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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 240, June 3, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Libraries)



{509}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 240.]
SATURDAY, JUNE 3. 1854
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  St. Augustine on Clairvoyance, by J. E. B. Mayor             511

  Edward Gibbon, Father and Son                                511

  Bohn's "Ordericus Vitalis"                                   512

  A Curious Exposition                                         512

  MINOR NOTES:--Inscription--Antiquarian Documents--Bishop
    Watson's Map of Europe in 1854--Extracts from the
    Registers of the Bishops of Lincoln--Marston and
    Erasmus--Puzzle for the Heralds                            513

  QUERIES:--

  Sepulchral Monuments                                         514

  Queries on South's Sermons, by the Rev. W. H. Gunner         515

  MINOR QUERIES:--Norwich, Kirkpatrick Collection of MSS.
    for the History of--Corbet--Initials in Glass Quarries--
    Church Service: Preliminary Texts--The Spinning-machine
    of the Ancients--View of Dumfries--"To pass the pikes"--
    May-day Custom--Maydenburi--Richard Fitz-Alan, ninth Earl
    of Arundel--French Refugees--"Dilamgabendi"--Mr.
    Plumley--Designation of Works under Review--North-west
    Passage--Fountains--Pope and John Dennis                   515

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--The Irish at the Battle of
    Crecy--King of the Isle of Wight--Theodore de la
    Guard--Back--Broom at Masthead                             517

  REPLIES:--

  The Advice supposed to have been given to Julius III.,
    by B. B. Woodward, &c.                                     518

  Lord Rosehill                                                519

  Major André                                                  520

  The Terminations "-by" and "-ness," by Wm. Matthews, &c.     522

  Newspaper Folk Lore, by Edward Peacock                       523

  Ventilation, by T. J. Buckton                                524

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--History of Photographic
    Discovery--Photographic Cautions--A Query respecting
    Collodion--The Céroléine Process--Mr. Fox Talbot's Patents 524

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--The Olympic Plain--Encylopædia
    of Indexes, or Table of Contents--"One New Year's Day"--
    Unregistered Proverbs--Orange Blossoms--Peculiar Use of
    the Word "Pure"--Worm in Books--Chapel Sunday--Bishop
    Inglis of Nova Scotia--Gutta Percha made soluble--Impe--
    Bothy--Work on Ants--Jacobite Garters--"The Three
    Pigeons"--Corporation Enactments--The Passion of our
    Lord dramatised--Hardman's Account of Waterloo--
    Aristotle--Papyrus--Bell at Rouen--Word-minting--
    Coleridge's Christabel, &c.                                526

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 530

  Notices to Correspondents                                    530

       *       *       *       *       *


Multæ terricolis linguæ, coelestibus una.

SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS'

[Illustration]

GENERAL CATALOGUE is sent Free by Post. It contains Lists of Quarto Family
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London: SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 15. Paternoster Row.

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       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, fcp. 8vo., 5s.

SYNONYMS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: being the Substance of a Course of Lectures
addressed to the Theological Students, King's College, London. By RICHARD
CHENEVIX TRENCH, B. D., Professor of Divinity, King's College, and
Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Oxford.

Cambridge: MACMILLAN & CO.

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SKETCHES OF SCRIPTURE FEMALE CHARACTERS. Dedicated to her Children by the
VISCOUNTESS HOOD.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


ANNOTATED EDITION OF THE ENGLISH POETS. By ROBERT BELL.

In Monthly Volumes, 2s. 6d. each, in cloth.

This Day, the Second Volume of

COWPER'S POETICAL WORKS.

Already published.

DRYDEN. Complete in Three Volumes.

SURREY, MINOR CONTEMPORANEOUS POETS, and SACKVILLE, LORD BUCKHURST. In One
Volume.

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COWPER.

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       *       *       *       *       *


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{510}

    Important Sale by Auction of the whole of the remaining Copies of that
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       *       *       *       *       *


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    "The Dame School," painted by T. Webster, R.A., engraved by L. Stocks.
    "Eton Montem," two views illustrative of, from pictures by Evans of
    Eton, engraved by Charles Lewis. "Portrait of Mrs. Elizabeth Fry,"
    engraved by Samuel Cousins, A.R.A. from a picture by George Richmond.
    "Portraits of eminent Persons," by George Richmond and C. Baugniet.
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    Saw," painted by T. Webster, R.A., engraved by Holl (unpublished).
    "Village Pastor," painted by W. P. Frith, R.A., engraved by Holl. "The
    Immaculate Conception," painted by Guido, engraved in line by W. H.
    Watt. "Harvey demonstrating to Charles the First his Theory of the
    Circulation of the Blood," painted by Hannah, engraved by Lemon. "The
    Origin of Music," painted by Selous, engraved by Wass. "The First
    Step," painted by Faed, engraved by Sharpe. "The Prize Cartoons,"
    published by Messrs. Longmans & Co. And numerous other highly
    interesting and valuable works of Art.

ALL THE ENGRAVED PLATES of the above-mentioned engravings WILL BE DESTROYED
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advertisement given above, of the sale of the remaining copies of "Finden's
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AUCTIONEERS, 22. Fleet Street, by whom all communications and commissions
will be promptly and faithfully attended to.

*** Catalogues of the entire sale will be forwarded on receipt of 12
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       *       *       *       *       *


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ENGLISH AND FOREIGN ENGRAVINGS, WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS, and expensive Books
of Prints, of MR. HOGARTH of the Haymarket.

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interesting Collection by Members of the Sketching Society. Of the Modern
School are examples by--

  Absolon
  Austin
  Barrett
  Cattermole
  Collins
  Fielding, C.
  Holland
  Hunt
  Landseer, E.
  Leslie
  Lewis, J.
  Liverseege
  Maclise
  Muller
  Nesfield
  Prout
  Tayler, F.
  Uwins
  Webster
  Wilkie

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22. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ARUNDEL SOCIETY.--The Publication of the Fourth Year (1852-3), consisting
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          JOHN J. ROGERS,
              Treasurer and Hon. Sec.
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      March, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *


{511}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 3, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

Notes.

ST. AUGUSTINE ON CLAIRVOYANCE.

Dr. Maitland, in his valuable _Illustrations of Mesmerism_, has not, I
think, noticed an important passage in St. Augustine's treatise, _De Genesi
ad litteram_, l. XII. c. 17. §§ 34. _seq._, in which, after saying that
demons _can read men's thoughts_, and know what is passing at a distance,
he proceeds to give a detailed account of two cases of _clairvoyance_. The
whole is written with his usual graphic power, and will well reward the
perusal. I must content myself with a brief outline of the facts.

1. A patient, suffering from a fever, was supposed to be possessed by an
unclean spirit. Twelve miles off lived a presbyter, with whom, in mesmerist
phraseology, he was _en rapport_. He would receive no food from any other
hands; with him, except when a fit was upon him, he was calm and
submissive. When the presbyter left his home the patient would indicate his
position at each stage of his journey, and mark his nearer and nearer
approach. "He is entering the farm--the house--he is at the door;" and his
visitor stood before him. Once he foretold the death of a neighbour, not as
though he were predicting a future event, but as if recollecting a past.
For when she was mentioned in his hearing, he exclaimed, "She is dead, I
saw her funeral; that way they carried out her corpse." In a few days she
fell sick and died, and was carried out along that very road which he had
named.

2. A boy was labouring under a painful disorder, which the physicians had
vainly endeavoured to relieve. In the exhaustion which followed on his
convulsive struggles, he would pass into a trance, keeping his eyes open,
but insensible to what was going on around him, and passively submitting to
pinches from the bystanders (_ad nullam se vellicationem movens_). After
awhile he awoke and told what he had seen. Generally an old man and a youth
appeared to him; at the beginning of Lent they promised him ease during the
forty days, and gave him _directions by which he might be relieved and
finally cured_. He followed their counsel, with the promised success.

Augustine's remarks (c. xviii. § 39.) on these and similar phenomena are
well worth reading. He begs the learned not to mock him as speaking
confidently, and the unlearned not to take what he says on trust, but hopes
that both will regard him simply as an inquirer. He compares these visions
to those in dreams. Some come true, and some false; some are clear, others
obscure. But men love to search into what is singular, neglecting what is
usual, though even more inexplicable; just as when a man hears a word whose
sound is new to him, he is curious to know its meaning; while he never
thinks of asking the meaning of words familiar to his ear, however little
he may really understand them. If any one then wishes for a satisfactory
account of these strange phenomena, let him first explain the phenomena of
dreams, or let him show how the images of material objects reach the mind
through the eyes.

J. E. B. MAYOR.

St. John's College, Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

EDWARD GIBBON, FATHER AND SON.

Gibbon mentions in his _Memoirs_ (edit. 1796, p. 18.), that in 1741 his
father and Mr. Delmé successfully contested Southampton against Mr. Henly,
subsequently Lord Chancellor, but that, after the dissolution in 1747, he
was unable or unwilling to maintain another contest, and "the life of the
senator expired in that dissolution." Not so the hopes of the senator, as
will appear from the following extract from a letter, dated "Beriton,
January 27, 1754:"

    "I received the favour of your letter according to the time you
    promised. As Lord M---- has promised his own votes, I find there is
    nothing to be done: strange behaviour, sure! But there seems to be such
    infatuation upon this poor country, that even a good Catholic shall
    join with a Dissenter to rivet on her chains. There are several of the
    Independents would have me stand it out, but I would not on any
    account, for I find it would make great dissensions, and even several
    of Lord M----'s fagots and tenants would vote against him; and another
    thing, it would lessen him in the opinion of a _great many people_ to
    have him making interest for the two _present worthy candidates_
    against me. I shall therefore, upon his account, give over all thoughts
    of standing; and I hope it may give me some little more credit and
    merit with him against another election, especially if you would _be so
    good as to improve it for me_."

The following is of far greater interest--full of character. How well it
illustrates the paragraph in the _Memoirs_ (pp. 82-3.):

    "My stay at Beriton was always voluntary ... I never handled a gun, I
    seldom mounted a horse; and my philosophic walks were soon terminated
    by a shady bench, where I was long detained by the sedentary amusement
    of reading or meditation."

    It appears however, by this letter, that on one occasion he trespassed
    on some neighbour's game preserves, and received a hint on the subject:

    Beriton, Nov. 16, 1758.

      SIR,

    As I am extremely well convinced of your politeness, and your readiness
    to grant your {512} neighbours any reasonable liberty with regard to
    country sports, so I should be very sorry if either myself or my
    servants had taken any improper ones.

    I am no sportsman, Sir, and was as much tempted this morning by the
    beauty of the day and the pleasure of the ride as by the hopes of any
    sport. I went out, and, neither acquainted with the bounds of the
    manors nor your request to the neighbouring gentlemen, could only
    follow my groom where he led me. I quitted your manor the instant I
    received your message, without having killed anything in it. I assure
    you that you shall never have again the same subject of complaint. With
    regard to the liberty you are so good as to grant me for other sports,
    I return you my most humble thanks, but shall not make much use of it,
    as there are still in my father's manor more game than would satisfy so
    moderate a sportsman as myself.

    My father would be extremely angry if his servants had destroyed any of
    your game; but they all assure him they have killed no one hare upon
    your liberties. As to pheasants, they have only killed one this season,
    and that in Inwood copse.

          I am,
              Sir,
      Your obedient humble servant,
                  E. GIBBON, Junior.

E. G. F. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOHN'S "ORDERICUS VITALIS."

In looking through the pages of _Ordericus Vitalis_, vol. ii. (Bohn's
edition), I have noticed some trifling inaccuracies, to one or more of
which you will perhaps suffer me to call the editor's attention through the
medium of "N. & Q.," in case he be not already aware of them.

At p. 70. King William is described as offering the bishopric of Mans to
"Samson, _Bishop_ of Bayeux, his chaplain." So in the index to _Histor.
Anglic. circa tempus Conquestûs, &c., a Francisco Maseres_, I find this
passage of Vitalis referred to under the title of "Sanson Baiocensis
_episcopus_."

But yet Odo was Bishop of Bayeux at this time; and notwithstanding what
Marbode _afterwards_ said of Bayeux, when he invited his old pupil to meet
him there, viz. "Sedes præsulibus sufficit illa tribus," yet Samson, even
then, was not Bishop of Bayeux, but of Worcester.

The original words of Vitalis are, "Sansoni _Baiocensi_," Samson being
(temp. Will. I.) Canon and Treasurer of Bayeux, as well as Baron of Dover,
and Canon of St. Martin's there, Dean of Wolverhampton, and chaplain to
William. He was a married man, and apparently at the time in question only
in deacon's orders. One of his sons, at a later period, became Bishop of
Bayeux, as did also a grandson, whose mother (according to Beziers) was
"Isabelle de Dovre, maîtresse de Robert Conte de Glocester, bâtard de Henri
I., Roi d'Angleterre." Upon which I would found a Query, viz., Was this
grandson of Samson, whose name was Richard, an _uterine_ or a _half_
brother of Roger, Bishop of Worcester? Both are described as sons of
Robert, Earl of Gloucester.

At p. 261. Alberede is described in the text of the translation to be a
daughter of "Hugh, Bishop of Evreux," whereas in the original she is said
to be "Hugonis Bajocensis episcopi filia."

In a note to this passage we are informed that Hugh, Bishop of Lisieux,
died at the Council of Rheims (Oct. 1049), and that he was eldest son of
Ralph, Count d'Ivri &c. On the contrary, we are told at p. 428, note 2,
that it was Odo's predecessor (_i. e._ Hugh d'Ivri) in the see of Bayeux,
who died at the Council of Rheims, Oct. 1049. Again, in a note at p. 118,
we learn that Hugh d'Eu, who succeeded Herbert as Bishop of Lisieux in
1050, or the year following the Council in question, did not vacate that
see until 1077.

Before I close this Note, I should be glad to inquire what grounds the
editor has for asserting (p. 32, n. 1.) that Thomas, Archbishop of York,
"was not a chaplain to the king" before his promotion. Thierry, _Histoire
de la Conquête, &c._ (Par. 1825, tome ii. p. 18.), says: "Thomas, l'un des
chapelains du roi, fut nommé archevêque d'York." And by Godwin (_De Præsul.
Angl._, tom. ii. p. 244.) we are told that Odo--

    "Eum (Thomam) Thesaurarium Baiocensem constituit, et postea _Regi
    fratri commendavit, ut illi esset a sacras_."

ANON.

       *       *       *       *       *

A CURIOUS EXPOSITION.

The following curious illustration, which I met with the other day in a
book where few would be likely to look for it, seems to me fairly to
deserve a place among the Notes of your interesting publication. It forms
the _moral_ exposition, by Cornelius à Lapide, of Ex. vii. 22.: "And the
magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments," &c.

    "See here," he says, "how the devil contends with God, the magicians
    with the prophets, and heretics with the orthodox, by imitating their
    words and deeds. In our days, as the English Martyrology testifies,
    Richard White (_Vitus_) disputed with a wicked English Calvinist, who
    was more mighty in drinking than in argument, concerning the keys of
    the Church, and when the heretic pertinaciously asserted that they were
    given to himself, White wittily and ingeniously replied: 'I believe
    that they have been given to you as they were to Peter, but with this
    distinction, that his were the keys of heaven, but yours of the
    beer-cellar; {513} for this the _rubicund promontory of your nose_
    indicates.' Thus do heretics turn water into blood. This is their
    miracle."

Richard White I presume to have been an ejected Fellow of New College,
Oxford, afterwards rector of the University of Douai, and a Count Palatine
of the empire, author of sundry antiquarian and theological works; but it
is surely strange that this piece of ribaldry, of which he had been guilty,
should be thought worthy of being recorded; and still more so, that it
should be thus applied by a grave and learned Jesuit commentator.

C. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Inscription._--The following quaint inscription is to be found on a
gravestone in the churchyard of Llangollen, North Wales:

 "Our life is but a winter's day:
  Some only breakfast and away;
  Others to dinner stay, and are full fed;
  The oldest man but sups, and goes to bed.
  Large is the debt who lingers out the day;
  Who goes the soonest has the least to pay."

J. R. G.

Dublin.

_Antiquarian Documents._--At a time when public records and state papers
are being thrown open by the Government in so liberal a spirit, might not
some plan be devised for admitting the public to the Church's antiquarian
documents also, treasured in the various chapter-houses, diocesan
registries, and cathedral libraries?

Might not catalogues of these be printed, as well as the more historically
valuable and curious of the papers themselves? And is there any sufficient
reason why the earlier portions of the parochial registers throughout the
country might not be published, say down to the commencement of the present
century, prior to which they appear to have no other value except for
literary purposes?

J. SANSOM.

_Bishop Watson's Map of Europe in 1854._--The following paragraph is an
extract from a letter written by Bishop Watson to Dr. Falconer of Bath, in
the year 1804:

    "The death of a single prince in any part of Europe, remarkable either
    for wisdom or folly, renders political conjectures of future
    contingencies so extremely uncertain, that I seldom indulge myself in
    forming them; yet it seems to me probable, that Europe will soon be
    divided among three powers, France, Austria, and Russia; and in half a
    century between two, France and Russia; and that America will become
    the greatest naval power on the globe, and be replenished by migrations
    of oppressed and discontented people from every part of Europe."--See
    _Anecdotes of the Life of Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff_, 2 vols.
    8vo., London, 1818, vol. ii. p. 196.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

_Extracts from the Registers of the Bishops of Lincoln._--In searching
through the registers of the bishops of Lincoln, the following curious
entries met my eye:

    "_Smoke-farthings._--Commissio domini episcopi ad levandum le Smoke
    farthinges, alias dict. Lincoln farthinges a nostris Archidiaconatus
    nostri Leycestriæ: subditis ad utilitatem nostræ matricis ecclesiæ
    Cath. Linc. sponsæ nostræ convertend., dicti Smoke farthinges
    conceduntur ad constructionem campanili ecclesiæ prebendalis Sanctæ
    Margaretæ Leycestr. 1444."

The above entry occurs at fo. 48. of the register of William Alnewick,
Bishop of Lincoln.

    "A^o 1450. _Testamentum domini Thomæ Cumberworth, militis._--In the
    name of Gode and to his loveyng, Amen. I, Thomas Cumbyrworth, knyght,
    the xv day of Feberer, the yere of oure Lord m^lcccc and L. in clere
    mynde and hele of body, blyssed be Gode, ordan my last wyll on this
    wyse folowyng. Furst, I gyff my sawle to God, my Lorde and my
    Redemptur, and my wrechid body to be beryd in a chiffe w^towte any
    kyste in the northyle of the parych kirke of Someretby be my wyfe, and
    I wyll my body ly still, my mowth opyn, untild xxiiij owrys, and after
    laid on bere w[t]towtyn any thyng y^ropon to coverit bot a sheit and a
    blak cloth, w^t a white crose of cloth of golde, but I wyl my kyste be
    made and stande by, and at my bereall giff it to hym that fillis my
    grave; also I gif my blissid Lord God for my mortuary there I am bered
    my best hors."

This entry occurs at fo. 43. of the register of Marmaduke Lumley, Bishop of
Lincoln.

Z.

_Marston and Erasmus._--I am not aware the following similarity of idea,
between a passage in Marston's _Antonio and Mellida_ and one in Erasmus'
_Colloquies_, has ever been pointed out:

 " . . . . As having clasp'd a rose
  Within my palm, the rose being ta'en away,
  My hand retains a little breath of sweet.
  So may man's trunk, his spirit slipp'd away,
  Hold still a faint perfume of his sweet guest."
    _Antonio and Mellida_, Act IV. Sc. 1. From
      the reprint in the _Ancient British Drama_.

    "Anima quæ moderatur utrunque corpus animantis, improprie dicitur anima
    cum revera sint tenues quædam animæ reliquiæ, non aliter quam odor
    rosarum manet in manu, etiam rosa submota."--_Erasmi Colloq._, Leyden
    edit. 1703, vol. i. p. 694.

H. F. S.

Cambridge.

_Puzzle for the Heralds._--Some years ago Sir John Newport, Bart., and who
was married, and Sir Simon Newport, who had received the honour of
knighthood, and was also married, lived in or {514} near the city of
Waterford; and I have heard that owing to the frequent mistakes arising
from the two ladies being called each "Lady Newport," a case was sent to
Dublin for the opinion of the Ulster King of arms. It is said he himself
was puzzled; Sir Simon's lady was not "Lady Newport," for Sir John's lady
had a prior and higher claim; she was not "Lady Simon," for her husband was
not Lord Simon; but he ultimately decided that the lady was to be called
"Lady Sir Simon," and she was never afterwards known by any other title.

Y. S. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS.

As recumbent effigies are in vogue, there are some points connected
herewith worthy of discussion at the present time in your pages. The
ultra-admirers of the mediæval monuments will not allow the slightest
deviation from what they regard as the prescriptive model--a figure with
the head straight, and the hands raised in prayer. One of their arguments
is, that the ancient effigy is alive, while the modern modifications are in
a state of death, and consequently repulsive to the feelings of the
spectator. In my opinion, however, the vitality of the old ones is very
questionable. Let us reflect upon their probable origin. In former times
the bodies of ecclesiastics and other personages were laid in state,
exposed to public view, and even carried into the churches in that
condition: a custom still prevalent abroad. It is reasonable to conjecture
that the monuments intended to perpetuate this scene in stone, imitating
the form of the deceased, with the canopy and bier, and adorned with
armorial bearings and other appropriate devices. Images of wax were
frequently substituted for the corpse, some of which (among them Queen
Elizabeth's) are still preserved in Westminster Abbey; but the practice was
kept up even down to the time of the great Duke of Marlborough. It is
recorded in history, that during the progress of the body of our Henry V.
from France, a figure of the king, composed of boiled leather, was placed
upon the coffin. York Cathedral contains a beautiful example of a complete
monument of this description in the Early English style, which degenerated
by degrees into the four-post bed, with its affectionate couple, of the
Elizabethan period. It is obviously a fair deduction, from these
circumstances, that the sepulchral effigies are "hearsed in death."

From Mr. Ruskin's _Stones of Venice_, it appears that the figures on the
Venetian tombs of the Middle Ages are manifestly dead; and such, it may be
inferred, is the impression conveyed to his highly cultivated mind by the
contemplation of those in our own country.

    "In the most elaborate examples," says this observant writer, "the
    canopy is surmounted by a statue, generally small, representing the
    dead person in the full strength and pride of life, while the recumbent
    figure shows him as he lay in death. And at this point the perfect type
    of the Gothic tomb is reached."

Describing one at Verona, of the fourteenth century, he observes:

    "The principal aim of the monument is to direct the thoughts to his
    image as he lies in death, and to the expression of his hope of
    resurrection."

And towards the conclusion of his review of their development he writes:

    "This statue in the meantime has been gradually coming back to life
    through a curious series of transitions. The Vendramin monument is one
    of the last which shows, or pretends to show, the recumbent figure laid
    in death. A few years later this idea became disagreeable to polite
    minds; and lo! the figures which before had been laid at rest upon the
    tomb pillow, raised themselves on their elbows, and began to look
    around them. The soul of the sixteenth century dared not contemplate
    its body in death."

Flaxman, in his remarks on the monuments of Aylmer de Valence and Edmund
Crouchback in Westminster Abbey, admires

    "The solemn repose of the principal figure, representing the deceased
    in his last prayer for mercy to the throne of grace, the delicacy of
    thought in the group of angels bearing the soul, and the tender
    sentiment of concern variously expressed in the relations ranged in
    order round the basement."

As, however, a canopy on the former exhibits a living figure of the
departed on horseback, such as Mr. Ruskin notices in Italy, and as the
angels are said to bear the soul, the knight must certainly have breathed
his last. The raised hands are no refutation of the argument, since there
are grounds for the assertion that those of the dead bodies laid in state
were sometimes tied together to retain them in the suitable position. A few
exceptional instances, no doubt, occur of variations in the attitude
irreconcileable with death, and equally inconsistent with a reclining
posture. It must also be admitted that in brasses and incised slabs (which
may be regarded in many respects as parallel memorials), the eyes are
almost invariably unclosed; yet the fact, neither in this case nor in that
of the carved marble, does not by any means certify that the individuals
are alive.

Since then there is so much reason for the supposition that the generality
of our ancestors are sculptured in the sleep of death, the recumbent figure
of a Christian clasping the Bible, and slightly turning his head, just
passed away into another state of existence (not into purgatory, {515} but
into a happier world), cannot surely be now deemed unsuitable to a Gothic
church.

C. T.

       *       *       *       *       *

QUERIES ON SOUTH'S SERMONS.

I should be glad to know the authority for the following statement in
South's sermon, _Against long Extempore Prayers_, vol. i. p. 251., Tegg's
edition, 1843:

    "These two things are certain, and I do particularly recommend them to
    your observation: One, that this way of praying by the Spirit, as they
    call it, was begun, and first brought into use here in England, in
    Queen Elizabeth's days, by a Popish priest and Dominican friar, one
    Faithful Commin by name. Who, counterfeiting himself a Protestant, and
    a zealot of the highest form, set up this new spiritual way of praying,
    with a design to bring the people first to a contempt, and from thence
    to an utter hatred and disuse of our Common Prayer; which he still
    reviled as only a translation of the mass, thereby to distract men's
    minds, and to divide our Church. And this he did with such success,
    that we have lived to see the effects of his labours in the utter
    subversion of Church and State; which hellish negociation, when this
    malicious hypocrite came to Rome to give the Pope an account of, he
    received of him, as so notable a service well deserved, besides a
    thousand thanks, two thousand ducats for his pains."

Also, who was W. W., the author of "a virulent and insulting pamphlet,
entitled, _A Letter to a Member of Parliament_, printed in the year 1697,
and as like the author himself, W. W., as malice can make it," referred to
in a note by South at the end of his sermon on _The Recompence of the
Reward_, vol. ii. p. 152. Is this pamphlet still in existence?

W. H. GUNNER.

Winchester.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Norwich, Kirkpatrick Collection of MSS. for the History of._--Mr. Simon
Wilkin, in the preface to the _Repertorium_, contained in his fourth volume
of his valuable edition of the works of Sir Thomas Browne, p. 4., having
spoken of the large collections for the History of Norwich made by Mr. John
Kirkpatrick, who died in 1728, and gave the said collections by will to the
mayor, sheriffs, citizens, and commonalty of the city of Norwich, in order
that "some citizen hereafter, being a skilful antiquary, may, from the
same, have an opportunity of completing and publishing the said history,"
&c., goes on to say, "the MSS. referred to were some years ago in the
possession of the corporation, but we fear the original intention of the
donor has been lost sight of, and that these valuable MSS. are for ever
lost to the lover of local antiquities." This was printed in 1835. But the
subject ought not to be permitted to drop and rest there. Up to that date,
can it be ascertained that the papers remained in the keeping of the
Corporation? Are they still in their hands, though inaccessible? Can any
information be obtained as to the _when_ and the _how_ they passed out of
their possession? Or, above all, can any clue be found to their subsequent
history and present resting-place? It may be suggested to any patriotic
citizen and antiquary of the fair city of Norwich, that, inasmuch as the
Corporation, by the terms of the will, are only _trustees_ for the
property, the Court of Chancery might be moved to assist in the recovery
thereof.

T. A. T.

Florence, March, 1854.

_Corbet._--Can any of your readers furnish information relative to the
Scottish family of Corbet, one member of whom emigrated to America, about
the year 1705, from the neighbourhood of Dumfries?

CORBIE.

Philadelphia.

_Initials in Glass Quarries._--In St. Clement's Church, Norwich, are some
diamond-shaped panes of glass, or _quarries_, containing initial letters,
&c.

1. The letters I. V. beneath a mitre. (Glass probably about A.D. 1600.) Do
these belong to any Bishop of Norwich?

2. A. A. 3. A. I. Glass and style probably give 1500-1550 for the date.

At St. Neots' parish church, Huntingdonshire, the initials W. and M.
interlaced, G., and C., occur on several quarries.

At Puttenham, Hertfordshire, is a broken quarry bearing a shield, charged
with a ship in full sail; on a chief, the arms of King's Coll. Cambridge.
The living belongs to that college, I believe.

Can any of your correspondents assist in assigning these initials and arms
to their respective owners? The date of the glass in the two last-named
cases is probably the end of the seventeenth century.

G. R. YORK.

_Church Service: Preliminary Texts._--Among the texts with which the Church
of England Service commences, is one with two references; the former of
these is the correct index to the words, the latter points to a kindred
text. At Jer. x. 24. we find the passage; then why is Ps. vi. 1. added, no
parallel text being indicated to any of the other ten? Has this always so
stood?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_The Spinning-machine of the Ancients._--Can any of your readers give a
satisfactory explanation of the difficult passage which occurs at the end
of Catullus' _Epithalamium_, containing the description of the
spinning-wheel of the Fates? As this has been such a perplexing subject
hitherto to commentators, a solution of the terms there employed, {516}
illustrated by a plan of the machine, would doubtless be a boon to many who
have unsuccessfully tried to understand it.

[Greek: Philomathês.]

_View of Dumfries._--I have a modern lithographed view of the town of
Dumfries, said to have been taken from an old engraving in some printed
book. It represents a small chapel (the Crystal Chapel) on a height in the
foreground, and the walls of the town and the old church behind. I have in
vain sought for the original, and have almost come to the conclusion that
the drawing is a forgery. Can any of your readers who have access to the
Bodleian, inform me whether anything of the kind is to be found in Gough's
_Topographical Collections_, which are there deposited?

BALIVUS.

Edinburgh.

"_To pass the pikes._"--What is the origin of this phrase?

G. TAYLOR.

_May-day Custom._--Can any of your correspondents inform me of the origin
of a singular custom which prevails in Huntingdonshire on May 1, viz. that
of suspending from a rope, which is hung across the road in every village,
a doll with pieces of gay-coloured silk and ribbon, and no matter what,
attached to it; candlesticks and snuffers, spoons and forks, being parts of
those I saw the other day in Summersham, St. Ives, and several other
places.

HENRIETTA M. COLE.

3. Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park.

_Maydenburi._--The seal with which I close my letter was purchased some
years ago on the west coast of Wales. It is engraved on brass; the upper
part being much beaten down, as if struck with a hammer when used, but the
face is perfect. The legend is, "S. IONIS. DE MAYDENBVRI:" but being
engraved in the usual direction, it reads on the impression from right to
left. The "s." may be read either as "sanctus" or "sigillum." The figure is
that of St. Christopher, bearing Christ across a running stream.

I have not been able to discover the locality of Maydenburi, and therefore
my questions to such of your readers as are more skilled in mediæval lore
than myself, are, Where is this place situated, and what was its previous
destination, monastic or otherwise? and who was the original proprietor of
the seal?

H. E. S.

Tewkesbury.

_Richard Fitz-Alan, ninth Earl of Arundel._--Can any one tell me why
Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, who married Eleanora,
daughter of Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, relict of Henry Lord
Beaumont, received the _sobriquet_ of "Richard with the Copped Hat?"

H. M.

_French Refugees._--During the time of the French Revolution, 1789-1800,
many families emigrated to England, and received shelter and support at an
hospital then situate in Spital Fields. I should feel obliged for any
information relating to the books or registers of that hospital wherein
would be found the names of the emigrants, and also whether there is any
publication relating to them.

J. F. F.

Dublin.

"_Dilamgabendi._"--What is the precise meaning of the word _Dilamgabendi_;
is it of ancient British origin, or to what language does it belong?

A TRAVELLER.

_Mr. Plumley._--In the _Literary Intelligencer_ for March, 1822, No. 131.,
in an article entitled "Extremes Meet," it is said:

    "Mr. Plumley concludes one of his tragedies with a dying speech and an
    execution. And gives an appendix of references to the passages of
    Scripture quoted in his plays."

Who was Mr. Plumley, and what did he write? I cannot find any book to which
the above passage can refer in the British Museum.

C. L.

_Designation of Works under Review._--I shall be much indebted to the
Editor of "N. & Q.," or to any of his correspondents, if he or they will
inform me of the designation under which the works, whose names stand at
the head of a review, should be technically referred to by the reviewer.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_North-west Passage._--In 1612, Captain Thomas Button made a voyage to
discover the north-west passage, and was afterwards knighted by King James.
Can any of your readers refer me to a pedigree, or other particulars, of
Sir Thomas Button's family? They appear to have been seated at Duffryn, in
Glamorganshire, as early as the fourteenth or fifteenth century. Sir
Thomas' daughter Ann married General Rowland Langharne, of St. Bride's,
Pembrokeshire, a noted character in the civil war.

NOTARY.

_Fountains._--Will some kind reader obligingly state the names of any works
that give representations or descriptions of foreign fountains?

AQUARIUS.

_Pope and John Dennis._--What is the authority for the universal assumption
that Pope wrote _The Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris_? It is said, in the
notes to the _Dunciad_, to have been published in Swift and Pope's
_Miscellanies_, vol. iii. This does not prove that Pope wrote it. Farther,
it is not {517} in the third volume of the _Miscellanies_ as republished in
1731. What are the facts?

P. J. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_The Irish at the Battle of Crecy._--I should feel obliged if any of your
readers could inform me where the authority is for the Irish at the battle
of Crecy having been the first to come to close fight with the French, and
doing, "after the manner of their own countrie," effective service with
their skenes or long knives.

M. P.

    [There is the best authority for this assertion, even that of the
    veritable Holinshed, who quotes from Froissart, the cotemporary of our
    victorious Edward. "The armie which he (Edward) had over with him, was
    to the number of 4000 men of armes, and 10,000 archers, besides
    _Irishmen_ and Welshmen that followed the host on foot." The French
    historian also informs us, that the skene or knife was the chief weapon
    used by the Irish in that age: "The Irish have pointed knives with
    broad blades, sharp on both sides, like a dart-head, with which they
    kill their enemies," &c. Johnes's _Translation_, vol. iv. p. 428.: see
    also Grafton's _Chronicle_, p. 261.; and Keightley's _History of
    England_, vol. i. p. 279.]

_King of the Isle of Wight._--I was not aware that the Isle of Wight, like
the Isle of Man, had once been a kingdom. It seems that Henry de Beauchamp,
Earl and Duke of Warwick, was crowned, _circa_ 1445, King of the Isle of
Wight. Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to throw some light
on this matter.

E. H. A.

    [Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick, son of Richard Earl of Warwick, was
    crowned King of the Isle of Wight by patent 24 Henry VI., King Henry in
    person assisting at the ceremonial, and placing the crown on his head.
    Leland (_Itiner._, vol. vi. p. 91.) says, "Henricus Comes de Warwike ab
    Henrico VI. cui carissimus erat, coronatus _in regem de Wighte_, et
    postea nominatus primus comes totius Angliæ." Leland takes this _ex
    Libello de Antiquitate Theoksibriensis Monasterii_, in the church of
    which house this Duke of Warwick was buried. But little notice has been
    taken of this singular event by our historians, and, except for some
    other collateral evidence, the authenticity of it might be doubted; but
    the representation of this duke with an imperial crown on his head and
    a sceptre before him, in an ancient window of the collegiate church at
    Warwick, leaves no doubt that such an event did take place. (See
    Worsley's _Hist. of the Isle of Wight_ for a plate copied from an
    accurate drawing of the king.) This honourable mark of the royal
    favour, however, conveyed no regal authority, the king having no power
    to transfer the sovereignty of any part of his dominions, as is
    observed by Lord Coke in his _Institutes_, where this transaction is
    discussed; and there is reason to conclude that, though titular king,
    he did not even possess the lordship of the island, no surrender
    appearing from Duke Humphrey, who was then living, and had a grant for
    the term of his life. Mr. Selden too, in his _Titles of Honour_, p.
    29., treating of the title of the King of Man, observes that "it was
    like that of King of the Isle of Wight, in the great Beauchamp, Duke of
    Warwick, who was crowned king under Henry VI." Henry Beauchamp was also
    crowned King of Guernsey and Jersey. He died soon after these honours
    had been conferred on him, June 11, 1445, when the regal title expired
    with him, and the lordship of the island, at the death of the Duke of
    Gloucester, reverted to the crown.]

_Theodore de la Guard._--I have a tract by him with the title of _The
simple Cobler of Aggawam, in America_, London, 1647. Who was he? and where
can I find any account of him or his work?

CPL.

    [The Rev. Nathaniel Ward was the author of this work. He was born at
    Haverhill in Essex, of which place his father was a clergyman; and
    after studying at Cambridge, became minister of Standon in Herts; but
    was cited before the bishop, Dec. 12, 1631, to answer for his
    nonconformity. Being forbidden to preach, he embarked for America in
    April, 1634, and settled as pastor of the church at Ipswich, or
    Aggawam. He returned to England in 1646, and on June 30, 1647, preached
    before the House of Commons, and the same year published _The Simple
    Cobler_. He was afterwards settled at Shenfield, near Brentwood, where
    he died in 1653, in his eighty-third year. Fuller, in his _Worthies_,
    co. Suffolk, speaking of him, says, that he, "following the counsel of
    the poet,

     'Ridentem dicere verum,
      Quis vetat?'

     'What doth forbid that one may smile,
      And also tell the truth the while?'

    hath in a jesting way, in some of his books, delivered much smart truth
    of the present times." Dr. Mather, in his _Magnalia_, remarks of him,
    that "he was the author of many composures full of wit and sense; among
    which that entitled _The Simple Cobler_ (which demonstrated him to be a
    subtil statesman) was most considered." This work passed through
    several editions in England in 1647. It was reprinted in Boston in
    1713. The best edition, containing the author's subsequent additions,
    is that edited by David Pulsifer, Boston, 1843.]

_Back._--What is the meaning and derivation of "Back," as applied to
several localities in Bristol, as, for instance, The Back, Welsh Back,
Temple Back, St. Augustine's Back, St. James' Back, Redcliffe Back? Many of
them are not on the river, or I should have imagined it a corruption of the
word bank.

MALCOLM FRASER.

Clifton.

    [Barrett, in his _History of Bristol_, p. 72., gives a clue to the
    origin of this local name: "Before the quay was made the usual place,
    as Leland says, for landing goods out of the ships was at the Back (or
    _Bec_, a Saxon word for a river), where was the old Custom-house. The
    quay being completed, and the marsh of Bristol thereby effectually
    divided from that {518} of St. Augustine, houses and streets began to
    be built there; Marsh Street terminated with a chapel, dedicated to St.
    Clement, and a gate; and Back Street, with a gate also, and a chapel
    near it, dedicated to St. John, and belonging to St. Nicholas; the
    church of St. Stephen and its dependent parish, and the buildings
    between the Back and the quay, seem to have taken their rise at this
    period, and were all enclosed with a strong embattled wall, _externa_
    or _secunda moenia urbis_, extending from the quay to the Back, where
    King Street has since been built."]

_Broom at Mast-head._--Whence did the custom originate of a broom being
fastened to the mast-head of boats and small craft, to indicate their being
for sale?

J. R. G.

Dublin.

    [It originated from the old custom of putting up boughs upon anything
    which was intended for sale; and "this is the reason," says Brande,
    "why an old besom (which is a sort of _dried bush_) is put up at the
    top-mast-head of a ship or boat when she is to be sold."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

THE ADVICE SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN GIVEN TO JULIUS III.

(Vol. viii., p. 54.; Vol. ix. _passim_.)

Your correspondent NOVUS has very judiciously warned controversialists on
the use of a document as emanating from the papal court, which, to every
one who reads it through (if a shorter examination will not be
satisfactory), must carry evidence of its not being papal authority, but
intended as a satire on Rome. A writer in the _Christian Remembrancer_,
vol. xii., attaches undue importance to the signatures, in the absence of
which, he admits, "we should conclude that this was the production of some
enemy in disguise."

In a 4to. volume of Tracts now before me is a copy of the genuine
document--

    "Consilium delectorum cardinalium et aliorum prælatorum, de emendanda
    ecclesia. S. D. N. Papa Paulo III. ipso jubente conscriptum et
    exhibitum anno 1538;"

two copies of the supposititious

    "Consilium quorundam episcoporum Bononiæ congregatorum quod de ratione
    stabiliendæ Romanæ ecclesiæ Julio III. Pont. Max. datum est. Quo artes
    et astutiæ Romanensium et arcana imperii papalis non pauca propalantur.
    Ex bibliotheca W. Crashauii. Londini, 1613;"

and several other tracts, so rare that an enumeration of them, and a few
extracts, will perhaps be acceptable to many of the readers of "N. & Q."
Fourth in order:

    "Marcus Antonius de Dominis archiepiscopus Spalatensis, suæ
    profectionis consilium exponit. Londini, 1616."

    "Bellum Papale, sive concordia discors Sixti Quinti et Clementis
    Octavi, circa Hieronymianam editionem, etc. Auctore Thoma Jamesio.
    Londini, 1600."

    "[Ejusdem] Bellum Gregorianum, sive corruptionis Romanæ in operibus D.
    Gregorii M. jussu pontificum Rom. recognitis atque editis, etc. Oxoniæ,
    1610."

    "Summa actorum Facultatis Theologiæ Parisiensis contra librum
    inscriptum, Controversia Anglicana de potestate regis et pontificis,
    etc. Auctore Martino Becano. Londini, 1613."

    "Antitortobellarminus, sive refutatio calumniarum, mendaciorum, et
    imposturarum laico-cardinalis Bellarmini, contra jura omnium regum et
    sinceram illibatamque famam Serenissimi, potentissimi piissimique
    Principis Jacobi ... fidei catholicæ defensoris et propugnatoris: per
    Joan. Gordonium. Londini, 1610."

     "Tu super _hoc cepha_ fingis Christum ore loquutum
        Fundamen caulæ nidificabo meæ:
      Vernac'lo at Christus Solymis sermone loquutus,
        Separat articulis mascula foemineis;
      Petre, ait, hic cepha es, sanctæ fundamina caulæ,
        Et super _hac cepha_ ponere dico meæ:

        .    .    .    .    .    .

      Quòd tu sic audes Christi pervertere verba
        Et pro foemineo subdere masculeum,
      Nil mirum; Papis solenne est cardineisque
        Sic pro foemineo subdere masculeum."

    "Epilogus ad quatuor colloquia D^{ni} D^{ris} Wrighti pro mala fide
    habita; et a Jacobo Nixon non bona fide relata; et Guilielmo Stanleio
    nullius fidei perduelli dicata: pro amico et gentili suo D^{no} Thoma
    Roe equite editus. Authore Guilielmo Roe. Londini, 1615."

    "D^{no} D^{ri} Wright Anglo, malæ causæ clienti: et Jacobo Nixon
    Hiberno, advocato pejori: et Guilielmo Stanleio, patrono pessimo;
    religionis et patriæ hostibus: poenam seram et poenitentiam seriam
    Guilielmus Roe exoptat."

This is the opening of the epilogus _Colloquii Spadani_, a copy of which
rare tract is in the extensive collection of the President of the Chetham
Society. The epilogue contains an unmeasured invective against these three
"vassal slaves of servile Rome."[1] Wright's panegyric on Stanley is thus
introduced and distorted:

    "Egregia facinora tua vidit Hibernia, experta est Hollandia, agnoscit
    Hispania, prædicat Gallia, fatetur Flandria, neque potest negare
    Anglia. Ergo cum bona frontis tuæ serenitate sustinebis, si elogii tui
    vocem ad assensum nostrum repercussam, instar Ecchus remittamus, et
    Stanleium hominem egregie facinorosum dixerimus, quod in Hispanis
    consilio suo immissis vidit Hibernia, in Daventriæ proditione {519}
    experta est Hollandia, in stipendio proditioni imputato agnoscit
    Hispania, in pluribus locis frustra et cum ignominia tentatis prædicat
    Gallia, et nullam illi præfecturam unquam integrè credendo fatetur
    Flandria, neque post tot in patriam suam molitiones, et præsertim
    expeditionem quam ad fragorem pulverariæ conjurationis in nos habiturus
    erat, negare potest Anglia."

    "Eadgarus in Jacobo redivivus: seu pietatis Anglicanæ defensio. Ab
    Adamo Reuter. Londini, 1614."

    "[Ejusdem] Libertatis Anglicanæ defensio seu demonstratio: regnum
    Angliæ non esse feudum pontificis: in nobilissima et antiquissima
    Oxoniensi academia, publice apposita Martino Becano. Londini, 1613."

    "[Ejusdem] Oratio: quam Papam esse Bestiam quæ non est et tamen est,
    apud Johan. Apoc. xvii. 8. in fine probantem ... recitavit Adam Reuter.
    Londini, 1610."

    "[Ejusdem] Contra conspiratorum consilia orationes duæ. Habitæ ... 5^o
    Aug. et 5^o Nov., anno 1611, diebus regiæ liberationis a conspiratione
    Govvrie, et tormentaria. Londini, 1612."

    "Ejusdem, Delineatio consilii brevissima: quam societati mercatorum
    Belgarum Londini florentiss. commorantium consecrat A. R. Londini,
    1614."

    "[Greek: Ponêsis Christophorou tou Angelou], etc. At Oxford, 1617."

    "[The same]. Christopher Angell, who tasted of many stripes and
    torments, inflicted by the Turkes for the faith which he had in Christ
    Jesus. At Oxford, 1617."

    "[Ejusdem] Labor C. A. Græci. De apostasia ecclesiæ, et de homine
    peccati scilicet Antichristo, etc. Gr. et Lat. Londini, 1624."[2]

    "Expositio mysteriorum misse et verus modus rite celebrandi. A
    Guilhelmo de Gouda. Daventrie, 1504."

Had I not already occupied so much space, I should have added an extract
from Angell's _Epistle in commendation of England and the Inhabitants
thereof_. He begins thus:

    "O faire like man, thou most fertill and pleasant countrie of England,
    which art the head of the world, indued with those two faire eies, the
    two Universities."

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

[Footnote 1: "Valete tria animalia Religionis servæ, et in servitutem
nata."]

Had your correspondent NOVUS, in his first communication, specified by name
the _Consilium Quorundam Episcoporum_ as the document whose fictitious
character he desired to notify, I should not have been betrayed into my
supererogatory vindication of the _Consilium Delectorum Cardinalium_; the
latter piece having lately been much before me, and its very extraordinary
frankness in acknowledging the existence of the gravest abuses, of which
the Reformers complained, giving it so much the air of satirical fiction.
The use of the other document, moreover, being chiefly in the hands of a
class of writers I am happy in not being able to boast a very extensive
acquaintance with, recent anti-papal controversialists, I certainly did
think that NOVUS had impugned the authenticity of the genuine _Consilium_.

R. G. is mistaken in supposing that I thought there were _nine Cardinals_
in the committee which drew up the genuine _Consilium_, as the full title
of this piece will show:--_Consilium novem Delectorum Cardinalium et
aliorum Prælatorum, de emendanda Ecclesia._

B. B. WOODWARD.

Bungay, Suffolk.

       *       *       *       *       *

LORD ROSEHILL.

(Vol. ix., p. 422.)

Something more than a partiality for the novelist takes me now and then to
the scene of the antiquary--Aberbrothock, or Arbroath. On one occasion, in
company with a few friends, we made a day of it in a ramble along the
romantic eastern coast of that burgh, and the scene of the perilous
incident related of Sir Arthur Lekiss Wardour, when rescued from the
incoming tide by being drawn up the face of the precipitous cliff by the
doughty Mucklebacket, under the superintendence of Oldbuck and young Lovel.
The fresh breeze from the German Ocean, and the excitement of the occasion,
imparted a keen relish for the locality and its associations; and by the
time we reached the hostelry of Mrs. Walker, at Auchmithie, a no less sharp
appreciation of the _piscatorial spread_ we had the foresight to bespeak
the previous day. Ushered into Lucky Walker's best dining-room, our
attention was immediately drawn to an aristocratic emblazonment of arms
which occupied one entire side of the room, with a ribbon, artistically
disposed over the same, upon which was inscribed Lord Rosehill, who was, we
were informed, the eldest son of the Earl of Northesk (Carnegie), a great
proprietor in that neighbourhood, and the special patron of our hostess and
her establishment.

With respect to the particular Lord Rosehill, alluded to by your
correspondent W. D. R., I beg to offer him the following brief notice from
Douglas' _Peerage_, by Wood, Edin. 1813:

    "David L. Rosehill (son of Geo. 6th E. of Northesk) was born at Edin.,
    5th April, 1749; had an Ensign's commission in the 26th Reg. Foot in
    1765; quitted the army 1767, and went to America. He married in
    Maryland, in Aug. 1768, Miss Mary Cheer, and died without issue at
    Rouen, in Normandy, 19 Feb. 1788, æt. 39."

From a dear old lady, whom I always find a mine of Forfarshire anecdote of
the last century, I obtain some corroborative proof that the said David
{520} Lord Rosehill was the eccentric character we might infer from the
above, in the assurance that he was "a ne'er do weel, and ran away with the
tincklers (_i. e._ gypsies) in early life."

If I may farther travel out of the record, allow me here to recommend to
such of your readers as meditate the northern tour this summer, to diverge
a little from the beaten track, and visit the neighbourhood above alluded
to; your antiquarian friends, especially, will be delighted with that fine
old ruin, the Abbey of Aberbrothock, now that it is brushed up and fit to
receive visitors. The worthy Mr. Peter, in charge, has some curious relics
acquired at the last diggins, and possesses a fragment of a black-letter
Chronicle to satisfy the incredulous that in identifying the objects
exhibited, he has his warrant in Hector Boece. The man of progress, too,
will find in Fairport, or Arbroath, a hive of industry; but, I regret to
add, threatened with a check by this closing of the Baltic trade, which is,
if I may say so, both _woof_ and _warp_ in the prosperity of this and other
towns on the east coast of Scotland. And lastly, the lovers of ocean,
rocks, and caves, will be not less interested with the environs, and I
doubt not all would leave it exclaiming with Johnson, that if they had seen
no more of old Scotia than Aberbrothock, they would not have regretted
their journey.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *

MAJOR ANDRÉ.

(Vol. ix., p. 111.)

On the 13th of January, 1817, Mr. Chappell made a report unfavourable to
the petition of John Paulding (one of the citizens who captured Major
André), who prays for an increase of the pension allowed to him by the
government in consequence of that service. On the question to reverse this
report, an interesting debate followed.

We copy the following from the _National Intelligencer_, January 14, 1817:

    "What gave interest principally to the debate, was the disclosure by
    Mr. Tallmadge of Connecticut (an officer at the time, and commanding
    the advance guard when Major André was brought in) of his view of the
    merit of this transaction, with which history and the records of the
    country have made every man familiar. The value of the service he did
    not deny; but on the authority of the declaration of Major André (made
    while in the custody of Colonel Tallmadge), he gave it as his opinion
    that, if Major André could have given to these men the amount they
    demanded for his release, he never would have been hung as a spy, nor
    in captivity on that occasion. Mr. T.'s statement was minutely
    circumstantial, and given with expressions of his individual confidence
    in its correctness. Among other circumstances he stated, that when
    Major André's boots were taken off by them, it was to search for
    plunder, and not to detect treason. These persons, indeed, he said,
    were of that class of people who passed between both armies, as often
    in one camp as the other, and whom, he said, if he had met with them,
    he should probably as soon have apprehended as Major André, as he had
    always made it a rule to do with these suspicious persons. The
    conclusion to be drawn from the whole of Mr. Tallmadge's statement, of
    which this is a brief abstract, was, that these persons had brought in
    Major André only because they should probably get more for his
    apprehension than for his release."

The question on reversing the report was decided in the negative:--Ayes,
53; Noes, 80 or 90.

It is proper to say that the question was decided on the ground taken in
the report, viz. on the injustice of legislating on a single case of
pension, whilst there were many survivors of the Revolution whom the favour
of the government had not distinguished.

From _The Gleaner_, published at Wilkesbury, Pennsylvania (copied into the
_National Intelligencer_ of Washington, March 4, 1817):

    "The disclosure recently made by Colonel Tallmadge in the House of
    Representatives, relative to the capture of Major André, seems to have
    been received in every instance with the confidence to which it was
    certainly entitled. That gentleman related what he saw and knew; and
    those who are attempting to dispute him, relate only what they had been
    informed of. To those of our readers who may not have seen the report
    of Colonel Tallmadge's remarks, it may be proper to observe, that those
    three men who captured Major André, applied to Congress for an increase
    of pension settled on them by the government, and that when this
    application was under consideration, Colonel Tallmadge (a member for
    Connecticut) rose and stated, that having been the officer to whom the
    care of André was entrusted, he had heard André declare that those men
    robbed him, and upon his offer to reward them for taking him to the
    British lines, he believes they declined only from the impossibility of
    giving them sufficient security, &c., and that it was not patriotism
    but the hope of gain which induced them to deliver him to the
    Americans. To this declaration of Colonel Tallmadge, and in support of
    his opinion, we are happy to have it in our power to offer the
    following corroborating testimony.

    "There is now living in this town a gentleman who was an officer in the
    Massachusets line, and who was particularly conversant in all the
    circumstances of that transaction. It was this gentleman who, in
    company with Captain Hughes, composed the special guard of André's
    person, was with him during the last twenty-four hours of his life, and
    supported him to the place of execution. From him we have received the
    following particulars: it is needless to say we give them our implicit
    belief, since to those who are acquainted with the person to whom we
    allude, no other testimony is ever necessary than his simple
    declaration.

    "To this gentleman André himself related that he was passing down a
    hill, at the foot of which, under a tree, playing cards, were the three
    men who took him. {521} They were close by the road side, and he had
    approached very near them before either party discovered the other;
    upon seeing him they instantly rose and seized their rifles. They
    approached him and demanded who he was; he immediately answered that he
    was a British officer, supposing, from their being so near the British
    lines, that they belonged to that party. They then seized him, robbed
    him of the few guineas which he had with him, and the two watches which
    he then wore, one of gold and the other of silver. He offered to reward
    them if they would take him to New York; they hesitated, and in his
    (André's) opinion, the reason why they did not do so, was the
    impossibility on his part to secure to them the performance of the
    promise.

    "He informs also that it was an opinion too prevalent to admit of any
    doubt, that these men were of that description of persons called 'cow
    boys,' or those who, without being considered as belonging to either
    party, made it a business to pillage from both. He has frequently heard
    this opinion expressed at that time by several officers who were
    personally acquainted with all these men, and who could not have been
    mistaken in their general characters.

    "André frequently spoke of the kindness of the American officers, and
    particularly of the attention of Major Tallmadge; and on the way to the
    place of execution sent for that officer to come near him, that he
    might learn the manner in which he was to die."

Statement of Van Wart (from the _National Intelligencer_ of Feb. 25, 1817):

    "Isaac Van Wart, of the town of Mount Pleasant, in the county of
    Westchester, being duly sworn, doth depose and say, that he is one of
    the three persons who arrested Major André during the American
    revolutionary war, and conducted him to the American camp. That he,
    this deponent, together with David Williams and John Paulding, had
    secreted themselves at the side of the highway, for the purpose of
    detecting any person coming from, or having unlawful intercourse with,
    the enemy, being between the two armies; a service not uncommon in
    those times. That this deponent and his companions were armed with
    muskets, and upon seeing Major André approach the place where they were
    concealed, they rose and presented their muskets at him, and required
    him to stop, which he did. He then asked them whether they belonged to
    his party, and then they asked him which was his party? to which he
    replied the lower party. Upon which they, deeming a little stratagem
    under such circumstances not only justifiable but necessary, gave him
    to understand that they were of his party, upon which he joyfully
    declared himself to be a British officer, and told them that he had
    been out upon very particular business. Having ascertained thus much,
    this deponent and his companions undeceived him as to their characters,
    declaring themselves to be Americans, and that he must consider himself
    their prisoner. Upon this, with seeming unconcern, he said he had a
    pass from General Arnold, which he exhibited, and then insisted on
    their permitting him to proceed. But they told him that, as he had
    confessed himself to be a British officer, they deemed it to be their
    duty to convey him to the American camp; and then took him into a wood,
    a short distance from the highway, in order to guard against being
    surprised by parties of the enemy, who were frequently reconnoitering
    in that neighbourhood. That when they had him in the wood they
    proceeded to search him, for the purpose of ascertaining who and what
    he was, and found inside of his stockings and boots, next to his bare
    feet, papers which satisfied them he was a spy. Major André now showed
    them his gold watch, and remarked that it was evidence of his being a
    gentleman, and also promised to make them any reward they might name,
    if they would but permit him to proceed, which they refused. He then
    told them that if they doubted the fulfilment of his promise, they
    might conceal him in some secret place, and keep him there until they
    could send to New York and receive their reward. And this deponent
    expressly declares, that every offer made by Major André to them was
    promptly and resolutely refused. And, for himself, he solemnly declares
    that he had not, and he does most sincerely believe that Paulding and
    Williams had not, any intention of plundering their prisoner; nor did
    they confer with each other, or even hesitate whether they should
    accept his promise, but, on the contrary, they were, in the opinion of
    this deponent, governed, like himself, by a deep interest in the cause
    of the country, and a strong sense of duty. And this deponent further
    says that he never visited the British camp, nor does he believe or
    suspect that either Paulding or Williams ever did, except that Paulding
    was, once before André's capture, and once afterwards, made a prisoner
    by the British, as this deponent has been informed and believes. And
    this deponent, for himself, expressly denies that he ever held any
    unlawful traffic or any intercourse whatever with the enemy. And,
    appealing solemnly to that omniscient Being, at whose tribunal he must
    soon appear, he doth expressly declare that all accusations, charging
    him therewith, are utterly untrue.

    ISAAC VAN WART.

     "Sworn this 28th day of January, 1817,
          before Jacob Radcliff.

    "We the subscribers, inhabitants of the county of Westchester, do
    certify that during the revolutionary war we were well acquainted with
    Isaac Van Wart, David Williams, and John Paulding, who arrested Major
    André; and that at no time during the revolutionary war was any
    suspicion ever entertained by their neighbours or acquaintances, that
    they, or either of them, held any undue intercourse with the enemy. On
    the contrary, they were universally esteemed, and taken to be ardent
    and faithful in the cause of the country. We further certify that the
    said Paulding and Williams are not now resident among us, but that
    Isaac Van Wart is a respectable freeholder of the town of Mount
    Pleasant, that we are all well acquainted with him, and we do not
    hesitate to declare our belief that there is not an individual in the
    county of Westchester, acquainted with Isaac Van Wart, who would
    hesitate to describe him as a man of a sober, moral, industrious, and
    religious life, as a man whose integrity is as unimpeachable as his
    veracity is undoubted. In {522} these respects no man in the county of
    Westchester is his superior.

      Jonathan G. Tompkins, aged 81 years.
      Jacob Purdy, 77.
      John Odell, 60.
      John Boyce, 72.
      J. Requa, 59.
      William Paulding, 81.
      John Requa, 54.
      Archer Read, 64.
      George Comb, 72.
      Gilbert Dean, 70.
      Jonathan Odell, 87.
      Cornelius Van Tassel, 71.
      Thomas Boyce, 71.
      Tunis Lint, 71.
      Jacobus Dyckman, 68.
      William Hammond.
      John Romer."

F. D.

The following works furnish much that is interesting concerning Major
André:--

_An Authentic Narrative of the Causes which led to the Death of Major
André_, by Joshua Hett Smith, London, 1808. Printed for Matthews and Leigh,
18. Strand.

_The Plot of Arnold and Sir Henry Clinton against the United States, and
against General Washington_, Paris, 1816. Printed by Didot the Elder.

Niles' _Weekly Register for 1817_, vol. ii. p. 386. Printed at Baltimore.

ANON.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE TERMINATIONS "-BY" AND "-NESS."

The linguistic origin of these descriptive syllables, when found as
suffixes to the names of places, is a question of some interest to the
antiquary and ethnologist; and, as to the former of them, has, on that
account, fitly enough been made the subject of occasional discussion in the
pages of "N. & Q." The _-by_, as your pages evince (Vol. vii., p. 536.), is
implicitly relied upon by Mr. Worsaae and his disciples, in support of the
Danish theory of that eminent northern scholar; and that too, as it
appears, without any very minute regard to the etymology and meaning of the
former syllabic divisions of proper names so characterised. If only the
designation of a locality end with _-by_, evidence sufficient is given,
that it owes its paternity specially to the Danes alone, of all the
Scandinavian tribes who obtained a permanent footing on our shores. The
same is the case with respect to the termination _-ness_, and its
orthographic varieties. As with the Ashbys, Newbys, and Kirbys of our
several counties, so (_inter alia_) with the Hackness of Yorkshire, the
Longness of Man, the Bowness of Westmoreland, and the Foulness of Essex.
All have the Danish mark upon them; and all, therefore, possess a Danish
original, and bear witness of a Danish location.

With regard to the _-by_, I have already, in these pages, taken occasion to
suggest a doubt whether, in that particular instance, the Worsaaen theory
be not as fallacious as it is dogmatical. And, adopting the same method
with the _-ness_, I think it will be evident, on examination of the
following list of almost identical forms of the expression, that, as to
this point also, no argument can be founded upon it, one way or the other,
beyond the fact of its derivation from some of the Scandinavian tribes who,
in the fifth and succeeding centuries, established themselves on our
shores: if, indeed, I do not, even with this enlarged extension, assign to
the presence of the term in our topography a too restricted application.

I have a list now before me of 521 places with this suffix, distributed
over twenty-five counties. It does not pretend to be complete; but as it
offers a more extended view of the question than in Vol. ix., p. 136., I
subjoin the results:

  Yorkshire                                                      173
  Lincolnshire                                                   163
  Leicestershire                                                  49
  Norfolk                                                         22
  Cumberland                                                      21
  Westmoreland                                                    18
  Northamptonshire                                                17
  Lancashire                                                      14
  Nottinghamshire                                                 14
  Suffolk and Derbyshire, 5 each                                  10
  Durham and Warwickshire, 3 each                                  6
  Essex and Isle of Man, 2 each                                    4
  Cardiganshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Kent, Monmouthshire,
    Northumberland, Pembrokeshire, Salop, and Wiltshire, 1 each   10
                                                                 ---
                                                                 521
                                                                 ===

Our termination _-ness_, then, is the old northern or Icelandic _nes_, the
parent of the Dan. _næs_, and the Ang.-Sax. _nese_ and _næs_, signifying "a
neck of land, or promontory." From this _nes_ came, naturally enough, the
old northern _naos_ or _nös_, whence the Dan. _næse_, the Germ. _nase_; the
Ang.-Sax. _nase_, _næse_, _nose_; the Norman-Fr. _naz_, and Su.-Goth.
_naese_ (in Al. and Sansc. _nasa_, and in Gall. _nes_); the Latin _nasus_,
and Eng. _nose_, or _nase_ as it is spelt by Gower in his _Conf. Am._ b.
v., "Both at mouth and at _nase_." Closely akin to the same word, and
probably derived from an identical source, is the old northern _nef_,
whence were formed the Vulg.-Isl. _nebbi_, the Dan. _neb_, and the
Ang.-Sax. _nebbe_ and _neb_ (in Pers. _anef_; in C. Tscherh. _ep_, in Curd.
_defin_), the beak or bill, the _neb_ or _nib_ of a bird; and also used of
the prominent feature of the human face divine, to which the term is
applied by Shakspeare and Bacon, as it is occasionally at the present day
by the older inhabitants of the Yorkshire dales.

Thus have we the origin of our _nase_, _-nese_, _-ness_, _-nib_, _-nab_,
&c., which are found in the composition of many of our local proper names;
but, after looking over the foregoing paragraph, who can tell whether these
forms were transported to our shores in a Saxon, Jutish, Anglic, or Danish
bark?

WM. MATTHEWS.

Cowgill.

{523}

_The Termination "-by."_--Having gone over the remaining letters H to Z, I
send you the following results:

  Lincoln                         94, in former list 65 Total 159
  York                            41     "     "     24   "    65
  Leicester                       22     "     "     21   "    43
  Norfolk                         13     "     "      6   "    19
  Notts                            9     "     "      2   "    11
  Cumberland                       9     "     "      7   "    16
  Lancaster                        6     "     "      2   "     8
  Westmoreland                     5     "     "      3   "     8
  Warwick                          3     "     "      0   "     3
  Northampton                      3     "     "      9   "    12
  Suffolk                          3     "     "      0   "     3
  Essex (Kirby-le-Soken)           1     "     "      0   "     1
  Chester (West Kirby or Kirkby)   1     "     "      0   "     1
  Pembroke (Tenby)                 1     "     "      0   "     1
                                 ---
                                 211
                                 ===
                                         Derby        2   "     2
                                         Sussex       1   "     1
                                                    ---       ---
                                                    142       353
                                                    ===       ===

I leave this for the study of others.

B. H. C.

As B. H. C. could only find seven places in Cumberland ending in _-by_, I
take the liberty of sending him a few additional names. Writing from
memory, I may very possibly have omitted many more:

  Aglionby.           |  Maughanby.
  Allonby.            |  Melmerby.
  Alwardby.           |  Moresby.
  Arcleby.            |  Motherby.
  Birkby.             |  Netherby.
  Botcherby.          |  Ormesby.
  Corby.              |  Ousby.
  Crosby.             |  Outerby.
  Cross Cannonby.     |  Parsonby.
  Dovenby.            |  Ponsonby.
  Etterby.            |  Rickerby.
  Flimby.             |  Scaleby.
  Gamelsby.           |  Scotby.
  Glassonby.          |  Sowerby.
  Harby.              |  Tarraby.
  Harraby.            |  Thursby.
  Ireby.              |  Uckmanby.
  Johnby.             |  Uprightby, pronounced
  Langwathby.         |    Heaverby.
  Lazonby.            |

Many names of places in Cumberland commence with _Cum_, as our Cumbrian
bard has it:

 "We've Cumwhitton, Cumwhinton, Cumranton,
    Cumrangen, Cumrew, and Cumcatch;
  Wi' mony mair Cums i' the county,
    But nane wi' Cumdivock can match."

From whence is derived the prefix _Cum_?

JOHN O' THE FORD.

Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEWSPAPER FOLK LORE.

(Vol. vi., pp. 221. 338. 466.; Vol. ix., pp. 29. 84. 276)

Is it quite certain that "no animal can live in the alimentary canal but
the parasites which belong to that part of the animal economy?" Being
ignorant of the matter I give no opinion, but would bring before your
readers' notice the following seemingly well-authenticated instance. I
quote from _Insect Transformations_, 1830, p. 239., a work put forth by the
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

    "That insects are, in some rare cases, introduced into the human
    stomach, has been more than once proved, though the greater number of
    the accounts of such facts in medical books are too inaccurate to be
    trusted.[3] But one extraordinary case has been completely
    authenticated, both by medical men and competent naturalists, and is
    published in the _Dublin Transactions_, by Dr. Pickells of Cork.[4]
    Mary Riordan, aged twenty-eight, had been much affected by the death of
    her mother, and at one of her many visits to the grave seems to have
    partially lost her senses, having been found lying there on the morning
    of a winter's day, and having been exposed to heavy rain during the
    night. When she was about fifteen, two popular Catholic priests had
    died, and she was told by some old women that if she would drink daily,
    for a certain time, a quantity of water mixed with clay taken from
    their graves, she would be for ever secure from disease and sin.
    Following this absurd and disgusting prescription, she took from time
    to time large quantities of the draught; some time afterwards, being
    affected with a burning pain in the stomach (cardialgia), she began to
    eat large pieces of chalk, which she sometimes also mixed with water
    and drank.

    "Now, whether in any or in all these draughts she swallowed the eggs of
    insects, cannot be affirmed; but for several years she continued to
    throw up incredible numbers of grubs and maggots, chiefly of the
    churchyard beetle (_Blaps mortisaga_). 'Of the larvæ of the beetle,'
    says Dr. Pickells, 'I am sure I considerably underrate, when I say that
    not less than 700 have been thrown up from the stomach at different
    times since the commencement of my attendance. A great proportion were
    destroyed by herself to avoid publicity; many, too, escaped immediately
    by running into holes in the floor. Upwards of ninety were submitted to
    Dr. Thomson's examination; nearly all of which, including two of the
    specimens of the meal-worm (_Tenebrio molitor_), I saw myself thrown up
    at different times. The average size was about an inch and a half in
    length, and four lines and a half in girth. The larvæe of the dipterous
    insect, though voided only about seven or eight times, according to her
    account, came up almost literally in myriads. They were alive and
    moving.' Altogether, Dr. Pickells saw nearly 2,000 grubs of the beetle,
    and there were {524} many which he did not see. Mr. Clear, an
    intelligent entomologist of Cork, kept some of them alive for more than
    twelve months. Mr. S. Cooper cannot understand whence the continued
    supply of the grubs was provided, seeing that larvæ do not propagate,
    and that only one pupa and one perfect insect were voided[5]; but the
    simple fact, that most beetles live several years in the state of
    larvæ, sufficiently accounts for this. Their existing and thriving in
    the stomach, too, will appear the less wonderful from the fact that it
    is exceedingly difficult to kill this insect; for Mr. Henry Baker
    repeatedly plunged one into spirits of wine, so fatal to most insects,
    but it revived, even after being immersed a whole night, and afterwards
    lived three years.[6]

    "That there was no deception on the part of the woman, is proved by the
    fact that she was always anxious to conceal the circumstance; and that
    it was only by accident that the medical gentlemen, Drs. Pickells,
    Herrick, and Thomson, discovered it. Moreover, it does not appear that,
    though poor, she ever took advantage of it to extort money. It is
    interesting to learn that, by means of turpentine in large doses, she
    was at length cured."

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

[Footnote 2: In the _Bibliotheca Grenvilliana_ the tract _De Apostasia_ is
not included, although the compilers say, "The present is a _complete
Collection of his Tracts_, including the folding sheet."]

[Footnote 3: See Good's _Nosologia_, _Helminthia Alvi_, and _Study of
Medicine_, vol. i. p. 336.]

[Footnote 4: _Trans. of Assoc. Phys. in Ireland_, vols. iv. viii. and v. p.
177. 8vo: Dublin, 1824-1828.]

[Footnote 5: Cooper's edition of Good's _Study of Medicine_, vol. i. p.
358.]

[Footnote 6: _Philosophical Transactions_, No. 457.]

       *       *       *       *       *

VENTILATION.

(Vol. ix., p. 415.)

"Airs from heaven or blasts from hell."

The mistake which, it is very respectfully submitted, the professed
ventilationists fall into, and which may be considered the _fons et origo
malorum_, is the notion that foul air rises upwards, and that pure air
comes from below; which is just the reverse of the fact.

In any room containing animals or vegetables, the air undergoes a change by
respiration.

Leaving the vegetables to care for themselves, and considering the animals,
if such a title may be reverently given to members of the House and others
shut up in confined apartments for the benefit of their species, it is
obvious that the pure air of heaven must undergo a change by the
respiratory organs of the members, which change is absolutely necessary to
preserve their lives, and each such apartment is a manufactory for
converting pure into foul air. Its steam-power is seated in the lungs,
which, at each inspiration, take up the oxygen (the principle of life and
flame) of the air, and at each expiration give out the carbon of the blood,
conveyed by the veins from all parts of the body as refuse, and when purged
therefrom by oxygen inspired, convert the venous blood into arterial, and
bring life out of death.

What, then, becomes of the expired carbon? The professional ventilationists
say it _ascends_, and they provide mechanically, but not scientifically,
accordingly. On the contrary, it finally _descends_; and this is the reason
why our beds are always a few feet above the floor. If proof is needed, it
may be found by applying a candle to the door, slightly ajar, of a room
occupied by a few persons, when it will be found that the flame of the
candle will point, when held at the lower part of the door, outwards, and
at the upper part of the door inwards, showing how the currents of air
pass; and as every one knows carbon to be heavier than air, the lower
current is the one charged with carbon. The _Grotto del Cane_ derives its
name from the fact, that a dog passing the stream of carbon issuing from
the fissure in the rock, dies; whilst a man walking erect, with his mouth
above the stream of carbon, escapes. Our lime-kilns furnish a common
example of the fact of the density of carbon compared with atmospheric air.
Experiments in proof are constantly exhibited in chemical lectures.

The practical inference, _experto crede_, is that holes in the
skirting-boards should be made so as to draw off the foul air, whilst the
angelic visits of pure air should be sought from above. Bellows, such as
are used in diving-bells, with hot or cold air, might be necessary in an
extreme case--long debates in the Commons, for example,--which may require
extraordinary ventilation.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_History of Photographic Discovery._--Without entirely agreeing with the
opinion expressed to us a few days since, by an eminent scholar and most
original thinker, that photography was destined to change the face of the
whole world; we have little doubt it is destined to produce some striking
social effects. Its history is, therefore, an interesting one, and the
following extract from a paper "On some early Experiments in Photography,
being the substance of a Letter addressed to Robert Hunt, Esq., by the Rev.
J. B. Reade, M.A., F.R.S.," from the _Philosophical Magazine_ for May,
1854, seems, in that point of view, so important, that we have transferred
it to "N. & Q."

"I may assume that you are already aware, from my letter to Mr. Brayley of
March 9, 1839, and published in the _British Review_ for August, 1847, that
the principal agents I employed, before Mr. Talbot's processes were known,
were infusion of galls as an accelerator, and hyposulphite of soda as a
fixer.

"I have no doubt, though I have not a distinct recollection of the fact,
that I was led to use the infusion of galls from my knowledge of the early
experiments by Wedgwood. I was aware that he found _leather_ more sensitive
than _paper_; and it is highly probable that the tanning process, which
might cause the silver {525} solution to be more readily acted upon when
applied to the leather, suggested my application of the tanning solution to
paper.

"In your own history of the photographic process," says Mr. Reade,
addressing Mr. Hunt, "you say, 'the discovery of the extraordinary property
of the gallic acid in increasing the sensibility of the iodide of silver
was the most valuable of the numerous contributions which Mr. Talbot has
made to the photographic art.' It is nevertheless true, as stated by Sir
David Brewster, that 'the first public use of the infusion of nut-galls,
which is an _essential element_ in Mr. Talbot's patented process, is due to
Mr. Reade;' and in my letter to Mr. Brayley I attribute the sensitiveness
of my process to the formation of a gallate or tannate of silver. I need
scarcely say, that among various experiments I tried gallic and tannic acid
in their pure state, both separately and mixed; but the colour of the
pictures thus obtained with the solar microscope was at that time less
pleasing to my eye, than the rich warm tone which the same acids produced
when in their natural connexion with solutions of vegetable matter in the
gall-nut. This organic combination, however, was more effective with the
solar microscope than with the camera, though the lenses of my camera were
five inches in diameter. It is probable enough that the richer tone was due
to the greater energy of direct solar rays. In using the solar microscope,
I employed a combination of lenses which produced a convergence of the
luminous and photogenic rays, together with a dispersion of the calorific
rays, and the consequent absence of all sensible heat enabled me to use
Ross's cemented powers, and to make drawings of objects inclosed in Canada
balsam, and of living animalcules in single drops of water. The method I
employed was communicated to the Royal Society in December, 1836, and a
notice of it is contained in the 'Abstracts.'

"You inform me that some persons doubt whether I really obtain _gallate of
silver_ when using an infusion of gall-nuts, and that one of Mr. Talbot's
friends raises the question. It is sufficient to reply, that though gallic
acid is largely formed by a long exposure of an infusion of gall-nuts to
the atmosphere, as first proposed by Scheele, yet this acid does exist in
the gall-nut in its natural state, and in a sufficient quantity to form
gallate of silver as a photogenic agent; for M. Deyeux observes, that 'when
heat is very slowly applied to powdered gall-nuts, gallic acid sublimes
from them, a part of which, when the process is conducted with great care,
appears in the form of small white crystals.' M. Fiedler also obtained
gallic acid by mixing together a solution of gall-nuts and pure alumina,
which latter combines with the tannin and leaves the gallic acid free in
the solution; and this solution is found, on experiment, to produce very
admirable pictures. But what is more to the point, Mr. Brayley, in
explaining my process in his lectures, showed experimentally how gallate of
silver was formed, and confirmed my view of the sensitiveness of the
preparation. It is therefore certain that the use of gallate of silver as a
photogenic agent had been made public in two lectures by Mr. Brayley at
least two years before Mr. Talbot's patent was sealed.

"I employed hyposulphite of soda as a fixer. Mr. Hodgson, an able practical
chemist at Apothecaries' Hall, assisted me in the preparation of this salt,
which at that time was probably not be found, as an article of sale, in any
chemist's shop in London. Sir John Herschel had previously announced the
peculiar action of this preparation of soda on salts of silver, but I
believe that I was the first to use it in the processes of photography. I
also used iodide of potassium, as appears from my letter, as a fixer, and I
employed it as well to form iodide of lead on glazed cards as an
accelerator. Iodide of lead has of itself, as I form it, considerable
photographic properties, and receives very fair impressions of plants,
lace, and drawings when placed upon it, but with the addition of nitrate of
silver and the infusion of galls the operation is perfect and
instantaneous. Pictures thus taken were exhibited at the Royal Society
before Mr. Talbot proposed his iodized paper. The microscopic photographs
exhibited at Lord Northampton's in 1839 remained in his lordship's
possession. I subsequently made drawings of sections of teeth; and one of
them, a longitudinal section of a tooth of the _Lamna_, was copied on zinc
by Mr. Lens Aldous for Owen's 'Odontography.' I may say this much as to my
own approximation to an art, which has deservedly and by universal consent
obtained the name of Talbotype."

_Photographic Cautions._--Diffused light being one of the most common
causes of photographic failures, I beg to call the attention of your
readers to the construction of their cameras. Working with a friend, and
taking the same localities, using the same paper and chemicals, his
pictures have proved comparative failures, a general browning pervading the
whole, evidently the effect of light. Every inspection failed to discover
it, until the mode was adopted of putting one of the paper-holders in its
position as for taking a picture, then removing the lens, and, with the aid
of the focussing-bag, looking through the hole where the lens is applied,
when light became visible in many spaces, entirely accounting for these
failures. As many such cameras are now becoming made upon the same sliding
construction, every one should test his apparatus before he commences, for
such a one is entirely useless. Lately also the glass corners for collodion
plate-holders in the dark slides, have been by some makers replaced by a
sort of silver _looking_ wire, but possessing little of that metal. The
most minute portion of the copper in this wire coming in contact with the
excited collodion, produces a decomposition sufficient to spoil any
picture. These may appear trivial things to "make a note of," but as they
have caused much vexation to one who has had some photographic experience,
they may still more perplex a novice; and as you have done so much towards
making the science plain, I hope you will give them space in your
forthcoming Number.

LUX IN CAMERA.

_A Query respecting Collodion._--I have been making some collodion by Mr.
Tery's process, and have iodized it with a very sensitive medium. The
collodion is very clear and properly diluted. The ether I used had a very
powerful smell of sulphur, and was likewise very strong and volatile. I
diluted it with an equal {526} volume of alcohol. The ether was then still
very strong. The cotton dissolved freely. On mixing the iodizing medium,
the colour of the collodion turns immediately to nearly a port-wine colour,
but still remains very clear. I obtain a very good film of iodide of silver
from the bath, but cannot produce a picture under five or seven minutes,
whereas with the same lens, and the same iodizing medium, viz.

  Alcohol                    8 drms.
  Iodide of potassium        8 grs.
  Iodide of ammonium         4 grs.
  Iodide of silver         ½ gr.

I have obtained beautiful pictures in less than one second with collodion
prepared by the same (Archer's) process. As I have made a quantity of it,
and am unwilling it should be wasted, I have taken the liberty of asking
your opinion on the subject. Do you think the collodion is too new, or the
ether not good? On pouring the developing solution on the plate
(protosulphate of iron), the plate has the appearance of having ink poured
on it; but this appearance is removed on the application of the
hyposulphite of soda, and the plate remains as clear as when it was taken
from the nitrate of silver bath.

J. COOK.

_The Céroléine Process._--Have any of your photographic correspondents made
such experiments on the céroléine process as to enable them to communicate
the results to "N. & Q."?

Is Mr. Crooke's process for preserving the sensitiveness of collodion
applicable to all collodions? If not, what collodion is best suited for it?

SILEX.

_Mr. Fox Talbot's Patents._---The injunction moved for by Mr. Fox Talbot,
as reported in _The Times_ of Saturday last, reminds us of a Query which we
have been sometimes asked, and which may just now be brought forward with
advantage, namely: If Mr. Talbot's patents extend to the collodion process,
how comes it that the earliest practisers of the collodion art had to make
their own researches? We know one skilful photographer whose experiments
were so extensive before he made any tolerable pictures, that his spoiled
glass and cuttings were more than a man could lift.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Olympic Plain_ (Vol. ix., p. 270.).--I have just seen, in examining
the contents of a German periodical, that in May, 1853, a proposal was
submitted to the public by Professor Ross, of the University of Halle, for
setting on foot a subscription to defray the expense of making excavations
in Olympia, thus anticipating, by nearly a year, a recent suggestion to the
same effect in "N. & Q." Professor Ross expatiates at considerable length
(see _Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik_, vol. lxviii. p. 203.) on
the advantages to be derived, as regards the arts, the literature, and the
history of Greece, from the exploration of so celebrated a spot; but,
notwithstanding all his arguments and eloquence, the amount of the
subscriptions, after the lapse of nine months, only amounted, in February,
1854, to about 38l. As this sum was so utterly inadequate for the object
intended, it was resolved to devote it to excavations in Mykenæ. Professor
Ross takes occasion to pay a high tribute of praise to Lord Aberdeen, for
the service rendered by his Lordship in discovering the treasury at Mykenæ.
The facilities at Olympia for carrying on excavations are stated by
Professor Ross to be very great. It is but a few miles distant from the
sea, on the banks of a navigable river, and opposite to the very populous
island of Zante; so that workmen, and means, and helps of all kinds can
easily be procured. It was intended to give the superintendence of the
excavations to Professor Alexander Rizo Rangabe, of the University of
Athens, who was to be supplied with an adequate staff of artists, &c.
Whatever discoveries might be made, were to become the property of the
Greek nation. Travellers were to be permitted to visit the excavations
during their progress, and to see all that was going on; and it was thought
that a considerable number might be attracted to the spot, as the Austrian
steamers convey passengers weekly in three or four days from Trieste to the
western coast of the Morea.

J. MACRAY.

_Encyclopædia of Indexes, or Table of Contents_ (Vol. ix., p. 371.).--Your
correspondent THINKS I TO MYSELF inquires respecting the desirableness and
practicability of forming an "Encyclopædia of Indexes, or Tables of
Contents." It was to meet this want (which is very commonly felt) that the
publication of the _Cyclopædia Bibliographica_ was undertaken. The work has
met your approval, and I have the pleasure of announcing that the volume
will be completed on June 1. I think it will meet the desire of your
correspondent and many others, who, "in reading up on any subject, wish to
know whether any author treats upon it, without being obliged to examine
his works, at a great expense of time and labour."

JAMES DARLING.

"_One New Year's Day_" (Vol. ix., p. 467.).--The lines quoted by MR.
SKYRING are the opening lines of an old ballad, entitled "Richard of
Taunton Dean, or Dumble Dum Deary." It may be found in _Ancient Poems,
Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of England_, edited (for the Percy
Society) by J. H. Dixon, Esq., who says:

    "This song is very popular with the country people in every part of
    England, but more particularly so with the inhabitants of Somerset,
    Devon, and Cornwall. There are many different versions."

In the notes to his volume, Mr. Dixon mentions two Irish versions of this
ballad, communicated to him by T. C. Croker, Esq., one of which, entitled
"Last New Year's Day," is almost _verbatim_ with {527} the English ballad.
The other version (which is given by Mr. D.) is entitled "Dicky of
Ballyman."

J. K. R. W.

    [This reference renders it unnecessary to insert the versions kindly
    supplied by E. L. H. and J. A.]

_Unregistered Proverbs_ (Vol. ix., p. 235.).--The following I find among
the poor parishioners of Tor-Mohun in Devonshire, and they were new to me.
In answer to some remarks of mine on the necessary infirmities of old age,
one of them replied, "You cannot have two forenoons in the same day." And
on another occasion, in answer to my saying that something _ought_ to be
done, although it was not, there came, "_Oughts_ are nothings unless
they've strokes to them."

WM. FRASER, B.C.L.

_Orange Blossoms_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.; Vol. ix., p. 386.).--I have seen it
stated that the use of these flowers at bridals was derived from the
Saracens, or at least from the East, and that they were thus employed as
emblems of fecundity.

WM. FRASER, B.C.L.

_Peculiar Use of the Word "Pure"_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--Your
correspondent is evidently not a Gloucestershire man. The word _pure_ is
commonly used in that county to express being in good health. I remember an
amusing instance, which occurred many years ago. A gentleman, a friend of
mine, who resided in an establishment where young ladies were educated, was
met one day by an honest farmer; who, after inquiring kindly for his own
health, said with equal good nature and simplicity, "I hope, Zur, the
ladies be all _pure_."

GLOUCESTRENSIS.

_Worm in Books_ (Vol. viii., p. 412.).--ALETHIS is presented with the
following recipe from a very curious old French book of receipts and
secrets for everything connected with arts and trades. Put some powdered
colocynth into a phial, and cover the mouth with parchment pierced with
holes. With this the books should be powdered, and from time to time beaten
to drive out the powder, when the same process must be repeated.

F. C. H.

_Chapel Sunday_ (Vol. vii., p. 527.).--Not having received an answer to my
Query of the origin of the celebration of Chapel Sunday in the Lake
district, I would venture a surmise which some Cumbrian antiquary will
perhaps correct, if wrong. I take it to be the day in honour of the patron
saint of the chapel: and now, when such festivals are little observed, it
has been changed to the nearest Sunday. In this thinly populated district,
and where, from its mountainous and rugged character, travelling before the
formation of the present good roads was neither agreeable nor (probably)
safe, "at chapel" was the only time many of the inhabitants saw each other.
Meeting, therefore, on so auspicious a day as that of the patron saint,
might in "merrie time" of old induce a little festivity.

PRESTONIENSIS.

_Bishop Inglis of Nova Scotia_ (Vol. vii., p. 263.).--According to a short
biography in the _Documentary History of New York_, vol. iii. p. 1066.,
this prelate was born A.D. 1734. His birth-place is not mentioned. Some
letters and other writings by him may be found in the fourth volume of the
same work.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Gutta Percha made soluble_ (Vol. ix., p. 350.).--E. B. can procure at any
chemist's establishment a solution of gutta percha in chloroform, which may
answer the purpose required by him. It is used by medical men as a dressing
for abrasion in the skin of bed-ridden persons, and is applied with a
camel's-hair brush. It hardens on being applied, and produces an artificial
skin, which saves the patient from farther suffering in the place to which
it has been applied.

EXPERTO CREDE.

Naphtha will render gutta percha soluble; and if needed to be used as a
varnish, it is only necessary to make a solution in a closed vessel, and
apply it with a brush. The naphtha will evaporate and leave a thin coating
of firmly-adhering gutta percha behind.

SHIRLEY HIBBERD.

_Impe_ (Vol. viii., pp. 443. 623.).--This epithet has been much discussed,
but I think that no reference has been made to the following remarkable
instances of its application.

In the Beauchamp Chapel at St. Mary's Warwick is the altar-tomb and effigy
of the infant son of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, with a long
inscription, which begins:

    "Heere resteth the body of the noble impe Robert of Dudley, Baronet of
    Denbigh, sonne of Robert, Erle of Leycester, nephew and heire unto
    Ambrose, Erle of Warwike."

In a letter from Edinburgh, dated 5th November, 1578, John Aleyn to the
Bishop of Carlisle, writes of "the goodly young Imp their King," who was
afterwards our James I.; and the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1585 writes of "my
wife and her imps," the lady being his energetic Countess Elizabeth
Hardwick, widow of Sir William Cavendish. (See Lodge's _Illustrations of
British History_, vol. ii. pp. 135. 275.)

R. A.

Melford.

"_Bothy_" (Vol. ix., p. 305.).--For a very complete account of "the Bothy
system" in Scotland, see the able and interesting pamphlet of the Rev.
Harry Stuart: _Agricultural Labourers as they were, are, and should be_
(Blackwood).

W. C. TREVELYAN.

{528}

_Work on Ants_ (Vol. ix., p. 303.).--I presume that the work for which
[Sigma]. inquires is, _Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis indigènes_,
par P. Huber, Paris, 1810.[7]

[Greek: Halieus.]

Dublin.

[Footnote 7: [Our correspondent [Sigma]. begs us to acknowledge the favour
of the communication of [Greek: Halieus], but his inquiry "on the habits of
ants" is by an author, a M. Hauhart, and of a much later date than Huber's.
He is informed it is to be found in the Transactions of the University of
Basle in Switzerland, published with this title, _Die Zeitschrift der
Basler Hochschule_, 1825, p. 62; but he has not been successful in
obtaining a sight of that work.]]

_Jacobite Garters_ (Vol. viii., p. 586.).--I have lately seen a
watch-ribbon, or perhaps garter, with a Jacobite inscription in white
letters somewhat like that described by E. L. J., but only about half the
length. The middle stripe was red between two blue ones, and yellow edges;
there was no attempt at a plaid. The owner had no tradition about it, as
connected with any particular incident in Prince Charles' career.

P. P.

"_The Three Pigeons_" (Vol. ix., p. 423.).--I think Washington Irving, in
his _Life of Goldsmith_, satisfactorily explains the origin of the song in
_She Stoops to Conquer_, which your correspondent G. TAYLOR supposes was
suggested by the inn at Brentford, mentioned by DR. RIMBAULT. The American
biographer says that Goldsmith and his companion Bryanton

    "Got up a country club at the inn at Ballymahon, of which Goldsmith
    soon became the oracle and prime wit; astonishing his unlettered
    associates by his learning, and being considered capital at a song and
    story. From the rustic conviviality of the inn at Ballymahon, and the
    company which used to assemble there, it is surmised that he took some
    hints in afterlife for his picturing of Tony Lumpkin and his
    associates, 'Dick Muggins the exciseman, Jack Slang the horse doctor,
    Little Aminadab that grinds the music-box, and Tom Twist that spins the
    pewter-platter.' Nay, it is thought that Tony's drinking-song at the
    'Three Jolly Pigeons' was but a revival of one of the convivial catches
    at Ballymahon."

And the author farther remarks, that

    "Though Goldsmith ultimately rose to associate with birds of a finer
    feather, his heart would still yearn in secret after the 'Three Jolly
    Pigeons.'"

If this be correct, as it most likely is, the song referred to, and the
scene it illustrates, were not suggested by the inn at Brentford.

B. M.

Philadelphia.

The alehouse situate at Lishoy in Ireland, where Goldsmith's father was
vicar, was, no doubt, "The Three Pigeons" of _She Stoops to Conquer_. There
is a sketch of it in the _Tourist's Handbook for Ireland_, p. 175. The
author refers to Mr. John Forster's _Life of Goldsmith_, which I have not
at hand.

THOMPSON COOPER.

Cambridge.

_Corporation Enactments_ (Vol. ix., p. 300.).--It is an easy, but generally
an unsafe thing to quote from quotations. ABHBA should have referred to
_The Dublin Penny Journal_, vol. i. p. 226., for his extracts from the Town
Books of the Corporation of Youghal, co. Cork; and, even then, might have
made farther reference to Crofton Croker's _Researches in the South of
Ireland_, p. 160., whence the paragraph (unacknowledged) was introduced
into _The Dublin Penny Journal_. Mr. Croker, moreover, fell into error with
respect to the dates of these curious enactments, which were long
antecedent to 1680 and 1703. I have seen them in the original (Book A), and
vouch for the accuracy of the subjoined:

    "1613-14. Thomas Geoffry made a freeman (being a barber), on condition
    that he should trim every freeman for sixpence per ann.

    "1622. John Bayly made free, on condition to dress the dinners of the
    several Mayors."

I may give you some farther extracts from a MS. Note Book relative to this
corporation at a future period.

SAMUEL HAYMAN, Clk.

South Abbey, Youghal.

_The Passion of our Lord dramatised_ (Vol. ix., p. 373.).--A drama on the
_Passion of Christ_ (the first specimen of the kind that has descended to
our days) is attributed to St. Gregory of Nazianzum, but is more probably
the production of Gregory of Antioch (A.D. 572). It is described by most of
the ecclesiastical writers: Tillemont, Baillet, Baronius, Bellarmin, Dupin,
Vossius, Rivet, Labbæus, Ceillier, Fleury, &c.

In 1486, when _La Mistère de la Passion_, or the Passion of our Saviour,
was exhibited at Antwerp, the beholders were astonished by _five_ different
scaffolds, each having several stages rising perpendicularly: paradise was
the most elevated, and it had two stages. But even this display was
eclipsed by another exhibition of _The Passion_, where no fewer than _nine_
scaffolds were displayed to the wondering gaze of the people.

In 1556, according to Strype (_Life of Sir Thos. Pope_, Pref. p. vii.), the
_Passion of Christ_ was represented at the Grey Friers in London, on Corpus
Christi Day, before the Lord Mayor, the Privy Council, and many great
persons of the realm. Again, the same historian informs us (_Ecclesiastical
Memorials_, iii. c. xlix.) under the date 1557:

    "The _Passion of Christ_ was acted at the Grey Friers on the day that
    war was proclaimed against France, and in honour of that occasion."

{529}

It is generally considered that the last miracle play represented in
England was that of _Christ's Passion_, in the reign of James I., which
Prynne informs us was--

    "Performed at Elie House in Holborne, when Gondomar lay there, on Good
    Friday at night, at which there were thousands present."

Busby's idea, "that the manner of reciting and singing in the theatres
formed the original model of the Church service," is as absurd as it is
untenable.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

It is said that Apollonarius of Laodicea (A.D. 362), and Gregory of
Nazianzum not much later, dramatised our Lord's Passion. Many, however,
regard the _Christus Patiens_, ascribed to Gregory, as spurious. The
Passion of our Lord was represented in the Coliseum at Rome as much as six
centuries ago. The subject was a favourite one in Italy. In France, "The
Fraternity of the Passion of our Saviour" received letters patent from
Charles VI. in 1402. Their object was to perform moralities or mysteries,
_i. e._ plays on sacred subjects. In 1486, the Chapter of the Church at
Lyons gave sixty livres to those who had played the mystery of the Passion
of our Lord Jesus Christ. In 1518, Francis I. confirmed by letters patent
the privileges of the Confrères de la Passion: one of their pieces,
reprinted in 1541, is entitled _Le Mystère de la Passion de N. S. J. C._
The same subject was common in Spain and Germany. In England the Coventry
mysteries, &c. partook of the same character. The Cotton MS. (Vespasian, b.
viii.) and the Chester Whitsun plays (Harleian MS. 2013.) would probably
afford information which I cannot now give. So late as 1640, Sandys wrote a
tragedy, on a plan furnished by Grotius, upon Christ's Passion. A little
research would give H. P. a number of similar facts.

B. H. C.

If your correspondent wishes for authority for the fact of our blessed
Lord's Passion being dramatised, he will find an example in Gregor. Naz.,
the _editio princ._ of which I have before me, entitled [Greek: Christos
paschôn], Rom. 1542.

J. C. J.

See the true account and explanation of the service of the Passion, in
Cardinal Wiseman's _Lectures on the Offices of Holy Week_, 1854, 8vo.,
Dolman.

W. B. T.

_Hardman's Account of Waterloo_ (Vol. ix., pp. 176. 355.).--Lieutenant
Samuel Hardman was present with the 7th Hussars at the cavalry actions of
Sahagun (Dec. 21, 1808) and Benevente (Dec. 29, 1808), previous to his
appointment, May 19, 1813, as Cornet, Royal Waggon Train, "from
serjeant-major, 7th Light Dragoons." I was in error in stating that he was
appointed "Lieutenant and Adjutant, Dec. 15, 1814, in the 10th Hussars, _in
which he had commenced his military career_." The 10th and 15th Hussars
were in action at Sahagun and Benevente, but Mr. Hardman never served in
the 10th Hussars until December 1814.

Query, Why is Sahagun not to be found on the appointments of the 10th
Hussars, as well as on those of the 15th Hussars, as both regiments were
engaged with the enemy on that occasion?

G. L. S.

_Aristotle_ (Vol. ix., p. 373.).--See Aristotle's _Ethics_, bk. v. ch. iv.

B. H. C.

_Papyrus_ (Vol. ix., p. 222.).--If R. H. means the growing plant, it is to
be found in most botanical gardens.

P. P.

_Bell at Rouen_ (Vol. viii., p. 448.; Vol. ix., p. 233.).--A portion of the
great George d'Ambois is preserved in the Museum of Antiquities at Rouen,
where I saw it four years ago.

CPL.

_Word-minting_ (Vol. ix., pp. 151. 335.).--Your correspondent J. A. H.
cannot have seen Richardson's _Dictionary_, where he will find the word
_derangement_, in the sense of madness, illustrated by an instance from
Paley, _Evidences_, prop. 2.

CPL.

_Coleridge's Christabel_ (Vol. vii., pp. 206. 292.; Vol. viii., pp. 11.
111.; Vol. ix., p. 455.).--My Query relative to Christabel (Vol. vii., p.
292.) seems to have been lost sight of, and has not as yet received a
reply. Will you kindly permit me to renew it?

In the _European Magazine_ for April, 1815, there appeared a poem entitled
"Christobell: a Gothic tale. Written as a sequel to a beautiful legend of a
fair lady and her father, deceived by a witch in the guise of a noble
knight's daughter." It is dated "March, 1815," and signed "V.," and was
reprinted in _Fraser's Magazine_ for January, 1835. It commences thus:

 "Whence comes the wavering light which falls
  On Langdale's lonely Chapel-walls?
  The noble mother of Christobell
  Lies in that lone and drear chapelle."

Query, What is known of the history and authorship of this poem?

It will be observed from the dates, that the _sequel_ appeared in print
before Christabel was published by Coleridge.

J. M. B.

_Garrick's Funeral Epigram_ (Vol. vii., p. 619.).--Bishop Horne was, I
believe, the author of these verses; at least I have seen them in a volume
published by him, entitled (I think) _Miscellanies_: and I think they are
stated to be his in Jones' _Life of Horne_. But I have neither work at this
moment before me to refer to.

GEO. E. FRERE.

Roydon Hall, Diss.

{530}

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ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES,
WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on
application, or sent free by post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
               T. Grissell, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{532}

This Day, with Woodcuts, fcp. 8vo., 5s.

THE OLD PRINTER AND THE MODERN PRESS, in relation to the important subject
of CHEAP POPULAR LITERATURE. By CHARLES KNIGHT.

Also, by the same Author, 2 vols. fcp. 8vo., 10s.

ONCE UPON A TIME.

    "The old bees die, the young possess the hive."--_Shakspeare._

    "They relate to all manner of topics--old folks, old manners, old
    books; and take them all in all, they make up as charming a pair of
    volumes as we have seen for many a long day."--_Fraser's Magazine._

    "'Once upon a Time' is worth possessing."--_Examiner._

    "This varied, pleasant, and informing collection of
    Essays."--_Spectator._

    "Mr. Charles Knight's entertaining little work is full of various
    knowledge agreeably told."--_Quarterly Review._

    "This pleasant gallery of popular antiquarianism."--_John Bull._

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING.

Now ready, 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., 8s.

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES:" Being a Selection from the Literary Papers which
have appeared in that Journal, reprinted by permission.

          CONTENTS:
          Vol. I.
  Nelson and Lady Hamilton.
  Railway Novels.
  Louis-Philippe and his Family.
  John Howard.
  Drama of the French Revolution.
  Lord Holland's Reminiscences.
  Robert Southey.
  Dean Swift--Stella and Vanessa.
  Reminiscences of Coleridge.
  John Keats.
  Grote's History of Greece.
  Literature of the Rail.
          Vol. II.
  Lord Coke.
  Discoveries at Nineveh.
  Lord Mansfield.
  Lion Hunting in Africa.
  Jeremy Taylor.
  Lord Clarendon and his Friends.
  John Sterling.
  Autobiography of a Chartist.
  Americans in England.
  Francis Chantrey.
  Career of Lord Langdale.
  Afghanistan.
  The Greek Revolution.
  Dickens and Thackeray.

*** Each Volume may be had separately.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW WORK BY SIR DAVID BREWSTER.

This Day. fcp. 8vo., 6s.

MORE WORLDS THAN ONE; the CREED of the PHILOSOPHER and the HOPE of the
CHRISTIAN. By SIR DAVID BREWSTER.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW WORK BY DEAN MILMAN.

Now ready, Vols. I. to III., 8vo., 36s.

HISTORY OF LATIN CHRISTIANITY, including that of THE POPES to the
PONTIFICATE of NICHOLAS V. By HENRY HART MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ART AND ARTISTS IN ENGLAND.

Now ready, 3 vols. 8vo., 36s.

THE TREASURES OF ART IN GREAT BRITAIN. Being an Account of the Chief
Collections of Paintings, Sculptures, MSS., &c., in this Country. By DR.
WAAGEN, Director of the Royal Gallery of Pictures at Berlin.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in fancy boards, price 2s. 6d.; cloth, elegant, 3s.

ORR'S CIRCLE OF THE SCIENCES. Volume I.

CONTAINING:

    Introductory Treatise: on the Nature, Connexion, and Uses of the Great
    Departments of Human Knowledge. By the Editor.

    Physiology of Animal and Vegetable Life. By the Editor.

    Principal Forms of the Skeleton--Principal Forms and Structures of the
    Teeth. By Professor Owen.

    Varieties of the Human Species. By Robert Gordon Latham, M.D., F.R.S.

Copious Explanatory and Glossarial Index, &c., and upwards of 400 highly
finished Engravings.

London: WM. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner.

       *       *       *       *       *


In small 8vo., price 2s. 6d., cloth, elegant,

HOUSEHOLD MEDICINE AND SURGERY, SICK-ROOM MANAGEMENT, AND DIET FOR
INVALIDS. Being the First Volume of ORR'S HOUSEHOLD HANDBOOKS: a Series of
Works intended to impart plain and practical information on subjects
connected with the comforts and refinements of home.

London: WM. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL.

Published Weekly, price 1½d., or 2½d. Stamped.

THE CRYSTAL PALACE AND PARK. A complete Account of the Crystal Palace and
its objects, with numerous Illustrations from Photographs, by M. DELAMOTTE,
will be given in

THE HOME COMPANION,

No. XXIV.,

Which will be a DOUBLE NUMBER (32 Pages), without increase of price.

As none will be printed beyond the usual number, unless ordered previous to
the day of publication, immediate orders should be given to any Bookseller.

London: WM. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE and HISTORICAL REVIEW for JUNE, contains the
following articles:--1. Leaves from a Russian Parterre. 2. History of Latin
Christianity. 3. Our Lady of Montserrat. 4. Memorials of Amelia Opie. 5.
Mansion of the Dennis Family at Pucklechurch, with an Illustration. 6. The
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: A Plea
for the threatened City Churches--The British Museum Library--The late
Master of Sherburn Hospital--Original Letter and Anecdotes of Admiral
Vernon, &c. With Notes of the Month, Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews,
Reports of Antiquarian and Literary Societies, Historical Chronicle, and
OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Duke of Parma, the Marquis of Anglesey,
the Earl of Lichfield, Lord Colborne, Lord Cockburn, John Davies Gilbert,
Esq., T. P. Halsey, Esq., Alderman Thompson, Alderman Hooper. Dr. Wardlaw,
Dr. Collyer, Professors Jameson and Wilson, Montgomery the Poet, &c. &c.
Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


HER MAJESTY'S CONCERT ROOMS, HANOVER SQUARE.

THE ROYAL SOCIETY

OF

FEMALE MUSICIANS,

_Established 1839, for the Relief of its distressed Members._

_Patroness_: Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen. _Vice-Patronesses_: Her
Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent, Her Royal Highness the Duchess of
Cambridge.

On WEDNESDAY EVENING, JUNE 14, 1854, will be performed, for the Benefit of
this Institution, A MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music.

_Vocal Performers_--Miss Birch, Miss Dolby, Miss Pyne, Miss Helen Taylor,
Mrs. Noble, and Miss Louisa Pyne. Madame Persiani. Madame Caradori, Madame
Therese Tanda, and Madame Clara Novello. Signor Gardoni. Mr. H. R. Allen,
Mr. Lawler, and Signor Belletti.

In the Course of the Concert, the Gentlemen of the Abbey Glee Club will
sing two favourite Glees.

_Instrumentalists_--Pianoforte, M. Emile Prudent; Violin, M. Remenyi;
Violoncello, M. Van Gelder, Solo Violoncellist to His Majesty the King of
Holland.

THE BAND will be complete in every Department--_Conductor_, Mr. W.
Sterndale Bennett.

The Doors will be opened at Seven o'Clock, and the Concert will commence at
Eight precisely.

Tickets, Half-a-Guinea each. Reserved Seats, One Guinea each. An Honorary
Subscriber of One Guinea annually, or of Ten Guineas at One Payment (which
shall be considered a Life Subscription), will be entitled to Two Tickets
of Admission, or One for Reserved Seat, to every Benefit Concert given by
the Society. Donations and Subscriptions will be thankfully received, and
Tickets delivered, by the Secretary,

MR. J. W. HOLLAND, 13. Macclesfield, St., Soho; and at all the Principal
Music-sellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


AN ENGLISH GENTLEMAN, well acquainted with French and German, and of some
experience in translating, is desirous of employing his leisure time in the
translation of some popular work from either of those languages into
English. Address, MR. BURTON, H. W. WHITE'S, ESQ., Leutram House,
Inverness.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE.--MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical
Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the
most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 3.
1854.





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