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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 178, March 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 178, March 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 178.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Napoleon a Poet, by Henry H. Breen                           301

  Smith's "Dictionary of Antiquities" and "Dictionary of
    Biography and Mythology," by P. J. F. Gantillon, B.A.      302

  St. Columba's Cross                                          302

  MINOR NOTES:--The "Ball at Brussels," June, 1815:
    Historical Parallel of April, 1605--Drawing an
    Inference--Edmund Spenser--The Mint, Southwark             303


  The Spectre Horsemen of Southerfell                          304

  MINOR QUERIES:--Passage in Bacon--Lamech killing
    Cain--Lord Chief Justice Popham--"Her face was like
    the milky way," &c.--Nelson Rings--Books wanted--Mr.
    Cromlin--Dr. Fletcher and Lady Baker--Jeremy Taylor
    and Christopher Lord Hatton--"Pylades and Corinna"--
    The Left Hand: its Etymology--The Parthenon                305


  Mediæval or Middle Ages                                      306

  Consecrators of English Bishops                              306

  "Grindle"                                                    307

  Mummies of Ecclesiastics, by William Bates                   308

  Vicars-Apostolic in England                                  308

  Banbury Zeal, &c.                                            310

  Dr. South _versus_ Goldsmith, Talleyrand, &c.,
    by Henry H. Breen                                          311

  Irish Rhymes, by Henry H. Breen and Cuthbert Bede, B.A.      312

  Count Gondomar                                               313

  Door-head Inscriptions                                       314

    Gun-Cotton--Sealing-wax for Baths--Developing
    Chamber--The Black Tints on Photographic Positives         314

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Contested Elections--Suicide
    at Marseilles--Acts xv. 23.--Serpent's Tongue--Croxton
    or Crostin--Robert Dodsley--Lord Goring--Chaplains to
    Noblemen--The Duke of Wellington Maréchal de
    France--Lord North--Mediæval Parchment--"I hear a
    lion," &c.--Fercett--Old Satchells--Curtseys and
    Bows--The Rev. Joshua Marsden--Sidney as a Christian
    Name--The Whetstone--Surname of Allen--Belatucadrus--
    Pot-guns--Graves Family--Portrait Painters--Plum
    Pudding--Muffs worn by Gentlemen--The Burial Service
    by Heart--Burrow--"Coming home to men's business"--
    Heuristic--"Cob" and "Conners"--Lady High Sheriff--
    Death of Nelson--Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to
    1662--Passage in Juvenal--Tennyson--Capital Punishment     316


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 322

  Notices to Correspondents                                    322

  Advertisements                                               322

       *       *       *       *       *



In a work entitled _Littérature Française Contemporaine_, vol. ii. p. 268.,
there is a notice of the Bonaparte family, in their connexion with
literature, in which it is stated that Napoleon, at the age of thirteen,
wrote the following fable:--

 "_Le Chien, le Lapin, et le Chasseur._
      César, chien d'arrêt renommé,
      Mais trop enflé de son mérite,
      Tenait arrêté dans son gîte
  Un malheureux lapin de peur inanimé.
  --Rends-toi, lui cria-t-il, d'une voix de tonnerre,
  Qui fit au loin trembler les peuplades des bois:
      Je suis César, connu par ses exploits,
      Et dont le nom remplit toute la terre.
      A ce grand nom, Jeannot lapin,
  Recommandant à Dieu son âme pénitente,
      Demande, d'une voix tremblante:
      --Très sérénissime mâtin,
      Si je me rends, quel sera mon destin?
      --Tu mourras.--Je mourrai! dit la bête innocente.
      Et si je fuis?--Ton trépas est certain.
  --Quoi? dit l'animal qui se nourrit de thym;
      Des deux côtés je dois perdre la vie!
      Que votre auguste seigneurie
  Veuille me pardonner, puisqu'il faut mourir,
        Si j'ose tenter de m'enfuir.
  Il dit, et fuit en héros de garenne.
  Caton l'aurait blâmé: je dis qu'il n'eut pas tort:
      Car le chasseur le voit à peine,
  Qu'il l'ajuste, le tire--et le chien tombe mort.
  Que dirait de ceci notre bon La Fontaine?
      Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera:
      J'approuve fort cette méthode-là."

The writer of the notice (M. Quérard) says this "fable" was composed by
Napoleon in 1782; and he thus explains the circumstances under which he
obtained a knowledge of it:

    "Cette fable a été imprimée dans un ouvrage dont nous ne pouvons donner
    le titre, parce que nous n'avons que le seul feuillet qui la contient.
    Nous ne savons aux soin de quel éditeur on doit de nous l'avoir fait
    connaître. Nous lisons au recto du feuillet en question, que, 'sans lui
    (l'éditeur), cette fable serait encore {302} perdue peut-être parmi les
    accidens ignorés de cette contrée rocailleuse (de la Corse).' Cet
    apologue n'étant que peu ou point connu, nous croyons faire plaisir en
    le reproduisant."

My own conviction is, that the greatest "fable" of all is the ascription to
Napoleon, at the age of thirteen, of a poem which would do no discredit to
an older and more practised hand. In his maturer years he wrote the
_Mémoire sur la Culture du Mûrier_, the _Lettre à M. Matteo Buttafuoco_,
the _Souper de Beaucaire_, and the _Discours_ upon a subject proposed by
Abbé Regnal to the Academy of Lyons; and these productions are confessedly
"au-dessous du médiocre." With what show of reason, then, can we accept him
as the author of a poetical effusion which, considering the age at which it
is alleged to have been written, would throw into the shade the vaunted
precocity of such professed poets as Cowley, Pope, Chatterton, and Louis

But whatever may be the origin of this fable, the assigning of it to
Napoleon is in itself a singular circumstance. The dog César, who holds the
rabbit a prisoner in his "gîte," and who summons him to surrender; and the
unfortunate rabbit who prefers making his escape, "en héros de garenne,"
are so obviously applicable to the personal history of Napoleon, that it is
impossible to conceive how the French (except on the score of their
infatuation in everything that relates to that great man) could represent
him as the author of such a satire upon himself.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


As one of the objects of your publication professes to be (Vol. i., p. 18.)
the correction of errors in _standard works_, I beg leave to forward you a
few instances of _errata_ in the references, &c. occurring in _The
Dictionary of Antiquities_ (2nd edit.) and _Dictionary of Biography and
Mythology_ of Dr. Smith.

_Dictionary of Antiquities._

Page 2. a, ABOLLA (bis), _for_ "Juv. iv. 75.," _read_ "Juv. iii. 75."

Page 163. b, ASTRONOMIA, _for_ "Ov. Trist. i. 1. 13.," _read_ "i. 11. 13."

Page 163. b, ASTRONOMIA, _for_ "4th Nov.," _read_ "6th Octob."

Page 230. b, CALENDARIUM, _for_ "Liv. xi. 46.," _read_ "ix. 46."

Page 526. a, FENUS, _for_ "25 per cent.," _read_ "22½."

Page 663. b, JUSTITIUM, _for_ "Har. Resp. 36.," _read_ "26."

Page 666. a, LAMPADEPHORIA, _for_ "Herod. viii. 9.," _read_ "viii. 98."

Page 642. b, INTERDICTUM, _for_ "give full satisfaction," _read_ "get," &c.

Page 795. b, NEOCORI, _for_ "Plat. vi. 759.," _read_ "Plat. Legg. vi. 759."

Page 827. b, OLLA, _for_ "[Greek: puristatês]," _read_ "[Greek:

Page 887. b, PERIOECI, _for_ "Thucyd. viii. 61.," _read_ "viii. 6."

Page 1087. a, SYNOIKIA, _for_ "Thucyd. iii. 15.," _read_ "ii. 15."


Page 1256., _for_ "[Greek: phroos]," _read_ "[Greek: phoros]."

Page 1256., _for_ "[Greek: phrmoos]," _read_ "[Greek: phormos]."

Page 1259., AUGURALE, _for_ "233., a." _read_ "253. a."

Page 1279., TRANSVECTIO, _for_ "437. a," _read_ "473. a."

_Dictionary of Biography and Mythology._

Vol. I.

Page 452. a, BACIS, _for_ "Pax 1009.," _read_ "1071."

Page 452. a, BACIS, _for_ "Av. 907.," _read_ "962."

Page 689. a, CHARMIDES, _for_ "Acad. Quæst. iv. 6.," _read_ "ii. 6."

Vol. II.

Page 221. b, GALLIO, _for_ "Acts viii. 12.," _read_ "xviii. 12."

Page 519. a, HORATIUS, _for_ "Sat. i. 71. 5.," _read_ "i. 6. 71."

Page 519. b, HORATIUS, _for_ "Epist. xi. 1. 71.," _read_ "ii. 1. 71."

Page 528. b, HORTALUS, _for_ "Aug. 41.," _read_ "Tib. 47."

Page 788. b, LITYERSES, _for_ "Athen. 615.," _read_ "415."

Page 931. a, MARCELLUS, _for_ "297. b.," _read_ "927. b."

Page 1124. a, MUS, _for_ "ii. 19.," _read_ "De Fin. ii. 19."

Page 1206. a, NOBILIOR, _for_ "de Orat. iii. 63.," _read_ "ii. 63."

Vol. III.

Page 175. b, PELAGIUS, _for_ "218.," _read_ "418."

Page 514. a, POTITIA GENS, _for_ "Liv. ix. 39.," _read_ "29."

N.B.--a, b, refer respectively to the first and second columns in the


       *       *       *       *       *


In 1584 Sir John Perrot, lord-deputy of Ireland, writes to Sir Francis
Walsingham, the secretary of state:

    "For a token I have sent you holie Columkill's crosse, a god of great
    veneration with Surleboy {303} (McDonnell) and all Ulster; for so great
    was his grace, as happy he thought himself that could gett a kisse of
    the said crosse. I send him unto you, that when you have made some
    sacrifice to him, according to the disposition you beare to idolatrie,
    you maie if you please bestowe him upon my good Lady Walsingham, or my
    Lady Sidney, to weare as a jewell of weight and bignesse, and not of
    price and goodness, upon some solempne feaste or triumphe daie at the

Walsingham's daughter was married to the celebrated Sir Philip Sidney; and
afterwards to Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex; and, thirdly, to Richard De
Burgh, Earl of Clanricard, when she embraced the Roman Catholic religion,
that of her last husband, and may perhaps have regarded St. Columba's cross
with more veneration than did the rugged old Perrot.

It may be possible to trace out this ancient relique to its present
repository, if it be still in existence.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_The "Ball at Brussels," June, 1815._--_Historical Parallel of April,

    "The archduke received the English ambassador (Edward Seymour, Earl of
    Hertford) with all honour and state; but whilest _they were feasting
    and merry at Brusselles_, Prince Maurice had an enterprize upon
    Antwerp, so that Spinola, Velasco, Van de Bergh, Busquoy, with many
    commanders, were forced to packe away speedily for the defence of the
    country."--Grimeston's _History of the Netherlands_, 1608, p. 1346.

W. M. R. E.

_Drawing an Inference._--The following is an amusing instance of false
inference, drawn through ignorance of the original. William Rae Wilson is
the innocent offender, in his _Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land_ (London,
Longmans, 1824, 2nd edition). The author remarks (p. 105.):

    "This I am inclined to believe was not the track which was taken by the
    Apostle Paul, when he went up to Jerusalem from the coast, as he
    appears to have travelled in some _conveyance moved on wheels_; for it
    is so far from being in any degree possible to draw one along, that, on
    the contrary, a great exertion is necessary for travellers to get
    forward their mules."

On referring to his authority for such an unapostolic mode of locomotion,
we find (Acts xxi. 15.) these words:

    "And after those days we took up our _carriages_, and went up to

    "[Greek: Meta de tas hêmeras tautas aposkeuasamenoi anebainomen eis

The word "carriages" conveyed to the mind of our traveller the idea of a
"conveyance moved on wheels;" whereas our translators intended the term to
signify _anything carried_. Professor Scholefield, in his _Hints for an
improved Translation of the New Testament_, renders the passage, "We put up
our baggage." In fact, _carriage_, _luggage_, and _baggage_ may be termed
synonymes; for carriage = that which _is_ carried; luggage = that which
_is_ lugged; and baggage = that which _is_ bagged. The word "carriage" is
used in this sense, Judges xviii. 21., and again 1 Sam. xvii. 22.


_Edmund Spenser._--The subjoined paragraph from _The Times_ newspaper, the
readers of "N. & Q." may perhaps wish to find in a less voluminous journal,
but by biographers of Spenser more likely to be consulted.

    "_Edmund Spenser._--The literary world will be glad to learn that the
    locality of the illustrious author of _The Faëry Queen_ has been
    ascertained. Mr. F. F. Spenser, of Halifax, in making some researches
    into the ancient residence of his own family, has been fortunate in
    identifying it with that of the great Elizabethan bard, and, we are
    informed, is about to lay the particulars before the public. The little
    rural village of Hurstwood, near Burnley, in Lancashire, is the
    honoured locality; and in the romantic Alpine scenery of that
    neighbourhood it is probable Spenser took refuge when he was driven by
    academical disappointments 'to his relations in the north of England.'
    The family of that great poet appear to have resided at Hurstwood about
    four hundred years, that is, from the early part of the reign of Edward
    II. to the year 1690."--_The Times_, Wednesday, June 16, 1841.

W. P.

_The Mint, Southwark._--In the year 1723, an act was passed to relieve all
those debtors under 50l., who had taken sanctuary there from their
creditors. The following curious account of the exodus of these
unfortunates, is given in the _Weekly Journal_ of Saturday, July 20, 1723:

    "On Tuesday last some thousands of the Minters went out of the Land of
    Bondage, _alias_ The Mint, to be cleared at the Quarter Sessions at
    Guildford, according to the late Act of Parliament. The road was
    covered with them, insomuch that they looked like one of the Jewish
    tribes going out of Egypt: the cavalcade consisting of caravans, carts,
    and waggons, besides numbers on horses, asses, and on foot. The drawer
    of the two fighting-cocks was seen to lead an ass loaded with geneva,
    to support the spirits of the ladies upon the journey. 'Tis said, that
    several heathen Bailiffs lay in ambuscade in ditches upon the road, to
    surprise some of them, if possible, on their march, if they should
    straggle from the main body; but they proceeded with so much order and
    discipline, that they did not lose a man upon this expedition."

E. G. B.


       *       *       *       *       *



On this mountain, which I believe is in the barony of Greystoke,
Cumberland, a remarkable phenomenon is said to have been witnessed more
than a century ago, circumstances of which appear to have been these:--In
1743 one Daniel Stricket, then servant to John Wren, of Wilton Hill, a
shepherd, was sitting one evening after supper (the month is not mentioned)
at the door with his master, when they saw a man with a dog pursuing some
horses on Southerfell-side, a place so steep that a horse can scarcely
travel on it at all; and they seemed to run at an amazing pace, and to
disappear at the low end of the fell. Master and man resolved to go next
morning to the steep side of the mountain, on which they expected to find
that the horses had lost their shoes from the rate at which they galloped,
and the man his life. They went, but to their surprise they found no
vestige of horses having passed that way. They said nothing about their
vision for some time, fearing the ridicule of their neighbours, and this
they did not fail to receive when they at length ventured to relate their
story. On the 23rd June (the eve of St. John's Day) in the following year
(1744), Stricket, who was then servant to a Mr. Lancaster of Blakehills,
the next house to Wilton Hill, was walking a little above the house in the
evening, about half-past seven, when on looking towards Southerfell he saw
a troop of men on horseback, riding on the mountain side in pretty close
ranks, and at the speed of a brisk walk. He looked earnestly at this
appearance for some time before he ventured to acquaint any one with what
he saw, remembering the ridicule he had brought on himself by relating his
former vision. At length satisfied of its reality, he went into the house
and told his master he had something curious to show him. The master said
he supposed Stricket wanted him to look at a bonfire (it being the custom
for the shepherds on the eve of St. John to vie with each other for the
largest bonfire); however, they went out together, and before Stricket
spoke of or pointed to the phenomenon, Mr. Lancaster himself observed it,
and when they found they both saw alike, they summoned the rest of the
family, who all came, and all saw the visionary horsemen. There were many
troops, and they seemed to come from the lower part of the fell, becoming
first visible at a place called Knott; they then moved in regular order in
a curvilinear path along the side of the fell, until they came opposite to
Blakehills, when they went over the mountain and disappeared. The last, or
last but one, in every troop, galloped to the front, and then took the
swift walking pace of the rest. The spectators saw all alike these changes
in relative position, and at the same time, as they found on questioning
each other when any change took place. The phenomenon was also seen by
every person at every cottage within a mile; and from the time that
Stricket first observed it, the appearance lasted two hours and a half,
viz. from half-past seven until night prevented any further view.
Blakehills lay only half a mile from the place of this extraordinary
appearance. Such are the circumstances as related in Clarke's _Survey of
the Lakes_ (fol. 1789), and he professes to give this account in the words
of Mr. Lancaster, by whom it was related to him, and on whose testimony he
fully relied; and he subjoins a declaration of its truth signed by the
eye-witnesses, William Lancaster and Daniel Stricket (who then lived under
Skiddaw, and followed the business of an auctioneer), dated 21st July,
1785. Mr. Clarke remarks that the country abounds in fables of apparitions,
but that they are never said to have been seen by more than one or two
persons at a time, and then only for moment; and remembering that Speed
mentions some similar appearance to have preceded a civil war, he hazards
the supposition that the vision might prefigure the tumults of the
rebellion of the following year.

My Query is, Whether any subsequent appearance of the same kind is recorded
to have been observed on this haunted mountain, and whether any attempt to
account for it on principles of optical science, as applied to a supposed
state of the atmosphere, has ever been published?

One is reminded of the apparition said to have been witnessed above
Vallambrosa early in the fourteenth century. Rogers, after mentioning in
the canto on "Florence and Pisa," in his _Italy_, that Petrarch, when an
infant of seven months old (A.D. 1305), narrowly escaped drowning in a
flood of the Arno, on the way from Florence to Ancisa, whither his mother
was retiring with him, says:

    "A most extraordinary deluge, accompanied by signs and prodigies,
    happened a few years afterwards. 'On that night,' says Giovanni Villani
    (xi. 2.), 'a hermit, being at prayer in his hermitage above
    Vallambrosa, heard a furious trampling as of many horses; and crossing
    himself and hurrying to the wicket, saw a multitude of infernal
    horsemen, all black and terrible, riding by at full speed. When, in the
    name of God, he demanded their purpose, one replied, We are going, if
    it be His pleasure, to drown the city of Florence for its wickedness.
    This account,' he adds, 'was given me by the Abbot of Vallambrosa, who
    had questioned the holy man himself.'"

This vision, however, without doubting the holy man's veracity, may, I
presume, be considered wholly subjective.

W. S. G.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Passage in Bacon._--What is the meaning of this saying of Bacon "Poetry
doth raise and erect the mind by submitting the shows of things to the
desires of the mind?"


_Lamech killing Cain._--In the church of St. Neot, Cornwall, are some very
interesting ancient painted windows, representing various legendary and
scriptural subjects. In one of them, descriptive of antediluvial history,
is a painting of Lamech shooting Cain with a bow and arrow. Are any of your
readers acquainted with a similar subject? Is there any tradition to this
effect? and does it throw any light on that difficult passage, Gen. iv. 23,

    "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice: ye
    wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my
    wounding, and a young man to my hurt.

    "If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and

J. W. M.

Hordley Ellesmere.

_Lord Chief Justice Popham._--C. GONVILLE says (Vol. vii., p. 259.) that
Raleigh Gilbert "emigrated with Lord Chief Justice Popham in 1606" to
Plymouth in Virginia. As this is a fact in the history of that learned
judge with which I am unacquainted, I shall be obliged to your
correspondent to favour me with some particulars. According to Anthony Wood
he died on June 10, 1607, and was buried at Wellington in Somersetshire;
and Sir Edward Coke (6 _Reports_, p. 75.) notices the last judgment he
pronounced in the previous Easter Term.


_"Her face was like the milky way," &c._--Where is the subjoined quotation
taken from, and what is the context? I cannot be quite certain as to its
verbal accuracy.

 "Her face was like the milky way i' the sky,
  A meeting of gentle lights without a name."


_Nelson Rings._--I am in possession of a ring, which in place of a stone
has a metal basso-relievo representation of Nelson (half-bust). The
inscription inside the ring is as follows:

   "A Gift to
    T. Moon
  G. L. Stoppleburg

The late Mr. Thomas Moon was an eminent merchant of Leeds, Yorkshire, and
the writer has always understood that the ring referred to is one of three
or half-a-dozen, which were made subsequently to Nelson's death, the metal
(blackish in appearance) forming the basso-relievo set in them, being in
reality portions of the ball which gave the late lamented and immortal
admiral his fatal wound at Trafalgar.

Can any of your readers furnish me with the means of authenticating this
supposition? likewise I should be glad to know if other similar rings are
at present in existence, and by whom owned.


Pelsall, Staffordshire.

_Books Wanted._--

_Life of Thomas Bonnell, Mayor of Norwich_, published by Curl.

Samuel Hayne, _Abstract of the Statutes relating to Aliens trading_,

Lalley's _Churches and Chapels in London_.

Can any of your readers tell me where I shall find these books? I do not
see them in the British Museum.

J. S. B.

[Footnote 1: [Hayne's _Abstract_, edit. 1685, will be found in the British
Museum. See the new Catalogue _s. v._, Press-mark 8245. b.--ED.]]

_Mr. Cromlin._--In Smith's _History of Waterford_ (1746) are noticed "the
thanks of the House of Commons given to Mr. Cromlin, a French gentleman
naturalised in the kingdom, then actually sitting in the house," and the
present to him of 10,000l. for establishing a linen manufactory at
Waterford. Where shall I find the particulars of this grant recorded?

J. S. B.

_Dr. Fletcher and Lady Baker._--Dr. Fletcher, Bishop of London, married a
handsome widow, the Lady Baker, sister of George Gifford the Pensioner, at
which marriage Queen Elizabeth being much displeased, the bishop is said to
have died "discontentedly by immoderate taking of tobacco." (_Athenæ._) Who
was the Lady Baker's first husband? Who was George Gifford? Was she a Roman
Catholic previous to her second marriage?

W. S.

_Jeremy Taylor and Christopher Lord Hatton._--Bishop Jeremy Taylor, in his
dedication of the _Great Exemplar_ to Christopher Lord Hatton, entreats his
lordship to "account him in the number of his relatives." Was Jeremy Taylor
in any way connected with Lord Hatton by marriage? His first wife was a
Mrs. Joanna Bridges of Mandinam, in the parish of Languedor, co.
Carmarthen, and supposed to be a natural daughter of Charles I., to whom
she bore a striking resemblance. Do any of your readers know of any
relationship between this lady and Lord Hatton, or any other circumstance
likely to account for the passage above mentioned?


"_Pylades and Corinna._"--Can anybody tell who was the author? Could it be
De Foe?

P. R.


_The Left Hand; its Etymology._--I have read with much pleasure Trench's
_Study of Words_. The following passage occurs at p. 185:

    "The 'left' hand, as distinguished from the right, is the hand which we
    'leave,' inasmuch as for twenty times we use the right hand, we do not
    once employ _it_; and it obtains its name from being 'left' unused so

Now I should certainly be sorry to appear

 "Ut lethargicus hic, cum fit pugil, et medicum urget."

I am not the person to aim a word at Mr. Trench's eye. Although I am
Boeotian enough to ask, I am not too far Boeotian to feel no shame in
asking, whether it is quite impossible that "left" should be corruption of
_lævus_, [Greek: laios]. We have, at all events, adopted _dexter_, the
"right" hand, and the rest of its family.


Edgmond, Salop.

_The Parthenon._--M. de Chateaubriand says that the Greek, Theodore
Zygomalas, who wrote in 1575, is the first among modern writers to have
made known the existence of the Temple of Minerva or Parthenon, which was
believed to have been totally destroyed. The _Messager des Sciences et des
Arts de la Belgique_, vol. iv. p. 24., corrects Chateaubriand, and says
that Ciriaco d'Ancona had, in the year 1436, described this celebrated
monument, together with other ancient buildings of Athens. I am desirous of
verifying this statement, and for this purpose beg the assistance of some
of your learned correspondents, who may probably be able to inform me what
is the title and date of the work of Ciriaco in which this description of
the Parthenon occurs.

W. M. R. E.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. v., p. 469.)

The question there put by L. T. is still constantly asked, and the answer
given by a reference to Mr. Dowling's work may perhaps be unsatisfactory to
many, as not sufficiently defining the period at which the Middle Ages may
be said to terminate. By some of the best historical writers, the
commencement and termination are variously stated. In a work recently
published by George T. Manning, entitled _Outlines of the History of the
Middle Ages_, with heads of analysis, &c., the Querist seems answered with
more precision. Mr. Manning divides General History into _three_ great
divisions--Ancient History, that of the Middle Ages, and Modern History;
the first division extending from the Creation to about four hundred years
after the birth of Christ; the second from A.D. 400 to the close of the
fifteenth century of the Christian era; the third embracing those ages
which have elapsed since the close of mediæval times.

The Middle Age portions he divides into _five_ great periods, denoted by
the vast changes which took place in the course of that history, viz.:

  A.D.  400 to A.D.  800, _First Period_.
  A.D.  800 to A.D.  964, _Second Period_.
  A.D.  964 to A.D. 1066, _Third Period_.
  A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1300, _Fourth Period_.
  A.D. 1300 to A.D. 1500, _Fifth Period_.

The doubling of the Cape of Good Hope being the last important event, which
he places in 1497.

This is nearly the same view as taken by M. Lamé Fleury, who commences with
the fall of the Western Empire in 476, and closes with the conquest of
Granada by the Spaniards in 1492: thinking that memorable event, which
terminated in a degree the struggle of the Western against the Eastern
Empire, a better limit ("une limite plus rigoureusement exacte") than the
taking of Constantinople by Mahomet II. in 1453, the date when this
historical period is generally terminated by most writers.

Appended to this little volume is a list of remarkable dates and events, as
also of battles and treaties during the Middle Ages.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 132. 220.)

1. Ashurst Turner Gilbert, Bishop of Chichester, was consecrated Feb. 27,
1842, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of Lincoln
and Llandaff.

2. Edward Field, Bishop of Newfoundland, April 28, 1844, by the Archbishop
of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London, Bangor, and Worcester.

3. Thomas Turton, Bishop of Ely;

4. John Medley, Bishop of Fredericton;

5. James Chapman, Bishop of Columbo; May 4, 1845, by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London, Rochester, Lincoln,
Hereford, Lichfield, and Bishop Coleridge.

6. Samuel Gobat, Bishop of the United Church of England and Ireland in
Jerusalem, July 5, 1846, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the
Bishops of London, Calcutta, and Lichfield.

7. George Smith, Bishop of Victoria;

8. David Anderson, Bishop of Rupert's Land; May 29, 1849, in Canterbury
Cathedral, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of
London, Winchester, and Oxford.

9. Francis Fulford, Bishop of Montreal, July 25, 1830, by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of Oxford, Salisbury, Chichester,
Norwich, and Toronto. {307}

10. John Harding, Bishop of Bombay, Aug. 10, 1851, by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by the Bishop of London and Bishop Carr.

11. Hibbert Binney, Bishop of Nova Scotia, March 25, 1851, by the
Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London, Chichester,
and Oxford.

12. John Lonsdale, Bishop of Lichfield, was consecrated in the chapel of
Lambeth Palace.

I believe A. S. A. will find all his Queries answered in the above list;
but as he may wish to know the names as well as the titles of the
consecrating Bishops, I subjoin a list of them.

In the consecration of the first six bishops in the list, the Archbishop of
Canterbury was Dr. William Howley; in all the others he was Dr. John Bird
Sumner. The Bishop of Lincoln, wherever mentioned, was Dr. John Kaye. The
Bishop of Llandaff was Dr. E. Coplestone; the Bishop of London was Dr. C.
J. Blomfield; the Bishop of Bangor, Dr. Christopher Bethell; the Bishop of
Worcester, Dr. H. Pepys; the Bishop of Rochester, Dr. George Murray; the
Bishop of Hereford, Dr. Thomas Musgrave; the Bishop of Lichfield, Dr. John
Lonsdale; the Bishop of Calcutta, Dr. Daniel Wilson; the Bishop of
Winchester, Dr. C. R. Sumner; the Bishop of Oxford, Dr. Samuel Wilberforce;
the Bishop of Salisbury, Dr. Edward Denison; the Bishop of Chichester, Dr.
A. T. Gilbert; the Bishop of Norwich, Dr. Samuel Hinds; the Bishop of
Toronto, Dr. John Strachan.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 107.)

The question of C. G. supplies a new instance of an ancient and heroic word
still surviving in a local name. The only other places in England that I
have as yet heard of are, _Grindleton_ in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and
a _Gryndall_ in the East Riding. The authority for this latter is Mr.
Williams' Translation of Leo's _Anglo-Saxon Names_, p. 7., note 3.

In old England, the name was probably not uncommon: it occurs in a
description of landmarks in Kemble's _Codex Dipl._, vol. ii. p. 172.: "on
_grendles_ mere."

There is a peculiar interest attaching to this word; or, I might say, it is
invested with a peculiar horror, as being the name of the malicious fiend,
the man-enemy whom Beowulf subdues in our eldest national Epic:

 "W[=æ]s se grimma gæst Grendel háten,
  M[=æ]re mearc-stapa, se þe móras heóld,
  Fen and fæsten--fífel-cynnes eard
  Won-sæli wer...."
      _Beowulf_, l. 203. _seqq._--Ed. Kemble.

So he is introduced in the poem, when, in the dead of night, he comes to
the hall where the warriors are asleep, ravining for the human prey. The
following is something like the meaning of the lines:--

 "Grendel hight the grisly guest,
  Dread master he of waste and moor,
  The fen his fastness--_fiends among_,

This awful being was no doubt in the mind of those who originated the name
_grendles mere_, before quoted from Kemble. The name is applied to a
locality quite in keeping with the ancient mythological character of
_Grendel_, who held the moor and the fen. Most strikingly does the same
sentiment appear in the name of that strange and wildering valley of the
Bernese Oberland, in Switzerland:--I mean the valley of Grindelwald, with
its two awful glaciers.

But when we come to consider the etymology of the name, we are led to an
object which seems inadequate, and incapable of acting as the vehicle for
these deep and natural sentiments of the inhuman and the horrible.

_Grendel_ means, originally, no more than a _bar_ or _rod_, or a palisade
or lattice-work made of such bars or rods. Also a bar or bolt for fastening
a door, or for closing a harbour. Middle-aged people at Zurich recollect
when the old "Grindel" was still standing at the mouth of their river. This
was a tremendous bar, by which the water-approach to their town could be
closed against an enemy; who might otherwise pass from the Lake of Zurich
down the river Limmat, into the heart of the town of Zurich.

It was in Germany that this word lived longest as a common substantive.
There is no known instance of it in Anglo-Saxon, other than in proper
names, and of these I know no more than are already enumerated above;
whereas, in the Middle High German, it is by no means uncommon. It occurs
in a mystery on the resurrection preserved in this dialect, and edited by
Ettmüller, 1851 (_Dat Spil fan der Upstandinge_). I cannot now find the
line, but it is used there for "the gates of hell." Cf. also Ziemann's
_Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch_, voc. GRINDEL.

Grimm, in his _Mythology_, establishes a connexion between _Grendel_ and
_Loki_, the northern half-deity half-demon, the origin of evil. He was
always believed to have cunningly guided the shaft of Flöder the Blind,
who, in loving sport, shot his brother Balder the Gay, the beloved of gods
and men. So entered sorrow into the hitherto unclouded Asaland.

Grimm draws attention to the circumstance that Loki is apparently connected
with the widespread root which appears in English in the forms _lock_ and
_latch_. Here is a very striking analogy, {308} and it is supported by an
instance from the present German: _Höllriegel_ = vectis infernalis, brand
of hell, is still recognised as = _teufel_; or for an old witch = devil's

And even in Latin documents we find the same idea represented. Thus, in a
charter of King Edgar (_Cod. Dipl._, No. 487.), which begins with a recital
of the fall of man, and the need of escaping the consequent misery, we have
the following:

    "Quamobrem ego Eadgar, totius Britanniæ gubernator et rector, ut hujus
    miseriæ _repagulum_ quam protoplastus inretitus promeruit ... evadere
    queam, quandam ruris particulam ... largitus sum," &c. &c.

As to the application of this name to localities, it seems to represent the
same sentiment as the prefix of Giant, Grim, or Devil: and this sentiment
would be that of the grand or awful in Nature, and mysterious or
unaccountable in artificial works. I think we may then safely conclude,
that all dikes, ditches, camps, cromlechs, &c., which have such titles
attached to them, date from an age previous to the Saxons being in England.
For example, if we did not know from other sources the high antiquity of
Wayland Smith's Cave in Berkshire, we might argue that it was at least
pre-Saxon; from the fact that the Saxons called it by the name of their
Vulcan, and therefore that it appeared to them so mysterious as to be
_dignus vindice nodus_.

If your correspondent C. G., or any of your readers, can, either from their
reading or from local knowledge, add any further illustrations or examples
of this ancient heathen word, I, for one, shall receive them gratefully.

I. E.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 53. 110. 205. 328.)

Although I have myself seen the natural mummies preserved at Kreuzberg on
the Rhine, I can say nothing more with regard to them, than vouch for the
accuracy of the accounts transmitted by your various correspondents under
this head. Your Querist A. A. however may, if curious on this subject, be
referred with advantage to Mr. T. J. Pettigrew's interesting _History of
Egyptian Mummies_. In chap. xvii. of this work, many instances are adduced
of the preservation of bodies from putrefaction by the desiccating
properties of the natural air of the place in which they are contained. He

    "In dry, and particularly calcareous vaults, bodies may be preserved
    for a great length of time. In Toulouse, bodies are to be seen quite
    perfect, although buried two centuries ago. In the vaults of St.
    Michael's Church, Dublin, the same effect is produced; and Mr. Madden
    says he there saw the body of Henry Shears, who was hanged in 1798, in
    a state of preservation equal to that of any Egyptian mummy."

Garcilasso de la Veya, and more recent historians, may be referred to for
accounts of the mummy-pits of Peru, the dry air of which country is an
effectual preventive of the process of putrefaction. One of the most
curious spectacles, however, of this nature is to be found in the Catacombs
of Palermo, where the traveller finds himself in the midst of some
thousands of unburied bodies, which, suspended mostly by the neck, have
become so distorted in form and feature in the process of desiccation, as
to provoke an irrepressible smile in the midst of more solemn and befitting
contemplations. (Sonnini's _Travels_, vol. i. p. 47.; Smyth's _Memoirs of
Sicily and its Islands_, p. 88.)

Similar properties are also attributed to the air of the western islands of
Scotland. "To return to our purpose," says P. Camerarius (_The Living
Librarie_, translated by Molle, folio, London, 1625, p. 47.),--

    "That which Abraham Ortelius reporteth after Gyrald de Cambren is
    wonderfull, that the bodies of men rot not after their decease, in the
    isles of Arran; and that therefore they bee not buried, but left in the
    open ayr, where putrefaction doth them no manner of hurt; whereby the
    families (not without amazement) doe know their fathers, grandfathers,
    great-grandfathers, and a long race of their predecessors. Peter
    Martyr, a Milannois, saith the same of some West Indians of Comagra.
    These bee his words: 'The Spaniards being entered the lodgings of this
    Cacick, found a chamber fulle of dead bodies, hanging by ropes of
    cotton, and asking what superstition that was, they received this
    answer, That those were the fathers, grandfathers, and
    great-grandfathers of the Cacick of Comagra. The Indians say that they
    keep such relikes preciously, and that the ceremonie is one of the
    points of their religion. According to his qualities while he lived,
    his bodie, being dead, is richly decked with jewels and precious

Many other instances might be adduced, but you will now think that at least
enough has been said on this subject.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 125. 297. 400.; Vol. vii., pp. 242. 243.)

Your correspondent A. S. A. seems very anxious to possess a complete list
of the vicars-apostolic of England. With their names, and the date of their
consecration and death, collected from various sources, I am able to supply

The last survivor of the Roman Catholic bishops consecrated in England
prior to the reign of Elizabeth was Dr. Thomas Watson, appointed bishop of
Lincoln in 1557 by Queen Mary, and deprived (on the accession of Elizabeth)
in 1559. {309}

Upon his death, in 1584, the Catholic clergy in England were left without a
head, and the Pope some time after appointed an _arch-priest_, to
superintend them, and the following persons filled the office:

  _Consecrated._                              _Died._
     1598.  Rev. George Blackwell.
      --    Rev. George Birkhead               1614.
     1615.  Rev. George Harrison               1621.

On the death of the latter the episcopate was revived by the pope in
England, and one bishop was consecrated as head of the English Catholics.

  _Consecrated._                              _Died._
     1623.  Dr. William Bishop                 1624.
     1625.  Dr. Richard Smith                  1655.
     1685.  Dr. John Leyburn, with whom, in 1688, Dr.
  Giffard was associated; but almost immediately after
  this England was divided into four districts, and the
  order of succession in each was as follows:

  _London or Southern District._

  _Consecrated._                              _Died._
     1685.  Bishop Leyburn                     1703.
     1688.  Bishop Giffard (translated from
            the Midland District, 1703)        1733.
     1733.  Bishop Petre                       1758.
     1741.  Bishop Challoner                   1781.
     1758.  Bishop Honourable James Talbot     1790.
     1790.  Bishop Douglas                     1812.
     1803.  Bishop Poynter                     1827.
     1823.  Bishop Bramston                    1836.
     1828.  Bishop Gradwell                    1833.
     1833.  Bishop Griffiths                   1847.

  _Midland or Central District._

     1688.  Bishop Giffard (translated to
            London, 1703).
     1703.  Bishop Witham (translated to the
            Northern District, 1716).
     1716.  Bishop Stonor                      1756.
     1753.  Bishop Hornihold                   1779.
     1766.  Bishop Honourable T. Talbot        1795.
     1786.  Bishop Berington                   1798.
     1801.  Bishop Stapleton                   1802.
     1803.  Bishop Milner                      1826.
     1825.  Bishop Walsh (translated to
            London, 1848).
     1840.  Bishop Wiseman (coadjutor).

  _Western District._

     1688.  Bishop Ellis                       1726.
     1715.  Bishop Prichard                    1750.
     1741.  Bishop York                        1770.
     1758.  Bishop Walmesley                   1797.
     1781.  Bishop Sharrock                    1809.
     1807.  Bishop Collingridge                1829.
     1823.  Bishop Baines                      1843.

  _Northern District._

     1688.  Bishop James Smith                 1711.
     1716.  Bishop Witham                      1725.
     1726.  Bishop Williams                    1740.
     1741.  Bishop Dicconson                   1752.
     1750.  Bishop Honourable, F. Petre        1775.
     1768.  Bishop Maire (coadjutor to Bishop
            Petre)                             1769.
     1770.  Bishop Walton                      1780.
     1780.  Bishop Gibson                      1790.
     1790.  Bishop William Gibson (brother
            to the preceding bishop)           1821.
     1810.  Bishop Thomas Smith                1831.
     1824.  Bishop Penswick                    1836.
     1833.  Bishop Briggs, removed to the new district
  of Yorkshire in 1840, and became Roman Catholic
  Bishop of Beverley in 1850.

In 1840, England and Wales were divided among eight vicars-apostolic, and
from that time until the year 1850 the following was the arrangement:


  _Consecrated._                              _Died._
     1833.  Bishop Griffiths                   1847.
     1825.  Bishop Walsh                       1849.
     1840.  Bishop Wiseman, at first coadjutor to Bishop
  Walsh here, as he had been in the central District.
  Elevated to the archiepiscopate, 1850.


     1825.  Bishop Walsh, removed to London
            in 1848.
     1846.  Bishop Ullathorne; became Roman
            Catholic Bishop of Birmingham,


     1823.  Bishop Baines                      1843.
     1843.  Bishop Beggs                       1846.
     1846.  Bishop Ullathorne; removed to the
            Central District, 1848.
     1848.  Bishop Hendren, became Roman
            Catholic Bishop of Clifton, 1850.


     1833.  Bishop Briggs; removed in 1840 to
            the new district of Yorkshire.
     1840.  Bishop Riddell                     1847.
     1848.  Bishop Hogarth; became Roman
            Catholic Bishop of Hexham, 1850.


     1840.  Bishop Wareing; became Roman
            Catholic Bishop of Northampton,


     1833.  Bishop Briggs, from the Northern
            District; became Roman Catholic
            Bishop of Beverley, 1850.


     1840.  Bishop G. Brown; became Roman
            Catholic Bishop of Liverpool,
     1843.  Bishop Sharples (coadjutor) 1850.


     1840.  Bishop T. J. Browne; became Roman Catholic
  Bishop of Newport, 1850.

In 1850 came another change, and one archbishop and twelve bishops were
appointed to rule {310} over the Roman Catholic Church in England and

  _Archbishop of Westminster._

     1850.  Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman.

  _Bishop of Hexham._

     1850.  William Hogarth.

  _Bishop of Beverley._

     1850.  John Briggs.

  _Bishop of Liverpool._

     1850.  George Brown.

  _Bishop of Birmingham._

     1850.  William Ullathorne.

  _Bishop of Northampton._

     1850.  William Wareing.

  _Bishop of Newport and Menevia._

     1850.  Thomas Joseph Browne.

  _Bishop of Nottingham._

     1850.  Joseph William Hendren (from Clifton); resigned
            his bishoprick, 1853.

  _Bishop of Clifton._

     1850.  Joseph William Hendren (removed in 1851
            to Nottingham.)
     1851.  Thomas Burgess.

  _Bishop of Salford._

     1851.  William Turner.

  _Bishop of Plymouth._

     1851.  George Errington.

  _Bishop of Shrewsbury._

     1851.  James Brown.

  _Bishop of Southwark._

     1851.  Thomas Grant.

The foregoing I believe to be, in the main, a correct account of the Roman
Catholic episcopate in England and Wales from the accession of Elizabeth
down to the present year.

J. R. W.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 106.)

I have no doubt that the particular instance of _Zeal in the cause of the
Church_ at Banbury, which Addison had in mind when he wrote No. 220. of the
_Tatler_, published Sept. 5, 1710, was a grand demonstration made by its
inhabitants in favour of Dr. Sacheverell, whose trial had terminated in his
acquittal on March 23 of that year. And my opinion is strengthened by the
introduction almost immediately afterwards of a passage on the party use of
the terms High Church and Low Church.

On June 3, 1710, the High Church champion made a triumphal entry into
Banbury, which is ridiculed in a pamphlet called _The Banb..y Apes, or the
Monkeys chattering to the Magpye; in a Letter to a Friend in London_. On
the back of the title is large woodcut, representing the procession which
accompanied the doctor; among the personages of which the Mayor of Banbury
(as a wolf), and the aldermen (as apes), are conspicuous figures. Dr.
Sacheverell himself appears on horseback, followed by a crowd of persons
bearing crosses and rosaries, or strewing branches. The accompanying
letter-press describes this procession as being closed by twenty-four
tinkers beating on their kettles, and a "vast mob, hollowing, hooping, and
playing the devil." There is another tract on the same subject, which is
extremely scarce, entitled--

    "An Appeal from the City to the Country for the Preservation of Her
    Majesty's Person, Liberty, Property, and the Protestant Religion, &c.
    Occasionally written upon the late impudent Affronts offer'd to Her
    Majesty's Royal Crown and Dignity by the People of BANBURY and WARWICK:
    Lond. 8vo. 1710."

To your correspondent H.'s (p. 222.) quotation from Braithwait's "Drunken
Barnaby" may be added this extract from an earlier poem by the same writer,
called "A Strappado for the Divell:"

 "But now for Bradford I must haste away:
  Bradford, if I should rightly set it forth,
  Stile it I might _Banberry_ of the North;
  And well this title with the town agrees,
  Famous for twanging _ale_, _zeal_, _cakes_, and _cheese_."

A few words on "Banbury _Cakes_," and I have done. The earliest mention of
them I am aware of (next to that in Camden's _Britannia_, published by
Philemon Holland in 1608, and already referred to), is by Ben Jonson, in
his _Bartholomew Fair_, written 1614; where he introduces "Zeal-of-the-Land
Busy" as "a Banbury Man," who "was a _baker_--but he does dream now, and
see visions: he has given over his trade, out of a scruple he took, that,
in spiced conscience, _those cakes he made_ were served to bridales,
maypoles, morrisses, and such profane feasts and meetings." I do not know
whether the sale of Banbury cakes flourished in the last century; but I
find recorded in Beesley's _Hist. of Banbury_ (published 1841) that Mr.
Samuel Beesley sold in 1840 no fewer than 139,500 twopenny cakes; and in
1841, the sale had increased by at least a fourth. In Aug. 1841, 5,400 were
sold weekly; being shipped to America, India, and even Australia. I fancy
their celebrity in early days can hardly parallel this, but I do not vouch
for the statistics.

J. R. M., M.A.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 575.)

This remarkable saying, like most good things of that kind, has been
repeated by so many distinguished writers, that it is impossible to trace
it to any one in particular, in the precise form in which it is now
popularly received. I shall quote, in succession, all those who appear to
have expressed it in words of the same, or a nearly similar, import, and
then leave your readers to judge for themselves.

I cannot help thinking that the first place should be assigned to Jeremy
Taylor, as he must have had the sentiment clearly in view in the following

    "There is in mankind an universal contract implied in all their
    intercourses; and _words being instituted to declare the mind, and for
    no other end_, he that hears me speak hath a right in justice to be
    done him, that, as far as I can, what I speak be true; for else he by
    words does not know your mind, and then as good and better not speak at

Next we have David Lloyd, who in his _State Worthies_ thus remarks of Sir
Roger Ascham:

    "None is more able for, yet none is more averse to, that circumlocution
    and contrivance wherewith some men shadow their main drift and purpose.
    _Speech was made to open man to man, and not to hide him_; to promote
    commerce, and not betray it."

Dr. South, Lloyd's cotemporary, but who survived him more than twenty
years, expresses the sentiment in nearly the same words:

    "In short, this seems to be the true inward judgment of all our
    politick sages, that _speech was given to the ordinary sort of men,
    whereby to communicate their mind, but to wise men whereby to conceal

The next writer in whom this thought occurs is Butler, the author of
_Hudibras_. In one of his prose essays on the "Modern Politician," he says:

    "He (the modern politician) believes a man's words and his meanings
    should never agree together: for he that says what he thinks lays
    himself open to be expounded by the most ignorant; and _he who does not
    make his words rather serve to conceal than discover the sense of his
    heart_, deserves to have it pulled out, like a traitor's, and shown
    publicly to the rabble."

Young has the thought in the following couplet on the duplicity of courts:

 "When Nature's end of language is declin'd,
  And men talk only to _conceal their mind_."

From Young it passed to Voltaire, who in the dialogue entitled "Le Chapon
et la Poularde," makes the former say of the treachery of men:

    "Ils n'emploient les paroles que pour _déguiser leurs pensées_."

Goldsmith, about the same time, in his paper in _The Bee_, produces it in
the well-known words:

    "Men who know the world hold that the true use of speech is not so much
    to _express_ our wants, as to _conceal_ them."

Then comes Talleyrand, who is reported to have said:

    "La parole n'a été donnée à l'homme que pour _déguiser sa pensée_."

The latest writer who adopts this remark without acknowledgment is, I
believe, Lord Holland. In his _Life of Lope de Vega_ he says of certain
Spanish writers, promoters of the _cultismo_ style:

    "These authors do not avail themselves of the invention of letters for
    the purpose of _conveying, but of concealing, their ideas_."

From these passages (some of which have already appeared in Vol. i., p. 83)
it will be seen that the germ of the thought occurs in Jeremy Taylor; that
Lloyd and South improved upon it; that Butler, Young and Goldsmith repeated
it; that Voltaire translated it into French; that Talleyrand echoed
Voltaire's words; and that it has now become so familiar an expression,
that any one may quote it, as Lord Holland has done, without being at the
trouble of giving his authority.

If, from the search for the author, we turn to consider the saying itself,
we shall find that its practical application extends not merely to every
species of equivocation, mental reservation, and even falsehood; but
comprises certain forms of speech, which are intended to convey the
_contrary_ of what they express. To this class of words the French have
given the designation of _contre-vérité_; and, to my surprise, I find that
they include therein the expression _amende honorable_. Upon this point the
_Grammaire des Grammaires_, by Girault Duvivier, has these remarks:

    "La contre-vérité a beaucoup de rapport avec l'ironie. Amende
    honorable, par exemple, est une contre-vérité, une vérité prise dans un
    sens opposé à celui de son énonciation; car, au lieu d'être honorable,
    elle est infamante, déshonorante."

I have some doubts as to whether this meaning of _amende honorable_ be in
accordance with our English notion of its import; and I shall be thankful
to any of your readers who will help me to a solution. I always understood
that the term _honorable_, in this expression, was to be taken in its
literal sense, namely, that the person who made an open avowal of his
fault, or tendered an apology for it, was acting, _in that respect_, in
strict conformity with the rules of honour. It is possible that, at first,
the _amende honorable_ may have been designed as a "peine infamante;" but
its modern acceptation would seem to admit of a more liberal construction.

There are other expressions, framed upon this "lucus a non lucendo"
principle, which may fairly be classed among _contre-vérités_. The French
say that a thing is _à propos de bottes_, when it is altogether
inappropriate. We all use the formula of "your most obedient, humble
servant," even when we intend anything but humility or obedience.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 431. 539. 605.)

MR. CUTHBERT BEDE (Vol. vi., p. 605.) says "he thinks A. B. R. would have
to search a long time, before he found, in the pages of Pope, such
brogue-inspired rhymes as _rake well_ and _sequel_, _starve it_ and
_deserve it_, _charge ye_ and _clergy_, and others quoted by him at p.
431." Among the latter, I presume he chiefly relies on the rhymes _satire_
and _hater_, _creature_ and _nature_.

Of all these I am able to adduce parallel instances both from Dryden and
Pope. And first, as to _rake well_ and _sequel_. MR. BEDE is, of course,
aware that these are double rhymes; that _quel_ and _well_ are good English
rhymes; and that the brogue betrays itself only in the first syllable of
each, _rake_ and _se_. It is, in fact, the same sort of rhyme as _break_
and _weak_, which is of such frequent occurrence both in Dryden and Pope.
Here is an example from each:

 "Or if they should, their interest soon would _break_,
  And with such odious aid make David _weak_."
                      _Absalom and Achitophel._

 "Men in their loose, unguarded hours they _take_;
  Not that themselves are wise, but others _weak_."
                      _Essay on Man._

The next "brogue-inspired rhyme" is _starve it_ and _deserve it_. Here, as
in the former instance, the last syllables rhyme correctly, and the
objection is confined to _starve_ and _deserve_. Let us see what Dryden
says to this:

 "Wrong conscience, or no conscience, may _deserve_
  To thrive, but ours alone is privileged to _starve_."
                      _Hind and Panther._

And Pope:

 "But still the great have kindness in _reserve_:
  He help'd to bury whom he help'd to _starve_."
                      _Prologue to the Satires._

Of this species of rhyme I have noted _three other_ instances in Dryden,
and _two_ in Pope.

As regards the rhyme _charge ye_ and _clergy_, no instance, in the same
words, occurs in Dryden or Pope. They did not write much in that sort of
doggerel. But the brogue, even here, is nothing more than the confounding
of the sounds of _a_ and _e_, which is so beautifully exemplified in the
following couplet in Dryden:

 "For yet no George, to our _discerning_,
  Has writ without a ten years' warning."
                      _Epistle to Sir G. Etheredge._

Next, we have the rhyme _satire_ and _hater_. The following in Dryden is
quite as bad, if not worse:

 "Spiteful he is not, though he wrote a _satire_,
  For still there goes some thinking to _ill-nature_."
                      _Absalom and Achitophel._

Of this rhyme _satire_ and _nature_, I can adduce two other instances from

In the same category we must place _nature_ and _creature_, _nature_ and
_feature_. Here is an example from Dryden; and I can bring forward two

 "A proof that chance alone makes every _creature_
  A very Killigrew without good _nature_."
                      _Essay upon Satire._

And here is one from Pope:

 "'Tis a virgin hard of _feature_,
  Old and void of all good _nature_."
                      _Answer to "What is Prudery?"_

Can MR. BEDE produce anything to match the following sample of the
_crater_, to be found in our most polished English poet?

 "Alas! if I am such a _creature_,
  To grow the worse for growing _greater_!"
                      _Dialogue between Pope and Craggs._

It will be seen, from the foregoing quotations, that the rhymes described
as Irish were, a century and a half ago, common to both countries,--a fact
which MR. BEDE was probably not sufficiently aware of when he introduced
the subject in "N. & Q." For obvious reasons, the use of such rhymes, at
the present day, would be open to the imputation of "Irishism;" but it was
not so in the days of Swift.


St. Lucia.

In a former Number I drew attention to that peculiar fondness for "Irish
rhymes" which is more evident in Swift than in any other poet; and another
correspondent afterwards gave examples to show that "our premier poet,
Pope," sometimes tripped in the same Hibernian manner. In looking over an
old volume of the _New Monthly Magazine_, during the time of its being
edited by the poet Campbell, I have stumbled upon a passage which is so
_apropos_ to the subject referred to, that I cannot resist quoting it; and
independent of its bearing on our Irish rhyming discussion, the passage has
sufficient interest to excuse my making a Note of it. It occurs in one of a
series of papers called "The Family Journal," supposed to have been written
by the immediate descendants of the "Will Honeycomb" of the _Spectator_. A
{313} dinner-party is assembled at Mr. Pope's, when the conversation takes
this turn:

    "Mr. Walscott asked if he (Dryden) was an Englishman or an Irishman,
    for he never could find out. 'You would find out,' answered Mr. Pope,
    'if you heard him talk, for he cannot get rid of the habit of saying
    _a_ for e. He would be an Englishman with all his heart, if he could;
    but he is an Irishman, that is certain, and with all his heart too in
    one sense, for he is the truest patriot that country ever saw.... You
    must not talk to him about Irish rhymes,' added Mr. Pope, 'any more
    than you must talk to me about the _gods_ and _abodes_ in my Homer,
    which he quarrels with me for. The truth is, we all write Irish rhymes,
    and the Dean contrives to be more exact that way than most of us.'
    'What!' said Mr. Walscott, 'does he carry his Irish accent into his
    writings, and yet think to conceal himself?' Mr. Pope read to us an odd
    kind of Latin-English effusion of the Dean's, which made us shake with
    laughter. It was about a consultation of physicians. The words, though
    Latin in themselves, make English when put together; and the
    Hibernianism of the spelling is very plain. I remember a taste of it. A
    doctor begins by inquiring,

    "'Is his Honor sic? Præ lætus felis pulse. It do es beat veris loto

    "Here _de_ spells _day_. An Englishman would have used the word _da_.

    "'No,' says the second doctor; 'no, notis as qui cassi e ver feltu
    metri it,' &c.

    "_Metri_ for _may try_.

    "Mr. Pope told us that there were two bad rhymes in the _Rape of the
    Lock_, and in the space of eight lines:

     "'The doubtful beam long nods from side to side;
      At length the wits mount up, the hairs subside.

      But this bold lord, with manly strength endued,
      She with one finger and a thumb subdued.'

    "_Mr. Walscott._ 'These would be very good French rhymes.'

    "_Mr. Pope._ 'Yes, the French make a merit of necessity, and force
    their poverty upon us for riches. But it is bad in English. However, it
    is too late to alter what I wrote. I now care less about them,
    notwithstanding the Doctor. When I was a young man, I was for the free
    _disinvolte_ way of Dryden, as in the _Essay on Criticism_; but the
    town preferred the style of my pastorals, and somehow or other I agreed
    with them. I then became very cautious, and wonder how those lines in
    the _Lock_ escaped me. But I have come to this conclusion, that when a
    man has established his reputation for being able to do a thing, he may
    take liberties. Weakness is one thing, and the carelessness of power
    another.'"--_New Monthly Magazine_, vol. xiii. (1825), pp. 551, 552.

With regard to the French rhyme, I see, in a note to _Odes and other
Poems_, by Henry Neele, 1821, that he apologises for rhyming _multitude_
with _solitude_, by saying:

    "It is of that kind which is very common in French, but I fear hardly
    justified by English practice. Still, 'La rime est une esclave, et ne
    doit qu'obéir.'"

I would append to this Note a Query. Where in Swift's works is the
"Latin-English effusion of the Dean's" to be met with?[2] or is it composed
for him by the writer of the article? I only know of two such effusions
really written by Swift; the _Love Song_, "Apud in is almi des ire," &c.,
and the _Epigram on Dic_:

 "Dic, heris agro at an da quarto finale
  Fora ringat ure nos an da stringat ure tale."

I should also like to know the author of the clever series of papers from
which I have quoted.


[Footnote 2: [See "Consultation upon a Lord that was Dying," in Swift's
_Works_, ed. Scott, vol. xiii. p. 471.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 489.)

Your correspondent W. STANLEY SIMMONDS will find a lengthy account of this
notable Spanish Don--Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Conde de Gondomar--in the
_Nobiliario genealogico de los Reyes y Titulos de España_ of Lopez de Haro,
folio, Madrid, 1622, vol. i. pp. 236-238. In this notice he chiefly
figures, strange to say, as a military character! At the ripe age of
_seventeen_ this "famous captain" is said to have chastised the insolence
of that bold "English pirate, Francisco Draques," who in 1584 had had the
temerity to land somewhere near Bayona, his sole object being of course
plunder. Don Diego guarded well his territory of Tuy when the same
formidable "dragon," in the year 1589, made his appearance before Coruña;
and again in 1596, when the English Armada visited ill-fated Cadiz. Being a
person of "great parts," the Count was despatched to England as ambassador
in 1613, and during the five years that he resided in this country, "the
king and his nobility showered upon him favours and honours innumerable."
He once told James that the flour of England (meaning the gentry) was very
fine, but the bran (meaning the common people) was very coarse; "_La harina
de Inglatierra es muy delgada y fina, pero el afrecho es muy
grossero_,"--for Gondomar, like the learned Isaac Casaubon, had been
subject to the grossest insults from the London rabble. We next find ranked
among his praiseworthy deeds the following atrocious one:

    "Hizo cortar la cabeça al General Ingles Wbaltero Rale (Sir Walter
    Raleigh) por aver intentado descubrimiento en las Indias Occidentales
    de Castilla a su partida."

Another meritorious action is added:

    "A su instancia perdonó la Magestad de aquel Rey (James I.) a sesenta
    sacerdotes que estavan presos condenados por causa de la religion, y a
    otros mucho Catolicos, passandolos todos consigo a Flandes."


The title of Count Gondomar was conferred upon him by Philip III. in 1617,
but the date of his death is still a desideratum. Many anecdotes concerning
him are to be seen scattered in Howel's _Treatise of Ambassadors_.

W. M. R. E.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 543.)

B. B. WOODWARD (urged, probably, by R. RAWLINSON'S question in Vol. vi., p.
412.) sends you the following inscription,

 "Sit mihi nec glis servus, nec hospes hirudo,"

copied from over the entrance to an old hostel in the town of Wymondham,
Norfolk. He says he quotes from memory.

Vol. vii., p. 23., you give an English translation of the inscription:

 "From servant lazy as dormouse,
  Or leeching guest, God keep my house;"

but suggest that "hirudo" should be "hiru_n_do," and produce some apt
classical quotations supposing it may be so, requesting MR. WOODWARD to
look again at the original inscription.

In a recent Number (Vol. vii., p. 190.) MR. WOODWARD appears to have done
this, and sends you the inscriptions correctly (as I beg to vouch, having
often read and copied it, and living within four miles of the spot), thus:

 "Nec mihi glis servus, nec hospes hirudo."

Permit me to add to this corroboration, that I should venture a different
translation of the word "hospes" from your correspondent's, and render the
notice thus:

 "Good attendance and cheap charges:"

taking "hospes" not as guest but host, and the literal words, "My servant
is not a dormouse, nor (I) the host a leech."

Ainsworth gives authority for "hospes" meaning host as well as guest, and
quotes Ovid's _Metamorphoses_ in support of it.


Ketteringham Park, Wymondham, Norfolk.

With due respect to your correspondent A. B. R., the word "hospes" most
probably means host, not guest.

 "Sit mihi nec servus glis, nec hospes hirudo."

In Blomfield's _Norfolk_ (but I cannot now lay my finger on the passage)
the line is given as an inscription on the lintel of a door of an ancient
hostelry, carved in oak. If so, the line may be rendered--

 "No maid like dormouse on me wait,
  Nor leech-like host be here my fate."

But, on the supposition that _guest_ is the proper meaning, "hirudo" might
be taken in the sense of a greedy guest, although this would not be
complimentary to the older hospitality. And even in the sense of gossiping,
"hirudo" would not be so inappropriate an imitation of the "recitator
acerbus" at the conclusion of the _Ars Poetica_:

 "Nec missura cutem nisi plena cruoris hirudo."

E. L. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Photographic Gun-Cotton._--The "doctors differ" not a little in their
prescriptions for preparing the best gun-cotton for photographic use. How
shall the photographer decide between them?

DR. DIAMOND ("N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 277.) says (I quote briefly), "_Pour
upon_ 100 grains of cotton an ounce and a half of nitric acid, previously
mixed with one ounce of strong sulphuric acid. Knead it with glass rods
_during five minutes_," &c.

Mr. Hunt, quoting, (apparently with approbation) from MR. ARCHER, says (p.
260., 3rd edit.), "Take one ounce by measure of nitric acid, mixed with one
ounce by measure of ordinary sulphuric acid, and _add to them_ eighty
grains of cotton; well stir," &c., "_for not more than_ FIFTEEN SECONDS,"
&c. "It will be seen that the cotton is not exposed to the action of the
mixed acids in this last mode longer than is necessary to saturate the
cotton; should the action be continued further, the solubility of the
cotton is entirely lost."

Not only is the order of manipulation different (a point probably not
material), but the time between "five minutes" and "fifteen seconds" must
exercise a most important influence on the result. Who is right?


_Sealing-wax for Baths._--I notice in your answers to correspondents (No.
176., p. 274.), that you inform H. HENDERSON that glass may be cemented for
baths with sealing-wax. May I recommend to H. HENDERSON the use of gutta
percha, instead of glass, for that purpose? Sheet gutta percha is now very
cheap, and the baths are most easily made. I have had one of my own making
in constant use since last July, having never emptied it but twice, to
filter the nitrate of silver solution. It is not liable to breakage. The
joinings are much less liable to leakage. And when it is necessary to heat
slightly the silver solution (as it has been during the late cold weather),
I have adopted the following simple plan: Heat moderately a stout piece of
plate glass; plunge it into the bath; repeat the operation according to the
size of bath. It is very useful to make a gutta percha cap to cover over
the bath when not in use; it protects it from dust and evaporation, and
saves the continual loss of materials arising from pouring the solution
backwards and forwards. For home-work I have reduced {315} the whole
operation to a very simple system. My bath, hypo-soda, developing fluid (of
which, as it keeps so long, I make ten ounces at a time), are always ready
in a small closet in my study. These I arrange on my study-table: a gutta
percha tray, a brass levelling-stand upon it, a jug of soft water, and
half-a-dozen small plates to place my pictures on, after treating them with
the hypo-solution (for, to save time, I do not finish washing them until I
have done all the pictures I require). All these things I can prepare and
arrange in less than ten minutes, and can as easily return them to their
places afterwards.

With regard to MR. MABLEY'S process, described in "N. & Q.," No. 176., p.
267., as I am but a beginner myself, and have much to learn, I should be
sorry to condemn it; but I should fear that his pictures would not exhibit
sufficient contrast in the tints. Nor do I see the advantage the pictures
would possess, if they did, over positives taken by our process. We
amateurs in the country labour at present under great disadvantages, some
of which I think the Photographic Society will remove. I am myself quite
unable to form an idea what the collodion pictures done by first-rate
photographers are like. All the positives done by amateurs in this part of
the world, and developed by pyrogallic acid, which I have seen, present a
dirty brown hue, by no means pleasing or artistic; and I have seen but very
few, either developed by pyrogallic acid or protosulphate of iron, free
from blemishes. I think if we were to act upon the suggestion made in "N. &
Q." some time back, and send the editor a specimen of our performances, it
would be a slight return for his endeavours in our behalf; and he would, I
doubt not, honestly tell us whether our pictures were tolerable or not. I,
for one, shall be very happy to do so.


Edingthorpe Rectory.

_Developing Chamber._--I think MR. SISSON will find some difficulty in
applying his very excellent idea of a sheet India rubber lighting medium to
his portable laboratory, as the vapour of the ether will act upon it and
render it sticky and useless after one or two usings. Allow me to suggest
what I am in the habit of using, viz. a double layer of yellow glazed
calico, stuck together with a little common drying oil, and allowed to dry
for a few days: this causes a perfect exclusion of the actinic rays, and is
very durable.


Falkland, Torquay.

_The Black Tints on Photographic Positives._--A correspondent having
inquired how these were obtained, and another replying that it was caused
by starch, I beg to offer a process to your readers as to how they may
obtain those carbonic tints; though I must premise that the process
requires some skill, and is not always successful, though always sure to
make them black: but on occasions of failure the lights sink, and the
brilliancy of the picture is lost. That it is not starch in the French
process, unless that vehicle contains some preparation, I am tolerably
certain; the chloride of barium will often produce black images, though
very uncertain; and the black process as given by Le Gray is uncertain
also. For myself, I generally prefer the colour given by ammoniac salt; it
is artistical and sufficient for any purpose. The present process, which I
use myself when I require a black colour, with its imperfections, I offer
to the photographic readers of "N. & Q.," and here it is.

Take a two-ounce vial, and have some powdered litharge of lead, by some
called gold or scale litharge; pound it fine in a Wedgewood mortar, and put
in the vial about one scruple; pour on it about half an ounce of Beaufoy's
acetic acid, but do not replace the cork or stopper, as the gas evolved is
very active, and will burst the vial, placing the operator's eyes in
jeopardy; agitate and allow it to stand some hours to settle, or leave it
till next day, when it will be better for the purpose: then decant the
clear part and throw the fæces away, return the solution into the bottle,
and fill up with distilled water. The positive paper being now prepared
with the ammonio-nitrate of silver, and placed as usual in the sun, the
artist must remove it when a tolerably distinct image is visible, but not
altogether up: this is _one_ of the niceties of the process; if it is too
much done the blacks will be too black, and if not enough they will be
feeble and want richness; it is when a visible image of the whole is
developed: at this point put the positive into cold water; this will remove
a great deal of the silver that has not been acted upon by the light: let
it soak three or four minutes; take it out and blot off the water, laying a
clean piece of paper below. Now pour a small quantity of the solution of
lead on one end, and with a glass rod pass it carefully over every part;
blot it off, and giving the paper a little time to dry partially, pass over
a solution of newly made gallic acid; the shadows will rapidly become
perfectly blank, and the picture will come up. But _another_ nicety in the
process is the point at which it must be plunged into hyposulphite of soda
solution; if plunged in too soon the black will be mingled with the sepia
tints, and if too late the whole tint will be too black. I offer it,
however, because I know its capabilities of improvement, and the intensity
of the black is sometimes beautiful: it is better suited for architectural
subjects, where there is but little sky, as it will lay a faint tint over
it; but if a sky is attempted, it must be kept under by a brush with a
little hyposulphite of soda solution, touching it {316} carefully. The time
it will take in becoming black will not exceed one minute; but as the
eyesight is the guide, the moment the tints have changed from red to black
is the proper time to arrest its further progress: the combination thus
obtained will not change, nor, I believe, become faint by time; but I
repeat it may be much improved, and if any abler hand, or one with better
means at his disposal, will take the trouble to examine its capabilities, I
shall be very thankful for his notes on the subject.

N.B. The solution of lead must contain acid; and if by keeping it does not
change litmus-paper, acid must be added till it does.


7. Conduit Street West.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Contested Elections_ (Vol. vii., p.208.).--There is a very fair history of
the boroughs of Great Britain, by Edwards, in 3 Vols. 8vo., printed by
Debrett in 1792.

J. B.

X. Y. Z. is informed that a compilation on the subject to which his Query
relates was published a few years since in Leeds by Henry Stooks Smith.
Speaking from recollection, it appears to be a work of some research; but I
cannot say how far it is to be relied on. It may, perhaps, be one of the
unfortunate works which have already fallen under his censure.

J. B.


_Suicide at Marseilles_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--In Montaigne's _Essays_ I

    "In former times there was kept, in our city of Marseilles, a poison
    prepared out of hemlock, at the public charge, for those who had a mind
    to hasten their end, having first, before the Six Hundred, which were
    their Senate, given an account of the reasons and motives of their
    design; and it was not otherwise lawful than by leave from the
    magistrate, and upon just occasion, to do violence to themselves. The
    same law was also in use in other places."--Book ii. chap. iii., at

This, however, is not the original authority required by your

In the earlier part of the same chapter, "Plutarch, _On the Virtuous Deeds
of Women_," is referred to as the authority for the statement which
Montaigne makes of

    "The Milesian virgins, that by an insane compact hanged themselves, one
    after another, until the magistrate took order in it, enacting, that
    the bodies of such as should be found so hanged should be drawn by the
    same halter, stark naked, through the city."

J. P.


_Acts_, xv. 23. (Vol. vii., p. 204.).--From the notes to Tischendorf's
_Greek Testament_, it appears that [Greek: kai hoi] is omitted by Griesbach
ed. II. anno 1806, as well as by Lachman, on the authority of the four most
ancient Greek MSS. distinguished as A, B, C, and D, confirmed by the versio
Armenica, and so quoted by Athanasius, Irenæus, Pacian, and Vigilius. The
MS. A is referred by Tischendorf to the latter half of the fifth century,
and is the Alexandrian MS. in the British Museum. B is the Vatican codex of
about the middle of the fourth century. C the codex Ephraemi Syri
rescriptus at Paris, and is of the first half of the fifth century; and D
is Beza's MS. at Cambridge, of about the middle of the sixth century. MR.
SANSOM may find a very interesting letter upon this subject from Dr.
Tregelles to Dr. Charles Wordsworth, the present Bishop of St. Andrew's,
which was published _very recently_ in the _Scottish Ecclesiastical
Journal_, and in which that learned critic defends the omission of the
[Greek: kai hoi]. I regret that I cannot furnish him with the number of
that Journal, but it was not more than three or four back.

I hope that MR. SANSOM will inform your readers of the ultimate result of
his inquiries on this interesting subject.

P. H.

_Serpent's Tongue_ (Vol. vi., p. 340.).--The _Lingua Serpentina_ of old
MSS., and the fossil now commonly termed a Shark's-tooth. In former days,
few pilgrims returned from the East without bringing at least one of those
curious stones. Being principally found in Malta, it was said they were the
tongues of the vipers, which once infested that island, and which St. Paul
had turned into stone. Considered to be antidotes, and possessed of
talismanic qualities, they were set in cups, dishes, knife-handles, and
other requisites for the table.



_Croxton or Crostin of Lancashire_ (Vol. vii., p. 108.).--A full account of
the parish of Croston (not Crostin), which was formerly very extensive, but
is now divided into the six parishes of Croston, Chorley, Hesketh, Hoole,
Rumford, and Tarleton, may be found in Baines's _Lancashire_, vol. iii. pp.
395. to 440. There does not appear to have been a family of Croston of any
note, though the name is common in the county. In Burke's _Heraldic
Dictionary_, I find three families named Croxton; the principal one being
of Croxton in Cheshire, since temp. Hen. III. Their arms are--Sable, a lion
rampant arg. debruised by a bend componée or and gu.


Bury, Lancashire.

_Robert Dodsley_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--In the _Biographia Dramatica_ it is
stated that "this author was born _near_ Mansfield, in Nottinghamshire, _as
it is supposed_;" and this supposition was, {317} not improbably, founded
on the following lines, which occur in one of his poems, as Mansfield is
situated in the forest of Sherwood:

 "O native Sherwood! happy were thy Bard,
  Might these, his rural notes, to future time,
  Boast of tall groves, that nodding o'er thy plain,
  Rose to their tuneful melody."



_Lord Goring_ (Vol. ii., pp. 22. 65.; Vol. vii., p. 143.).--In the
order-books of the council of state, I find that William Killegrew was, on
the 1st Oct., 1642, appointed lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of Colonel
Goringh, _vice_ Thomas Hollis, deceased; and that, on the 26th March, 1647,
he was named colonel of the same regiment, vice Colonel Goringh, resigned.
That the last-mentioned colonel is _George_ Goringh we learn from the
war-budget (Staat van Oorlog) of 1644, where the salaries of

  Colonel George Goringh                   iij^c£
  William Killegre, Lieutenant-Colonel      lxxx£

are charged on the province of Holland. It nowhere appears from official
reports that Lord Goring held a higher military rank than that of colonel
in the Netherlands army. That he left England previous to 1645 is proved
not only by the above, but also by his presence, as colonel in the service
of Spain, at the siege of Breda in 1637. If he afterwards served in the
Spanish army as lieutenant-general, what could have induced him at a later
period to accept the rank of colonel in the army of the States?


In the _Irish Compendium, or Rudiments of Honour_, vol. iii. pp. 64, 65.,
2nd ed.: London, 1727, we read that Lord Richard Boyle, born in 1566,
married as second wife "Catharine, only daughter to Sir Jeffry Fenton; by
her had five sons and seven daughters, of which the Lady Lettice was
married to _George Lord Goring_."--V. D. N. _From the Navorscher._

_Chaplains to Noblemen_ (Vol. vii., p. 163.).--There is, in the Faculty
Office in Doctors' Commons, an entry kept of the appointments of chaplains
when brought to be registered. Under what authority the entry is made does
not seem very clear. The register does not extend beyond the year 1730,
though there may be amongst the records of the office in St. Paul's some
earlier notices of similar appointments.


_The Duke of Wellington Maréchal de France_ (Vol. vii., p. 283.).--The Duke
of Wellington is indebted to the writer in the _Revue Britannique_ for his
dukedom and bâton of France, and not to Garter King-at-Arms. No such titles
were attributed to his Grace or proclaimed by Garter, as a reference to the
official accounts in the _London Gazette_ will show. The Order of St.
Esprit was the only French honour ascribed to him; that Order he received
and frequently wore, the insignia of which were displayed, with his
numerous other foreign honours, at the lying-in-state. Such being the case,
Garter will not perhaps be expected to produce the diploma for either the
title of _Duc de Brunoy_ or the rank of _Maréchal de France_.

C. G. Y.

_Lord North_ (Vol. vii., p. 207.).--MR. FORSTER has, it seems, blundered a
piece of old scandal into an insinuation at once absurd and treasonable.
The scandal was _not_ of Lord Guilford and the Princess Dowager, but of
Frederick Prince of Wales and Lady Guilford. On this I will say no more
than that the supposed resemblance between King George III. and Lord North
is very inaccurately described by MR. FORSTER in almost every point except
the _fair complexion_. The king's figure was not clumsy--quite the reverse,
nor his face homely, nor his lips thick, nor his eyebrows bushy, nor his
eyes protruding like Lord North's; but there was certainly something of a
general look which might be called resemblance, and there was above all
(which is not alluded to) the curious coincidence of the _failure of sight_
in the latter years of both. Lord North was the only son of Lord Guilford's
_first_ marriage: I know not whether the children of the _second_ bed
inherited defective sight; if they did, it would remove one of the
strongest grounds of the old suspicion.


_Mediæval Parchment_ (Vol. vii., p. 155.).--The method of preparing
parchment for illumination will be found in the _Birch and Sloane MSS._,
under "Painting and Drawing," &c., where are a number of curious MS.
instructions on the subject, written chiefly in the sixteenth century, in
English, French, and Italian.

Sir Frederic Madden, in the Introduction to _Illuminated Ornaments_, fol.
1833, and Mr. Ottley, in _Archæologia_, vol. xxiv. art. 1., have both
written very minutely on the subject of illuminating, but their
observations are too long for quotation.

E. G. B.

I remember reading in an old French work the process used in illuminating
parchments, and remember that the gilding was laid upon garlic juice; it
might very possibly be diluted with proof spirits of wine; at all events,
no parchments can bear water at whatever time they may have been prepared:
the process of making them wear out with water would turn them into
leather. The work I allude to was brought out, I recollect, under the
auspices of the French Academy.

W. T.


_"I hear a lion," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--These lines (corrupted by
your correspondent SAGITTA into _five_) are two couplets in Bramstone's
lively poem of the _Art of Politics_. They are a versification of a shrewd
question put by Colonel Titus in the debate on the celebrated bill for
_excluding_ James Duke of York.


The _Art of Politics_, by the Rev. Mr. Bramston, contains the following
lines, which will, I apprehend, give your correspondent the required

 "With art and modesty your part maintain;
  And talk like Col'nel Titus, not like Lane.
  The trading knight with rants his speech begins,
  Sun, moon, and stars, and dragons, saints, and kings:
  But Titus said, with his uncommon sense,
  When the exclusion-bill was in suspense,
  I hear a lion in the lobby roar;
  Say, Mr. Speaker, shall we shut the door
  And keep him there, or shall we let him in
  To try if we can turn him out again?"

Mr. Bramston's poem is in the first volume of Dodsley's _Collection_.

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to refer to a cotemporary
account of Colonel Titus's speech on the Exclusion Bill.



_Fercett_ (Vol. vi., p. 292.).--The term _Fercett_ is probably intended as
the _designation_ of some collection in MS. of family evidences and
pedigrees. It was usual among our ancestors thus to inscribe such
collections either with the name of the collector, or that of the
particular family to whom the book related. Thus the curious MS. in the
library of the City of London, called _Dunthorne_, and containing ancient
municipal records, is so called from its collector, whose name was
Dunthorne. Instances of such titles are to be found in the collections of
Gervase Holles in the _Lansdowne MSS._, where one of such books is referred
to as _Trusbutt_.

E. G. B.

_Old Satchells_ (Vol. vi., p. 160.; Vol. vii., p.209.).--Your correspondent
J. O. seems not to be aware that another and a fourth edition of _Old
Satchells' True History_ ("with copious additions, notes, and emendations,"
under the editorial superintendence of William Turnbull, Esq., F.S.A.) is
in course of preparation 'neath the fostering care of Mr. John Gray Bell,
the _pro amore_ publisher of so many historical and antiquarian tracts of
interest. Mr. Bell has already given to the world a _Pedigree of the
Ancient Family of Scott of Stokoe_, edited, with notes, by William Robson
Scott, Ph. D., of St. Leonard's, Exeter, from the original work compiled by
his grandfather, Dr. William Scott, of Stamfordham, Northumberland, then
(1783) representative of the family. The latter gentleman left behind him a
large and valuable collection of MSS. relative to the family, which, as I
learn from the prospectus, will be called into requisition in the
forthcoming reprint of the _Old Souldier of Satchell_. Possibly the
publishers of the second and third editions may have been assisted in their
labours by the learned doctor in question, whose already quoted _Pedigree
of the Scotts of Stokoe_ was issued only a few years prior to the
appearance of the Hawick edition of 1786, not 1784, as accidentally
misprinted in J. O.'s interesting communication.



_Curtseys and Bows_ (Vol. vii., p. 156).--In the interlude of _The Trial of
Treasure_, by Purfoote, 1567 (page 14. of reprint), Inclination says to

 "Ise teach you to speake, I hold you a pounde!
  Curchy, lob, curchy downe to the grounde.

  _Gre._ Che can make curchy well enowe.

  _Inc._ Lower, old knave, or yle make ye to bowe!"

For _rationale_ of bows and curtseys, see "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 157.,
though I fancy the _bob_ curtseys are the ones referred to.



_The Rev. Joshua Marsden_ (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--This gentleman was born at
Warrington in the year 1777. In the year 1800 he offered himself, and was
accepted by the Wesleyan Methodist Conference, as a missionary to British
North America, where he laboured for several years. He removed thence to
Bermuda. In 1814 he returned to England with a constitution greatly
impaired, but continued to occupy regular stations under the direction of
the Conference until 1836, when, worn out by affliction, he became a
supernumerary, and resided in London, where he occasionally preached as his
health permitted. He died August 11, 1837, aged sixty.


A memoir and portrait of the Rev. Joshua Marsden will be found in the
_Imperial Magazine_, July, 1830. He was at that period a preacher among the
Wesleyan Methodists, having been for many years previously a missionary in
connexion with that people. He was an amiable, ingenious, and worthy man,
and although not a powerful, a pleasing poet. Among other things, he
published _Amusements of a Mission_, _Forest Musings_, and _The Evangelical

J. H.

_Sidney as a Christian Name_ (Vol. vii., p. 39.).--Your correspondent R. D.
B., of Baltimore, is informed that the name of Sidney is extremely common
in North Wales as a Christian name of either sex, but more particularly of
the female.

There seems to be no tradition connected with its use. In this part of the
principality, the name {319} has generally been assumed more from its
euphonistic character than from any family connexion.

E. L. B.


_The Whetstone_ (Vol. vii., p. 208.).--In your No. 174. of "N. & Q.," E. G.
R. alludes to the _Game of the Whetstone_. The following quotation, as
bearing on that subject, may not be uninteresting to your readers:

    "In the fourth year of this king's (Edward VI.) reign, in the month of
    September, one Grig, a poulterer of Surrey (taken among the people for
    a prophet, in curing of divers diseases by words and prayers, and
    saying he would take no money), was, by command of the Earl of Warwick,
    and others of the Council, set on a scaffold in the town of Croidon, in
    Surrey, with a paper on his breast, wherein was written his deceitful
    and hypocritical dealings: and after that, on the eighth of September,
    set on a pillory in Southwark, being then Our Lady Fair there kept; and
    the Mayor of London, with his brethren the aldermen, riding through the
    fair, the said Grig asked them and all the citizens forgiveness.

    "'Of the like counterfeit physicians,' saith Stow, 'I have noted, in
    the summary of my _Chronicles_ (anno 1382), to be set on horseback, his
    face to the horse-tail, the same tail in his hand as a bridle, a collar
    of jordans about his neck, a _whetstone_ on his breast; and so led
    through the city of London, with ringing of basons, and banished.'

    "Whereunto I had added (with the forementioned author) as
    followeth:--Such deceivers, no doubt, are many who, being never trained
    up in reading or practice of physicke and chirurgery, do boast to doe
    great cures, especially upon women; as to make them straight that
    before were crooked, corbed, or cramped in any part of their bodies,
    &c. But the contrary is true; for some have received gold, when they
    have better deserved the whetstone."--Goodall's _Royal College of
    Physicians_: London, 1684, p. 306.

J. S. S.


_Surname of Allen_ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--Perhaps A. S. A. may find the
following words in Celtic of use to him in his researches as to the origin
of the name of Allan:--_Adlann_, pronounced _all[=a]nn_, means a spearman
or lancer; _aluin_, a white hind or fawn (Query, Do any of the name bear a
hind as a crest?); _allin_, a rocky islet; _alain_, fair, bright,
fair-haired, &c.


_Belatucadrus_ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--Papers concerning the god
Belatucadrus are to be found in the _Archæologia_, vol. i. p. 310., vol.
iii. p. 101., vol. x. p. 118. I take these references from Mr. Akerman's
useful Archæological Index.

C. W. G.

_Pot-guns_ (Vol. vi., p. 612.; Vol. vii., p. 190.).--In the parish of
Halvergate, a train of seventeen pot-guns is kept at the blacksmith's shop.
MR. WOODWARD is correct in stating that they are "short cylinders set
perpendicularly in a frame, flat-candlestickwise;" but each pot-gun at
Halvergate is set in a separate block of wood, and not several in a frame
together. By touching the touchholes of each pot-gun successively with a
bar of red-hot iron, and with the aid of two double-barrel guns, a royal
salute is fired at every wedding or festive occasion in Halvergate.

E. G. R.

_Graves Family_ (Vol. vii., p. 130.).--Your correspondent JAMES GRAVES will
find a tolerable pedigree of the Graves family, commencing in the time of
Edward IV., in the first volume of Dr. Nash's _Worcestershire_; and, in the
notes thereto, many interesting particulars of various learned members of
the family. Independent of the three portraits mentioned by your
correspondent, of which I possess fine proof impressions, I have also one
in mezzotinto of Morgan Graves, Esq., of Mickleton, county of Gloucester,
and Lord of the Manor of Poden, in the co. of Worcester.


_Portrait Painters_ (Vol. vii., p. 180.).--The name of the Derby artist was
_Wright_, not _White_. I have seen several portraits by him of great
excellence. The time of his death I do not recollect, but I think the
greater part of his works were executed in the latter part of the last
century. Have not some of them been exhibited in Pall Mall? I have not the
means at hand of ascertaining the fact, but I think he painted the
"Blacksmith's Forge," which was so admirably mezzotinted by Earlom.

E. H.

_Plum Pudding_ (Vol. vi., p. 604.).--Southey, in his _Omniana_, vol. i. p.
7., quotes the following receipt for English plum puddling, as given by the
Chevalier d'Arvieux, who in 1658 made a voyage in an English forty-gun

    "Leur pudding était détestable. C'est un composé de biscuit pilé, ou de
    farine, de lard, de raisins de Corinthe, de sel, et de poivre, dont on
    fait une pâte, qu'on enveloppe dans une serviette, et que l'on fait
    cuire dans le pot avec du bouillon de la viande; on la tire de la
    serviette, et on la met dans un plat, et on rappe dessus du vieux
    fromage, qui lui donne une odeur insupportable. Sans ce fromage la
    chose en elle-même n'est pas absolument mauvaise."

Cheese is now eaten with apple puddings and pies; but is there any nook in
England where they still grate it over plum pudding? I have heard the joke
of forgetting the pudding-cloth, told against Lord Macartney during his
embassy in China. Your correspondent will find plum porridge and plum
puddings mentioned together at page 122. vol. ii. of Knight's _Old




_Muffs worn by Gentlemen_ (Vol. vi., _passim_.).--The _Tatler_, No. 155.,
describing a meeting with his neighbour the upholsterer, says:

    "I saw he was reduced to extreme poverty by certain shabby
    superfluities in his dress; for notwithstanding that it was a very
    sultry day for the time of year, he wore a loose great coat and a
    _muff_, with a long campaign wig out of curl," &c.


_The Burial Service by heart_ (Vol. vii., p. 13.).--In the Life of the Rev.
Griffith Jones, the celebrated founder of the Welsh circulating charity
schools, is this note:

    "Living amongst dissenters who disliked forms of prayer, he committed
    to memory the whole of the baptismal and burial services; and, as his
    delivery was very energetic, his friends frequently heard dissenters
    admire his addresses, which they praised as being extempore effusions
    unshackled by the Prayer Book!"

E. D.

_Burrow_ (Vol. vii., p. 205.).--BALLIOLENSIS says that in North
Gloucestershire "the side of a thick coppice is spoken of as a very
_burrow_ place for cattle." He understands this to mean "sheltered, secure
from wind;" and he asks to what etymology this sense can be attributed. I
suspect the Anglo-Saxon _bearo_, a grove or copse, is the word here
preserved. As a wood forms a fence against the wind, and is habitually so
used and regarded by the agricultural population, the association of ideas
is suitable enough in this interpretation. _Bearo_, first signifying the
grove itself, might easily come to mark the shelter which the grove
afforded. But there is also a compound of this word preserved in the
ancient charters, in which the fitness of a place as a pasture for swine is
the prominent notion. Kemble, _Cod. Dipl._, No. 288.: "Hæc sunt pascua
porcorum, quæ nostrâ linguâ Saxonicâ _denbera_ nominamus." In the same
sense the compound with the word _weald_ (= a great forest) is found:
weald-_bero_. The wood was considered by our forefathers as propitious to
their swine, not only for its shelter, but also for the masts it supplied;
and this may have further helped to associate _bearo_ with the comforts of


"_Coming home to men's business_" (Vol. vii., p.235.).--It is hardly
requisite to state to the readers of "N. & Q.," that many editions of
Bacon's memorable, beautiful, and didactic _Essays_ appeared in the
distinguished author's lifetime, obviously having experienced (proved by
prefatory epistles of different dates) the repeated revision and
emendations of the writer. The _Essays_ were clearly favourites with him,
as well as with the then reading public. They were first published in 1597,
preceded by a letter addressed "To M. Anthony Bacon, his deare Brother."
The _ninth_ edition was issued the year before his death, which took place
April 9, 1626. In that edition is added a dedication "To the Right
Honorable my very good Lo. the Duke of Buckingham, his Grace Lo. High
Admirall of England;" signed, "FR. ST. ALBAN:" previous signatures being
"Fran. Bacon" (1597); "Fr. Bacon" (1612); "Fra. Bacon" (no date). In this
dedication to the Duke of Buckingham first appeared the passage inquired
about: "I doe now (he tells the Duke) publish my _Essayes_; which, of all
my other workes, haue beene most current: for that, as it seems, they _come
home to Men's Businesse and Bosomes_."--How accurate, yet modest, an
appreciation of his labours!


My copy of Lord Bacon's _Essays_ is a 12mo.: London, 1668. And in the
epistle dedicatory, the author himself tells the Duke of Buckingham as

    "I do now publish my _Essays_; which, of all my other works, have been
    most current: for that, as it seems, they _come home to men's business
    and bosomes_."

This will carry J. P. eleven years further back, at all events.


_Heuristic_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.), as an English scholar would write it, or
_Hevristisch_, as it would be written by a German, is a word not to be
found in the sixth edition of Kant's _Critik_ (Leipzig, 1818), nor in his
_Prolegomena_ (Riga, 1783).[3] Your correspondent's copy appears to have
been tampered with. The title _Kritik_ should be spelt with the initial
_C_, and _reinen_ should not have a capital letter: the Germans being very
careful to prefix capitals to all substantives, but never to adjectives.
The above-mentioned edition of the _Critik_ was sent to me from Hamburg
soon after its publication. It was printed by Fröbels at Rudolstadt in
1818; and is unblemished by a single _erratum_, so far as I have been able
to detect one. Allow me to suggest to H. B. C. to collate the pages in his
edition with the sixth of 1818; the seventh of 1828; and, if possible, with
one published in Kant's lifetime prior to 1804; and he will probably find,
that the very favourite word of Kant, _empirisch_, has been altered in a
few instances to _hevristich_. MR. HAYWOOD is evidently inaccurate in
writing _evristic_, which is wrong in Greek as well as in German and

Instead of giving the pages of his copy, your correspondent will more
oblige by stating the divisions under which this exceptional word occurs,
in the running title at the top of each page of his copy; together with two
or three lines of the context, which I can compare with my own copy. I
{321} have not here the facility of resort to a British Museum, or to
German booksellers. Should your correspondent find any difficulty in
effecting collation of his edition with others, I shall be willing to part
with my copy _for a short time_ for his use; or, if he will oblige me with
his copy, I will collate it with mine, and return it within the week with
the various readings of the cited passages.



[Footnote 3: The former is the _synthetic_, the latter the _analytic_
exposition of his system of mental philosophy.]

_"Cob" and "Conners"_ (Vol. vii., p. 234.).--These words are Celtic. _Cob_
means a mouth, a harbour, an entrance. _Conners_ appears to be a compound
word, from _cuan_, a bay or harbour, and _mar_ or _mara_, the sea;
pronounced "Cuan wara," then shortened into _Conner_. Conna-mara, in the
west of Ireland, properly spelled _Cuan na mara_, means "bays of the sea."


_Lady High Sheriff_ (Vol. vii., p. 236.).--Your correspondent W. M. is
informed that in Duncumb's _Herefordshire_ there is no mention made of the
fact, that a lady executed the office of high sheriff of the county. The
high sheriffs for the years 1768--1771 inclusive were Richard Gorges,
William Nourse, Price Clutton, and Charles Hoskyns, Bart. The lady alluded
to would be the widow of one of these.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery, exercised the
office of hereditary sheriff of Westmoreland, and, at the assizes at
Appleby, sat with the judges on the bench (temp. Car. I.) Vide Blackstone's
_Comment_., and Pocock's _Memorials of the Tufton Family_, p. 78. (1800.)

I may add that ladies have also been included in the commission of the
peace. The Lady Bartlet was made a justice of the peace by Queen Mary in
Gloucestershire (Harl. MSS); Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of
Henry VII., was made a justice of peace; and a lady in Sussex, of the name
of Rowse, did usually sit on the bench at the assizes and sessions amongst
other justices _cincta gladio_ (_op. cit._).

W. S.


_Death of Nelson_ (Vol. vii., p. 52.).--The "beautiful picture which hangs
in a bad light in the hall of Greenwich Hospital" was not painted by West,
but by Arthur William Devis, a very talented artist, but somewhat careless
in financial matters. He was a pupil of Zoffeny, was in India for some
years, where he practised portrait-painting with considerable success. The
well-known print of the "Marquis Cornwallis receiving the Sons of Tippoo
Saib as Hostages," was from a picture painted by him. The "Death of Nelson"
at Greenwich was a commission from the house of Boydell, Cheapside; and a
large print was afterwards published by them from it. Devis met the vessel
on its return to England, and on its way homeward painted, very carefully,
the portraits of the persons represented in his picture, and also a very
exact view of the cockpit in which the hero died. The picture has great
merit, and deserves to be better placed.

T. W. T.

_Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to 1662_ (Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564.; Vol.
vii., p. 18.).--As a small instalment towards completing this desirable
object, I send you the following:

  1551. Humphrey Powell. Folio. (Emmanuel Coll.)
  1552. Jugge and Cawood. 4to.
  1553. Grafton. 8vo. (White Knight's, 3283.)
  1564. Jugge and Cawood. 4to.
  1565. W. Seres. 8vo. (Christ Church, Oxford.)
  1571. Cawood. 4to. (White Knight's, 3539.)
  1580. Widow of R. Jugge. Folio.
  1607. Barker. Folio. (Sir M. Sykes, Part III., 1019.)
  1615. Barker. Folio. (St. John's Coll., Oxford.)
  1632. Barker. 4to. (In my possession.)
  1634. Edinburgh. 12mo.
  1636. Bill. Folio. (Bindley, Part I., 955.)


_Passage in Juvenal_ (Vol. vii., p. 165.).--The Delphin edition of Juvenal,
in a note on Sat. x. v. 365., says: "Sunt qui legunt, Nullum numen
_abest_." It would be very easy, in carelessly copying a MS., to substitute
either word for the other. When MR. J. S. WARDEN has ascertained which is
the true reading, he may fairly call the other an "alteration."

R. Y. TH--B.

_Tennyson_ (Vol. vii., p. 84.).--The first Query of H. J. J. having been
already answered (p. 189.), in reply to his _second_ inquiry, I beg to
inform him that he will find the custom referred to in the passage of the
"Princess," of which he desires to know the meaning, fully explained in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for October 1848, p. 379.

W. L. N.

_Capital Punishment_ (Vol. vii., p. 181.).--Your correspondent S. Y. may
find the date of the last instance of capital punishment for exercising the
Roman Catholic religion in Bishop Challoner's very interesting _Memoirs of
Missionary Priests_: Keating, 1836. Every reader of Fox's _Book of Martyrs_
should, in fairness, consult the above work. There is another earlier work,
_Théâtre des Cruautés des Hérectiques de nostre temps_, Anvers, 1588; but
it is unfortunately very scarce.

W. L. N.

       *       *       *       *       *





Society of Gentlemen. Pp. 32. 8vo. With a Plan and Eight Plates. No date,
circa annum 1770?

MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by MR. JOHN HOLLAND. 1 Vol. 12mo. London, 1824.

PSYCHE AND OTHER POEMS, by MRS. MARY TIGHE. Portrait. 8vo. 1811.



THE HISTORY OF SHENSTONE, by the REV. H. SAUNDERS. 4to. London, 1794.


and II. of Vol. II.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_In consequence of our having to publish the present Number on Thursday
instead of Friday, we have been compelled to omit several highly
interesting articles, our_ Notes on Books, _&c._

A. X. _Nineveh is said to have been destroyed by fire, when taken by the
Medes and Babylonians. The date of this is fixed by Clinton, in his_ Fasti
Hell., vol. i. p. 269., _at_ 606 B.C. _Layard_ (Nineveh, vol. ii. p. 161.)
_also adopts this date_.

B. N. C. _The words "à secretis," in the passage quoted, signify that the
party alluded to was a member of the Privy Council._

J. G. B., _who asks if_ Monkey _is not derived from_ Homunculus, _is
referred to Skinner, who derives it from_ Monikin, _or_ Manikin, _i. e._

H. H. B. (St. Lucia). _The wishes of our Correspondent shall be attended

T. MASSEY (Manchester) _is referred to Richardson's_ Dictionary, _s. v._
with, within, without, _for a solution of his Query_. Nisi Prius _are the
first words on certain legal records, where an issue is appointed to be
tried by a jury from the county,_ unless before _the day appointed (nisi
prius) the judges shall have come to the county in question. The judges of
assize, by virtue of their commission of_ nisi prius, _try the causes thus

E., _who asks the origin of "Mind your P's and Q's," is referred to our_
3rd Vol., pp. 328. 357. 463. 523.

BALLIOLENSIS. _We are flattered by the suggestion of our Correspondent, but
we must leave the agitation which he suggests to abler hands._

PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES. _In consequence of the number of_ REPLIES TO MINOR
QUERIES _waiting for insertion, we have been compelled to postpone the_
REV. MR. SISSON_'s description of a new_ Head-rest, _and_ SIR W. NEWTON_'s
explanation of his_ Process.

A. S. K. (Worthing) _is informed that it is quite useless to extract the
size from the paper of positive pictures, to ensure their permanence. If
the hyposulphite of soda is entirely freed from them, they will bear any
exposure to atmospheric influence without change. Although in all works on
Photography it is recommended that the size should be extracted from
negatives before waxing them, it is a process we have entirely dispensed
with: if the iron is used sufficiently hot, the wax will perfectly permeate
the entire texture of the paper. Our Correspondent is referred to our back
Numbers for an account of the mode of taking a positive picture on glass
from a glass negative._

R. S. C. (Solihull) _shall receive a private communication on the subject
of the construction of his glass house for Photographic purposes. There are
points in it which are not generally attended to, and upon which the want
of success of many operators has no doubt depended._

TYRO (March 14th). _The second sample of collodion which you have used is_
over-_iodized. It is quite requisite that it should be known that the
sensitive properties of collodion are not increased by adding too much of
the iodizing solution. If the collodion is good, the film is
semi-transparent, of a bluish opal-like appearance. If the iodine is in
excess, it becomes more opaque and creamy after immersion in the bath, and
of a deep orange when looked through; whereas it should appear of a pale
amber colour._

TYRO (March 17th). _The reticulated appearance you complain of is from
using your collodion too thick, and not giving the glass the rotatory
rocking motion which you should do when you drain off the excess into the
bottle. Prepare two pieces of glass with collodion: in one simply drain off
the excess of collodion, and in the other use the motion which has been
before described, and you will perceive the difference in the evenness of
the two films._

H. HENDERSON (Glasgow). _We consider glass baths are much superior to gutta
percha in every respect. Many of the unpleasant markings in collodion
pictures may have their origin in the gutta percha. This is frequently
adulterated, and the nitrate acts upon the extraneous substances which are
added to the gutta percha, either for adulteration, to give it firmness, or
an agreeable colour. A glass bath is readily made, but the minute details
of the mode we cannot enter into. Our Correspondent is referred to our
numerous advertising friends, as the readiest way to supply his present
want in this respect. "Jefferies' Marine Glue" can be procured at all
times, the cost being about sixpence per pound. One part of marine glue,
and two of best red sealing-wax, form a beautiful cement for glass baths.
The marine glue, when used alone, becomes detached from the glass by the
nitrate solution; and, without a substance to temper it, the sealing-wax is
too brittle._

X. (Manchester). _When the blue spots occur of which our Correspondent
complains, it is because there is at the time of operating very feeble
actinic action in the light. If he were to rub one of these pictures when
dry, he would find it almost entirely removable from the glass. The
occasional want of brilliancy in all probability depends on the same cause.
Proto-nitrate of iron, when prepared with the nitrate of baryta of
commerce, instead of pure nitrate of baryta, will often have the same

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, in one volume, price 21s.,

CENTURY, with Notices of Foreign Examples, and NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS of
existing Remains from ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, by the editor of the "Glossary of


Uniform, price 21s.

Oxford & London: JOHN HENRY PARKER.

       *       *       *       *       *


Ninety-first Catalogue (for April) will entirely consist of Books purchased
at the Sale of the Valuable and Important Library of DAWSON TURNER, Esq.,
F.R.S., of Yarmouth. A Copy will be sent Gratis and Post Free, Town or
Country, to any Gentleman who forwards his Address to


       *       *       *       *       *

3 vols. 8vo. price 2l. 8s.

ARCHITECTURE. The Fifth Edition enlarged, exemplified by 1700 Woodcuts.

    "In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edition of the Glossary of
    Architecture, no pains have been spared to render it worthy of the
    continued patronage which the work has received from its first

    "The Text has been considerably augmented, as well by the additions of
    many new Articles, as by the enlargement of the old ones, and the
    number of Illustrations has been increased from eleven hundred to
    seventeen hundred.

    "Several additional Foreign examples are given, for the purpose of
    comparison with English work, of the same periods.

    "In the present Edition, considerably more attention has been given to
    the subject of Mediæval Carpentry, the number of Illustrations of 'Open
    Timber Roofs' has been much increased, and most of the Carpenter's
    terms in use at the period have been introduced with
    authorities."--_Preface to the Fifth Edition._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Foolscap 8vo., 10s. 6d.

THE CALENDAR OF THE ANGLICAN CHURCH; illustrated with Brief Accounts of the
Saints who have Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose Images are most
frequently met with in England; also the Early Christian and Mediæval
Symbols, and an Index of Emblems.

    "It is perhaps hardly necessary to observe, that this work is of an
    Archæological, and not a Theological character. The Editor has not
    considered it his business to examine into the truth or falsehood of
    the legends of which he narrates the substance; he gives them merely as
    legends, and, in general, so much of them only as is necessary to
    explain why particular emblems were used with a particular Saint, or
    why Churches in a given locality are named after this or that

    "The latter part of the book, on the early Christian and mediæval
    symbols, and on ecclesiastical emblems, is of great historical and
    architectural value. A copious Index of emblems is added, as well as a
    general Index to the volume with its numerous illustrations. The work
    is an important contribution to English Archæology, especially in the
    department of ecclesiastical iconography."--_Literary Gazette._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c.

Court, Long Acre.

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that they devote particular attention
to the execution of ANCIENT AND MODERN FACSIMILES, comprising Autograph
Letters, Deeds, Charters, Title-pages, Engravings, Woodcuts, &c., which
they produce from any description of copies with the utmost accuracy, and
without the slightest injury to the originals.

Among the many purposes to which the art of Lithography is most
successfully applied, may be specified,--ARCHÆOLOGICAL DRAWINGS,
Architecture, Landscapes, Marine Views, Portraits from Life or Copies,
Illuminated MSS., Monumental Brasses, Decorations, Stained Glass Windows,
Maps, Plans, Diagrams, and every variety of illustrations requisite for
Scientific and Artistic Publications.

PHOTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS lithographed with the greatest care and exactness.

LITHOGRAPHIC OFFICES, 18. Broad Court, Long Acre, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.               | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
                                | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALFRED ALLCHIN begs to inform Photographers, that he can supply them with
pure Chemicals for Photographic purposes.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE begs to announce that he has now
made arrangements for printing Calotypes in large or small quantities,
either from Paper or Glass Negatives. Gentlemen who are desirous of having
good impressions of their works, may see specimens of Mr. Delamotte's
Printing at his own residence, 38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at

MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Camera for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for the practice of
Photography, according to the instructions of Le Gray, Hunt, Brébisson, and
other writers, may be obtained wholesale and retail, of WILLIAM BOLTON,
(formerly Dymond & Co.), Manufacturer of pure Chemicals for Photographic
and other purposes. Lists may be had on application.

Improved Apparatus for iodizing paper in vacuo, according to Mr. Stewart's


       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


_Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
_Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.
_Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *


The Camden Society,

for the publication of


THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to perpetuate, and render accessible,
whatever is valuable, but at present little known, amongst the materials
for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United Kingdom;
and it accomplishes that object by the publication of Historical Documents,
Letters, Ancient Poems, and whatever else lies within the compass of its
designs, in the most convenient forms, and at the least possible expense
consistent with the production of useful volumes.

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due in
advance on the first day of May in every year, and is received by MESSRS.
Members may compound for their future Annual Subscriptions, by the payment
of 10l. over and above the Subscription for the current year. The
compositions received have been funded in the Three per Cent. Consols to an
amount exceeding 900l. No Books are delivered to a Member until his
Subscription for the current year has been paid. New Members are admitted
at the Meetings of the Council held on the First Wednesday in every month.

The Publications for the past year (1851-2) were:

AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A.

Cottonian Library by J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A.

54. PROMPTORIUM: An English and Latin Dictionary of Words in Use during the
Fifteenth Century, compiled chiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. By
ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. Vol. II. (M to R.) (In the Press.)

Books for 1852-3.

55. THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, containing, 1. Expenses of
John of Brabant, 1292-3; 2. Household Accounts of Princess Elizabeth,
1551-2; 3. Requeste and Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, by W.
Cholmeley, 1553; 4. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell,
1627-8; 5. Trelawny Papers; 6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell.--Now
ready for delivery to all Members not in arrear of their Subscription.

56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. A Selection from the Correspondence of the Verney
Family during the reign of Charles I. to the year 1639. From the Originals
in the possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. To be edited by JOHN BRUCE,
ESQ., Trea. S.A. (Will be ready immediately.)

be edited by the REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready immediately.)

The following Works are at Press, and will be issued from time to time, as
soon as ready:

the years 1289, 1290, with Illustrations from other and coeval Documents.
To be edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., F.S.A.

REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties of
Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century,
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a translation from the Latin
Work of Simon de Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from MSS. in the
Cottonian Library, British Museum, with an Introduction, Glossarial Notes,
&c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln.

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. PAUL'S: a Description of the Manors belonging to the
Church of St. Paul's in London in the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de Reims, an Anglo-Norman
Poet of the latter end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the unique MS.
in the Royal Library at Paris, by M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the Roman
de Brut.

Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed
to the Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary.

25. Parliament Street, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *


   1. Restoration of King Edward IV.
   2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop Bale.
   3. Deposition of Richard II.
   4. Plumpton Correspondence.
   5. Anecdotes and Traditions.
   6. Political Songs.
   7. Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth.
   8. Ecclesiastical Documents.
   9. Norden's Description of Essex.
  10. Warkworth's Chronicle.
  11. Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder.
  12. The Egerton Papers.
  13. Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda.
  14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 1690.
  15. Rishanger's Chronicle.
  16. Poems of Walter Mapes.
  17. Travels of Nicander Nucius.
  18. Three Metrical Romances.
  19. Diary of Dr. John Dee.
  20. Apology for the Lollards.
  21. Rutland Papers.
  22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright.
  23. Letters of Eminent Literary Men.
  24. Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler.
  25. Promptorium Parvulorum: Tom. I.
  26. Suppression of the Monasteries.
  27. Leycester Correspondence.
  28. French Chronicle of London.
  29. Polydore Vergil.
  30. The Thornton Romances.
  31. Verney's Notes of the Long Parliament.
  32. Autobiography of Sir John Bramston.
  33. Correspondence of James Duke of Perth.
  34. Liber de Antiquis Legibus.
  35. The Chronicle of Calais.
  36. Polydore Vergil's History, Vol. I.
  37. Italian Relation of England.
  38. Church of Middleham.
  39. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I.
  40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton.
  41. Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq.
  42. Diary of Henry Machyn.
  43. Visitation of Huntingdonshire.
  44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth.
  45. Twysden on the Government of England.
  46. Letters of Elizabeth and James VI.
  47. Chronicon Petroburgense.
  48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary.
  49. Bury Wills and Inventories.
  50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium.
  51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guylford.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 4 vols. 8vo. (with Five Portraits), price 2l. 14s.

ECCLESIASTICAL BIOGRAPHY; or, Lives of Eminent Men connected with the
History of Religion in England; from the commencement of the Reformation to
the Revolution. Selected, and illustrated with Notes, by CHRISTOPHER
WORDSWORTH, D.D., late Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.

*** This Edition contains many additional Historical and Biographical

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had, by the same Editor (uniformly printed),

CHRISTIAN INSTITUTES; a Series of Discourses and Tracts, selected, arranged
systematically, and illustrated with Notes. Second Edition. In 4 vols. 8vo.
2l. 14s.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, in 8vo., price One Shilling,

A THIRD LETTER to the REV. S. R. MAITLAND, D.D., formerly Librarian to the
late Archbishop of Canterbury, on the GENUINENESS of the WRITINGS ascribed
to CYPRIAN, Bishop of Carthage. By EDWARD JOHN SHEPHERD, M.A., Rector of
Luddesdown; Author of "History of the Church of Rome to the end of the
Episcopate of Damasus."

*** The First Letter on the same subject, price 1s., and the Second, price
2s., may still be had.


       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in fcp. 8vo., with Vignette Title and numerous Woodcuts,
price 3s. 6d. cloth.

Associate of the National Institute of France, Honorary Member of the
Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, and of the Royal Academy of Sciences of
Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Göttingen, &c. A New Edition,
revised throughout.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s.

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, living and fossil, with Descriptions
of all the Species, and Abstracts of the Systems of Ehrenberg, Dujardin,
Kützing, Siebold, &c. By ANDREW PRITCHARD, ESQ., M.R.I.

Also, price 5s.,


Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Microscopes.

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 26. 1853.

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