, Douay, where he made his profession, 30th November, 1670, æt.
eighteen. After duly qualifying himself for the ministry, he was sent to
labour in the English vineyard. His great abilities recommended him to the
notice of King James II., who appointed him one of his chaplains and
preachers; and when Innocent XI., on 30th January, 1688, signified his wish
that his majesty would nominate three fit subjects to fill the newly
constituted vicariats, midland, northern, and western (for Dr. John
Leyburn, Bishop of Adrumetum, during the last three years had governed the
whole of England), Father Ellis, then thirty-six years of age, was selected
for the western vicariat, and was consecrated bishop on Sunday, 6th May,
1688, at St. James's, where the king had established a convent of fourteen
Benedictine monks, by the title of Aureliopolis. In the second week of
July, the new prelate confirmed a considerable number of youths, some of
them recent converts, in the new chapel of the Savoy. (_Ellis
Correspondence_, vol. ii. p. 62.) In his letter (ibid. p. 145.) to his
brother John, dated from St. James's, 26th August, 1688, he describes the
uneasiness of the court at the preparations making in Holland by the Prince
of {243} Orange. We doubt if this vicar-apostolic attempted to visit his
diocese; for, on the breaking out of the revolution at London in the
ensuing November, he was apprehended and committed to Newgate (Macaulay's
_History_, vol. ii. p. 563.), yet he was soon restored to liberty.
Foreseeing but faint hope of serving the cause of religion in such
turbulent times, he left England for the court of his exiled sovereign at
St. Germains, and, after staying some time, obtained permission to visit
the Eternal City. In 1693 Pope Innocent XII. made him an assistant prelate;
and on the feast of St. Louis, six years later, he sung the high mass at
Rome, in the French church, before many cardinals, invited and received by
the Cardinal de Bouillon. The Prince of Monacho, ambassador of France,
being then incognito, assisted in a tribune. Resigning his western
vicariat, he was promoted by Pope Clement XI. to the vacant see of Segni,
in the Campagna di Roma. There he originated a seminary, over which he
watched with parental zeal and solicitude. In November 1710, he held a
synod in the choir of his cathedral; about seventy of his clergy attended,
all of whom he entertained with generous hospitality. In addition to his
many meritorious works, he substantially repaired and embellished his
palace, and to his cathedral he left a splendid mitre and some costly
vestments; but the bulk of his property he bequeathed to his seminary. A
dropsy of the chest carried him off on the 16th November, 1726, æt.
seventy-four, and his remains were interred in the centre of the seminary

Seven sermons of this prelate, preached before James II. at Windsor and St.
James's, were printed.

A beautiful portrait of the Bishop, engraved by Meyer, is prefixed to the
_Ellis Correspondence_, published by the late Lord Dover, in two volumes
8vo., 1829.

James Smith was consecrated Bishop of Calliopolis, and appointed
Vicar-Apostolic of the Northern District, 1688: he died May 20, 1711.

The following Vicars-Apostolic were nominated after the above four till the
year 1750.

_Midland District._--George Witham, of the ancient Roman Catholic family of
the Withams of Cliffe, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, was educated at
Douay College, consecrated Bishop of Marcopolis, and appointed
Vicar-Apostolic of the Midland District in 1703. He was removed to the
Northern District in 1716, and died in 1725, at Cliffe Hall, the seat of
his family.

_Western District._--Matthew Pritchard, a Franciscan Friar, Bishop of
Myrinen: I have not been able to ascertain the date either of his
consecration or death; the latter took place at Perthyre, Monmouthshire.[4]

_Northern District._--Thomas Williams, a Dominican friar, Bishop of
Tiberiopolis, died at Huddlestone, Yorkshire, April 14, 1740.

J. F. W.

[Footnote 4: I have since learned Bishop Pritchard was consecrated in

The reply of E. H. A. to my Query about these Vicars-Apostolic is rather
unsatisfactory. I admit his correction of _Chalcedon_ for _Chalcis_, but
wish that he had been more explicit in his notices of both those
Vicars-Apostolic appointed in 1685-88, as well as of those since nominated.
When did _Smith_ and _Ellis_ die? and what was the see in Italy to which
the latter was nominated? Who were the _consecrators_ of Giffard, Ellis,
and Smith? Bishop Leyburn was, I think, one, and is said to have been
"assisted by two _Irish_ prelates." Who were they? E. H. A. also refers, as
his authority, to a tract by the Rev. L. Darwall, in _Christian's
Miscellany_: but he does not give the date of that publication, nor did I
ever hear of it. Surely some ecclesiastical reader of "N. & Q." will answer
some, at least, of these inquiries of mine. I know many of your subscribers
can do so if they choose. I am desirous of possessing the names and dates
of consecration and death of every Roman Catholic Vicar-Apostolic appointed
for England since 1689, and also of those for Scotland, if possible.

A. S. A.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 191.)

To a certain extent, the information MR. F. H. BRETT got from his Scotch
friend is correct. An idea does exist in some parts of Scotland, that
children born out of wedlock must be "under the apron string" at the
solemnisation of the marriage of their parents, before they can be
legitimated _per subsequens matrimonium_. How this notion originated, I do
not pretend to say; but it is easy to speculate as to its origin. But MR.
BRETT'S friend showed a blessed ignorance of the laws of his native
country, if he ever said that "in the Scotch law of marriage there is a
clause providing that all 'under the apron string,' at the time of the
marriage, shall be considered legitimate." The Scotch law of marriage is
not statutory, and, consequently, it has no clauses.

I have often felt sore at the ignorance displayed, even in well-informed
circles in England, as to the real principles of the Scotch law of
marriage; and I am encouraged by the comprehensive terms of MR. BRETT'S
Query, to hope that you will permit me to say a word or two which may serve
to dissipate some of the delusions that prevail as to both the constitution
of a Scotch marriage, and its effects.

In Scotland, as in every country whose system of jurisprudence is based on
the civil law, {244} marriage is dealt with as _a purely civil contract_;
and its constitution may be established by the same proof as would
establish any ordinary civil contract, viz. by writing, by the testimony of
witnesses, or by the judicial confession of the parties. It is true, that,
in deference to the natural feeling that the blessing of God should be
invoked upon the constitution of a relation so important and so solemn, and
from other considerations of public policy and morality, the law has
prescribed that a "regular marriage" can be performed only by a clergyman,
after due proclamation of the banns; and that it punishes an "irregular"
constitution of the contract by fines and other penalties. But it never
loses sight of the principle, that the contract is purely civil; and
irregularity in point of _form_, though punishable, does not vitiate the
contract, which is binding and valid if its _substance_ be proved, in the
same way as any other contract may be proved. Such a contract is binding,
if entered into in accordance with the _lex loci contractus_, although that
law should differ from the law of the domicile of the parties. The sole
privilege of the smith of Gretna Green consisted in his smithy being the
nearest place to the English border, at which witnesses to the constitution
of the contract could be obtained. Now-a-days, I suppose, a runaway couple,
unable to hire a special train, would take the express; and I would advise
them to take their tickets to Ecclefechan--the first Scotch station at
which the express stops--and to confer on the station-master and porter
there the dignity of high priests of Hymen: for they, or any other two
witnesses you meet in Scotland, can help you to tie the knot as firmly as
the Gretna smith. After what I have said, I need hardly add that these
functionaries had no warrant for their certificate that their marriages
were performed "according to the forms of the Church of Scotland." To those
who look upon marriage as a purely civil contract, the mock ceremony at
Gretna is a marriage; to those who look upon it as a sacrament, or who
think that a religious ceremony affects its constitution in the slightest
degree, a Gretna Green marriage is, in plain words, neither more nor less
than a _legalised concubinage_; and, surely, I need not say, that the
spouses in such a marriage, though, _quoad omnem civilem effectum_, on the
same footing with persons regularly married _in facie ecclesiæ_, are
not--in Scotland, at least--allowed to obtrude themselves into respectable
society. So much for the constitution of the contract of marriage under the
law of Scotland.

As for its effects, in so far as involved in MR. BRETT'S Query, no such
provision exists, or ever did exist, in the Scotch law of marriage, as that
children, to be legitimatised _per subsequens matrimonium_, must be under
their mother's apron strings. In its effects, as well as in its
constitution, the contract of marriage in Scotland is ruled by the
principles of the civil law; and _all_ the children of the spouses, born
before marriage, are legitimated _per subsequens matrimonium_, whether, at
the time the ceremony is performed, they be "under the apron strings" or
not. The old theory was, that marriage being a consensual contract, the
constitution of the rights and obligations arising from it drew back to the
date of the consent; which, in the case of parties who had previously had
connexion, was presumed in law to be the date of the connexion. This theory
has of late been somewhat impaired by the decision of the Court of Session,
in the case of Kerr _v._ Martin. See Dunlop Bell and Murray's _Reports of
Cases decided in the Court of Session_, vol. ii. p. 752. The soundness of
that decision is still matter of controversy in the profession; but I may
refer MR. BRETT to it as containing a full and able discussion of the whole
principles on which the Scotch law of marriage is founded.


I remember that my brother, when curate of a parish in Lincolnshire between
1838 and 1844, married a woman enveloped only in a sheet. He was of course
startled at the slenderness of her apparel; but as all the requisitions of
the law had been complied with, he did not feel himself at liberty to
refuse. He contented himself, therefore, with addressing the numerous
congregation on the behaviour he expected from them at a religious
ordinance, and all went off well. The reason for the bride so presenting
herself, was of course the popular opinion, that her new husband would not
be liable for her debts.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Weld Taylor's Process._--As I presume the object of publishing
Photographic Notes, &c., is to aid those who are _not proficients_ in the
processes indicated, MR. WELD TAYLOR must not take umbrage at his first
communication being misunderstood, whether unavoidably or wilfully, as I am
sure the former must have been the case with all novices in the
photographic art at least; however, I had no intention whatever of offering
any annoyance to MR. TAYLOR in my remarks, which were intended solely with
a view to produce an effect which has partially been successful, that of
exciting a more definite explanation of his meaning. That MR. WELD TAYLOR
may "enlighten" me is not only possible, but very probable, and I can only
say I shall be much obliged to him for so doing.

With reference to his process for iodizing Canson's paper, I presume his
meaning to be as follows, viz.: Mix half an ounce of a _forty-grain_
solution of _nitrate of silver_ with an equal quantity {245} of a
_fifty-grain_ solution of _iodide of potassium_, by which a precipitate of
iodide of silver will be formed, the supernatant fluid containing the
excess of iodide of potassium and the nitrate of potash formed by the
decomposition. _Add_ drop by drop a solution of the cyanide of potassium,
until the iodide of silver is redissolved, and the liquid becomes limpid,
and then _four ounces_ more of distilled water, making up five ounces
altogether. The paper should then be washed over with the above and
_dried_, after which it may be floated on water slightly acidulated with
sulphuric acid for a few minutes, and after being again dried, either
wholly, or else partially with blotting-paper, may be rendered sensitive
with a weak solution of nitrate of silver. Here are two or three points
admitting doubt: first, Would it not be better to wash away the nitrate of
potash and free iodide of potash first, and then dissolve the iodide of
silver in solution of cyanide of potassium? Secondly, Would not a slight
soaking in plain water after the acidulated bath be of advantage? Thirdly,
Is it better to dry the paper again before rendering it sensitive? and
fourthly, What strength of nitrate of silver solution should be used to
render it sensitive; and ought it to have any acetic or gallic acid, or


_Animal Charcoal in Photography._--Perhaps you or one of your photographic
correspondents would inform me whether the animal charcoal, recommended for
the aceto-nitrate of silver solution, should be used as a filter, or simply
allowed to remain in the bottom of the bottle?

A. B. C.


_Sir W. Newton on Use of Common Soda and Alum._--In reply to W. ADRIAN
DELFERIER, who is desirous of knowing the "_rationale_ of the _action_ of
the _common soda_ and powdered alum, &c.," my motive for using _common
soda_ to cleanse the _negatives_ is, that it not only removes the
hyposulphite of soda more readily, but any impurities which may be in the
paper, as well as the _whole_ of the _size_, such being absolutely
necessary for the after _waxing_ process; which, when done, the negative
should appear nearly as transparent as glass.

The reason why I prefer _alum_ for the positives is, that while it has the
effect of removing the hyposulphite of soda and other impurities in the
paper, it does not act upon the _size_, which in this instance it is
desirous to retain.

I have been induced to make a series of experiments, with a view to prevent
the _fading_ of the _positives_, or, indeed, that any portion should be, as
it were, _eaten away in parts_; and since I have adopted the foregoing, in
no one instance has any change taken place whatever.


6. Argyle Street.

_Difficulties in Photographic Practice._--Having met with some of the
difficulties that your correspondent G. H. mentions in his communication
(Vol. vii., p. 218.), I beg to offer a few hints which I think will be of
service to those who are trying the waxed-paper process.

With regard to the spots, it is not easy to know whether they are produced
by particles of iron in the paper, or by the oxide of silver. Le Gray says:
"If spots should form, produced by the oxide of silver, they may be removed
by pouring over the negative some acetic acid, and passing a brush lightly
over it."

The second difficulty, want of depth of tone or intensity in the negative,
may have been caused by too short an exposure in the camera, or not having
used the proper proportion of developing solution. Try the following:

  4 oz. dist. water.
  8 grains gallic acid.

When this solution has been filtered, add to it ½ drachm of the aceto-nitr.
of silver solution, and 1 drachm of acetic acid. I have generally put a
little camphor in the gallic acid solution, as recommended by Laborde. It
prevents the decomposition of the gallic acid, and renders the image
clearer and free from spots. A piece about the size of a pea for four or
five ounces of solution.

As to the third difficulty, I believe nothing but replacing the porcelain
dishes by glass ones will prevent the dirty marbled appearance in the
bottom of the dishes made of porcelain; they are generally rough and uneven
on the surface, and there are often what is called "kiln-cracks" in the
angular parts. Two months ago I bought two glass dishes; although they are
more than double the price of porcelain, I expect the annoyance of dirty
dishes is prevented. The glass ones are made quite round at the sides and
ends, and of course will be easily cleaned. I am informed they are made in
France, but they could be had of English manufacture.

The animal charcoal in the sensitive solution must be shaken up in the
aceto-nitrate solution; and when it has become quite clear, the solution
before using must be filtered into the dish.


Penslur Iron Works.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Countess of Pembroke's Letter_ (Vol. i., pp. 28. 119. 154.; Vol. vii.,
p. 154.).--None of your correspondents seem to be aware that the paper in
the _World_ (No. XIV. April 5, 1753), in which this questioned letter first
appeared, was written by Horace Walpole, and was afterwards reproduced by
him in his _Royal and Noble Authors_. These facts may help to guide
inquirers, {246} but they seem to me not to testify much for the
authenticity of the piece. This, among many publications in the _World_,
would certainly prove nothing; but Walpole's venturing to reproduce it in
an acknowledged work to which he attached considerable importance, is no
doubt of some weight.


_Ethnology of England_ (Vol. vii., p. 135.).--In reference to that portion
of the Query by ETHNOLOGICUS which asks "Whether it is yet clearly settled
that there are types of the heads of Ancient Britons, Saxons, Danes, and
other races, to be referred to as standards or examples of the respective
crania of those people?" I beg to say that beneath the chancel of the
church of St. Leonard, Hythe, there is a crypt containing a vast number of
skulls and other human bones, which, according to Jeake, the historian of
the Cinque Ports, are--

    "Supposed by some to be gathered at the shore after a great sea-fight
    and slaughter of the French and English on that coast; whose carcases,
    or their bones, after the consumption of the flesh, might be cast up
    there, and so gathered and reserved for memorandum."

Speaking of these relics, Walker, in his _Physiology_, says:

    "These skulls at Hythe are not of one race, either Saxon or British,
    but of several; two forms of skull, very distinct from each other,
    predominate: one, a long narrow skull, greatly resembling the Celtic of
    the present day; the other, a short broad skull, greatly resembling the
    Gothic.... Another kind of skulls, fewer in number, are evidently Roman


_Drake the Artist_ (Vol. vi., p. 555.).--Searching a series of catalogues
of the Society of Artists of Great Britain, from 1760 to 1780, I find that
Mr. Drake at York, F.S.A. (Fellow of that Society), in 1773 exhibited at
their New Room, near Exeter Change in the Strand,--

No. 89. "A Family IN LITTLE."

Is this to be interpreted by Hamlet's sarcasm upon the sycophants of his
uncle's court, who paid "Forty, fifty, nay, one hundred ducats, for his
portrait _in little_?" Small full-lengths were in vogue at the period, but
our Yorkist has a delicate diminutive of his own. Again, in 1775, we have
three works of Drake--

72. "View of a Gentleman's Seat in Yorkshire, with two Gentlemen going out

73. "Sacarissa with Amoret and Musidora." From Thomson's _Seasons_, 4to.
edition, 1730.

74. "A Winter Piece."

And in 1776:

23. "A Madonna and Child." Mr Drake, F.S.A., York.

There is _no_ trace of him at the Royal Academy. Thus we have him in
portraiture, in landscape, in sacred history, and in the poetical
imaginative. This is beyond what G. reckons upon; and now, having
contributed thus much, I hope some of your readers may assist in carrying
the inquiry further.

J. H. A.

_Sparse_ (Vol. vi., p. 554.; Vol. vii., p. 51.), said to be an
Americanism.--I have in my possession an edition, printed in 1611, of the
_Whole Book of Psalms, collected into English Metre_, by Thomas Sternhold,
John Hopkins, and others. In the paraphrase of Psalm xliv. v. 10. is the

 "Thou madest us fly before our foes,
    And so were overtrod.
  Our enemies rob'd and spoyl'd our goods
    When we were _sparst_ abroad."

The word here used in 1611 was evidently no American one; and yet it is
singular that neither Bailey (1740), Johnson (1755), or Barclay (1800),
have the word in their dictionaries; but Knowles (1835) and Blackie's
_Imperial_ (1850) both mentioned it; and have _sparse_, _sparsed_,
_sparsedly_, and _sparsing_, all meaning "dispersed" or "scattered."


Eldon Street, Sheffield.

_Genoveva of Brabant_ (Vol. vii., p. 212.).--There is a ballad on her
legend in an obscure volume of verses published by Masters, 1846,
fantastically entitled _Echoes from Old Cornwall_.


N.B. These _Echoes_ do not appear to have resounded far or wide.

_God's Marks_ (Vol. vii., p. 134.).--In the register-book of St.
Margaret's, Westminster, occurs this entry, under the year 1556:

    "Junii vij^o die. Item, Elizabeth Helhe, of the ague with Godd's

Shakspeare adopts the saying,

     "They have the plague ...
  For the Lord's tokens on you do I see."
          _Love's Labour's Lost_, Act V. Sc. 2.

quoted in _Memorials of Westminster_, ch. iv. p. 152. They were the first
spots which showed that the infection had been caught.

M. W.

_Segantiorum Portus_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--I know not what PRESTONIENSIS
means by Ptolemy's _History of Britain_, but there can be little doubt as
to the whereabouts of what is called, in the _Palatine MS._, _Segantiorum
Portus_, or _Setantiorum Portus_ in Berthius's great edition of Ptolemy's
_Geography_, ch. iii., tit. Albion, tab. 1.

It is curious that the place _immediately_ preceding in Ptolemy's
_Catalogue_ that inquired about, affords, in the vast multitude enumerated
in that work, the closest approach to identity between the ancient and
modern names, viz. [Greek: Morikambê Eischusis], {247} Morecambe Æstuarium,
still called, _totidem literis_ and _idem sonans_, _Morecambe Bay_, in
which Ulverston is the chief town, so that of this point there can be no
doubt. Then comes _Setantiorum Portus_, of which Montanus, Bertius, and
subsequent geographers give _Winandermere_ as the modern name, meaning of
course the mouth of the river through which Lake Windermere discharges
itself into Morecambe Bay. But I doubt this, for there is no town of
Windermere, nor indeed any other, that Ptolemy could have called a harbour
(_portus_), till we come to Lancaster, which I therefore incline to believe
was the _Portus Setantiorum_. After this _portus_ comes _Belisama
Æstuarium_, by which all interpreters understand the mouth of the Ribble,
which is probably the point that interests PRESTONIENSIS, as Preston stands
on that river. The conjecture that Lancaster was the _Portus Setantiorum_
is corroborated by the latitudes and longitudes given by Ptolemy, which,
though not to be absolutely relied on, are not to be disregarded, and which
give to the three places, _Morecambe Æstuarium_, _Setantiorum Portus_, and
_Belisama Æstuarium_, nearly the relative positions in which we find
Ulverston, Lancaster, and the Ribble.


_Rubrical Query_ (Vol. vi., p. 509.).--QUÆSTOR inquires the meaning of the
words "if occasion lie" in the Rubric immediately before the Offertory in
the Communion Service. I am under the impression that "if occasion lie"
here simply means, _in case there is necessity to do so_; and for the
origin of this parenthetical clause I would refer to the Rubric of 1549
(Keeling, _Lit. Br._, edit. of 1842, p. 178.), which provides:

    "That in cathedral churches, or places where there is daily communion,
    it shall be sufficient to read this exhortation once in a month, and in
    parish churches on the week days it may be left unsaid."

Showing clearly the mode in which the exhortation was intended to be used.
The real difficulty, however, is not noticed by your querist, which is, as
to when "Public warning of the Communion" is to be given. One Rubric says
that this notice is to be given "immediately after the Nicene Creed;"
another prescribes that when this warning is to be given, it shall be done
"immediately after sermon." On this point see Sharpe on _Rubrics_, p. 62.;
and Wheatly on _Common Prayer_, chap. vi. sect. viii. § 3.


_Rosa Mystica_ (Vol. vii., p. 182.).--I do not remember to have ever heard
of such an institution; but _Rosa Mystica_ is one of the many appellatives
of the Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic "Litanies of the Virgin."


_Portrait of Charles I._ (Vol. vii., p. 185.).--It may be confidently
asserted that Vandyke never painted in enamel; the enamels referred to were
at best only "after Vandyke." Nothing more frequent, in both earlier and
present times, than the copying large oil portraits in enamel.


"_Time and I_" (Vol. vii., p. 182.).--I cannot answer MR. BLACKISTON'S
Query fully, but he will find, I think, in the miscellaneous correspondence
usually printed in Pope's and Swift's works, the following anecdote, that
some one having quoted to Robert, Lord Oxford, the adage,

 "Time and I 'gainst any two,"

his Lordship replied, impromptu,

 "Chance and I 'gainst Time and you."


_The Word "Party"_ (Vol. vii., p. 177.).--I can furnish a more ancient
example of the use of this word than the one given by your correspondent.

In an old MS. "Booke of Recepts," in my possession, of the year 1681-2,
there occurs the following singular prescription:

    "_The Powder of Buggs._--Take the buggs and wash them well in white
    wine, and putt them in a new earthen pott, and set them in an oven till
    they be dry enough for powder; then beat them, and sift them, and give
    ye party as much as will lye upon a groate every morning in honey."

Can any one inform me for what disease this nauseous remedy was prescribed,
and whether it be now excluded from the pharmacopoeia? Perhaps this
oleaginous insect was formerly exhibited in those cases for which cod liver
oil is now so extensively used.


Your correspondent E. D. might have gone much farther back for an example
of the use of the word _party_ for a particular person. In the _Tempest_,
Act III. Sc. 2., we have:

   "_Cal._ I say by sorcery he got this isle.
  From me he got it. If thy greatness will
  Revenge it on him--for, I know, thou dar'st;
  But this thing dare not.
    _Ste._ That's most certain.
    _Cal._ Thou shalt be lord of it, and I'll serve thee.
    _Ste._ How now shall this be compass'd? Canst thou bring me to _the



_"Mater ait natæ," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 155.).--In reply to your
correspondent who asks where the following lines "Mater ait natæ," &c. are
to be found, I refer him to the following note in Greswell's _Account of
Runcorn_, p. 34.:

    "Leland, in his _Itinerary_, mentions an old woman, a native of Over in
    Cheshire, who lived in the family of Downes of Shrigley, and died at
    the age of 140 years. Zuingerus reports of a noble lady of Worms, in
    the {248} archbishopric of Mentz, who lived to see the sixth
    generation, that she might thus address her daughter:

     '(1) Mater (2) natæ die (3) natæ filia (4) natam
      Ut moneat (5) natæ plangere (6) filiolam.'

    That is, 'The mother says to her daughter: Daughter, bid thy daughter,
    to tell her daughter, that her daughter's daughter is crying.'"



I have in my possession a scrap-book, compiled by one Edward King in the
year 1743, which consists of extracts from newspapers of that date; and
while perusing your last Number, meeting with W. W.'s (Malta) Query, I
immediately recollected having noticed the quotation some short time ago.
Turning to the volume I find the following extract:

    "Sarum, April 30.--We hear from Limington in Hants that one Mrs.
    Mitchel was lately brought to bed there of a daughter, whose
    great-great-grandmother is still living, and has already seen her fifth
    generation, and all daughters. So that she may say the same that the
    distich doth, made on one of the Dalburgh's family of Basil:

        1         2        3           4
     'Mater ait natæ die natæ filia natam
                 5                6
      Ut moneat natæ plangere filiolam.'

        1          2                       3
     'Rise up, daughter, and go to thy daughter,
                  4         5               6
      For her daughter's daughter hath a daughter.'

    She is about 92 years of age, is in perfect health, has all her senses
    clear, and hopes to see five generations more."


Norwood, Surrey.

_Gospel Place_ (Vol. vii., p. 133.).--In my parish there are two such
places, both on the border of the parish: one is called "The Gospel Oak,"
the other "The Gospel Bush." The traditional explanation of these names is
this:--that at no very ancient date, when the custom of perambulating the
parish was annually observed, portions of the Gospel were read at these and
other places,--_stations_, as they were anciently called.


Peterstow Rectory, Ross.

_Passage in Thomson_ (Vol. vii., p. 87.).--_Steaming_, as your intelligent
correspondent C. says, is clearly the true reading. The word is so printed
in the 4to. edition of the _Seasons_, 1730 (was not this the first
collected edition of that poem?), and in every other to which I have
referred. It does not, however, occur in the 4to. copy in the
twenty-eighth, but in the thirty-first line. The four lines, fifteenth to
eighteenth, originally given in the "Hymn," but afterwards wisely omitted
by the poet, follow the words "In Autumn unconfined:"--

             "Thrown from thy lap
  Profuse o'er Nature falls the lucid shower
  Of beamy fruits, and in a radiant stream
  Into the stores of sterile winter pours."

The _steaming_ property of the earth is well described by Dr. Carpenter, in
his _Vegetable Physiology_, p. 168.:

    "If a glass vessel be placed with its mouth downwards, on the surface
    of a meadow or grass plot, during a sunny afternoon in summer, it will
    speedily be rendered dim in the interior by the watery vapour which
    will rise into it; and this will soon accumulate to such a degree as to
    run down in drops. Any person walking in a meadow on which the sun is
    shining powerfully, where the grass has not long previously been
    refreshed by rain, may observe a tremulous motion in distant objects,
    occasioned by the rising of the watery vapour; exactly resembling that
    which takes place along the sea-shore, when the sun shines strongly on
    pebbles that have been left in a moistened state by the retiring
    tide."--Dr. Carpenter's _Vegetable Physiology_, p. 168. sect. 253.

    "The atmosphere is made up of several steams, or minute particles of
    several sorts rising from the earth and the waters."--Locke's _Elements
    of Natural Philosophy_.

J. H. M.

"_Words are given to man to conceal his thoughts_" (Vol. vii., p.
165.).--The hexameter line, [Greek: hos ch' heteron], &c., is one put by
Homer into the mouth of Achilles (_Iliad_, ix. 313.), when he is expressing
his indignant hatred of liars.



_Folger Family_ (Vol. vi., p. 583.; Vol. vii., p. 51.).--Will it assist the
inquiry to say that there was a family of Foulgers at Norwich? The only son
was a curate at Leiston, in Suffolk, in 1832.


       *       *       *       *       *



The remarkable collection of Northern Irish Antiquities and Historical
Relics, exhibited at Belfast on the occasion of the British Association
meeting in that city, has led to the publication of _The Ulster Journal of
Archæology_, which is to be conducted by gentlemen of the province, and
principally devoted to the elucidation of the antiquities and ancient
history of Ulster. Ulster, it will be remembered, is historically
remarkable as being the last part of Ireland which held out against the
English sway, and which therefore retained its ancient customs until a
comparatively recent period. Ulster was also the battle-field of the
ancient native Irish chieftains and the Scandinavian Vikings. The
antiquaries of Ulster have therefore done wisely, while the tangled web of
Northern Irish History can yet be {249} unravelled by existing aids--while
the men who are now the depositories of family and local history are yet
among them--to commence this Journal; and in the tact and good management
displayed in the selection of the materials of their opening Number, they
have not only done wisely, but done well also. May they go on and prosper!

At a moment when all eyes are looking anxiously for the new volume of
Nineveh Discoveries, we have received a work of kindred character and of
very high value. It is entitled _Lares and Penates, or Cilicia and its
Governors; being a short historical account of that province from the
earliest times to the present day, together with a description of some
Household Gods of the Ancient Cilicians, broken up by them on their
conversion to Christianity, first discovered and brought to this country by
the author_, W. B. Barker, edited by W. F. Ainsworth; and the interest
which this title naturally excites is fully maintained upon a perusal of
the work. Although, by readers who care little for its archæological
features, the work will be read with the highest satisfaction, it is one
which will afford to the antiquary information of the greatest importance;
while to many, the announcement that the remarkable monuments of the
ancient Cilicians, so happily discovered by Mr. Barker, were discovered by
him in the city dignified by the birth of the great apostle of the
Gentiles,--and that the mutilation of these works of art, once the objects
of religious regard, was probably the consequence of the missionary visit
of Paul and Silas to Tarsus,--will probably be the strongest recommendation
which this work could receive.

We have received three Catalogues which call for such mention as should
direct to them the attention of our bibliographical friends. One is of the
splendid Library of Mr. Dawson Turner, which will occupy Messrs. Sotheby
and Wilkinson for thirteen days in its disposal. The next, _Bibliotheca
Americana_, is of a most remarkable collection of American Books on sale by
Mr. Russell Smith. The third is of an extensive collection of Theological
Works on sale by Mr. Straker. The last two are made more valuable by the
addition of useful indices.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_A Manual of Photography_, by Robert Hunt, _Third Edition
enlarged_. It is sufficient to say that Professor Hunt's volume is at once
the most elaborate, as his acquirements will ensure its being one of the
most scientific works extant upon this now popular subject.--_Memoirs of a
Maître d'Armes, or Eighteen Months at St. Petersburgh, by_ A. Dumas;
_translated by_ The Marquis of Ormonde, is one of the most amusing and
graphic among the many amusing and graphic volumes which have already
appeared in the _Traveller's Library_.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica._ Part
VI. Mr. Darling's useful Cyclopædia maintains its character.--_The Fall of
Jerusalem_, by the Rev. Dr. Milman. This endeavour to direct the public
mind, through the medium of this dramatic poem, to the striking and
incontestable evidence of the full completion of Prophecy in the Fall of
Jerusalem, is a valuable addition to Murray's _Railway Reading_.--We must
here acknowledge the receipt of two other volumes of poetry: _Beauty, a
Poem_, by the author of _Silent Love_, an admirer and not unsuccessful
imitator of Pope; and _Love in the Moon_, by Patrick Scott, a work in which
scientific observation is combined with great poetic feeling and
considerable power.--_The Pilgrim's Progress of John Bunyan, for the Use of
Children in the English Church, edited by the Rev. J. M. Neale_. The object
with which this beautiful edition has been prepared is so plainly stated,
that we need only wish the book as wide a circulation as it deserves.--_The
Family Shakspeare_, &c., by Thomas Bowdler. The fourth volume of this
reprint of Mr. Bowdler's carefully revised edition of Shakspeare, contains
the three Parts of Henry VI., Richard III., Henry VIII., and Timon of

       *       *       *       *       *



and II. of Vol. II.

CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 1st and 2nd Series collected.



SWIFT'S WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 Vols. 8vo. 1768. Vol. I.








BEDELL'S IRISH OLD TESTAMENT, Irish type, 4to., 1685. [A copy of
O'Domhnuill's "Irish _New_ Testament," Irish type, 4to., 1st edition, 1602
(_being rare_), is offered in exchange.]


SOUTHEY'S WORKS. Vol. X. Longmans. 1838.



*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


_We have to request the indulgence of several Correspondents for not
replying to them this week._

S. G. W. Gibraltar _is a corruption of_ Jebel-Tarik, _or the_ Hill of
Tarik; _a name derived from the Moorish conqueror who landed there April
30, 711. For the origin of its ancient name_, Calpe, _we must refer_ S. G.
W. _to Smith's_ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, _where the various
presumed etymologies are discussed_.

"PERCY ANECDOTES." _Mr. Timbs has requested us to correct a slight error in
his communication on this subject_ (antè, _p. 214._). _The_ Percy Anecdotes
_were completed in_ forty _parts, and not_ forty-four, _as there stated_.

BROCTUNA. _Could the article proposed be divided into two papers?_

MR. CROOKES. _Where can we address a letter on a Photographic subject to
this Correspondent?_

OUR SIXTH VOLUME, _strongly bound in cloth, with very copious Index, is now
ready, price 10s. 6d. A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. I.
_to_ VI., _price Three Guineas for the Six Volumes, may now be had; for
which early application is desirable_.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_. {250}

       *       *       *       *       *

now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

correct definition at the centre and margin of the picture, and have their
visual and chemical acting foci coincident.

_Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports_, p. 274.

"Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture having the greatest intensity yet
produced, by procuring the coincidence of the chemical actinic and visual
rays. The spherical aberration is also very carefully corrected, both in
the central and oblique pencils."

"Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in the Exhibition. It is furnished
with a double achromatic object-lens, about three inches aperture. There is
no stop, the field is flat, and the image very perfect up to the edge."

Catalogues sent upon Application.

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *

KERR & STRANG, Perfumers and Wig-Makers, 124. Leadenhall Street, London,
respectfully inform the Nobility and Public that they have invented and
brought to the greatest perfection the following leading articles, besides
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their instantaneous Liquid Hair Dye, the only dye that really answers for
all colours, and never fades nor acquires that unnatural red or purple tint
common to all other dyes; it is permanent, free of any smell, and perfectly
harmless. Any lady or gentleman, sceptical of its effects in dyeing any
shade of colour, can have it applied, free of any charge, at KERR &
STRANG'S, 124. Leadenhall Street.

Sold in Cases at 7s. 6d., 15s., and 20s. Samples, 3s. 6d., sent to all
parts on receipt of Post-office Order or Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

ELGIN MARBLES.--Arundel Society, established 1849, for promoting the
Knowledge of Art. Casts from MR. CHEVERTON'S reductions of the Theseus and
Ilissus in the Elgin Collection, may be had by application at MESSRS.
COLNAGHI'S, 14. Pall Mall East, price 1l. 1s. (to Members 12s. 6d.) each.

Electro-Bronze Copies of the Theseus may be had at MESSRS. ELKINGTON'S, 22.
Regent Street, price 10l. 10s. (to Members 9l. 9s.)

MR. CHEVERTON obtained a Prize Medal for the Theseus at the Great
Exhibition, 1851.

Annual Subscription to the Society 1l. 1s., entitling Members to all
Engravings and Books published. Payable at Coutts' Bank, or 14. Pall Mall


       *       *       *       *       *

ETC.--J. LILLY, in announcing his removal from Pall Mall to his former
residence, 19. King Street, Covent Garden, begs to intimate that he is
the whole recently purchased at the Sale of the Libraries of the late Earl
of Mountnorris, formerly Viscount Valentia, at Arley Castle, Staffordshire;
Hugh Thomas, Esq., of Beaumaris; Rev. Herbert C. Marsh; the very eminent
architect, A. W. Pugin, Esq.; H. P. Borrell, Esq., of Smyrna, and various
other sources. The whole in fine condition, in appropriate and elegant
forwarded to any Gentleman enclosing Twelve Postage Stamps.

JOSEPH LILLY, 19. King Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


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  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
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Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
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Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



AKERMAN'S REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM. 4to. with Coloured Plates. Parts I. to
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No. 59. 3s. 6d.

BOWMAN'S RELIQUIÆ ANTIQUIÆ EBORACENSES. Remains of Antiquity relating to
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DUNKIN'S ARCHÆOLOGICAL MINE. Comprising the History of the County of Kent.
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4. 2s. 6d. each.



RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW. Comprising Copious Critical Analyses of Old Books.
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NEANDER'S CHURCH HISTORY. Vol. VIII. With Index. Post 8vo. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

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YONGE, B.A. With Introductory Sketch of the Philosophers and Systems
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       *       *       *       *       *


THE ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. Comprising the History of England and of
other Countries of Europe from A.D. 732 to A.D. 1201. Translated from the
Latin, with Notes and Illustrations, by HENRY T. RILEY, ESQ., B.A.,
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HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, with 40 richly coloured plates, 4to., 84s.,

SAXON OBSEQUIES, illustrated by Ornaments and Weapons discovered in a
Cemetery near Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire, in 1851. By HON. R. C.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO ANTIQUARIES, ETC.--To be disposed of, a Copy of that Rare and Curious
Work, entitled "COCKER'S ARITHMETIC," the Seven-and-twentieth Edition.
London, printed for Eben. Tracy, at the Three Bibles on London Bridge,

Please to address, L. M., Post Office, Bexhill.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Just published, a Second and much enlarged Edition, in One handsome
    Volume, 8vo., illustrated with 40 Plates and 250 Woodcuts, half-bound
    in morocco, 1l. 1s.; a few copies on large paper, 2l. 2s.

THE ROMAN WALL. An Historical, Topographical, and Descriptive Account of
the Barrier of the Lower Isthmus, extending from the Tyne to the Solway.
Deduced from numerous Personal Surveys. By the REV. JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE,
M.A., F.S.A., one of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of

Also, by the same Author, 4to., price 2s. 6d.

HADRIAN, THE BUILDER OF THE ROMAN WALL. A Paper read before the Society of
Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 4th August, 1852, in Reply to "The Roman
Wall. An attempt to substantiate the claims of Severus to the Authorship of
the Roman Wall. By Robert Bell."

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for MARCH contains the following articles:--

  1. The Masters of the Roman World.
  2. The Gulistan, or Rose Garden, of Sadi.
  3. The Dead, as described by Homer.
  4. Mr. Joseph Ames and Dr. Samuel Johnson.
  5. The Devereux Earls of Essex.
  6. Fra Dolcino and his Times.
  7. Memorials of John Home, the Author of "Douglas."
  8. Dr. Cunningham at Florence, Siena, and Rome in 1736.

CORRESPONDENCE:--1. The Ancient Records of Ireland. 2. Richard of
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Escape of James II. from the Boyne. With Notes of the Month; Reviews of New
Publications; Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY; including Memoirs of the
Earl of Stair, Earl Beauchamp, Viscount Melbourne, Right Hon. David Boyle,
Right Hon. John Nicholl, Peter Borthwick, Esq., Henry Fynes Clinton, Esq.,
Rev. Dr. Rice, Rev. P. L. Fraser, Dr. Pereira, Wm. Chadwick, Esq., &c. &c.
Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

    The Principal Portion of the very Important Library of DAWSON TURNER,
    Esq., extending over Thirteen Days' Sale.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY & JOHN WILKINSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property
and Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at their
House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on MONDAY, March 7, and five following
days, and on THURSDAY, March 17, and six following days (Sunday excepted),
at 1 precisely each day, the principal part of the LIBRARY of DAWSON
TURNER, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., &c., removed from Yarmouth;
comprising a magnificent assemblage of Books on the Fine Arts, including
very many of the splendid Galleries and Picturesque Works published during
the last and present centuries. The Collection is also rich in English
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important and well-known collection to which it is desirous to call
particular attention, namely, that a very great portion of the works are
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Catalogues are now ready, Two Shillings and Sixpence each; forwarded, Post
free, on receipt of Three Shillings.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Just published, demy 12mo., in cloth boards, and gilt lettered, price
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ALL NATIONS, but more especially from the EARLIEST RELIGION AND RITES OF
of the Historic Society for Lancashire and Cheshire, and Corresponding
Member of the Society of Antiquaries for Normandy, at Caen. To whom
application to be made at No. 17. Gower Place, Euston Square, and sent Free
to all parts of the Kingdom for Post-Office Order for 11s.


    "He (Dr. B.) has caught his tone and treatment from the ingenious and
    industrious scholars of that part of the Continent. There is no
    speculation too refined, no analogy too subtle and remote, for the
    employment of their time and talents; and in much that Dr. Bell
    advances on the same system to establish the intimate connexion between
    the Northern mythology and some of the popular superstitions of these
    islands, we concur.... At times, when we were most disposed to ridicule
    his positions, his learning stepped forward to his aid; and if it did
    not secure for him all our patience, at all events it commanded much of
    our respect."--_Athenæum, Oct. 2._

    "Dr. Bell, whose long residence in Germany, and intimate acquaintance
    with the popular literature of that country, entitles him to speak with
    great authority upon all questions relating to the Mythology of the
    Teutonic race, has just published a little volume, which will be read
    with interest by all who, to use the words of Mr. Keightly, 'have a
    taste for the light kind of philosophy' to be found in this subject....
    Dr. Bell has displayed in the work before us an amount of original
    investigation so much beyond what is generally found among recent
    writers upon Folk-lore, that he can well afford to have this slight
    omission pointed out."--_Notes and Queries. Oct. 2._

    "It is not too much to assert, that all that can be said, or has been
    discovered about 'The little animal' (Puck), is gathered together in
    Dr. Bell's most amusing and instructive volume, which not only
    elucidates the mystery which hangs about it, but enters largely into
    all illustrations of the folk-lore and the superstitions of all
    nations, but especially of the earliest religious rites of Northern
    Europe and the Wends. It has always been a marvel how Shakspeare could
    have possessed the information which he made available in his plays.
    Dr. Bell proves that he must have possessed far greater facilities than
    we are aware of. The work, besides possessing these features, enters
    into further antiquarian researches of a learned character: and is one
    which cannot fail to be highly appreciated wherever it makes its way
    into circulation."--_Bell's Weekly Messenger, Feb. 26, 1853._

    _Copy of a Note, dated Royal Crescent, Cheltenham, Aug. 23, 1852._

    "Accept my best thanks for the first vol. of your 'Puck.' It is a most
    interesting work, and I am astonished at the vast quantity of matter
    you have brought together on the subject: I say this on just hastily
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    in this volume, and the early appearance of the second, I am, &c.,

    "J. B--S--TH, LL.D., F.S.A."

    _From Lewes, dated Sept. 26, 1852._

    "Through the kindness of our friend, C. R. S--th, I am favoured with a
    loan of your very curious and interesting book--M. A. L----R."

       *       *       *       *       *

Valuable Books, Kentish Topography, Manuscripts, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Wednesday, March 9, and
Five following Days, Sunday excepted, a large Collection of interesting and
useful books in most departments of Literature, including the works of
standard Historians, Poets, Theologians, Greek and Latin Classics, &c.,
numerous works connected with the History of the County of Kent, large
collections of Kentish Deeds and Documents, &c. Catalogues will be sent on
application (if in the country on receipt of six stamps).

       *       *       *       *       *




The Odyssey of Homer, with Flaxman's Illustrations, &c. 1 Vol. Edited by
the REV. THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY, M.A. Cr. 8vo. cloth, 2s. 6d.; mor. extra,
7s. 6d.


The Iliad of Homer. Translated into English Verse by ALEXANDER POPE. A New
Edition, with Notes, Illustrations, and Introduction, by the REV. THEODORE
ALOIS BUCKLEY M.A., Chaplain of Christ Church, Oxford; Editor of
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*** This edition of Homer's Iliad contains the Classical Compositions of
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    whether there ever was such a man as Homer."--_Spectator._

       *       *       *       *       *



Marie Louise; or, the Opposite Neighbours. Translated from the Swedish of
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2s. 6d.; mor. elegant, 7s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *


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5. Alison's Essay on Taste. 1s.

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7. Fables of La Fontaine. Translated from the French by E. WRIGHT. 1s.

8. Sedgwick's Home, Paul and Virginia, The Indian Cottage, and The Exiles
of Siberia. With Three Engravings. (120 pages.) 1s.

9. Uncle Tom's Cabin. New Edition; with Portrait, and Memoir of MRS.
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       *       *       *       *       *



Lares and Penates; or, Cilicia and its Governors. Being a Short Historical
Account of that Province, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day.
Together with a Description of some Household Gods of the Ancient
Cilicians, broken up by them on their Conversion to Christianity, and first
discovered and brought to this Country by the Author, WILLIAM BURCKHARD
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calf, marbled edges, 10s. 6d.; mor. elegant, 12s.

    "But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia,
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    "A more complete and authentic assortment of these curious objects
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       *       *       *       *       *



The First Six Books of Euclid. With numerous Exercises. Printed on a new
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London: INGRAM, COOKE & CO., 227. Strand; and sold by all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY of INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with Descriptions
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Kützing, Siebold, &c. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, ESQ., M.R.I.

Also, price 5s.,


Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Microscopes.

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE OCTAVIUS OF MINUCIUS FELIX; with an Introduction, Analysis, and English
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Chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich. Second Edition. 5s.

MANUAL OF CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES; an Account of the Constitution, Ministers,
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the Use of the English Church, from the German of GUERICKE, by A. J. W.
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OF ENGLAND, IRELAND, INDIA, AND THE COLONIES; with the Decisions thereon.
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
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published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 5. 1853.

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