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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 243, June 24, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 243, June 24, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 243.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Memoirs of Grammont, by W. H. Lammin, &c.                    583

  Bohn's Reprint of Woodfall's "Junius," by H. Martin          584

  MINOR NOTES:--Mutilating Books--The Plymouth Calendar--
    Divinity Professorships                                    585


  Sepulchral Monuments                                         586

  Roger Ascham and his Letters, by J. E. B. Mayor              588

  MINOR QUERIES:--Symbolism in Raphael's Pictures--
    "Obtains"--Army Lists for Seventeenth and Eighteenth
    Centuries--Anonymous Poet--John Bale--A short Sermon       589

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Quakers' Calendar--"Rodondo,
    or the State Jugglers"--Rathlin Island--Parochial
    Registers--"Trevelyan," &c.--Grammar School of
    St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester                              589


  Cranmer's Martyrdom, by John P. Stilwell, &c.                590

  Coleridge's Unpublished Manuscripts, by
    C. Mansfield Ingleby                                       591

  Life                                                         591

  Inscriptions on Bells, by Peter Orlando Hutchinson,
    Cuthbert Bede, Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, &c.                   592

  De Beauvoir Pedigree, by Edgar MacCulloch                    596

  Right of Refuge in the Church Porch, by
    Goddard Johnson, &c.                                       597

  Ferdinand Charles III., Duke of Parma, by
    J. Reynell Wreford, &c.                                    598

    Process--Photographic Litigation                           598

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Vandyking--Monteith--A. M. and
    M. A.--Greek denounced by the Monks--Caldecott's
    Translation of the New Testament--Blue Bells of
    Scotland--"De male quæsitis gaudet non tertius
    hæres"--Mawkin--"Putting a spoke in his wheel"--Dog
    Latin--Swedish Words current in England--Mob--"Days
    of my Youth"--Encore--Richard Plantagenet, Earl of
    Cambridge--Right of redeeming Property--Latin Inscription
    on Lindsey Court-house--Myrtle Bee--Mousehunt--Longfellow's
    "Hyperion"--Benjamin Rush--Quakers executed in North
    America                                                    599


  Notices to Correspondents                                    603

       *       *       *       *       *

Multæ terricolis linguæ, coelestibus una.



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Now ready, in 8vo., Vol. I., Second Edition (containing the Four Gospels)

THE GREEK TESTAMENT: with a critically revised Text: a Digest of various
Readings: Marginal References to Verbal and Idiomatic Usage: Prolegomena;
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       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., pp. 461. 549.; Vol. ix., pp. 3. 204. 356.)

    "Des gens qui écrivent pour le Comte de Grammont peuvent compter sur
    quelque indulgence."--Vide Introduction to the Memoirs.

Grammont's first visit to England may have been in Nov. 1655, when
Bordeaux, the French ambassador, concluded a treaty with Cromwell, whereby
France agreed totally to abandon the interests of Charles II.; and
Cromwell, on his part, declared war against Spain, by which we gained
Jamaica. Another opportunity occurred in 1657, when Cromwell's son-in-law,
Lord Fauconberg, was sent to compliment Louis XIV. and Cardinal Mazarin,
who were near Dunkirk. The ambassador presented some horses to the King and
his brother, and also to the Cardinal. They made the ambassador handsome
presents, and the King sent the Duke de Crequi as his ambassador
extraordinary to the Protector, accompanied by several persons of

Grammont was at the siege of Montmedi, which surrendered on the 6th August,

He accompanied his brother, the Marshal, to Madrid in 1660, to demand the
hand of the Infanta for his sovereign. On the Kings entry into Paris the
same year with his Queen, Madame de Maintenon writes:

    "The Chevalier de Grammont, Rouville, Bellefont, and some other
    courtiers, followed the household of Cardinal Mazarin, which surprised
    everybody: it was said it was out of flattery. The Chevalier was
    dressed in a flame-coloured suit, and was very brilliant."

In 1662 he was disgraced on account of Madlle de la Motte Houdancourt,
aggravated also, it is said, by his having watched the King getting over
the tiles into the apartments of the maids of honour, and spread the report

The writer of the notes to the _Memoirs_ supposes that the Count's
circumstances were not very flourishing on his arrival in England, and that
he endeavoured to support himself by his literary acquirements. A scarce
little work in Latin and French on King Charles's coronation was attributed
to him, the initials to which were P. D. C., which it was said might stand
for Philibert de Cramont. There seems no reason for this supposition: his
finances were no worse in England than they had been in France; and there
is no doubt he made his appearance at the Court of England under the
greatest advantages. His family were specially protected by the Duke and
Duchess of Orleans, the favourite sister of King Charles; and the Count was
personally known to the King and to the Duke of York; and from a letter of
Comminges', dated 20th Dec. 1662, it may be almost inferred that the Duke
sent his own yacht to fetch the Count to London. Bussi-Rabutin writes of
the Count, that he wrote almost worse than any one, and therefore not very
likely to recruit his finances by authorship.

The exact date of Grammont's marriage has yet to be fixed: probably a
search at Doctors' Commons for the licence, or in the Whitehall Registers,
if such exist, would determine the day. The first child, a boy, was born on
the 28th August, O. S., 7th September, 1664, but did not live long. This
would indicate that the marriage took place in December, 1663. From
Comminges' letters, dated in that month, it must have been on a day
subsequent to the 24th December. Their youngest child, who was afterwards
an abbess, was born on the 27th December, 1667.

It has been stated that Grammont was the hero of Molière's _Mariage
forcée_, which was performed before the Court at Versailles in 1664.
Comminges' letter of May 19-24, 1664, may allude to the Count's conduct to
Miss Hamilton. He was twenty years older than the lady.

Under date of October 24-November 3, 1664, Comminges announces the
departure from London of the Count and Countess de Grammont.

The Count was present with the King at the conquest of Franche Comte in
1660, and in particular at the siege of Dôle in February, 1668. The Count
and Countess were subsequently in England, as King Charles himself writes
to the Duchess of Orleans on the 24th October, 1669, that the Count and
Countess, with their family, were returning to France by way of Dieppe.

In 1668, according to St. Evremond, the Count was successful in procuring
the recall of his nephew, the Count de Guiche.

Evelyn mentions in his _Diary_ dining on the 10th May, 1671, at Sir Thomas
Clifford's, "where dined Monsieur de Grammont and several French noblemen."

Madame de Sévigné names the Count in her letter of 5th January, 1672.

He was present at the siege of Maestricht, which surrendered to the King in
person on the 29th June, 1673.

Madame de Sévigné names the Count again in her letter of the 31st July,

The Duchess of Orleans (the second) relates the great favour in which the
Count was with the King.

He was present at the sieges of Cambray and Namur in April, 1677, and
February, 1678.

We obtain many glimpses of the Count and Countess in subsequent years in
the pages of Madame de Sévigné, Dangeau, and others, which may be consulted
in preference to filling your columns with extracts. {584}

In 1688, Grammont was sent by the Duke of Orleans to congratulate James II.
on the birth of his son; in the _Ellis Correspondence_, under the date of
10th July, 1688, it appears there was to have been an exhibition of
fire-works, but it was postponed, and the following intimation of the cause
was hinted at by a person behind the scenes:

    "The young Prince is ill, but it is a secret; I think he will not hold.
    The foreign ministers, Zulestein and Grammont, stay to see the issue."

Grammont died on the 30th January, 1707, aged eighty-six years; his
Countess survived him only until the 3rd June, 1708, when she expired, aged
sixty-seven years. They only left one child, namely, Claude Charlotte,
married on the 6th April, 1694, to Henry Howard, Earl of Stafford; Marie
Elizabeth de Grammont, born the 27th December, 1667, Abbess of Sainte
Marine de Poussey, in Lorraine, having died in 1706, previous to her

Maurepas says that Grammont's eldest daughter was maid of honour to the
second Duchess of Orleans, who suspected her of intriguing with her son,
afterwards the celebrated Regent. The Duchess, he adds, married her to Lord

Another writer says, that although Grammont's daughters were not handsome,
yet they caused as much observation at Court as those who were.



Count Hamilton is little to be trusted to in his chronology, from a
mischievous custom that he has of, whenever he has to record a marriage or
love affair between two parties considerably different in age, adding to
that difference extravagantly, to make the thing more ridiculous. Sir John
Denham is a well-known instance of this; but another, which is not noticed
by the editor of Bohn's edition, nor any other that I have seen, is his
making out Col. John Russell, a younger brother of the first Duke of
Bedford, to have been seventy years of age in 1664, although his eldest
brother was born in 1612, and the colonel could have been little older
than, if as old as, De Grammont himself.


       *       *       *       *       *


When a publisher issues a series of such works as are comprised in _Bohn's
Standard Library_, and thereby brings expensive publications within the
reach of the multitude, he is entitled to the gratitude and the active
support of the reading portion of the public; but, if he wish to be ranked
amongst the respectable booksellers, he ought to see to the accuracy of his
reprints. Bohn's edition of Woodfall's _Junius_, in two volumes, purports
to contain "the entire work, as originally published." This it does not.
Some of the notes are omitted; and the text is, in many instances,
incorrect. I have examined the first volume only; and I shall state some of
the errors which I have found, on comparing it with Woodfall's edition,
three volumes 8vo., 1814. The pages noted are those of Bohn's first volume.

P. 87. In his Dedication, Junius says: "If an honest, and, I may truly
affirm, a laborious zeal." Bohn turns it into nonsense, by printing it: "If
an honest _man_, and I may truly," &c.

P. 105. In Letter I., Junius speaks of "distributing the _offices_ of
state, by rotation." Bohn has it "_officers_."

P. 113. In Letter II., Sir W. Draper says that "all Junius's _assertions_
are false and scandalous." Bohn prints it "_exertions_."

P. 206. In Letter XXII., Junius says, "it may be advisable to _gut_ the
resolution." Bohn has it "to _put_."

P. 240. In Letter XXX., Junius says: "And, if possible, to perplex _us
with_ the multitude of their offences." Bohn omits the words "_us with_."

P. 319. In Letter XLII., Junius speaks of the "future _projects_" of the
ministry. Bohn prints it "future _prospects_."

P. 322. In the same letter, Junius says: "How far people may be animated
_to resistance_, under the present administration." Bohn omits "_to

P. 382. In Letter LIII., Horne says: "And in case of refusal, _threaten_ to
write them down." Bohn omits "_threaten_."

P. 428. In Letter LXI., Philo-Junius says, "his view is to change a court
of _common law into a court of_ equity." Bohn omits the words "_common law
into a court of_."

P. 437. In Letter LXIII., Junius writes, "love _and kindness_ to Lord
Chatham." Bohn omits "_and kindness_."

P. 439. In Letter LXIV., Junius speaks of "a multitude of _prerogative
writs_." Bohn has it "a multitude of _prerogatives_."

P. 446. In Letter LXVIII., Junius says to Lord Mansfield: "If, on your
part, you should have no plain, substantial _defence_." Bohn substitutes
"_evidence_" for "_defence_."

These are the most important errors, but not all that I have found in the
text. I now turn to the reprint of Dr. Mason Good's Preliminary Essay. The
editor says: "The omission of a quotation or two, of no present interest,
and the correction of a few inaccuracies of language, are the only
alterations that have been made in the Preliminary Essay." We shall see how
far this is true. Such alterations as "arrogance" for "insolence," p. 2.;
"classic purity" for "classical chastity," p. 3.; "severe" for "atrocious,"
p. 15., I shall not particularise farther; but merely observe that, so far
from being merely "corrections {585} of inaccuracies of language," they are
frequently changes of meaning.

At pp. 4. and 5., extracts from speeches by Burke and North are introduced
into the text. In Woodfall, they are given in a note, so as not to
interrupt the writer's argument.

Occasionally, a sentence is partly rewritten. I take one specimen. Dr. Good
says that, "But for the Letters of Junius, the Commons of England might
still ... have been exposed to the absurd and obnoxious harassment of
parliamentary arrests, upon a violation of privileges undefined and
incapable of being appealed against--defrauded of their estates upon an
arbitrary and interested claim of the crown." In Bohn, p. 5., the words are
altered to "have been exposed to arbitrary violations of individual
liberty, under undefined pretexts of parliamentary privileges, against
which there _were_ (?) no appeal--defrauded of their estates upon
capricious and interested claims of the crown."

Dr. Good, to show that Burke could not be Junius, cites several passages
from his works; and then proves, by quotations from Junius, that the
opinions of the one were opposed to those of the other. In Bohn's edition
all these quotations, which occupy twelve octavo pages in Woodfall, are
omitted as unnecessary, although the writer's argument is partly founded
upon them; and yet the editor has retained (evidently through
carelessness), at p. 66., Dr. Good's subsequent reference to these very
quotations, where, being about to give some extracts from General Lee's
letters, he says: "They may be compared with those of Junius, _that follow
the preceding extracts from Mr. Burke_." This reference is retained, but
the extracts spoken of are omitted.

Some of Woodfall's notes are wholly left out; but I will not lengthen these
remarks by specially pointing them out. The new notes of Bohn's editor
offer much matter for animadversion, but I confine myself to one point. In
a note to Sir W. Draper's first letter (p. 116.), we are told that Sir
William "married a Miss De Lancy, who died in 1778, _leaving him a
daughter_." In another note relating to Sir William (p. 227.), it is stated
that "he married a daughter of the second son of the Duke of St. Alban's.
Her ladyship died in 1778, _leaving him no issue_." How are we to reconcile
these statements?



    [The work professes to be edited by Mr. Wade. Mr. Wade therefore, and
    not Mr. Bohn, is responsible for the errors pointed out by our

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Mutilating Books._--Swift, in a letter to Stella, Jan. 16, 1711, says, "I
went to Bateman's the bookseller, and laid out eight-and-forty shillings
for books. I bought three little volumes of Lucian in French, for our
Stella." This Bateman would never allow any one to look into a book in his
shop; and when asked the reason, he would say, "I suppose you may be a
physician, or an author, and want some recipe or quotation; and if you buy
it I will engage it to be perfect before you leave me, but not after; as I
have suffered by leaves being torn out, and the books returned, to my very
great loss and prejudice.


_The Plymouth Calendar._--To your collection of verses (Vol. vii. _passim_)
illustrative of local circumstances, incidents, &c., allow me to add the

 "The West wind always brings wet weather,
  The East wind wet and cold together;
  The South wind surely brings us rain,
  The North wind blows it back again.
  If the Sun in red should set,
  The next day surely will be wet;
  If the Sun should set in grey,
  The next will be a rainy day."


_Divinity Professorships._--In the last number of _The Journal of Sacred
Literature_ (April, 1854), there is a well-deserved eulogium on the
biblical labours of Dr. Kitto; who, though in the enjoyment of the title of
D.D. (conferred on him some years ago by a Continental University), is
nevertheless a layman, and not, as is very commonly imagined, in orders.
The article, however, to which I refer, contains a curious mistake.
Michaelis is cited (p. 122.) as an instance of a layman being able, on the
Continent, to hold a professorship relating to theology and biblical
science, in contrast to what is assumed to be the invariable system at the
English Universities. It is true, indeed, that for the most part such
professorships are here held by clergymen; but from several of them laymen
are not excluded by any law. At Cambridge, the Norrisian Professor of
Divinity, for example, may be a layman.

With respect to the degree of D.D., it is observed by the Writer of the
article, p. 127.:

    "In Germany this degree is given to laymen, but in England it is
    exclusively appropriated to the clergy. This led to the very general
    impression among strangers, that Dr. Kitto is a clergyman."


    [We have frequently seen the celebrated Nonjuror Henry Dodwell noticed
    as in orders, perhaps from his portrait exhibiting him in gown and
    bands as Camden Professor of History at Oxford. Miss Strickland, too,
    in her _Lives of the Queens of England_, vol. vii. p. 202., and vol.
    viii. p. 352., edit. 1853, speaks of that worthy layman, Robert Nelson,
    both as a _Doctor_ and a clergyman!--ED.]


       *       *       *       *       *



(_Concluded from_ p. 539.)

A divine, reasoning philosophically with a lady on the possibility of the
appearance of ghosts, was much perplexed by her simple inquiry as to where
the clothes came from. If then the mediæval effigies are alive, how can the
costume be reconciled with their position? Where do their clothes come
from? The theory advanced in the two preceding Numbers seems to offer a
ready solution. Another corroborative fact remains to be stated, that when
a kneeling attitude superseded the recumbent, the brasses were placed upon
the wall, testifying, in some degree at least, that the horizontal figures
were not traditionally regarded as living portraits. In anticipation of
objections, it can only be said that "they have no speculation in their
eyes;" that out of the thousands in existence, a few exceptions will only
prove the rule; and that their incongruities were conventional.

It is now my purpose to offer a few more reasons for releasing the
sculptors of the present day from a rigid adherence to the uplifted hands
and the straight head. That there is grace, dignity, and pious serenity
occasionally perceptible in these interesting relics of bygone days, which
so appropriately furnish our magnificent cathedrals, and embellish numbers
of our parochial churches, is freely admitted; but that they are formal,
conventional, monotonous, and consequently unfitted for modern imitation,
cannot reasonably be denied by a person with pretensions to taste. From the
study of anatomy, the improvement in painting, the invention of engraving,
our acquaintance with the matchless works of Greece, and other causes, this
branch of art has made considerable advance. Why, then, should a sculptor
be now "cabin'd, cribb'd, confined, bound in," by such inflexible
conditions? If some variation is discoverable in the ancient types, why
should he not have the advantage of selection, and avail himself of that
attitude best adapted to the situation of the tomb and the character of the
deceased? Not to multiply examples of deviation--the Queen of Henry IV., in
Canterbury Cathedral, has one arm reposing at her side, and the other upon
her breast. The arms of Edward III., in Westminster Abbey, are both
stretched at his side. An abbot of Peterborough, in that cathedral, holds a
book and a pastoral staff. The hands of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick,
in his beautiful chapel, are raised, but separate. Several have the arms
crossed, expressive of humility and resignation. Others (lay as well as
clerical) press a holy book to their bosom; and some place the right hand
upon the heart, denoting the warmth of their love and faith. In his
description of Italian monuments, Mr. Ruskin remarks, that "though in
general, in tombs of this kind, the face of the statue is slightly turned
towards the spectator, in one case it is turned away" (_Stones of Venice_,
vol. iii. p. 14.); and instances are not unfrequent of similar inclinations
of the head at home. Why then should this poor choice be denied? Why should
he be fettered by austere taskmasters to this stereotyped treatment, to the
proverbial stiffness of "our grandsires cut in alabaster." Indignation has
been excited in many quarters against that retrograde movement termed
"pre-Raphaelism," yet what in fact is this severe, angular, antiquated
style, but identically the same thing in stone? What but pre-Angeloism?
Upon the supposition that the effigies have departed this life, or even
that the spirit is only about to take its flight, anatomical and
physiological difficulties present themselves, for strong action would be
required to hold the hands in this attitude of prayer. The drapery, too,
hanging in straight folds, has been always apparently designed from upright
figures, circumstances evincing how little the rules of propriety were then
regarded. Their profusion occasions a familiarity which demands a change,
for the range is here as confined as that of the sign-painter, who could
only depict lions, and was therefore precluded from varying his signs,
except by an alteration in the colour. Such is the yearning of taste for
diversity, that in the equestrian procession on the frieze of the
Parthenon, out of about ninety horses, not two are in the same attitude;
yet to whatever extent our churches may be thronged with these sepulchral
tombs, all must be, as it were, cast in the same mould, till by repetition
their beauty

 "Fades in the eye and palls upon the sense."

It is evidently imitating the works of antiquity under a disadvantage,
inasmuch as modern costume is far inferior in picturesque effect to the
episcopal vestments, the romantic armour, and numerous elegant habiliments
of an earlier day. Every lesser embellishment and minuteness of detail are
regarded by an artist who has more enlarged views of his profession as
foreign to the main design; yet the robes, millinery, jewellery, and
accoutrements usually held a place with the carvers of that time of equal
importance with the face, and engaged as large a share of their attention.

The comparative easiness of execution forms another argument. Having
received the simple commission for a monument (specifications are
needless), the workmen (as may be imagined) fixes the armour of the defunct
knight upon his table, places a mask moulded from nature on the
helmet-pillow, fits on a pair of hands with which, like an {587} assortment
of gloves, his studio is provided, diligently applies his compasses to
insure exact equality by means of a receipt, perchance imparts some
devotional expression, and the work is ready to be transferred to stone.

Mr. Petit, in the preface (page x.) to his _Architectural Studies_, after
due praise, asserts--

    "That no sculptor anxious to advance his own reputation and art will
    ever set up a mediæval statue as his model. He may acknowledge its
    merits, and learn much from a careful examination of it, but still he
    will not look up to its designer as his master and guide."

Again, the efforts of genius are cramped by such uncompromising terms. The
feet must unavoidably be directed towards the east; still, whatever the
situation of the tomb may chance to be, from whatever point it may be
viewed, or whether the light may fall on this side or on that, no way of
escape is open, and no ingenuity can be employed to grapple with the
uncontrollable obstruction. Portrait painters can choose the position most
favourable to the features, but the monumental sculptor of the nineteenth
century may only exhibit what is generally shunned, the direct profile; the
contour of the face, and the wide expanse of brow, which might probably
give the most lively indications of intellectual power, amiability of
disposition, and devout tranquillity of soul, must be sacrificed to this
unbending law "which altereth not." Sculptors, we are told, should overcome
difficulties; but here they are required to "strive with impossibilities,
yea, get the better of them." Whether painted windows, or some other
ornament, or a tomb alone in harmony with the architecture (the form and
features of the individual being elsewhere preserved), may constitute a
more desirable memorial, is a separate question, but as statues are only
admissible in a recumbent posture, some little latitude must be allowed.
Like our reformers in higher things, it behoves us to discard what is
objectionable in art, while we cherish that which is to be admired. Instead
of treading in the footsteps of those lofty spirits, we should endeavour to
follow the same road. Fully appreciating their excellences, let us avoid
the distorted drawing of their brilliant glass, their irregularities in
architectural design, the irreverence of their carving, and the
conventionalism of their monumental sculpture.

C. T.

I agree with C. T. in thinking that the usual recumbent figure on mediæval
tombs was intended to represent a dead body, and more particularly to
represent the body as it had lain in state, or had been borne to the grave;
and I will add one or two additional reasons for this opinion. In the
description in Speed, of the intended monument of Henry VIII., taken from a
MS. given to Speed by that industrious herald master, Charles Lancaster,
the following direction occurs:--

    "Item, upon the same basement shall be made two tombes of blacke touch,
    that is to say, on either side one, and upon the said tombes of blacke
    touch shall be made the image of the King and Queen, on both sides, not
    as death [dead], but as persons sleeping, because to shewe that famous
    princes leaving behind them great fame never doe die, and shall be in
    royall apparels after the antique manner."--Speed's _Hist. of Great
    Brit._, p. 1037. ed. 1632.

The distinction here taken between a dead and a sleeping figure, and the
reason assigned for the latter, show, I think, that at that time a
recumbent figure generally was supposed to represent death. In a monument
of Sir Roger Aston, at Cranford, Middlesex, in Lysons' _Environs of
London_, the knight and his two wives are represented praying, and by the
side of the knight _lies_ the infant son who had died in his lifetime. In
the monument of Pope Innocent VIII. (Pistolesi, _Il Vaticano_, vol. i.
plate 63.), the Pope is in one part represented in a living action, and in
another as lying on his tomb, and from the contrast which would thus be
afforded between life and death, the latter representation seems to
indicate death.

The hands raised in prayer are accounted for by C. T. Open eyes, I think,
may be intended to express, by their direction towards heaven, the hope in
which the deceased died. This is suggested by the description of the
funeral car of Henry V.

    "Preparations were made to convey the body of Henry from Rouen to
    England. It was placed within a car, on which reclined his figure made
    of boiled leather, elegantly painted. A rich crown of gold was on its
    head. The right hand held a sceptre, and the left a golden ball. _The
    face seemed to contemplate the heavens._"--Turner's _Hist. of Eng._,
    vol. ii. p. 465.

I must, however, add that on referring to Monstrelet, I doubt whether
Turner does not go too far in this last particular. Monstrelet merely says,
"le visage vers le ciel." (Monst. _Chron._ vol. i. 325. ed. 1595.) Speed
adds an additional circumstance: "The body (of this figure) was clothed
with a purple roabe furred with ermine." From the mutilated state of the
tomb it is impossible to say how far the recumbent effigy resembled this
boiled figure, but it is evidently just such a representation of the king
as might have been laid on his tomb, and so far it tends to support the
opinion that the effigy on a tomb represents the deceased as he had lain in
state, or was borne to and placed in his tomb, an opinion fully borne out
by the agreement which, in some cases, has been found to exist between the
effigy on a tomb and the body discovered within it, or between the effigy
and the description of the body as it had lain in state. See the tombs of
King {588} John, Robert Lord Hungerford, and Henry II., in Stothard's
_Monumental Effigies of Great Britain_, and the Introduction to that work.

I think it is not irrelevant to remark that at a very early period a
recumbent figure was sometimes placed on a tomb as in a state of death. The
recumbent Etruscan figures generally represent a state of repose or of
sensual enjoyment; but there is one given by Micali (_Monumenti inediti a
Illustrazione degli Antichi Popoli Italiani_, Tav. 48. p. 303.), which is,
undoubtedly, that of a dead person. In his description of it, Micali says,
"On the first view of it one would say it was a sepulchral monument of the
Middle Ages, so greatly does it resemble one." Mrs. Gray, too (_Tour to the
Sepulchres of Etruria_, p. 264.), mentions a sepulchral urn, "very large,
with a woman robed, and with a dog upon it, exactly like an English
monument of the Middle Ages." If it were not for the dog, I should suppose
this to be the one given by Micali. Though it may be too much to suppose
that this form of representation may have been not uncommon, and may have
passed into early Christian monuments, the instance in Micali at least
shows that the idea of representing a dead body on a tomb is a very ancient
one. It may be added, perhaps, that it is an obvious one.

Though the reasons for thinking that the ordinary mediæval figure
represents death may not be conclusive, still that opinion is, I think,
entitled to be looked upon as the more probable one, until some
satisfactory reason is given why a _living_ person should be represented
outstretched, and lying on his back--a position, as it seems to me, more
inconsistent with life than the open eyes and hands joined in prayer are
with death. For too much weight is not to be attached to slight
inconsistencies. These would probably be disregarded for the sake of
expressing some favourite idea or sentiment. Thus, in the proposed monument
of Henry VIII., though the king and queen are directed to be represented as
living, their souls are to be represented in the hand of "the Father."

In modern tombs the mediæval idea has been entirely departed from, and the
recumbent position sometimes expresses neither death, nor even sleep, but
simple repose, or contemplation, resignation, hope, &c. If it is proper or
desirable to express these or other sentiments in a recumbent figure, it
seems unreasonable to exclude them for the sake of a rigid adherence to a
form, of which the import is either obscure, or, if rightly conjectured,
has, by the change of customs, become idle and unmeaning.

F. S. B. E.

       *       *       *       *       *


To the epistles of Roger Ascham, given in Elstob's edition, have since been
added several to Raven and others[1], two to Cecil[2], and several to Mrs.
Astley, Bp. Gardiner, Sir Thos. Smith, Mr. Callibut, Sir W. Pawlett, Queen
Elizabeth, the Earl of Leicester, and Mr. C. H.[owe].[3] Some of your
correspondents will, doubtless, be able farther to enlarge this list of
printed letters.

In a MS. volume, once belonging to Bp. Moore, now in the University
Library, Cambridge, is a volume of transcripts[4], containing, amongst
other documents, letters from Ascham to Petre[5] and to Cecil; one (p. 44.)
"written by R. A., for a gent to a gentlewoman, in waie of marriage," and
one to the B. of W.[inchester], which, though without a signature, is
certainly Ascham's. In another MS. volume, in the same collection (Ee. v.
23.), are copies of Ascham's letter to his wife on the death of their
child[6], and of a letter to Mr. Richard Goodrich. Lastly, Ascham's College
(St. John's) possesses his original letter to Cardinal Pole, written on the
fly-leaf of a copy of Osorius _De nobilitate civili_[7]; and also the
original MS. of the translation of Oecumenius, accompanied by a Latin
letter to Seton.[8]

These unpublished letters will shortly be printed for the Cambridge
Antiquarian Society. Early information respecting any other MS. works of
Ascham, or collations of his published letters with the originals, will be
thankfully acknowledged.


St. John's College, Cambridge.

P. S.--I may add that we have at St. John's a {589} copy of Ascham's
Letters (ed. Elstob), with many dates and corrections in Baker's hand.
There may be something new in Kennett's biographical notice of Ascham
(Lansdowne MSS. 981. art. 41.)

[Footnote 1: In _The English Works of Roger Ascham_, London, 1815, 8vo.:
this edition is reprinted from Bennet's, with additions. Bennet took these
letters from Baker's extracts (in his MSS. xiii. 275-295., now in the
Harleian Collection), "from originals in Mr. Strype's hands." One letter is
more fully given by Mr. Tytler, _England under Edward VI. and Mary_, vol.
ii. p. 124.]

[Footnote 2: In Sir H. Ellis's _Letters of Eminent Literary Men_, Camden
Soc. Nos. 4 and 5. Correcter copies than had before appeared from the
Lansdowne MSS.]

[Footnote 3: Most incorrectly printed in Whitaker's _History of
Richmondshire_, vol. i. p. 270. seq. The letters themselves are highly
important and curious.]

[Footnote 4: Dd. ix. 14. Some of the letters are transcribed by Baker, MSS.
xxxii. p. 520. seq.]

[Footnote 5: This letter has many sentences in common with that to
Gardiner, of the date Jan. 18 [1554], printed by Whitaker (p. 271. seq.)]

[Footnote 6: Whitaker, who prints this (p. 289. seq.) says that it had been
printed before. Where?]

[Footnote 7: This, I believe, unpublished letter is referred to by Osorius,
in a letter to Ascham (_Aschami Epistolæ_, p. 397.: Oxon. 1703).]

[Footnote 8: Both of these have been printed, the letter in _Aschami
Epistolæ_, lib. i. ep. 4. p. 68. seq. Compare on the commentary, ibid. pp.
70. and 209.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Symbolism in Raphael's Pictures._--In some of the most beautiful pictures
of "The Virgin and Child" of Raphael, and other old masters, our Lord is
represented with His right foot placed upon the right foot of the blessed
Virgin. What is the symbolism of this position? In the Church of Rome, the
God-parent at Holy Confirmation is, if I remember right, directed by a
rubric to place his or her right foot upon the right foot of the person
confirmed. Is this ceremony at all connected with the symbolism I have


"_Obtains._"--Every one must have observed the frequent recurrence of this
word, more especially those whose study is the law: "This practice on that
principle _obtains_." How did the word acquire the meaning given to it in
such a sentence?

Y. S. M.

_Army Lists for Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries._--Where are they to
be found? Not at the Horse Guards, as the records there go back only to
1795. I want particulars of many officers in both centuries; some of them
who came to Ireland temp. Charles I., and during Cromwell's Protectorate,
and others early in the last century.

Y. S. M.

_Anonymous Poet._--

    "It is not to the people of the west of Scotland that the energetic
    reproach of the poet can apply. I allude to the passage in which he
    speaks of--

     'All Scotia's weary days of civil strife--
      When the poor Whig was lavish of his life,
      And bought, stern rushing upon Clavers' spears,
      The freedom and the scorn of after years.'"
          _Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk_, vol. iii. p. 263. Edin. 1819.

Who is "the poet?"


_John Bale._--Strype, in his _Life of Parker_, book iv. sec. 3. p. 539.
edit. 1711, speaking of Bale, says: "He set himself to search many
libraries in Oxford, Cambridge," &c.

Bale himself, in the list of his own writings, enumerates "ex diversis

Did this piece contain any account of his researches in libraries alluded
to? If so, has it ever been published? Tanner makes no mention of it in his
_Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica_.

H. F. S.


_A short Sermon._--In an essay on Benevolence, by the Rev. David Simpson of
Macclesfield, it is reported of Dean Swift, that he once delivered in his
trite and laconic manner the following short sermon, in advocating the
cause of a charitable institution, the text and discourse containing
thirty-four words only:

    "He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord, and that which
    he hath given will He pay him again. Now, my brethren, if you like the
    security, down with your money."

When and where did this occur, and what was the result?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Quakers' Calendar._--What month would the Quakers mean by "12th month," a
century and a half since?


    [Before the statute 24 Geo. II., for altering the Calendar in Great
    Britain, the Quakers began their year on the 25th of March, which they
    called the _first_ month; but at the yearly meeting for Sufferings in
    London, Oct. 1751, a Committee was appointed to consider what advice
    might be necessary to be given to the Friends in relation to the
    statute in question. The opinion of the Committee was, "That in all the
    records and writings of Friends from and after the last day of the
    month, called December, next, the computation of time established by
    the said act should be observed; and that, accordingly, the first day
    of the eleventh month, commonly called January, next, should be
    reckoned and deemed by Friends the first day of the _first_ month of
    the year 1752." Consequently the twelfth month, a century and a half
    since, would be _February_. See Nicolas's _Chronology_, p. 169.]

"_Rodondo, or the State Jugglers._"--Who was the author of this political
squib, three cantos, 1763-70; reproduced in _Ruddiman's Collection_,
Edinburgh, 1785? In my copy I have written Hugh Dalrymple, but know not
upon what authority. It is noticed in the _Scots Mag._, vol. xxv., where it
is ascribed to "a Caledonian, who has laid about him so well as to
vindicate his country from the imputation of the _North Briton_, that there
is neither wit nor humour on the other side the Tweed."

J. O.

    [A copy of this work in the British Museum contains the following MS.
    entry: "The author of the three Cantos of _Rodondo_ was Hugh Dalrymple,
    Esq. He also wrote _Woodstock_, an elegy reprinted in Pearch's
    _Collection of Poems_. At the time of his death he was Attorney-General
    for the Grenades, where he died, March 9, 1774. His daughter married
    Dr., afterwards Sir John Elliott, from whom she was divorced, and
    became a celebrated courtezan."]

_Rathlin Island._--Has any detailed account of this island, which is
frequently called Rahery, {590} and is a few miles from the northern coast
of Ireland, appeared in print? The locality is most interesting in many
particulars, historical and geological, and might therefore be made the
subject of an instructive paper. A brief account was inserted, I think, a
few years ago in an English periodical.


    [An interesting and detailed account of this island, which he calls
    Raghery, is given in Hamilton's _Letters concerning the Northern Coast
    of the County of Antrim_, 1790, 8vo., pp. 13-33. Consult also Lewis's
    _Topographical History of Ireland_, vol. ii. p. 501.]

_Parochial Registers._--When and where were parochial registers first
established? The earliest extant at the present day?


    [We fear our correspondent has not consulted that useful and amusing
    work, Burn's _History of Parish Registers in England, also of the
    Registers of Scotland, Ireland, the East and West Indies, the Fleet,
    King's Bench, Mint, Chapel Royal, &c._, 8vo. 1829, which contains a
    curious collection of miscellaneous particulars concerning them.]

_"Trevelyan," &c._--Who was the author of two novels, published about
twenty years ago, called _A Marriage in High Life_ and _Trevelyan_: the
latter the later of the two?



    [These works are by the Hon. Caroline Lucy Scott, at present residing
    at Petersham, in Surrey.]

_Grammar School of St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester._--Can you give me the
name of the master of the Grammar School of St. Mary de Crypt in 1728?

SIGMA (1).

    [Daniel Bond, B.A., was elected master March 25, 1724, and was also
    vicar of Leigh. He died in 1750.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., pp. 392. 547.)

I thank G. W. R. for his courteous remarks on my note on Cranmer. Perhaps I
have overstated the effect of pain on the nervous system; certainly I was
wrong in making a wider assertion than was required by my case, which is,
that no man could hold his hand over unconfined flame till it was "entirely
consumed" or "burnt to a coal." "Bruslée à feu de souphre" does not go so
far as that, nor is it said at what time of the burning Ravaillac raised
his head to look at his hand.

J. H. has mistaken my intention. I have always carefully avoided everything
which tended to religious or moral controversy in "N. & Q." I treated
Cranmer's case on physiological grounds only. I did not look for
"cotemporaneous evidence against that usually received," any more than I
should for such evidence that St. Denis did not walk from Paris to
Montmartre with his head in his hand. If either case is called a miracle, I
have nothing to say upon it _here_; and for the same reason that I avoid
such discussion, I add, that in not noticing J. H.'s opinions on Cranmer, I
must not be understood as assenting to or differing from them. J. H. says:

    "It would surely be easy to produce facts of almost every week from the
    evidence given in coroners' inquests, in which persons have had their
    limbs burnt off--to say nothing of farther injury--without the shock
    producing death."

If favoured with one such fact, I will do my best to inquire into it. None
such has fallen within my observation or reading.

The heart remaining "entire and unconsumed among the ashes," is a minor
point. It does not seem impossible to J. H., "in its plain and obvious
meaning." Do the words admit two meanings? Burnet says:

    "But it was no small matter of astonishment to find his heart entire,
    and not consumed among the ashes; which, though the reformed would not
    carry so far as to make a miracle of it, and a clear proof that his
    heart had continued true, though his hand had erred; yet they objected
    it to the Papists, that it was certainly such a thing, that if it had
    fallen out in any of their church, they had made it a miracle."--Vol.
    ii. p. 429.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

Permit me to offer to H. B. C.'s consideration the case of Mutius Scævola,
who, failing in his attempt to kill Porsenna in his own camp, and being
taken before the king, thrust his right hand into the fire, and held it
there until burnt; at the same time declaring that he knew three hundred
men who would not flinch from doing the same thing. To a certain extent, I
am inclined to think with ALFRED GATTY (Vol. ix., p. 246.), "that an
exalted state of feeling may be attained;" which, though it will not render
the religious or political martyr insensible to pain, it will yet nerve him
to go through his martyrdom without demonstration of extreme suffering.

This ability to endure pain may be accounted for in either of the following

1. An exalted state of feeling; instance Joan of Arc.

2. Fortitude; instance Mutius Scævola.

3. Nervous insensibility; which carries the vanquished American Indian
through the most exquisite tortures, and enables him to fall asleep on the
least respite of his agony.

Should these three be united in one individual, it is needless to say that
he could undergo any bodily pain without a murmur.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 496. 543.)

Every admirer of Coleridge's writings must feel, as I do, grateful to MR.
GREEN for the detailed account he has rendered of the manuscripts committed
to his care. A few points, however, in his reply call for a rejoinder on my
part. I will be as brief as possible.

I never doubted for an instant that, had I "sought a private explanation of
the matters" comprised in my Note, MR. GREEN would have courteously
responded to the application. This is just what I did _not_ want: a public
explanation was what I desired. "N. & Q." (Vol. iv., p. 411.; Vol. vi., p.
533.; Vol. viii., p. 43.) will bear witness to the fact that the public
required to know the reason why works of Coleridge, presumed to exist in
manuscript, were still withheld from publication: and I utterly deny the
justice of MR. GREEN's allegation, that because I have _explicitly_ stated
the charge _implied_ by Mr. Alsop (the editor of _Letters, Conversations,
and Recollections of Coleridge_) in his strictures, I have made an
inconsiderate, not to say a coarse, attack upon him (MR. GREEN). When a
long series of appeals to the fortunate possessor of the Coleridge
manuscripts (whoever he might turn out to be) had been met with silent
indifference, I felt that the time was come to address an appeal personally
to MR. GREEN himself. That he has acted with the approbation of Coleridge's
family, nobody can doubt; for the public (thanks to Mr. Alsop) know too
well how little the greatest of modern philosophers was indebted to that
family in his lifetime, to attach much importance to their approbation or

No believer in the philosophy of Coleridge can look with greater anxiety
than I do for the forthcoming work of MR. GREEN. That the pupil of
Coleridge, and the author of _Vital Dynamics_, will worthily acquit himself
in this great field, who can question? But I, for one, must enter my
protest against the publication of MR. GREEN's book being made the pretext
of depriving the public of their right (may I say?) to the perusal of such
works as do exist in manuscript, finished or unfinished. Again I beg most
respectfully to urge on MR. GREEN the expediency, not to say paramount
duty, of his giving to the world _intact_ the _Logic_ (consisting of the
_Canon_ and other parts), the _Cosmogony_, and, as far as possible, the
_History of Philosophy_. If his plea, that these works are not in a
finished state, had been heretofore held good in bar of publication, we
should probably have lost the inestimable privilege of reading and
possessing those fragmentary works of the great philosopher which have
already been made public.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 429. 560. 608.; Vol. viii., pp. 43. 550.)

Your correspondent H. C. K. (Vol. vii., 560.) quotes a passage from Sir
Thomas Browne's _Religio Medici_, sect. xlii. The following passage from
the same writer's _Christian Morals_ is much more to the point:

    "When the Stoic said ('Vitam nemo acciperet, si daretur
    scientibus'--_Seneca_) that life would not be accepted if it were
    offered unto such as knew it, he spoke too meanly of that state of
    being which placeth us in the form of men. It more depreciates the
    value of this life, that _men would not live it over again_; for
    although they would still live on, yet _few or none can endure to think
    of being twice the same men upon earth, and some had rather never have
    lived than to tread over their days once more_. Cicero, in a prosperous
    state, had not the patience to think of beginning in a cradle again.
    ('Si quis Deus mihi largiatur, ut repuerascam et in cunis vagiam, valdè
    recusem.'--_De Senectute._) Job would not only curse the day of his
    nativity, but also of his renascency, if he were to act over his
    disasters and the miseries of the dunghill. But the greatest
    underweening of this life is to undervalue that unto which this is but
    exordial, or a passage leading unto it. The great advantage of this
    mean life is thereby to stand in a capacity of a better; for the
    colonies of heaven must be drawn from earth, and the sons of the first
    Adam are only heirs unto the second. Thus Adam came into this world
    with the power also of another; not only to replenish the earth, but
    the everlasting mansions of heaven."--Part III. sect. xxv.

 "Looking back we see the dreadful train
  Of woes anew, which, were we to sustain,
  We should refuse to tread the path again."
                  Prior's _Solomon_, b. iii.

The crown is won by the cross, the victor's wreath in the battle of life:

    "This is the condition of the battle[9] which man that is born upon the
    earth shall fight. That if he be overcome he shall suffer as thou hast
    said, but if he get the victory, he shall receive the thing that I
    say."--2 _Esdr._ vii. 57.

Our grade in the other world is determined by our probation here. To use a
simile of Asgill's, this life of time is a university in which we take our
degree for eternity. Heaven is a pyramid, or ever-ascending scale; the
world of evil is an inverted pyramid, or ever-descending scale. Life is
motion. There is no such thing as stagnation: everything is either
advancing or retrograding. Corruption itself is an activity, and evil is
ever growing. According to the _habits_ formed within us, we are ascending
or descending; we cannot stand still.

A man, then, in whom the higher life predominates, were he to live life
over again, would {592} grow from grace to grace, and his status in the
spirit world would be higher than in the first life, and _vice versâ_; an
evil man[10] would be more completely evil, and would rank in a darker and
more bestial form. They who hear not the good tidings will not be persuaded
though one rose from the dead; and those with whom the experience of one
life failed would not repent in the second.

The testimony of the Shunamite's son, Lazarus, and of those who rose from
the dead at the crucifixion, is not recorded; but they who have escaped
from the jaws of death, by recovery from sickness or preservation from
danger, may in a certain sense be said to live life over again. After the
fright is over the warning in most cases loses its influence, and we have a
verification of the two proverbs, "Out of sight out of mind," and--

 "The devil was sick, the devil a monk would be;
  The devil was well, the devil a monk would he."

In a word, this experiment of a second life would best succeed with him
whose habits are formed for good, and whose life is already overshadowed by
the divine life. Even of such an one it might be said, "Man is frail, the
battle is sore, and the flesh is weak; even a good man may fall and become
a castaway." The most unceasing circumspection is ever requisite. The most
polished steel rusts in this corrosive atmosphere, and purest metals get

Finally, it is very probable that God gives every man a complete probation;
that is to say, He cuts not man's thread of life till he be at the same
side of the line he should be were he to live myriads of years. Every man
is made up of a mixture of good and evil: these two principles never become
soluble together, but ever tend each to eliminate the other. They hurry on
in circles, alternately intersecting and gaining the ascendancy, till one
is at last precipitated to the bottom, and pure good or evil remains. In
the nature of things there are critical moments and tides of circumstances
which become turning-points when time merges into eternity and mutability
into permanence: and such a crisis may occur in the course of a short life
as well as in many lives lived over again.


[Footnote 9:

 "A field of battle is this mortal life!"
                  _Young_, N. viii.

[Footnote 10: See a recent novel by Frederick Souillet, entitled _Si
Jeunesse savait, Si Vieillesse pouvait_.]

_Life and Death_ (Vol. ix., p. 481.).--The following is on a monument at
Lowestoft, co. Suffolk, to the memory of John, son of John and Anne Wilde,
who died February 9, 1714, aged five years and six months:

 "Quem Dii amant moritur Juvenis."


The following may be added to the parallel passages collected by
EIRIONNACH. Chateaubriand says, in his _Memoirs_, that the greatest
misfortune which can happen to a man is to be born, and the next greatest
is to have a child. As Chateaubriand had no children, the most natural
comment on the last branch of his remark is "sour grapes."



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 109.)

_St. Nicholas Church, Sidmouth._--Having, on October 21, 1850, taken
intaglios in pressing-wax of the inscription forwarded by MR. GORDON, from
which plaster casts were made, the writer is able to speak of it with some
degree of confidence. The inscription, however, is not peculiar to
Sidmouth: it is found at other places in the county of Devon, and perhaps
elsewhere. In Harvey's _Sidmouth Directory_ for March, 1851, there is an
article descriptive of all the six bells at this place, in which there is a
fac-simile, engraved on wood, of the inscription in question. The words run
all round the bell; and each word is placed on a cartouche. The Rev. Dr.
Oliver of Exeter, in his communication to the writer on this subject, calls
the bell the "Jesus Bell." The _Directory_ observes:

    "It was formerly the practice to christen bells with ceremonies similar
    to, but even more solemn than, those attending the naming of children;
    and they were frequently dedicated to Christ (as this is), to the
    Virgin, or some saint."

Dr. Oliver to the writer says:

    "I have met with it at Whitstone, near this city [Exeter], at East
    Teignmouth, &c.; _michi_ for _mihi_; [ihc (black-letter)], the
    abbreviation for Jesus. Very often the word _veneratum_ occurs instead
    of _amatum_, and _illud_ instead of _istud_."

The [ihc (black-letter)] stands thus: [=i]h[=c]. The _Directory_, on this
abbreviated word, remarks,--

    "The IHS, as an abbreviation for Jesus, is a blunder. Casley, in his
    _Catalogue of the King's MSS._, observes, p. 23., that 'in Latin MSS.
    the Greek letters of the word Christus, as also Jesus, are always
    retained, except that the terminations are changed according to the
    Latin language. Jesus is written [=IHS], or in small characters ihs,
    which is the Greek [Greek: [=IÊS]] or [Greek: [=iês]], an
    abbreviation for [Greek: iêsous]. However, the scribes knew nothing of
    this for a thousand years before the invention of printing, for if they
    had they would not have written [=ihs] for [Greek: iêsous]; but they
    ignorantly copied after one another such letters as they found put for
    these words. Nay, at length they pretended to find _Jesus Hominum
    Salvator_ comprehended in the word [=IHS], which is another proof that
    they took the middle letter for _h_, not [eta]. The dash also over the
    word, which is a sign of abbreviation, some have changed to the sign of
    the cross' [Hone's _Mysteries_, p. 282.]. The old way of {593} spelling
    Jhesus with an _h_ may perhaps be referred to the same mistake. The
    inscription, then, runs thus:

    [Est mihi collatum Jesus istud nomen amatum],

    which may be rendered, Jesus, that beloved name, is given to me. The
    bell bears no date, but is of course older than the period of the
    Reformation. But it remains to be observed that the last letter of the
    three is not an _s_ but a c. It seems that in the old Greek
    inscriptions the substitution of the _c_ for the _s_ was common.
    Several examples are given in Horne's Introduction, vol. ii. pt. 1. ch.
    iii. sect. 2., but we have not room to quote them. Suffice it to say
    that at p. 100., in speaking of the MSS. of the Codex Vaticanus, he
    says, 'The abbreviations are few, being confined chiefly to those words
    which are in general abbreviated, such as [theta]C, KC, IC, XC, for
    [Greek: Theos], [Greek: Kurios], [Greek: Iêsous], [Greek: Christos],
    _God_, _Lord_, _Jesus_, _Christ_.' At the end of these words, in the
    abbreviations, the _c_ is used for the _s_.--_Peter._"

This fourth bell is the oldest in the tower. The third, dated 1667, has
quite a modern appearance as compared with it. The second, fifth, and sixth
are all dated 1708, and the first, or smallest, was added in 1824.



An appropriate inscription is to be found on the bell of St. John's
Cathedral in this colony, date London, 1845. It is in the words of St.
Paul's mission, Acts xxii. 21.: "I will send thee far hence unto the

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

Here is a modern achievement in this kind of literature. It exists on one
of the eight bells belonging to the church tower of Pilton, Devon:

 "Recast by John Taylor and Son,
  Who the best prize for church bells won
  At the Great Ex-hi-bi-ti-on
  In London, 1--8--5 and 1."

R. W. C.

I continue (from Vol. viii., p. 248.) my Notes of inscriptions on bells.

Mathon, Worcestershire. A peal of six bells:

  1. "Peace and good neighbourhood."

  2. "Glory to God."

  3. "Fear God and honour the King."

  4. "God preserve our Church and State."

  5. "Prosperity to the town."

  6. "The living to the church I call,
      And to the grave do summon all."

Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. Ten bells; the inscriptions on two are as
follows, the rest merely bearing the names of churchwardens, &c.:

  5. "God prosper the parish. A. R. 1701."

  10. "I to the church the living call,
       And to the grave do summon all. 1773."

The latter seems to be a favourite inscription. The REV. W. S. SIMPSON
mentions it (Vol. viii., p. 448.) on a bell in one of the Oxfordshire

Fotheringay, Northamptonshire. Four bells:

  1. "Thomas Norris made me. 1634."

  2. "Domini laudem, 1614, non verbo sed voce resonabo."

The two others respectively bear the dates 1609, 1595, with the initials of
the rector and churchwarden, and (on the fourth bell) the words "Praise
God." On a recent visit to this church I copied the following inscription
from a bell, which, being cracked, is no longer used, and is now placed
within the nave of the church. This bell is not mentioned by Archdeacon
Bonney in his _Historic Notices of Fotheringay_, though he gives the
inscriptions on the four others.

    "Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei. A. M. R. R. W. W. I. L. 1602."

The inscription is in Lombardic characters. MR. SIMPSON notes the same at
Girton, Cambridgeshire (Vol. viii., p. 108.).

Godmanchester, Hunts. Eight bells:

  1. "Thomas Osborn, Downham, _fecit_, 1794.
      Intactum sillo. Percute dulce cano."

  4. "T. Osborn  {Our voices shall with joyful sound}
      _fecit_.   {Make hills and valleys echo round.} 1794."

  8. "Rev. Castel Sherard, rector; Jno. Martin, Robert Waller, bailiffs;
      John Scott, Richard Mills, churchwardens; T. Osborn _fecit_. 1794."

Morborne, Hunts. Two bells:

  1. "Cum voco ad ecclesiam, venite."

  2. "Henry Penn _fusore_. 1712."

Stilton, Hunts. Two bells:

  1. "Thomas Norris made me. 1689."


At Bedale, in Yorkshire, is a bell weighing by estimation twenty-six
hundredweight, which is probably of the same date, or nearly so, as the
Dyrham bell. It measures four feet two inches and a half across the lip,
and has the following inscription round the crown:


the commencement of which I do not understand. There are five smaller bells
belonging to the peal at Bedale, and a prayer bell. They bear inscriptions
in the following order:

The prayer bell:

 "Voco. Veni. Precare. 1713."


The first, or lightest of the peal:

 "Gloria in excelsis Deo. 1755. Edw^d Place, rector;
  Jn^o Pullein, churchwarden."

The second:

 "Iesus be ovr speed. P. S., T. W., H. S., I. W., M. W. 1664."

The third:

 "Deo Gloria pxa Hominibus. 1627."

The fourth:

 "Jesus be our speed. 1625."

The fifth:

 "Soli Deo Gloria Pax Hominibus. 1631."

The letters P. S., on the second bell, are the initials of Dr. Peter
Samwaies, who died April 5, 1693, having been thirty-one years rector of

On the fly-leaf of one of the later registers at Hornby, near Bedale, is
written the following memorandum:

    "Inscription on the third bell at Hornby:

     'When I do ring,
      God's praises sing;
      When I do toll,
      Pray heart and soul.'

    This bell was given to the parish church of Hornby by the Lord Conyers
    in the reign of Henry VII., but, being broken, was recast by William
    Lord D'Arcy and Conyers, the second of the name, 1656."


Charwelton Church, Northants:

  1. Broken to pieces: some fragments in the vestry. On one piece, "Ave

  2. "Jesus Nazarenus rex Judeorum fili Dei miserere mei. 1630."

  3. appears a collection of Saxon letters put together without connexion.

  4. "Nunquam ad preces cupies ire,
      Cum sono si non vis venire. 1630."

Heyford Church, Northants:

  1. "God saue the King. 1638."

  2. "Cum cum Praie. 1601."

  3. "Henry Penn made me. 1704.
      John Paine, Thmoas [_sic_] Middleton, churchwardens."

  4. "Thomas Morgan, Esquier, gave me
      To the Church of Heford, frank and free. 1601."

With coat of arms of the Morgans on the side.

Floore Church, Northants:

  1. "Russell of Wooton, near Bedford, made me. 1743.
      James Phillips, Thomas Clark, churchwardens."

  2. "Cantate Domino cantum novum. 1679."

  3. "Henry Bagley made mee. 1679."

  4. "Matthew Bagley made mee. 1679."

  5. "John Phillips and Robert Bullocke, churchwardens. 1679."

  6. "To the church the living call,
      And to the grave do summonds [_sic_] all.
      Russell of Wooton made me,
      In seventeen hundred and forty-three."

Three coins inserted round the top.

Slapton Church, Northants:

  1. [The Sancte bell] "Richard de Wambis me fesit" [_sic_].

  2. "Xpe audi nos."

  3. "Ultima sum trina campana vocor Katerina."

All in Saxon letters. No dates.

Inscription cut on the frame of Slapton bells:

 "BE . IT . KNO
  WEN . UN
  TO . ALL . TH
  IS . SAME . TH

Hellidon Church, Northants:

  1. "God save the King. 1635."

  2. "IHS Nazarenus rex Judæorum fili Dei miserere mei. 1635."

  3. "Celorum Christe platiat [_sic_] tibi rex sonus iste. 1615."

  4. Same as 2.

Dodford Church, Northants:

  1. "Matthew Bagley made me. 1679."

  2. "Campana gravida peperit filias. 1674."

  3. "IHS Nazarenus [&c., as before]. 1632."

  4. "Ex Dono Johannis Wyrley Armiger. 1614."

And five coins round the lip.

  5. Inscription same as 3. Date 1626.

  6. Ditto      ditto       Date 1624.

Wappenham Church, Northants:

  1. "Henry Bagley made me. 1664."

  2. "R. T. 1518. [+]"

  3. "Praise the Lord. 1599."

  4. "GOD SAVE KING JAMES. R. A. 1610."

Three coins on lip and bell-founder's arms.

The Sancte bell was recast in 1842, and hangs now in the north window of
belfry. {595}

Brackley, St. Peter's Church, Northants:

  1. "Jesus Nazarenus [&c., as before]. 1628."

  2. "God save the King. 1628."

  3. Same as 1.

  4. "Celorum Christe platiat [_sic_] tibi rex sonus iste. 1628."

  5. "Cum sono si non vis venire,  }
      Nunquam ad preces cupies ire } 1628."

Dunton Church, Leicestershire:

  1. "IHS Nazarenus [&c., as before]. 1619."

  2. "Be it knone to all that doth me see,
      That Clay of Leicester made me.
      Nick. Harald and John More, churchwardens. 1711."

  3. Same as 1. Date 1621.

Leire Church, Leicestershire:

  1. "Jesus be oure good speed. 1654."

  2. "Henricus Bagley _fecit_. 1675."

  3. "Recast A.D. 1755, John Sleath, C.W.;
      Tho^s Eyre de Kettering _fecit_."

Frolesworth Church, Leicestershire:

  1. "Jesus Nazarenus [&c., as before]. 1635."

  2. In Old English characters (no date):

     "Dum Rosa precata mundi Maria vocata."

  3. Same as 1.

J. R. M., M.A.

The legend noted from a bell at Sidmouth (Vol. ix., p. 109.), namely,--

 "Est michi collatum
  Ihc istud nomen amatum,"

is not an unusual inscription on mediæval black-letter bells, if I may use
the expression. The characters are small. It is on two bells at Teignmouth,
and is on one of the bells in this tower:

  1. "[+] Voce mea viva depello cuncta nociva."

  2. "[+] Est michi collatum Ihc istud nomen amatum."

  3. "Embrace trew museck."

A correspondent, MR. W. S. SIMPSON (Vol. viii., p. 448.), asks the date of
the earliest known examples of bells.

Dates on mediæval bells are, I believe, very rare in England. I have but
few notes of any. My impression is that such bells are as old as the towers
which contain them, judging from the character of the letter, the wear and
tear of the iron work, aye, of the bell itself. Many old bells have been
recast, and on _such_ there is often a record of the date of its prototype.
For instance, at St. Peter's, Exeter:

 "Ex dono Petri Courtenay," &c., "1484;" "renovat," &c., "1676."

At Chester-le-Street:

 "Thomas Langley dedit," &c., "1409;" "refounded," &c., "1665."

I will add two or three with dates.

Bruton, Somerset:

 "Est Stephanus primus lapidatus gracia plenus. 1528."

At St. Alkmond's, Derby:

 "Ut tuba sic resono, ad templa venite pii. 1586."

At Lympey Stoke, Somerset:

 "W. P., I. A. F. 1596."

Hexham. Old bells taken down 1742:

  1. "Ad primos cantus pulsat nos Rex gloriosus."

  2. "Et cantare ... faciet nos vox Nicholai."

  3. "Est nobis digna Katerine vox benigna."

  4. "Omnibus in Annis est vox Deo grata Johannis.
                A.D. MCCCCIIII."

  5. "Andrea mi care Johanne consociare.
                A.D. MCCCCIIII."

  6. "Est mea vox orata dum sim Maria vocata.
                A.D. MCCCCIIII."

Any earlier dates would be acceptable.

On the Continent bells are usually dated. I will extract, from Roccha _De
Campanis_, those at St. Peter's at Rome.

The great bell:

   "In nomine Domini, Matris, Petriq., Pauliq.
    Accipe devotum, parvum licet, accipe munus,
  Quod tibi Christe dat[=u] Petri, Pauliq. tri[=u]phum,
    Explicat, et nostram petit, populiq. salutem
      Ipsorum pietate dari, meritisq. refundi
          Et verbum caro factum est.
      Anno milleno trecento cum quinquageno
    Additis et tribus Septembris mense colatur;
    Ponderat et millia decies septiesq. librarum."

  2.  "In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Am[=e].
        Ad honorem Dei, et Beatæ Mariæ Virginis,
        Et Beatorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli,
                Verbum Caro factum est,
    Solve jubente Deo terrar[=u] Petre cathenas, qui facis,
            Ut pateant coelestia Regna beatis,
      Hæc campana cum alia majore ponderante ---
  Post consumptionem ignito fulgure, anno precedente
      imminente, fusa est, anno Domini MCCCLIII.
  Mense Junii, et ponderat hæc MX et centena librarum.

  3.    "Nomine Dominico Patris, prolisq. spirati
      Ordine tertiam Petri primæ succedere noscant.
        Per dies paucos quotquot sub nomine dicto
    Sanctam Ecclesiam colunt in agmine trino. Amen."

    4. "Anno Domini MCCLXXXVIIII. ad honorem Dei, et Beatæ Mariæ Virginis,
    et Sancti Thomæ Apostoli Tempore Fratris Joannis de Leodio Ministri,
    factum fuit hoc opus de legato quondam Domini {596} Rikardi Domini Papæ
    Notarii. Guidottus Pisanus me fecit."

On a small bell:

 "Mentem Sanctam Spontaneam, honorem Deo,
        Et Patris liberationem.
    Ave Maria gratia plena Dominus tecum;
      Benedicta tu in mulieribus
    Et benedictus fructus ventris tui."

In the Church of St. John Lateran was a bell with a mutilated inscription;
but the date is plain, 1389. The name of Boniface IX. is on it, who was
Sum. Pont. in that year.

In the Church of St. Mariæ Majoris were two bells dated anno Dom. 1285; and
another 1291.

In the Church of the Jesuits was a bell with this inscription, brought from

 "Facta fuit A. Dom. 1400, Die vi M[=e]sis Sept[=e]bris.
            Sancta Barbara, ora pro nobis."

Roccha, who published his _Commentary_ 1612, says:

    "In multis Campanis _fit mentio de Anno, in quo facta est Campana_,
    necnon de ipsius Ecclesiæ Rectore, vel optime merito, et Campanæ
    artifice, _ut ego ipse vidi Romæ_, ubi præcipuarum Ecclesiarum, et
    Basilicarum inscriptiones Campanis incisas perlegi."--P. 55.

So that it would appear that the practice of inscribing dates on bells was
usual on the Continent, though for some reason or other it did not
generally obtain in England till after the Reformation. I have a Note of
another foreign bell or two with an early date.

At Strasburg:

 "[+] O Rex gloriæ Christe, veni cum pace! MCCCLXXV. tertio Nonas Augusti."

On another:

 "Vox ego sum vitæ, voco vos, orate, venite. 1461."

On a bell called St. D'Esprit:

 "Anno Dom. MCCCCXXVII mense Julio fusa sum, per
      Magistrum Joannem Gremp de Argentina.
  Nuncio festa, metum, nova quædam flebile lethum."

A bell called the Magistrates:

 "Als man zahlt 1475 Jahr
  War Kaiser Friedrick hier offenbar:
  Da hat mich Meister Thomas Jost gegossen
  Dem Rath zu laüten ohnverdrossen."

On another:

 "Nomen Domini sit benedictum. 1806."

I would beg to add a Note of one more early and interesting bell which was
at Upsala:

 "[+] Anno . Domini . MDXIIII . fusa . est . ista . Campana .
  in . honorem . Sancti . Erici . Regis . et .
  Martiris . Rex . erat . Ericus . humilis . devotus .
  honestus . prudens . V."

What V. means is rather a puzzle.

I fear I have already extended this reply to a length beyond all fair
limit. I may at some future time (if desirable) send you a long roll of
legends on mediæval bells without dates, and others of the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, some of a devotional character, and others of the
style of unseemly and godless epitaphs. But it is to be hoped that in
these, as in other like matters, a better taste is beginning to
predominate; and it must be a subject of congratulation that

 "Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto."


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

In the steeple of Foulden Church, South Greenhoe Hd., Norfolk, are six
bells with inscriptions as under:

  1. "Thos. Osborn _fecit_. 1802.
      Peace and good neighbourhood."

  2. "The laws to praise, my voice I raise."

  3. "Thos. Osborn _fecit_, Downham, Norfolk."

  4. "Our voices shall with joyful sound
      Make hill and valley echo round."

  5. "I to the church the living call,
      And to the grave I summon all."

  6. "Long live King George the Third.
      Thomas Osborn _fecit_, 1802."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 349.)

Your correspondent MR. THOMAS RUSSELL POTTER inquires whether any
descendants of the De Beauvoirs of Guernsey are still existing. The family
was, at one time, so numerous in that island that there are few of the
gentry who cannot claim a De Beauvoir among their ancestors; but the name
itself became extinct there by the death of Osmond de Beauvoir, Esq., in
1810. Some few years later, the last of a branch of the family settled in
England died, leaving a very large property, which was inherited by a Mr.
Benyon, who assumed the name of De Beauvoir.

The name is also to be found in the Irish baronetcy; a baronet of the name
of Brown having married the daughter and heiress of the Rev. Peter de
Beauvoir, the widow I believe of an Admiral McDougal, and thereupon taking
up his wife's maiden name.

With respect to the pedigree which MR. POTTER quotes, and of which many
copies exist in this island, it is without doubt one of the most impudent
forgeries in that way ever perpetrated. From internal evidence, it was
drawn up at the latter end of the reign of Elizabeth, or at the beginning
{597} of the reign of James I., as the compiler speaks of Roger, Earl of
Rutland, as being living. This nobleman succeeded to the title in 1588, and
died in 1612. The pedigree ends in the Guernsey line with Henry de
Beauvoir; whom we may therefore presume to have been still alive, or but
recently deceased; and whose great-grandfather, according to the pedigree,
was the first of the name in the island. Allowing three generations to a
century, this would throw back the arrival of the first of the De Beauvoirs
to some part of the sixteenth century; but we have proof that they were
settled here long before that time. In an authentic document, preserved
among the records of the island, the extent of the crown revenues drawn up
by order of Edward III. in 1331, the names of Pierre and Guillaume de
Beauvoir are found. Another Pierre de Beauvoir, apparently the
great-grandson of the above-mentioned Pierre, was Bailiff of Guernsey from
1470 to 1480. As for the family of Harryes, no such I believe ever existed
in Guernsey; but a gentleman of the name of Peter Henry, belonging to a
family of very ancient standing in the island, bought property in Salisbury
in the year 1551, where the name seems to have been Anglicised to Harrys or
Harris; as the name of his son Andrew, who was a jurat of the Royal Court
of Guernsey, appears as often on the records of the island in the one form
as in the other. One of Peter Henry's or Harris's daughters was married at
Salisbury to a Henry de Beauvoir; and I have no doubt this is the marriage
with which the pedigree ends. If I am right, the Harryes' pedigree has no
more claim to authenticity than the De Beauvoir. If MR. POTTER wishes for
farther information, and will communicate with me, I shall be happy to
answer his inquiries as far as I am able.

The pedigree itself, however, suggests two or three Queries which I should
like to see answered.

The heading is signed Hamlet Sankye or Saukye. Is anything known of such a

The pedigree speaks of Sir Robert de Beauveir of Tarwell, Knt., _now
living_. Was there ever a family of the name of De Beauveir, De Beauvoir,
or Beaver, of Tarwell, in Nottinghamshire? And if there was, what arms did
they bear?

If there was such a family, was it in any way connected with any of the
early proprietors of Belvoir Castle?

Is anything known of a family of the name of Harryes or Harris of Orton,
and what were their arms?



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 325.)

The following entry appears in a Corporation Book of this city, under the
year 1662:

    "Thomas Corbold, who hath a loathesome disease, have, with his wife and
    two children, layne in the Porch of St. Peters per Mountegate above one
    year; it is now ordered by the Court that he be put into some place in
    the Pest-houses during the pleasure of the Court, untill the
    Lazar-houses be repaired."

How they were supported during the year does not appear, or if he belonged
to the parish; nor is it said that it was considered he gained settlement
on the parish by continuing in the porch one year.

I have heard of similar instances under an idea that any person may lodge
in a church porch, and are not removable; but I believe it is an erroneous


In proof of the idea being current among the lower orders, that the church
porch is a place of refuge for any houseless parishioners, I beg to state
that a poor woman of the adjoining parish of Langford, came the other day
to ask whether I, as a magistrate, could render her any assistance, as, in
consequence of her husband's father and mother having gone to America, she
and her family had become houseless, and were obliged to take up their
abode in the church porch.

A. S.

West Tofts Rectory, Brandon, Norfolk.

I know an instance where a person found a temporary, but at the same time
an involuntary, home in a church porch. There was a dispute between the
parishes of Frodingham and Broughton, co. Lincoln, some twelve months ago,
as to the settlement of an old woman. She had been living for some time in,
and had become chargeable to the latter parish, but was said to belong to
the former. By some means or other the woman's son was induced to convey
his mother to the parish of Frodingham, which he did; and as he knew quite
well that the overseer of the parish would not receive her at his hands, he
adopted the somewhat strange course of leaving her in the church porch,
where she remained until evening, when the overseer of Frodingham took her
away, fearing that her life might be in danger from exposure to the cold,
she being far advanced in years. Until I saw CHEVERELLS' Query, I thought
the depository of the old woman in the church porch was, so far as the
_place_ of deposit was concerned, more accidental than designed; but after
all it may be the remnant of some such custom as that of which he speaks,
and I, for one, should be glad to see farther inquiry made into it. To
which of J. H. Parker's _Parochial Tales_ does CHEVERELLS allude?




       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 417.)

The late Duke of Parma was not the first lineal representative of the
Stuarts, as stated by E. S. S. W. Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, who
succeeded in 1802, left by his wife Maria Theresa of Austria four
daughters. The eldest of these four, Beatrix, born in 1792, married, in
1812, Francis IV., Duke of Modena, and by him (who died on the 21st of
January, 1846) had issue two sons and two daughters. The eldest of these
sons, Francis V., the present reigning Duke of Modena, is therefore the
person who would be now sitting on the English throne had the Stuarts kept
the succession. He has no children, I believe, by his wife Adelgonda of
Bavaria; and the next person in succession would therefore be Dorothea, the
infant daughter of his deceased brother Victor.

Victor Emanuel's _second_ daughter was Maria Theresa, who married Charles
Duke of Parma, as stated by E. S. S. W.

The present Countess of Chambord is Maria Theresa Beatrice-Gaëtana, the
eldest of the two sisters of Francis V., Duke of Modena. She is therefore
wife of the representative of the House of Bourbon, and sister to the
representative of the House of Stuart.

S. L. P.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.

Allow me to correct the statement made by your correspondent, that the Duke
of Parma represented the Royal House of Stuart. The mother of the late Duke
of Parma had an elder sister, Maria Beatrice, who married Francis IV., late
Duke of Modena, and upon her death, in 1840, the _representation_ devolved
upon her son, Francis V., the present Duke of Modena, who was born in 1819.

P. V.

Allow me to remark on the article of E. S. S. W. (Vol. ix., p. 417.)
respecting the House of Stuart, that he is in error in assigning that
honour to the late Duke of Parma, and, as a consequence, to his infant son
and successor, Robert, now Duke of Parma. The late Duke was undoubtedly a
descendant of Charles I. through his mother; but his mother had an _elder_
sister, Beatrice, late Duchess of Modena, whose son, Francis V., now Duke
of Modena, born 1st June, 1819, is the unquestionable heir to the House of
Stuart, and, as a Jacobite would say, if any such curiosity there be in
existence, legitimate King of Great Britain and Ireland.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Townsend's Wax-paper Process._--At the last meeting of the
Photographic Society a paper was read by Mr. Townsend, giving the results
of a series of experiments instituted by him in reference to the wax-paper
process. One of the great objections hitherto made to this process has been
its slowness, as compared with the original calotype process, and its
various modifications; and another, that its preparation involved some
complexity of manipulation. Mr. Townsend has simplified the process
materially, having found that the use of the fluoride and cyanide of
potassium, as directed by Le Gray, in no way adds to the efficiency of the
process, either in accelerating or otherwise. The iodide and bromide of
potassium with free iodine give a paper which produces rapid, sure, and
clean results. He discards whey, sugar of milk, grape sugar, &c., hitherto
deemed essential, but which his experience shows to be unnecessary. He
exhibited three negatives of the same view taken consecutively at eight
o'clock in the morning, with the respective exposures of thirty seconds,
two and a half minutes, and ten minutes, each of which was good and
perfect. The formula he adopts is:

  Iodide of potassium                 600 grs.
  Bromide of potassium, from   150 to 250  "
  Re-sublimed iodine                    6  "
  Distilled water                      40 oz.

The waxed papers are wholly immersed in this solution, and left to soak at
least two hours, and are then hung to dry in the usual way. The papers are
made sensitive by wholly immersing them in aceto-nitrate of silver of the
following proportions:

  Nitrate of silver                 30 grs.
  Acetic acid                       30 minims.
  Distilled water                    1 oz.

The papers remaining in this solution not less than eight minutes. They are
washed in two waters for eight minutes each, and then blotted off in the
ordinary manner. Mr. Townsend states that there is no need to fear leaving
the paper in the sensitive bath too long. He has left it in the bath
fourteen hours without any injury. The paper thus prepared will keep ten or
twelve days; it may be longer, but his experience does not extend beyond
that time. With paper thus prepared a portrait was exhibited, taken in
fifty-five seconds, in a room with a side light; but it must be added, that
in this instance the paper was not washed, but was blotted off immediately
on its leaving the sensitive bath, though not used until two hours had
elapsed. Mr. Townsend uses for developing a saturated solution of gallic
acid with a drachm of aceto-nitrate to every four ounces of it, but he
considers that this proportion of aceto-nitrate may be beneficially
lessened. He finds that by this process he is certain of success, and is
never troubled with that browning over of the paper which so often attends
the use of the other methods of preparation. Besides the rapidity of action
which he states, there is the farther advantage that a lengthened exposure
is not injurious. The proportion of bromide may vary from 150 grs. to 250
grs.; less than 150 is not sufficient to produce a maximum of rapidity,
whilst more than 250 adds nothing to the effect.

_Photographic Litigation._--Will you allow me, through the medium of "N. &
Q.," to suggest to those who {599} take an interest in the collodion
process, the desirableness of making a subscription to aid Mr. Henderson in
his defence against the proceedings commenced by Mr. Talbot, to restrain
him (and through him, no doubt, all others) from taking collodion

It does not appear just that one person should bear the whole expense of a
defence in which so many are interested; and I have no doubt that if a
subscription be set on foot, many photographers will willingly contribute.
A subscription, besides its material aid to Mr. Henderson, would also serve
to show that public opinion is opposed to such absurd and unjust attempts
at monopoly.

It is difficult to imagine how a claim can be established to a right in an
invention made many years subsequent to the date of the patent under which
the claim is made--not only made by another person, but differing so widely
in principle from the patent process. The advertisement in the _Athenæum_
of Saturday last (June 10) shows plainly that it is intended, if possible,
to prevent the production of portraits on collodion by any person not
licensed by Mr. Talbot; and the harshness of this proceeding, after the
process has been in public use for several years, needs no comment.


30. Spring Gardens, Bradford.

[Footnote 11: The words of the advertisement are "making _and selling_."]

    [We insert this communication, because we believe it gives expression
    to a sentiment shared by many. Subscriptions in favour of M. La Roche,
    whose case stands first for trial, are received by Messrs. Horne and
    Thornthwaite. Our correspondent does not, however, accurately represent
    the caution issued by Mr. F. Talbot's solicitors, which is against
    "making _and selling_" photographic portraits by the collodion process.
    When giving up his patent to the public, Mr. Fox Talbot reserved "in
    the hands of his own licensees the application of the invention to the
    taking photographic portraits for sale," and we have always regretted
    that Mr. F. Talbot should have made such reservation, founded, as it
    is, upon a very questionable right.--ED. "N. & Q."]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Vandyking_ (Vol. ix., p. 452.).--Your correspondent P. C. S. S. asks the
meaning of the term _Vandyking_, in the following passage of a letter from
Secretary Windebanke to the Lord Deputy Wentworth, dated Westminster, Nov.
20, 1633, the Lord Deputy being then in Ireland:--

    "Now, my Lord, for my own observations of your carriage since you had
    the conduct of affairs there [in Ireland], because you press me so
    earnestly, I shall take the boldness to deliver myself as freely.

    "First, though while we had the happiness and honour to have your
    assistance here at the Council Board, you made many ill faces with your
    pen (pardon, I beseech your Lordship, the over free censure of your
    Vandyking), and worse, oftentimes, with your speeches, especially in
    the business of the Lord Falconberg, Sir Thomas Gore, Vermuyden, and
    others; yet I understand you make worse there in Ireland, and there
    never appeared a worse face under a cork upon a bottle, than your
    Lordship hath caused some to make in disgorging such church livings as
    their zeal had eaten up."--_Strafford's Letters_, vol. i. p. 161.

This passage, as well as what follows, is written in a strain of banter,
and is intended to compliment the great Lord Deputy under the pretence of a
free censure of his conduct. The first part of the second paragraph
evidently alludes to Wentworth's habit of drawing faces upon paper when he
was sitting at the Council Table, and the word _Vandyking_ is used in the
sense of _portrait-painting_. Vandyck was born in 1599; he visited England
for a short time in 1620, and in 1632 he came to England permanently, was
lodged by the king, and knighted; in the following year he received a
pension of 200l. for life, and the title of painter to his Majesty. It was
therefore quite natural that Windebanke should, in November, 1633, use the
term _Vandyking_ as equivalent to _portrait-painting_.

In the latter part of the same paragraph, the allusion is to the wry faces,
which the speeches of this imperious member of council sometimes caused.
Can any of your correspondents explain the expression, "a worse face under
a cork upon a bottle?"


_Monteith_ (Vol. ix., p. 452.).--The Monteith was a kind of punch-bowl
(sometimes of delf ware) with scallops or indentations in the brim, the
object of which was to convert it into a convenient tray for bringing in
the glasses. These were of wine-glass shape, and being placed with the
brims downwards, and radiating from the centre, and with the handles
protruding through the indentations in the bowl, were easily carried,
without much jingling or risk of breakage. Of course the bowl was empty of
liquor at the time.

P. P.

_A. M. and M. A._ (Vol. ix., p. 475.).--JUVERNA, M. A., is certainly wrong
in stating that "Masters of Arts of Oxford are styled 'M. A.,' in
contradistinction to the Masters of Arts in every other university." A. B.,
A. M., are the proper initials for _Baccalaureus_ and _Magister Artium_,
and should therefore only be used when the name is in Latin. B.A. and M.A.
are those for Bachelor and Master of Arts, and are the only ones to be used
where the name is expressed in English. Thus John Smith, had he taken his
first degree in Arts at any university, might indicate the fact by signing
John Smith, B.A., or Johannes S., A.B. If he put John Smith, A.B., a doubt
might exist whether he were not an _able-bodied_ seaman, for that is
implied by A.B. attached to an English name. The editor of Farindon's
_Sermons_, who is, I believe, a Dissenter, styles himself the Reverend T.
Jackson, S.T.P., _i. e._ Sacrosanctæ Theologiæ {600} Professor. He might as
well have part of his title in Sanscrit, as part in English and part in

I believe this mistake is made more frequently by graduates of Cambridge
than by those of Oxford. Indeed, they have now created a new degree, Master
of Laws, with the initials LL.M. (Legum Magister). But they are usually
infelicitous in their nomenclature, as witness their _voluntary_
theological examination, now made _compulsory_ by all the bishops.

E. G. R., M.A.


_Greek denounced by the Monks_ (Vol. ix., p. 467).--In his _History of the
Reformation_ (b. I. ch. iii.), D'Aubigné says,--

    "The monks asserted that all heresies arose from those two languages
    [Greek and Hebrew], and particularly from the Greek. 'The New
    Testament,' said one of them, 'is a book full of serpents and thorns.
    Greek,' continued he, 'is a new and recently-invented language, and we
    must be upon our guard against it. As for Hebrew, my dear brethren, it
    is certain that all who learn it immediately become Jews.' Heresbach, a
    friend of Erasmus and a respectable author, reports these expressions."

Had there been more authority, probably D'Aubigné would have quoted it.

B. H. C.

In Lewis's _History of the English Translation of the Bible_, edit. London,
1818, pp. 54, 55., the following passage occurs:

    "These proceedings for the advancement of learning and knowledge,
    especially in divine matters, alarmed the ignorant and illiterate
    monks, insomuch that they declaimed from the pulpits, that 'there was
    now a _new language_ discovered called Greek, of which people should
    beware, since it was that which produced all the heresies; that in this
    language was come forth a book called the _New Testament_, which was
    now in everybody's hands, and was full of thorns and briers: that there
    was also another language now started up which they called Hebrew, and
    that they who learnt it were termed Hebrews.'"

The authority quoted for this statement is Hody, _De Bibliorum Textibus_,
p. 465.

See also the rebuke administered by Henry VIII. to a preacher who had
"launched forth against Greek and its new interpreters," in Erasmus,
_Epp._, p. 347., quoted in D'Aubigné's _Reformation_, book XVIII. 1.


_Caldecott's Translation of the New Testament_ (Vol. viii., p. 410.).--J.
M. Caldecott, the translator of the New Testament, referred to by your
correspondent S. A. S., is the son of the late ---- Caldecott, Esq., of
Rugby Lodge, and was educated at Rugby School, where I believe he obtained
one or more prizes as a first-class Greek and Hebrew scholar. After
completing his studies at this school, his father purchased for him a
commission in the East India Company's service; but soon after his arrival
in India, conceiving a dislike to the army, he sold his commission and
returned to England. Being somewhat singular in his notions, and altogether
eccentric both in manner and appearance, he estranged himself from his
family and friends, and, as I have been informed, took up his temporary
abode in this city about the year 1828. Although his income was at that
time little short of 300l. per annum, he had neither house nor servant of
his own; but boarded in the house of a respectable tradesman, living on the
plainest fare (so as he was wont to say), to enable him to give the more to
feed the hungry and clothe the naked. In this way, and by being frequently
imposed upon by worthless characters, he gave away, in a few years, nearly
all his property, leaving himself almost destitute: and, indeed, would have
been entirely so, but for a weekly allowance made to him by his mother
(sometime since deceased), on which he is at the present time living in
great obscurity in one of our large seaport towns; but may be occasionally
seen in the streets with a long beard, and a broad-brimmed hat, addressing
a group of idlers and half-naked children. I could furnish your
correspondent S. A. S. with more information if needful.

T. J.


_Blue Bells of Scotland_ (Vol. viii., p. 388. Vol. ix., p. 209.).--Surely
[W (black-letter)] of Philadelphia is right in supposing that the Blue Bell
of Scotland, in the ballad which goes by that name, is a bell painted blue,
and used as the sign of an inn, and not the flower so called, as asserted
by HENRY STEPHENS, unless indeed there be an older ballad than the one
commonly sung, which, as many of your readers must be aware, contains this

 "He dwells in merry Scotland,
  At the _sign_ of the Blue Bell."

I remember to have heard that the popularity of this song dates from the
time when it was sung on the stage by Mrs. Jordan.

Can any one inform me whether the air is ancient or modern?



"_De male quæsitis gaudet non tertius hæres_" (Vol. ii., p. 167.).--The
quotation here wanted has hitherto been neglected. The words may be found,
with a slight variation, in _Bellochii Praxis Moralis Theologiæ, de casibus
reservatis, &c._, Venetiis, 1627, 4to. As the work is not common, I send
the passage for insertion, which I know will be acceptable to other
correspondents as well as to the querist:

    "Divino judicio permittitur ut tales surreptores rerum sacrarum diu
    ipsis rebus furtivis non lætentur, sed imo ab aliis nequioribus furibus
    præfatæ res illis {601} abripiantur, ut de se ipso fassus est ille, qui
    in suis ædibus hoc distichon inscripsit, ut refert Jo. Bonif., lib. de
    furt., § contrectatio, num. 134. in fin.:

     'Congeries lapidum variis constructa rapinis,
      Aut uret, aut ruet, aut raptor alter habebit.'

    Et juxta illud:

     'De rebus male acquisitis, non gaudebit tertius hæres.'

    Lazar (de monitorio), sect. 4. 9. 4., num. 16., imo nec secundus, ut
    ingenuè et perbellè fatetur in suo poemate, nostro idiomate Jerusalem
    celeste acquistata, cant. x. num. 88. Pater Frater Augustinus Gallutius
    de Mandulcho, ita canendo:

     'D'un' acquisto sacrilego e immondo,
      Gode di rado il successor secondo,
      Pero che il primo e mal' accorto herede
      Senza discretion li da di piedi.'"


_Mawkin_ (Vol. ix., pp. 303. 385.).--Is not _mawkin_ merely a corruption
for _mannikin_? I strongly suspect it to be so, though Forby, in his
_Vocabulary of East Anglia_, gives the word _maukin_ as if peculiar to
Norfolk and Suffolk, and derives it, like L., from _Mal_, for Moll or Mary.

F. C. H.

This word, in the Scottish dialect spelt _maukin_, means a hare. It occurs
in the following verse of Burns in _Tam Samson's Elegy_:

 "Rejoice, ye birring paitricks a';
  Ye cootie moorcocks, crousely craw;
  Ye _maukins_, cock your fud fu' braw,
            Withouten dread;
  Your mortal fae is now awa',
            Tam Samson's dead!"


"_Putting a spoke in his wheel_" (Vol. viii., pp. 269. 351. 576.).--There
is no doubt that "putting a spoke in his wheel" is "offering an
obstruction." But I have always understood the "spoke" to be, not a radius
of the wheel, but a bar put between the spokes at right angles, so as to
prevent the turning of the wheel; a rude mode of "locking," which I have
often seen practised. The correctness of the metaphor is thus evident.


_Dog Latin_ (Vol. viii., p. 523.).--The return of a sheriff to a writ which
he had not been able to serve, owing to the defendant's secreting himself
in a swamp, will be new to English readers. It was "Non come-at-ibus in

Since the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the motto of the United
States has been "E pluribus unum." A country sign-painter in Bucks county,
Pennsylvania, painted "E pluribur unibus," instead of it on a sign.



_Swedish Words current in England_ (Vol. vii., pp. 231. 366.).--Very many
Swedish words are current in the north of England, _e. gr._ _barn_ or
_bearn_ (Scotticè _bairn_), Sw. _barn_; _bleit_ or _blate_, bashful, Sw.
_blöd_; to _cleam_, to fasten, to spread thickly over, Sw. _klemma_; _cod_,
pillow, Sw. _kudde_; to _gly_, to squint, Sw. _glo_; to _lope_, to leap,
Sw. _löpa_; to _late_ (Cumberland), to seek, Sw. _leta_; _sackless_,
without crime, Sw. _saklös_; _sark_, shirt, Sw. _särk_; to _thole_
(Derbyshire), to endure, Sw. _tala_; to _walt_, to totter, to overthrow,
Sw. _wälta_; to _warp_, to lay eggs, Sw. _wärpa_; _wogh_ (Lancashire),
wall, Sw. _wägg_, &c. It is a fact very little known, that the Swedish
language bears the closest resemblance of all modern languages to the
English as regards grammatical structure, not even the Danish excepted.


_Mob_ (Vol. viii., p. 524.).--I have always understood that this word was
derived from the Latin expression _mobile vulgus_, which is, I believe, in



"_Days of my Youth_" (Vol. viii., p. 467.).--In answer to the inquiry made
a few months since, whether Judge St. George Tucker, of Virginia, was the
author of the lines beginning--

 "Days of my youth."

the undersigned states that he was a friend and relative of Judge Tucker,
and knows him to have been the author. They had a great run at the time,
and found their way not only into the newspapers, but even into the
almanacs of the day.

G. T.


_Encore_ (Vol. viii., pp. 387. 524.).--A writer in an English magazine, a
few years ago, proposed that the Latin word _repetitus_ should be used
instead of _encore_. Among other advantages he suggested that the people in
the gallery of a theatre would pronounce it _repeat-it-us_, and thus make
English of it.



_Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cambridge_ (Vol. ix., p. 493.).--Your
correspondent will find his question answered by referring to the _History
of the Royal Family_, 8vo., Lond., 1741, pp. 119. 156. For an account of
this book, which is founded upon the well-known Sandford's _Genealogical
History_, see Clarke's _Bibliotheca Legum_, edit. 1819, p. 174.

T. E. T.


_Right of redeeming Property_ (Vol. viii., p. 516.).--This right formerly
existed in Normandy, and, I believe, in other parts of France. In the
bailiwick of Guernsey, the laws of which are based on the ancient custom of
Normandy, the right is still exercised, although it has been abolished for
some years in the neighbouring island of Jersey. {602}

The law only applies to real property, which, by the Norman custom, was
divided in certain proportions among all the children; and this right of
"retrait," as it is technically termed, was doubtless intended to
counteract in some measure the too minute division of land, and to preserve
inheritances in families. It must be exercised within a year of the
purchase. For farther information on the subject, Berry's _History of
Guernsey_, p. 176., may be consulted.



_Latin Inscription on Lindsey Court-house_ (Vol. ix., pp. 492. 552.).--I
cannot but express my surprise at the learned (?) trifling of some of your
correspondents on the inscription upon Lindsey Court-house. Try it thus:

              "Fiat Justitia,
                 Hæc domus
  _O_dit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,
  _N_equitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

which will make two lines, an hexameter and a pentameter, the first
letters, _O_ and _N_, having perhaps been effaced by time or accident.


    [That this emendation is the right one is clear from the communication
    of another correspondent, B. R. A. Y., who makes the same, and adds in
    confirmation, "The following lines existed formerly (and do, perhaps,
    now) on the Market-house at Much Wenlock, Shropshire, which will
    explain their meaning:

                     'Hic locus
      _O_dit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,
      _N_equitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos.'

    The _O_ and _N_, being at the beginning of the lines as given by your
    correspondent, were doubtless obliterated by age."]

The restoration of this inscription proposed by me is erroneous, and must
be corrected from the perfect inscription as preserved at Pistoia and Much
Wenlock, cited by another correspondent in p. 552. The three inscriptions
are slightly varied. Perhaps "amat pacem" is better than "amat leges," on
account of the tautology with "conservat jura."


_Myrtle Bee_ (Vol. ix., p. 205. &c.).--"I have carefully read and reread
the articles on the myrtle bee, and I can come to no other conclusion than
that it is not a bird at all, but an insect, one of the hawkmoths, and
probably the humming-bird hawkmoth. We have so many indefatigable genuine
_field naturalists_, picking up every straggler which is blown to our
coasts, that I cannot think it possible there is a bird at all common to
_any_ district of England, and yet totally unknown to science. Now, insects
are often exceedingly abundant in particular localities, yet scarcely known
beyond them. The _size_ C. BROWN describes as certainly not larger than
_half_ that of the common wren. The humming-bird (_H. M._) is scarcely so
large as this, but its vibratory motion would make it look somewhat larger
than it really is. Its breadth, from tip to tip of the wings, is twenty to
twenty-four lines. The myrtle bee's "short flight is rapid, steady, and
direct," exactly that of the hawkmoth. The tongue of the myrtle bee is
"round, sharp, and pointed at the end, appearing capable of penetration,"
not a bad _popular_ description of the suctorial trunk of the hawkmoth,
from which it gains its generic name, _Macroglossa_. Its second pair of
wings are of a rusty yellow colour, which, when closed, would give it it
the appearance of being "tinged with yellow about the vent." It has also a
tuft of scaly hairs at the extremity of the abdomen, which would suggest
the idea of a tail. In fact, on the wing, it appears very like a little
bird, as attested by its common name. In habit it generally retires from
the mid-day sun, which would account for its being "put up" by the dogs.
The furze-chat, mentioned by C. BROWN, is the _Saxicola rubetra_, commonly
also called the whinchat.


_Mousehunt_ (Vol. ix., p. 65. &c.).--G. TENNYSON identifies the mousehunt
with the beechmartin, the _very largest_ of our _Mustelidæ_, on the
authority of Henley "the dramatic commentator." Was he a naturalist too? I
never heard of him as such.

Now, MR. W. R. D. SALMON, who first asked the question, speaks of it as
_less_ than the common weasel, and quotes Mr. Colquhoun's opinion, that it
is only "the young of the year." I have no doubt at all that this is
correct. The young of all the _Mustelidæ_ hunt, and to a casual observer
exhibit all the actions of full-grown animals, when not more than half the
size of their parents. There seems no reason to suppose that there are more
than four species known in England, the weasel, the stoat or ermine, the
polecat, and the martin. The full-grown female of the weasel is much
smaller than the male. Go to any zealous gamekeeper's exhibition, and you
will see them of many gradations in size.


_Longfellow's "Hyperion"_ (Vol. ix., p. 495.).--I would offer the following
rather as a suggestion than as an answer to MORDAN GILLOTT. But it has
always appeared to me that Longfellow has himself explained, by a simple
allusion in the work, the _reason_ which dictated the name of his
_Hyperion_. As the ancients fabled Hyperion to be the offspring of the
heavens and the earth; so, in his aspirations, and his weakness and
sorrows, Flemming (the hero of the work) personifies, as it were, the
mingling of heaven and earth in the heart and {603} mind of a man of true
nobility. The passage to which I allude is the following:

    "Noble examples of a high purpose, and a fixed will! Do they not move,
    Hyperion-like, on high? Were they not likewise sons of heaven and
    earth?"--Book iv. ch. 1.


_Benjamin Rush_ (Vol. ix., p. 451.).--INQUIRER asks "Why the freedom of
Edinburgh was conferred upon him?" I have looked into the Records of the
Town Council, and found the following entry:

    "4th March, 1767. The Council admit and receive Richard Stocktoun,
    Esquire, of New Jersey, Councillour at Law, and Benjamin Rush, Esquire,
    of Philadelphia, to be burgesses and gild brethren of this city, in the
    most ample form."

But there is no reason assigned.

JAMES LAURIE, Conjoint Town Clerk.

_Quakers executed in North America_ (Vol. ix., p. 305.).--A fuller account
of these nefarious proceedings is detailed in an abstract of the sufferings
of the people called Quakers, in 2 vols., 1733; vol. i. (Appendix) pp.
491-514., and in vol. iii. pp. 195-232.

E. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_For the purpose of inserting as many Replies as possible in this, the
closing Number of our_ NINTH VOLUME, _we have this week omitted our usual_

W. W. (Malta). _Received with many thanks._

R. H. (Oxford). _For_ Kentish Men _and_ Men of Kent, _see_ "N. & Q.," Vol.
v., pp. 321. 615.

MR. LONG_'s easy Calotype Process reached us too late for insertion this
week. It shall appear in our next._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is also issued in_ Monthly Parts, _for the convenience
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by Post-Office Order, drawn in favour of the Publisher_, MR. GEORGE BELL,
No. 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

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Contains iodine, phosphate of chalk, volatile acid, and the elements of the
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Sold Wholesale and Retail, in bottles, labelled with Dr. de Jongh's Stamp
and Signature, by

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       *       *       *       *       *

Sole Consignees and Agents for the United Kingdom and British Possessions;
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Imperial Measure, Half-pints, 2s. 6d.; Pints, 4s. 9d.

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
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guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
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BENNET, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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       *       *       *       *       *

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TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the


BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine,
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to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier
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BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its
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BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
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the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

    Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY
    & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main
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       *       *       *       *       *

ROSS & SONS' INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE, without Smell, the best and cheapest
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Sold in cases at 3s. 6d., 5s. 6d., 10s., 15s., and 20s. each case. Likewise
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Address, ROSS & SONS, 119. and 120. Bishopsgate Street, Six Doors from
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       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
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MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
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of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

handsomely Japanned and Brass-mounted Iron Bedsteads, Children's Cribs and
Cots of new and elegant designs, Mahogany, Birch, and Walnut-tree
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sent Free by Post.

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       *       *       *       *       *



KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
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Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
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Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

  168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE LONDON SCHOOL OF PHOTOGRAPHY, 78. Newgate Street.--At this Institution,
Ladies and Gentlemen may learn in One Hour to take Portraits and
Landscapes, and purchase the necessary Apparatus for Five Pounds. No charge
is made for the Instruction.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Cheapest House in Town for every Description of Photographic Apparatus,
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*** Price List Free on Application.

       *       *       *       *       *

COCOA-NUT FIBRE MATTING and MATS, of the best quality.--The Jury of Class
28, Great Exhibition, awarded the Prize Medal to T. TRELOAR, Cocoa-Nut
Fibre Manufacturer, 42. Ludgate Hill, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
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*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
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       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
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Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
               T. Grissell, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
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SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
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Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

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       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 24.

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