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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 242, June 17, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 242, June 17, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 242.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Political Predictions, by Henry H. Breen                     559

  Derivation of the Word "Bigot"                               560

  "Book of Almanacs," by Professor De Morgan                   561

  MINOR NOTES:--Distances at which Sounds have been
    heard--Anagram--Logan or Rocking Stones                    561


  A Rubens Query                                               561

  The Paxs Pennies of William the Conqueror                    562

  MINOR QUERIES:--Peculiar Customs at Preston, in
    Lancashire--Obsolete Statutes--Sale of Offices and
    Salaries in the Seventeenth Century--Board of
    Trade--Sacheverell's and Charles Lamb's Residences in
    the Temple--Braddock and Orme                              562

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Cromwell's Bible--Canne's
    Bible--Dryden and Luke Milbourne--Portrait Painters of
    the last Century--Ætna--Sir Adam, or Sir Ambrose, Brown    563


  Norwich, Kirkpatrick Collection of MSS. for the History of,
    by B. B. Woodward, &c.                                     564

  Early German Coloured Engravings                             565

  The Bellman at Newgate, by J. W Farrer                       565

  Herbert's "Church Porch"                                     566

  Ancient Usages of the Church                                 566

  Popiana, by R. Carruthers                                    568

  Catholic Floral Directories                                  568

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Mr. Lyte's New Instantaneous
    Process--Photographs, &c. of the Crystal Palace--Soluble
    Cotton--Cameras                                            570

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Shakspeare Portrait--
    "Aches"--"Waestart"--Willow Bark in Ague--Lord
    Fairfax--The Young Pretender--Dobney's Bowling-green;
    Wildman; Sampson--Palæologus--Children by one Mother--
    Robert Brown the Separatist--Hero of the "Spanish Lady's
    Love"--Niagara--Hymn attributed to Handel--Marquis of
    Granby--Convocation and the Society for the Propagation
    of the Gospel--Cassie--"Three cats sat," &c.--Tailless
    Cats--Francklyn Household Book--"Violet-crowned"
    Athens--Smith of Nevis and St. Kitt's--Hydropathy--
    Leslie and Dr. Middleton--Lord Brougham and Horne
    Tooke--Irish Rhymes--Cabbages--Sir William "Usher," not
    "Upton"--"Buckle"--Cornwall Family--John of Gaunt--
    "Wellesley" or "Wesley"--Mantel-piece--"Perturbabantur,"
    &c.--Edition of "Othello"--Perspective--"Go to Bath," &c.  571


  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 579

  Notices to Correspondents                                    579

       *       *       *       *       *

Multæ terricolis linguæ, coelestibus una.



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       *       *       *       *       *



It would be interesting, and perhaps not wholly unprofitable, to bring
together the various attempts that have been made to shadow forth the
approaching crisis in the political world. As literary curiosities, such
things may be worth preserving; and I therefore send you a few samples as a

The first is from the Abbé De la Mennais, whose words, uttered about twenty
years ago, are thus given in a provincial paper:

    "England, like all other countries, has had her period of
    aggrandisement; during a whole century Europe has seen her dawning
    above the horizon until, having attained her highest degree of
    splendour, she has begun to decline, and this decline dates from the
    day of which the fall of Napoleon, due principally to her exertions,
    marked the most brilliant period of her glory. Since that time her
    policy has undergone a striking change, which every year becomes more
    evident. Instead of that vigour and promptitude of resolution of which
    she used to give so many proofs (though they could not all be praised
    alike, because there were more than one act repugnant to morality), she
    is now timid, she hesitates, she labours painfully through the dark and
    crooked paths of diplomacy, and substitutes intrigue for action;
    incapable, it would seem, of taking a decisive part at the right
    moment, even on the most momentous occasions. The English nation has
    evidently lost its strength, or the belief in its strength; and as to
    actual results, one differs not from the other. Look at this England,
    so haughty, so wedded to her interests, so skilful formerly in
    defending them, so bold in extending their influence over the whole
    world; look at her now in the presence of Russia. Humbled, braved by
    that young power, one would say that she trembles before its genius.
    The Czars exercise over her a species of fascination which disturbs her
    councils and relaxes the muscles of her robust arms. The conquests of
    the Russians in the East menace the possessions of England in India;
    they close the Dardanelles to her fleets, they shut out her commerce
    from the mouths of the Danube and the shores of the Black Sea. After
    what fashion would she have resisted these things thirty years ago?"

The next quotation is from Alison's _History of Europe from the Fall of
Napoleon_, published in 1852. In chap. i. p. 68., after citing some lines
from Gray on _Education and Government_, he thus proceeds:

    "It will be so to the end of the world; for in the north, and there
    alone, are found the privations which insure hardihood, the poverty
    which impels to conquest, the difficulties which rouse to exertion.
    Irresistible to men so actuated is the attraction which the climate of
    the south, the riches of civilisation, exercise on the poverty and
    energy of the native wilds. Slowly but steadily, for two centuries, the
    Muscovite power has increased, devouring everything which it
    approaches--ever advancing, never receding. Sixty-six millions of men,
    doubling every half century, now obey the mandates of the Czar; whose
    will is law, and who leads a people whose passion is conquest. Europe
    may well tremble at the growth of a power possessed of such resources,
    actuated by such desires, led by such ability; but Europe alone does
    not comprise the whole family of mankind. The great designs of
    Providence are working out their accomplishment by the passions of the
    free agents to which their execution has been intrusted. Turkey will
    yield, Persia be overrun by Muscovite battalions; the original
    birth-place of our religion will be rescued by their devotion; and as
    certainly as the Transatlantic hemisphere, and the islands of the
    Indian Sea, will be peopled by the self-acting passions of Western
    democracy, will the plains of Asia be won to the Cross by the
    resistless arms of Eastern despotism."

I shall conclude with two or three extracts from a pamphlet, published some
time last year at Toronto, and bearing the significant title, _The coming
Struggle among the Nations of the Earth; or the Political Events of the
next Fifteen Years, &c._ The writer begins by interpreting, as applicable
to the present times, the prophecies of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the
Apocalypse, from which he foretells the following events:

1. The seizure of Constantinople, and overthrow of Turkey by the Emperor of

2. War between France and Austria: overthrow of the latter, and consequent
destruction of the Papacy.

3. The conquest of the Horns or Continental Powers by the Emperor of

4. Britain rapidly extends her Eastern possessions, prevents the occupation
of Judea, and completes the first stage of the restoration of the Jews.

The writer then continues in the following strain:

    "Turning his eyes eastward on the wealth and prosperity of the
    countries under British protection, the triumphant conqueror of Europe
    will conceive the idea of spoiling them, and appropriating their goods
    and cattle. Scarcely is this idea formed, than its execution is begun;
    and sudden and terrific as a whirlwind he enters the 'glorious land.'
    So sudden and unexpected is his onslaught, that the British power is
    unprepared, and Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya fall into his hands.

    "Meanwhile, Britain has been making strenuous efforts to stop the
    progress of this gigantic Napoleon; and every soldier that can be
    spared is sent away in the direction of the rising sun. But what can
    the British army do against such a host as the Russian autocrat has
    around him? Brave as the officers and men may be, what success or what
    renown can be gained in such an unequal conflict? In the critical
    emergency, the parent island sends a cry across the Atlantic, 'Come
    over and help us!' Swiftly is the sound borne over the waves, and soon
    an answering {560} echo is wafted back from the shores of Columbia. The
    cause is common, and the struggle must be common too. 'We are coming,
    brother John, we are coming,' is the noble reply; and, almost ere it is
    delivered, a fleet of gallant vessels is crossing the Pacific, with the
    stars and stripes gleaming on every mast. Another force is on its way
    from the far south, and soon the flower and strength of Anglo-Saxon
    race meet on the sacred soil of Palestine. The intelligence of their
    approach reaches the sacrilegious usurper, and he leads forth his army
    towards the mountains that rise in glory round about Jerusalem. The
    Jews within the city now arm themselves, and join the army that has
    come from the east and west, the north and south, for their protection:
    and thus these two mighty masses meet face to face, and prepare for the
    greatest _physical_ battle that ever was fought on this struggling
    earth. On the one side the motley millions of Russia, and the nations
    of Continental Europe, are drawn up on the slopes of the hills, and the
    sides of the valleys toward the north; while, on the other, are ranged
    the thousands of Britain and her offspring; from whose firm and regular
    ranks gleam forth the dark eyes of many of the sons of Abraham,
    determined to preserve their newly recovered city or perish, like their
    ancestors of a former age, in its ruins.

    "All is ready. That awful pause, which takes place before the shock of
    battle, reigns around; but ere it is broken by the clash of meeting
    arms, and while yet the contending parties are at a little distance
    from each other, a strange sound is heard over head. The time for the
    visible manifestation of God's vengeance has arrived, his fury has come
    up in his face, and He calls for a sword against Gog throughout all the
    mountains. 'Tis this voice of the Lord that breaks the solemn
    stillness, and startles the assembled hosts. The scene that follows
    baffles description. Amid earthquakes and showers of fire, the
    bewildered and maddened armies of the autocrat rush, sword in hand,
    against each other, while the Israelites and their Anglo-Saxon friends
    gaze on the spectacle with amazement and consternation. It does not
    appear that they will even lift their hand against that foe which they
    had come so far to meet. Their aid is not necessary to accomplish the
    destruction of the image. The stone, cut without hands, shall fall on
    its feet and break them to pieces; and then shall the iron, the clay,
    the brass, the silver, and the gold, become like the chaff of the
    summer threshing-floor, and the wind shall carry them away. The various
    descriptions which we have of this battle, all intimate that God is the
    only foe that shall contend with the autocrat at Armageddon. John terms
    it, 'the battle of that great day of God Almighty;' and we believe the
    principal instrument of their defeat will be mutual slaughter. The
    carnage will be dreadful. Out of all the millions that came like a
    cloud upon the land of Israel, only a scattered and shattered remnant
    will return; the great mass will be left to 'cleanse the land,' and
    fill the valley of Hamongog with graves."

I refrain from quoting the remarks made by Napoleon, at St. Helena,
respecting Russia, and the likelihood of her ultimately subjugating Western
Europe, as your readers must be familiar with them from the writings of
O'Meara and others.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


At p. 80. of Mr. Trench's admirable little volume _On the Study of Words_,
an etymology is assigned to the word _bigot_, which is, I think, clearly

    "Two explanations of it are current," writes Mr. Trench, "one of which
    traces it up to the early Normans, while they yet retained their
    northern tongue, and to their often adjuration by the name of God; with
    sometimes a reference to a famous scene in French history, in which
    Rollo, Duke of Normandy, played a conspicuous part: the other puts it
    in connexion with _beguines_, called often in Latin _beguttæ_, a name
    by which certain communities of pietist women were known in the Middle

I agree with Mr. Trench in thinking, that neither of these derivations is
the correct one. But I am obliged, quite as decidedly, to reject that which
he proceeds to offer. He thinks that we owe--

    "_Bigot_ rather to that profound impression which the Spaniards made
    upon all Europe in the fifteenth and the following century. Now the
    word _bigote_," he continues, "means in Spanish 'moustachio;' and as
    contrasted with the smooth, or nearly smooth, upper lip of most other
    people, at that time the Spaniards were the 'men of the moustachio'....
    That they themselves connected firmness and resolution with the
    mustachio; that it was esteemed the outward symbol of these, it is
    plain from such phrases as 'pombre de bigote,' a man of resolution;
    'tener bigotes,' to stand firm. But that in which they eminently
    displayed their firmness and resolution in those days was their
    adherence to whatever the Roman see imposed and taught. What then more
    natural, or more entirely according to the law of the generation of
    names, than that this striking and distinguishing outward feature of
    the Spaniard should have been laid hold of to express that character
    and condition of mind which eminently were his, and then transferred to
    all others who shared the same?"

Of this it must be admitted, that "se non e vero, e ben trovato." And the
only reason for rejecting such an etymology is the existence of another
with superior claims.

_Bigot_ is derived, as I think will be hardly doubted on consideration,
from the Italian _bigio_, grey. Various religious confraternities, and
especially a branch of the order of St. Francis which, from being parcel
secular and parcel regular, was called "Terziari di S. Francesco," clothed
themselves in grey; and from thence were called _Bigiocchi_ and _Bigiotti_.
And from a very early period, the word was used in a bad sense. {561}

Menage, in his _Origini della Lingua Italiana_, under the word BIZOCO,

    "Persono secolare vestita di abito di religione. Quasi 'bigioco' perche
    ordinariamente gli Ipocriti, e coloro che si fanno dell' ordine di S.
    Francesco si vestono di bigio."

And Sansovino on the _Decameron_ says that--

    "_Bizocco_ sia quasi _Bigioco_, o _Bigiotto_, perchè i Terziari di S.
    Francesco si veston di bigio."

Abundance of instances might be adduced of the use of the term _bizocco_ in
the sense of hypocrite, or would-be saint. And the passage which Mr. Trench
gives after Richardson from Bishop Hall, where _bigot_ is used to signify a
pervert to Romanism, "he was turned both _bigot_ and physician," seems to
me to favour my etymology rather than that from the Spanish; as showing
that the earliest known use of the term was its application to a Popish
religionist. The "pervert" alluded to had become that which cotemporary
Italians were calling a _bigiotto_. Must we not conclude that Bishop Hall
drew his newly-coined word thence?

T. A. T.


       *       *       *       *       *


When I published this work, I knew of no predecessor except Francoeur, as
noted in the preface; but another has been recently pointed out to me.
There was a work compiled for the use of the Dominicans, entitled
_Kalendarium Perpetuum juxta ritum Sacri ordinis prædicatorum, s. p. n.
Dominici_. The copy now before me, Rome, 1612, 8vo., is said to be "tertio
emendatum," which probably signifies the fourth edition. It contains the
thirty-five almanacs, with rules for determining epacts and dominical
letters from A.D. 1600 to 2100, and a table for choosing the almanac when
the epact and letter are known.

This work must have been compiled before the reformation of the calendar. A
note in explanation of the thirty-fifth almanac, contains the statement
that A.D. 1736 belongs to that calendar, and to the letters D.C. This is
true of the old style, and not of the new.

It seems, then, that _Books of Almanacs_ are older than the Gregorian
reformation: that they may have been completely forgotten, may be inferred
from my book never having produced any mention of them either in your pages
or elsewhere. Perhaps some older instances may be yet produced.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Distances at which Sounds have been heard._--The story of St. Paul's clock
striking being heard by a sentry at Windsor is well known, and I believe
authentic. Let me add the following:--The Rev. Hugh Salvin (who died vicar
of Alston, Cumberland, Sept. 28, 1852) mentions an equally remarkable
instance whilst he was chaplain on board H.M.S. "Cambridge," on the coast
of South America:

    "Our salutes at Chancay were heard at Callao, though the distance is
    thirty-five miles, and several projecting headlands intervene, and the
    wind always blows northward. The lieutenant of the Arab store-ship, to
    whom the circumstance was mentioned, observed, that upon one occasion
    the evening gun at Plymouth was heard at Ilfracomb, which is sixty
    miles off, and a mountainous country intervenes."--_Journal of the Rev.
    H. S. Salvin_, p. 64., 12mo.: Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1829.


_Anagram._--The accompanying anagram I saw, some weeks back, in a country
paper; perhaps you will give it a local habitation in "N. & Q." It is said
to be by a president of one of the committees of the arrondissement of

    "A sa majesté impériale Le Szar Nicholas, souverain et autocrate de
    toutes les Russies."

    "Oho! ta vanité sera ta perte; elle isole la Russie; tes successeurs te
    maudiront à jamais."


_Logan or Rocking Stones._--The following extract from Sir C. Anderson's
_Eight Weeks' Journal in Norway, &c. in 1852_, under July 21, may interest
your Devonshire and Cornish readers:

    "Mr. De C----k, a most intelligent Danish gentleman, told me, that when
    a proprietor near Drammen, was at Bjornholm Island, in the Baltic, he
    was told there were stones which made a humming noise when pushed, and
    on examination they proved to be rocking-stones; on his return, he
    found on his own property several large stones, which, on removing the
    earth around them, were so balanced as to be moveable. If this be an
    accurate statement, it tends to strengthen the notion that stones, laid
    upon each other by natural causes, have, by application of a little
    labour, been made to move, as the stones at Brimham Craggs in
    Yorkshire; and this seems more likely than that such immense masses
    should have been ever raised by mechanical force and poised."


       *       *       *       *       *



There is a somewhat curious mystery with regard to certain works of the
immortal Rubens, which some of your readers, who are connoisseurs in art,
may possibly assist to dispel. Lommeline, who engraved the finest works of
Rubens, has left a print of "The Judgment of Paris," which {562} differs in
several points from the subject of "The Decision of Paris," now in the
National Gallery. For instance, in the one, Paris rests the apple upon his
knee, and in the other he is offering it to the fair goddess of Beauty.
This print has also _five_ more figures than there are in the Gallery
painting. Now, two questions arise hereon: first, what has become of the
original painting from which this print was taken? and secondly, where is
the line engraving of the picture now in the National Gallery?

J. J. S.

Downshire Hill, Hampstead.

       *       *       *       *       *


Perhaps some of your numerous readers may be able to satisfy me on a
subject which has for a long time troubled me.

All coin collectors are aware that there are many different reverses to the
pennies of William I. One is commonly called the _pax_-type: and _why_, is
the question.

On the obverse, it is "PILLM REX," or sometimes differently spelt; but "P"
always stands for "W," and pronounced so.

On the reverse, it is P [=A] X S (each letter being encircled), but the "P"
is here pronounced "P;" this is in the centre compartment: surrounding it
is the moneyer's name, with place where the coin was struck--"EDPI (Edwi)
ON LVND," "GODPINE (Godwine) ON LVND," &c. It is very inconsistent that
letters should be pronounced differently on the same coin.

I am rather of opinion that we have not arrived at the right reading, and
that _pax_ has nothing to do with it. It is PAXS, AXSP, XSPA, or SPAX: for
I find, on comparing nineteen different coins, the letters stand in
different positions compared with the cross, which denotes the beginning of
the inscription around them; so no one can tell which letter of the four in
the circles near the large cross should come first. Besides, what does the
"S" stand for, after you get the "PAX?"

I am not a member of the Antiquarian Society, but have asked gentlemen
belonging to it to explain this puzzle (to me), without success. I now ask
them and others, through your pages, to give a solution of the difficulty.

W. M. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Peculiar Customs at Preston, in Lancashire._--I wish to know if it be true
that the use of _mourning_ is nearly, if not altogether, discountenanced at
the above town, even for the loss of the nearest and dearest friends; and
that a widow's cap is only worn by those to whom another husband would be
particularly acceptable? If these, and other peculiar customs prevail, I
wish some correspondent from Lancashire would kindly enlighten the readers
of "N. & Q." with respect to them.


_Obsolete Statutes._--There was published, in the pamphlet form (pp. 61.),
in 1738, a capital piece of _irony_ under the title of--

    "A Letter to a Member of Parliament, containing a Proposal for bringing
    in a Bill to revise, amend, or repeal certain Obsolete Statutes,
    commonly called 'The Ten Commandments.' 4th Edition."

As this will doubtless be known to some of your readers, may I ask the name
of the author, and the occasion of its publication?

J. O.

_Sale of Offices and Salaries in the Seventeenth Century._--Has the subject
of the sale of offices in former times ever been investigated? In the reign
of Charles II., a new secretary of state, lord chamberlain, &c., always
paid a large sum of money to his predecessor, the king often helping to
find the required sum. Was this the case with all offices? I do not think
the lord chancellorship was ever paid for. When and how did the practice
originate, and when and how fall into disuse? Has the subject of salaries
of offices (including fees) in these times ever been accurately
investigated? What were the emoluments of the lord chancellor, chancellor
of the exchequer, and president of the council, in the reign of Charles?

C. H.

_Board of Trade._--A council for trade was appointed during the recess of
the Convention Parliament after the Restoration. Are the names of that
council anywhere published? Did this council continue to exist till the
appointment (I think in 1670) of the Council of Trade, of which Lord
Sandwich was made president?

C. H.

_Sacheverell's and Charles Lamb's Residences in the Temple._--In which
house in Crown Office Row, Temple, was Charles Lamb born? and which were
the chambers occupied by Dr. Sacheverell, also in the Temple, at the time
of the riots caused by his admirers?


_Braddock and Orme._--Can you, or any of your correspondents, furnish me
(in reply to an inquiry made of me by the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania) with any information about the families of Braddock and Orme,
in relation to General Braddock, who commanded and was killed at the battle
of the Monongahela river; and to Orme, who, with Washington and Morris,
were his aides-de-camp in the melancholy and fatal engagement.


Nunburnholme Rectory, York.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Cromwell's Bible._--I have seen it stated that an edition of the Bible,
"printed by John Field, one of his Highness's Printers, 1658," in 12mo.,
London, was printed by order of Cromwell for distribution to his soldiers.
Can any of your correspondents furnish authority for such tradition? It is
one of the most incorrectly printed books which I ever met with. In
Cotton's list I do not find this edition: he has one in 8vo., 1657,
Cambridge, J. Field.


    [George Offor, Esq., of Hackney, has kindly favoured us with a reply to
    this and the following Query: "Eighteen different editions of the
    Bible, printed by John Field, are in my collection, published between
    the years 1648 and 1666. In some of these he is described as printer to
    the University of Cambridge, in others as 'One of His Highness's
    Printers;' but in those which _tradition_ says were published for the
    army, he is called 'Printer to the Parliament.' They are all as
    correctly printed as Bibles were generally published during that time,
    excepting that by Giles Calvert the Quaker, published in 1653, which is
    singularly correct and beautiful. Field's editions being remarkable for
    beauty of typography and smallness, have been much examined, and many
    errors detected. That of 1653 is the most beautiful and called genuine,
    and is the copy said to have been printed for the use of the army and
    navy. Of this I have five different editions, all agreeing in the error
    in Matthew, ch. vi. v. 24., 'Ye cannot serve and mammon;' and in having
    the first four psalms on one page. But in some the following errors are
    corrected, 1 Cor. vi. v. 9., 'The unrighteous shall inherit the kingdom
    of God;' Rom. ch. vi. v. 13., 'Neither yield ye your members as
    instruments of righteousness unto sin.' The copy of 1658, which SIR. W.
    C. TREVELYAN describes, is a counterfeit of the genuine edition of
    1653, vulgarly called 'The Bastard Field's Bible.' These were reprinted
    many times. I possess four different editions of it, so exactly alike
    in form and appearance, that the variations throughout can only be
    detected by placing them in juxtaposition. They are all neatly printed,
    without a black line between the columns, and make thicker volumes than
    the genuine edition. I have never been able to verify the tradition
    that the Field's Bible, 1653, was printed for the army by order of
    Cromwell. It is the only one, as far as I can discover, 'Printed by
    John Field, Printer to the Parliament.' I received the tradition from
    my father nearly sixty years ago, and have no doubt but that it is
    founded in fact. It is an inquiry well worthy of investigation.--G.

_Canne's Bible._--What is the value of a good copy of Canne's Bible,
printed at Edinburgh by John Kincaid, 1756?


    ["Canne's Bibles were first printed at Amsterdam, 1647, 1662, and 1664;
    in London, 1682, 1684, 1698: these are all pocket volumes. Then again
    in Amsterdam, 4to., 1700. At Edinburgh by Watkins in 1747, and by
    Kincaid in 1766; after which there followed editions very coarsely and
    incorrectly printed. They are all, excepting that of 1647, in my
    collection. Kincaid's, 1766, 2 vols. nonpareil, in beautiful condition,
    bound in green morocco, cost me five shillings. That of 1747, by
    Watkins, not in such fine condition, two shillings. SIGMA can readily
    imagine the value of Kincaid's edition 1756, by comparison with those
    of 1747 and 1766. If any of your readers could assist me to procure the
    first edition, 1647, I should be greatly obliged.--G. OFFOR."]

_Dryden and Luke Milbourne._--Among the "Quarrels of Authors," I do not
find that between _glorious John_ and this reverend gentleman. In a
poetical paraphrase of _The Christian's Pattern_, by the latter (8vo.,
1697), he shows unmistakeable evidence of having been lately skinned by the
_witty tribe_, which I take to mean Dryden and his _atheistical crew_. I am
aware that Milbourne invited the attack by his flippant remarks upon the
English Virgil, but I know not in which piece of Dryden's to look for it.

J. O.

    [Dryden's attack on Milbourne occurs in his preface to the Fables
    (Scott's edition of his _Works_, vol. xi. p. 235.). "As a corollary to
    this preface," says Dryden, "in which I have done justice to others, I
    owe somewhat to myself; not that I think it worth my time to enter the
    lists with one Milbourne and one Blackmore, but barely to take notice
    that such men there are, who have written scurrilously against me
    without any provocation. Milbourne, who is in orders, pretends, amongst
    the rest, this quarrel to me, that I have fallen foul on priesthood; if
    I have, I am only to ask pardon of good priests, and am afraid his part
    of the reparation will come to little. Let him be satisfied that he
    shall not be able to force himself upon me for an adversary. I contemn
    him too much to enter into competition with him." A little lower down
    Dryden hints that Milbourne lost his living for writing a libel upon
    his parishioners.]

_Portrait Painters of the last Century._--I am anxious to obtain some
information respecting the portrait painters of the last century. I have in
my collection a picture by H. Smith, 1736. Can any of your readers give me
an account of him?


    [A biographical list, alphabetically arranged, of portrait painters, is
    given in Hobbes's _Picture Collector's Manual; being a Dictionary of
    Painters_, vol. ii. pp. 467-515., edit. 1849; a useful work of the
    kind. The name of H. Smith is not noticed.]

_Ætna._--To whom can the following passage refer?

    "We found a good inn here (Catania), kept by one Caca Sangue, a name
    that sounds better in Italian than it would in English. This fellow is
    extremely pleasant and communicative, and among other things he told us
    that Mr. ----, who has published such a minute description of his
    journey to the crater of Ætna, was never there, but sick in Catania
    when his {564} party ascended, he having been their guide."--_Travels
    through Switzerland, Italy, Sicily, &c._, vol. ii. p. 21., by Thomas
    Watkins, A.M., F.R.S., in the years 1787, 1788, 1789; 2 vols. 8vo., 2nd
    edition, London, 1794.


    [The reference is probably to M. D'Orville, whose minute description of
    his journey up Mount Ætna was copied into the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
    vol. xxxiv. p. 281., extracted from D'Orville's work, entitled _Sicula,
    or the History and Antiquities of the Island of Sicily, &c._, 2 vols.
    folio, Amsterdam.]

_Sir Adam, or Sir Ambrose, Brown._--This friend of Evelyn, who lived at
Betchworth Park, is sometimes called Sir Adam, and sometimes Sir Ambrose,
in Evelyn's _Memoirs_. Is not Sir Adam the correct name?

C. H.

    [The entries in Evelyn's _Diary_ seem to be correct. Sir Ambrose Brown,
    obit. 1661, was the father of Sir Adam, obit. 1690. See the pedigree in
    Manning and Bray's _Surrey_, vol. i. p. 560.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 515.)

Your correspondent T. A. T. can find a full, but in one respect a most
unsatisfactory reply to his inquiry, in the preface to a _History of the
Religious Orders and Communities, and of the Hospital and Castle of
Norwich_, by Mr. John Kirkpatrick, Treasurer of the Great Hospital, bearing
the names of Edwards and Hughes, London, and Stevenson and Hatchett,
Norwich, as publishers, and dated 1845. This volume was printed at the
expense of Hudson Gurney, Esq., whose "well-known liberality and laudable
desire to perpetuate the knowledge of the antiquities of his native city,"
the preface fitly records; but it was not, in the commercial sense of the
word, _published_; and, therefore, the information it gives may not be
generally accessible. The following is the list of the collections which
were "safe in the custody of the corporation about thirty years ago (say
between 1800 and 1810), when M. de Hague held the office of town-clerk."

    "1. A thick volume of the early history and jurisdiction of the city;
    date 1720.

    2. A similar folio volume, being an account of the military state of
    the city, its walls, towns, ponds, pits, wells, pumps, &c.; date 1722.

    3. A thick quarto.

    4. Several large bundles, foolscap folio; Annals of Norwich.

    5. A fasciculus, foolscap folio; origin of charities and wills relating
    thereto, in each parish.

    6. Memorandum books of monuments.

    7. Ditto of merchants' marks.

    8. Ditto of plans of churches.

    9. Paper containing drawings of the city gates, and a plan of Norwich.

    10. Drawings of all the churches.

    11. An immense number of small pieces of paper, containing notes of the
    tenures of each house in Norwich."

No portion of these collections remains at present in the hands of the
legatees, and the greater number of them is not so much as known to be in
existence. The "thick quarto," marked "3" in the list, is that which Mr.
Gurney's zeal has caused to be printed; and it is now the property of the
representatives of the late Mr. William Herring of Hethersett, whose father
purchased it many years ago of a bookseller. The paper marked "9" was "said
to have been in the possession of the Friars' Society," which was
discovered some twenty years ago. My father had tracings of the "Drawings
of the City Gates;" but I am not sure that they are made from Kirkpatrick's
original. The collection marked "10," my father saw "in the possession of
Mr. William Matthews, Mr. De Hague's clerk." And "a portion of the papers
included under the last number" was said to be existence in 1845; but Mr.
Dawson Turner, who compiled the "Preface," was "not fully informed"
respecting them, and I can throw no light upon the subject. It is very
remarkable that the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Association has done
nothing for the recovery or _dis_covery of the remainder of this invaluable
bequest; perhaps the inquiry of T. A. T. may incite them to attempt both,
and in this hope I trouble you with this reply.


Bungay, Suffolk.

In the year 1845, one of the MSS. of Mr. John Kirkpatrick was printed at
Yarmouth, edited by Mr. Dawson Turner, at the expense of Mr. Hudson Gurney.
This MS. is the _History of the Religious Orders and Communities, and of
the Hospital and Castle of Norwich_, and filled a quarto of 258 folios in
the handwriting of the author. In a very interesting preface, the editor
states that no portion of Kirkpatrick's bequest remains at present in the
hands of the corporation of Norwich, or is even known to be in existence,
except the volume thus edited, and perhaps some fragments of the "small
pieces of paper," described in the will as "containing notes of the tenure
of each house in Norwich," which, if such do exist, are, it is to be
feared, so scattered and injured as to be useless. The editor enumerates
and describes eleven MSS. which, he says, were safe in the custody of the
corporation about forty years ago from the present time: but, he adds, they
have now disappeared, with the exception of the volume which he has edited.
This MS. is the property of the representatives of the late Mr. William
Herring, of Hethersett, whose father purchased it of a bookseller.

F. C. H.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 57.)

H.'s prints are probably cut from a work on Alchemy, entitled

    "Lambspring, das ist ein herzlichen Teutscher Tractat vom
    philosophischen Steine, welchen für Jahren ein adelicher Teutscher
    Philosophus so Lampert Spring geheissen, mit schönen Figuren
    beschreiben hat. Frankfurt-am-Main, bey Lucca Jennis zu finden." 1625,
    4to. pp. 36.

The series of plates extends to fifteen, among which are those described by
H. Some are remarkable for good drawing and spirited expression, and all
are good for the time. The verses which belong to Plate 2. are printed on
the back of Plate 1., and so on, which rendered transcription necessary on
mounting them. Each represents, figuratively, one of the steps towards the
philosopher's stone. Some have Latin explanations at the foot. Not
understanding alchemy, I can appreciate them only as works of art. An
account of one as a specimen may be of some interest, so I select the least

Plate 6. A dragon eating his own tail.


 "Das ist gross Wundr und seltsam list,
  Die höchst Artzney im Drachen ist."


    "Mercurius recte et chymice præcipitatus, vel sublimatus, in sua
    propria aqua resolutus et rursum coagulatus."

On the opposite page:

 "Ein Drach im Walde wohnend ist
  Am Gifft demselben nichts gebrisst;
  Wenn er die Sonn sieht und das Fewr,
  So speüsst er Gifft, fleugt ungehewr
  Kein lebend Thier für ihm mag gnesn
  Der Basilisc mag ihm nit gleich wesn,
  Wenn diesen Wurmb wol weiss zu tödtn
  Der Kömpt auss allen seinen nöthn,
  Sein Farbn in seinem Todt sich vermehrn
  Auss seiner Gifft Artzney thut werden
  Sein Gifft verzehrt er gar und gans,
  Und frisst sein eign vergifften Schwanz.
  Da muss er in sich selbst volbringen
  Der edlst Balsam, auss ihm thut tringen.
  Solch grosse Tugend wird mann schawen,
  Welches alle Weysn sich hoch erfrawen."

The three persons in Plate 13. appear first in Plate 11. The superscription

 "Vater, Sohn, Führer, haben sie beym Handen:
  Corpus, spiritus, anima, werden verstanden."

In Plate 13. the father's mouth may well be "of a preternatural wideness"
as he swallows the son; and in Plate 14. undergoes a sudorific in a
curiously-furnished bedchamber. In Plate 15. the three are seated upon one
throne. The stone is found. They also will find it who strictly follow Dr.
Lambspring's directions, as given in a rhyming preface. Only one ingredient
is left out of the prescription:

 "Denn es ist nur ein Ding allein,
  Drinn alls verborgn ist ins gemein.
  Daran solt ihr gar nicht verzagen,
  Zeit und Geduld müst ihr dran wagen."

What is it?

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. i., p. 152.; Vol. iii., pp. 324. 377. 451. 485.: and see _Continental
Watchmen_, Vol. iv., pp. 206. 356.)

Formerly it was, according to a very ancient custom, the practice on the
night preceding the execution of condemned criminals, for the bellman of
the parish of St. Sepulchre to go under Newgate, and, ringing his bell, to
repeat the following verses, as a piece of friendly advice, to the unhappy
wretches under sentence of death:

 "All you that in the condemn'd hold do lie,
  Prepare you, for to-morrow you shall die.
  Watch all and pray, the hour is drawing near,
  That you before the Almighty must appear.
  Examine well yourselves, in time repent,
  That you may not to eternal flames be sent.
  And when St. Sepulchre's bell to-morrow tolls,
  The Lord have mercy on your souls!
        Past twelve o'clock!"

The following extract from Stowe's _Survey of London_, p. 125. of the
quarto edition, printed 1618, will prove that the above verses ought to be
repeated by a clergyman instead of a bellman:

    "Robert Doue, citizen and merchant taylor, of London, gave to the
    parish of St. Sepulchre's the sum of 50l. That after the several
    sessions of London, when the prisoners remain in the gaole, as
    condemned men to death, expecting execution on the morrow following;
    the clarke (that is the parson) of the church shoold come in the night
    time, and likewise early in the morning, to the window of the prison
    where they lye, and there ringing certain tolls with a hand-bell
    appointed for the purpose, he doth afterwards (in most Christian
    manner) put them in mind of their present condition, and ensuing
    execution, desiring them to be prepared therefore, as they ought to be.
    When they are in the cart, and brought before the wall of the church,
    there he standeth ready with the same bell. And after certain tolls
    rehearseth an appointed prayer, desiring all the people there present
    to pray for them. The beadle also of Merchant Taylors' Hall hath an
    honest stipend allowed to see that it is duely done."

This note is an extract from the _Romance of the Forum_, vol. ii. p. 268.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 173.)

I venture the following as the meaning of the curious stanza in George
Herbert's _Church Porch_, referred to by your correspondent S. SINGLETON:

 "God made me one man; love makes me no more,
  Till labor come and make my weakness score."

If you are single, give all you have to the service of God. But do not be
anxious to make the gift larger by toil: for God only requires that which
is suitable to the position in which He has placed you. He bestows a
certain "estate" upon every man as He bestows life: let both be dedicated
to Him. For if you give first yourself, and then what He has given you,
this is sufficient; you need not try to be more rich, that you may be more
charitable. But if you choose a life of labour to gain an "estate" beyond
the original position assigned to you in the providence of God, then you
must reckon yourself responsible for the "one man" which God "made" you,
and for _the other_ which you make yourself besides.

I conceive the stanza to be a recommendation of the contemplative life with
poverty, in preference to the active life with riches.

J. H. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 127. 257.)

As your well-known correspondent from Clyst St. George has addressed an
inquiry to you on this subject, it may not be uninteresting to some of your
readers to learn that the practice of kneeling at funerals still exists in
this neighbourhood. On a cold December day have I seen men, women, and
children bend the knee on the bare sod, during the Lord's and the other
prayers used in the outdoor portion of our service, not rising till the
valedictory grace concluded the service. Indeed, I have never known (at
least the _majority_ of) those attending our funerals here, omit this old

That of dressing graves with flowers, at Easter and Whitsuntide, prevails
here as in Wales: and the older folks still maintain the ancient practice
of an obeisance as often as the Gloria occurs during the ordinary services.
The last railful of communicants are also in the habit of remaining in
their place at the altar rails till the service is concluded; but whether
these observances are widely spread, or merely local, I have not had
sufficient opportunity to judge.

J. T. P.

Dewchurch Vicarage.

At the church of South Stoke, near Arundel, I have heard the clerk respond
after the Gospel: "Thanks be to God for the Holy Gospel."

At Southwick, near Brighton, the rector was wont (about four years since)
to stand up at the "Glory" in the Litany.

The Bishop of London believes bowing the head when the doxology, or
ascription of praise, is pronounced, to be a novelty in our Church (Letter
to the Knightsbridge Churchwarden, March 28, 1854). I remember an old woman
regularly attending the services of Exeter Cathedral, who was wont always
to curtsy at the "Glory." And in _The Guardian_ of April 25, W. G. T.
alludes to a parish in Staffordshire where the custom prevails. And A. W.

    "In the western counties of England there are many parishes where the
    custom of bowing at the 'Gloria' has been universally observed by the
    poor from time immemorial. I could mention parishes in Worcestershire
    or Herefordshire where it has always prevailed."

It should be observed, that the custom is not to bow at the "Glory" only,
but whenever, in the course of the service, the names of the Three Persons
of the Blessed Trinity are mentioned. See Isaiah, vi. 2, 3.

I have heard sermons commenced in the name of the Holy Trinity, and ended
with "the Glory," the preacher repeating the former part and the
congregation the latter. I believe this is agreeable to very ancient use.
Can any one say whether it has anywhere been retained in our own Church?


The custom of Lincolnshire mentioned by MR. ELLACOMBE as observed by his
two parishioners at Bitton had its origin doubtless in the first rubric to
the Order for the Administration of the Lord's Supper in our Book of Common
Prayer, which enjoins that--

    "So many as intend to be partakers of the Holy Communion, shall signify
    their names to the Curate at least some time the day before."

On this Bishop Wilson remarks:

    "It is with great reason that the Church has given this order;
    wherefore do not neglect it."

    "You will have the comfort of knowing, either that your Pastor hath
    nothing to say against you, or, if he has, you will have the benefit of
    his advice: and a good blessing will attend your obedience to the
    Church's orders."


_Reverence to the Altar_ (Vol. vi., p. 182.).--Statute XI. Such obeisance
was always made in the college to which I belonged, at Oxford, to the
Provost by every scholar, and by the Bible clerks when they proceeded from
their seats to the eagle lectern, to read the lessons of the day.

I. R. R.

_Separation of the Sexes in Church._--It was the custom a few years ago
(and I have every reason {567} to believe it to be so at present), for the
men to sit on one side of the aisle, and the women on the other, in the
church of Grange, near Armagh, in the north of Ireland. No one remembered
the introduction of the custom.


_Standing while the Lord's Prayer is read_ (Vol. ix., pp. 127. 257.).--The
congregation of the English Episcopal Chapel at Dundee stood during the
reading of the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Song of the
Angels at the birth of Christ, when these occur in the order of morning
lessons. This congregation joined that of the Scottish Episcopalians
several years ago, and whether the practice is continued in the present
congregation I cannot say.

In St. Paul's Chapel, Edinburgh, York Place, the congregation stand at the
reading of the Ten Commandments in the fifth chapter of Deuteronomy, and
they chant "Glory be to thee, O God," on the giving out of the Gospel, and
"Thanks be to thee, O God," &c., after the reading of it. In the Communion
they sit during the reading of the Exhortation, "Dearly Beloved in the
Lord;" and it is but very lately that they have stood when repeating "Glory
be to God on high," &c., in the Post Communion.


In Durham Cathedral, on Sept. 5, 1850, at the Anniversary of the Sons of
the Clergy, the congregation rose simultaneously on the occurrence of the
Lord's Prayer in the lesson. I remember also that the same custom was
observed at Trinity Church, Chelsea, during the incumbency of the Rev.
Henry Blunt. Where the Bidding Prayer enjoined by the 55th Canon is used
(that, by-the-way, being the only authorised pulpit prayer), it is usual I
believe for the people to stand during the Lord's Prayer; the preacher then
teaching us to pray as our Lord taught His disciples. The short doxology at
the end of the Gospel, to which MR. ELLACOMBE refers at p. 257., is common
in the north of England.

E. H. A.

This custom prevails generally in the Episcopalian churches in Scotland;
and our congregations also stand up while the Commandments are read in
course of the lessons. We have also the practice of singing, after the
Gospel: "Thanks be to thee, O Lord, for this thy Holy Gospel!"



This is the practice on the reading of this prayer in the second lesson at
the parish church of Edgbaston, near Birmingham. It is probably a remanet
of the ancient practice in the Church, not only to stand up during the
reading of the Gospel, but throughout the whole service, as symbolic of the
resurrection of Christ--the Lord's Day; which still exists in the Greek
Church, and may be witnessed any Sunday in London, on visiting the recent
edifice in London Wall.



The custom is observed in St. Thomas' Church.



At Exeter Cathedral the people _kneel_ whenever the Lord's Prayer is read
in the lesson.


_Tolling the Bell on leaving Church_ (Vol. ix., pp. 125. 311, 312.).--In
this parish a bell is always rung on the conclusion of the morning service,
to give notice that a sermon will be given at the evening service. This
bell, which a very respectable old man, who was parish clerk here for
fifty-four years, called the "sermon bell," is never tolled unless there is
a second service. If at any time the morning service is not performed, the
bell is tolled at twelve o'clock at noon to inform the parishioners that an
evening service will take place. A bell is also rung at eight and nine
o'clock on Sunday, or any other morning when morning prayer is said.

The custom of ringing the church bell on Shrove Tuesday, as mentioned by
NEWBURIENSIS (Vol. ix., p. 324.), is observed here too, and is generally
called "the pancake bell."

C. F. P.

Normanton-upon-Soar, Notts.

I am disposed to agree in opinion with E. W. I. as to this custom, not only
as regards the priests, but the people also, for in most country parishes
it is the signal for the baker--who usually cooks the Sunday's dinner of
the humbler classes--to open his oven: and I have often heard old folks
speak of it as "the pudding bell."



The object is to announce that another service is to follow, either in the
afternoon or evening, as the case may be. Here the tolling is, not as the
congregation are leaving the church, but at one o'clock.



E. W. I., in his answer to this Query in Vol. ix., p. 312., refers to the
custom of tolling the church bell at eight o'clock on Sunday morning, and
again at nine. This custom is followed at the chapel of ease (at
Maidenhead) to the parishes of Bray and Cookham.


"The pudding bell," as country folks sometimes call it (under the
impression that its use is to warn those at home to get the dinner ready),
is still rung in some of the old Lancashire parish churches as the
congregation go out. But as in this county parish churches are scarce, and
two full services quite a matter of course, W. S.'s {568} reason cannot
apply here. I remember well the custom of the congregations _kneeling_ when
the Lord's Prayer occurred in the lesson; it was left off in my own church
about thirty years since, this custom, curtseying at the "Gloria," and some
others, being considered _ignorant_, and therefore discountenanced by those
who knew better.

P. P.

_Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter_ (Vol. ix., pp. 105. 185.).--A
question has been asked: "Does a dignity or office, such as rector of
Haccombe, exist in the Anglican Church?" I find something similar in the
case of the vicar of Newry, who is entirely free from ecclesiastical
control; he holds his appointment from the ex-officio rector (Lord
Kilmony), who derives his title from the original patent granted by Edward
VI. to his Irish Marshal Sir Nicholas Pagnall, who, on the dissolution of
the "Monasterium Nevoracense," obtained possession of the land attached,
and was farther granted:

    "That he shall have all and singular, and so many and the like courts
    leet, frank pledge, law days, rights, jurisdictions, liberties,
    privileges, &c. &c., in as large, ample, and beneficial a manner as any
    abbot, prior, convent, or other chief, head, or governor of the late
    dissolved monastery heretofore seized, held or enjoyed," &c.

The seal of the ancient charter, on which is inscribed the legend,
"Sigillum exemptæ jurisdictionis de virido ligno alias Newry et Mourne," is
still used in the courts. A mitred abbot in his albe, sitting in his chair,
supported by two yew-trees, is also engraved on it; to perpetuate (it is
said) the tradition that these trees had been planted by St. Patrick in the
vicinity of the convent.


85. Waterloo Road, Dublin.

_Holy-loaf Money_ (Vol. ix., pp. 150. 256.).--In Normandy and Brittany, and
probably in other Roman Catholic countries, bread is blessed by the
officiating priest during the performance of high mass, and handed round in
baskets to the congregation by the inferior officers of the church. On
inquiring into the meaning of this custom, I was told that it represented
the _agapæ_ of the primitive church; and that, before the first revolution,
every substantial householder in the parish was bound in turn to furnish
the loaves, or a money equivalent. It is now, I believe, a voluntary gift
of the more devout parishioners, or furnished out of the ordinary revenues
of the church.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 445.)

In MR. HARRY LEROY TEMPLE'S _Popiana_, allusion is made to Pope's
_Imitation of Horace_, Second Satire, Book I., and the question is asked,
In what modern editions of Pope is this Imitation to be found? It is in
Warton's edition, and also in the Aldine edition published by Pickering. It
appeared to me (as to Bowles, Roscoe, Mr. Cary, and others) too glaringly
indecent for a popular edition of Pope. The poet never acknowledged it; he
published it as "Imitated in the manner of Mr. Pope," but it is a genuine
production. See note in my edition of Pope, vol. iv. p. 300.

MR. TEMPLE says,--

    "Roscoe and Croly give _four_ poems on _Gulliver's Travels_. Why does
    Mr. Carruthers leave out the third? His edition appears to contain
    (besides many additions) all that all previous editors have admitted,
    with the exception of the _third_ Gulliver poem, the sixteen additional
    verses to Mrs. Blount on leaving town, the verses to Dr. Bolton, and a
    fragment of eight lines (perhaps by Congreve); which last three are to
    be found in Warton's edition."

The _third_ Gulliver poem was not published with the others by Pope in the
_Miscellanies_. It should, however, have been inserted, as it is
acknowledged by Pope in his correspondence with Swift. The omission must be
set down as an editorial oversight, to be remedied in the next edition. The
verses on Dr. Bolton are assuredly _not_ Pope's; they are printed in Aaron
Hill's _Works_, 1753. See a copious note on this subject in "N. & Q.," Vol.
vii., p. 113. The two other omissions noticed by MR. TEMPLE (with others
unnoticed by him, as the parody on the First Psalm, &c.) were dictated by
the same feeling that prompted the exclusion of the _Imitation of Horace_.
In several of Pope's letters, preserved at Maple Durham, are grossly
indecent and profane passages, which he omitted himself in his printed
correspondence, and which are wholly unfit for publication. The same
oblivion should be extended to his unacknowledged poetical sins.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p.585.): _Anthologia Borealis et Australis; Florilegium
Sanctarum Aspirationum_.

Since I last wrote, I have not succeeded in unravelling the mystery which
envelops these two works; but I have gotten some clue to it, for which I am
indebted to the extreme courtesy and kindness of two correspondents.

One of these gentlemen informs me that the _Anthologia_ is quoted at p.
280. of Dr. Forster's work on the Atmosphere: London, 1823. My {569} second
correspondent writes to say, "If you can procure the _Circle of the
Seasons_, by Dr. Forster, published in 1830, you will there find very
copious extracts from the books in question." Before we go any farther I
would ask, _is_ Dr. Forster the author of this book? The copy I have met
with in a public library is anonymous, and is thus entitled: _The Circle of
the Seasons, and Perpetual Key to the Calendar and Almanac_: London, Thomas
Hookham, 1828, pp. 432. 12mo. It is a valuable book, and forms a complete
Catholic Floral Directory. Though the _Anthologia_ and the _Florilegium_
are lavishly quoted, no references are given save the bare names.

It is easy to see why Mr. Weale, the "compiler" of the _Catholic Florist_,
declined giving the information requested. The quotations in question are
all _second-hand_ from the _Circle of the Seasons_. The very preface of the
_Florist_ is not original; the most valuable part of it (commencing at p.
11.) I have discovered to be a verbatim reprint from _The Truthteller_, or,
rather, from Hone's _Every-Day Book_, vol. i. pp. 103. 303., where some
extracts are given from the contributions to this periodical from a
correspondent with the signature _Crito_. These quotations in Hone first
drew my attention to _The Truthteller_, and I advertised for it, but
without success. It was edited, I believe, by Thomas Andrews. I have met
with the second series of this periodical, published in London in 1825, and
I should be glad to get the whole of it.[1]

In Forster's _Perennial Calendar_, London, 1824, the _Anthologia_ is quoted
at pp. 101. 108. 173. 211. 265. 295.: one of these passages is requoted in
Hone, vol. i. p. 383. I may here remark that this work of Hone's is
furnished with a _Floral Directory_.

I feel rather piqued, both on my own account and for the honour of "N. &
Q.," at being baffled by two English books, and I am somewhat surprised
that thirty years should have elapsed without any inquiry having been made
respecting the remarkable quotations adduced by Dr. Forster. The Queries I
now propose are: Who was the compiler of the _Circle of the Seasons_? Are
the _Anthologia_ and the _Florilegium_ quoted in any works previous to
Forster's time?


P.S.--Can I get a copy of the _Catholic Friend_, which is referred to in
the preface of the _Catholic Florist_ as a scarce and valuable work; and
also a copy of the _Catholic Instructor_: London, 1844?

March, 1854.

[Footnote 1: [_The Truthteller_ was discontinued at the end of vol. i. The
first number was published Sept. 25, 1824, and the last on Sept. 17, 1825.
The publisher and editor, W. A. Andrews, closes his labours with the
following remarks: "Having given _The Truthteller_ a year's trial, we feel
ourselves called upon, as a matter of justice to our family, to discontinue
it as a newspaper. The negligence of too many of our subscribers, in not
discharging their engagements to us, and the indifference of others of the
Catholic body, to support the vindicator of their civil and religious
principles, leave us no alternative but that of dropping it as a newspaper,
or carrying it on at a loss." Only two of Crito's papers on Botany were
given in _The Truthteller_, viz. in No. 15., p. 115., and No. 16., p. 123.
He probably continued them in _The Catholic Friend_, also published by W.
A. Andrews.

The following extract from a letter signed F., and dated Jan. 4, 1825,
given in _The Truthteller_, vol. i. No. 16. p. 126., recommends the
publication, among other works, of a "CATHOLIC CALENDAR. There should also
be a Catholic Calendar, something like _The Perennial Calendar_, but more
portable, and fuller of religious information, in which, under each saint,
his or her particular virtues, intelligence, good works, or martyrdom,
should be succinctly set forth, so as to form a sort of calendar of human
triumphs, such as is recommended by Mr. Counsellor Basil Montagu in his
Essays." In a note the writer adds, "This I believe will soon be
undertaken." This letter seems to have been written by Dr. Forster.--ED.]]

Thanks to MR. PINKERTON, I am enabled to turn my surmise into certainty,
and have the pleasure of clearing up a literary _hoax_, which has, it
seems, passed without challenge till my note of interrogation appeared in
these pages. The _Anthologia_ and the _Florilegium_ are purely imaginary
titles for certain pieces in prose and verse, the production of Dr.
Forster, and have no existence save in the _Circle of the Seasons_.

In the Autobiography of the eccentric Doctor--which is entitled _Recueil de
ma Vie, mes Ouvrages et mes Pensées: Opuscule Philosophique_, par Thomas
Ignace Marie Forster: Bruxelles, 1836--at p. 55. he enumerates the
_Anthologia_ and _Florilegium_ among his "Pièces Fugitives," and ends the
list in the following words:

    "Encore je me confesse d'avoir écrit toutes ces essais détachés dans le
    _Perennial Calendar_, auxquels j'ai attaché quelques signatures, ou
    plus proprement des lettres, comme A. B. S. R. etc."

In the solitude of his garden at Hartwell he conceived the idea of making a
Floral Directory, which he eventually carried out, and published under the
title of the _Circle of the Seasons_. See p. 21.

MR. PINKERTON has most kindly lent me a rare and privately-printed book of
Forster's, entitled _Harmonia Musarum, containing Nugæ Cantabrigenses,
Florilegium Sanctæ Aspirationis, and Anthologia Borealis et Australis_,
chiefly from a College Album, edited by Alumnus Cantabrigensis (N.B. Not
published): 1843, pp. 144, 8vo.

The preface is signed T. F., and is dated "Bruges, Sept. 15, 1843." In it
he says:

    "The harmony of the Muses has been divided into three parts--the first
    being the _Nugæ Cantab_. The {570} second contains the sacred subjects,
    hymns, &c., written chiefly by a relation, and formerly collected under
    the title of _Florilegium Sanctæ Aspirationis_. The third consists
    merely of a small collection of Latin verses selected by some student,
    with occasional notes from the rest, and called _Fragments from North
    and South_: they have, many at least, been printed before."

It is impossible to give an idea of this extraordinary Olla; we have in it
pieces of Porson, Gray, and Byron, &c., Cowper's _John Gilpin_, and
Coleridge's _Devil's Walk_; at p. 19. we have "Spring Impromptu, found
among some old papers," with the signature "N." attached, which turns out
to be Gray on the "Pleasures of Vicissitude." I regret to say that this
volume contains much that is coarse and offensive, which is the less
excusable, and the more surprising, as coming from the author of the very
beautiful and devotional pieces published in the _Circle of the Seasons_.

The _Florilegium_ and the _Anthologia_ of the _Circle_ have little in
common with their namesakes in the _Harmonia_, which latter contain poems
by Southwell, Byron, Gray, Hogg, Porson, Jortin, &c., but none of Forster's
prose pieces, which form so large a portion of the other _Florilegium_ and
_Anthologia_. Dr. Forster's life would make a very entertaining biography,
and I should be glad to know more about him, whether he be yet alive, what
books he printed at Bruges, &c.[2]

In concluding this matter, I beg to return my best thanks to MR. PINKERTON
for the valuable information he so freely imparted to me, and the handsome
manner in which he placed it at my disposal.

[Footnote 2: Dr. Forster was born in London in 1789, of an ancient Catholic
family; he was himself a Protestant until the year 1835, when it appears
that he became a convert to the Church of Rome: at the same time he
received the additional names of Ignatius Maria. It is most probable that
he is yet alive and in Belgium, where he has resided for many years. The
Editor of "N. & Q." has kindly sent me a list from the Catalogue of the
British Museum, of some four and thirty works by Dr. Forster. There is,
however, another book by Dr. Forster not contained in the Museum list,
_Onthophilos, ou Les Derniers Entretiens d'un Philosophe Catholique_
(Brussels?), 1836.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Lyte's New Instantaneous Process._--I beg to communicate to you a new
process in photography, which is by far the most rapid I believe yet
discovered, and combines at the same time great stability. It has been the
result of a great many experiments on my part, and even now I am hardly
prepared to say that it is brought to its fullest perfection; but it
suffices to say that it is sufficiently rapid to give pictures of the waves
of the sea in motion with perfect sharpness, and ships sailing at ten knots
an hour, and puttling up and down at the same time, and all with a
landscape lens. By it also, and by the same lens, we may take instantaneous
portraits. The process is as follows:--After the plate, prepared with the
collodion and sensitised with the nitrate bath, as I have described in one
of your former Numbers, is taken from the bath, I pour over it a solution
composed as follows:

  1. Take--
      Nitrate of silver                            200 grains.
      Distilled water                                6 ounces.
      Iodide of silver, as much as will dissolve.
          Mix and filter.

  2. Take--
      Grape sugar or honey                           8 ounces.
      Water                                          6 ounces.
      Alcohol                                        1 ounce.
          Mix, dissolve, and filter.

And when required for use, mix equal parts of these solutions, and pour
them over the plate. The plate is to be allowed to drain; and then, when
placed in the frame, is ready for the camera, and is easily impressed as a
deep negative by a Ross's landscape lens instantaneously. To develop, I use
always the same agents as I have before specified. One or two cautions are
to be observed in this process. First, the grape-sugar or honey must be
quite pure, and free from any _strong_ acid re-action; and, secondly, these
substances are much improved by a long exposure to the air, by which the
oxidation of them is commenced, and the result made much more certain and
effective. However, I find that the addition of the least possible quantity
of nitric acid has the same effect; but nothing is so good as long exposure
of the sugar or honey, so as to become completely candied before mixing.
The sugar may as conveniently of course be mixed in the collodion as in the
bath, but in that case the keeping properties are lost, as the plate is not
thus kept longer moist than usual. If, however, the former process be used
and well conducted, the plate when sensitised may be kept for four hours at
least without injury.

The grape sugar should be made with oxalic, and the acid removed by lime as
usual, and not with sulphuric acid, as is often done; as in the latter case
sulpho-saccharic acid is formed, which much injures the result.

I have been trying numerous experiments in this line, and I think I have
almost hit upon another and quite new and instantaneous process; but as it
is only in embryo, I will not give it to you till perfect. There are of
course many other substances to be yet mixed in the bath or the collodion,
_e. g._ all the alkaloids, or indeed any of the deoxidating agents known,
and probably with good results. I am still continuing my experiments on
this head, and if I make any farther improvements I will lose no time in
communicating them to you. Some negatives taken by this means were
exhibited on Friday evening at the Royal Institution, and were much


    [By MR. LYTE'S kindness, who has shown us a number of the pictures
    taken by this new process, we {571} are enabled to hear our testimony
    to its beautiful results. We are glad to learn also, that there is a
    probability that the admirers of photography may soon be enabled to
    purchase specimens of the productions of this accomplished amateur, who
    is about to return to the Pyrenees for the purpose of securing
    photographic views of the splendid scenery and various objects of
    interest which are to be found there.--ED. "N. & Q."]

_Photographs, &c. of the Crystal Palace._--All who have visited the
Photographic Institution, in New Bond Street, must have admired the large
photographic views of the Crystal Palace, from collodion negatives taken by
MR. DELAMOTTE, who, combining the taste of the artist with the skill of the
photographer, has succeeded in producing some most effective views of this
new Temple of Education. At Lord Rosse's soirée on Saturday last, the
closing one unfortunately of those most agreeable reunions, Mr. Williams
exhibited three daguerreotypes, taken that morning, of the ceremony of
opening the Crystal Palace, which, although only about three inches by
five, contained some hundreds of figures. The portraits of the Queen and
the brilliant cortege which surrounded her at the moment were strikingly

_Soluble Cotton._--In answer to the observations of H. U. (Vol. ix., p.
548.), I should imagine that the nitrate of potash used was not thoroughly
dried; and consequently, the amount of water used was in excess of that
directed. The temperature should be from 120° to 130° Fahr. And
thermometers of a proper construction (with the lower part of the scale to
bend up from the bulb) can be obtained in abundance at from 1s. to 2s. 6d.
at several of the makers in Hatton Garden or elsewhere.


_Cameras._--At one of the earliest meetings of the Photographic Society, I
suggested the use of papier maché as a material for the construction of
cameras, as possessing _nearly_ all the requisite qualities; but there is
one serious objection to its application to this purpose, its
_brittleness_, as a smart blow is apt to snap it like a biscuit. I think,
however, upon the whole, that if a peculiar kind of _Honduras_ mahogany,
such as is used for coach panels, is adopted, the possessor would never
desire a change. It should be as plain as a piece of deal, without the
slightest beauty of grain, which is positive detriment to a camera, from
the accompanying liability to warping.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Shakspeare Portrait_ (Vol. viii., p. 438.).--J. S. Smith, in his
_Nollekins and his Times_ (vol. i. p. 26.), has a passage referring to the
portrait mentioned by your correspondent:

    "Clarkson, the portrait painter, was originally a coach-panel and sign
    painter; and he executed that most elaborate one of Shakspeare, which
    formerly hung across the street at the north-east corner of Little
    Russell Street, in Drury Lane. The late Mr. Thomas Grignon informed me,
    that he had often heard his father say, that this sign cost _five
    hundred pounds!_ In my boyish days it was for many years exposed for
    sale for a very trifling sum, at a broker's shop in Lower Brook Street,
    Grosvenor Square. The late Mr. Crace, of Great Queen Street, assured me
    that it was in his early days a thing that country people would stand
    and gaze at, and that that corner of the street was hardly passable."

Edwards, in his _Anecdotes of Painters_ (p. 117.), assigns the portrait to
a different painter, Samuel Wale, R.A. His account, however, being more
minute than Smith's, is worth transcribing:

    "Mr. Wale painted some signs; the principal one was a whole-length of
    Shakspeare, about five feet high, which was executed for, and displayed
    before the door of a public-house, the north-west corner of Little
    Russell Street, in Drury Lane. It was enclosed in a most sumptuous
    carved gilt frame, and suspended by rich iron work; but this splendid
    object of attraction did not hang long before it was taken down, in
    consequence of the act of parliament which passed for paving, and also
    for removing the signs and other obstructions in the streets of London.
    Such was the total change of fashion, and the consequent disuse of
    signs, that the above representation of our great dramatic poet was
    sold for a trifle to Mason the broker, in Lower Grosvenor Street; where
    it stood at his door for several years, until it was totally destroyed
    by the weather and other accidents."


"_Aches_" (Vol. ix., pp. 351. 409.).--_Aches_, as a dissyllable, may be
heard any day in Shropshire: "My yead _eaches_" (my head aches) is no
uncommon complaint in reply to an inquiry about health.


"_Waestart_" (Vol. ix., p. 349.).--The querist, I humbly presume, is not a
Yorkshireman himself; or, probably, he would have at once resolved
_waestart_ into the ungrammatical but natural inquiry, "Where ist'
'art"--_ist'_ meaning _are you_, _thou_ being vulgarly used for you; the
_h_ is elided in _hurt_, the _u_ in _'urt_ being pronounced as _a_,
changing the vowel, as is very common among the illiterate. For instance,
church is often called _ch_a_rch_ by those who live a little to the
north-west; and person, where the _e_ is almost equivalent to the soft _u_
in sound, is made into _p_a_rson_!

L. J.

_Willow Bark in Ague_ (Vol. ix., p. 452.).--In the _Philosophical
Transactions_ (1835?) is a memoir by the Rev. E. Stone, of Chipping Norton,
of the salutary effects of the bark of the Duck Willow in agues and
intermittent fevers. The author states, that being dried in an oven, and
pounded, and administered in doses of one drachm every four hours in the
intervals of the paroxysms, it soon reduces the distemper; and, except in
very severe cases, removes it entirely. With the addition of one fifth part
of Peruvian bark, it {572} becomes a specific against these disorders, and
never fails to remove them. One advantage it possesses of influencing the
patient beneficially immediately it is adopted, without the necessity of
preparation previously. It is a safe medicine, and may be taken in water or

I copy the above from an entry in an old notebook. I imagine the Duck
Willow to be the Common White Willow (_Salix albæ vulgaris_) of Ray.


See Pereira's _Materia Medica_: SALIX. He refers to a paper by the Rev. Mr.
Stone in the _Phil. Trans._ vol. liii. p. 195., on the efficacy of the bark
of the _Salix alba_ as a remedy for agues. See also A. T. Thomson's _London
Dispensatory_, in which is given an account of Mr. Stone's mode of

H. J.

_Lord Fairfax_ (Vol. ix., p. 380.).--I apprehend that there is nothing in
the reply of A FAIRFAX KINSMAN at all calculated to shake the opinion which
I expressed touching the barony of Fairfax of Cameron. The case of the
earldom of Newburgh, which your correspondent does not even mention, is, I
submit, of greater weight than all the "Peerages," and even than the Roll
of Scottish Peers. As to the Irish case--that of the Earl of Athlone--I can
but repeat my Query. Whether right or wrong, it is not binding on the
British House of Lords. The cases of the King of Hanover, the Duke of
Wellington, and Earl Nelson, are not in point. His Hanoverian Majesty is
not an alien; and though some British subjects may be recognised as peers
by foreign states, it does not follow that a foreigner can be a peer of

H. G.

_The Young Pretender_ (Vol. ix., pp. 177. 231.)--The wife of the Young
Pretender was Louisa Maximiliene, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Prince
of Scholberg, who was born in 1752, and married in 1772. As a widow, she
lived in Paris as the Countess of Albany, but in her drawing-room called
herself Queen of Great Britain. She was alive at the time of the death of
the Princess Charlotte (Nov. 1817). See Fisher's _Companion and Key to
History of England_, p. 333.

O. S.

_Dobney's Bowling-green; Wildman; Sampson_, (Vol. ix., p. 375.).--Dobney's,
or, more correctly, _D'Aubigney's_ Bowling-green, ceased to be a place of
public amusement about the year 1810. It is now occupied by a group of
houses called _Dobney's Place_, near the bottom of Penton Street. The late
Mr. Upcott had a drawing of Prospect House (as the building was called),
taken about 1780. A hand-bill of the year 1772 (in a volume formerly
belonging to Lysons) thus describes the nature of Wildman's performance:

    "_The Bees on Horseback._--Daniel Wildman rides, standing upright, one
    foot on the saddle, and the other on the horse's neck, with a curious
    mask of bees on his face. He also rides standing upright on the saddle,
    with the bridle in his mouth, and, by firing a pistol, makes one part
    of the bees march over a table, and the other part swarm in the air,
    and return to their proper places again."

Sampson, Price, Johnson, and Coningham were celebrated equestrian
performers towards the close of the last century. Astley was the pupil of
Sampson, and his successor in agility. Bromley, in his _Catalogue of
Engraved Portraits_, mentions a folio engraving of Sampson, without date or
engraver's name. It is hardly likely that any life of him was published.


_Palæologus_ (Vol. ix., p. 312.).--Your readers will find, in Oldmixon's
_West Indies_, a later notice of the strange descent and fortunes of this
once illustrious family. From Cornwall they appear to have settled in
Barbadoes, where it is very possible that with mutilated name the family
may yet be found among the "poor whites" (many among them of ancient
lineage) of that island.


_Children by one Mother._--In Vol. ix., p. 186., I. R. R., in reply to a
Query in Vol. v., p. 126.--"If there be any well-authenticated instance of
a woman having had more than twenty-five children?"--sends an account of a
case, which he "firmly believes" to be authenticated, of a farmer's wife
who had thirty. I now send you a much better authenticated case of
_polyprogenitiveness_, which utterly throws the farmer's wife into the

In Palazzo Frescobaldi, in this city, the ancient residence of the old
Florentine family of that name, there is, among many other family
portraits, one full-length picture of a tall and good-looking lady with
this inscription beneath it: "Dianora Salviati, moglie di Bartolomeo
Frescobaldi, fece cinquantadue figli, mai meno che tre per parto" (Dianora
Salviati, wife of Bartolomeo Frescobaldi, gave birth to fifty-two sons, and
never had less than three at a birth). The case is referred to by Gio.
Schenchio, in his work _Del Parto_, at p. 144.

The Essex lady, as well as I should suppose all other ladies whatsoever,
must hide their diminished heads in presence of this noble dame of

T. A. T.


_Robert Brown the Separatist_ (Vol. ix., p. 494.).--MR. CORNER will
probably find an answer to his question in the _History of Stamford_, by W.
Harrod (1785), and in Blore's _History of the County of Rutland_, 1813,
fol.; Bawden's _Survey_, 1809, 4to.; Wright's _History of Rutlandshire_,
1687 and 1714. The last descendant of Robert Brown died on Sept. 17, 1839,
æt. sixty-nine, widow of George, third Earl of Pomfret; and as she had no
issue, her house and estate at Toltrop {573} (_i. e._ Tolthorp), in
Rutlandshire, about two miles from Stamford in Lincolnshire, probably
passed to his heir and brother Thomas William, the fourth earl.

At the time of her marriage, her servants (as was believed by orders from
their mistress) _persevered_ in chiming the only _two_ bells of the parish
church, to the hazard and annoyance of the vicar's wife, just confined of
her first child in a room hardly a stone's throw from it. His pupils were
so indignant, that they drove away the offenders and took the clappers out
of the bells: and the son of a near neighbour, then a member of St. John's
College, Cambridge (Thos. Foster, A.B., 1792), made it the subject of a
mock-heroic poem of some merit, called the _Brunoniad_ (London, 1790,
printed by Kearsley). So few copies were printed, that the queen and
princesses could not procure one; and a lady employed at Court requested a
young friend of hers, resident at Stamford, to make a transcript of it for
their use. This your present note-writer can aver, as the transcriber was a
sister of


_Hero of the "Spanish Lady's Love"_ (Vol. ix., p. 305.).--Concerning the
origin of this interesting old ballad, the following communication appeared
in _The Times_ of May 1, 1846. It is dated from Coldrey, Hants, and signed
Charles Lee:

    "The hero of this beautiful ballad was my ancestor, Sir John Bolle of
    Thorpe Hall, Lincolnshire, of most ancient and loyal family, and father
    of that Colonel Bolle who fell in Alton Church, whilst fighting against
    the rebels in December, 1643. Of the truth of this I am prepared to
    give the curious in these matters the most abundant evidence, but the
    space which the subject would occupy would necessarily exclude it from
    your columns.

    "The writer of the paper in the _Edinburgh_ says:--'Had the necklace
    been still extant, the preference would have been due to Littlecot.'
    The necklace is still extant, in the possession of a member of my
    family, and in the house whence I write. In Illingworth's
    _Topographical Account of Scampton, with Anecdotes of the Family of
    Bolles_, it is stated: 'The portrait of Sir John, drawn in 1596, at the
    age of thirty-six years, having on the gold chain given him by the
    Spanish Lady, &c., is still in the possession of his descendant, Capt.

    "That portrait is now in the possession of Capt. Birch's successor,
    Thomas Bosvile Bosvile, Esq., of Ravensfield Park, Yorkshire, my
    brother, and may be seen by any one. I will only add another extract
    from Illingworth's _Scampton_:--'On Sir John Bolle's departure from
    Cadiz, the Spanish Lady sent as presents to his wife, a profusion of
    jewels and other valuables, amongst which was her portrait drawn in
    green; plate, money, and other treasure. Some articles are still in
    possession of the family; though her picture was unfortunately, and by
    accident, disposed of about half a century since. This portrait being
    drawn in green, gave occasion to her being called, in the neighbourhood
    of Thorpe Hall, the Green Lady; where, to this day, there is a
    traditionary superstition among the vulgar, that Thorpe Hall was
    haunted by the Green Lady, who used nightly to take her seat in a
    particular tree near the mansion.' In Illingworth there is a long and
    full account of the Spanish Lady, and the ballad is given at length."


_Niagara_ (Vol. vii., pp. 50. 137.).--Let me add one other authority of
comparatively recent date on Goldsmith's side of the _vexata quæstio_,
about the pronunciation of this name:

 "And we'd take verses out to Demerara,
  To New South Wales, and up to Niagara."
    Proëme to _The Monks and the Giants_, by
      William and Robert Whistlecraft, _i. e._
      John Hookham Frere.


_Hymn attributed to Handel_ (Vol. ix., p. 303.).--I do not understand
whether MR. STORER'S Query refers to the _words_ or _music_ of this hymn.
If to the former, it is most assuredly not Handel's. It is strange that the
church does not possess one _genuine_ psalm or hymn tune of this mighty
master, although he certainly composed several. The popular melody called
_Hanover_, usually attributed to Handel, was printed in the _Supplement to
the New Version of Psalms_ (a collection of tunes) in 1703. Handel did not
arrive in England till 1710. It is improbable, from many circumstances,
that he composed this grand melody. It was probably the work of Dr. Croft.

D'Almaine, the eminent music-seller of Soho Square, published some years

    "Three Hymns, the Words by the late Rev. Charles Wesley, A.M., of
    Christ Church College, Oxon; and set to music by George Frederick
    Handel, faithfully transcribed from his autography in the Library of
    the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, by Samuel Wesley, and now very
    respectfully presented to the Wesleyan Society at large."

Among my musical autographs is one which, as it relates to the foregoing
publication, I transcribe:

    "The late comedian Rich, who was the most celebrated harlequin of his
    time, was also the proprietor of Covent Garden Theatre, during the
    period that Handel conducted his oratorios at that house. He married a
    person who became a serious character, after having formerly been a
    very contrary one; and who requested Handel to set to music the _Three
    Hymns_ which I transcribed in the Fitzwilliam Library from the
    autography, and published them in consequence.

                  S. WESLEY.
      Monday, March 30, 1829."

The first lines of the hymns are as follows: 1. Sinners, obey the Gospel
Word. 2. O Love divine, how sweet thou art! 3. Rejoice! the Lord is King.



_Marquis of Granby_ (Vol. ix., pp. 127. 360.).--In a critique which
appeared in the _Quarterly Review_ for January or April, 1838, on Dickens's
earlier works, it is stated that Sumpter, a discharged soldier of the royal
regiment of Horse Guards, opened a public-house at Hounslow, having as its
sign "The Marquis of Granby," which was the first occasion of the marquis's
name appearing on the sign-board of a public-house. This note appeared in
reference to the public-house kept at Dorking by Mrs. Weller, the "second
wentur" of Tony Weller, father of the immortal Samivel, of that ilk.

John, Marquis of Granby, was colonel of the royal regiment of Horse Guards
from May 13, 1758, to his decease, which occurred Oct. 19, 1770, and was
justly considered the soldier's friend. (See Captain Packer's _History of
the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards_, p. 95.) Mr. Dickens, in his
description of the sign-board at Dorking, has arrayed the marquis in the
uniform, not of the regiment, but of a general officer: he states,--

    "On the opposite side of the road was a sign-board representing the
    head and shoulders of a gentleman with an apoplectic countenance, in a
    red coat, with deep blue facings, and a touch of the same over his
    three-cornered hat for a sky. Over that, again, were a pair of flags,
    and beneath the last button of his coat were a couple of cannon; and
    the whole formed an expressive and undoubted likeness of the Marquis of
    Granby of glorious memory."

Witty, I admit, but that "touch of the same" (blue _facings_?) for a sky is
ambiguous. _Brevis esse laboro, obscurus fio._

The uniform of the royal regiment of Horse Guards, from 1758 to 1770,
consisted of a dark blue coatee, with red facings, red breeches, jacked
boots, and three-cornered hats bound with gold lace.

G. L. S.

_Convocation and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel_ (Vol.
viii., p. 100.).--The Archdeacon of Stafford, in his last visitation
charge, at Stafford, May 23, 1854, said of Convocation:

    "He was not aware that the two venerable societies, The Society for the
    Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and The Society for
    Promoting Christian Knowledge, owed their existence to it."

Atterbury, writing to Bishop Trelawny, March 15, 1700-1, says:

    "We appointed another committee, for considering the methods of
    Propagating the Christian Religion in Foreign Parts, who sat the first
    time this afternoon in the Chapter House of St. Paul's"--Atterbury's
    _Correspondence_, vol. i. p. 88.

Though the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign
Parts does not owe, strictly speaking, its _existence_ to Convocation, yet
it certainly is indebted to it, both for the general outline of its
operations, and also for its name.


_Cassie_ (Vol. ix., p. 396.).--With regard to W. T. M. about _cassie_, he
will find an approximation to that word as used for _causeway_, in the old
editions of Ludlow's _Memoirs_, and others, where causeway is always spelt

A. (1)

_"Three cats sat," &c._ (Vol. ix., p.173.).--I am delighted to say that a
long course of laborious research among the antiquities of nurserydom have
enabled me to supply JULIA R. BOCKETT (I dare not venture on any prefix to
the name, for fear of doing grievous wrong in my ignorance of the lady's
civil status) with the missing canto the poem her ancient friend is so
desirous of completing. It will be seen to convey a charming lesson of
amiable sociality--admirably adapted _d'ailleurs_ to the pages of a work
which seeks to encourage "intercommunications." It runs thus:

   "Said one little cat,
    To the other little cat,
  If you don't speak, I must;
              I must.
  If you don't speak, I must."

JULIA R. BOCKETT will doubtless feel with me, that though the antithesis
requires that the "I" should be strongly emphasised in the first case, the
sentiment expressed imperatively demands an intense force to be given to
the "must" in the second repetition.

T. A. T.


P. S.--By-the-bye, talking of cats, there is a story current, that a
certain archbishop, who sits neither at Canterbury nor York, having once,
in unbending mood, demanded of one of his clergy if he could decline "cat,"
corrected the reverend catechumen, when, having arrived at the vocative
case, he gave it, "Vocative, O cat!" and declared such declension to be
wrong, and that the vocative of "cat" was "_puss_." Of course, it will be
henceforth considered so in the diocese presided over by the prelate in
question, as the gender of "carrosse" was changed throughout _la belle
France_, by a blunder of the _grand monarque_. But surely the archbishop
was as palpably wrong as the king was. At least, if he was not, we have
only the alternative of considering Shakspeare to have blundered. For, have
we not Stefano's address to poor Caliban:

    "Open your mouth; here is that which will give language to you, _cat_."

And again, does not Lysander, somewhat ungallantly, thus apostrophise

 "Hang off, thou _cat_, thou burr!"

Moreover, will not the pages of our nursery literature furnish on the other
hand abundance of {575} instances _passim_ of _puss_ used in every one of
the oblique cases, as well as in the nominative?

_Tailless Cats_ (Vol. ix., pp. 10. 111.).--It may be interesting to your
correspondent SHIRLEY HIBBERD to know, that the Burmese breed of cats is,
like that of the Isle of Man, tailless; or, if not exactly without tails,
the tails they have are so short as to be called so merely by the extremest
courtesy. This is the only respect, however, in which they differ from
other cats.

S. B.


_Francklyn Household Book_ (Vol. ix., p. 422.).--

    _Bay-salt to stop the barrels._--Before heading down a cask of salted
    meat, the vacant spaces are filled up with salt.

    _Giggs and scourge-sticks._--Whip-tops, and whips for spinning them.

    _Jumballs._--A kind of gingerbread.



_"Violet-crowned" Athens_ (Vol. ix., p. 496.).--I have always understood
that the adoption of the _violet_ as the heraldic flower of old Athens
involved, as heraldry so often does, a pun. As you well know, the Greek for
violet is [Greek: Ion], and thence its adoption as the symbolical flower of
the chief city in Europe of the _Ion_ian race.


_Smith of Nevis and St. Kitt's_ (Vol. ix., p. 222.).--I find by some
curious letters from an old lady, by birth a Miss Williams of Antigua, and
widow of the son of the Lieut.-Governor of Nevis, now in the possession of
a friend of mine connected with the West Indies, that the arms of that
family were--Gules, on a chevron between three bezants or, three cross
crosslets sable. And the crest, from a ducal coronet or, an Indian goat's
head argent.

This may facilitate the search of your correspondent for the affiliation of
that family to the United Kingdom.


_Hydropathy_ (Vol. ix., p. 395.).--"John Smith, C.M." (_i. e._
clock-maker), of the parish of St. Augustin, London, was the author of
several pamphlets. He published in the year 1723 a treatise in
recommendation of the medicinal use of water as "a universal remedy," as
well by drinking as by applying it externally to the body. In the British
Museum there is a French translation of it, which appeared in Paris, A.D.
1725. This is a proof of the notoriety which the treatise obtained. The
tenth edition, dated "Edinburgh, 1740," contains additions communicated by
Mr. Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., and others. In the year 1695 he published a
short treatise entitled _A designed End to the Socinian Controversy; or, a
rational and plain Discourse to prove, that no other Person but the Father
of Christ is God Most High_. This attracted the notice of the civil power,
and by order of parliament it was burnt, and the author prosecuted. (See
Wallace's _Anti-Trinitarian Biography_, vol. iii. p. 398., London, 1850.)

N. W. S.

_Leslie and Dr. Middleton_ (Vol. ix., p. 324.).--

    "Middleton was one of the men who sought for twenty years some
    historical facts that might conform to Leslie's four conditions, and
    yet evade Leslie's logic."--_Blackwood's Magazine_, July, 1842, p. 5.

J. O. B.

_Lord Brougham and Horne Tooke_ (Vol. ix., p. 398.).--I have not Lord
Brougham's book before me, but I have no doubt but that Q. has missed the
meaning of his lordship. The reference would probably be to Horne Tooke's
anticipation of the strange immoral reveries of Emerson and others, that
_truth_ is entirely subjective; because the word bears etymological
relation to "to trow," to think, or believe: and so _truth_ has no
objective existence, but is merely what a man troweth. If that be an
argument, Lord Brougham would say then the law of libel would be unjust,
merely because "libel" means primarily a little book; he might have added
that, according to Horne Tooke and Mr. Emerson, if a man had been killed by
falling against a post at Charing Cross, a jury might deny the fact of the
violent death, because "post" means a place for depositing letters, and he
had not been near St. Martin's-le-grand. The remark of Lord Brougham is not
as to a fact, but is a _reductio ad absurdum_.


It is suggested to Q. (Bloomsbury), that Lord Brougham meant not to say
that Horne Tooke _had ever held_ or _maintained_ this strange doctrine,
"that the law of libel was unjust and absurd, because libel means a little
book," but that he _would_ have done so, or might have done so consistently
with his etymological theory, namely, that the _present_ sense of words is
to be sought in their primitive signification: _e.g._, in the _Diversions
of Purley_, vol. ii. p. 403., Horne Tooke says,--

    "_True_, as we now write it, or _trew_, as it was formerly written,
    means simply and merely that which is _trowed_; and, instead of its
    being a rare commodity upon earth, except only in words, there is
    nothing but truth in the world."

If we ought _now_ to use the word truth only in this sense, then, _pari
ratione_, we ought to mean only a little book when we use the word libel.

J. O. B.


_Irish Rhymes_ (Vol. viii., p. 250.).--A. B. C. asks, "Will any one say it
was through ignorance {576} that he (Swift) did not sound the _g_ in
dressing?" Now I cannot tell whether or not I shall raise a nest of hornets
about my ears, but my private impression is that in doing so Swift meant to
be "more _English_ and less nice." I think it invariably strikes an
Irishman as one of the most remarkable peculiarities of the English people,
the almost constant omission of that letter from every word ending (I
should have said, if I was an Englishman, "endin'") with it. The fair sex,
I fear I must add, are, of the two, rather more decided in clippin' (_g_)
the Queen's English.

Y. S. M.

_Cabbages_ (Vol. ix., p. 424.).--I was aware of the passage in Evelyn's
_Acetaria_, and am anxious to know whether there is any confirmation of
that statement. Is there any other information extant as to the first
introduction of cabbages into England?

C. H.

_Sir William "Usher," not "Upton"_ (Vol. viii., p. 328.), was appointed
Clerk of the Council in Ireland, March 22, 1593. He was knighted by Sir
George Carey, Law Deputy, on St. James' Day, 1603; and died in 16--, having
married Isabella Loftus, eldest daughter of Adam Loftus, Archbishop of
Dublin. Of what family was he?

Y. S. M.

"_Buckle_" (Vol. viii., pp. 127. 304. 526.).--An awkward person, working
incautiously with a saw, will probably, to use a carpenter's phrase,
_buckle_ it; that is, give it a bend or twist which will injure its

Y. S. M.

_Cornwall Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 304.).--John Cornwall, Esq., a director of
the Bank of England, 1769, bore the arms and crest of the ancient family of
that name of Burford, in Shropshire, of which he was a member. A full
account of this distinguished family is now preparing under their sanction.

E. D.

_John of Gaunt_ (Vol. ix., p. 432.).--Perhaps the best method of explaining
to Y. S. M. the unmistakeable nose of the descendants of John of Gaunt,
will be to refer him to the complete series of portraits at Badminton,
concluding with the late Duke of Beaufort. He will then comprehend what is
difficult to describe in the physiognomy of

 "That mighty line, whose sires of old
    Sprang from Britain's royal blood;
  All its sons were wise and bold,
    All its daughters fair and good!"

E. D.

_"Wellesley" or "Wesley"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 173. 255.).--Your readers will
find, in Lynch's _Feudal Dignities_, the name spelt _Wellesley_ in Ireland,
so long ago as the year 1230, and continued so for several centuries at
least subsequent to that date. The Public Records also bear evidence of the
high position and great influence of the Wellesleys, not _Wesleys_, for a
lengthened period in Irish history.

Y. S. M.

_Mantel-piece_ (Vol. ix., pp. 302. 385.).--In old farm-houses, where the
broad, open fireplace and hearth still exist, a small curtain, or rather
valance, is often suspended from below the mantle-shelf, the object
apparently being the exclusion of draughts and smoke. May not the use of
this sort of _mantel_ have caused the part of the fireplace from which it
hangs to be called the mantel-piece?



    "MANTEL, _n. s._ (_mantel_, old French, or rather the German word
    _mantel_, 'Germanis _mantel_ non pallium modo significat, sed etiam id
    omne quod aliud circumdat: hinc murus arcis, atque structura quæ focum
    invertit, _mantel_ ipsis dicitur.' V. Ducange in v. Mantum). Work
    raised before a chimney to conceal it, whence the name, which
    originally signifies a cloak."--Todd's _Johnson_.

Richardson gives the two following quotations from Wotton:

    From them (Italians) we may better learn, both how to raise fair
    _mantles_ within the rooms, and how to disguise gracefully the shafts
    of chimneys abroad (as they use) in sundry forms."--_Reliquiæ
    Wottonianæ_, p. 37.

    "The Italians apply it (plastick) to the _mantling_ of chimneys with
    great figures, a cheap piece of magnificence."--Id. p. 63.


_"Perturbabantur," &c._ (Vol. ix., p. 452.).--When I first learned to scan
verses, somewhere about thirty years ago, the lines produced by your
correspondent P. were in every child's mouth, with this story attached to
them. It was said that Oxford had received from Cambridge the first line of
the distich, with a challenge to produce a corresponding line consisting of
two words only. To this challenge Oxford replied by sending back the second
line, pointing out, at the same time, the false quantity in the word


The story connected with these lines current at Cambridge in my time was,
that the University of Oxford challenged the sister university to match the
first line; to which challenge the second line was promptly returned from
Cambridge by way of reply. At Oxford, I believe, the story is reversed, as
neither university is willing to own to the false quantity in


The classic legend attached to these two lines (and there are only two in
the legend) is that the Oxonians sent a challenge to the Cantabs to make
{577} a binomial pentameter corresponding to "Perturbabantur
Constantinopolitani." The Cantabs immediately returned the challenge by
sending "Innumerabilibus sollicitudinibus." Perhaps it is worthy of remark,
though not evident except to a Greek scholar, that the first line contains
at least _one_ false quantity, for "Constantinopol[)i]tani" must have the
antepenultima long, as being derived from [Greek: politês]. The lengthening
of the fourth syllable may perhaps have been considered as a compensation,
though rather a _præ-posterous_ one.


I remember to have heard that the history of these two lines is as
follows:--The head of one of our public schools having a talent for
composing extraordinary verses, sent the first line, "Perturbabantur
Constantinopolitani," to a friend of his, who was at the time the captain
of another public school, asking him at the same time whether he could
compose anything like it. The answer returned was the second line,
"Innumerabilibus sollicitudinibus,"--a line, in my opinion, much superior
to the former, as well for other reasons as that it is free from any false
quantity; while, as any Greek scholar will at once find out, the
antepenultimate syllable of "Constantinopolitani" must be long, being
derived from the Greek word [Greek: politês].

I never heard of any more lines of the same description.

P. A. H.

I have always understood that once upon a time the Eton boys, or those of
some other public school, sent the hexameter verse, "Perturbabantur
Constantinopolitani," to the Winchester boys, challenging them to produce a
pentameter verse consisting of only two words, and making sense. The
Winchester boys added, "Innumerabilibus sollicitudinibus."


_Edition of "Othello"_ (Vol. ix., p. 375.).--The work inquired for, with
the astrological (the editor would have called them hieroglyphic) notes,
forms part of the third volume of the lunatic production of Mr. Robert
Deverell, which I described in "N. & Q.," Vol. ii., p. 61., entitled
_Discoveries in Hieroglyphics and other Antiquities_, 6 vols. 8vo., Lond.

J. F. M.

In case it would be of any use to M. A., Mr. Cole, the late lessee of the
Theatre Royal, Dublin, is now reader of plays (I think) to Mr. Kean at the
Princesses Theatre; at all events he is connected with that establishment.

L. M. N.


_Perspective_ (Vol. ix., pp. 300. 378.).--I shall be glad of a reference to
any work on Perspective which treats satisfactorily of that part of the
subject on which I made my Note. I think if MR. FERREY will draw a lofty
building on either side of a landscape, he will not be satisfied with its
appearance, if he makes that side of it which is in the plane of the
picture perfectly rectangular. I often meet with instances in which it is
so drawn, and they produce the effect on me of a note out of time. MR.
STILWELL's observation is only partially correct. There is one position of
the eye, at a fixed distance from the picture, at which all the lines
subtend equal angles at the eye with the corresponding lines of the
original landscape. But a picture is not to be looked at from one point,
and that at, probably, an inconvenient proximity to the eye. I have before
me a print (in the _Ill. Lond. News_) of the interior of St. Paul's, of
which the dome gives about as good an idea of proportion to the building,
as the north part of Mercator's projection of the World. The whole building
is depressed and top-heavy, simply because the perspective of lines in the
plane of the picture is rectangular throughout. I have another interior (of
Winchester Cathedral, by Owen Carter), which, being drawn on the same plan,
gives the idea of a _squat tunnel_, unless looked at from one point of
view, about eight inches from the picture. I feel that drawing these
interiors so as not to offend the eye by either the excess or deficiency of
perspective, is a great difficulty. But I think something may be done in
the way of "humouring" the perspective, and approximating in our drawing to
that which we know we see. The camera has thrown light upon the subject. We
ought not to despise altogether the hints it gives us by its perhaps
exaggerated perspective, in the case of parallel lines in the plane of the
picture. I hope I may at least be able to draw out some more remarks upon a
subject which I cannot help thinking, with Mr. INGLEBY, is in an
unsatisfactory and defective state.



"_Go to Bath_" (Vol. ix., p. 421.).--I have little doubt but that this
phrase is connected with the fact of Bath's being proverbially the resort
of beggars; and what more natural, to one acquainted with this fact, than
to bid an importunate applicant betake himself thither to join his fellows?
See also Fuller's _Worthies_ (co. Somerset).

I transcribe the passage for the benefit of those who have not the book at

    "_Beggars of Bath._--Many in that place; some natives there, others
    repairing thither from all parts of the land; the poor for alms, the
    pained for ease. Whither should fowl flock in a hard frost, but to the
    barn-door? Here, all the two seasons, being the general confluence of
    gentry. Indeed laws are daily made to restrain beggars, and daily
    broken by the connivance of those who make them; it being impossible
    when the hungry belly barks, and bowels sound, to keep the tongue
    silent. And although oil of whip {578} be the proper plaister for the
    cramp of laziness, yet some pity is due to impotent persons. In a word,
    seeing there is the Lazar's-bath in this city, I doubt not but many a
    good Lazarus, the true object of charity, may beg therein."


R. R. inquires the origin of the above saying, but has forgotten the
context, viz. "and get your head shaved." I have often heard it explained
as an allusion to the fact, that, in former days, persons who showed
symptoms of insanity were sent to Bath to drink the medicinal waters; the
process of shaving the head being previously resorted to. The saying is
applied to those who either relate "crack-brained" stories, or propose
undertakings that raise a doubt as to their sanity.

N. L. T.

_Ridings and Chaffings_ (Vol. ix., p. 370.).--Though unable to give MR.
THOMAS RUSSELL POTTER any information respecting the "Ridings and
Chaffings" of Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire, I send the following note
of a somewhat similar custom prevalent in Oxfordshire (I never heard of it
elsewhere), thinking it may perhaps interest him and others of your

I remember once, about three years ago, I was walking in Blenheim Park,
with a friend then resident at Woodstock, when suddenly the stillness of a
summer evening was broken by strange and inharmonious sounds, coming to us
across the water from the old town. The sounds grew louder and louder, and
in great surprise I appealed to my friend for an explanation; when I
learned that it was a custom in that part of the country, whenever it was
discovered that a man had been beating his wife, for the neighbours to
provide themselves with all sorts of instruments, fire-irons, kettles, and
pots, in fine, anything capable of making a noise, and proceed _en masse_
to the house of the offender, before whose door they performed in concert,
till their indignation subsided or their arms grew weary; and that the
noise we then heard was the distant sound of such music.

I do not know if my friend gave any name to this practice; if he did, I
have since forgotten it. Doubtless, some of your Oxford readers can assist

R. V. T.

Mincing Lane.

At Marchington, in Staffordshire, the custom exists of having what is
called a "Rantipole Riding" for every man who beats his wife. The ceremony
is performed with great care and solemnity. A committee is formed to
examine into the case. Then the village poet is employed to give a history
of the occurrence in verse. The procession goes round in the evening with a
cart, which serves as a stage on which the scene is acted and from which
the verses are recited. The custom has been there observed, with so much
judgment and discretion, that it has been productive of much good, and has
now almost entirely put a stop to this disgraceful practice. I can remember
several "ridings" in my younger days.

H. B.

MR. POTTER will find, upon referring to Vol. i., p. 245., that this custom
prevails in Gloucestershire, with the substitution of _straw_ for _chaff_.
I have seen the Gloucestershire version both in Kent and Sussex, and have
received an explanation of it similar to MR. POTTER'S own supposition.


Somerset House.

_Faithful Commin_ (Vol. ix., p. 155.).--Your correspondent W. H. GUNNER
will find a detailed account of Faithful Commin in _Foxes and Firebrands_,
a tract of which mention has been made in various Numbers of "N. & Q." It
is there said to be extracted from the Memorials of Cecil Lord Burleigh,
from whose papers it was transmitted to Archbishop Ussher. "The papers of
the Lord Primate coming to the hands of Sir James Ware, his son, Robert
Ware, Esq., has obliged the public by the communication of them."

[Greek: Halieus.]


_Heraldic Anomaly_ (Vol. ix., p. 430.).--TEE BEE'S description of the arms
on St. John's Gate is somewhat defective. They are engraved, and more
completely described, in Cromwell's _History of Clerkenwell_ [1828], p.


Olney, Bucks.

_Odd Fellows_ (Vol. ix., p. 327.).--C. F. A. W. will find some of the Odd
Fellows' secrets disclosed in a small volume entitled _A Ritual and
Illustrations of Free Masonry, &c._, by a Traveller in the United States
(third thousand): published by James Gilbert, 49. Paternoster Row, 1844.
The Odd Fellows date from Adam, who was the odd and solitary representative
of the human race before the creation of Eve.


"_Branks_" (Vol. ix., p. 336.).--The word _branks_ does occur in Burns, and
signifies "wooden curb," but it is not in that sense it is used by Wodrow.
The _branks_ of the Covenanters was an iron collar and chain firmly fixed
to a tree, or post, or pillar, about three feet from the ground. This was
locked round the neck of the luckless offender, who was thus obliged to
remain in a most inconvenient and painful crouching posture, being neither
able to stand nor lie. Many of these are still to be seen in the
neighbourhood of the residences of old Highland families who, ere Lord
Hardwicke's Jurisdiction Act, exercised the powers of pit and gallows.
There is one at the entrance to Culloden House, near Inverness.



       *       *       *       *       *




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POPE'S WORKS. 4to. 1717.





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Notices to Correspondents.

_Owing to the number of Replies to Minor Queries waiting for insertion, we
have this week omitted our_ NOTES ON BOOKS, _&c._

SALOP _will find an interesting article on_ Bostal _or_ Borstal Road, _a
winding way up a hill, in Cooper's_ Sussex Glossary, _s. v._

A SUBSCRIBER. _The passage "Music hath charms," &c. is from Congreve's_
Mourning Bride, _Act I. Sc. I._

J. L. (Edinburgh) _will find the line_

 "Dan Chaucer (well of English undefiled)"

_in Spenser's_ Faerie Queene, _b. iv. canto ii. stanza 32_.

B. B. _is referred to Chapter IV. of Ferriar's_ Illustrations of Sterne, _2
vols., 1812, for some notice of Sterne's obligations to Burton's_ Anatomy
of Melancholy.

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