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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 176, March 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 176, March 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Libraries)



{253}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 176.]
SATURDAY, MARCH 12. 1853
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Marlowe's "Lust's Dominion"                                  253

  Dover Castle: a Note to Hasted                               254

  Dean Swift: Autographs in Books, by George Daniel            255

  Shakspeare Elucidations, by Thomas Keightley                 255

  Imprecatory Epitaphs, by Dr. E. Charlton                     256

  Derivation of "Lad" and "Lass"                               256

  MINOR NOTES:--Iona--Inscriptions in Parochial Registers--
    Lieutenant--"Prigging Tooth" or "Pugging Tooth"--
    London--Note from the Cathedral at Seville--Riddles
    for the Post Office                                        257

  QUERIES:--

  National Portraits: Portrait of the Duke of Gloucester,
    Son of Charles I., by Albert Way                           258

  Boston Queries, by Pishey Thompson                           258

  Welborne Family                                              259

  Descendants of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by C. Gonville          259

  MINOR QUERIES:--English Bishops deprived by Queen
    Elizabeth, 1559--John Williams of Southwark, Esq.--
    "A Screw"--Tanner's MSS.--The Westminster Assembly of
    Divines--The Witch Countess of Morton--Mary, Daughter
    of King James I. of Scotland--Hibernicis Hibernior--
    The Cucking-stool, when last used--Grafts and the
    Parent Tree--Conway Family--Salt--Geological
    Query--Wandering Jew--Frescheville Family--The
    Wednesday Club--Oratories--Arms of De Turneham--
    Poisons--Open Seats or Pews in Churches--Burial of
    unclaimed Corpse                                           260

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Sir John Powell--"Reynard
    the Fox"--Campvere, Privileges of--Bishops Inglis and
    Stanser of Nova Scotia                                     262

  REPLIES:--

  Monument to Barbara Mowbray and Elizabeth Curle at Antwerp   263

  Rigby Correspondence                                         264

  Marigmerii--Melinglerii--Berefellarii                        264

  PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES:--Replies to Photographic
    Questions--Developing Paper Pictures with Pyrogallic
    Acid--Photography in the Open Air; Improved Camera--
    New Effect in Collodion Pictures--Powdered Alum:
    How does it act?                                           265

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Chatterton--Princes'
    Whipping-boys--"Grub Street Journal"--"Pinch of
    Snuff"--Race for Canterbury--Chichester Pallant--Scarfs
    worn by Clergymen--Alicia Lady Lisle--Major-General
    Lambert--Mistletoe--The Sizain--Venda--Meaning of
    "Assassin"--Dimidium Scientiæ--Epigrams--Use of Tobacco
    before the Discovery of America--Oldham, Bishop of
    Exeter--Tortoiseshell Tom Cat--Irish Rhymes--Consecrated
    Rings--Brasses since 1688--Derivation of Lowbell--The
    Negative given to the Demand of the Clergy at
    Merton--Nugget--Blackguard                                 267

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          273

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 274

  Notices to Correspondents                                    274

  Advertisements                                               274

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

MARLOWE'S "LUST'S DOMINION."

The Rev. Mr. Dyce omits the play of _Lust's Dominion, or the Lascivious
Queen_, from the excellent, and (in all other respects) complete edition of
Marlowe's _Works_ which he has lately published, considering it to have
been "distinctly shown by Mr. Collier" that it could not have been the work
of that poet. I must say, however, that the argument for its rejection does
not appear to me by any means conclusive. It runs thus: in the first act is
presented the death of a certain King Philip of Spain; and this King Philip
must be Philip II., because in a tract printed in the _Somers' Collection_,
giving an account of the "last words" of that monarch, are found passages
which are plainly copied in the play. Now, Philip II. did not die till
1598, and the tract was not published till 1599, whereas Marlowe's death
took place in 1593. _Ergo_, Marlowe could not have written _Lust's
Dominion_. But we know that it was the constant custom of managers to cause
acting plays to be altered and added to from time to time: the curious
_Diary of Manager Henslowe_ is full of entries of the payment of sums of
twenty shillings or so, to the authors whom he kept, for "adycyons" to the
works of others. And surely it is no forced hypothesis to suppose that some
literary cobbler employed to touch up Marlowe's work, finding a King Philip
in it, should have thought to improve and give it an air of historic truth,
by introducing the circumstances furnished by the pamphlet into the
death-scene. Apart from these particulars, the king is neither Philip I.
nor Philip II., but a mere King Philip of Spain in general, quite superior
to historical considerations. The positive evidence in support of Marlowe's
authorship is tolerably strong, though not absolutely conclusive. The
earliest extant edition of the play bears his name at full length on the
title-page. It is true that the date of that edition is 1650, sixty-six
years after his death: still the publisher must have had _some_ reasonable
ground for attributing the work to him; and in all cases comparatively
little value ought to be attached to negative, when opposed by positive
evidence. We {254} need look no farther than this very edition of Marlowe
for an illustration of the possibility such a combination of circumstances
as I have supposed. In the earliest known edition of the play of _Dr.
Faustus_ is found an allusion to a certain Dr. Lopez, who did not attain
notoriety (by being hanged) till after Marlowe's death; but Mr. Dyce very
justly only infers from this that the particular passage is an
interpolation. According to the reasoning applied to _Lust's Dominion_,
Faustus also should have been expelled summarily, upon this objection: and
yet, in the case of that play, we know that such a conclusion from such
premises would have been erroneous. I am unwilling to lay much stress on
the internal evidence to be drawn from the language and conduct of the play
itself, because I am aware how little reliance can be placed on reasoning
drawn from such observations; but no one, I think, will deny that there are
many passages which at least _might_ have been written by Marlowe: and, on
the whole, I submit that it would have been more satisfactory if Mr. Dyce
had included it in this edition.

He has changed his practice since he printed among Middleton's works (and
rightly) the play of the _Honest Whore_, a play generally--I believe,
universally--attributed to Dekker alone, on the authority of one single
entry in Henslowe's _Diary_, where the names of the two poets are
incidentally coupled together as joint authors of the piece!

I should mention, that I take the dates and book-lore from Mr. Dyce
himself.

B. R. I.

       *       *       *       *       *

DOVER CASTLE: A NOTE TO HASTED.

Lambard, Camden, and Kilburne all speak of an accumulation of stores in
Dover Castle, on the origin of which various traditions and opinions
existed in their days.

    "The Castell of Douer (sayth Lidgate and Rosse) was firste builded by
    Julius Cæsar the Romane emperour, in memorie of whome, they of the
    castell kept, till this day, certeine vessels of olde wine and salte,
    whiche they affirme to be the remayne of suche prouision as he brought
    into it, as touching the whiche (if they be natural and not
    sophisticate), I suppose them more likely to have beene of that store
    whiche Hubert de Burghe layde in there."--_Lambard._

    "In this castle likewise antiently was to be seen a tower (called
    Cæsar's Tower), afterwards the king's lodgings (excellent for
    workmanship and very high),--a spacious hall (called King Arthur's
    Hall) with a faire gallery, or entry,--_great pipes and cashes (bound
    with iron hoopes), wherein was liquor (supposed to be wine) which by
    long lying became as thick as treackle_, and would _cleave like
    bird-lime_;--_salt congealed together as hard as stone_, cross bowes,
    long bowes, and arrowes to the same (_to which was fastened brass
    instead of feathers_); and the same were of such bigness as not fit to
    be used by any men of this or late ages."--_Kilburne._

    "Camden relates that he was shown these arrows, which he thinks were
    such as the Romans used to shoot out of their engines, which were like
    to large crossbows. These last might, though not Cæsar's, belong to the
    Romans of a later time; and the former might, perhaps, be part of the
    provisions and stores which King Henry VIII. laid in here, at a time
    when he passed from hence over sea to France; but for many years past
    it has not been known what is become of any of these
    things."--_Hasted._

The following extract from an inventory furnished by William de Clynton,
Earl of Huntyngdon, Lord Warden, on handing over the castle to Bartholomew
de Burghersh, his successor, dated "die Sabati in vigilia sancti Thome
Apostoli, anno regni regis Edwardi tercei a conquestu Anglie decimo
septimo" (_i. e._ September 20, 1343), will supply a satisfactory
elucidation of what these stores were:

    "Item in magna Turri; _quinque dolea et j pipam mellis_; unde de j
    doleo deficiunt viij pollices; et de alio deficiunt iij pollices; et de
    alio deficiunt xvj pollices; et de alio xv pollices; et de quinto xj
    pollices; et de pipa deficiunt xx pollices. Item, j molendinum manuale
    et _ij molas pro eodem_.

    "Item, in domo armorum iij springaldas magnas cum toto atilo[1] præter
    cordas. Item, quinque minores springaldas sine cordis; et iij parvas
    springaldas[2] modici valoris; L arcus de tempore Regis avi; clvj arcus
    de tempore Regis nunc; cxxvj arbalistas, de quibus xxxiij arbaliste de
    cornu ad duos pedes, et ix de cornu ad unum pedem, et iij magne
    arbaliste ad turnum.[3] Item, xliij baudrys; vij^{xx} et ix garbas
    sagittarum; lviij sagittas large barbatas; xxv haubergons debiles et
    putrefactos; xxij basenettos debiles de veteri tour; xj galeas de
    ferro, de quibus vj cum visers; xx capellas de ferro; xxij basenettos
    coopertos de coreo, de veteri factura, debiles et putrefactos; xxv
    paria cirotecarum de platis nullius valoris; xij capellas de nervis de
    Pampilon depictas; xxx haketons[4] et gambesons[5] nullius valoris; ix
    picos; ij trubulos; j cenovectorium[6] cum j rota ferro ligata; j cuva;
    iij instrumenta pro arbalistis tendendis; cxviij lanceas, quarum xviij
    sine capitibus; j cas cum sagittis saracenorum; ciij targettos, quorum
    xxiiij nullius valoris; j veterem cistam cum capitibus quarellorum et
    sagittarum debilem; ij barellos; vj bukettos cum quarellis debilibus
    non pennatis; j cistam cum quantitate capitum {255} quarellorum et
    quadam quantitate de cawetrappis in j doleo. Item _m^l vj^c et xxviij
    garroks_[7] de majori forma. Item, iiij^{xx} garroks de eadem forma,
    sine capitibus. Item, m^l vj^c & xxiij garroks, de minori forma."

Query, What were the "capellæ de nervis de Pampilon depictæ?" Ducange cites
the word, but does not explain it.

L. B. L.

[Footnote 1: Toto atilo; quasi "attelage."]

[Footnote 2: Springaldus; "veterum profecto fuit balistæ genus, et,
recentis militiæ, tormentum est pulverarium, non ita ponderosum ut
majoribus bombardis æquari possit, nec ea levitate ut gestari manibus
valeat."--_Ducange._]

[Footnote 3: Arbaliste ad turnum; arbalists that traversed.]

[Footnote 4: Haukets; "sagum militare."--_Ducange._]

[Footnote 5: Gambeson; "vestimenti genus quod de coactili ad mensuram et
tutelam pectoris humani conficitur, de mollibus lanis, ut, hoc inducta
primum, lorica vel clibanus, aut his similia, fragilitatem corporis,
ponderis asperitate non læderent."--_Ducange._]

[Footnote 6: Cenovectorium; "a mudcart."--_Ducange._]

[Footnote 7: "Conjicio _garrotos_ esse spingardarum tela, quibus pennæ æreæ
aptabantur utpote grandioribus; _carrellis_ vero pennæ plumatiles tantum."
(See Ducange, sub voce _Garrotus_.)]

       *       *       *       *       *

DEAN SWIFT: AUTOGRAPHS IN BOOKS.

The biographer and the critic, down to the pamphleteer and the lecturer,
have united in painting St. Patrick's immortal Dean in the blackest
colours. To their (for the most part) unmerited scandal and reproach thus
heaped upon his memory (as little in accordance with truth as with
Christian charity), let me, Mr. Editor, oppose the following brief but
emphatic testimony on the bright (and I firmly believe the _right_) side of
the question, of the virtuous, the accomplished Addison:

    "To Dr. Jonathan Swift, The most Agreeable Companion, The Truest
    Friend, And the Greatest Genius of his Age, This Book is presented by
    his most Humble Servant the Authour."

The above inscription, in the autograph of Addison, is on the fly-leaf of
his _Remarks on several Parts of Italy, &c._, 8vo. 1705, the possession of
which I hold very dear.

Permit me to add _another_ beautiful example of friendship between two
generous rivals in a glorious art.

     "My dear Hoppner,

    "In return for your elegant volume, let me request you will accept this
    little work, as a testimony of ardent esteem and friendship.

    "While the two books remain they will prove, that in a time of much
    professional jealousy, there were _two painters_, at least, who could
    be emulous, without being envious; who could contend without enmity,
    and associate without suspicion.

    "That this cordiality may long subsist between us, is the sincere
    desire of, dear Hoppner,

              Yours ever faithfully,
                  MARTIN ARCHER SHEE.
      Cavendish Square, December 7, 1805."

This letter is written on the fly-leaf of _Rhymes on Art, or the
Remonstrance of a Painter_, 2nd edit. 1805, also in my library.

Need I offer an apology for introducing a _third_ inscription?

    "To my perfect Friend, Mr. Francis Crane, I erect this Altar of
    Friendship, And leave it as the Eternall Witnesse of my Love. Ben
    Jonson."

This is in the beautiful autograph of rare Ben, on the fly-leaf of _Sejanus
his Fall_, 4to. 1605, large paper and _unique_, and bound in the original
vellum. It also contains the autograph of Francis Mundy, brother of the
dramatist Anthony Mundy, to whom it once belonged. It is now mine.

GEORGE DANIEL.

Canonbury.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE ELUCIDATIONS.

In _All's Well that Ends Well_ (Act II. Sc. 1.) the king, when dismissing
the young French noblemen who are going to the wars of Italy, says to them:

                 "Let higher Italy--
  Those 'bated that inherit but the fall
  Of the last monarchy--see, that you come
  Not to woo honour, but to wed it."

MR. COLLIER calls this an "obscure passage," and offers no explanation of
it, merely giving a note of Coleridge's, who, after Hanmer, proposes to
read _bastards_ for _'bated_, saying of the passage itself: "As it stands,
I can make little or nothing of it. Why should the king except the then
most illustrious states, which, as being republics, were the more truly
inheritors of the Roman grandeur?" Johnson, and the other preceding
editors, seem to have taken a similar view of the passage.

I trust it will not be regarded as presumption when I say, that to me the
place offers no difficulty whatever. In the first place, _'bate_ is not, as
Coleridge takes it, to except, but to overcome, put an end to (from
_abattre_); as when we say, "abate a nuisance." In the next, we are to
recollect that the citizens of the Italian republics were divided into two
parties,--the Guelf, or Papal, and the Ghibelline, or Imperial; and that
the French always sided with the former. Florence, therefore, was Guelf at
that time, and Siena of course was Ghibelline. The meaning of the king
therefore is: By defeating the Ghibelline Sienese, let Italy see, &c. As a
Frenchman, he naturally affects a contempt for the German empire, and
represents it as possessing (the meaning of _inherit_ at the time) only the
limited and tottering dominion which the empire of the west had at the time
of its fall. By "higher Italy," by the way, I would understand not Upper
Italy, but Tuscany, as more remote from France; for when the war is ended,
the French envoy says:

    "What will Count Rousillon do then? Will he travel _higher_, or return
    again into France?"--Act IV. Sc. 3.

The meaning is plainly: Will he go farther on? to Naples, for example.

I must take this opportunity of retracting what I have said about--

 "O thou dissembling cub, what wilt thou be
  When time has sow'd a grizzle on thy case?"
              _Twelfth Night_, Act. V. Sc. 1.

{256}

MR. SINGER (Vol. vi., p. 584.) by directing attention to the circumstance
of _cub_ being a young fox, has proved, at least to me, that _case_ is the
proper word,--a proof, among many, of the hazard of tampering with the text
when not palpably wrong.

_Cub_ is the young fox, and _fox_, _vixen_, _cub_ are like _dog_, _bitch_,
_whelp_,--_ram_, _ewe_, _lamb_, &c. The word is peculiar to the English
language, nothing at all resembling it being to be found in the
Anglo-Saxon, or any of the kindred dialects. Holland, in his _Plutarch_
(quoted by Richardson), when telling the story of the Spartan boy, says "a
little _cub_, or young fox;" and then uses only _cub_. It was by analogy
that the word was used of the young of bears, lions, and whales: and if
Shakspeare in one place (_Merchant of Venice_, Act II. Sc. 1.) says "_cubs_
of the she-bear," he elsewhere (_Titus Andronicus_, Act IV. Sc. 1.) has
"bear-_whelps_." I further very much doubt if _cub_ was used of boys in our
poet's time. The earliest employment of it that I have seen is in Congreve,
who uses "unlicked cubs," evidently alluding to young bears: and that is
the sense in which _cub_ is still used,--a sense that would not in any case
apply to Viola.

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPRECATORY EPITAPHS.

There is a class of epitaphs, or, we should rather say, there are certain
instances of monumental indecorum which have not as yet been noticed by the
many contributors on these subjects to your pages. I refer to those
inscriptions embodying threats, or expressing resentful feelings against
the murderers, or supposed murderers, of the deceased individual. Of such
epitaphs we have fortunately but few examples in Great Britain; but in
Norway, among the Runic monuments of an early and rude age, they are by no
means uncommon.

Near the door of the church of Knaresdale, in Northumberland, is the
following on a tombstone:

 "In Memory of ROBERT BAXTER, of Farhouse,
        who died Oct. 4, 1796, aged 56.

 "All you that please these lines to read,
  It will cause a tender heart to bleed.
  I murdered was upon the fell,
  And by the man I knew full well;
  By bread and butter, which he'd laid,
  I, being harmless, was betray'd.
  _I hope he will rewarded be_
  That laid the poison there for me."

Robert Baxter is still remembered by persons yet living, and the general
belief in the country is, that he was poisoned by a neighbour with whom he
had had a violent quarrel. Baxter was well known to be a man of voracious
appetite; and it seems that, one morning on going out to the fell (or
hill), he found a piece of bread and butter wrapped in white paper. This he
incautiously devoured, and died a few hours after in great agony. The
suspected individual was, it is said, alive in 1813.

We know not how much of the old Norse blood ran in the veins of Robert
Baxter's friend, who composed this epitaph; but this summer, among a people
of avowedly Scandinavian descent, I copied the following from a large and
handsome tomb in the burying-ground of the famous Cross Kirk, in
Northmavine parish, in Shetland:

                            "M.S.
                      DONALD ROBERTSON,
      Born 1st of January, 1785; died 4th of June, 1848,
                         aged 63 years.

    He was a peaceable quiet man, and to all appearance a sincere
    Christian. His death was very much regretted, which was caused by the
    stupidity of Laurence Tulloch, of Clotherten, who sold him nitre
    instead of Epsom salts, by which he was killed in the space of three
    hours after taking a dose of it."

Among the Norwegian and Swedish Runic inscriptions figured by Gösannson and
Sjöborg, we meet with two or three breathing a still more revengeful
spirit, but one eminently in accordance with the rude character of the age
to which they belong (A.D. 900 ad 1300).

An epitaph on a stone figured by Sjöborg runs as follows:

    "Rodvisl and Rodalf they caused this stone to be raised after their
    three sons, and after [to] Rodfos. Him the Blackmen slew in foreign
    lands. God help the soul of Rodfos: _God destroy them that killed
    him._"

Another stone figured by Gösannson has engraved on it the same revengeful
aspiration.

We all remember the Shakspearian inscription, "Cursed be he that moves my
bones;" but if Finn Magnussen's interpretation be correct, there is an
epitaph in Runic characters at Greniadarstad church, in Iceland, which
concludes thus:

    "If you willingly remove this monument, may you sink into the ground."

It would be curious to collect examples of these menaces on tombstones, and
I hope that other contributors will help to rescue any that exist in this
or in other countries from oblivion.

EDWARD CHARLTON, M.D.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

       *       *       *       *       *

DERIVATION OF "LAD" AND "LASS."

The derivation of the word _lad_ has not yet been given, so far as I am
aware; and the word _lass_ is in the same predicament. _Lad_ is undoubtedly
of old usage in England, and in its archaic sense it has reference, not to
age, as now, but to service or dependence; being applied, not to signify a
youth or a boy, but a servant or inferior. {257}

In Pinkerton's _Poems from the Maitland MSS._ is one, purporting to be the
composition of Thomas of Ercildoune, which begins thus:

 "When a man is made a kyng of a capped man."

After this line follow others of the same bearing, until we come to these:

 "When rycht aut wronge astente togedere,
  When laddes weddeth lovedies," &c.

The prophet is not, in these words, inveighing against ill-assorted
alliances between young men and old women; but is alluding to a general
_bouleversement_ of society, when _mésalliances_ of noble women to ignoble
men will take place.

This sense of the word gives us, I think, some help towards tracing its
derivation, and I have no doubt that its real parent is the Anglo-Saxon
_hlafæta_,--a word to be found in one instance only, in a corner of
Æthelbyrt's _Domas_: "Gif man ceorles _hlafætan_ of-slæth vi scyllingum
gebete."

By the same softening of sound which made _lord_ and _lady_ out of
_hlaford_ and _hlæfdige_, _hlafæta_ became _lad_, and _hlafætstre_ became
_lass_. As the lord supplied to his dependents the bread which they ate, so
each thus derived from the loaf the appellation of their mutual relation,
in the plain phraseology of our ancestors.

Dr. Leo, in his interesting commentary on the _Rectitudines singularum
personarum_ (edit. Halle, 1842, p. 144.), says:

    "Ganz analog dem Verhältnisse von _ealdore_ und _gingra_ ist das
    Verhältniss von _hlaford_ (brodherrn), _hlæfdige_ (brodherrin), und
    _hlafæta_ (brodeszer). _Hlaford_ ist am Ende zum Standestitel (lord)
    geworden; ursprünglich bezeichnet es jeden Gebieter; die Kinder, die
    Leibeignen, die abhängigen freien Leute, alles was zum Hausstande und
    zum Gefolge eines Mannes gehört, werden als dessen _hlafætan_
    bezeichnet."

Perhaps some of your readers may favour myself and others by giving the
derivation of _boy_ and _girl_.

H. C. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Iona._--The ancient name of this celebrated island was _I_ (an island), or
_I-Columbkille_ (the island of Columba of the Churches). In all the ancient
tombstones still existing in the island, it is called nothing but _Hy_; and
I have no doubt that its modern name of _Iona_ is a corruption, arising
from mistaking _u_ for _n_. In the very ancient copy of Adamnan's _Life of
St. Columbkille_, formerly belonging to the monastery of Reichenau (_Augia
Dives_), and now preserved in the town library of Schaffhausen, which I had
an opportunity of examining very carefully last summer, the name is written
everywhere, beyond the possibility of doubt, _Ioua_, which was evidently an
attempt to give a power of Latinised declension to the ancient Celtic _I_.
It was pronounced _I-wa_ (_i.e._ _Ee-wa_). Who first made the blunder of
changing the _u_ into _n_?

J. H. TODD.

Trin. Coll. Dublin.

_Inscriptions in Parochial Registers._--Very quaint and pithy mottoes are
sometimes prefixed to parochial registers. I know not whether any
communications on this subject are to be found in your pages. The following
are examples, and may perhaps elicit from your readers additional
information.

Cherry-Hinton, Cambridgeshire:

 "Hic puer ætatem, hic Vir sponsalia noscat,
    Hic decessorum funera quisque sciat."

Ruyton of the Eleven Towns, Salop:

 "No flatt'ry here, where to be born and die,
  Of rich and poor is all the history:
  Enough, if virtue fill'd the space between,
  Prov'd, by the ends of being, to have been."

GEORGE S. MASTER.

Welsh-Hampton, Salop.

_Lieutenant._--The vulgar pronunciation of this word, _leftenant_, probably
arose from the old practice of confounding _u_ and _v_. It is spelt
_leivtenant_ in the Colonial Records of New York. The changes may have been
_lievtenant_, _levtenant_, _leftenant_.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_"Prigging Tooth" or "Pugging Tooth."_--MR. COLLIER, in his new book on
Shakspeare, containing early manuscript corrections of the folio of 1632,
says at page 191., in enumerating those of the _Winter's Tale_, that the
emendator substitutes (Act IV. Sc. 2.) "prigging tooth" for the "pugging
tooth" of the old copies. Now this, I believe, has been the generally
received interpretation, but it is quite wrong. _Prigging_, that is
stealing, tooth, would be nonsense; _pugging_ is the correct word, and is
most expressive. Antolycus means his molar--his grinding tooth is set on
edge.

A pugging-mill (sometimes abbreviated and called pug-mill) is a machine for
crushing and tempering lime, consisting of two heavy rollers or wheels in a
circular trough; the wheels are hung loose upon the ends of a bar of iron
or axle-tree, which is fastened by the centre either to the top or bottom
of an upright spindle, moved by a horse or other power, as the case may be,
thus causing the wheels in their circuit to revolve from their friction
upon the trough, and so to bruise the nuts of lime, which together with the
sand and water are fed by a labourer, who removes the mortar when made. The
machine is of course variously constructed for the kind of work it has to
do: there is a pugging-mill used in the making of bricks that is fitted
with projecting knives to cut and knead the clay. {258}

EMENDATOR has doubtless restored the sense to many puzzling passages in
Shakspeare, but he certainly is mistaken here in reading _prigging_ for
_pugging_.

H. B. J.

Carlisle.

_London._--Is the following, which was copied October 11, 1811, from a MS.
pasted on Spitalfields Church at that time, worth preserving in the pages
of "N. & Q."? Could any of your numerous correspondents furnish me with the
author's name?

             "LONDON.

 "Houses, churches, mixt together;
  Streets cramm'd full in ev'ry weather;
  Prisons, palaces, contiguous;
  Sinners sad and saints religious;
  Gaudy things enough to tempt ye;
  Outsides showy, insides empty;
  Baubles, beasts, mechanics, arts,
  Coaches, wheelbarrows, and carts;
  Warrants, bailiffs, bills unpaid,
  Lords of laundresses afraid;
  Rogues that nightly prowl and shoot men;
  Hangmen, aldermen, and footmen;
  Lawyers, poets, priests, physicians,
  Noble, simple, all conditions;
  Worth beneath a threadbare cover,
  Villainy bedaubed all over;
  Women, black, fair, red, and gray,
  Women that can play and pay;
  Handsome, ugly, witty, still,
  Some that will not, some that will;
  Many a beau without a shilling,
  Many a widow not unwilling,
  Many a bargain, if you strike it,--
  This is London, if you like it."

H. E. P. T.

Woolwich.

_Note from the Cathedral at Seville._--

    "El Exc^{mo} S^r D^r Don Nicolas Wiseman, Obispo Coadjutor de
    Birmingham, y Rector del Collegio de Oscott, por decreto de 2 de Enero
    de 1845, concedió 40 dias de Indulgentia per cada Padre-Nuestro, ó
    Credo á Nuestri Señor Jesu Cristo, ó un Ave-Maria á su Santissima
    Madre, ó un Padre-Nuestro en honor del Santo Patriarcha S^r S^o
    Domingo, cujas imagenes se veneran en esta Capilla, como por cualquier
    palabra afetuosa ó jaculatoria con devotion."

S. K. N.

_Riddles for the Post Office._--The following ludicrous direction to a
letter was copied verbatim from the original and interesting document:

               "too dad Tomas
                hat the ole oke
                    otchut
                I O Bary pade
  Sur plees to let ole feather have this sefe."

The letter found the gentleman at "The Old Oak Orchard, Tenbury." I saw
another letter, where the writer, after a severe struggle to express
"Scotland," succeeded at length to his satisfaction, and wrote it thus,
"stockling." A third letter was sent by a woman to a son who had settled in
Tennessee, which the old lady had thus expressed with all phonetic
simplicity, "10 S C."

CUTHBERT BEDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

NATIONAL PORTRAITS.--PORTRAIT OF THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER, SON OF CHARLES I.

A cotemporary portrait of this prince, fourth son of Charles I., was in
existence. He was represented with a fountain by him, probably in early
age. He died, at the age of twenty, in 1660. Where is this painting now to
be found, or is any engraving from it known? Granger describes an engraved
portrait by Vaughan, representing the infant prince seated on a cushion;
and a rare portrait of him by Lovell.

It would be very desirable to compile a descriptive catalogue of painted
portraits, those especially preserved in the less accessible private
collections in England. Such a manual, especially if illustrated with
outline sketches or photographs, in order to render it available at a
moderate cost, would be most useful, and supply, in some degree, the
deficiency of any extensive public collection of national portraits, such
as has been commenced in France, at the palace of Versailles.

ALBERT WAY.

Reigate.

    [Recognising as we do most fully the value of the idea thrown out by
    MR. WAY, that it would be desirable to compile a descriptive Catalogue
    of Painted Portraits, as the best substitute which we can have for an
    extensive public collection of such memorials of our Great and Good, we
    shall always be glad to record in the columns of "N. & Q." any notices
    of such pictures as may, from time to time, be forwarded to us for that
    purpose. The suggestion that Photography might be usefully employed in
    multiplying copies of such portraits, coming as it does from one whose
    skill as an artist rivals his learning as an antiquary, is the highest
    testimony which could be given to the value of an art which we have
    endeavoured to promote, from our conviction that its utility to the
    antiquary, the historian, and the man of letters, can scarcely be
    over-rated.]

       *       *       *       *       *

BOSTON QUERIES.

I annex a prospectus of a second edition of my _Collections for a History
of the Borough of Boston and the Hundred of Skirbeck, in the County of
Lincoln_, which I am now employed upon in preparing for the press. As there
may, and most probably will, arise many points upon which I may require
assistance, I shall from time to time address (with your leave) inquiries
for insertion in your {259} useful miscellany, asking your readers for any
information they may be in possession of. At present I should be glad to be
informed of the locality of Estoving Hall, the seat of a branch of the
Holland family, of whom a long account is given by Blomefield, in his
_History of Norfolk_, and which, he says, was nine miles from Bourn, in
Lincolnshire, but respecting which I can learn nothing from gentlemen in
that neighbourhood. Drayton, so often alluded to by Stukeley, and referred
to by Blomefield in connexion with the Holland family, is also of very
uncertain locality. Can any of your readers assist me upon these points,
either through your journal, or addressed to me at Stoke Newington? I am
also in want of information respecting the Kyme family, so as to connect
the Kymes of Boston, and its neighbourhood, with the elder branch of that
family, the Kymes of Kyme, which merged into the Umfraville family, by the
marriage of the heiress of the Kymes with one of the Umfravilles.

The account of "the buylding of Boston steeple," by H. T. H., at p. 166. of
your present volume, is incorrect in many respects. That which I have seen
and adopted is as follows. It is said to have been accepted as correct by
Dr. Stukeley. I find it at the foot of a folio print, published in 1715,
representing--

    "The west prospect of Boston steeple and church. The foundation whereof
    on y^e Monday after Palm Sunday, An^o. 1309, in y^e 3^d year of Edward
    y^e II., was begun by many miners, and continued till midsumer foll^g,
    when they was deeper than y^e haven by 5 foot, where they found a bed
    of stone upon a spring of sand, and that upon a bed of clay whose
    thickness could not be known. Upon the Monday next after the Feast of
    St. John Bapt^t. was laid the 1st stone, by Dame Margery Tilney, upon
    w^{ch} she laid £5. sterl^g. Sir John Truesdale, then Parson of Boston,
    gave £5. more, and Rich^d. Stevenson, a Merch^t. of Boston, gave also
    £5., wh^{ch} was all y^e gifts given at that time."

PISHEY THOMPSON.

Stoke Newington.

       *       *       *       *       *

WELBORNE FAMILY.

In Burke's _Extinct Peerage_ it is stated that John de Lacy, first Earl of
Lincoln, died A.D. 1240, leaving one son and two daughters. The latter were
removed, in the twenty-seventh year of Hen. III., to Windsor, there to be
educated with the daughters of the king. One of these sisters, Lady Maud de
Lacy, married Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester; but I can find no
mention of either the name or marriage of the other. Am I correct in
identifying her with "Dorothy, daughter of the Earl of Lincoln," who
married Sir John Welborne (see _Harl. MSS._ 888. 1092-1153.)? The dates in
the Welborne pedigree perfectly correspond with this assumption.

Another question relative to this family is of greater interest, and I
should feel sincerely obliged by any answer to it. Simon de Montfort, earl
of Leicester, married Eleanora, daughter of King John, and had by her five
children. The fourth son is called Richard in Burke's _Royal Families_,
vol. i. p. xxiii.; and the report is added, that "he remained in England in
privacy under the name of Wellsburn." In the _Extinct Peerage_, the name of
the same son is Almaric, of whom it says: "When conveying his sister from
France, to be married to Leoline, Prince of Wales, he was taken prisoner
with her at sea, and suffered a long imprisonment. He was at last, however,
restored to liberty, and his posterity are said to have flourished in
England under the name of Wellsburne." Is it not to be presumed that the
above Sir John Welborne (living, as he must have done, in the latter half
of the thirteenth century, and allying himself with the great family
especially protected by Henry III., uncle of the De Montforts) was himself
the son of Richard or Almaric de Montfort, and founder of that family of
Wellesburne, said to have "flourished in England"? The De Montforts no
doubt abandoned their patronymic in consequence of the attainder of Simon,
earl of Leicester, and adopted that of Wellesburne from the manor of that
name, co. Warwick, in the possession of Henry de Montfort temp. Ric. I.

The only known branch of the Welborns terminated (after ten descents from
Sir John) in coheiresses, one of whom married in 1574, and brought the
representation into a family which counts among its members your
correspondent

URSULA.

       *       *       *       *       *

DESCENDANTS OF SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT.

In a work published not many years ago, entitled _Antigua and the
Antiguans_, by Mrs. Flannigan, there is the following passage:

    "The Hon. Nathaniel Gilbert, Speaker of the House of Assembly in the
    island of Antigua, and one of the chief proprietors in that island,
    derived his descent from a family of considerable distinction in the
    west of England, where one of its members, Sir Humphrey Gilbert,
    associating himself with his kinsman, Sir Walter Raleigh, became one of
    the most eminent circumnavigators of the reign of Queen Elizabeth."

Dying, he left a son, Raleigh Gilbert, who along with others obtained from
King James I. a large grant of land, in what was then called Plymouth, but
which now forms part of the colony of Virginia. To this place he emigrated
with Lord Chief Justice Popham in 1606. Afterwards he succeeded to an
estate in Devonshire on the death of his elder brother, Sir John Gilbert,
President of the Virginian Company.

Can any of your correspondents kindly inform me from what source I can
complete the line of {260} descent, by filling up the interval of three or
four generations between the above Raleigh Gilbert and the Hon. Nathaniel
Gilbert mentioned by Mrs. Flannigan?

The present Sir George Colebrook and Sir William Abdy are connected, more
or less remotely, with the last-mentioned Mr. Gilbert.

The English branch of the family is now established at Tredrea in Cornwall.
(See _Burke_.)

Any information whatever upon this subject would be exceedingly valuable to
the inquirer.

C. GONVILLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth, 1559._--MR. DREDGE'S list
(Vol. vi., p. 203.) was very acceptable and interesting; but he has left
unanswered several points regarding these bishops. 1. _Bishop Scot's_ death
is given as at Louvain, but not the period when it occurred. 2. _Bishop
Bayne_ is merely said to have "died at Islington in 1560," month unnoticed.
3. _Bishop Goldwell_ is "said to have died shortly afterwards (1580) at
Rome," while I gave my authority as to his being still alive in the year
1584 (Vol. vi., p. 100.). 4. _Bishop Pate_ is said to have also "died at
Louvain," but no date is mentioned. 5. _Bishop Pole_ "died in 1568." Is
neither the place nor month known? In conclusion, with regard to the
"English bishops deprived, 1691," only the years of the deaths of _Bishops
Frampton_ and _White_ are stated. I trust MR. DREDGE, if he sees this, will
forgive my being so minute and particular in my inquiries on the above
points, and kindly recollect that I am far away from all public libraries
and sources of information. For the replies he has so readily afforded, I
am very grateful indeed.

A. S. A.

Wuzzeerabad.

_John Williams of Southwark, Esq._ (elder brother of Morgan Williams, who
married a daughter of Walter Cromwell of Putney, from whom descended Oliver
Cromwell: Jones's _Brecknockshire_, vol. ii. p. 111.).--Will you, or either
of your readers, oblige me with some account of the male descendants of
such John Williams; or of John Williams ("heir to the paternal estate" of
such Morgan Williams: Waring's _Recollections of Iolo Morganwg_, p. 162.)
and his male descendants, or any references to such account?

GLYWYSIG.

"_A Screw._"--Why should a broken-down horse be called "a screw?" Is it
because he has "a screw loose," or because a force equivalent to the
screw-propeller must be applied to make him go? This was discussed at a
hunting dinner the other evening, and the guests could arrive at no
satisfactory conclusion: neither could they agree as to the definite
meaning that should be assigned to "screw," and what description of horse
came under that very condemnatory designation. Perhaps "N. & Q." can assist
them to a proper meaning.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Tanner's MSS._--In a collection of MSS. relative to Eton College, in Birch
and Sloane Collection, British Museum, mention is made of _Tanner's MSS._,
which, at the time these MSS. on Eton were collected (1736), were in the
Picture Gallery at Oxford. Are these the MSS. inquired for by your
correspondent in Vol. vi., p. 434.?

E. G. B.

_The Westminster Assembly of Divines._--On the cover of _A Collection of
Confessions of Faith, &c., of the Church of Scotland_, in my possession, is
the following memorandum:

    "The minutes of the Westminster Assembly are yet reserved in private
    hands."--Calamy's Abridgment of _Baxter's Life_, p. 85.

In Dr. Williams's Library, Redcross Street, there is part of a journal; but
Neal, in his _History of the Puritans_ (preface), tells us--

    "The records of this Assembly were burnt in the Fire of London."

Strype, preface to _Lightfoot's Remains_, says:

    "A journal of the various debates among the learned men in the
    Westminster Assembly, was diligently kept by Dr. Lightfoot."

And Strype tells us he had seen it.

I shall be much obliged to any of your readers who can inform me where this
journal, or any other, of the proceedings of the Assembly can be procured?

JOSEPH STANSBURY.

_The Witch Countess of Morton._--Can any one give me any information about
a Countess of Morton who was called "The Witch?" Her picture is at
Dalmahoy.

L. M. M. R.

_Mary, Daughter of King James I. of Scotland._--This princess is stated to
have been married to the Count de Boucquan, son of the Lord of Campoere in
Zealand, and she had at least one son, born 1451: any information as to her
husband's family, her own death, &c. is requested; for all notitia of our
royal princesses are interesting.

A. S. A.

Wuzzeerabad.

_Hibernicis Hibernior._--Whence, and what the proper form of this
proverbial expression?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_The Cucking-stool, when last used._--Can any of the correspondents of "N.
& Q." inform me of the latest period at which this instrument of punishment
for scolds is recorded to have been used {261} in England? The most recent
instance mentioned by Brand was at Kingston-upon-Thames, in 1745. In
Leicester, however (and probably elsewhere), the practice continued to a
much later period, as appears by the following entry in our municipal
accounts for the year 1768-69:

    "Paid Mr. Elliott for a cuckstool by order of Hall, 2l."

I have been informed by an octogenarian inhabitant of this town, that he
recollects, when a boy, seeing the cucking-stool placed, as a mark of
disgrace, against the residence of a notorious scold; and the fact of this
use of it here at so comparatively recent a period has been confirmed by
another aged person, so that this practice probably obtained for some years
after the punishment by immersion, or exposure upon the cucking-stool, had
fallen into desuetude.

Did a similar use of the instrument prevail in other places about the same
period?

I may mention that an ancient cucking-stool is still preserved in our
town-hall.

LEICESTRIENSIS.

_Grafts and the Parent Tree._--Is there any ground for a belief that is
said to prevail among horticulturists, that the graft perishes when the
parent tree decays?

J. P.

Birmingham.

_Conway Family._--Is it true that Sir William Konias (founder of the Conway
family) was Lord High Constable of England under William the Conqueror? The
Welsh pedigrees in the British Museum assert as much, and that he married
Isabel, daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Blois; but it does not appear that
there was a Count of Blois of that name.

URSULA.

_Salt._--Dugdale, in his _Antiquities of Warwickshire_, p. 294., speaking
of the town of Leamington, says:

    "All that is further observable touching this place is, that nigh to
    the east end of the church there is a spring of salt water (not above a
    stone's throw from the river Leame), _whereof the inhabitants make much
    use for seasoning of meat_."

Was salt a scarce article in the midland counties in those days?

When and where was the first salt-mine established in England?

ERICA.

_Geological Query._--Can any of your geological readers inform me what is
the _imagined_ reason that there is no increase of temperature in
Scandinavia (as there is everywhere else) in descending into mines?

M--A L.

_Wandering Jew._--I am anxious to learn the authority on which this
celebrated myth rests. I am aware of the passage in John's Gospel (xxi. 21,
22, 23.), but I cannot think that there is no other foundation for such an
extraordinary belief. Perhaps on the continent some legend may exist. My
object in inquiring is to discover whether Eugène Sue's _Wandering Jew_ is
purely a fictitious character, or whether he had any, and, if any, what
authority or tradition on which to found it.

TEE BEE.

_Frescheville Family._--In what work may be found the tradition, that the
heir of the family of the House of Frescheville never dies in his bed?

F. K.

_The Wednesday Club._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." refer me to any
notice of this club, which existed about a century back in the city of
London?

CHARLES REED.

Paternoster Row.

_Oratories._--In a parish in the county of Essex there is a pretty little
brick chapel, or "oratory," as it is called there, with a priest's house
attached at the west end, of about the thirteenth century; the length of
both chapel and house being thirty feet, and the width fifteen. There is
also a field called "Priest's Close," which was probably the endowment.

Can any of your correspondents inform me if there are many such places of
worship in England, and, if so, to mention some, and where any accounts of
them may be found?

It is quite clear that this oratory had no connexion with the parish
church, being a mile distant, and seems more likely to have been erected
and endowed for the purpose of having mass celebrated there for the repose
of the founder's soul?

M. F. D.

_Arms of De Turneham._--Can any of your readers inform me what were the
armorial bearings of Sir Stephen de Turneham, who in the year 1192 was
employed by Richard I. to escort his queen Berengaria from Acre to Naples?
The writer would also be glad to obtain any particulars of the family and
history of this brave knight, who seems to have possessed the entire
confidence of his sovereign, the redoubtable "Coeur de Lion." Probably he
belonged to the same family as Michael de Turneham, the owner of estates at
Brockley, near Deptford, and at Begeham (the modern Bayham), on the borders
of Sussex, in the reign of Henry II., whose nephew, Sir Robert de Turneham,
appears to have been distinguished in the Crusade under Richard I. Might
not _Stephen_ and _Robert_ be brothers? Did they leave descendants? And, if
so, when did the family become extinct? Was it this Robert de Turneham
whose wife was Joanna Fossard, who, about the year 1200, founded the Priory
of Grosmont, near Whitby, in Yorkshire? {262}

John Thornholme, of Gowthorpe, near York, to whom arms were granted Sept.
11, 1563, was probably not of the same family? These arms are--On a shield
argent, three thorn-trees vert. Crest: On a mount vert, a tower argent.
Motto: "Probitas verus honos."

Any particulars as to the early and subsequent history of this last-named
family would also be valuable.

[Theta].

_Poisons._--What are supposed to have been the _poisons_ used for bouquets,
gloves, &c., in the time of Catherine de Medici, and her friend René?

H. A. B.

_Open Seats or Pews in Churches._--Mr. Barr (_Anglican Church
Architecture_: Oxford, Parker, 1846) gives measurements, as by experience,
found most convenient for many parts of this description of church fitting;
but he gives not the length of each sitting, or, in other words, the space,
measured along the length of the bench, that should be allowed for each
person. Neither does he give the height nor the breadth of the flat board
to rest the elbows on when kneeling, or to place the books upon, which he
proposes to substitute for the common sloping bookboard. Neither does he
appear to have paid any attention to the disposal of the hats with which
every male worshipper must, I fear, continue to be encumbered, and which I
like not to see impaled on the poppy-heads, nor plied on the font, nor to
feel against my knees when I sit down, nor against my feet when I kneel. If
any of your correspondents could name a church in the open seats of which
these things have been attended to, and well done, I should be much
disposed to go and study it as a model for imitation; and if satisfied with
it, I should want little persuasion for commencing the destruction of my
old manor pew, and the fixing of open seats on its site.

REGEDONUM.

_Burial of unclaimed Corpse._--In the parish of Markshall, near Norwich, is
a piece of land now belonging to the adjoining village of Keswick.
Tradition states that it was once a part of Markshall Heath; but, at the
enclosure, the parishioners of Keswick claimed and obtained it, because
some years before they had interred the body of a murdered man found there;
the expenses of whose funeral the rate-payers of Markshall had inhumanly
refused to defray. I think I have somewhere read a similar statement
respecting a portion of Battersea Fields. Can either of these cases be
authenticated; or is there any law or custom which would assign a portion
of a common to a parish which paid for the burial of a corpse found on it?

E. G. R.

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Sir John Powell_--the judge who tried the seven bishops. Where was he
buried? _i.e._ where is his epitaph (which is given in Heber's _Life Of
Jeremy Taylor_) to be seen?

A. C. R.

    [He was buried on September 26, 1696, in the chancel of the church of
    Langharne, in Carmarthenshire, where there is a tablet to his memory,
    with a Latin inscription, recording that he was a pupil of Jeremy
    Taylor. The Judge had a residence in the parish.]

"_Reynard the Fox._"--There was a book printed in 1706 entitled _The secret
Memoirs of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Prime Minister and Favorite of
Queen Elizabeth, written during his Life, and now published from an old
Manuscript never printed_; by Dr. Drake: printed by Samuel Briscoe, 1706.
In his Preface he alludes to the _History of Reynard the Fox_:

    "There is an old English book, written about the time that these
    memoirs seem to have been, which now passes through the hands of old
    women and children only, and is taken for a pleasant and delightful
    tale, but is by wise heads thought to be an enigmatical history of the
    Earl of Leicester and his family, and which he that compares with these
    memoirs, will not take to be an idle conjecture, there are so many
    passages so easily illustrable, by comparing it with these memoirs. The
    book I mean is the _History of Reynard the Fox_, in which the author,
    not daring to write his history plainly, probably for fear of his
    power, has shadowed his exploits under the feigned adventures and
    intrigues of brutes, in which not only the violence and rapaciousness,
    but especially the craft and dissimulation, of the Earl of Leicester is
    excellently set forth."

I shall feel much obliged to any of your readers who can inform me of the
earliest English edition of _Reynard the Fox_, and whether others besides
Dr. Drake have taken the same view of the history.

W. D. HAGGARD.

Bank of England.

    [The earliest edition of _Reynard the Fox_ is that printed by Caxton in
    1481. Caxton's Translation was again printed by Pynson, and afterwards
    by Thomas Gualtier in 1550. Caxton's edition is of extreme rarity; but
    there is a reprint of it by the _Percy Society_ in 1844: with an
    introductory Sketch of the literary history of this popular romance, in
    which our correspondent will find a notice of the principal editions of
    it which have appeared in the various languages into which it has been
    translated.]

_Campvere, Privileges of._--May I ask the kind assistance of any of your
readers on the following subject? Sir W. Davidson, who was political agent
or envoy in Holland under King Charles II., is stated to have been
"resident for H.M. kingdom of Scotland, and conservator of the Scots
privileges of _Campvere_ in the Low Countries," &c.; {263} and under his
portrait, engraved by Hagens, he is described, among other titles, as being
"conservitor and resident for His Majestie's most ancient kingdome of
Scotland in the Seventein Provinces." What were these privileges, and
whence was the term _campvere_ derived?

I have seen mention made of a mercantile house at Calais, in the sixteenth
century, who had their "campfyer schypp, hyr saylls hallfe blewyw hallfe
yewllow:" but this, I think, must refer to the trade in camphor, in the
purification of which the Venetians, and afterwards the Dutch, exclusively
were occupied.

J. D. S.

    [Campvere is another name given by the English to Veere, or Ter Veere,
    a fortified town of the province of Brabant, and the kingdom of the
    Netherlands. It was formerly the staple-town for the trade between
    Scotland and Holland; but its privileges, and much of its commerce,
    have been removed to Rotterdam.]

_Bishops Inglis and Stanser of Nova Scotia._--In addition to the very
interesting notice of the former given in Vol. vi., p. 151., I beg to ask
where and when he was born? whether an Englishman or American? No reply has
yet been given regarding _Bishop Stanser's_ death, or resignation of see.

A. S. A.

Wuzzeerabad.

    [As Sabine has included Bishop Inglis among the _American Loyalists_,
    it would appear that he was a native of the United States. His article
    commences, "Charles Inglis, of New York;" but it does not state that he
    was a native of that city. Bishop Stanser resigned his see through
    indisposition in the year 1825, and died at Hampton, Jan. 23, 1829. See
    "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 425.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

MONUMENT TO BARBARA MOWBRAY AND ELIZABETH CURLE AT ANTWERP.

(Vol. v., pp. 415. 517. &c.)

I adopt the above heading in preference to that which your correspondents
C. E. D., M. W. B., F. H., and NHRSL have, I think improperly, selected.
The monument, which is to be seen in the church of St. Andrew at Antwerp,
is said by them to have been erected by the two ladies Barbara Mowbray and
Elizabeth Curle to the memory of their beloved mistress the Queen of Scots;
but it will be found to have been rather erected to the memory of those two
ladies by Hippolytus Curle, the son of the former, and nephew of the
latter, in or subsequent to the year 1620. The notice of it in my Murray's
_Handbook_ of 1850 is brief but accurate:

    "Against a pillar, facing the right transept, is a portrait of Mary
    Queen of Scots, attached to a monument erected to the memory of two
    English ladies named Curle, who served her as ladies in waiting. One of
    them received her last embrace previous to her execution."

I beg to refer your correspondents to a Memoir by Mons. C. P. Serrure,
which appeared in tom. iii. of the _Messager des Sciences et des Arts de la
Belgique_, 1835, pp. 89-96., and was afterwards published at Ghent in a
separate form, under the title of _Notice sur le Mausolée de Barbe Moubray
et Elizabeth Curle, dames d'honneur de la reine Marie Stuart, qui se voit
dans l'Eglise paroissiale de Saint André, à Anvers_, with an engraving of
the monument. As the inscription conveys some biographical particulars of
the ladies whose virtues it commemorates, and as this information is asked
for by NHRSL, I have copied it: premising, however, that M. Serrure takes
credit to himself for being the first to give it in a correct shape. It is
as follows:

               "Deo Opt. Max. Sacr.
        Nobiliss. Dvar. e Britannia Matronar.
            Monvmentvm viator spectas:
  Quæ ad Regis Cathol: tvtel. orthodo. religion. cavsa
    A patria profvgæ. hic in spe resurrect. qviescvnt.

  In primis Barbaræ. Movbrayd. Iohan. Movbray Baronis F.
  Qvæ Sereniss. Mariæ Stvartæ Reginæ Scot. a cvbicvlis
    Nvptvi data Gvilberto Cvrle, qui ann. amplivs. xx.
    A. secretis Reg. fverat vnaq sine qverela ann. xxiiii.
  Vixervnt, liberosq. octo svstvler. sex cælo transcriptis
    Filii dvo svperstites, in stvdiis liberaliter edvcati.
  Iacobvs socie. Iesv sese Madriti aggregavit, in Hisp.
    Hippolytvs natv minor in Gallo. Belg. Societ. Iesv
          Prov. adscribi Christi militiæ volvit.
    Hic moestvs cvm lacrymis optimæ parenti. P. C.
  Quæ prid. Kalend. Avgvst. an^o. D. [M.DCXVI]. æt LVII.
        Vitam cadvcam cvm æterna commvtavit.

  Item Elizab. Cvrlæ amitæ ex eadem nob. Curleor. stirpe
    Mariæ qvoq. Reginæ a cvbicvlis, octo aunis vinc[=v]lr.
      Fidæ sociæ, cvi moriens vltimvm tvlit svavivm.
    Perpetvo cælibi, moribvsq. castiss. ac pientissimæ
        Hippolytvs Cvrle fratris eivs f. hoc monvm.
        Grati animi pietatisq. ergo lib. mer. posvit.
      Hæc vltimvm vitæ diem clavsit, an^o. Dni 1620.
                Ætat. LX^{mo}. die 29 Maij.
              Reqviescant in pace. Amen."

The inscription under the queen's portrait is correctly given by M. W. B.;
except that, in the sixth line, the word "invidia" occurs after "hæret,"
and the "et" is omitted.

Touching this same portrait, and the selfish, silly, sight-loving
Englishman, M. Serrure writeth as follows:

    "Les Anglais, si avides de tout voir quand ils sont en pays étranger,
    et si curieux de tout ce qui appartient à leur histoire, ne manquent
    jamais d'aller visiter l'Église de St. André. Leur admiration pour ce
    monument, sans doute plus intéressant sous le rapport du souvenir qui
    s'y rattache, que sous celui de l'art, va si loin, que plus d'une fois
    on a prétendu, non-seulement {264} que le Portrait est un de ceux qui
    retrace le plus fidèlement les traits de la malheureuse Marie Stuart,
    mais qu'on a été jusqu'à l'attribuer au pinceau de Van Dyck. Aussi bon
    nombre d'amateurs d'outre-mer l'ont-ils fait copier dans les derniers
    temps."

W. M. R. E.

       *       *       *       *       *

RIGBY CORRESPONDENCE.

(Vol. vii., p. 203.)

I am a little surprised at the slight knowledge K. K. seems to have of Mr.
Rigby--nor do I quite understand his statement: he says he possesses
sixty-seven letters of Mr. Rigby to his _own grandfather_, and that his
object is to discover, what he calls, the _counterpart of the
correspondence_: and then he talks of this _counter-correspondent_, as if
he knew no more of him than that he was an M. P., and "seems" to have done
so and so. Now this counter-correspondent must have been his grandfather:
and it would surely have simplified the inquiry if he had stated at once
the name of his grandfather, whose letters he is anxious to recover. Mr.
Rigby was one of the busiest politicians of the busy times in which he
lived. He did not, as K. K. supposes, reside _altogether_ in England. He
was chief secretary to the Duke of Bedford when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,
from 1757 to 1761; in which period he obtained the lucrative sinecure of
Master of the Rolls in Ireland, which he enjoyed for upwards of twenty
years; during which he was a prominent figure in English and Irish
politics, and was long the leader of the Bedford party in the English House
of Commons. His correspondence would be likely to be, with any one he
confided in, important; and with any body, very amusing: for, though a deep
politician, he was of a gay, frank, jovial, and gossiping disposition. It
was he who, when some questions were carried against him in the Irish
parliament, and that some of his English friends wrote to ask him whether
he would not resign on such an affront, concealed his political feelings
under the jolly _bon-vivant_ style of answering: "What care I about their
affronts! there is nothing in the world I like half so well as
woodcock-shooting and claret-drinking, and _here_ I have both in
perfection: why should I resign?" He died in 1788; and was succeeded in his
estate at Mirtley, in Essex, by _Lieut.-Col. Hale Rigby_ (who, I think, but
am not sure, assumed the name of Rigby for the estate), and who had an only
daughter who married the late Lord Rivers; and whose son is now, I presume,
the representative of Mr. Rigby--the owner of Mirtley--and probably, if
they be in existence, the possessor of the "counter-correspondence" that K.
K. inquires after. I have been thus particular in answering, as far as I
can, K. K.'s _Query_, because I believe that any confidential
correspondence of Mr. Rigby must be very interesting, and I am glad to
suggest where K. K. may look for the "counterpart;" but, whether they be
obtained or not, I am inclined to believe that Mr. Rigby's own letters
would be worth publication, if, as I have already hinted, his correspondent
was really in either his private or political confidence.

C.

A considerable number of this gentleman's letters were addressed to his
friend and patron, John, fourth Duke of Bedford, and are among the MSS. at
Woburn Abbey. A selection of the most interesting are printed in the
_Bedford Correspondence_, three vols. 8vo.

W. A.

Richard Rigby, Esq., of Mirtley Hall, in Essex, was Paymaster-General of
the Land Forces from 1768 to 1782, when he was succeeded by Edmund Burke.

Horace Wm. Beckford, the third Baron Rivers, married, in Feb. 1808,
Frances, the only daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Frances Hale Rigby, Esq., of
_Mirtley Hall_.[8] It is therefore probable, that the correspondence and
papers referred to by K. K. may be in the possession of the present Lord
Rivers.

J. B.

[Footnote 8: See Burke.]

       *       *       *       *       *

MARIGMERII--MELINGLERII--BEREFELLARII.

(Vol. vii., p. 207.)

P. C. S. S. has ascertained that all the barbarous terms mediævally applied
to certain classes of the inferior clergy, and referred to by MR. JEBB
(_antè_, p. 207.), are explained in the _Glossarium_ of Ducange. They are
identical in meaning and derivation, though slightly differing in point of
spelling, with "Marigmerii" and "Melinglerii" (cited by MR. JEBB),
"Marellarii," "Meragalarii," and "Malingrerii," and are all to be found in
the learned work to which reference is now made. Of the last of these
words, Pirri himself (who is quoted by MR. JEBB) gives the explanation,
which is equally applicable to them all. He says (in _Archiepisc. Messan._,
sub an. 1347):

 "_Malingrerium_, olim dictum qui hodie _Sacrista_ est."

Ducange also thus explains the cognate word _Marrellarius_:

 "Ædituus, custos ædis sacræ, vulgo _Marguillier_," &c.

MR. JEBB is therefore undoubtedly right in identifying the signification of
these terms with that of the French "Marguillier," the Latin phrase for
which is _Matricularius_, so called because those officers were selected
from the paupers who were admitted into the _Matricula_, or _hospice_
adjoining the church or convent:

    "Ex Matriculariis pauperibus quidam seligebantur ad viliora Ecclesiarum
    adjacentium munia, _v.g._ qui {265} campanas pulsarent, ecclesiarum
    custodiæ invigilarent [_church-wardens_ in the true sense of the word],
    eas scoparent ac mundarent. Atque inde Matriculariorum (nostris
    _Marguillier_) in ecclesiis parochialibus origo."

Of another singular word, _Berefellarii_, and of the adoption of _Personæ_
instead of it, the history is very amusing, though, perhaps, scarcely fit
for the pages of "N. & Q." It would seem that these inferior servitors of
the church were not very cleanly in their person or habits. The English
populace, by a not very delicate pun on their name, were wont to call them
_bewrayed fellows_, the meaning of which it is not necessary farther to
explain. In a letter of Thomas, Archbishop of York (preserved in Dugdale's
_Monasticon_, tom. III. p. ii. p. 5.), the good prelate says:

    "Scilicet Præcentoris, Cancellarii, et Sacristæ, ac Septem Personarum
    qui olim _Berefellarii_ fuerunt nuncupati.... Sed quia eorum turpe
    nomen _Berefellariorum_, patens risui remanebat, dictos Septem de
    cætero non _Berefellarios_ sed _Personas_ volumus nuncupari."

The glossarist adds, with some _naïveté_:

    "Cur autem ita obscæna hujusmodi iis indita appellatio, dicant Angli
    ipsi!"

P. C. S. S.

MR. JEBB, in his Query respecting the _exoticæ voces_ "Marigmerii" and
"Melinglerii," seems to be right in his conjecture that they are both of
them corruptions of some word answering to the French _Marguillier_, a
churchwarden. The word in question is probably _Meragularius_. It appears
to be a term but rarely used, and to occur but once in Martene, _De Antiq.
Eccl. Ritibus_, tom. i. p. 233., Venice, 1783, in the conclusion of his
extract "de ordinario MS. ecclesiæ Cabilonensis;" where the officer in
question performs the duty of the Vestararius:

    "Diaconus et Subdiaconus inter se plicant vestimenta sua, Meragularius
    præstat auxilium sacerdoti."

Though elsewhere Martene explains the term by "Ædituus, custos ædis."

With regard to the latter word, the meaning of which MR. JEBB inquires,
_Berefellarii_, I may suggest that he will find, on reading somewhat
further in the archbishop's _Statuta_ for Beverley, a further account of
these same _Berefellarii_; which almost precludes the likelihood of a
blunder in the original document, or at least of _Beneficiarii_ being the
correct word. For the archbishop, having occasion to mention them again,
gives the origin of their institution:

    "Quos quidem Berefellarios recolendæ memoriæ Dom. Johannes de Thoresby
    dudum Eborum Archiepiscopus ad honorem dictæ Ecclesiæ Beverlaci, et
    majorem decentiam ministrantium in eadem provincia ordinabat."

He then proceeds:

    "Sed quia eorum turpe nomen Berefellariorum, patens risui remanebat,
    dictos Septem de cætero non Berefellarios sed Personas volumus
    nuncupari."

And accordingly we find them called hereafter in this document by the very
indefinite appellation, _Septem Personæ_.

The word _Berefellarii_ seems obviously to be of Anglo-Saxon origin; as
well from the extract I have given above, as from the absence of the term
in works on the continental rituals, as Martene for instance. And I would
suggest, in default of a better derivation, that the word may have been
Latinised from the Anglo-Saxon _bere fellan_ or _sellan_. The office would
then be that of almoner, and the _Berefellarii_ would be the "persons" who
doled out victuals to the poor; literally, _barley-givers_. Such an
original would make the term liable to the objection to which the
archbishop alluded; and the office does not altogether disagree with what
was stated as the object of its institution, viz.:

    "Ad honorem ecclesiæ Beverlaci, et majorem decentiam ministrantium in
    eadem."

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES.

_Replies to Photographic Questions._--SIR WILLIAM NEWTON is right
respecting the active properties of sulphuric acid; it should therefore not
be stronger than merely tasting of the acid; but it has appeared to me to
possess a superior effect in setting the alkalies free. I believe muriatic
acid would have precisely the same effect, or Beaufoy's acetic acid, though
it would be rather expensive. Starch would be invaluable both for positives
or negatives, if it could be laid on perfectly even; but if pinned up to
dry it all runs to one corner, and if laid flat it runs into ridges.
Perhaps some artist may be able to favour us with the best mode of treating
starch; its non-solubility in cold water makes it an invaluable agent in
photography.

The above includes a reply to MR. J. JAMES' first Query: to his second, the
solution may be either brushed or floated, but all solutions require even
greater care than doing a water-colour drawing, to lay them perfectly flat.
The remaining questions depend for answer simply on the experience of the
operator: the formula given was simply for iodizing paper; the bringing
out, exposure in the camera, &c., have been so clearly described lately by
DR. DIAMOND, it would be useless to give further directions at present.

G. H. should dispense with the aceto-nitrate and gallic acid, and bring up
with gallic acid and glacial acetic acid only. This makes no dirt whatever,
and is quite as effective. The marbling {266} he alludes to proceeds from
the sensitive solution not being sufficiently dry when put into the camera.
Even if prepared paper is blotted off, which I think a very bad plan, it
should have some time allowed it to dry; also the faintness of the image
depends either upon not giving time enough, or the aperture he uses for his
lens is much too large; or again, he has not found the true chemical
focus,--it varies in single meniscus lenses sometimes as much as
three-eighths of an inch nearer the eye than the visual:--all these are
causes of indistinct images, and require patience to rectify them.

I beg leave to subscribe entirely to MR. W. BROWN'S remarks on the subject
of Mr. Archer and collodion. I have one of Mr. Horne's handbills,
circulated with the first samples of collodion, headed "Archer's prepared
collodion" in 1851, and had some of the earliest in the market. That Mr.
Archer should fail in trying his own preparation goes for nothing at all,
because, at the best of times, and with the most skilful, failures are
often numerous and mortifying, in photography above all other arts;
therefore, unless some more correct data are given, the merit rests
entirely on Mr. Archer.

WELD TAYLOR.

Bayswater.

_Developing Paper Pictures with Pyrogallic Acid_ (Vol. vii., p.
117.).--Your correspondent R. J. F. asks if any of your photographic
correspondents have developed their paper negatives with pyrogallic acid. I
have long been in the habit of doing so by the following process. Of Mr.
Archer's developing solution, viz.,

  Pyrogallic acid      3 grs.
  Acetic acid          1 drachm.
  Distilled water      1 oz.

take twenty grs. (minims): add an equal quantity of distilled water, and
five drops (minims) of acetic acid. I pour the mixture upon a glass plate,
and put the sensitive surface of any picture upon it; moving, it up and
down by one corner, to prevent the paper being stained, and to observe the
development of the picture; which, when sufficiently come out, I blot and
wash immediately, and fix with hyposulphite of soda or bromide of
potassium.

THOMAS WYATT.

Manchester.

_Photography in the Open Air; Improved Camera._--In your Number 172, p.
163., there is a Note of mine in reference to the use to which thin sheet
India rubber might be applied. I there alluded to the difficulties
attending a single "portable camera," in which all the coating, developing,
&c. of your plates is to be done; and for those gentlemen who have the
means of carrying about with them a second box, I have devised a
modification of Archer's camera, which I think, will prove very useful. It
is one which I am about to make for myself. This second box is one in
which, when travelling, I can pack my camera, frames, glasses, and
chemicals. Having arranged your camera, you proceed to arrange the second
box, or "laboratory." This laboratory has three short legs, which screw, or
fasten by any simple contrivance, to it, so that it may stand a sufficient
height from the ground to allow the bath, which fits in like the one in
Archer's camera, to hang beneath it, and also that when working you may do
so with ease. It is lighted by either yellow glass or India rubber. There
are sleeves of India rubber for your arms, and the holes in the sides of
the box traverse nearly the whole of the sides, for the purpose of moving
your hands freely from one end of the box to the other; there is also an
opening for the head. The bottom of the box is divided: about two-thirds of
it, and the nearest to you, has a gutta percha tray, with the four sides,
three inches high, fitting it quite tight; and in one corner a tube a few
inches long, also of gutta percha, fixed to it, and passing through the
bottom of the box, to allow the refuse washings to run off. In the middle
of this tray a developing stand of gutta percha is fixed to the bottom, on
which to lay the glass plates. The other one-third of the bottom of the
laboratory is fitted thus:--There is a slit across the box, immediately
before the wall of the tray, for the nitrate of silver bath to slip in.
Immediately beyond the edge of the bath is a small fillet of wood running
across the box parallel with the bath, and so placed that if the bottom of
the dark frame to contain the glass plate is rested against it, and the top
of the frame rested against the end of the laboratory, the frame will slope
at about an angle of forty-five degrees. Let there be a button, or similar
contrivance, on the underside of the lid of the box, that the lid of the
dark frame may be fastened to it when open. Bottles of collodion,
developing fluid, hypo-soda, or solution of salt, &c., may be arranged in
various convenient ways within reach. The proceeding then is very easy.
Place the bath-frame and bottles in their places; rear the glass plate in
the frame; shut the laboratory lid; place your hands in the sleeves and
your head in the hood; fix the door of dark frame to the top; coat the
plate; place it in the bath with collodion side from you (it will then be
in convenient position when you draw it out of bath to place at once in the
frame); fasten the frame door; open the box lid; remove to camera; after
taking picture, return frame to its place in camera; bring the plate to
developing stand; develop; pour solution of salt over; remove from box;
finish outside with hyposulphite of soda.

I have been thus explicit to render the matter as plain and intelligible as
possible without aid of diagrams. But I shall be happy to give any {267}
one any further information, either privately, or through "N. & Q." It
seems to me that by this contrivance you simplify the process as much as is
almost possible; you keep separate the different processes, and run little
or no risk of mixing your chemicals, a misfortune which would spoil several
hours' work, as well as entail a considerable loss of materials. The box
would be no expensive article; any one possessing a little mechanical skill
could construct it for himself, and its use as a packing-case for your
apparatus would repay the cost.

I have for some time been using a developing fluid, which appears to have
some desirable qualifications for it is simple, inexpensive, and keeps
good, as far as I have tried it, for a very long period. I have worked with
it when it has been made ten weeks; it slightly changes colour, but it
throws down no deposit, and does not ever stain the film; when first made,
it is colourless as water. DR. DIAMOND has kindly undertaken to test its
value, and if he pronounces it worthy of being made known, the readers of
"N. & Q." shall shortly have the benefit of it.

J. L. SISSON.

Edingthorpe Rectory, Norfolk.

_New Effect in Collodion Pictures._--In the course of some experiments I
have been following in reference to a photographic subject, a method by
which a new effect in pictures on glass may be obtained has occurred to me.
Such productions, when treated as positives, are of course white pictures
upon a black ground; and although for beauty of detail they are superior to
those belonging to any other process, there is a certain harshness and want
of artistic effect: to remedy this, I turned my attention towards obtaining
a dark picture upon a light ground, as is the case when glass photographs
are printed from; in this I have succeeded, and as the modification affords
a pleasing variation, it may be acceptable to the tastes of some of your
readers. The principle I proceed upon is to copy, by means of the camera,
from a previously-taken picture in a negative state. Suppose, for instance,
our subject is an out-door view: I take a collodion picture--which would
answer for a positive if backed with black: this, viewed by transmitted
light, is of course negative,--an effect which may be produced by placing a
piece of white paper behind it from this _white_-backed plate: I take
another collodion picture, which, being reversed in light and shade, is
negative by reflected light; but viewed as a transparency is _positive_,
and of course retains that character when backed with white paint, paper,
or other substance lighter in colour than the parts formed by the reduced
silver. Instead of the first picture being formed by the glass, any of the
paper processes may be adopted which will afford negative pictures. Copies
of prints may be beautifully produced on this principle by obtaining the
first or negative by the ordinary process of printing. As these pictures
are to form a contrast with a white ground, they should be as brown in tint
as possible; nitric acid, or other whitening agents, being avoided in the
developing solutions for both negative and positive. By this process the
detail and contrasts can be kept far better than by the operation of
printing: for it is exceedingly difficult to obtain a picture which will
convey to the prepared surface an amount of light corresponding to the
natural lights and shades, and the trouble of making collodion copies is
far less than printing. There is certainly the drawback of having the
copies upon glass: I think, however, that some white flexible substance may
be found, upon which the collodion, albumen, &c., may be spread; but if
they be intended for framing, of course they are better on glass. The
general effect is that of a sepia drawing. The picture first taken and used
as a negative, may be preserved as a positive by removing the white back,
and treating it in the usual manner.

Permit me to observe, that much confusion arises from the _manner_ in which
the terms positive and negative are often used; a negative glass picture is
frequently spoken of as a definite, distinct thing; this is not the case,
for all photographic pictures upon glass are both negative and positive,
accordingly as they are seen upon a back of lighter or darker shade than
the reduced silver--by transmitted or reflected light. A picture intended
to be printed from is no more a negative than another, its positive
character being merely obscured by longer exposure in the camera. When
first removed from the developing solution, glass pictures are negative,
because they are seen upon the iodide of silver, which is a light ground.
This is a thing of course well known to many of your readers, but beginners
are, I know, often puzzled by it.

WM. TUDOR MABLEY.

Manchester.

_Powdered Alum--How does it act?_--SIR W. NEWTON has again kindly informed
me of _his motive_ for using the powdered alum, which in "N. & Q." (Vol.
vii., p. 141.) he asserts readily removes the hyposulphite of soda. What is
the _rationale_ of the chemical action upon the hyposulphite of soda?

W. ADRIAN DELFERIER.

40. Sloane Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Chatterton_ (Vol. vii., p. 189.).--J. M. G. informs N. B. that he is
possessed of the whole of the late Mr. Hazlewood's collection of volumes,
tracts, and cuttings from periodicals, published during the period when the
Rowleian and Chattertonian {268} controversy engrossed so much of public
criticism and dispute.

He has likewise various other articles relating to Chatterton, both in
print and manuscript, collected during many years that he was resident at
and connected with Bristol, which then naturally interested him in the
subject. But what would be of far greater use to N. B. in ascertaining who
was the author of the Rowleian poems, is an essay in manuscript, recently
furnished to J. M. G. by a gentleman now resident in Bristol, whose
ancestors were acquainted with Chatterton's family, and who has in this
document shown, not only great archæological research, but has thrown much
new light upon various disputed points both relative to Chatterton's
relations and friends, which go far to settle the opinion, that the
venerable Rowley, and not the boy Chatterton, was the writer of the poems.

J. M. G. is afraid that this subject is one, the revival of which would
fail to interest the public mind, or he might be induced to publish the
essay, to which he has reason to believe that its author would give his
consent; and should J. M. G. again raise the controversy by sending to "N.
& Q." any detached parts, he is apprehensive that the subjects of them
would not meet with the attention they formerly would have done.

J. M. G.

Worcester.

_Princes' Whipping-boys_ (Vol. v., pp. 468. 545.).--In your publication are
notices respecting two whipping-boys, Edward Browne and William Murray, who
both endured punishment for the offences of English princes. I, however,
think it not improbable such infliction was perpetrated in other kingdoms,
and perhaps in Spain, for the improvement of Philip III. or some such
worthy scion of royalty. Le Sage, who was a most incomparable observer of
men and manners, has, in his admirable novel of _Gil Blas_, introduced,
with purely natural humour, and in his style so _naïf_, an instance of such
mode of correction. In livre 5ième, chap. i., there is the history of Don
Raphaël, who at twelve years of age was selected by the Marquis de Leganez
to be the companion of his son of the same age, who "ne paraissait pas né
pour les sciences," and scarcely knew a letter of his alphabet. The story
goes on with describing various endeavours of his masters to induce him to
apply to his studies, but without success: till at last the _Précepteur_
thought of the expedient to give _le fouet_ to young Raphaël whenever the
little Leganez deserved it; and this he did without mercy, till Raphaël
determined to elope from the roof of the Marquis de Leganez: and in some
degree to revenge himself for all the injustice he had suffered, took with
him all the _argent comptant_ of the Précepteur, amounting to one hundred
and fifty ducats. In concluding, I may observe that there is a very neat
edition of _Gil Blas_ lately published in Paris, with _illustrated
vignettes_ by _Gigoux_, one of which represents the Précepteur operating
upon the unfortunate Raphaël:

 "... horribili sectêre flagello."--_Hor._

and young Leganez looking on seemingly unconcerned!

[Theta].

Richmond.

"_Grub Street Journal_" (Vol. vii., p. 108.).--Some particulars relating to
this work are given in Drake's _Essays on the Rambler, &c._, vol. i. p. 66.

F. R. A.

"_Pinch of Snuff_" (Vol. vi., p. 431).--I have been informed by a gentleman
conversant in literary matters, that the author or compiler of this little
volume was Benson Earle Hill, formerly an officer in the artillery, but at
the time of his death (circa 1842-3) a performer or prompter at one of the
theatres in the Strand.

I may here mention another humorous little work, closely allied to the
above, and entitled _A Paper of Tobacco; treating of the Rise, Progress,
Pleasures and Advantages of Smoking: with Anecdotes of distinguished
Smokers, Mems. on Pipes and Tobacco-boxes: and a Tritical Essay on Snuff.
By Joseph Fume_. 2nd ed., with additions. Lond. Chapman and Hall, 1839.
12mo. It contains six spirited and characteristic etchings by "Phiz,"
besides several woodcuts; and is a very amusing book, well worthy of being
enlarged, for which there are ample materials both in prose and rhyme.

F. R. A.

_Race for Canterbury_ (Vol. vii., p. 219.).--J. F. infers that Hoadley was
a competitor with Herring and Gibson for the archiepiscopal throne after
the death of Bishop Potter, because he is mentioned in some lines under the
woodcut broadside in his possession. He may also find him alluded to in the
last lines of the other print in his possession:

 "Then may he win the prize who none will oppress,
  And the palace at Lambeth be _Benjamin's_ mess."

Benjamin being Benjamin Hoadley.

I have two other prints upon this subject, besides the three mentioned by
J. F. In one which has the title "For Lambeth," the bishop in the most
distant boat has dropt his oars, sits with his arms across, looks very
sulky, and exclaims, "Damn my scull."

The other is entitled "Haw'y Haw'y L--b-th Haw'y." Three bishops, as in the
others, are rowing towards Lambeth: a fourth, approaching in an opposite
direction, is rowing "against tide." In the foreground are two groups. In
one, two noblemen are addressing three competing bishops: "Let honour be
the reward of virtue, and not interest." One bishop says: "I give it up
till {269} next." Another holds a paper, inscribed "10,000l. for it." In
the other group, two noblemen are promising to different bishops. Another
bishop is fighting his way through boatmen; and two persons are running
forward as candidates for an archdeaconry or dean of arches. Underneath are
two lines:

 "Sculls, sculls to Lambeth! see how hard they pull 'em!
  But sure the Temple's nearer much than Fulham."

_Temple_ alluding to Sherlock, _Fulham_ to Gibson.

Underneath this print, some one, perhaps Horace Walpole, mistaking the date
and the subject, has written:

 "The man whose place they thought to take
  Is still alive, and still _a Wake_."

There is still another print entitled "Lambeth," where three bishops are
rowing from Lambeth, with the word "Disappointed" under them. A fourth is
rowed towards Lambeth by a waterman, who exclaims "Your're all Bob'd!"

EDW. HAWKINS.

_Chichester Pallant_ (Vol. vii., p. 206.).--Chichester, I need not say, is
of Roman foundation, and has several marks of its Roman origin; the little
stream that runs through it is called the _Lavant_, evidently from
_lavando_. The _Pallant_, the chief quarter of the town, and, of old, a
_separate jurisdiction_, was called "Palatinus sive Palenta." "Palantia,
Palatinatus," says Ducange, "jurisdictio ejus qui habet jus lites decidendi
supremo jure." The _Pallant_ of Chichester is not to be confounded with the
Bishop's _Palace_. It is in a different district, and was, no doubt, from
Roman times, a separate _palatine_ jurisdiction.

C.

_Scarfs worn by Clergymen_ (Vol. vii., pp. 143. 215.).--As MR. JEBB has
intervened voluntarily in this question, not merely as an inquirer or
reasoner, but as an _evidence_ to _facts_, I hope I may be allowed to ask
him his authority for the distinction "between broad and narrow scarfs."
After this assertion as to the _fact_, he adds his own personal authority
of having "in his boyhood _heard mention_ made of that distinction." As I
do not know his age, I would beg to ask _when_ and _where_ he heard that
_mention_; and to make my inquiry more clear, I would ask whether he has
any (and what) authority for the _fact_ of the distinction beyond having
"in his boyhood _heard mention_ of it?" We must get at the facts before we
can reason on them.

C.

_Alicia Lady Lisle_ (Vol. vii., p. 236.).--The lady referred to was Alice,
or Alicia, daughter and coheir of Sir White Beconsawe: she was beheaded at
Winchester, 1685. The jury by whom she was tried had, it is stated, thrice
acquitted her; but the judge, that disgrace to human nature, Jefferies,
insisted upon a conviction. Her husband was John Lisle the regicide, a
severe republican, and one of the Protector's lords. An account of the
family will be found in _Curious Memoirs of the Protectorate House of
Cromwell_, vol. i. p. 273.

The family of the present Lord Lisle, whose family name is _Lysaght_, and
elevated to the peerage of Ireland in 1758, has nothing to do with that of
the republican court.

Respecting the old baronies of Lisle, full accounts will be found in the
admirable report of the claim to that barony by Sir Harris Nicolas, one of
the counsel for the claimant, Sir John Shelley Sidney: 8vo. Lond. 1829.

G.

_Major-General Lambert_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--Major-General Lambert
appears, from a meagre memoir of him given in the _History of Malham in
Yorkshire_, by Thomas Hursley: 8vo. 1786, to have descended from a very
ancient family in that county. According to the register of Kirkby
Malhamdale, he was born at Calton Hall, in that parish, 7th of September,
1619, and lost his father at the age of thirteen. On the 10th of September,
1639, he married Frances, daughter of his neighbour Sir William Lister, of
Thornton, in Craven, then in her seventeenth year, and said to have been a
most elegant and accomplished lady. Nothing seems to be known as to the
precise time or place of the death of Lambert or his wife, beyond the
tradition of his having been imprisoned in Cornet Castle, in the island of
Guernsey, after the Restoration, and that he remained in confinement thirty
years. His marriage is confirmed in the account of Lord Ribblesdale's
family in Collins' _Peerage_, vol. viii. edition Brydges. John Lambert, son
and heir of the major-general, married Barbara, daughter of Thomas Lister,
of Arnoldsbigging, and had by her three sons, who all died v. p., and one
daughter, who was the wife of Sir John Middleton, of Belsay Castle, in
Northumberland, and became the heir-general of her family. Pepys speaks of
Lady Lambert in 1668.

Perhaps these very imperfect notices may elicit further information,--on
which account only can they be worthy of a place in "N. & Q."

BRAYBROOKE.

_Mistletoe_ (Vol. iii., pp. 192. 396.).--In addition to the trees, on which
the mistletoe grows, mentioned by "the late learned Mr. Ray" in the
quotation cited by Dr. Wilbraham Falconer, I subjoin others named in
Jesse's _Country Life_, some of which I have had opportunities of verifying
viz., horse-chestnut; maple (_Acer opalus_, _A. rubrum_, _A. campestre_);
poplar (_Populus alba_, _P. nigra_, _P. fastigiata_); acacia, laburnum,
pear; large-leaved sallow (_Salix caprea_); locust tree (_Robinia
pseudo-acacia_); larch, Scotch fir, spruce fir; service tree (_Pyrus
domestica_); hornbeam {270} (_Carpinus ostrya_); _Loranthus Europæus_
(itself a parasite); olive, vine, walnut, plum, common laurel, medlar, grey
poplar. The localities and authorities are stated.

In answer to your correspondent ACHE, I may add, that the opinion of recent
botanists is contrary to Sir Thomas Browne's notion with reference to the
propagation of the seed; for it is known that the seeds, in germinating,
send their radicles into the plant to which they are attached; and grow
afterwards as true parasites, selecting certain chemical ingredients in
preference to others. The mistletoe has never been known to grow in
Ireland; but its frequency in various parts of the world--in France, Italy,
Greece, and parts of Asia--has been remarked by travellers. Its use seems
to be to provide food for birds during those rare seasons of scarcity, when
a very sparing supply of other fruits and seeds can be procured.

ROBERT COOKE.

Scarborough.

_The Sizain_ (Vol. vi., p. 603.; Vol. vii., p. 174.).--I know not whether
any one of the sizains you have published may be the original, from which
all the others must be considered as imitations or parodies; but they bring
to my mind an English example, which I met with many years ago in some book
of miscellanies. I do not recollect whether the book in question attributed
it to any particular author; who, I presume, must have been some staunch
adherent for Protestant ascendancy in the early part of the last century:

 "Our three great enemies remember,
  The Pope, the Devil, and the Pretender.
  All wicked, damnable, and evil,
  The Pope, the Pretender, and the Devil.
  I wish them all hung on one rope,
  The Devil, the Pretender, and the Pope."

Since writing the foregoing, the following has been dictated to me from
recollection; which may be referred to about the period of George III.'s
last illness:

 "You should send, if aught should ail ye,
  For Willis, Heberden, or Baillie.
  All exceeding skilful men,
  Baillie, Willis, Heberden.
  Uncertain which most sure to kill is,
  Baillie, Heberden, or Willis."

M. H.

_Venda_ (Vol. vii., p. 179.).--This word, in Portuguese, signifies a place
where wine and meat are sold by retail in a tavern. It also appears to
answer to the Spanish _Venta_, a road-side inn; something between the
French and English inn, and the Eastern caravansaries. In the places which
C. E. F. mentions, _Venda_ in Portugal is like Osteria in Italy, of which
plenty will be seen on the plains of the Campagna at Rome.

T. K.

_Meaning of "Assassin"_ (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--We owe this word to the
Crusaders, no doubt; but MUHAMMED will find a very interesting account of
the word in the Rev. C. Trench's admirable little work _On the Study of
Words_. See also Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, chap. lxiv.; to which, if I
remember rightly, Mr. Trench also refers.

R. J. S.

If MUHAMMED would take the trouble of looking into the translation of Von
Hammer's _Geschichte der Assassinen_, or, a more common book, _The Secret
Societies of the Middle Ages_, he would find that there _was_ "a nation of
the assassins;" and that his idea of the derivation of the name, which was
first indicated by De Sacy, is the received one.

T. K.

_Dimidium Scientiæ_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--MR. B. B. WOODWARD will find
Lord Bacon's sententia, "Prudens interrogatio quasi dimidium scientiæ," in
his _De Augmentis Scientiarum_, lib. v. cap. iii., "Partitio Inventivæ
Argumentorum in Promptuariam et Topicam."

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

_Epigrams_ (Vol. vii., p. 175.).--The true version of the epigram on Dr.
Toe, which I heard or read about fifty years ago, is as follows:

 "'Twixt Footman John and Doctor Toe,
    A rivalship befel,
  Which should become the fav'rite beau,
    And bear away the belle.

 "The Footman won the Lady's heart;
    And who can wonder? No man:
  The whole prevail'd against the part,--
   'Twas _Foot_-man versus _Toe_-man."

Perhaps the "John" ought to be "Thomas;" for I find, on the same page of my
Common-place Book, the following:

 "Dear Lady, think it no reproach,
    It show'd a generous mind,
  To take poor Thomas in the coach,
    Who rode _before behind_.

 "Dear Lady, think it no reproach,
    It show'd you lov'd the more,
  To take poor Thomas in the coach,
    Who rode _behind before_."

SCRAPIANA.

_Use of Tobacco before the Discovery of America_ (Vol. iv., p.
208.).--Sandys, in the year 1610, mentions the use of tobacco as a custom
recently introduced, at Constantinople, by the English. (See _Modern
Traveller_.) Meyen, however, in his _Outlines of the Geography of Plants_,
as translated for the Ray Society, says:

    "The consumption of tobacco in the Chinese empire is of immense extent,
    and the practice seems to be of great antiquity; for on very old
    sculptures I have observed the very same tobacco pipes which are still
    used. {271} _Besides, we now know the plant which furnishes the Chinese
    tobacco: it is even said to grow wild in the East Indies. It is certain
    that the tobacco plant of Eastern Asia is quite different from the
    American species._"

This is the opinion of a botanist at once distinguished for extensiveness
of research and accuracy of detail; although Mr. J. Crawford, in a paper
read before the Statistical Society, on the 15th of November, 1852, seems
to incline to a contrary notion. It is, however, necessary to remark that
his facts tend rather to elucidate the statistics of the plant than its
natural character, so that Meyen's opinion must, I think, stand good until
it be disproved.

SELEUCUS.

_Oldham, Bishop of Exeter_ (Vol. vii., p. 189.).--Perhaps it may help J. D.
in his difficulty touching the difference between the coat of arms borne by
Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, and that borne by the Oldham family at
_Hatherleigh_, to be informed of what I believe he will find, upon inquiry,
to be the fact, viz. that _Laing_ was the original name of the present
family of Oldham at Hatherleigh; and that, consequently, the arms of Laing
may possibly still be borne by them.

* *

Oxford.

Bishop Hugh Oldham, B.C.L., was one of the family of Oldenham, of Oldenham,
co. Lancaster, which gave for arms, Sable, between three owls arg., a
chevron or: in chief, of the third, three roses, gules. Richard Oldham,
Bishop of Sodor, was Abbot of Chester in 1452.

Hugh was born in Goulburn Street, Oldham, and educated at Exeter College,
Oxford, and at Queen's College, Cambridge: he was Rector of St. Mildred's,
Bread Street, Sept. 19, 1485; Swineshead, February 3, 1493; Wareboys, March
31, 1499; Shitlington, August 17, 1500; Vicar of Cheshunt, July 27, 1494;
Overton, April 2, 1501; Canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster, 1493;
Prebendary of South Aulton in Sarum, September, 1495; of Newington in St.
Paul's, March 11, 1496; of South Cave in York, August 26, 1499; Archdeacon
of Exeter, February 16, 1503; Chaplain to Margaret, Countess of Richmond,
and Master of St. John's, Lichfield, 1495; and St. Leonard's Hospital,
Bedford, January 12, 1499.

He was the founder of Manchester High School, and was consecrated between
December 29 and January 6, 1504. He was a great benefactor to Corpus
Christi College in Oxford; and the intimate friend of Bishop Smyth,
co-founder of Brasenose College, with whom he had been brought up in the
household of Thomas, Earl of Derby. He died June 25, 1519, and was buried
in St. Saviour's Chapel in Exeter Cathedral.

These notes are taken from a MS. History of the English Episcopate, which
it is my hope to give to the public.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

_Tortoiseshell Tom Cat._--I am pretty certain that I once saw in "N. & Q."
an inquiry whether there ever was a well-authenticated instance of a
tortoiseshell tom cat. The inclosed advertisement, which I have cut from
_The Times_ of the 19th January, 1853, will perhaps give some of your
readers an opportunity of testing the fact:

    "To be sold, a real Tortoiseshell Tom Cat. This natural rarity is
    fifteen months old and eight lbs. weight. Apply to John Sayer, Mr.
    Bennison's, bookseller, Market-Drayton, Salop."

L. L. L.

    [The inquiry will be found in our 5th Vol., p. 465.]

_Irish Rhymes_ (Vol. vi., and Vol. vii., p. 52.).--CUTHBERT BEDE, in his
notice of the Irish rhymes in Swift's poetry, quoted one couplet in which
_put_ rhymes to _cut_. Is this pronunciation of the word _put_ an Irishism?

A late distinguished divine, who, although he occupied an Irish see, was
certainly no Irishman, and who was remarkably particular and, I believe,
correct in his diction, always pronounced this word in this manner (as
indeed every other word with the same termination is pronounced: as _rut_,
_cut_, _shut_, _nut_, _but_, &c.).

The bishop to whom I allude pronounced the word thus, long before he ever
had any communication with Ireland: and it is strange that, although I have
been in Ireland myself, I never heard _put_ pronounced so as to rhyme with
_cut_ by any native of that island.

RUBI.

The following extract is a note by Lord Mahon, in vol. i. p. 374. of his
edition of Lord Chesterfield's _Letters to his Son_ (Bentley, 1847). I
cannot see how the quotation from Boswell bears upon either _accent_ or
_cadence_; it appears to relate entirely to different modes of
pronunciation:

    "It may be observed, however, that the questions of what are 'false
    accents and cadences' in our language appear to have been far less
    settled in Lord Chesterfield's time than at present. Dr. Johnson says:
    'When I published the plan for my dictionary, Lord Chesterfield told me
    that the word _great_ should be pronounced so as to rhyme with _state_;
    and Sir William Yonge sent me word, that it should be pronounced so as
    to rhyme to _seat_, and that none but an Irishman would pronounce it
    _grait_. Now, here were two men of the highest rank,--the one the best
    speaker in the House of Lords, the other the best speaker in the House
    of Commons--differing entirely."--Boswell's _Life_, Notes of March 27,
    1772.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

_Consecrated Rings_ (Vol. vii., p. 88.).--The inquiry opened by SIR W. C.
T. is shown to be one of much interest by the able communication of your
correspondent CEYREP. I trust he will excuse me in expressing strong doubts
as to {272} Havering, the chapel in Essex, being so called from "having the
ring." Nothing is more dangerous to any etymological solution than the
being guided by the sound of words, rather than by the probable derivation
of the name of the place or thing signified. I am aware that Camden says
Havering is called so for the above-stated reason; and other compilers of
topography have followed what I venture to suggest is an error. _Habban_,
in Anglo-Saxon, means to have; and _Ring_ is ring--this is not to be
denied; but in the general (and let me add excellent) rules for the
investigation of names of places affixed to the late Dr. Ingram's
_Translation of the Saxon Chronicle_, I find _Aver_ is from Aver, Br., the
mouth of a river, ford, or lake; and _Ing_, it is well known, is a frequent
termination for the names of places--its import in Anglo-Saxon being a
meadow. How far "the meadow near the source of the river, or stream"
applies to the site of _Havering_, I will leave to those more competent
than myself to decide, but offer the suggestion to the consideration of
CEYREP and others.

C. I. R.

_Brasses since 1688_ (Vol. vi., pp. 149. 256.).--In connexion with the
subject of late brasses, a rubbing which I took from one in Masham Church,
Yorkshire, may not be unworthy of a note. It runs thus:

             "CHRISTOPHER KAY,
            Buried October the 23d,
                Anno Dom. 1689.
            [MRS. JANE NICHOLLSON,
            Bu. June the 4th, 1690.]

  C onfined . in . a . bed . of . dust
  H ere . doth . a . body . lye
  R aised . again . it . will . I . trvst
  I nto . the . Heavens . high
  S in . not . bvt . have . a . care
  T o . make . yovr . calling . svre
  O mit . those . things . which . trivial . are
  P rise . that . we . will . indure
  H ange . not . your . mind . on . secular . things
  E ach . one . doth . fade . apace
  R iches . the . chief . of . we . hath . wings.

    [A . Matron . grave . is . here . interr'd
    Whose . soul . in . heaven . is . preferr'd
    Aftwher . grandson . lost . his . breath
    She . soon . svrrender'd . vnto . death.]

  K eeping . no . certaine . place
  A dict . your . selues . unto . his . conuersation
  Y our . purchase . heaven . for . your . habitation."

This, it will be seen, is an acrostic: the lines between brackets are
insertions.

WM. PROCTER.

York.

_Derivation of Lowbell_ (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--In my younger days I
frequently had occasion to draw out (from old established precedent) the
form of an appointment, by the lord, of a gamekeeper for a manor, in which
the latter was authorised and required to seize and destroy all and all
manner of gins, snares, springs, &c., including a dozen or more technical
words, one of which was "lowbells." The manors in question were in
Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, but I doubt not but that the same form was
adopted in other counties in various parts of England. Being strongly
impressed with the familiarity of the word on reading H. T. W.'s Note, I
was induced to refer to Johnson's _Dictionary_, where I find my own notion
fully borne out as follows:

    "LOWBELL.--A kind of fowling in the night, in which the birds are
    wakened by a bell and lured by a flame."

At this moment I have only the abridged edition (3rd edition, 1766) to
refer to, and that does not give any reference or authority for the
definition in question. I would observe, however, that I believe "loke" is
either a Saxon or Scandinavian word, signifying a flame or firebrand,
which, coupled with "bell," fully bears out the definition, and I think
sufficiently accounts for the term "lowbelling" in H. T. W.'s Note, as the
offender might have been greeted with bells and firebrands in lieu of the
"tin pots and kettles," or by way of addition to them.

May not this also serve to explain what is considered as a puzzling term in
Beaumont and Fletcher? Lowell being nothing more nor less than a snare, may
not "Peace, gentle lowbell," mean "Peace, gentle ensnarer?"

M. H.

_The Negative given to the Demand of the Clergy at Merton_ (Vol. vii., p.
17.).--Warburton agrees with Bishop Hurd on this subject, for he observes
as follows, in one of his letters (the 84th), that--

    "At a parliament under Henry III., 'Rogaverunt omnes Episcopi ut
    consentirent quod nati ante matrimonium essent legitimi, et omnes
    Comites et Barones una voce responderunt quod nolunt leges Angliæ
    mutari.' This famous answer has been quoted a thousand and a thousand
    times, and yet nobody seems to have understood the management. The
    bishops, as partizans of the Pope, were for subjecting England to the
    imperial and papal laws, and therefore began with a circumstance most
    to the taste of the Barons. The Barons smelt the contrivance; and
    rejected a proposition most agreeable to them, for fear of the
    consequences, the introduction of the imperial laws, whose very genius
    and essence was arbitrary despotic power. Their answer shows it:
    'Nolumus leges Angliæ mutari:' they had nothing to object to the
    reform, but they were afraid for the constitution."

C. I. R.

_Nugget_ (Vol. vi., pp. 171. 281.; Vol. vii., p.143.).--T. K. arrogantly
sets aside the etymology of W. S.; and, in lieu of the Persian _nugud_ of
the latter, would have us believe that _nugget_ is nothing more than a
Yankee corruption of _an ingot_. I {273} hold with W. S. notwithstanding,
and so will all who have had any dealings with the _Bengalees_: the term
_nuggut pisa_ being with them a common one for "hard cash;" and as the
Hindostanee language is largely indebted to the Persian, the derivation of
W. S. is no doubt correct. To account for its occurrence in Australia, it
is only necessary to say that that country has been for some years past a
_sanatarium_ for the debilitated _Qui Hye's_, many of whom have settled
there; and becoming interested in the "diggings," have given the
significant term of _nuggut_ to what has in reality turned out _hard cash_,
both to them and to certain lucky gentlemen in this city--holders of the
script of the "Great _Nuggut_ Vein" of Australia.

J. O.

_Blackguard_ (Vol. vii., p. 77.).--It may, in some degree, support the
first portion of the argument so interestingly stated by SIR J. EMERSON
TENNENT respecting the derivation of this term, to record that, in my
youth, when at school at the New Academy in Edinburgh, some five or
six-and-twenty years ago, I used frequently to be engaged, with my
schoolfellows, in regular pitched battles, technically called by us
_bickers_, with the town boys, consisting chiefly of butchers' and bakers'
boys, whom we were accustomed to designate as _the blackguards_, without, I
am sure, ever attaching to that word the more opprobrious meaning which it
now generally bears; but only indicating by it those of a lower rank in
life than ourselves, _the gentlemen_.

May I venture to add, that whilst the former portion of SIR J. E. TENNENT'S
Note seems to me to be fully satisfactory in proof that the term
_blackguard_ is originally derived from the ancient appellation of menials
employed in the lowest and most dirty offices of a great household, and
that it is thus purely English,--the last two paragraphs, on the other
hand, appear to advocate an unnecessary and far-fetched derivation of the
word from the French, and which, I humbly conceive, the true sense of the
alleged roots, _blague_, _blaguer_, _blagueur_, by no means justifies; it
being impossible to admit that these are, in any sort, "corresponding
terms" with _blackguard_.

G. W. R. GORDON.

Stockholm.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

Long and anxiously has the reading public been looking for Mr. Layard's
account of his further discoveries in Nineveh and Babylon. That account has
at length appeared in one large octavo volume, under the title of
_Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, with Travels in Armenia,
Kurdistan, and the Desert, being the result of a Second Expedition
undertaken for the Trustees of the British Museum, by_ Austen H. Layard,
M.P., and is enriched with maps, plans, and woodcut illustrations, to the
extent of some hundreds. And on examining it we find that the vast amount
of new light which Mr. Layard's discoveries in the wide and hitherto
untilled field of Assyrian antiquities had already thrown on Sacred
History, is increased to a great extent by those further researches, of
which the details are now given to the public. With his ready powers of
observation, and his talent for graphic description, Mr. Layard's book, as
a mere volume of travels over a country of such interest, would well repay
perusal: but when we find in addition, as we do in every page and line,
fresh and startling illustration of the truth of Holy Writ--when we have
put before us such pictures of what Nineveh and Babylon must have been, and
find, as we do, men distinguished in every branch of learning lending their
assistance to turn Mr. Layard's discoveries to the best account, we feel we
cannot be too loud in our praises of Mr. Layard's zeal, energy, and
judgment, or too grateful to Mr. Murray for giving us at once the results
which those qualities have enabled Mr. Layard to gain for us, in so cheap,
complete, yet fully embellished a form.

The blockade of Mainz was not a bad day for the already world-renowned
story of _Reynard the Fox_, since that led Göthe to dress the old fable up
again in his musical hexameters, and so give it new popularity. From
Göthe's version a very able and spirited English paraphrase is now in the
course of publication. We say paraphrase, because the author of _Reynard
the Fox, after the German version of Göthe, with illustrations by_ J. Wolf,
takes as his motto the very significant but appropriate description which
Göthe gave of his own work, "Zwischen Uebersetzung und Umarbeitung
schwebend." However, the version is a very pleasant one, and the
illustrations are characteristic and in good taste.

An _Antiquarian Photographic Club_, for the exchange among its members of
photographs of objects of antiquarian interest, on the principle of the
_Antiquarian Etching Club_, is in the course of formation.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Family Shakspeare, in which nothing is added to the
original Text, but those words and expressions are omitted which cannot
with propriety be read in a Family, by_ T. Bowdler, Vol. V., containing
Troilus and Cressida, Coriolanus, Julius Cæsar, Antony and Cleopatra, and
Cymbeline.--The new volume of Bohn's _Standard Library_ contains the eighth
and concluding volume of the _History of the Christian Church_, as
published by Neander. The publisher holds out a prospect of a translation
of the posthumous volume compiled from Neander's Papers by Dr. Schneider,
and with it of a general index to the whole work.--_The Physical and
Metaphysical Works of Lord Bacon, including his Dignity and Advancement of
Learning, in Nine Books, and his Novum Organum, or Precepts for the
Interpretation of Nature_, by Joseph Devey, M.A., forms the new volume of
Bohn's _Scientific Library_.

       *       *       *       *       *

{274}

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

GMELIN'S HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY. Inorganic Part.

ARCHÆOLOGIA. Vols. III., IV., V., VI., VII., VIII., X., XXVII., XXVIII.,
unbound.

THE HISTORY OF SHENSTONE, by the REV. H. SAUNDERS. 4to. London, 1794.

LUBBOCK'S ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON THE TIDES.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. Vol. I., and Parts I.
and II. of Vol. II.

CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 1st and 2nd Series collected.

TODD'S CYCLOPÆDIA OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Complete, or any Portion.

GLADSTONE'S (W. E.) TWO LETTERS TO THE EARL OF ABERDEEN ON THE STATE
PROSECUTIONS OF THE NEAPOLITAN GOVERNMENT. 1st Edition. 8vo.

SWIFT'S WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 Vols. 8vo. 1768. Vol. I.

PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE UNDER DIFFICULTIES. Original Edition. Vol. I.

THE BOOK OF ADAM.

THE CHRISTIAN MAGAZINE. Vol. for 1763.

PRO MATRIMONIO PRINCIPIS CUM DEFUNCTÆ UXORIS SORORE CONTRACTO RESPONSUM
JURIS COLLEGII JURISCONSULTORUM IN ACADEMIA RINTELENSI (circa 1655).

MONNER JURISCONSULT., DE MATRIMONIO.

BRÜCKNER, DE MATRIMONIO.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

[Omega]. [Phi]. _The volume referred to is the well-known reprint of the
First Edition of Shakspeare._

TYRO. _How can we address a letter to this Correspondent?_

A. C. W. _The_ yolk _of an Egg is the_ yelk, _or yellow of the egg. In
Beaumont and Fletcher's_ Wife for a Month _it is so written_:

                 "like to poach'd eggs,
  That had the _yelk_ suck'd out."

_See Richardson's_ Dictionary, s. v.

JARLTZBERG. _The name_ Radical _is only an abbreviated form of_ Radical
Reformer, _which was the title originally assumed by the political party
now known as_ Radicals.

C. E. B. (M.D.) Dublin. _The Query shall be immediately inserted, if
forwarded. The former does not appear to have been received._

RECNAC. _Douce_ (Illustrations of Shakspeare, vol. i. p. 301.), _speaking
of the passage_ "Sans teeth, sans eyes," _&c., shows that the word_ sans,
_introduced into our language as early as the time of Chaucer, has
sometimes received on the stage a French pronunciation, which in the time
of Shakspeare it certainly had not_.

H. HENDERSON (Glasgow). _Glass may be cemented for Photographic Baths, &c.
with sealing-wax. We think our Correspondent would find Dr. Diamond's
Collodion Process far simpler than that which he is following._

REPLIES TO PHOTOGRAPHIC QUERISTS _next week_.

MR. WELD TAYLOR'S Cheap Method of Iodizing Paper _in our next Number_.

GOOKINS OF IRELAND, AND BITTON, GLOUCESTERSHIRE (Vol. vi., p. 239.).--Will
J. F. F. allow me the favour of his address, to enable me to transmit to
him some papers relating to the Gookins? He will much oblige H. T.
ELLACOMBE.--Clyst St. George, Devon.

       *       *       *       *       *


Collection of Antiquities, Books, &c., of the late ED. PRICE, Esq., F.S.A.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, during the present Month,
the Interesting Collection of Antiquities of the late ED. PRICE, Esq.,
F.S.A., including many valuable Specimens of Roman, Saxon, and other
Pottery, Coins, Ancient and Mediæval Metal Work, and other interesting
objects, many of which have been engraved in the various Archæological and
Pictorial Journals, and have been the subject of frequent reference in
"NOTES AND QUERIES." Catalogues will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. GLADSTONE'S ELECTION.

Just published in 8vo., price 1s.

A STATEMENT OF FACTS connected with THE ELECTION of the RIGHT HON. W. E.
GLADSTONE as Member for the University of Oxford in 1847, and with his
re-elections in 1852 and 1853, by SIR STAFFORD H. NORTHCOTE, Bart., a
Member of Mr. Gladstone's Committee.

Oxford and London: J. H. PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *


In fcp. 8vo. price 1s. 6d.

ECCLESIÆ ANGLICANÆ Religio, Disciplina, Ritusque Sacri: COSINI Episcopi
Dunelmensis Opusculum. Accedunt Argumenta quædam breviora de Fide Catholicâ
ac Reformatione Anglicanâ. In Appendice, Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Catechismus.
Edidit FREDRICUS MEYRICK, M.A., Coll. S. S. Trinitat. apud Oxon. Socius.

Oxonii, apud J. H. PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, with Etchings, price 1s.

AN URGENT PLEA for the REVIVAL of TRUE PRINCIPLES of ARCHITECTURE in the
PUBLIC BUILDINGS of the UNIVERSITY of OXFORD. By GEORGE EDMUND STREET,
F.S.A., Diocesan Architect for the Diocese of Oxford.

Oxford and London: J. H. PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *


A LITERARY CURIOSITY, sent Free by Post on receipt of Three Postage Stamps.
A Fac-simile of a very remarkably Curious, Interesting, and Droll Newspaper
of Charles II.'s Period.

J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 1s., free by post, 1s. 6d.

DIRECTIONS for Obtaining Positive and Negative Pictures, by the COLLODION
PROCESS, and for Printing the Proofs in various Colours upon Paper, by T.
HENNAH.

The AMMONIO-IODIDE OF SILVER in Collodion, for taking Portraits or Views on
Glass, cannot be surpassed in quickness or delicacy of detail. CHEMICALS of
absolute purity especially prepared for this Art. Every description of
APPARATUS with the most recent improvements. Instruction given in the Art.

DELATOUCHE & CO., 147. Oxford Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c.

ASHBEE & DANGERFIELD, LITHOGRAPHERS, DRAUGHTSMEN, AND PRINTERS, 18. Broad
Court, Long Acre.

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that they devote particular attention
to the execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FACSIMILES, comprising Autograph
Letters, Deeds, Charters, Title-pages, Engravings, Woodcuts, &c., which
they produce from any description of copies with the utmost accuracy, and
without the slightest injury to the originals.

Among the many purposes to which the art of Lithography is most
successfully applied, may be specified,--ARCHÆOLOGICAL DRAWINGS,
Architecture, Landscapes, Marine Views, Portraits from Life or Copies,
Illuminated MSS., Monumental Brasses, Decorations, Stained Glass Windows,
Maps, Plans, Diagrams, and every variety of illustrations requisite for
Scientific and Artistic Publications.

PHOTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS lithographed with the greatest care and exactness.

LITHOGRAPHIC OFFICES, 18. Broad Court, Long Acre, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO BOOK BUYERS.--All Readers, Collectors, Librarians, and persons fond of
Literature or Literary Information, should not delay sending for a
Catalogue (gratis) published nearly every month, of purchases of Books, Old
and New, at extraordinary low prices, and in good condition, in every
department. English and Foreign, to

THOMAS COLE, 15. Great Turnstile, Lincoln's-inn-Fields, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, No. I. price 3d., or stamped 4d., of the

JOURNAL OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.

CONTENTS.

Introductory Remarks.--Inaugural Meeting of the Society.--Proceedings at
the First Ordinary Meeting.--Papers read: 1. Sir William J. Newton upon
Photography in an Artistic View; 2. Mr. R. Fenton on the Objects of the
Photographic Society; 3. Dr. J. Percy on the Waxed-Paper Process.--Review
and Correspondence.

No. II. will be published on the last day of this Month.

TAYLOR & FRANCIS, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


{275} ROSS'S PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE LENSES.--These lenses give
correct definition at the centre and margin of the picture, and have their
visual and chemical acting foci coincident.

_Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports_, p. 274.

"Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture having the greatest intensity yet
produced, by procuring the coincidence of the chemical actinic and visual
rays. The spherical aberration is also very carefully corrected, both in
the central and oblique pencils."

"Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in the Exhibition. It if furnished
with a double achromatic object-lens, about three inches aperture. There is
no stop, the field is flat, and the image very perfect up to the edge."

Catalogues sent upon Application.

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, has
now obtained an European fame; it supersedes the use of all other
preparations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined Testimonial.

    "122. Regent Street

    "Dear Sir,--In answer to your inquiry of this morning, I have no
    hesitation in saying that your preparation of Collodion is incomparably
    better and more sensitive than all the advertised Collodio-Iodides,
    which, for my professional purposes, are quite useless when compared to
    yours.

             "I remain, dear Sir,
                 "Yours faithfully,
                     "N. HENNEMAN.

          Aug. 30. 1852.
      to Mr. R.W. Thomas."

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to caution photographers against
purchasing impure chemicals, which are now too frequently sold at very low
prices. It is to this cause nearly always that their labours are unattended
with success.

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially prepared for this art, may be
obtained from R. W. THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photography, 10. Pall
Mall.

N.B.--The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use
of by unprincipled persons. To prevent imposition each bottle is stamped
with a red label bearing the maker's signature.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

The WAXED-PAPER PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY'S NEW EDITION.
Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

                           _Trustees._
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ESTABLISHED 1841.

MEDICAL, INVALID,

AND

GENERAL LIFE OFFICE,

25. PALL MALL.

During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than _Four Thousand
One Hundred and Fifty Policies_--

Covering Assurances to the extent of _One Million Six Hundred and
Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards_--

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to _Seventy-three Thousand Pounds_.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of
Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most other
Offices.

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies at
last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853--in which all Policies effected before 30th June,
1853, will participate.

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be
obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any of
the Society's Agents in the country.

  F. G. P. NEISON, Actuary.
  C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.

HONORARY PRESIDENTS.

  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan

LONDON BOARD.

_Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
_Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.

MEDICAL OFFICERS.

_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.
James's.
_Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as
follows:--

  ---------+----------+--------------------+----------
    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
  ---------+----------+---------+----------+----------
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0
  ---------+----------+---------+----------+----------

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident
Director.

       *       *       *       *       *


{276}

HAWKINSON'S SEATONIAN PRIZE POEMS.

Third Edition, fcap., cloth, price 7s.

POEMS. By THOMAS EDWARDS HAWKINSON, M.A., late of Corpus Christi College,
Cambridge.

London: T. HATCHARD, 187. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, Twelfth Edition, price 7s.

PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY. By MARTIN F. TUPPER, of Christ Church, Oxford.

London: T. HATCHARD, 187. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


VENN'S LIFE.

Just published, Seventh Edition, fcap., price 7s.

THE LIFE AND A SELECTION from the LETTERS of the late REV. HENRY VENN,
M.A., Author of "The Complete Duty of Man," &c. Edited by the REV. HENRY
VENN, B.D., Prebendary of St. Paul's.

London: T. HATCHARD, 187. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OR GARDENS.

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE,

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, March 5, contains Articles on

  Beet, sugar, by Mr. Deane
  Birds, predatory
  Books, noticed
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- remarks on
  Cattle, chest diseases in
  Cedar and deodar, by Mr. Glendinning
  Chemistry, agricultural, by Johnstone, rev.
  Coffee planting
  Crops, theory of rotation of, by Mr. Russell
  Deodar and cedar of Lebanon
  ---- in Morayshire, by Mr. Grigor
  Drainage, by Mr. Mitchell
  Farming, steam
  ---- Tullian
  ---- careless
  Forest, Delamere, by Mr. Lipscomb
  Fruits, changing names of
  Fuchsia, culture of, by Mr. Mayle
  Fungi, Indian (with engraving)
  Horticultural Society's Garden noticed
  Hovea Celsi
  Hyacinths in glasses
  Irrigation, Italian, by Capt. Smith
  Land, to fork, by Mr. Mechi
  Law, cost of prosecutions
  Mangold wurzel crop on a wheat stubble, expenses per acre, by Mr. Mechi
  Plants, spring treatment of bedding, by Mr. Lucas
  Ploughs and ploughing
  Rothamsted and Kilwhiss experiments, by Mr. Russell
  Societies, proceedings of the Horticultural--Agricultural, of England
  Steam power
  Sugar beet, by Mr. Deane
  Temperature of January, 1838
  Tubs, slate
  Ustilago vittata (with engraving)
  Weather statistics
  Wheat, Lois Weedon system of growing, by Mr. Goodiff

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to
the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


OLD LONDON.

"Fac-simile" etchings of a Set of Drawings, showing the Fortifications,
round London, as directed to be done by the Parliament in 1642.

  No.                                          s.  d.

  1. Plan of the Fortifications                2   0

  2. A Redoubt with two Flanks, near St.
  Giles' Pound; a small Fort at East
  End of Tyburn Road; a large Fort,
  with four Half-Bulwarks, across
  the Tyburn Road                              2   6

  3. A small Bulwark at Oliver's Mount,
  against Tyburn Brook                         1   0

  4. A large Fort, with four Bulwarks, on
  the Reading Road, beyond Tyburn
  Brook; a small Redoubt and Battery
  on the Hill from St. James's
  Park                                         2   0

  5. A Court of Guard in Chelsea Road          1   0

  6. A Battery and Breastwork in Tothill
  Fields                                       1   0

  7. A Quadrant Fort, with four high
  Breastworks, at Foxhall                      2   6

  8. A Fort, with four Half-Bulwarks, in
  St. George's Fields                          2   0

  9. A large Fort, with four Bulwarks, at
  the end of Blackman Street                   3   0

  10. A Redoubt, with four Flanks, at the
  end of Kent Street                           2   6

  11. A Bulwark and a Half on the Hill at
  the end of Gravel Lane (the View
  up the River showing London
  Bridge, is very interesting)                 3   6

  12. A Hornwork, near the Church, at
  Whitechapel Street                           3   0

  13. A Redoubt, with two Flanks, at
  Brick Lane                                   1   0

  14. A Redoubt, at the Hackney corner
  of Shoreditch; a Redoubt, at the
  corner of the road to Edmonton, at
  Shoreditch                                   3   0

  15. A Battery and Breastwork, on the
  road to Islington                            3   0

  16. A Battery and Breastwork, at the end
  of St. John Street                           3   0

  17. A View of London from the North,
  showing the Fortifications from
  Whitechapel to Tothill Fields, also
  the old Walls and Gates of London,
  from the Tower Hill to Ludgate. Size
  40 inches by 8. (A marvellous
  View)                                       10   0

  18. A Battery at Gray's Inn Lane             2   6

  19. Two Batteries at Southampton House       2   0

  20. Portrait of the Author, Captain John
  Eyre, of Col. Cromwell's own Regiment        1   0

Subscribers are requested to send their name to MR. PETER THOMPSON, 1.
Osnaburgh Place, Trinity Church, Regent's Park (where the original Drawings
can be seen). The Prints to be paid for on delivery.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW ARCHÆOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS.

AKERMAN'S REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM. 4to. with Coloured Plates. Parts I. to
III. 2s. 6d. each.

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE and JOURNAL of the NUMISMATIC SOCIETY (Quarterly). No.
59. 3s. 6d.

BOWMAN'S RELIQUIÆ ANTIQUIÆ EBORACENSES. Remains of Antiquity relating to
the County of York 4to. Plates. Nos. 1 to 4. 2s. 6d. each.

THE ULSTER JOURNAL of ARCHÆOLOGY. 4to. Part I. (Quarterly.) 12s. per Year.

CAULFIELD'S EPISCOPAL and CAPITULAR SEALS of the IRISH CATHEDRAL CHURCHES.
8vo. Part I. Cashel and Emly. Plates, 1s. 6d.

DUNKIN'S ARCHÆOLOGICAL MINE. Comprising the History of the County of Kent.
8vo. Parts I. to III. 8d. each.

HUNTER'S (REV. JOSEPH) HISTORICAL and CRITICAL TRACTS. Post 8vo. Nos. 1 to
4. 2s. 6d. each.

SUGGESTIONS ON THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 8vo. Part I. 7s. 6d.

PUBLICATIONS OF THE ANTIQUARIAN ETCHING CLUB for 1852. 4to. 67 Plates. 10s.
annually.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW. Comprising Copious Critical Analyses of Old Books.
8vo. Nos. 1 and 2. (Quarterly.) 2s. 6d. each.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


LORD MAHON'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Now ready, Vol. II. (to be completed in seven vols.), post 8vo., 6s.

A HISTORY OF ENGLAND, From the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles,
1713-1783. By LORD MAHON. Third and revised Edition. (A Volume to be
published every Two Months.)

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE DEVEREUX EARLS OF ESSEX.

Now ready, with portraits, 2 vols. 8vo., 30s.

LIVES OF THE EARLS OF ESSEX, in the Reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and
Charles I., 1540-1646. Founded upon many unpublished Private Letters and
Documents. By Capt. the HON. WALTER BOURCHIER DEVEREUX, R.N.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with Descriptions
of all the Species, and Abstracts of the Systems of Ehrenberg, Dujardin,
Kützing, Siebold, &c. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, ESQ., M.R.I.

Also, price 5s.,

A GENERAL HISTORY OF ANIMALCULES, with 500 Engravings.

Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Microscopes.

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5 New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 12. 1853.





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