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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 177, March 19, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 177, March 19, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 177.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Inedited Letters of General Green and of Washington, by
    Edward Foss                                                277

  On a Passage in the "Domestic Architecture of England:"
    Surnames, by Joseph Burtt                                  278

  Samuel Taylor Coleridge                                      280

  FOLK LORE:--The ancient Custom of Well-flowering--Devil's
    Marks in Swine--Festival of Baal                           280

  Lord Monboddo, by W. L. Nichols                              281

  St. Valentine                                                281

  MINOR NOTES:--His Excellency David Hartley--The Life and
    Correspondence of S. T. Coleridge--An old Riddle--The
    Word "rather"--In Jesum Cruci affixum                      282


  Corbet Peerage, by Lord Monson                               283

  The Duke of Wellington a Maréchal de France, by
    Henry H. Breen                                             283

  MINOR QUERIES:--Prophecy in Hoveden--A Skating Problem--
    "Rap and read for"--"The wee brown Hen"--Deprived
    Bishops of Scotland, 1638--Passage in Carlyle--Madagascar
    Poetry--Ink--Hamilton Queries--Derivation of Windfall--Do
    the Sun's Rays put out the Fire?--Denmark and Slavery--
    Spontaneous Combustion--Bucks, most ancient and
    honourable Society of--Lines quoted by Charles Lamb--
    Descendants of Dr. Bill--"The Rebellious Prayer"--
    Ravenshaw and his Works                                    284

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Yolante de Dreux--Bishop
    Francis Turner--Raleigh's History                          286


  Epitaphs, by George S. Masters, Edw. Hawkins, &c.            287

  Throwing old Shoes for Luck, by W. Pinkerton, &c.            288

  Owen Glyndwr [Owen ap Griffith Vychan, Lord of Glyndwrdwy]   288

  Coleridge's Christabel: "Christobell, a Gothic Tale"         292

    Iodizing Paper--Queries on Sir W. Newton's Process--
    Suggestion to Photographers                                293

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Portrait of Pope--Conundrum--
    Herbé's "Costume Français"--Curious Fact in Natural
    Philosophy--"Haud cum Jesu itis, qui itis cum Jesuitis"
    --Tradescant Family--Arms of Joan d'Arc--Judæus Odor--
    Philip d'Auvergne--Dr. Parr's A. E. A. O.--Jewish
    Lineaments--Sotadic Verses--Bells at Funerals--Collar
    of SS.--Dr. Marshall--Shelton Oak--"God and the
    world"--Dreng--Meals--Richardson or Murphy                 294


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 298

  Notices to Correspondents                                    298

  Advertisements                                               299

       *       *       *       *       *



The letters of great men are always interesting, more particularly when
they are connected with important historical facts. I presume, therefore,
that those I subjoin from General Washington and General Green will not be
unwelcome to your readers. They were among the papers of an officer, long
deceased, who at the time was aide-de-camp to Sir Guy Carlton, the
commander-in-chief of our army in America; and were, I presume, intercepted
before they reached their respective destinations.

    "_General Green to General Washington._

     "Head Quarters on Ashley River,
      May 31st, 1782.


    "I had the honor of informing your Excellency, in a letter of the 19th
    instant, that a dangerous spirit of discontent had been discovered in
    the army, and of the measures I took to suppress it. I am happy to
    inform you that this spirit seems entirely to have subsided, as the
    persons who fomented it are removed at a distance from the troops: and,
    as we have now a prospect of some cloathing, and more comfortable
    supplies, I hope it will no more appear.

    "Your Excellency has been informed of the late important and
    interesting changes in the face of affairs.--The arrival of Sir Guy
    Carlton, and the change of ministers and measures, will open a new
    field of hopes for this country. How far we may be benefited by it, a
    little time will determine; but it will inevitably be attended with one
    bad consequence, as it will relax our preparation for a continuance of
    the war, which, to me, appears extremely probable. General Leslie has
    made overtures, and a proposition for a suspension of hostilities; I do
    myself the honor to inclose you copies of his letter, and my answer on
    the subject, from which you will see the ground on which it stands. I
    wait most anxiously for advices from Congress or your Excellency, by
    which my conduct in the business must be ultimately directed. I suppose
    this measure has been adopted {278} by Sir Guy Carlton, and proposed to
    your Excellency; but, as I am entirely at a loss to know on what
    conditions, and what purposes it has to answer, I can form no
    conclusive opinion on its propriety.

    "I am sanguine that the operations against Jamaica will go on,
    notwithstanding the late misfortune, which seems to be rather a
    splendid than useful victory to the enemy. And as Count de Guichen, who
    has arrived with a considerable squadron, and taken the command of the
    combined fleets in the West Indies, is still much superior to the
    British, we have good reason to hope the enterprise may succeed.

    "Inclosed, I transmit your Excellency the Report of Brigadier-General
    Wayne of a considerable skirmish in Georgia, wherein Lieut.-Col. Brown,
    with four or five hundred men, were defeated. The plan was judicious,
    and executed in a manner that does great honor both to the general and
    the troops. It will have very happy consequences in impressing the
    Indians with an idea of our superior power, and in the destruction of
    their cavalry.

    "The enemy continue their camp, entrenched at the Quarter House, in a
    strong position. Their patroles of horse, and ours, frequently go over
    the same ground. Captain Armstrong of the Legion, and Captain Gill of
    the fourth regiment, with about forty dragoons of Lieut.-Colonel
    Laurens's command, fell in with a troop of their horse two days ago,
    and took an officer, eight men, and ten horses, without suffering any
    other in injury than two men wounded.

     "With the highest esteem and regard,
          I have the honor to [be]
            Your Excellency's
              Most Obedient
                Humble Servant,
                      NATH. GREEN.

      His Excellency,
        General Washington."

    "_General Washington to Governor Livingston._

     "Head Quarters, Newburgh,
      July 3rd, 1782.


    "From the inclosed information of Captain Stevens, there is reason to
    apprehend the business of driving cattle to the enemy is carrying on
    with great art and assiduity; it would be a happy circumstance if the
    villains concerned in it could be detected. I have therefore to propose
    to your Excellency, that you will be pleased to take such precautions
    as you shall judge best calculated to learn whether any such cattle are
    passing in droves, or smaller parcels (for they may be divided on the
    road), to the enemy.

    "If your Excellency should hear of them before they turn off towards
    New York, I think it would be advisable to employ some trusty man or
    men to dog and follow them privately, until the fact is ascertained;
    otherwise, it is to be feared, no positive proof of the intention of
    the people engaged in this infamous trade can be obtained.

    "I sincerely wish every practicable plan may be attempted for seizing
    the cattle, apprehending and bringing to condign punishment the men; as
    this would tend essentially to frustrate the insidious schemes of our
    enemies, as well as deter their other agents from similar practices.

     "I have the honor to be,
          With perfect respect,
              Your Excellency's
            Most Obedient Servant,
                  GO. WASHINGTON.

    "P.S.--I am honor'd with your Excellency's letter of the 24th June.

    "His Excellency Gov. Livingston."


       *       *       *       *       *


In this work, to the justly high character of which I need scarcely refer,
the "General Remarks" relating to the periods under consideration are full
of information of the most interesting kind, as they often contain
illustrations of manners and customs not to be met with elsewhere.

In a portion of the "Remarks" illustrative of the thirteenth century,
showing the difficulty and insecurity of travelling at that time (pp.
120-122.), there is, however, an incorrect rendering of an extract from an
original document; and this error seriously affects the "illustration"
afforded by it. As I am in some degree personally involved in the matter,
having supplied the material in its original shape, I may perhaps be
permitted fully to explain and correct the passage. My only regret is, that
I had not the opportunity of calling my friend's attention to the subject
before the sheets were finally struck off. The extract is from an Account
of the Chamberlain of Chester, 29-30 Edw. I., showing how the sum of 1000l.
was transmitted from Chester to London. After referring to the convoy for
the treasure:

    "It was not sufficient, however," says the late Mr. Turner, "that the
    money should be protected; in the absence of hostels, except in towns,
    it was necessary to secure the guards from hunger. _Therefore they were
    accompanied by two cooks_, who provided 'a safe lodging' daily for the
    money; and, as a matter of course, _provided for the culinary
    necessities of its conductors_."

It will be seen that upon the word rendered "cooks" depends the whole value
of this passage, {279} as evidence of the road-side necessities of the
period. That word, however, does not bear such a construction; although, at
first sight, nothing would be more natural than to render it so. It is
written in the original "cok'," contracted; and to those conversant with
mediæval Latin, it is known to express "cokinus--coquinus," _Gallicè_
"coquin:" a word derived from "coquus," and _not_ that word itself. It
occurs commonly enough in the Royal Wardrobe Accounts, and means simply "a
messenger."[1] For those who have not the opportunity of referring to
original documents, there is a very good account of the persons so
designated supplied by the _Liber quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobæ,
anno 28 Edw. I._, edited by John Topham, Esq., in 1787, from the original
in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. It is referred to in the note
to the Post Office Report as containing the words Cokinus, Nuncius, and
Garcio, used apparently in one sense. At p. 280. is an account of payments
under the heading "Titulus de expens' nuncior' et cok' Regis Edwardi," &c.,
and in the glossary this explanation of the word is given:

    "COKINUS, COQUINUS.--'Homo vilissimus nec nisi infimis conquinæ
    ministeriis natus,' says Ducange. Charpentier adds _beggar_. Here it
    means the lowest kind of messengers or errand-boys, like _sculls_ or
    _scullions_ in colleges."

But this is too low an estimate of the class.

Having disposed of this passage, I wish now to draw the attention of your
readers who have taken part or interest in the late discussion in your
pages upon certain surnames, to the bearing which this extract, and others
expressive of the individuals there referred to, has upon that numerous
series of names ending in "cock;" about which so many, and, for these
regenerate days, some singular suggestions have been made. The discussion
was, I believe, commenced in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for May, 1837; and,
in the number for the same month in the following year, J. G. N. suggested
that many of those names might be referred to forms of "Coc, koc, le coq,
which occur in records as abbreviations of coquus, cocus--cook."

How cavalierly the suggestions thus afforded by Mr. Urban's pages were
treated by Mr. Lower, your readers will see who refer to the pages of that
gentleman's work upon _English Surnames_, indicated in the author's last
communication to you ("N. &. Q.," Vol. v., p. 509.). But their faith in the
improvement "N. & Q." has so greatly contributed to effect in such matters,
will not however let them be deterred by the terms there used from pursuing
the subject. It will be seen that my present contribution will modify the
view taken by J. G. N., but also, to a considerable extent, support it.

I am not aware that any attempt has been made to show how early these names
were used. I can refer to several instances of the names "Wilcoc" or
"Willecok," and "Badecok," two complete examples of the kind, in the
documents of the reign of Edward I.

Those of your readers who are members of the Camden Society have now before
them a copy of a document in which the first of those names occurs several
times. I refer to the small Household Roll of John of Brabant while at the
English court, which is printed in the last volume of the Camden Society's

No one doubts that by far the greater part of the names in question were
originally corrupted forms of Christian names, with a suffix. Mr. Lower has
done good service in showing thus much. And any one who refers to the list
in the Royal Wardrobe Account of 28 Edw. I., and especially those who can
also consult other similar manuscripts, will admit that it would be quite
possible that any Christian name might have been so used; so numerous must
have been the class of persons called "cokini." I will not further trespass
upon your space with specimens of names so manufactured, as they can be
formed with ease upon the first name "Wilcoc" from "Wille le cok,"--the
contracting mark being dropped. The final letter "k" is of importance, as
distinguishing the derivative from the parent word "coquus;" from what
period, and _why_, is doubtful. That there is but little early documentary
evidence of the names in their complete state, might be attributed to the
inferior class of the individuals so designated.

Mr. Lower's sole explanation of the terminal in question is, that it is a
diminutive like "kin;" and in justice to that view, I must not pass over
the evidence afforded by the Brabant Roll of a case where the two names
seem to be interchanged. One of Prince John's pages is named on the roll
"Hankin" (p. 7. line 3.); while, on the Wardrobe Account three years
previous, where the servants are specified by name, "Hancock" is there, who
is most likely the same person. It will also be seen, that whereas in the
Wardrobe Account the armourer's name is "Giles," and the barber's "Walter"
(see notes to the Brabant Roll), the foreign scribe of the account dubs
them "Gilkin" {280} and "Woterkin." In following up his argument upon this
subject, Mr. Lower speaks of a person being called "Little Wilcock," as an
instance of complete tautology: if, however, it is meant by this (as it
seems to be), that a diminutive name was only applied to a diminutive in
person, or only expressed such a one, I am sure he will find very many
differ from him, as affection or familiarity was at least as likely to have
originated its use. Thus, Peter de Gaveston would surely not be deprived of
his knightly fame because he was called by Prince Edward "Perot" (Pierrote
_a_ Pierre). Thus also came "Amyot" from Amy, "Launcelot" from Laurence,
"Gillot" from Giles. And "kin" has as much right to be so considered. But
there being already these two diminutives in ordinary use as to names of
persons, there surely was no occasion to apply to the same purpose a
syllable which (with a mark of contraction) certainly had a direct meaning,
and expressed a vocation; and which has very rarely been otherwise used in
a diminutive sense.

My object is not so much to advocate any particular solution as regards
these names, as to submit evidence bearing upon the subject, with such
explanations as have occurred to me.


[Footnote 1: In the _Report from the Select Committee_ (of the House of
Commons) _on the Post Office_ in 1844, Sir F. Palgrave makes the following
note on the word _Cokinus_, which occurs in some documents supplied to the
Committee, and printed in their Appendix:

"The word _Cokinus_, in the Wardrobe Accounts of the latter half of the
thirteenth century, is used to signify a 'messenger;' but in what the
Cokinus differed from the Nuncius and the Garcio--the other terms employed
in their accounts to signify the bearers of letters or messages--does not

       *       *       *       *       *


The habit of this celebrated author, to annotate in the margins of books
which he was reading, must be well known to many of the subscribers of "N.
& Q."

I have in my possession a curious little volume of notes, &c. in Mr.
Coleridge's handwriting, of course very highly prized, from which extracts
were made in vol. i. pp. 274-5., &c. of Coleridge's _Literary Remains_,
collected and edited by his nephew, H. N. Coleridge, Esq., 4 vols., 1836:

But, in addition to this volume, I have a few with S. T. Coleridge's
pencillings in the margins. The following is selected from Dr. Parr's
celebrated _Spital Sermon_, and is appended to one of his (Dr. Parr's)
notes, wherein he says:

    "Upon the various effects of superstition, where it has spread widely
    and thriven long, we can reason from facts. But in the original frame
    of the human mind, and in the operation of all those usual causes which
    regulate our conduct or affect our happiness, there seems to be a most
    active, constant, and invincible principle of _resistance_ to the
    approachments of atheism. 'All nature cries aloud' against them,
    'through all her works,' not in speculation only, but in practice."

Mr. Coleridge's annotation upon the foregoing opinion of the learned Doctor
is as follows; and I select it as a specimen of Coleridge's astonishing
recollection of any opinions he had formerly promulgated, which might have
called any laxity of principle, religious, moral, or political, into doubt,
and of his extreme anxiety to refute or explain them:

    "I never had even a doubt in _my being_ concerning the supreme Mind;
    but understand too sufficiently the difficulty of any intellectual
    demonstrations of his existence, and see too plainly how inevitably the
    principles of many pious men (Locke, Priestley, Hartley, even
    Archbishop King) would lead to atheism by fair production of
    consequences, not to feel in perfect charity with all good men, atheist
    or theist; and, let me add, though I now seem to feel firm ground of
    _reason_ under my belief in God, not gratefully to attribute my uniform
    past _theism_ more to general feeling than to depth of understanding.
    Within this purpose I hope that, without offence, I may declare my
    conviction, that in the French Revolution atheism was an effect, not a
    cause; that the same wicked men, under other circumstances and
    fashions, would have done the same things as Anabaptists within
    Munster, or as Inquisitors among the South American Indians; and that
    atheism from conviction, and as a ruling motive and impulse (in which
    case only can it be fairly compared with superstition), is a quiescent
    state and _per se_ harmless to all but the atheist himself. Rather is
    it that overwhelming preference of experimental philosophy, which, by
    smothering over more delicate perceptions, and debilitating often to
    impotence the faculty of going into ourselves, leads to atheism as a
    conscious creed, and in its extreme is atheism in its essence. This
    rather is, I should deem, the more perilous, and a plainer and better
    object for philosophical attack. O! bring back _Jack the Giant Killer_
    and the _Arabian Nights_ to our children, and Plato and his followers
    to new men, and let us have chemistry as we have watchmakers or
    surgeons (I select purposely honourable and useful callings), as a
    _division_ of human labour, as worthy profession for a few, not as a
    glittering master-feature of the education of men, women, and
    children.--S. T. C."

J. M. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


_The ancient Custom of Well-flowering._--At Tissington, near Ashbourne,
Derbyshire, annually, on Ascension Day, a beautiful ceremony called the
"well-flowering" takes place; and in it Psalms used by the Church of
England are partially employed. It is a popular recognition of the value of
those "perpetual fountains which gush out from below the dry wolds and
limestone hills, bearing life and beauty on their course,--objects,"
remarks Professor Phillips in his admirable work on _The Rivers, Mountains,
and Sea Coasts of Yorkshire_ (recently published), "on which rustic love
and admiration may tastefully bestow the emblematic flowers and grateful
songs, which constituted a pleasing form of popular worship in the earlier
ages of the world." Perhaps some correspondents of "N. & Q." may be enabled
to mention other {281} villages besides Tissington in which this innocent
and pleasing custom is still observed. I am aware that there are many
places, especially in the north of England, in which a rustic celebration
takes place annually at wells sacred from olden time; but is not the
"well-flowering" a distinct custom?



_Devil's Marks in Swine._--"We don't kill a pig every day," but we did a
short time since; and after its hairs were scraped off, our attention was
directed to six small rings, about the size of a pea, and in colour as if
burnt or branded, on the inside of each fore leg, and disposed
curvilinearly. Our labourer informed us with great gravity, and evidently
believed it, that these marks were caused by the pressure of the devil's
fingers, when he entered the herd of swine which immediately ran violently
into the sea.--See Mark v. 11-15.; Luke viii. 22, 33.


_Festival of Baal._--The late Lady Baird, of Ferntower, in Perthshire, told
me that, every year at "Beltane" (or the 1st of May), a number of men and
women assembled at an ancient druidical circle of stones on her property,
near Crieff. They light a fire in the centre; each person puts a bit of
oatcake into a shepherd's bonnet; they all sit down and draw blindfold a
piece of cake from the bonnet. One piece has been previously blackened, and
whoever gets that piece has to jump through the fire in the centre of the
circle and to pay a forfeit. This is, in fact, a part of the ancient
worship of Baal, and the person on whom the lot fell was formerly burnt as
a sacrifice; now, the passing through the fire represents that, and the
payment of the forfeit redeems the victim. It is curious that staunch
Presbyterians, as the people of that part of Perthshire now are, should
unknowingly keep up the observance of a great heathen festival.

L. M. M. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


In my copy of _The Origin and Progress of Language_, I have recorded a
little [Greek: anekdoton] of the author, which is now probably known to
nobody but myself, and which you may perhaps think worth preservation. It
was related to me some fifteen years ago, by a learned physician of this
city, now deceased, who had it from Dr. James Gregory himself.

It appears that Lord Monboddo, in spite of failing health and very advanced
age, felt a wish to pay one more visit to the English metropolis, in the
literary circles of which he was fond of mingling. That he had actually set
out upon this formidable journey, was known to Dr. Gregory, who, being a
few hours afterwards at a short distance from Edinburgh, was a little
surprised to meet his venerable friend returning homewards. He was on
horseback, equipped in his usual travelling costume,--cocked hat, scarlet
_roquelaure_, and jack-boots, but looking extremely ill and depressed in
spirits. "What, so soon returned?" was Dr. Gregory's exclamation. "Yes,"
said the old man, "I feel myself quite unequal to the journey, and was just
thinking of a passage in Horace, and adapting it to my own case." "What,
'Solve senescentem?'" said the Doctor. "No," replied his lordship, "it is
one not quite so hackneyed." He then repeated, with much emotion, the
following lines from the second Satire of the second book:

 "Seu recreare volet tenuatum corpus; ubique
  Accedent anni, et tractari mollius ætas
  Imbecilla volet."

This was the last time Dr. Gregory saw him out of doors, and he died not
long after.



       *       *       *       *       *


The subjoined cutting from an American newspaper (_Wooster Democrat_, Feb.
3) will show the persistent vitality of popular follies, and at the same
time serve to exhibit the _peculiar_ literature of transatlantic

    "The great increase in Marriages throughout Wayne Co. during the past
    year, is said to be occasioned by the superior excellence of the

    V A L E N T I N E S

    sold by George Howard. Indeed so complete was his success in this line,
    that Cupid has again commissioned him as the 'Great High Priest' of
    Love, Courtship, and Marriage, and has supplied George with the most
    complete and perfect assortment of 'Love's Armor' ever before offered
    to the citizens of Wayne County. During the past year the 'Blind God'
    has centred his thoughts on producing something in the line far
    surpassing anything he has heretofore issued. And it is with 'feelinks'
    of the greatest joy that he is able to announce that he has succeeded.


    "To those susceptible persons whose hearts were captured during the
    past year, George refers, and advises others to call on them, and find
    them on their way rejoicing, shouting praises to the name of Howard.
    The 'blessings' descend unto even the third and fourth generations, and
    it is probable that the business will go on increasing year upon year,
    until Howard's Valentines will be a 'household word' throughout the
    land. The children on the house-top will call to the passers-by,


    while the cry is echoed from the ground, and swelling over hill and
    vale reverberates the country through.

    {282} "Remember that the only regularly authorised dispenser of Cupid's
    goods is


    "Two doors East of the American House, Wooster, O.

    "[Pointing hand] Orders by mail promptly attended to. Prices range from
    six cents to five dollars."

       *       *       *       *       *


    "A large and splendid assortment of Valentines, together with all the
    necessary fixings, for sale wholesale and retail, at the New Column


    "Wooster, Feb. 3, 1853."

       *       *       *       *       *

    "VALENTINES.--Behold St. Valentine's day is coming, and all are seeking
    for messages to be dispatched under cover of this Saint, to friend or
    foe. They are provided, of all kinds, styles, and varieties, ready for
    use. The turtle dove kind, with its coo! coo! the sensibly sentimental,
    the cutting, and severe, and in short everything that can be required.
    Just call on George Howard or J. H. Baumgardner & Co., and you can be
    suited to a T."

S. R. P.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_His Excellency David Hartley._--In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of January
last (which I have only lately seen), there is inserted at page 8. a letter
signed by "Benjamin Franklin and John Jay," and addressed to His Excellency
David Hartley, announcing the arrival in Europe of the ratification, by the
Congress of the United States, of the definitive treaty of peace between
Great Britain and the United States, and stating that they were ready to
exchange the ratification with Mr. Hartley.

In a note prefixed to this letter, the editor of the review states that Mr.
Hartley "then held some other diplomatic appointment from the United

Now this is a mistake. Mr. Hartley was the British plenipotentiary who
signed that treaty at Paris in September, 1783, with the American
plenipotentiaries, and held no diplomatic appointment from the United
States. He was therefore the proper person to exchange the ratifications
with the American plenipotentiaries.

The treaty is printed at full length in Chalmers' _Collection of Treaties_,
together with Mr. Hartley's _full power_ as the British plenipotentiary.

J. B.

_The Life and Correspondence of S. T. Coleridge._--It is much to be
regretted that no proper life of the "noticeable man" has yet appeared.
There is no lack of "reminiscences," and "recollections," and
"conversations," conveying, distorted views of his life and character, and
exaggerated statements of his faults and failings; but his life has yet to
be written. And now would be the time, whilst some of his friends and
cotemporaries are still living, to do justice to his memory. Scott,
Southey, Wordsworth, have had their lives copiously illustrated, and even
little Tommy Moore is (_cosa stupenda_) to have _ten volumes_ devoted to
his life, whilst Coleridge, the myriad-minded, still waits for a
biographer. And who would be so suitable as Derwent Coleridge to perform
the office!

J. M. B.

_An old Riddle._--I lately found the following mysterious verse upon a
scrap of paper. It is of the time of Henry VIII.:

 "Vj is come, v is goone, wyth thris tene beware al men
  Vij wyth vij shall mete wyth viij^th and viij^th manye
  A thousande shall wepe Ad parabulam hanc
  If I shulde seye what it is I shuld have no thanke
  For he that ne rekketh where that he steppeth
  He may lightly wade to depe."

J. BT.

_The Word "rather."_--The word _rather_ is, as far as I know (if I am
wrong, perhaps some of your correspondents will correct me) a solitary
instance in our language of a comparative regularly formed from a positive
which is now obsolete. In the _Cant. Tales_, v. 13029., we find the
positive form:

 "What aileth you so _rathe_ for to arise;"

where _rathe_ means "early, soon."

The earliest use of the comparative degree which I can find, is in a piece
of Anglo-Norman poetry preserved in Hickes's _Thesaurus_, and given in
Ellis's _Specimens_, vol. i. p. 73.:

 "The chrystal turneth into glass
  In state that it _rather_ was."

Here we have the adverbial form; but in Chaucer's _Troilus and Creseide_,
iii. 1342., we find the adjectival form:

 "But now to purpose of my _rather_ speech,"

where, according to the principle laid down by Dr. Latham, in his _English
Language_, p. 262., 2nd edit., we should, I suppose, pronounce it

This word has sustained various modifications of meaning, but they are in
general easily deducible from the original signification: _e.g._ the phrase
"I had _rather_" is easily explained, as far as the word _rather_ is
concerned; for that which we do more quickly, we do preferably. But in such
expressions as "I am _rather_ tired," equivalent to "I am a little tired,"
the explanation is not so obvious. In this case _rather_ seems to mean "In
greater degree than otherwise." Now, in such sentences as "I am glad you
are come, _the rather_ that I have work for you to do," _rather_ seems to
require the signification "in a greater degree;" and may we not therefore
explain the case in question as an elliptical expression for "rather than
not?" If {283} so, is it not a solitary instance of such a construction in
our language? Perhaps some of your correspondents can inform me, at what
period this use of the word was introduced; for it is doubtless a modern



_In Jesum Cruci affixum._--

 "Affixus ligno, _Salvator_, crimina mundi
    Abstersit, patiens jussa cruenta necis;
  Aspicite ut languore decus, turpescere membra,
    Intimus ut sese prodat in ore dolor;
  Auditus saxis, intellectusque ferarum
    Sensibus, inventos Spiritus æger abit.
  Splendida per tenebras, subito simulacra coruscant,
    Ardentesque micant per freta longa faces;
  Pro servis dominus moritur, pro sontibus insons,
    Pro ægroto medicus, pro grege pastor obit,
  Pro populo nex mactatur, pro milite ductor,
    Proque opere ipse opifex, proque homine ipse Deus:
  Quid servus, sons, ægrotus, quid grex, populusque,
    Quid miles, quid opus, quidve homo solvat? _Amet_."

The present holy season has brought to my recollection the above beautiful
lines, which were shown up some fifty years ago, for long copy, by a
schoolfellow at Blundell's school, Tiverton, and copied into my scrap-book.
I think they are from the _Poemata_ of Joannes Audoenus, but am not sure of
it; of this, however, I am sure, they cannot be better made known to the
world than by your excellent publication.



       *       *       *       *       *



Sarah, widow of Sir Vincent Corbet, Bart., was created (23rd October, 1679)
Viscountess Corbet, of Linchlade, co. Bucks, for her natural life; and in
the patent the preamble runs,--that his Majesty Charles II.,

    "Having taken into his royal consideration the great worth and merits
    of the trusty and well-beloved Sarah Lady Corbet, together with the
    faithful services of the late Sir Vincent Corbet, grants," &c.

This evidently explains but little of the real reason both of the grant and
its limitation. Lady Corbet had, besides four daughters, two sons then
living: both in turns succeeded to the baronetcy. If the peerage were a
reward for the services of the late Sir Vincent (those services, indeed,
consisting in his having been completely routed by Sir Will Brereton at
Nantwich, and afterwards with six troops of horse taken by surprise at
Drayton, followed eventually by fine and sequestration),--if, I say, for
these services, nineteen years after the Restoration, and certainly three
after Sir Vincent's own death, the peerage were bestowed on his widow, then
why was it limited for her life? Why was the unusual course taken of
actually excluding the succession of the issue, who naturally should have
been the recipients of the honour? We may conclude, therefore, the motive
was personal favour, "the great worth and merits" of Lady Corbet in fact,
as the patent first asserts; but then the Query arises what these were.
Tradition says Lady Corbet was a beauty and a _favourite_ (the term may be
understood) at a profligate court, and the peerage was the reward; but I
cannot discover that this is more than tradition, and have never found any
corroborative authority even among the many scandalous histories of the
time, and I am most desirous to know if any such evidence can be given.

It may be as well to add that in 1679 Lady Corbet was _sixty-six_ years of
age; but we may presume she still had attractions (unless these were only
her rank) from the fact that two months later she remarried Sir Charles Lee
of Billesley.


Gatton Park.

       *       *       *       *       *


The _Revue Britannique_, in its Number for November, 1852, under the head
of "Nouvelles des Sciences," gives an account of the Duke of Wellington's
funeral, and enumerates the titles of the illustrious deceased, as
proclaimed on the occasion by Garter King-at-Arms. The writer marks in
Italics those of _Duc de Brunoy en France_, _Maréchal de France_, and
_Chevalier du Saint-Esprit_, and then appends these remarks:

    "Que le titre de Duc de Brunoy ait été donné réellement par Louis
    XVIII. à Lord Wellington, c'est croyable. Le roi pouvait créer ce duché
    en sa faveur, sans blesser aucune susceptibilité militaire. Mais que ce
    prince politique ait pu nommer Maréchal de France un général étranger,
    auquel il préférait donner le cordon du Saint-Esprit, plutôt que la
    simple croix de la Légion-d'Honneur, qu'on cherche en vain dans la
    liste des Ordres dont Lord Wellington fut décoré, c'est plus difficile
    à croire, à moins que cette nomination n'ait eu lieu avec des reserves
    et des conditions de secret, qui auraient fort peu satisfait celui
    qu'on supposait, sans doute, ambitieux d'un pareil honneur, puisque on
    le lui offrait. Le nombre des Maréchaux fut limité et non augmenté sous
    la Restoration. Louis XVIII. crea une Maréchale, il est vrai;--Si Lord
    Wellington fut nommé Maréchal, ce titre, restreint à une qualification
    honorifique, comme celle de la veuve de Moreau, ne put jamais lui
    conférer aucun rang dans l'armée Française. Je somme ici le roi d'armes
    Jarretière de vouloir bien produire le diplôme du noble duc."

No man ever stood less in need of foreign orders than the Duke of
Wellington; and no man ever {284} had so many of them conferred upon him.
As he was the last to assume a title that did not belong to him, so he
would have been the first to repudiate any such pretension, if put forward
by others on his behalf. Allow me therefore to ask, Would it be
inconsistent with what is due to the memory of the great Duke, or with our
sense of national honour, to undertake the task of clearing up the doubts
thus thrown out respecting his claim to the title of Maréchal de France? I
believe these doubts have been repeated in other French journals, and that
no reply has yet been made to them by the English press.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Prophecy in Hoveden._--I should be extremely obliged if any one of your
numerous readers would give me the following information. In the account
given by Hoveden (p. 678. of the Frankfort edition of Sir H. Savile's
_Scriptores post Bedam_) of the proceedings during the stay of Richard I.
at Messina, that author says:

    "Then was fulfilled the prophecy which was found written in ancient
    characters on tablets of stone, near a vill of the King of England,
    which is called 'Here,' and which King Henry gave to William
    Fitz-Stephen. Here the said William built a new house on a pinnacle, on
    which he placed the figure of a stag, which is supposed to have been
    done that the said prophecy might be fulfilled, which was to the
    following effect:

     'Whan thu seches in Here hert yreret.
      Than sulen Engles in three be ydeled.
      That han sal into Yrland altolate waie,
      That other into Puille mid prude bi seue,
      The thridde into Airhahen herd alle wreken drechegen.'"

This is evidently full of typographical errors, and may be more correctly
set forth in the English edition of 1596, which I have not at hand. I
therefore wish for information on these points:

1. What is the correct version of this prophecy, and where may it be found?

2. What place is meant by "Here?"

I need hardly say that I have no difficulty as to the first two lines:
"When you see a hart reared (erected) in Here, then shall England be
divided into three parts."

J. H. V.

_A Skating Problem._--The motto of your paper is, "When found, make a note
of it." Here then is one for you.

In several of my skating excursions I have observed, and noted it to
others, that ice of just sufficient strength to bear any one in skates
standing upon it, will instantly break if tried by the same person without
having skates on. I don't know if any of your readers have made the same
discovery: if so, can they explain the cause? If, on the contrary, any are
incredulous enough to doubt the fact, I would recommend them to test the
truth of my statement by a personal trial, before they pass a hasty
judgment of the subject.


"_Rap and rend for._"--In Dryden's Prologue to _The Disappointment, or the
Mother in Fashion_, we find these lines:

 "Our women batten well on their good nature
  All they can rap and rend for the dear creature."

"All they can rap and run for" is the more frequent colloquial version of
this quaint phrase.

In Chaucer's "Chanones Yeman's Tale" it stands thus:

 "But wasten all that ye may rape and renne."

And to this last word Tyrwhit, in his Glossary, gives "rend?" with a mark
of interrogation, as doubtful of the meaning.

Johnson gives it "rap and rend," and quotes a line of Hudibras:

 "All they could rap and rend and pilfer:"

and adds, "more properly, _rap and ran_; [ræpan] Sax., to bind, and _rana_,
Icelandic, to plunder."

The question is, are we to accept this phrase in the sense it is commonly
used, _to seize and plunder_; or have later and better philologists mended
the version?

The context in Chaucer does not seem to warrant the interpretation given by
Tyrwhit. The narrator is warning his hearers against the rogueries of

 "If that your eyen cannot seen aright,
  Loketh that youre mind lacke not his sight.
  For tho' ye loke never so brode and stare,
  Ye shul not win a mite on that chaffare,
  But wasten all that ye may rape and renne.
  Withdraw the fire, lest it to faste brenne;
  Medleth no more with that art, I mene;
  For if ye don, your thrift is gon ful clene."


"_The wee brown Hen._"--Can any of your correspondents oblige me with a
copy of the old Jacobin song, the "Wee brown Hen?" It begins thus:

 "I had a wee brown hen,
  And she had a wee brown tap,
  And she gaed out in the mornin'
  For to fill her crap.
  The violets were her coverin',
  And everything was her care,
  And every day she laid twa eggs,
  And Sundays she laid mair.
    Och! they micht hae letten her be,
    For every day she laid twa eggs,
    And Sundays she laid three."

The words are very old, and conveyed a certain religious and political
allusion. I know the tune {285} of it, and I shall take it as a favour to
be furnished with a correct version of the songs.


_Deprived Bishops of Scotland, 1638._--Neither Bishop Keith, with all his
industry (in his _Hist. Catal. of the Scottish Bishops_), nor subsequent
ecclesiastical writers on the same subject, appear to have been able to
mention the period of the deaths of nearly all those prelates deprived of
their sees in 1638. The researches of late years may, perhaps, have been
more successful, and in that hope I now venture to inquire when and where
the lives of the following Scottish bishops came to a close--1. David
Lindsay, Bishop of Edinburgh. 2. Alex. Lindsay, Bishop of Dunkeld. 3. Adam
Ballenden, Bishop of Aberdeen. 4. John Guthrie, Bishop of Moray. 5. James
Fairly, Bishop of Argyle. 6. Neil Campbell, Bishop of the Isles. 7. John
Abernethy, Bishop of Caithness. 8. Geo. Graham, Bishop of Orkney; and 9.
Robert Baron, Bishop elect of Orkney, 1638. The Archbishops of St. Andrew
and Glasgow, and Bishops of Brechin, Dunblane, Ross, and Galloway, are
slightly noticed, though even in these few there are discrepancies, both as
to year and place of demise, which might be corrected. The later
ecclesiastical records of Scotland are also exceedingly scanty; for Mr.
Perceval, with all his acumen and research (in his _Apology for the
Doctrine of Apostolical Succession_, 2nd edit., Appendix, pp. 250-3.),
acknowledges with regret his inability to give more particulars of the
consecrations in Scotland between 1662 and 1688, for the column with names
of consecrators is without dates of consecrations during that period, and
is, with very few exceptions, a blank. In continuation of this topic, may I
inquire when and where the two following bishops, deprived in 1690,
died?--1. John Hamilton, Bishop of Dunkeld and 2. Archibald Graham, Bishop
of the Isles. The notices given by Bishop Keith, of the other deprived
Scottish bishops, are also exceedingly brief and meagre; nor has Mr. Lawson
(_Hist. Scot. Epis. Ch._) added much.

A. S. A.


_Passage in Carlyle._--Carlyle (_French Revolution_, vol. i.), in his
description of the horrors attendant on the death-bed of Louis XV.,
mentions the ghosts of the men "who sank shamefully on so many
battle-fields from Rossbach to Quebec, that thy harlot might take revenge
for an epigram." Who was the harlot, and what the epigram?


_Madagascar Poetry._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." throw any light
upon the origin of the following lines? I found them among family papers,
written about the year 1805, where they are described as the "Invocation of
Madagascrian Spirit;" by which, I imagine, we are to infer that they are a
translation of some native lay from the island of Madagascar:

 "Spirit that art flown away,
  Listen to our artless lay.
  Teach us, Spirit, to do well;
  Teach us, Spirit, to excel.
  Stoop, O Spirit! and be kind,
  Teaching those you left behind:
  Listen to our artless lay,
  Spirit that art flown away."

C. S.

_Ink._--From the following lines by Whitehead, which I find in my
note-book, I am induced to ask who was the inventor of ink?

 "Hard, that his name it should not save,
  Who first pour'd forth the sable flood."


_Hamilton Queries_ (Vol. vi., p. 429.).--LORD BRAYBOOOKE says, in writing
of Lord Spencer Hamilton, that he "was a younger son of James, third Duke
of Hamilton." I find, on referring to a Peerage, date about 1720 (I cannot
quote it more particularly, as it has no title-page), that the third
inheritor of the dukedom of Hamilton was Anne, daughter of the first and
niece of the second Duke of Hamilton; and that she married William, Earl of
Selkirk, eldest son of the Marquis of Douglas. The date would better accord
with Lord Spencer's being a son of James, _fifth_ Duke of Hamilton. Was it
not so?

_Sir William Hamilton._--Who was the first wife of Sir W. Hamilton, the
celebrated ambassador, and when did he marry her? Who was the second, who
has attained such notoriety in connexion with Nelson's name; and when and
where were they married?

Was Single-speech Hamilton a member of the ducal family of Hamilton? If so,
his lineage from that house?


_Derivation of Windfall._--Arvine, in his _Cyclopædia_, gives the following
plausible reason for the origin of this term, now in such common use.
Query, Is he correct?

    "Some of the nobility of England, by the tenure of their estates, were
    forbidden felling any trees in the forests upon them, the timber being
    reserved for the use of the royal navy. Such trees as fell without
    cutting, were the property of the occupant. A tornado was therefore a
    perfect god-send, in every sense of the word, to those who had
    occupancy of extensive forests; and the _windfall_ was sometimes of
    very great value."

W. W.


_Do the Sun's Rays put out the Fire?_--There is a current and notorious
idea, that the admission of the sun-light into a room puts the fire out;
and, {286} after making every deduction for an apparent effect in this
matter, I confess I am disposed to think that the notion is not an
erroneous one. Can any of your correspondents account for it on
philosophical principles, or disprove it experimentally?

C. W. B.

_Denmark and Slavery._--Dr. Madden, in _A Twelve Months' Residence in the
West Indies_, 1834, says, in allusion to a remark of Mr. Brydges, to the
effect that England was the last European power to enter into the slave
trade, and the first to abandon it, "This is inaccurate: to the honour of
Denmark be it spoken, the slave trade was abolished by her five years
before England performed that act of tardy justice to humanity" (vol. ii.
p. 128.). The object of the present communication is neither to question
nor disparage the merit here claimed for Denmark, in reference to "the
slave _trade_:" it concerns the abolition of _slavery_ itself by that
power. I shall therefore be obliged to any reader of "N. & Q." who will
inform me when freedom was granted to the negroes in the Danish island of
St. Thomas, in the same manner as to those of the British West Indian
colonies in 1838? And also in what work I can find any detailed account of
such act of manumission?

L. L.

_Spontaneous Combustion._--Is there such a thing as spontaneous combustion?

H. A. B.

_Bucks, most ancient and honourable Society of._--A candid inquiry into the
principles and practices of this society, with its history, rules, and
songs, was published in 1770. It appeared that there were at that time
thirteen lodges of the society in London, and a few in other places. Do any
lodges of this society still exist? Did they issue any medals? Do they, or
did they, wear any badges? Who wore them, officers only, or all members?
How many varieties were there, and of what sizes? The book I have, and two
varieties of what I suppose may have been worn as badges.


_Lines quoted by Charles Lamb._--There are some lines quoted by Charles
Lamb in one of the _Essays of Elia_: I am very anxious to know whose they

 "Bind me, ye woodbines, in your twines,
  Curl me about, ye gadding vines,
  And oh! so close your circles lace
  That I may never leave this place.
  But, lest your fetters prove too weak,
  Ere I their silken bondage break,
  Do you, oh briars! chain me too,
  And courteous brambles nail me through!"

L. M. M. R.

_Descendants of Dr. Bill._--Are there any records extant of the family or
descendants of Dr. Bill, whose name is first on the list of those who drew
up the Prayer-Book, tempus Edward VI.? He was also Lord Almoner to Queen
Elizabeth. Dr. Bill's only daughter and heiress, Mary Bill, was married to
Sir Francis Samwell: had she any family, and did they assume the name of

Did a branch of the family settle in Staffordshire, and where?

A. R. M.

"_The Rebellious Prayer._"--Can any of your readers inform me whether some
stanzas entitled "The Rebellious Prayer" have ever yet appeared in print,
and, if so, in what collection of poems they are to be met with? The
opening lines are as follows:

 "It was a darken'd chamber, where was heard
  The whisper'd voice, hush'd step, and stifled sounds
  Which herald the deep quietness of death," &c.

They describe the anxious watchings of a wife at the sick couch of her
husband. In her agony she prays that his life may be spared, at whatever
cost: her prayer is granted, and her husband is restored, but bereft of

J. A.

_Ravenshaw and his Works._--Can any of your readers give me information, or
refer me to any works, of John Ravenshaw, who was ejected from
Holme-Chapel[2] under the Act of Uniformity? He is described by Calamy as
having been a good scholar, and possessing a taste for poetry.


[Footnote 2: Or Church-Holm, in Cheshire.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Yolante de Dreux_ (Vol. vi., pp. 150. 209.)--J. Y. has given this queen's
second marriage, but not the date or the names of her issue. I am aware
that her husband Arthur II. (not I.) was Duke of Bretagne, 1305-12, and
that her only son John III., born 1293, succeeded; but the names and
marriages of her five daughters still remain unnoticed, as also any notices
of her father the _Count of Dreux_, or of her mother.

A. S. A.


    [The names of the five daughters of this lady and their alliances are
    as follow:--1. Johanna, born 1294, married to Robert of Flanders, Lord
    of Cassel. 2. Beatrix, born 1295, married Guido X., Baron of Laval, in
    1315, died 1384. 3. Alisa, born 1297, married, 1320, Burchard VI.,
    Count of Vendosme, died 1377. 4. Bianca, died an infant. 5. Mary, born
    1302, became a nun, and died 1371. The father of Yolante de Dreux was
    Robert IV., Count of Dreux, Braine, Montfort, and l'Amaury, and died
    November 14, 1282. Her mother was Beatrix, daughter and heiress of John
    Count of Montfort, l'Amaury, and Lord of Rochefort, married in 1260.
    This is given on the authority of Anderson's _Royal Genealogies_, table
    378, p. 620.]


_Bishop Francis Turner._--He left a manuscript Life of Nicholas Ferrar of
Little Gidding, which formed the basis of Dr. Peckard's _Life of Ferrar_,
reprinted in Wordsworth's _Ecclesiastical Biography_. Where can this
manuscript be found? Are there any literary remains of the bishop to be met
with anywhere?

J. J. J.

    [We believe all that is known of Bishop Turner's MS. Life of Nicholas
    Ferrar is, that it was in the custody of the editor of _The Christian
    Magazine_ in 1761. Foster the Essayist (_Lectures_, vol. ii. p. 504.
    edit. 1848) says, "A long and well-written account of Ferrar was drawn
    up by a Dr. Turner, Bishop of Ely, and left by him in manuscript. It
    remained in the hands of the persons to whom his papers descended, till
    it was communicated to the conductors of a miscellany called _The
    Christian Magazine_, in a volume of which for the year 1761, this
    curious memoir was lately pointed out to me." Gough, in his _British
    Topography_, vol. ii. p. 299.*, furnishes a few other
    particulars:--"The papers of Bishop Turner, in the year 1761, appear to
    have been in the hands of Dr. Dodd, who printed some of them in _The
    Christian Magazine_ for that year. In particular the _Life of Mr.
    Nicholas Ferrar_ was abridged, and published at p. 356. In the
    introduction the editor says, 'As the _Life_ is rather too long for our
    pamphlet, even divided, we have taken the liberty to abridge some
    particulars in the Bishop's account, and now and then to alter a phrase
    or two in his language, which through length of time is in some places
    rather become obsolete.' From this passage it will appear that it was
    published in the worst manner it could be." Our correspondent will find
    much curious matter respecting the biographies of Nicholas Ferrar in
    our Second Volume, pp. 119. 407. 444. 485. Among the Addit. MSS. (No.
    5540., f. 53.) in the British Museum, is a Letter of Bishop Turner's
    addressed to Mr. Reading, and read at the trial of Lord Preston, 1691.]

_Raleigh's History._--What is the story of Raleigh's burning the second
volume of his History?


    [The story is this:--A few days previously to his death, Raleigh sent
    for Walter Burre, who printed his History; and asking him how the work
    had sold, received for answer, "so slowly that it had undone him." Upon
    which Sir Walter brought from his desk a continuation of the work to
    his own time, and, throwing it into the fire, said to Burre, "the
    second volume shall undo no more; this ungrateful world is unworthy of
    it." (Winstanley's _English Worthies_, p. 256.) There is, however, no
    satisfactory authority for the truth of this anecdote; and it has been
    rejected by Arthur Cayley, and his other biographers.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 178.)

The following is a _real_ epitaph. It was written by Dr. Greenwood on his
wife, who died in childbed, and it is in all probability still to be seen,
where it was originally set up, in Solyhull churchyard, Warwickshire. The
most amusing point in it is, that the author seriously intended the lines
to rhyme. There is wonderful merit in the couplet where he celebrates her
courage and magnanimity in preferring him to a lord or judge:

 "Which heroic action, join'd to all the rest,
  Made her to be esteem'd the Phoenix of her sex!"

 "Go, cruel Death, thou hast cut down
  The fairest Greenwood in all this kingdom!
  Her virtues and her good qualities were such
  That surely she deserved a lord or judge:
  But her piety and great humility
  Made her prefer me, a Doctor in Divinity;
  Which heroic action, join'd to all the rest,
  Made her to be esteem'd the Phoenix of her sex:
  And like that bird a young she did create,
  To comfort those her loss had made disconsolate.
  My grief for her was so sore
  That I can only utter two lines more.
  For this and all other good woman's sake,
  Never let blisters be applied to a lying-in woman's back."

The advice contained in the last couplet is sound.

F. D.


Your correspondent ERICA gives us some quotations and epitaphs, in which
the metaphor of an Inn is applied both to life and death. I find the former
of these ideas embodied in the following distich, copied from a tombstone
at Llangollen in North Wales, a village much frequented not only by
tourists, but by holiday-makers from all the surrounding districts; for
whose especial benefit I conceive the epitaph to have been written:

 "Our life is but a summer's day,
  Some only breakfast, and away;
  Others to dinner stay, and are full fed;
  The oldest man but sups, and goes to bed.
  Large his account, who lingers out the day:
  Who goes the soonest, has the least to pay."


Welsh Hampton, Salop.

"_The bathos can no further go_" (Vol. vii., p. 5.).--

    Inscription copied, Nov. 21, 1833, from a tombstone to a fisherman in
    Bathford churchyard.

     "He drags no more, his nets reclin'd,
      And all his tackle left behind,
      His anchors cast within the veil,
      No storms tempestious him assail.
      In peace he rest--_an_ Jesus plain
      Reader _I_ here lies--an honest man,
      A husband--father--friend--compeer--
      To all--who knew him--truely dear.
      Search the Great Globe!--How few, alas!
      Are worthy now to--take his place."
                  B. H. 1805."

Some rural wag had substituted with his pencil {288} three words for the
last three, which certainly rhymed better with alas!

E. D.

Allow me to send you one of much merit, founded upon the same metaphor as
those inserted at the page above quoted:

 "Life's like an inn where travellers stay;
  Some only breakfast, and away:
  Others to dinner stay, and are full fed;
  The oldest man but sups, and goes to bed.
  Hard is his lot who lingers out the day;
  Who goes the soonest has the least to pay."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 196.; Vol. v., p. 143.; Vol. vii., p. 182.)

Some light may perhaps be thrown on this mysterious custom by the following
quotation from the _Réfutation des Opinions de Jean Wier_, by Bodin, the
celebrated French jurisconsult, and author of the _Demonomanie des
Sorciers_ (Paris, 1586), to the quarto edition of which the _Réfutation_ is
generally found attached. It may be necessary to observe, for the benefit
of those unacquainted with demoniacal lore, that Wier, though a pupil of
Cornelius Agrippa, and what would be now-a-days termed exceedingly
superstitious, was far in advance of his age, and the first to assert that
some, at least, of the many persons who were then burned for sorcery were
merely hypochondriacs and lunatics,--fitter subjects for the care of the
physician than the brand of the executioner. This _heterodox_ opinion
brought upon him a crowd of antagonistic replies, and amongst them the
_Réfutation_ of Bodin. During a cursory examination of Wier's voluminous
demonological works (_De Lamiis Liber_; _Item de Commentatiis Jejuniis_;
_De Præstigiis Demonum, et Incantationibus ac Veneficiis_: Basil, 1583), I
have not met with the passage underneath referred to by Bodin; but, no
doubt, if time permitted, a closer search would discover it:

    "Il se mocque aussi d'une Sorciere, à qui Sathan commanda de garder
    bien ses vieux souliers, pour un preservatif, et contre-charme contre
    les autre Sorciers. Je dy que ce conseil de Sathan a double sens, les
    souliers signifient les pechez, comme estas tousiours trainnez par les
    ordures. Et quand Dieu dist à Moyse et à Josué, oste tes souliers, ce
    lieu est pur, et sainct: il entendoit, comme dict Philon Hebrieu, qu'il
    faut bien nettoyer son ame de peches, pour contempler et louer Dieu.
    Mais pour converser avec Sathan, il faut estre souillé, et plongé en
    perpetuelle impietez et mechancetez: alors Sathan assistera à ses bons
    serviteurs. Et quand aux sens literal, nous avons dict que Sathan fait
    ce qu'il peut, pour destourner les hommes de la fiance de Dieu aux
    creatures, qui est la vraye definition de l'idolatrie, que les
    Theologiens ont baillie: tellement que qui croira, que ses vieux
    souliers, ou les bilets, et autres babioles qu'il porte, le peut garder
    de mal, il est perpetuelle idolatrie."



It will, I fear, be difficult to discover a satisfactory answer to LORD
BRAYBROOKE'S questions on these two points. They cannot certainly be
traceable to a Pagan origin, for Cupid is always pourtrayed barefooted; and
there is not, I believe, a single statue to be found of a sandaled Venus. I
can certainly direct his Lordship to one author, a Christian author, St.
Gregory of Tours, who refers to a curious practice, and seemingly one well
recognised, of lovers presenting _shoes_, as they now do _bouquets_, to the
objects of their affection:

    "Cumqu, ut ætate huic convenit, amori se puellari præstaret affabiblem,
    et cum poculis frequentibus etiam _calceamenta_ deferret."--Gregor.
    Turon. _Ex Vitis Patrum_, vol. ii. p. 449.: see also same page, note 3.


Allow me to inform LORD BRAYBROOKE that the custom of throwing a shoe,
taken from the left foot, after persons for good luck, has been practised
in Norfolk from time immemorial, not only at weddings, but on all occasions
where good luck is required. Some forty years ago a cattle dealer desired
his wife to "trull her left shoe arter him," when he started for Norwich to
buy a lottery-ticket. As he drove off on his errand, he looked round to see
if she performed the charm, and consequently he received the shoe in his
face, with such force as to black his eyes. He went and bought his ticket,
which turned up a prize of 600l.; and his son has assured me that his
father always attributed his luck to the extra dose of shoe which he got.

E. G. R.

The custom of throwing an old shoe after a person departing from home, as a
mode of wishing him good luck and prosperity in his undertaking, is not
confined to Scotland and the northern counties, nor to weddings. It
prevails more or less, I believe, throughout the kingdom. I have seen it in
Cheshire, and frequently in towns upon the sea-coast. I once received one
upon my shoulder, at Swansea, which was intended for a young sailor leaving
his home to embark upon a trading voyage.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 205.)

The arms referred to by MR. WOODWARD are those on the great seal and privy
seal of "the irregular and wild Glendower," as Prince of Wales, {289}
attached to two documents deposited in the Hotel Soubise, at Paris, in the
Cartons I. 623. and I. 392., relating, it is supposed, to the furnishing of
troops to the Welsh prince by Charles VI., king of France. Casts of these
seals were taken by the indefatigable Mr. Doubleday, to whom the Seal
department of the British Museum, over which he presides, is so much
indebted; and impressions were exhibited by Sir Henry Ellis at a meeting of
the Society of Antiquaries, on the 12th of December, 1833. Engravings of
them, accompanied by the following notice, were communicated by Sir Henry
to the _Archæologia_, and will be found in that publication, vol. xxv.
plate lxx. fig. 2, 3. page 616., and ibid. pp. 619, 620.:

    "The great seal has an obverse and reverse. On the obverse Owen is
    represented, with a bifid beard, very similar to Rich. II., seated
    under a canopy of Gothic tracery: the half body of a wolf forming the
    arms of his chair on each side: the background is ornamented with a
    mantle semée of lions, held up by angels. At his feet are two lions. A
    sceptre is in his right hand, but he has no crown. The inscription:
    'OWENUS ... PRINCEPS WALLIE.' On the reverse of the great seal Owen is
    represented on horseback, in armour; in his right hand, which is
    extended, he holds a sword, and with his left his shield, charged with,
    Quarterly, four lions rampant; a drapery, probably a _kerchief de
    plesaunce_, or handkerchief won at a tournament, pendant from his right
    wrist. Lions rampant also appear upon the mantle of the horse. On his
    helmet, as well as on his horse's head, is the Welsh dragon [passant].
    The area of the seal is diapered with roses. The inscription on this
    side seems to fill the gap upon the obverse 'OWENUS DEI GRATIA ...

    "The privy seal represents the four lions rampant towards the
    spectator's left, on a shield, surmounted by an open coronet [crown]:
    the dragon[3] of Wales, as a supporter, on the dexter side; on the
    sinister, a lion. The inscription seems to have been '_Sigillum Oweni_
    PRINCIPIS WALLIE.' No impression of this seal is probably now to be
    found either in Wales or England. Its workmanship shows that Owen
    Glyndwr possessed a taste for art beyond the types of the seals of his

The dragon is a favourite figure with Cambrian bards; and, not to multiply
instances, the following lines may be cited from the poem of the "Hirlas
Horn," by Owen Cyfeilioc, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn,--

 "Mathraval's[4] Lord, the Poet and the Prince,"

father of Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn (the Gwenwen of Sir Walter
Scott's _Betrothed_):--

 "A dytwc i Rufut waywrutelyn
  Gwin a gwydyr goleu yn ei gylchyn
  Dragon Arwystli arwystyl tervyn
  Dragon Owein hael o hil Kynvyn[5]
  Dragon iw dechren ac niw dychryn cat
  Cyvlavan argrat cymyw erlyn."
      _Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales_: London,
          1801, 8vo., vol. i. p. 265.

 "And bear to Grufydd, the crimson-lanced foe,
  Wine with pellucid glass around it;
  The Dragon of Arwstli, safeguard of the borders,
  The Dragon of Owen, the generous of the race of Cynvyn,
  A Dragon from his beginning, and never scared by a conflict
  Of triumphant slaughter, or afflicting chase."

Gray, whose "Bard" indicates the inspiration with which he had seized the
poetry and traditions of the Cymri, thus refers to the red dragon as the
cognizance of the Welsh monarchs, in his _Triumphs of Owen_ [ap Griffith,
Prince of North Wales]:

 "Dauntless, on his native sands,
  The _Dragon_, son of Mona, stands;
  In glittering arms and glory dress'd
  High he rears his _ruby_ crest."

The dragon and lion have been attributed to the Welsh monarchs, as
insignia, from an early period, and the former is ascribed, traditionally,
to the great Cadwallader.

In the _Archæologia_, vol. xx. p. 579. plate xxix. p. 578., are
descriptions of engravings of the impressions of two seals appendant to
charters of Edward, son of Edward IV., and Arthur, son of Henry VII., as
Princes of Wales, the obverse of each bearing three lions in pale passant,
reguardant, having their tails between their legs, reflected upon their
backs, upon a shield {290} surmounted by a cap of maintenance: Prince
Edward's shield has on each side a lion as a supporter, holding single
feathers, with the motto "Ich dien." On Prince Arthur's seal, the feathers
are supported by _dragons_. Thomas William King, Rouge Dragon, in a letter
to Sir Samuel Meyrick, dated 4th September, 1841, published in the
_Archæologia_, vol. xxix. p. 408., Appendix, regards the lions on these
shields as to the ensigns attributed at the period of the seals to certain
Welsh princes, and the dragon as the badge of Cadwallader.

In a MS. (for reference to which I am indebted to the courtesy of Sir
Frederick Madden), which was recently sold at Sotheby's, containing
translations by Johannes Boerius, presented to Henry, Prince of Wales, son
of Henry VII., about 1505, there is a beautiful illumination containing the
arms of that prince: Quarterly France and England, with the red dragon as
the dexter, and the greyhound of the House of York as the sinister,

charge of a standard offered by Henry VII. at St. Paul's, on his entry into
London after his victory at Bosworth Field; and this standard was
represented on the corner of his tomb, held by an angel (Willement's _Regal
Heraldry_, 4to., London, 1821, p. 57.). The red dragon rampant was assumed
as a supporter by Henry VII. in indication of his Welsh descent, and was
borne as a supporter, either on the dexter or sinister side of the shield,
by all the other English monarchs of the House of Tudor, with the exception
of Queen Mary, who substituted for it an eagle: and among the badges
attributed to our present sovereign is, in respect of Wales, "a dragon
passant, wings elevated gu., upon a mount vert."

It may be assumed, with little doubt, that the colour of the dragon borne
by Owen Glyndwr was _rouge_; and although the colour of the other supporter
of his shield, the lion, is not susceptible of such positive inference, it
may be conjectured to have been _sable_, the colour of the lion, the
principal charge on his hereditary shield.

To MR. WOODWARD'S immediate Query as to the blazon--colour of the field and
charges--of the arms on these seals, I can afford no direct answer, never
having met with any trace of these arms in the extensive collections of
Welsh MSS. to which I have had access. These ensigns may have been adopted
by Owen as arms of _dominion_ (as those of Ireland by the English
sovereigns) on his assumption of the principality of Wales, a suggestion
countenanced, if not established, by four lions quarterly ("Quarterly gules
and or, four lions rampant, counterchanged") being assigned to Griffith ap
Llewelyn (killed April, 28 Hen. III., 1244, in attempting to escape from
the Tower), eldest son of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of Wales (dead 31st
November, 25 Hen. III., 1240), father of the ill-fated and gallant Llewelyn
ap Griffith, last sovereign of Wales, slain at Builth, December 10, 8 Ed.
I., 1282. Further confirmation is, perhaps, afforded to this suggestion by
Owen having, it is understood, vindicated his assumption of the Cambrian
throne as heir of the three sovereign dynasties of North Wales, South
Wales, and Powys respectively,--of the last, as male representative,
through the Lords of Bromfield, of Madoc ap Meredith, the last monarch of
that principality; and of the two former as their heir-general, in respect
of his mother, Elenor, sister of Owen (ap Thomas ap Llewelyn), Lord, with
his paternal uncle, Owen ap Llewelyn ap Owen, of the comot [hundred] of
Iscoed, September 20, 1344, Representative paternally of the sovereigns of
South Wales, and, by female descent, of those of North Wales[6], through
Griffith ap Llewelyn above named.

The hereditary arms of Owen's paternal line, the Lords of Glyndwrdwy, are
those of his ancestor, Griffith Maelor ap Madoc, of Dinas Bran, Lord of
Bromfield, Yale, Chirk, Glyndwrdwy, &c., who died A.D. 1191, viz. "Paly of
eight argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable," thus differenced,
apparently, from "The Black Lion of Powys" (Argent a lion rampant sable),
the royal ensigns of his father, Madoc ap Meredith, last sovereign Prince
of Powys, who died at Winchester in 1160. I am unable to refer to any seal
of the Lords of Glyndwrdwy, or of the Lords of Bromfield, bearing the
family arms of their line; but they are thus given invariably by the
Cambrian heralds, and, so far, are susceptible of proof by the most
authentic MS. authorities of the Principality. It is, however, remarkable,
that the Heraldic Visitations of Wales of Lewis Dwnn, appointed in 1580
Deputy-Herald for all Wales, by Robert Cook Clarenceux, and William Flower
Norroy King-at Arms, published in 1846 by the Welsh MSS. Society, contain
no pedigree of the house of Glyndwrdwy. Of the descendants, if any, of Owen
Glyndwr himself, beyond his children, I am not aware that there is any
authentic pedigree, or other satisfactory proof; and there seems to be
presumptive evidence that in 12 Henry VI., 1433--a period so recent as
nineteen years from the last date, 19th February, 1 Henry V., 1414, on
which Owen is ascertained to have been alive (Rymer's _Foedera_, ix. p.
330.),--his issue was limited to a daughter and heir, {291} Alice, wife of
Sir John Scudamore, Knt., described in a petition of John, Earl of
Somerset, to whom Owen's domains, on his attainder, had been granted by his
brother, Henry IV., as

    "Un John Skydmore, Chivaler, et Alice sa femme, pretendantz la dite
    Alice etre file _et heir_ au dit Owyn (Glyndwr)."--_Rot. Parl. 12 Hen.

I have not found evidence to show that there were any children of Alice's
marriage with Scudamore; and, assuming the failure of her issue, and also
the extinction of Owen's other offspring, the representation of the three

 ". . . . . . . the long line
  Of our old royalty"--

reverted to that of his only brother, Tudor ap Griffith Vychan, a witness,
as "Tudor de Glyndore," in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, 3rd
September, 1386, and then twenty-four years and upwards, who is stated to
have been killed under Owen's banner at the battle of Mynydd Pwll-Melyn,
near Grosmont, Monmouthshire, fought 11th March, 1405. Tudor's daughter and
heir, Lowry [Lady] of Gwyddelwern in Edeirnion, "una Baron. de Edurnyon,"
became the wife of Griffith ap Einion of Corsygedol, living 1400 and 1415;
and from this marriage descend the eminent Merionethshire House of
Corsygedol (represented by the co-heirs of the late Sir Thomas Mostyn,
Bart., of Mostyn and Corsygedol; namely, his nephew, the Honorable Edward
Mostyn Lloyd Mostyn, of Mostyn and Corsygedol, M.P., Lord Lieutenant of
Merionethshire, and Sir Thomas's sister, Anna Maria, Lady Vaughan, mother
of Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, Bart., of Nannau) and its derivative
branches, the Yales of Plas-yn-Yale, co. Denbigh, and the Rogers-Wynns of
Bryntangor in the same county; the former represented by the Lloyds of
Plymog, and the latter by the Hughes's of Gwerclas in Edeirnion, Lords of
Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion, co. Merioneth, and Barons of Edeirnion. These
families, co-representatives of the three Cambrian dynasties, all quarter,
with the arms of South Wales and North Wales, the ensigns I have referred
to as the hereditary bearings of the Lords of Glyndwrdwy. Independently of
the adoption of these ensigns in the Welsh MSS. in the British Museum,
College of Heralds, and other depositories, it may be mentioned that they
are quartered in an ancient shield of the Vaughans of Corsygedol, suspended
in the hall of Corsygedol,--one of the finest and most picturesque mansions
in the Principality,--and that they appear in the splendid emblazoned
Genealogy of the House of Gwerclas, compiled in 1650 by Robert Vaughan,
Esq., of Hengwrt, the Camden and Dugdale united of Wales.[7] The arms in
question are ascribed to the line of Bromfield and Glyndwrdwy, and, as
quarterings to the families just named, by Mr. Burke's well-known _Armory_,
the first and, indeed, only work, in conjunction with the Welsh genealogies
in that gentleman's _Peerage and Baronetage_, and _Landed Gentry_,
affording satisfactory, or any approach to systematic and complete,
treatment of Cambrian heraldry and family history. Mr. Charles Knight also,
highly and justly estimated, no less for a refined appreciation of our
historic archæology, than for careful research, adopts these arms as the
escutcheon of Owen in the beautiful artistic designs which adorn and
illustrate the First Part of the drama of _King Henry IV._, in his
Pictorial edition of Shakspeare. (_Histories_, vol. i. p. 170.)

The shield of the Lords of Glyndwrdwy, as marshalled by Welsh heralds,
displays quarterly the arms assigned to their direct paternal ancestors, as
successively adopted previous to the period when armorial bearings became
hereditary. Thus marshalled, the paternal arms of Owen Glyndwr are as
follows: 1st and 4th, "Paly of eight, argent and gules, over all a lion
rampant sable," for Griffith Maelor, Lord of Bromfield, son of Madoc ap
Meredith, Prince of Powys-Fadog; 2nd, "Argent, a lion rampant sable" ("The
Black Lion of Powys") for Madoc, Prince of Powys-Fadog, son of Meredith,
Prince of Powys, son of Bleddyn, King of Powys; 3rd, "Or, a lion rampant
gules," for Bleddyn ap Cyfnfyn, King of Powys.[8] None {292} of these
ensigns is referable to a period anterior to that within which armorial
bearings are attributed to the Anglo-Norman monarchs.

The lion rampant is common to all branches of the line of Powys; but the
bearing peculiar to its last monarch, Madoc ap Meredith, "The _Black_ Lion
of Powys," without a difference, has been transmitted exclusively to the
Hughes's, Baronial Lords of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion, and the other descendants
of Owen Brogyntyn, Lord of Edeirnion, younger son of Madoc; of whom, with
the exception of the family just named, it is presumed there is no existing
male branch. The same arms were borne by Iorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant,
also a younger son of Madoc; but they are now only borne subordinately in
the second quarter by that chief's descendant, Sir John Roger Kynaston of
Hardwick, Bart., and by the other branches of the Kynastons; the first
quarter having been yielded to the arms of (Touchet) Lord Audley, assumed
by Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordley, Knt., after the battle of Blore in 1459,
at which Lord Audley is said to have fallen by the hand of Sir Roger. As
already stated, Griffith Maelor, Madoc's eldest son, bore the black lion
differenced, as did also the twin sons of the latter, viz. Cynric Efell,
Lord of Eglwys Egle, ancestor of the distinguished line of Davies of
Gwysaney in Flintshire, whose ensigns were "Gules, on a bend, argent, a
lion passant sable;" and Einion Efell, progenitor of the Edwards's of Ness
Strange, and of other North Wallian families, who bore "Party per fess,
sable and argent, a lion rampant counterchanged." The ancestor of the
Vaughans of Nannau, Barts.,--Cadwgan (designated by Camden "the renowned
Briton"), younger son of Blyddyn, king of Powys, sometime associated in the
sovereignty with his elder brother Meredith, exhibited, it is stated, on
his banner an azure lion on a golden ground; ensigns transmitted to the
early Lords of Nannau and their descendants, with the exception--probably
the only one--of the Vaughans of Wengraig and Hengwrt, represented
paternally by the Vaughans of Nannau and Hengwrt, Baronets, who,
transferring these arms to the second quarter, bear in the first,
"Quarterly, or and gules, four lions rampant counterchanged." The Wenwynwyn
branch of the dynasty of Powys continued, or at a later period resumed, the
red lion rampant on a gold ground, ascribed to Blyddyn ap Cynfyn; and it is
not a little interesting, that recently a beautiful silver seal, in perfect
preservation, of Hawys Gadarn, heiress of that princely line, who by the
gift of Edward II. became the wife of John de Cherlton, was found near
Oswestry, representing her standing, holding two shields: the one in her
right hand charged with her own arms, the lion rampant; that in the left
with those of Cherlton, two lions passant. The legend around the seal is

The original seal is now in the Museum of Chester, and was exhibited, I
believe, by the Honorary Curator, the Rev. William Massie, at a recent
meeting of the Society of Antiquaries. Of this venerable relic I possess an
impression in wax; and of the great and privy seals of Owen Glyndwr,
beautiful casts in sulphur; and I shall have pleasure in leaving them with
the editor of "N. & Q." for the inspection of MR. WOODWARD, should that
gentleman desire it.


  Inner Temple.
  March 7, 1853.

[Footnote 3: This supporter, and the crest, as also the supporter which I
shall mention presently, attached to the respective shields of Arthur
Prince of Wales, and of Henry Prince of Wales, sons of Henry VII., is in
fact a Wyvern, having, like the dragon, a tail resembling that of a snake,
but differing from the dragon in the omission of the two hind legs. The
supporter in respect of Wales, afterwards alluded to as assumed by the
English monarchs of the House of Tudor, was a dragon strictly.]

[Footnote 4: Mathraval, in the vale of Meifod, in Montgomeryshire, the
palace of the sovereigns of Powys, erected by Rhodri Mawr, King of Wales:

 "Where Warnway [Vwrnwy] rolls its waters underneath
  Ancient Mathraval's venerable walls,
  Cyveilioc's princely and paternal seat."
                          Southey's _Madoc_.

[Footnote 5: Cynfyn, father of Bleddyn, King of Powys, by his consort
Angharad, Queen of Powys, derived from Mervyn, King of Powys, third son of
Rhodri Mawr (the Great), King of all Wales, progenitor of the three
Dynasties of North Wales, South Wales, and Powys:

                 "... chi fu di noi
  E de' nostri avi illustri il ceppo vechio."

[Footnote 6: "His [Owen Glyndwr's] father's name was Gryffyd Vychan: his
mother's, Elena, of royal blood, and from whom he afterwards claimed the
throne of Wales. She was eldest daughter of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen, by
his wife Elinor Goch, or Elinor the Red, daughter and heiress to Catherine,
one of the daughters of Llewelyn, last Prince of Wales, and wife to Philip
ap Ivor of Iscoed."--_A Tour in Wales_ [by Pennant]: Lond. 4to. 1778, p.

[Footnote 7: Of this celebrated antiquary, the author of _British
Antiquities Revived_, and other valuable antiquarian works, the friend of
Archbishop Ussher, Selden, Sir Simon d'Ewes, Sir John Vaughan, &c., it is
observed in the _Cambrian Register_, "In genealogy he was so skilled, and
his knowledge on that subject derived from such genuine sources, that
Hengwrt became the Heralds' College of the Principality, and no pedigree
was current until it had obtained his sanction."

His MSS. and library, formerly at Hengwrt, have been transferred to Rûg in
Edeirnion, the present seat of his descendant, Sir Robert Vaughan of
Nannau; and it may be confidently stated, that in variety, extent, rarity,
and value, they surpass any existing collection, public or private, of
documents relating to the Principality. Many of them are unique, and
indispensable for the elucidation of Cambrian literature and antiquities;
and their possessor, by entrusting, to some gentleman competent to the
task, the privilege of preparing a catalogue _raisonnée_ of them, would
confer a public benefit which could not be too highly appreciated.

To the noble collections of Gloddaeth, Corsygedol, and Mostyn, now united
at Mostyn, as also to that of Wynnstay, the same observation might be

[Footnote 8: The golden lion on a red field may have been displayed on the
standard of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, but, from analogy to the arms assigned to
the English monarchs of a corresponding period, it can, as armorial
bearings, be only regarded, it is apprehended, as attributive. Of the
armorial bearings of the English monarchs of the House of Normandy, if any
were used by them, we are left totally without contemporary evidences. The
arms of William the Conqueror, which have been for ages attributed to him
and the two succeeding monarchs, are taken from the cornice of Queen
Elizabeth's monument, in the north aisle of Henry VII.'s Chapel at
Westminster. The arms assigned to Stephen are adopted on the authority of
Nicholas Upton, in his treatise _De Militari Officio_, b. iv. p. 129.,
printed in 1654. For those of Henry II., there is no earlier authority than
the cornice of Queen Elizabeth's monument, and it is on the second seal
used by Richard I. after his return from captivity, that, for the first
time, we find his shield distinctly adorned with the three lions passant
guardant in pale, as they have been borne by subsequent English monarchs.
(Willement's _Regal Heraldry_.)]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 206.).

Your correspondent S. Y. ought not to have charged the editors of
Coleridge's _Poems_ with negligence, until he had shown that the lines he
quotes were inserted in the original edition of _Christabel_. They have not
the musical flow of Coleridge's versification, but rather the dash and
vivacity of Scott. At all events, they are not to be found in the second
edition of _Christabel_ (1816), nor in any subsequent edition. Indeed, I do
not think that Coleridge made any alteration in the poem since its
composition in 1797 and 1800. I referred to two reviews of Coleridge's
_Poems_ published in Blackwood in 1819 and 1834; but found no trace of S.
Y.'s lines. "An old volume of Blackwood" is rather a vague mode of
reference. It is somewhat curious that, previous to the publication of
_Christabel_, there appeared a _conclusion_ to that splendid fragment. It
was entitled "Christobell, a Gothic Tale," and was published in the
_European Magazine_ for April, 1815. It is dated "March, 1815," and signed
"V.;" and was reprinted in _Fraser's Magazine_ for January, 1835. It is
stated to be "written as a sequel to a beautiful legend of a fair lady and
her father, deceived by a witch in {293} the guise of a noble knight's
daughter." It commences thus:

 "Whence comes the wavering light which falls
  On Langdale's lonely chapel-walls?
  The noble mother of Christobell
  Lies in that lone and drear chapelle."

The writer of the review in Blackwood (Dec. 1839) of Mr. Tupper's lame and
impotent conclusion to _Christabel_, remarks that--

    "Mr. Tupper does not seem to know that _Christabel_ was continued many
    years ago, in a style that perplexed the public, and pleased even
    Coleridge. The ingenious writer meant it for a mere _jeu d'esprit_."

Query: Who was this "ingenious writer?"

While on the subject of _Christabel_, I may note a parallelism in reference
to a line in Part I.:

 "Her face, oh call it fair, not pale!"

 "E smarrisce il bel _volto in un colore,_
  _Che non è pallidezza, ma candore_."
                  _Tasso_, _G. Lib._ c. ii. st. 26.

J. M. B.

S. Y. is "severe _over_ much" and _under_ informed, in his strictures on
the editors of Coleridge's _Works_ (1852), when he blames them for not
giving Coleridge the credit of lines which _did not belong to him_. The
lines which S. Y. quotes, and a "great many more,"--in fact, a "third part
of _Christabel_,"--were sent to _Blackwood's Magazine_ in 1820, by the late
Dr. William Maginn, as a first fruits of those _imitations_ and _parodies_
for which he afterwards became so famous. The success of his imitation of
Coleridge's style is proved by the indignation of your correspondent. It is
no small honour to the memory and talents of the gifted but erratic Maginn,
that the want of his lines should be deemed a defect or omission in "one of
the most beautiful poems in the English language." But in future, before he
condemns editors for carelessness, S. Y. should be sure that he himself is

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Economical Way of Iodizing Paper._--The extravagant price of the salt
called iodide of potassium has led me to experiments as to whether paper
could not be iodized in another form; and having been successful, I offer
the process to the readers of "N. & Q." Having verified it three times, I
can safely say that it is quite as effectual as using the above salt.

The first solution to be made, is a saturated solution of iodine. Put about
sixty grains of iodine (the quantity is not of importance) into an ounce
bottle, and add proof spirits of wine; set it near the fire "on the hob;"
and when it is nearly boiling, agitate, and it will soon become a
concentrated essence: take now a bottle of clear glass, called a quart
bottle, and put in it about two ounces of what is called carbonate of
potash (nothing more than purified pearlash); fill up with water to within
an inch of the neck, and agitate; when it is dissolved, add any of the
other approved sensitives, in discretionable doses, such as fluoride or
bromide of potassa, ammoniac salt, or common salt--it may have about sixty
grains of the latter; and when all are dissolved, add the iodine. This is
added by degrees, and shaken; and when it is a pale yellow, it may be
considered to be ready for iodizing: from some experiments, I am led to
believe that a greater quantity of iodine may, if necessary, be added, only
the colour should not be dark. And should the operator reach this point, a
few drops of solution of cyanide of potassium may be added, until the pale
colour returns. Bromine water I believe may be added, but that I have not
used hitherto, and therefore cannot answer for its effects. The paper then
having its usual wash of nitrate of silver, is then floated on the solution
about one minute, and the accustomed process gone through as described by
most photographers. It is only disposed to require a pretty strong solution
of silver, say thirty grains to the ounce of water. This I attribute to the
potash being in a little more caustic condition than when recrystallised
with iodine. And the only difference in the above formula between the two
states is, that the iodine in the medical preparation is incorporated by
means of iron filings with the water, which I only interpret into being a
cheaper method; which makes its high price the more scandalous, and I hope
this method will save photographers from the imposition: the price of a
quart of iodide of potassium would be about six shillings, by the above
about ten-pence. And I can safely say, it is quite as effectual:
theoretically, it appears to be better, because iodine is exceedingly
difficult to preserve after being dissolved and recrystallised. And much of
it is lost in the preparing iodized paper: as, for instance, the usual way
generally requires floating on free iodine at the last; and with the
formula here given, after using once, some small quantity of tincture of
iodine should be added before putting away, as the silver laid upon the
surface of the paper absorbs more of the iodine than the potash. Therefore,
a very pale yellow may be its usual test for efficiency, and the equivalent
will be maintained.

N.B.--Potash varying much in its alkaline property, some samples will
remain colourless with addition of iodine; in which case the judgment must
guide as to the quantity of iodine. It should not exceed the ounce of
tincture: about two drachms may be added after using it for paper.


7. Conduit Street West.


_Queries on Sir W. Newton's Process._--The process of SIR W. NEWTON is
nearly similar to one I have successfully used for some years, and I can
recommend it as effective and simple.

A difficulty I have lately found, has been with my iodized paper, which,
when freshly used, is well enough; but if kept a month or two, will only
allow of the paper being prepared to take views just before using. I should
much like to know how this occurs.

If SIR W. NEWTON would answer the following Queries, he would add to the
obligations that many others besides myself are under to him:

1. What paper does he use for positives, and what for negatives?

2. Is it not better to dissolve the silver and iodide of potassium in three
ounces of water each instead of one (see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 151.

3. Is spring water fit for washing the iodized paper; if it contains either
sulphate or bicarbonate of lime or muriate of soda?

4. How long ought the iodized paper to keep good?

5. How long should the negative paper (on a moderately warm day) keep after
being made sensitive, before exposing to the action of light; and how soon
after that should it be developed?



_Suggestion to Photographers._--The Rev. Charles Forster, in his _One
Primeval Language_ (p. 96.), speaks of the desirableness of obtaining
copies of two great inscriptions in the Djebel Mokatteb,--one in forty-one,
the other in sixty-seven lines, supposed to have been written by the
Israelites during their exode. In the words, however, of the Comte
d'Antraigues, which he quotes in p. 84: "Il faudroit six mois d'un travail
opiniâtre, pour dessiner la totalité de ces caractères." Is not this a
temptation to some of your photographic friends, who may be turning their
steps to the East during the ensuing season, to possess themselves of a
treasure which by the application of their art they might acquire almost in
as many minutes?


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Portrait of Pope_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--I cannot at this movement reply
to MR. J. KNIGHT'S Query, but perhaps can correct an error in it. There was
no _White_ of Derby; but Edward[9] _Wright_ of that city, was an artist of
high repute. And I have in my possession a portrait of Pope done by him. On
the back of this portrait is the following inscription:

    "Edward Wright, the painter of this picture, was an intimate friend of
    Mr. Richardson, and obtained leave from him to copy the portrait of Mr.
    Pope; which Mr. R. was then painting, and had nearly finished. When the
    outline was sketched out by E. Wright, he happened to meet Mr. Pope at
    dinner, and on mentioning to him how he was employed, Mr. Pope said:
    'Why should you take a copy, when the original is at your service? I
    will come and sit to you.' He did so, and this picture was finished
    from Mr. Pope himself. This account I had from the late William Wright,
    Esq., my honoured uncle, who had the picture from the painter himself.
    At Mr. Wright's death, it came to his widow, who gave it to my
    brother[10]; at whose decease, it came to me.


    "Bath, March 21, 1803."

The size of the picture is two feet five inches and a quarter by two feet
one-eighth of an inch. It is a profile. It has never been engraved, and is
in good condition.

R. W. F.


[Footnote 9: [_Joseph_ was the Christian name of the celebrated painter
usually styled Wright of Derby.--ED.]]

[Footnote 10: Thomas Falconer, Esq., of Chester.]

_Conundrum_ (Vol. vi., p. 602.).--Though I cannot answer the Query of
RUFUS, as to the manner in which the species of conundrum communicated by
him may be designated, I beg to inclose an answer to it, thinking you might
perhaps deem it worthy of insertion:

  Cold, sinful, sorrowful, this _earth_,
    And all who seek in it their rest;
  But though such mother gives us birth,
    Let us not call ourselves unblest.

  Though weak and earthly be our frame,
    Within it dwells a nobler part;
  A holy, heavenly, living flame
    Pervades and purifies the _heart_.

  To loving, glowing hearts in joy,
    Shall not our _hearths_ and homes abound?
  May not glad praise our lips employ,
    And, though on earth, half heaven be found?

E. H. G.

_Herbé's "Costumes Français"_ (Vol. vii., p. 182.).--In answer to the Query
by PICTOR, MR. PHILIP DARELL begs to state, that in the library at Calehill
there is a copy of M. Herbé's book. It is the last edition (Paris, 1840),
and purports to be "augmentée d'un examen critique et des _preuves
positives_," &c. It begins by owning to certain errors in the former
edition; in consequence of which M. Herbé had travelled through all France
to obtain the means of correcting them in various localities.

P. D.

Calehill, Kent.


_Curious Fact in Natural Philosophy_ (Vol. vii., p. 206.).--In Young's
_Natural Philosophy_ it is said, that if the cup of a barometer is placed
in a vessel somewhat larger than the cup, so contrived that the tube of the
barometer may fit air-tight in the top of the vessel, and if two holes are
made in the vessel on opposite sides, a current of air driven in at one
hole will cause the mercury to fall. Is not the case of the cards analogous
to this? and might not the cause be, that the current of air carries away
with it some of that contained between the cards, and so that the air is
sufficiently rarefied to cause a pressure upwards greater than that caused
by the current downwards, and the effect of gravity? Might not the sudden
fall of the barometer before storms be from a cause similar in some degree
to this?

A. B. C.


"_Haud cum Jesu itis, qui itis cum Jesuitis._"--In "N. & Q." for Feb. 7,
1852, a correspondent, L. H. J. T., asks for some clue to the above. Last
March a friend of mine purchased in Paris, at a book-stall on the Quai
D'Orsay, a manuscript book, very beautifully written, and in the old
binding of the time, which appears to be the transcript of a printed
volume. Its title is _Le Jésuit sécularisé_. A Cologne: chez Jacques
Milebram. 1683.

It is a dialogue between "Dorval, abbé et docteur en th^e, et Maimbourg,
Jésuit sécularisé;" and at the end (p. 197.) is a long Latin ballad,
entitled "Canticum Jesuiticum," filling eight small 8vo. pages, the opening
stanza of which is

 "Opulentas civitates
  Ubi sunt commoditates
  Semper quærunt isti patres."

And the conclusion of the whole is, in effect, the line of which your
correspondent speaks:

 "Vita namque Christiana
  Abhorret ab hâc doctrinâ
  Tanquam fictâ et insanâ.
  Vos qui cum Jesu itis,
  Non ite cum Jesuitis."

I should be glad to be certified by any of your correspondents of the
actual existence of the printed volume, which probably was sought for and
destroyed by the authorities on account of its pestilent contents.

C. H. H.

Westdean, Sussex.

_Tradescant Family_ (Vol. iii., p. 393.).--In further illustration of this
subject, and for the information of your correspondents who have taken an
interest in the restoration of the tomb in Lambeth churchyard, I beg
through you to say that I have found the will of the grandsire, "John
Tradescant, of South Lambeth, co. Surrey, Gardener:" it is dated January 8,
1637, and proved May 2, 1638, so that the period of his death may be fairly
placed in that year, as suggested by MR. PINKERTON'S extracts from the
churchwardens' accounts (Vol. iii., p. 394.); and the defect in the parish
register for some months following July, 1637, will account for no entry
being found of his actual burial. The younger Tradescant was his only
child, and at the date of the will he had two grandchildren, John and
Frances Tradescant. His son was the residuary legatee, with a proviso, that
if he should desire to part with or sell his cabinet, he should first offer
the same to _the Prince_. His brother-in-law, Alexander Norman, and Mr.
William Ward, were the executors, and proved the will. As MR. PINKERTON
stated that he was on the trace of new and curious matter respecting the
Tradescants, he may find it useful to know that John Tradescant the elder
held the lease of some property at Woodham Water in Essex, and two houses
in Long Acre and Covent Garden.


_Arms of Joan d'Arc_ (Vol. vii., p. 210.).--I believe I can answer the
inquiry of BEND. The family of Joan d'Arc was ennobled by Charles VII. in
December, 1429, with a grant of the following magnificent armorial coat,
viz. Azure, between two fleurs-de-lys, or, a sword in pale, point upwards
(the hilt or the blade argent), in chief, on the sword's point, an open
crown, _fleur-de-lysé_, or.

In consequence of the proud distinction thus granted, of bearing for their
arms the fleur-de-lys of France, the family assumed the name of _Du Lys_
d'Arc, which their descendants continued to bear, until (as was supposed)
the line became extinct in the last century, in the person of Coulombe du
Lys, Prior of Coutras, who died in 1760; but the fact is, that the family
still exists in this country in the descendants of a Count Du Lys, who
settled in Hampshire as a refugee at the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
(he having embraced the Protestant religion). His eldest male descendant,
and (as I believe) the representative of the ancient and noble family of Du
Lys d'Arc, derived from a brother of the Maid of Orleans, is a most worthy
friend and neighbour of mine, the Rev. J. T. Lys, Fellow of Exeter College,
whose ancestors, since the period of their settlement in England, thought
proper to drop the foreign title, and to curtail their name to its present



_Judæus Odor_ (Vol. vii., p. 207.).--The lines are to be found in the
_London Magazine_, May, 1820, p. 504.:

    "Even the notion, which is not yet entirely extinct among the vulgar
    (though Sir T. Browne satisfactorily refuted it by abundant arguments
    deduced from reason {296} and experience)--the notion that they have a
    peculiar and disagreeable _smell_, is, perhaps, older than he imagined.
    Venantius, a bishop of Poictiers, in the sixth century, who holds a
    place in every _corpus poetarum_, says:

     'Abluitur Judæus odor baptismate divo,
        Et nova progenies reddita surgit aquis.
      Vincens ambrosios suavi spiramine rores,
        Vertice perfuso, chrismatis efflat odor.'
                      Venant. _Poemat._, lib. 4. xx.

    "'Cosa maravigliosa,' says an Italian author, 'che ricevuto il santo
    Battesimo, non puzzano più.'"

I believe the reference "lib. 4. xx." is inaccurate. At least I have not
succeeded in finding the lines. That may be an excusable mistake: not so
the citing "an Italian author," instead of giving his name, or saying that
the writer had forgotten it.

The power of baptism over the _Judæus odor_ is spoken of familiarly in the
_Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum_:

    "Nuper quando unus dixit mihi quod non credit, quod Pfefferkorn adhuc
    est bonus Christianus: quia dixit quod vidit eum ante unum annum, et
    adhuc foetebat sicut alius Judæus, et tamen dicunt communiter, quod
    quando Judæi baptizantur, non amplius foetent; ergo credit quod
    Pfefferkorn habet adhuc nequam post aures. Et quando Theologi credunt
    quod est optimus Christianus, tunc erit iterum Judæus, et fides non est
    ei danda, quia omnes homines habent malam suspicionem de Judæis
    baptizatis. . . . Sed respondeo vobis ad illam objectum: Vos dicitis
    quod Pfefferkorn foetet. Posito casu, quod est verum, sicut non credo,
    neque unquam intellexi, dico quod est alia causa hujus foetoris. Quia
    Johannes Pfefferkorn, quando fuit Judæus, fuit macellarius, et
    macellarii communiter etiam foetent: tunc omnes qui audierunt, dixerunt
    quod est bona ratio."--Ed. Münch: Leipzig, 1827, p. 209.

A modern instance of belief in the "odor" is in, but cannot decently be
quoted from, _The Stage, a Poem_, by John Brown, p 22.: London, 1819.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

_Philip d'Auvergne_ (Vol. vii., p. 236.).--This cadet of a Jersey family,
whose capture, when a lieutenant in our royal navy, led to his being in
Paris as a prisoner on parole, and thereby eventually to his adoption by
the last Prince of Bouillon, was a person of too much notoriety to make it
necessary to tell the tale of his various fortunes in your columns; of his
imprisonment in the Bastile, and subsequently for a short period in the
Temple; his residence at Mont Orgueil Castle in Jersey, for the purpose of
managing communications with royalists or other agents, on the opposite
French coast; or the dates of his successive commissions in the navy, in
which he got upon the list of rear-admirals in 1805, and was a vice-admiral
of the blue in 1810.

I have not access at present to any list of the _Lives of Public
Characters_, but think I can recollect that there was an account given of
him in that publication; and there can be no doubt but that any necrology,
of the date of his death, would contain details at some length.

I suspect there is mistake in Brooke's _Gazetteer_, as quoted by E. H. A.,
for I feel rather confident that the reigning duke had no son living when
he made over the succession to one whom he did not know to be a relation,
though bearing the family name.

As, however, this adopted representative of the Dukes De Bouillon has been
mentioned, it may be a fit occasion to ask if any of your Jersey readers
can tell what became, at his death, of a beautifully preserved and
illuminated French translation of the Scriptures, which he showed to your
correspondent in 1814, as having been the gift of the Black Prince's
captive, King John of France, to the Duc De Berri, his son, from whom it
had passed into the possession of the Ducs De Bouillon. His highness (for
the concession of this style was still a result of his dukedom) said, that
he had lent this Bible for a while to the British Antiquarian Society,
which had engraved some costumes and figures from the vignettes which
adorned the initials of chapters.

H. W.

_Dr. Parr's A. E. A. O._ (Vol. vii., p. 156.).--The learned doctor indulged
in boundless exultation at the unavailing efforts of mankind to give
significancy to the above cabalistical combination of vowels. The
combination was formed in the following, manner:--S[A]MUEL P[A]RR engaged
his friend H[E]NRY H[O]MER to assist him in correcting the press; and so he
took the "A. E." of their Christian names, and the "A. O." of their
surnames, to form a puzzle which, like many other puzzles, is scarcely
worth solution.


_Jewish Lineaments_ (Vol. vi., p. 362.).--Is this Query put in reference to
the individual or the race? In either case the lineaments would wear out.
In the first, intermarriage would soon destroy them, as I have an instance
in my own family, wherein the person, though only three removes from true
Jewish blood, retains only the faintest trace of Jewish ancestry. In the
second instance, the cause of the change is more subtle. The Jew, as long
as he adheres to Judaism, mingles with Hebrew people, adopts their manners,
shares their pursuits, and imbibes their tone of thought. Just as the
character is reflected in the countenance, so will he maintain his Jewish
looks; but as soon as he adopts Christian views, and mingles with Christian
people, he will lose those peculiarities of countenance, the preservation
of which depended on his former career. We see examples of this in those
Franks who have resided {297} for a long time in the East, adopting the
dress and customs of the people they have mingled with. Such persons
acquire an Eastern tone of countenance, and many have been mistaken by
their friends for veritable Turks or Arabs, the countenance having acquired
the expression of the people with whom they have mingled most freely. The
same fact is illustrated in the countenances of aged couples, especially in
country places. Frequently these, though widely distinct in appearance when
first married, grow at last exactly like each other, and in old age are
sometimes scarcely to be distinguished by the features.

If not quite to the purpose, these instances illustrate the correspondence
of the life and the looks, which is the philosophy of the Query on Jewish


_Sotadic Verses_ (Vol. vi., pp. 209. 352. 445.).--There is an English
example of this kind of line, attributed, I think, to Taylor the Water

 "Lewd did I live & evil I did dwel."

To make this perfect, however, "and" must not be written at full length,
and "dwell" must be content with half its usual amount of liquid.

It is difficult to make _sense_ of any of the Latin Sotadics quoted in "N.
& Q.," except that beginning "Signa te," &c. Even the clue given by the
mention of the legend in p. 209. does not enable one to find a meaning in
"Roma tibi," &c.

Can any of your readers tell me whence comes the following Sotadic Elegiac
poem, and construe it for me?

 "Salta, tu levis es; summus se si velut Atlas,
    (Omina ne sinimus,) suminis es animo.
  Sin, oro, caret arcanâ cratera coronis
    Unam arcas, animes semina sacra manu.
  Angere regnato, mutatum, o tangere regna,
    Sana tero, tauris si ruat oret anas:
  Milo subi rivis, summus si viribus olim,
    Muta sedes; animal lamina sede satum.
  Tangeret, i videas, illisae divite regnat;
    Aut atros ubinam manibus orta tua!
  O tu casurus, rem non mersurus acuto
    Telo, sis-ne, tenet? non tenet ensis, olet."


_Bells at Funerals_ (Vol. ii., p. 478.).--The following extract will
doubtless be interesting to MR. GATTY, if it has hitherto escaped his

    "June 27 (1648).--The visitors ordered that the bellman of the
    university should not go about in such manner as was heretofore used at
    the funeral of any member of the university. This was purposely to
    prevent the solemnity that was to be performed at the funeral of Dr.
    Radcliffe, Principal of B. N. C., lately dead. For it must be known
    that it hath been the custom, time out of mind, that when head of
    house, doctor, or master of considerable degree was to be buried, the
    university bellman was to put on the gown and the formalities of the
    person defunct, and with his bell go into every college and hall, and
    there make open proclamation, after two rings with his bell, that
    forasmuch as God had been pleased to take out of the world such a
    person, he was to give notice to all persons of the university, that on
    such a day, and at such an hour, he was solemnly to be buried, &c. But
    the visitors did not only forbid this, but _the bellman's going before
    the corpse, from the house or college, to the church or chapel_."--A.
    Wood, quoted in _Oxoniana_, vol. iv. p. 206.

E. H. A.

_Collar of SS._ (Vol. vi., pp. 182. 352.).--There is, in the church of
Fanfield, Yorkshire, among other tombs and effigies of the Marmions, the
original lords of the place, a magnificent tomb of alabaster, on which are
the recumbent figures of a knight and his lady, in excellent preservation.
These are probably effigies of Robert Marmion and his wife Lota, second
daughter of Herbert de St. Quintin, who died in the latter part of the
fourteenth, or early in the fifteenth century. The armour of the knight is
of this period, and he is furnished with the SS. collar of Lancaster, which
is developed in a remarkably fine manner. His juppon is furnished with the
vaire, the bearing of the Marmion, whilst the chevronels of St. Quintin are
evident on the mantle of the lady. Over the tomb is placed a herse of iron,
furnished with stands for holding lighted candles or torches.



_Dr. Marshall_ (Vol. vii., p. 83.).--I beg to inform U. I. S. that the
King's chaplain and Dean of Gloucester in 1682 was not _Anthony_, but
_Thomas_ Marshall, D.D., Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, a great
benefactor to his college and the university, and highly distinguished for
his knowledge of the Oriental and Teutonic languages.

E. H. A.

_Shelton Oak_ (Vol. vii., p. 193.).--Shelton Oak is a remarkable fine tree,
and is still standing. It is apparently in a healthy state. The grounds and
mansion (I believe) are in the possession of two maiden ladies, who allow
visitors free access to this interesting object. In summer time its owners
and their friends frequently tea within its venerable trunk.

The acorns are dealt out to those who may wish them at a trifling sum, and
the money devoted towards the building of a church in the neighbouring
locality. It is to be hoped that no innovation or local improvement will
ever necessitate its removal.


North Brixton.

"_God and the world_" (Vol. vii., p. 134.).--Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke,
was the author of the lines quoted by W. H., but he has not given them
correctly. They may be found in the LXVI. {298} and LXVII. stanzas of his
_Treatie of Warres_, and are as follows:


 "God and the world they worship still together,
    Draw not their lawes to him, but his to theirs,
  Untrue to both, so prosperous in neither,
    Amid their own desires still raising fears:
      Unwise, as all distracted powers be,
      Strangers to God, fooles in humanitie.


 "Too good for great things, and too great for good,
    Their princes serve their priest, yet that priest is
  Growne king, even by the arts of flesh and blood," &c.
                  _Workes_, p. 82.: London, 1633, 8vo.

As for the last line of the quotation:

 "While still 'I dare not' waits upon 'I would,'"

it smacks very strongly of _Macbeth_ (Act I. Sc. 7.), and "the poor cat
i'th adage:"

 "Catus amat pisces, sed non vult tingere plantas."



_Dreng_ (Vol. vii., p. 39.).--_Dreng_ is still the Danish term for a
servant or a boy: their present station in society could perhaps be only
found by a correspondence with Copenhagen; and would then possibly give as
little elucidation of their former social position as an explanation of our
modern villain would throw any light upon the villani of _Domesday Book_.


17. Gower Place.

_Meals_ (Vol. vii., p. 208.).--In Celtic, the word _Meall_ means any rising
ground of a round form, such as a low hillock; and the name of _Mealls_ may
have been given to sand-banks from having a resemblance to small hills at
low water.


Along the sea-margin of the tongue of land between the rivers Mersey and
Dee, the sand has been thrown up in domes. Two little hamlets built among
those sand-hills are called North and South Meols.

J. M. N.


_Richardson or Murphy_ (Vol. vii., p. 107.).--I possess a copy of _Literary
Relics of the late Joseph Richardson, Esq., formerly of St. John's College,
Cambridge, &c._, 4to.: London, 1807. Prefixed, is a line engraving by W. J.
Newton, from a painting by M. A. Shee, Esq., R.A. This is a subscriber's
copy, and belonged as such to one of my nearest relatives. The inscription
at the bottom of the plate is the same as that mentioned by your
correspondent; and I cannot but think the portrait is really that of J.
Richardson. The book was published by Ridgway, No. 170. Piccadilly.

C. I. R.

       *       *       *       *       *




MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by MR. JOHN HOLLAND. 1 Vol. 12mo. London, 1824.

PSYCHE AND OTHER POEMS, by MRS. MARY TIGHE. Portrait. 8vo. 1811.



THE HISTORY OF SHENSTONE, by the REV. H. SAUNDERS. 4to. London. 1794.


and II. of Vol. II.

CURTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 1st and 2nd Series collected.



SWIFT'S WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 Vols. 8vo. 1768. Vol. I.







*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_The length of several of the communications in our present Number compels
us to postpone this week our_ NOTES ON BOOKS, _&c._

S. (Sunderland). _We must refer our Correspondent who inquires respecting
eating_ Carlings (_or Grey Peas_) _upon_ Care _or_ Carle _Sunday, and the
connexion between that name and_ Char Freytag, _the German name for Good
Friday, to Brand's_ Popular Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 113-116. (_ed. Bohn._)

R. ELLIOTT, ESQ. _We have a letter for this Photographic Correspondent.
Where shall we direct it?_

R. J. S., _who inquires as to Richard Brandon having been the executioner
of Charles I., is referred to Sir H. Ellis's_ Letters Illustrative of
English History (2nd Series, vol. iii. pp. 340, 341.); _and to_ "N. & Q.,"
Vol. ii., pp. 110. 158. 268.; Vol. v., p. 28.; Vol. vi., p. 198.

W. M. R. E. _How can we address a letter to this Correspondent?_

DAVID BROWN. _The lines_

 "For he who fights and runs away
  May live to fight another day,"

_so generally supposed to be Butler's, are really from Mennis' and Smith's_
Musarum Deliciæ. _For much curious illustration of them, see our_ 1st Vol.,
pp. 177. 210., _&c._

A. H. _The words which Cæsar addressed to Brutus were, "Tu quoque, Brute."_

INQUISITOR. _Stow tell us that_ Bevis Marks _is a corruption of_ Burie's
Marks,--_a great house belonging to the Abbots of Bury having formerly
stood there_.

J. L. S. _will find an article on the speech of the Clown, in_ Twelfth
Night, _to Toby Belch and Sir Andrew Ague-cheek: "Did you never see the
picture of We Three?" in our_ 5th Vol., p. 338., _&c._

C. V. _The Journal in question is sold to those who are not members of the

W. D. B. _We do not think that the majority of our readers would be pleased
to see our columns occupied with the proposed discussion respecting_ The
American Sea Serpent.

REV. J. L. SISSON'S Photographic Notes _in our next. We accept with thanks
the polite offer made by our Correspondent in his postscript._

COKELY. _The fine reticulated lines in question are caused by the hypo-soda
not being thoroughly washed off._ {299}

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
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Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
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       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver)--J.B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
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       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
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Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

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       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
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       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt, Brébisson, and
other writers, may be obtained, wholesale and retail, of WILLIAM BOLTON,
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and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr. Stewart's


       *       *       *       *       *

DELATOUCHE & CO., Operative Chemists, 147. Oxford Street, is now generally
used by Photographers, and cannot be surpassed in the beautiful results it
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See HENNAH'S new work on the Collodion Process, giving the most practical
directions yet published, price 1s., or free by post 1s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
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       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
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                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
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Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
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Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXIV.--Advertisements for the forthcoming
Number must be forwarded to the Publisher by the 26th, and Bills for
insertion by the 28th instant.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

8vo., price 21s.

end of the Thirteenth Century, with numerous Illustrations of Existing
Remains from Original Drawings. By T. HUDSON TURNER.

    "What Horace Walpole attempted, and what Sir Charles Lock Eastlake has
    done for oil-painting--elucidated its history and traced its progress
    in England by means of the records of expenses and mandates of the
    successive Sovereigns of the realm--Mr. Hudson Turner has now achieved
    for Domestic Architecture in this country during the twelfth and
    thirteenth centuries."--_Architect._

    "The book of which the title is given above is one of the very few
    attempts that have been made in this country to treat this interesting
    subject in anything more than a superficial manner.

    "Mr. Turner exhibits much learning and research, and he has
    consequently laid before the reader much interesting information. It is
    a book that was wanted, and that affords us some relief from the mass
    of works on Ecclesiastical Architecture with which of late years we
    have been deluged.

    "The work is well illustrated throughout with wood-engravings of the
    more interesting remains, and will prove a valuable addition to the
    antiquary's library."--_Literary Gazette._

    "It is as a text-book on the social comforts and condition of the
    Squires and Gentry of England during the twelfth and thirteenth
    centuries, that the leading value of Mr. Turner's present publication
    will be found to consist.

    "Turner's handsomely-printed volume is profusely illustrated with
    careful woodcuts of all important existing remains, made from drawings
    by Mr. Blore and Mr. Twopeny."--_Athenæum._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE ILLUSTRATED CLARENDON, formerly in the Duke of Buckingham's Library at
Stowe. This splendid Copy of CLARENDON'S HISTORY OF THE REBELLION is in
Three Volumes folio, Largest Paper, old red morocco with gilt edges, and
contains upwards of 200 engraved Portraits of Historical Persons, many of
great rarity, and by Eminent Masters. The added Portraits all neatly
inlaid, and the whole forming a rare and highly interesting Collection.
Price 21l. Apply by letter addressed to G., care of MR. BELL, Publisher,
Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

KERR & STRANG, Perfumers and Wig-Makers, 124. Leadenhall Street, London,
respectfully inform the Nobility and Public that they have invented and
brought to the greatest perfection the following leading articles, besides
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The Camden Society,



THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to perpetuate, and render accessible,
whatever is valuable, but at present little known, amongst the materials
for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United Kingdom;
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The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due in
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       *       *       *       *       *

The Publications for the past year (1851-2) were:

AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A.

Cottonian Library by J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A.

54. PROMPTORIUM: An English and Latin Dictionary of Words in Use during the
Fifteenth Century, compiled chiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. By
ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. Vol. II. (M to R.) (In the Press.)

The following Works are at Press, and will be issued from time to time, as
soon as ready:

Books for 1852-3.

55. THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, containing, 1. Expenses of
John of Brabant, 1292-3; 2. Household Accounts of Princess Elizabeth,
1551-2; 3. Requeste and Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, by W.
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56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. A Selection from the Correspondence of the Verney
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be edited by the REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready immediately.)

the years 1289, 1290, with Illustrations from other and coeval Documents.
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REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties of
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THE DOMESDAY OF ST. PAUL'S: a Description of the Manors belonging to the
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ROMANCE OF JEAN AND BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de Reims, an Anglo-Norman
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in the Royal Library at Paris, by M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the Roman
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    Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be
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       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, Vol. II. (to be completed in seven vols.), post 8vo., 6s.

A HISTORY OF ENGLAND, From the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles,
1713-1783. By LORD MAHON. Third and revised Edition. (A Volume to be
published every Two Months.)

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, with portraits, 2 vols, 8vo., 30s.

LIVES OF THE EARLS OF ESSEX, in the Reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and
Charles I., 1540-1646. Founded upon many unpublished Private Letters and

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with Descriptions
of all the Species, and Abstracts of the Systems of Ehrenberg, Dujardin,
Kützing, Siebold, &c. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, ESQ., M.R.I.

Also, price 5s.,


Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Microscopes.

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, March 12, contains Articles on

  Acrophyllum venosum, by Mr. Barnes
  Aphelandra cristata
  Asparagus, to salt
  Books noticed
  Calendar, horticultural
  ----, agricultural
  Carrots, culture of White Belgian, by Mr. Smith
  Cattle disease
  Cherries, select
  Coffee-leaf tea
  Coppice wood, value of
  Deodar, the, by Mr. Kemp
  Drainage, land
  Dyes, Lichen, by Dr. Lindsay
  Farming, Welsh, by the Rev. T. Williams
  Farm buildings, &c.
  Flowers, new florist
  Fruit trees, stocks for
  ----, to protect on walls, by Mr. Bundy
  Guano, adulteration of
  Holland House gardens
  Hollyhocks, select, by Mr. Downie
  Indian pink, introduction of into Europe
  Irrigation and liquid manure, by Mr. Mechi
  Ivy, as food for sheep
  Level, new, by Mr. Daniels
  Lichens, dyeing properties of, by Dr. Lindsay
  McGlashan's tree lifter (with engravings)
  Manure, poultry, by Mr. Tollet
  ----, liquid, by Mr. Mechi
  Mice, to kill, by Mr. Bennett
  Mexican oaks and their silkworms
  Mustard seed, price of
  Onions, preparation of ground for, by Mr. Symons
  Peat, carbonised, by Mr. Towers
  Railway slopes, planting of
  Societies, proceedings of the Botanical of Edinburgh, National
      Floricultural, and Agricultural of England
  Tea, coffee-leaf
  Trade memoranda
  Tree lifter, McGlashan's (with engravings)
  Trout, introduction of to New Zealand, by Mr. Gurney
  Tubing, gutta percha, by Mr. Key
  Walls, to protect trees on, by Mr. Bundy
  Walls, glazed
  Weeds and sulphuric acid
  Wheat, Lois Weedon system of growing

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Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher at No. 186. Fleet
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