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Title: A Synopsis of the Birds of North America
Author: Audubon, John James
Language: English
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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

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      3-((7-1/2)/12). This should be read as three and seven and
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A SYNOPSIS OF THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA.

by

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, F.R.SS. L. & E.

Member of Various Scientific Associations in Europe and America.



Edinburgh:
Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh;
Longman, Rees, Brown, Green, and Longman,
London.
MDCCCXXXIX.

Printed by Neill and Co. Old Fishmarket Edinburgh.



PREFACE.


I have been induced to present this Volume to the Public by two
considerations. The figures and descriptions contained in the works
entitled "The Birds of America," and "Ornithological Biography, or an
Account of the Habits of the Birds of the United States," having been
issued in the miscellaneous manner which was thought best adapted to
the occasion, or which was rendered necessary by circumstances, seemed
to require a systematic index, in which the nomenclature should be
corrected, and the species arranged agreeably to my present views.
This Synopsis, then, will afford a methodical catalogue of all the
species hitherto discovered in the vast regions, extending from the
northern confines of Mexico to the Polar Seas, and which have been
described, and, with few exceptions, depicted in the works above
named. Another important object has been to present an arrangement of
these birds, so characterized, that a person desirous of studying
them, might, without much difficulty, be enabled to discover their
names, and trace some of the most important features in their
organization.

The species are disposed into genera and families; and, although the
location of the groups is not such as, in all respects, to satisfy
me, the arrangement will, I trust, be found in some degree useful. It
will be seen that, although I have adopted many of the modern groups,
I have not sectioned our birds on so minutely divided a scale as that
employed by some recent writers. Besides the characters of the
Families, Genera, and Species, which are given with considerable
detail, I have presented a short account of the Geographical
Distribution of the species, and references to the principal authors
by whom they have been described. I am confident that these notices
will suffice to enable the student to determine with certainty any
species that may come under his consideration, and that the
information respecting its habits, which he will find in the works
referred to, will afford him at least sufficient knowledge to form a
basis for the more extended observation which he may contemplate. To
the name of the genus I have appended that of the author by whom it
has been instituted; and with the specific names I have dealt in the
same manner, giving as authorities the individuals who first employed
them, although they may have referred them to different genera. It is
probable that many errors have been made in this department; but I
shall be happy to see them corrected, as my wish is to do justice to
all.

On this occasion I have again to acknowledge the benefit derived from
the aid of my friend Mr Macgillivray, whose general knowledge of
ornithology, and perfect candour, have rendered his advice peculiarly
valuable.

    J. J. AUDUBON.

    Edinburgh, _1st July 1839_.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                                          Page

  FAMILY I. VULTURINÆ. VULTURINE BIRDS,      1

  Genus 1. Cathartes. Turkey-Vulture,        1

  II. FALCONINÆ. FALCONINE BIRDS,            3
    1. Polyborus. Caracara,                  4
    2. Buteo. Buzzard,                       5
    3. Aquila. Eagle,                        8
    4. Haliaetus. Sea-Eagle,                 9
    5. Pandion. Osprey,                     11
    6. Elanus. Elanus,                      12
    7. Ictinia. Ictinia,                    13
    8. Nauclerus. Swallow-tailed Hawk,      14
    9. Falco. Falcon,                       15
   10. Astur. Hawk,                         17
   11. Circus. Harrier,                     19

  III. STRIGINÆ. OWLS,                      20
    1. Surnia. Day-Owl,                     21
    2. Ulula. Night-Owl,                    23
    3. Strix. Screech-Owl,                  24
    4. Syrnium. Hooting-Owl,                26
    5. Otus. Eared-Owl,                     27
    6. Bubo. Horned-Owl,                    29

  IV. CAPRIMULGINÆ. GOATSUCKERS,            30
    1. Caprimulgus. Goatsucker,             31
    2. Chordeiles. Night-Hawk,              32

  V. CYPSELINÆ. SWIFTS,                     33
    1. Chætura. Spine-Tail,                 33

  VI. HIRUNDINÆ. SWALLOWS,                  34
    1. Hirundo. Swallow,                    34

  VII. MUSCICAPINÆ. FLYCATCHERS,            37
    1. Milvulus. Swallow-Tail,              37
    2. Muscicapa. Flycatcher,               39
    3. Ptilogonys. Ptilogonys,              45
    4. Culicivora. Gnat-Catcher,            46

  VIII. SYLVICOLINÆ. WOOD-WARBLERS,         47
    1. Myiodioctes. Flycatching-Warbler,    48
    2. Sylvicola. Wood-Warbler,             50
    3. Trichas. Ground-Warbler,             63
    4. Helinaia. Swamp-Warbler,             66
    5. Mniotilta. Creeping-Warbler,         70

  IX. CERTHIANÆ. CREEPERS,                  71
    1. Certhia. Tree-Creeper,               72
    2. Troglodytes. Wren,                   73

  X. PARINÆ. TITS,                          77
    1. Parus. Tit,                          78

  XI. SYLVIANÆ. WARBLERS,                   80
    1. Regulus. Kinglet,                    81
    2. Sialia. Blue Bird,                   83

  XII. TURDINÆ. THRUSHES,                   85
    1. Cinclus. Dipper,                     86
    2. Orpheus. Mocking-Bird,               86
    3. Turdus. Thrush,                      88

  XIII. MOTACILLINÆ. WAGTAILS,              92
    1. Seiurus. Wood-Wagtails,              92
    2. Anthus. Pipit,                       94

  XIV. ALAUDINÆ. LARKS,                     95
    1. Alauda. Lark,                        96

  XV. FRINGILLINÆ. FINCHES,                 97
    1. Plectrophanes. Lark-Bunting,         98
    2. Emberiza. Bunting,                  100
    3. Niphæa. Snow-Bird,                  106
    4. Spiza. Painted-Bunting,             107
    5. Ammodramus. Shore-Finch,            109
    6. Peucæa. Pinewood-Finch,             112
    7. Linaria. Linnet,                    113
    8. Carduelis. Goldfinch,               115
    9. Fringilla. Finch,                   118
   10. Pipilo. Ground-Finch,               123
   11. Erythrospiza. Purple-Finch,         124
   12. Corythus. Pine-Finch,               126
   13. Loxia. Crossbill,                   127
   14. Corydalina. Lark-Finch,             129
   15. Pitylus. Cardinal Grosbeak,         131
   16. Coccoborus. Song-Grosbeak,          132
   17. Coccothraustes. Grosbeak,           134
   18. Pyranga. Red-Bird,                  135

  XVI. AGELAINÆ. MARSH-BLACKBIRDS,         137
    1. Dolichonyx. Rice-Bird,              138
    2. Molothrus. Cow-Bird,                139
    3. Agelaius. Marsh-Blackbird,          139
    4. Icterus. Hangnest,                  142
    5. Quiscalus. Crow-Blackbird,          145

  XVII. STURNINÆ. STARLINGS,               147
    1. Sturnella. Meadow-Starling,         148

  XVIII. CORVINÆ. CROWS,                   149
    1. Corvus. Crow,                       150
    2. Pica. Magpie,                       151
    3. Garrulus. Jay,                      153
    4. Nucifraga. Nutcracker,              155

  XIX. LANIINÆ. SHRIKES,                   156
    1. Lanius. Shrike, or Butcher-Bird,    157

  XX. VIREONINÆ. GREENLETS,                159
    1. Vireo. Greenlet,                    159

  XXI. PIPRINÆ. MANAKINS,                  162
    1. Icteria. Chat,                      163

  XXII. AMPELINÆ. CHATTERERS,              163
    1. Bombycilla. Waxwing,                164

  XXIII. SITTINÆ. NUTHATCHES,              166
    1. Sitta. Nuthatch,                    166

  XXIV. TROCHILINÆ. HUMMINGBIRDS,          168
    1. Trochilus. Hummingbird,             169
    2. Selasphorus. Ruffed-Hummingbird,    171

  XXV. ALCEDINÆ. KINGFISHERS,              172
    1. Alcedo. Kingfisher,                 172

  XXVI. PICINÆ. WOODPECKERS,               174
    1. Picus. Woodpecker,                  175

  XXVII. CUCULINÆ. CUCKOOS,                186
    1. Coccyzus. American Cuckoo,          186

  XXVIII. PSITTACINÆ. PARROTS,             188
    1. Centurus.,                          188

  XXIX. COLUMBINÆ. PIGEONS,                189
    1. Columba. Dove,                      190
    2. Starnænas. Ground Dove,             193
    3. Ectopistes. Long-tailed Dove,       194

  XXX. PAVONINÆ. PAVONINE BIRDS,           195
    1. Meleagris. Turkey,                  196

  XXXI. PERDICINÆ. PARTRIDGES,             198
    1. Ortyx. American Partridge,          198

  XXXII. TETRAONINÆ. GROUSE,               201
    1. Tetrao. Grouse,                     201
    2. Lagopus. Ptarmigan,                 206

  XXXIII. RALLINÆ. RAILS,                  209
    1. Gallinula. Gallinule,               209
    2. Fulica. Coot,                       211
    3. Ortygometra. Crake-Gallinule,       212
    4. Rallus. Rail,                       214
    5. Aramus. Courlan,                    216

  XXXIV. GRUINÆ. CRANES,                   218
    1. Grus. Crane,                        218

  XXXV. CHARADRIINÆ. PLOVERS,              219
    1. Charadrius. Plover,                 220
    2. Aphriza. Surf-Bird,                 225
    3. Strepsilas. Turnstone,              226
    4. Hæmatopus. Oyster-catcher,          228

  XXXVI. SCOLOPACINÆ. SNIPES,              229
    1. Tringa. Sandpiper,                  230
    2. Phalaropus. Phalarope,              238
    3. Lobipes. Lobefoot,                  240
    4. Totanus. Tatler,                    241
    5. Limosa. Godwit,                     246
    6. Scolopax. Snipe,                    247
    7. Microptera. Bogsucker,              250
    8. Recurvirostra. Avocet,              251
    9. Himantopus. Stilt,                  252
   10. Numenius. Curlew,                   253

  XXXVII. TANTALINÆ. IBISES,               256
    1. Ibis. Ibis,                         256
    2. Tantalus. Tantalus,                 258
    3. Platalea. Spoonbill,                259

  XXXVIII. ARDEINÆ. HERONS,                261
    1. Ardea. Heron,                       261

  XXXIX. ANATINÆ. DUCKS,                   267
    1. Phœnicopterus. Flamingo,            268
    2. Anser. Goose,                       270
    3. Cygnus. Swan,                       273
    4. Anas. Duck,                         275
    5. Fuligula. Sea-Duck,                 284

  XL. MERGINÆ. MERGANSERS,                 298
    1. Mergus. Merganser,                  297

  XLI. PELECANINÆ. PELICANS,               300
    1. Phalacrocorax. Cormorant,           301
    2. Plotus. Anhinga,                    305
    3. Tachypetes. Frigate Bird,           306
    4. Pelecanus. Pelican,                 308
    5. Sula. Gannet,                       310
    6. Phaeton. Tropic Bird,               312

  XLII. LARINÆ. GULLS,                     313
    1. Rhynchops. Skimmer,                 313
    2. Sterna. Tern,                       315
    3. Larus. Gull,                        322

  XLIII. PROCELLARINÆ. FULMARS,            330
    1. Lestris. Jager,                     331
    2. Diomedea. Albatross,                333
    3. Procellaria. Fulmar,                335
    4. Puffinus. Shearwater,               337
    5. Thalassidroma. Petrel,              339

  XLIV. ALCINÆ. AUKS,                      341
    1. Mormon. Puffin,                     342
    2. Alca. Auk,                          344
    3. Phaleris. Phaleris,                 345
    4. Mergulus. Sea-Dove,                 348
    5. Uria. Guillemot,                    349

  XLV. COLYMBINÆ. DIVERS AND GREBES,       351
    1. Colymbus. Diver,                    352
    2. Podiceps. Grebe,                    355



SYNOPSIS.



FAMILY I. VULTURINÆ. VULTURINE BIRDS, OR VULTURES.


Bill of moderate length, stout, cerate; upper mandible with the tip
elongated and decurved; lower mandible rounded and thin-edged at the
end. Head rather small, or of moderate size, ovato-oblong, and with
part of the neck destitute of feathers. Eyes of moderate size, without
projecting ridges. External aperture of ears rather small and simple.
Skin over the fore part of the neck bare or merely downy. Tarsus
rather stout, bare, and shorter than the middle toe; hind toe much
smaller than the second; anterior toes connected at the base by a web;
claws large, moderately curved, rather acute. Plumage full and rather
compact. Wings very long, subacuminate. Œsophagus excessively wide,
and dilated into a crop; stomach rather large, somewhat muscular, with
a soft rugous epithelium; intestine of moderate length and width;
cœca extremely small. The young when fledged have the head and
upper part of the neck generally covered with down. Eggs commonly two.



GENUS I. CATHARTES, Illiger. TURKEY-VULTURE.


Bill of moderate length, rather slender, somewhat compressed; upper
mandible with its dorsal outline nearly straight and declinate to the
end of the large cere, then decurved, the edges a little festooned,
rather thick, the tip descending and rather obtuse; lower mandible
with the angle long and rather narrow, the dorsal line ascending and
slightly convex, the back broad, the edges sharp, towards the end
decurved. Nostrils oblong, large, pervious. Head oblong. Tongue deeply
concave or induplicate, its edges serrate with reversed papillæ.
Œsophagus dilated into an enormous crop; stomach moderately
muscular; duodenum convoluted. Head and upper part of neck denuded,
being only sparingly covered with very short down. Wings very long and
extremely broad; third, fourth, and fifth primaries longest, first
much shorter. Tail of moderate length, nearly even. Tarsus short,
rather stout, roundish, reticulate. Hind toe very small, second a
little shorter than fourth, third very long, all scutellate for more
than half their length. Claws strong, arched, compressed, obtuse.


1. 1. Cathartes Californianus, Lath. Californian
Turkey-Vulture.--Turkey-Buzzard.

     Plate CCCCXXVI. Adult.

Nostrils small, elliptical, occupying only the posterior half of the
nasal groove; feathers of the ruff and breast lanceolate and
acuminate; primaries finely acuminate, fourth and fifth longest; tail
rather short, even. Adult with the head bare and yellowish-red, the
plumage brownish-black, the secondaries grey, tipped with white, their
coverts large, tipped with the same. Young with the head downy and
dusky, the plumage blackish-brown, the feathers edged with light
brown, the secondary coverts tipped with brownish-white.

_Male_, length 50. _Female_, length 55.

California and Columbia Rivers. Resident in the south.

    Cathartes Californianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 22.

    Californian Vulture, Nuttall, Man. vi. p. 39.

    Californian Vulture, Cathartes Californianus, Aud. v. v. p.
        240.


2. 2. Cathartes Aura, Linn. Red-headed
Turkey-Vulture.--Turkey-Buzzard. Turkey-Vulture.

     Plate CLI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Young fledged.

Nostrils very large, elliptical, occupying the whole nasal cavity;
feathers of the ruff and breast ovate, rounded; skin over the crop
bare; tail rounded. Adult with the skin of the head and neck wrinkled
and blood-red, the horny part of the bill yellowish-white; the plumage
blackish-brown, deepest on the neck and under parts; feet
flesh-coloured, tinged with yellow. Young when fledged with the skin
of the head and neck dull flesh-coloured and more downy, the horny tip
of the bill light blue, the plumage nearly as in the adult, but the
wing-coverts and secondaries spotted with whitish.

_Male._--Length 32, extent of wings 76.

From Texas to Pennsylvania. Inland westward to the Columbia River.
Resident.

    Turkey-Vulture or Turkey-Buzzard, Vultur Aura, Wils. v. ix. p.
        96.

    Cathartes Aura, Bonap. Syn. p. 22.

    Cathartes Aura, Turkey-Vulture, Rich. & Swains. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 4.

    Turkey-Vulture or Turkey-Buzzard, Nuttal, Man. v. ii. p. 43.

    Turkey-Buzzard, Cathartes Aura, Aud. v. ii. p. 296; v. v. p.
        339.


3. 3. Cathartes atratus, Wils. Black-headed Turkey-Vulture.--Black
Vulture. Carrion Crow.

     Plate CVI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Nostrils very large, oblong, occupying the whole nasal cavity;
feathers of the neck short, very broad, abruptly rounded, advancing
farther on the hind part; skin over the crop feathered; tail even.
Adult with the skin of the head and neck corrugated, dusky, the horny
part of the bill greyish-yellow, the plumage bluish-black, feet
yellowish-grey. Young when fledged with the head and neck closely
covered with dusky down; the plumage blackish-brown.

_Male_, length 26, extent of wings 54.

From Texas to New Jersey. Up the Mississippi to the Ohio. Columbia
River. Resident.

    Black Vulture or Carrion Crow, Vultur atratus, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. ix. p. 104.

    Cathartes Iota, Bonap. Syn. p. 23.

    Black Vulture or Carrion Crow, Cathartes Iota, Nuttal, Man. v.
        i. p. 46.

    Black Vulture or Carrion Crow, Aud. v. ii. p. 33; v. v. p.
        345.

    Cathartes atratus, Black Vulture, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 6.



FAMILY II. FALCONINÆ. FALCONINE BIRDS.


Bill short, stout, cerate; upper mandible with the tip elongated and
decurved; lower mandible rounded and thin-edged at the end. Head
rather large, broadly ovate, feathered. Eyes large, with prominent
superciliary ridges. External aperture of ears of moderate size, and
simple. Tarsus longer than the middle toe; claws very large, much
curved, extremely acute. Plumage full and generally compact. Wings
very long and broad. Œsophagus excessively wide and dilated into a
crop; stomach large, somewhat membranous, its muscular fasciculi being
placed in a single series; intestine short and rather wide, or very
long and slender; cœca extremely small. The young, when fledged,
generally having the lower parts longitudinally streaked. Eggs from
two to six, ovate, or roundish. Nest on trees, rocks, or the ground.



GENUS I. POLYBORUS, Vieill. CARACARA.


Bill large, high, rather long, much compressed; cere large, covered
with hair-like feathers; upper outline convex and declinate to the
edge of the cere, then decurved; edge of upper mandible slightly
arched and nearly even, tip of lower compressed and rounded. Nostrils
elliptical, oblique, in the anterior part of the cere near the ridge.
Eyelids and space anterior to the eye denuded, as is the skin over the
crop. Feet rather long; tarsi anteriorly scutellate, sharp-edged and
scaly behind; toes rather long, broadly scutellate, the first much
shorter than the second; claws long, little curved, that of the middle
toe being only slightly arched. Wings long, rounded, the third and
fourth quills longest, the first five having the inner web cut out.
Tail rather long, rounded.


4. 1. Polyborus Braziliensis, Gmel. Brazilian Caracara.--Caracara
Eagle.

     Plate CLXI. Young.

Adult with the upper part of the head and nape brownish-black, the
throat and ear-coverts yellowish-white; the upper parts finely barred
with brown and dull white, the rump and tail lighter, the latter with
a large terminal brown band; the lower parts similarly barred with
reddish-white and brown. Young with the upper part of the head brown,
streaked with dusky, the hind neck and part of the breast pale
yellowish-red longitudinally variegated with brown; the middle of the
back, scapulars, wing-coverts and secondaries dark brown, as are the
hind part of the breast and the tibiæ; the tail nearly as in the
adult.

_Male_, 23-1/2, 48.

Texas and Florida. Resident.

    Caracara Eagle Polyborus vulgaris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        350; v. v. p. 351.



GENUS II. BUTEO, Bechst. BUZZARD.


Bill short, with the upper outline nearly straight and declinate to
the edge of the cere, then decurved, the sides rapidly sloping, the
edges with a slight festoon, the tip trigonal, acute; lower mandible
with the dorsal line convex and ascending, the edges arched, at the
end deflected, the tip rounded. Head large, roundish, flattened above.
Nostrils, obovate, nearer the ridge than the margin. Neck rather
short. Body full. Feet short, robust; tarsi roundish, anteriorly
feathered half-way down, and scutellate, posteriorly also scutellate;
toes of moderate length, scaly for half their length; claws long,
arched, compressed, acuminate. Plumage full and rather blended. Space
between the bill and eye covered with bristly feathers. Wings long,
broad, the fourth quill longest, the first and seventh or eighth about
equal; the first four abruptly cut out on the inner web. Tail rather
long, broad, slightly rounded. Cere and feet yellow; bill light blue
at the base, black at the tip, in all the American species.


5. 1. Buteo Harrisii, Aud. Harris's Buzzard.

     Plate CCCXCII. Female.

Bill higher and feet more robust than in the other species. Wings much
rounded, the first quill four inches shorter than the fourth, which is
longest, the seventh longer than the second. Chocolate-brown;
wing-coverts and tibial feathers brownish-red; upper tail-coverts,
base and end of tail white.

_Female_, 24, wing 15-1/4.

Mississippi. Extremely rare. Migratory.

    Louisiana Hawk, Falco Harrisii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 30.


6. 2. Buteo vulgaris, Willoughby. Common Buzzard.

     Plate CCCLXXII. Female.

Upper parts chocolate-brown; primaries black toward the end, part of
their inner webs white, barred with brownish-black; tail with about
ten dusky bars on a reddish-brown ground, the last dark bar broader;
eyelids whitish; throat white, longitudinally streaked with dusky;
the rest of the lower parts yellowish or brownish-white, barred with
brown. This species is subject to much variation in colour.

_Female_, 23 inches, wing 17.

Rocky Mountains, Columbia River, and Fur Countries.

    Buteo vulgaris, Common Buzzard, Rich. & Sw. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 47.

    Common Buzzard, Falco buteo, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 108.


7. 3. Buteo borealis, Gmel. Red-tailed Buzzard.--Red-tailed Hawk.--Hen
Hawk.

     Plate LI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Male with the upper part of the head and hind neck light
greyish-brown, the back and scapulars dark brown, the latter broadly
margined with brownish-white; smaller wing-coverts chocolate-brown;
larger, lighter, tipped with white; primary quills blackish-brown,
secondaries lighter, tipped with brownish-white, all barred with
blackish; upper tail-coverts whitish, barred with brown; tail bright
yellowish-red, with a narrow bar of black near the end, and tipped
with whitish. Lower parts yellowish-white, the fore part of the breast
with linear, guttiform, or sagittate spots; feathers of the leg and
tarsus pale reddish-yellow. Female similar to the male, but with the
upper parts darker, the lower nearly white, there being only a few
narrow streaks on the sides of the breast. Young with the upper parts
brown, streaked with yellowish-red, the tail-coverts yellowish-white
barred with brown, the tail light greyish-brown, barred with dark
brown and tipped with white; lower parts yellowish-white, with oblong
longitudinal brown spots; the feathers of the sides and tibiæ barred
with the same.

_Male_, 20-1/2, 46. _Female_, 24.

From Texas northward to the Fur Countries, and westward to the base of
the Rocky Mountains. Resident.

    Red-tailed Hawk, Falco borealis, Wils. Am. Orn. v. vi. p. 76.
        Adult.

    American Buzzard or White-breasted Hawk, Falco leverianus,
        Wils. Am. Orn. v. vi. p. 78.

    Buteo borealis, Red-tailed Buzzard, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 50.

    Red-tailed Hawk or Buzzard, Falco borealis, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 102.

    Red-tailed Hawk, Falco borealis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. 1. p. 265;
        v. v. p. 378.


8. 4. Buteo Harlani, Aud. Harlan's Buzzard.--Black Warrior.

Plate LXXXVI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Size of Common Buzzard, which it resembles in form and proportion.
General colour of plumage deep chocolate-brown, glossed with
greyish-blue; inner webs of quills white, those of the primaries
barred with dusky toward the end; tail lighter than the back, rather
narrowly barred with brownish-black, and tipped with brownish-red;
lower parts paler, anteriorly streaked, posteriorly barred with
brownish-black; lower wing-coverts whitish, spotted with deep brown.

_Male_, 21, 45. _Female_, 22.

Louisiana. Extremely rare.

    Black Warrior, Falco Harlani, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 441. v.
        v. p. 380.

    Black Buzzard, Falco Harlani, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 105.


9. 5. Buteo lineatus, Gmel. Red-breasted Buzzard.--Chicken Hawk,
Red-shouldered Hawk, Winter Hawk.

     Plate LVI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female. Adult.

     Plate LXXI. Young male.

Adult with the head, neck, and back light yellowish-red,
longitudinally spotted with dark brown; smaller wing-coverts deep
yellowish-red, with the centre brown; larger coverts and secondary
quills dusky, broadly barred with white; primary quills
brownish-black, barred with white; tail brownish-black, narrowly
banded and tipped with white. Lower parts of the neck and lower
wing-coverts light yellowish-red, the former longitudinally lined with
dusky and faintly barred with whitish, the rest of the lower parts
barred with light red and reddish-white. Young with the upper parts
deep brown, the tail-coverts, tail, and quills barred with
brownish-white; the lower parts white, longitudinally streaked and
spotted with brown.

_Male_, 21-1/2, 44.

From Texas to Nova Scotia, and westward to the Missouri. Very
abundant. Resident.

    Red-shouldered Hawk, Falco lineatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi.
        p. 86. Young.

    Winter Falcon, Falco hyemalis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 73.
        Adult.

    Falco hyemalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 33.

    Winter Falcon or Red-shouldered Hawk, Falco hyemalis, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 106.

    Red-shouldered Hawk, Falco lineatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        296; v. v. p. 380.

    Winter Hawk, Falco hyemalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 364.
        Young.


10. 6. Buteo Pennsylvanicus, Wils. Broad-winged Buzzard.

     Plate XCI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

General colour of upper parts umber-brown; quills blackish-brown, the
greater part of their inner webs whitish, with narrow dusky bands;
tail with three very broad bands of dark brown; alternating with two
broad white bands, and the tips brownish-white; cheeks reddish-brown,
with a dark mystachial band; lower parts yellowish-white, barred with
light brown, that colour predominating anteriorly. Female similar,
lighter above, more tinged with red beneath, where the spots are
larger and more irregular. Young with the upper parts brown, streaked
and spotted with white; the tail light greyish-brown, with seven dusky
bars; lower parts yellowish-white, longitudinally marked with
linear-oblong brown spots.

_Male_, 16, 38. _Female_, 19.

From Maryland to Nova Scotia. Rare in the interior.

    Broad-winged Hawk, Falco Pennsylvanicus, Wils. Amer. Ornith.
        v. vi. p. 92.

    Falco Pennsylvanicus, Bonap. Syn. p. 29.

    Broad-winged Hawk, Falco Pennsylvanicus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        105.

    Broad-winged Hawk, Falco Pennsylvanicus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 461, v. v. p. 377.


11. 7. Buteo lagopus, Vigors. Rough-legged Buzzard.

     Plate CCCCXXII. Fig. 1. Old Male. Fig. 2. Young, first
     winter.

     Plate CLXVI. Male. Middle age.

Tarsi feathered in their whole length. Adult male with the general
colour of the plumage blackish-brown; the forehead and a large patch
on the hind neck white, streaked with blackish-brown; all the feathers
of the back, the scapulars, the wing-coverts, the quills, and the
tail-feathers, white toward the base, and more or less barred with
whitish-grey, or brown; axillar feathers, some of those on the sides,
and some of the tibial feathers, with the lower tail-coverts similarly
marked; the white forming a conspicuous patch on the under surface of
the wing, occupying the greater part of the primaries as well as part
of the inner webs of the secondaries; tail brownish-black, barred with
greyish-white, there being six black bands on the middle feathers, the
last very broad. Female of a uniform dark chocolate-brown, the tail
banded, and the same parts white as in the male. Young with the head
and neck streaked with umber-brown, and yellowish-white; back
umber-brown, variegated with light reddish-brown and yellowish-white;
quills dark brown towards the end, the outer webs of the first tinged
with grey, the base of all white, that colour extending farther on the
secondaries, of most of which, and of some of the primaries, the inner
web is irregularly barred with brown; tail white at the base, brown
toward the end, with a broad subterminal bar of brownish-black, the
tips brownish-white; middle and hind part of the breast, with the
sides, brownish-black, the rest of the lower parts pale yellowish-red,
streaked or barred with dusky.

_Male_, 21-1/2, 51-1/2. _Female_, 23.

From Maryland northward. Columbia River. Not met with in the interior.
Migratory. Not very abundant.

    Black Hawk, Falco niger, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 82. Adult.

    Falco lagopus, Bonap. Syn. p. 32. Young.

    Falco Sanci-Johannis, Bonap. Syn. p. 32. Adult.

    Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Buzzard, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 52.

    Rough-legged Falcon, Falco lagopus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        59, Young; v. v. p. 216, Adult and Young.



GENUS III. AQUILA, Briss. EAGLE.


Bill rather short, deep, compressed; upper mandible with the dorsal
outline nearly straight and sloping at the base, beyond the cere
decurved, the sides sloping and slightly convex, the edges nearly
straight, with a slight convexity and a shallow sinus close to the
strong subtrigonal tip; lower mandible with the dorsal outline convex,
the tip obliquely truncate. Head large, roundish, flattened above.
Nostrils oval, oblique, nearer the ridge than the margin. Neck rather
short. Body very large. Feet rather short, very robust; tarsi
roundish, feathered to the toes; which are rather short, united at the
base by short webs, covered above with a series of angular scales, and
towards the end with a few large scutella; claws long, curved,
rounded, flat beneath, acuminate. Plumage compact, imbricated, glossy;
feathers of the head and neck narrow and pointed; space between the
bill and eye covered with small bristle-pointed feathers disposed in a
radiating manner. Wings long, the fourth quill longest; the first
short; the outer six abruptly cut out on the inner web. Tail rather
long, ample, rounded.


12. 1. Aquila Chrysaetos, Linn. Golden Eagle.

     Plate CLXXXI. Female.

General colour of the plumage dark brown glossed with purple; occiput,
hind part and sides of the neck, light brownish-yellow; wing-coverts
light brown; primary quills brownish-black, secondary with the coverts
brown, those next the body more or less mottled with brownish-white,
excepting at the ends; tail dark brown, lighter towards the base, with
a few irregular whitish markings; feathers of the legs and tarsi, and
lower tail-coverts, light yellowish-brown. Young with the basal
three-fourths of the tail white.

_Male_, 32, 70. _Female_, 38, 84.

From Pennsylvania northward. Never seen far in the interior. Resident.

    Falco fulvus, Bonap. Syn. p. 25.

    Aquila Chrysaetos, Golden Eagle, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 12.

    Ring-tailed Eagle, Falco fulvus, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. vii.
        p. 13.

    Royal or Golden Eagle, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 62.

    Golden Eagle, Falco Chrysaetos, Aud. Ornith. Biog. v. ii. p.
        464.



GENUS IV. HALIAETUS, Savigny. SEA-EAGLE.


Bill rather short, very deep, compressed; upper mandible with the
dorsal outline nearly straight at the base, beyond the cere decurved,
the sides sloping, the edges nearly straight, with a slight obtuse
process, and a shallow sinus close to the strong trigonal tip; lower
mandible, with the dorsal outline slightly convex, the tip obliquely
truncate. Head large, oblong, flattened above. Nostrils oblong,
oblique, near the ridge. Neck of moderate length. Body very large.
Feet rather short, very robust; tarsi roundish, covered anteriorly
with the transverse scutella, posteriorly with large, laterally with
small scales; toes robust, free, scutellate above; claws large,
curved, rounded, flat beneath, acuminate. Plumage compact, imbricated;
feathers of the head and neck narrow and pointed; space between the
bill and eye barish, being sparsely covered with bristle-like
feathers, disposed in a radiating manner. Wings long, the second and
third quills longest, the outer five cut out abruptly on the inner
web. Tail rather long, rounded. Duodenum convoluted.


13. 1. Haliaetus Washingtoni, Aud. Washington Sea-Eagle.

     Plate XI. Male.

Tarsus and toes uniformly scutellate in their whole length. Bill
bluish-black, cere yellowish-brown, feet orange-yellow, claws
bluish-black. Upper part of the head, hind neck, back, scapulars,
rump, tail-coverts, and posterior tibial feathers blackish-brown,
glossed with a coppery tint; throat, fore-neck, breast, and belly
light brownish-yellow, each feather with a central blackish-brown
streak; wing-coverts light greyish-brown, those next the body becoming
darker; primary quills dark brown, deeper on their inner webs;
secondaries lighter, and on their outer webs of nearly the same light
tint as their coverts; tail uniform dark brown.

_Male_, 43, 122.

From Louisiana northward. Exceedingly rare. The specimen figured
procured in Kentucky. One seen in Labrador.

    Bird of Washington, Falco Washingtonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 58.


14. 2. Haliaetus leucocephalus, Linn. White-headed Sea-Eagle.--Bald
Eagle.

     Plate XXXI. Adult Male. Plate CXXVI. Young.

Male. Tarsus with a few scutella; toes terminally scutellate. Male
with the bill, cere, iris, and feet yellow; the head, the neck for
half its length, the rump, upper and lower tail-coverts, and tail
white; the rest of the plumage chocolate-brown, the terminal margins
of all the feathers pale greyish-brown. Female similar. Young with the
bill brownish-black, iris dark brown, feet yellow; the general colour
of the plumage very dark chocolate, uniform, the feathers without
edgings, all white at the base, that colour appearing more or less on
the hind part, and more especially on the fore part and sides of the
neck, and on the sides of the body and lower wing-coverts; quills and
tail-feathers brownish-black, tinged with grey toward the base; the
latter with the greater part of the inner webs, and a portion of the
outer brownish-white, freckled with dusky. In more advanced stages the
colours of the plumage vary considerably in different individuals. The
general tint continues brown for several years, a variable and often a
large proportion of white, or brownish-white, appearing on the neck,
the lower part of the body, the sides, and under the wings, the tail
meanwhile gradually becoming white in freckled patches, some have a
large patch of brownish-white across the breast. When the feathers are
new, they are of a glossy deep brown, but when old and worn they
present a bleached appearance, and the upper parts are often patched
with pale brown or brownish-white. On account of these circumstances,
individuals of different ages, and shot at different periods of the
year, differ so much from each other in appearance, that one might,
without a very extended comparison, conceive that in a collection of
specimens, there might be several species. The bill remains dark until
the head and tail become white; the anterior tarsal scutella differ
from none to six, the posterior from nine to twelve; those on the hind
toe are four, on the middle toe from nine to thirteen.

_Male_, 34, 84.

Throughout North America. Resident in the south and west.

    Bald Eagle, Falco Haliaetus, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. iv. p. 89.
        Adult.

    Sea Eagle, Falco ossifragus, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. vii. p.
        16. Young.

    Falco leucocephalus, Bonap. Synops. p. 26.

    Aquila leucocephala, White-headed Eagle, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor Amer. v. ii. p. 15.

    White-headed or Bald Eagle, Falco leucocephalus, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 72.

    White-headed Eagle, Falco leucocephalus, Aud. Ornith. Biog. v.
        i. p. 160, v. ii. p. 160, v. v. p. 354.



GENUS V. PANDION, Sav. OSPREY.


Bill short, as broad as deep at the base, the sides convex, the dorsal
outline straight at the base, decurved towards the end; upper mandible
with a festoon on the edges at the curvature, the tip trigonal, very
acute; lower mandible with the edges slightly arched, the tip obtusely
truncate. Nostrils oval, oblique, large, half-way between the ridge
and the cere. Legs rather long; tarsus very short, remarkably thick,
covered all round with hexagonal scales; toes also remarkably thick,
the outer versatile larger than the inner, all scutellate only towards
the end, and covered beneath with prominent, conical, acuminate
scales; claws long, curved, convex beneath, tapering to a fine point.
Plumage compact, imbricated; feathers of the head and neck narrow,
acuminate; of the tarsus short and very narrow, without the elongated
external tufts seen in all the other genera. Tail rather long, a
little rounded. Intestine extremely long and slender, its greatest
width 2-1/4 twelfths, the smallest 1/2 twelfth.


15. 1. Pandion Haliaetus. Common Osprey.--Fish Hawk. Fishing Eagle.

     Plate LXXXI. Adult male.

Bill bluish-black, cere light blue, feet pale greyish-blue tinged
anteriorly with yellow. General colour of upper parts deep
umber-brown, the tail barred with whitish on the inner webs; the upper
part of the head and neck white, the middle part of the crown dark
brown; a broad band of the latter colour from the bill down the side
of the neck; lower parts white, the neck streaked with light brown;
anterior tibial feather tinged with brown. Young with the feathers of
the upper parts broadly tipped with brownish-white, the lower pure
white.

_Male_, 23, 54. _Female_, 25-1/2, 58.

From Texas northward, and throughout the interior, as well as along
the north-west coast. Resident in the south.

    Fish Hawk, Falco Haliaetus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 13.

    Falco Haliaetus, Bonap. Syn. p. 26.

    Fish Hawk or Osprey, Falco Haliaetus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        415, v. v. p. 362.



GENUS VI. ELANUS, Sav. ELANUS.


Bill short, small, very wide at the base, much compressed toward the
end; upper mandible with the dorsal line convex and declinate to the
end of the cere, then decurved, the sides slightly convex, the tip
narrow and acute, the edges with a distinct festoon, lower mandible
with the angle very wide and long, the dorsal line very short, and
slightly convex, the tip obliquely truncate, and narrow. Nostrils
elliptical, rather large, about half-way between the cere and ridge.
Head rather large, broad, flattened above; neck short; body compact.
Legs rather short; tarsus very short, stout, roundish, feathered
anteriorly for half its length, the rest covered with small roundish
scales; toes short, thick, scaly, with a few terminal scutella; claws
long, curved, conical, rounded beneath, acute. Plumage very soft, and
rather blended. Wings very long and pointed, the second quill longest.
Tail of moderate breadth, long, emarginate, and rounded.


16. 1. Elanus dispar, Temm. Black-shouldered Elanus.

     Plate CCCLII. Male and Female.

Ash-grey above; head, tail, and lower parts white, with a large
bluish-black patch on the wing above, and a smaller beneath; feet
orange-yellow. Young with the upper parts brownish-grey, the larger
feathers tipped with white, the patches on the wings brownish-black.

_Male_, 14, 40. _Female_, 16-3/4, 41-1/2.

From Texas to North Carolina. Rare. Never far inland. Migrates
southward.

    Black-winged Hawk, Falco melanopterus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii.

    Falco melanopterus, Bonap. Syn. p. 31. Falco dispar, App. p.
        435.

    Black-shouldered Hawk, Falco dispar, Aud. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        397.



GENUS VII. ICTINIA, Vieillot. ICTINIA.


Bill very short, wide at the base, much compressed toward the end;
upper mandible with the dorsal line decurved in its whole length, the
sides slightly convex, the tip narrow and acute, the edges with an
obtuse lobe; lower mandible with the angle very wide, the dorsal line
ascending and convex, the tip rather broad and obliquely truncate.
Nostrils round, lateral, with a central papilla. Head rather large,
roundish, broad, flattened; neck short, body compact. Legs rather
short; tarsus stout, covered anteriorly with scutella; toes scutellate
above, scabrous beneath, with pointed papillæ; claws rather long,
curved, acuminate, flattened beneath. Plumage rather compact. Wings
very long, the third quill longest. Tail long, emarginate.

This genus is easily distinguished from Elanus; the tarsi and toes
being scutellate in this, and scaly in that; and the festoon on the
upper mandible is much more prominent in Ictinia, while the nostrils,
instead of being elliptical, are round, as in the Falcons.


17. 1. Ictinia plumbea, Gmel. Mississippi Ictinia.--Mississippi Kite.

     Plate CXVII. Male and Female.

Head, secondary quills, and lower parts light ash-grey; back and wing
coverts dark leaden-grey; primaries black, margined externally with
deep red; tail bluish-black; scutella dark purplish-red.

_Male_, 14, 36. _Female_, 15.

From Texas, where it is abundant, to North Carolina; up the
Mississippi to Natchez. Migratory.

    Mississippi Kite, Falco Mississippiensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 80.

    Falco plumbeus, Bonap. Syn. p. 90.

    Mississippi Kite, Falco plumbeus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        108, v. v. p. 374.



GENUS VIII. NAUCLERUS, Vig. SWALLOW-TAILED-HAWK.


Bill short, wide at the base, much compressed toward the end; upper
mandible with the dorsal line decurved from the base, the sides
slightly convex, the edges with a slight festoon, the tip narrow and
acute; lower mandible with the angle very wide, the dorsal line
straightish, the tip rounded and declinate. Nostrils round, with a
central papilla. Head rather large, roundish, flattened; neck short;
body compact. Feet short; tarsus very short, thick, scaly all round;
toes scutellate above, scabrous beneath, with pointed papillæ; claws
rather long, curved, acuminate. Plumage blended, glossy. Wings
extremely long, pointed, the third quill longest; secondaries short.
Tail extremely long, very deeply forked.


18. 1. Nauclerus furcatus, Linn. Common Swallow-tailed Hawk.

     Plate LXXII. Male.

Head, neck all round, and lower parts white; back, wings, and tail
black, glossed with blue and purple; feet light blue, tinged with
green; claws flesh-coloured.

_Male_, 22, 47. _Female_, 25, 51-1/2.

From Texas to North Carolina. Rather abundant. Up the Mississippi and
Ohio to Louisville. Accidental in Pennsylvania. Migratory.

    Swallow-tailed Hawk, Falco furcatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi.
        p. 70.

    Falco furcatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 31.

    Swallow-tailed Hawk, Falco furcatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        368. v. v. p. 371.



GENUS IX. FALCO, Linn. FALCON.


Bill short, robust; its upper outline decurved from the base; cere
short, bare; edge of upper mandible with a festoon and a prominent
angular process. Nostrils round, with an internal ridge, ending in a
central tubercle. Feet strong; tarsi moderate, reticulate; toes long,
broadly scutellate, the anterior webbed at the base; claws long, well
curved, very acute. Wings long, pointed; second quill longest, first
and third nearly equal; outer toe abruptly cut out on the inner web.
Tail rather long, nearly even.


19. 1. Falco Islandicus, Lath. Iceland or Jer Falcon--Gyr Falcon.
Labrador Falcon.

     Plate CCCLXVI. Adult Female. Plate CXCVI. Young Male and
     Female.

Tooth-like process of the bill generally obsolete in old, festoon
slight in young birds; tail from three to four inches longer than the
wings. Adult white, with slate-grey sagittate spots above, the bill
pale blue, the cere and feet yellow. Younger birds light grey, the
feathers white on the edges; the bill and cere light blue, the feet
greyish-blue. Young brownish-grey above, the feathers margined and
spotted with reddish-white, the lower parts yellowish-white,
longitudinally streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 22-1/2, 49. _Female_, 23-1/2, 51-1/4.

Breeds in the extreme north, and in Labrador. In winter, migrates
southward as far as Maine.

    Falco Islandicus, Jer Falcon, Rich. & Swains. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 27.

    Gyr Falcon, Falco Islandicus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 51.

    Iceland or Jer Falcon, Falco Islandicus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 466. Adult Female.

    Iceland or Jer Falcon, Falco Islandicus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 552. Young Male and Female.


20. 2. Falco peregrinus, Gmel. Peregrine Falcon.--Large-footed Hawk.
Duck Hawk. Wandering Falcon.

     Plate XVI. Adult Male and Female.

Wings, when closed, of nearly the same length as the tail. Adult male
with the upper parts greyish-black, excepting the head and hind neck
barred with light greyish-blue, lower parts white, the breast and
sides transversely spotted with black. Female with the upper parts
darker than those of the male, the lower yellowish or reddish-white,
with larger dusky spots on the breast and sides, and oblong streaks on
the neck. Young blackish-brown above, the breast of the male
yellowish-white, of the female pale yellowish-red, with broad
longitudinal dusky streaks. In all stages, a large mystachial patch,
black in adult, brown in young birds.

_Male_, 16-1/2, 30. _Female_, 19-1/2, 36.

Breeds in the northern parts, visiting the southern and western in
winter as far as Texas.

    Great-footed Hawk, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix. p. 120.

    Falco peregrinus, Bonap. Synops. p. 27.

    Common or Wandering Falcon, Falco peregrinus, Nuttall, Man. v.
        i. p. 53.

    Great-footed Hawk, Falco peregrinus, Aud. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        85; v. v. p. 365.

    Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 23.


21. 3. Falco columbarius, Linn. Pigeon Falcon.--Pigeon Hawk.

     Plate LXXV. Young Male and Female. Plate XCII. Adult Male.

Wings from two to three inches shorter than the tail, on the middle
feathers of which are five, on the lateral six broad whitish bands.
Adult male with the cere greenish-yellow, the feet pale orange, the
upper parts light bluish-grey, each feather with a black central line;
lower parts reddish or yellowish white, the breast and sides with
large oblong brown spots; tibial feathers light red, streaked with
blackish-brown. Female with the cere and legs greenish-yellow, the
upper parts dark greyish-brown, the lower pale red, spotted as in the
male. Young with the head light reddish-brown, streaked with dusky,
the upper parts brownish-grey, the feathers margined and spotted with
pale red, throat white, lower parts pale red, streaked with brown. The
tail-bands vary from pale red to white.

This species is so nearly allied to _Falco Æsalon_, that it is
extremely difficult to distinguish many individuals. The number and
form of the scutella differ; but the most certain distinctive
character is found in the light-coloured bands of the tail, which are
more numerous in the Merlin, there being seven on its middle, and nine
on its lateral tail-feathers.

_Male_, 10-3/4, 27. _Female_, 14, 30.

From Texas northward. Breeds in the Labrador and Arctic regions.
Abundant. Migratory.

    Pigeon Hawk, Falco columbarius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        107.

    Falco columbarius, Bonap. Syn. p. 38.

    Pigeon Hawk, Falco columbarius, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 60.

    Little Corporal Hawk, Falco temerarius, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        61. Adult Male.

    Falco columbarius, Pigeon Hawk, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 35.

    Falco Æsalon, Merlin, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p.
        37.

    Pigeon Hawk, Falco columbarius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 466;
        Young, v. i. p. 381, Male; v. v. p. 368.


22. 4. Falco sparverius, Linn. Sparrow Falcon.--Sparrow Hawk.

     Plate CXLII. Male and Female.

Male with the upper part of the head and wing-coverts light
greyish-blue, seven black spots round the head, and a light red patch
on the crown; back light red, spotted with black; tail red, with a
broad subterminal black band. Female with the head nearly as in the
male, the back, wing-coverts, and tail, banded with light red and
dusky. Young similar to the female, but with more red on the head,
which is streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 12. _Female_, 12.

Generally distributed. Resident in the south. Abundant.

    American Sparrow-Hawk, Falco sparverius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 117.

    Falco sparverius, Bonap. Syn. p. 27.

    American sparrow-hawk, Falco sparverius, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        58.

    Falco sparverius, Little Rusty-crowned Falcon, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 31.

    American Sparrow-Hawk, Falco sparverius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 246; v. v. p. 370.



GENUS X. ASTUR, Cuv. HAWK.


Bill short, robust; its upper outline sloping, and nearly straight at
the base, then decurved; cere short, bare above; edge of upper
mandible with a festoon, succeeded by a broad sinus. Nostrils
elliptical. Feet of moderate length; tarsi moderate or slender,
feathered at least one-third of their length, broadly scutellate
before and behind; first and second toes strongest and equal, third
much longer, and connected at the base by a web with the third, which
is shortest; claws long, well curved, acuminate. Wings very broad, of
moderate length, much rounded, fourth and fifth quills longest, first
much shorter, outer four abruptly cut out on the inner web. Tail long,
much exceeding the wings, rounded.

Those of more slender form, with proportionally longer tails and
tarsi, are separated by many authors to form a group, to which the
name of _Accipiter_ and _Nisus_ are given.


23. 1. Astur palumbarius, Linn. Gos Hawk.

     Plate CXLI. Fig. 1. Adult Male. Fig. 2. Young.

Adult male dark bluish-grey above, the tail with four broad bands of
blackish-brown, the upper part of the head greyish-black; a white
band, with black lines, over the eyes; lower parts white, narrowly
barred with grey, and longitudinally streaked with dark brown. Young
brown above, the feathers edged with reddish-white, the head and hind
neck pale red, streaked with blackish-brown, the lower parts
yellowish-white, with oblong longitudinal dark brown spots.

_Male_, 24, 47.

From Maryland, northward. From Kentucky, northward. Migratory.

    Ash-coloured or Black-capped Hawk, Falco atricapillus, Wils.
        Amer. Ornith. v. vi. p. 80.

    Falco palumbarius, Bonap. Syn. p. 28.

    American Goshawk, Falco atricapillus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 85.

    Accipiter (Astur) Palumbarius, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 39.

    Goshawk, Falco palumbarius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 241.


24. 2. Astur Cooperi, Bonap. Cooper's Hawk.

     Plate CXLI. Fig. 3. Adult Male. Plate XXXVI. Young Male and
     Female.

Tail rounded, tarsi moderately stout. Adult male dull bluish-grey
above; the tail with four broad bands of blackish-brown, and tipped
with white; the upper part of the head greyish-black; lower parts
transversely barred with light red and white, the throat white,
longitudinally streaked. Female similar, with the bands on the breast
broader. Young umber-brown above, more or less spotted with white, the
tail with four blackish-brown bars; lower parts white, each feather
with a longitudinal narrow, oblong, brown spot.

_Male_, 20, 36. _Female_, 22, 38.

From Louisiana northward, and all over the interior, in winter. Some
breed in the United States. Columbia River.

    Cooper's Hawk, Falco Cooperii. Bonap. Amer. Orn. Young.

    Falco Cooperii, Bon. Syn. App. p. 433. Young.

    Stanley Hawk, Falco Stanleii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 245.
        Adult Male.

    Stanley Hawk, Falco Stanleii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 186.
        Young.


25. 3. Astur fuscus, Gmel. Sharp-shinned Hawk.

     Plate CCCLXXIV. Adult Male and Female.

Tail even, tarsi extremely slender. Adult male bluish-grey above; the
tail with four broad bands of blackish-brown, and tipped with white;
upper part of head darker; lower parts transversely barred with light
red and white, the throat white, longitudinally streaked. Female
similar, more tinged with yellow beneath, and with the bands on the
breast broader. Young umber-brown above, more or less spotted with
white, the tail with four dark brown bars; lower parts white, each
feather with a longitudinal narrow, oblong, brown spot. Miniature of
_Falco Cooperii_, and intimately allied to _Astur Nisus_.

_Male_, 11-1/4, 20-1/2. _Female_, 14, 26.

Generally distributed. Not very abundant. Migratory.

    Slate-coloured Hawk, Falco Pennsylvanicus, Wils. Amer. Ornith.
        v. vi. p. 13. Adult Male.

    Sharp-shinned Hawk, Falco velox, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. vi. p.
        116. Young Female.

    Falco velox, Bonap. Syn. p. 29.

    Falco fuscus, Bonap. Syn. Append. p. 433.

    Accipiter Pennsylvanicus, Slate-coloured Hawk, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 44.

    American Brown or Slate-coloured Hawk, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        87.

    Sharp-shinned or Slate-coloured Hawk, Falco fuscus, Aud. Amer.
        Orn. v. iv. p. 522. Adult.



GENUS XI. CIRCUS, Bechst. HARRIER.


Bill short, compressed; upper mandible with the dorsal line sloping to
beyond the cere, then decurved, the sides sloping, the edge with a
festoon a little anterior to the nostril, the tip acute; lower
mandible with the dorsal line ascending and convex, the tip rounded.
Nostrils large, ovato-oblong, with an oblique ridge from their upper
edge. Head of moderate size, oblong, neck rather short; body slender.
Legs long and slender; tarsi long, compressed, anteriorly and
posteriorly scutellate; toes slender, scutellate unless at the base;
claws long, compressed, moderately curved, flat beneath, acuminate.
Plumage very soft; a distinct ruff of narrow feathers from behind the
eye on each side to the chin, the aperture of the ear being very
large. Wings long, much rounded, the fourth quill longest; outer four
quills with their inner webs sinuate. Tail straight, long, slightly
rounded. Quills and tail-feathers covered with velvety down.


26. 1. Circus cyaneus, Linn. Common Harrier.

     Plate CCCLVI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female. Fig. 3. Young.

Adult male light ash-grey; abdomen, tail-coverts, lower wing-coverts,
inner webs of secondary quills and tail-feathers, white, primaries
black toward the end. Female umber-brown above, head, hind neck and
scapulars, streaked with light red; tail-coverts white; tail banded
with light red; lower parts light yellowish-red, the neck streaked
with brown. Young like the female, but lighter.

_Male_, 19-3/4, 44. _Female_, 20-1/2, 46-3/4.

Breeds from Texas northward. Columbia River.

    Marsh Hawk, Falco uliginosus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 67.
        Young Female.

    Falco cyaneus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 30.

    Hen-Harrier or Marsh Hawk, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 109.

    Marsh Hawk, Falco cyaneus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 396.

    Buteo (Circus) cyaneus? var? Americanus, American Hen-Harrier,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 55.



FAMILY III. STRIGINÆ. OWLS.


Bill very short, strong, cerate; upper mandible with the tip elongated
and decurved; lower mandible with the end rounded and thin-edged. Head
extremely large, owing to the wide separation of the tables of the
cranium, roundish, more or less vertically flattened behind,
feathered. Eyes excessively large, with prominent superciliary ridges,
and encircled by series of decomposed feathers. External aperture of
ear always very large, frequently excessive, simple or operculate.
Tarsus short, very short, or of moderate length, always feathered, as
are the toes, of which the outer is versatile, the first shorter than
the second, the anterior free; claws very long, slender, curved,
extremely acute. Plumage very full and soft. Wings long, broad,
rounded, the second, third, and fourth quills longest, the filaments
of the outer more or less enlarged and recurved at the end. Tail
broad, rather short or of moderate length, of twelve feathers.
Œsophagus very wide, without crop or dilatation; stomach very
large, round, somewhat membranous, its muscular fasciculi being placed
in a single series; intestine short and wide; cœca large, oblong,
obtuse, narrowed at the base. Young at first covered with
light-coloured down, when fledged, with the face darker than that of
adults. Eggs white, somewhat globular or broadly ovate, from four to
six. Nests rudely constructed, in hollow trees, on branches, in
buildings, or on the ground.



GENUS I. SURNIA, Dumeril. DAY-OWL.


Bill very short, strong, its upper outline decurved from the base;
lower mandible abruptly rounded, with a sinus on each side. Nostrils
elliptical, rather large. Aperture of ear elliptical, simple, not more
than half the height of the head. Feet strong; tarsi very short or of
moderate length. Plumage rather dense; facial disks incomplete above.
Wings very large, the third quill longest, the first with the
filaments thickened and a little free, but scarcely recurved at the
end. Tail varying in length.


27. 1. Surnia funerea, Gmel. Hawk Day-Owl.--Hawk Owl.

     Plate CCCLXXVIII. Male and Female.

Tail long, much rounded, the lateral feathers two inches shorter than
the middle. Upper part of head brownish-black, closely spotted with
white, hind neck black, with two broad longitudinal bands of white
spots; rest of upper parts dark brown, spotted with white; tail with
eight transverse bars of white, the feathers tipped with the same;
facial disks greyish-white, margined with black; lower parts
transversely barred with brown and dull white.

_Male_, 15-3/4, 31-1/2. _Female_, 17-1/2.

From New Jersey on the east, and from Columbia River on the west,
northward; but not in the central plains. Migratory.

    Hawk Owl, Strix hudsonica, Wils. v. vi. p. 64.

    Strix funerea, Bonap. Syn. p. 35.

    Hawk Owl, Strix funerea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 115.


28. 2. Surnia nyctea, Linn. Snowy Day-Owl.--Snowy Owl.

     Plate CXXI. Male and Female.

Tail rather long, moderately rounded; plumage white; head and back
spotted; wings, tail, and lower parts barred with dusky brown. Young
pure white. Individuals vary much in markings.

_Male_, 21, 53. _Female_, 26, 65.

From South Carolina on the east, and Columbia River on the west,
northward. Migratory.

    Snowy Owl, Strix nyctea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 116.

    Snowy Owl, Strix nyctea, Aud. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 135: v. v.
        p. 382.


29. 3. Surnia passerina, Linn. Passerine Day-Owl.--Little Night Owl.

     Plate CCCCXXXII. Fig. 3. Female.

Tail rather short, arched, nearly even; wings almost as long as the
tail, the outer four quills cut out on the inner web, the outer five
sinuated on the outer; filaments of the first free and slightly
recurved, as are those of the second and third beyond the sinus.
General colour of upper parts chocolate-brown, the feather of the head
with an oblong median white mark; hind neck with very large white
spots, forming a conspicuous patch; on the back most of the feathers
with a single large subterminal roundish spot, as is the case with the
scapulars and wing-coverts, most of which, however, have two or more
spots; quills with marginal reddish-white spots on both webs, the
third with six on the outer and four on the inner, with two very faint
pale bars toward the end; the tail similarly marked with four bands of
transversely oblong, reddish-white spots; feathers of the anterior
part of the disk whitish, with black shafts, of the lower part
whitish, of the hind part brown tipped with greyish-white; a broad
band of white crossing the throat, and curving upwards on either side
to the ear; a patch of white on the lower part of the fore-neck;
between these a brownish-grey band. Lower parts dull yellowish-white,
each feather with a broad longitudinal band of chocolate-brown;
abdomen and lower tail-coverts unspotted; tarsal feathers dull white.

_Female_, 10-1/2; wing from flex. 6-1/4; tail 3-1/2.

From Nova Scotia eastward. Rather rare.

    Little Night Owl, Strix passerina, Aud. v. v. p. 269.


31. 5. Surnia cunicularia, Gmel. Burrowing Day-Owl.

     Plate CCCCXXXII. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Feet rather long, slender; tarsus covered with short soft feathers, of
which the shafts only remain toward the lower part; toes short, their
upper surface covered with bristles or the shafts of feathers; tail
short, arched, narrow, slightly rounded. Bill greyish-yellow; claws
black. General colour of upper parts light yellowish-brown, or
umber-brown, spotted with white; the quills with triangular
reddish-white spots from the margins of both webs, there being five on
each web of the first; the tail similarly barred, there being on the
middle feathers four double spots, and the tips of all white. Face
greyish-white; throat and ruff white, succeeded by a mottled brown
band, beneath which is a patch of white; the rest of the lower parts
yellowish-white, with broad bars of light reddish-brown, which are
closer on the sides of the breast; abdomen, lower tail-coverts, and
legs without spots.

_Male_, 10, 24. _Female_, 11.

Prairies west of the Mississippi. Abundant.

    Burrowing Owl, Strix cunicularia, Say, in Long's Exped. v. i.
        p. 200.

    Burrowing Owl, Strix cunicularia, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        68.

    Burrowing Owl, Strix cunicularia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        264.

    Burrowing Owl, Strix cunicularia, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 118.


30. 4. Surnia passerinoides, Temm. Columbian Day-Owl.

     Plate CCCCXXXII. Fig. 4, 5. Male.

Tail of moderate length, straight, slightly rounded; wings rather
short, much rounded, fourth quill longest, outer three abruptly cut
out on the inner web, the first with its filaments thickened but not
recurvate, those of the second and third also thickened toward the
end. General colour of the upper parts olivaceous brown; the head with
numerous small, roundish, yellowish-white spots margined with dusky,
of which there are two on each feather; the rest of the upper parts
marked with larger, angular, whitish spots; the quills generally with
three small and five large white spots on the outer and inner webs;
the tail barred with transversely oblong white spots, of which there
are seven pairs on the middle feathers. Facial disk brown, spotted
with white; throat white, then a transverse brown band, succeeded by
white; the lower parts white, with longitudinal brownish-black
streaks, the sides brown, faintly spotted with paler. Young with the
upper parts rufous, the head with fewer and smaller white spots; those
on the lower part of the hind neck very large; the back, scapulars,
and wing-coverts unspotted; the wings marked as in the adult, but with
pale red spots in the outer, and reddish-white on the inner webs; the
tail with only five bands of spots; the lower parts white,
longitudinally streaked with light red, of which colour are the sides
of the body and neck, and a band across the throat.

_Male_, 7, wing 3-((7-1/2)/12).

Columbia River.

    Cheveche chevechoide, Strix passerinoides, Temm. Pl. Col. 344.

    Little Columbian Owl, Strix passerinoides, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 271.



GENUS II. ULULA. NIGHT-OWL.


Bill short, strong, very deep, its upper outline decurved from the
base; lower mandible abruptly rounded, with a notch on each side.
Nostrils broadly elliptical, rather large. Conch of ear very large,
elliptical, extending from the base of the lower jaw to near the top
of the head, with an anterior semicircular operculum in its whole
length. Feet rather short, strong; tarsi and toes covered with very
soft downy feathers. Plumage full, and very soft; facial disks
complete. Wings rather long, very broad, much rounded, the third quill
longest; the filaments of the first, half of the second, and the
terminal part of the third, free and recurved. Tail of moderate
length, arched, slightly rounded.


32. 1. Ulula Tengmalmi, Gmel. Tengmalm's Night-Owl.

     Plate CCCLXXX. Male and Female.

General colour of upper parts greyish-brown tinged with olive;
feathers of the head with an elliptical central white spot; those of
the neck with a larger spot; scapulars with two or four large round
spots near the end, and some of the dorsal feathers and wing-coverts
with single spots on the outer web; all the quills margined with white
spots on both webs, arranged in transverse series, there being six on
the outer web of the third; on the tail five series of transversely
elongated white spots. Disk yellowish-white, anteriorly black; ruff
yellowish-white, mottled with dusky; throat brown, chin white; lower
parts yellowish-white, longitudinally streaked with brown; some of the
feathers of the sides with two white spots; tarsal and digital
feathers greyish-yellow, with faint transverse brown bars.

_Male_, 11, wing 6-10/12. _Female_, 12.

From Maine on the east, and from Columbia River on the west,
northward.

    Strix Tengmalmi, Tengmalm's Owl, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 94.

    Tengmalm's Owl, Strix Tengmalmi, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        559.


33. 2. Ulula Acadica, Gmel. Acadian Night-Owl.--Little Owl. Saw-whet.

     Plate CXCIX. Male and Female.

General colour of upper part olivaceous brown; scapulars and some of
the wing-coverts spotted with white; the first six primary quills
obliquely barred with white; tail darker, with two narrow white bars;
upper part of head streaked with greyish-white; disks pale
yellowish-grey; ruff white, spotted with dusky. Lower parts whitish,
the sides and breast marked with broad elongated patches of
brownish-red.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 17. _Female_, 8-1/2, 18.

From North Carolina on the east, and from Columbia River on the west,
northward.

    Little Owl, Strix passerina, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 61.

    Strix acadica, Bonap. Syn. p. 38.

    Strix acadica, American Sparrow Owl, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 97.

    Acadian Owl, Strix acadica, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 137.

    Little or Acadian Owl, Strix acadica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 567: v. v. p. 397.



GENUS III. STRIX, Linn. SCREECH-OWL.


Bill short, compressed, deep, strong; upper mandible with its dorsal
outline straight to the end of the cere, then curved, the sides
nearly flat and erect, the tip deflected, with a rounded but
sharp-edged point; lower mandible with the dorsal line convex, the
sides convex, the edges arched, the tip obliquely truncate. Conch of
the ear semicircular, extending from over the anterior angle of the
eye to the middle of the lower jaw; aperture large, somewhat square,
with an anterior operculum fringed with feathers. Legs rather long,
tarsus long, feathered, scaly at the lower part; toes large, the first
short, the inner nearly as long as the middle, all with series of
small tuberculiform oblong scales, intermixed with a few bristles, and
three broad scutella at the end. Claws arched, long, extremely sharp,
the edge of the third thin and transversely cracked in old birds.
Plumage very soft and downy; facial disks complete. Wings long, ample,
rounded; the first quill with the filaments recurved. Tail rather
short, even.


34. 1. Strix Americana, Aud. American Screech-Owl.--Barn Owl.

     Plate CLXXI. Male and Female.

Feathers margining the operculum with the shaft and webs undeveloped.
Bill pale greyish-yellow; claws and scales brownish-yellow. General
colour of upper parts greyish-brown, with light yellowish-red
interspersed, produced by very minute mottling; each feather having
toward the end a central streak of deep brown, terminated by a small
oblong greyish-white spot; wings similarly coloured; secondary coverts
and outer edges of primary coverts with a large proportion of light
brownish-red; quills and tail transversely barred with brown; lower
parts pale brownish-red, fading anteriorly into white, each feather
having a small dark brown spot at the tip.

Closely allied to _Strix flammea_, but larger, and differing somewhat
in colour, being generally darker, with the ruff red. A character by
which they may always be distinguished is found in the operculum, the
feathers margining which are in the present species reduced to their
tubes, the shafts and filaments being wanting, whereas in the European
species each tube bears a very slender shaft, about half an inch long,
and furnished with about half a dozen filaments on each side.

_Male_, 17, 42. _Female_, 18, 46.

Southern States. Breeds from Texas to North Carolina. Never seen in
the interior, or to the north. Rather common.

    White or Barn Owl, Strix flammea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p.
        57.

    Strix flammea, Bonap. Synops. p. 38.

    White or Barn Owl, Strix flammea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 139.

    Barn Owl, Strix flammea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 403: v. v.
        p. 388.



GENUS IV. SYRNIUM, Cuv. HOOTING-OWL.


Bill short, stout, broad at the base; upper mandible with its dorsal
outline convex to the end of the cere, then curved, the sides sloping
and nearly flat, the tip compressed, decurved, acute; lower mandible
small, with the dorsal line convex, the tip narrow, the edges decurved
toward the end. Nostrils large, elliptical. Conch of the ear of medium
size, and furnished with an anterior semicircular operculum, beset
with slender feathers. Legs rather short; tarsi very short, and with
the toes feathered. Claws slightly curved, long, slender, compressed,
acuminate. Plumage very soft and downy; facial disks complete. Wings
very large, much rounded, the outer quill with the tips of the
filaments separated and recurved, as are those of the terminal portion
of the next; the outer six with the inner webs sinuate. Tail broad,
rounded.


35. 1. Syrnium cinereum, Linn. Great Cinereous Hooting-Owl.--Cinereous
Owl.

     Plate CCCLI. Female.

Upper parts greyish-brown, variegated with greyish-white in irregular
undulated markings; the feathers on the upper part of the head with
two transverse white spots on each web; the smaller wing-coverts of a
darker brown, and less mottled than the back; the outer scapulars with
more white on their outer webs; primaries blackish-brown toward the
end, in the rest of their extent marked with a few broad light grey
oblique bands, dotted and undulated with darker; tail similarly
barred; ruff-feathers white toward the end, dark brown in the centre;
disks on their inner sides grey, with black tips, in the rest of their
extent greyish-white, with six bars of blackish-brown very regularly
disposed in a concentric manner; lower parts greyish-brown, variegated
with greyish and yellowish-white; feet barred with the same.

_Female_, 30-1/2, 48-1/2.

From Massachusetts on the east, and Columbia River on the west,
northward. Migratory.

    Great Grey or Cinereous Owl, Strix cinerea, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 128.

    Cinereous Owl, Strix cinerea, Swain. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 77.

    Great Cinereous Owl, Strix cinerea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        364.


36. 2. Syrnium nebulosum, Linn. Barred Hooting-Owl. Barred Owl.

     Plate XLVI. Male.

General colour of upper parts light reddish-brown; face and greater
part of the head brownish-white; the feathers of the latter broadly
marked with brown, of which a narrow band passes from the bill along
the middle of the head; feathers of the back and most of the
wing-coverts largely spotted with white; primary coverts, quills, and
tail, barred with light brownish-red; wings and tail tipped with
greyish-white; lower parts pale brownish-red, longitudinally streaked
with brown, excepting the neck and upper part of the breast, which are
transversely marked, the abdomen, which is yellowish-white, and the
tarsal feathers, which are light reddish.

_Male_, 18, 40.

From Texas to Nova Scotia. Resident in the south and west. Very
abundant.

    Barred Owl, Strix nebulosa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 61.

    Strix nebulosa, Bonap. Syn. p. 38.

    Barred Owl, Strix nebulosa, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 133.

    Barred Owl, Strix nebulosa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 242: v.
        v. p. 386.



GENUS V. OTUS, Cuv. EARED-OWL.


Bill short, stout, broader than high at the base, compressed toward
the end; upper mandible with its dorsal line slightly curved from the
base, toward the end decurved, the ridge broad at the base, narrowed
anteriorly, the sides convex toward the tip, which is acute, and
descends obliquely; lower mandible straight, with the dorsal line very
short and slightly convex, the back and sides convex, the edges toward
the end decurved, and with a slight sinus on each side, the tip
obliquely truncate. Nostrils large, oblique, oblong. Conch of extreme
size; extending from the level of the forehead over the eye to the
chin in a semilunar form, with an anterior semicircular flap in its
whole length, the aperture large, of a rhomboidal form. Feet of
moderate length, and stout; tarsi short, feathered, as are the toes;
the first shortest, the second and fourth nearly equal; claws long,
curved in the fourth of a circle, extremely acute, the first and
second rounded beneath. Plumage extremely soft and downy, facial
disks complete, ruff distinct. Two small tufts of elongated feathers
on the head. Wings long and broad; the second quill longest; the outer
in its whole length, the second toward the end, and the first alular
feather, with the filaments disunited and recurved at the ends. Tail
rather short, a little rounded.


37. 1. Otus vulgaris, Fleming. Common Eared-Owl.--Long-eared Owl.

Tufts elongated; general colour of plumage buff, mottled and spotted
with brown and greyish-white; dirty whitish anteriorly, with the tips
black, posteriorly reddish-white; ruff mottled with red and black;
upper part of head minutely mottled with whitish, brownish-black, and
light red; the tufts light reddish toward the base, brownish-black in
the centre toward the end, the inner edge white, dotted with dark
brown; upper parts buff, variegated with brown and whitish-grey,
minutely mottled or undulatingly barred; first row of coverts tipped
with white; quills and scapulars pale grey barred with dark brown, the
primaries buff toward the base externally. Tail with ten bars on the
middle and eight on the outer feathers; lower parts with more buff and
fewer spots than the upper, each feather with a long dark brown
streak, and several irregular transverse bars; legs and toes pure
buff.

_Male_, 14-1/2, 38. _Female_, 16, 40.

From Maryland eastward, and Kentucky westward to the Missouri. Rather
rare. Resident.

    Long-eared Owl, Strix Otus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 52.

    Strix Otus, Bonap. Syn. p. 37.

    Long-eared Owl, Strix Otus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 130.

    Long-eared Owl, Strix Otus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 573.


38. 2. Otus brachyotus, Linn. Short-tufted Eared-Owl.--Short-Eared
Owl.

Tufts inconspicuous, general colour of plumage buff variegated with
dark brown; eye surrounded by a ring of brownish-black, much broader
behind; anterior half of disk white, with the tips black, posterior
yellowish; anterior auricular ruff white, posterior yellowish, each
feather with an oblong dark brown spot; upper parts buff,
longitudinally streaked with dark brown; scapulars and wing-coverts
spotted and banded in large patches, many with a large yellowish-white
spot on the outer web near the end; quills buff, with two or three
dark brown bands; tail similar, with five broad dark bands, the tip
yellowish-white; on the middle feathers, the light-coloured spaces
have a brown central patch; lower parts pale buff, whitish behind, the
neck with oblong, the breast and sides with linear dark brown streaks;
chin, feet, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts unspotted.

_Male_, 15, 40. _Female_, 17, 45.

From Texas eastward. Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyotos, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        64.

    Strix brachyotos, Bonap. Syn. p. 37.

    Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyotos, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 132.

    Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyotos, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        273.



GENUS VI. BUBO, Cuvier. HORNED-OWL.


Bill short, stout, broader than high at the base, compressed toward
the end; upper mandible with its dorsal line curved from the base, the
edges with a slight festoon, the tip trigonal, very acute; lower
mandible with the dorsal line convex, the tip obliquely truncate.
Nostrils broadly elliptical, aperture of ear elliptical, less than
half the height of the head, without operculum. Feet of ordinary
length; tarsi and toes feathered. Plumage full and very soft; facial
disks complete; a tuft of elongated feathers on each side of the crown
of the head. Wings ample, the first quill short, the fourth longest.
Tail of ordinary length, rounded.


39. 1. Bubo Virginianus, Gmel. Virginian Horned-Owl.--Great
Horned-Owl.

     Plate LXI. Male and Female.

Upper part of the head brownish-black, mottled with light brown, the
tufts of the same colour, margined with brown; face brownish-red, with
a circle of blackish-brown; upper parts undulatingly banded and
minutely mottled with brownish-black and yellowish-red, behind tinged
with grey; wings and tail light brownish-yellow, barred and mottled
with blackish-brown and light brownish-red; chin white; upper part of
throat light reddish, spotted with black, a band of white across the
middle of fore neck; its lower part and the breast light
yellowish-red, barred with deep brown, as are the lower parts
generally; several longitudinal brownish-black patches on the lower
fore neck; tarsal feathers light yellowish-red, obscurely barred.

_Male_, 23, 56. _Female_, 25, 60.

From Texas northward. Resident. Not rare in the south.

    Great Horned-Owl, Strix Virginiana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p.
        52.

    Strix Virginiana, Bonap. Syn. p. 37.

    Great Horned-Owl or Cat Owl, Strix Virginiana, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 124.

    Great Horned-Owl, Strix Virginiana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        313; v. v. p. 393.


40. 2. Bubo Asio, Linn. Mottled Horned-Owl.

     Plate XCVII. Adult and Young.

Adult with the upper parts pale brown, spotted and dotted with
brownish-black; a pale grey line from the base of the upper mandible
over each eye; quills light brownish-grey, barred with brownish-black,
their coverts dark brown, secondary coverts with the tip white; throat
yellowish-grey, lower parts light grey, patched and sprinkled with
brownish-black; tail-feathers tinged with red. Young with the upper
parts light brownish-red, each feather with a central blackish-brown
line; tail and quills barred with dull brown; a line over the eye, and
the tips of the secondary coverts reddish-white; breast and sides
light yellowish-grey, spotted and lined with brownish-black and bright
reddish-brown, the rest of the lower parts yellowish-grey, the tarsal
feathers pale yellowish-red.

_Male_, 10, 22. _Female_, 10, 23.

From Texas eastward. Columbia River. Resident. Abundant.

    Mottled Owl, Strix nævia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p. 16.
        Adult.

    Red Owl, Strix Asio, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 83. Young.

    Mottled and Red Owl, Strix Asio, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 120.

    Little Screech Owl, Strix Asio, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 486;
        v. v. p. 392.



FAMILY VI CAPRIMULGINÆ. GOATSUCKERS.


Mouth opening to beneath the centre of the eyes; bill much depressed,
generally feeble, the horny part being small; upper mandible with the
tip somewhat decurved. Nostrils elliptical, prominent, marginate. Eyes
extremely large. Aperture of ear elliptical, very large. Head of
extreme breadth, depressed; body very slender. Feet very small; tarsus
partially feathered, scaly; anterior toes webbed at the base; hind toe
small, and versatile, all scutellate above; claw of third toe
generally elongated, with the inner margin thin and pectinate. Plumage
very soft and blended. Wings very long, the second and third quills
longest. Tail long, of ten feathers. Œsophagus rather wide, without
crop; stomach very large, roundish, its muscular coat very thin, and
composed of a single series of strong fasciculi; epithelium very hard,
with longitudinal rugæ; intestine short and wide; cœca large,
oblong, narrow at the base; cloaca globular. Trachea of nearly uniform
width, without inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest on the ground, or in
hollow trees. Eggs generally two. Young covered with down. Very nearly
allied in some respects to the Owls.



GENUS I. CAPRIMULGUS, Linn. GOATSUCKER.


Bill feeble, gape extending to beneath the posterior angle of the eye.
Nostrils elliptical, prominent. Wings long, pointed, the second quill
longest; tail long. Claw of middle toe pectinate. Along the base of
the bill on each side, a series of feathers having very strong shafts,
terminating in an elastic filamentous point, and with the barbs or
lateral filaments extremely slender, distant, and not extended beyond
the middle of the shaft. Plumage very soft and blended. Wings long and
pointed, the second quill longest; tail long, rounded.


41. 1. Caprimulgus Carolinensis, Gmel. Carolina
Goatsucker.--Chuck-will's-widow.

     Plate LII. Male and Female.

Bristles with lateral filaments; tail slightly rounded. Head and back
dark brown, minutely mottled with yellowish-red, and longitudinally
streaked with black; three bands of the latter colour, from the lower
mandible diverging along the head; a yellowish-white line over the
eye; wings barred with yellowish-red and brownish-black, and minutely
sprinkled with the latter colour, as are the wing-coverts, which,
together with the scapulars, are largely spotted with black, and
tinged with grey; tail similarly barred and dotted; terminal half of
the inner webs of the three outer feathers white, their extremities
light red; lower parts dull reddish-yellow, sprinkled with dusky; a
band of whitish feathers barred with black on the fore neck. Female
like the male, but without white on the tail.

_Male_, 12-3/4, 26. _Female_, 13-1/4, 30.

From Texas to North Carolina. Up the Mississippi to Natchez. Resident
in the Floridas.

    Chuck-will's-widow, Caprimulgus Carolinensis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. vi. p. 95.

    Caprimulgus Carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 61.

    Chuck-will's-widow, Caprimulgus Carolinensis, v. i. p. 612.

    Chuck-will's-widow, Caprimulgus Carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 273; v. v. p. 401.


42. 2. Caprimulgus vociferus, Wils. Whip-poor-will Goatsucker.

Bristles without lateral filaments; tail much rounded. General colour
of upper parts dark brownish-grey, streaked and minutely sprinkled
with brownish-black; quills and coverts dark brown, spotted in bars
with light brownish-red; four middle tail-feathers like those of the
back, the three lateral white in their terminal half; throat and
breast similar to the back, with a transverse band of white on the
fore neck, the rest of the lower parts paler and mottled. Female like
the male, but with the lateral tail-feathers reddish-white toward the
tip only, and the band across the fore neck pale yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 9-1/2, 19. _Female._

From Texas to Lake Huron, and the base of the Rocky Mountains. A few
remain in winter in Florida.

    Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v.
        p. 71.

    Caprimulgus vociferus, Bonap. Syn. p. 62.

    Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 422; v. v. p. 405.

    Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        614.



GENUS II. CHORDEILES, Swainson. NIGHT-HAWK.


Mouth opening to beneath the centre of the eyes; bill extremely small;
upper mandible with the tip decurved, and a deep lateral groove.
Nostrils oblong, prominent, marginate. Eyes very large. Aperture of
ear elliptical, very large. Head very large, depressed, but less so
than in Caprimulgus. Claw of middle toe pectinate. No bristles at the
base of the upper mandible. Wings very long, pointed, with the first
quill longest, and the secondaries very short. Tail emarginate.


43. 1. Chordeiles Virginianus, Briss. Virginian Night-Hawk.--Bat.
Crapaud volant.

     Plate CXLVII. Male and Female.

Upper parts brownish-black, mottled with white and pale reddish-brown;
a conspicuous white bar extending across the inner web of the first,
and the whole breadth of the next four quills; tail-feathers barred
with brownish-grey, the four outer on each side plain brownish-black
towards the end, with a large white spot; sides of the head and fore
neck mottled like the back; a broad white band, in the form of the
letter V reversed on the throat and sides of the neck; the rest of the
lower parts greyish-white, transversely undulated with dark brown.
Female similar, with the dark parts more brown, the white more tinged
with red, the band on the throat brownish-white, and the white spots
on the tail-feathers wanting.

_Male_, 9-1/2, 23-1/2. _Female_, 9-3/4, 23-3/4.

From Texas northward. Columbia River. Throughout the interior.
Migratory. Very abundant.

    Night-Hawk, Caprimulgus Americanus, Wils. Amer. Ornith. Biog.
        v. v. p. 65.

    Caprimulgus Virginianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 62.

    Caprimulgus (Chordeiles) Virginianus, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. i. p. 62.

    Night-Hawk, Caprimulgus Americanus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 619.

    Night-Hawk, Caprimulgus Virginianus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        273; v. v. p. 406.



FAMILY V. CYPSELINÆ. SWIFTS.


Mouth opening to beneath the hind part of the eyes; bill extremely
short, very broad at the base, compressed at the end; upper mandible
decurved at the point, the edge inflected, with an indistinct sinus.
Nostrils basal, approximate, oblong. Head large and depressed; neck
short; body rather slender. Feet extremely short; tarsus rounded,
destitute of scutella; toes extremely short, the three anterior nearly
equal; hind toe very small, and versatile; claws strong, compressed,
arched, very acute. Plumage compact; no bristles at the base of the
upper mandible; wings extremely elongated, falciform, the first quill
longest; tail of ten feathers. Œsophagus of moderate width, without
crop; stomach oblong, moderately muscular, with a dense rugous
epithelium; intestine short, and rather wide; no cœca. No inferior
laryngeal muscles. Nest in crevices or holes, or attached to high
places. Eggs elongated, white.



GENUS I. CHÆTURA, Stephens. SPINE-TAIL.


All the characters as above. Tarsus bare, longer than the middle toe,
which scarcely exceeds the outer. Tail short, even, the shafts very
strong, and prolonged into acuminate points.


44. 1. Chætura pelasgia, Linn. American Spine-tail.--Chimney Swallow.
American Swift.

Brownish-black, lighter on the rump, with a slight greenish gloss on
the head and back; throat greyish-white, lower parts greyish-brown,
tinged with green; loral space black, and a greyish-white line over
the eye. Female similar to the male.

_Male_, 4-1/4, 12.

Extends as far eastward as Nova Scotia. Abundant. Migratory.

    Chimney Swallow, Hirundo pelasgia, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. v.
        p. 48.

    Cypselus pelasgius, Bonap. Syn. p. 63.

    Chimney Swift or Swallow, Cypselus pelasgius, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 609.

    Chimney Swallow or American Swift, Cypselus pelasgius, Aud.
        Ornith. Biog. v. ii. p. 329; v. v. p. 419.



FAMILY VI. HIRUNDINÆ. SWALLOWS.


Bill very short, much depressed and very broad at the base, compressed
toward the tip; upper mandible with the dorsal line convex, the edges
overlapping, with a small notch close to the slightly decurved tip.
Head broad, depressed; neck very short, body moderate. Feet very
short, tarsus very short, anteriorly scutellate; toes of moderate
size; first large, all scutellate in their whole length; claws rather
strong, compressed, well curved, acute. Plumage soft, blended, glossy.
No bristles at the base of the bill. Wings extremely long, narrow,
pointed, somewhat falciform; secondaries very short. Tail generally
emarginate, of twelve feathers. Mouth extremely wide; œsophagus
rather wide, without crop; stomach elliptical or roundish, muscular,
with a dense rugous epithelium; cœca very small. Four pairs of
inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest in holes in banks, buildings, or
trees, or attached to the surface of these objects. Eggs from four to
six, white, plain, or spotted.



GENUS I. HIRUNDO, Linn. SWALLOW.


Characters as above; tail emarginate or forked.


45. 1. Hirundo purpurea, Linn. Purple Martin.

     Plate XXIII. Male and Female.

Bill rather stout; wings as long as the tail, which is deeply
emarginate. Plumage silky, shining, purplish-black, with steel blue
reflections; quills and tail-feathers brownish-black; tarsi and toes
purplish-black. Female with the upper parts paler, and tinged with
grey, the lower light grey, longitudinally streaked with black.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 16. _Female_, 7-4/12, 15-9/12.

From the Texas northward. Rocky Mountains, and all intermediate
districts. Migratory.

    Purple Martin, Hirundo purpurea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 58.

    Hirundo purpurea, Bonap. Syn. p. 64.

    Purple Martin, Hirundo purpurea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 598.

    Purple Martin, Hirundo purpurea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 115;
        v. v. p. 408.


46. 2. Hirundo bicolor. Vieill. White-bellied Swallow.

     Plate XCVIII. Male and Female.

Wings a little longer than the tail, which is deeply emarginate. Upper
parts steel blue, with green reflections, lower white; feet
flesh-coloured. Female similar to the male.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 10. _Female._

From Texas northward. Columbia River, and all intermediate districts.
Winters in Florida and Louisiana.

    Green-blue or White-bellied Swallow, Hirundo viridis, Wils.
        Amer. Ornith. v. iii. p. 44.

    Hirundo bicolor, Bonap. Syn. p. 65.

    White-bellied Swallow, Hirundo bicolor, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        605.

    White-bellied Swallow, Hirundo bicolor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 491; v. v. p. 417.


47. 3. Hirundo fulva, Vieill. Cliff-Swallow,--Republican Swallow.

Bill shorter than in the last species; wings of the same length as the
tail, which is slightly emarginate. Upper part of head, back, and
smaller wing-coverts black with bluish-green reflections; forehead
white, generally tinged with red; loral space and a band on the lower
part of the forehead black; chin, throat, and sides of the neck deep
brownish-red; a patch of black on the fore-neck; rump light
yellowish-red; lower parts greyish-white, anteriorly tinged with red.
Female similar to the male. Young dark greyish-brown above,
reddish-white beneath.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 12. _Female_, 5-4/12, 12-3/4.

From Kentucky northward. Abundant from New York to Nova Scotia.
Columbia River. Rocky Mountains. Migratory.

    Fulvous or Cliff Swallow, Hirundo fulva, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        i. p. 63.

    Hirundo fulva, Bonap. Syn. p. 64.

    Fulvous or Cliff Swallow, Hirundo fulva, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        603.

    Republican or Cliff Swallow, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 353; v.
        v. p. 415.


48. 4. Hirundo rustica, Linn. Chimney-Swallow.--Barn-Swallow.

     Plate CLXXIII. Male and Female.

Tail very deeply forked, the lateral feathers much exceeding the
wings. Forehead and throat bright chestnut; upper parts and a band on
the fore-neck glossy deep steel-blue; quills and tail brownish-black
glossed with green; the latter with a white spot on the inner web of
each of the feathers, except the two middle. Female similar to the
male. Young less deeply coloured, the forehead and throat pale red,
the band on the fore-neck dusky tinged with red; lateral tail-feathers
not exceeding the wings.

_Male_, 7, 13. _Female_, 6-5/12, 12-9/12.

Throughout North America, Europe, and Africa. Migratory.

    Barn Swallow, Hirundo Americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 34.

    Hirundo Americana, American Barn Swallow, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 329.

    Hirundo rufa, Bon. Syn. p. 64.

    Barn Swallow, Hirundo rufa, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 601.

    Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 413;
        v. v. p. 411.


49. 5. Hirundo thalassina, Swains. Violet-green Swallow.

     Plate CCCLXXXV. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Bill narrower than in the preceding species; wings extremely long,
extending far beyond the tail, which is emarginate. Upper part of head
deep green, gradually shaded into the dark purple of the hind neck;
back rich grass-green, rump and upper tail-coverts carmine purple; a
line over the eye, cheeks, and all the lower parts pure white,
excepting the wing-coverts, which are light grey. Female with the
upper part of the head and hind neck light greyish-brown, glossed with
green; the back as in the male, the rump greyish-brown; lower parts
white, anteriorly tinged with grey.

_Male_, 4-10/12, wing 4-6/12.

California, Rocky Mountains, and Oregon Territory. Migratory.

    Hirundo thalassinus, Swains. Syn. of Mex. Birds, Phil. Mag.
        for 1827, p. 365.

    Violet-green Swallow, Hirundo thalassina, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 597.


50. 6. Hirundo riparia, Linn. Bank Swallow.

     Plate CCCLXXXV. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female. Fig. 3. Young.

Tail slightly forked, margin of first quill smooth, tarsus with a tuft
of feathers behind; upper parts greyish-brown, lower whitish, with a
dusky band across the fore part of the neck. Young with the feathers
of the upper parts margined with reddish-white.

_Male_, 5, 11. _Female_, 4-7/8.

From Texas northward. Rocky Mountains. Columbia River. Migratory; but
vast numbers winter in Florida.

    Bank Swallow or Sand Martin, Hirundo riparia, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. v. p. 46.

    Hirundo riparia, Bonap. Syn. p. 65.

    Hirundo riparia, Sand Martin, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 333.

    Bank Swallow or Sand Martin, Hirundo riparia, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 607.

    Bank Swallow or Sand Martin, Hirundo riparia, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 584.


51. 7. Hirundo serripennis, Aud. Rough-winged Swallow.

Tail slightly emarginate, margin of first quill rough with the strong
decurved tips of the filaments, tarsus bare; upper parts
greyish-brown, lower pale greyish-brown, white behind. Very nearly
allied to the last in form and colour, but readily distinguishable by
drawing the finger along the edge of the wing, when the stiff
projecting tips of the filaments are felt like the edge of a fine saw.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 12-1/2.

Louisiana and South Carolina. Migratory.

    Rough-winged Swallow, Hirundo serripennis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 593.



FAMILY VII. MUSCICAPINÆ. FLYCATCHERS.


Bill depressed, triangular, compressed at the end, upper mandible
notched, lower with the point slightly ascending. Head rather large,
depressed; neck short; body rather slender. Feet generally short;
tarsus short, slender, with very broad scutella; toes four, free; the
hind toe not proportionally large; claws arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage soft and blended. Wings long, with the first quill generally
long, the outer three longest. Tail various. Tongue flattened,
sagittate, bristly at the tip; œsophagus wide, without crop;
stomach elliptical, moderately muscular, with the lateral muscles
distinct, the epithelium thin, dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine
short; cœca extremely small; cloaca globular. Trachea simple;
inferior laryngeal muscles, forming on each side a large pad, but not
divisible into several portions as in the singing birds. Nests
regularly formed, cup-shaped. Eggs from four to six.



GENUS I. MILVULUS, Swains. SWALLOW-TAIL.


Bill moderate, rather stout, straight, broad at the base, gradually
compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the dorsal outline a
little convex, the edges sharp and nearly perpendicular, with a very
small notch close to the small deflected tip; lower mandible with the
ridge very broad at the base, the sides rounded, the tip minute and
ascending. Nostrils basal, broadly elliptical. Head rather large,
depressed; neck short; body rather slender. Feet rather short; tarsus
short, slender, compressed, with very broad scutella, some of which
almost meet behind; toes free, the hind toe not proportionally larger,
all scutellate above; claws of moderate size, arched, compressed,
acute. Plumage soft and blended. Wings long, second quill longest,
first almost as long as third, the three outer abruptly notched near
the attenuated tip. Tail extremely elongated and forked, the middle
feathers being of ordinary length, the lateral longest.


52. 1. Milvulus Tyrannus, Linn. Prairie Swallow-tail.--Fork-tailed
Flycatcher.

     Plate CLXVIII. Male.

Tail more than twice the length of the body; upper part of head and
cheeks deep black, the feathers of the crown bright yellow at the
base; back ash-grey, rump bluish-black; wings and tail brownish-black,
the lateral feathers of the latter with the outer web white for half
its length; lower parts white.

_Male_, 14-1/4, 14.

In Louisiana, very rare. Accidental in New Jersey.

    Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa Savana, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        i. p. 1.

    Muscicapa Savana, Bonap. Syn. p. 67.

    Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa Savana, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        274.

    Forked-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa Savana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 387.


53. 2. Milvulus forficatus, Gmel. Red-shouldered
Swallow-tail.--Swallow-tailed Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCLIX. Fig. 3. Male.

Tail longer than the body; upper part of the head, cheeks, and hind
neck ash-grey; back brownish-grey, rump dusky; anterior wing-coverts
scarlet, quills brownish-black, tail-feathers deep black, the three
outer on each side rose-coloured to near the end; lower parts white
before, rose-coloured behind.

_Male_, 11, wing 5-1/8.

Arkansas. Rare in Louisiana.

    Swallow-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa forficata, Bonap. Amer.
        Orn. v. i. p. 15.

    Muscicapa forficata, Bonap. Syn. p. 275.

    Swallow-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa forficata, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 275.

    Swallow-tailed Flycatcher, Muscicapa forficata, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 426.



GENUS II. MUSCICAPA, Linnæus. FLYCATCHER.


Bill moderate, or rather long, stout, straight, broad at the base,
gradually compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the dorsal
outline sloping, the edges sharp and overlapping, with a very small
notch close to the small deflected tip; lower mandible with the ridge
very broad at the base, the sides rounded, the tip minute and
ascending. Nostrils basal, roundish. Head rather large, depressed;
neck short; body rather slender. Feet short; tarsus very short,
slender, with six very broad scutella, three of which almost meet
behind; toes free, the hind toe large, all scutellate above; claws
rather long, very slender, arched, finely pointed. Plumage soft and
blended. Wings long, second and third quills longest; outer primaries
generally attenuated at the end. Tail long, even, or emarginate.

    * Bill large. Head with a vermilion patch, outer quills
    attenuated. Tyrannus of authors.


54. 1. Muscicapa verticalis, Say. Arkansaw Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCLIX. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

The outer five primaries much attenuated toward the end, the first
more so, the fifth least, the third longest, but the outer four nearly
equal; tail almost even. Upper parts ash-grey, the back tinged with
yellow; a patch of bright vermilion on the top of the head;
wing-coverts and quills chocolate-brown; upper tail-coverts and tail
black, the outer web of the lateral feathers yellowish-white; throat
greyish-white, sides and fore part of neck ash-grey, the rest of the
lower parts pure yellow. Female similar.

_Male_, 9, 15-1/2.

Columbia River, Rocky Mountains, and across to Texas. Accidental in
Louisiana. Migratory.

    Tyrannus verticalis, Say Long's Exped. v. ii. p. 60.

    Arkansaw Flycatcher, Muscicapa verticalis, Bonap. Amer. Orn.
        v. i. p. 18.

    Muscicapa verticalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 67.

    Arkansaw Flycatcher, Muscicapa verticalis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        273.

    Arkansaw Flycatcher, Muscicapa verticalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 422; v. v.


55. 2. Muscicapa dominicensis, Brisson. Pipiry Flycatcher.

     Plate CLXXII. Male.

The outer six primaries attenuated at the end, the first more so, the
sixth least; the third longest, but the second almost equal, the
fourth and fifth very little shorter, the first much longer than the
seventh; tail emarginate. Upper parts dull ash-grey, shaded with brown
posteriorly; a concealed patch of bright vermilion on the top of the
head; wing-coverts, quills and tail chocolate-brown, margined with
brownish-white; lower parts anteriorly ash-grey, behind greyish-white
tinged with yellow, lower wing-coverts pale sulphur yellow. Female
similar.

_Male_, 8-7/8, 14-3/8.

Florida Keys; and southern parts of South Carolina. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Tyrannus griseus, Vieill., Ois. d'Amer. pl. 46.

    Pipiry Flycatcher, Muscicapa dominicensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 392.


56. 3. Muscicapa Tyrannus, Linn. Tyrant Flycatcher,--King Bird.

     Plate LXXIX. Male and Female.

The outer two primaries attenuated at the end, the second longest, the
first longer than the third; tail even. Upper parts dark bluish-grey,
the head greyish-black, with a bright vermilion patch margined with
yellow; quills, coverts, and tail-feathers brownish-black, the former
margined with dull white; the latter largely tipped with white; lower
parts greyish-white, the breast pale grey. Female duller, the upper
parts tinged with brown, the lower more dusky.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 14-1/2.

North America generally. Migratory. A few winter in South Florida.

    Lanius Tyrannus, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 136.

    Tyrant Flycatcher, Muscicapa Tyrannus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 66.

    Muscicapa Tyrannus, Bonap. Syn. p. 66.

    King-bird or Tyrant Flycatcher, Muscicapa Tyrannus, Nutt. Man.
        v. i. p. 265.

    Tyrant Flycatcher, Muscicapa Tyrannus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 403; v. v. p. 420.

    ** Bill large. Head plain, crested, quills not attenuated.


57. 4. Muscicapa crinita, Linn. Great Crested Flycatcher.

     Plate CXXIX. Male.

Third quill longest, first and sixth equal; upper parts dull
greenish-olive; quills and coverts dark brown, the primaries margined
with light red, the secondaries with yellowish-white, of which there
are two bars across the wing, formed by the tips of the secondary
coverts and first row of small coverts; inner webs of the
tail-feathers, except the two middle, light red; margins of inner webs
of quills tinged with the same; fore-neck and sides of the head
greyish-blue, the rest of the lower parts yellow. Female similar.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 13.

From Texas northward, generally distributed. Abundant. Migratory.

    Great Crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa crinita, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 75.

    Muscicapa crinita, Bonap. Syn. p. 67.

    Great Crested Flycatcher, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 271.

    Great Crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa crinita, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 176; v. v. p. 423.


58. 5. Muscicapa Cooperi, Nuttall. Cooper's Flycatcher.--Olive-sided
Flycatcher.

Wing pointed, second quill longest, first longer than third, tail
emarginate, the three first primaries very slightly attenuated at the
ends; upper parts, cheeks, and sides of the neck, dusky brown, tinged
with greyish-olive, the head darker; quills and tail blackish-brown,
the secondaries margined with brownish-white; downy feathers on the
sides of the rump white; lower parts greyish-white, the sides dusky
grey. Young similar to adult.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 12-3/4.

From Texas northward along the Atlantic. Never seen far in the
interior. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Olive-sided Flycatcher or Pe-pe, Muscicapa Cooperi, Nutt. Man.
        v. i. p. 282.

    Tyrannus borealis, Northern Tyrant, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 141.

    Olive-sided Flycatcher, Muscicapa Cooperi, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 422; v. v. p. 422.

    * Bill more slender. Tyrannula of authors.


59. 6. Muscicapa Saya, Bonap. Say's Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCLIX. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Third quill longest, second and fourth scarcely shorter, first a
little longer than sixth; tail very slightly emarginate; upper parts
greyish-brown; upper tail-coverts and tail brownish-black; wings of a
darker tint than the back, the feathers margined with brownish-white;
a dusky spot before the eye; fore part and sides of neck light
greyish-brown, shaded with pale brownish-red on the breast and
abdomen; lower wing-coverts reddish-white.

_Male_, 7, wing 4-2/12.

Arkansas. Columbia River. Fur Countries. Never seen along the
Atlantic. Abundant. Migratory.

    Say's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Saya, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        20.

    Muscicapa Saya, Bonap. Syn. p. 67.

    Tyrannula Saya, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 142.

    Say's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Saya, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 277.

    Say's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Saya, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        428.


60. 7. Muscicapa nigricans, Swains. Rocky Mountain Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 6. Male.

Third quill longest, second and fourth little shorter, first and sixth
about equal; tail very slightly emarginate; head, hind neck, fore part
of back, fore neck, a portion of the head, and sides, dark
sooty-brown; the rest of the upper parts greyish-brown; secondary
coverts tipped, and secondaries margined with greyish-white, of which
colour is the great part of the outer web of the lateral
tail-feathers; middle of breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts
white; lower wing-coverts greyish-brown, edged with white.

_Male_, 7, wing 3-((7-1/2)/12).

Mexico and California. Rare. Migratory.

    Tyrannula nigricans, Swains. Syn. of Mex. Birds, Phil. Mag. N.
        S. v. i. p. 367.

    Rocky Mountain Flycatcher, Muscicapa nigricans, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 302.


61. 8. Muscicapa Phœbe, Lath. Short-legged Pewit Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 5. Male.

Second quill longest, third almost equal, first and fourth nearly
equal; tail slightly emarginate; upper parts dark olivaceous brown;
the head darker, wings and tail blackish-brown, secondary coverts
tipped with brownish-white, and secondary quills margined with the
same; outer edges of lateral tail-feathers pale brownish-grey; fore
part of neck, breast, and sides light dusky grey tinged with olive,
abdomen pale dull yellow, lower tail-coverts brownish-grey margined
with yellowish-white.

_Male_, 6-9/12, wing 3-1/4.

Columbia River. Fur Countries. Labrador. Rare. Migratory.

    Tyrannula Richardsonii, Swainson's Short-legged Pewit, Swains.
        & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 146.

    Short-legged Pewee Flycatcher, Muscicapa Richardsonii, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 299.


62. 9. Muscicapa acadica, Gmel. Small Green-crested Flycatcher.

     Plate CXLIV. Male and Female.

Bill broad and much depressed; second quill longest, third a little
shorter, first shorter than fourth; tail scarcely emarginate, upper
parts dull greenish-olive, the head darker; wings and tail
dusky-brown; two bands of dull pale yellow on the wing, the secondary
quills broadly edged and tipped with the same; a narrow ring of
yellowish-white round the eye; throat greyish-white; sides of neck and
fore part of breast greyish-olive, the rest of the lower parts
yellowish-white.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas northward. Migratory.

    Small Green Crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa querula, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. ii. p. 77.

    Small Pewee, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 288.

    Muscicapa acadica, Bonap. Syn. p. 68.

    Small Green-Crested Flycatcher, Muscicapa acadica, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. ii. p. 256; v. v. p. 427.


63. 10. Muscicapa fusca, Gmel. Pewee Flycatcher.

     Plate CXX. Male and Female.

Wing much rounded, third quill longest, fourth scarcely shorter, but
considerably longer than second, first intermediate between sixth and
seventh; tail emarginate; upper parts dull olive, the head much
darker; quills and tail dusky brown, secondaries and their coverts
edged with pale brown; outer tail-feathers whitish on the outer edge,
unless toward the tip; lower parts dull yellowish white, the breast
tinged with grey.

_Male_, 7, 9-1/2.

Throughout the United States, and northward. Spends the winter in vast
numbers in the southern parts.

    Pewit Flycatcher, Muscicapa nunciola, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 78.

    Muscicapa fusca, Bonap. Syn. p. 68.

    Pewit Flycatcher or Phœbe, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 278.

    Pewee Flycatcher, Muscicapa fusca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        122; v. v. p. 424.


64. 11. Muscicapa virens, Linn. Wood Pewee Flycatcher.

     Plate CXV. Male.

Slightly crested; second quill longest, first shorter than third and
longer than sixth; tail deeply emarginate; upper parts dusky olive,
upper part of head much darker; a pale greyish ring round the eye; two
bands of greyish-white on the wings, secondaries margined with the
same; quills and tail-feathers blackish-brown; throat and breast
ash-grey tinged with green, the rest of the lower parts pale
greenish-yellow.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 11.

Throughout the United States. British Provinces. Labrador.
Newfoundland. Rocky Mountains. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Wood Pewee, Muscicapa rapax, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 81.

    Wood Pewee, Muscicapa virens, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 285.

    Muscicapa virens, Bonap. Syn. p. 68.

    Wood Pewee, Muscicapa virens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 93; v.
        v. p. 425.


65. 12. Muscicapa Traillii, Aud. Traill's Flycatcher.

     Plate XLV. Male.

Slightly crested; wing rounded, with the third quill longest, second
and fourth almost equal, first a little longer than sixth; tail
slightly rounded, and faintly emarginate; upper parts dusky olive,
upper part of head much darker; a pale greyish ring round the eye; two
bands of greyish-white on the wings, secondaries margined with the
same; throat and breast ash-grey, the rest of the lower parts shaded
into pale yellow.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 8-1/2.

Arkansas. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Traill's Flycatcher, Muscicapa virens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 236; v. v. p. 426.


66. 13. Muscicapa pusilla, Swains. Least Pewee Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 1. Adult.

Third quill longest, fourth scarcely shorter, second nearly
one-twelfth shorter, and exceeding the first by three and a quarter
twelfths; tail slightly emarginate; upper parts light greenish-brown;
loral band whitish, a narrow pale ring surrounding the eye; wings
olive-brown, with two bands of dull white, secondaries margined with
the same; tail olive-brown, the lateral feathers lighter, the outer
web pale brownish-grey; fore part of neck and a portion of the breast
and sides ash-grey, the rest of the lower parts pale yellow.

_Male_, 5-2/12, wing 2-5/12.

Columbia River. Fur countries. Labrador. Newfoundland. Rare in the
Atlantic States.

    Tyrannula pusilla, Little Tyrant Flycatcher, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 144.

    Little Tyrant Flycatcher, Muscicapa pusilla, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 288.


67. 14. Muscicapa minuta, Wils. Small-headed Flycatcher.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 2. Male.

Wings short, the second quill longest; tail of moderate length, even;
general colour of upper parts light greenish-brown; wings and tail
dark olive-brown, the outer feathers of the latter with a terminal
white spot on the inner web; a narrow white ring surrounding the eye;
two bands of dull white on the wing; sides of the head and neck
greenish-yellow, the rest of the lower parts pale yellow, gradually
fading into white behind.

_Male_, 5, 8-2/8.

Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Exceedingly rare. Migratory.

    Small-headed Flycatcher, Muscicapa minuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vi. p. 62.

    Sylvia minuta, Bonap. Syn. p. 86.

    Small-headed Sylvan Flycatcher, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 296.


68. 15. Muscicapa Ruticilla, Linn. Redstart Flycatcher.--American
Redstart.

     Plate XL. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Second and third quills equal and longest, fourth longer than first;
tail rounded. Male with the head, neck all round, fore part of breast,
and back, glossy bluish-black; sides of the breast, lower
wing-coverts, a patch on the wings formed by the margins of the
primaries and the basal half of most of the secondaries, together with
three-fourths of both webs of the outer four tail-feathers on each
side, and the outer web of the next, bright orange-red; abdomen and
lower tail-coverts white. Female with the upper parts yellowish-brown,
the head grey, the quills greyish-brown, the tail darker, the parts
yellow which in the male are bright orange; the rest of the lower
parts white, tinged with yellow. Young similar to the female, more
grey above, and with less yellow beneath.

_Male_, 5, 6-1/2. _Female._

Throughout the United States. Abundant. Migratory.

    American Redstart, Muscicapa Ruticilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 103.

    Muscicapa Ruticilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 68.

    American Redstart, Muscicapa Ruticilla, Aud. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 202; v. v. p. 428.

    American Redstart, Muscicapa Ruticilla, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        291.



GENUS V. PTILOGONYS, Swains. PTILOGONYS.


Bill short, rather strong, somewhat triangular, depressed at the base,
a little compressed at the end; upper mandible with the dorsal line
convex at the end, the nasal groove wide, the sides convex toward the
end, with a distinct notch, the tip short, rather obtuse; lower
mandible with the angle rather long and wide, the dorsal line
ascending and convex, the sides convex toward the end, the tip small,
with a slight notch behind. Nostrils linear, oblong, partially
concealed by the feathers. Head ovato-oblong; neck rather short; body
slender. Feet short, and rather slender; tarsus shorter than the
middle toe with its claw, compressed, covered anteriorly with a long
plate and three inferior scutella; toes free, the outer only adherent
at the base; hind toe rather large, stouter, outer a little longer
than inner; claws moderate, arched, much compressed, laterally
grooved, acute. Plumage soft and blended; slight bristles at the base
of the upper mandible, and the feathers in the angle of the lower jaw
bristle-tipped and curved forward. Wings long, rounded; first quill
very small, fourth longest. Tail very long, straight, emarginate, and
rounded, of twelve feathers.

This genus seems to connect the Thrushes with the Flycatchers.


69. 1. Ptilogonys Townsendi, Aud. Townsend's Ptilogonys.

     Plate CCCCXIX. Fig. 2. Female.

General colour dull brownish-grey; quills and coverts dusky brown;
edge of wing dull white; basal part of primaries pale yellow, of
secondaries ochre-yellow; edges of all the quills dull greyish-white;
secondaries with a faint patch of light brownish-grey on the outer web
toward the end; middle tail-feathers greyish-brown, the rest
blackish-brown, the outer with an oblique white space, including, from
the tip, a considerable portion of the inner web, and more than
two-thirds of the outer; the next with a white patch at the end; lower
parts paler than the upper; lower tail and wing-coverts broadly tipped
with dull white, some of the inner wing-coverts white.

_Female_, 8-1/4, wing, 4-1/2.

Columbia River.

    Townsend's Ptilogonys, Ptilogonys Townsendi, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 206.



GENUS IV. CULICIVORA, Swains. GNAT-CATCHER.


Bill of moderate length, depressed at the base, rapidly attenuated,
becoming very slender toward the end; upper mandible with the ridge
distinct, the tip extremely narrow and deflected, the edges
overlapping, the notch distinct, but very small; lower mandible with
the angle of moderate length, the ridge narrowed towards the end, the
edges inclinate, the tip acute. Nostrils oblong, exposed. Head ovate;
neck short; body slender. Feet of moderate length, tarsus longer than
the middle toe, extremely slender, with the upper scutella indistinct;
toes very small, extremely compressed; hind toe proportionally very
large; outer adherent at the base. Claws well arched, extremely
compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Plumage very soft and blended.
Wings of moderate length, concave; the first quill about a third of
the length of the second, fourth longest, third and fifth little
shorter. Tail long, slender, much rounded.


70. 1. Culicivora cœrulea, Lath. Blue-grey Gnat-catcher.

     Plate LXXXIV. Male and Female.

Upper parts bright blue, deeper on the head, paler on the
tail-coverts; a narrow black band on the forehead, extending over the
eyes; wings brownish-black, margined with blue, some of the
secondaries with bluish-white; tail glossy black, the outer feather on
each side nearly all white, the next with its terminal half, and the
third with its tip of that colour; lower parts greyish-white. Female
similar, but with the tints duller, and the black band on the head
wanting.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 6-1/2.

From Texas northward. Abundant. Migratory.

    Blue-grey Flycatcher, Muscicapa cœrulea, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 164.

    Sylvia cœrulea, Bonap. Syn. p. 85.

    Blue-grey Sylvan Flycatcher, Muscicapa cœrulea, Nutt. Man.
        v. i. p. 297.

    Blue-grey Flycatcher, Muscicapa cœrulea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 431.



FAMILY VIII. SYLVICOLINÆ. WOOD-WARBLERS.


Bill short, or of moderate length, rather slender, somewhat conical,
considerably broader than high at the base, gradually compressed
toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline straight until
near the end, the point very narrow, the notches very slight; lower
mandible with the angle rather short and narrow, the dorsal line
straight, the edges somewhat involute, the tip acute. Head moderate,
ovate; neck short; body rather slender. Feet of moderate length;
tarsus longer than the middle toe, slender, much compressed, with
eight anterior scutella, of which the upper are blended; toes rather
small, or of moderate size, hind toe proportionally stout, outer
adherent for a short way at the base; claws moderate, much compressed,
arched, acute. Plumage generally soft and blended. Wings of moderate
length. Tail of moderate length, of twelve feathers. Tongue of
moderate length, sagittate, tapering. Œsophagus of moderate width,
without dilatation, proventriculus bulbiform; stomach of moderate
size, roundish or elliptical, moderately muscular, with the muscles
distinct; epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine short,
rather wide; cœca very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple; with
four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. MYIODIOCTES, Aud. FLYCATCHING-WARBLER.


Bill of moderate length, stoutish, straight, considerably broader than
high, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the ridge
distinct, the dorsal line convex toward the end, the edges sharp and
overlapping, with a very faint notch close to the slightly deflected
tip; lower mandible with the ridge indistinct, the sides rounded, the
edges somewhat involute, the tip narrow, not ascending. Nostrils
basal, oblong. Head ovate, of moderate size; neck short; body rather
slender. Feet of moderate length; tarsus pretty stout, much
compressed; scutella blended, excepting the lower three; toes of
moderate length, very slender, the hind toe proportionally large, the
third and fourth united at the base, all scutellate. Claws moderate,
extremely compressed, well arched, very acute. Bristles at the base of
the bill elongated but slender. Wings of moderate length, the second
and third quills longest, the first scarcely shorter than the fourth.
Tail moderate, slightly rounded. Name from [Greek: Myia], an insect,
[Greek: Diôchtês], a pursuer.


71. 1. Myiodioctes mitratus, Lath. Hooded Flycatching-Warbler.--Hooded
Flycatcher. Hooded Warbler.

     Plate CX. Male and Female. Plate IX. Young.

Third quill longest, second longer than fourth, which slightly exceeds
the first; tail slightly emarginate and rounded. Male with the
forehead, sides of the head, breast, sides, abdomen, lower wing and
tail coverts, rich pure yellow; hind head and neck all round black;
upper parts yellowish-olive; wings and tail dusky brown, margined with
yellowish-olive, an oblique patch of white on the inner webs of the
three outer tail-coverts. Female with the forehead, the sides of the
head, the throat, and all the lower parts yellow, the hind part of the
head dusky, the upper part as in the male. Young similar to the
female, but with the tints a little duller.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8.

From Texas to Virginia. In the interior, as far as Memphis on the
Mississippi. Rather common. Migratory.

    Hooded Flycatcher, Muscicapa cucullata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 101.

    Sylvia mitrata, Bonap. Syn. p. 79.

    Hooded Warbler, Sylvia mitrata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 66.
        Adult Male and Female; v. v. p. 465.

    Selby's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Selbyii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 46. Young.


72. 2. Myiodioctes canadensis, Linn. Spotted Canadian Flycatching
Warbler.--Canadian Flycatcher. Canada Warbler.

     Plate CIII. Male and Female.

Third quill longest, scarcely exceeding the second, fourth slightly
shorter, first intermediate between the fourth and fifth; tail
rounded. Male with the upper parts ash-grey; the feathers of the wings
and tail brown, edged with grey; the head spotted with black; loral
space, a band beneath the eye, proceeding down the side of the neck,
and a belt of triangular spots across the lower part of the fore neck,
black; the lower parts, and a bar from the nostril over the eye, pure
yellow; lower wing and tail-coverts white. Female similar to the male,
but with the black spots on the neck smaller and fainter. Young
similar to the female, with the tints paler, and the neck unspotted.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 9.

From Kentucky northward. Not found in the Atlantic districts.
Migratory.

    Motacilla canadensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 27.

    Canada Flycatcher, Muscicapa canadensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 100.

    Sylvia pardalina, Bonap. Syn. p. 79.

    Canada Flycatcher, Muscicapa canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 17.


73. 3. Myiodioctes Bonapartii, Aud. Bonaparte's Flycatching Warbler.

     Plate V. Male.

Bristles longer than in the last, second quill longest; tail very
long, nearly even; upper parts light greyish-blue; quills dusky brown,
their outer webs greyish-blue, the two outer margined with white;
middle tail-feathers and edges of the rest like the back; lower parts
and a band on the forehead ochre-yellow, with a few faint dusky spots
on the lower part of the fore neck. This species differs from the last
chiefly in being of a more elongated form, in having the bristles much
longer, the upper parts of a much lighter tint; in wanting the black
band down the side of the neck, and the yellow band over the eye, the
bill is straighter and more pointed, and the outer primaries are edged
with white.

_Male_, 5-1/4.

Louisiana. Only one specimen ever found.

    Bonaparte's Flycatcher, Muscicapa Bonapartii, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 27.


74. 4. Myiodioctes formosus, Wils. Kentucky Flycatching
Warbler.--Kentucky Warbler.

     Plate XXXVIII. Male and Female.

Third quill longest, second scarcely shorter, first longer than
fourth, the outer three being nearly equal. Tail slightly emarginate
and slightly rounded. Male with the upper part of the head and a band
from the base of the upper mandible under the eye and down the side of
the neck black; a streak from the nostril over the eye, and all the
lower parts bright yellow; the upper parts yellowish-olive; wings
brown, the feathers margined with yellowish-olive; tail light
greenish-brown. Female similar, without the black band on the cheek
and neck, and the black of the head less extended.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8.

Valley of the Mississippi, and Kentucky. Migratory.

    Kentucky Warbler, Sylvia formosa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        85.

    Sylvia formosa, Bonap. Syn. p. 34.

    Kentucky Warbler, Sylvia formosa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        196.


75. 5. Myiodioctes Wilsonii, Bonap. Wilson's Flycatching Warbler.

     Plate CXXIV. Male and Female.

Wings short, the second and third quills longest and about equal, the
first much shorter than the fourth and a little longer than the fifth;
tail even. Back, rump, and upper tail-coverts yellowish-green; crown
glossy bluish-black, bordered on the forehead and over the eyes with
a broad band of bright yellow, of which colour are all the lower
parts; wings and tail dusky brown, the feathers margined with
yellowish-green. Female similar to the male, but with the black of the
crown of much less extent. Young similar to the female, without black
on the head.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 6-3/4.

From Texas northward, Columbia River, and intervening regions. Not in
the Fur Countries. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Green Black-capt Flycatcher, Muscicapa pusilla, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. iii. p. 103.

    Sylvia Wilsonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 86.

    Green Black-capt Warbler, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 149.

    Green Black-capped Flycatcher, Muscicapa Wilsonii, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. ii. p. 148.



GENUS II. SYLVICOLA, Swainson. WOOD-WARBLER.


Bill short, straight, rather strong, tapering, scarcely broader than
high at the base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its
dorsal outline declinate and nearly straight, the tip slightly
declinate, the edges overlapping, with a slight notch; lower mandible
with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line straight, the sides
convex, the edges a little inclinate, the tip narrow. Nostrils basal,
oval or oblong, partially concealed by the feathers. Head of ordinary
size; neck short; body rather slender. Feet of ordinary length, rather
slender; tarsus longer than the middle toe, much compressed, covered
anteriorly with seven scutella, very sharp behind; toes of moderate
length, slender, free, the outer united as far as the second joint,
the hind toe proportionally large; claws moderate, well arched, much
compressed, laterally grooved, very acute. Plumage soft and blended.
Bristles at the base of the upper mandible feeble. Wings rather long,
little curved, pointed; the second quill longest, the first and third
slightly shorter. Tail rather long, emarginate.


76. 1. Sylvicola coronata, Lath. Yellow-crowned
Wood-Warbler.--Yellow-crowned Warbler. Yellow-rump Warbler.

Second quill longest, third scarcely shorter, first longer than
fourth; tail slightly emarginate. Male with the upper parts deep
ash-grey, streaked with black; crown, rump, and a patch on the sides
of the body, rich yellow: secondary coverts, and first row of small
coverts tipped with white, which forms two bars on the wing; quills
dark brown, margined with light greyish-brown; tail feathers
brownish-black, margined with ash-grey, the outer three on each side
with a white patch on the inner web near the end; a slender white line
over the eye; feathers of the eyelids white; lore and cheek black;
throat white; lower neck, fore part of breast and sides variegated
with black, the tips of the feathers being white; the rest of the
lower parts white. Female without the yellow spot on the crown,
although the feathers there are tinged with that colour at the base;
the upper parts tinged with light brown, the yellow spots on the sides
and rump paler.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8-1/2.

From Texas northward, and throughout the interior. Extremely common.
Migratory.

    Yellow-rump Warbler, Sylvia coronata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 138.

    Sylvia coronata, Bonap. Syn. p. 78.

    Yellow-crowned Warbler, or Myrtle Bird, Sylvia coronata, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 361.

    Yellow-rump Warbler, Sylvia coronata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 303.


77. 2. Sylvicola Auduboni, Townsend. Audubon's
Wood-Warbler,--Audubon's Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCV. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Outer four quills nearly equal, second longest; tail slightly
emarginate. Male with the upper parts bluish ash-grey, streaked with
black; crown, rump, upper part of throat, and a patch on the sides of
the body, rich yellow; first row of small coverts largely tipped, and
secondary coverts broadly margined and tipped with white, which thus
forms a conspicuous patch on the wing; quills and tail brownish-black,
narrowly margined with greyish-white; a patch of white on the inner
webs of all the tail-feathers, but on the central reduced to a mere
edging; a small white spot on each of the eyelids; loral space and
cheek black; lower part of neck anteriorly, fore part of breast, and
sides, variegated with black and white or ash-grey, the latter colours
margining the feathers; the rest of the lower parts white. Female
without the yellow spot on the crown, although the feathers there are
tinged with that colour at the base; upper parts light brownish-grey,
streaked with dusky; lower parts whitish, tinged with brown, and
streaked with dusky; throat and rump yellow, but of a lighter tint
than in the male, and but slight indications of the yellow patch on
the sides; there is much less white on the wings, and the white
patches on the tail-feathers are of less extent.

In size, form, and proportion, this species and _Sylvicola coronata_
are almost precisely similar; and their colours are almost exactly
alike, the only remarkable difference in this respect being, that the
throat of the present species is yellow, while that of the former is
white.

_Male_, 5-3/4, wing, 3-1/12.

Columbia River, northward. Common. Migratory.

    Sylvia Audubonii, Audubon's Warbler, Townsend, Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc., Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 190.

    Audubon's Warbler, Sylvia Audubonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        52.


78. 3. Sylvicola striata, Lath. Black-poll Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CXXXIII. Male and Female.

First and second quills equal and longest, third a little shorter;
tail emarginate. Male with the upper parts bluish ash-grey, streaked
with black; the upper part of the head deep black; the secondary
coverts and first row of small coverts largely tipped with white;
quills and tail-feathers blackish-brown; primaries narrowly edged with
greenish-yellow, secondaries broadly with white; three outer
tail-feathers with a patch of white on the inner web at the end;
cheeks and lower parts white; a band of black spots from the base of
the lower mandible down the side of the neck and body. Female with the
upper parts oil-green, streaked with black; the rump and upper
tail-coverts plain and edged with grey; white wing-bands tinged with
yellow; cheeks yellowish-grey, mottled with dusky, lower parts dull
white, tinged with yellow and reddish the sides of the neck and body
with fainter dark streaks. Young like the female.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8-1/2.

From Texas to Labrador, where it breeds. Columbia River. Common.
Migratory.

    Black-poll Warbler, Sylvia striata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        40.

    Sylvia striata, Bonap. Syn. p. 81.

    Sylvicola striata, Black-poll Warbler, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 218.

    Black-poll Warbler, Sylvia striata, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 383.

    Black-poll Warbler, Sylvia striata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        201.


79. 4. Sylvicola pensilis, Lath. Yellow-throated Wood-Warbler.

     Plate LXXXV. Male.

Outer three quills almost equal, second quill longest, fourth shorter
than first; tail slightly emarginate. Male with the upper parts light
greyish-blue; the forehead black, the crown spotted with the same; a
white line over the eye; secondary coverts and first row of small
coverts largely tipped with white; quills greyish-black, margined with
light greyish-blue; tail-feathers of the same colour, the outer three
with a patch of white on the inner web at the end; loral space, a band
under the eye, ear-coverts, a band down the side of the neck, and
numerous oblong spots on the sides of the body, black; throat bright
yellow; rest of lower parts white. Female similar, but with the tints
paler.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas to New Jersey. In the interior along the Mississippi to
Natchez. Common. Migratory.

    Yellow-throated Warbler, Sylvia flavicollis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 64.

    Sylvia pensilis, Bonap. Syn. p. 79.

    Yellow-throated Warbler, Sylvia pensilis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 434.


80. 5. Sylvicola castanea, Wils. Bay-breasted
Wood-Warbler.--Bay-breasted Warbler.

     Plate LXIX. Male and Female.

Outer three quills almost equal, fourth considerably shorter; tail
slightly emarginate. Male with the upper part of the head, the fore
neck, and the sides, chestnut-red; forehead and cheeks, including a
small space over the eye, deep black, behind which is a transverse
patch of yellowish-white on the sides of the neck; back bluish
ash-grey, streaked with black; tips of the secondary coverts and first
row of small coverts white; quills and tail-feathers brownish-black
edged with grey, the outer three of the latter with a white patch on
the inner web near the end; middle of breast, abdomen, and lower
tail-coverts, white, tinged with reddish. Female similar to the male,
but with the tints fainter, especially the chestnut of the head and
throat, which are converged into light brownish-red.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 11.

From Texas northward. Rather common. Migratory.

    Bay-breasted Warbler, Sylvia castanea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 97.

    Sylvia castanea, Bonap. Syn. p. 80.

    Bay-breasted Warbler, Sylvia castanea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        382.

    Bay-breasted Warbler, Sylvia castanea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 358.


81. 6. Sylvicola icterocephala, Lath. Chestnut-sided
Wood-Warbler.--Chestnut-sided Warbler.

     Plate LIX. Male and Female.

Outer three quills nearly equal, second slightly longer; tail slightly
emarginate. Male with the upper part of the head light yellow, a small
part of the forehead white; loral space and two bands proceeding from
it, one over and behind the eye, the other downwards, black; upper
parts bluish ash-grey, tinged behind with greenish-yellow, and
streaked with black; secondary coverts and first row of small coverts
largely tipped with pale yellow; quills and tail-feathers
brownish-black, primaries edged with greyish-white, secondaries with
yellowish-green; outer three tail-feathers on each side with a white
patch on the inner web at the end; lower parts white, sides of the
neck and body deep chestnut. Female similar, but with the chestnut on
the sides less extended, and the yellow on the head tinged with green.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8.

From Texas northward. Rather common. Migratory.

    Chestnut-sided Warbler, Sylvia icterocephala, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. i. p. 99.

    Sylvia icterocephala, Bonap. Syn. p. 80.

    Chestnut-sided Warbler, Sylvia icterocephala, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 380.

    Chestnut-sided Warbler, Sylvia icterocephala, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 806.


82. 7. Sylvicola pinus, Lath. Pine-creeping Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CXI. Male and Female. Plate XXX. Young Male.

Wings of moderate length, with the outer three quills almost equal,
the first and second longest; tail emarginate. Male with the upper
parts light yellowish-green, inclining to olive, the rump brighter; a
streak over the eye, the eyelids, throat, breast, and sides, bright
yellow, with a greenish tinge, the rest of the lower parts white;
wings and tail blackish-brown; secondary coverts and first row of
small coverts largely tipped with dull white; primaries edged with
whitish, secondaries with brownish-grey; outer two tail-feathers with
a patch of white on the inner web near the end. Female with the upper
parts yellowish-brown tinged with grey, the lower parts of paler and
duller tints than in the male. Young similar to the female.

_Male_, 5, 8.

From Texas to Maine. Very abundant. Resident in the Southern and
Middle States.

    Pine Creeping Warbler, Sylvia pinus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 25.

    Sylvia pinus, Bonap. Syn. p. 81.

    Pine Warbler, Sylvia pinus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 387.

    Pine Creeping Warbler, Sylvia pinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        232.

    Vigors's Warbler, Sylvia Vigorsii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        153. Young.


83. 8. Sylvicola parus, Wils. Hemlock Warbler.

     Plate CXXXIV. Male and Female. Plate LXXXVIII. Young.

Wings of moderate length, with the outer two quills almost equal, the
first longest, the third little shorter; tail very slightly
emarginate. Male with the upper parts yellowish-green, spotted with
dusky, the head greenish-yellow; secondary coverts and first row of
small coverts largely tipped with white; quills and tail-feathers
blackish-brown; primaries narrowly edged with greenish-white,
secondaries broadly with white; outer two tail-feathers with the
greater part white; a bright yellow streak over the eye; a dusky band
on the lore and behind the eye; fore neck and breast bright yellow,
the rest of the lower parts white, the sides streaked with black.
Female similar to the male, but rather paler. Young with the upper
parts light olive-brown; a pale line over the eye, which is encircled
by a narrow line of whitish; wings and tail dark brown, the former
with two brownish-white bands, the quills edged with brownish-white,
the two outer tail-feathers with a white patch on the inner web; the
lower parts dull white, tinged on the neck with yellow, on the sides
with greyish-brown.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

Middle districts. Rather common. Migratory.

    Hemlock Warbler, Sylvia parus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 114.
        Male.

    Autumnal Warbler, Sylvia autumnalis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 65. Young.

    Sylvia parus, Bonap. Syn. p. 82.

    Sylvia autumnalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 74.

    Hemlock Warbler, Sylvia parus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 205.
        Adult.

    Autumnal Warbler, Sylvia autumnalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        447.


84. 9. Sylvicola virens, Lath. Black-throated Green Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCIX. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Outer three quills almost equal, second very slightly longer; tail
slightly emarginate. Male with the upper parts very light
yellowish-green; the anterior part of the forehead, a band over the
eye, the cheeks, and the sides of the neck, bright yellow; the fore
part of the neck, anterior part of the sides, and some spots on the
hind parts of the latter, black; the rest of the lower parts white,
partially tinged with yellow; quills and tail-feathers brownish-black;
secondary coverts and first row of small coverts largely tipped with
white, quills margined with greyish-white, as are the tail-feathers,
of which the greater part of the outer three, and a patch on the inner
web of the fourth, are white. Female with the upper parts similar, but
with less yellow on the forehead; ear-coverts greenish; the yellow
band over the eye less bright, the yellow on the sides of the neck of
less extent; the lower parts dull yellowish-white, the sides streaked
with dusky.

_Male_, 4-10/12, wing, 2-1/2. _Female_, 4-1/2, wing, 2-((5-1/2)/12).

From Texas to Newfoundland. Abundant. Migratory.

    Black-throated Green Warbler, Sylvia virens, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 127.

    Sylvia virens, Bonap. Syn. p. 80.

    Black-throated Green Warbler, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 376.

    Black-throated Green Warbler, Sylvia virens, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 70.


85. 10. Sylvicola maritima, Wils. Cape May Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CCCCXIV. Male and Female.

Wings pointed, first quill longest, the second a quarter of a twelfth
shorter, the third a twelfth shorter; tail slightly emarginate. Male
with the upper part of the head and fore part of the back
yellowish-olive, streaked with black; the rump, throat, and a collar
scarcely meeting behind, yellow; ear-coverts and a band over the eye
yellowish-red, loral space paler; a white patch on the wing, formed by
the first row of small coverts and the outer edges of the secondary
coverts; quills and tail-feathers blackish-brown, edged with dull
greyish-white, the secondaries more broadly; tail-feathers edged with
yellow at the base, the outer three with a white patch on the inner
web near the end; lower parts yellow, streaked with black, abdomen and
lower tail-coverts white, the latter tinged with yellow. Female
similar to the male, with the tints duller, the dusky streaks on the
upper parts very faint, the rump greenish-yellow, the ear-coverts dull
yellow, the white of the abdomen more extended, and the black streaks
on the breast less distinct.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

New Jersey, and Blue Mountains of Vermont. Exceedingly rare.

    Cape May Warbler, Sylvia maritima, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        99.

    Sylvia maritima, Bonap. Syn. p. 79.

    Cape May Warbler, Sylvia maritima. Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 156.

    Cape May Warbler, Sylvia maritima, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        156.


86. 11. Sylvicola cœrulea, Wils. Cœrulean Wood-Warbler.

     Plate XLVIII. Males. Plate XLIX. Young Male.

Wings long, with the outer three quills nearly equal, the first and
second longest; tail slightly emarginate, upper parts of a fine light
blue, brighter on the head, the back marked with longitudinal streaks
of blackish; a narrow band of black from the forehead along the lore
to behind the eye; two conspicuous white bands on the wings, formed by
the tips of the secondary coverts and first row of small coverts;
quills black, margined with pale blue; tail-feathers black, edged with
blue, all with a white patch on the inner web near the end; lower
parts white, with a band of dark bluish-grey across the fore neck, and
oblong spots of the same along the sides. Female with the upper parts
light bluish-green, the lower and a streak over the eye very pale
yellow. Young of both sexes like the female.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8.

From Texas to Nova Scotia. Columbia River. Rather common. Migratory.

    Cœrulean Warbler, Sylvia cœrulea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 141. Male.

    Blue-green Warbler, Sylvia rara, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        119. Young.

    Sylvia azurea, Bonap. Syn. p. 85.

    Sylvia rara, Bonap. Syn. p. 82.

    Cœrulean Warbler, Sylvia azurea, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 27. Female.

    Azure Warbler, Sylvia azurea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 255,
        Male; v. v. p. 456.

    Blue-green Warbler, Sylvia rara, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 258.
        Young Male.


87. 12. Sylvicola Blackburniæ, Lath. Blackburnian
Wood-Warbler.--Blackburnian Warbler.

     Plate CXXXV. Male. Plate CCCXCIX. Fig. 3. Female.

Outer three quills nearly equal, first generally longest; tail
slightly emarginate. Male black above, streaked with white; a small
patch on the top of the head, a band from the base of the upper
mandible over the eye, passing down the neck and curving forwards, and
a small band under the eye, orange-yellow; lore and a patch behind the
eye black; quills black, the outer margined with grey, the inner with
white, of which there is a large patch on the wing, including the
inner secondary coverts, and the tips of the outer, with those of the
first row of small coverts; three outer tail-feathers on each side
white, excepting an oblong portion toward the end, the next also
partially white; throat and fore part of breast rich reddish-orange;
breast dull yellow, the rest white; the sides of the neck and body
streaked with black. Female with the upper parts light olivaceous,
each feather dusky in the centre, the other parts as in the male, but
the tints much paler, the spot on the top of the head greenish-yellow,
the feathers tipped with dusky, the band over the eye pale yellow,
that on the lore and ear-coverts brown, the fore part of the neck
yellow, and the sides less strongly streaked than black.

_Male_, 4-3/4, 7-3/4. _Female_, 4-8/12, wing 2-((7-1/2)/12).

From Texas northward. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Blackburnian Warbler, Sylvia Blackburniæ, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 67.

    Sylvia Blackburniæ, Bonap. Syn. p. 80.

    Blackburnian Warbler, Sylvia Blackburniæ, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        379.

    Blackburnian Warbler, Sylvia Blackburniæ, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 208; v. v. p. 78.


88. 13. Sylvicola æstiva, Gmel. Yellow-Poll Warbler.

     Plate XCV. Male. Plate XXXV. Young Male and Female.

Outer four quills nearly equal, second longest; tail emarginate. Male
with the upper parts pale yellowish-green, the rump greenish-yellow,
the fore part of the head, cheeks, throat, sides of the neck and lower
parts pure yellow, the breast and sides streaked with brownish-red;
feathers of the wings deep brown, primaries margined with
yellowish-green, secondaries, their coverts, and the first row of
small coverts with yellow; tail-feathers brown, with the greater part
of the inner webs and a portion of the outer yellow, excepting the
middle two. Female similar, but with the colours less bright, and the
streaks on the breast and sides obsolete. Young with the upper parts
yellowish-green, tinged with brown, forehead, sides of head, and lower
parts deep yellow.

_Male_, 4-3/4, 8.

From Texas northward, and throughout the interior. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Blue-eyed Warbler, Sylvia citrinella, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 111.

    Sylvia æstiva, Bonap. Syn. p. 83.

    Yellow-poll Warbler, Sylvia æstiva, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        476. Adult Male.

    Children's Warbler, Sylvia Childrenii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 180. Young.


89. 14. Sylvicola Rathbonii, Aud. Rathbone's Wood-Warbler.

     Plate LXV. Male and Female.

Wings of ordinary length, the second quill longest; tail nearly even.
The general colour of the plumage bright yellow, the upper parts
olivaceous; quills and tail wood-brown, the former yellow on the outer
web, the latter margined externally with the same. Female similar.

_Male_, 4-1/2.

Mississippi. Only one pair seen.

    Rathbone Warbler, Sylvia Rathbonia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        333.


90. 15. Sylvicola petechia, Lath. Yellow Red-poll Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CLXIII. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Young Male.

     Plate CLXIV. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Wings of ordinary length, with the outer three quills almost equal,
the second longer than the first, which slightly exceeds the fourth;
tail emarginate. Male with the crown of the head deep brownish-red,
the upper parts yellowish-olive, streaked with brown, the rump
greenish-yellow, without streaks; quills dusky brown, primaries edged
with whitish, secondaries with yellowish; tail feathers dusky brown,
margined with greenish-yellow, the outer two with a white patch on the
inner web at the end, sometimes the outer white on both webs at the
end; a bright yellow streak from the nostril over the eye; lore dusky;
ear-coverts brownish-red; lower parts yellow, the sides of the neck,
its lower part, and the sides of the body, streaked with deep red.
Female similar to the male, but with the tints duller and paler, the
red of the head scarcely apparent, and the fore-neck very faintly
streaked. Young dull light greenish-brown, tinged with grey, the head
streaked with dusky; lower parts yellowish-grey, the sides of the neck
and body, with the breast, faintly streaked with greyish-brown.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas northward. Very abundant. Spends the winter in all the
Southern States.

    Yellow Red-poll Warbler, Sylvia petechia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vi. p. 19.

    Sylvia petechia, Bonap. Syn. p. 83; S. palmarium, p. 78.

    Sylvicola petechia, Yellow Red-poll Warbler, Swain. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 215.

    Yellow Red-poll Warbler, Sylvia petechia, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        364.

    Yellow Red-poll Warbler, Sylvia petechia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 259, Adult Male and Young; p. 360, Adult Male and
        Female.


91. 16. Sylvicola Americana, Lath. Blue Yellow-backed
Wood-Warbler,--Yellow-backed Warbler,--Blue Yellow-back Warbler.

     Plate XV. Male and Female.

Bill much attenuated; outer three quills nearly equal, first or second
longest; tail almost even, with the feathers pointed. Male with the
upper parts light blue, the fore part of the back yellowish-green; two
broad bands of white on the wing, formed by the tips of the secondary
coverts, and first row of small coverts; quills and tail-feathers
dusky, margined with blue; a white spot on the outer three of the
latter; loral space black; both eyelids with a white spot; throat
yellow, with whitish patches, a lunular band of blackish on the fore
neck; breast yellow, spotted with dull orange, the rest of the lower
parts yellowish, fading into white, the sides pale greyish-blue.
Female similar but paler; the loral band wanting; throat, fore neck,
and breast yellow, without the black lunule.

Although the bill of this species is much attenuated, it is not
essentially different in form from that of S. Blackburniæ, and others
of this genus; the wings are similar to those of the rest, and there
seems no reason for setting it apart to form a genus, as has been done
by Bonaparte.

_Male_, 4-1/6, 6-1/2.

From Texas, generally distributed. Exceedingly abundant. Migratory.

    Blue Yellow-back Warbler, Sylvia pusilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 17.

    Sylvia Americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 33.

    Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, Sylvia Americana, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 78.


92. 17. Sylvicola Townsendi, Nutt. Townsend's Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCIII. Fig. 1. Male.

Wings of moderate length, rather pointed, with the second and third
quills longest, the first and second nearly equal and very little
shorter; tail scarcely emarginate. Upper parts light greenish-olive,
more yellow behind, all the feathers dusky in the centre; cheeks,
ear-coverts, and throat black; a band over the eye, a broader band on
the side of the neck, and the fore part of the breast bright yellow;
the rest of the lower parts white, but the sides marked with oblong
dusky spots; wings blackish-brown; the secondary coverts and first row
of small coverts largely tipped with white, the quills margined with
light grey; tail-feathers blackish-brown, edged with grey; outer two
on each side almost entirely white, the next with a small white spot.

_Male_, 4-10/12, wing 2-8/12.

Columbia River, northward. Migratory.

    Sylvia Townsendi, Townsend's Warbler, Towns. Journ. Acad. Nat.
        Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 191.

    Townsend's Warbler, Sylvia Townsendi, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        36.


93. 18. Sylvicola occidentalis, Towns. Hermit Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCV. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Wings of moderate length, the outer three quills almost equal, the
third longest; tail slightly emarginate. Male with the upper parts
bluish-grey, spotted with black; the upper part of the head, which is
similarly spotted, the cheeks, and sides of the neck, bright yellow;
throat black; breast and abdomen white; ground and tail-feathers
greyish-dusky; two white bands on the wing formed by the tips of the
secondary coverts and first row of small coverts; two outer
tail-feathers on each side almost entirely white. Female with the
upper parts of a duller grey, the yellow of the head less extended and
not so bright; throat whitish, spotted with dusky.

_Male_, 3-5/12, wing 2-8/12.

Columbia River. Migratory.

    Sylvicola occidentalis, Hermit Wood-Warbler, Towns. Journ.
        Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 190.

    Hermit Warbler, Sylvia occidentalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        55.


94. 19. Sylvia nigrescens, Towns. Black-throated Grey Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCV. Figs. 5 and 6. Male.

Wings of moderate length, with the outer three quills nearly equal,
the second longest, the first shorter than the fourth; tail slightly
rounded and emarginate. Male with the upper parts bluish ash-grey, the
middle of the back and tail-coverts streaked with black; the upper
part of the head and neck, the loral space and cheeks, and the fore
part of the neck, with a small portion of the breast black; a band
from the nostril to near the eye yellow; a band over the eye, and
another from the lower mandible along the side of the neck white;
breast and abdomen white, the sides tinged with grey, and streaked
with black; wings blackish-brown, with two white bands formed by the
tips of the secondary coverts and first row of small coverts; quills
edged with light grey; tail blackish-brown, the two outer feathers on
each side almost entirely white, the next with a white patch on the
inner web.

_Male_, 5, wing 2-8/12.

Columbia River. Migratory.

    Sylvia nigrescens, Black-throated Grey Warbler, Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 191.

    Black-throated Grey Warbler, Sylvia nigrescens, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 57.


95. 20. Sylvicola canadensis, Linn. Canada or Black-throated Blue
Wood-Warbler.

     Plate CLV. Male. Plate CXLVIII. Female and Young.

Wings rather long, with the third quill longest, the second almost
equal, the fourth longer than the first; tail even. Male dull light
blue above, white beneath; frontal band, cheeks, throat, and sides,
black; a white patch on the wing formed by the bases of the primaries;
outer three tail-feathers with a patch of white on the inner web near
the end, all the rest with a touch of the same. Female greenish-olive
above, light dull-yellow below, with a less extended white patch on
the wing, the white on the tail unconspicuous. Young similar to the
female.

_Male_, 5, 7-1/2.

From Texas northward. Migratory. Abundant.

    Motacilla canadensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 334.

    Black-throated Blue Warbler, Sylvia canadensis, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. ii. p. 115. Male.

    Sylvia canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 84. Male.

    Black-throated Blue Warbler, Sylvia canadensis, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 398. Male.

    Black-throated Blue Warbler, Sylvia canadensis, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. ii. p. 309. Male.

    Pine-swamp Warbler, Sylvia pusilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p.
        100. Young.

    Sylvia sphagnosa, Bonap. Syn. p. 85. Young.

    Pine-swamp Warbler, Sylvia sphagnosa, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 406.
        Young.

    Pine-swamp Warbler, Sylvia sphagnosa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 279. Female and Young.


96. 21. Sylvicola maculosa, Lath. Blue-headed Yellow-rumped
Wood-Warbler.--Black-and-Yellow Warbler.

     Plate CXXIII. Male and Female. Plate L. Young.

Wings of moderate length, the outer four quills nearly equal, the
second and third longest and equal, the fourth longer than the first;
tail almost even. Upper part of head and hind neck ash-grey; eyelids,
and a band over the eye, white; part of forehead, loral space, and a
broad band down the side of the neck, with the fore part of the back,
and upper tail-coverts deep black; lower parts and rump bright yellow;
the lower part of the throat, the breast and sides, spotted with
black; wings and tail-feathers brownish-black, edged with grey; two
white bands on the wing; all the tail-feathers, except the middle two,
with a large patch of white on the inner web, at about two-thirds of
their length. Young yellowish-grey above, with the head light grey,
the rump yellow; lower parts of a duller yellow, with only faint dusky
streaks on the sides.

_Male_, 5, 7-1/2.

From Texas northward. Very abundant. Migratory.

    Black-and-Yellow Warbler, Sylvia magnolia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 63. Adult.

    Sylvia maculosa, Bonap. Syn. p. 78.

    Black-and-Yellow Warbler, Sylvia maculosa, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        370.

    Sylvicola maculosa, Yellow-rump Warbler, F. Bor. Amer. v. ii.
        p. 213.

    Black-and-Yellow Warbler, Sylvia maculosa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 145, Adult; v. i. p. 260, Young; v. v. p. 458.


97. 22. Sylvicola discolor, Vieill. Prairie Wood-Warbler.

     Plate XIV. Male and Female.

Wings rather short, with the outer four quills nearly equal, the
second and third longest; tail emarginate and rounded. Male with the
upper parts yellowish-green, the back spotted with chestnut-red; lower
parts, and a band over the eye, bright yellow; two bands of dull
yellow on the wing; outer four tail-feathers with a white patch on the
inner web; a small streak before and behind the eye, one on the cheek,
a spot on the side of the neck, and oblong markings on the sides,
black. Female similar, but paler, especially beneath, and without the
black streaks on the side of the head.

_Male_, 5, 7.

From Texas to Massachusetts. Migratory. Abundant.

    Prairie Warbler, Sylvia minuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        87.

    Sylvia discolor, Bonap. Syn. p. 83.

    Prairie Warbler, Sylvia discolor, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 294.

    Prairie Warbler, Sylvia discolor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 76.


98. 23. Sylvicola montana, Wils. Blue-Mountain Warbler.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 3. Male.

No bristles at the base of the bill; wings rather short, the third and
fourth quills longest; tail much rounded. Upper parts light
greenish-olive; a band across the forehead, one over the eye, the
cheeks, throat, fore part and sides of neck bright yellow; the rest of
the lower parts yellowish-white, the sides marked with narrow
longitudinal dusky streaks; wings dusky brown, all the feathers edged
with yellowish-white, the secondary quills more broadly, the first row
of small coverts and the secondary coverts tipped with white, forming
two conspicuous bands; tail brownish-black, the feathers edged with
yellowish-green, the two outer on each side white in their terminal
half.

_Male_, 4-1/12, wing 2-6/12.

Blue Mountains. Only one individual seen.

    Blue-Mountain Warbler, Sylvia montana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v.
        p. 113.

    Sylvia tigrina, Bonap. Syn. p. 83; but not of Gmelin or
        Latham, as the figure of Edwards, to which reference is
        made, has the tail not rounded, but emarginate.


99. 24. Sylvicola agilis, Wils. Connecticut Wood Warbler.--Connecticut
Warbler.

     Plate CXXXVIII. Male and Female.

Wings long, with the first quill longest, and exceeding the first
secondary by eleven-twelfths of an inch; middle toe and claw longer
than the tarsus; tail of moderate length, nearly even, with acuminate
feathers. Male olive-green above; a ring of yellowish-white round the
eye; the head, neck all round, and part of the breast ash-grey, the
sides greyish-green; the rest of the lower parts bright yellow. Female
olive-green above, yellow beneath, the sides of the neck and a band
across the breast tinged with brown.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 8.

New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut. Very rare. Migratory.

    Connecticut Warbler, Sylvia agilis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p.
        64.

    Sylvia agilis, Bonap. Syn. p. 84.

    Connecticut Warbler, Sylvia agilis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 399.

This species forms a connecting link between _Sylvicola_ and
_Trichas_, having the long pointed wings of the former, and the
general appearance of the latter, which it resembles, especially in
its tail, which is neither emarginate, nor marked with the white spots
seen on that of almost all the other Sylvicolæ, but which do not exist
in the genus Trichas. Some of the Sylvicolæ are, in like manner,
assimilated to Myiodoctes, and others to Vermivora. Of the former may
be mentioned, _Sylvicola Auduboni_ and _S. coronata_; of the latter,
_S. Blackburniæ_.



GENUS III. TRICHAS, Swains. GROUND-WARBLER.


Bill of moderate length, similar in form to that of Sylvicola,
differing only in being a little decurved. The general form does not
differ materially from that of Sylvicola, the head being ovate and of
moderate size, the neck short, the body rather slender; the feet of
moderate length, slender; tarsus slender, much compressed, longer
than the middle toe with its claw, anteriorly covered with eight
scutella, of which the upper are blended; toes of moderate size, hind
toe proportionally large, lateral toes equal, fourth adherent at the
base; claws rather long, arched, much compressed, laterally grooved,
very acute. Plumage soft and blended. Wings rather short, convex,
considerably rounded, the third and fourth quills longest, the fifth
little shorter. Tail of moderate length, rounded, always plain, or
without white spots.


100. 1. Trichas Macgillivrayi, Aud. Macgillivray's
Ground-Warbler.--Macgillivray's Warbler.

     Plate CCCXCIX. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Wings rather short, the second quill longest, the fourth longer than
the first, the tail long, considerably rounded, its feathers rounded;
tarsus longer than the middle toe and claw. Male olive-green above;
the head, hind part, and sides of the neck bluish-grey; the fore neck
and part of the breast greyish-black, lunulated with greyish-white; a
black loral band; a conspicuous white spot on each eyelid; the lower
parts bright yellow. Female olive-green above, yellow beneath, the
sides of the neck and a band across the breast ash-grey.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 6-1/2. _Female_, 5, wing 2-((4-1/2)/12).

Columbia River. Common.

    Macgillivray's Warbler, Sylvia Macgillivrayi, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 75.


101. 2. Trichas Philadelphia, Wils. Mourning Ground-Warbler.--Mourning
Warbler.

Wings of moderate length, with the second quill longest, the fourth
shorter than the first; the tail long, considerably rounded, its
feathers scarcely pointed; tarsus longer than the middle toe and claw.
Male olive-green above, the head, hind part and sides of the neck,
bluish-grey; the fore neck and part of the breast deep black,
lunulated with white; a blackish loral band, margins of eyelids dusky
grey; the lower parts bright yellow. Female olive-green above, yellow
beneath, the sides of the neck and a band across the breast ash-grey,
the throat yellowish-white.

_Male_, 5, 8.

New Jersey and Blue Mountains of Vermont. Rare. Migratory.

    Mourning Warbler, Sylvia Philadelphia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 101.

    Sylvia Philadelphia, Bonap. Syn. p. 85.

    Mourning Warbler, Sylvia Philadelphia, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        404.

    Mourning Warbler, Sylvia Philadelphia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 79.


102. 3. Trichas Marilandica, Linn. Maryland Ground-Warbler.--Maryland
Yellow-throat. Yellow-breasted Warbler.

     Plate XXIII. Male and Female. Plate XXIV. Young Male.

Wings rather short, with the third and fourth quills longest, fifth
longer than second, first and sixth equal; tail considerably rounded,
the lateral feathers being three-twelfths shorter than the middle.
Male with a broad band of black across the forehead, including the
loral space and eyes, and terminating in a rather pointed form behind
the ear-coverts; over this band a narrow one of very pale blue, or
bluish-white; upper parts yellowish-green, on the head slightly tinged
with red; quills and tail-feathers wood-brown, margined with
yellowish-green; the edge of the wing and the margin of the outer
primary yellow; fore part of neck bright yellow, as is the anterior
part of the breast and the lower tail-coverts, the rest pale, the
sides shaded with dull yellowish-brown; the axillaries and some of the
lower wing-coverts white. Female with the upper parts lighter, the
lower less bright, tinged with reddish-brown, the head of pale
brownish-red, without the bands so conspicuous in the male. Young
similar to the female, the males with a black mystachial band.

_Male_, 4-3/4, 6-1/2.

From Texas northward to Nova Scotia, and throughout the interior;
Columbia River.

    Maryland Yellow-throat, Sylvia Marilandica, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. i. p. 88, Male; v. ii. p. 163, Female.

    Sylvia Marilandica, Bonap. Syn. p. 85.

    Maryland Yellow-throat, Nutt. Man. v. i.

    Yellow-breasted Warbler, or Maryland Yellow-throat, Sylvia
        Trichas, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 121, Adult; v. v. p.
        463.

    Roscoe's Yellow-throat, Sylvia Roscoe, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 124. Young.


103. 4. Trichas Delafieldii, Aud. Delafield's Ground-Warbler.

Wing rather long, much rounded, with the third and fourth quills
longest, sixth longer than second, first and tenth about equal; tail
much rounded, the lateral feathers being half an inch shorter than the
middle. Male with a band of black across the forehead, including the
loral space and eyes, and terminating on the ear-coverts; upper part
of head light greyish-blue, tinged behind with green; the rest of the
upper parts dull yellowish-green; quills and tail-feathers wood-brown
on the inner webs, the edge of the wing and margin of the outer
primary yellow; all the lower parts rich yellow, excepting the sides,
which are shaded into dull greenish-yellow.

_Male_, 5-1/4, wing, 2-5/12.

North California.

    Delafield's Yellow-throat, Sylvia Delafieldii, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 307.



GENUS IV. HELINAIA, Aud. SWAMP-WARBLERS.


Bill rather long, being nearly of the same length as the head,
straight, or slightly decurved, tapering to a very acute point, much
compressed; the upper mandible with the ridge distinct, the sides
declinate and flat at the base, the edges somewhat inflected beyond
the middle, the notch obsolete; lower mandible with the dorsal line
straight, the edges involute, the tip extremely acute. Nostrils
oblong; exposed. Feet of moderate length; tarsus about equal to the
middle toe and claw, slender, much compressed, with the upper scutella
blended; toes slender; claws rather long, moderately arched, slender,
much compressed, laterally grooved, extremely acute, plumage soft and
blended. Bristles obsolete. Wings rather long, somewhat pointed, the
outer three nearly equal, the second longest. Tail of moderate length,
nearly even.--Name from [Greek: Helos], a swamp, and [Greek: Naiô], to
inhabit.


104. 1. Helinaia Swainsonii, Aud. Swainson's Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate CXCVIII. Male.

Bill as long as the head, much compressed; wings rather long, second
and third quills equal and longest; tail even; upper parts
olive-brown, the head strongly tinged with red; lower parts and a band
over the eye pale yellowish-grey, the feathers on the cheeks tipped
with brown, the sides of the neck and body more grey, the abdomen
whitish.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8-1/2.

South Carolina to Massachusetts. Very rare. Migratory.

    Swainson's Warbler, Sylvia Swainsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 568; v. v. p. 462.


105. 2. Helinaia vermivora, Lath. Worm-eating Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate XXXIV. Male and Female.

Bill nearly as long as the head, less compressed than in the last;
wings rather long, second quill longest, first and third equal; tail
very slightly rounded. Upper parts light olive-green; head and lower
parts pale brownish-yellow, the former with four longitudinal black
bands; throat and abdomen nearly white.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas northwards, and in the interior to the Missouri. Not very
abundant. Migratory.

    Worm-eating Warbler, Sylvia vermivora, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 74.

    Sylvia vermivora, Bonap. Syn. p. 86.

    Worm-eating Warbler, Sylvia vermivora, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 177; v. v. p. 460.


106. 3. Helinaia Protonotarius, Lath. Prothonotary Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate III. Male and Female.

Bill nearly as long as the head; first quill longest; tail even. Male
with the head, neck, breast, and sides rich yellow, abdomen and lower
tail-coverts white; hind neck and fore part of back greenish-yellow,
rump, tail-coverts, smaller wing-coverts and margin of the quills and
tail-feathers light greyish-blue; the latter, except the middle,
having the greater part of their inner webs white.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas eastward to Nova Scotia. In the interior to Kentucky.
Saskatchewan. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Prothonotary Warbler, Sylvia Protonotarius, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iii. p. 72.

    Sylvia Protonotarius, Bonap. Syn. p. 86.

    Prothonotary Warbler, Sylvia Protonotarius, v. i. p. 410.

    Prothonotary Warbler, Sylvia Protonotarius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 22; v. v. p. 460.


107. 4. Helinaia chrysoptera, Linn. Golden-winged Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate CCCCXIV. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Bill slightly shorter than the head, tapering to an acute point; wings
with the second and third quills equal and longest, the fourth and
first about equal; tail even. Male light ash-grey above, greyish-white
beneath; upper part of head, and a patch on the wing, formed by the
first row of small coverts and the secondary coverts, bright yellow; a
band from the bill to the eye, continued under it, and including the
ear-coverts, black, as is the throat; a white band from the upper
mandible over the eye, and another from the lower mandible down the
neck. Female with the tints less bright, the back tinged with green,
the side of the head and the throat grey, and the white bands on the
head narrower and less extended.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 7-5/8. _Female_, 5, 7-1/4.

From Texas to Nova Scotia. In the interior to Kentucky. Rather rare.
Migratory.

    Golden-winged Warbler, Sylvia chrysoptera, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 113.

    Sylvia chrysoptera, Bonap. Syn. p. 87.

    Golden-winged Warbler, Sylvia chrysoptera, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        411.

    Golden-winged Warbler, Sylvia chrysoptera, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 154.


108. 5. Helinaia Bachmanii, Aud. Bachman's Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate CLXXXV. Male and Female.

Bill nearly as long as the head, slightly decurved, much attenuated;
outer four quills nearly equal, second longest, tail even. Male with
the upper parts yellowish-green, the feathers of the crown black, with
greyish margin; the hind neck grey; forehead, a line over the eye,
cheeks, chin, sides of neck, flexure of wing, lower wing-coverts, and
breast, yellow; sides greenish-grey, lower tail-coverts white; a patch
of black, enlarging beneath, on the fore neck; quills and tail
greyish-brown; a patch of white on each of the tail-feathers,
excepting the middle. Female with the tints fainter, the forehead
yellowish-green, the fore neck dusky.

_Male_, 4-1/12, 6-1/4. _Female_, 3-10/12.

South Carolina. Rare. Migratory.

    Bachman's Warbler, Sylvia Bachmanii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        483.


109. 6. Helinaia carbonata, Aud. Carbonated Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate LX. Male.

Bill shorter than the head, straight, very acute; wing with the second
quill longest; tail slightly emarginate. Male with the upper part of
the head black; fore part of back, smaller wing-coverts, and sides
dusky green, spotted with black; a line over the eye, the sides of the
neck, throat, the rest of the lower parts, and the rump yellow.

_Male_, 4-3/4.

Kentucky. Only two specimens procured. Migratory.

    Carbonated Warbler, Sylvia carbonata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        308.


110. 7. Helinaia peregrina, Wils. Tennessee Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate CLIV. Male.

Bill shorter than the head, straight, very acute; wing with the second
and third quills longest; tail nearly even. Upper parts
yellowish-olive, the head darker; lower parts cream-coloured, fading
behind into white; a pale yellow line over the eye; quills and
tail-feathers dusky, the primaries margined with whitish, the
secondaries with greenish-yellow.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8.

Florida to New York, and in the interior to Kentucky. Rare. Migratory.

    Tennessee Warbler, Sylvia peregrina, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 83.

    Sylvia peregrina, Bonap. Syn. p. 87.

    Tennessee Warbler, Sylvia peregrina, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 412.

    Tennessee Warbler, Sylvia peregrina, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        307.


111. 8. Helinaia solitaria, Wils. Blue-winged Yellow Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate XX. Male and Female.

Bill shorter than the head, straightish, very acute; wings with the
outer four quills almost equal, the second longest; tail nearly even.
Forehead, crown, and lower parts bright yellow; hind part of the head,
neck, and back light green, rump greenish-yellow; lore black; wings
and tail greyish-blue, the feathers margined with greyish-white; two
bands of white on the wing, formed by the tips of the first row of
small coverts and the secondary coverts; tail-feathers, except the
middle, with a patch of white on the inner web. Young with the upper
parts, including the forehead, yellowish-green, the lower pale
greenish-yellow.

_Male_, 4-3/4, 7.

From Texas to Massachusetts. In the interior, to Kentucky. Rather
rare. Migratory.

    Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 109.

    Sylvia solitaria, Bonap. Syn. p. 87.

    Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, Sylvia solitaria, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 410.

    Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, Sylvia solitaria, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 102.


112. 9. Helinaia celata, Say. Orange-crowned Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate CLXXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill shorter than the head, very much attenuated; wings with the outer
four quills almost equal, the second longest; tail even. Male with the
upper parts dull green, the rump yellowish-green; a patch of dull
reddish-orange on the crown, concealed by the grey tips of the
feathers; lower parts dull olivaceous yellow; lower tail-coverts light
yellow; quills and tail-feathers greyish-brown, edged with
yellowish-green. Female similar, with the orange on the crown duller.
Young with the lower parts paler, and without red on the head.

This species and the next seem to form the transition from the
Sylvicolinæ to the Reguli, as _Mniotilta varia_ does to the Certhiæ.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 7-11/12.

In summer from Texas to Nova Scotia. Winters in the southern states.
Columbia River. Rather common.

    Sylvia celata, Say, Long's Exped. v. i. p. 169.

    Sylvia celata, Bonap. Syn. p. 38.

    Orange-crowned Warbler, Sylvia celata, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 45.

    Orange-crowned Warbler, Sylvia celata, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        413.

    Orange-crowned Warbler, Sylvia celata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 449.


113. 10. Helinaia rubricapilla, Wils. Nashville Swamp-Warbler.

     Plate LXXXIX. Male and Female.

Bill shorter than the head, very much attenuated; wings with the
outer four quills almost equal, the second longest; tail slightly
emarginate. Upper part of the head, cheeks, hind part and sides of
neck light bluish-grey; a patch of dull red on the crown, concealed
by the grey tips of the feathers; upper parts of the body
yellowish-green, lower parts greenish-yellow; quills and tail-feathers
greyish-brown, edged with yellowish-green, the primaries with
greyish-white. Female similar but paler, and with faint indications of
red on some of the feathers on the crown. Young similar to the female.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 7.

Texas to Massachusetts. Inland to Kentucky. Columbia River. Rare.
Migratory.

    Nashville Warbler, Sylvia rubricapilla. Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 120.

    Sylvia rubricapilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 87.

    Nashville Warbler, Sylvia rubricapilla, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        412.

    Nashville Warbler, Sylvia rubricapilla, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 450.



GENUS V. MNIOTILTA, Vieill. CREEPING-WARBLER.


Bill rather long, straight, very slender, nearly as broad as high at
the base, much compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the
dorsal line very slightly convex, the edges a little inflected toward
the end, the notches obsolete, the tip acute; lower mandible with the
dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the edges involute, the tip
attenuated. General form slender. Feet of moderate length, very
slender; tarsus shorter than the middle toe and claw, much compressed,
the upper scutella blended; toes rather long, extremely compressed,
the first very long, the second shorter than the third, which is
adherent at the base, claws rather long, well arched, extremely
compressed, and acute. Plumage very soft and blended. Bristles
obsolete. Wings long, with the second and third quills longest and
about equal, the first slightly shorter, and exceeding the fourth.
Tail of moderate length, nearly even. This genus connects the
Sylvicolinæ with the Certhianæ.


114. 1. Mniotilta varia, Linn. Black-and-white Creeping Warbler.

     Plate XC. Male.

Male with the plumage white, variegated with glossy black,
longitudinally disposed; a band along the middle of the head and hind
neck, a streak over the eyes, a band along the sides of the neck, two
bars on the wings, the middle of the breast and abdomen, with a patch
at the end of the outer two tail-feathers, white. Female with the
upper parts similar, but with the black less deep, the lower parts
greyish-white, the sides and lower tail-coverts marked with black.
Young light brownish-grey above, paler beneath, with the abdomen
white.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 7-1/2.

Generally distributed. Migratory.

    Black-and-white Creeper, Certhia varia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 23.

    Sylvia varia, Bonap. Syn. p. 81.

    Black-and-white Creeper, Certhia varia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 452; v. v. p. 471.



FAMILY IX. CERTHIANÆ. CREEPERS.


Bill of moderate length or rather long, slender, slightly arched, much
compressed, acute; upper mandible with its dorsal outline convex or
arched, the ridge narrow, the notches slight or obsolete, lower
mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the dorsal line
straight or slightly decurved, the edges inclinate, the tip acute.
Head moderate, ovate; neck short, body slender. Feet of moderate
length, or rather short; tarsus about the same length as the middle
toe, compressed, with eight anterior scutella, toes of moderate
length, much compressed, hind toe proportionally long, outer adherent
at the base; claws rather long, extremely compressed, arched, acute.
Wings short or of moderate length. Tail of twelve feathers, generally
much rounded. Tongue slender, emarginate and papillate at the base,
very narrow, tapering to a lacerated point. Œsophagus of moderate
width, without crop; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach of moderate
size, oblong, or elliptical, moderately muscular, with the muscles
distinct; epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous; intestine short,
rather wide; cœca very small; cloaca globular. Trachea simple, with
four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. CERTHIA, Linn. TREE-CREEPER.


Bill about the same length as the head, very slender, arched, much
compressed, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line arched, the
ridge narrow, the sides sloping at the base, nearly erect in the rest
of their extent, the edges sharp, arched, without notch, the tip
acute; lower mandible with the angle rather long, narrow, and pointed,
the outline decurved, the sides erect and convex, the edges inclinate,
the tip acute. Nostrils linear-oblong, operculate. Head ovate; neck
short; body slender. Feet rather short, very slender, tarsus rather
shorter than the middle toe, very slender, much compressed; toes
extremely compressed; the first comparatively large, longer than the
middle toe, including the claw; the inner toe shorter than the outer;
claws long, moderately arched, slender, extremely compressed,
laterally grooved, acute, that of the hind toe very long. Plumage
long, loose, very soft. Bristles obsolete. Wings of moderate length,
very broad; the first quill very short, the fourth and fifth longest.
Tail long, graduated, of twelve moderately stiff pointed feathers.


115. 1. Certhia familiaris, Linn. Brown Tree-Creeper.

     Plate CCCCXV. Male and Female.

Upper parts reddish-brown, the head darker, the rump light
brownish-red; all the feathers with a central dull whitish streak;
wings deep brown, the coverts tipped, the secondaries barred at the
base with dull yellow, of which a broad band, in the midst of a
brownish-black space, crosses both webs of the quills, excepting
the inner webs of the outer four, and the outer webs of the outer
three; most of the quills also with a greyish-yellow patch along
the outer web toward the tip, which is dull white; tail-feathers
yellowish-brown; with shafts of a lighter tint, the webs darker toward
the end; a silvery white band over the eye; cheeks dark brown; lower
parts silvery white, sides tinged with brown.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Louisiana to Maryland, and in the interior to Kentucky, during
winter. From Pennsylvania eastward to Nova Scotia, in summer, breeding
in all the intermediate parts. Common.

    Brown Creeper, Certhia familiaris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        122.

    Certhia familiaris, Bonap. Syn. p. 280.

    Brown Creeper, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 585.

    Brown Creeper, Certhia familiaris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        158.



GENUS II. TROGLODYTES, Cuv. WREN.


Bill of moderate length, or nearly as long as the head, slender,
slightly arched, much compressed toward the end; upper mandible with
the dorsal line slightly convex, the edges a little inflected toward
the end, the notches slight, the tip rather acute; lower mandible with
the angle rather long and narrow, the outline slightly decurved, the
sides erect and convex, the edges inclinate, the tip acute. Nostrils
oblong, operculate, exposed. Head oblong; neck short; body slender.
Feet of ordinary length, rather strong; tarsus longer than the middle
toe, compressed, with eight anterior distinct scutella; toes of
moderate size, the third and fourth united at the base, the first very
large, the lateral nearly equal; claws rather long, moderately arched,
much compressed, very acute. Plumage soft and blended. Bristles
obsolete. Wings of moderate length, or short, convex, much rounded;
the first quill very small, the fourth and fifth longest. Tail rather
short, rounded, of twelve slightly arched, weak, rounded feathers.


116. 1. Troglodytes obsoletus, Say. Rock-Wren.

     Plate CCCLX. Fig. 4. Female.

Upper parts dull yellowish-brown, and, excepting the rump, barred with
greyish-brown; wings similarly barred, excepting the primaries;
secondary coverts with a small white spot near the tip; tail-coverts
and two middle tail-feathers barred with dusky; the rest broadly
tipped with pale yellowish-red, undulated with dusky, behind which is
a broad band of brownish-black, the remaining or basal part banded
like the central feathers, the outer with four reddish-white spots or
bars on the outer web, the intervals being brownish-black, and a spot
of white on the inner web; lower parts greyish-white, tinged with
sienna, the sides inclining to yellowish-red; lower tail-coverts
barred with dusky.

_Female_, 6, wing 2-11/12.

Rocky Mountains and Columbia River. Abundant. Migratory.

    Troglodytes obsoleta, Say, Long's Exped.

    Troglodytes obsoleta, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 6.

    Rocky Mountain Wren, Troglodytes obsoleta, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        435.

    Rock Wren, Troglodytes obsoletus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        443.


117. 2. Troglodytes ludovicianus, Bonap. Great Carolina Wren.

     Plate LXXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill stouter than in the last, nearly as long as the head; wing with
the fourth and fifth quills longest; tail much rounded; upper parts
brownish-red; a yellowish-white streak over the eye, extending far
down the neck, and edged above with dark brown; a broader band of
reddish-brown behind the eye; quills, coverts, and tail barred with
blackish-brown; secondary and first row of small coverts tipped with
white, shafts of the latter also white; throat greyish-white, lower
parts light reddish-buff, deeper behind; lower tail-coverts white,
barred with black. Female lighter above, tinged with grey beneath,
without white on the wing-coverts.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 7-1/2.

From Texas to New York, along the Atlantic coast. In the interior to
the Missouri, and up the Ohio to Pittsburgh. Resident in the Southern
States. Abundant.

    Great Carolina Wren, Certhia Caroliniana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 61.

    Troglodytes ludovicianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 93.

    Great Carolina Mocking Wren, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 429.

    Great Carolina Wren, Troglodytes ludovicianus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 399; v. v. p. 466.


118. 3. Troglodytes Bewickii, Aud. Bewick's Wren.

     Plate XVIII. Male.

Bill more slender than that of the last, nearly as long as the head,
slightly arched; wing very short, with the fifth quill longest, but
little exceeding the fourth and sixth; tail rather long, graduated.
Upper parts dusky brown tinged with grey; lower greyish-white, the
sides tinged with brown; a band of yellowish-white from the upper
mandible over the eye to half-way down the neck; quills and
wing-coverts barred with dusky, as are the tail-coverts and two middle
tail-feathers; outer web of the lateral tail-feathers, and the
terminal portions of the others whitish, barred with black, their
middle parts black, toward the base barred with reddish-brown.

_Male_, 5, 6-1/2.

From Louisiana to Columbia River on the one hand, and to Pennsylvania
on the other, principally on high grounds. Not very common. Migratory.

    Bewick's Wren, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 434.

    Bewick's Wren, Troglodytes Bewickii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        96; v. v. p. 467.


119. 4. Troglodytes Americanus, Aud. Wood-Wren.

     Plate CLXXIX. Male.

Bill of moderate length, nearly straight; wings short, with the third,
fourth, and fifth quills almost equal, the fourth longest; tail rather
long, much rounded. Upper parts dark reddish-brown, duller and tinged
with grey on the head, indistinctly barred with dusky; lower parts
brownish-grey, faintly barred on the fore neck, breast, and sides, the
abdomen and lower tail-coverts distinctly barred; feathers of the
cheeks light grey tipped with brown, wings and tail undulatingly
banded with blackish-brown.

_Male_, 4-7/8, 6-3/4.

Northern parts of Vermont and Maine, during summer. Winters in South
Carolina. Not very rare.

    Wood-Wren, Troglodytes Americana. Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        452; v. v. p. 469.


120. 5. Troglodytes ædon, Vieill. House-Wren.

     Plate LXXXIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill of moderate length, nearly straight, a little stouter than that
of the last; wings short, with the third, fourth, and fifth quills
almost equal, the fourth longest; tail rather short, much rounded.
Upper parts dull reddish-brown, darker on the head, brighter on the
tail-coverts, indistinctly barred with dusky; lower parts
brownish-grey, faintly barred on the fore neck and breast, the sides,
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts distinctly barred; feathers of the
cheeks grey, tipped with brown; wings and tail undulatingly banded
with blackish-brown. This species differs from the last in being
considerably smaller, in having the bill shorter and stouter, the
lower parts more tinged with brown; but the colouring of the two is
extremely similar.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 5-1/2.

From Maryland to Nova Scotia, and across the continent to the Columbia
River. Very abundant. Migratory.

    House Wren, Sylvia domestica, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 129.

    Troglodytes ædon, Bonap. Syn. p. 92.

    House Wren, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 422.

    Troglodytes ædon, House Wren, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 316.

    House Wren, Troglodytes ædon, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 427; v.
        v. p. 470.


121. 6. Troglodytes hyemalis, Vieill. Winter-Wren.

     Plate CCCLX. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female. Fig. 3. Young.

Bill of moderate length, nearly straight; wings shortish, with the
fourth quill longest; tail short, much rounded. Upper parts
reddish-brown, faintly barred with dusky, darker on the head, brighter
on the tail-coverts, quills, and tail; lower parts pale reddish-brown,
the sides and abdomen barred with brownish-black and greyish-white;
fore neck and breast more faintly barred; lower wing-coverts and
axillars greyish-white, barred with dusky, lower tail-coverts
brownish-red, barred with dusky, and having the tip white; a whitish
streak over the eye; cheeks brown, spotted with brownish-white;
secondary coverts, and first small coverts, each with a white spot at
the tip, forming two inconspicuous bands; wing-coverts and quills
banded with blackish-brown and brownish-red; tail with twelve dusky
bands.

This species is very nearly allied to _Troglodytes Europæus_.

_Male_, 3-7/8, 6-((1-1/2)/12). _Female_, 3-5/8, 5-3/8.

Generally distributed in the middle and southern districts during
winter. Breeds from Pennsylvania northwards to Hudson's Bay. Columbia
River.

    Winter-Wren, Sylvia Troglodytes, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        139.

    Troglodytes europæus, Bonap. Syn. p. 93.

    Troglodytes hyemalis, Winter Wren, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 318.

    Winter-Wren, Troglodytes hyemalis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 427.

    Winter-Wren, Troglodytes hyemalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        430.


122. 7. Troglodytes Parkmanii, Aud. Parkman's Wren.

Bill rather long, slightly arched (much longer, stouter, and more
curved than that of the last species); wings of moderate length, with
the fourth quill longest; tail rather long, much rounded, (half an
inch longer, and more rounded). Upper parts reddish-brown, faintly
barred with dusky; lower parts dull brownish-white, sides barred with
brownish-black and greyish-white, fore neck and breast with scarcely
any markings, lower wing-coverts and axillars greyish-white, obscurely
barred with dusky.

Length, 4-2/12, wing 2-1/4.

Columbia River. Not very rare.

    Parkman's Wren, Troglodytes Parkmanii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 310.


123. 8. Troglodytes palustris, Wils. Marsh Wren.

     Plate C. Male and Female.

Bill rather long, slightly arched; wings short, with the fourth quill
longest. Upper parts dark brown, the sides of the head deeper, the
fore part of the back brownish-black, longitudinally and conspicuously
streaked with white, the quills externally margined with lighter
brown, the tail barred with dark brown; a white line over the eye,
extending down the neck; the sides of the latter mottled with light
brown and grey; the lower parts of a silvery greyish-white; abdominal
feathers and lower tail-coverts tipped with brown. Female differs only
in having the black of the back of a less deep tint, the white lines
less conspicuous, and the lower parts of a duller white.

_Male_, 5, 6-1/4.

Breeds from Texas to Massachusetts, along all the shores of the
Atlantic. Resident in Louisiana. Occurs accidentally far in the
interior.

    Marsh-Wren, Troglodytes palustris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        58.

    Troglodytes palustris, Bonap. Syn. p. 93.

    Marsh-Wren, Troglodytes palustris, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 439.

    Troglodytes palustris, Marsh Wren, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 319.

    Marsh-Wren, Troglodytes palustris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        500; v. v. p. 467.


124. 9. Troglodytes brevirostris, Nutt. Short-billed Marsh-Wren.

     Plate CLXXV. Male and Female.

Bill comparatively very short, nearly straight; wings short, very
convex, with the third, fourth, and fifth quills almost equal. Upper
parts blackish-brown, each feather with a brownish-white line along
the shaft, and the outer edge toward the end reddish-brown; quills
dusky, the outer webs barred with pale yellowish-brown; upper
tail-coverts and tail similarly barred; a pale yellowish streak over
the eye; throat and central part of the breast greyish-white, the rest
of the lower parts pale reddish-brown, the sides under the wings
faintly barred with dusky.

_Male_, 4-3/8, 5-5/8.

Resident during winter from Texas to South Carolina. In spring
proceeds as far eastward as Massachusetts, breeding in all the
fresh-water marshes.

    Short-billed Marsh-Wren, Troglodytes brevirostris, Nutt. Man.
        v. i. p. 436.

    Nuttall's Short-billed Marsh-Wren, Troglodytes brevirostris,
        Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 427; v. v. p. 469.



FAMILY X. PARINÆ. TITS.


Bill very short or of moderate length, straight, strong, compressed,
rather sharp; both mandibles with the dorsal line sloping and slightly
convex, the sides convex, the edges sharp; notches obsolete. Nostrils
basal, roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head rather large,
roundish; neck short; body short, and rather full. Feet of moderate
length, rather stout; tarsus rather short, compressed, with eight
distinct scutella; toes large, the three anterior united as far as the
second joint, the hind toe much stronger and flattened beneath; claws
rather long, stout, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage very soft,
blended, and full. Feathers at the base of the bill directed forwards.
Wings of moderate length, much rounded, with the first quill very
small, the fourth and fifth longest. Tail rather long, slender, of
twelve narrow rounded feathers. Tongue emarginate and papillate at the
base, abrupt at the tip, with four bristles. Œsophagus narrow,
without dilatation; proventriculus oblong; stomach a rather strong
oblong gizzard, with the muscles distinct, the epithelium dense, thin,
longitudinally rugous; intestine short, of moderate width; cœca
very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior
laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. PARUS, Linn. TIT.


Bill short, stout; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly
decurved toward the end, the edges overlapping, with a slight lobe or
festoon near the base, destitute of notch, rather acute; lower
mandible with the dorsal outline slightly convex, the edges direct,
the tip rather acute. Nostrils roundish, covered by bristly feathers.
Head rather large, roundish; neck short. Feet proportionally large;
tarsus of moderate length; hind toe very large and strong, the two
lateral nearly equal, the outer adherent at the base; claws large,
much compressed, very acute. Wings of moderate length, convex. Tail
long, or of moderate length, rounded or graduated, of twelve rather
narrow feathers.


125. 1. Parus bicolor, Linn. Tufted Titmouse.--Crested Titmouse. Great
Chicadee.

     Plate XXXIX. Male and Female.

Bill very stout; feathers of the upper part of the head elongated into
a crest; tail long, slightly rounded; upper parts leaden-blue,
forehead black, lower parts greyish-white, the sides light red.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 9.

From Texas, where it breeds, to the Fur Countries, generally
distributed eastward of the Rocky Mountains. Resident in the middle,
southern, and western districts. Abundant.

    Crested Titmouse, Parus bicolor, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        187.

    Parus bicolor, Bonap. Syn. p. 100.

    Tufted Titmouse, Parus bicolor, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 236.

    Crested Titmouse, Parus bicolor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 199;
        v. v. p. 472.


126. 2. Parus atricapillus, Linn. Black-cap Tit.--Black-cap Titmouse,
or Chicadee.

     Plate CCCLIII. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Bill moderately stout; tail long, emarginate, and rounded. Upper part
of the head and hind neck, with a large patch on the fore neck, black;
cheeks and sides of the neck white; back yellowish-grey; quills and
tail-feathers dark greyish-brown, margined with bluish-white; the
secondaries broadly edged with white; lower parts pale yellowish-red,
the breast white.

_Male_, 5-1/8, 8-1/4.

From Maryland eastward and northward to Lat. 65°. In Kentucky during
winter. Never in the southern parts.

    Black-capt Titmouse, Parus atricapillus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        i. p. 134.

    Parus atricapillus, Bonap. Syn. p. 100.

    Black-capt Titmouse, Nutt. Man. p. 241.

    Black-capt Titmouse, Parus atricapillus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 374.


127. 3. Parus Carolinensis, Aud. Carolina Tit.

     Plate CLX. Male and Female.

Bill very short, moderately stout; tail rather long, emarginate, and
rounded. Upper part of the head and hind neck, with a large patch on
the fore neck, black; cheeks and sides of the neck greyish-white; back
yellowish-grey; quills and tail-feathers dark greyish-brown, margined
with bluish-white, secondaries not conspicuously; lower parts
greyish-white, tinged with yellow. This species is very similar to the
last, but much inferior in size.

_Male_, 4-1/4, 6.

Breeds from Texas to New Jersey. Rather abundant. Resident.

    Carolina Titmouse, Parus Carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 341; v. v. p. 474.


128. 4. Parus Hudsonicus, Lath. Hudson's Bay Tit.

     Plate CXCIV. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill short, moderately stout; tail long, emarginate, and considerably
rounded. Upper parts dull light brown, tinged with grey; fore neck
black; cheeks and sides of the neck white; breast and abdomen white,
sides light yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 5, 7.

Northern parts of Maine, during winter. Breeds from New Brunswick to
Labrador and Hudson's Bay. Common. Migratory.

    Parus Hudsonicus, Lath. Ind. Orn. v. ii. p. 566.

    Hudson's Bay Titmouse, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 543.


129. 5. Parus rufescens, Towns. Chestnut-backed Tit.

     Plate CCCLIII. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Bill moderately stout; tail rather long, emarginate, scarcely rounded;
upper part of head and hind neck dark brown, fore neck of a deeper
tint of the same; cheeks and sides of neck white; back, rump, and
sides of the body under the wings bright chestnut; the rest of the
lower parts greyish-white.

_Male_, 4-1/2, wing, 2-3/8.

Columbia River. Abundant. Resident.

    Parus rufescens, Chestnut-backed Titmouse, Towns. Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 190.

    Chestnut-backed Titmouse, Parus rufescens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 371.


130. 6. Parus minimus, Towns. Chestnut-crowned Tit.

     Plate CCCLIII. Fig. 5. Male. Fig. 6. Female.

Upper mandible with its outline more arched, the tip acute and
considerably elongated; tail very long, emarginate, and much rounded;
upper part of the head and hind neck pale brown; upper parts
brownish-grey; wings and tail dusky, margined with greyish-white;
cheeks of a paler tint than the head; all the lower parts
brownish-white, the sides tinged with reddish.

_Male_, 4-1/2, wing, 1-((10-1/2)/12).

Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Parus minimus, Chestnut-crowned Titmouse, Towns. Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 190.

    Chestnut-crowned Titmouse, Parus minimus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 382.



FAMILY XI. SYLVIANÆ. WARBLERS.


Bill of moderate length, slender, straight, a little broader than high
at the base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal
line straight and declinate, convex at the end, the tip small, acute,
the notches small; lower mandible with the angle of moderate length
and narrow, the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the tip
narrow. Nostrils basal, oval or oblong. Head rather large, ovate; neck
short; body rather slender. Feet of ordinary length, slender; tarsus
compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes moderate, compressed;
first stouter, second and fourth nearly equal, third much longer, and
adherent at the base; claws moderate, arched, slender, compressed,
acute. Plumage soft and blended. Bristles short or weak. Wings of
moderate length or long; the first quill very small, the second,
third, and fourth longest. Tail long or of moderate length, of twelve
feathers. Tongue, sagittate, slender, tapering to a slit and lacerated
point. Œsophagus rather narrow, without crop; proventriculus
oblong; stomach a gizzard of moderate strength, with the muscles
distinct, the epithelium dense and rugous; intestine of moderate
length; cœca very small. Trachea simple, with four pairs of
inferior laryngeal muscles.

Of this family, which in Europe is so numerous, there are in North
America only two genera, _Regulus_ and _Sialia_, the former composed
of very small birds, allied in manners to the Tits, the latter
approaching the Thrushes in form. The connecting links being wanting
with us, these genera might seem at first sight very dissimilar.



GENUS I. REGULUS, Cuv. KINGLET.


Bill short, straight, very slender, a little broader than high at the
base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible nearly straight in its
dorsal outline, the edges slightly notched, the tip a little
declinate, acute; lower mandible with its outline ascending, nearly
straight, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, elliptical, concealed by the
reversed feathers. Head large, broadly ovate; neck short; body short.
Legs rather long; tarsus slender, longer than the middle toe, much
compressed, scutella blended, excepting the lower four toes, rather
small, much compressed, hind toe large; lateral equal; claws rather
long, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage very loose and full.
Short bristles at the base of the bill. Feathers of the head elongated
and silky in the adults. Wings of ordinary length, with the first
quill very small, the fourth and fifth longest. Tail of ordinary
length, emarginate.


131. 1. Regulus Cuvieri, Aud. Cuvier's Kinglet.

     Plate LV. Male.

Upper parts dull greyish-olive; anterior part of forehead, lore, and a
line behind the eye, black; a greyish-white band across the forehead
over the eye; a semilunar band of black on the forehead and sides of
the head, enclosing a vermilion space; wings and tail dusky, edged
with greenish-yellow; secondary coverts, and first row of small
coverts tipped with greyish-white; lower parts greyish-white.

_Male_, 4-1/4, 6.

Pennsylvania. Only one specimen found.

    Cuvier's Crested Wren, Regulus Cuvierii, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        416.

    Cuvier's Regulus, Regulus Cuvierii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        288.


132. 2. Regulus Satrapa, Lichtenstein. American Golden-crested
Kinglet.

     Plate CLXXXIII. Male and Female.

Male with the upper parts yellowish-green, changing to ash-grey on the
neck and sides of the head, to greenish-yellow on the rump; a band of
greyish-white across the anterior part of the forehead, which, at the
eye, separates into two bands, one extending over, the other under the
eye; above this, a broadish band of black, also margining the head on
either side; the inner webs and tips of the feathers of this black
band pure yellow; the crown of the head, in the included space, bright
orange with silky gloss; a dusky spot at the anterior angle of the
eye; an obscure dusky line from the angle of the mouth to beneath the
eye; quills and coverts dusky, the former margined with
greenish-yellow; secondary coverts and first row of small coverts
broadly tipped with yellowish-white; base of all the quills, except
the four outer yellowish-white; from the seventh primary to the
innermost secondary but two, a broad bar of blackish-brown; tail
dusky, the feathers edged with greenish-yellow, lower parts
greyish-white. Female differs chiefly in having pale yellow
substituted for the flame colour of the crown, and less grey on the
hind neck. Young without coloured feathers on the head.

_Male_, 4, 7.

Breeds in Labrador and Newfoundland. In autumn migrates to the
Southern States, as far as Texas. Columbia River.

    Golden-crested Wren, Sylvia Regulus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        126.

    Regulus cristatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 91.

    American Fiery-crowned Wren, Regulus tricolor, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 420.

    American Golden-crested Wren, Regulus tricolor, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. ii. p. 476.


133. 3. Regulus Calendula, Linn. Ruby-crowned Kinglet.

     Plate CXCV. Male and Female.

Upper parts greenish-olive, anteriorly tinged with grey, on the rump
inclining to yellow; a patch of vermilion on the crown of the head;
quills and tail dusky, edged with greenish-yellow; secondary coverts
and first row of small coverts tipped with greyish-white, a circle of
the same round the eye; lower parts greenish-white. Female similar,
with the tints duller, especially the greenish-yellow of the wings.
Young without the coloured patch on the crown, and more deeply tinged
with yellow beneath.

_Male_, 4-1/4, 6.

Breeds in Labrador. In autumn migrates to the Southern States, as far
as Texas. Abundant.

    Ruby-crowned Wren, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 83.

    Regulus Calendula, Bonap. Syn. p. 91.

    Ruby-crowned Wren, Sylvia Calendula, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 415.

    Ruby-crowned Regulus, Regulus Calendula, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 546.



GENUS II. SIALIA, Swains. BLUE BIRD.


Bill of ordinary length, nearly straight, broader than high at the
base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the dorsal line
straight and slightly declinate, until near the end, when it becomes
convex, the ridge narrow, the sides convex toward the end, the edges
overlapping, with a distinct notch close to the narrow deflected tip;
lower mandible with the angle of moderate length, and narrow, the
dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the edges direct, the tip
narrow. Nostrils basal, oval. Head rather large, ovate, neck short;
body moderately full. Feet of ordinary length, rather slender; tarsus
shorter than the middle toe and claw, its lower scutella only
distinct; toes of moderate length, the first stouter, the lateral
equal, the third much longer; the fourth adherent at the base; claws
moderate, well curved, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Plumage
soft and blended; short bristles at the base of the upper mandible.
Wings very long, pointed; the first quill very small, second, third,
and fourth longest. Tail rather long, emarginate, of twelve rather
strong feathers.


134. 1. Sialia Wilsoni, Swains. Common Blue Bird.

     Plate CXIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male with the upper parts ultramarine blue, the lower parts light
chestnut-red, excepting the abdomen, which is white. Female with the
upper parts dull greyish-blue, brighter behind; lower parts as in the
male, but much duller. Young with the upper part of the head, hind
neck, and part of the back greyish-brown, the rest as in the female,
the lower parts light grey, the feathers on the breast and sides
margined with brown.

_Male_, 7, 10. _Female_, 6-1/2.

Generally distributed from Texas to the Fur Countries. Vast numbers
spend the winter in the Southern States. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Blue Bird, Sylvia Sialis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 56.

    Saxicola Sialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 39.

    Erythaca (Sialia) Wilsonii, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 210.

    Blue Bird, Ampelis Sialis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 444.

    Blue Bird, Sylvia Sialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 84; v. v.
        p. 452.


135. 2. Sialia occidentalis, Townsend. Western Blue Bird.

     Plate CCCXCIII. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Male with the upper parts and throat ultramarine blue; fore part of
back, breast, and sides, light chestnut-red; rest of lower parts light
blue, the abdomen whitish. Female with the upper parts dull
greyish-blue, the back tinged with brown, the wing-coverts and rump
brighter; lower parts pale red, the abdomen light grey.

_Male_, 7; wing, 4-5/12. _Female_, 6-3/4.

North California, and Oregon Territory. Abundant. Migratory.

    Sialia occidentalis, Western Blue Bird, Towns. Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 188.

    Western Blue Bird, Sylvia occidentalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 41.


136. 3. Sialia arctica, Swains. Arctic Blue Bird.

     Plate CCCXCIII. Fig. 2. Male. Fig. 3. Female.

Male with the upper parts light ultramarine, with a tinge of green;
sides of the head, fore neck, and sides of neck, and the anterior half
of the breast, light greenish-blue, that colour gradually fading into
white behind. Female with the upper parts light greyish-brown, the
rump and wing-coverts blue; fore part of neck and anterior portion of
the breast reddish-grey, the rest of the lower parts pale
brownish-grey.

_Male_, 7-1/4; wing, 4-((7-1/2)/12). _Female_, 6-3/4; wing, 4-2/12.

Columbia River, Rocky Mountains, and Fur Countries. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Erythaca (Sialia) Arctica, Arctic Blue Bird, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 209.

    Arctic Blue Bird, Sialia Arctica, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 573.

    Arctic Blue Bird, Sylvia Arctica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 38.



FAMILY XII. TURDINÆ. THRUSHES.


Bill short, or of moderate length, rather strong, straight, compressed
toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline a little convex
and declinate, the tip small, rather acute, the notches small; lower
mandible with the angle rather short, of moderate width, the dorsal
line straight, the sides convex, the tip acute. Head oblong,
compressed, of moderate size; neck rather short; body moderate. Eyes
of moderate size. External aperture of ear large and roundish. Feet of
moderate strength; tarsus compressed, with seven anterior scutella;
toes rather strong, compressed; first, second, and fourth, nearly
equal, third much longer, and adherent to the fourth at the base;
claws rather long, arched, compressed, laterally grooved, acute.
Plumage rather blended. Bristles small. Wings of moderate length,
broad, rounded; the first quill very small, third and fourth longest.
Tail of twelve feathers, varying in length. Tongue sagittate, and
papillate at the base, slender, tapering, its tip slit. Œsophagus
rather narrow, without crop; proventriculus oblong; stomach a gizzard
of moderate strength, its lateral and lower muscles distinct; the
epithelium dense and rugous; intestine of moderate length; cœca
very small, cylindrical. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior
laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. CINCLUS, Bechst. DIPPER.


Bill rather short, slender, slightly ascending, much compressed toward
the end; upper mandible with its dorsal line straight until toward the
end, the ridge rounded, the sides convex, the edges somewhat
inflected, with an obscure notch close to the narrow deflected tip;
lower mandible slightly bent upwards, the angle medial and very
narrow, the dorsal line ascending and slightly convex, the tip narrow
and rather acute. Nostrils linear, direct, exposed. General form
short, full, and compact. Head oblong, compressed. Legs strong; tarsus
of moderate length, compressed, covered anteriorly with a long
undivided plate and four inferior scutella; toes rather large and
strong; claws arched, much compressed, laterally grooved, that of the
hind toe considerably larger. Plumage ordinary, rather blended.
Bristles obsolete. Wings rather short, convex, rounded. Tail short,
even.


137. 1. Cinclus Americanus, Swains. American Dipper.

     Plate CCCLXX. Adult. Plate CCCCXXXV. Young.

Head and neck chocolate-brown, upper parts very deep bluish-grey,
lower somewhat lighter, and tinged anteriorly with brown. Young with
the upper parts deep bluish-grey, the head and hind neck slightly
tinged with brown; lower parts lighter, the feathers margined with
whitish, the throat with a slight tinge of brown.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 10-1/2.

Rocky Mountains. Oregon Territory. North California. Not abundant.

    Cinclus Pallasii, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 173.

    Cinclus Americanus, American Dipper, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 173.

    Black Water-Ouzel or Dipper, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 358.

    American Dipper, Cinclus Americanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        493; v. v. p. 303.



GENUS II. ORPHEUS, Swains. MOCKING-BIRD.


Bill of moderate length or longish, rather slender, straight or
slightly arched, broader than high at the base, compressed toward the
end, acute; upper mandible with the ridge rather narrow, the sides
convex toward the end, the notches very slight, the tip narrow; lower
mandible with the angle of moderate length, the dorsal line straight
or slightly decurved toward the end, the sides nearly erect, the tip
narrow. Nostrils oblong, partially concealed by the feathers. Head of
ordinary size, ovato-oblong; neck of moderate length; body rather
slender. Feet of ordinary length, slender; tarsus scarcely so long as
the middle toe and claw; hind toe of moderate length, stout, lateral
toes equal; claws moderate, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft
and blended. Bristles rather long. Wings of ordinary length, broad,
rounded, the first quill very small, the fourth and fifth longest.
Tail very long, straight, much rounded, or graduated.


138. 1. Orpheus polyglottus, Linn. Grey Mocking-Bird.

     Plate XXI. Male and Female.

Upper parts light grey tinged with yellowish-brown; feathers of the
wings and tail greyish-black; primary coverts white, as are the
primary quills in their proximal part; secondary coverts and first row
of small coverts tipped with white; outer tail-feather white, as are
the greater part of the next, and a portion of the third toward the
end; lower parts greyish-white, on the breast tinged with brown, on
the sides and under the tail with yellow. Female smaller, with the
tints duller, and the white markings on the wings less extended.

_Male_, 9-1/2, 13-1/2. _Female_, 9, 12-1/2.

From Texas to Massachusetts. In the interior up the Mississippi and
Ohio, to Henderson in Kentucky. Abundant and resident in the southern
parts.

    Mocking Bird, Turdus polyglottus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        14.

    Turdus polyglottus, Bonap. Syn. p. 74.

    Mocking Bird, Turdus polyglottus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 320.

    Mocking Bird, Turdus polyglottus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        108; v. v. p. 438.


139. 2. Orpheus montanus, Townsend. Mountain Mocking-Bird.

     Plate CCCLXIX. Fig. 1. Male.

Upper parts greyish-brown; feathers of the wings and tail
greyish-black; tips of secondary coverts, edges of primary quills, and
a large spot at the end of the three lateral tail-feathers, white;
lower parts whitish, marked with triangular dusky spots, of which
there is a distinct line from the base of the bill; throat, middle of
the breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts, unspotted.

_Male_, 8; wing, 3-9/12.

Rocky Mountains. Common. Migratory.

    Orpheus montanus, Mountain Mocking-Bird, Towns. Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 192.

    Mountain Mocking Bird, Turdus montanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 487.


140. 3. Orpheus Carolinensis, Linn. Black-capped Mocking-Bird.--Cat
Bird.

     Plate CXXVIII. Male and Female.

Blackish-grey, lighter beneath; upper part of head black; lower
tail-coverts deep red. Female with the tints duller. Lateral
tail-feathers more or less banded with lighter, sometimes whitish
tints.

_Male_, 9, 12.

From Texas to Massachusetts, inland to the Missouri. Accidental in the
Fur Countries. Constant resident in the Southern States. Abundant.

    Cat Bird, Turdus lividus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 90.

    Turdus felivox, Bonap. Syn. p. 75.

    Orpheus felivox, Cat Bird, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 192.

    Cat Bird, Turdus felivox, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 332.

    Cat Bird, Turdus felivox, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 171; v. v.
        p. 440.


141. 4. Orpheus rufus, Linn. Ferruginous Mocking-Bird.--Thrushes.
Brown Thrush.

Bill and tail more elongated than in the other species, wings shorter.
Upper parts light brownish-red; inner webs of quills dusky. Wings
crossed by two white bars margined anteriorly with black, being on the
tips of the first row of small and secondary coverts; lower parts
yellowish-white, the breast and sides marked with triangular dark
brown spots. Female smaller.

_Male_, 11-1/2, 13.

From Texas eastward, and to the Fur Countries, breeding everywhere.
Abundant, and resident in the Southern and Western States.

    Ferruginous Thrush, Turdus rufus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        83.

    Turdus rufus, Bonap. Syn. p. 75.

    Orpheus rufus, Fox-coloured Mocking-Bird, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 189.

    Ferruginous Thrush or Thrasher, Turdus rufus, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 328.

    Ferruginous Thrush, Turdus rufus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        102; v. v. p. 441.



GENUS IV. TURDUS, Linn. THRUSH.


Bill of moderate length or shortish, rather stout, straight, broader
than high at the base, compressed toward the end, acute; upper
mandible with the ridge rather narrow, the sides convex toward the
end, the notches small, the tip narrow; lower mandible with the angle
of moderate length, the dorsal line ascending, slightly convex, the
sides rounded, the tip narrow. Nostrils oblong, partially concealed by
the feathers. Head of ordinary size, ovate; neck rather short; body
rather full. Feet longish, rather strong; tarsus as long as the middle
toe and claw; hind toe rather stout; lateral toes equal; claws arched,
compressed, acute. Plumage soft and rather blended. Wings of moderate
length, rounded, the first quill very small, the third and fourth
longest. Tail rather long, nearly even.


142. 1. Turdus migratorius, Linn. Migratory Thrush.--Robin.

     Plate CXXXI. Male, Female, and Young.

Male with the bill yellow, the upper part and sides of the head black;
upper parts dark grey with an olivaceous tinge; quills blackish-brown,
margined with light grey; tail brownish-black, the outer two feathers
tipped with white; three white spots about the eye, throat white,
densely streaked with black; lower part of fore neck, breast, sides,
axillars, and lower wing-coverts reddish-orange; abdomen white; lower
tail-coverts dusky, tipped with white. Female with the tints paler.
Young with the fore neck, breast, and sides, pale-reddish, spotted
with dusky, the upper parts darker than in the adult. Bill at first
dusky, ultimately pure yellow.

_Male_, 10, 14. _Female_, 9, 13.

From Texas eastward and northward, to the Fur Countries. Throughout
the interior. Winters in abundance in all the southern States.
Columbia River. Abundant.

    Robin, Turdus migratorius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 35.

    Turdus migratorius, Bonap. Syn. p. 75.

    Merula migratoria, Red-breasted Thrush, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 176.

    American Robin or Migratory Thrush, Turdus migratorius, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 338.

    American Robin or Migratory Thrush, Turdus migratorius, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 190; v. v. p. 442.


143. 2. Turdus nævius, Gmel. Varied Thrush.

     Plate CCCLXIX. Fig. 2, 3. Male. Plate CCCCXXXIII. Fig. 6.
     Female.

Male with the bill black, the upper parts deep leaden-grey, the head
darker; quills and tail-feathers dusky, the outer webs of the latter
tinged with grey, and their tips white; lore dusky; a band of
reddish-orange from over the fore part of the eye down the side of the
neck; two conspicuous bands of the same crossing the wing obliquely,
being formed by the tips of the first row of small coverts, and those
of the secondary coverts; outer webs of primary coverts about the
middle, a band on the primaries near the base, part of their outer
webs towards the end, and the tips of the secondaries pale
reddish-orange; lower parts light reddish-orange, paler behind; a band
of greyish-black passing down the side of the neck, and a belt of the
same crossing its lower part; feathers of the sides tipped with
bluish-grey; those of the middle of the abdomen white; lower
tail-coverts tipped with white; axillar feathers white, tipped with
grey, smaller coverts grey, tipped with reddish-white; primary coverts
grey, secondary nearly white. Female similar, with the upper parts
tinged with olive-brown, the reddish-orange bands much paler, the
tail-feathers margined with dull reddish-brown; a band on the lore
down the sides of the neck and across it light greyish-brown; the
orange tints of the lower parts much paler.

_Male_, 10-1/2, wing, 5-1/4. _Female_, 10, wing, 5-2/12.

Columbia River, North California, and Fur Countries. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Orpheus meruloides, Thrush-like Mock-Bird, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 187.

    Varied Thrush, Turdus nævius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 489;
        v. v. p. 284.


144. 3. Turdus mustelinus, Gmel. Wood-Thrush.

     Plate LXXIII. Male and Female.

Upper parts light yellowish-brown, the head and hind neck of a tint
approaching to reddish-orange; the rump and tail-coverts duller and of
an olivaceous tint; quills and tail-coverts light olive-brown, the
outer webs of the coverts and quills like the back; eyes margined with
a whitish circle; lower parts white, anteriorly tinged with yellow,
the sides and lower part of the neck, the fore part of the breast, and
the sides of the body marked with large roundish or broadly
ovato-triangular decided brownish-black spots.

_Male_, 8, 13.

From Texas to Nova Scotia, and throughout the interior. Many spend the
winter in Louisiana, Florida, and Texas. Abundant.

    Wood Thrush, Turdus melodus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 35.

    Turdus mustelinus, Bonap. Syn. p. 75.

    Wood Thrush, Turdus mustelinus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 343.

    Wood Thrush, Turdus mustelinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 372;
        v. v. p. 446.


145. 4. Turdus Wilsoni, Bonap. Tawny Thrush.

     Plate CLXVI. Male.

Wings with the third quill largest, the fourth scarcely shorter, and
slightly exceeding the second. Upper parts uniform light
reddish-brown, a little deeper on the head; quill and tail-coverts
light olive-brown, the outer webs of the former like the back; lower
parts greyish-white, the sides and lower part of the neck, and a small
portion of the breast tinged with pale yellowish-brown, and marked
with small faint and undecided triangular brown spots. Female an inch
less in length than the male, but otherwise similar.

_Male_, 7-2/12, 12.

From Texas to the Fur Countries, as well as in the interior. Resident
in winter in the Floridas, though the greater number remove beyond the
United States. Rather abundant.

    Tawny Thrush, Turdus mustelinus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 98.

    Turdus Wilsonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 76.

    Merula minor (Swainson), Little Tawny Thrush, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 179, Plate 36. The description and
        figure clearly refer to the present species.

    Wilson's Thrush or Veery, Turdus Wilsonii, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        349.

    Tawny Thrush, Turdus Wilsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 362;
        v. v. p. 446.


146. 5. Turdus solitarius, Wils. Hermit Thrush.

     Plate LVIII. Male and Female.

Wings with the fourth quill longest, the third and fifth equal and
slightly shorter, the second nearly equal to the sixth. Upper parts
light olivaceous brown, the rump and upper tail-coverts brownish-red,
as is the tail; quills dusky brown, margined with reddish-brown; a
whitish ring round the eye; lower parts white, the sides tinged with
greyish-olive, the fore part of the neck very slightly with
yellowish-brown, and marked with rather decided ovato-triangular dusky
brown spots of moderate size. The female is smaller, but otherwise
similar.

_Male_, 7, 10-1/2.

From Texas to the Fur Countries. Resident in winter from the Carolinas
southward. Rather common.

    Hermit Thrush, Turdus solitarius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p.
        95.

    Turdus minor, Bonap. Syn. p. 75.

    Little or Hermit Thrush, Turdus minor, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        346.

    Merula solitaria, Hermit Thrush, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 184.

    Hermit Thrush, Turdus minor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 303; v.
        v. p. 445.


147. 6. Turdus nanus, Aud. Dwarf Thrush.

     Plate CCCCXIX. Fig. 1. Male.

Wings with the fourth quill longest, the third and fifth equal and
slightly shorter, the second shorter than the sixth. Upper parts light
olivaceous-brown, the rump and upper tail-coverts brownish-red, as is
the tail; quills dusky brown, margined with light brownish-red; a
whitish ring round the eye; lower parts greyish-white, the sides
tinged with greyish-brown, the neck and breast tinged with
yellowish-red, and marked with broad triangular blackish-brown spots,
becoming fainter on the hind part of the breast and sides.

Although this species closely resembles the last in its colours, and
the proportions of the quills, it is yet so much inferior in size, and
its bill, tarsi, and toes are so much shorter, that it cannot be
considered otherwise than as distinct.

_Male_ 6, 9-1/2.

Columbia River. Accidental in the Middle Atlantic districts.
Migratory.

    Turdus nanus, Dwarf Thrush, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 201.



FAMILY XIII. MOTACILLINÆ. WAGTAILS.


Bill of moderate length, straight, slender, a little broader than high
at the base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the dorsal
line sloping, a little convex toward the end, the nostrils slight, the
tip acute; lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the
dorsal line ascending and scarcely convex, the edges somewhat
involute, the tip acute. General form slender; head ovato-oblong; neck
short. Feet of ordinary length, slender; toes very slender, the
lateral equal, the outer adherent at the base, the hind toe rather
large; claws rather long, arched, compressed, acute, that of the hind
toe generally very long. Plumage soft and blended. Bristles small.
Wings long and pointed, one of the minor secondaries often much
elongated and tapering. Tongue sagittate, slender, with the tip slit;
œsophagus uniform; stomach a very muscular gizzard, roundish, with
large tendons, and thin rugous epithelium; intestine of moderate
length; cœca very small. Trachea simple, with four pairs of
inferior laryngeal muscles.

This family is connected with the Turdinæ by _Seiurus_, and with the
Alandinæ by _Anthus_, which are the only two American genera.



GENUS I. SEIURUS, Swains. WOOD-WAGTAILS.


Bill rather short, straight, slightly broader than deep at the base,
compressed toward the end, the edges a little inflected, the dorsal
lines of both mandibles slightly convex, the notches very slight, the
tip acute. Nostrils basal elliptical. General form slender; head
ovato-oblong. Feet of ordinary length; tarsus slender, compressed,
covered anteriorly with a long undivided piece and three inferior
scutella; toes of moderate length, slender; the first a little stouter
than the third, the inner slightly shorter than the outer, which is
adherent at the base; claws of moderate length, very slender, much
compressed, moderately arched, acute. Plumage soft, blended. Bristles
very small. Wings of moderate length; the first or outer quill little
shorter than the third, which is longest. Tail of moderate length,
even.


148. 1. Seiurus aurocapillus, Lath. Golden-crowned Wood-Wagtail.

     Plate CXLIII. Male and Female.

Upper parts yellowish-olive, the crown brownish-orange, with two
lateral bands of brownish-black spots; lower parts white, the throat
with two lateral lines of brownish-black, the lower neck, fore part of
breast, and sides, marked with triangular spots of the same. Female
similar to the male. Young without the orange crown.

_Male_, 6, 9.

From Texas eastward. Fur Countries. Not seen in Labrador. Throughout
the interior. Resident in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Abundant.

    Golden-crowned Thrush, Turdus aurocapillus, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 88.

    Sylvia aurocapilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 77.

    Seiurus aurocapillus, Golden-crowned accentor, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 227.

    Golden-crowned Thrush or Oven Bird, Turdus aurocapillus, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 355.

    Golden-crowned Thrush, Turdus aurocapillus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 253; v. v. p. 447.


149. 2. Seiurus Novæboracensis, Gmel. Aquatic Wood-Wagtail.

     Plate XIX. Plate CCCCXXXIII. Fig. 7.

Upper parts dull greenish-brown, wings and tail dark chocolate-brown,
lower parts pale yellow; a streak of the latter from the bill over the
eye; loral space, and a streak behind the eye dusky; cheeks
yellowish-grey, streaked with brown; the whole fore part and sides of
the neck, the breast, and sides, marked with triangular
blackish-brown spots, which are more elongated on the sides; abdomen
and lower tail-coverts unspotted; bill dusky; feet flesh-coloured and
transparent. Individuals vary, the throat sometimes without spots, the
lower parts pale or yellowish-white, the feet dusky tinged with
purple.

_Male_, 6-2/12, 9-1/2. _Female_, 5-8/12, 8-7/12.

In winter resident from Texas to Florida, including Louisiana. In
summer migrates as far as the Fur Countries. Not Abundant.

    Water Thrush, Turdus aquaticus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        66.

    Sylvia novæboracensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 77.

    Seiurus aquaticus, Aquatic Accentor, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 229.

    New York or Aquatic Thrush, Turdus novæboracensis, Nutt. Man.
        v. i. p. 353.

    Louisiana Water Thrush, Turdus ludovicianus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 99.

    Common Water Thrush, Turdus aquaticus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 284.



GENUS II. ANTHUS, Bechst. PIPIT.


Bill of moderate length, straight, very slender, as broad as high at
the base, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the ridge
narrow at the base, the notches slight, the tip a little deflected;
lower mandible with the dorsal line straight, the edges involute, the
tip acute. General form very slender. Tarsus of moderate length, much
compressed; toes slender; claws arched, extremely compressed, acute,
that of the hind toe much elongated. Plumage soft and blended. Wings
long; the outer three quills about equal and longest; inner
secondaries tapering, one of them nearly as long as the outer
primaries when the wing is closed. Tail rather long, emarginate.


150. 1. Anthus Ludovicianus, Lichtenstein. American Pipit.

     Plate X. Male and Female. Plate LXXX. Young.

Hind claw longer than the toe, slightly arched, and very slender.
Male, in winter plumage, with the bill dusky, the legs and claws deep
greenish-brown; upper parts greyish-olive, tinged with green, and
obscurely streaked with dusky; a whitish band over the eye, cheeks
brown; lower parts brownish-white, the throat white, the sides and
lower part of the neck, fore part of breast, and sides of body marked
with elongated, distinct, blackish-brown spots; quills and
tail-feathers dusky, margined with greenish-grey, the lateral
tail-feathers half white, the next obliquely white at the end. Female
similar. Male in summer with the bill black, the upper parts
olive-brown, tinged with grey; a greyish-white line over the eye,
cheeks greyish-brown; lower parts light yellowish-grey, the fore neck
and breast often deeply tinged with red, and marked with short,
slender, brownish-black spots, the sides streaked; quills and
tail-feathers as in winter with the pale margins less distinct. Young
more tinged with green above, the bill paler, with a great part of the
lower mandible yellowish-red, the lower parts pale yellowish-grey,
with an obscure lunule of brownish-black on the fore neck, the lower
part of which and the sides are streaked with dark brown, and tinged
with reddish-brown.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 10-1/2.

Throughout the Western and Southern Districts during autumn and
winter. Breeds in Labrador and the Fur Countries. Abundant.

    Brown Lark, Alauda rufa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 89.

    Anthus Spinoletta, Bonap. Syn. p. 90.

    Brown Titlark, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p 49. Adult.

    Prairie Titlark, Anthus pipiens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 408,
        Young. Brown Titlark and Prairie Titlark, v. v. p. 449.

This species is nearly allied to _Anthus aquaticus_ and _A.
pratensis_, more especially to the latter, from which it is
distinguished by having the bill much stouter, the tarsus longer, the
hind claws stouter, more curved, and much shorter, the colour of the
feet much darker, in being always much more rufous beneath, and in
sometimes, when the summer is advanced, being almost entirely
unspotted there. From _A. aquaticus_ it is at once distinguished by
the whitish band over the eye, and the white on the outer
tail-feathers. It indeed seems wonderful that any ornithologist should
have mistaken it for that species.



FAMILY XIV. ALAUDINÆ. LARKS.


Bill rather short, or of moderate length, somewhat conical, compressed
toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal line sloping and
slightly convex, the edges sharp and overlapping, the notches
generally obsolete; the tip narrow and a little deflected; lower
mandible with the angle of moderate length and narrow, the dorsal line
ascending and nearly straight, the edges slightly inflected, the tip
acute; gape-line straight. Nostrils elliptical or oblong, basal. Head
oblong, of moderate size; neck rather short; body ovate. Feet of
moderate length, or rather long; tarsus compressed, with eight
anterior scutella; toes slender, compressed; the hind toe elongated,
second and fourth about equal, third much longer. Claws rather long,
arched, slender, much compressed, laterally grooved, acute, that of
the hind toe very long, straightish, tapering. Plumage generally soft
and blended. Wings rather long, broad, the inner secondaries tapering,
and one so elongated as nearly to equal the longest primary, when the
wing is closed. Tail of twelve feathers, generally emarginate. Roof of
the upper mandible concave, generally with three prominent lines;
tongue slender, thin, flat, tapering to a slit and bristly tip;
œsophagus of uniform width; stomach a very strong muscular gizzard
of a roundish form and compressed, its lateral muscles very large, its
epithelium dense and rugous; intestines short, of moderate width;
cœca very small, cylindrical. Nest on the ground. Eggs five or six,
oval, spotted.



GENUS I. ALAUDA, Linn. LARK.


Bill rather short, stout, somewhat conical, compressed, straightish,
acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly arched, the edges
without notch, the tip acute; lower mandible with the dorsal line
ascending, slightly convex, the edges a little inflected, the tip
acute. Head rather large; neck short; body ovate. Legs of ordinary
length, anteriorly scutellate; lateral toes nearly equal, hind toe of
moderate size, with a very long, tapering, acute, and nearly straight
claw. Plumage rather dense and compact. Wings of moderate length, the
second and third quills longest; inner secondaries much elongated.
Tail of moderate length, emarginate.


151. 1. Alauda alpestris, Linn. Shore Lark.--Horned Lark.

Male with two erectile pointed tufts of feathers on the anterior
lateral parts of the head. In winter the upper parts dusky brown, the
feathers paler on the edges; on the forehead a recurved crescentic
band of brownish-black; another curved downwards, proceeding on each
side from the base of the upper mandible; a band of yellowish-white
over the eye and forehead; throat pale-yellow, with a broad dusky
patch on the lower neck, the rest of the lower parts brownish-white;
quills dusky, tail-feathers blackish, excepting the two middle, which
are reddish-brown, like the upper tail-coverts. In summer, the
brownish-black bands on the head and neck become deep black, the
throat and frontal band white, and the upper parts light brownish-red.
Female dusky brown above, dull white beneath; the wings and tail as in
the male, but the black bands on the head and neck wanting. Young from
the nest with the upper parts deep brown, mottled with pale
reddish-brown, lower parts pale yellowish-grey.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 14.

Breeds in Labrador and northwards. Migrates in autumn southward, as
far as the Texas. Not uncommon in the Western Country at that season.

    Shore Lark, Alauda cornuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 85.

    Alauda alpestris, Bonap. Syn. p. 102.

    Horned or Shore Lark, Alauda cornuta. Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 245.

    Shore Lark, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.

    Shore Lark, Alauda alpestris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 570;
        v. v. p. 488.



FAMILY XV. FRINGILLINÆ. FINCHES.


Bill short, stout, conical, acute; upper mandible generally with its
dorsal line more or less convex, the sides rounded, the edges
inflected or direct, the tip acute; lower mandible with the dorsal
line ascending and slightly convex, the edges involute. Gape-line
ascending for more than a fourth of its length, then direct. Nostrils
basal, roundish, partly concealed by the feathers. Head of moderate
size, or rather large, ovate or roundish; neck short; body compact;
tarsus generally shorter than the middle toe with its claw,
compressed, with seven or eight anterior scutella; hind toe stout;
outer toe adherent at the base, lateral about equal. Claws long or
moderate, compressed, laterally grooved, acute. Plumage soft and
blended, but firm. Wings various, acute, or rounded. Tail of twelve
feathers. Roof of upper mandible concave, with three prominent lines,
of which the middle is sometimes elevated into an oblong hard
prominence. Tongue much compressed, pointed; œsophagus rather wide,
with a dilatation or crop on the right side; stomach roundish or
oblong, muscular, with the epithelium thin, dense, and longitudinally
rugous; intestine short, rather wide; cœca very small,
cylindrical. Trachea simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal
muscles. The Fringillinæ pass into the Icterinæ on the one hand, and
the Alaudinæ on the other. The Buntings scarcely differ from the
Finches in any other character than the knob on the palate, which is
common to them with the Icterinæ.



GENUS I. PLECTROPHANES, Meyer. LARK-BUNTING.


Bill very short, robust, tapering, somewhat compressed; upper mandible
considerably narrower than the lower, its dorsal outline very slightly
convex, the sides rounded, the edges inflected, the marginal outline
slightly angulate; lower mandible with the dorsal line ascending and
slightly convex, the edges involute. Nostrils basal, roundish, partly
concealed by the feathers. Head of moderate size, ovate; neck short;
body compact, tarsus shorter than the middle toe with its claw,
compressed, with seven anterior scutella; hind toe stout; claws long,
rather stout, little arched, acute, that of the hind toe much
elongated. Plumage soft and blended. Wings long, pointed; the first
quill longest. Tail rather long, emarginate.


152. 1. Plectrophanes Lapponica, Linn. Lapland Lark-Bunting.

     Plate CCCLXV. Male and Female.

Male, in summer, with the head and fore part of the neck black; a
white band over the eye, passing along the neck, and margining the
black; a brownish-red crescent on the hind neck; the feathers on the
rest of the upper parts black, broadly margined with yellowish-red;
first row of small coverts tipped with white; lower parts white, the
sides streaked with black. Male, in winter, with the upper part of the
head black, the feathers edged with brownish-red, cheeks and band over
the eye greyish-yellow; feathers of the fore neck black, broadly
tipped with white; dark streaks on the sides not apparent. Female with
the upper parts reddish-grey, spotted with black; a greyish-white band
over the eye; the cheeks greyish-brown; lower parts greyish-white, the
sides streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 6-9/8; wing, 3-10/12.

Fur Countries in summer. In winter, as far westward as Kentucky.
Abundant. Migratory.

    Lapland Longspur, Emberiza lapponica, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 53.

    Emberiza lapponica, Bonap. Syn. p. 440.

    Emberiza (Plectrophanes) lapponica, Lapland Buntling, Swains.
        & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 248.

    Lapland Longspur, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 463.

    Lapland Longspur, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 473.


153. 2. Plectrophanes pictus, Swains. Painted Lark-Bunting.

     Plate CCCC. Fig. 5. Male.

Male with the upper part and sides of the head deep black, with three
bands of white on each side, one from the base of the upper mandible
over the eye and along the neck, another under the eye and over the
ear, the third bordering the throat; upper parts brownish-yellow
spotted with black; a band of white on the smaller wing-coverts; lower
parts, and a band across the fore part of the back, buffy orange.

_Male_, 6-2/12; wing, 3-1/4.

Fur Countries. Accidental, in winter, on the banks of the Mississippi.
Migratory.

    Emberiza (Plectrophanes) picta, Painted Bunting, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 250.

    Painted Bunting, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 589.

    Painted Bunting, Emberiza picta, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 91.


154. 3. Plectrophanes ornatus, Towns. Chestnut-collared Lark-Bunting.

     Plate CCCXCIV. Fig. 1. Male.

Male, in summer, with the upper part of the head, a streak, and some
spots behind the ear, and the breast black; a broad band over the eye,
the throat and sides of the neck, the abdomen, lower tail-coverts, and
three lateral tail-feathers, white; a transverse belt of yellowish-red
on the hind neck; upper parts yellowish-grey, spotted with dusky.

_Male_, 5-1/4; wing, 3-2/12.

Rocky Mountains.

    Plectrophanes ornata, Chestnut-collared Lark-Finch, Towns.
        Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 189.

    Chestnut-collared Lark-Bunting, Emberiza ornata, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 44.


155. 4. Plectrophanes nivalis, Linn. Snow Lark-Bunting.

     Plate CLXXXIX. Male and Female in winter.

Male, in winter, with the head, neck, lower parts, a great portion of
the wings, including the smaller coverts, secondary coverts, several
secondary quills, the bases of the primaries and their coverts, and
the greater part of the outer tail-feathers on each side, white; the
head and hind neck more or less tinged with brownish-red, the upper
parts reddish-grey or yellowish-red, mottled with black, the concealed
part of the plumage being of the latter colour, the bill
brownish-yellow. Female, in winter, with the white less extended.
Young, at this season, like the female, but more brown. Male, in
summer, with the back, scapulars, inner secondaries, terminal portion
of primaries, and four middle tail-feathers, deep black, all the other
parts pure white, the bill black. Female with the black parts tinged
with brown, and more or less reddish-brown on the head and rump.

_Male_, 7, 13.

In winter, from Nova Scotia to Kentucky. Abundant. Much rarer along
the Atlantic coast. Some breed in Vermont and Massachusetts. Fur
Countries in summer.

    Snow-Bunting, Emberiza nivalis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        86.

    Emberiza nivalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 103.

    Emberiza (Plectrophanes) nivalis, Snow Buntling, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 247.

    Snow Bunting, Emberiza nivalis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 458.

    Snow Bunting, Emberiza nivalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 515;
        v. v. p. 496.



GENUS II. EMBERIZA, Linn. BUNTING.


Bill short, robust, tapering, somewhat compressed; upper mandible with
its dorsal line declinate and slightly convex, the ridge indistinct,
the sides convex, the edges a little inflected, ascending to beneath
the nostrils, then descending or direct, with a slight notch close to
the narrow tip; lower mandible with the angle short and wide, the
dorsal line ascending, and very slightly convex, the ridge broad at
the base, the sides convex, the edges inclinate, their outline
ascending for a third or more of its length, then direct, the tip
narrow. Nostrils basal, roundish. Head large, ovate; neck very short;
body rather stout. Feet of moderate length, rather strong; tarsus of
ordinary length, compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes rather
large; the hind toe strong, and longer than the lateral, which are
equal, the third much longer, and united to the fourth at the base.
Claws long, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage soft and blended,
but firm. Bristles feeble. Wings of moderate length, rather acute;
the first three quills longest. Tail of moderate length, emarginate.

    * Wings rather long, with the second and third quills longest.


156. 1. Emberiza Americana, Gmel. Black-throated Bunting.

     Plate CCCLXXXIV. Male and Female.

Bill very stout; tail-feathers acute. Male with the upper part of the
head, the cheeks, and the hind neck dark ash-grey, faintly streaked
with dusky; loral space whitish, a band over the eye, and a patch
below the cheek, yellow; the fore part of the back greyish-brown, with
longitudinal streaks of brownish-black, the hind part brownish-grey;
the smaller wing-coverts bright chestnut; chin white, throat black;
the lower neck and part of the breast, yellow, the rest of the breast
and abdomen, white. Female similar to the male, but paler, and without
the black patch on the throat.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 10-3/8.

Breeds abundantly in Texas and all the Western Prairies; less so from
Virginia to Massachusetts. Rare in Ohio and Kentucky. Migratory.

    Black-throated Bunting, Emberiza Americana, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. i. p. 411.

    Fringilla Americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 107.

    Black-throated Bunting, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 461.

    Black-throated Bunting, Emberiza Americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 599.


157. 2. Emberiza Townsendii, Aud. Townsend's Bunting.

     Plate CCCC. Fig. 4. Male.

Bill very stout, with the upper outline considerably convex. Head,
cheeks, hind neck, sides of the neck, fore part of the breast, and
sides of the body, deep bluish-grey, the head streaked with black;
back yellowish-brown, streaked with dusky, the feathers edged with
grey, rump yellowish-grey; quills and tail-feathers wood-brown,
slightly edged with paler; a narrow white line over the eye; throat
white, with a narrow band of black on each side; abdomen and middle
part of breast greyish-white.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 9.

One specimen (in my possession) procured in Pennsylvania.

    Townsend's Bunting, Emberiza Townsendii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 183; v. v. p. 90.


158. 3. Emberiza Grammaca, Say. Lark Bunting.

     Plate CCCXC. Fig. 1. Male.

Second and third quills longest, first and fourth about equal; tail
rather long, rounded. Male with three longitudinal bands of white on
the head, separated by two bands of bright chestnut-red, the anterior
part of which is black; upper parts light greyish-brown,
longitudinally streaked with dusky, the central part of each feather
being of the latter colour, the hind part of the back and the rump
without streaks; two faint bands of yellowish-white on the wings,
formed by the tips of the first row of small coverts, and those of the
secondary coverts, and a patch of the same formed by the bases of the
outer primaries; quills dusky brown, primaries margined with whitish,
secondaries more broadly with light red; tail darker, all the feathers
except the middle, terminated by white, which, on the outer, occupies
more than a third of its length, and extends nearly to the base of the
outer web; below the eye a white streak, cheeks bright chestnut, with
an anterior black spot, under them a broad white band from the lower
mandible, curving upwards, separated from the throat, which is white,
by a short line of black on each side; lower parts white, the lower
part of the neck greyish, the sides tinged with greyish-white. Female
similar to the male, but with the head simply coloured like the back,
and the sides streaked with brown.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 8-1/4.

Upper Missouri, and eastern declivities of the Rocky Mountains.
Common. Migratory.

    Fringilla grammaca, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 47.

    Lark Finch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 480.

    Lark Finch, Fringilla grammaca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 17.


159. 4. Emberiza graminea, Gmel. Grass or Bay-winged Bunting.

     Plate XC. Male.

Second, third, and fourth quills longest, first and fourth nearly
equal; tail rather long, slightly emarginate. Upper parts light
greyish-brown, streaked with dusky; smaller wing coverts yellowish-red
or bay; quills and larger coverts dusky brown, margined with
greyish-white; two whitish bands on the wing, formed by the tips of
the first row of small coverts, and the secondary coverts; tail dusky
brown, the greater part of the outer feather, and the terminal portion
of the outer web of the next white; a narrow circle of white round the
eye; lower parts dull white, the throat, fore part of neck, and sides
streaked with dark brown.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 10.

From Texas to the Columbia River and Fur Countries. Breeds from
Maryland eastward and northward. Resident in winter from Carolina
southward and westward. Extremely abundant.

    Bay-winged Bunting, Emberiza graminea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv.
        p. 51.

    Fringilla graminea, Bonap. Syn. p. 108.

    Fringilla (Zonotrichia) graminea, Bay-winged Finch, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 254.

    Bay-winged or Grass Finch, Fringilla graminea, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p 482.

    Grass Finch or Bay-winged Bunting, Fringilla graminea, Aud.
        Orn Biog. v. i. p. 473; v. v. p. 502.


160. 5. Emberiza Savanna, Bon. Savannah Bunting.

     Plate CIX. Male and Female.

Outer four quills almost equal; tail emarginate, with the feathers
pointed. Upper parts light greyish-brown, streaked with dusky; smaller
wing-coverts like the back; a faint yellow band over the eye, and a
faint whitish band in the middle of the crown; two whitish bands on
the wing, formed by the tips of the first row of small coverts and the
secondary coverts, the latter very inconspicuous, quills and
tail-feathers dusky brown, edged with paler, the lateral tail-feathers
merely of a lighter tint; cheeks dull yellow, streaked with brown;
lower part white, the throat and sides streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas to the Columbia River, and along the whole Atlantic coast
to Nova Scotia. Extremely abundant during winter in all the Southern
States. Breeds from Maryland eastward.

    Savannah Finch, Fringilla savanna, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        72.

    Fringilla savanna, Bonap. Syn. p. 109.

    Savannah Sparrow, Fringilla savanna, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 489.

    Savannah Finch, Fringilla savanna, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        63; v. v. p. 516.


161. 6. Emberiza pallida, Swains. Clay-coloured Bunting.

     Plate CCCXCVIII. Fig. 2. Male.

Bill more slender and pointed than in the preceding species; wings
more rounded, the second, third, and fourth quills being about equal,
the first and fifth equal; tail long, emarginate, and a little
rounded, upper parts light yellowish-brown, streaked with
brownish-black, the streaks on the rump fainter; quills and
tail-feathers greyish-brown, margined with brownish-white; over the
eye a band of brownish-white; cheeks pale brown; sides of neck very
light buff; the rest of the lower parts greyish-white, the sides
tinged with greyish-brown. Female similar to the male, but with less
yellow on the sides of the neck.

_Male_, 5-2/12, wing 2-7/12.

Platte River, Missouri Plains, and Fur Countries. Common. Migratory.

    Emberiza pallida, Clay-coloured Bunting, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 251.

    Clay-coloured Bunting, Emberiza pallida, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 66.


162. 7. Emberiza passerina, Wils. Yellow-winged Bunting.

     Plate CXXX. Male.

Bill very short and stout; tail-feathers acute. Upper parts light
greyish-brown, mixed on the neck with ash-grey, the central parts of
all the feathers brownish-black, the margins of those of the back
bright chestnut; upper part of the head brownish-black, with a
longitudinal central line of yellowish-white, and a yellow line over
each eye; secondary coverts dusky, margined with greyish-white; the
edge of the wing at the flexure bright yellow; quills and
tail-feathers dusky brown, margined with whitish; lower parts pale
yellowish-grey, the fore neck and lower tail-coverts of a richer tint;
the sides inclining to grey, and faintly streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 4-9/12, 8.

Passes from Texas to Connecticut; breeds from Maryland to Connecticut.
Columbia River. Rather Common. Migratory.

    Yellow-winged Sparrow, Fringilla passerina, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iii. p. 76.

    Fringilla passerina, Bonap. Syn. p. 109.

    Savannah Finch or Yellow shouldered Bunting, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 494.

    Yellow-crowned Sparrow, Fringilla passerina, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 180; v. v. p. 497.


163. 8. Emberiza Henslowii, Aud. Henslow's Bunting.

     Plate LXX. Male.

Bill very stout; wings short, convex, the first quill equal to the
fourth, and scarcely shorter than the second and third; tail
emarginate and rounded, with the feathers acute. Upper parts light
yellowish-brown, streaked with brownish-black, the margins of the
feathers on the back and scapulars light red; the edge of the wing
pale yellow; quills dusky, primaries edged with brownish-yellow,
secondaries with light red; tail-feathers dusky, the outer margined
with yellowish-brown, the middle more broadly with light red; lower
parts light brownish-yellow, the abdomen and throat paler, the sides
of the neck and body, and the fore part of the breast streaked with
black.

_Male_, 5.

Winters in Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. Breeds
from Maryland to New York. Abundant. Accidental in Ohio.

    Henslow's Bunting, Emberiza Henslowii, Nutt. Man. App. v. ii.
        p.

    Henslow's Bunting, Emberiza Henslowii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 360; v. v. p. 498.

    * Wings considerably rounded, with the third and fourth quills
    longest. Tail rather long, emarginate.


164. 9. Emberiza pusilla, Wils. Field Bunting.--Field Sparrow.

     Plate CXXXIX. Male.

Bill light brownish-red; upper part of the head chestnut-red; anterior
part of the back streaked with dusky, bright chestnut, and
yellowish-grey; a faint ring on the neck, a band over the eyes, and
the throat pale bluish-grey; rump yellowish-grey; quills and tail
dusky brown, the former margined with light red, the latter with
yellowish-grey, lower parts greyish-white, the sides of the neck and
body, and the fore part of the breast, tinged with yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 6, 8.

From Texas to Maryland, in Kentucky and the intermediate parts, during
winter. Breeds from Maryland to Maine. Abundant.

    Field Sparrow, Fringilla pusilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        121.

    Fringilla pusilla; Bonap. Syn. p. 110.

    Field or Rush Sparrow, Fringilla juncorum, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        499.

    Field Sparrow, Fringilla pusilla, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        229.


165. 10. Emberiza socialis, Wils. Chipping Bunting.--Chipping Sparrow.

     Plate CIV. Male.

Bill with the upper mandible blackish-brown; upper part of the head
bright chestnut-red, part of forehead black; anterior part of the back
streaked with dusky, bright chestnut, and yellowish-grey; a faint ring
on the neck, a band over the eyes, the throat, and fore part of the
breast, pale bluish-grey; rump bluish-grey, streaked with dusky;
quills and tail dusky brown, the former margined with light red, the
latter with yellowish-grey; two white bands on the wing; breast and
sides pale grey, inclining to white. This species closely resembles
the last in colour, but may be distinguished by the black on the
forehead, and the dusky colour of the bill.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8.

Abundant throughout the United States. Winter resident in all the
Southern States. Not seen in Texas, Nova Scotia, or Labrador.

    Chipping Sparrow, Fringilla socialis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 127.

    Fringilla socialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 109.

    Chipping Sparrow, Fringilla socialis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 497.

    Chipping Sparrow, Fringilla socialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 21; v. v. p. 517.


166. 11. Emberiza Canadensis, Lath. Canada Bunting.--Tree Sparrow.

     Plate CLXXXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill with the upper mandible blackish-brown above, yellowish-red
beneath; upper part of the head bright chestnut-red; anterior part of
the back streaked with dusky, bright chestnut, and yellowish-grey; a
faint ring on the neck, a band over the eyes, the throat and fore part
of the breast pale bluish-grey; rump pale yellowish-grey, faintly
streaked with dusky; quills and tail dusky brown, the former margined
with light red, the latter with greyish-white; two white bands on the
wing; breast and sides pale grey, inclining to white, the latter
tinged with yellowish-brown.

This species is much larger than the last, wants the black spot on the
forehead, and has the wing-bands more conspicuous.

_Male_, 6-1/4, 8-3/4.

Rarely reaches the Carolinas during winter, or Louisville on the Ohio.
Breeds from Maine northward to the Fur Countries. Abundant. Migratory.

    Tree Sparrow, Fringilla arborea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        12.

    Fringilla canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 109.

    Emberiza canadensis, Tree Bunting, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 252.

    Tree Sparrow, Fringilla canadensis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 495.

    Tree Sparrow, Fringilla canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        511; v. v. p. 504.



GENUS III. NIPHÆA, Aud. SNOW-BIRD.


Bill short, rather small, conical, acute; upper mandible a little
broader than the lower, its dorsal line straight, slightly declinate
at the tip, the sides convex, the edges nearly straight, slightly
inflected, but overlapping; lower mandible with the angle short and
rounded, the dorsal line straight, the sides convex, the edges a
little inflected, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed
by the feathers. Head broadly ovate; neck short; body full. Feet of
moderate length; tarsus rather short, stout, with seven scutella; toes
rather strong, the first stout, the lateral equal. Claws rather long,
arched, compressed, laterally grooved, tapering to a fine point.
Plumage very soft and blended. Wings rather short, curved, rounded,
second, third, and fourth quills longest, first longer than fifth.
Tail rather long, slightly emarginate. Roof of upper mandible concave,
with thin ridges, and a small knob at the base; tongue narrow, deep,
grooved above, tapering to a horny point; œsophagus dilated about
the middle; stomach rather small, roundish, muscular; intestine rather
short; cœca very small. Name from [Greek: Niphos], snow.


167. 1. Niphæa hyemalis, Linn. Common Snow-Bird.

     Plate XIII. Male and Female.

Male with the head, hind neck, fore part of the breast, back, wings,
and upper parts of the sides, greyish-black, deeper on the head and
throat; quills margined with whitish; tail with the two lateral
feathers on each side, and a patch on the inner web of the next white,
as are the breast and abdomen. Female lighter grey, on the back tinged
with brown.

_Male_, 6-1/4, 9.

Distributed, in winter, over the Southern, Western, and Middle
Districts, as far as the base of the Rocky Mountains, and in the Fur
Countries. Breeds from Maryland eastward, on the mountains. Very
abundant.

    Snow Bird, Fringilla nivalis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 129.

    Fringilla hyemalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 109.

    Fringilla hyemalis, Black Finch, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 505.

    Common Snow-Bird, Fringilla Hudsonia, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 491.

    Snow-Bird, Fringilla hyemalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 72; v.
        v. p. 505.


168. 2. Niphæa Oregona, Towns. Oregon Snow-Bird.

     Plate CCCXCVIII. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Male with the head, neck all round, and a portion of the breast black;
the rest of the lower parts white, excepting the sides, which are
tinged with brown; fore part of back reddish-brown, rump dull grey;
quills dusky, the primaries edged with grey, the secondaries with
reddish-brown; tail dusky, with the outer two feathers on each side
white. Female with the head and neck blackish-grey, the back and
wing-coverts dull brownish-red, the other parts as in the male.

_Male_, 6-1/4; wing, 3-1/12.

Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Fringilla oregona, Oregon Snow-Finch, Towns. Journ. Acad. Nat.
        Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 188.

    Oregon Snow-Finch, Fringilla oregona, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        68.



GENUS IV. SPIZA, Bonap. PAINTED-BUNTING.


Bill short, moderately stout, conical, acute; upper mandible rather
narrower, with the dorsal line somewhat convex, the ridge narrow, the
sides sloping and a little convex, the edges inclining upwards for a
third of their length, then direct, with a slight notch close to the
narrow declinate tip; lower mandible with the angle short and rounded,
the dorsal line very slightly convex, the sides rounded, the edges
involute, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, roundish, partly concealed by
the feathers. Head broadly ovate; neck short; body rather full. Feet
of moderate length; tarsus much compressed, with seven scutella; toes
of moderate size, hind toe large, lateral equal. Claws slender,
compressed, well arched, acute. Plumage full, soft, and blended. Wings
of moderate length, the second and third quills longest, the first
about equal to the fourth. Tail of moderate length, emarginate. Palate
anteriorly with their narrow ridges, forming a large oblong hard knob
at their base; tongue higher than broad, deeply grooved above,
pointed; œsophagus dilated into a crop; stomach elliptical,
muscular; intestine of moderate length; cœca very small.


169. 1. Spiza Ciris, Wils. Blue-headed
Painted-Bunting.--Painted-Bunting. Painted-Finch.

     Plate LIII. Male and Female.

Male with the head and hind neck ultramarine-blue, eyelids vermilion;
fore part of back and scapulars yellowish-green; rump purplish-red;
smaller wing-coverts purplish-blue, secondary coverts green; quills
and tail-feathers dusky; lower parts bright vermilion. Female
yellowish-green above, greenish-yellow beneath. Young like the female.
In the second year, the male with the upper parts olive-green, the
lower dull orange, paler behind, head as in the adult; in the third
year, with the back mottled with yellow and light green, the secondary
coverts green, the rest as in the adult.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 7-1/2.

From Texas to North Carolina, and up the Mississippi to Natchez.
Abundant. Migratory.

    Painted Bunting, Emberiza Ciris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        68.

    Fringilla Ciris, Bonap. Syn. p. 107.

    Painted Bunting, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 477.

    Painted Finch, Fringilla Ciris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 279;
        v. v. p. 517.


170. 2. Spiza cyanea, Wils. Indigo Painted-Bunting.--Indigo Bird.

     Plate LXXIV. Male and Female.

Male blue, tinged with verdigris-green, on the head approaching to
ultramarine; quills and tail-feathers dusky, edged with greenish-blue.
Female yellowish-brown above, paler beneath. Young like the female.
Male, in the first autumn, of a lighter and duller blue than in the
adult, the feathers of the upper parts tipped with brown, of the lower
with yellowish, in the second year nearly as in the adult, but with
the smaller coverts dull brown.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 7-1/2.

Distributed throughout the United States during summer. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Indigo Bird, Fringilla cyanea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 100.

    Fringilla cyanea, Bonap. Syn. p. 107.

    Indigo Bird, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 473.

    Indigo Bird, Fringilla cyanea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 377;
        v. v. p. 503.


171. 3. Spiza amœna, Say. Lazuli Painted-Bunting.--Lazuli Finch.

     Plate CCCXCVIII. Fig. 1. Male. Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig. 1.
     Female.

Male with the head, neck, and upper parts, light greenish-blue, the
fore part of the back duller; loral space black; wings and tail dusky,
the feathers margined with blue; two white bands on the wing; on the
fore part of the breast a broad band of yellowish-red, the rest of the
lower parts white. Female with the upper parts light yellowish-brown,
the rump greenish-blue; fore parts pale yellowish-red, fading behind
into white.

_Male_, 5-1/2; wing, 3-1/12.

From the Arkansas to the Columbia River. Never seen near the Atlantic
coast. Plentiful. Migratory.

    Emberiza amœna, Say, Long's Exped.

    Lazuli Finch, Fringilla amœna, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        61.

    Fringilla amœna, Bonap. Syn. p. 106.

    Lazuli Finch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 478.

    Lazuli Finch, Fringilla amœna, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 64,
        and p. 230.



GENUS V. AMMODRAMUS, Swains. SHORE-FINCH.


Bill rather long, being little shorter than the head, rather slender,
straight, considerably compressed, acute; upper mandible with the
dorsal line considerably convex, the ridge narrow, the sides convex,
the edges inflected, with a slight festoon about the middle, and a
faint notch, close to the tip, which is deflected and acute; lower
mandible with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line ascending
and straight, the ridge rounded, the sides convex, the edges involute,
the tip acute. Nostrils small, elliptical, basal, partially concealed
by the plumage. Head ovate; neck short; body slender. Tarsus rather
short, stoutish, compressed, with seven scutella; toes rather long,
hind toe large, outer shorter than inner, and adherent at the base.
Claws long, slender, little arched, much compressed, laterally
grooved, tapering to a fine point. Plumage soft and blended, with the
filaments stiffish and disunited. No bristles. Wings short, convex,
rounded, the second, third, and fourth quills longest, the first
considerably shorter. Tail of moderate length, graduated, slender, of
twelve narrow, acuminate feathers. No difference in the colours of the
sexes.


172. 1. Ammodramus maritimus, Wils. Grey Shore-Finch.--Sea-side Finch.

     Plate XCIII. Male and Female.

Third and fourth quills longest, first and eighth equal; tail
graduated; upper parts brownish-grey, tinged with olivaceous, two
faint longitudinal bands of darker on the head; the feathers on the
fore part of the back brown in the centre; margin of the wing at the
flexure light yellow, smaller wing-coverts and outer webs of secondary
coverts dull reddish-brown; quills and tail-feathers dusky brown,
edged with pale brownish-grey; a yellow band from the base of the
upper mandible over the eye, fainter behind; throat greyish-white,
with a longitudinal bluish-grey band on each side; lower part of neck,
fore part of breast, and sides, light bluish-grey, streaked with light
olivaceous-brown; middle of breast pale grey, abdomen white, lower
tail-coverts pale yellowish-brown, with a central dusky streak.

_Male_, 8, 11.

From Texas to Massachusetts along the shores of the Atlantic. Resident
in the Southern States. Abundant.

    Sea-side Finch, Fringilla maritima, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        68.

    Fringilla maritima, Bonap. Syn. p. 110.

    Sea-side Finch, Fringilla maritima, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 505.

    Sea-side Finch, Fringilla maritima, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        471.


173. 2. Ammodramus Macgillivrayi, Aud. Macgillvray's Shore-Finch.

     Plate CCCLV. Male and Female.

Second, third, and fourth quills longest, first and seventh equal;
tail rounded. Upper parts dull olivaceous-grey, streaked with
blackish-brown, the central parts of all the feathers being of the
latter colour; margin of the wing at the flexure yellowish-white; all
the feathers of the wings dusky brown, margined with pale olivaceous;
tail-feathers blackish-brown, margined with olivaceous; a
yellowish-brown streak from the base of the upper mandible over the
eye; throat and fore neck greyish-white, with an indistinct dusky
streak on each side; breast and sides pale dull yellowish-grey marked
with brownish-black streaks; middle of the breast and abdomen
greyish-white, tinged with yellowish-brown; lower tail-coverts pale
yellowish-brown, with a central dusky streak.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 7-3/4.

Abundant in Texas and along the Gulf of Mexico. Rather rare in South
Carolina, from which it migrates in autumn.

     Macgillivray's Finch, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 285; v. iv.
     p. 394; v. v. p. 499.


174. 3. Ammodramus caudacutus, Lath. Buff-breasted
Shore-Finch.--Sharp-tailed Finch.

     Plate CXLIX. Male and Female.

Second, third, and fourth quills longest, first and fifth equal; tail
graduated. Upper part of the head with a central bluish-grey streak,
deep brown at the sides with the feathers black in the centre; hind
neck dull grey, tinged with brown; back brown, tinged with grey, some
of the feathers marked with black and edged with greyish-white; quills
dusky brown, edged with reddish-brown, the secondary and smaller
coverts with their outer webs chiefly of the latter colour;
tail-feathers dusky brown, margined with greyish-olive; a broad band
of light yellowish-red from the base of the upper mandible over the
eye, and extending beyond the middle of the neck, where it is broader;
ear-coverts grey; a broad band of yellowish-red from the lower
mandible down the neck; throat whitish, with a line of dusky streaks
on each side; the lower part of the neck, a portion of the breast, the
lower tail-coverts, and the sides, pale yellowish-red, streaked with
dusky; the rest of the lower parts white.

_Male_, 5, 7-1/4.

Breeds from Texas along the coast to Massachusetts. Never in the
interior. Resident in the Southern States. Very abundant.

    Sharp-tailed Finch, Fringilla caudacuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 70.

    Fringilla caudacuta, Bonap. Syn. p. 110.

    Shore Finch, Fringilla littoralis, Nutt. Man, v. i. p. 504.

    Sharp-tailed Finch, Fringilla caudacuta, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 281; v. v. p. 499.


175. 4. Ammodramus palustris, Wils. Marsh Shore-Finch. Swamp Sparrow.

     Plate LXIV. Male.

Bill shorter than in the other species; tail-feathers less acuminate;
upper part of head deep chestnut-red, streaked with black; hind part
and sides of the neck light bluish-grey, cheeks dusky brown; a
greyish-yellow streak over the eye; upper parts of body
yellowish-brown, streaked with brownish-black; wing-coverts and
secondaries broadly edged with yellowish-red, primaries with duller
red; tail similar; throat greyish-white, with two small dusky streaks,
the rest of the fore neck and part of the breast pale bluish-grey,
the abdomen whitish, the sides yellowish-brown, streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 7-1/2.

From Texas to North Carolina in winter. Spreads in spring and summer
to the Missouri westward, and to Labrador eastward. Abundant.

    Swamp Swallow, Fringilla palustris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 49.

    Fringilla palustris, Bonap. Syn. p. 110.

    Swamp Sparrow, Fringilla Georgiana, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 502.

    Swamp Sparrow, Fringilla palustris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        331; v. v. p. 508.



GENUS VI. PEUCÆA, Aud. PINEWOOD-FINCH.


Bill of moderate length, rather stout, straight, considerably
compressed, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line somewhat
convex, the ridge rather narrow, the sides convex, the edges
inflected, with the notches obsolete, the tip acute; lower mandible
with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line ascending and
slightly convex, the ridge rounded, the sides convex, the edges
involute, the tip acute. Nostrils small, roundish, partially concealed
by the plumage. Head ovate; neck short; body moderately stout. Tarsus
rather short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes moderate, very
slender, hind toe rather large, lateral toes about equal, outer
adherent at the base. Claws of moderate length, very slender,
extremely compressed, arched, tapering to a fine point. Plumage very
soft, blended. Wings very short, convex, rounded, the third and fourth
quills longest, the first and seventh about equal. Tail rather long,
graduated, of twelve narrow rounded feathers. No difference in the
colours of the sexes. Name from [Greek: Peuchê], a pine.


176. 1. Peucæa Bachmanii, Aud. Bachman's Pinewood-Finch.

     Plate CLXV. Male.

Feathers of the upper parts brownish-red margined with bluish-grey,
those on the fore part of the back darker; quills dusky brown,
primaries margined with yellowish-grey, secondaries with brownish-red;
tail-feathers dusky brown margined with grey; a band of ochre-yellow
from the base of the upper mandible over the eye; throat pale
yellowish-grey, with a short dusky streak on each side; lower parts
light yellowish-grey, the fore part of the breast and the sides tinged
with brown.

_Male_, 6, 7-1/2.

Georgia and South Carolina. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Bachman's Finch, Fringilla Bachmanii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 366.


177. 2. Peucæa Lincolnii, Aud. Lincoln's Pinewood-Finch.

     Plate CXCIII. Male and Female.

Bill shorter and more slender. Upper parts yellowish, streaked with
brownish-black: on the head a thin greyish-blue longitudinal band;
quills dusky brown, margined with yellowish-brown; tail-feathers
broadly margined with yellowish-brown; cheeks greyish-brown, with an
inferior band of ochreous; throat white, streaked with dusky, and
having a line of dusky spots on each side; fore part of breast and
sides pale greyish-yellow, streaked with dusky; the rest of the lower
parts greyish-white.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 8-2/12.

New York and Labrador. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Lincoln's Finch, Fringilla Lincolnii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 539.



GENUS VII. LINARIA, Ray. LINNET.


Bill short, conical, moderately stout, higher than broad at the base,
compressed toward the end, acuminate; upper mandible with the dorsal
line straight, the nasal sinus very short and broad, the ridge
distinct and narrow, the sides convex, the edges ascending at first,
afterwards direct, the tip very narrow, without notches; lower
mandible with the angle short and semicircular, the dorsal line
straight or very slightly concave, the sides convex, the tip
acuminate. Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head
of moderate size, roundish; neck short; body moderate. Feet of
moderate length; tarsus short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes
rather stout, the first large. Claws long, moderately arched, much
compressed, very acute. Plumage soft and blended. Wings rather long,
the first three quills nearly equal, the second generally longest, the
first longer than the third. Tail rather long, deeply emarginate or
forked, with the feathers pointed. Roof of upper mandible concave,
with two ridges; tongue deeper than broad, concave above toward the
point, which is acute; œsophagus enlarged about the middle; stomach
roundish, muscular; intestine of moderate length, slender; cœca
very small.


178. 1. Linaria borealis, Temm. Mealy Redpoll Linnet.

     Plate CCCC. Fig. 2. Male.

Male with the upper part of the head crimson, the cheeks, sides of the
body, and hind part of the rump pale carmine; a band edging the
forehead, the loral space, and the throat black; upper parts dusky,
streaked with brownish-white, the fore part of the rump nearly white;
feathers of the wings and tail dusky, margined with greyish-white, of
which there are two transverse bands on the wings, formed by the tips
of the secondary coverts and first row of small coverts; lower parts
greyish-white, the sides streaked with dusky. Female somewhat less,
with the black on the forehead and throat tinged with brown, the
crimson patch on the head of less extent, the sides and rump destitute
of red.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 9.

Accidental in New Jersey and New York. More common from Maine
northward. Labrador and Fur Countries. Columbia River.

    Grosbec boreal, Fringilla borealis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. v. iii.
        p. 264.

    Mealy Redpoll, Fringilla borealis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        87.


179. 2. Linaria minor, Ray. Lesser Redpoll Linnet.

     Plate CCCLXXV. Male and Female.

Male with the upper part of the head crimson; the sides of the neck,
its fore part, the breast, and flanks, rich carmine; a band edging the
forehead, the loral space, and the throat, brownish-black; the hind
part of the head, the neck, the fore part of the back, and the
scapulars deep-brown, streaked with pale yellowish-brown; the feathers
on the rump margined with whitish, and tipped with carmine; feathers
of the wings and tail brown, edged with yellowish-brown, of which
there are two bands on the wings formed by the tips of the secondary
coverts and first row of small coverts; middle of the breast, abdomen,
and lower tail-coverts white, tinged with rose-colours; the sides
longitudinally streaked with dusky. Female somewhat less, with the
back of the forehead and throat more brown, less red on the head, and
little or none on the rump or lower parts, which are white, the breast
and flanks streaked with dusky. Young with the feathers of the upper
parts blackish-brown, edged with yellowish-brown, the rump
yellowish-grey, the lower parts dull white, streaked with
blackish-brown; no red on any part.

_Male_, 5, 8-3/4.

From Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Maine, in winter; inland, to
Kentucky. Breeds in Maine, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador, and
the Fur Countries. Abundant. Migratory.

    Lesser Redpoll, Fringilla linaria, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        42.

    Fringilla linaria, Bonap. Syn. p. 112.

    Linaria minor, Lesser Redpoll, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. i. p. 267.

    Lesser Redpoll, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 512.

    Lesser Redpoll, Fringilla Linaria, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        533.


180. 3. Linaria pinus, Wils. Pine Linnet.

     Plate CLXXX. Male and Female.

Upper parts yellowish-grey, streaked with dark brown; feathers of the
wings dusky, the primaries margined with yellow, of which there is a
patch formed by the bases of all the quills, except the outer three,
and a few of the inner; tips of first row of small coverts, secondary
coverts and outer edges of secondary quills dull white; tail-feathers
dusky, their bases and outer edges yellow; lower parts greyish-white,
streaked with brown, the fore neck tinged with reddish.

_Male_, 4-9/12, 8-1/2.

Wanders during winter to South Carolina, Louisiana, and Kentucky.
Breeds north of the United States, in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and
Labrador. Columbia River. Plentiful.

    Pine Finch, Fringilla pinus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 133.

    Fringilla pinus, Bonap. Syn. p. 111.

    Pine Finch, Fringilla pinus, Nutt. Man. v.i. p. 511.

    Pine Finch, Fringilla pinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 455; v.
        v. p. 509.



GENUS VIII. CARDUELIS, Cuv. GOLDFINCH.


Bill short, or of moderate length, conical, very stout at the base,
compressed toward the end, and tapering to a fine point; upper
mandible a little broader, with the nasal sinus very broad, the dorsal
outline very slightly convex, the ridge narrowed toward the end, the
sides convex, the edges a little inflected and overlapping, the edges
slightly ascending at the base, the notches obsolete, the tip very
acute; lower mandible with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal
line straight, the sides convex, the tip very acute. Nostrils basal,
roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head roundish-ovate; neck short;
body rather full. Legs rather short; tarsus short, compressed,
slender, with seven scutella; toes moderate, the first large, the
lateral nearly equal. Claws long, compressed, moderately curved, very
acute. Plumage very soft and blended. Wings rather long, pointed, the
first, second, and third quills about equal and longest. Tail rather
short, deeply emarginate. Roof of upper mandible deeply concave;
tongue grooved above, pointed; œsophagus dilated about the middle;
stomach small, broadly elliptical, moderately muscular; intestine
short; cœca very small.


181. 1. Carduelis tristis, _Linn._ American Goldfinch.

     Plate XXXIII. Male and Female.

Bill rather slender, second and third quills longest. Male rich
lemon-yellow, fading behind into yellowish-white; upper part of head,
wings, and tail black; smaller coverts yellow, quills margined, and
secondary coverts tipped with yellowish-white; inner webs of
tail-feathers in their terminal half white. Female brownish-olive
above, without black on the head; fore neck and breast greyish-yellow,
the rest of the lower parts greyish-white. Young like the female, as
is the male in winter.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8.

Abundant in the Middle and Western Districts, during summer.
Accidental in the Southern States during winter. Columbia River and
Fur Countries. Abundant. Migratory.

    American Goldfinch, Fringilla tristis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 20.

    Fringilla tristis, Bonap. Syn. p. 111.

    Carduelis Americana (Edwards), American Goldfinch, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 268.

    Yellow Bird or American Goldfinch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 507.

    American Goldfinch, Fringilla tristis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 172; v. v. p. 510.


182. 2. Carduelis magellanicus, Vieill. Black-headed Goldfinch.

     Plate CCCXCIV. Fig. 2. Male.

Bill moderately stout; first and second quills equal and longest. Male
with the head and throat black, back yellowish-green, rump and lower
parts greenish-yellow; wings black, with two bands of yellowish-green,
terminating the first row of small coverts, and the secondary coverts;
a conspicuous band of yellow on the basal portion of all the quills,
most of which are margined with the same toward the end; tail yellow,
with the terminal half black.

_Male_, 4-3/4, wing 2-10/12.

Five seen in winter at Henderson in Kentucky, of which I procured two.

    Black-headed Siskin, Fringilla magellanica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 46.


183. 3. Carduelis psaltria, Say. Arkansaw Goldfinch.

     Plate CCCC. Fig. 1. Male.

Bill moderately stout; second quill longest, third scarcely shorter.
Male with the upper part of the head black; hind neck, back, and
scapulars yellowish-green, spotted with greenish-brown; rump
greenish-yellow; upper tail-coverts dusky, margined with yellow, as on
the smaller wing-coverts; the other coverts and quills black;
secondary coverts broadly tipped with pale yellow, forming a
conspicuous band; quills margined with yellowish-white, all except the
outer three and the inner secondaries, white toward the base;
tail-feathers brownish-black, narrowly edged with whitish, and all,
except the middle and lateral with a whitish space at the base,
running out along the outer margin so as to form a conspicuous patch.
Female similar, but without the black on the head.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8.

Eastern bases of Rocky Mountains, and Western Plains. Accidental in
Lower Louisiana. Common. Migratory.

    Arkansaw Siskin, Fringilla psaltria, Say, Long's Exped. v. ii.
        p. 40.

    Fringilla psaltria, Bonap. Syn. p. 111.

    Arkansas Siskin, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 510.

    Arkansaw Siskin, Fringilla psaltria, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        85.


184. 4. Carduelis Yarrellii, Aud. Yarrell's Goldfinch.

     Plate CCCCXXXIII. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Bill very thick; second quill longest, third slightly longer than
first. Male with the upper part of the head black, the back and
scapulars yellowish-green, the hind neck and rump yellow; the wings
and tail brownish-black; the former, when extended, crossed by two
bands, one greenish-yellow, tipping the first row of small coverts,
the other bright yellow and broad, on the base of the primary and
secondary quills; tail also yellow in its basal half; lower parts
bright yellow. Female with the upper parts yellowish-green, the lower
dull greenish-yellow. This species, which has the bill thicker than
any other here described, although it is otherwise inferior in size,
not having been found by me any where noticed, I propose to honour
with the name of my excellent friend Mr Yarrell. In my ornithological
biography it is described as the Mexican Goldfinch, but that species
has the back black, and the bases of the quills and tail-feathers
white.

_Male_, 4, wing, 2-1/2.

Upper California.

    Mexican Goldfinch, Fringilla Mexicana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 282.

185. 5. Carduelis Stanleyi, Aud. Stanley Goldfinch.

     Not figured.

Bill thick; second and third quills equal, first little shorter. Male
with the upper part of the head black, the back and scapulars
yellowish-green, faintly streaked with dusky, the rump inclining to
greenish-yellow; the wings and tail black; the former, when extended,
crossed by two bands, one greenish-yellow, tipping the first row of
small coverts, the other bright yellow and broad at the base of the
primary and secondary quills; tail also yellow in its basal third,
except on the middle feather; lower parts greenish-yellow, feeding
into white on the abdomen; feathers on the throat black at the base;
lower tail-coverts yellow, tipped with white, and having a central
dusky streak. Female dull yellowish-green above, faintly streaked with
dusky, paler beneath.

In this species, which I have named in honour of the illustrious Earl
of Derby, the bill is so thick and short as to approach in form to
that of the European Greenfinch.

_Male_, 4-9/12, wing, 2-10/12.

Upper California.



GENUS IX. FRINGILLA, Linn. FINCH.


Bill short, stout, conical, somewhat compressed, pointed; upper
mandible of the same breadth as the lower, with its dorsal line
straight, the ridge indistinct, the sides rounded, the edges ascending
at the base, the notches obsolete, the tip scarcely deflected; lower
mandible with the angle very short and rounded, the dorsal line
straight, the sides convex, the edges inflected, the tip acute.
Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed by the feathers. Head rather
large, ovate; neck short; body compact. Legs of moderate length;
tarsus rather short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes moderate;
hind toe stout, lateral equal. Claws rather long, arched, compressed,
acute. Plumage rather compact, but blended. Wings of moderate length,
with the second, third, and fourth quills longest. Tail of moderate
length, slightly emarginate. Roof of upper mandible moderately
concave, with three longitudinal ridges; tongue compressed, channelled
above, horny, rather obtuse and concave at the end; œsophagus
dilated about the middle; stomach roundish, muscular; intestine rather
short; cœca small.

    * Wings rather short, claws long, little arched.


186. 1. Fringilla iliaca, Merrem. Fox-coloured Finch.

     Plate CVIII. Male and Female.

Upper parts light red, claws long, hind toe and its claws of equal
length, tail lighter, the head and neck intermixed with light
bluish-grey; inner webs of quills brown, secondary coverts slightly
tipped with whitish; lower parts white, and, except the abdomen,
spotted with light red, the spots on the breast smaller and inclining
to black; a patch of dusky on its fore part, produced by the inner
webs of several of the feathers.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 10-1/2. _Female_, 7-1/2.

Dispersed in winter throughout the Southern and Western Districts.
Breeds from Nova Scotia to Labrador and the Fur Countries. Rather
common.

    Fox-coloured Sparrow, Fringilla rufa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 53.

    Fringilla iliaca, Bonap. Syn. p. 112.

    Fringilla (Zonotrichia) iliaca, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 257.

    Ferruginous Finch, Fringilla iliaca, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 514.

    Fox-coloured Sparrow, Fringilla iliaca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 58; v. v. p. 512.


187. 2. Fringilla Townsendi, Aud. Townsend's Finch.

     Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig. 7. Female.

Claws very long, hind toe much shorter than its claw; upper parts very
dark olivaceous-brown, with a slight tinge of red, which is more
conspicuous on the rump and outer webs of the tail-feathers, and
margins of the wings and quills; sides of the neck and body and
feathers of legs similar, the rest white with dark brown triangular
spots, lower tail-coverts brown, broadly margined with pale dull
yellow.

_Female_, 7, 10-1/2.

Colorado of the West. Rocky Mountains.

    Townsend's Finch, Fringilla Townsendi, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 236.


188. 3. Fringilla cinerea, Gmel. Brown Finch.

     Plate CCCXC. Fig. 4. Male.

Hind claw and toe of equal length; upper parts brownish-grey tinged
with olivaceous, streaked with dark reddish-brown; three longitudinal
bands of bluish-grey on the head; secondaries and their coverts
broadly margined with dull chestnut; tail-feathers with a fainter tint
of the same; on the cheek a whitish line, and beneath it a dusky brown
band; throat and fore part of the neck white, with longitudinal dark
reddish-brown streaks; the middle of the breast yellowish-white, the
sides dark yellowish-brown, streaked with dark reddish-brown; lower
tail-coverts brown, broadly margined with pale yellowish-grey.

_Male_, 6, 8.

Platte River, North California, and Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Fringilla cinerea, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 922.

    Cinereous Finch, Arct. Zool. v. ii. N. 260.

    Brown Song Sparrow, Fringilla cinerea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 22.


189. 4. Fringilla melodia, Wils. Song Finch.

     Plate XXV. Male and Female.

Hind toe and claw of equal length; upper parts yellowish-grey,
streaked with brownish-black and brownish-red; on the head three
greyish-blue longitudinal bands; quills dusky brown, margined with
brownish-red, tail-feathers dull light brown, edged with lighter;
sides of the head yellowish-grey, with two bands of dusky brown;
throat white, with a broad band of dusky brown on each side; lower
parts white, the fore neck and sides tinged with reddish, and streaked
with dusky brown. Bill stouter than in the preceding species.

_Male_, 6, 8-1/2.

Breeds from Texas to Nova Scotia. Not observed in Kentucky. Winter
resident in the Southern States. Very abundant.

    Fringilla melodia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 125.

    Fringilla melodia, Bonap. Syn. p. 108.

    Common Song Sparrow, Fringilla melodia, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        486.

    Song Sparrow, Fringilla melodia, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 126;
        v. v. p. 507.


190. 5. Fringilla Mortoni, Aud. Morton's Finch.

     Not figured.

Wings of moderate length, the first quill two-twelfths of an inch
shorter than the second, which is almost equal to the third; tail of
moderate length, nearly even; bill dusky; feet and claws
yellowish-brown; upper part of head ash-grey, with a longitudinal band
of black on each side, externally of which is a greyish-white band;
loral space, cheek-feathers, and auriculars dusky, the feathers under
the eye tipped with white; throat white, surrounded with a black band;
a light chestnut-red band surrounding the neck unless for a short
space in front; fore-part of back and scapulars light dull
yellowish-red, streaked with brownish-black, the hind part, rump, and
upper tail-coverts yellowish-grey; the smaller wing-coverts
yellowish-grey, the first row brownish-black toward the end with the
tip white, the secondary coverts and inner secondary quills
brownish-black, broadly margined with light yellowish-red, the former
tipped with white, the rest of the quills dusky brown, edged with
yellowish-red fading on the outer whitish; tail-feathers
blackish-brown, narrowly edged with pale yellowish-grey, the lateral
of a lighter tint; lower parts dull brownish-white, sides light
greyish-brown, lower wing-coverts yellowish-white.

_Male_, 5-1/2, wing, 2-11/12.

North California.

    Morton's Finch, Fringilla Mortoni, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        312.

    * Claws shorter and more curved.


191. 6. Fringilla Pennsylvanica, Lath. White-throated Finch.

     Plate VIII. Male and Female.

Male with the bill dusky; the upper part of the head black, with a
central white band; a bright yellow band from the nostril to the eye
continued into a white band passing over and behind it, and margined
beneath with black; fore part of back bright bay, streaked with dusky
and reddish-yellow; rump yellowish-grey; edge of wing light yellow;
quills brownish-black, primaries edged with yellowish-grey,
secondaries and their coverts with light red; two narrow bands of
white on the wings, formed by the tips of the secondary coverts and
first row of small coverts; tail-feathers brown, edged with rufous;
throat white; cheeks, sides, and fore part of neck, and a portion of
breast, ash-grey, the rest of the lower parts greyish-white, the sides
tinged with yellowish-grey. Female similar, but with the colours
duller.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 9. _Female_, 6-1/4, 8-1/2.

Winter resident from Louisiana to Maryland, and inland as far as
Kentucky. Breeds from Maine to the Fur Countries. Abundant.

    White-throated Sparrow, Fringilla albicollis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iii. p. 51.

    Fringilla Pennsylvanica, Bonap. Syn. p. 108.

    Fringilla (Zonotrichia) Pennsylvanica, White-throated Finch,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 256.

    White-throated Sparrow, Fringilla Pennsylvanica, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 481.

    White-throated Sparrow, Fringilla Pennsylvanica, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. i. p. 42; v. v. p. 497.


192. 7. Fringilla leucophrys, Gmel. White-crowned
Finch.--White-crowned Sparrow.

     Plate CXIV. Adult Male and Female in second plumage.

Male with the bill yellowish-red, tipped with brown; upper part of the
head with four longitudinal black, and three white bands; fore part of
the back streaked with reddish-brown and yellowish-grey; rump
light yellowish-brown; quills dark brown, primaries edged with
yellowish-grey, secondaries and their coverts with yellowish-red;
edge of wing whitish; two bands of white on the wing, formed by
the tips of the secondary coverts and first row of small coverts;
tail-feathers brown, edged with yellowish-brown; throat greyish-white;
cheeks, sides, and fore part of the neck, and a portion of the
 breast, ash-grey; abdomen white, sides, and lower tail-coverts
yellowish-brown. Female similar to the male. Young in first plumage
with the back, wings, and tail as in the adult, but duller, and the
bands inconspicuous; on the head three greyish-white bands, streaked
with dusky, and four dull greyish-brown bands similarly streaked;
cheeks, sides, and fore part of the neck, with a portion of the breast
dull greyish-white, streaked with dusky, the rest of the lower parts
dull yellowish-white. At the second moult the colours approximate to
those of the old bird, but the central band on the head is dull
yellowish-brown, the lateral bands brownish-red; while the lower parts
are of much duller tints.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 10-1/2.

Breeds from Newfoundland and Labrador northward. Abundant. Migratory.
Passes southward in autumn beyond the Texas.

    White-crowned Bunting, Emberiza leucophrys, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iv. p. 49.

    Fringilla leucophrys, Bonap. Syn. p. 479.

    Fringilla (Zonotrichia) leucophrys, White-crowned Finch,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 255.

    White-crowned Bunting or Finch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 479.

    White-crowned Sparrow, Fringilla leucophrys, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 88; v. v. p. 515.


193. 8. Fringilla atricapilla, Gmel. Black-and-yellow-crowned Finch.

     Plate CCCXCIV. Fig. 3. Male.

Bill dusky above, reddish-brown beneath; upper part of head black,
with a median longitudinal band of yellow, changing behind to grey;
upper parts yellowish-brown, tinged with grey; the feathers of the
fore part of the back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, with a central
dusky spot; quills and larger coverts dark brown, bordered with
reddish-brown, paler on the primaries; the tips of the secondary
coverts and first row of small coverts white, forming two bands across
the wing; tail-feathers brown, edged with yellowish-grey; sides of the
head, throat, fore part and sides of the neck, and breast, light grey,
the sides and lower tail-coverts pale yellowish-brown, the abdomen
brownish-white. Young with the upper parts dull yellowish-grey,
streaked with dusky; wings and tail dusky brown, the primaries and
tail-feathers edged with yellowish-green; the lower parts
greyish-white, streaked with dusky, the throat white, with a dusky
band on each side, the sides and lower tail-coverts tinged with light
yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 8, wing 3-5/12.

Rocky Mountains and Columbia River. Rare. Migratory.

    Emberiza atricapilla, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 875.

    Black-and-yellow-crowned Finch, Emberiza atricapilla, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 47.



GENUS X. PIPILO, Vieill. GROUND-FINCH.


Bill short, stout, narrower than the head, conical, somewhat
compressed, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly
convex, the ridge narrow and distinct, the sides convex, the edges
somewhat inflected, ascending for more than a third, then direct, with
a slight festoon; notches very slight, tip declinate, narrow; lower
mandible with the angle very short and broad, the dorsal line slightly
convex, the sides rounded, the edges involute, the point acute.
Nostrils basal, roundish, partially concealed by the feathers. Tarsus
of moderate length, compressed, with seven scutella; toes rather
large, scutellate above, the first stronger, the lateral nearly equal.
Claws rather long, moderately arched, slender, compressed, laterally
grooved, acute. Small bristles at the base of the upper mandible.
Plumage full, soft, and blended. Wings of ordinary length, much
rounded, the fourth quill longest; tail long, rounded. Roof of upper
mandible rather flat, with a narrow median and two broad lateral
flattened ridges, tongue compressed, convex above, with a median
groove, horny at the end, and pointed; œsophagus slightly dilated
about the middle; stomach a strong muscular gizzard; intestine short;
cœca small.


194. 1. Pipilo arcticus, Swains. Arctic Ground-Finch.

     Plate CCCXCIV. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Head, neck all round, a part of the breast, and upper parts in
general, black; sides and lower tail-coverts orange-red, the latter
paler; central part of the breast and abdomen white; feathers of the
tibia dusky, margined with whitish; an elongated patch on the outer
web of all the scapulars, a small terminal spot on the first row of
small coverts, and on the secondary coverts, and a large patch at the
end of the inner web of the outer three tail-feathers on each side,
white. Female smaller, differing only in having the parts which are
black in the male dull brownish-black.

_Male_, 8-1/2; wing, 3-1/2. _Female_, 8; wing, 3-1/4.

Columbia River, and northward to the Fur Countries. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Pyrgita (Pipilo) arctica, Arctic Ground-Finch, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 260.

    Arctic Ground-Finch, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 589.

    Arctic Ground-Finch, Fringilla arctica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 49.


195. 2. Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Linn. Towhe Ground-Finch.--Towhe
Bunting. Ground Robin. Swamp Robin.

     Plate XXIX. Male and Female.

Head, neck all round, a portion of the breast, and upper parts in
general, black; sides and lower tail-coverts orange-red, the latter
paler; central part of the breast and abdomen white; feathers of the
tibia dusky, margined with whitish (no white spots on the scapulars or
wing-coverts); a white patch on the wing, formed by the bases of the
outer webs of six or seven of the primaries; outer three tail-feathers
with a white patch toward the end on their inner webs chiefly (much
more extended than in the last species). Female smaller, differing
from the male only in having the parts which in him are deep black,
dusky reddish-brown. Young in first plumage with the upper parts dull
reddish-brown, streaked with brownish-black; the wings and tail as in
the adult, the lower parts pale yellowish-grey, marked with short
longitudinal streaks of dusky.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 12.

Breeds from Texas along the Atlantic districts, as well as in the
interior, northward to Labrador. Abundant. Migratory.

    Towhe Bunting, Emberiza erythrophthalma, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 35.

    Fringilla erythrophthalma, Bonap. Syn. p. 112.

    Ground Robin or Towhe Finch, Fringilla erythrophthalma, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 515.

    Towhe Bunting, Fringilla erythrophthalma, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 151; v. v. p. 511.



GENUS XI. ERYTHROSPIZA, Bonap. PURPLE-FINCH.


Bill rather short, robust, bulging, conical, pointed; upper mandible a
little broader, with the nasal sinus very short and broad, the dorsal
line a little convex, the ridge indistinct, the sides rounded, the
edges a little inflected, ascending at the base, afterwards direct,
the notches faint, the tip slightly deflected, rather acute; lower
mandible with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line ascending,
straight, the back and sides rounded, the edges involute, the tip
acute. Nostrils roundish, partially concealed by the short reflexed
bristly feathers. Head large, roundish-ovate; neck short, body
moderate. Tarsus short, slender, compressed, with seven scutella; toes
rather small, first stout, lateral nearly equal. Claws slender, much
compressed, well arched, acute. Plumage soft and rather blended;
feathers of the hind head somewhat elongated and pointed. Wings of
moderate length, rather pointed, the outer four quills longest. Tail
of moderate length, deeply emarginate. Upper mandible concave beneath,
with two prominent lines, of which the lateral are much larger; tongue
higher than broad, channelled above, the tip somewhat rounded and
concave; œsophagus dilated about the middle; stomach roundish,
muscular; intestine short; cœca very small.


196. 1. Erythrospiza purpurea, Gmel. Crested Purple-Finch.--Purple
Finch.

     Plate IV. Male and Female.

Second quill longest, first shorter than third. Male with the head,
neck, breast, back, and upper tail-coverts, crimson, paler behind;
fore part of the back spotted with brown; quills, larger coverts, and
tail, deep brown, margined with dull red. Female with the upper parts
yellowish-olive, streaked with brown; a whitish band over the eye;
lower parts greyish-white, streaked with brown. Young like the female.

_Male_, 6, 9.

During winter, from Texas to the Carolinas, and northward to Kentucky.
In summer, from St Louis to the Columbia, and in the Fur Countries.
Abundant.

    Purple Finch, Fringilla purpurea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        119.

    Purple Finch, Bonap. Syn. p. 114.

    Fringilla purpurea Wilson, Crested Purple Finch, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 264.

    Purple Finch, Fringilla purpurea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 24;
        v. v. p. 200.


197. 2. Erythrospiza frontalis, Say. Crimson-fronted Purple-Finch.

     Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig. 2. Male.

Third quill longest, second and fourth equal; tail long, slightly
emarginate, and a little rounded. Male with the forehead and a band
over the eye, proceeding down the neck, crimson; throat, fore part of
breast and sides, with the rump, rich carmine, the latter paler; upper
parts greyish-brown, the head, hind neck, and fore part of back,
tinged with crimson; feathers of wings and tail dusky, edged with
brownish-grey; hind part of breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts
yellowish-white, streaked with dusky. Female with the feathers of the
upper parts brown, edged with brownish-white; the lower parts
brownish-white, streaked with brown.

_Male_, 6-1/4, wing, 3-1/2.

Bases of Rocky Mountains. Rare. Migratory.

    Fringilla frontalis, Say, Long's Exped. v. ii. p. 40.

    Crimson-necked Bullfinch, Pyrrhula frontalis, Bonap. Amer.
        Orn. v. i. pl. 1.

    Crimson-fronted Bullfinch, Pyrrhula frontalis, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 534.

    Crimson-necked Finch, Fringilla frontalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 230.


198. 3. Erythrospiza tephrocotis, Swains. Grey-crowned Purple-Finch.

     Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig. 3. Male.

Male dark umber-brown; upper part of head ash-grey, anteriorly spotted
with black; first row of small wing-coverts, rump, and upper
tail-coverts broadly edged and tipped with rose-red, as are the
feathers of the sides, and the lower tail-coverts, feathers of wings
and tail dusky brown, margined with brownish-white, the secondary
coverts with dull red.

_Male_, 6; wing, 4.

Saskatchewan River. Very rare. Migratory.

    Linaria (Leucosticte) tephrocotis, Swainson's Grey-crowned
        Linnet, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 265.

    Grey-crowned Linnet, Fringilla tephrocotis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 232.



GENUS XII. CORYTHUS, Cuv. PINE-FINCH.


Bill short, robust, bulging at the base, conical, acute; upper
mandible of the same breadth as the lower, with its dorsal line very
convex, the nasal sinus semicircular, the sides convex, the edges
sharp, overlapping, gently ascending at the base, then arched, with a
slight festoon, the notches obsolete, the tip declinate, acute; lower
mandible with the angle semicircular, the dorsal line slightly convex,
the back rounded at the base, the sides convex, the edges somewhat
inflected, the tip obtuse. Nostrils basal, round, concealed by bristly
feathers. Head large, roundish-ovate; neck short; body moderately
stout; feet short; tarsus short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes
stout, the first proportionally large, the lateral nearly equal, the
outer adherent at the base. Claws long, moderately arched,
compressed, acute, that of the third toe longer than that of the
first. Plumage soft, full, rather blended; two tufts of bristly
feathers at the base of the upper mandible directed forwards. Wings of
moderate length, pointed, the first, second, and third, nearly equal.
Tail rather long, deeply emarginate. Roof of the mouth concave, with
five prominent ridges; tongue deeper than broad, in its distal half
oblong, concave, obtuse, and horny; œsophagus dilated about the
middle; stomach large, muscular, with the lateral muscles distinct,
and the epithelium rugous, intestine long, and rather slender; cœca
very small; cloaca oblong.


199. 1. Corythus Enucleator, Linn. Common Pine-finch.--Pine Grosbeak.

     Plate CCCLVIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male bright carmine, tinged with vermilion; the feathers on the fore
part of the back and the scapulars greyish-brown in the centre;
bristly feathers at the base of the bill blackish-brown; middle of the
breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts, light grey, the latter with a
central dusky streak; wings blackish-brown; primaries edged with
reddish-white, secondaries more broadly with white; secondary coverts
and first row of small coverts tipped with reddish-white; smaller
coverts edged with red. Female with the upper part of the head and
hind neck yellowish-brown, the rump brownish-yellow, the rest of the
upper parts light brownish-grey, wings and tail as in the male, but
the white edgings and tips tinged with grey; cheeks and throat
greyish-white, or yellowish; lower parts ash-grey, anteriorly tinged
with brownish-yellow. The young resemble the female. Young males
yellow and red, like those of Loxia curvirostra.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 14. _Female_, 8-1/4, 13-1/2.

From Pennsylvania and New Jersey, in winter, eastward to Newfoundland.
Breeds from Maine northward. Common. Migratory.

    Pine Grosbeak, Loxia Enucleator, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 80.

    Pyrrhula Enucleator, Bonap. Syn. p. 119.

    Pyrrhula (Corythus) Enucleator, Pine Bullfinch, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 262.

    Pine Grosbeak or Bullfinch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 535.

    Pine Grosbeak, Pyrrhula Enucleator, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        414.



GENUS XIII. LOXIA, Linn. CROSSBILL.


Bill rather long, stout at the base, where it is much higher than
broad, extremely compressed toward the end, the mandibles towards
their extremity deflected to opposite sides, so as to cross each
other; upper mandible with the dorsal line convex and deflected, the
sides slightly convex, the edges sharp, and towards the end united,
the tip excessively compressed and decurved; lower mandible with its
angle semicircular, the dorsal line ascending and convex, the edges
sharp, inflected, and approximated at the tip, which is extremely
acute. Nostrils small, basal, round, covered by the short bristly
feathers. Head large, broadly ovate; neck short; body compact. Feet
rather short and strong; tarsus short, compressed, with seven
scutella; toes of moderate size, the first strong, the lateral nearly
equal. Claws long, arched, very slender, much compressed, tapering to
a fine point, that of the middle toe nearly as long as that of the
first. Plumage soft, full, and blended. Two tufts of bristly feathers
at the base of the upper mandible directed forwards. Wings of moderate
length, pointed, the outer three primaries longest, the first
generally exceeding the rest. Tail short, distinctly emarginate. Roof
of the mouth concave, with three ridges, of which the median is much
smaller; tongue deeper than broad, at the end oblong, obtuse, concave
above, and horny; œsophagus dilated into a very large crop; stomach
roundish, muscular, with the epithelium rugous; intestine of moderate
length; cœca very small.


200. 1. Loxia curvirostra, Linn. Common Crossbill.

     Plate CXCVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male dull light red, inclining to vermilion; the wings and tail
blackish-brown, the feathers narrowly margined with dull red. Female
with the upper parts greyish-brown, tinged with green, the rump dull
greenish-yellow, the sides of the head and neck of the same colour as
the back, the lower parts pale greyish-yellow, brighter on the fore
part of the breast, wings and tail as in the male, but the feathers
edged with dull yellowish. Young with the central part of the feathers
greyish-brown, the edges yellowish-grey, the upper parts thus
appearing spotted, the lower streaked with dusky. Young males vary in
the tints of the plumage from yellowish-green to orange and vermilion.

_Male_, 7, 10.

From Maryland eastward and northward, to lat. 52. Breeds in
Pennsylvania, New York, and the north-eastern States to Nova Scotia.
Common. Migratory.

    American Crossbill, Curvirostra americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 44.

    Loxia curvirostra, Bonap. Syn. p. 117.

    Common Crossbill, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 583.

    Common Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        559; v. v. p. 511.


201. 2. Loxia leucoptera, Gmel. White-winged Crossbill.

     Plate CCCLXIV. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill excessively compressed, with the mandibles less curved. Male rich
carmine, inclining to crimson; the feathers on the fore part and
middle of the back dusky, excepting the tips; the scapulars, wings,
upper tail-coverts, and tail black; two broad bands of white on the
wings, the anterior formed by the first row of small coverts, and
several of those adjoining, the other by the secondary coverts, of
which the basal half only is black. Female with the feathers of the
upper parts dusky, edged with greyish-yellow, the rump wax-yellow; the
wings and tail as in the male, but with the white bands of less
breadth; lower parts yellowish-grey, streaked with dusky, the fore
part of the breast wax-yellow. Young similar to the female, but with
the lower parts dull yellowish-grey, spotted and streaked with dark
brown.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 10-5/8. _Female_, 6-1/4, 10.

During winter, as far south as Maryland. Not uncommon in New Jersey
and Pennsylvania, where a few breed. Common in Maine, Nova Scotia,
Labrador, and the Fur Countries. Migratory.

    White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 48.

    Loxia leucoptera, Bonap. Syn. p. 117.

    White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p.

    Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 263.

    White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        540.

    White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 467.



GENUS XIV. CORYDALINA, Aud. LARK-FINCH.


Bill of the same form as in the Guiraca, but smaller, and approaching
to that of Dolichonyx, being short, robust, conical, a little
compressed; upper mandible a little narrower, with the dorsal line
very slightly convex, the ridge indistinct, the nasal sinus very broad
and short, the sides convex, the edges ascending for a third of their
length, then direct, the notches almost obsolete, the tip narrow;
lower mandible with the angle short and very broad, the dorsal line
ascending and slightly convex, the back broad, the sides rounded, the
edges inflected, the tip pointed. Nostrils basal, roundish. Head
large, ovate; neck short; body full. Feet of moderate length, stout;
tarsus of ordinary length, compressed, with seven scutella; toes
rather large, the first stouter, the lateral equal, the third very
long. Claws rather long, arched, much compressed, laterally grooved,
tapering to a very acute point. Plumage soft and blended. Bristles at
the base of upper mandible feeble. Wings of moderate length, the outer
three quills nearly equal, the second longest, the fourth slightly
shorter than the third; outer secondaries broadly rounded and
emarginate; inner tapering to a rounded point, one of them, when the
wing is closed, little shorter than the outer primaries. Tail of
moderate length, a little rounded. Name from [Greek: Korydalos], a
lark.


202. 1. Corydalina bicolor, Towns. Prairie Lark-Finch.

     Plate CCCXC. Fig. 2. Male. Fig. 3. Female.

Male black, slightly tinged with grey; a large patch of white on the
wing, including some of the smaller coverts, the tips of the first
row, and their secondary coverts; primaries and outer secondaries
narrowly, inner secondaries broadly margined with white; tail-feathers
narrowly edged with white, and having a narrow speck of the same at
the end of the inner web. Female smaller, with the upper parts
greyish-brown, streaked with dusky brown; the lower white, with oblong
spots of brownish-black, the abdomen nearly pure white, their sides
tinged with reddish-brown; quills dark brown, edged and tipped with
reddish-white; the patch on the wing of the same tint; tail-feathers
dark brown, the outer externally edged, and all tipped with white on
the inner web.

_Male_, 7, wing 3-5/12.

Plains of the Platte River. Plentiful. Migratory.

    Fringilla bicolor, Prairie Finch, Towns. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc.
        Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 189.

    Prairie Finch, Fringilla bicolor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 19.



GENUS XV. PITYLUS, Cuvier. CARDINAL GROSBEAK.


Bill rather short, very robust, much higher than broad, tapering to a
point; upper mandible considerably smaller than the lower, with the
dorsal line convex, the ridge indistinct, the nasal sinus very wide,
the sides convex, the edges ascending rapidly for a third of their
length, then direct, with a slight festoon, slightly inflected, the
notches faint, the tip a little deflected and narrow; lower mandible
with the angle semicircular, the dorsal line straight, the sides at
the base inflected, toward the end convex, the edges involute, the tip
acute. Nostrils basal, round, concealed by the feathers. Plumage soft
and blended, feathers of the head elongated and erectile; distinct
bristles at the base of the upper mandible. Wings of moderate length,
much rounded, the fourth and fifth quills longest, the first and
eighth about equal. Tail long, rounded. Tarsus short, compressed, with
seven scutella; toes moderate, hind toe stout, broad beneath, outer
toe slightly longer than inner, and adherent at the base. Claws
moderate, arched, compressed, acute. Upper mandible concave beneath,
with three longitudinal ridges; tongue as high as broad, convex above,
tapering to a point. Œsophagus nearly uniform, stomach pretty
large, roundish, its lateral muscles strong.


203. 1. Pitylus Cardinalis, Linn. Common Cardinal Grosbeak.--Cardinal
Bird. Red Bird. Virginian Nightingale.

     Plate CLIX. Male and Female.

Male with the bill coral-red; plumage vermilion, duller on the upper
parts; anterior part of forehead, lores, and throat black, inner webs
of quills brown. Female with the bill paler, the upper parts
yellowish-grey, the lower greyish-yellow, capistrum dusky; some of the
crest-feathers, the wings and tail, as in the male, but of a fainter
tint.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 11-1/2.

Breeds abundantly from Texas to New York. Very rare in Massachusetts.
Valleys of the Mississippi and Missouri, Kentucky and Ohio. Resident
from Maryland southward.

    Cardinal Grosbeak, Loxia cardinalis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 38.

    Fringilla cardinalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 113.

    Cardinal Grosbeak or Red Bird, Fringilla cardinalis, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 519.

    Cardinal Grosbeak, Fringilla cardinalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 336; v. v. p. 514.



GENUS XVI. COCCOBORUS, Swains. SONG-GROSBEAK.


Bill rather short, extremely robust, almost as broad as the head and
somewhat compressed, tapering to a point; upper mandible considerably
smaller than the lower, with the dorsal line convex, the ridge
indistinct, the nasal sinus very wide, the sides convex, the edges
ascending for a third of their length, then direct, with a slight
festoon, and inflected, the notches faint, the tip a little deflected,
and narrow; lower mandible with the angle short and semicircular, the
dorsal line straight, the sides at the base inflected, toward the end
convex, the edges involute, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, round.
Plumage somewhat compact, blended; distinct bristles at the base of
the upper mandible. Wings of moderate length, pointed, the outer three
quills nearly equal, the second longest. Tail of moderate length,
slightly emarginate. Tarsus short, compressed, with seven scutella;
toes moderate, hind toe stout, broad beneath, outer toe slightly
longer than inner, and adherent at the base. Claws moderate, arched,
compressed, acute. Upper mandible concave beneath, with three
longitudinal ridges; tongue as high as broad, convex above, tapering
to a point; œsophagus rather wide, dilated about the middle;
stomach rather small, roundish, compressed, with its muscles distinct
and of moderate thickness, the epithelium longitudinally rugous;
intestine short, and of moderate width; cœca very small.


204. 1. Coccoborus cœruleus, Linn. Blue Song-Grosbeak.

     Plate CXXII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male blue; with the lores, chin, and a line round the base of the
mandibles black; wings and tail brownish-black, the latter and the
primaries edged with blue, the first row of small coverts and the
secondary coverts tipped with reddish-brown. Female with the head and
hind part of the back blue; the fore part of the back brown, the wings
and tail as in the male, the lower parts light greyish-brown, the
sides, and fore part of the neck and the breast tinged with blue.
Young yellowish-brown, lighter beneath; the upper part of the head,
the back, smaller wing-coverts, and upper tail-coverts tinged with
dusky.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 11.

From Texas to New Jersey, and up the Mississippi to Memphis. Rocky
Mountains. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Blue Grosbeak, Loxia cœrulea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        78.

    Fringilla cœrulea, Bonap. Syn. p. 114.

    Blue Grosbeak, Fringilla cœrulea, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 529.

    Blue Grosbeak, Fringilla cœrulea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        140; v. v. p. 508.


205. 2. Coccoborus Ludovicianus, Linn. Rose-breasted Song-Grosbeak.

     Plate CXXVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male with the head, neck, fore part of back, wings, and tail, black;
lower part of the fore neck, a portion of the breast, axillars, and
lower wing-coverts, rich carmine; hind part of the back, two bands on
the wings, bases of primary quills, tips of secondaries, and terminal
half of inner webs of outer three tail-feathers, white. Female with
the upper parts light yellowish-brown, streaked with darker, the lower
yellowish-white, the sides of the neck, fore part of breast, and sides
streaked with yellowish-brown; three white bands on the head; white
wing-bands narrower than in the male; axillars and lower wing-coverts
light buff. Young like the female.

_Male_, 7-3/4, 13.

Passes from Texas northward and eastward in great numbers. Breeds on
the Missouri, in the Middle States, Newfoundland, and Labrador. Rather
common. Migratory.

    Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Loxia rosea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 135.

    Fringilla ludoviciana, Bonap. Syn. p. 113.

    Coccothraustes ludoviciana, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, F. Bor.
        Amer. v. i. p. 271.

    Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Fringilla ludoviciana, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 527.

    Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Fringilla ludoviciana, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 166; v. ii. p. 513.


206. 3. Coccoborus melanocephalus, Swains. Black-headed Song-Grosbeak.

Plate CCCLXXIII. Male and Female.

Male with the head, cheeks, a small portion of the throat, wings, and
tail, black; a band on the hind neck, the fore part and sides of the
neck, a portion of the breast, and the sides, dull reddish-orange; the
middle of the breast, axillars, and lower wing-coverts, light yellow;
back black, streaked with yellowish-red; rump of the latter colour;
two bands on the wings, the base and outer margins of the primaries,
the tips of the secondaries, and a terminal patch on the inner webs of
the outer three tail-feathers, white. Female with the upper parts
light yellowish-brown, streaked with darker, the lower light
yellowish-brown; the axillars and lower wing-coverts light yellow;
white wing-bands narrower than in the male.

_Male_, 8-1/2, wing 4-1/4.

Central Table-land of Rocky Mountains. Common. Migratory.

    Black-headed Grosbeak, Fringilla melanocephala, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 519.



GENUS XVII. COCCOTHRAUSTES, Briss. GROSBEAK.


Bill of moderate length, extremely robust, almost as broad as the
head, not compressed, conical, pointed; upper mandible rather broader
than the lower, with the dorsal line slightly convex, the ridge
indistinct, the nasal sinus extremely wide and short, the sides
rounded, the edges simply arched and a little inflected, the notches
almost obsolete, the tip a little deflected; lower mandible with the
angle extremely short and wide, forming the fourth of a circle, the
dorsal line straight, the sides at the base and in their whole length
convex, the edges involute, the tip acute; nostrils basal, round.
Plumage blended. Wings of moderate length, pointed, the outer three
quills nearly equal, the second longest. Tail of moderate length,
emarginate. Tarsus short, compressed, with seven scutella; toes
moderate, hind toe stout, broad beneath; outer toe a little longer
than the inner, and adherent at the base. Claws moderate, or rather
stout, arched, compressed, acute. Upper mandible concave beneath, with
three prominent lines.


207. 1. Coccothraustes vespertina, Cooper. Evening Grosbeak.

     Plate CCCLXXIII. Fig. 1. Male.

     Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig 5. Female. Fig. 6. Young Male.

Male with the upper part of the head and hind neck black, bounded
anteriorly by a broadish band of bright yellow passing over the eyes;
a narrow line of black margining the base of the bill; cheeks, lower
part of hind neck, and throat, dark yellowish-olive, this colour
gradually brightening on the body, until, on the outer edges of the
scapulars, the rump, the axillars, lower wing-coverts, abdomen, and
lower tail-coverts, it becomes pure yellow; smaller wing-coverts,
alula, primary coverts, primaries, outer three secondaries, outer web
of the next, and the bases of the inner secondaries black, as is the
tail; six inner secondaries, and their coverts, the basal part
excepted, black. Female with the upper parts brownish-grey, the head
and cheeks darker, the lower parts pale grey, the throat white, with
two longitudinal black bands; a band of greenish-yellow across the
fore part of the back, axillars and lower wing-coverts light yellow;
wings and tail, with their coverts, brownish-black, secondary coverts,
and quills edged with yellowish-white, bases of some of the primaries,
tips of the tail-coverts, and inner webs of all the tail-feathers at
the end, white. Young male similar to the female, but without the
black bands on the throat.

_Male_, 8, wing 4-3/4. _Female_, 7-1/2, wing 4-1/4.

Michigan. Columbia River. Saskatchewan. Common. Migratory.

    Fringilla vespertina, Cooper, Ann. Lyc. New York, v. i. p.
        220.

    Evening Grosbeak, Fringilla vespertina, Bonap. Syn. p. 113.

    Evening Grosbeak, Fringilla vespertina, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. pl. 14.

    Coccothraustes vespertina, Evening Grosbeak, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 269.

    Evening Grosbeak, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 594.

    Coccothraustes Bonapartii, Lesson, Young Male.

    Evening Grosbeak, Fringilla vespertina, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 515; v. v. p. 235.



GENUS XVIII. PYRANGA, Vieill. RED-BIRD.


Bill of moderate length, robust, tapering, compressed toward the end,
acute; upper mandible with its dorsal line declinate and considerably
convex, the ridge rather narrow, nasal sinus very short and wide, the
sides convex, the edges sharp, slightly arched, with a festoon about
the middle, the notches distinct, the tip very slender, declinate;
lower mandible strong, with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal
line straight, the sides convex, the edges direct, the tip acute.
Nostrils basal, round. Head ovate; neck short; body compact. Tarsus
short, with seven scutella; toes rather small, the first moderate, the
outer slightly longer than the inner, and adherent at the base. Claws
moderate, well arched, much compressed, laterally grooved, acute,
those of the first and third toes equal. Plumage soft and blended;
distinct bristles at the base of upper mandible. Wings rather long,
with the second and third quills longest, the first a little shorter.
Tail of moderate length, emarginate. Upper mandible concave, with
three longitudinal ridges; tongue somewhat triangular, convex above,
with the point thin-edged and lacerated; œsophagus dilated about
the middle; stomach broadly elliptical, small, its lateral muscles
rather small; epithelium thin, longitudinally rugous; intestine short;
cœca extremely small. Inferior laryngeal muscles four on each side,
but very small.


208. 1. Pyranga æstiva, Gmel. Summer Red-bird.

     Plate XLIV. Male and Female.

Male vermilion, brighter beneath; inner webs of quills brown. Female
greenish-yellow above. Young like the female; young males variegated
according to age; old females sometimes like the males, but duller.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 11.

From Texas to Massachusetts. In the interior to Canada. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Summer Red Bird, Tanagra æstiva, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 95.

    Tanagra æstiva, Bonap. Syn. p. 105.

    Summer Red Bird, Tanagra æstiva, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 469.

    Summer Red Bird, Tanagra æstiva, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 232;
        v. v. p. 518.


209. 2. Pyranga rubra, Linn. Scarlet Red-bird.--Scarlet Tanager.

     Plate CCCLIV. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Male scarlet, with the wings and tail black. Female yellowish-green
above, greenish-yellow beneath, wings and tail dusky, the feathers
margined with yellowish-green. Males have been met with, having a
scarlet band on the wing, formed by the first row of small coverts.
Young like the female.

_Male_, 7, 11-3/4. _Female_, 6-1/2, 10-3/4.

From Texas to Lake Huron. Throughout the Valley of the Mississippi,
Kentucky, and Ohio. Common. Migratory.

    Scarlet Tanager, Tanagra rubra, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 42.

    Tanagra rubra, Bonap. Syn. p. 105.

    Scarlet Tanager or Black-winged Summer Red Bird, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 273.

    Scarlet Tanager, Tanagra rubra, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 465.

    Scarlet Tanager, Tanagra rubra, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 388.


210. 3. Pyranga Ludoviciana, Wils. Louisiana Red-bird.--Louisiana
Tanager.

     Plate CCCLIV. Fig. 1, 2. Male. Plate CCCC. Fig. 4. Female.

Male with the head and throat rich carmine; lower parts, neck, rump,
and a broad band on the wing, rich yellow; middle of the back, wings,
and tail black; secondary coverts and inner secondaries tipped with
yellowish-white. Female with the upper parts yellowish-green, the fore
part of the back greyish-olive; lower parts greenish-yellow; two bands
on the wings, the anterior pale yellow, the other whitish.

_Male_, 7-1/4, wing, 3-((9-1/2)/12).

Platte River. Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Louisiana Tanager, Tanagra ludoviciana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 27.

    Tanagra ludoviciana, Bonap. Syn. p. 105.

    Louisiana Tanager, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 471.

    Louisiana Tanager, Tanagra ludoviciana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 385; v. v. p. 90.



FAMILY XVI. AGELAINÆ. MARSH-BLACKBIRDS.


Bill of moderate length, sometimes short, seldom longer than the head,
stout, straight, conical, compressed, tapering, pointed; upper
mandible with the dorsal line nearly straight, the nasal sinus short
and very wide, the ridge thus appearing to encroach on the forehead,
the sides rounded, the edges without notch; lower mandible with the
angle short and rounded, the dorsal line straight, the edges involute.
Nostrils basal, roundish or oblong. Head rather large, ovate; neck
short; body moderately full. Legs of moderate length, stout, rather
slender; tarsus compressed, with eight anterior scutella; hind toe
large, lateral toes equal, the outer adherent at the base. Claws
generally long, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft, blended, in
the males usually glossy. Wings of moderate length, with the outer
three or four quills longest, the first being very little shorter than
the second, or sometimes even exceeding it; tail of twelve feathers,
of moderate length, or elongated. The roof of the upper mandible
concave, with three longitudinal ridges, of which the middle is
larger, and at the base forms a hard prominence; tongue sagittate and
papillate at the base, narrow, deep, pointed. Œsophagus wide,
dilated about the middle; proventriculus oblong; stomach roundish or
elliptical, with the lateral muscles distinct and well developed; the
epithelium dense and longitudinally rugous; intestine short and rather
wide; cœca very small, cylindrical; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple,
with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles. Female much smaller.
Nest various, on trees or bushes, or on the ground, generally
elaborate. Eggs about five, ovate, spotted and streaked.



GENUS I. DOLICHONYX, Swains. RICE-BIRD.


Bill rather short, very stout, moderately compressed, conical; upper
mandible with the dorsal line straight, a little convex at the base,
and very slightly deflected at the end, its ridge rather broad,
indistinct, sides rounded, edges direct, overlapping, tip rather
acute; lower mandible with the angle of moderate length, very broad,
dorsal outline ascending, slightly convex at the base, sides erect and
convex, tip acute; gape-line ascending for a fourth of its length,
then direct. Nostrils small, elliptical, operculate. Plumage blended,
but firm, with little gloss. Wings rather long, pointed, the first
quill longest. Tail of moderate length, the feathers narrow and
acuminate. Toes large; claws very long, little arched, slender,
tapering to a fine point.


211. 1. Dolichonyx oryzivora, Linn. Wandering Rice-bird.--Bob-o-link.
Maybird. Ortolan.

     Plate LIV. Male and Female.

Male with the head, cheeks, lower parts, wings, and tail, black; a
band of brownish-yellow across the hind neck; the back anteriorly
black, the feathers with yellowish edges, posteriorly light grey,
passing into white, of which colour are the scapulars. Female with the
upper parts light yellowish-brown, longitudinally streaked with
blackish-brown; the lower parts light greyish-yellow, the sides
streaked with dusky. In autumn, the males assume the plumage of the
female.

_Male_, 7, 11.

Passes from Texas eastward and northward. Breeds from the Middle
Districts northward. Extremely abundant. Migratory.

    Rice-Bunting, Emberiza oryzivora, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        48.

    Icterus agripennis, Bonap. Syn. p. 53.

    Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Sharp-Tailed Rice-Bird, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 278.

    Rice-Bird, or Bob-o-link, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 185.

    Rice-Bird, Icterus agripennis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 283;
        v. v. p. 486.



GENUS II. MOLOTHRUS, Swains. COW-BIRD.


Bill rather short, very stout, moderately compressed, conical; upper
mandible with the dorsal line slightly convex, its ridge flattened for
half its length, afterwards narrow, sides convex, edges direct, tip
rather acute; lower mandible with the angle short and wide, the dorsal
outline ascending, straight, sides erect and convex, edges involute,
tip acute; gape-line gently ascending for a third of its length,
afterwards direct. Nostrils small, elliptical. Plumage blended,
glossy. Wings rather long, pointed, the second quill longest, the
first almost equal. Tail of moderate length, the feathers broad and
rounded.


212. 1. Molothrus pecoris, Gmel. Common Cow-bird.

     Plate XCIX. Male and Female. Plate CCCCXXIV. Fig. 4. Young.

Male with the head and neck sooty-brown, the body black, glossed with
green, the fore part of the back with blue. Female considerably
smaller, greyish-brown, the lower parts lighter. Young with the upper
parts greyish-brown, the quills and tail darker; wing-coverts and
secondary quills narrowly edged with light brown, primaries with
whitish; lower parts dull yellowish-white, the sides marked with a
series of dark brown pointed spots.

_Male_, 7, 11-1/2.

Dispersed from Texas northward to Lat. 68°, and throughout the United
States. Great numbers winter in the Southern States.

    Cow Bunting, Emberiza pecoris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 145.

    Icterus pecoris, Bonap. Syn. p. 53.

    Molothrus pecoris, Cow-pen or Cuckoo Bunt, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 277.

    Cow Troopial, or Cow Blackbird, Icterus pecoris, Nutt. Man. v.
        i. p. 178.

    Cow-pen Bird, Icterus pecoris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 493;
        v. v. p. 233, 490.



GENUS III. AGELAIUS, Swains. MARSH-BLACKBIRD.


Bill shorter than the head, stout, straight, conical, tapering to an
acute point; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight, slightly
convex at the base, the ridge flattened toward the base, where it
forms a short tapering process on the forehead, the sides rounded, the
edges inflected, the tip a little depressed; lower mandible with the
angle short and wide, the sides convex at the base, toward the end
rounded, the edges involute, the tip acute; the gape-line ascending at
the base, afterwards direct. Nostrils basal, oval, with a small
operculum. Head ovate, of moderate size; neck short; body moderately
stout. Feet of ordinary length, rather stout; tarsus compressed, with
seven anterior scutella; toes rather large, the first much stronger,
the outer a little shorter than the inner, and adherent at the base.
Claws long, little arched, compressed, laterally grooved, very acute.
Plumage soft and blended, glossy in the males. Wings of moderate
length, with the outer four quills nearly equal. Tail rather long,
rounded. Roof of the upper mandible with three longitudinal ridges;
tongue tapering to a horny, flattened, slightly emarginate tip;
œsophagus wide, considerably dilated about the middle; stomach
roundish, muscular; intestine short and of moderate width; cœca
very small, cloaca oblong.


213. 1. Agelaius xanthocephalus, Bonap. Saffron-headed
Marsh-Blackbird.

     Plate CCCLXXXVIII. Fig. 2. Male. Fig. 3. Female. Fig. 4.
     Young.

Male with the head, upper part of hind neck, sides of the neck, its
fore part, and a portion of the breast, orange-yellow, the throat
paler; feathers along the base of the bill, loral space, a band below
the eye, and a narrower one above it, black; the rest of the plumage
glossy black, excepting two bands on the outer part of the wing,
formed by some of the smaller coverts, and the primary coverts, which
are white. Female much smaller, of a uniform chocolate-brown, with the
edges of the feathers paler, the feathers at the base of the upper
mandible, a band over the eye, and the fore part of the neck light
yellow, the throat dull white, and the feathers on the middle of the
breast margined with white toward the end. Young similar to the
female, but without yellow on the fore neck.

_Male_, 9; wing, 5-10/12.

Western Plains, California, and Fur Countries. Abundant. Migratory.

    Yellow-headed Troopial, Icterus icterocephalus, Bonap. Amer.
        Orn. v. i. p. 27.

    Icterus xanthocephalus, Bonap. Syn. p. 52.

    Agelaius xanthocephalus, Saffron-headed Maize-Bird, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 281.

    Yellow-headed Troopial, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 176.

    Yellow-headed Troopial, Icterus xanthocephalus, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 6.


214. 2. Agelaius tricolor, Aud. Red-and-white-shouldered
Marsh-Blackbird.

     Plate CCCLXXXVIII. Fig. 1. Male.

Tail almost even. Male with the plumage glossy bluish-black; the
smaller wing-coverts deep carmine, their first or posterior row white.
Bill considerably longer than in the two following species.

_Male_, 9; wing, 5.

North California. Abundant. Migratory.

    Red-and-white-winged Troopial, Icterus tricolor, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 1.


215. 3. Agelaius Gubernator, Wagler. Red-and-black-shouldered
Marsh-Blackbird.

     Plate CCCCXX. Male and Female.

Tail slightly rounded. Male with the plumage glossy bluish-black; the
smaller wing-coverts carmine scarlet, their first or posterior row
tinged with yellow, and broadly tipped with black. Female much
smaller, with the upper parts dark brown, the feathers edged with
light brown; some of the smaller wing-coverts edged with dull scarlet,
the first row with brownish-white; the larger coverts, quills, and
tail-feathers, blackish-brown, edged with dull reddish-brown; lower
parts longitudinally streaked with dusky and whitish, the fore neck
strongly tinged with dull carmine.

_Male_, 9; wing, 5-7/12.

California.

    Psarocolius Gubernator, Wagler, Syst. Avium.

    Crimson-winged Troopial, Icterus Gubernator, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 211.


216. 4. Agelaius phœniceus, Linn. Red-and-yellow-shouldered
Marsh-Blackbird.--Red-winged Starling.

     Plate LXVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Tail considerably rounded. Male with the plumage glossy black, the
smaller wing-coverts scarlet, their first or posterior row
buff-coloured, at the tip whitish. Female much smaller, with the upper
parts dark brown, the feathers edged with light brown; some of the
smaller wing-coverts tinged with red; wings and tail blackish-brown,
the feathers margined with brownish-red, the first row of small
coverts and secondary coverts narrowly tipped with whitish; a
yellowish-brown band over the eye; lower parts longitudinally streaked
with dusky and whitish, the fore neck strongly tinged with dull
carmine. Young similar to the female, but without red on the small
wing-coverts or throat, the latter part with the sides of the head
being pale yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 9, 14. _Female_, 7-1/2.

Breeds from Texas throughout the United States, and northward to the
Saskatchewan. Vast numbers spend the winter in the Southern and
Western States.

    Red-winged Starling, Sturnus prædatorius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 30.

    Icterus phœniceus, Bonap. Syn. p. 52.

    Agelaius phœniceus, Red-winged Maize-bird, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 280.

    Red-winged Blackbird, Icterus phœniceus, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 169.

    Red-winged Starling or Marsh-Blackbird, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 348; v. v. p. 487.



GENUS IV. ICTERUS, Briss. HANGNEST.


Bill a little shorter than the head, conical, very slightly decurved,
compressed, tapering to a very attenuated point; upper mandible with
the dorsal line almost straight, being very slightly convex, the ridge
indistinct, narrowed at the base; the sides convex, the edges
overlapping, the tip extremely sharp; gape-line ascending at the base,
afterwards direct; lower mandible with the angle long and of moderate
width, the dorsal line and that of the crura slightly concave, the
sides erect at the base, convex towards the end, the edges slightly
inflected, the tip extremely slender. Nostrils basal, elliptical, with
a small operculum. Head ovate, of moderate size; neck short; body
rather slender. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tarsus much
compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes of moderate size, the
hind toe much stronger, the lateral about equal, the third and fourth
united at the base. Claws rather long, moderately arched, much
compressed, laterally grooved, very acute. Plumage soft and blended.
Wings of moderate length, with the outer four quills nearly equal.
Tail of moderate length, rounded and slightly emarginate. Roof of the
upper mandible with a broad median ridge, somewhat prominent at the
base; tongue tapering to a deeply slit point; œsophagus wide,
considerably dilated about the middle; stomach elliptical; intestine
short, and of moderate width; cœca very small; cloaca globular.


217. 1. Icterus Baltimore, Linn. Baltimore Hangnest.--Golden Robin.

     Plate XII. Adult and Young Male. Plate CCCCXXIII. Fig. 3.
     Female.

Second and third quills longest, fourth longer than first; tail
slightly rounded. Male with the head, throat, sides, and hind part of
the neck, with the fore part of the back, black; lower parts, rump,
upper tail-coverts, and smaller wing-coverts rich orange, passing into
orange-red on the breast; wings black, the secondary coverts largely
tipped, and the quills margined with white; tail black, all the
feathers tipped with rich yellow, the outer for half their length, the
middle on a very small space. Female considerably smaller, with the
upper part of the head, hind neck, sides of the neck at the middle,
and anterior half of the back, brownish-black, the feathers edged with
dull yellowish-green; hind part of the back light brownish-yellow,
purer on the rump; tail yellowish-brown, the middle feathers darker;
wing-coverts blackish-brown, quills dark brown, all margined with
whitish; first row of small coverts and secondary coverts largely
tipped with white; loral space, a band over the eye, and another
beneath it, dull yellow; below the latter the cheeks spotted with
dusky; lower parts yellowish-orange, duller than in the male, paler
behind; some dusky streaks on the throat. Young similar to the female,
but with the upper parts brownish-yellow, the head and back faintly
spotted with dusky.

_Male_, 7-3/4, 12. _Female_, 7, 11.

In summer dispersed over the United States, to Nova Scotia. Columbia
River. Texas. Abundant. Migratory.

    Baltimore Oriole, Oriolus Baltimore, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        23.

    Icterus Baltimore, Bonap. Syn. p. 51.

    Baltimore Oriole or Golden Robin, Icterus Baltimore, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 152.

    Baltimore Oriole, Icterus Baltimore, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        66; v. v. p. 278.


218. 2. Icterus Bullockii, Swains. Bullock's Hangnest.

     Plate CCCLXXXVIII. Fig. 5. Male.

     Plate CCCCXXXIII. Fig. 1. Young Male. Fig. 2. Female.

First quill longer than fifth, the intermediate quills almost equal.
Male with the upper part of the head, the hind neck, and the anterior
portion of the back, with the loral space, some feathers at the base
of the lower mandible, and a rather narrow longitudinal band on the
fore neck, deep black; anterior part of the forehead, a band over the
eye, the cheeks, sides of the neck, and the breast, rich
orange-yellow, the rest of the lower parts paler; lower wing-coverts
and anterior edge of the wing pale yellow; hind parts of the back and
upper tail-coverts yellow tinged with green; wings brownish-black,
with a large patch of white formed by the outer small coverts and the
edges of the secondary coverts; quills edged with white; four middle
tail-feathers black, the rest orange-yellow, with a dusky patch near
the end. Female smaller, with the upper parts greyish-olive, lighter
on the rump; on the head and upper tail-coverts tinged with yellow;
loral space somewhat dusky; anterior part of the forehead, a band over
the eye, the cheeks, and sides of the neck, with the fore part of the
breast, light greenish-yellow; throat dull white, the rest of the
lower parts greyish-white, slightly tinged with yellow; wings dark
brown, the larger small coverts tipped with greyish-white; secondary
coverts and quills edged with the same; tail dull olivaceous-yellow.
Young like the female.

_Male_, 7-1/4, wing, 4-1/12.

Rocky Mountains, Columbia River, and California. Common. Migratory.

    Xanthornus Bullockii, Swains. Syn. of Mex. Birds, Phil. Mag.
        1827, p. 436.

    Bullock's Troopial, Icterus Bullockii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 9.


219. 3. Icterus spurius, Gmel. Orchard Hangnest.--Orchard Oriole.

     Plate XLII. Male, Female, and Young.

Tail much rounded. Male with the head, neck, and fore part of the
back, black; the rest of the body chestnut-red; quills and larger
coverts black, the former margined, the latter tipped with
greyish-white; tail-feathers black, tipped with dull white. Female
with the head and upper parts dull yellowish-green, the fore part of
the back tinged with brown; lower parts pale yellow; wings and tail
greyish-brown, the feathers of the former margined with greyish-white,
of the latter with yellowish-green. Young, like the female. Young
males in various stages variously coloured.

_Male_, 6-1/2, 9.

From Texas to Connecticut, over the valley of the Mississippi,
Kentucky, and Ohio. Abundant. Rare in Massachusetts and Maine.
Missouri to the bases of the Rocky Mountains. Migratory.

    Orchard Oriole, Oriolus mutatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 64.

    Icterus spurius, Bonap. Syn. p. 51.

    Spurious or Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 165.

    Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 221;
        v. v. p. 485.



GENUS V. QUISCALUS, Vieill. CROW-BLACKBIRD.


Bill as long as the head or somewhat longer, nearly straight, strong,
tapering, compressed from the base; upper mandible with its outline
slightly declinate, a little convex, the ridge narrow at the base and
encroaching a little on the forehead, afterwards broad, rounded, and
indistinct, the sides convex, the edges sharp and direct, or slightly
inflected, with a faint festoon anterior to the nostrils, the tip
deflected, acute; lower mandible with the angle short and rounded, the
dorsal line straight, slightly deflected at the end, the ridge convex,
the sides rounded, the edges inflected, the tip very acute. Nostrils
basal, oval, half-closed by a membrane. Head of moderate size, ovate,
flattened above; neck of moderate length; body rather slender. Feet of
moderate length; tarsus as long as the middle toe and claw,
compressed, with eight anterior scutella; toes rather long, with large
scutella, the hind toe stronger, the lateral toes nearly equal, the
middle toe much longer. Claws rather long, slightly arched,
compressed, not laterally grooved, acute. Plumage blended, highly
glossed. Wings of moderate length, the second and third quills
longest, the first and fourth little shorter. Tail long, graduated or
rounded, the feathers flat or slightly concave, slightly emarginate,
with the inner webs longer than the outer. Roof of the upper mandible
concave with three longitudinal ridges, of which the middle is
enlarged at the base and prominent; tongue slender, sagittate, concave
above, tapering to a thin lacerated point; œsophagus rather wide,
considerably dilated about the middle; stomach of moderate size,
elliptical or roundish, moderately muscular, the lateral muscles
distinct, the epithelium dense, horny, slightly rugous, with two
roundish grinding surfaces; intestine of moderate length, rather wide;
cœca very small; cloaca oblong.


220. 1. Quiscalus major, Vieill. Great Crow-Blackbird.--Boat-tailed
Grakle.

     Plate CLXXXVII. Male and Female.

Tail very long, graduated, with the feathers slightly concave above.
Male with the plumage silky, splendent, the head and neck deep
purplish-blue, the back, breast, and sides deep blue, passing into
green behind, the rump bronzed black; the wings and tail black,
glossed with green, the abdomen, lower tail-coverts, and tibial
feathers, plain black. Female much smaller, with the tail shorter, the
plumage unglossed beneath, and but slightly glossy above, the upper
parts dusky, with slight tints of green and blue; the head and neck
dull brown; the lower parts light yellowish-brown, the tibial feathers
and lower tail-coverts dusky.

_Male_, 15-7/8, 23-3/4. _Female_, 12-5/8, 18.

Abundant from Texas to North Carolina along the coast. Up the
Mississippi about 200 miles. Constantly resident.

    Quiscalus major, Bonap. Syn. p. 54.

    Great Crow Blackbird, Quiscalus major, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 35.

    Great Crow Blackbird, Quiscalus major, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        192.

    Boat-tailed Grakle or Great Crow Blackbird, Quiscalus major,
        Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 504; v. v. p. 480.


221. 2. Quiscalus versicolor, Vieill. Common or Purple
Crow-Blackbird.--Purple Grakle.

     Plate VII. Male and Female.

Tail long, much rounded, with the feathers flat. Male with the plumage
silky and splendent, the head, neck, and anterior part of the breast
blackish, with vivid reflections of violet, steel-blue, and green;
general colour of the body dusky, glossed with purple, green, and
blue, these colours arranged in three terminal zones, on each feather;
rump violet-purple; wings and tail black, glossed with green and blue.
Female considerably smaller, with the body more brown, the reflections
much less brilliant. Young brown.

_Male_, 13, 19. _Female_, 11, 16.

Breeds from Texas to the Fur Countries. Resident in the Southern
States. Extremely abundant.

    Purple Grakle, Gracula quiscala, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        44.

    Purple Grakle, Gracula quiscala, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        42.

    Gracula quiscala, Bonap. Syn. p. 54.

    Common Crow Blackbird, Quiscalus versicolor, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 194; v. v. p. 481.

    Quiscalus versicolor, Common Purple Boat-tail, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 485.

    Purple Grakle or Common Crow Blackbird, Quiscalus versicolor,
        Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 35; v. v. p. 481.


222. 3. Quiscalus ferrugineus, Lath. Rusty Crow-Blackbird.--Rusty
Grakle.

     Plate CXLVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Tail of moderate length, slightly rounded. Male with the plumage
glossy black, with green and bluish reflections, the feathers, when
new, slightly margined with reddish. Female with the plumage somewhat
duller, a reddish band over, and another under, the eye. Young with
the head and neck light brown, the rest of the upper parts
brownish-black, the feathers edged with light reddish-brown, the rump
tinged with grey; a band over the eye, and the fore part and sides of
the neck and body pale yellowish-brown; abdomen dusky, lower
tail-coverts dusky brown.

_Male_, 9-1/2, 14-1/4.

From Texas to Maryland, and along the Mississippi and Ohio to
Kentucky, during winter. Migrates northward to the Fur Countries, and
to the Columbia River, in summer. Common.

    Rusty Grakle, Gracula ferruginea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        41.

    Quiscalus ferrugineus, Bonap. Syn. p. 55.

    Scolecophagus ferrugineus, Rusty Maggot-eater, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 286.

    Rusty Blackbird, Quiscalus ferrugineus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        199.

    Rusty Grakle, Quiscalus ferrugineus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        325; v. v. p. 483.



FAMILY XVII. STURNINÆ. STARLINGS.


Bill nearly as long as the head, moderately stout, or rather slender,
nearly straight, compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its
outline straight, slightly convex toward the tip, the ridge somewhat
flattened, the sides sloping and convex, the edges sharp and
overlapping, with a very slight or obsolete notch, close to the
depressed tip; lower mandible with the angle long and rather acute,
the crura rather broad and flat at the base, the dorsal line straight,
the edges sharp, the tip slender; gape-line ascending gently at the
base, then direct. Head ovate or oblong, flattened above; neck of
moderate length; body rather full. Feet moderately stout; tarsus
rather short, compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes moderate,
or rather long, the first stouter, the lateral toes equal, the outer
adherent at the base. Claws rather long, moderately arched,
compressed, acute. Plumage rather compact. Wings of moderate length,
with the first quill very small, the third and fourth longest. Tail
short or of moderate length, rounded, and generally emarginate. Roof
of upper mandible with a median ridge; tongue slender, thin-edged,
with the tip slit and lacerated; œsophagus without dilatation;
stomach roundish, its muscular coat rather thin, the epithelium dense,
and longitudinally rugous; intestine of moderate length and width;
cœca very small, cylindrical; cloaca ovate or oblong. Trachea
simple, with four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest on the
ground, or in cavities; eggs about five.



GENUS I. STURNELLA, Vieill. MEADOW-STARLING.


Bill rather long, almost straight, conico-subulate, depressed toward
the end; upper mandible with the ridge somewhat flattened, the edges
sharp and overlapping; the tip narrow, but rounded; lower mandible
with the outline straight, the ridge convex, the sides ascending; the
tip slightly rounded. Nostrils oval, with an arched membrane above.
Head of ordinary size, depressed; neck of moderate length; body rather
full. Feet of moderate length, strong; tarsus distinctly scutellate;
lateral toes nearly equal, hind toe stout. Claws arched, compressed,
acute, that of the hind toe large. Plumage rather compact. Upper
eyelid margined with strong bristles. Wings of moderate length, broad;
the second, third, and fourth quills longest; one of the inner
secondaries nearly as long when the wing is closed. Tail short, much
rounded, of twelve acute feathers.


223. 1. Sturnella Ludoviciana, Linn. Crescent Meadow-Starling.--Meadow
Lark.

     Plate CXXXVI. Male and Female.

Upper parts variegated with dark brown, bay, and dull yellowish, the
latter bordering the feathers; those of the hind parts of the back
barred, as are the secondary quills and their coverts; primary quills
dark brown, margined, the outer with whitish, the rest with pale
yellowish; edge of the wing yellow; three outer tail-feathers white,
with a dash of black on the outer web near the end, the next feather
also more or less white, and barred on the outer web; on the upper
part of the head a central and two lateral bands of brownish-yellow,
the lateral hand sometimes white, anteriorly tinged with yellow;
sides of the head and neck greyish-white, flanks and lower
tail-coverts reddish-white, streaked with black; fore neck and breast
rich yellow, the former with a large crescent of black. Female
smaller, but otherwise similar.

_Male_, 11-2/12, 16-1/2.

Breeds from Texas to the Columbia River, and along the Atlantic coast
to Nova Scotia and the Fur Countries. Resident in the Southern and
Western States. Abundant.

    Meadow Lark, Alauda magna, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p. 20.

    Sturnus ludovicianus, Bonap. Syn.

    Sturnus ludovicianus, Crescent Starlet, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 282.

    American Starling or Meadow Lark, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 147.

    Meadow Lark or American Starling, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        216; v. v. p. 492.



FAMILY XVIII. CORVINÆ. CROWS.


Bill about the length of the head, robust, nearly straight,
compressed; upper mandible with the dorsal line more or less arched,
its tip slightly deflected, the edges sharp, with a slight notch or
sinus. Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed by reversed slender stiff
feathers. Head rather large, ovate; neck of moderate length, body
compact. Feet of ordinary length, rather stout; tarsus compressed,
with about eight large scutella; toes four, first stronger, but about
the same length as the second and fourth, which latter is adherent at
the base. Claws rather large, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage
various; wings long or of moderate length, much rounded, the first
quill about half the length of the fourth or fifth, which are longest;
tail of twelve broad feathers. Upper mandible concave, with several
longitudinal ridges; tongue oblong, flat above, horny, thin edged,
with the tip slit and lacerated; œsophagus of moderate width,
without dilatation; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach, a gizzard of
moderate power, with a rugous dense epithelium; intestine of moderate
length and width; cœca small, cylindrical, adnate. Trachea with
four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest in high places, or in
cavities, rudely constructed; eggs from four to six, ovate or oblong.



GENUS I. CORVUS, Linn. CROW.


Bill rather long, stout, considerably compressed; upper mandible with
the dorsal line declinate and arched, the sides somewhat convex, the
edges nearly straight, and overlapping, the notches faint, the tip
declinate, rather sharp; lower mandible with the angle rather long,
and of moderate width, the dorsal line ascending, and slightly convex,
the edges direct, the tip narrow. Nostrils basal, lateral, round,
covered by narrow stiff feathers directed forwards. Head large, ovate;
neck rather short; body robust. Legs of moderate length, strong;
tarsus stout, compressed, with eight scutella; toes of moderate
length, stout, first and second nearly equal, fourth longer, and
slightly adherent at the base. Claws strong, arched, compressed,
acute. Plumage compact, glossed. Wings long, with the first quill
short, the fourth longest. Tail of moderate length, rounded. Roof of
upper mandible concave, with five ridges; tongue emargined and
papillate at the base, horny toward the end, thin-edged, with the
point slit.


224. 1. Corvus Corax, Linn. Raven.

     Plate CI. Male.

Feathers of the fore neck lanceolate and elongated; tail much rounded;
plumage deep black, glossed with blue and purplish-blue, the lower
parts with green. Young with the feathers of the throat oblong, the
upper parts less glossy, the lower dull greyish-black.

_Male_, 26, 50.

From the Highlands of South Carolina, northward to the Polar Seas.
Missouri, Kentucky, Ohio, Canada. Rocky Mountains and Columbia River.
Rather common in some parts.

    Raven, Corvus Corax, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix. p. 136.

    Corvus Corax, Bonap. Syn. p. 56.

    Corvus Corax, Raven, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p.
        290.

    Raven, Corvus Corax, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 202.

    Raven, Corvus Corax, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 1; v. v. p.
        476.


225. 2. Corvus Americanus, Aud. American Crow.

     Plate CLVI. Male.

Feathers of the head and neck oval and blended; fourth quill longest;
general colour black, with purplish-blue reflections; the hind parts
of the neck tinged with purplish-brown; the lower parts less glossy.
Young of a rather dull brownish-black, with the blue and purple
reflections much less brilliant.

_Male_, 18, 38.

Generally distributed from the Gulf of Mexico to Columbia River;
throughout the interior, and along the coast, northward to Lat. 55°.
Congregates in immense numbers in the Southern and Western States
during winter.

    Crow, Corvus Corone, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 79.

    Cervus Corone, Bonap. Syn. p. 56.

    Cervus Corone, Crow, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p.
        291.

    Crow, Corvus Corone, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 209.

    American Crow, Corvus Americanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        317; v. v. p. 477.


226. 3. Corvus ossifragus, Wils. Fish-Crow.

     Plate CXLVI. Male and Female.

Feathers of the head and neck oval and blended; third quill longest;
tail considerably rounded, a small space at the base of the lower
mandible on each side bare; general colour black, with blue and purple
reflections above, blue and greenish beneath. Young brownish-black,
with the blue and purple reflections less brilliant.

_Male_, 16, 33, _Female_, 15, 31.

From the mouths of the Mississippi upwards to Natchez, and along the
Atlantic to New York. Common. Resident in the Southern States.
Columbia River.

    Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 27.

    Corvus ossifragus, Bonap. Syn. p. 57.

    Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 216.

    Fish Crow, Corvus ossifragus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 268;
        v. v. p. 479.



GENUS II. PICA, Briss. MAGPIE.


Bill of moderate length, stout, considerably compressed; upper
mandible with the dorsal line declinate and arched, the sides convex,
the ridge narrow, the edges nearly straight and overlapping, the
notches faint, the tip declinate, and rather sharp; lower mandible
with the angle rather long and wide, the dorsal line ascending and
slightly convex, the edges inclinate, the tip narrow. Nostrils basal,
lateral, roundish, covered by narrow stiff feathers directed forwards.
Head large, ovate; neck rather short; body compact. Legs of moderate
length, strong; tarsus stout, compressed, with eight scutella; toes of
moderate length, stout, first large, stronger; lateral nearly equal,
third considerably longer. Claws strong, arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage full, soft, blended. Wings of moderate length, much rounded,
the first quill very short, extremely narrow and falciform, fourth and
fifth longest. Tail very long, graduated. Digestive organs as in
Corvus.


227. 1. Pica melanoleuca, Vieill. Common Magpie.

     Plate CCCLVII. Male and Female.

Bill black; head, neck, fore part of breast and back black, glossed
with green and blue; middle of the back greyish-white; scapulars
white; smaller wing-coverts black, secondary coverts, alula and
primary coverts splendent with green and blue; primaries black,
glossed with green, their inner webs white, except at the end, and for
some way along their margin; secondaries bright blue, changing to
green, their inner webs greenish-black; tail splendent with bright
green, changing to greenish-yellow, purplish-red, bluish-purple, and
dark green at the end; breast and sides pure white; legs, abdomen,
lower tail-coverts, and lower wing-coverts, black.

_Male_, 18-1/2, 22-1/2.

Interior of Texas, West Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Rocky
Mountains, and Saskatchewan. Common. Resident.

    Corvus Pica, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 157.

    Magpie, Corvus Pica, Wils. Amer. Orn.

    Corvus Pica, Bonap. Syn. p. 57.

    Magpie, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 219.

    Common Magpie, Corvus Pica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 408.


228. 2. Pica Nuttallii, Aud. Yellow-billed Magpie.

     Plate CCCLXII. Fig. 1. Male.

Bill and bare space beneath the eyes yellow; in form, proportion, and
size, similar to the last; the feathers of the tail narrower; the
colours similar, but the top of the head glossed with green, and the
black of the back and fore neck tinged with brown.

_Male_, 18; wing, 7-3/4.

Upper California. Common. Resident.

    Corvus Nuttali, Yellow-billed Magpie, Aud. Orn. Biog, v. iv.
        p. 450.


229. 3. Pica Bullockii, Wagler. Columbia Magpie.--Columbia Jay.

     Plate XCVI. Adult.

Feathers of the head long and recurvate; tail extremely elongated;
general colour blue; cheeks, fore neck, and anterior part of the
breast black, the rest of the lower parts, with the tips of the outer
four tail-feathers on each side, white.

_Male_, 31, 26.

Woody portions of North California.

    Columbia Jay, Garrulus Bullockii, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 220.

    Columbia Jay, Corvus Bullockii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 483.



GENUS III. GARRULUS, Briss. JAY.


Bill of moderate length, strong, straight, compressed, rather pointed;
upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly arched, the ridge
scarcely distinct, the sides sloping, the edges nearly straight,
sharp, and overlapping, the notches slight, the tip slightly
depressed; lower mandible with the angle of moderate length, rather
wide, the dorsal line ascending, slightly convex, the sides sloping
outwards, the edges direct, the tip acute. Nostrils basal, elliptical,
covered by reversed stiffish feathers. Head rather large; neck short;
body stout. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tarsus of ordinary
length, compressed, with eight scutella; toes moderate, the first
large, the outer considerably longer than the inner; claws
well-arched, rather long, compressed, acute. Plumage blended; small
bristles at the base of the upper mandible; feathers of the head
generally elongated; wings rather short, first quill very short,
fourth and fifth longest; tail rather long, much rounded. Roof of
upper mandible concave, with three ridges; digestive organs as in
Corvus.


230. 1. Garrulus Stelleri, Gmel. Steller's Jay.

     Plate CCCLXII. Fig. 2. Male.

Occipital crest of linear-oblong, slightly recurved feathers; tail
long, moderately rounded; head, neck, and fore part of back
brownish-black, feathers of the forehead tipped with light blue; hind
part of back, rump, upper tail-coverts and lower parts light blue;
wings blue, secondary quills and their coverts rich ultramarine,
narrowly barred with black, outer webs of primaries paler, their inner
webs dusky; tail blue, with numerous narrow inconspicuous dusky bars.

_Male_, 13, wing 5-11/12.

Rocky Mountains, Columbia River, and north-west coast. Common.
Migratory.

    Corvus Stelleri, Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 370.

    Corvus Stelleri, Bonap. Syn. p. 433.

    Steller's Jay, Corvus Stelleri, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        44.

    Garrulus Stelleri, Steller's Jay, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 294.

    Steller's Jay, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 229.

    Steller's Jay, Corvus Stelleri, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 453.


231. 2. Garrulus cristatus, Linn. Blue Jay.

     Plate CII. Male and Female.

Feathers of the head elongated, oblong; tail much rounded. Upper parts
light purplish-blue; wings and tail ultramarine, secondaries, their
coverts, and tail-feathers barred with black, and tipped with white; a
narrow band margining the forehead, loral space, and a band round the
neck, black; throat and cheeks bluish-white; lower parts greyish-white
tinged with brown.

_Male_, 12, 14.

Breeds from Texas eastward and northward to the Fur Countries, and as
far as the bases of the Rocky Mountains. Abundant. Resident in the
Middle, Interior, and Southern States.

    Blue Jay, Corvus cristatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 2.

    Corvus cristatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 58.

    Garrulus cristatus, Blue Jay, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 293.

    Blue Jay, Corvus cristatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 11; v.
        v. p. 475.


232. 3. Garrulus ultramarinus, Bonap. Ultramarine Jay.

     Plate CCCLXII. Fig. 3. Male.

Feathers of the head short; tail much rounded; upper part of head,
sides, and hind part of neck, wings and tail, with its coverts, light
blue; back light greyish-brown; a faint band over the eye, formed by
the tips of the feathers; cheeks dusky; fore neck greyish-white,
faintly streaked with dusky, and banded below by a narrow semilunar
band of light blue, continuous with that of the neck; lower parts pale
grey passing into white.

_Male_, 12, wing 5-8/12.

Columbia River, and Upper California. Common. Migratory.

    Ultramarine Jay, Corvus ultramarinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 456.


233. 4. Garrulus Floridanus, Bartram. Florida Jay.

Feathers of the head short; tail much rounded; upper part of head,
sides, and hind part of neck, wings and tail, with its coverts, light
blue; back very light greyish-brown; a bluish-white band over the
forehead and eyes; cheeks dusky; fore neck greyish-white, with the
shafts of the feathers dusky, and bordered below by a rather broad
band of light blue, continuous with that of the neck; lower parts pale
purplish-grey.

Intimately allied in colour to the Ultramarine Jay, but
distinguishable by its smaller size, and more rounded tail, and by its
having a band of whitish across the forehead, and extended over the
eye, where it is not in dots as in that species.

_Male_, 11-1/4, 14.

Confined to the Floridas. Not very common. Resident.

    Corvus floridanus, Bonap. Syn. p. 58.

    Florida Jay, Garrulus floridanus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.

    Florida Jay, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 230.

    Florida Jay, Corvus floridanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 444.


234. 5. Garrulus Canadensis, Linn. Canada Jay.

     Plate CVII. Male and Female. Plate CCCCXXX. Fig. 3. Young.

Upper parts dull leaden-grey; lower dull yellowish-white; forehead
yellowish-white; hind part of the head and neck greyish-black; throat
and band passing round the neck, greyish-white; secondary quills and
tail-feathers narrowly tipped with white. Young very dull
slate-colour, paler on the abdomen, on the head blackish, wings and
tail as in the adult, their tips of a duller white.

_Male_, 11, 15.

Rare, and only in winter, from Pennsylvania to New York. More abundant
in Massachusetts. Common from Maine northward to the Fur Countries.
Columbia River.

    Canada Jay, Corvus canadensis, Wils. Amer. Ornith. v. iii. p.
        33.

    Corvus canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 58.

    Garrulus canadensis, Whisky Jack, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 295.

    Garrulus brachyurus, Short-billed Jay, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 296. Young.

    Garrulus canadensis, Canada Jay, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 232.

    Short-billed Jay. Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 599.

    Canada Jay, Corvus canadensis. Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 58;
        v. v. p. 208.



GENUS IV. NUCIFRAGA, Briss. NUTCRACKER.


Bill as long as the head, moderately stout, conical, compressed, at
the tip rather depressed; upper mandible with its dorsal line slightly
arcuato-declinate, the ridge convex, the sides rounded, the edges
sharp and overlapping, without notch, the tip flattened and obtuse;
lower mandible with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line
straight, the sides convex, the edges sharpened a little involute, the
tip flattened and rather obtuse. Nostrils basal, lateral, roundish,
covered by bristly feathers, which are directed forwards. Head large,
broadly ovate, neck rather short; body moderately stout. Tarsus rather
short, compressed, with eight scutella; toes stout, the first very
large, the inner a little shorter than the outer, which is adherent at
the base. Claws large, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage soft
and blended; no distinct bristles at the base of the upper mandible,
wings long, much rounded, the first quill very short, the fourth
longest; tail of moderate length, rounded.


235. 1. Nucifraga Columbiana, Wils. Columbian Nutcracker.--Clark's
Crow.

     Plate CCCLXII. Fig. 4. Male. Fig. 5. Female.

Light brownish-grey; forehead, throat, fore part of cheeks, and space
round the eye yellowish-white; wings glossy bluish-black, seven of the
secondaries largely tipped with white; upper tail-coverts
greyish-black; tail pure white, except the two middle feathers, and
the greater part of the inner webs of the next pair, which are
bluish-black.

_Male_, 12, wing 7-11/12.

Rocky Mountains.

    Clarke's Crow, Corvus columbianus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        29.

    Corvus columbianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 57.

    Columbian Crow, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 218.

    Clarke's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 459.



FAMILY XIX. LANIINÆ. SHRIKES.


Bill short, or of moderate length, stout, broader than high at the
base, compressed toward the end; the gape-line slightly arched, the
ridge narrow, the notch and dentiform process large, the tip narrow
and decurved. Head large, roundish, ovate; neck short; body compact.
Legs of moderate length; tarsus compressed, with seven anterior
scutella; toes moderate, compressed; hind toe rather stout, lateral
about equal, the outer adherent at the base. Claws arched, compressed,
acute. Plumage soft and blended. Bristles rather strong. Wings and
tail various. Roof of upper mandible narrow, with a median ridge;
tongue slender, concave above, horny toward the end, with the
margins lacerated, and the tip slit; œsophagus wide, uniform;
proventriculus elliptical; stomach broadly elliptical or roundish; its
muscular coat thin, the epithelium dense and longitudinally rugous;
intestine of moderate length; cœca very small; cloaca oblong or
globular. Trachea simple; four pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. LANIUS, Linn. SHRIKE, or BUTCHER-BIRD.


Bill of moderate length, strong, compressed; upper mandible with the
dorsal line a little arched, towards the end decurved, the sides
convex, the edges direct, with a large prominence succeeded by a deep
notch, the tip decurved and acute; lower mandible with the angle short
and wide, the dorsal line convex, the sides convex, the edges
inflected, the tip ascending, acute. Nostrils basal, lateral, oval,
concealed by the bristly feathers. Head large, broadly ovate; neck
short; body robust. Tarsus rather short, compressed, slender, with
eight scutella; toes small, the first stout, the lateral nearly equal.
Claws rather large, arched, compressed, extremely acute. Plumage soft
and blended. Bristles stiff. Wings of ordinary length, first quill
very short, fourth longest. Tail long, graduated, or rounded.


236. 1. Lanius borealis, Vieill. Great American Shrike.

     Plate CXCII. Male and Female.

Fourth quill longest, third little shorter, second shorter than sixth,
first half the length of second; tail long, graduated; bill
brownish-black at the end, paler towards the base; upper parts light
ash-grey, the ends of the scapulars and the upper tail-coverts
grayish-white; a streak of whitish over the eye; loral space and a
patch behind the eye brownish-black; first row of smaller
wing-coverts, larger coverts, and quills, brownish-black; secondary
quills and coverts edged and tipped with whitish; base of primaries
white, forming a conspicuous patch, when the wing is extended;
tail-feathers brownish-black, outer web of lateral feathers, and more
than a third of its inner web from the tip, white; the extremities of
all the rest, excepting the middle two, also white, gradually
occupying less extent on the inner feathers; lower parts
greyish-white, the fore part of the breast tinged with brown, and
faintly marked with transverse undulating lines of dark grey, as are
the sides. Female similar, but with the head and neck slightly tinged
with brown, and the lower parts more banded.

_Lanius Excubitor_ differs in being considerably smaller, and in
having the white on the wings and tail more extended, the bases and a
great portion of the inner webs of the secondaries, except the inner
three, being of that colour, as well as the bases of the primaries,
and forming a conspicuous spot when the wing is closed, and the outer
tail-feathers being often white in their whole length.

_Male_, 10-2/12, 14-2/12.

Breeds from Pennsylvania northward. During winter, migrates westward
to the Mississippi, and as far south as Natchez. Not uncommon.

    Great American Shrike or Butcher Bird, Lanius Excubitor, Wils.
        Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 74.

    Lanius septentrionalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 72.

    Lanius borealis, Greater Northern Shrike, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 111.

    Great American Shrike, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 258.

    Great American Shrike, Lanius Excubitor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 534; v. v. p. 434.


237. 2. Lanius Ludovicianus, Linn. Loggerheaded Shrike.

     Plate LVII. Male and Female.

Third quill longest, fourth scarcely shorter, second and sixth equal;
tail rather long, graduated; bill black, upper parts deep leaden-grey,
lower greyish-white, the sides bluish-grey; a streak of whitish over
the eye, and margining the forehead; loral space, and a patch behind
the eye, black; posterior scapulars almost entirely white; quills and
coverts black, secondaries narrowly tipped with white; bases of
primaries white, forming a conspicuous patch on the extended wing;
tail-feathers black, all except the middle pair white at the end, that
colour occupying nearly two-thirds of the outer, and gradually
diminishing on the rest. Female with the plumage somewhat darker.
Young brownish-white beneath, the breast and sides transversely barred
with dark grey.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 13.

From Louisiana to Carolina, laterally to the Columbia River, and
northward to the Fur Countries. Abundant. Resident in the south.
Migratory in the north.

    Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius Carolinensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 57.

    Lanius ludovicianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 72.

    Lanius Excubitorides, American Grey Shrike, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 115.

    Loggerhead Shrike, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 261.

    Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius Ludovicianus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 300; v. v. p. 300.



FAMILY XX. VIREONINÆ. GREENLETS.


Bill of moderate length, straight, rather stout, compressed toward the
end; gape-line slightly arched, notches distinct, tip very small,
declinate. Head rather large, ovate; neck short; body rather slender.
Feet of moderate length; tarsus compressed, slender, with seven
anterior scutella; toes rather small, hind toe rather stout, lateral
equal. Claws moderate, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft and
blended. Wings of moderate length, rather pointed. Tail of moderate
length, even or emarginate. Roof of upper mandible concave, with a
median ridge; tongue narrow, flat above, with the point slit;
œsophagus of moderate length, without dilatation; stomach,
roundish, muscular, with a dense rugous epithelium; intestine short,
and rather wide; cœca very small. Trachea simple, with four pairs
of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. VIREO, Vieill. GREENLET.


Bill rather short or of moderate length, rather strong, straight,
broader than high at the base, compressed toward the end; upper
mandible with the dorsal line slightly convex, the ridge narrow, the
sides sloping and towards the end somewhat convex, the edges straight,
the notches distinct, the tip small, decurved, acute; lower mandible
with the angle of moderate length and rather narrow, the dorsal line
ascending and rather convex, the sides convex, the edges inclinate,
the tip acute and ascending. Nostrils basal, oblong. Head rather
large, ovate; neck short; body rather stout. Tarsus rather short,
slender, compressed, with seven scutella; toes small, first large,
inner considerably shorter than outer, which is adnate at the base.
Plumage soft and blended; bristles small. Wings rather long, with the
second and third quills longest, the first not much shorter. Tail of
moderate length, nearly even.


238. 1. Vireo flavifrons, Vieill. Yellow-throated Greenlet.

     Plate CXIX. Male.

Upper parts light green, the rump, scapulars, and smaller wing-coverts
bluish-grey; quills and coverts brownish-black; two bands of white on
the wing, formed by the tips of the secondary coverts and first row of
small coverts; primaries narrower, edged with yellowish-green,
secondaries broadly with white; tail-feathers brownish-black, the
outer edged with white; sides of the neck yellowish-green; a line over
the eye, throat, and breast yellow, the rest of the lower parts white.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 9-1/2.

From Texas to Nova Scotia. Rare in the interior, more abundant in the
middle Atlantic districts. Migratory.

    Yellow-throated Flycatcher, Muscicapa sylvicola, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. ii. p. 117.

    Vireo flavifrons, Bonap. Syn. p. 70.

    Yellow-throated Vireo, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 302.

    Yellow-throated Flycatcher or Vireo, Vireo flavifrons, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 119; v. v. p. 428.


239. 2. Vireo solitarius, Vieill. Solitary Greenlet.

     Plate XXVIII. Male and Female.

Upper parts light olive-green, head greyish-blue; lower white, the
sides greenish-yellow; eyelids and a band of white from the bill over
the eye; a dusky spot before the eye; quills and coverts
brownish-black; two bands of white on the wing, formed by the tips of
the secondary coverts and first row of small coverts; primaries
narrowly edged with yellowish-green, secondaries broadly with white;
tail-feathers brownish-black, the outer edged with white; head and
sides of neck inclining to greyish-blue.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 8-1/2.

From Texas to Nova Scotia, rather abundant. Rare in the interior.
Columbia River. Migratory.

    Solitary Flycatcher, Muscicapa solitaria, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 143.

    Vireo solitarius, Bonap. Syn. p. 79.

    Solitary Vireo or Flycatcher, Vireo solitarius, Nutt. Man. v.
        ii. p. 305.

    Solitary Flycatcher or Vireo, Vireo solitarius, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. i. p. 147; v. v. p. 432.


240. 3. Vireo Noveboracensis, Gmel. White-eyed Greenlet.

     Plate LXIII. Male.

Upper parts light green, inclining to olivaceous, forehead tinged with
yellow; lower parts greyish-white, the sides yellow; eyelids and a
band from the bill over the eye yellow; quills and coverts brown; two
bands of yellowish-white on the wing formed by the tips of the
secondary coverts, and first row of small coverts; primaries narrowly
margined with yellowish-green, secondaries broadly with white;
tail-feathers brown, without white edgings; iris white.

_Male_, 5, 7.

Throughout the United States and Nova Scotia. Columbia River.
Migratory, but great numbers spend the winter in the Southern States.

    White-eyed Flycatcher, Muscicapa cantatrix, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 266.

    Vireo noveboracensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 70.

    White-eyed Vireo or Flycatcher, Vireo noveboracensis, Nutt.
        Man. v. i. p. 806.

    White-eyed Flycatcher or Vireo, Vireo noveboracensis, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 328; v. v. p. 431, 433.


241. 4. Vireo gilvus, Vieill. Warbling Greenlet.

     Plate CXVIII. Male and Female.

Upper parts light greenish-olive, the head and hind neck
greyish-brown; a white band over the eye; wings and tail brown, quills
edged with green; lower parts dull yellowish-white, the sides tinged
with yellow.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 8-1/2.

From Texas to Maine, and in the interior to Columbia River. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Warbling Flycatcher, Muscicapa melodia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v.
        p. 85.

    Vireo gilvus, Bonap. Syn. p. 70.

    Warbling Vireo, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 309.

    Warbling Flycatcher or Vireo, Vireo gilvus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 114; v. v. p. 433.


242. 5. Vireo Bartrami, Swains. Bartram's Greenlet.

     Plate CCCCXXXIV. Fig. 4. Male.

Wings of moderate length, with the second and third quills longest and
about equal, the fourth scarcely shorter, the first considerably
shorter than the fifth. Upper parts light yellowish-olive, the crown
of the head deep grey, bordered on each side by a blackish line, below
which is a band of yellowish-white from the nostril over the eye;
loral space dusky; quills and tail-feathers brown, margined with
greenish-yellow; lower parts greyish-white, the sides greenish-yellow.

_Male_, 4-7/8, 7-3/4.

From Texas to New York. Not met with in the interior. Rather rare.
Migratory.

    Vireo Bartramii, Swains. Bartram's Greenlet, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 235.

    Bartram's Vireo, Vireo Bartramii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        296.


243. 6. Vireo olivaceus, Linn. Red-eyed Greenlet.

     Plate CL. Male.

Wings long, with the second quill longest, the third slightly shorter,
the first considerably longer than the fourth, upper parts light
yellowish-olive, crown of the head deep grey, bordered on each side by
a blackish line, below which is a band of white; quills and
tail-feathers brown, margined with greenish-yellow; lower parts
greyish-white, the sides greenish-yellow; iris red.

_Male_, 5-1/2, 9.

From Texas to Nova Scotia, and through the interior. Accidental in the
Fur Countries. Abundant. Migratory.

    Red-eyed Flycatcher, Muscicapa olivacea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 55.

    Vireo olivaceus, Bonap. Syn. p. 71.

    Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Greenlet, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 233.

    Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        287; v. v. p. 430.



FAMILY XXI. PIPRINÆ. MANAKINS.


Bill short, stout, straight, depressed, being much broader than high
at the base, with the dorsal line arched, the ridge narrow, the sides
sloping, the gape-line straightish or slightly arched, the notches
rather large, the tip very small and declinate. Head rather large,
broadly ovate; neck short; body compact. Tarsus of moderate length,
compressed, with seven anterior scutella; toes small, the hind one not
much stouter, the lateral equal. Claws moderate, arched, compressed,
acute. Plumage soft, full, and blended. Wings of moderate length,
broad, and rounded. Tail short or of moderate length, generally
rounded. Roof of upper mandible concave, with a prominent median line;
tongue triangular, horny, thin-edged, rather obtuse, bristly at the
end; œsophagus wide, without dilatation; stomach rather small,
roundish, moderately muscular, with a dense rugous epithelium;
intestine short, of moderate width; cœca very small.



GENUS I. ICTERIA. Vieill. CHAT.


Bill of moderate length, stout, slightly arched, broad at the base,
compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the sides convex, the
edges sharp, destitute of notch, the tip acute and a little declinate;
lower mandible with the dorsal line nearly straight, the edge-line
slightly arched and inflected. Nostrils roundish, half covered by a
vaulted membrane. General form rather robust; head ovate, neck short,
body moderate. Legs of moderate length, slender; tarsus compressed,
anteriorly covered with eight scutella, of which the upper are
blended; two lateral toes nearly equal, the hind one not much stouter.
Claws moderate, arch much compressed, laterally grooved, very acute.
Plumage soft and blended. Bristles very small. Wings of moderate
length, rounded, third and fourth primaries longest, second little
shorter, first longer than sixth. Tail rather long, rounded.


244. 1. Icteria viridis, Gmel. Yellow-breasted Chat.

     Plate CXXXVII. Male and Female.

Upper parts deep olive-green; fore part of neck and breast bright
yellow; abdomen and lower tail-coverts white; eyelids, a band over the
eye, and a shorter one from the base of lower mandible, white; loral
space black.

_Male_, 7, 9.

From Texas to Connecticut. Inland as far as Kentucky. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Yellow-breasted Chat, Pipra polyglotta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 90.

    Icteria viridis, Bonap. Syn. p. 69.

    Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria viridis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        299.

    Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria viridis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 223; v. v. p. 433.



FAMILY XXII. AMPELINÆ. CHATTERERS.


Bill short, depressed, rather weak, triangular when viewed from above,
compressed at the end, its upper outline arched, the gape-line nearly
straight, the notches very small, the tip very small and declinate.
Nostrils elliptical, partially concealed by reversed bristly
feathers. Head ovate; neck short; body moderate or full. Feet short;
tarsus short, rather stout, compressed; toes rather small. Claws
rather long, arched, much compressed, acute. Plumage generally blended
and glossy. Wings of moderate length, broad. Tail short or of moderate
length. Roof of upper mandible rather concave, with three longitudinal
ridges; tongue horny, deeply slit; œsophagus very wide, dilated
about the middle; stomach small, elliptical, moderately muscular;
intestine of moderate length and very wide; cœca very small.
Trachea simple, with four pairs of very small inferior laryngeal
muscles.



GENUS I. BOMBYCILLA, Briss. WAXWING.


Bill short, rather stout, straightish, broader than high at the base,
compressed towards the end; upper mandible with its dorsal line convex
and declinate towards the tip, which is deflected, narrow, and rather
acute, its sides convex, the edges sharp and overlapping, the notches
distinct; lower mandible with the angle short and wide, the dorsal
line convex and ascending, the edges sharp and inflected, the tip very
small, acute, ascending, with a small sinus behind; gape-line nearly
straight. Nostrils oval, partially concealed by the reversed stiffish
feathers. Head of ordinary size, ovate; neck short; body full. Feet
rather short; tarsus short, rather stout, compressed, with six
scutella; toes of moderate size, first stout, broad beneath, outer
slightly adherent at the base; inner a little shorter. Claws rather
long, arched, much compressed, very acute. Plumage blended, very soft,
somewhat silky, but with little gloss; head tufted; no bristles. Wings
rather long, broad, and pointed, the first quill longest. Tail of
moderate length, even. This genus is remarkable for the oblong bright
red horny appendages to the tips of the wings and tail-feathers,
which, however, are not seen in all the species. Roof of upper
mandible slightly concave, with three ridges; tongue triangular,
concave, horny, deep slit, with two slender points; œsophagus very
wide, much dilated about the middle; stomach rather small, elliptical,
muscular; intestine short and extremely wide; cœca very small.


245. 1. Bombycilla garrula, Vieill. Black-throated Waxwing.--Bohemian
Chatterer.

     Plate CCCLXIII. Male and Female.

General colour light greyish-brown, passing behind in ash-grey, before
into brownish-orange, of which colour are the forehead, a patch on
each side of the throat near the base of the bill, and the feathers
under the tail; a band of deep black from the nasal membrane over the
eye to the top of the head, where it is concealed by the crest;
feathers at the base of the lower mandible and a narrow streak below
the eye, white; upper part of throat deep black; feathers of the wings
greyish-black; primary coverts largely tipped with white; primary
quills with a bright yellow, secondary with a white elongated spot at
the end of the outer web, and tipped with oblong wax-red appendages;
tail light grey at the base, gradually shaded into deep black, with a
broad band of bright yellow. Female similar to the male, but somewhat
smaller. Oblong waxen appendages to the secondary quills, varying from
seven to three, sometimes wanting, especially in young birds; males
with the shafts of the tail-feathers very slightly enlarged at the
end, and bright red. Carefully compared with European specimens.

_Male_, 9-3/4, 16-1/4.

From New York, eastward and northward, to the Fur Countries.

    Bombycilla garrula, European Chatterer, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 237.

    Bombycilla garrula, Bonap. Syn. p. 438.

    Bombycilla garrula, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iii. pl. 16.

    European Waxen Chatterer, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 579.

    Bohemian Chatterer, Bombycilla garrula, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 462.


246. 2. Bombycilla Carolinensis, Briss. Cedar Waxwing.--Cedar Bird.

     Plate XLIII. Male and Female.

General colour light greyish-brown, passing behind into ash-grey,
before into pale brownish-red, of which colour is the upper part of
the head; a black band on the forehead passing backwards over the eye
to the occiput, and margined above and below by a narrow white band;
feathers in the angle of the lower mandible black; abdomen pale
yellow; lower tail-coverts white; wings and tail dull leaden-blue,
darker toward the end; primaries with a very small pale yellow spot
at the tip, secondaries tipped with an oblong wax-red appendage, as
are the tail-feathers, of which the extremity is bright yellow. Female
similar to the male but somewhat smaller. The oblong appendages to the
wings vary from nine to three. Young with the upper parts of a uniform
dull greenish-brown, lower parts of the same colour, the throat pale
buff, abdomen and lower tail-coverts yellowish-white.

_Male_, 6-3/4, 11.

From Texas northward to the Fur Countries. Westward to the Columbia
River. Extremely abundant in Louisiana during winter.

    Bombycilla carolinensis, Briss. v. ii. p. 337.

    Cedar Bird, Ampelis americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 107.

    Bombycilla carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 59.

    Cedar Bird or Cherry Bird, Nutt. Man. v. i.

    Cedar Bird, Bombycilla carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        227; v. v. p. 494.



FAMILY XXIII. SITTINÆ. NUTHATCHES.


Bill of moderate length or rather long, straight, rather slender,
conico-subulate, somewhat compressed, with the tips acute, or cuneate.
Head ovate; neck short; body full. Tarsi rather short, or of moderate
length, slender, compressed, with seven or eight scutella; toes long,
very slender; hind toe extremely long; anterior little spreading;
claws long, little arched, slender, much compressed, acute. Plumage
soft and full. Wings of moderate length, broad, rounded. Tail short,
broad, of twelve feathers. Roof of upper mandible very narrow,
slightly concave, with three ridges; tongue very slender, with the tip
abrupt and bristly; œsophagus without dilatation; stomach roundish,
moderately muscular; intestine short and wide; cœca very small.
Trachea simple; with a single pair of large inferior laryngeal
muscles. Allied to the Titmice on the one hand, and the Woodpeckers on
the other.



GENUS I. SITTA, Linn. NUTHATCH.


Bill rather long, or of moderate length, straight, conico-subulate, a
little compressed, rather obtuse; upper mandible with the dorsal
outline very slightly arched, the ridge rather narrow, the sides
sloping, the edges sharp without notches, the tip rather blunt; lower
mandible with the angle of moderate length and narrow, the dorsal line
ascending and very slightly convex, the sides slightly convex, the tip
narrow. Nostrils basal, round operculate, partially concealed by the
reversed bristly feathers. Head ovate; neck short; body short. Tarsi
rather short, stout, compressed, with eight scutella; toes long, much
compressed; first very long, second much shorter than fourth; anterior
toes adherent at the base. Claws long, arched, much compressed,
laterally grooved, acute. Plumage very soft and blended. Small
bristles at the base of the upper mandible. Wings rather long, first
quill extremely small, third and fourth longest. Tail short, of twelve
feathers broad, nearly even. Upper mandible slightly concave with
three ridges; tongue slender, very thin, with the point abrupt and
terminated by strong bristles; œsophagus without dilatation;
stomach rather large, roundish, moderately muscular; intestine rather
short and wide; cœca very small.


247. 1. Sitta Carolinensis, Linn. White-breasted Nuthatch.

     Plate CLII. Male and Female.

Upper part of head and hind neck deep black; back light greyish-blue;
quills black, edged with light greyish-blue; middle tail-feathers of
the same colour, the rest black, with a broad band of white near the
end; sides of the head and lower parts white; lower tail-coverts with
the inner webs brownish-red. Young without black on the head.

_Male_, 5-1/4, 11.

Common from Texas to Maine. Throughout the interior to the Columbia.
Resident.

    White-breasted American Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis, Wils.
        Amer. Orn. v. i. p. 10.

    Sitta carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 96.

    White-breasted American Nuthatch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 581.

    White-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 299; v. v. p. 473.


248. 2. Sitta Canadensis, Linn. Red-bellied Nuthatch.

     Plate CV. Male and Female.

Upper parts of head and hind neck deep black; back light greyish-blue;
quills brownish-black, edged with light greyish-blue; middle
tail-feathers of the same colour, the rest black, the outer two with a
white band near the end; lower parts yellowish-red. Female with the
head paler.

_Male_, 4-1/2, 8.

From Maryland to Nova Scotia. Common. One seen in Labrador. Columbia
River. Resident.

    Red-bellied Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 40.

    Sitta canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 96.

    Red-bellied Nuthatch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 583.

    Red-bellied Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 24; v. v. p. 474.


249. 3. Sitta pusilla, Lath. Brown-headed Nuthatch.

     Plate CXXV. Male and Female.

Upper part of head and hind neck light reddish-brown, the latter with
a white spot; back light greyish-blue; quills brownish-black, edged
with light greyish-blue; middle tail-feathers of the same colours, the
rest black, the outer three with a broad band of white near the end;
lower parts yellowish-white, the sides greyish-blue.

_Male_, 4, 8.

From Texas to Maryland. In the interior to Mississippi. Extremely
abundant. Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and the Carolinas.
Resident.

    Brown-headed Nuthatch, Sitta pusilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 105.

    Sitta pusilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 97.

    Brown-headed Nuthatch, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 584.

    Brown-headed Nuthatch, Sitta pusilla, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii.
        p. 151.


250. 4. Sitta pygmæa, Vigors. Californian Nuthatch.

     Plate CCCCXV. Figs. 3, 4. Adult.

Upper part of head and hind neck dull greyish-brown; back dull
leaden-grey; quills and tail-feathers dusky, margined with light grey,
the lateral two feathers on each side with a white band toward the
base; lower parts brownish-white.

_Adult_, 3-10/12, wing, 3-5/12.

California.

    Californian Nuthatch, Sitta pygmæa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        163.



FAMILY XXIV. TROCHILINÆ. HUMMINGBIRDS.


Bill long, very slender, straight or arched, somewhat depressed at the
base, subcylindrical, flexible, acute. Head rather large; neck of
moderate length; body moderately robust. Feet very short, rather
stout; tarsus extremely short; toes of moderate size; the anterior
coherent at the base, and nearly of equal length, the hind toe
articulated high on the tarsus; claws rather long, arched, much
compressed, very acute. Plumage compact above, soft and blended
beneath, often with metallic lustre; wings very long, extremely
narrow, falciform, with the first quill longest, the other primaries
rapidly diminishing; secondaries extremely short. Tail various, of ten
feathers. Tongue very long, slender, with two flat, thin-edged
terminal filaments, and extensile by means of the elongation of the
hyoid bones, which curve over the head to the fore part of the
forehead, and with their muscles slide in a groove, like those of the
Woodpeckers. Œsophagus narrow, considerably enlarged about the
middle; stomach extremely small, roundish, moderately muscular, its
epithelium dense and longitudinally rugous; intestine very short and
of moderate width; no cœca; cloaca globular. Trachea simple, but
divided very high up on the neck, so that the bronchi are of excessive
length, with a large pair of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. TROCHILUS, Linn. HUMMINGBIRD.


Bill long, subulate, depressed at the base, cylindrical, straight, or
slightly arched, flexible; upper mandible with the ridge narrow at the
base, convex in the rest of its extent, the sides sloping, the edges
soft; lower mandible with the angle extremely acute and elongated, the
sides erect, the tip acute. Nostrils linear, with a membranous flap
above. Head small; neck short; body moderately stout. Feet very short;
middle toe scarcely longer than the rest. Plumage rather blended and
glossy above. Wings very long, extremely narrow; tail rather long,
broad, nearly even. The other characters as above.


251. 1. Trochilus Mango, Linn. Mango Hummingbird.

     Plate CLXXXIV. Male and Female.

Male with the head, hind neck, and back green, splendent with bronze
and golden reflections; wings dusky, changing to purplish-brown;
middle tail-feathers black, glossed with green and blue, the rest deep
crimson-purple, tipped and partially margined with steel-blue; fore
part of neck, and middle of breast velvet-black, margined on each side
with emerald-green, the sides yellowish-green, with a tuft of white
downy feathers; lower tail-coverts dark purple. Female with the upper
parts similar, the tail-feathers more broadly and extensively margined
with blue, and tipped with white; fore neck and centre of the breast
white, with a central longitudinal band of black, and an emerald-green
margin along the sides of the neck and body; lower tail-coverts green.

_Male_, 4-3/4, 8.

Florida Keys. Rare. Migratory.

    Trochilus Mango, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 191.

    Mango Humming Bird, Trochilus Mango, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        480.


252. 2. Trochilus Anna, Less. Anna Hummingbird.

     Plate CCCCXXV. Male and Female.

Bill almost straight, acuminate; tail of moderate length, emarginate
and rounded. Head, cheeks, and throat blood-red, changing to gold, and
having a tinge of blue; upper parts light gold-green; quills and
tail-feathers dusky brown; lower parts brownish-white. Female with
merely a patch of red on the throat, upper part of head and cheeks
greenish-grey; upper parts glossy green as in the male; wings dusky,
middle tail-feathers green, the rest greenish-grey at the base, black
toward the end, with the tips white; lower parts dull grey, sides
tinged with brown.

_Male_, 3-10/12, wing, 2-1/12.

Rocky Mountains towards California. Common. Migratory.

    Oiseau-mouche Anna, Ornismya Anna, Less. Traite d'Ornith. p.
        281.

    Anna Humming Bird, Trochilus Anna, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        238.


253. 3. Trochilus Colubris, Linn. Ruby-throated Hummingbird.

     Plate XLVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill straight, acute; tail of moderate length, even. Upper parts light
green with golden reflections; quills and tail purplish-brown, the two
middle feathers like the back; throat, sides of the head, and fore
neck carmine-purple, spotted with black, varying to crimson, orange,
and deep black; sides light green, the rest of the lower parts
greyish-white mixed with green. Female differs in wanting the
brilliant patch on the throat, which is white, as are the lower parts
generally, and having the three lateral tail-feathers tipped with the
same colour. Young with the lower parts brownish-white, the tail
tipped with white, the upper parts light green.

_Male_, 3-1/4, 4-1/2.

In summer, from Texas to Lat. 57°, and in all intermediate districts,
east of the Rocky Mountains. Common. Migratory.

    Humming Bird, Trochilus Colubris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.
        26.

    Trochilus Colubris, Bonap. Syn. p. 98.

    Trochilus Colubris, Northern Humming Bird, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 323.

    Ruby-throated Humming Bird, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 588.

    Ruby-throated Humming Bird, Trochilus colubris, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. i. p. 248; v. v. p. 544.



GENUS II. SELASPHORUS, Swains. RUFFED-HUMMINGBIRD.


Bill long, straight, subulate, extremely slender, somewhat depressed
at the base, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight, the
ridge narrow at the base, broad and convex toward the end, the sides
convex, the edges overlapping, the tip acuminate; lower mandible with
the angle very long and extremely narrow, the dorsal line straightish,
the edges erect, the tip acuminate. Nostrils basal, linear. Head of
ordinary size, oblong; neck short; body short and ovate. Feet very
small; tarsus very short, feathered more than half-way; toes small,
the lateral equal, the third not much longer, the first a little
shorter than the lateral; claws rather long, arched, compressed, very
acute. Plumage soft and blended; elongated feathers on the sides of
the neck in the males. Wings rather short, falcate, pointed, the
second primary longest. Tail rather long, broad, graduated.


254. 1. Selasphorus rufus, Gmel. Rufous Ruffed-Hummingbird.--Nootka
Hummingbird.

     Plate CCCLXXIX. Male and Female.

Male with the upper parts bright cinnamon or reddish-orange, the head
bronzed green, the wings dusky purple, their coverts glossed with
green; each of the tail-feathers with a narrow, longitudinal,
lanceolate, median streak toward the end; loral space, a narrow band
over the eye, another beneath it, and auricular, orange-red;
scale-like feathers of the throat and sides of the neck splendent,
fire-red, changing to purplish-red, yellowish-red, greenish-yellow, or
yellowish-green; behind them on the fore neck a broad band of
reddish-white; the rest of the lower parts like the upper, the abdomen
inclining to white. Female with the upper parts gold-green, the head
inclining to brown; wings as in the male; tail-feathers orange-red at
the base, brownish-black toward the end, the tip white; lower parts
white, tinged with rufous, especially the sides; throat with roundish
spots of metallic greenish-red.

_Male_, 3-7/12, wing, 1-((7-1/4)/12).

From California along the north-west coast to Nootka Sound. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Trochilus rufus, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 497.

    Trochilus (Selasphorus) rufus, Cinnamon or Nootka Humming
        Bird, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 324.

    Ruffed-necked Humming Bird, Trochilus rufus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 555.



FAMILY XXV. ALCEDINÆ. KINGFISHERS.


Bill long, straight, stout, broader than high at the base, much
compressed, tapering to a rather acute point, and gape-line commencing
beneath the middle of the eyes. Head large, ovato-oblong; neck short;
body stout. Tarsus extremely short; anteriorly scaly; anterior toes
united for more than half their length, outer longer than inner, hind
toe small. Claws stout, compressed, arched, very acute. Plumage rather
compact. Wings rather long, pointed. Tail various, of twelve feathers.
Tongue very short, fleshy, with the sides parallel, the tip tapering
to a bluntish point. Roof of upper mandible moderately concave, with a
median ridge and oblique lateral grooves. Œsophagus very wide,
without crop; stomach very large, round, with its muscular coat very
thin; the epithelium dense, very thin, with tortuous rugæ; intestine
very long, extremely slender; no cœca; cloaca very large, globular.
Trachea with three pairs of inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. ALCEDO, Linn. KINGFISHER.


Bill long, straight, rather stout, broader than high at the base, but
suddenly much compressed, and tapering to an acute point; upper
mandible with the dorsal line almost straight, the ridge distinct, but
somewhat flattened, the edges nearly straight, without notch, the tip
acute; lower mandible with the angle of moderate length and narrow,
the dorsal line ascending and nearly straight; gape-line commencing
beneath the middle of the eye; nostrils basal, near the ridge, linear,
obliquely ascending, half closed by a bare membrane. Head large,
oblong; neck short; body robust. Feet very short; tarsus extremely
short, roundish, anteriorly faintly scaly; anterior toes cohered for a
great part of the length, outer longer than inner, first small. Claws
rather short, stout, arched, acute. Plumage rather compact, more
blended above. Wings long, pointed, with the second and third quills
longest. Tail short, even, of twelve rounded feathers.


255. 1. Alcedo Alcyon, Linn. Belted Kingfisher.

     Plate LXXVII. Male and Female.

Crested, with the upper parts, cheeks, and a broad belt across the
fore part of the breast, light blue, the shaft of each feather darker;
lower parts, with a small spot before the eye, and another on the
lower eyelid, white; many of the feathers on the sides light blue,
banded with white; quills black; the primaries barred with white at
the base, and having the inner web of that colour for half its length;
the secondaries broadly edged with light blue, dotted and tipped with
white, and having the inner web barred with the same; tail-feathers
dusky, edged with blue, barred and tipped with white. Female similar
to the male, with the tints duller, and the sides with a band across
the middle of the breast light red.

_Male_, 12-1/2, 20.

Breeds from Texas all over the United States, to the Fur Countries,
Missouri, Rocky Mountains, and Columbia River. Common. Resident.

    Belted Kingfisher, Alcedo Alcyon, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        59.

    Alcedo Alcyon, Bonap. Syn. p. 48.

    Alcedo Alcyon, Belted Kingfisher, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 339.

    Belted Kingfisher, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 594.

    Belted Kingfisher, Alcedo Alcyon, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        394; v. v. p. 548.



FAMILY XXVI. PICINÆ. WOODPECKERS.


Bill long or of moderate length, straight, stout, angulate, tapering,
compressed toward the tip, which is generally wedge-shaped and abrupt;
mandibles nearly equal, outline of the upper slightly convex, the
ridge narrow, sides sloping, with a lateral ridge, edges straight;
lower with the angle short and narrow, the dorsal line nearly
straight, the ridge narrow, the sides with a faint ridge. Nostrils
basal, elliptical or oblong, concealed by reversed bristly feathers.
Head of moderate size, oblong; neck of moderate length; body stout.
Legs short; tarsus short, moderately stout, anteriorly scutellate,
scaly behind; toes usually four, first short, rudimentary, or
sometimes wanting, fourth very long and reversed, equalling or
exceeding the third. Claws large, strong, much curved, much
compressed, very acute. Plumage soft, blended, rather compact on the
back; wings of moderate length or long; with the first quill very
small, the third, fourth, and fifth longest. Tail of moderate length,
much rounded or cuneate, of twelve feathers, of which the lateral are
extremely small, and placed above the next, the rest, but especially
the three middle pairs, with the shafts exceedingly large and strong,
the webs narrowed toward the end, with their filaments deflected and
stiff, the tip pointed or emarginate from being worn. Tongue slender,
with the tip horny and furnished with reversed prickles or bristles,
capable of being protruded to a great length by the elongation of the
hyoid bones, which curve over the head to between the right eye and
nostril, or even extend round a great part of that eye. Œsophagus
of uniform width; proventriculus extremely large; stomach of moderate
size, or rather small, broadly elliptical or roundish, moderately
muscular; epithelium thin, dense, and longitudinally rugous; intestine
of moderate length, rather wide; no cœca; cloaca very large,
globular, or elliptical. Trachea simple, with a single pair of
inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest a cavity dug in a tree; eggs from
four to six, elliptical, white.

The groups present characters which are so undecided, and exhibit such
gradual approximations, that I think it better here to consider all
our Woodpeckers as of one genus.



GENUS I. PICUS, Linn. WOODPECKER.


Character as above.

    * Bill straight, with the angles prominent.


256. 1. Picus imperialis, Gould. Imperial Woodpecker.

     Not figured.

Glossy greenish-black; the elongated occipital crest scarlet; a
triangular spot on the fore part of the back; the secondary quills,
and the inner webs of most of the primaries, white; bill
yellowish-white. Female similar, but without red on the head. Gould.

_Male_, 24, wing 12.

Rocky Mountains and North California.

    Picus imperialis, Gould. Proceed. of Com. Sc. and Corresp. of
        Zool. Soc. of Lond. part ii. p. 140.

    Imperial Woodpecker, Picus Imperialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 313.


257. 2. Picus principalis, Linn. Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

     Plate LXVI. Male and Female.

Toes very long, fourth longer than third. An occipital crest of
elongated linear feathers; general colour glossy black, with blue
reflections on the upper, green on the lower parts; crest rich
carmine; bristly feathers covering the nostrils, and a short band at
the base of the upper mandible, a band on each side of the neck, from
the cheek to the end of the scapulars, secondary quills, their bases
excepted, and terminal portion of four inner secondaries, with the
axillars and lower wing-coverts, white; bill yellowish-white. Female
similar, but with the crest black, and the lateral tail-feathers, with
two patches of white at the tip.

_Male_, 21, 30. _Female_, 19-1/2, wing 10.

Common in Texas, Louisiana, and along the Mississippi, to the Ohio.
Rare on the latter, to Henderson. From Florida to North Carolina.
Resident.

    Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Picus principalis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iv. p. 20.

    Picus principalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 44.

    Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Picus principalis, Nutt. Man. v. i.
        p. 564.

    Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Picus principalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 341; v. v. p. 525.


258. 3. Picus pileatus, Linn. Pileated Woodpecker.--Log-cock.

     Plate XIII. Male and Female.

Fourth toe longer, considerably shorter than third; an occipital crest
of elongated linear feathers; general colour black glossed with blue,
upper part of head, and a band from the lower mandible, deep carmine;
loral space and a broad band from the eye to the occiput,
greyish-black; a narrow band from the eye margining the red of the
crest, a band from the base of the upper mandible, down to the side of
the neck, the throat, axillars, lower wing-coverts, and bases of the
quills, white. Female similar, with the fore part of the head dusky,
and the red on the cheek substituted by blackish-brown.

_Male_, 18, 28.

From Texas to the Columbia River, and along the Atlantic coast, as
well as in the interior, to the Fur Countries. More abundant in the
south. Resident everywhere.

    Pileated Woodpecker, Picus pileatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv.
        p. 27.

    Picus pileatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 44.

    Picus (Dryotomus) pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 304.

    Pileated Woodpecker or Log-cock, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 567.

    Pileated Woodpecker, Picus pileatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        74; v. v. p. 533.


259. 4. Picus lineatus, Linn. Lineated Woodpecker.

     Not figured.

Third and fourth toes about equal, hind toe very small; an occipital
crest of elongated near feathers; upper part of the head carmine,
inclining to scarlet; a narrow dusky line from the nostril to the eye;
a patch, including the eyelids and ear-coverts, leaden-grey; a narrow
band down the hind part of the neck, gradually enlarging, the back,
wings, and tail, deep black; a band from the nostrils descending
obliquely over the side of the head, passing backwards and behind the
ear, then much enlarged, and running down the side of the neck to the
shoulders, a large oblique patch at the commencement of the wing,
including the outer scapulars, the small feathers on the edge of the
wing under the alula, the lower wing-coverts, and the inner webs of
the quills for about half the length, pure white; an elongated crimson
patch at the base of the lower jaw; chin yellowish-white,
longitudinally streaked with dusky; the rest of the fore neck and part
of the breast black; the lower parts and sides brownish-white,
transversely barred with black.

_Male_, 15, wing, 7-2/12.

Columbia River.

    Picus lineatus, Linn. Syst. Nat v. i. p. 174.

    Lineated Woodpecker, Picus lineatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        315.


260. 5. Picus Canadensis, Gmel. Canadian Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Fig. 7. Male.

Fourth toe considerably longer than third; fourth quill longest, fifth
longer than second; bristly feathers over the nostrils dull yellow;
upper part of head and hind neck glossy black; over the eye a band of
white, continuous with a transverse band of scarlet on the occiput,
usually interrupted in the middle; a black band from near the bill to
the eye, continued behind it over the auriculars, and joining the back
of the hind neck; beneath this a white band from the angle of the
mouth, curving backwards below the middle of the neck, so as to meet
the other behind; then a narrow band of black from the base of the
lower mandible and continuous with the black of the shoulders; upper
part of the body, wings, and tail, black, feathers along the middle of
the back tipped with white; wing-coverts, the anterior excepted, and
quills spotted with the same, there being on the four longest
primaries seven spots on the outer, and five on the inner webs, on
most of the secondaries five on each web, but on the outer quill only
one patch on each web, and on the second three spots on the outer, and
four on the inner web; four middle tail-feathers glossy black, the
rest black towards the base, that colour gradually diminishing, so
that the outermost is almost entirely white; lower parts white.

Extremely similar to Picus villosus, but always much larger.

_Male_, 10-1/2, 17-3/4.

From the northern parts of New York to the Fur Countries. Common.
Migratory in winter to New York.

    Picus canadensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 437.

    Picus (Dendrocopus) villosus, Hairy Woodpecker, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 305.

    Canadian Woodpecker, Picus canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 188.


261. 6. Picus Phillipsii, Aud. Phillips's Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Figs. 5, 6. Male.

Fourth toe a little longer than third; fourth quill longest; bristly
feathers over the nostrils yellowish-white; fore part of the head, to
a little beyond the top, orange-yellow; occiput and hind neck glossy
black; over the eye a band of white passing to behind the auriculars;
a black band from above the angle of the mouth to the eye, and behind
it, including the auriculars; below this a white band from the angle
of the mouth joining that over the eye; then a narrower black band
from the lower mandible; upper parts black, tinged with brown behind;
feathers along the middle of the back tipped with white; some of the
wing-coverts also tipped with white, and the quills spotted with the
same, there being on the four largest primaries seven spots on the
outer, and five on the inner web; the four middle tail-feathers glossy
black, the rest black at the base, that colour gradually diminishing,
so that the outermost is entirely white; lower parts white.

_Male_, 10-1/2; wing, 5.

Massachusetts. Very rare.

    Phillips's Woodpecker, Picus Phillipsii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 186.


262. 7. Picus Martinæ, Aud. Maria's Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Fourth toe slightly longer than third; fourth quill longest, third
longer than fifth; tufts of bristly feathers over the nostrils dull
yellow; upper part of head scarlet; forehead and occiput black; a band
of white over the eye; a black band from the bill to the eye,
continued behind it over the auriculars, and joining the black of the
hind neck; beneath this a band of white from the angle of the mouth,
curving backwards below the middle of the neck, so as almost to meet
its fellow behind; then a band of black from the base of the lower
mandible, and continuous with the black of the shoulders; upper parts
black; feathers along the middle of the back tipped with white;
wing-coverts and quills spotted with the same, there being on the four
longest primaries seven spots on the outer, and four on the inner web,
on most of the secondaries five on each web, but on the outer quill
only one patch on each web, and on the second four spots on the outer,
and three on the inner web; four middle tail-feathers glossy black,
the next black on the inner web, and on the greater part of the outer
toward the base, the rest black only at the base, the two outer being
almost entirely white; lower parts white, tinged with grey, and a
little red, the sides faintly mottled with dusky grey.

_Male_, 9-2/12; wing, 4-((10-1/2)/12).

A pair found at Toronto, Upper Canada.

    Maria's Woodpecker, Picus Martinæ, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        181.


263. 8. Picus Harrisii, Aud. Harris's Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Fig. 8. Male. Fig. 9. Female.

Fourth toe considerably longer than third; fourth quill longest, fifth
longer than second; bristly feathers over the nostrils dull yellow,
with the tips black; upper part of the head and hind neck glossy
black; over the eye a band of white, continuous with a transverse
scarlet band on the occiput; a black band in the loral space continued
behind the eye over the auriculars, and joining the black of the hind
neck; beneath is a band of white, from the angle of the mouth, curving
backward below the middle of the neck, but without meeting the other;
then a band of black from the base of the lower mandible, and
continuous with the black of the hind neck and shoulders; upper parts
black, the quills tinged with brown; feather along the middle of the
back largely tipped with white; quills, excepting the inner three,
marked with small roundish spots, of which there are five on the outer
and four on the inner web of the four longest quills, while on the
outer there is only an elongated spot on the inner web, and on the
next one spot on the outer and three on the inner; four middle
tail-feathers black, the next black, with a small part of the inner
web, and a large portion of the outer toward the end, white; the rest
white, with the base black; the outermost small feathers almost
entirely white; lower parts brownish-white. Female wants the red
occipital band. This species is distinguishable from all the other
spotted species, by having no white spots on the wing-coverts.

_Male_, 9; wing, 5-2/12.

Columbia River. Rare.

    Harris's Woodpecker, Picus Harrisii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        191.


264. 9. Picus villosus, Linn. Hairy Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVI. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

Bill as long as the head; fourth toe considerably longer than third;
fourth and fifth quills longest and equal; bristly feathers over the
nostrils dull yellow, tipped with black; upper part of head and hind
neck glossy black; over the eye a band of white, continuous with a
transverse band of scarlet on the occiput, usually divided in the
middle; a black band from the bill to the eye, continued behind it
over the auriculars, and joining the black of the hind neck; beneath
this, a band of white from the angle of the mouth, curving backwards
below the middle of the neck, so as to meet its fellow behind; then a
black band from the base of the lower mandible; upper parts black,
tinged with brown behind; feathers along the middle of the back,
tipped with white; wing-coverts, the anterior excepted, and quills
spotted with white, there being on the four longest primaries seven on
the outer and five on the inner web, on most of the secondaries five
on each web, but on the outer quill only one patch on each web, and on
the second, two spots on the outer and three on the inner; four middle
tail-feathers glossy black, the rest black only towards the base;
lower parts white, tinged with dull green on the fore neck and breast,
the sides with blackish-grey. Female without red on the head.

_Male_, 8-3/4, 14-1/2. _Female_, 8-1/2, 15.

Breeds from Texas to New Hampshire, Kentucky, and Valley of the
Mississippi. Common. Resident.

    Hairy Woodpecker, Picus villosus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        150.

    Picus villosus, Bonap. Syn. p. 46.

    Hairy Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 575.

    Hairy Woodpecker, Picus villosus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        164.


265. 10. Picus pubescens, Linn. Downy Woodpecker.

     Plate CXII. Male and Female.

Bill much shorter than the head, slender; fourth toe considerably
longer than third; fourth quill longest; upper bristles over the
nostrils yellowish, tipped with black; upper part of the head glossy
black; a band of white over the eye ending in a scarlet occipital
band; then a band of black from the eye to the hind neck, succeeded by
one of white from the angle of the mouth, curving so as nearly to meet
its fellow on the hind neck, and a black band from the lower mandible
down the side of the neck. Upper parts black; feathers along the
middle of the back tipped with white; coverts and quills spotted with
white, there being six spots on the outer, and five on the inner webs
of the four longest primaries, the outermost quill with one patch of
white on the inner web, and the next with four spots on each web;
outer small tail-feathers white, with a single black spot, next two
white, with two terminal black bands, the rest variegated, except the
two middle, which are black. Female without red.

_Male_, 6-3/4, 12.

Breeds from Texas to Labrador, and northward to Lat. 58°. Common
throughout the interior to the eastern bases of the Rocky Mountains.
In every district, a constant resident.

    Downy Woodpecker, Picus pubescens, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        153.

    Picus pubescens, Bonap. Syn. p. 46.

    Picus (Dendrocopus) pubescens, Downy Woodpecker, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 307.

    Downy Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 576.

    Downy Woodpecker, Picus pubescens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        81; v. v. p. 539.


266. 11. Picus Gairdnerii, Aud. Gairdner's Woodpecker.

     Not figured.

Bill shorter than the head, slender; fourth toe considerably longer
than third, fifth quill longest; black above, with a scarlet occipital
band, brownish-white beneath; spotted with white, and in all respects
as to colour like the last species, only the spots on the wings are
much smaller, and the patch of red brocade; the toes and bill larger.

Length, 6-8/12; wing, 3-10/12.

Columbia River.

    Gairdner's Woodpecker, Picus Gairdnerii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 317.


267. 12. Picus querulus, Wils. Red-cockaded Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCLXXXIX.

Upper part of the head, hind neck, and a band on each side of the
neck, glossy black; a large patch on the side of the head and neck
white; back black, barred with white; wings brownish-black, spotted
with white, there being eight spots on the outer, and six on the inner
webs of the longest quills; middle tail-feathers black, outer four on
each side white, with black bars; lower parts white, sides of the neck
and body with oblong black spots. Male with a small carmine line
behind the eye.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 14-1/2. _Female_, 7-3/8, 13-1/4.

From Texas to New Jersey, along the Atlantic districts. Common. In the
interior to Lower Mississippi. Resident.

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Picus querulus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ii. p. 103.

    Picus querulus, Bonap. Syn. p. 46.

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 577.

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Picus querulus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 12.


268. 13. Picus Auduboni, Trudeau. Audubon's Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Adult.

Bill about the length of the head, with the outlines considerably
arched, the tips acute, and not laterally worn; upper parts black,
lower white, with a tinge of brown, the sides very faintly barred with
dusky; tufts covering the nostrils white; on the anterior part of the
top of the head some feathers largely tipped with yellow; a band of
white over the eye; loral space and a broad band behind the eye black;
feathers along the middle of the back tipped with white; wings spotted
with white; six spots on the outer, and four on the inner webs of the
longer primaries; four middle tail-feathers black, the next with the
tip obliquely white, that colour enlarging on the rest, so as to
include almost the whole of the outer feathers.

_Adult_, 7, 13-1/2.

Louisiana.

    Picus Auduboni, Audubon's Woodpecker, Trudeau, Journ. Acad.
        Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 404.

    Audubon's Woodpecker, Picus Auduboni, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        194.


269. 14. Picus ruber. Gmel. Red-breasted Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVI. Fig. 9. Male. Fig. 10. Female.

Head, neck, and fore part of breast, deep carmine; upper parts black,
variegated with white, lower pale yellow, with the sides undulated
with dusky; middle tail-feathers with the inner web white, obliquely
banded with black.

_Male_, 8, 14. _Female_, 8; wing, 5-2/12.

Upper California. Columbia River. Nootka. Common. Migratory.

    Red-breasted Woodpecker, Picus ruber, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        179.


270. 15. Picus varius, Linn. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker.

Male with the crown of the head and throat bright carmine; a
semicircular patch of black on the lower fore neck, and a semilunar
band on the occiput; upper parts bluish-black, variegated with white
and yellow, lower yellow, with the sides undulated with dusky; middle
tail-feathers with the inner web white, obliquely banded with black.
Female similar, but with the throat white, and the yellow of the lower
parts less pure. Young without red on the head or throat, the former
dusky, streaked with faint brown, the latter greyish-white, the upper
parts as in the adult, but duller, the tail variegated with white, the
lower parts dull yellowish-grey, undulated with dusky, the abdomen
dull yellowish.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 15.

Breeds from Maryland northward to the Saskatchewan. Rather rare in the
interior in summer. Many spend the winter in the Southern and Western
Districts.

    Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Picus varius, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        i. p. 147.

    Picus varius, Bonap. Syn. p. 45.

    Picus (Dendrocopus) varius, Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Swains.
        & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 309.

    Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 574.

    Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, Picus varius. Aud. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 519; v. v. p. 537.

    ** Hind toe wanting. Genus _Apternus_ of authors.


271. 16. Picus arcticus, Swains. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

     Plate CXXXII. Male and Female.

Three-toed, with the upper parts glossy bluish-black, the lower white,
the sides and lower wing-coverts transversely barred with black; tufts
of bristly feathers black; crown of the head saffron-yellow; a white
line from behind the eye, a band of the same from the base of the
upper mandible to beneath the ear-coverts, succeeded by a black band;
inner webs of all the quills and outer webs of the primaries spotted
with white, there being seven spots on the outer, and five on the
inner webs of the three longest; four middle tail-feathers black, the
next with an oblique band of white, the rest black only at the base,
except the outermost, of which nearly all the inner web is of that
colour. Female without yellow on the head.

_Male_, 10-1/2, 16.

From the northern parts of New York to the Fur Countries, as well as
along the eastern declivities of the Rocky Mountains. Rather common.
Partially migratory.

    Picus tridactylus, Bonap. Syn. p. 46.

    Northern Three-toed Woodpecker, Picus tridactylus, Bonap.
        Amer. Orn. v. ii. p. 14.

    Picus (apternus) arcticus, Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 313.

    Northern Three-toed Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 578.

    Three-toed Woodpecker, Picus tridactylus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 198.


272. 17. Picus hirsutus, Vieill. Banded Three-toed Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVII. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Three-toed, with the upper parts deep glossy-black, the head with blue
reflections, the back and wings tinged with brown; tufts over nostrils
dull yellow; anterior part of head pale yellow, spotted with white; a
band of white, with small dusky lines, from the angle of the mouth to
the occiput; the back transversely banded with white; inner webs of
all the quills and outer webs of the primaries spotted with white,
there being seven spots on the outer, and five on the inner, webs of
the three longest quills; four middle tail-feathers black, the next
white at the end, the rest white, unless at the base, but the
outermost banded with black. Female with the head black, streaked with
white.

_Male_, 9; wing, 4-5/12.

From Lake Superior to the Arctic Sea. Abundant. Resident.

    Picus hirsutus, Vieill. Ois. de l'Amer. v. ii. p. 124.

    Picus (Apternus) tridactylus, Common Three-toed Woodpecker,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 311.

    Common Three-toed Woodpecker, Picus hirsutus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 184.

    *** Bill straight, with the angles obsolete, and the upper
    outline somewhat arched.


273. 18. Picus Carolinus, Linn. Red-bellied Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXV. Fig. 3. Male. Fig. 4. Female.

Male with the upper part of the head and hind neck bright carmine; the
back and scapulars transversely banded with black and white; the rump
and tail-coverts with the white predominating; primaries black, with a
band of white; tail black, with the inner webs of the middle, and both
webs of the outer barred with white; lower parts yellowish-white,
abdomen red; lower wing and tail-coverts white, spotted with dusky.
Female similar, but with the top of the head ash-grey and with less
red on the abdomen.

_Male_, 7-3/4, 15-3/4. _Female_, 8, 14-1/2.

Breeds from Kentucky in the West, and from Maryland to Nova Scotia and
Canada. Abundant in winter in all the Southern States, from Carolina
to Texas, and especially in the Floridas.

    Red-bellied Woodpecker, Picus carolinus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        i. p. 113.

    Picus carolinus, Bonap. Syn. p. 45.

    Red-bellied Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 572.

    Red-bellied Woodpecker, Picus carolinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 169.


274. 19. Picus erythrocephalus, Linn. Red-headed Woodpecker.

    Plate XXVII. Male and Female.

Head and neck bright crimson, that colour descending on the fore neck,
and margined with a semilunar band of black; back wings and tail
glossy bluish-black; inner secondaries, rump, and lower parts, pure
white. Young with the head and neck brownish-grey, streaked with
dusky; feathers of back and wing-coverts dusky, edged with grey;
secondary quills yellowish-white barred with black; lower parts
greyish-white, the sides streaked with dusky.

_Male_, 9, 17. _Female_, 8-1/2.

Breeds from Texas to Nova Scotia, and throughout the interior to the
head waters of the Missouri; thence to Lake Huron. Extremely common.
Great numbers spend the winter in Louisiana.

    Red-headed Woodpecker, Picus erythrocephalus, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. i. p. 142.

    Picus erythrocephalus, Bonap. Syn. p. 45.

    Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 316.

    Red-headed Woodpecker, Picus erythrocephalus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. i. p. 141; v. v. p. 536.


275. 20. Picus torquatus, Wils. Lewis's Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVI. Fig. 7. Male. Fig. 8. Female.

Upper parts black, highly glossed with dark green; a band across the
forehead, the chin, and a broad patch on the side of the head,
surrounding the eye, deep carmine, or blood-red; beyond this, the
throat and part of the sides of the neck black; a band of dull white
across the hind neck, continuous anteriorly with a large patch of
yellowish-white, occupying the fore neck and part of the breast; the
rest of the breast and the sides bright red; lower wing-coverts,
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts black. Young with the red on the head
scarcely apparent, that on the lower parts mixed with greyish-white,
the fore part of the neck dull grey, and the white ring on the hind
neck wanting; many of the feathers there with one or two white spots
near the end.

_Male_, 11, wing, 7-2/12.

Rocky Mountains, and Columbia River. Abundant. Migratory.

    Lewis's Woodpecker, Picus torquatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        p. 31.

    Picus torquatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 46.

    Lewis's Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 577.

    Lewis's Woodpecker, Picus torquatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        176.

    **** Bill comparatively slender, slightly arched, acute, with
    the lateral angles obsolete. Genus _Colaptes_ of authors.


276. 21. Picus auratus, Linn. Golden-winged Woodpecker.--Flicker.
Tucker. High-holder.

     Plate XXXVII. Male and Female.

Male with the upper part of the head and neck ash-grey; a transverse
band of carmine on the hind neck; back, scapulars, and secondaries
light greenish-brown, transversely spotted with black, rump white;
tail-coverts white, with black markings; primaries and tail-feathers
blackish-brown, the shafts yellow; sides of the head and fore neck
light pale purplish-red, inclining to lilac; a black streak on each
side of the throat, and a semilunar patch of the same on the fore part
of the breast; lower parts reddish-white, tinged with yellow, and
spotted with black; lower wing-coverts and inner edges of quills clear
buff, lower surface of quills and tail-feathers yellow, the latter
black toward the end. Female similar, but without the black bands on
the throat.

_Male_, 12-1/2, 16.

Breeds from Texas to Nova Scotia, and the Fur Countries. Generally
distributed in the United States. Eastern bases of Rocky Mountains.
Extremely common. Resident in the Southern States.

    Gold-winged Woodpecker, Picus auratus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ii.
        p. 45.

    Picus auratus, Bonap. Syn. p. 44.

    Colaptes auratus, Golden-shafted Woodpecker, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 314.

    Flicker or Golden-winged Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 561.

    Golden-winged Woodpecker, Picus auratus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 191; v. v. p. 540.


277. 22. Picus Mexicanus, Swains. Red-shafted Woodpecker.

     Plate CCCCXVI. Fig. 5. Male. Fig. 6. Female.

Male with the upper part of the head and hind neck light
greyish-brown; forehead and a band over the eye dull red; sides and
fore part of neck ash-grey, with an oblong patch of bright carmine on
each side of the throat; back, scapulars, and secondaries light
reddish-brown, transversely spotted with black; rump white; upper
tail-coverts black, barred with white; primaries blackish-brown,
tail-feathers black, their shafts vermilion; lower parts
reddish-white, spotted with black, of which there is a semilunar patch
on the fore part of the breast; lower wing-coverts, and inner webs of
quills of roseate tints; lower surface of quills and tail-feathers
orange-red, inclining to vermilion, the tail black toward the end.

_Male_, 13-1/2, wing, 6-10/12. _Female_, 13.

Rocky Mountains, Columbia River, and northward to the Saskatchewan.
Abundant. Migratory.

    Colaptes mexicanus, Swains. Synop. Birds of Mex. Phil. Mag. N.
        84.

    Colaptes mexicanus, Red-shafted Woodpecker, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 315.

    Red-shafted Woodpecker, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 603.

    Red-shafted Woodpecker, Picus mexicanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 314.



FAMILY XXVII. CUCULINÆ. CUCKOOS.


Bill long or of moderate length, broader than high at the base,
compressed toward the end, straight or somewhat arched; upper mandible
with the dorsal line convex or arched, the ridge indistinct, the sides
convex, the edges arched, sharp, without notch, the tip decurved;
lower mandible with the angle rather short, the dorsal line straight
or decurved, the ridge thin, the sides erect or convex, the tip
slightly decurved, acute. Nostrils basal, oblong, generally marginate.
Head of moderate size; neck of ordinary length; body rather slender.
Feet of moderate length; tarsus with broad scutella; toes long,
slender, flat beneath, outer directed outwards or backwards. Claws
long or of moderate length, arched, compressed, acute. Plumage
blended; wings generally long, with the first quill short, the third
and fourth longest. Tail long, of ten feathers; upper mandible very
narrow beneath, with three longitudinal ridges; tongue slender,
emarginate, and papillate at the base, the tip horny, thin, lacerated,
and slit; œsophagus rather wide, without dilatation; stomach large,
round, with the muscular coat very thin, the epithelium soft, rugous;
intestine of moderate length and width; cœca long, oblong, narrowed
at the base. Trachea simple, with a single very slender pair of
inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. COCCYZUS, Vieill. AMERICAN CUCKOO.


Bill of moderate length, rather slender, somewhat arched, much
compressed, acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line arched, the
ridge rounded, the sides erect toward the end, the edges thin, direct,
the tip narrow, decurved; lower mandible with the angle of moderate
length, rather wider, the dorsal line decurved toward the end, the
sides nearly erect, the edges decurved, the tip narrow; the nostrils
small, oblong, operculate. Eyelids bare, except at the margin. Head
rather small; neck of moderate length; body slender. Feet rather
short; tarsus compressed, rather stout, with seven very broad
scutella; toes slender, compressed, anterior united at the base, first
small. Claws moderate, arched, compressed, laterally grooved, acute.
Plumage soft and blended, somewhat compact on the back. Wings of
moderate length, with the first quill very short, the third and fourth
longest. Tail very long, cuneate or graduated.


278. 1. Coccyzus Americanus, Linn. Yellow-billed American
Cuckoo.--Rain Crow. Cow-bird.

     Plate II. Male and Female.

Bill brownish-black above, with the margin of the upper, and nearly
the whole of the lower mandible yellow; margin of the eye yellow;
upper parts light greenish-brown, with a tinge of grey on the head;
lower parts silvery white; quills with the inner webs brownish-orange;
middle tail-feathers like the back, glossed with green, the rest
brownish-black, all tipped with white, that colour gradually enlarging
to the outer, which, besides, has nearly the whole outer web white.

_Male_, 12-1/2, 16. _Female_, 11-3/4, 15-1/2.

Breeds from Texas to Nova Scotia, and throughout the interior, to the
eastern bar of the Rocky Mountains. Common. Many spend the winter in
the Floridas.

    Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cuculus carolinensis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. iv. p. 13.

    Coccyzus americanus, Bonap. Syn. p. 42.

    Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        551.

    Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 18; v. v. p. 520.


279. 2. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, Wils. Black-billed American
Cuckoo.--Rain-Crow. Cuckoo-Bird.

     Plate XXXII. Male and Female.

Bill black; margin of the eye blue, before and behind bright red;
upper parts light greenish-brown; lower parts silvery-white, the
breast and sides faintly tinged with yellow; quills with the inner
webs pale buff toward the base; tail-feathers like the back, tipped
with white.

_Male_, 11-1/2, 15.

From Texas to Nova Scotia, and in the interior to Kentucky. Rather
common. Migratory.

    Black-billed Cuckoo, Cuculus erythrophthalmus, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. iv. p. 15.

    Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, Bonap. Syn. p. 42.

    St. Domingo Cuckoo, Coccyzus dominicus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        556.

    Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. i. p. 170; v. v. p. 523.


280. 3. Coccyzus Seniculus, Lath. Mangrove American Cuckoo.

     Plate CLXIX. Male.

Upper mandible, and the tip and edges of the lower black, the rest
yellow; upper parts light greenish-brown, with a tinge of grey on the
head; lower parts brownish-orange; inner webs of quills uniform with
the rest; middle tail-feathers like the back, the rest brownish-black,
tipped with white, that colour gradually enlarging to the outer.

_Male_, 12, 15.

Florida Keys. Common. Migratory.

    Mangrove Cuckoo, Coccyzus Seniculus, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 558.

    Mangrove Cuckoo, Coccyzus Seniculus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        390.



FAMILY XXVIII. PSITTACINÆ. PARROTS.


Bill short, bulging, very strong, deeper than broad, convex above and
below; upper mandible cerate at the base, its outline decurved, the
sides convex, the edges sharp, with an angular process, the tip
trigonal, decurved, elongated, acute; lower mandible with the angle
short and wide, the tip thin-edged, rounded, or abrupt. Nostrils
basal, round, open, in the cere. Head very large; neck of moderate
length; body compact. Feet short and robust; tarsus short, scaly; toes
stout, the outer directed backwards, the third and fourth coherent at
the base. Claws stout, curved, acute. Plumage generally blended, but
firm. Wings and tail various. Tongue short, fleshy, rounded, or
emarginate; œsophagus wide, with a large crop; stomach small,
muscular; intestine of moderate length; cœca small; cloaca
globular.



GENUS I. CENTURUS, Kuhl. PARRAKEET.


Bill short, very strong, bulging; upper mandible with the dorsal line
decurved, the sides convex, the edges ascending at the base, then
direct, with a deep notch, the tip decurved, acute; lower mandible
very deep at the base, with the dorsal line convex and ascending, the
tip sharp-edged and truncate. The nostrils basal, round. Feet short,
stout; tarsus very short; toes of moderate length, stout; claws
strong, curved, acute. Plumage blended, compact on the wings, which
are long and pointed, with the second quill longest. Tail long,
cuneate.


281. 1. Centurus Carolinensis, Linn. Carolina Parrakeet.

     Plate XXVI. Male, Female, and Young.

Fore part of the head and cheeks bright carmine, that colour extending
over and behind the eyes, the rest of the head and neck pure bright
yellow; upper parts emerald-green, with light blue reflections, lower
parts lighter; edge of wing yellow, primary coverts deep bluish-green,
secondary coverts yellowish-green; quills with the inner webs dusky,
the outer yellow at the base, blue toward the end; tail green; tibial
feathers yellow, the lowest bright red. Young with the head green.

_Male_, 14, 22.

South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and up the
Mississippi to Kentucky. Abundant. Resident.

    Psittacus carolinensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 141.

    Carolina Parrot, Psittacus carolinensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        iii. p. 89.

    Psittacus carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 41.

    Carolina Parrot, Psittacus carolinensis, Nutt. Man. v. i. p.
        545.

    Carolina Parrot, Psittacus carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 135.



FAMILY XXIX. COLUMBINÆ. PIGEONS.


Bill short, soft for half its length, horny toward the end; upper
mandible with a tumid fleshy covering at the base, its dorsal line
straight, toward the end convex and deflected, the tip narrow, but
obtuse; lower mandible at its base wider than the upper, its sides
elastic and slender, the angle long and obtuse, the dorsal line short
and convex, the tip obtuse. Nostrils linear in the lower and fore part
of the nasal membrane. Head small, oblong; neck of moderate length;
body rather full. Feet short; tarsus partially feathered, scutellate,
or scaly; toes four, on the same level, broad beneath, marginate; the
first short, the lateral nearly equal, all scutellate above. Claws
moderate, arched, compressed, rather blunt. Plumage generally compact,
the feathers with thick spongy shaft, and destitute of plumule. Wings
and tail various. Tongue rather broad at the base, toward the end
narrow, horny, induplicate, pointed; œsophagus very wide, enlarged
into an enormous crop; stomach a very large and strong gizzard, placed
obliquely, its lateral muscles exceedingly thick, the lower prominent,
the tendons very large, the epithelium dense, with longitudinal broad
rugæ, and two opposite grinding surfaces; intestine long, of moderate
width; cœca very small; cloaca oblong. Trachea simple, flattened,
with a single pair of inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest flat, rudely
constructed. Eggs two, elliptical, white.



GENUS I. COLUMBA, Linn. DOVE.


Bill straight, rather short, slender, compressed; upper mandible with
the dorsal line straight at the base, convex toward the end, the
nostrils linear, oblique, covered with a fleshy bare membrane, the
edges sharp toward the end, with a distinct notch, the tip narrow,
sharp-edged, rounded; lower mandible with the angle long and pointed,
the sides erect, the base sloping outwards toward the end, the edges
sharp, the tip narrow, but blunt. Head small, oblong, compressed; neck
of moderate length; body full. Feet short, strong; tarsus very short,
roundish, with a single row of scutella above, and two anterior rows
of large hexagonal scales; toes beneath rather slender, broad and flat
beneath, marginate, with large scutella; hind toe smallest, lateral
about equal. Claws of moderate size, arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage rather compact above, blended beneath; wings long, pointed,
the second and third quills longest. Tail of moderate length, rounded,
of twelve broad rounded feathers.


282. 1. Columba fasciata, Say. Band-tailed Dove.

     Plate CCCLXVII. Male and Female.

Wings long, the second quill longest, the first with the outer web
narrower at the base than beyond the middle; tail of moderate length,
rounded. Head, fore neck, and breast, light reddish-purple, that
colour fading on the abdomen and lower tail-coverts into whitish; a
narrow half-ring of white on the hind neck, the lower part of which is
of a metallic greenish-brown tint; upper parts greyish-blue, tinted
with brown; rump and sides of the body blue; quills brownish-black,
very narrowly margined with brownish-white; tail greyish-blue at the
base, much paler, and tinged with yellow toward the end, these colours
being separated at the distance of two inches from the tip by a band
of black. Female with the black band on the tail less decided, the
middle feathers being but slightly marked with it.

_Male_, 16, wing, 9. _Female_, 15-1/2.

From the eastern spurs of the Rocky Mountains, and across them to the
Columbia River. Common. Migratory.

    Columba fasciata. Say, Long's Exped. v. ii. p. 10.

    Columba fasciata, Bonap. Syn. p. 119.

    Band-tailed Pigeon, Columba fasciata, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 77.

    Band-tailed Pigeon, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 624.

    Band-tailed Pigeon, Columba fasciata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 479.


283. 2. Columba leucocephala, Linn. White-headed Dove.

     Plate CLXXVII. Male and Female.

Upper parts dusky greyish-blue, lower paler; quills and tail-feathers
darker; upper part of head white, hind neck dark purplish-brown, lower
part and sides green, changing gold-colour, each feather margined with
deep black.

_Male_, 14-1/4, 23-1/2. _Female_, 14.

Florida Keys. Common during summer only.

    Columba leucocephala, Bonap. Syn. p. 119.

    White-headed Pigeon, Columba leucocephala, Bonap. Amer. Orn.
        v. ii. p. 15.

    White-crowned Pigeon, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 625.

    White-headed Pigeon, Columba leucocephala, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 443; v. v. p. 557.


284. 3. Columba Zenaida, Bonap. Zenaida Dove.

     Plate CLXII. Male and Female.

Wings of moderate length, with the second quill longest; tail rounded,
upper parts light yellowish-brown; quills brownish-black, narrowly
margined with whitish, seven of the secondaries broadly tipped with
white, the inner secondaries and the coverts with a broad black spot
on the inner web toward the end; middle tail-feathers like the back,
the rest greyish-blue, with broad black band toward the end, the
extremity bluish-white; lower parts light brownish-red, paler on the
throat, and passing into greyish-blue on the sides; lower wing-coverts
light blue; a small spot of deep blue immediately behind the eye, a
large one of brilliant rich blue a little below, on the side of the
neck; and a band of splendent purple over the back and sides of the
neck.

_Male_, 11-1/2, 18-1/8. _Female_, 10-1/2.

Florida Keys during summer only. Common.

    Columba Zenaida, Bonap. Syn. p. 119.

    Zenaida Dove, Columba Zenaida, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. ii. p.

    Zenaida Dove, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 625.

    Zenaida Dove, Columba Zenaida, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 354;
        v. v. p. 558.


285. 4. Columba montana, Linn. Key-West Dove.

     Plate CLXVII. Male and Female.

Wings of moderate length, with the third quill longest, the outer webs
of the outer five quills narrowed in the middle; tail rounded. Upper
part brownish-red; upper part of head and hind neck shining with
purplish and light green reflections; sides of the neck
cream-coloured, changing to lilac, with green, blue, and purple tints
behind; back and scapulars also splendent with purplish-red; a broad
band from the lower mandible beneath the eye, and the throat white;
fore neck and breast pale purple, the rest cream-coloured.

_Male_, 11-3/4, 17-1/2.

Key West only during summer. Not rare.

    Columba montana, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 281.

    Key-West Pigeon, Columba montana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p.
        382.


286. 5. Columba passerina, Linn. Passerine Dove.--Ground Dove.

     Plate CLXXXII. Male, Female, and Young.

Wings of moderate length, with the third quill longest, the first
having the outer web narrow at the base, the next four with a
contraction toward the end; tail rounded. Male with the forehead,
sides of the head, anterior and lateral parts of the neck, breast, and
sides, light purplish-red, the central part of the neck-feathers
dusky; hind head and neck pale blue, the feathers edged with dark
grey; back brownish-grey; primaries and their coverts deep
chestnut-red, margined externally, and tipped with dusky; secondary
quills and their coverts pale grey, tinged with red; smaller inner
secondaries, with their coverts and some of the smaller coverts, with
oblong glossy blue spots; lower wing-coverts deep chestnut-red;
tail-feathers, except the middle two, blue at the base, bluish-black
toward the end. Female paler; the forehead and wing-coverts but
slightly tinged with red, the hind neck less blue, and the spots on
the wings of smaller extent, and more purple. Young resemble the
female, with a tinge of yellow beneath.

_Male_, 6-3/4, 11. _Female_, 6-1/4.

Throughout the Floridas and their Keys, as well as from Louisiana to
North Carolina, including Alabama and Georgia. Pretty abundant.
Resident.

    Columba passerina, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 285.

    Ground Dove, Columba passerina, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 15.

    Columba passerina, Bonap. Syn. p. 120.

    Ground Dove, Columba passerina, Aud. Amer. Ornith. v. ii. p.
        471; v. v. p. 558.



GENUS II. STARNÆNAS, Bonap. GROUND-DOVE.


Bill of moderate length, slender, compressed toward the end; upper
mandible with a tumid fleshy covering at the base, the tip convex,
declinate, obtuse. Nostrils oblique, linear. Head small, compressed;
neck of moderate length; body full, robust. Legs stout; tarsus longer
than the hind toe, covered anteriorly and laterally with subhexagonal
scales; toes of moderate length. Claws rather small, arched,
compressed, obtuse. Plumage compact. Wings short, rounded; third,
fourth, and fifth quills longest, and almost equal; second, third,
fourth, fifth, and sixth, cut out on the outer web. Tail of moderate
length, slightly rounded, of twelve broad, rounded feathers. Tongue
and digestive organs as in the preceding genus.


287. 1. Starnænas cyanocephala, Linn. Blue-headed Ground-Dove.

     Plate CLXXII. Male and Female.

Upper parts rich chocolate, slightly tinged with olive; lower parts
brownish-red, anteriorly tinged with purplish-red, lighter on the
middle of the breast, the sides and lower tail-coverts approaching to
the colour of the back; upper part of head bright blue, encircled by a
band of deep black, broader on the occiput, and very narrow in front;
a band of white, under the eye, meeting its fellow on the chin; a
broad patch of black on the fore neck, margined with white beneath,
and on the sides having a patch of light blue.

_Male_, 12-1/4, 17-1/2.

Accidental on the southernmost Florida Keys in summer only.

    Columba cyanocephala, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 282.

    Blue-headed Pigeon, Columba cyanocephala, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        ii. p. 411; v. v. p. 557.



GENUS III. ECTOPISTES, Swains. LONG-TAILED-DOVE.


Bill straight, of ordinary length, rather slender, broader than high
at the base, with a tumid fleshy covering, compressed toward the end.
Head small, oblong; neck of moderate length; body rather slender. Feet
short; tarsus as short as the hind toe and claw, anteriorly
scutellate; outer toe slightly shorter than inner; claws rather short,
stout, arched, obtuse. Plumage compact above; blended, but firm
beneath. Wings long; first and second quills longest, and about equal.
Tail long, cuneate, pointed. Digestive organs as in the preceding
genus.


288. 1. Ectopistes migratoria, Linn. Wandering
Long-tailed-Dove.--Passenger Pigeon.

     Plate LXII. Male and Female.

Twelve tail-feathers. Male with the upper part and sides of the head
light blue; throat, fore neck, and breast, light brownish-red, sides
and lower wing-coverts light blue, abdomen and lower tail-coverts
white; upper parts greyish-blue; lower part of neck behind and along
the sides changing to gold, emerald-green, and rich crimson; some of
the wing-coverts with a black spot; quills and larger coverts
blackish-brown; primaries edged with blue at the base, with
reddish-white toward the end; middle tail-feathers bluish-black, the
rest pale blue at the base, with a patch of red and a band of black on
the inner web, white in the rest of their extent. Female with the
tints much duller, the upper parts inclining to yellowish-brown, the
dark spots on the wings more numerous, the lower parts pale greyish,
anteriorly tinged with yellowish-brown. In a female examined, the
anterior part of the tarsus has two rows of scales, while in a male
that part is broadly scutellate.

_Male_, 16-1/4, 25. _Female_, 15, 23.

Wanders continually in search of food throughout all parts of North
America. Wonderfully abundant at times in particular districts.

    Columba migratoria, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 285.

    Passenger Pigeon, Columba migratoria, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. i.
        p. 102.

    Columba migratoria, Bonap. Syn. p. 120.

    Columba (Ectopistes) migratoria, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 363.

    Passenger Pigeon, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 629.

    Passenger Pigeon, Columba migratoria, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p.
        319; v. v. p. 561.


289. 2. Ectopistes Carolinensis, Linn. Carolina Long-tailed-Dove.

     Plate XVII. Male and Female.

Fourteen tail-feathers. Male with the crown of the head and hind part
of the neck light blue; fore neck and breast light purplish-red, sides
and lower wing-coverts light blue, abdomen and lower tail-coverts pale
yellow; upper parts light yellowish-brown; lower part of neck behind
and along the sides changing to gold and purplish-red; some of the
wing-coverts with a black spot; quills and larger coverts
greyish-brown, inclining to greyish-blue at the base, and very
narrowly edged with whitish; middle tail-feathers like the back, the
rest blue at the base, bluish-white toward the end, with a black band
intervening between the two colours. Female smaller, with the tints
duller, the upper part of the head scarcely tinged with blue.

_Male_, 12, 17. _Female_, 11, 15-1/2.

Breeds from Texas to Massachusetts, and throughout the interior to the
eastern bases of the Rocky Mountains, and again on the Columbia River.
Common. Resident in all the Southern Districts.

    Columba carolinensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 286.

    Carolina Pigeon or Turtle-Dove, Columba carolinensis, Wils.
        Amer. Orn. v. v. p. 91.

    Columba carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 119.

    Carolina Pigeon or Turtle-Dove, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 626.

    Carolina Turtle-Dove, Columba carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        i. p. 91; v. v. p. 555.



FAMILY XXX. PAVONINÆ. PAVONINE BIRDS.


Bill rather short, moderately stout, broader than high at the base,
somewhat compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its extremity
arched, thin-edged, and obtuse; lower narrowed and blunt. Head
partially denuded, rather small, oblong; neck long; body very large.
Feet stout, rather long; tarsus anteriorly scutellate; hind toe
elevated, anterior toes webbed at the base. Claws rather denuded,
obtuse. Plumage full, the feathers with a very large plumule and short
tube; those of the hind part of the back much developed. Wings of
moderate length, convex, rounded. Tail very large, of more than twelve
feathers. Tongue triangular, pointed; œsophagus dilated into an
enormous crop; stomach a very powerful gizzard, roundish, or
transversely elliptical, with very large muscles, and dense
epithelium, having two concave grinding surfaces; intestines long, and
rather wide; cœca very large, oblong, internally with elevated
reticulated ridges. Trachea cylindrical, without inferior laryngeal
muscles. Nest on the ground, rudely constructed. Eggs numerous. Young
covered with stiffish down.



GENUS I. MELEAGRIS, Linn. TURKEY.


Bill rather short, moderately stout, nearly straight, broader than
high at the base, somewhat compressed toward the end; upper mandible
with the dorsal line sloping and straight, toward the end decurved,
nasal membrane large and bare, ridge and sides rounded, edges sharp,
without notch, tip thin-edged, rounded; lower mandible with the angle
very long, and rather wide, the dorsal line slightly convex, the edges
sharp toward the end, decurved, the tip thin-edged and obtuse.
Nostrils linear, with a large horny operculum. Head bare, with a long
fleshy wattle at the base of the bill; neck bare, carunculate,
slightly feathered behind. Head small, oblong; neck rather long; body
very full. Feet large and strong; tarsus rather long, stout,
compressed, with two rows of scutella in front, and the same behind,
where there is also a conical slightly recurved spur, about a third
from the lower extremity; toes of moderate length, stout, scutella;
first small and elevated; lateral about equal, third much longer;
anterior webbed at the base. Claws of moderate length, stout, arched,
somewhat compressed, obtuse. Plumage compact, glossy; feathers very
broad and truncate; those of the rump elongated. Wings of moderate
length, concave, much rounded, with the fourth and fifth quills
longest; secondaries very long and broad. Tail rather long, very
broad, much rounded, of fourteen or eighteen very broad, broadly
rounded feathers. Œsophagus dilated into a very large crop; stomach
transversely elliptical, extremely muscular; intestines long and wide;
cœca very large, oblong.


290. 1. Meleagris Gallopavo, Linn. Common Turkey.

     Plate I. Male. Plate VI. Female and Young.

Tail with eighteen feathers. Male with a long tuft of bristles pendent
from the lower part of the neck in front; frontal wattle blue and red,
skin of the neck and head of various tints of blue and purple,
caruncles bright red, changing to blue, legs purplish-red; upper parts
brownish-yellow, with metallic lustre, changing to deep purple,
fire-red, and bronzed green, the truncated tips of the feathers
margined with velvet-black; on the hind parts, the black bands much
broader; upper tail-coverts deep chestnut, glossed; wing-coverts like
the back, excepting the primary coverts, which, with the quills, are
dusky, transversely banded with white, the inner minutely mottled with
dusky, on a light brownish-red ground; tail-feathers chestnut-red,
narrowly barred and minutely dotted with black, a subternal broad band
of black, the tips plain chestnut; lower parts like the upper, the
tuft of bristles black. Female considerably inferior in size, with the
wattles much smaller, the tuft on the breast comparatively small, and
only in old birds; the colours of the plumage duller, there being
little of the refulgent hues of the male; the lower parts
brownish-black. Young before being fledged, are pale brownish-yellow
above, pale yellowish-grey beneath, the top of the head brighter,
marked in the middle with a longitudinal pale brown band; the back and
wings spotted with brownish-black, excepting the smaller wing-coverts,
which are uniformly dull brown.

_Male_, 49, 68. _Female_, 37, 54.

Breeds from Texas to Massachusetts and Vermont. In the interior to the
Missouri, and thence northward to Michigan. Common. Resident, though
removing to considerable distances in autumn, in quest of food.

    Meleagris Gallopavo, Bonap. Syn. p. 122.

    Wild Turkey, Meleagris Gallopavo, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. i. p.
        79.

    Wild Turkey, Meleagris Gallopavo, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 630.

    Wild Turkey, Meleagris Gallopavo, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 1,
        33; v. v. p. 559.



FAMILY XXXI. PERDICINÆ. PARTRIDGES.


Bill very short, stout, broader than high at the base, with the upper
mandible convex, thin-edged, obtuse, the lower with the dorsal line
convex, the tip rounded. Head small, oblong; neck of moderate length,
or rather short; body very bulky. Feet rather of moderate length,
stout; tarsus bare, anteriorly scutellate; hind toe rather small,
third long, lateral nearly equal, all scutellate, anterior webbed at
the base. Claws moderate, arched, compressed, obtuse. Plumage full and
strong; feathers with the plumule much developed. Wings rather short,
convex, rounded. Tail generally short and rounded, of more than twelve
feathers. Tongue triangular, pointed; œsophagus with a very large
crop; stomach a very strong muscular gizzard, with the lateral muscles
highly developed, the epithelium dense, with two concave grinding
surfaces; intestine long, and of moderate width; cœca very large,
oblong, internally with reticulate ridges. Trachea without inferior
laryngeal muscles. Nest on the ground, rudely constructed. Eggs
numerous. Young covered with stiffish down.



GENUS I. ORTYX, Steph. AMERICAN PARTRIDGE.


Bill very short, robust, rather obtuse; upper mandible with the
outline decurved from the base, the ridge narrow at the base, on
account of the breadth of the nasal membrane, somewhat distinct in its
whole length, with the sides convex, the gape-line arched, the edges
thin, without notch, the tip decurved, thin-edged, obtuse; lower
mandible with the angle short and rounded, the dorsal line slightly
convex, the sides rounded, the edges involute, the tip rounded.
Nostrils basal, linear, operculate, nearly concealed. Head of ordinary
size, ovato-oblong; neck rather short; body full. Feet of moderate
length; tarsus shorter than the middle toe, with two anterior series
of large scales; first toe small and elevated; third very long, second
shorter than third, scutellate, connected at the base by webs of a
considerable extent. Claws rather stout, arched, compressed, rather
acute. Plumage dense, rather compact; wings short, concave, rounded.
Tail short, rounded, of twelve feathers. A bare space behind the eyes.
Tongue triangular, fleshy; œsophagus with an ovate oblique crop on
the fore part of the neck; stomach a very large and strong gizzard,
broader than long, placed obliquely, with concave grinding surfaces;
intestine long and wide; cœca large.


291. 1. Ortyx Virginiana, Linn. Common American Partridge.

     Plate LXXVI. Male, Female, and Young.

Male with a short broad crest; the forehead, a broad band over the
eye, and the throat, white; loral space, a band below the eye, and a
broad semilunar band on the fore neck, black; upper part of the head,
hind and lower part of the neck all round, brownish-red; upper parts
variegated with chestnut-red, black, grey, and yellowish; lower
yellowish-white, undulatingly barred with black, the sides streaked
with red. Female similar, but without a black band on the fore neck,
its place being merely spotted, and with the throat and a band over
the eye brownish-yellow. Young with the feathers having a central
yellowish line, the lower parts dull yellowish-brown, without black
bands.

_Male_, 10, 15. _Female_, 9-1/2, 14.

Breeds abundantly from Texas to Massachusetts; in the interior, high
on the Missouri, and in all intermediate districts.

    Quail or Partridge, Perdix virginiana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi.
        p. 21.

    Perdix virginiana, Bonap. Syn. p. 124.

    American Partridge or Quail, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 647.

    Virginian Partridge, Perdix virginiana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i.
        p. 388; v. v. p. 564.


292. 2. Ortyx Californica, Lath. Californian Partridge.

     Plate CCCCXIII. Fig. 10. Male and Female.

On the top of the head an elegant crest of six elongated, recurved,
clavate feathers, of which the webs are deflected. Male with the
forehead dull yellow, the crest black; upper part of head dark brown,
margined with a band of white; throat deep black, margined with a
semilunar band of white, curving up to the eyes; hind part and sides
of neck light ash-grey, beautifully marked with black, each feather
having a marginal band and central line of that colour; lower half of
neck anteriorly, and a part of the breast, greyish-blue, the rest of
the breast light yellowish, its central part chestnut, with semilunar
black bands; sides olive-brown, each feather with a central white
streak; the rest of the lower parts light yellowish-brown, faintly
barred with dusky, the lower tail-coverts with a central dark brown
streak; back and wings greyish-brown, tinged with olive, outer
secondaries margined externally, inner internally, with light red;
tail bluish-grey, edged with olivaceous. Female with the tuft shorter,
the colours duller; the upper part of the head dull brown, throat and
cheeks brownish-white, streaked with dusky; hind part and sides of
neck greyish-brown, each feather with a medial and marginal band of
black, as in the male, but fainter; lower part of neck and part of
breast brownish-grey; the rest of the upper and lower parts as in the
male.

     _Male_, 9-1/4, wing 4-7/12. _Female_, 9, wing 4-7/12.

Upper California. Abundant. Resident.

    Californian Partridge, Perdix californica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 152.


293. 3. Ortyx plumifera, Gould. Plumed Partridge.

     Plate CCCCXXII. Fig. 1. Male. Fig. 2. Female.

On the top of the head two linear-lanceolate decurved feathers, having
their webs deflected; upper part of head, hind neck, fore part of
back, lower part of fore neck, and a part of the breast, greyish-blue;
feathers along the base of the bill, and a band from the eye down the
side of the neck, white; elongated feathers on the head black; throat
deep chestnut, margined on each side with a black line; back and rump
reddish-brown; quills and tail-feathers wood-brown, margined with
reddish-brown; inner secondaries broadly margined internally with
white; middle of breast chestnut, as are the upper hypochondrial
feathers, which are margined on their inner web toward the end with a
narrow black and a broad white band, the intervening space on the
sides broadly banded with white, black, and chestnut. Female somewhat
less, similar to the male, but less brightly coloured.

_Male_, 11, wing 5-3/4. _Female_, 10, wing 5-1/2.

Columbia River, and Upper California. Rather rare. Migratory.

    Plumed Partridge, Perdix plumifera, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        226.


294. 4. Ortyx neoxenus, Vigors. Welcome Partridge.

     Plate CCCCXXIII. Fig. 3. Young.

Crest short, straight, directed backwards, of about half a dozen
elongated feathers; upper parts olive-brown, a rufous streak behind
the eye; wing-coverts dark brown, with light margins; quills dusky
brown, some of them slightly marked on the edges with paler spots;
tail dusky, with about eight waved irregular lines of pale brown;
lower parts dark brown, copiously marked with roundish white spots.

Length 7-1/2, wing 4-3/8.

California.

    Welcome Quail, Ortyx neoxenus, Vig. Gard. and Menag. of Zool.
        Soc. v. ii. p. 311.

    Welcome Partridge, Perdix neoxenus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        228.



FAMILY XXXII. TETRAONINÆ. GROUSE.


Bill short, stout, with the upper mandible convex, thin edged, without
notches, its tip thin edged, obtuse, the lower mandible with the
dorsal line slightly convex, the edges thin, the tip rounded. Head
small, oblong; neck of moderate length; body very bulky. Feet short,
stout; tarsus partially or entirely feathered; hind toe small, third
long, lateral nearly equal, all scutellate, anterior webbed at the
base. Claws moderate or long, arched, rather depressed, blunt. Plumage
full and soft; feathers with the plumule much developed. Wings rather
short, convex, rounded. Tail various, of more than twelve feathers. A
bare coloured space on each side of the neck, usually concealed by the
feathers; but in some species capable of being distended so as to
protrude. A bare red membrane over the eye, more developed in the
males. Tongue triangular, pointed; œsophagus with an enormous crop;
stomach a very powerful gizzard, having the lateral muscles extremely
developed, the epithelium dense, with two concave grinding surfaces;
the intestine long and wide; cœca excessively elongated,
cylindrical, with internal longitudinal ridges. Nest on the ground,
rudely constructed. Eggs numerous, spotted. Young covered with
stiffish down.



GENUS I. TETRAO, Linn. GROUSE.


Bill short, robust; upper mandible with the dorsal line decurved, the
ridge convex, narrowed at the base, the sides convex, the edges sharp
and overlapping, the tip thin-edged and rounded; lower mandible with
the angle long and wide, the dorsal line convex, the sides rounded,
the edges inflected, the tip rounded. Nostrils roundish, in the fore
part of the large and feathered nasal depression. Head small, ovate;
neck of ordinary length; body large and full. Feet stout, of moderate
length; tarsus short, feathered, at the lower part sometimes bare, and
scutellate; toes bare, scutellate, with a marginal fringe of pectinate
scales. Claws rather large, arched, compressed, obtuse. Plumage full,
soft, rather blended. Wings rather short, convex, much rounded, the
third and fourth quills longest. Tail rounded, of more than twelve
feathers.

    * Tarsus partially bare.


295. 1. Tetrao Umbellus, Linn. Ruffed Grouse.--Partridge Pheasant.

     Plate XLI. Male and Female.

Male with the feathers of the head narrow and elongated into a
decurved tuft; an erectile ruff of broad, abrupt, glossy feathers, in
two tufts; tail of eighteen feathers, rounded. Upper part of head and
hind part of neck bright yellowish-red, variegated with dusky; back
chestnut, marked with oblong white spots, margined with black; quills
brown, their outer webs pale yellowish-red, spotted with dusky; upper
tail-coverts banded or spotted with black; tail reddish-yellow,
narrowly barred and minutely mottled with black, and terminated by a
broad band of the latter, between two narrow bands of greyish-white; a
yellowish-white band from the bill to the eye, beyond which it is
prolonged; throat and fore neck light brownish-yellow; lower
ruff-feathers of the same colour, barred with reddish-brown, upper
black, glossed with blue; lower parts yellowish-white, with broad
transverse spots of dusky or brown. Female with the crest and ruff
less developed, the latter of a duller black; the tints of the plumage
duller than in the male. In the northern parts the plumage is
generally less red, but otherwise similar.

_Male_, 18, 24.

Common from Maryland to Labrador, and in the interior, from the
mountainous districts to Canada and the Saskatchewan. Columbia River.
Resident.

    Ruffed Grouse, Tetrao umbellus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 46.

    Tetrao umbellus, Bonap. Syn. p. 126.

    Tetrao umbellus, Ruffed Grouse, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 342.

    Ruffed Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 657.

    Ruffed Grouse, Tetrao Umbellus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. i. p. 211;
        v. v. p. 560.

    ** Tarsus feathered to the toes. Tail rather long, broad,
    rounded.


296. 2. Tetrao Canadensis, Linn. Canada Grouse.--Spotted Grouse.

     Plate CLXXVI. Male and Female.

Tail of sixteen feathers, rounded. Male with the upper parts
transversely banded with brownish-black and light grey; wings
variegated with dusky and greyish-yellow; quills brown, the outer webs
of the primaries mottled with yellowish; tail blackish-brown, tipped
with a band of reddish-yellow; lower parts black; the feathers on the
throat with a white spot near the end; a band of white spots behind
the eye; on the breast, the feathers with a broad subterminal spot;
and the lower tail-coverts largely tipped with white. Female with the
upper parts as in the male, but more broadly barred; head, sides of
neck, fore neck, and anterior part of breast, yellowish-red, barred
with brownish-black; lower parts greyish-black, barred with
reddish-white; tail minutely mottled, and tipped with reddish-brown.

_Male_, 15-3/4, 21-3/4. _Female_, 15-1/2, 21.

Plentiful from the northern parts of New York to Labrador, as well as
from Canada to the Arctic Sea. Columbia River. Partially migratory in
winter.

    Spotted Grouse, Tetrao canadensis, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iii.
        pl. 20.

    Tetrao canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 127.

    Tetrao canadensis, Spotted Grouse, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 346.

    Tetrao Franklinii, Franklin's Grouse, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 348.

    Spotted Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 667.

    Spotted or Canada Grouse, Tetrao canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. ii. p. 437; v. v. p. 563.


297. 3. Tetrao obscurus, Say. Dusky Grouse.

     Plate CCCLXI. Male and Female.

A slender crest of narrow feathers; tail of twenty feathers; rounded.
Male with the upper parts blackish-brown, the wings lighter; elongated
feathers on the head greyish-brown; hind neck minutely undulated with
bluish-grey; scapulars, inner secondaries, and smaller wing-coverts
also minutely undulated with grey and brownish-red; rump and upper
tail-coverts and quills clove-brown, secondaries bordered and tipped
with yellowish-grey, primaries mottled with grey on their outer webs,
tail black; sides of head, fore part and sides of neck, and fore part
of breast, greyish-black; loral space and throat barred with white;
lower parts generally blackish-grey, the feathers of the sides with a
median streak and terminal patch of white, and more or less barred
with dusky, as are the lower tail-coverts; axillary feathers and
inner wing-coverts white; tarsal feathers brownish-grey. Female
considerably smaller, with the upper parts greyish-brown, barred with
dusky, and minutely undulated; the fore neck banded with brown and
pale sienna, the rest of the lower parts as in the male, but paler.

_Male_, 22, wing 9-1/2. _Female_, 19-1/2, wing 9.

From the eastern spurs of the Rocky Mountains, to the Columbia River,
and northward to Hudson's Bay. Abundant. Resident.

    Tetrao obscurus, Say, Long's Exped.

    Tetrao obscurus, Bonap. Syn. p. 127.

    Dusky Grouse, Tetrao obscurus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iii. pl.
        18.

    Tetrao obscurus, Dusky Grouse, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 344.

    Dusky Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 666.

    Dusky Grouse, Tetrao obscurus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 446.

    *** Tail very short, transversely arched, much rounded.


298. 4. Tetrao Cupido, Linn. Pinnated Grouse.

Feathers of the crown elongated; two tufts of lanceolate elongated
feathers on the sides of the neck, under which is an oblong bare
orange-coloured space on either side, capable of being inflated; tail
very short, much rounded, of eighteen feathers. Male with the upper
parts blackish-brown, transversely marked with broad undulating bands
of light yellowish-red; wing-coverts and secondaries of a lighter
brown, tinged with grey, and barred with pale red: primary quills
greyish-brown, with black shafts, and spots of pale reddish on the
outer webs, tail dark brown, narrowly tipped with dull white, the two
middle feathers mottled with brownish-red; loral space, a band from
the lower mandible over the cheek, and the throat, pale yellowish-red;
a band of blackish-brown under the eye; extending to the ear-coverts,
and another on the side of the throat; cervical tufts, with the
feathers dark brown on the outer webs, pale yellowish-red and margined
with dusky on the inner; lower parts greyish-white, tinged with yellow
on the sides, with large transverse curved bands of greyish-brown;
lower tail-coverts arranged in three series, dusky at the base, white
at the end; tibial and tarsal feathers grey, obscurely and minutely
banded with yellowish-brown. Female considerably smaller, without the
crest, cervical tufts, or air-bags, but otherwise similar to the male.

_Male_, 18, 27-1/2.

Abundant from Texas throughout all the western prairies, to very high
up the Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, and Ohio. Almost extirpated in
the Middle and Eastern Districts. Resident.

    Pinnated Grouse, Tetrao Cupido, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p.
        104.

    Tetrao Cupido, Bonap. Syn. p. 126.

    Pinnated Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 662.

    Pinnated Grouse, Tetrao Cupido, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 490;
        v. v. p. 559.

    **** Toes partially feathered. Tail graduated.


299. 5. Tetrao Urophasianus, Bonap. Pheasant-tailed Grouse.--Cock of
the Plains.

     Plate CCCLXXI. Male and Female.

Male with bristle-feathers on the sides of the neck, on its lower part
small, scale-like feathers; a large bare yellow space on each side,
capable of being inflated; tail long, graduated, of twenty, stiffish,
acuminate feathers. Upper parts light yellowish-brown, variegated with
brownish-black, and yellowish-white; primary quills chocolate-brown,
thin outer webs, and part of their inner margins mottled with
yellowish-white; tail with about ten bands of yellowish-white on the
outer webs, which are otherwise variegated like the back, the inner
webs nearly plain brown; throat and fore part of neck whitish,
longitudinally spotted with brownish-black; a narrow white band across
the throat; sides of the neck, and fore part of breast pure white;
sides variegated like the back; axillars and lower wing-coverts white;
and part of breast and abdomen black; lower tail-coverts
brownish-black, largely tipped with white; tibial and tarsal feathers
brownish-grey, faintly barred with brown. Female much smaller, and
differing in being destitute of the bare skin on the neck, the plumage
entirely of ordinary texture, the tail less elongated, with the
feathers less narrow; upper parts variegated as in the male, lower
dull yellowish-grey, undulated and streaked with dusky; middle of
breast brownish-black, lower tail-coverts tipped with white.

_Male_, 30, 36. _Female_, 22.

Rocky Mountains and Columbia River, northward. Once seen on the
Missouri. Abundant. Partially migratory from high to low grounds in
autumn and winter.

    Tetrao urophasianus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iii. pl. 21.

    Tetrao (Centrocercus) urophasianus. Cock of the Plains,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 358.

    Cock of the Plains, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 666.

    Cock of the Plains, Tetrao urophasianellus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 503.


300. 6. Tetrao Phasianellus, Linn. Sharp-tailed Grouse.

     Plate CCCLXXXII. Male and Female.

A decurved crest of narrow feathers; a bare space on each side of the
neck capable of being inflated; tail short, much graduated, of sixteen
feathers, all of which are more or less concave, excepting the two
middle ones along the inner edge, obliquely and abruptly terminated,
the two middle projecting an inch beyond the next. Upper parts
variegated with light yellowish-red, brownish-black, and white, the
latter in terminal triangular, or guttiform spots on the scapulars and
wing-coverts; quills greyish-brown, primaries with white spots on the
outer web, secondaries tipped and barred with white; tail white, at
the base variegated, the two middle feathers like the back; loral
space, and a band behind the eye yellowish-white, a dusky streak under
the eye; throat reddish-white, with dusky spots; fore parts and sides
of neck barred with dusky and reddish-white; on the breast the dusky
spots become first curved, and then arrow-shaped; and so continue
narrowing on the hind part of the breast and part of the sides, of
which the upper portion is barred; abdomen, lower tail-coverts, and
axillars, white; tarsal feathers light brownish-grey, faintly barred
with whitish. Female smaller, but similar to the male, with the tints
duller.

_Male_, 17-1/2, 23.

Missouri, Lat. 41°, to Slave Lake, Lat. 61°. Rocky Mountains. Abundant
on the Saskatchewan Plains. Accidental in the northern parts of
Illinois. Resident.

    Tetrao Phasianellus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iii. p. 37.

    Tetrao Phasianellus, Bonap. Syn. p. 127.

    Tetrao (Centrocercus) Phasianellus, Sharp-tailed Grouse,
        Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 361.

    Sharp-tailed Grouse. Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 669.

    Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tetrao Phasianellus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 569.



GENUS II. LAGOPUS. PTARMIGAN.


Bill short, robust; upper mandible with its dorsal outline decurved,
the ridge indistinct and rounded, the sides convex, the edges
overlapping, the tip declinate, thin-edged, rounded; lower mandible,
with the angle of moderate length and rounded, the dorsal line convex,
the sides rounded, the edges a little inclinate, the tip rounded;
nasal sinuses large and covered with feathers, leaving the ridge
narrow between them. Nostrils basal, roundish, concealed by the
feathers. Head small, ovate; neck rather long; body bulky. Feet rather
short, stout; tarsus feathered, as are the toes, which have two or
three terminal scutella; hind toe extremely short, lateral toes equal.
Claws slightly arched, depressed, thin-edged, rounded. Plumage full
and compact, the feathers rounded. Wings short, convex, the primaries
strong, narrow, tapering, the third longest, the fourth and second
little shorter. Tail short, nearly even, of more than twelve broad
feathers.


301. 1. Lagopus albus, Gmel. Willow Ptarmigan.--Willow-Grouse.

     Plate CXCI. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill very thick, convex, with a strong ridge on each side of the lower
mandible; claws (when entire) elongated, arched with the sides
sloping, edges thin and nearly parallel, the tip rounded; tail short,
slightly rounded, of fourteen feathers, independently of the long
incumbent coverts. Bill black, claws dusky at the base, yellowish-grey
on the edges and tip. In winter, the plumage white, excepting the
shafts of the primaries, which are brown, and the tail-feathers, which
are black, narrowly tipped with white, and with the base of the same
colour. In summer, the male with the head and neck bright chestnut,
more or less variegated with dusky; the upper parts and sides having
the feathers brownish-black, transversely barred with reddish-yellow,
and narrowly tipped with white; the quills and larger coverts, with
most of the smaller, middle of breast, abdomen, and feet, white; tail
as in winter, the middle incumbent feather like the back. Female
similar, with the markings larger, the breast and abdomen coloured
like the sides, the head and neck without chestnut. Young, when in
down, of a yellowish tint, variegated above with large streaks of dark
brown, the top of the head with a longitudinal patch of brown, edged
with black. When fledged, the young resemble the female.

_Male_, 17, 26-1/2. _Female_, 16, 26.

In Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, during winter. Breeds
plentifully in Newfoundland, Labrador, and the Fur Countries. Rocky
Mountains.

    Tetrao (Lagopus) saliceti, Willow Grouse, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 351.

    Willow Grouse or Large Ptarmigan. Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 674.

    Willow Grouse, Tetrao saliceti, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. ii. p. 528.


302. 2. Lagopus Americanus, Aud. American Ptarmigan.

     Not figured.

Bill much narrower, with the ridge on each side of the lower mandible
obsolete; claws (when entire) elongated, arched, with the sides
sloping, the edges thin and nearly parallel, the tip round; tail
short, even, of fourteen feathers, independently of the long incumbent
coverts. In winter, the plumage white, excepting the shafts of the
primaries, which are brown, and the tail-feathers, which are black,
narrowly tipped with white; male with a black loral band, extending
beyond the eye. In summer, the general colour of the upper parts, fore
neck, and sides, reddish-yellow, finely undulated transversely with
blackish-brown, and greyish-white; the bars on the head and neck
larger; the two long incumbent tail-feathers similar to those of the
back; the rest brownish-black, tipped with white; little white on the
lower parts, and only in patches, some greyish-white undulations
occasionally seen, tend to approximate the colouring to that of some
specimens of _Lagopus mutus_ of Scotland, but the prevailing tint is
not grey, as in that species, but brownish-yellow. Young similar to
the adult, with the bands larger; the fore part of the wings, the
primaries, secondary coverts, and abdomen, white.

_Male_, 14-3/4, wing, 8-1/4.

Melville Island. Churchill River.

    Tetrao lagopus, Sabine, Richardson, &c.

    Tetrao (Lagopus) mutus, Ptarmigan, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 350.

    Common Ptarmigan, Tetrao mutus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 196.


303. 3. Lagopus rupestris, Gmel. Rock Ptarmigan.

     Plate CCCLXVIII. Male and Female. Plate CCCCXVIII. Fig. 1.

Bill very short, thick, convex (stronger than that of _L.
americanus_), with the ridges on the lower mandible faint; claws
elongated, arched, with the sides sloping, the edges thin and nearly
parallel, the tip narrowed, (broader than in _L. albus_). Tail short,
slightly rounded, of fourteen feathers, independently of the long
incumbent coverts. Bill black, claws dusky, with the edges and tip
inclining to yellowish-grey. In winter, the plumage white, excepting
the shafts of the primaries, which are brownish-black, and the
tail-feathers, which are black, narrowly tipped with white, and with
the base of the same colour. In summer, the plumage variegated with
black, reddish-yellow, and white; the feathers being chiefly of the
first colour, transversely and irregularly banded with reddish-yellow,
and terminally margined with white; lower parts more broadly and
regularly barred with brownish-black and light reddish-yellow; edge of
wing, alula, primary coverts, nearly all the secondary coverts,
primaries, and outer secondaries white, as are the lower surface of
the wing, the axillars, and some of the feathers on the abdomen, as
well as those on the feet, the latter tinged with yellowish; shafts of
primaries brownish-black; tail as in winter, but with the lateral
feather white on a great part of the outer web. Female similar, with
the bands broader.

_Male_, 13-1/2, wing, 7-10/12.

Breeds from Labrador to the Arctic Seas. Rocky Mountains. Abundant.
Migratory.

    Tetrao (Lagopus) rupestris, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 354.

    Rock Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. i. p. 610.

    Rock Grouse, Tetrao rupestris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 483.


304. 4. Lagopus leucurus, Swains. White-tailed Ptarmigan.

     Plate CCCCXVIII. Adult in winter.

Claws slightly arched, depressed, broad, thin-edged, rather pointed;
tail rather short, slightly rounded, of fourteen feathers. Plumage in
winter entirely pure white. In summer, the head and neck barred with
blackish-brown and brownish-white; upper parts blackish-brown, barred
with reddish-yellow; breast, belly, and sides pale reddish-yellow,
broadly barred with blackish-brown; tail white.

    Tetrao (Lagopus) leucurus, White-tailed Grouse, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii, p. 356.

    White-tailed Grouse, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 612.

    White-tailed Grouse, Tetrao leucurus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        200.



FAMILY XXXIII. RALLINÆ. RAILS.


Bill moderately stout, or slender, short or elongated, compressed,
with the point narrow, but obtuse. Head small, oblong, compressed;
neck of moderate length; body large, much compressed. Feet large;
tibia bare at the lower part; tarsus stout, compressed, with very
broad anterior scutella; toes very long, scutellate, marginate; hind
toe rather short. Claws long, little arched, compressed, acute.
Plumage blended, but stiffish. Wings short, convex, rounded, tail very
short, rounded. Tongue slender, channelled above, tapering to a
bristly point; œsophagus long, rather narrow; proventriculus
bulbiform; stomach roundish, compressed, very muscular, with the
lateral and inferior muscles prominent, the epithelium dense, with two
flattish grinding surfaces; intestine long, of moderate width; cœca
long, narrowed toward the base; cloaca globular. Trachea simple,
flattened, with a pair of slender inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest
bulky, and rudely constructed, on the ground, or supported by grass,
or on trees. Eggs numerous, oblong. Young covered with stiffish black
down.



GENUS I. GALLINULA, Briss. GALLINULE.


Bill as long as the head, nearly straight, stout, deep, compressed,
tapering; upper mandible with a soft ovate or oblong tumid plate at
the base, extending over the forehead, the dorsal line beyond this
slightly declinate, toward the tip arcuate, the ridge gradually
narrowed to the middle, then slightly enlarged, the sides nearly
erect, the edges sharp, the notches obsolete, the tip rather obtuse;
nasal sinus extending nearly to the middle; lower mandible with the
angle rather long and narrow, the dorsal line ascending, nearly
straight, the sides nearly erect, the tip narrow. Nostrils submedial,
lateral, oblong, direct. Head small, oblong, compressed; neck of
moderate length; body large, much compressed. Feet large; tibia bare
at the lower part; tarsus stout, of moderate length, compressed, with
very broad anterior scutella; hind toe rather small and slender;
anterior toes very long, fourth longer than second, third considerably
longer, all scutellate. Claws very long, slender, slightly arched,
much compressed, tapering to a very acute point. Plumage blended, form
and wings of moderate length, broad, convex, with the second and third
quills longest; tail very short, much rounded, of twelve weak
feathers; lower coverts almost as long.


305. 1. Gallinula Martinica, Linn. Purple Gallinule.

     Plate CCCV. Male.

Frontal plate blue; bill carmine, tipped with yellow; head, fore part
of neck, and breast, purplish-blue; abdomen and tibial feathers dusky;
sides and lower wing-coverts green; lower tail-coverts white; upper
parts olivaceous green; sides of neck, and outer part of wings
greenish-blue.

_Male_, 13-1/2, 21-1/2.

Breeds and resides from Texas to South Carolina. Stragglers seen as
far as Massachusetts. Up the Mississippi to Memphis. Rather common in
Louisiana and Florida.

    Purple Gallinule, Gallinula Porphyrio, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix.
        p. 67.

    Gallinula martinica, Bonap. Syn. p. 336.

    Purple Gallinule, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 221.

    Purple Gallinule, Gallinula martinica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 37.


306. 2. Gallinula Chloropus, Linn. Common Gallinule.

     Plate CCXLIV.

Frontal plate, eyes, ring on tibiæ, and bill carmine, the latter
tipped with yellow; head, neck, and lower parts, greyish-black;
abdomen greyish-yellow; lower tail-coverts and some streaks on the
sides, with the edge of the wing, and the outer web of the first quill
white; upper parts brownish-olive; quills and tail dusky. Female
similar, with the frontal plate small. Young similar, but with the
bill dull green, and the breast faintly barred with whitish.

_Male_, 14, 22.

From Texas to South Carolina, common, and resident. Stragglers are
seen as far as Massachusetts. Abundant in Louisiana and Florida. Up
the Mississippi to Natchez. Fresh water.

    Gallinula galeata, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 128.

    Florida Gallinule, Gallinula galeata, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        223.

    Common Gallinule, Gallinula Chloropus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 330.



GENUS II. FULICA, Linn. COOT.


Bill as long as the head, nearly straight, stout, deep, compressed,
tapering; upper mandible with a soft ovate or oblong tumid plate at
the base, extending over the forehead, the dorsal line declinate,
toward the tip arcuate, the ridge narrowed to the middle, then
slightly enlarged, the sides nearly erect, the edges sharp, the
notches obsolete, the tip rather obtuse; nasal sinus extending nearly
to the middle; lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow,
the dorsal line ascending, nearly straight, the sides nearly erect,
the tip narrow. Nostrils submedial, lateral, linear, direct. Head
small, oblong, compressed; neck of moderate length, slender; body
full, compressed. Feet large; tibia bare at the lower part; tarsus
stout, of moderate length, compressed, with very broad anterior
scutella; hind toe rather small and slender; anterior toes very long,
their margins dilated into flat lobes, the hind toe with a single
inferior lobe. Claws of moderate length, slightly arched, much
compressed, acute. Plumage, blended, soft. Wings short, broad, convex,
with the second quill longest. Tail very short, much rounded, of
twelve weak feathers; lower coverts nearly as long. Gizzard extremely
muscular; cœca very long, being a fifth part of the length of the
intestine.


307. 1. Fulica Americana, Gmel. American Coot.--Mud-Hen.

     Plate CCXXXIX.

Frontal plate and bill white, the latter dusky toward the end; head
and neck greyish-black, upper parts deep bluish-grey, with an
olivaceous tinge on the scapulars and inner secondaries; quills
greyish-brown, tail brownish-black; breast and abdomen dull
bluish-grey, lighter behind; edge of wing, outer margin of first
quill, tips of outer secondaries, and lower tail-coverts white. Female
of a lighter tint, with the frontal plate smaller.

_Male_, 13-10/12, 25.

From Texas to the northern parts of Maine. Exceedingly abundant in
Louisiana and the Floridas, during winter and spring, where some
remain to breed. The greater number breed in Maine and New Brunswick,
as well as along the Great Lakes. Rare in the Middle Atlantic
districts. Columbia River.

    Common Coot, Fulica atra, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix. p. 61.

    Fulica americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 338.

    Cinereous Coot, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 229.

    American Coot, Fulica americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        291; v. v. p. 568.



GENUS III. ORTYGOMETRA, Leach. CRAKE-GALLINULE.


Bill shorter than the head, rather stout, deep, compressed, tapering;
upper mandible with the dorsal line nearly straight, being slightly
convex toward the end, the ridge flattish for a short space at the
base, very slightly extended on the forehead, narrow in the rest of
its extent, the sides nearly erect, the edges sharp, with a slight
sinus close to the rather obtuse tip; nasal groove broad and extending
to two-thirds; lower mandible with the angle long and narrow, the
dorsal line ascending, nearly straight, the sides erect, the tip
narrowed. Nostrils linear, lateral, submedial. Head rather small,
oblong, compressed; neck of moderate length; body rather slender, much
compressed. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tibia bare below;
tarsus of ordinary length, compressed, with broad anterior scutella;
hind toe short and slender, anterior toes very long, compressed,
scutella, the outer slightly longer than the inner. Claws of moderate
length, slender, extremely compressed, tapering to a fine point.
Plumage rather stiff, but blended; feathers of the forehead with the
shaft enlarged. Wings short and broad, somewhat convex, the second
quill longest. Tail extremely short, much rounded, of twelve weak
feathers. Digestive organs as in Gallinula.


308. 1. Ortygometra Carolinus, Linn. Carolina Crake-Gallinule.--Sora
Rail.

     Plate CCXXXIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Upper parts olive-brown, the feathers brownish-black in the centre,
those on the back with two marginal lines of white; a broad band
surrounding the base of the bill, the central part of the crown, the
chin, and the middle of the fore neck in its whole length,
brownish-black; a band over the eye, cheeks, and sides of neck
ash-grey; middle of breast and abdomen greyish-white; sides
olivaceous, barred with brownish-black and white; lower tail-coverts
chiefly white, the feathers over them reddish-yellow. Female similar,
but duller. Young like the female, but without black on the head or
throat.

_Male_, 9-3/4, 14.

Passes across the United States, both by the interior and along the
coast. Some breed in New Jersey. Rarely seen east of Massachusetts.
Extremely abundant in autumn on the Delaware, and other streams or
lakes furnished with wild oats. A few reside in Florida and Louisiana
in winter.

    Rail, Rallus carolinus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 24.

    Rallus carolinus, Bonap. Syn. p. 334.

    Carolina Rail, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 208.

    Sora Rail, Rallus carolinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 251;
        v. v. p. 572.


309. 2. Ortygometra Noveboracensis, Lath. Yellow-breasted
Crake-Gallinule.--Yellow-breasted Rail.

Upper parts and sides brownish-black, longitudinally streaked with
yellow, and transversely barred with white; a broad band of
reddish-yellow over the eye; loral space and a short band behind the
eye blackish-brown, fore part of neck and breast light reddish-yellow,
each feather terminally margined with brown; axillaries, lower
wing-coverts, and middle of abdomen, white; lower tail-coverts
brownish-red, with faint whitish dots.

_Male_, 7-3/4, 12-1/4.

Common in Lower Louisiana and Florida, where it breeds. Stragglers go
as far as Hudson's Bay. Occasionally met with far in the interior.
Prefers fresh water.

    Rallus noveboracensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 335.

    Rallus noveboracensis, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p. 136.

    Yellow-breasted Rail, Rallus noveboracensis, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 402.

    Yellow-breasted Rail, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 402.

    Yellow-breasted Rail, Rallus noveboracensis. Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 25.


310. 3. Ortygometra Jamaicensis, Briss. Least Crake-Gallinule.

     Plate CCCXLIX. Adult and Young.

Head and lower parts dark purplish-grey, approaching to black, the
sides and lower wing-coverts and abdomen, barred with greyish-white;
hind neck and fore part of back dark chestnut; the rest of the upper
parts greyish-black tinged with brown, and transversely barred with
white; the wings inclining to reddish-brown.

_Male_, 6, wing, 3-7/8.

From Louisiana to New Jersey, in fresh-water meadows and marshes,
difficult of access. Migratory.

    Rallus jamaicensis, Briss. Suppl. p. 140.

    Least Water Rail, Rallus jamaicensis. Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 359.



GENUS IV. RALLUS, Linn. RAIL.


Bill much longer than the head, slender, compressed, very slightly
decurved, high at the base; upper mandible with the dorsal line almost
straight, until towards the end, where it is slightly curved, the
ridge a little flattened at the base, and extending slightly on the
forehead, convex toward the end, nasal sinus forming a groove
extending to two-thirds, the sides nearly erect, the edges slightly
inflected, the notches very slight, the tip rather obtuse; lower
mandible with the angle very long and extremely narrow, the dorsal
line almost straight, the sides erect and a little convex, the edges
involute, the tip narrowed but obtuse. Nostrils lateral, subbasal,
linear. Head, small, oblong, much compressed; neck long and slender;
body slender, much compressed. Feet long; tibia, bare below; tarsus
rather long, stout, compressed anteriorly covered with broad scutella;
hind toe very small and tender, fourth little longer than second,
anterior toes very long, scutellate, compressed. Claws of moderate
length, arched, slender, much compressed, acute. Plumage rather
stiff; feathers of the forehead with the shaft enlarged, and extended
beyond the tip. Wings very short and broad; third quill longest. Tail
very short, much rounded, of twelve feeble rounded feathers, scarcely
longer than the coverts.


311. 1. Rallus elegans, Aud. Great Red-breasted Rail.--Fresh-water
Marsh-Hen.

     Plate CCIII. Male and Young.

Upper part of head and hind neck dull brown; a brownish-orange line
over the eye; lower eyelid white; loral space and band behind the eye
dusky; upper parts of the body streaked with brownish-black and light
olive-brown, the two sides of each feather being of the latter colour;
wing-coverts dull chestnut; most of the irregularly tipped with white
primaries deep olive-brown; secondaries and tail-feathers like the
back; sides and fore part of neck, with the breast, bright
orange-brown; sides of the body and lower wing-coverts undulated with
deep brown and greyish-white; tibial feathers pale greyish-brown,
faintly barred with darker, as is the hind part of the abdomen; lower
tail-coverts white, each with a blackish-brown spot near the end,
those in the middle barred with black and white. Female and young
similar, but with the tints duller. Iris bright red.

_Male_, 19, 25. _Female_, 18, 24.

From Texas to New Jersey, more common from Louisiana to North
Carolina. Inland swamps and marshes. Once met with in Kentucky.

    Great Red-breasted Rail, Rallus elegans, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 27.


312. 2. Rallus crepitans, Gmel. Clapper Rail.--Salt-water Marsh-hen.

     Plate CCIV. Male and Female.

Upper part of head and hind neck olivaceous brown; a brownish-orange
line from the bill to the eye; lower eyelid white; loral space,
cheeks, and part of the sides of the neck bluish-grey; upper parts of
the body streaked with greenish-olive and light grey, the two sides of
each feather being of the latter colour; wing-coverts dull olive,
tinged with grey, some of them with slight irregular whitish markings;
primaries olive-brown, secondaries and tail-feathers like the back;
upper part of throat yellowish-white, edged on either side with pale
yellowish-brown; sides and fore part of neck bluish-grey, tinged with
pale yellowish-brown; the fore part of the breast of the latter
colour; lower wing-coverts, sides, hind part of abdomen, and middle
lower tail-coverts undulated with deep greyish-brown and
greyish-white; lateral tail-coverts with the outer webs white; tibial
feathers similarly barred, but paler; middle of abdomen greyish-white;
iris pale yellow. Female with the tints duller.

_Male_, 15, 20-3/4. _Female_, 14, 19-1/4.

Exceedingly abundant from Texas to New Jersey, breeding in all
salt-water marshes. Few proceed eastward beyond Long Island.
Constantly resident from the Carolinas southward. Not inland.

    Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        112; but not the figure, which is that of R. elegans.

    Clapper Rail, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 201.

    Clapper Rail or Salt-water Marsh-Hen, Rallus crepitans, Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 33; v. v. p. 570.


313. 3. Rallus Virginianus, Linn. Virginian Rail.

     Plate CCV. Male, Female, and Young.

Upper parts deep brownish-black, streaked with live olive-brown; sides
of the head dull bluish-grey, loral space of a deeper tint; a
brownish-orange line to the eye; quills and primary coverts;
blackish-brown; smaller coverts dark chestnut; throat reddish-white;
fore neck and breast bright orange-brown, approaching to
yellowish-red; sides, abdomen, and lower wing-coverts barred with
brownish-black and white, the bands of the latter narrower; tibial
feathers dusky anteriorly, light reddish behind; lower tail-coverts
with a central brownish-black spot, their edges white, the tips pale
reddish. Female and young similar, but with somewhat duller tints.

_Male_, 10-1/2, 14-1/4. _Female_, 9-1/4.

Distributed through the country, and along the Atlantic shores, from
Texas to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; breeding in all the districts.
Frequents fresh and salt water. Returns southward in autumn, when
great numbers spend the winter from Carolina to Louisiana.

    Virginian Rail, Rallus virginianus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 109.

    Rallus virginianus, Bonap. Syn. p. 334.

    Lesser Clapper Rail, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 205.

    Virginian Rail, Rallus virginianus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        41; v. v. p. 573.



GENUS V. ARAMUS, Vieill. COURLAN.


Bill long, being double the length of the head, rather slender, but
strong, much compressed, straight, its breadth less before the
nostrils, than towards the point; upper mandible with the dorsal line
straight until towards the end, then slightly arcuato-declinate, the
ridge convex in its whole length, the sides nearly erect, more convex
toward the extremity, the tip blunted, the edges broad and obtuse for
half their length, sharp but thick in the rest of their extent; lower
mandible slightly ascending at the base, then direct, much compressed
toward the tip, which is acute, the angle long and very narrow, the
dorsal line slightly convex, the edges obtuse, becoming sharp towards
the end; nasal groove nearly half the length of the bill. Nostrils
direct, linear, long. Head rather small, oblong, compressed; neck long
and slender; body ovato-oblong, much compressed. Feet very long,
rather stout; tibia bare in its lower half; tarsus long, compressed,
anteriorly broadly scutellate; toes long, rather slender; hind toe
small; fourth considerably longer than second; anterior toes divided
to the base, scutellate. Claws of moderate length, very slightly
arched, compressed, tapering to a point. Plumage rather compact above,
blended beneath. Wings of moderate length, very broad, concave,
rounded; first short, falciform, with the inner web broader toward the
end; fourth quill longest; inner secondaries much elongated. Tail
short, broad, convex, rounded, of twelve broad rounded feathers.
Digestive organs as in the Rails and Gallinules.


314. 1. Aramus scolopaceus, Vieill. Scolopaceous Courlan.

     Plate CCCLXXVII. Male.

Bill greenish-yellow; feet leaden-grey; plumage chocolate-brown, the
upper parts glossed, with purple and brown reflections; fore part of
the head paler, inclining to grey, each feather with a greyish-white
central line; sides of the head and throat still lighter, and a small
portion of the throat whitish, these parts being streaked with
greyish-brown and greyish-white; lower eyelid white; hind part and
sides of neck marked with elliptical spots of white in regular series,
there being one on each feather, some of them extending forwards to
the posterior angle of the eye; some of the feathers on the middle of
the breast and the lower wing-coverts similarly marked with lanceolate
white spots; quills and tail glossy blackish-purple. Female somewhat
less, but similar. Young, when fledged, of a much lighter tint; head
and fore neck brownish-grey; excepting the quills, primary coverts,
tail-feathers, and rump, all the plumage marked with spots of white;
those on the neck elongated, on the back, wings, and breast
lanceolate.

_Male_, 25-3/4, 41. _Female_, 25, 42. _Young_, 23.

Confined to the Everglades and central parts of Florida, where it is
resident, but rather rare. Accidental on the Florida Keys.

    Aramus scolopaceus, Bonap. Syn. p. 39.

    Scolopaceous Courlan, Aramus scolopaceus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 111.

    Scolopaceous Courlan, Aramus scolopaceus, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        68.

    Scolopaceous Courlan, Aramus scolopaceus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 543.



FAMILY XXXIV. GRUINÆ. CRANES.


Bill about the length of the head, straight, depressed at the base,
compressed toward the end, rather obtuse. Nostrils subbasal, lateral
oblong. Head rather small, oblong; neck long; body large, compressed.
Legs long and slender; tibia bare at the lower part; tarsus somewhat
compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes rather long, first short and
somewhat elevated; claws obtuse. Plumage full and rather compact.
Wings broad, convex, the inner secondaries elongated and decurved;
tail short, rounded.



GENUS I. GRUS, Briss. CRANE.


Bill longer than the head, straight, rather slender, but strong,
compressed, obtusely pointed; upper mandible with the dorsal line
nearly straight, a little concave at the middle, slightly declinate
toward the tip, the ridge flat and rather broad as far as the middle,
the sides sloping, towards the end convex; the nasal sinus narrow,
bare, and extending to nearly two-thirds, the edges direct, thick;
lower mandible with the angle narrow and very long, the sides
perpendicular at the base, the edges thick, the tip narrow and obtuse.
Nostrils subbasal, lateral, oblong, large, pervious. Head small,
compressed; neck very long and slender; body very large, but
compressed. Feet very long; tibia bare to a great extent; tarsus long,
stout, moderately compressed, anteriorly covered with broad decurved
scutella; toes stout, scutellate, of moderate length, marginate, the
first very small and elevated, the fourth webbed at the base. Claws of
moderate size, strong, considerably curved, rather compressed,
blunted. Plumage imbricated; upper part of head bare. Wings ample, the
second, third, and fourth longest, inner secondaries and their coverts
curved downwards. Tail short, rounded, of twelve broad, rounded
feathers.


315. 1. Grus Americana, Forster. Whooping Crane.--Sand-hill Crane.
White Crane. Blue Crane. Brown Crane.

     Plate CCXXVI. Male. Plate CCLXI. Young.

Adult with the bill dusky green, the feet black, the bare part of the
head carmine, the plumage pure white, except the alula, primaries, and
primary coverts, which are brownish-black. Young with the bill and
feet brownish-black, the bare part of the head carmine, but less
extended, the plumage bluish-grey, the feathers margined with
yellowish-brown, chin and sides of head greyish-white, primary quills
and coverts dark brown towards the end, with brownish-white shafts.

_Male_, 54, 92.

From Texas to North Carolina during autumn and winter, and across to
the Rocky Mountains. Breeds from Upper California northward to the
Arctic Regions, from which it removes southward early in autumn.
Abundant in Georgia and Florida, and from thence to Texas.

    Whooping Crane, Ardea Americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        20.

    Grus Americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 302.

    Grus Americana, Whooping Crane, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 372. Adult.

    Grus canadensis, Brown Crane, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 273.

    Whooping Crane, Grus Americana, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 34.
        Adult.

    Brown Crane, Grus canadensis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 38. Young.

    Whooping Crane, Grus Americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        202, Adult; p. 441, Young.



FAMILY XXXV. CHARADRIINÆ. PLOVERS.


Bill short, straight, subcylindrical, obtusely pointed; upper
mandible, with its dorsal line straight for half its length,
afterwards convex; nasal groove bare, extended along two-thirds of the
length of the bill. Head of moderate size, rather compressed, rounded
in front. Eyes large. Neck rather short; body ovate, rather full.
Plumage soft, blended, somewhat compact above; wings long, pointed,
with the first quill longest. Tail of moderate length, somewhat
rounded, or with the middle feathers projecting, of twelve feathers.
Œsophagus of moderate width; stomach roundish, compressed, very
muscular, with the epithelium dense and rugous; intestine rather long,
and of moderate width; with rather long cœca. A single pair of
inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest on the ground, shallow; eggs
generally four, large, pyriform, spotted. Young densely covered with
down, and able to walk immediately after birth.



GENUS I. CHARADRIUS, Linn. PLOVER.


Bill short, or as long as the head, straight, rather stout, somewhat
compressed, pointed; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight, and
slightly declinate for at least half its length, then bulging a
little, and arched to the tip, which is rather acute, the sides flat
and sloping at the base, convex towards the end, where the edges are
sharp and inclinate; nasal groove extended to half the length, and
bare; lower mandible with the angle rather long and narrow, the sides
at the base erect and nearly flat, the dorsal line ascending and
slightly convex, the edges sharp and involute towards the tip, which
is narrow and rather pointed. Nostrils subbasal, linear, open, and
pervious. Eyes rather large. Head of moderate size, roundish, the
forehead much rounded; neck rather short; body ovate, rather full.
Feet rather long, slender; tibia bare for a considerable space; tarsus
rather compressed, covered all round with reticulated hexagonal
scales; toes of moderate length, slender, scutellate, second shorter
than fourth, first wanting or rudimentary; anterior toes broadly
marginate, webbed at the base. Claws small, compressed, slightly
arched, rather acute. Plumage soft, blended, the feathers broad and
rounded. Wings long and pointed, the primaries tapering, the first
longest; inner secondaries tapering and elongated. Tail rather
short, or of moderate length, rounded, of twelve rounded feathers.
Tongue tapering, grooved above; œsophagus of moderate width;
proventriculus oblong; stomach roundish, very muscular, its lateral
and inferior muscles prominent, epithelium dense, longitudinally
rugous; intestine rather long and of moderate width; cœca rather
long.


316. 1. Charadrius Helveticus, Linn. Black-bellied Plover.--Bull-head.
Ox-eye.

     Plate CCCXXXIV. Male and Young.

An extremely diminutive hind toe; bill and feet black. In summer, the
upper parts variegated with black, yellowish-brown, and white, the
feathers being tipped with the latter; forehead yellowish-white, the
rest of the head and hind neck greyish-white, spotted with dusky; hind
part of rump, upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers white, transversely
barred with brownish-black, the tail tipped with white, and having
four dark bars on the middle feathers, and seven or eight on the outer
webs of the rest; primary quills and coverts brownish-black, the
latter terminally margined with white; shafts of the primaries about
the middle, and part of the inner webs toward the base, white; inner
six with a white patch on the outer web toward the base, and margined
with white externally; outer secondary feathers white at the base, and
margined with the same; inner dusky, with marginal triangular white
spots; a narrow ring round the eye, and a broad longitudinal band on
each side of the neck, together with the abdomen and lower
tail-coverts, white; loral space, cheeks, fore part of neck, breast,
and axillar feathers, black. In winter, the upper parts spotted with
pale yellow, the lower greyish-white, the throat, neck, and sides
streaked with dusky, the axillars black. Young pale brownish-yellow,
mottled with dusky, rump whitish. After the second moult, the upper
parts brownish-black, spotted with white, some of the spots yellow;
fore part and sides of neck and body, greyish-white, mottled with
brownish-grey, the rest of the lower parts white.

_Male_, 11-3/4, 25.

From Texas along the coast to the northern extremity of the Continent.
Breeds from Virginia northward. Not abundant.

    Tringa helvetica and Squatarola, Linn. Syst. Nat p. 250, 252.

    Black-bellied Plover, Charadrius helveticus, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. vii. p. 41. Summer.

    Charadrius helveticus, Bonap. Syn. p. 298.

    Grey Lapwing, Vanellus melanogaster, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 370.

    Black-bellied or Swiss Plover, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 26.

    Black-bellied Plover, Charadrius helveticus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 280.


317. 2. Charadrius marmoratus, Wagler. American Golden Plover.

     Plate CCC. Adult in summer, winter, and spring.

Bill black, feet bluish-grey. In summer the upper part of head, fore
part of back, and scapulars variegated with brownish-black and bright
yellow, the latter in spots along the edges of the feathers; rump with
smaller spots, two on each feather; quills and coverts dark
greyish-brown, secondaries paler, the inner margined with
yellowish-white spots, the smaller coverts spotted with the same;
tail-feathers greyish-brown, faintly banded with paler, the two
central with marginal yellowish spots; a broad band of white across
the forehead and over the eyes, and extending along the side of the
neck; the rest of the lower parts brownish-black, excepting the lower
tail-coverts, which are chiefly white, the lateral banded or spotted
with black, and the axillary and lower wing-coverts, which are light
grey. In winter, the upper parts are blackish-brown, marked with small
yellow spots, the lower parts pale grey, passing behind into
greyish-white, the neck and breast streaked with greyish-brown. This
species, which closely resembles _Charadrius pluvialis_, is
distinguishable by having the tarsus slightly longer, the toes
somewhat shorter, and the axillar feathers always light grey, they
being white in that species, which very probably exists in North
America, although I am not at present in possession of specimens, and
cannot with certainty describe it as belonging to that country.

_Adult_, 10-1/2, 22-3/8.

Migrates southward in autumn and winter in vast flocks, from the
northern regions, resting by the way, both in the interior and along
the coast. Breeds on the Northern Barren Grounds, and islands of the
Arctic Sea.

    Charadrius marmoratus, Wagler, Syst. Avium.

    Golden Plover, Charadrius pluvialis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 71. Winter.

    Charadrius pluvialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 297.

    Charadrius pluvialis, Golden Plover, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 623.

    American Golden Plover, Charadrius marmoratus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 575.


318. 3. Charadrius vociferus, Linn. Kildeer Plover.

     Plate CCXXV. Male and Female.

Tail rather long, much rounded; bill black, feet light greyish-blue,
hind part of tarsus pale flesh-colour; upper part of head, fore part
of back, smaller wing-coverts, and inner secondary quills
brownish-olive; rump orange-red; lower parts white; a brown band from
the base of the bill, under the eye, to the occiput; over this a white
band on the forehead, and extending behind the eye, where it is tinged
with light red; surmounted by a brownish-black band between the eyes;
on the neck two broad rings, the upper white, the lower black,
succeeded by a band of white, and another of black in front;
primaries brownish-black, each with a white mark, linear on the outer,
enlarging on the inner quills; secondaries, excepting the inner,
white, but most of them with a large patch of blackish-brown toward
the end, their tips and most of those of the primaries white, as are
those of the larger coverts. Tail-feathers white at the base,
succeeded by orange, the four middle brown, all with a broad
subterminal band of black, the tips white, those of the middle
feathers pale reddish, the outer on each side white, with three bands
of black on the inner web.

_Male_, 10, 20.

Common. Breeds from Texas to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains,
and in all the central and Atlantic districts, to Massachusetts. Fur
Countries.

    Kildeer Plover, Charadrius vociferus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 73.

    Charadrius vociferus, Bonap. Syn. p. 297.

    Charadrius vociferus, Kildeer Plover, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 368.

    Kildeer Plover, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 22.

    Kildeer Plover, Charadrius vociferus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 191; v. v. p. 577.


319. 4. Charadrius montanus, Townsend. Rocky-mountain Plover.

     Plate CCCL. Female. Male unknown.

Bill black, feet dull yellow. Forehead, a band over the eye, fore part
of neck, and all the rest of the lower surface, white; crown of the
head and nape dark yellowish-brown, sides and hind part of the neck
dull ochre-yellow, which is the prevailing colour on the upper parts,
the feathers being broadly margined with it while their central
portion is greyish-brown; wing-coverts lighter; primary coverts and
quills dusky, their shafts and margins white, that colour becoming
more extended on the inner and on some of the secondaries, so as to
form a conspicuous patch on the wing; inner secondaries like the back;
tail yellowish-brown, tipped with yellowish-white, the two outer
feathers margined with the same.

_Female_, 8-1/4, wing 6-1/8.

Rocky Mountains.

    Charadrius montanus, Towns. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc.
        Philadelphia, v. vii. p. 192.

    Rocky Mountain Plover, Charadrius montanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 362.


320. 5. Charadrius Wilsonius, Ord. Wilson's Plover.

     Plate CCLXXXIV. Male. Plate CCIX. Female.

Bill very large, nearly as long as the head, black; feet
flesh-coloured; upper parts light greyish-brown, lower white; lower
part of forehead, a broad band over the eyes, throat, and a ring round
the neck, white; a band between the eyes, and one on the fore neck,
brownish-black; quills dusky brown, outer webs of inner primaries
white toward the base, most of the quills tipped with white; tail
brown, darker toward the end, the lateral feathers becoming white.
Female similar, but without the black band on the forehead, and having
that on the neck light brown.

_Male_, 7-8/12, 14-1/4.

Common, and breeds from Texas along the coast to Long Island. Resident
in the Southern States.

    Wilson's Plover, Charadrius Wilsonius, Ord. Amer. Orn. v. ix.
        p. 77.

    Charadrius Wilsonius, Bonap. Syn. p. 296.

    Wilson's Plover, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 21.

    Wilson's Plover, Charadrius Wilsonius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 73; v. v. p. 577.


321. 6. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonap. American Ring Plover.

     Plate CCCXXX. Male and Female.

Anterior toes connected by webs of considerable extent; bill small,
half the length of the head, reddish-orange, tipped with black; upper
parts greyish-brown tinged with olive, lower white; forehead, loral
space, a band passing below the eye, and a broad ring on the neck,
black; a band between the eyes, throat, and a ring on the neck, white;
quills dusky, darker towards the end, an elongated white spot on the
inner primaries; tips of the secondary coverts, and two or three of
the inner secondaries, with the tips of the rest white; tail-feathers
brown, darker toward the end, tipped with white, enlarging toward the
outer, which is entirely of that colour. Female similar, with the
black bands lighter. Young with the upper parts paler, the feathers
narrowly margined with dusky and dull yellow, the black bands on the
head wanting, that on the fore neck brown.

_Male_, 7-1/4, 14.

From Texas to the Arctic Regions, after passing through the interior,
as well as along the Atlantic shores. Breeds in Labrador and the Fur
Countries. Many spend the winter in the Floridas.

    Ring Plover, Tringa Hiaticula, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 65.

    Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 296.

    American Ring Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 367.

    Semipalmated Ringed Plover, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 21.

    American Ringed Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 256; v. v. p. 579.


322. 7. Charadrius melodus, Ord. Piping Plover.

     Plate CCXX. Male and Female.

Bill scarcely half the length of the head, orange, with the end black;
upper parts pale brownish-grey, lower part of forehead, sides of the
face, and all the lower parts white; a black band across the upper
part of the forehead, and a ring of the same on the lower part of the
neck, broad on the sides, but narrow above and below, where it is
formed merely by the tips of some of the feathers; above this is a
white band on the hind neck; primaries dusky; a white band on the
wing, narrow on the outer primaries, and enlarging so as to include
the whole of some of the inner secondaries; secondary coverts also
tipped with white; tail white, all the feathers, except the lateral,
dusky toward the end. Young paler, the feathers of the upper parts
edged with faint brown and yellowish; the black bands wanting.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 15-1/2.

From Texas, along the whole coast, to the Magdeleine Islands, Gulf of
St Lawrence, breeding everywhere. Common. Great numbers spend the
winter from South Carolina to the mouths of the Mississippi.

    Ring Plover, Charadrius Hiaticula, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p.
        30.

    Charadrius melodus, Ord., Bonap. Syn. p. 296.

    Piping Ring Plover, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 18.

    Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        154; v. v. p. 578.



GENUS II. APHRIZA, Aud. SURF-BIRD.


Bill a little shorter than the head, rather stout, compressed,
tapering, straightish, being recurvate in a slight degree; upper
mandible with the dorsal line straight, and a little declinate as far
as the middle, then concave, and towards the end convex, the nasal
grooves extending to near the end, the ridge rather broad and
flattened, the tip compressed and bluntish; lower mandible with the
angle rather long and narrow, the dorsal line ascending, and slightly
convex, the sides grooved for half their length, convex toward the
end, the tip narrowed, but blunt. Nostrils subbasal, linear, near the
margin. Head rather small, ovate, rounded in front; neck of ordinary
length; body rather full. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tibia
bare at the lower part, and reticulated; tarsus roundish, with small
angular scales all round, those on the fore part larger; toes four,
with numerous scutella, the first very small, and placed higher, the
anterior toes free to the base, distinctly margined on both edges,
flat beneath, the inner considerably shorter than the outer. Claws
rather small, curved, compressed, blunted. Plumage full, soft, rather
dense, on the neck and lower parts blended. Wings very long, narrow,
and pointed; first primary longest, inner secondaries much elongated.
Tail rather short, even, of twelve moderately broad feathers. Name
from [Greek: Aphros], foam; and [Greek: xaô], to live.


323. 1. Aphriza Townsendii, Aud. Townsend's Surf-Bird.

     Plate CCCCXXVIII. Female.

Bill dusky, toward the base orange, feet bluish-green; upper parts
blackish-grey; quills greyish-black; a broad band of white on the
wing, occupying the tips of the primary coverts; the terminal third of
the secondary coverts, the bases, and more or less of the margins and
tips of the quills, several of the inner secondaries having only a
streak of dusky on the inner web; shafts of quills also white, as are
some of the feathers of the rump, the upper tail-coverts, and the
basal half of the tail, of which the rest is black, the feathers
narrowly edged with white at the end; throat greyish-white; cheeks,
sides, and fore part of neck, and anterior part of breast, dull grey,
of a lighter tint than the back; the rest of the lower parts white,
with small longitudinal oblong dark grey streaks; axillaries and lower
wing-coverts white.

_Female_, 11; wing, 7-1/2.

Cape Disappointment, Columbia River.

    Townsend's Surf-Bird, Aphriza Townsendi, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 249.



GENUS III. STREPSILAS, Illiger. TURNSTONE.


Bill a little shorter than the head, rather stout, compressed,
tapering, straightish, being recurvate in a slight degree; upper
mandible with the dorsal line very slightly concave, the nasal groove
extending to the middle, the sides beyond it sloping, the tip
depressed and blunted; lower mandible with the angle short, the dorsal
line ascending and slightly convex, the sides convex, the edges sharp,
the tip depressed and blunted. Nostrils subbasal, linear-oblong,
pervious. Head rather small, ovate; neck of ordinary length; body
rather full. Feet of moderate length, rather stout; tibia bare at the
lower part, and covered with reticulated scales; tarsus roundish, with
numerous broad anterior scutella; toes four, the first very small and
elevated, anterior toes free to the base, distinctly margined, the
inner a little shorter than the outer. Claws rather small, arched,
compressed, blunted. Plumage full, soft, rather dense, and glossy.
Wings long, pointed, of moderate breadth, first quill longest, inner
secondaries elongated. Tail rather short, slightly rounded, of twelve
moderately broad feathers.


324. 1. Strepsilas Interpres, Linn. Turnstone.

     Plate CCCIV. Summer and winter plumage.

Adult in summer with the bill black, feet deep orange; plumage varied
with white, black, brown, and red; upper parts of the head and nape
streaked with black and reddish-white; a broad band of white crossing
the forehead, passing over the eyes, and down the sides of the neck,
the hind part of which is reddish-white, faintly mottled with dusky; a
frontal band of black curving downwards before the eye, enclosing a
white patch on the lore, and meeting another black band glossed with
blue, which proceeds down the neck, from the base of the lower
mandible, enlarging behind the ear, covering the whole anterior part
of the neck, and passing along the shoulders over the scapulars; the
throat, hind part of the back, outer scapulars, upper tail-coverts,
and under parts of body and wings, white; anterior smaller,
wing-coverts dusky, the rest bright chestnut or brownish-orange, as
are the outer webs of the inner tertiaries; alula, primary coverts,
outer secondary coverts and quills blackish-brown, the inner webs
becoming white towards the base; a broad band of white across the
wing, including the bases of the primary quills, excepting the outer
four, and the ends of the secondary coverts; shafts of primaries
white; tail white, with a broad blackish-brown band towards the end,
broader in the middle, the tips white; a dusky band crossing the rump.
In winter, the throat, lower parts, middle of the back, upper
tail-coverts, and band across the wing, white, as in summer; tail and
quills also similarly coloured, but the inner secondaries destitute of
red, of which there are no traces on the upper parts, they being of a
dark greyish-brown colours, tipped or margined with paler; outer edges
of outer scapulars, and some of the smaller wing-coverts, white; on
the sides and fore part of the neck, the feathers blackish.

_Male_, 9, 18-3/4.

Not uncommon along the shores of the Southern States during winter,
though the greater number remove much farther south. Breeds in high
northern latitudes, Hudson's Bay, and shores of Arctic Seas. Never in
the interior.

    Turnstone, Tringa Interpres, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 32.

    Strepsilas Interpres, Bonap. Syn. p. 299.

    Strepsilas Interpres, Turnstone, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 371.

    Turnstone or Sea Dotterel, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 30.

    Turnstone, Strepsilas Interpres, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 31.



GENUS IV. HÆMATOPUS. OYSTER-CATCHER.


Bill long, slender, straight, or slightly recurvate, higher than broad
at the base, extremely compressed toward the end; upper mandible with
the dorsal line straight and slightly sloping at the base, somewhat
convex beyond the nostrils, then straight and sloping to the point,
the ridge broad and flattened as far as the prominence, afterwards
extremely narrow, the sides sloping at the base, perpendicular towards
the end, the edges rather sharp, the tip abrupt and wedge shaped;
nasal groove long, bare; lower mandible with the angle of moderate
length, the dorsal line ascending and slightly convex, the sides
erect, the edges thin, the tip abrupt and wedged. Nostrils subbasal,
linear, near the margin. Head of moderate size, ovate, the forehead
rounded; neck of moderate length; body compact. Feet of moderate
length, rather stout; tibia bare for about a fourth of its length;
tarsus slightly compressed, covered all round with hexagonal scales;
toes of moderate length, stout, marginate, flat beneath, webbed at the
base, the outer considerably longer than the inner, the first wanting.
Claws rather small, arched, moderately compressed, obtuse. Plumage
generally blended, on the back compact. Wings long, pointed, the first
quill longest. Tail short, nearly even, of twelve feathers. Tongue
short, triangular, fleshy; œsophagus dilated into a pretty large
crop; stomach oblong, muscular, with the epithelium dense and
longitudinally rugous; intestine long and rather slender; cœca long
and nearly cylindrical; cloaca globular.


325. 1. Hæmatopus palliatus, Temm. American Oyster-catcher.

     Plate CCXXIII. Male.

Bill vermilion, feet very pale flesh-colour; head and neck dull black
tinged with bluish-grey; upper parts light greyish-brown, tinged with
olive, and faintly glossed with reddish-purple; lower eyelid, edge of
wing, tips of secondary coverts, secondary quills except the inner,
pure white; as are the lower parts generally, the rump, and basal half
of the tail; primaries and terminal part of tail brownish-black.

_Male_, 18-1/2, 32-1/2, bill 3-5/8. _Female_, 21, 36.

Breeds from Texas along the coast to New York, again from Maine to
Labrador. Returns south in autumn, spending the winter from Maryland
to West Florida. Rather common.

    Hæmatopus palliatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. v. ii. p. 532.

    Mantled Oyster-catcher, Hæmatopus palliatus, Nutt. Man. v. ii.
        p. 15.

    American Oyster-catcher, Hæmatopus palliatus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 181; v. v. p. 580.


326. 2. Hæmatopus Bachmanii, Aud. Bachman's Oyster-catcher.

     Plate CCCCXXVII. Fig. 1. Male.

Bill vermilion, fading to yellow on the worn parts towards the
end; feet white, slightly tinged with flesh-colour; plumage
chocolate-brown, darker and tinged with bluish-grey on the head and
neck; the under surface of the quills lighter.

_Male_, 17-1/2, wing 10; bill 2-3/4.

North-west coast, Regent's Sound, and about the mouth of the Columbia
River. Rather common. Migratory.

    Bachman's Oyster-catcher, Hæmatopus Bachmani, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 245.


327. 3. Hæmatopus Townsendii, Aud. Townsend's Oyster-catcher.

     Plate CCCCXXVII. Fig. 2. Female.

Bill vermilion, paler toward the end; feet blood-red; plumage
chocolate-brown, darker and tinged with bluish-grey on the head, neck,
and breast; under surface of quills light brownish-grey, with the
shafts whitish; many of the wing-coverts narrowly tipped with
brownish-white.

_Female_, 20; wing 11; bill 3-2/12.

Coast of California, and along the shores of the North Pacific,
southward and northward. Rather common. Migratory.

    Townsend's Oyster-catcher, Hæmatopus Townsendi, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 247.



FAMILY XXXVI. SCOLOPACINÆ. SNIPES.


Bill longer than the head, subulate, slender, straight, or recurved,
or decurved; upper mandible with the nasal groove very long, the
edges flattened or rounded, the tip generally rather obtuse; lower
mandible with the angle extremely long and narrow, the sides
longitudinally grooved. Nostrils basal, linear, small. Head rather
small, oblong, anteriorly rounded; neck of moderate length or long;
body ovate, deep. Legs generally long, slender; tarsus long,
compressed, scutellate; toes generally four, first small, sometimes
wanting; anterior toes of moderate length, slender. Claws small,
arched, compressed, rather acute. Wings long, pointed, with the first
quill longest, and the inner secondaries tapering and much elongated;
tail rather short, of twelve feathers. Tongue long, slender, trigonal,
pointed; œsophagus of moderate width, stomach oblong or roundish,
moderately muscular, with dense rugous epithelium; intestine long, of
moderate width; cœca rather long, cylindrical, contracted at the
base. Trachea flattened, with a single pair of inferior laryngeal
muscles.



GENUS I. TRINGA, Linn. SANDPIPER.


Bill little longer than the head, slender, straight, compressed,
tapering, with the tip a little enlarged and blunt; upper mandible
with the dorsal line straight and slightly declinate, the ridge narrow
and flattened until towards the end, when it becomes considerably
broader, the sides sloping, the tip convex above and ending in a blunt
point, the edges thick and flattened; nasal groove extending to near
the tip; lower mandible with the angle long and very narrow, the
dorsal line straight, the sides sloping outwards, with a long narrow
groove, the tip a little broader, but tapering. Head rather small,
oblong, compressed; neck of ordinary length; body rather full. Feet
rather long, slender; tibia bare a third part of its length; tarsus
anteriorly and posteriorly scutellate; hind toe very small, or
wanting, the rest of moderate length, slender, the fourth slightly
longer than the second, the third longest, all free, broadly
marginate, with numerous scutella. Claws small, slightly arched,
compressed, rather obtuse. Plumage soft, blended, on the back
distinct. Wings very long, pointed; primaries tapering, obtuse, the
first longest; one of the inner secondaries very long. Tail rather
short, nearly even, of twelve feathers.


328. 1. Tringa Bartramia, Wils. Bartramian Sandpiper.--Highland
Plover. Papabote.

     Plate CCCIII. Male and Female.

Bill scarcely longer than the head, slender, slightly deflected at the
end, yellowish-green, with the tip dusky; legs rather long, light
greyish-yellow, toes greenish; upper part of head dark brown, with a
median pale yellowish-brown line, of which colour are the margins of
the feathers; hind part and sides of the neck light yellowish-brown,
streaked with dusky; fore part of neck and breast paler, with
longitudinal pointed dusky streaks, becoming transverse on the breast
and sides; throat and the rest of the lower parts yellowish-white,
except the axillars and lower wing-coverts which are white, banded
with brownish-black; on the upper parts the feathers dark brown
glossed with green, their margins with alternate yellowish-brown and
dusky spots; the hind part of the back darker, without spots; alula,
primary coverts, and primary quills, blackish-brown, the inner webs
crossed by white bands until about an inch from the end; the shaft of
first quill brownish-white, of the rest brown; secondaries
greyish-brown, the outer margins pale brown, with dusky spots, the
inner darker; two middle feathers of tail dark olive, tinged with
grey, transversely barred with black, the last bar arrow-shaped, the
margins cream-coloured; the next feather on each side lighter, and
tinged with yellowish-red, the rest gradually lighter, the outer
white, all barred with black.

_Male_, 12-1/2, 22. _Female_, 13, 22-3/4.

From Texas along the coast to Nova Scotia. Breeds from Maryland
northward to the Saskatchewan. In vast flocks in Louisiana,
Oppelousas, and the Western Prairies, in autumn and spring. Rare in
Kentucky.

    Bartram Sandpiper, Tringa Bartramia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 63.

    Totanus Bartramius, Bonap. Syn. p. 262.

    Totanus Bartramius, Bartram Tatler, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 391.

    Bartramian Tatler, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 169.

    Bartramian Sandpiper, Totanus Bartramius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 24.


329. 2. Tringa Islandica, Linn. Ash-coloured Sandpiper.--Knot.
Grey-back, Red-breasted Sandpiper.

     Plate CCCXV. Summer and winter plumage.

In summer, the bill and feet black, upper part of the head and hind
neck light grey, tinged with buff, and longitudinally streaked or
spotted with dusky; fore part of back and scapulars variegated with
brownish-black and yellowish, and each feather with several spots of
the latter, and tipped with whitish; hind part of the back, rump, and
upper tail-coverts, barred with black; wing-coverts ash-grey, edged
with paler; alula and primary coverts brownish-black, tipped with
white; primaries similar, their shafts, and the outer margins of all,
excepting the first three white, the inner webs toward the base light
grey; secondaries and their coverts grey, margined with white; sides
of head, fore part of neck, breast, and abdomen, rich brownish-orange;
lower tail-coverts and feathers of legs white, each of the former with
a central dusky arrow-shaped or elongated spot; axillaries white,
barred with dusky; lower wing-coverts dusky with white margins. In
winter the bill greenish-black, feet yellowish-green; upper parts deep
ash-grey, each feather margined with whitish; feathers of rump
greyish-white; upper tail-coverts white, barred with dusky; quills and
tail as in summer; a band from the bill over the eye to the hind part
of the head, white; loral space, cheeks, and sides of neck pale grey,
streaked with darker; throat and lower parts white; sides, axillar
feathers, and lower wing-coverts, barred or spotted with dusky; lower
tail-coverts as in summer. Young in autumn like the adult in winter,
but each feather on the upper parts with a narrow margin of white,
within which is a dusky line.

_Male_, 10-1/4, 21.

In autumn and spring ranges along the coast from Texas to Labrador.
Breeds in the Fur Countries, to a very high latitude. Common.

    Ash-coloured Sandpiper, Tringa cinerea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 36. Winter.

    Red-breasted Sandpiper, Tringa rufa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 57. Summer.

    Tringa islandica, Bonap. Syn. p. 350.

    Tringa cinerea, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 387.

    Knot or Ash-coloured Sandpiper, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 125.

    Knot or Ash-coloured Sandpiper, Tringa islandica, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 130.


330. 3. Tringa pectoralis, Bonap. Pectoral Sandpiper.

     Plate CCXCIV. Male and Female.

Bill dull olive-green, dusky towards the point; feet dull
yellowish-green; upper part of head reddish-brown, the central part of
each feather brownish-black; a faint whitish line from the bill to a
little beyond the eye; lores dusky; sides of head and anterior and
lateral parts of neck, with a portion of the breast, light
brownish-grey, with longitudinal dark brown lines; chin, breast, and
abdomen white; feathers of the upper part brownish-black, edged with
reddish-brown, those on the wings lighter; primary quills dusky, outer
secondaries tinged with grey, and narrowly tipped with white, inner
like the back; tail-feathers light brownish-grey, slightly margined
and tipped with white, the two central dark like the back.

_Male_, 9-1/4, 18.

From Nova Scotia to Maryland, along the coast. Rather common.
Migratory. Breeds in the north.

    Tringa pectoralis, Pectoral Sandpiper, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 44.

    Tringa pectoralis, Bonap. Syn. p. 318.

    Pectoral Sandpiper, Tringa pectoralis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        111.

    Pectoral Sandpiper, Tringa pectoralis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 601; v. v. p. 582.


331. 4. Tringa maritima, Brunnich. Purple Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXXXIV. Fig. 1. Adult in summer. Fig. 2. In winter.

Bill deep orange, dusky toward the end; feet light orange. Head
greyish-brown, tinged with purple, its sides and those of the neck
deep purple; back and wings brownish-black, with purple gloss, the
margins of the feathers white; quills brownish-black, their shafts,
the tips of all the secondaries, and the greater part of the middle
ones, white; middle tail-feathers brownish-black, tinged with purple,
the lateral shaded with ash-grey; upper part of throat greyish-white,
fore neck grey; breast, sides, and abdomen white. In winter, the lower
parts are pale grey, the upper parts have the purplish tints much
fainter, the white edgings substituted by dull grey.

_Male_, 9-1/2, 14-3/4.

Abundant from Maine to New York, in autumn and spring. Breeds in
Hudson's Bay, and on Melville Island.

    Tringa maritima, Bonap. Syn. p. 318.

    Tringa maritima, Purple Sandpiper, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 382.

    Purple Sandpiper, Tringa maritima, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        558.


332. 5. Tringa rufescens, Vieill. Buff-breasted Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXV. Male and Female.

Bill not longer than the head, dull olive-green, dusky toward the
point; feet dull yellowish-green; upper parts greyish-yellow, each
feather blackish-brown in the centre; wing-coverts lighter; quills and
coverts light greyish-brown, greenish-black at the end, with the tip
whitish, the inner webs whitish in the greater part of their breadth,
and beautifully dotted with black, in undulating lines; the inner
secondaries like the back; the two middle tail-feathers greyish-brown,
at the end dark brown glossed with green, and slightly margined and
tipped with white, the rest gradually paler to the outer, margined and
tipped with white, within which are two lines of blackish-brown; sides
of the head, fore neck, and sides light yellowish-red, the throat
paler, the sides of the neck and body spotted with brownish-black, the
rest of the lower parts paler and unspotted; lower wing-coverts
white, those near the edge of the wing black in the centre, primary
coverts dotted with black, and having a spot of the same near the end.

_Male_, 8, 18.

Along the Atlantic shores from Maine to New York. Rare. Migratory.
Breeds in high northern latitudes.

    Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tringa rufescens, Nutt. Man. v. ii.
        p. 113.

    Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tringa rufescens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 451.


333. 6. Tringa alpina, Linn. Red-backed Sandpiper.

     Plate CCXC. Adult in summer and winter.

Bill one-third longer than the head, slender, slightly curved toward
the end, and with the feet black. Upper part of the head, back, and
scapulars, chestnut-red, each feather brownish-black in the centre,
and the scapulars barred with the same colour; wing-coverts
greyish-brown, as are the quills; the bases and tips of the
secondaries, and part of the outer webs of the middle primaries white;
tail light brownish-grey, the two middle feathers darker; forehead,
sides of head, and hind neck, pale reddish-grey, streaked with dusky;
fore neck and anterior part of breast greyish-white, streaked with
dusky; on the breast a large patch of brownish-black; abdomen and
lower tail-coverts white, the latter with dusky markings. In winter,
the general colour of the upper parts brownish-grey; the wings and
tail as in summer; throat greyish-white; sides of head and neck, and
fore part of the latter, pale brownish-grey, faintly streaked with
darker, as are the sides; the rest of the lower parts white, with a
few streaks on the breast.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 15.

From Nova Scotia to Texas, along all muddy or sandy shores, during
autumn and spring. Common. Breeds in great numbers on the Arctic
coasts.

    Tringa Cinclus and alpina, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 251, 429.

    Red-backed Sandpiper, Tringa alpina, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 5.

    Tringa alpina, Bonap. Syn. p. 317.

    Tringa alpina, American Dunlin, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 383.

    Dunlin or Ox-bird, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 106.

    Red-backed Sandpiper, Tringa alpina, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 580.


334. 7. Tringa subarquata, Temm. Curlew Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXIII. Adult and Young.

Bill one-third longer than the head, slightly decurved, dark olive;
feet light olive-green; head, neck, and breast, bright yellowish-red,
sides whitish, lower tail-coverts white, with a brownish-black spot
towards the end; on the upper part of the head the central parts of
the feathers dark brown, and the hind neck and sides of the breast
slightly streaked with the same; upper parts mottled with
brownish-black and light red, the rump pale brownish-grey, as are the
smaller wing-coverts; quills greyish-brown, primaries darker, outer
secondaries light and tipped with white, inner darker, and glossed
with green; upper tail-coverts white, spotted with brown and red; tail
pale brownish-grey, glossed with green. In winter, the feathers of the
upper parts dark brown, edged with darker, and margined with
greyish-yellow; lore, cheeks, and sides of the neck and body
greyish-yellow, with dusky lines; a broad band from mandible over the
eye, the fore part of the neck, and the rest of the lower parts white;
quills and tail as in winter, but lighter. Young in autumn like the
adult in winter.

Accidental on the Florida coast in winter, rare on those of the middle
districts. Breeds in high latitudes. Migratory.

    Tringa subarquata, Bonap. Syn. p. 317.

    Cape Curlew or Sandpiper, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 104.

    Curlew Sandpiper, Tringa subarquata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 444.


335. 8. Tringa Himantopus, Bonap. Long-legged Sandpiper.

     Plate CCCXLIV. Adult in spring and winter.

Bill a third longer than the head, slender, very slightly decurved;
greenish-black; legs long, slender, yellowish-green. In summer, their
upper parts brownish-black, the feathers margined with reddish-white,
the edges of the scapulars with semiform markings of the same; rump
and upper tail-coverts white, transversely barred with dusky; tail
light grey, the feathers white at the base and along the middle;
primary quills and coverts brownish-black, inner tinged with grey, the
shaft of the outer primary white; secondaries brownish-grey, margined
with reddish-white, the inner dusky; a broad whitish line over the
eye; loral space dusky; auriculars pale brownish-red; fore part and
sides of neck greyish-white tinged with red, and longitudinally
streaked with dusky, the rest of the lower parts pale reddish,
transversely barred with dusky, the middle of the breast and the
abdomen without markings. In winter, the upper parts brownish-grey,
the head narrowly streaked with dusky, the scapulars plainly margined
with whitish; the rump and wings as in summer; the band over the eye
lighter, the fore part and sides of neck greyish-white, longitudinally
streaked with grey, the sides similar, and with the lower coverts
barred with grey, the rest of the lower parts white.

_Male_, 7-1/2-8-3/4, 15-1/2-17. _Female_, 8-1/2-10-1/2, 16-1/2-18.

Abundant in Texas in spring. Rare in the Middle Districts. Breeds in
the Fur Countries. Migratory.

    Tringa himantopus, Bonap. Syn. p. 316.

    Tringa Douglassii, Swains. Douglass' Sandpiper, Swains. &
        Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 379.

    Tringa himantopus, Slender-shank Sandpiper, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 380.

     Long-legged Sandpiper, Audubon's Stilt Sandpiper, Douglass'
     Stilt Sandpiper. Nutt. Man. v. ii. pp. 138, 140, 141.

     Long-legged Sandpiper, Tringa himantopus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
     iv. p. 332.


336. 9. Tringa Schinzii, Brehm. Schinz's Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill about the length of the head, straight, and with the feet
greenish-dusky; general colour of upper parts brownish-black, each
feather edged with yellowish-grey, the scapulars with light red;
wing-coverts greyish-brown, the shaft black; primary and secondary
coverts tipped with white; quills brownish-grey, darker toward the
tips, inner primaries and outer secondaries more or less edged and
tipped with white; tail-feathers white, with a dusky spot, excepting
the central two, which are blackish, with a few greyish-white
markings; tail-feathers light grey, the two middle brownish-black
towards the end; sides of the head, fore neck, anterior part of breast
and sides greyish-white, with small lanceolate central brownish-black
spots; the rest of the lower parts white.

_Male_, 7-1/2, 14-3/4.

From Labrador to St Augustine in Florida, and Kentucky, during autumn.
Missouri. Saskatchewan Plains. Not very rare. Migratory. Breeds in
high northern latitudes.

    Tringa Schinzii, Bonap. Syn. p. 249.

    Tringa Schinzii, Schinz's Sandpiper, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 384.

    Schinz's Sandpiper, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 109.

    Schinz's Sandpiper, Tringa Schinzii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 529.


337. 10. Tringa semipalmata, Wils. Semipalmated Sandpiper.

     Plate CCCCV. Adult.

Bill as long as the head, greenish-dusky; feet dull yellowish-green;
upper part of head, cheeks, hind part and sides of neck, ash-grey,
streaked with dusky; on the rest of the upper parts the feathers
dusky-brown, margined with pale grey, those on the rump and the upper
tail-coverts blackish-brown; secondary coverts tipped with white;
alula and primary coverts brownish-black, the latter tipped with
white; primary quills greyish-black, with white shafts; secondary
quills more grey; primaries externally edged with white towards the
base, as are the outer secondaries in a fainter degree, as well as
terminally, some of them also having the greater part of the inner web
greyish-white; two middle tail-feathers greyish-black on the inner
web, their outer web and all the other feathers ash-grey; anterior
part of forehead, and a band over the eye greyish-white; lower parts
white.

_Adult_, 6-3/4, 12-1/2.

Exceedingly abundant from Texas to Maine, in winter, spring, and
autumn. Breeds from Labrador northward. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Semipalmated Sandpiper, Tringa semipalmata, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. vii. p. 131.

    Tringa semipalmata. Bonap. Syn. p. 316.

    Semipalmated Sandpiper, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 136.

    Semipalmated Sandpiper, Tringa semipalmata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 111.


338. 11. Tringa pusilla, Wils. Little Sandpiper.

     Plate CCCXX. Male and Female.

Bill a little shorter than the head, straight, greenish-dusky, feet
pale dull yellowish-green; feathers of the upper parts brownish-black,
broadly margined with light brownish-red, some of the scapulars
margined externally with white, and the larger glossed with green;
alula, primary coverts, primary quills, and outer secondaries,
greyish-black, all more or less narrowly tipped with greyish-white;
secondary coverts largely tipped with the same; primaries externally
edged with white toward the base, as are the outer secondaries in a
fainter degree, the inner webs of some of the latter greyish-white
toward the base, their shafts white; rump and upper tail-coverts
black; two middle tail-feathers black, with pale brownish-red edges,
the next feather on each side greyish-brown, edged with greyish-white,
the outer four pale greyish-brown, very narrowly margined externally,
more broadly internally, and along their points with greyish-white;
lateral tail-coverts with the outer web white; from the forehead over
the eye to the occiput, a band of dull greyish-white, faintly streaked
with dusky; loral band and ear-coverts brownish-dusky; cheeks dull
greyish-white, faintly streaked with dusky; throat greyish-white;
sides and fore part of neck of the same colour, faintly streaked with
dusky; the rest of the lower parts, including the axillars, pure
white; lower surface of wing pale brownish-grey. In autumn and winter
the red edgings of the upper parts are substituted by light grey.

_Male_, 5-5/8, 11-3/8.

Distributed along the whole coast from Texas eastward, and throughout
all intermediate districts to the Columbia River. Breeds in Labrador
and the Fur Countries. Found even along the lakes and ponds in the
woods. Very abundant. Migratory.

    Little Sandpiper, Tringa pusilla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. v. p.
        32.

    Tringa pusilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 319.

    Wilson's Sandpiper, Tringa Wilsonii, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 120.

    Little Sandpiper, Tringa pusilla, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        180.

    * Third toe wanting.


339. 12. Tringa arenaria. Sanderling Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXXXV. Summer. Plate CCXXX. Male and Female in
     winter.

Bill about the length of the head, straight, and with the feet black;
hind toe wanting. In winter the general colour of the plumage
ash-grey, the lower parts pure white; alula and primaries
brownish-black, the latter with more or less white on their outer
webs, or along the shaft; secondaries white, the outer with a patch of
black towards the end, the inner ash-grey; primary coverts
greyish-black, tipped with white; middle tail-feathers greyish-brown,
their shafts white, the rest of a paler tint on the outer webs, white
on the inner, the lateral almost pure white. In summer the upper parts
of the head, hind neck, lateral, and fore part of the neck, pale
yellowish-red, streaked with brownish-black; the back similarly
marked, with larger spots, and on the scapulars disposed in bars; the
tips of most of the feathers greyish-white; the other parts as in
winter.

_Male_, 7-10/12, 12-1/2.

From Texas along the coast to Maine in autumn and spring, extremely
abundant. Breeds from Lat. 55° northward.

    Ruddy Plover, Charadrius rubidus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        129. Summer.

    Sanderling Plover, Charadrius Calidris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 68. Winter.

    Calidris arenaria, Sanderling, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 366.

    Sanderling Plover, Calidris arenaria, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 4.

    Sanderling, Tringa arenaria, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 231;
        v. v. p. 582.



GENUS II. PHALAROPUS, Briss. PHALAROPE.


Bill scarcely longer than the head, straight, slender, at the base
somewhat cylindrical, toward the end broader and flattened, the tips
narrowed; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight, excepting at
the end, where it is a little decurved, the ridge convex, flattened at
the broad part, the sides slightly sloping, the edges rounded, and
near the tip inflected; nasal groove linear, extending to near the
tip; lower mandible with the angle very long and narrow, the sides
convex and sloping outwards, the tip narrowed. Nostrils basal,
linear-elliptical. Head small, with the fore part high and rounded;
neck of moderate length; body rather full. Feet rather short, slender;
tibia bare a short way above the joint; tarsus much compressed,
narrowed before and behind, covered anteriorly with numerous scutella;
toes very slender, first extremely small, free, with a slight membrane
beneath; second shorter than the fourth; third toe much longer, all
scutellate above, the anterior margined on both sides with lobed and
pectinated membranes, which are united at the base, so as to render
the foot nearly half-webbed, the outer web much longer than the inner.
Claws very small, compressed, arched, obtuse. Plumage soft and
blended; wings long and pointed, first quill longest, secondary quills
rather short, the inner much elongated. Tail of moderate length, much
rounded, of twelve feathers, the lower tail-coverts as long.


340. 1. Phalaropus fulicarius, Bonap. Red Phalarope.

     Plate CCLV. Male and Female in summer. Male in winter.

In summer, the bill greenish-yellow, black at the point; feet pale
green; upper part of head black; loral space and chin blackish-grey;
sides of head, and a band round the occiput, white; sides and fore
part of neck, breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts deep orange-red;
fore part of back, scapulars, and inner secondaries, black, the
feathers edged with whitish; wing-coverts deep ash-grey; quills dark
greenish-brown, their shafts and basal parts white; the ends of the
secondary and primary coverts, and the basal part of the outer webs of
the primaries white, forming a band of that colour on the wing; upper
tail-coverts orange-red; tail deep grey, darker towards the end,
slightly tipped with reddish. Female in summer with the upper part
variegated with light red and brownish-black, the central part of each
feather being of the latter colour; the upper tail-coverts entirely of
the former; tail deep grey, as in the male; lower parts of a less pure
red, being paler, and tinged with grey. In winter the bill nearly
black, upper and fore part of head, fore part and sides of neck,
breast, abdomen, lower and lateral upper tail-coverts, with a band
across the wing, white; a brownish-black line from the eye to the
occiput, which is of the same colour, as well as in the middle of the
hind neck; back, scapulars, and inner secondaries, ash-grey.

_Adult_, 7-1/2, 13.

Occasionally in flocks in Kentucky, on the Ohio, during autumn often
at sea on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Breeds in high northern
latitudes, as far as Melville Peninsula. Stragglers at times reach as
far south as New Jersey, but the route of this species toward warmer
regions, is along the Pacific coast.

    Red Phalarope, Phalaropus hyperboreus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix.
        p. 75.

    Phalaropus fulicarius, Bonap. Syn. p. 341.

    Phalaropus fulicarius, Flat-billed Phalarope, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 407.

    Red Phalarope, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 236.

    Red Phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 404.



GENUS III. LOBIPES, Cuv. LOBEFOOT.


Bill at least as long as the head, extremely slender, straight, nearly
cylindrical, towards the end tapering; upper mandible with the dorsal
line straight, unless at the end, where it is a little decurved, the
ridge broad and depressed, the sides slightly sloping, the edges
rounded, and inflected towards the narrow acute tip; nasal groove
long, linear; lower mandible with the angle very long and narrow, the
sides convex, the tip narrowed. Head small, with the fore part high
and rounded; neck of moderate length; body rather slender. Feet
moderate, slender; tibia bare at the lower part; tarsus extremely
compressed, narrowed before and behind, covered anteriorly with
numerous scutella; toes slender, first extremely small, free, with a
slight membrane beneath, second slightly shorter than fourth; toes all
scutellate above, the anterior webbed at the base, and margined on
both sides with a lobed or sinuated membrane. Claws very small,
arched, compressed, acute. Plumage soft, and blended. Wings long and
pointed, the first quill longest; inner secondaries very long and
tapering; tail of twelve feathers rounded or nearly even. Tongue
extremely slender, grooved above, tapering to a horny point;
œsophagus narrow, uniform; stomach rounded, muscular, with the
epithelium dense and longitudinally rugous; intestine of moderate
length and width; cœca rather long. Trachea much flattened, with a
single pair of inferior laryngeal muscles.


341. 1. Lobipes hyperboreus, Lath. Hyperborean Lobefoot.

     Plate CCXV. Male and Female.

Bill about the same length as the head, membranes of the toes
scolloped, tail much rounded; upper parts greyish-black, the head
lighter and more tinged with grey, the scapulars and some of the
feathers of the back edged with yellowish-red, of which colour are the
sides of the head and neck; throat and sides of the upper part of the
neck white; wing-coverts and quills brownish-black, tinged with grey,
the shafts of the quills, margins, and tips of secondaries, and a
broad bar on the tip of the secondary coverts white; tail light grey,
the feathers margined with white, the two middle dark brownish-grey,
lateral upper tail-coverts white, barred with dusky; breast and
abdomen white. Young similar, but with the colours paler.

_Male_, 6, 13-1/2; wing 5-3/4.

Rarely seen south of New York. Plentiful at some periods from
Massachusetts to Maine. Abundant in the Bay of Fundy during spring and
autumn. Breeds in Labrador and along all the Arctic coast. Migratory.

    Phalaropus hyperboreus. Bonap. Syn. p. 342.

    Hyperborean Phalarope, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 239.

    Hyperborean Phalarope, Phalaropus hyperboreus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 118; v. v. p. 595.


342. 2. Lobipes Wilsonii, Sabine. Wilson's Lobefoot.

     Plate CCLIV. Male and Young.

Bill half as long again as the head; membranes of the toes merely
sinuous, tail nearly even; general colour of upper parts
brownish-grey, hind neck and rump greyish-white, crown of head
ash-grey; a white line over the eye; a band of black on the lore,
under the eye, and down the side of the neck, where it enlarges, and
changes into chestnut-red, extending down the back; another chestnut
band crosses the wing, and includes part of the inner secondaries;
quills greyish-brown, outer primaries and their coverts much darker,
the shaft of the first white, tail-feathers pale brownish-grey on the
outer, white more or less mottled on the inner webs; throat and cheeks
white; fore neck orange-brown, fading below, and extending paler over
the sides of the body; breast, abdomen, and lower wing-coverts white.

_Adult_, 10, 17-1/2.

Procured in Kentucky, New Jersey, and Boston. Breeds abundantly on the
Rocky Mountains. Saskatchewan River. Winters in Mexico.

    Grey Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix. p.
        72.

    Phalaropus Wilsonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 342.

    Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus Wilsonii, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v.
        iv. p. 59.

    Phalaropus Wilsonii, Wilson's Phalarope, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 405.

    American Phalarope, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 245.

    Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus Wilsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 400.



GENUS IV. TOTANUS, Bechst. TATLER.


Bill much longer than the head, very slender, subcylindrical,
straight, flexible, compressed at the base, the point rather
depressed and obtuse; upper mandible with the dorsal line straight,
the ridge convex, as are the sides, the edges thick, the tip slightly
deflected; lower mandible with the angle very long and narrow, the
dorsal line straight, the sides convex, with a slight groove in their
basal half, the edges grooved longitudinally, as are those of the
upper, the tip narrow. Nostrils basal, linear. Head of moderate size,
oblong; neck rather long and slender; body slender. Feet very long and
slender; tibia bare for half its length; tarsus compressed, scutellate
before and behind; hind toe very small, anterior of moderate length,
connected by webs at the base, all scutellate above. Claws small,
slightly arched, rather obtuse. Plumage soft and blended; wings long,
narrow, pointed; first quill longest, inner secondaries long; tail
short, of twelve rounded feathers.


343. 1. Totanus macularius, Wils. Spotted Tatler.--Spotted Sandpiper.
Peet-weet.

     Plate CCCX. Male and Female.

Bill a little longer than the head, very slender, flexible, greenish
above, yellow beneath, legs rather long and slender, pale
flesh-colour; upper parts glossy greenish-olive, with bronze
reflections, the head longitudinally streaked, the back transversely
undulated with dusky; lower parts white, marked with numerous
brownish-black spots, smaller on the throat, largest and roundish on
the breast and sides. Young with the upper feathers of the upper parts
terminally margined with dusky, the wing-coverts barred, the lower
parts pure white.

_Male_, 8, 13-3/4.

Breeds from the Texas along the shores to Maine, the islands of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Labrador. Inland all over the country. Very
common. Resident in the Southern States. Columbia River.

    Spotted Sandpiper, Tringa macularia, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 60.

    Totanus macularius, Bonap. Syn. p. 325.

    Spotted Tatler or Peet-weet, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 162.

    Spotted Sandpiper, Totanus macularius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 81.


344. 2. Totanus solitarius, Wils. Solitary Tatler.--Solitary
Sandpiper.

     Plate CCLXXXIX. Male and Female.

Bill a little longer than the head, very slender, greenish-black;
feet greenish-grey, long; upper part of head, lores, cheeks, hind
part and sides of neck greyish-brown, streaked with brownish-white; a
dull white line from the bill to the eye; upper part of throat
greyish-white; fore neck of the same colour, streaked with
greyish-brown; the rest of the lower parts white; the axillars and
wing-coverts broadly barred with dusky; back and scapulars deep
greenish-brown, the feathers edged with a few small spots of white and
dusky, those of the inner secondaries more numerous; larger
wing-coverts similar; smaller coverts, primary coverts, and primaries,
deep brownish-black, secondaries greyish-brown; tail feathers and
coverts broadly banded with white and brownish-black, except the two
middle, which are merely spotted with white on the edges.

_Male_, 8-1/2, 16-1/2.

Distributed from Texas over the United States, breeding in deep woody
situations, in the Fur Countries on the bare sand. Columbia River.
Partially migratory.

    Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 53.

    Totanus chloropygius, Bonap. Syn. p. 325.

    Totanus chloropygius, Green rump Tatler, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 393.

    Green-rump Tatler, Totanus chloropygius, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 576; v. v. p. 583.


345. 3. Totanus flavipes, Lath. Yellowshanks Tatler.--Yellowshanks
Snipe.

     Plate CCLXXXVIII. Male.

Bill a fourth longer than the head, black; feet long, bright yellow;
upper part of the head, lores, cheeks, hind part and sides of the neck
deep brownish-grey, streaked with greyish-white; a white line from the
bill to the eye; fore neck greyish-white, streaked with greyish-brown,
as are the sides; the rest of the lower parts white; the lower
tail-coverts slightly marked with grey, the axillars and loral
wing-coverts banded or spotted with the same; back and scapulars
olivaceous brown, tinged with grey, the feathers edged with small
dusky and white spots; wing-coverts and inner secondary quills
similar, the marginal spots on the latter forming bands; primary
quills blackish-brown, the shaft of the outer brownish-white, of the
rest dark brown, the edges of the inner, and of the middle secondaries
white; hind part of back brownish-grey; rump white, upper tail-coverts
and tail barred with greyish-brown and white.

_Male_, 10-3/ , 20.

From Texas to Maine, in autumn and spring. Very abundant at the same
seasons throughout the interior. Breeds in the Fur Countries, up to
the highest northern latitudes.

    Yellowshanks Snipe, Scolopax flavipes, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 55.

    Totanus flavipes, Bonap. Syn. p. 324.

    Totanus flavipes, Yellowshanks Tatler, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 390.

    Yellowshanks Tatler, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 152.

    Yellowshank, Totanus flavipes, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 573;
        v. v. p. 586.


346. 4. Totanus vociferus, Wils. Tell-tale Tatler.--Tell-tale Godwit
or Snipe. Greater Yellowshanks. Long-shanks. Humility. Clou-Clou.

     Plate CCCVIII. Male and Female in winter.

Bill about half longer than the head, black, at the base bluish-grey;
legs long, bright yellow. Upper part of head, lores, cheeks, and neck
all round, excepting the throat, streaked with brownish-black, on a
white ground, tinged with grey on the head and hind neck; breast, and
abdomen, white; almost entirely spotted and barred with
brownish-black, as are the sides and tail-coverts, together with the
axillar feathers and lower wing-coverts; the lower surface of the
primaries light grey, their shafts white; upper parts black, glossed
with green, and variegated with white, each feather being margined
with triangular spots of that colour; hind part of rump and upper
tail-coverts white, barred with dusky; anterior small. Wing-coverts,
alula, primary coverts, and primary quills, brownish-black, without
spots, shaft of first primary white, of the rest brown; tail-feathers
white, with numerous bands of dark greyish-brown, the middle six
feathers more or less of a light brownish-grey toward the end, the
bars not extending over their central part. In winter, the upper parts
much paler, the lower having the greater part of the breast and
abdomen pure white.

_Male_, 14, 24-3/4. _Female_, 13-3/4, 25-1/2.

Abundant during autumn, winter, and spring, from Texas along the
Atlantic, and throughout the interior to Labrador. Few breed in the
Jerseys; most from Labrador northward.

    Tell-tale Godwit or Snipe, Scolopax vociferus, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. vii. p. 57.

    Totanus melanoleucus, Bonap. Syn. p. 324.

    Totanus vociferus, Tell-tale, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 389.

    Tell-tale or Greater Yellowshanks, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 148.

    Tell-tale Godwit, Totanus melanoleucus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 68.


347. 5. Totanus Glottis, Linn. Greenshank Tatler.

     Plate CCLXIX. Male.

Bill nearly one-half longer than the head, dusky green; legs long dull
greyish-green; all the lower parts, and the back, excepting a small
portion anteriorly, pure white; the fore part of head and cheeks also
white; loral band with small oblong spots of greyish-brown, sides of
lower part of fore neck and a portion of the breast faintly undulated
with grey; upper part of head, hind part and sides of neck,
greyish-white, lineated with greyish-brown; scapulars and inner
secondaries greyish-brown, edged with greyish-white, and lined or
mottled with dark brown towards the margins; smaller wing-coverts
plain brown, the larger darker near the edge, and margined with
whitish, as are the outer secondaries; primary quills and coverts dark
brown, the shaft of the outer white; tail greyish-white, undulated
with light brown, the outer four feathers on each side with only a
series of spots on the outer edge, which on the outermost feathers is
almost obliterated.

_Male_, 11, wing, 7.

Only three procured on Sand Key, Florida.

    Scolopax Glottis, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 245.

    Greenshank, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 68.

    Greenshank, Totanus Glottis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 483.


348. 5. Totanus semipalmatus, Lath. Semipalmated Tatler.--Willet.
Stone Curlew.

     Plate CCLXXIV. Fig. 1. Male in spring. Fig. 2. Female in
     winter.

Bill nearly a half longer than the head, rather stout, light blue,
dusky toward the end; feet long, rather stout, light blue, the basal
membranes large. In summer, the head and neck brownish-grey, streaked
with blackish-brown; throat and a band from the bill over the eye
white; fore part of back and scapulars brownish-grey, variegated with
central marks of blackish-brown; third part of back brownish-grey with
a gloss of olive; wing-coverts grey, with central lines of
brownish-black; primary coverts and primary quills brownish-black, the
latter white in their basal half; outer secondaries white, inner like
the scapulars; lower wing-coverts and axillar feathers blackish-brown;
breast and sides white, the latter transversely undulated with
brownish-black; abdomen, and lower and upper tail-coverts white, with
a few dusky bars; four middle tail-feathers barred with brownish-black
and brownish-grey, the rest pale grey, fading to white on the outer,
and all more or less minutely undulated with pale brownish-grey.

_Male_, 15-1/2, 27-3/4. _Female_, 15-1/2, 31.

Breeds abundantly in Texas, and along the Atlantic shores to New York,
sparingly as far as Massachusetts. Constant resident in the Southern
States. Rare in the interior.

    Semipalmated Snipe, Scolopax semipalmata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 27.

    Totanus semipalmatus, Semipalmated Tatler, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 388.

    Semipalmated Snipe or Willet, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 144.

    Semipalmated Snipe or Willet, Totanus semipalmatus, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iii. p. 510; v. v. p. 585.



GENUS V. LIMOSA, Briss. GODWIT.


Bill very long, slender, subcylindrical, tapering to an obtuse point,
slightly recurved; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly curved
upwards, the ridge convex, the sides with a narrow groove extending
almost to the point, the edges rather obtuse, the tip very slightly
enlarged; lower mandible with the angle very long and extremely
narrow, the sides with a narrow groove extending almost to the end,
the edges blunt, the tip obtuse. Nostrils basal, linear, nearer the
edge. Head small, oblong; neck rather long, slender; body slender.
Feet long and slender; tibia bare for about a third, anteriorly
scutellate; tarsus long, slender, scutellate before and behind; toes
small, slender, scutellate above; anterior connected by webs at the
base, first very small. Claws small, compressed, slightly arched,
obtuse. Plumage soft and blended. Wings rather long, narrow, very
acute; primaries tapering, the first longest, the inner secondaries
elongated. Tail short, even, of twelve narrow rounded feathers.


349. 1. Limosa Fedoa, Linn. Great Marbled Godwit.

     Plate CCXXXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill dull flesh-colour at the base, blackish-brown toward the end;
feet bluish-grey; head and neck light yellowish-grey, streaked with
dusky; the rest of the upper parts spotted and barred with
brownish-black and greyish-yellow; alula and primary coverts
brownish-black, as are the outer webs of the first three quills, those
of the other primaries, and both webs of the secondaries,
reddish-ochre, all more or less finely mottled with dusky, and the
primaries of that colour towards the end, but with the terminal
margins whitish; the inner secondaries barred like the back, as are
the tail-feathers; breast, abdomen, and lower surface of wings, light
reddish-yellow, the axillar feather of a deeper tint, the sides
faintly barred with dusky.

_Male_, 16-1/2, 28-1/2. _Female_, 20-1/2.

Passes in spring from Texas along the coast, in immense flocks, to
Massachusetts, and apparently across the land, to the Saskatchewan,
where it breeds. None seen in Labrador. A few breed in South Carolina,
perhaps also in Texas. Not observed in the Western Country. In autumn
returns southward beyond the limits of the United States.

    Great Marbled Godwit, Scolopax Fedoa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 30.

    Limosa Fedoa, Bonap. Syn. p. 328.

    Limosa Fedoa, Great Marbled Godwit, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 395.

    Great Marbled Godwit, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 173.

    Great Marbled Godwit, Limosa Fedoa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        287; v. v. p. 590.


350. 2. Limosa Hudsonica, Lath. Hudsonian Godwit.

     Plate CCLVIII. Adult, Male, and Young Female.

Bill greyish-yellow, dark brown along the ridge of the upper mandible,
and blackish toward the tips of both; feet light greyish-blue; head
and neck brownish-grey, with darker lines; a band from the bill over
the eye, and the throat, greyish-white; back deep grey, the scapulars
brownish-black, with small white markings on the edges of the
feathers; smaller wing-coverts, alula, primary quills, and their
coverts brownish-black; secondaries lighter, and with their inner webs
pale grey; tips of primary coverts and bases of quills white, as is a
broad band over the rump; tail-feathers and upper tail-coverts
brownish-black, their bases white; lower parts bright yellowish-red,
the sides mottled with dark brown; abdomen and lower tail-coverts
paler and variegated with dusky; lower wing-coverts blackish-brown,
edged with whitish. Young in winter with the lower parts pale
brownish-grey, the upper brownish-grey, the fore part of the back and
scapular brownish-black, the feathers edged with light brownish-red,
wing-coverts brownish-grey.

_Male_, 15-3/4, 28. _Female_, 16-3/4, 29.

Rather rare along the Atlantic Districts in spring and autumn. Breeds
in the barren grounds of the Arctic seas in great numbers. Migratory.

    Scolopax hudsonica, Lath. Ind. Orn. v. ii. p. 720.

    Limosa hudsonica, Hudsonian Godwit, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 396.

    Hudsonian Godwit, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 175.

    Hudsonian Godwit, Limosa hudsonica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        426; v. v. p. 592.



GENUS VI. SCOLOPAX, Linn. SNIPE.


Bill twice as long as the head; subulate, straight, compressed for
half its length, depressed toward the end; upper mandible with the
dorsal line declinate at the base, then straight, at the end slightly
arched, that part being considerably enlarged, the ridge convex,
towards the end flattened, the sides with a narrow groove extending to
near the tip, the edges soft and obtuse or flattened, the tip
narrowed, but blunt; lower mandible with the angle extremely long and
narrow, the sides erect, with a longitudinal groove, the edges
flattened, and directly meeting those of the upper mandible, the
extremity enlarged, the tip contracted and rather blunt. Nostrils
basal, linear, very small. Head rather small, oblong, the forehead
elevated and rounded; neck rather short; body rather full. Legs of
moderate length, slender; tibia bare below; tarsus scutellate before
and behind; toes very slender, free, scutellate; first toe very small
and elevated, lateral toes nearly equal, the outer connected with the
third by a basal web. Claws small, slightly arched, compressed, rather
acute. Plumage very soft, rather dense. Wings long, narrow, pointed;
the first quill longest; inner secondaries much elongated. Tail
moderate, nearly even.


351. 1. Scolopax Wilsonii, Temm. Wilson's Snipe.--Common Snipe.
English Snipe.

     Plate CCXLIII. Male and Female.

Tail of sixteen feathers; upper part of head with two brownish-black
longitudinal broad bands, separated by a narrower central pale brown
band; another band of the latter colour on each side over the eye,
then a loral band of dark brown; chin whitish; neck pale
reddish-brown, spotted with brownish-black; general colour of upper
parts brownish-black, variegated with pale reddish-brown, of which
latter colour are the outer edges of the scapulars and of the lateral
feathers on the anterior part of the back; wing-coverts and inner
secondaries similarly mottled, the smaller anterior coverts, primary
coverts, primary quills, and outer secondaries, deep brown, more or
less tipped with white; first quill with the outer web brownish-white,
rump barred with yellowish-grey and dusky; upper tail-coverts similar,
but the larger barred with brownish-red and black; tail-feathers
brownish-black at the base, with a broad subterminal band of
brownish-red on the outer web of the two middle, and on both webs of
the rest, excepting the outer on each side, which is barred with
brownish-black and white, the black bars five, the tips of all white;
anterior part of breast like the neck, the rest white; abdomen and
lower tail-coverts greyish-yellow, barred with brownish-black, as are
the sides; axillars white, barred with greyish-black, lower
wing-coverts similarly marked.

Male, 10-1/2, 17.

Distributed throughout the country. Breeds from Virginia northwards.
Exceedingly abundant in the Southern and Western Districts during
winter.

    Scolopax Wilsonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 330.

    Snipe, Scolopax Gallinago, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 18.

    Scolopax Wilsonii, Wilson's Snipe, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 401.

    Wilson's Snipe, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 185.

    American Snipe, Scolopax Wilsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        322; v. v. p. 583.


352. 2. Scolopax Drummondii, Swains. Drummond's Snipe.

     Not figured.

"Dorsal plumage and wings mostly brownish-black; the top of the head,
scapulars, interscapulars, intermediate coverts, posterior greater
ones, and tertiaries, reflecting green and mottled, or barred with
yellowish-brown; this colour also forming stripes from the forehead to
the nape, over the eyes to the sides of the neck, and more broadly on
the exterior edges of the scapulars and interscapulars; middle dorsal
plumage and first quill fringed with white, and most of the
wing-coverts and lesser quills tipped with the same. Shafts of the
primaries deep brown, an inch of the first near its point whitish.
Rump and tail-coverts rich greenish-black, with reddish-orange or
ferruginous ends, crossed by a blackish subterminal line, and tipped
with white; the three exterior pairs barred externally with
clove-brown and brownish-white, the white tips broader; the two
intermediate pairs coloured nearly like the middle ones, but partly
barred and tipped with white. Under plumage, a dark brown stripe on
the lores, another under the ear; sides of the head, front of the
neck, and breast pale wood-brown, with central spots of dark umber;
the flanks, insides of the wings, and under tail-coverts barred with
black and white, which on the latter is tinged with brown; belly
white; bill blackish towards its tip, dark wood-brown at the base.
Length 11-1/2, wing 5-3/8.

"Fur Countries to Lat. 55°. Rocky Mountains."

    Scolopax Drummondii, Drummond's Snipe, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 400.

    Drummond's Snipe, Scolopax Drummondii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 319.


353. 3. Scolopax Noveboracensis, Gmel. Red-breasted Snipe.

     Plate CCCXXXV. Adult in summer and winter.

Tail of twelve feathers; bill dark olive; feet light yellowish-olive.
In summer, the upper parts brownish-black, variegated with light
brownish-red, the feathers being margined and the scapulars obliquely
barred with that colour; hind part of back, upper tail-coverts, and
tail-feathers light buff or white, barred with black, the bars on the
tail seven or eight, and its tip white; wing-coverts and secondaries
greyish-brown, margined with greyish-white; secondary coverts tipped
with white, the quills tipped and obliquely banded with the same;
alula, primary coverts, and quills brownish-black, the shaft of the
first quill white; from the base of the bill to the eye, and
surrounding it, a dull reddish-white band; loral space dusky; all the
lower parts dull orange-red, with streaks and spots of black, more
numerous along the sides and on the tail-coverts. In winter, the upper
parts of a nearly uniform brownish-grey, the hind part of the back and
tail barred as in summer, head and neck all round ash-grey, streaked
with dusky, the rest of the lower parts greyish-white, the sides
barred with dusky.

_Adult_, 10-1/4, 18-1/2.

Passes in immense numbers from Texas eastward and northward to the
highest latitudes, where it breeds, and returns in autumn.
Occasionally seen in groups through the interior. Columbia River.

    Red-breasted Snipe, Scolopax noveboracensis, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. vii. p. 48.

    Scolopax grisea, Bonap. Syn. p. 330.

    Scolopax noveboracensis, New York Godwit, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 398.

    Brown or Red-breasted Snipe, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 181.

    Red-breasted Snipe, Scolopax noveboracensis, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 285.



GENUS VII. MICROPTERA, Nutt. BOGSUCKER.


Bill double the length of the head, straight, slender, tapering,
subtrigonal, and deeper than broad at the base, slightly depressed
towards the end; upper mandible with the ridge narrow, towards the end
flattened, the sides with a narrow groove extending to near the tip,
the tip blunt, knob-like, and longer than that of the lower. Head
rather large, oblong; eyes large, and placed high; neck short; body
full. Feet rather short; tibia feathered to the joint; tarsus rather
short, compressed, scutellate; first toe very small, the third much
longer than the tarsus. Claws very small, arched, acute. Wings short,
rounded, the fourth and fifth quills longest, the first three
extraordinarily attenuated. Tail very short, cuneate, of twelve
feathers.


354. 1. Microptera Americana, Aud. Common Bogsucker.--American
Woodcock.

     Plate CCLXVIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill and feet flesh-coloured; forehead yellowish-grey, with a few dark
mottlings in the centre; on the upper part of the head two broad
blackish-brown transverse bands, and on the occiput two narrower,
separated by bands of light red; a brownish-black loral band, and a
narrow irregular line of the same across the cheek, and continued to
the occiput; upper parts variegated with brownish-black, light
yellowish-red, and ash-grey; inner wing-coverts and secondary quills
similarly barred, the outer pale greyish-red, faintly barred with
dusky; quills brown, tipped with dull grey, secondaries spotted on the
outer web with dull red; upper tail-coverts barred; tail-feathers
brownish-black, their tips grey, their outer edges mottled with
reddish; sides of the neck grey, tinged with red; lower part in
general light red, tinged with grey on the breast, on the sides and
lower wing-coverts deeper; lower tail-coverts with a central dusky
line, the tip white. Young with a longitudinal black band on the head.

_Male_, 11, 16. _Female_, 11-7/12, 17-1/4.

Distributed throughout the country. Extremely abundant in the Middle
and Eastern Districts, as well as in the interior, where it breeds, as
far as Nova Scotia. Equally abundant in winter in the Southern States,
though many migrate southward.

    Scolopax minor, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 661.

    Woodcock, Scolopax minor, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vi. p. 40.

    Scolopax minor, Bonap. Syn. p. 331.

    Lesser Woodcock, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 194.

    American Woodcock, Scolopax minor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        474.



GENUS VIII. RECURVIROSTRA, Linn. AVOCET.


Bill twice the length of the head, very slender, much depressed,
tapering to a point, and slightly recurved; upper mandible with the
dorsal line straight for half its length, then a little curved
upwards, and at the tip slightly decurved, the ridge broad and
flattened, the edges rather thick; nasal groove rather long and very
narrow; lower mandible with the angle long and very narrow, the dorsal
line slightly curved upwards, the point very slender, extremely thin,
and a little curved upwards. Nostrils linear, basal. Head small,
rounded above, rather compressed; neck long; body compact. Legs very
long, slender; tibia bare for half its length, and reticulated; tarsus
very long, compressed, reticulated with hexagonal scales; toes rather
short, the first extremely small; outer toe a little longer than
inner; anterior toes connected by webs of which the anterior margin is
deeply concave. Claws very small, compressed, rather acute. Plumage
soft and blended. Wings long, pointed, the first quill longest; inner
secondaries elongated and tapering. Tail short, even, of twelve rather
narrow rounded feathers. Tongue short in proportion to the length of
the bill, slender, tapering to a point; œsophagus wide,
considerably dilated at the lower part of the neck; stomach an oblong
gizzard of moderate strength, its epithelium hard, longitudinally
rugous; intestine long and of moderate width; cœca rather long.


355. 1. Recurvirostra Americana, Linn. American Avocet.

     Plate CCCXVIII. Adult, and Young in winter.

Bill black; feet light blue; head, neck, and fore part of breast
reddish-buff, the parts around the base of the bill and the eye nearly
white; back white, with a longitudinal band of brownish-black
elongated feathers on each side; inner scapulars of the same colour,
the outer and interior edge of the wing being white; wing
brownish-black, with a broad band of white, formed by the tips of the
secondary coverts, four of the inner secondaries, and the basal part,
with the inner webs and outer edges of the rest; lower parts white.

_Male_, 18, 30-5/8.

Passes along the coast from Texas northward, in small numbers, a few
breeding in New Jersey. Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. Abundant in
the Rocky Mountains, and the Fur Countries. Migratory.

    American Avocet, Recurvirostra Americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 126.

    Recurvirostra Americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 394.

    Recurvirostra Americana, American Avocet, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 375.

    American Avocet, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 74.

    American Avocet, Recurvirostra Americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 168.



GENUS IX. HIMANTOPUS, Briss. STILT.


Bill about twice as long as the head, very slender, roundish,
tapering, slightly recurved; upper mandible with its outline slightly
curved upwards, the ridge rather flattened, the sides convex, the
edges inflected, the tip narrow and rather acute; nasal groove nearly
half the length of the bill; lower mandible with the angle very long
and narrow, the sides grooved as far as the angle. Nostrils linear,
direct, subbasal. Head small, ovate, rounded above; neck very long
and slender; body rather compact. Legs extremely elongated, slender;
tibia bare for more than half its length, covered anteriorly with
large curved scutella; tarsus very long, moderately compressed,
scutellate before, reticulate on the sides; toes of moderate length,
slender; first toe wanting; outer a little longer than inner, anterior
toes webbed at the base. Claws small, nearly straight, moderately
compressed. Plumage ordinary. Wings very long, of moderate breadth,
acute, the first quill longest. Tail short, even, of twelve feathers.


356. 1. Himantopus nigricollis, Vieill. Black-necked Stilt.--Lawyer.

     Plate CCCXXVIII. Male.

Bill black; feet lake-coloured; upper part of head, fore part and
sides of neck, and all the lower parts, together with the hind part of
the back, rump, and tail, white, the middle feathers of the latter
tinged with ash-grey; hind neck, fore part of back, scapulars, wings,
and lower wing-coverts, bluish-black, glossed with green. Young
individuals have only the forehead white, and the back greyish-brown.

_Male_, 14-1/2, 27. _Female_, 14, 25-3/4.

Rather common in Texas during spring. Breeds on different parts of the
Atlantic coast, as far as Long Island. A few spend the winter about
the mouths of the Mississippi. Migratory.

    Long-legged Avocet, Recurvirostra Himantopus, Wils. Amer. Orn.
        v. vii. p. 48.

    Himantopus nigricollis, Bonap. Syn. p. 322.

    Black-necked Stilt, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 8.

    Black-necked Stilt, Himantopus nigricollis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 247.



GENUS X. NUMENIUS, Briss. CURLEW.


Bill very long, slender, subcylindrical, slightly compressed, more or
less arcuate or decurved; upper mandible with the ridge broad and
flattened at the base, broad and rounded in the rest of its extent, a
deep groove running from the nostrils to near the tip, which is
decurved, enlarged so as to form an oblong obtuse knob, projecting
beyond the point of the lower mandible, the edges rounded; lower
mandible similar in its curvature to the upper, its angle extremely
narrow, and extending to near the middle, the ridge rounded, the
sides with a shallow groove to near the end, the edges directly
meeting those of the upper, the tip obtuse. Head rather small, oblong,
compressed; neck long; body compact. Feet long; tibia bare below;
tarsus scaly above, scutellate for two-thirds; toes rather small,
scutellate, first very small, lateral nearly equal. Claws small,
compressed, blunted. Wings long, very acute, the first quill longest,
some of the inner secondaries greatly elongated. Tail short, much
rounded, of twelve rounded feathers.


357. 1. Numenius longirostris, Wils. Long-billed Curlew.

     Plate CCXXXI. Male and Female.

Bill more than four times the length of the head, nearly straight to
the middle, beyond which it is slightly decurved, deep brown, toward
the base dark flesh-coloured; feet light greyish-blue; general ground
colour of the plumage light yellowish-red; the head marked with oblong
spots; the back with spots and bars of brownish-black; alula and outer
web of first four quills deep brown, the rest of the quills of the
general colour, barred on both webs with dark brown, as are the
tail-feathers; upper part of throat and lower eyelid whitish; neck
marked with longitudinal lines of brownish-black; sides barred with
the same, as are the lower larger wing-coverts; the rest of the lower
parts unspotted, the sides and lower wing-coverts of a richer
yellowish-red than the rest. The bill varies from seven to nine
inches.

_Male_, 26, 40.

Resident, and breeds in the Texas and on the Islands off South
Carolina. Stragglers go far north. Columbia River. Occasionally seen
in the interior.

    Long-billed Curlew, Numenius longirostris, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        viii. p. 23.

    Numenius longirostris, Bonap. Syn. p. 314.

    Numenius longirostris, Long-billed Curlew, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 376.

    Long-billed Curlew, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 94.

    Long-billed Curlew, Numenius longirostris, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 240; v. v. p. 587.


358. 2. Numenius Hudsonicus, Lath. Hudsonian Curlew.

     Plate CCXXXVII. Male.

Bill little more than twice the length of the head, brownish-black,
base of lower mandible flesh-coloured; upper part of head deep brown,
with a central and two lateral lines of whitish; a brown line from the
bill to the eye, and another behind the latter; neck all round pale
yellowish-grey, longitudinally streaked with brown, excepting the
upper part of the throat, which is greyish-white; upper parts in
general blackish-brown, marked with numerous spots of brownish-white,
there being several along the margins of each feather; wings and rump
somewhat lighter; upper tail-coverts and tail barred with dark brown
and olivaceous grey; primaries and their coverts blackish-brown, all
with transverse yellowish-grey markings on the inner web, the shaft of
the first quill white, of the rest brown; breast and abdomen
greyish-white, the sides tinged with cream-colour and barred with
greyish-brown.

_Male_, 18, 33.

Passes from Texas northward, returning in autumn. Abundant in the
middle districts at both periods. Breeds at Hudson's Bay, and farther
north.

    Esquimaux Curlew, Scolopax borealis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 92.

    Numenius hudsonicus, Bonap. Syn. p. 314.

    Numenius hudsonicus, Hudsonian Curlew, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 377.

    Esquimaux Curlew, Numenius hudsonicus, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        97.

    Hudsonian Curlew, Numenius hudsonicus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 283; v. v. p. 589.


359. 3. Numenius borealis, Lath. Esquimaux Curlew.

     Plate CCVIII. Male and Female.

Bill half as long again as the head, slender, brownish-black, the
lower mandible flesh-coloured at the base; upper part of head
brownish-black, streaked with pale yellowish-brown, and having an
indistinct central and two lateral lines of whitish; upper parts
brownish-black, marked with numerous spots of light brownish-yellow,
there being several along the margin of each feather; wing-coverts and
secondaries of a lighter tint, similarly spotted; alula, primary
quills, and coverts, dark brown, the shaft of the first quill white,
of the rest brown; inner webs not barred as in _N. Hudsonicus_; tail
barred with light greyish-brown and dark brown; sides of head and neck
all round pale yellowish-grey, striped with dark brown; breast and
sides greyish-yellow, with longitudinal and transverse dark markings;
lower wing-coverts and tail-coverts similarly barred, axillars of a
rufous buffy tint, regularly banded.

_Male_, 14-1/2, 27-3/8.

Passes in spring from Texas along the coast eastward to the Fur
Countries, returning in autumn. Abundant at times in the Middle
Atlantic Districts. Rarely seen in the interior. Breeds in the
northern barren grounds.

    Numenius borealis, Bonap. Syn. p. 314.

    Numenius borealis, Esquimaux Curlew, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 378.

    Esquimaux Curlew, Numenius borealis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 101.

    Esquimaux Curlew, Numenius borealis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 69; v. v. p. 590.



FAMILY XXXVII. TANTALINÆ. IBISES.


Bill very long, arcuate, rather stout at the base, obtuse. Nostrils
basal, linear or oblong. Head bare in front, rather large or of
moderate size; neck long and slender; body ovate. Legs long and rather
stout; tibia bare to a large extent; tarsus reticulate, sometimes
scaly in front; toes four, articulated on the same level, the anterior
webbed at the base, the first more slender. Claws arched, compressed,
rather obtuse. Wings long and very broad, with the second quill
longest. Tail short, of twelve feathers. Tongue triangular, extremely
short, flat, and thin. Œsophagus wide; stomach large, muscular,
broadly elliptical, with the epithelium dense, longitudinally rugous;
intestines generally of moderate length and width, cœca very small;
cloaca globular. Trachea without inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. IBIS, Cuv. IBIS.


Bill very long, slender, higher than broad, compressed, tapering,
arched, obtuse; upper mandible with the dorsal line arched in its
whole length, the ridge convex, broader towards the end, the sides at
the base erect, towards the end very convex and narrow, separated in
their whole length from the ridge by a deep narrow groove, the edges
inflected and sharp; lower mandible more slender, its angle very
narrow, and protracted in the form of a groove to the tip. Nostrils
basal, dorsal, linear. Head small, compressed, oblong, bare before the
eyes; neck long and slender; body rather slender. Feet very long,
slender; tarsi scutellate; anterior toes connected by membranes at the
base. Claws rather small, slightly arched, pointed. Wings long, ample,
with the second quill longest. Tail short, nearly even, of twelve
feathers. Œsophagus wide, like that of a heron; stomach muscular.


360. 1. Ibis Falcinellus, Linn. Glossy Ibis.

     Plate CCCLXXXVII.

Bill black, bare part of head greyish-blue, feet greyish-black; upper
part and sides of head dark glossy green, with purplish reflections;
neck, part of the back anteriorly, breast, abdomen, and tibiæ, deep
rich brownish-red or dark chestnut; part of the breast shaded with
green, the sides dusky, tinged with green, as are the lower
wing-coverts and lower tail-coverts; except the anterior edge of the
wing, and the anterior scapulars, which are deep brownish-red, the
upper parts splendent dark green, glossed with purple; primaries
black, shaded with green; tail glossy, with purple reflection. Young,
in its second plumage, with the head, neck, and lower parts
greyish-brown, the head and greater part of the neck marked with small
longitudinal streaks of white, of which there are two on each feather;
all the upper parts blackish-green, glossy in a less degree than those
of the adult.

_Male_, 25, 42; wing, 11-1/4.

Rare or accidental in the Middle Atlantic Districts; more common in
South Florida and Texas, where it breeds. Rarely seen far inland.
Migratory.

    Ibis Falcinellus, Bonap. Syn. p. 312.

    Bay or Glossy Ibis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 88.

    Glossy Ibis, Ibis Falcinellus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 608.


361. 2. Ibis rubra, Linn. Scarlet Ibis.

     Plate CCCXCVII. Adult Male and Young.

Bill, feet, and bare parts of head, pale lake; plumage bright scarlet,
excepting the quills, which are white, and the terminal portion of the
outer four primaries, which are bluish-black. Young in first plumage
with the bill and feet brownish-grey, the bare parts of the head pale
flesh-colour; plumage of head, neck, and upper parts, brownish-grey,
of lower, white.

_Adult_, 29; wing, 11-1/4.

Accidental. Three specimens seen by me in Louisiana.

    Scarlet Ibis, Tantalus ruber, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 41.

    Ibis rubra, Bonap. Syn. p. 311.

    Scarlet Ibis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 84.

    Scarlet Ibis, Ibis rubra, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 62.


362. 3. Ibis alba, Linn. White Ibis.

     Plate CCXXII. Adult and Young.

Bill and bare parts of the head light orange-red, feet paler; plumage
pure white, excepting the ends of from three to five of the outer
primaries, which are deep black, glossed with blue and green. Young
with the bill greyish-yellow, the feet leaden-coloured, the plumage
dull brown all over, excepting the rump, which is whitish, and the
tail, which is tinged with grey. Young after first moult with the bill
pale yellow, the feet pale blue; the plumage dull olivaceous brown,
the quills dark, the tail lighter, the hind part of the back white, as
are the breast and abdomen.

_Adult_, 24-1/2, 40.

Constant resident in South Florida, where it is abundant. Breeds along
the coast to Texas, westward, and occasionally as far as New Jersey
eastward, inland as far up the Mississippi as Natchez and Red River.
Returns to the Floridas in autumn.

    White Ibis, Tantalus albus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 43.

    Ibis alba, Bonap. Syn. p. 312.

    White Ibis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 86.

    White Ibis, Ibis alba, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 173; v. v.
        p. 593.



GENUS II. TANTALUS, Linn. TANTALUS.


Bill long, stout, at the base as wide as the face, deeper than broad,
compressed, tapering towards the end, which is decurved; upper
mandible with the ridge rather broad and flattened at the base,
narrowed at the middle, convex towards the end, the sides sloping at
the base, convex toward the end, the edges inflected and sharp, the
tip declinate, rounded, with a notch on each side; nostrils basal,
close to the ridge, direct, oblong; lower mandible with the angle
rather wide, with a bare dilatable membrane, the edges erect and
sharp, the tip blunted. Head of ordinary size, and with part of the
hind neck bare and scurfy. Feet very long, like those of the Herons;
tibia and tarsus reticulate; hind toe rather large, third longest;
claws small, arched, that of the third toe not serrate. Wings long,
ample, with the third quill longest. Tail of twelve broad rounded
feathers.


363. 1. Tantalus Loculator, Linn. Wood Ibis.

     Plate CCXVI. Male.

Head all round, and hind neck half-way down, destitute of feathers,
the skin wrinkled and covered with irregular scurfy scales; bill
dusky yellowish-brown, sides of head dark bluish-purple, upper part
of head horn-colour; legs indigo-blue; toes yellowish, with the
scutella black; plumage white, tinged with yellow; alula, primary
coverts, primary and secondary quills, excepting the inner, and tail,
black, with green and purplish-blue reflections. Young dusky grey all
over, the quills and tail brown and black, the head covered with down.

_Male_, 44-1/2, 62; bill, 9.

Resident from Texas to North Carolina, in deep woody swamps; or
fresh-water lakes, not on the sea-shores; breeds on trees in swamps;
moves in large flocks. Up the Mississippi to Natchez. Abundant in
Florida and Lower Louisiana.

    Wood Ibis, Tantalus Loculator, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        39.

    Tantalus Loculator, Bonap. Syn. p. 310.

    Wood Ibis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 82.

    Wood Ibis, Tantalus Loculator, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 128.



GENUS III. PLATALEA, Linn. SPOONBILL.


Bill very long, excessively depressed, being, when viewed laterally,
very slender; but, when seen from above, nearly as broad as the head
at the base, considerably contracted in the middle, and at the end
expanded into a large obovate disk much broader than the head; upper
mandible with the dorsal line almost straight, at the tip decurved,
the ridge extremely broad and flat, gradually widening beyond the
nostrils, at the end terminated by the very small, decurved, blunt
unguis, the sides declinate at the base, horizontally flattened
towards the end, separated in their whole length from the ridge by a
narrow groove, their margins soft and blunt; lower mandible with the
angle very long, narrow, rounded, the coma narrow, and gradually
flattened, the extremity expanded into a flattened disk, as in the
upper; both mandibles covered with soft skin, which, for half their
length, is rough, with roundish plates, having their anterior margin
somewhat prominent. Nostrils basal, oblong-linear, of moderate size.
Head of moderate size, flattened above; neck long and slender; body
compact, ovate; legs long and rather stout; tibia bare in its lower
half, and reticulate; tarsus rather long, stout, roundish, covered all
round with subhexagonal scales; toes rather long, moderately stout,
scutellate, at the base reticulate; first more slender, articulated at
the same level, second considerably shorter than third. Claws
moderate, arched, compressed, laterally grooved, rather obtuse. Head,
gular sac, and a small part of neck, destitute of feathers. Wings long
and very broad, the second quill longest. Tail short, even, of twelve
rather broad feathers. Tongue extremely small, broader than long;
gular sac dilatable; œsophagus wide, with a dilatation at the lower
part of the neck; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach a powerful
gizzard, roundish, with large muscular fasciculi not disposed into
distinct muscles, the epithelium very thick, longitudinally fissured;
intestine very long, of moderate width; cœca two slight knobs.


364. 1. Platalea Ajaja, Linn. Roseate Spoonbill.

     Plate CCCXXI. Male.

Bill greyish-blue, at the base mottled with dusky; feet pale lake;
head yellowish-green; space around the eye and gular sac
orpiment-orange; a band of black from the lower mandible to the
occiput; feathers of the neck white; back and wings rose-coloured;
lower parts of a deeper colour; tuft of recurved feathers on fore
neck, a broad band across the wing, along the cubitus, and the upper
and lower tail-coverts, rich carmine, with silky lustre; shafts of
quills and scapulars light carmine; on each side of the lower part of
the neck a patch of pale ochre; tail-feathers ochre-yellow, but at the
base roseate.

_Male_, 30-3/4, 53. _Female_, 28, 48.

Constant resident in the Texas, South Florida, and as far eastward as
North Carolina, where it is however very rare. Occasionally in summer
up the Mississippi to Natchez. Breeds in flocks on trees, low bushes,
or cactuses.

    Roseate Spoonbill, Platalea Ajaja, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        123.

    Platalea Ajaja, Bonap. Syn. p. 346.

    Roseate Spoonbill, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 79.

    Roseate Spoonbill, Platalea Ajaja, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        188.



FAMILY XXXVIII. ARDEINÆ. HERONS.


Bill longer than the head, stout, tapering, compressed, pointed, its
edges often irregularly serrate. Head oblong, compressed; neck very
long; body much compressed. Eyes large or moderate. Nostrils basal,
linear, longitudinal. Legs long, rather slender; tibia bare to a great
extent; tarsus compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes rather long,
the first on the same place, of moderate size, the outer toe a little
longer than the inner, and with a slight web at the base; all
compressed and scutellate. Claws rather long, arched, compressed,
acute, that of the hind toe larger and more curved. Plumage blended.
Wings long, very broad, with the outer four quills longest,
secondaries very long. Tail very short, nearly even, of twelve rather
weak feathers. Œsophagus very wide, without dilatation; stomach
small, very thin, with the inner coat soft and smooth; intestine very
long and extremely narrow; no cœcal appendages, but the large
intestine forming a small sac at its commencement; cloaca very large,
globular. Trachea simple, generally cylindrical, with the bronchi
wide, and a single pair of slender inferior laryngeal muscles. Nests
large, flat, widely constructed, placed on trees, bushes, sometimes on
the ground; eggs from three to four, oval, light blue. Young remain in
the nest until fledged.



GENUS I. ARDEA, Linn. HERON.


    * Night Herons. Bill slightly longer than the head, stout,
    tapering, compressed, with the upper outline somewhat curved;
    legs of moderate length, bare part of tibia short; neck thick;
    body full; feathers of the neck elongated and curved
    backwards.


365. 1. Ardea Nycticorax, Linn. Black-crowned Night Heron.--Qua-Bird.

     Plate CCXXXVI. Adult and Young.

Male with the feathers of the upper and hind part of the head
elongated and loose, three or four very long linear, incurved
occipital feathers, not present in winter; upper part of the head and
back glossy blackish-green; anterior part of forehead and elongated
occipital feathers white; neck anteriorly yellowish-white, on the
sides and behind shaded into pale lilac, the lower elongated feathers
tinged with cream-colour; breast and abdomen white; wings, rump, and
tail light greenish-blue, tinged with lilac. Female similar. Young,
when fledged, with the upper parts pale purplish-brown, streaked and
spotted with yellowish-white; lower parts yellowish-white, streaked
with light purplish-brown. Young after first moult purplish-brown,
tinged with grey above, brownish-white beneath, the upper part of the
head dull greenish-black.

_Male_, 25-7/12, 44.

Resident in the Floridas and Texas, where it breeds. Migrates in
spring eastward as far as Maine, up the Mississippi to Memphis. Occurs
one hundred miles inland. Rather common. Returns southward early in
autumn.

    Night Heron or Qua-Bird, Ardea Nycticorax, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        vii. p. 3.

    Ardea Nycticorax, Bonap. Syn. p. 306.

    Qua-Bird or American Night Heron, Ardea discors, Nutt. Man. v.
        ii. p. 54.

    Night Heron, Ardea Nycticorax, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 275;
        v. v. p. 600.


366. 2. Ardea violacea, Linn. Yellow-crowned Night Heron.

     Plate CCCXXXVI. Male and Young.

Male with the feathers on the upper part of the head lanceolate and
acuminate, those on the occiput very long and linear; between the
scapulæ two longitudinal series of very elongated feathers with loose
margins, the longest extending far beyond the tail; occipital and
dorsal plumes not present in winter; head and throat greenish-black,
crown and band on each side below the eye white, the former tinged
with reddish-yellow; general colours light greyish-blue; the feathers
of the fore part of the back and wings with their central parts
bluish-black, margined with bluish-white; quills and tail dark
greyish-blue; edge of wings white. Female similar. Young in its first
plumage dark greyish-white, beneath dull yellowish-white, streaked
with dark brown.

_Adult_, 23-1/2, 43-1/2. _Young_ in October 23-1/2, 40.

A few spend the winter in Florida. Migrates in spring as far as New
Jersey, up the Mississippi to Natchez. Never goes far inland. Not very
abundant. Migratory.

    Yellow-crowned Heron, Ardea violacea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        viii. p. 26.

    Ardea violacea, Bonap. Syn. p. 306.

    White-crowned Heron, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 52.

    Yellow-crowned Heron, Ardea violacea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 290.

Bitterns. Bill considerably longer than the head, stout, tapering,
compressed, with the upper outline slightly curved; legs of moderate
length, bare part of tibia short; neck thick; body exceedingly
compressed; feathers of the neck elongated and curved backwards.
Trachea and bronchi wider.


367. 3. Ardea lentiginosa, Swains. American Bittern.

     Plate CCCXXXVII. Male and Female.

Feathers of the head and occiput elongated and loose; tail of ten
feathers; bill and feet dull yellowish-green; upper part of head
brownish-grey; a streak of pale buff on the eye; cheek and an oblique
band to the middle of the neck light brownish-yellow, beneath which a
dusky brown band from the base of the lower mandible, continuous with
a gradually enlarged band of black running along the sides of the
neck; upper parts yellowish-brown, patched, mottled, freckled, and
barred with dark-brown; most of the quills deep greyish-blue, tipped
with light reddish-brown; fore part of neck white above,
yellowish-white beneath, the throat with a middle longitudinal line of
yellowish-brown spots; on the rest of the neck each feather with a
light brown central mark edged with darker; the rest of the lower
parts dull yellowish-white, most of the feathers marked like those on
the neck. Female similar, but with the upper part of the head
reddish-brown.

_Male_, 27, 45. _Female_, 26-1/2, 42-1/2.

Winter resident in the Floridas. Migrates over most part of the United
States. Not seen in Kentucky. Abundant in Texas. Migratory.

    American Bittern, Ardea minor, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 35.

    Ardea minor, Bonap. Syn. p. 307.

    American Bittern, Ardea lentiginosa, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 374.

    American Bittern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 60.

    American Bittern, Ardea minor, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 296.


368. 4. Ardea exilis, Wils. Least Bittern.

     Plate CCX. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill rather slender; feathers on the crown and occiput somewhat
elongated and loose. Male with the upper part of the head, back, and
tail, glossy greenish-black, some of the lateral feathers edged with
white; sides of head and hind part of neck light chestnut;
wing-coverts brownish-yellow; quills purplish-grey, tipped with
yellowish-brown, inner secondaries broadly margined with light
chestnut, of which colour also are the secondary coverts and edge of
the wing at the flexure; throat and fore neck reddish-white, with a
series of reddish-brown spots; fore part of breast, under the
elongated feathers, blackish-brown; the rest of the lower parts
reddish-white; tibia reddish-brown in front. Female smaller, with the
colours duller, the upper part of the head inclining to brown. Young
with the upper parts light brownish-red, variegated with
brownish-yellow; primary quills and tail black.

_Male_, 13-1/2, 17-3/4. _Female_, 12, wing 14-3/4.

Resident in Florida. Migrates in spring eastward as far as Maine, and
throughout the Western Country, far up the Missouri. Retires southward
in winter. Texas.

    Least Bittern, Ardea exilis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 37.

    Ardea exilis, Bonap. Syn. p. 308.

    Least Bittern, Ardea exilis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 66.

    Least Bittern, Ardea exilis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 77; v.
        v. p. 606.


369. 5. Ardea virescens, Linn. Green Heron.

     Plate CCCXXXIII. Male and Young.

Bill rather slender; feathers of the crown and occiput elongated, of
the fore part of the back much elongated and acuminate. Upper part of
the head and nape glossy deep green; neck purplish-red behind, with an
anterior longitudinal band of white, spotted with dusky brown;
elongated feathers of the back greyish-green, changing to bluish-grey,
with the shafts bluish-white; scapulars, wing-coverts, and inner
secondaries deep glossy green, bordered with yellowish-white;
primaries and outer secondaries greyish-blue tinged with green; hind
part of back and tail deep green; lower parts pale purplish tinged
with yellow; lower tail-coverts greyish-white. Young in first plumage
without the elongated feathers on the back, otherwise similar, but
with the wing-coverts tipped with a triangular white spot, the lower
parts chiefly white with brown streaks.

_Male_, 17-3/4, 27. _Female_, 17, 25.

Resident in the Floridas and along the Gulf of Mexico to Texas. In
spring and summer disperses over the whole country as far as Maine,
and up the Missouri. Returns southward at the approach of winter. Very
common.

    Green Heron, Ardea virescens, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 97.

    Ardea virescens, Bonap. Syn. p. 307.

    Green Heron, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 63.

    Green Heron, Ardea virescens, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 274.

    *** Bill much longer than the head, with its outline scarcely
    curved; legs very long, tibiæ bare to a great extent; feathers
    of the lower fore neck very long and tapering. Ardea and
    Egretta of authors.


370. 6. Ardea occidentalis, Aud. Great White Heron.

     Plate CCLXXXI. Male.

Bill, tibiæ, and hind part of tarsi yellow; anterior part of the
latter and toes dull green; feathers of the head elongated,
lanceolate, and loose, of the back not much elongated; plumage
entirely pure white.

_Male_, 54, 83. _Female_, 50, 75.

Resident in the Southern Florida Keys. Texas. Never seen to the
eastward of Cape Florida, nor on the mainland. Common.

    Great White Heron, Ardea occidentals, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 542; v. v. p. 596.


371. 7. Ardea Herodias, Linn. Great Blue Heron.

     Plate CCXI. Male.

Bill dusky green above, yellow beneath; feet dull green, paler behind;
feathers of the head long, tapering, decurved, two of them extremely
elongated; very long, tapering, pointed feathers from the anterior
part of the back; forehead pure white, the rest of the crest feathers
bluish-black; throat white, neck pale purplish-brown, the elongated
feathers beneath greyish-white, with part of the inner webs
purplish-blue, forming a longitudinal band; upper parts light
greyish-blue, the elongated tips of the dorsal feathers greyish-white;
edge of the wing, some feathers at the base of the fore neck, and the
tibial feathers, brownish-orange; two tufts of large curved feathers
on the fore part of the breast bluish-black, some of them with a
central stripe of white; lower surface of wings and sides light
greyish-blue; elongated feathers of breast, white, their inner edge
black, of the abdomen chiefly black; lower tail-coverts white, some of
them with an oblique mark of black near the tip. Young in first
plumage without the elongated dorsal feathers, the colours duller and
tinged with brown; upper part of head streaked with white, as is the
breast.

_Male_, 48, 72.

Resident from Texas to South Carolina. In spring migrates over the
United States, and along the Atlantic coast to the Gulf of St
Lawrence. Breeds everywhere. Retires southward in autumn. Common.

    Great Heron, Ardea Herodias, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 106.

    Ardea Herodias, Bonap. Syn. p. 304.

    Great Heron, Ardea Herodias, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 42.

    Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        87; v. v. p. 599.


372. 8. Ardea Egretta, Gmel. Great American White Egret.

     Plate CCCLXXXVI. Male.

Feathers of the head scarcely elongated, those of the fore part of the
back extremely long, slightly decurved, with loose filaments, and
extending about ten inches beyond the tail; bill yellow; feet black;
plumage pure white. Young white, the elongated feathers not fully
developed until the second year, bill greenish-black.

_Male_, 37, 57.

Resident in Florida, and Galveston Bay in Texas. Migrates in spring
sometimes as far as Massachusetts; up the Mississippi, to Natchez,
Breeds in all intermediate districts. Returns south before winter.
Very Abundant.

    Ardea Egretta, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 629.

    Great White Heron, Ardea Egretta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        106.

    Ardea alba, Bonap. Syn. p. 304.

    Ardea Egretta, Wagler, Syst. Av.

    Great White Heron, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 47.

    Great American Egret, Ardea Egretta, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        600.


373. 9. Ardea rufescens, Gmel. Reddish Egret.

     Plate CCLVI. Adult and Young.

Feathers of the upper and hind part of the head and of the neck
generally, much elongated, very narrow, loose, with linear-acuminate
compact tips; of the back extremely long, slightly recurved, with
loose filaments, and extending several inches beyond the tail; bill
pale flesh-colour, with the terminal third black; feet ultramarine
blue, the scutella bluish-black; plumage of the head and neck light
reddish-brown; back and wings greyish-blue; long train-feathers
yellowish toward the end; lower parts greyish-blue, paler than the
upper. Young with the plumage white, the feet dusky green, the soles
yellow.

_Male_, 31, 46.

Resident on the Florida Keys, and in Galveston Bay. Never seen inland.
Extremely abundant.

    Ardea rufescens, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 628.

    Peale's Egret Heron, Ardea Pealii, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iv. p.
        96. Young.

    Peak's Egret, _Nutt._ Man. v. ii. p. 49. Young.

    Reddish Egret, Ardea rufescens, _Aud._ Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        411; v. v. p. 604.


374. 10. Ardea cœrulea, Linn. Blue Heron.

     Plate CCCVII. Male and Young.

Feathers of the upper and hind part of the head very long and linear;
of the middle of the back extremely long, linear-acuminate, compact,
their tips extending about five inches beyond the tail; bill blue;
feet black; plumage of head and neck vinaceous purple, of the other
parts deep greyish-blue. Young with the plumage white, becoming
patched with blue as they advance in age.

_Male_, 24-1/2, 42.

Resident in Florida and Texas, where it breeds. In spring migrates as
far as Long Island; up the Mississippi to a hundred miles above
Natchez. Never seen far inland.

    Blue Heron, Ardea cœrulea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 117.

    Ardea cœrulea, Bonap. Syn. p. 300.

    Blue Heron, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 58.

    Blue Heron, Ardea cœrulea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 58.


375. 11. Ardea Ludoviciana, Wils. Louisiana Heron.

     Plate CCXVII. Male.

Feathers of the upper and hind part of the head elongated, tapering,
curved, about six of them larger and much longer; of the back
extremely elongated, with loose threadlike filaments, extending beyond
the tail; bill brownish-black above, yellow beneath; feet light
greenish-yellow, with the scutella dusky; general colour of upper
parts light purplish-blue; elongated feathers of head and neck above,
reddish-purple, as are those of the lower part of the neck; six
longest feathers of head white; elongated loose feathers of back dull
purplish-yellow; throat white, its lower part chestnut; a line of
white down the fore neck; rump and lower parts pure white, except the
anterior feathers of the breast, which have their inner webs dusky
blue. Young with the neck and fore part of the back light
brownish-red; throat and lower parts white, as is the hind part of the
back; quills, larger wing-coverts and tail light purplish-blue.
Plumage and colouring completed at the end of the second year.

_Male_, 27, 37.

Resident in the Floridas and Texas, where it is abundant. Migrates
eastward to New Jersey, where it is rare; up the Mississippi to
Natchez. Never seen far inland.

    Louisiana Heron, Ardea Ludoviciana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii.
        p. 13.

    Ardea Ludoviciana, Bonap. Syn. p. 305.

    Louisiana Heron, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 51.

    Louisiana Heron, Ardea Ludoviciana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        136; v. v. p. 605.


376. 12. Ardea candidissima, Gmel. Snowy Heron.

     Plate CCXLII. Male.

Feathers of the upper and hind part of the head very long, loose,
decurved; of the middle of the back very long, loose, decurved, with
their extremities recurved; bill and legs black; toes yellow. Plumage
pure white. Young white, with the legs and toes dull green.

_Male_, 22-1/2, 38.

Resident from Texas to Florida. Migrates in spring as far as
Massachusetts. Breeds in all intermediate districts; up the
Mississippi to Memphis. Abundant.

    Snowy Heron, Ardea candidissima. Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p.
        120.

    Ardea candidissima, Bonap. Syn. p. 305.

    Snowy Heron, Ardea candidissima, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 49.

    Snowy Heron, Ardea candidissima, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        317; v. v. p. 606.



FAMILY XXXIX. ANATINÆ. DUCKS.


Bill of moderate length, stout, straight, depressed toward the end,
obtuse, covered with soft skin; upper mandible transversely convex,
with the margins internally lamellate, the tip furnished with a
decurved horny broad unguis; lower mandible with the angle long and
narrow, the crura slender, flattened, the edges internally lamellate,
the tip a flattened unguis. Nostrils elliptical, open, subbasal. Head
of moderate size; neck long or of moderate length, slender; body full;
legs generally short, stout, with little of the tibia bare; tarsus
scutellate; toes four, first small; anterior three palmate. Claws
moderate, arched, compressed, obtuse. Plumage very full, dense, soft.
Wings of moderate length, curved, acute, outer two quills longest.
Tail short, of twelve or more feathers. Tongue fleshy, with a median
groove, lateral reversed papillæ, laminæ, or bristles, and a
semicircular thin horny tip; œsophagus narrow, slightly enlarged at
the lower part of the neck; stomach a transversely elliptical gizzard,
of which the lateral muscles are excessively developed, the epithelium
dense, with two concave grinding surfaces; intestine long and wide;
cœca long, cylindrical, contracted at the base. Trachea various,
generally much enlarged at the bifurcation, without inferior laryngeal
muscles, or only with the slips of the lateral muscles prolonged. Nest
generally on the ground; eggs numerous. Young clothed with stiffish
down, and able to walk and swim from birth.



GENUS I. PHŒNICOPTERUS, Linn. FLAMINGO.


Bill more than double the length of the head, straight and higher than
broad for half its length, then deflected, and tapering to an obtuse
point; upper mandible with its dorsal line at first straight, then
convex, and again straight nearly to the end, when it becomes convex
at the tip, the ridge broad and concave, on the deflected part
expanded into a lanceolate plate, having a shallow groove in the
middle, and separated from the edges by a narrow groove, its extremity
narrow and thin edged, but obtuse, this part being analogous to the
unguis of ducks; lower mandible narrower than the upper at its base,
but much broader in the rest of its extent; its angle rather long,
wide, and filled with bare skin; its dorsal line concave, but at the
tip convex, the ridge deeply depressed, there being a wide channel in
its place, the sides nearly erect and a little convex, with six ridges
on each side toward the tip. Both mandibles internally lamellate, the
edge of the lower much incurved. Nostrils linear, direct, and
subbasal, operculate. Head small, ovate; neck extremely elongated, and
very slender; body slender; legs extremely long; tibia bare for more
than half its length, and with the long tarsus anteriorly scutellate;
hind toe very small and elevated; anterior toes connected by
emarginate webs, scutellate above, tesselate beneath. Claws oblong,
obtuse, depressed. Space between the bill and the eye bare; plumage
compact; wings long, very broad, pointed; second quill longest; some
of the secondaries extremely elongated, so as to extend far beyond the
primaries when the wing is closed. Tail very short. Tongue confined by
the lower mandible, fleshy, compressed, decurved, with recurved
conical papillæ; œsophagus extremely narrow, but at the lower part
of the neck enlarged into a crop; proventriculus elliptical; stomach a
very muscular, transversely elliptical gizzard, exactly resembling
that of a goose or duck, with the epithelium dense, and longitudinally
sulcate; intestine very long, and of considerable width; cœca
rather long; cloaca globular.


377. 1. Phœnicopterus ruber, Linn. American Flamingo.

     Plate CCCCXXXI. Male.

Bill yellow tinged with bright orange, at the end black; feet lake;
plumage scarlet, excepting the ten primaries, and twenty of the
secondaries, which are black.

_Male_, 45-1/2, 66.

Rather rare, and only during summer in the Florida Keys, and the
western coast of Florida. Accidental as far as South Carolina.
Constantly resident in Cuba.

    Red Flamingo, Phœnicopterus ruber, Wils. Amer. Orn, v.
        viii. p. 145.

    Phœnicopterus ruber, Bonap. Syn. p. 348.

    American or Red Flamingo, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 71.

    American Flamingo, Phœnicopterus ruber, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 255.



GENUS II. ANSER, Briss. GOOSE.


Bill shorter than the head, rather higher than broad at the base,
somewhat conical, depressed toward the end, rounded at the tip; upper
mandible with the dorsal line sloping, the ridge broad and flattened,
the sides sloping, the edges soft and obtuse, internally with numerous
oblique marginal lamellæ, the unguis obovate, convex; nasal groove
oblong, filled by the soft membrane of the bill; nostrils medial,
lateral, longitudinal, narrow-elliptical, open, pervious, lower
mandible straight, with the angle very long, narrow, and rounded, the
edges soft and obtuse, with numerous oblique lamellæ, the tip broadly
convex. Head small, oblong, compressed; neck long and slender; body
very full, slightly depressed. Feet short, stout; tibia bare for a
short space below; tarsus short, a little compressed, covered all
round with angular scales; hind toe very small and elevated, third toe
longest, fourth longer than second; all reticulated at the base,
scutellate toward the end, the anterior webbed. Claws small, arched,
rather compressed. Plumage close, compact above, blended beneath.
Wings long, convex, the second quill longest, the first and third
nearly equal. Tail very short, of sixteen or more feathers.


378. 1. Anser Canadensis, Linn. Canada Goose.

     Plate CCI. Male and Female.

Tail of eighteen feathers; bill, feet, and claws black, head and two
upper thirds of neck glossy black; forehead, cheeks, and chin, tinged
with brown; lower eyelid white; a broad band of white across the
throat to behind the eye; rump and tail-feathers black; general colour
of the rest of upper parts greyish-brown, wing-coverts shaded into
ash-grey, all the feathers terminally edged with very pale brown;
lower part of neck passing to greyish-white, which is the general
colour of the lower parts, unless in old birds where it is buff, with
the exception of the abdomen, which is pure white, the sides, which
are pale brownish-grey, the feathers tipped with white, and the lower
wing-coverts, which are also pale brownish-grey; margins of rump and
upper tail-coverts pure white. Female with the tints somewhat duller.

_Male_, 43, 65. _Female_, 41.

Breeds sparingly from the Mississippi to Nova Scotia; abundantly in
Labrador, and farther north. In the interior, on the Missouri, and
across to the Columbia River. Abundant. Migrates far south in winter.

    Canada Goose, Anas canadensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        52.

    Anser canadensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 377.

    Anser canadensis, Canada Goose, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 468.

    Canada Goose, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 349.

    Canada Goose. Anser canadensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 1;
        v. v. p. 607.


379. 2. Anser Hutchinsii, Richardson. Hutchins's Goose.

     Plate CCLXXVII. Adult.

Tail of sixteen feathers; bill, feet, and claws black; head and two
upper thirds of neck glossy black; a large subtriangular patch of
white on each side of the head and neck; general colour of the upper
parts brownish-grey, the feathers margined with paler, of the lower
parts pale greyish-brown, margined with yellowish-grey; abdomen and
lower tail-coverts white; hind part of back brownish-black; primary
quills and tail-feathers deep brown.

_Adult_, 25, 50.

From New Jersey to Maine, during winter. Breeds in the Arctic Regions.
Columbia River. Abundant.

    Anser Hutchinsii, Hutchins's Bernacle Goose, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 470.

    Hutchins's Goose, Anser Hutchinsii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        526.


380. 3. Anser leucopsis, Bechst. Bernacle Goose.

     Plate CCXCVI. Male and Female.

Tail very short, rounded, of sixteen feathers; bill, feet, and claws
black; anterior parts of head, including a broad space above the eye,
the sides of the head and the throat, white; feathers margining the
bill, and a line from the bill to the eye, curving beneath the lower
eyelid, and running along the upper, brownish-black; neck all round
glossy bluish-black, of which colour are the anterior feathers; the
scapulars, and the wing-coverts, towards their extremities, while the
bases are ash-grey, and their terminal margins white; rump and
tail-feathers deep black; quills greyish-black, darker towards the
tips, the outer webs more or less tinged with ash-grey; upper and
lower tail-coverts, and sides of rump, pure white.

_Male_, 27, 56. _Female_, 23-1/2, 52.

Accidental in North America.

    Anser leucopsis, Bonap. Syn. p. 377.

    Bernacle Goose, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 355.

    Bernacle Goose, Anser leucopsis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        609.

381. 4. Anser Bernicla, Linn. Brent Goose.

     Plate CCCXCI. Male and Female.

Tail of sixteen feathers, rounded; bill and feet black; head and neck
all round black, glossed with blue; a small streak under the eye, a
spot on the chin, and patch on each side of the neck, white; general
colour of upper parts brownish-grey, the feathers margined with light
greyish-brown; quills and primary coverts greyish-black; upper
tail-coverts white; tail greyish-black; fore part of breast light
brownish-grey, the feathers terminally margined with greyish-white;
abdomen and lower tail-coverts white; sides grey, the feathers broadly
tipped with white; axillar feathers and lower wing-coverts grey.

_Male_, 24-1/2, 48. _Female_, 23, 44-1/2.

Abundant along the coast of the Atlantic, from Maine to Maryland,
during winter. Never seen far inland. Breeds from Labrador northward.
Columbia River.

    Brant, Anas Bernicla, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 131.

    Anser Bernicla, Bonap. Syn. p. 378.

    Anser Bernicla, Brent Goose, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 469.

    Brant or Brent Goose, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 358.

    Brent Goose, Anser Bernicla, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. pp. 24,
        610.


382. 5. Anser albifrons, Bechst. White-fronted Goose.

     Plate CCLXXXVI. Male and Female.

Tail of sixteen feathers, rounded; bill carmine-red, with the unguis
white; feet orange, claws white; head and neck greyish-brown; a white
band, margined behind with blackish-brown on the anterior part of the
forehead along the bill; general colour of back deep grey, the
feathers of its fore part broadly tipped with greyish-brown, the rest
with greyish-white; hind part of back deep grey; wings greyish-brown,
toward the edge ash-grey, as are the primary coverts, and outer webs
of the primaries; the rest of the primaries and secondaries
greyish-black, the latter with a narrow edge of greyish-white, the
former edged and tipped with white; breast, abdomen, lower
tail-coverts, sides of rump, and upper tail-coverts, white; the breast
and sides patched with brownish-black, on the latter intermixed with
greyish-brown feathers.

_Male_, 27-1/4, 60.

Through the interior of the Western and Southern States during winter,
as well as along the coast, from Massachusetts to Texas. Columbia
River. Breeds in the far north.

    Anser albifrons, Bonap. Syn. p. 376.

    Anser albifrons, Laughing Goose, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 456.

    White-fronted Goose, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 346.

    White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 568.

383. 6. Anser hyperboreus, Gmel. Snow-Goose.

     Plate CCCLXXXI. Adult Male and Young Female.

Bill and feet carmine, unguis white, claws dusky; plumage pure white,
fore part of head tinged with yellowish-red; primaries brownish-grey,
toward the end blackish-brown, their shafts white, unless toward the
end. Young in its second plumage, with the bill yellow, or
flesh-coloured, the feet lake; head and upper part of neck, with the
wing-coverts, greyish-white; lower part of neck all round, fore part
of back, scapulars, fore part of breast and sides blackish-grey; hind
part of back and upper tail-coverts, ash-grey; quills greyish-black,
secondaries margined with greyish-white; tail-feathers dusky grey,
margined with greyish-white; breast and abdomen greyish-white.

_Male_, 31-3/4, 62. _Female_, 26, 55.

Western and Southern States, in autumn and winter. Breeds in the
Arctic Regions. Abundant.

    Snow Goose, Anas hyperborea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 76.

    Anser hyperboreus, Bonap. Syn. p. 376.

    Snow Goose, Nutt. Man. p. 344.

    Anser hyperboreus, Snow Goose, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 467.

    Snow Goose, Anser hyperboreus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 562.



GENUS III. CYGNUS, Meyer. SWAN.


Bill longer than the head, higher than broad at the base, depressed,
and a little widened toward the end, rounded; upper mandible with the
dorsal line sloping, the ridge very broad at the base, with a large
depression; narrowed between the nostrils, convex toward the end, the
sides nearly erect at the base, gradually becoming more horizontal and
convex toward the end, the sides soft and thin, with numerous
transverse little elevated internal lamellæ, the unguis obovate; nasal
groove elliptical, subbasal, covered by the soft membrane of the bill;
lower mandible flattened, with the angle very long, and rather narrow,
the sides convex, the edges with numerous transverse lamellæ. Nostrils
submedial, longitudinal, placed near the ridge, elliptical. Head of
moderate size, oblong, compressed; neck extremely long and slender;
body very large, compact, depressed. Feet short, stout, placed a
little behind the centre of the body; tibia bare for a very small
space; tarsus short, a little compressed, covered all round with
angular scales; hind toe extremely small, with a very narrow membrane;
third longest, fourth very little shorter; anterior toes covered with
angular scales for nearly half their length, then scutellate, and
connected by broad reticulated entire membranes. Claws rather small,
strong, arched, compressed, rather obtuse. Space between the bill and
eye bare; plumage dense and soft. Wings long, broad; primaries curved,
stiff, the second longest. Tail very short, graduated, of twenty or
more feathers. Œsophagus very slender, at the lower part of the
neck a little dilated; stomach transversely elliptical, with the
lateral muscles extremely large, the epithelium dense, with two
concave grinding surfaces; intestine long, and of moderate width;
cœca rather large, narrow; cloaca globular. Trachea generally
enters a cavity in the sternum, whence it is reflected, before it
passes into the thorax; no inferior laryngeal muscles.


384. 1. Cygnus Buccinator, Richardson. Trumpeter Swan.

     Plate CCCCVI. Adult Male. Plate CCCLXXVI. Young after first
     moult.

Tail-feathers twenty-four; bill and feet black; plumage pure white,
excepting the upper part of the head, which is often brownish-red.
Young after first moult with the bill flesh-coloured in the middle,
the feet dull yellowish-brown; upper part of head and cheeks bright
reddish-brown, each feather tipped with whitish; throat nearly white;
general colour of the other parts greyish-white, slightly tinged with
yellow.

_Adult_, 68; wing, 27. _Young_, 52-1/2, 91.

Breeds from North California northward. Fur Countries. Abundant during
winter on the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, and in Texas. Never seen
eastward of South Carolina.

    Cygnus Buccinator, Richardson's Trumpeter Swan, F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 464.

    Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus Buccinator, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 370.

    Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus Buccinator, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        536; v. v. p. 114.


385. 2. Cygnus Americanus, Sharpless. American Swan.

     Plate CCCCXI. Male.

Tail feathers twenty; bill and feet black, the former with a small
orange spot on each side at the base; plumage pure white. Young grey.

_Male_, 53, 84.

Common during winter in the Middle Atlantic Districts, especially on
Chesapeake Bay. Not seen south of Carolina. Columbia River. Breeds in
the Fur Countries.

    American Wild Swan, Cygnus americanus, Sharpless, Amer. Journ.
        of Sc. and Arts, v. xxii.

    American Swan, Cygnus americanus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        133.



GENUS IV. ANAS, Linn. DUCK.


Bill about the length of the head, somewhat higher than broad at the
base, depressed and widened towards the end, rounded at the tip; upper
mandible with the dorsal line sloping, and a little concave, the ridge
at the base broad and flat, towards the end broadly convex, as are the
sides, the edges soft and rather obtuse, the marginal lamellæ
numerous, oblique; unguis decurved, obovate; nasal groove elliptical,
subbasal, filled by the soft membrane of the bill; lower mandible
flattened, slightly recurvate, with the angle very long and narrow,
the unguis roundish, the lamellæ numerous. Nostrils subbasal,
elliptical, near the ridge. Head of moderate size, oblong, compressed;
neck rather long and slender; body full, depressed. Feet short, stout,
placed a little behind the centre of the body; tibia bare a little
above the joint; tarsus short, somewhat compressed, anteriorly with
small scutella, laterally and behind with angular scales; hind toe
extremely small, with a very narrow membrane; third toe longest,
fourth a little shorter, but longer than second; all covered with
numerous oblique scutella; anterior connected by reticulated
membranes. Claws small, arched, compressed, rather acute. Plumage
dense, soft. Wings of moderate length, acute; second quill longest,
first very little shorter; inner secondaries elongated and tapering;
tail short, much rounded, of sixteen feathers. Œsophagus rather
narrow, dilated on the lower part of the neck; stomach an extremely
muscular, transversely elliptical gizzard; intestine long and rather
wide; cœca long. Trachea of the males, with a transverse bony
unsymmetrical dilatation at the inferior larynx.


386. 1. Anas Borchas, Linn. Mallard.

     Plate CCXXI. Male and Female.

Male with the feathers of the head and neck short, blended, and
splendent; tail much rounded, of sixteen acute feathers, of which the
four central are recurved; bill greenish-yellow, feet orange-red; head
and upper part of neck deep green; about the middle of the neck a
white ring; its lower part anteriorly, and the fore part of the
breast, dark brownish-chestnut; fore part of back light
yellowish-brown, rest of the back brownish-black, the rump black,
splendent with green and purplish-blue, as are the recurved
tail-feathers; upper surface of wings greyish-brown, scapulars
lighter, except their inner webs, and with the anterior dorsal
feathers, minutely undulated with brown, speculum on about ten of the
secondaries purple and green, edged with velvet-black and white, the
anterior bands of these colours being on the secondary coverts;
breast, sides, and abdomen very pale grey, minutely undulated with
darker; lower tail-coverts black. Female with the bill black in the
middle, dull orange at the extremities and along the edges; upper
parts pale yellowish, streaked and spotted with dusky; feathers of the
head narrowly streaked, of the back with the margins and a central
streak yellowish-brown, the rest dark, the scapulars similar, but with
the light streak on the outer web; speculum as in the male, but with
less green; lower parts dull ochre, deeper on the lower neck, faintly
streaked and spotted with brown.

_Male_, 24, 36. _Female_, 22.

Breeds from Texas sparingly throughout the United States. Columbia
River, and Fur Countries. Abundant during winter in all the Southern
Districts. Not found in Maine, or farther eastward.

    Mallard, Anas Borchas, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 112.

    Anas Borchas, Bonap. Syn. p. 383.

    Anas (Borchas) domestica, Mallard, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 442.

    Mallard Duck, Anas domestica, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 378.

    Mallard, Anas Borchas, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 164.


387. 2. Anas obscura, Gmel. Dusky Duck.

     Plate CCCII. Male and Female.

Tail much rounded, of eighteen acute feathers, none of which are
recurved; bill yellowish-green; feet orange-red, the webs dusky;
upper part of head glossy brownish-black, the feathers margined with
light brown; sides of head and a band over the eye light
greyish-brown, with longitudinal dusky streaks; general colour
blackish-brown, a little paler beneath, all the feathers margined with
pale reddish-brown; wing-coverts greyish-dusky, with a faint tinge of
green; ends of secondary coverts velvet black; primaries and their
coverts blackish-brown; secondaries darker; speculum green, blue,
violet, or amethyst-purple, bounded by velvet-black, the feathers also
tipped with a narrow line of white; under surface of wing and
axillaries white. Female more brown, with the speculum similar, but
without the white terminal line.

_Male_, 24-1/2, 38-1/2. _Female_, 22, 34-1/4.

Breeds in Texas, westward, and throughout the United States, British
Provinces, and Labrador. Columbia River. Common in autumn and spring
along the Middle Atlantic Districts. Abundant in the Southern and
Western States, in winter.

    Dusky Duck, Anas obscura, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 141.

    Anas obscura, Bonap. Syn. p. 384.

    Dusky Duck, Anas obscura, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 392.

    Dusky Duck, Anas obscura, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 15.


388. 3. Anas Breweri, Aud. Brewer's Duck.

     Plate CCCXXXVIII. Male.

Very nearly allied to the Mallard, but with the bill narrower, no
recurved feathers in the tail, and the feet dull yellow; the speculum
more green without white bands, and a large patch of light red on the
side of the head; bill dull yellow, dusky along the ridge; head and
upper part of neck deep glossy green; an elongated patch of pale
reddish-yellow from the base of the bill over the cheeks to a
considerable way down the neck; a space immediately over and behind
the eye light dull purple; a narrow ring of pale yellowish-red on the
middle of the neck, of which the lower part is dull brownish-red, the
feathers with a transverse band of dusky, and edged with paler; upper
parts dull greyish-brown, transversely undulated with dusky; smaller
wing-coverts without undulations, but each feather with a dusky bar
behind another of light dull yellow; first row of smaller coverts
tipped with black; primaries and their coverts light brownish-grey;
some of the outer secondaries similar, the next five or six
duck-green, the next light grey with a dusky patch toward the end;
rump and upper tail-coverts black, as are the parts under the tail,
excepting two longitudinal white bands; tail-feathers light
brownish-grey, edged with whitish; all the rest of the lower parts
greyish-white edged with yellow, beautifully undulated with dusky
lines, on the middle of the breast these lines less numerous, and each
feather with a reddish-grey central streak.

_Male_, 23, 39.

One specimen procured in Louisiana.

    Brewer's Duck, Anas Breweri, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 302.


389. 4. Anas strepera, Linn. Gadwall Duck.--Violon.

     Plate CCCXLVIII. Male and Female.

Tail short, rounded, of sixteen pointed feathers. Male with the bill
bluish-black, the feet dull orange-yellow, the webs dusky; head light
yellowish-grey, its upper part and nape much darker and barred with
dusky, the rest dotted with the same; lower part of neck, sides of
body, fore part of back, and outer scapulars, undulated with dusky and
yellowish-white, the bands much larger and semicircular on the fore
part of the neck and breast; the latter white; abdomen faintly and
minutely undulated with brownish-grey; elongated scapulars
brownish-grey, broadly margined with brownish-red; hind part of back
brownish-black, rump and upper and lower tail-coverts bluish-black;
anterior smaller wing-coverts light grey undulated with dusky, middle
coverts deep chestnut-red; primary coverts brownish-grey, outer
secondary coverts darker and tinged with chestnut, the rest black,
excepting the inner which are grey; primaries and inner elongated
secondaries brownish-grey, of which colour also are the inner webs of
the rest; part of the outer webs, of five of the outer black, and
their terminal margins, white, of which colour are the whole outer
webs of the three next to the inner elongated quills; tail
brownish-grey, the feathers margined with paler. Female with the bill
dusky along the ridge, upper part of head brownish-black, the feathers
edged with light reddish-brown; a streak over the eye, the cheeks, the
upper part of the neck all round, light yellowish-red tinged with
grey, and marked with small longitudinal dusky streaks, which are
fainter on the throat, that part being greyish-white; the rest of the
neck, the sides, all the upper parts, and the lower rump-feathers
brownish-black broadly margined with yellowish-red; wing-coverts
brownish-grey, edged with paler; wing with the speculum fainter;
tail-feathers and their coverts dusky, laterally obliquely indented
with pale brownish-red, and margined with reddish-white.

_Male_, 21-3/4, 35. _Female_, 19-1/4, 31.

Breeds in Texas, and westward to the Columbia River, Fur Countries,
and sometimes in the States of New York, Massachusetts, and Maine.
Rather common in autumn and spring in the middle Atlantic districts;
more so in the Southern and Western States.

    Gadwall, Anas strepera, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 120.

    Anas strepera, Bonap. Syn. p. 383.

    Anas (Chauliodus) strepera, Gadwall, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 440.

    Gadwall or Grey, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 383.

    Gadwall Duck, Anas strepera, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 353.


390. 5. Anas Americana, Gmel. American Widgeon.

     Plate CCCXLV. Male and Female.

Tail short, pointed, of sixteen feathers. Male with the bill and feet
light greyish-blue; upper part of head white, more or less mottled
with dusky on the sides; loral space and cheeks reddish-white, dotted
with greenish-black; a broad band from the eye to behind the occiput
deep green; lower part of hind neck, scapulars, and fore part of back,
minutely transversely undulated with brownish-black and light
brownish-red; the hind part similarly undulated with blackish-brown
and greyish-white; smaller wing-coverts brownish-grey; primary quills
and coverts dark greyish-brown; secondary coverts white, tipped with
black; speculum duck-green, anteriorly bounded by the black tips of
the secondary coverts, black behind, internally black with white
streaks, the inner elongated secondaries having their outer webs
black, margined with white, their inner webs brownish-grey;
tail-feathers light brownish-grey; throat brownish-black, lower part
of neck in front, and fore part of breast light brownish-red; breast,
belly, and sides of rump, white; sides of body finely undulated with
white and dusky; rump beneath and lower tail-coverts black. Female
similar, with less white on the head, the back duller and less
undulated; the wings greyish-brown, the secondary coverts tipped with
white, secondary quills brownish-black, inner greyish-brown, all
margined with white; tail-feathers greyish-brown, edged with white,
lower parts white, except the feathers of the sides and under the
tail, which are broadly barred with dusky and light reddish-brown.
Perhaps not distinct from Anas Penelope.

_Male_, 20-1/2, 34-1/2. _Female_, 18, 30.

Breeds in Texas, and in the Northern Districts. Abundant in the south
and west in winter. Columbia River. Middle Atlantic districts in
autumn and spring.

    American Widgeon, Anas americana, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        86.

    Anas americana, Bonap. Syn. p. 384.

    Mareca americana, Steph. American Widgeon, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 445.

    American Widgeon, Anas americana, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 389.

    American Widgeon, Anas americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        337.


391. 6. Anas acuta, Linn. Pintail Duck.

     Plate CCXXVII. Male and Female.

Tail tapering, of fourteen tapering feathers, of which the two middle
project far beyond the rest. Male with the bill black, the sides of
upper mandible pale blue; feet greyish-blue; head, throat, and upper
part of neck anteriorly greenish-brown, faintly margined behind with
purplish-red; a small part of hind neck dark green; the rest and the
upper part in general beautifully undulated with very narrow bars of
brownish-black and yellowish-white, smaller wing-coverts, alula, and
primary quills grey, the latter dark brown toward the end; speculum
coppery-red, changing to dull green, edged anteriorly with light
brownish-red, posteriorly with white; inner secondaries and scapulars
black and green with broad grey margins; upper tail-coverts
cream-coloured, the outer webs blackish and green; tail light grey,
the middle feathers dark brown glossed with green; on each side of the
neck an oblique band of white, of which colour are the lower parts in
general, but the sides undulated like the back, the lateral feathers
of the rump cream-coloured, the lower tail-coverts black, and those at
the sides edged with white. Female with the upper parts variegated
with brownish-black and light yellowish-brown, the margins of the
feathers, and a mark on each side of the shaft being of the latter
colour; the speculum dusky green, margined behind with white; primary
quills greyish-brown; lower parts light brownish-yellow, sides
variegated with brown.

_Male_, 29, 36. _Female_, 22-1/2, 34.

From Texas, throughout the interior, to the Columbia River, and along
the Atlantic coast to Maine, during winter, and early spring. Breeds
in the Arctic regions. Abundant.

    Pintail Duck, Anas acuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 72.

    Anas acuta, Bonap. Syn. p. 383.

    Anas caudacuta, Pintail Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 441.

    Pintail or Winter Duck, Anas acuta, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 386.

    Pintail Duck, Anas acuta, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 214; v.
        v. p. 615.


392. 7. Anas Sponsa, Linn. Wood Duck.--Summer Duck.

     Plate CCVI. Male and Female.

Male with the feathers of the head and upper and hind part of neck
elongated and incurved, inner secondaries very broad, tail much
rounded, of sixteen feathers; bill bright red at the base, yellow on
the sides, ridge and unguis black; feet greenish-yellow; upper part of
head and loral space deep green; below the eye a patch of dark purple,
behind it a larger patch of the same colour; sides of neck, its hind
part under the crest, and the middle all round, very dark purple; a
narrow line along the base of the upper mandible and over the eye,
meeting on the occiput, pure white, as are some of the feathers of the
crest; another from behind the eye meeting below the occiput, and
including several of the lower elongated feathers; throat pure white,
with a process on each side a little beyond the eye, and another
nearly half-way down the neck; sides of the neck and its lower part
anteriorly reddish-purple, each feather on the latter with a
triangular white tip; middle of the neck behind, back and rump, very
dark reddish-brown, the latter deeper, and tinged with green; upper
tail-coverts and tail greenish-black; some of the lateral tail-coverts
dull reddish-purple, a few on either side with their central filaments
light red; smaller wing-coverts, alula, and primaries dull
greyish-brown, most of the latter, with part of the outer web
greyish-white, and the inner toward the end darker and glossed with
green; secondary quills tipped with white, the outer webs green, with
purple reflections, those of the inner secondaries and scapulars
velvet-black, their inner webs partially glossed and changing to
green; the broad feathers anterior to the wings white, terminated with
black; breast and abdomen greyish-white; feathers under the wings
yellowish-grey, minutely undulated with black, and tipped with a white
and two black bands; lower wing-coverts and axillar feathers white,
barred with greyish-brown; lower tail-coverts dull greyish-brown.
Female with the bill blackish-brown, the feet dull green; upper part
of head dusky glossed with green, sides of head and neck, with hind
part of latter, light brownish-grey; throat white, but without the
lateral processes; fore part of neck below and sides light
yellowish-brown, mottled with dark greyish-brown, as are the sides
under the wings; breast and abdomen white, the former spotted with
brown; hind neck, back, and rump dark brown, glossed with green and
purple; wings as in the male, but the speculum less, and the
secondaries externally faint reddish-purple, the velvet-black of the
male diminished to a few narrow markings; tail dark brown, glossed
with green; lower tail-coverts pale greyish-brown, mottled with white.

_Male_, 20-1/2, 28. _Female_, 19-1/2.

Breeds throughout the country from Texas to the Columbia, and eastward
to Nova Scotia. Fur Countries. Accumulates in the Southern Districts
in winter.

    Summer Duck or Wood Duck, Anas sponsa, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. viii. p. 97.

    Dendronessa sponsa, Summer Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 446.

    Summer or Wood Duck, Anas sponsa, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 394.

    Wood Duck, Anas sponsa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 52; v. v.
        p. 618.


393. 8. Anas Carolinensis, Steph. American Green-winged Teal.

     Plate CCXXVIII. Male and Female.

Male with the feathers of the head and upper part of hind neck
elongated; tail short, acuminate, of sixteen feathers; bill black,
feet light bluish-grey; head and upper part of neck chestnut-red; a
broad band, narrowing backwards, from the eye, down the back of the
neck, deep shining green, edged with black below, under which is a
whitish line, meeting before the eye another that curves forward and
downward to the angle of the mouth; chin brownish-black, as are the
feathers at the base of the upper mandible; upper parts and flanks
beautifully undulated with brownish-black and white lines; anterior to
the wings a short broad transverse band of white; wings brownish-grey;
speculum in its lower half velvet-black, the upper bright green,
changing to purple, and edged above with black, behind margined with
white, before with reddish-white; tail brownish-grey, the feathers
margined with paler; upper coverts brownish-black, edged with light
yellowish-grey; lower part of neck partly barred as behind,
yellowish-white and spotted with black, as is the fore part of the
breast; abdomen white, faintly barred with grey; a patch of black
under the tail; lateral tail-coverts cream-coloured, the larger black,
with broad white margins and tips. Female with the head and neck
streaked with dark brown and light red, the fore neck whitish, the
upper parts mottled with dark brown, the anterior feathers barred, the
posterior margined with yellowish-white; the speculum less extensive;
the lower part of fore neck tinged with yellowish-red, and mottled
with dark brown, as are the sides; the rest of the lower parts white.
This species differs from _Anas Crecca_ chiefly in having a white band
before the wing, which the European bird has not, while the latter has
the greater part of the outer webs of most of the scapulars white,
there being none of that colour on those of our bird.

_Male_, 14-3/4, 24. _Female_, 13-3/4, 22-1/2.

Dispersed throughout the country during autumn and spring. Extremely
abundant during winter in all the Southern States and Texas. Breeds
sparingly along the Great Lakes, and far north.

    Green-winged Teal, Anas Crecca, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        101.

    Anas Crecca, Bonap. Syn. p. 386.

    American Teal, Anas Crecca, var. Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 400.

    Anas Crecca, Green-winged Teal, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 400.

    Green-winged Teal, Anas Crecca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        218; v. v. p. 616.


394. 9. Anas discors, Linn. Blue-winged Teal.

     Plate CCCXIII. Male and Female.

Male with the feathers of the head and hind neck slightly elongated,
the tail rounded, acuminate, of fourteen feathers; bill bluish-black;
feet dull yellow; upper part of head black; a semilunar white patch on
the side of the head before the eye, margined before and behind with
black, the rest of the head and the anterior parts of the neck
purplish-blue, with purplish-red reflections; lower hind neck and fore
part of back brownish-black, glossed with green, each feather with a
curved band of pale reddish-buff, and a line or band of the same in
the centre, the hind part of the back greenish-brown, the feathers
edged with paler; smaller wing-coverts light blue; alula, primary
coverts, and primary quills greyish-brown, edged with pale bluish;
outer secondaries of the same colour, those of the speculum
duck-green, changing to blue and bronze, with a narrow line of white
along their terminal margin; the inner greenish-black on the outer
web, greenish-brown on the inner, with a central line and narrow
external margin of pale reddish-buff; the more elongated scapulars
similar, but some of them margined with greenish-blue; secondary
coverts greenish-brown, the outer tipped with white, the inner with
blue; tail-feathers chocolate-brown, slightly glossed with green,
their margin buffy; lower parts pale reddish-orange, shaded on the
breast with purplish-red, and thickly spotted with black, the number
of spots on each feather varying from eight to twenty-five, those on
the upper and hind parts of the sides running into transverse bars;
axillar feathers, some of the lower wing-coverts, and a patch on the
side of the rump pure white; lower tail-coverts brownish-black. Female
with the upper parts blackish-brown, the lower lighter, the feathers
edged with greyish-white, the throat and lore whitish; the smaller
wing-coverts light blue, but the scapulars without that colour.

_Male_, 16, 31-1/4. _Female_, 15, 24.

Breeds in Texas and westward. Great Lakes. Fur Countries. Columbia
River. Very abundant in autumn and spring in the Middle Atlantic
Districts, as well as in the interior. Abundant also in all the
Southern States.

    Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        74.

    Anas discors, Bonap. Syn. p. 385.

    Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 444.

    Blue-winged Teal, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 397.

    Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 111.


395. 10. Anas clypeata, Linn. Shoveller Duck.--Micoine.

     Plate CCCXXVII. Male and Female.

Male with the bill longer than the head, depressed and much widened
towards the end, where its breadth is doubled; laminæ of the upper
mandible very numerous, prolonged beyond the edges and tapering to a
point, unless at the commencement of its broadest part; tail rounded,
of fourteen acute feathers; bill greyish-black; feet vermilion; head
and upper part of neck deep green with purple reflections; a
longitudinal band on the hind neck and the back, greyish-brown, the
feathers edged with paler; rump and upper tail-coverts greenish-black;
anterior scapulars white, posterior light blue on the outer web,
longitudinally banded with white and greenish-black on the inner;
smaller wing-coverts light blue; alula, primary coverts and quills
blackish-brown, their shafts white; outer secondaries greyish-brown,
eight of them externally of a rich duck-green, the inner
greenish-black, with a longitudinal white streak; secondary coverts
broadly tipped with white; tail-feathers greyish-brown, margined with
reddish-white; lower part of neck pure white; breast and middle part
of abdomen dull purplish-chestnut; a large patch of white on each side
of the rump, with a band of the same towards the tail; lower
tail-coverts greenish-black; axillaries and lower wing-coverts pure
white. Female with the bill much less dilated, and the laminæ less
elongated; the bill dull green; feathers of the upper parts
blackish-brown, edged with light reddish-brown; throat and sides of
the head light reddish-brown, which is the prevailing colour over the
lower part of the neck, part of the breast, and the sides, of which,
however, the feathers are edged with dusky, middle of breast whitish;
smaller wing-coverts dull brownish-grey; alula and primaries as in the
male; inner secondaries brownish-black, speculum as in the male but
paler, and changing to blue.

_Male_, 20-1/2, 31-1/2. _Female_, 17, 29-1/2.

Breeds abundantly in the Texas, westward to the Columbia, and Fur
Countries. During winter from the Middle Atlantic Districts to Texas.
Common.

    Shoveller, Anas clypeata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 45.

    Anas clypeata, Bonap. Syn. p. 382.

    Anas clypeata, Shoveller, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii.
        p. 439.

    Shoveller, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 383.

    Shoveller Duck, Anas clypeata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 241.



GENUS V. FULIGULA. SEA-DUCK.


Bill about the length of the head or shorter, higher than broad at the
base, depressed toward the end, the margins parallel, slightly dilated
towards the end, which is rounded, the frontal angles rather pointed;
upper mandible with the dorsal line generally declinate, but various
at the base, being often prominent, the ridge broad at the base,
narrowed at the middle, enlarged and convex at the end, the sides
nearly erect at the base, gradually more declinate, the edges soft and
internally lamellate, the unguis oblong and decurved; lower mandible
flattened, being but slightly convex, with the angle very long and
rather narrow, the dorsal line very short and straight, the edges
internally lamellate, the unguis flat, obovato-elliptical. Nostrils
submedial, linear-oblong, rather large, near the ridge, in an oblong
depression covered with the soft membrane of the bill. Head rather
large, compressed, convex above; neck of moderate length, rather
thick; body full, depressed. Feet very short, strong, placed rather
far behind; tarsus very short, compressed, anteriorly with narrow
scutella continuous with those of the middle toe, and having another
series commencing half-way down and continuous with those of the outer
toe; hind toe small, with an inner expanded margin; middle toe nearly
double the length of the tarsus, outer a little shorter, all
scutellate. Claws small, compressed, that of the first toe very small
and curved. Plumage dense, firm, blended. Wings shortish, narrow,
pointed, first and second quills longest; inner secondaries elongated
and tapering. Tail very short, rounded or cuneate, of fourteen or more
feathers. Œsophagus rather wide, considerably dilated at the lower
part of the neck; stomach an extremely muscular, roundish gizzard;
intestine long and wide; cœca long. Trachea of the males with a
transverse, bony, unsymmetrical dilatation at the inferior larynx.

    * Bill of ordinary length, broad, without enlargements at the
    base, unguis small, decurved.


396. 1. Fuligula Valisneriana, Wils. Canvass Back Duck.

     Plate CCCI. Male and Female.

Bill as long as the head; tail much rounded, of fourteen feathers.
Male with the bill black; upper part of head and a space along the
base of the bill dusky, a small transverse band of white on the chin;
the rest of the head and the neck all round for more than half its
length, rich brownish-red; a broad belt of brownish-black occupying
the lower part of the neck and the fore part of the body; upper parts
white, minutely undulated with dark grey or blackish; primary quills
brownish-black, tinged with grey towards the base; secondaries
ash-grey, toward the end whitish and undulated, five of them also
having a narrow strip of black along their outer margin; rump and
tail-coverts above and below brownish-black; tail brownish-grey; lower
parts white, the sides and abdomen marked with five undulating grey
lines. Female with the upper parts greyish-brown, the top of the head
darker, the chin whitish, the neck greyish-brown, as are the sides and
abdomen; breast white; wing-coverts brownish-grey; primary quills
greyish-brown, dusky at the end, secondaries ash-grey, five of the
inner with an external black margin; the innermost greyish-brown, like
the back, and with some of the scapulars faintly undulated with
darker; tail greyish-brown, paler at the end; axillars and smaller
under wing-coverts white.

_Male_, 22, 33. _Female_, 20-1/4, 30-3/4.

Abundant during winter from the mouth of the Delaware to New Orleans,
in all the estuaries. Columbia River. Breeds on the Rocky Mountains
and northward.

    Canvass-backed Duck, Anas valisneria, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        viii. p. 103.

    Fuligula valisneria, Bonap. Syn. p. 392.

    Fuligula valisneria, Canvass-back Duck, Swains. &. Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 450.

    Canvass-backed Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 430.

    Canvass-back Duck, Fuligula valisneriana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 1.


397. 2. Fuligula Ferina, Linn. Red-headed Duck.--Dos-gris.

     Plate CCCXXII. Male and Female.

Bill as long as the head, tail much rounded, of fourteen feathers.
Male with the bill light greyish-blue, with a broad band of black at
the end, and a dusky patch anterior to the nostrils; head and neck all
round, for more than half its length, of a rich brownish-red, glossed
with carmine above; a broad belt of brownish-black occupying the lower
part of the neck and the fore part of the body; back and scapulars
pale greyish-white, being minutely traversed by dark brownish-grey
lines; sides and abdomen similar, the undulations gradually fading
away into the greyish-white of the middle of the breast; upper
wing-coverts brownish-grey, the feathers faintly undulated with
whitish toward the end; primary quills brownish-grey, dusky along the
outer web and at the end; secondaries ash-grey, narrowly tipped with
white, four or five of the inner of a purer tint tinged with blue, and
having a narrow brownish-black line along the margin; the innermost
like the scapulars, but more dusky; tail brownish-grey; axillar
feathers and lower wing-coverts white; rump above and below
brownish-black. Female with the head and upper part of the neck dull
reddish-brown, darker above; the rest of the neck all round, and the
upper parts in general, dull greyish-brown, the feathers paler at
their tips; flanks and fore part of the neck dull reddish-brown, the
feathers broadly tipped with pale greyish-brown; wings as in the male,
but of a darker tint, and without undulations; tail as in the male;
lower wing-coverts light grey, those in the middle white; middle of
breast greyish-white, hind part of abdomen light brownish-grey.

_Male_, 20, 33. _Female_, 21, 32-1/2.

Breeds throughout the Fur Countries, from which it migrates southward
in early autumn. Abundant on the Chesapeake, New York Bay, Ohio, and
Mississippi, with their tributaries. None seen westward of the
Mississippi.

    Red-headed Duck, Anas Ferina, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        110.

    Fuligula Ferina, Bonap. Syn. p. 392.

    Fuligula Ferina, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 452.

    Red-headed Duck or Pochard, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 434.

    Red-headed Duck, Fuligula Ferina, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        198.


398. 3. Fuligula Marila, Linn. Scaup Duck.--Flocking Fowl.

     Plate CCXXIX. Male and Female.

Bill as long as the head, enlarged toward the end; tail much rounded,
of fourteen feathers. Male with the bill light greyish-blue, the
unguis blackish; head, neck, and fore part of the back and breast
black, the head and neck glossed with purple and green, the rest
tinged with brown; hind part of back, rump, abdomen, and upper and
lower tail-coverts brownish-black; middle of back, scapulars, inner
secondaries, anterior part of abdomen, and sides greyish-white,
beautifully marked with undulating black lines; wings light
brownish-grey; alula, primaries, at the base and end, brownish-black;
speculum white, as are the middle of the breast, the axillars, and
some of the lower wing-coverts. Female with the head, neck, and fore
part of the back and breast, umber-brown; a broad patch of white along
the fore part of the forehead; upper parts in general blackish-brown,
the middle of the back and the scapulars faintly undulated with
whitish dots and lines; primary quills greyish in the middle; speculum
dull white; the greater part of the breast and abdomen white, the
sides and parts under the tail umber-brown.

_Male_, 16-1/2, 29. _Female_, 16-1/2, 28.

Abundant during autumn on the Ohio and its tributaries, as well as
those of the Missouri and the Mississippi. Rather common also along
the Middle Atlantic Districts. Breeds far north.

    Scaup Duck, Anas Marila, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 84.

    Fuligula Marila, Scaup Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 456.

    Scaup Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 437.

    Scaup Duck, Fuligula Marila, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 226;
        v. v. p. 614.


399. 4. Fuligula rufitorques, Bonap. Ring-necked Duck.

     Plate CCXXXIV. Male and Female.

Bill about the same length as the head, a little enlarged toward the
end; tail much rounded, of sixteen feathers; occiput slightly crested.
Male with the bill black, with a basal and subterminal line
bluish-white; head and upper part of neck greenish-black, with purple
reflections; a very narrow brownish-red collar; lower part of neck all
round, as well as the back, scapulars, smaller wing-coverts, and rump
above and below, brownish-black; inner secondaries of the same colour,
outer bluish-grey on the outer web, light brown on the inner, as are
the primaries, of which the outer webs and tips are dark brown; tail
brownish-grey; chin white; breast greyish-white; sides and abdomen
greyish-white, minutely undulated with grey. Female with the bill
dusky, the neck umber-brown, upper part of head darker, back
blackish-brown, speculum bluish-grey as in the male; breast
brownish-white; loral space and chin pale brown; sides and abdomen
dark umber-brown.

_Male_, 18, 28. _Female_, 16.

Abundant on the Ohio during autumn, winter, and early spring; rather
rare along the coasts of the Middle Atlantic Districts. Breeds far
north.

    Fuligula rufitorques, Bonap. Syn. p. 393.

    Tufted Duck, Anas Fuligula, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 60.

    Ring-necked Duck, Anas (Fuligula) rufitorques, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 453.

    Ring-necked Duck, Fuligula rufitorques, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        439.

    Ring-necked Duck, Fuligula rufitorques, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 259.

    ** Bill very broad, much flattened, the unguis abruptly curved
    backwards.


400. 5. Fuligula rubida, Wils. Ruddy Duck.

Plate CCCXLIII. Male, Female, and Young.

Tail short, much graduated, of eighteen stiff, narrow feathers;
plumage of lower parts stiff and glossy. Male with the bill light
greyish-blue; upper part of head and nape deep bluish-black; a large
white patch on each side of the head, from the bill to behind the ear;
neck all round, all the upper parts, and sides glossy chestnut-red;
lower parts greyish-white, tinged with brown, and marked with
transverse interrupted bands of dusky; wing-coverts, quills, and
tail-feathers blackish-brown. Female with the bill darker, the crown,
and all the upper parts dark reddish-brown, minutely dotted and
undulated with dusky; lower parts duller, but similarly marked;
throat, and a band from the base of the upper mandible to beneath the
eye, brownish-white. Young, in second plumage, reddish-brown above,
barred with dusky; wings and tail dark greyish-brown; cheeks, fore
part and sides of neck, and all the lower parts dull yellowish-white,
undulated with dusky, as in the rump above; lower tail-coverts white.

_Male_, 14-3/4, 21-1/2.

    Ruddy Duck, Anas rubida, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 137.

    Fuligula rubida, Bonap. Syn. p. 390.

    Fuligula rubida, Ruddy Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 455.

    Ruddy Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 426.

    Ruddy Duck, Fuligula rubida, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 326.

    *** Bill semicylindrical, at the end enlarged by soft
    membranous expansions, the unguis broadly obovate and
    incurved.


401. 6. Fuligula Labradora, Lath. Pied Duck.

     Plate CCCXXXII. Male and Female.

Bill nearly as long as the head; tail much rounded, of fourteen
tapering feathers. Male with the bill pale greyish-blue at the base
above, dull orange on the sides, black toward the end; head and upper
half of neck white, except an elongated patch of black on the crown
and nape; below the middle of the neck a black ring, from the hind
part of which proceeds a longitudinal band of the same colour,
gradually becoming wider on the back and rump; below the black ring
anteriorly, a broad band of white, including the scapulars; all the
under parts black, excepting the axillaries and lower wing-coverts,
which are white, as are the upper wing-coverts and secondary quills,
some of the inner secondaries having a narrow external black margin;
alula, primary coverts, and primary quills brownish-black; tail
brownish-black, tinged with grey; upper tail-coverts dusky, minutely
dotted with reddish-brown. Female brownish-grey, darker on the head,
cheeks, back, rump, and abdomen, lighter on the throat, breast,
wing-coverts, and inner secondaries, which latter are margined
externally with black; seven or eight of the secondaries white, as are
the sides of the forehead.

_Male_, 20, 30. _Female_, 18-1/4, 29.

Along the shores of the Atlantic from Nova Scotia to New Jersey,
rather rare, in winter. Breeds from Labrador northward. Never seen in
the interior.

    Pied Duck, Anas labradora, _Wils._ Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 91.

    Fuligula labradora, Bonap. Syn. p. 391.

    Pied Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 428.

    Pied Duck, Fuligula labradora, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 271.

    **** Bill about the length of the head, very broad; upper
    mandible with a prominence at the base above, and two lateral
    protuberances; unguis very large, slightly arched.


402. 7. Fuligula fusca, Linn. Velvet Duck.

Bill with an abrupt prominence in front, the lateral protuberances
covered with feathers; tail wedge-shaped, of fourteen stiff, narrow
feathers. Male with the basal prominence and sides at the base black,
toward the end bright red; unguis flesh-coloured, with a black line on
each side; feet carmine on the outer, orange-red on the inner side,
webs greyish-black; plumage brownish-black, glossed with blue above,
lighter beneath; outer secondary quills and a spot beneath the eye
white. Female with the bill dusky, its basal prominence slight;
plumage sooty-brown, breast and abdomen lighter; two whitish spots on
each side of the head; outer secondary quills white, as in the male.

_Male_, 22, 39. _Female_, 22, 38.

From the coast of Georgia eastward to Nova Scotia, during winter, when
it is extremely abundant in all the estuaries and bays. Breeds from
Labrador northward.

    Velvet Duck, Anas fusca, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 137.

    Fuligula fusca, Bonap. Syn. p. 390.

    Oidemia fusca, Velvet Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 449.

    Velvet Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 419.

    Velvet Duck, Fuligula fusca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 354.


403. 8. Fuligula perspicillata, Linn. Surf Duck.

     Plate CCCXVII. Male and Female.

Bill with a gently sloping prominence in front, the lateral
protuberances bare; tail wedge-shaped, of fourteen stiff narrow
feathers. Male with the bill deep reddish-orange, bluish-white on the
sides, with a black patch, the unguis greyish-yellow; tarsi and toes
orange-red, webs dusky; plumage deep black, glossed with blue; a white
patch on the top of the head, and another on the nape. Female with the
bill greenish-black; the plumage brownish-black, darker on the top of
the head, back, wings, and tail.

_Male_, 20, 33-1/2. _Female_, 19, 31-1/2.

Abundant from Nova Scotia to Maryland during winter, and removing
southward to the mouth of the Mississippi in severe weather. Never
seen in the interior. Breeds from Labrador northwards.

    Black or Surf Duck, Anas perspicillata, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        viii. p. 49.

    Fuligula perspicillata, Bonap. Syn. p. 389.

    Oidemia perspicillata, Surf Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 449.

    Black or Surf Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 416.

    Surf Duck, Fuligula perspicillata, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        161.


404. 9. Fuligula Americana, Swains. American Scoter Duck.

     Plate CCCCVIII. Male and Female.

Bill a little shorter than the head, with an obtuse prominence at the
base of the upper mandible; tail graduated, acuminate, of sixteen
pointed feathers; first quill with the inner web extremely attenuated.
Male with the bill black, the basal prominence rich orange; feet
brownish-black; the general colour of the plumage black, on the lower
parts tinged with brown, the inner webs of the quills brownish-grey.
Female with the bill brownish-black, and having scarcely any
protuberance at the base; the upper parts light sooty-brown, the lower
light brownish-grey.

This species differs very little from _Fuligula nigra_, being nearly
of the same size, proportions, and colours. The male differs from that
of the other species in having the sides of the unguis narrowed, and
the orange patch on the upper mandible less extended beyond the
nostrils, and destitute of the median black line and lateral streak.

_Male_, 19, 33-1/2. _Female_, 17, 29-1/2.

In winter abundant in the Bays of Boston, New York, and Chesapeake,
and as far south as the mouth of the Mississippi. Never inland. Breeds
from Labrador to the Arctic seas.

    Scoter Duck, Anas nigra, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 135.

    Fuligula nigra, Bonap. Syn. p. 390.

    Oidemia americana, Swains. American Scoter, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 450.

    American Scoter Duck, Fuligula americana, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        422.

    American Scoter Duck, Fuligula americana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 117.

    ***** Bill shorter than the head, with a basal protuberance
    above, the inner secondaries curved outwards.


405. 10. Fuligula spectabilis, Linn. King Duck.

     Plate CCLXXVI. Male and Female.

Upper mandible with a soft tumid compressed substance at the base,
extending perpendicularly upon the forehead, and by a medial band of
feathers divided into two broad lobes; tail much rounded, of fourteen
stiff feathers. Male with the bill flesh-coloured. The sides of the
upper mandible and soft frontal lobes bright orange; band of feathers
separating the frontal lobes and margining their upper and posterior
edges, lower eyelid, and a forked patch on the throat, black; upper
part of head ash-grey; hair-like feathers on the sides of the head
pale bluish-green; fore neck cream-coloured; sides and hind part of
neck, a patch on the wings, and another on each side of the rump,
white; hind part of back, scapulars, large wing-coverts, and secondary
quills, brownish-black, the latter glossed with green; primary quills
and tail blackish-brown; breast and abdomen blackish-brown; lower
wing-coverts white, the outer brown. Female with the bill shorter,
pale greenish-grey, with the tumid basal lobes scarcely apparent, so
that the forehead is low; head and neck pale greyish-yellow, with
small lines of brownish-black; feathers of the back brownish-black
towards the end, with yellowish-grey edges; the scapulars brownish-red
on the margins; quills and tail-feathers deep greyish-brown; fore part
of neck, breast, sides, and lower tail-coverts, with a central mark
and submarginal band of brownish-black, the middle of the breast
scarcely spotted, being of the general colour of the lower parts,
which is pale yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 25; wing, 11-1/4. _Female_, 20; wing, 10-1/2.

Rare in Massachusetts during winter. Breeds from Labrador to the
Arctic Seas.

    Fuligula spectabilis, Bonap. Syn. p. 389.

    Somateria spectabilis, King Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 447.

    King Duck, Fuligula spectabilis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 414.

    King Duck, Fuligula spectabilis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        523.


406. 11. Fuligula mollissima, Linn. Eider Duck.

     Plate CCXLVI. Male and Female.

Male with the bill nearly as long as the head, greyish-yellow, the
upper mandible with a soft tumid substance at the base, extending upon
the forehead, and deeply divided into two narrow rounded lobes, its
whole surface marked with divergent oblique lines; tail much rounded,
of sixteen narrow feathers; the upper part of the head bluish-black,
with the central part white; the hair-like feathers on the upper part
and sides of the neck of a delicate pale green; sides of the head,
throat, and neck white; fore neck at its lower part cream-coloured;
the rest of the lower surface brownish-black, as are the upper
tail-coverts, and the central part of the rump; the rest of the back,
scapulars, smaller wing-coverts, and inner curved secondary quills
white, the scapulars tinged with yellow; secondary coverts and outer
secondaries brownish-black; primaries and tail-coverts greyish-brown.
Female with the bill shorter, pale greyish-green, its tumid basal part
much less and narrower; head and neck all round light brownish-red,
with small lines of brownish-black; lower part of neck all round, the
whole upper surface, the sides and lower tail-coverts light
brownish-red, with transverse brownish-black markings; secondary
quills and coverts greyish-brown, tipped with white; primaries
brownish-black; tail-feathers greyish-brown; breast and abdomen
greyish-brown, obscurely mottled.

_Male_, 25, 42. _Female_, 24, 39.

Breeds in Maine, on the Bay of Fundy, in Labrador, Newfoundland, as
far northward as travellers have proceeded. Common in winter from Nova
Scotia to Massachusetts; rarely seen in New York.

    Eider Duck, Anas mollissima, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 122.

    Fuligula mollissima, Bonap. Syn. p. 389.

    Somateria mollissima, Eider, Swains. &. Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 448.

    Eider Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 406.

    Eider Duck, Fuligula mollissima, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        344; v. v. p. 611.

    ****** Bill much shorter than the head, higher than broad at
    the base, narrowed toward the end.


407. 12. Fuligula Clangula, Linn. Golden-eye Duck.

     Plate CCCCIII. Male in summer.

     Plate CCCXLII. Male and Female in winter.

Bill shorter than the head, very high at the base; tail short,
graduated, of sixteen feathers. Male in summer with the bill black,
feet orange-yellow, webs dusky; head and upper part of neck deep
greenish-blue, changing to deep dusky purple; back, posterior
scapulars, inner secondaries, edge of wing, alula, primary coverts,
primary quills, and outer four secondaries black; an oblong curved or
semilunar patch of white between the bill and eye; lower part of neck
all round, sides of the body anteriorly, lower parts generally,
scapulars, excepting their margins, which are black, a broad band
across the wing formed by the first row of small coverts, and several
of the others, of which the base only is black, and a large patch
formed by the tips of some of the secondary coverts, and six of the
secondary quills, pure white; the two patches on the wings separated
by an intervening band of black; axillar feathers and lower
wing-coverts dusky; elongated feathers of the sides with the inner,
some of them also the outer margins, and many with a large portion of
the tip black, that colour on those of the innermost covering the
whole inner webs; tail brownish-grey. Male in winter similar, but with
the white patch on the side of the head elliptical, and the black band
separating the white patches on the wing not apparent, although seen
on turning aside the tips of the smaller coverts. Female with the bill
dusky, but having a portion toward the end yellow; head and upper part
of neck dull reddish-brown; lower part of the neck and sides of the
body brownish-grey, the feathers margined with pale grey, the rest of
the lower parts white; upper parts greyish-brown, much darker behind;
wings brownish-black, seven of the coverts, unless at the base, white;
the small coverts lighter and tipped with grey; tail brownish-grey.

_Male_, 20, 31-1/2. _Female_, 16, 28.

Abundant during winter on all the running streams of the interior, as
well as along the Atlantic coast, as far south as the Gulf of Mexico.
Breeds in high northern latitudes. Accidental in the North-eastern
Districts. Rocky Mountains, and Columbia River.

    Golden-eye, Anas Clangula, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 62.

    Fuligula Clangula, Bonap. Syn. p. 393.

    Clangula vulgaris, Common Golden-eye, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 456.

    Clangula Barrovii, Rocky-mountain Garrot, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 453.

    Common Golden-eye, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 441.

    Golden-eye Duck, Fuligula Clangula, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        318; v. v. p. 105.


408. 13. Fuligula dispar, Gmel. Western Duck.

     Plate CCCCXXX. Male.

Bill shorter than the head, greyish-blue; tail rather short, pointed,
of fourteen feathers; upper part of head and broad band surrounding
the neck, white; throat and some feathers around the eye black; a
light green patch in the loral space, and a transverse patch of the
same on the nape, margined behind and laterally with black; a broad
band on the neck and the whole of the back velvet-black, with green
reflections; smaller wing-coverts white; secondary coverts
bluish-black, terminating in a broad white band; elongated secondaries
and scapulars with the inner web white, the outer black, with blue
reflections; primaries and coverts brownish-black; tail black, as are
the lower tail-coverts and abdomen; the breast and sides reddish-buff,
fading towards the shoulders and neck into pure white; a bluish-black
spot on each side of the lower part of the neck anterior to the wing.

_Male_, 16; wing, 8-3/4.

North-west coast.

    Anas dispar and Anas Stelleri, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 535,
        518.

    Fuligula Stelleri, Bonap. Syn. p. 394.

    Western Duck, Fuligula dispar, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 253.


409. 14. Fuligula Albeola, Linn. Buffel-headed Duck.--Spirit Duck.
Butter-box. Dipper. Die-dipper. Marrionette.

     Plate CCCXXV. Male and Female.

Bill much shorter than the head, light greyish-blue; feet pale
flesh-colour; feathers of head and upper part of neck elongated; tail
short, graduated, of sixteen feathers; fore part of head of a deep
rich green, upper part rich purplish-blue, as are the elongated
feathers on the fore part and sides of the neck; the hind part of the
latter deep green; a broad band of pure white from one cheek to the
other over the occiput; rest of the neck, lower parts, outer
scapulars, and a large patch on the wing, including the greater part
of the small coverts, and some of the secondary coverts and quills,
pure white, the scapulars narrowly margined with black, as are the
inner lateral feathers; axillars brownish-black, some of them white on
the margin and towards the end; lower wing-coverts brownish-black, the
smaller tipped with white; back, inner scapulars, and secondary quills
velvet-black; alula, primary coverts, and primary quills deep black;
rump gradually fading to greyish-white; tail-feathers brownish-grey,
with the tips whitish. Female much smaller, with the feathers of the
head not elongated, unless in the median line; bill darker, feet
greyish-blue; head, upper part of neck, hind neck, back, and wings,
greyish-brown; a short transverse white band from beneath the eye, and
a slight speck of the same on the lower eyelid; six of the secondary
quills white on the outer web; lower parts white, shaded into light
greyish-brown on the sides.

_Male_, 14-1/2, 23. _Female_, 13, 22-1/4.

Distributed throughout the country and along the Atlantic shores
during autumn, winter, and spring. Texas, Upper California, Columbia
River. Breeds very far north.

    Buffel-headed Duck, Anas albeola, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        51.

    Fuligula albeola, Bonap. Syn. p. 394.

    Clangula albeola, Spirit Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 458.

    Spirit Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 445.

    Buffel-headed Duck, Fuligula albeola, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 217.


410. 15. Fuligula histrionica, Linn. Harlequin Duck.

     Plate CCXCVII. Male, Female, and Young.

Bill much shorter than the head, comparatively narrow, light
yellowish-olive; feet light greyish-blue, the webs dusky; a broad
median band from the base of the bill to the occiput bluish-black,
margined behind with light yellowish-red, before with white, that
colour forming a broad triangular spot on the cheek anterior to the
eye; sides of the head and neck all round purplish-blue; a spot of
white behind the ear, a curved line on the side of the neck, and a
complete ring below the middle of the neck, with a curved band of the
same anterior to the wing, all broadly edged with black; fore part of
back light purplish-blue, hind part gradually deepening in tint, so as
to become almost black, of which colour is the rump all round;
scapulars chiefly white; wing-coverts purplish-blue, as are the alula
and primary coverts; the quills dark greyish-brown; tail
greyish-black; a band of white across the wing, formed by the tips of
the secondaries, of which the inner have their outer webs principally
of the same colour; fore part of breast purplish-blue, hind part and
abdomen greyish-brown, sides light red, generally undulated with
dusky; a lateral spot of white near the root of the tail. Female
greyish-brown, deeper on the head and rump, lighter on the fore neck,
and mottled with greyish-white on the breast; quills dark brown, edged
with lighter, tail blackish-grey; a large whitish spot mottled with
grey before the eye, and another of a purer white behind the ear; bill
and feet dull bluish-grey.

    Harlequin Duck, Anas histrionica, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        139.

    Fuligula histrionica, Bonap. Syn. p. 394.

    Clangula histrionica, Harlequin Duck, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 459.

    Harlequin Duck, Fuligula histrionica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 612; v. v. p. 617.


411. 16. Fuligula glacialis, Linn. Long-tailed Duck.

     Plate CCCXII. Male, Female, and Young.

Male with the bill black in its basal half, orange-yellow towards the
end; the scapulars much elongated and tapering, the tail very long,
acuminate, of fourteen feathers; a large oblong greyish-white patch on
each side of the head from the bill to behind the ear; the upper part
of the head and nape black, that colour being narrowed in front by the
encroachment of the white patches; neck all round, and anterior half
of the breast, dark chocolate; back and wing-coverts brownish-black;
scapulars broadly margined with light reddish-brown; quills chocolate,
secondaries externally margined with lighter, primaries internally;
middle four feathers of the tail brownish-black, the outer two of
these margined with white, all the rest white, but the inner with a
longitudinal patch of dusky on the outer webs. Male in winter with the
head, neck, fore part of back, and scapulars, white; space about the
eye pale greyish-red, and a large oblong patch of chocolate-brown on
the side of the neck; upper parts including the middle four
tail-feathers, brownish-black, but the secondary quills tinged with
reddish-brown, and having paler margins; anterior half of breast
chocolate-brown, the rest of lower parts and the four lateral
tail-feathers white. Female considerably smaller, with the scapulars
not elongated, and the tail short and rounded; bill dusky green; head
dark greyish-brown, with a patch of greyish-white surrounding the eye,
but not extending to the bill; a large patch of the same colour on the
side of the neck, the hind part of which is dusky brown, the fore part
greyish-brown, the feathers broadly margined with whitish; the upper
parts dark greyish-brown, the two lateral tail-feathers edged with
white; lower parts white, the feathers under the wings slightly tinged
with grey.

_Male_, 23, 29-1/2. _Female_, 15-3/4, 26.

Breeds from Labrador northward to the Arctic Seas. Abundant during
winter along the coasts of the Atlantic Districts to the mouth of the
Mississippi. Never in the interior.

    Long-tailed Duck, Anas glacialis, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        93.

    Fuligula glacialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 395.

    Long-tailed Duck, Harelda glacialis, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 460.

    Long-tailed Duck, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 453.

    Long tailed Duck, Fuligula glacialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 103.



FAMILY XL. MERGINÆ. MERGANSERS.


Bill rather long, straight, rather slender but strong, tapering,
higher than broad at the base, nearly cylindrical toward the end;
upper mandible with the dorsal outline sloping gently to the middle,
then straight, along the unguis suddenly decurved; the ridge broad and
flattened at the base, then convex, the sides sloping, toward the end
convex, the edges serrate internally with oblique dentiform lamellæ,
the unguis oblong, much curved, abruptly rounded at the end; nasal
groove elongated, covered by the soft skin of the bill; lower mandible
with the angle very narrow and extended to the unguis, which is
obovate, the sides nearly erect, with a long narrow groove, the edges
internally serrate, the unguis convex, thick-edged. Head rather large,
compressed, oblong; neck of moderate length; body full, depressed,
rather elongated. Feet placed far behind, stout; tibia bare for a
short space; tarsus very short, compressed, anteriorly covered with
small scutella, and another series on the lower half externally. Hind
toe very small, with an inferior free membrane; anterior toes half as
long again as the tarsus, second shorter than the fourth, which is
almost as long as the third, all scutellate, and connected by
anteriorly concave webs. Claws rather small, moderately arched,
compressed, acute. Plumage moderately full, dense, soft, glossy,
blended beneath. Wings of moderate breadth, convex, acute; inner
secondaries elongated and tapering. Tail short, much rounded, of more
than twelve feathers. Upper mandible with an internal series of small
papillæ or laminæ on each side, besides those on the margin. Tongue
long, fleshy, emarginate and papillate at the base, tapering, with a
double row of slender reversed papillæ along the upper surface, and
two lateral series of filaments on each side, the tip lacerated;
œsophagus very wide, of nearly uniform diameter; stomach a strong
gizzard of moderate or small size, with the lateral muscles thick;
epithelium dense and longitudinally rugous; intestine long, rather
narrow; cœca rather long; cloaca globular. Trachea with one or two
extensive dilatations, besides the enormously developed tympanum at
the bifurcation; no inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest on the ground, or
in hollow trees. Eggs numerous.



GENUS I. MERGUS, Linn. MERGANSER.


Character as above.


412. 1. Mergus Merganser, Linn. Buff-breasted Merganser or Goosander.

     Plate CCCXXXI. Male and Female.

Male with a short longitudinal crest, eighteen tail-feathers, the bill
and feet of bright vermilion; the head and upper part of neck
greenish-black, splendent, with bright green reflections; lower part
of neck all round, and all the under parts of a delicate reddish-buff;
sides of rump and part of abdomen greyish-white, finely undulated and
dotted with dark grey; some of the lower wing-coverts dusky, the
larger coverts grey; fore part of back and inner scapulars glossy
black; hind part ash-grey, becoming lighter, and finally undulated on
the rump; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers deep grey; outer
scapulars white; a transverse band of black at the base of the wing
concealed by the scapulars; wing-coverts white; alula, primary coverts
and quills, and a band formed by the base of the first row of large
coverts black; secondaries white, six of them margined externally with
a black line. Female much smaller, with the crest much longer; the
head and upper part of neck brownish-red; throat and lower parts
white, the breast and abdomen tinged with buff; upper parts and sides
ash-grey; smaller wing-coverts and inner secondaries grey; bases and
tips of secondary coverts black, the intermediate part white; middle
secondaries white, outer and primaries greyish-black.

_Male_, 27, 36. _Female_, 24, 34.

In winter dispersed over the United States, and westward as far as
Texas. Breeds from Massachusetts northward, and along the Great Lakes.

    Goosander, Mergus Merganser, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 68.

    Mergus Merganser, Bonap. Syn. p. 397.

    Mergus Merganser, Goosander, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 461.

    Goosander, Mergus Merganser, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 460.

    Goosander, Mergus Merganser, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 261.


413. 2. Mergus Serrator, Linn. Red-breasted Merganser.

     Plate CCCCI. Male and Female.

Male with an elongated longitudinal double crest, eighteen
tail-feathers, bill and feet deep carmine; head and upper part of neck
glossy greenish-black, with bright green reflections along the sides,
and purplish on the crest; a broad collar of white, succeeded by
another of light brownish-red, longitudinally streaked with dusky;
lower parts white, except the sides of the body and rump, which are
transversely undulated with greyish-black, and the larger
wing-coverts, which are ash-grey; fore part of back, and inner
scapulars deep black; feathers anterior to the wing white, with a
broad margin of black; some of the anterior wing-coverts ash-grey, the
rest, the outer scapulars, and the terminal half of the secondary
coverts, pure white; basal portion of the latter, primary coverts, and
primary quills, black, the latter tinged with brownish-grey;
secondaries white, with the base and the outer margin of most black,
which colour predominates on the inner; middle and hind part of back
ash-grey, undulated with white and dusky; tail brownish-grey. Female
with crest shorter, the bill and feet paler; head and fore part of
neck light reddish-brown; throat and under part white, excepting the
sides and larger wing-coverts, which are brownish-grey; hind neck,
back, tail-coverts, tail, scapulars, and wing-coverts brownish-grey;
wings greyish-black, with a large white patch, formed by the terminal
portions of the secondary coverts, and the greater part of some of the
outer secondaries. Young, when fledged, resemble the female. Young, in
down, with the head and hind neck reddish-brown, the back
greyish-brown, with three white spots on each side, the lower parts
greyish-white; a white band from the bill to the eye, a reddish-brown
band under the eye, and along the side of the neck; the lower parts
greyish-white.

_Male_, 24-1/2, 33. _Female_, 24, 34-1/2.

From Texas westward to the Columbia River and northward. Common during
autumn and spring. Also throughout the United States, and along the
Atlantic shores. Breeds from New York to Labrador and the Fur
Countries, as well as along the Great Lakes, and on the Rocky
Mountains.

    Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus Serrator, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        viii. p. 91.

    Mergus Serrator, Bonap. Syn. p. 397.

    Mergus Serrator, Red-breasted Merganser, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 462.

    Red-breasted Merganser, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 463.

    Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus Serrator, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 92.


414. 3. Mergus cucullatus, Linn. Hooded Merganser.

     Plate CCXXXIII. Male and Female.

Male with an elongated, compressed, rounded crest, the tail with
eighteen feathers; bill black, feet yellowish-brown; upper part of the
head, back, smaller wing-coverts, quills, and tail brownish-black;
sides of the head, upper half of neck all round, the broad extremities
of the large feathers on the shoulders, the scapulars, inner
secondaries, and larger wing-coverts, greenish-black; a broad patch of
white behind the eye, very conspicuous in the erected crest; lower
part of neck and breast also white, as are the speculum and the
central part of the inner secondaries; sides beautifully marked with
undulated transverse lines of yellowish-brown and brownish-black;
lower tail-coverts whitish, similarly undulated. Female much smaller,
with the crest less elongated, and of looser texture; bill
brownish-black, towards the base orange; upper part of head, including
the crest, yellowish-brown; chin whitish; upper part of neck all
round, and sides of head greyish-brown; general colour of the back,
upper surface of wings, tail, and sides, blackish-brown, the feathers
edged with paler. Young, when fledged, like the female, but with the
crest shorter.

_Male_, 19, 26. _Female_, 17-1/2, 24.

Breeds sparingly in South Carolina, along the Mississippi, Ohio, and
the Great Lakes, as well as further northward. Abundant, during autumn
and winter, on all the western and southern waters; rarer in the
Middle Atlantic Districts.

    Mergus cucullatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 397.

    Hooded Merganser, Mergus cucullatus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii.
        p. 79.

    Mergus cucullatus, Hooded Merganser, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 463.

    Hooded Merganser, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 465.

    Hooded Merganser, Mergus cucullatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 246; v. v. p. 619.


415. 4. Mergus Albellus, Linn. White Merganser.--Smew. White Nun.

     Plate CCCXLVII. Male and Female.

Male with a longitudinal crest; tail graduated, of sixteen feathers;
bill black, feet livid blue; head, neck, lower parts, scapulars, and a
patch on the wing, white; a short band on each side of the hind neck
bordering the crest, duck-green; a broad patch on the lore and below
the eye, a narrow band across the lower part of the hind neck, formed
by single bars near the tips of the feathers, the middle of the back
in nearly its whole length, a short transverse bar under the fore edge
of the wing, the anterior margin to beyond the carpal joint, the
outer edge of the scapulars, the primary coverts, secondary coverts,
and outer secondary quills, excepting the tip of both, deep black;
quills also black, of a less deep tint; hind part of back tinged with
grey; rump and tail-feathers dusky grey; sides of body and rump white,
finely undulated with blackish-grey. Female much smaller, similarly
crested; all the lower parts white, excepting a belt across the lower
fore part of the neck, and a narrow portion of the sides, which are
pale grey; a patch of brownish-black on the lore and beneath the eye;
upper part of head and half of hind neck light reddish-brown; the rest
of hind neck and all the upper parts bluish-grey, darker behind, and
in the middle of the back approaching to black; tail dusky grey;
wings, bill, and feet as in the male.

_Male_, 17-1/2, 27. _Female_, 15-1/2, 25.

Exceedingly rare in America, one specimen only having been procured at
New Orleans.

    Smew or White Nun, Mergus Albellus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii.
        p. 126.

    Mergus Albellus, Bonap. Syn. p. 398.

    Smew or White Nun, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 467.

    Smew or White Nun, Mergus Albellus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        350.



FAMILY XLI. PELECANINÆ. PELICANS.


Bill longer than the head, rather slender, straight, upper mandible
with the ridge separated from the side by a groove, and terminated by
a narrow, generally decurved, pointed unguis; lower mandible with the
crura elastic and extensile, the angle very long and narrow. Nostrils
basal, lateral, linear, small, or obsolete. Space around and before
the eye generally bare, as is a portion of the gular sac. Head
generally of moderate size, but various; neck long; body elongated,
rather slender. Feet short and stout; tibia bare at its lower part;
tarsus short, very stout, compressed, scaly or scutellate in front;
toes four, all connected by webs, and scutellate; first small, fourth
longest. Claws short, strong, curved, rather blunt, that of the third
toe generally pectinate. Plumage soft, blended, on the back compact
and imbricated. Wings long; tail of moderate length, narrow, rounded
or tapering. Tongue extremely small, triangular, fleshy; œsophagus
excessively wide; a gular sac, sometimes of enormous capacity;
proventricular belt generally discontinuous; stomach very small,
slightly muscular, epithelium smooth; a globular pyloric lobe;
intestine very long and slender; cœca small, cylindrical; cloaca
globular. Trachea simple, flattened; no inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. PHALACROCORAX, Briss. CORMORANT.


Bill about the length of the head, rather slender, nearly straight,
compressed toward the end; upper mandible with the dorsal line
concave, until on the unguis, where it is decurved, the ridge convex,
flattened toward the end, separated from the sides by a narrow groove,
the sides convex, the edge sharp and nearly straight as far as the
unguis, which is decurved, convex above, acute, its tip ascending far
beyond that of the lower; lower mandible with the angle long and very
narrow towards the end, filled up by an extensile membrane, which
extends to the level of the angle of the mouth; the outline of the
crura very slightly convex, that of the terminal part descending and
very slightly convex, the sides convex, the edges sharp and inflected,
the tip compressed, with its marginal outline decurved. Nostrils
obliterated (in youth open). Head rather small, oblong; neck long and
rather thick; body full, elongated, depressed. Feet short, stout,
placed far behind; tibia feathered in its whole length; tarsus very
short, strong, much depressed, covered all round with angular scales;
a series on part of the inner side anteriorly, and another on the
lower part of the outer, scutelliform. Toes all placed in the same
plane, connected by webs, and covered above by very numerous oblique
scutella; first the smallest, fourth the longest. Claws rather small,
strong, compressed, acute, convex above, arched, that of the third toe
pectinated on its inner edge. Plumage soft, generally blended, compact
on the back and wings; the small gular sac, and the space before and
beneath the eye, with the eyelids, bare. Wings of moderate size,
broad; primaries curved, pointed, the second longest. Tail of
moderate length, very narrow, much rounded, of twelve or more narrow
strong-shafted feathers. Gular sac small; tongue extremely small;
œsophagus very wide; proventricular glands disposed in two large
roundish masses; stomach small, slightly muscular, inner coat smooth
and soft; a globular or triangular pyloric lobe; duodenum at first
curving upwards; intestine very long, and of moderate width; cœca
small; rectum narrow; cloaca globular. Trachea considerably flattened;
bronchi of moderate width.


416. 1. Phalacrocorax Carbo, Linn. Great Cormorant.

     Plate CCLXVI. Male, Female, and Young.

Tail of fourteen feathers. In summer, a small longitudinal occipital
black crest, and numerous linear elongated white feathers on the head
and upper part of neck; bill dusky, with the lower mandible whitish
toward the base; gular sac yellow; plumage black, glossed with deep
greenish-blue; at the base of the gular sac a broad gorgelet of white;
a patch of white on the side over the thigh; feathers of wings and
part of the back dull bluish-grey, glossed with bronze, their
fringe-like margins greenish-black; primary quills greyish-black,
secondary like the other wing-feathers; tail greyish-black; shafts of
all the feathers black at the end, leaden-grey towards the base.
Female similar. After the breeding season the white feathers on the
head and sides fall off. Young, before being fledged, with the skin
dull livid, the bill dusky, at the base flesh-coloured, the feet
purplish-dusky, the webs yellowish-brown.

_Male_, 37, 62.

Ranges during winter southward to New York. Abundant from
Massachusetts eastward. Breeds on high precipitous rocks, in
Newfoundland, Labrador, and Baffin's Bay. Migratory.

    Phalacrocorax Carbo, Bonap. Syn. p. 402.

    Cormorant, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 479.

    Common Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Carbo, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 458.


417. 2. Phalacrocorax dilophus, Swains. Double-crested Cormorant.

     Plate CCLVII. Male.

Tail of twelve feathers. In summer an elongated tuft of about forty
long, slender, loose, recurved feathers, from behind the eye to the
length of an inch and a half on each side; upper mandible dusky, along
the edges greenish-yellow, lower yellow, irregularly marked with
dusky toward the edges; bare space on the head, and gular sac rich
orange; plumage greenish-black, strongly glossed with green;
imbricated feathers on the back and wings greyish-brown, their
fringe-like margins greenish-black; primary quills brownish-black,
secondary like the other wing-feathers; tail black; the shafts of all
the feathers black. Female similar to the male. After the breeding
season the tufts disappear. Young after the first moult have the head
and neck mottled with greenish-black and greyish-brown, the other
parts as in the adult, but the tufts on the head wanting.

_Male_, 33, 51.

Common as far south as the coast of Maryland, in winter. Breeds in
Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as on the Saskatchewan.

    Pelecanus (Carbo) dilophus, Double-crested Cormorant, Swains.
        & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 473.

    Double-crested Cormorant, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 483.

    Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax dilophus, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iii. p. 420; v. v. p. 629.


418. 3. Phalacrocorax Floridanus, Aud. Florida Cormorant.

     Plate CCLI. Male.

Tail of twelve feathers. In summer an elongated series of about forty
linear feathers directed backwards, commencing behind the eye, and
extending to the length of an inch and a half on each side; upper
mandible black, along the basal margin bright blue, lower bright blue,
spotted with white; bare space on the head and gular sac rich orange;
plumage greenish-black, strongly glossed with green; imbricated
feathers on the back and wings greyish-brown, tinged with purple,
their fringe-like margins greenish-black; primary quills
brownish-black, secondary like the other feathers of the wing; tail
brownish-black; shafts of all the feathers brownish-black. Female
similar to the male. After the breeding season the tufts disappear.
Young after the first moult with the bill dull yellow, the ridge of
the upper mandible dusky, naked parts of the head rich yellow; upper
part of the head and neck brownish-black, tinged with green, throat
grayish-white; fore neck and anterior part of breast variegated with
pale brownish-grey and black; the rest of the plumage as in the adult,
but the imbricated feathers of the upper parts lighter. This species
differs from the last, chiefly in being smaller, and in having the
elongated feathers behind the eye more slender and directed backwards
instead of being recurved.

_Male_, 29-1/4, 46-1/2.

Constantly resident in the Floridas and their Keys, and along the
coast to Texas. The young in summer pass up the Mississippi and Ohio,
returning in autumn to the sea. Abundant. Breeds on trees only.

    Phalacrocorax Floridanus, Florida Cormorant, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 387; v. v. p. 632.


419. 4. Phalacrocorax Townsendi, Aud. Townsend's Cormorant.

     Plate CCCCXII. Fig. 2. Male.

Tail of twelve feathers; plumage of the neck and sides interspersed
with linear white feathers: bill yellow, with the ridge brown; gular
sac and bare skin on the head bright orange; upper part of head and
hind neck dusky, tinged with green; hind part of back greenish-black;
the rest of the upper parts brownish-grey, each feather edged with
black; quills brownish-grey, similarly edged with black; outer
primaries and tail-feathers black; sides of the head, fore part of
neck, and breast light yellowish-brown; the middle of the neck in
front darker, the sides, abdomen, and tibial feathers shaded into
brownish-black, tinged with green. This description from a single
individual shot on the 8th of October. Another individual, apparently
a bird in its first plumage, has the head and upper part of the fore
neck darker, the middle of the breast lighter, the feathers on the
back margined with greyish-brown, and an inner band of dark brown; its
bill is longer, but more slender, the unguis less curved, the feathers
not entirely obliterated from the space before the eye, and extending
farther on the gular sac.

_Male_, 35, wing 12-1/2; tail 6-3/4.

Cape Disappointment, Columbia River. Common.

    Phalacrocorax Townsendi, Townsend's Cormorant, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 149.


420. 5. Phalacrocorax resplendens, Aud. Violet-green Cormorant.

     Plate CCCCXXII. Fig. 1. Female.

Bill scarcely as long as the head, slender, dusky; tail of twelve
feathers; gular sac and bare skin on the head, bright orange; plumage
silky and splendent, deep green, seeming black in some lights and
bright green and purple in others, the somewhat compact feathers of
the back edged with dark purple; along the sides of the neck and the
hind part of the sides of the body, numerous white piliform feathers
terminated by a pencil of filaments; quills and tail-feathers
brownish-black and less glossy. This description from an individual
shot in October.

_Female_, 27; wing 10; tail 5-1/2.

Cape Disappointment, near Columbia River. Abundant.

    Violet-green Cormorant, Phalacrocorax resplendens, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 148.



GENUS II. PLOTUS, Linn. ANHINGA.


Bill about twice the length of the head, almost straight, being very
slightly recurved, rather slender, compressed, tapering to a fine
point; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly declinate, very
slightly convex, the ridge convex, gradually narrowed, the sides
sloping, the edges sharp, and beyond the middle cut into minute
slender-pointed serratures directed backwards, the tip acuminate;
lower mandible with the angle very long and narrow, the dorsal line
beyond it straight and ascending, the sides sloping slightly outwards,
the edges sharp and serrated, the point extremely narrow; gape-line
ascending towards the end. No external nostrils in the adult. Head
very small, oblong; neck very long and slender; body elongated and
slender. Feet very short and stout; tibia feathered to the point;
tarsus very short, roundish, reticulated; toes all connected by webs,
the first of moderate length, the fourth longest, the first toe and
the first phalanges of the rest with transverse series of scales; the
rest of their extent scutellate. Claws rather large, very strong,
compressed, curved, very acute, the third with parallel slits on the
inner edge. A bare space at the base of the upper mandible, including
the eye; skin of the throat bare and dilated, as in the Cormorants.
Plumage close, blended, silky, the feathers oblong; scapulars
elongated, lanceolate, compact, the outer web of the largest
undulated. Wings of moderate length and breadth; third quill longest,
inner secondaries elongated and resembling the posterior scapulars.
Tail very long, narrow, of twelve straight feathers, having very
strong shafts, and increasing in breadth to the end. Tongue a slight
oblong knob; œsophagus very wide; proventricular glands placed on
the right side in the form of a globular sac; stomach roundish, of
moderate size, rather thin, with its inner coat soft and smooth; a
large roundish pyloric lobe; intestine long and very slender; no
cœca, but a small rounded termination to the rectum.


421. 1. Plotus anhinga, Linn. American Anhinga.--Snake-Bird.

     Plate CCCXVI. Male and Female.

Upper mandible dusky, lower bright yellow; gular sac orange; tarsus
and toes dusky olive, the hind parts and webs yellow; general colour
of head, neck, and body, glossy blackish-green, of the scapulars,
wings, and tail, glossy bluish-black; long loose feathers on the neck
purplish-white; lower part of neck behind marked with very numerous
minute oblong spots of white, forming two broad bands, extending
backwards, and gradually becoming more elongated, there being one
along the centre of each feather, including the scapulars; smaller
wing-coverts similarly marked with broader white spots disposed in
regular rows; first row of small coverts and secondary coverts white,
excepting a portion of the inner web; five elongated secondaries
marked with a narrow white band; occupying the inner half of the outer
web; tail-feathers tipped with a band of brownish-red fading into
white. Female with only a few inconspicuous elongated feathers on the
neck; upper part of head and hind neck dull greenish-brown, lighter on
the lower part; fore part of neck pale reddish-brown, tinged with
grey, lighter on the throat, that colour extending over part of the
breast, and terminating abruptly in a transverse band of deep
reddish-chestnut; the other parts as in the male, only the fore part
of the back is tinged with brown, and its spots are less distinct.

_Male_, 35-3/4, 44. _Female_, 34, 43.

Constant resident from Florida to Georgia; in summer as far east as
North Carolina, and up the Mississippi to Natchez. Common.

    Plotus Anhinga, Bonap. Syn. p. 411.

    Black-bellied Darter, Plotus melanogaster, Wils. Amer. Orn. v.
        ix. p. 75.

    Black-bellied Darter, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 507.

    Anhinga or Snake-Bird, Plotus Anhinga, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 136.



GENUS III. TACHYPETES, Vieill. FRIGATE BIRD.


Bill longer than the head, strong, broader than high, unless towards
the curved extremity; upper mandible with its dorsal line slightly
concave, at the tip decurved, its ridge broad and nearly flat at the
base, narrowed and more convex towards the end, the sides separated
from the ridge by a narrow groove, convex, the edges sharp, direct,
irregularly jagged, with a prominence at the commencement of the curve
at the elongated, compressed, tapering, decurved point; lower mandible
with the angle extremely long, narrow, the membrane bare and dilatable
into a small pouch, the very short dorsal line decurved, the sides
erect at the base, convex in the rest of their extent, the edges
sharp, much inflected, irregularly jagged, at the tip narrow and
decurved. Nostrils basal, linear, inconspicuous. Head of moderate
size, oblong; neck of moderate length, stout; body rather slender.
Feet very short, stout; tibia very short; tarsus extremely short,
feathered; toes all placed in the same plane, and connected by short
deeply emarginate webs, which run out narrow along the sides,
scutellate above, first small, second shorter than fourth, third much
longer. Claws strong, compressed, curved, acute, that of the third toe
long, with the inner edge pectinate. Plumage compact, glossy; feathers
of the head, neck, and back lanceolate. Wings extremely long, pointed,
the first quill longest; the rest rapidly diminishing; secondaries
very short, the inner long and tapering. Tail very long, deeply
forked, of twelve feathers. Tongue exceedingly small, fleshy,
flattened; œsophagus very wide; proventricular glands forming a
complete belt; stomach very small, roundish, its muscular coat thin,
the inner soft and corrugated; no pyloric lobe; intestine of moderate
length; cœca extremely small; cloaca globular.


422. 1. Tachypetes Aquilus, Linn. Frigate-Bird.--Man-of-war Bird.

     Plate CCLXXI. Male.

Male with the bill light purplish-blue, white in the middle, the gular
sac orange; bare skin around the eye blue; feet light carmine above,
orange beneath; general colour of plumage brownish-black, the head,
neck, back, breast, and sides, splendent with green and purple, the
former predominating on the head, the latter on the back; wings tinged
with green; inner secondaries and tail with brown, the shafts of the
former black, of the latter brown. Female with a broad white space on
the breast, that colour extending forwards along the sides of the
neck, and encircling it about the middle; feathers of the back less
elongated, and glossy; the dark parts more tinged with brown. Young at
first covered with yellowish soft down.

_Adult_, 41, 86.

Resides constantly on and about the Florida Keys, where it breeds in
vast numbers on trees. Ranges over the Gulf of Mexico, Bays of Texas,
but rarely seen to the eastward of North Carolina.

    Tachypetes Aquilus, Bonap. Syn. p. 406.

    Frigate Pelican, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 491.

    Frigate Pelican. Tachypetes Aquilis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 495; v. v. p. 684.



GENUS IV. PELECANUS, Linn. PELICAN.


Bill about thrice the length of the head, rather slender, almost
straight, depressed; upper mandible linear, depressed, convex at the
base, gradually flattened, and a little enlarged to near the end, when
it narrows, and terminates in a hooked point; ridge broad and convex
at the base, gradually narrowed and flattened beyond the middle,
separated by a groove from the sides, erect at the base, sloping
toward the edges, edges very acute, with an internal groove; lower
mandible with the angle excessively long, extending to the unguis, the
sides erect and convex, the edges thin and involute, the tip decurved.
Nostrils basal, lateral, linear, concealed by the wrinkles of the
skin. Head small, oblong; neck long, stout; body full, rather
flattened. Feet short, and very stout; tarsus short, compressed,
covered all round with hexagonal scales; toes in the same plane, all
connected by webs, first shortest, fourth longer than third. Claws
short, strong, curved, that of the third toe pectinate. Feathers of
head and neck exceedingly small, slender, downy; of the other parts
generally lanceolate and acuminate; wings very long, rather narrow,
rounded; primaries much curved. Tail short, broad, rounded, of more
than sixteen feathers. An enormous bare, extensile, gular sac; tongue
extremely small, papilliform; œsophagus excessively wide;
proventricular glands arranged in broad longitudinal series; stomach
very small, with its muscular coat thin, its epithelium smooth and
soft; a globular pyloric lobe; intestine long and narrow; cœca very
small, cylindrical; cloaca globular.


423. 1. Pelecanus Americanus, Aud. American White Pelican.

     Plate CCCXI. Male.

Bill with an erect crest on the ridge, and with the gular pouch and
feet bright yellow; plumage white; elongated feathers on the occiput
and breast pale yellow, with which also the smaller wing-coverts are
tinged; alula, primary coverts, primary quills, and outer secondaries,
black, with white shafts, inner ten secondaries white; tail of
twenty-four feathers. Female generally without the horny crest,
otherwise similar.

_Male_, 61-3/4, 103; bill, 13-3/4.

Common during winter from Texas to South Carolina, both along the
coast, and about the lakes and rivers adjoining Missouri, Mississippi,
and Ohio Rivers. Breeds from California northward, to Lat. 61°.
Accidental in the Middle Atlantic Districts.

    American White Pelican, Pelecanus americanus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iv. p. 88.


424. 2. Pelecanus fuscus, Linn. Brown Pelican.

     Plate CCLI. Male. Plate CCCCXXI. Young.

Bill greyish-white, tinged with brown, and marked with irregular spots
of pale carmine; bare space between the bill and the eye deep blue,
eyelids pink, gular pouch greenish-black; feet black; hair-like
feathers on the fore part of the head light yellow, the rest of the
head white; a stripe of the same margining the pouch to the middle of
the neck; a short space between these two lines anteriorly, and the
whole of the posterior and lateral parts of the neck dark
chestnut-brown, the small crest paler; back and wings dusky, each
feather with the central part greyish-white; the latter colour
prevailing on the scapulars and larger wing-coverts; primaries and
coverts brownish-black, secondaries greyish-brown; their outer edges
greyish-white; tail light grey, shafts of quills and tail-feathers
white, unless toward the end; lower parts brownish-grey; sides of the
neck and body with narrow longitudinal white lines; on the fore neck,
below the dark chestnut spot a smaller pale yellow mark, behind which
the feathers for a short space are blackish-brown. Young in second
plumage with the bill greyish-blue, its edges and unguis
greyish-yellow; gular pouch dull greyish-blue; bare space around the
eye dusky blue; head and neck dark brown, as are the upper parts
generally; secondary and many of the smaller coverts margined with
pale brown; primaries and their coverts, as well as the tail-coverts,
brownish-black, with white shafts; feet and claws dull leaden. Tail of
twenty-two feathers.

_Adult_, 52, 80.

Very abundant and constantly resident from Texas along the shores
eastward to North Carolina. Breeds on trees and also on the ground;
eggs three.

    Pelecanus fuscus, Bonap. Syn. p. 401.

    Brown Pelican, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 476.

    Brown Pelican, Pelecanus fuscus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        376; v. v. p. 212.



GENUS V. SULA, Briss. GANNET.


Bill longer than the head, opening beyond the eyes, straight,
elongated, conical, moderately compressed; upper mandible, with the
dorsal line, straight and declinate, at the end convex and a little
decurved; the ridge very broad, convex, with a slight median carnia,
and separated on each side from the sides, which are perpendicular,
slightly convex, and have an additional narrow-jointed piece below the
eye; edges sharp, direct, irregularly serrate with numerous slender
cuts directed backwards, tip compressed, a little decurved, rather
acute; lower mandible with the angle extremely long and narrow, the
dorsal line straight, ascending, the sides erect, convex, the edges
sharp and serrated, the tip compressed, acute. No external nostrils.
Head large, neck of moderate length, and very thick; body of moderate
bulk, rather elongated. Feet short, strong, placed rather far behind;
tibiæ concealed; tarsus very short, rounded before, sharp behind,
scaly, with three lines of small transversely oblong scutella, which
run down the toes, the latter long and slender, all united by
membranes having their margins straight; first toe rather small,
directed inwards and forwards; middle toe longest, the outer almost
equal. Claws of moderate size, slightly arched, that of the third toe
pectinate. Plumage generally close, rather compact, on the head and
neck blended. Wings very long, narrow, acute; first quill longest.
Tail rather long, cuneate, of twelve or fourteen feathers. Gular sac
small, with a small median portion bare; tongue extremely small,
blunt; œsophagus extremely wide; proventricular glands forming a
broad belt partially divided by intervals; stomach extremely small,
its muscular coat thin, the inner soft; intestine of moderate length,
slender; cœca very small; cloaca globular.


425. 1. Sula Bassana, Linn. Common Gannet.

     Plate CCCXXVI. Adult Male, and Young.

Adult with the bill pale bluish-grey, tinged with green towards the
base; bare space about the eye, lines on the bill and gular membrane
blackish-blue; tarsi, toes, and webs, brownish-black, the scutella
light greenish-blue, claws greyish-white; general colour of plumage
white; upper part of head and hind neck buff-coloured; primary quills
brownish-black, their shafts white toward the base. Young at first
covered with very soft white down; when fully fledged, with the bill
light greyish-brown, the bare space around the eye pale greyish-blue;
feet dusky, the narrow bands of scutella pale greyish-blue; head,
neck, and upper parts, chocolate-brown, each feather with a terminal
narrow triangular white spot; lower parts greyish-white, spotted with
greyish-brown, each feather having a broad terminal margin of that
colour; quills and tail-feathers brownish-black.

_Adult_, 40-1/2, 75. _Young_ fledged, 38, 72.

Ranges southward off the coast at all seasons as far as the Gulf of
Mexico. Breeds on rocks on the Gulf of St Lawrence, and off the coast
of Labrador. Abundant. Migratory.

    Sula bassana, Bonap. Syn. p. 408.

    Gannet, Sula bassana, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 495.

    Common Gannet, Sula bassana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 222.


426. 2. Sula fusca, Linn. Booby Gannet.

     Plate CCVII. Male.

Bill and naked parts at its base bright yellow, the former
flesh-coloured toward the end; a dusky spot before the eye; tarsi,
toes, and webs pale yellow, claws white; head, neck all round, upper
parts in general, and lower surface of wings dusky brown, tinged with
grey; breast, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts, pure white. Young when
fledged of a greyish-brown colour all over, the breast and abdomen
being merely a little lighter than the rest; bill and claws dusky;
tarsi and toes with their membranes dull yellow.

_Male_, 31, 49-1/4.

Gulf of Mexico, and as far east as the coast of Georgia. Breeds on the
Fortugas Keys, south of Florida. Abundant. Migratory.

    Sula fusca, Bonap. Syn. 408.

    Booby, Sula fusca, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 500.

    Booby Gannet, Sula fusca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 63.



GENUS VI. PHAETON, Linn. TROPIC BIRD.


Bill as long as the head, stout, very much compressed, slightly
curved, tapering, acute, opening to beneath the eye; upper mandible
with the dorsal line slightly arched, the ridge narrow, rounded, the
sides sloping and slightly convex at the base, nearly erect towards
the end, the edges sharp, direct, irregularly broken, the tip
acuminate; nasal groove short, near the ridge, lower mandible with the
angle long, and extremely narrow, the dorsal line straight and
ascending, the sides erect and slightly convex, the tip acuminate.
Nostrils basal, linear, very small. Head rather large, ovate; neck
short and thick; body rather full. Feet very short; tibia bare for a
considerable space; tarsus extremely short, roundish, covered with
small round scales; toes rather small, placed in the same plane, and
connected by reticulated webs; first very small, third a little longer
than fourth, all scutellate above. Claws small, arched, compressed,
rather sharp, that of the third toe with a thin entire inner edge.
Plumage soft, blended, on the back rather compact. Wings long, acute,
the first quill longest. Tail of twelve feathers, tapering, the two
middle feathers extremely elongated, narrow, and tapering. This genus
appears to be intermediate between Sula and Sterna.


427. 1. Phaeton æthereus, Linn. Common Tropic Bird.

     Plate CCLXII. Male and Female.

Bill, tarsi, and hind toes yellow, the rest of the foot black; general
colour of plumage pale pink, or white tinged with carmine, the two
middle tail-feathers redder; a curved spot before the eye, and a short
band behind it, black; a band of the same colour across the wing from
the flexure, running narrow along the middle coverts, much enlarged on
the inner secondaries and their coverts, and including the extremities
of the scapulars; outer webs, shafts, and a portion of the inner webs
of the first four primary quills, also black; and a spot of the same
on some of the primary coverts; shafts of two middle tail-feathers
black, unless toward the end; some of the elongated feathers on the
hind part of the sides greyish-black in the centre. Female less tinged
with red, and having the tail-feathers less elongated.

_Male_, 29-1/2, 38. _Female_, 26, 34.

Rare on the coast of Florida. Migratory.

    Phaeton æthereus, Bonap. Syn. p. 409.

    Tropic Bird, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 503.

    Tropic Bird, Phaeton æthereus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 442.



FAMILY XLII. LARINÆ. GULLS.


Bill of moderate length, straight, compressed, acute; upper mandible
with the dorsal line generally straight until toward the end, when it
is decurved, the ridge convex, the nasal groove rather long, the edges
sharp, direct, overlapping, the tip rather acute and declinate; lower
mandible with the angle long and very narrow, the dorsal line
ascending and nearly straight, with an angular prominence at its
commencement. Nostrils submedial or basal, oblong. Head of moderate
size, ovate; neck of moderate length; body rather stout. Legs short or
of moderate length; tibia bare at its lower part; tarsus anteriorly
scutellate; toes four, the first very small, free, the third longest;
anterior toes connected by webs. Claws small, arched, compressed,
rather acute. Plumage full, soft, blended, somewhat compact on the
back and wings, the latter long and pointed; tail of twelve feathers,
even, rounded, or emarginate. Tongue long, slender, pointed;
œsophagus very wide; stomach rather small, moderately muscular,
with a dense, longitudinally rugous epithelium; intestine of moderate
length and width; cœca small; cloaca globular. Trachea simple, with
a single pair of inferior laryngeal muscles. Nest on the ground,
rudely constructed. Eggs few, not exceeding four, spotted. Young
covered with down.



GENUS I. RHYNCHOPS, Linn. SKIMMER.


Bill longer than the head, nearly straight, tetragonal at the base,
suddenly extremely compressed and continuing so to the end; upper
mandible much shorter than the lower, its ridge sharp, the sides erect
but a little convex, the edges approximated so as to leave merely a
very narrow groove between them, the tip a little rounded, when viewed
laterally; nasal groove rather short, near the margin; lower mandible
with the angle extremely short, the dorsal line straight or slightly
decurved, the sides erect, obliquely grooved, the edges united into a
very thin blade, which fits into the narrow groove of the upper
mandible, the tip rounded or abrupt, when viewed laterally. Nostrils
linear-oblong. Head rather large, oblong, considerably elevated in
front; neck rather short, thick; body short, ovate. Feet short,
moderately stout; tibia bare below, with narrow transverse scutella
before and behind; tarsus short, anteriorly covered with broad
scutella; toes very small, the first extremely short and free, unless
at the base; middle toe slightly longer than outer; anterior toes
united by deeply emarginate webs. Claws long, compressed, slightly
arched, rather obtuse. Plumage moderately full, soft, and blended;
wings extremely long, and very narrow; primary quills excessively
long, the first longest; secondaries short. Tail of moderate length,
deeply forked, of twelve feathers. Tongue short, triangular, tapering;
œsophagus wide; stomach rather small, oblong, muscular, the
cuticular lining dense, with nine broad longitudinal rugæ; intestine
rather long, narrow; cœca very small; cloaca large, globular, the
digestive organs are precisely similar to those of the Terns and
smaller Gulls.


428. 1. Rhynchops nigra, Linn. Black Skimmer.

     Plate CCCXXIII. Male

Bill rich carmine in its basal half, the rest black; feet carmine;
upper plumage deep brownish-black; secondary quills and four or five
of the primaries tipped with white, the latter on the inner web
chiefly; tail-feathers black, broadly margined on both sides with
white, the outer more extensively; the middle tail-coverts black, the
lateral black on the inner, and white on the outer web; a broad band
of white over the forehead, extending to the fore part of the eye;
cheeks and throat of the same colour; the rest of the neck, and lower
parts in spring and autumn of a delicate cream-colour; axillary
feathers, lower wing-coverts, and a large portion of the secondary
quills, white, the coverts along the edge of the wing black. Female
smaller, similar to the male, but with the tail-feathers white,
excepting a longitudinal band including the shaft. After the first
autumnal moult, there is on the hind part of the neck a broad band of
white mottled with greyish-black; the lower parts pure white, the
upper of a duller black; bill and feet less richly coloured.

_Male_, 20, 48. _Female_, 16-3/4, 44-1/2.

During winter, in vast multitudes on the coast of Florida. In summer
dispersed in large flocks from Texas to New Jersey, breeding on sand
beaches or islands. In the evenings and at night ascends streams
sometimes to the distance of one hundred miles.

    Black Skimmer or Shear-water, Rhynchops nigra, Wils. Amer.
        Orn. v. vii. p. 85.

    Rhincops nigra, Bonap. Syn. p. 352.

    Black Skimmer, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 264.

    Black Skimmer or Razor-billed Shear-water, Rhynchops nigra,
        Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 203.



GENUS II. STERNA, Linn. TERN.


Bill longer than the head, rather stout or slender, nearly straight,
compressed, very acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly
arched, the ridge rather broad and convex at the base, gradually
narrowed toward the end, sides convex, edges sharp and direct, tip
acute; nasal groove short; lower mandible with the angle very narrow,
acute, extending to the middle, the dorsal line straight, the sides
slightly convex, nearly erect, the sharp edges inflected, the tips
very acute. Nostrils basal, lateral, linear, direct. Head rather
large, oblong; neck of moderate length and thick; body slender. Feet
short, moderately stout; tibia bare for a considerable space; tarsus
short, roundish, covered all round with small scales; first toe very
small, third longest, fourth a little shorter; anterior toes connected
by emarginate webs. Claws slightly curved, compressed, acute. Plumage
soft, close, blended, rather compact on the back and wings. Wings
extremely long, narrow, and pointed, the first quill longest, the rest
rapidly graduated. Tail long, generally forked, of twelve feathers.
Tongue very slender, tapering, with the point slit; œsophagus
extremely wide; proventricular belt complete; stomach rather small,
moderately muscular, with the epithelium dense and longitudinally
rugous; intestine of moderate length, rather narrow; cœca small.


429. 1. Sterna Cayana, Lath. Cayenne Tern.

     Plate CCLXXIII. Male.

Bill longer than the head, stout; wings longer than the tail, which is
moderately forked; bill carmine; feet black; upper part of the head
and occiput greenish-black; back and wings light greyish-blue; primary
quills bluish-grey on their outer webs, darker on the outer part of
the inner, their inner part white, as are the ends and inner webs of
the secondaries; upper tail-coverts and tail greyish-white; all the
other parts pure white.

_Male_, 19, 44.

From Texas, in spring, to the Floridas, where it breeds on the
Tortugas. Labrador, but not observed in the intermediate parts of the
Atlantic coast. Abundant. Migratory.

    Sterna cayana, Bonap. Syn. v. ii. p. 353.

    Cayenne Tern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 208.

    Cayenne Tern, Sterna cayana, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 505;
        v. v. p. 639.


430. 2. Sterna Anglica, Montagu. Gull-billed Tern.--Marsh Tern.

     Plate CCCCX. Male.

Bill about the length of the head, stout; wings longer than the tail,
which is moderately forked; bill and feet black; upper part of the
head and occiput greenish-black; sides of the head, fore neck, and all
the lower parts, white; upper parts pale greyish-blue, edges of the
wings whitish; primaries hoary on the outer web, deep grey on the
inner, their shafts and those of the tail-feathers white; the tail of
a paler tint than the back, and the outer feather nearly white.

_Male_, 14, 34.

Cosmopolite. In America, breeds from the mouth of the Mississippi to
Connecticut. Not abundant. Migratory.

    Marsh Tern, Sterna aranea, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 143.

    Sterna aranea, Bonap. Syn. p. 354.

    Marsh Tern, Sterna anglica, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 269.

    Marsh or Gull-billed Tern, Sterna anglica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 127.


431. 3. Sterna Cantiaca, Gmel. Sandwich Tern.

     Plate CCLXXIX. Adult.

Bill considerably longer than the head, rather slender, black, with
the tips yellow; inside of mouth deep blue; feet black; wings longer
than the tail, which is deeply forked; upper part of head and hind
neck bluish-black; sides of head, neck all round, and the rest of the
lower parts white, the sides and breast tinged with pink; fore part of
back, scapulars, and upper surface of wings pale greyish-blue; the
tips and greater part of the inner webs of the scapulars and quills
white, as are the rump and tail; the four outer quills blackish, but
covered with light grey down on the outer webs, and over a
considerable extent of the inner, their shafts white. Young, after the
first moult, of a light greyish-blue on the upper parts, the feathers
tipped and banded in an undulating manner with brownish-black; the
upper part of the head and hind neck brownish-black mottled with
white; quills as in the adult; tail grey, with irregular blackish
markings towards the tips of the feathers; lower parts of a much
lighter pale grey; bill and feet black.

_Adult_, 15-3/4, 33-3/4.

From Texas, during spring and summer, to the Floridas, where it breeds
in great numbers. Never observed in any other part of the coast of
America. Migratory.

    Sandwich Tern. Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 276.

    Sandwich Tern, Sterna cantiaca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        531.


432. 4. Sterna fuliginosa, Lath. Sooty Tern.

     Plate CCXXXV.

Bill slightly longer than the head, rather slender, and with the feet
black; tail very deeply forked, much longer than the wings; forehead
white; lores, upper part of head, hind neck, and all the upper parts
deep black, tinged with brown, on the head glossed with blue; edges of
wings and lateral tail-feathers white, the latter with the inner web
toward the end dusky; lower parts and sides of head and neck pure
white. Young with the lower parts and forehead white, the upper parts
greyish-brown, the feathers edged with brownish-white, the primary
quills greyish-black.

_Male_, 16-1/4, 34-3/4.

From Texas to the Floridas, in spring. Breeds in immense multitudes on
the Tortugas. Migratory.

    Sterna fuliginosa, Bonap. Syn. p. 355.

    Sooty Tern, Sterna fuliginosa, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p.
        145.

    Sooty Tern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 284.

    Sooty Tern, Sterna fuliginosa, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 263;
        v. v. p. 641.


433. 5. Sterna Hirundo, Linn. Common Tern.

     Plate CCCIX. Male.

Bill about the same length as the head, rather slender, bright
coral-red, towards the end black, the tip light yellow; feet
coral-red, lighter than the bill; wings slightly shorter than the
tail, which is very deeply forked; upper part of head and hind neck
half-way down, deep bluish-black, anteriorly tinged with brown; sides
of head, fore neck, and all the lower parts white, with a slight tinge
of greyish-blue on the breast; back, scapulars, and wings light
greyish-blue; edges of wings, rump, and upper tail-coverts white,
slightly tinged with grey; first primary with the outer web deep
black, the shaft white, on the inner web a greyish-black band running
along the shaft, narrow at the base, and widening, so as to occupy the
whole breadth of the web for an inch at the end, where it is hoary;
the next five with the outer web, and a varying portion of the inner
in nearly their whole length hoary, but with a dusky shade, becoming
more apparent at the end; the rest of the quills like the back, but
margined and tipped with white; tail-feathers with the inner webs
white, the outer of the colour of the back, paler on the middle
feathers, gradually deepening outwards, and on the outer feathers dark
grey. Young, in first plumage, with the bill dull greenish-black, its
tip yellowish, feet greenish-yellow; upper parts chiefly light brown.
In winter, the bill black, with the base pale orange, the tip
yellowish, the feet orange-yellow; the colour of the plumage as in the
adult, the forehead white, the rest of the head dusky, the upper parts
having the feathers slightly margined with lighter.

_Male_, 16, 31-1/2.

Breeds from Galveston Islands along the shores of the Atlantic to
Labrador, and as far north as Lat. 57°. Returns southward in autumn,
passing beyond the Texas. Extremely abundant.

    Great Tern, Sterna Hirundo, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. viii. p. 76.

    Sterna Hirundo, Bonap. Syn. p. 354.

    Sterna Hirundo, Great Tern, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 412.

    Great or Common Tern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 271.

    Common Tern, Sterna Hirundo, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 74.


434. 6. Sterna Havellii, Aud. Havell's Tern.

     Plate CCCCIX. Fig. 1. Adult.

Bill about the length of the head, rather stout; wings a little
shorter than the tail, which is deeply forked. In winter, the bill
black, towards the base brown, and a small portion of the tip
yellowish; feet orange; a broad band of black surrounding the eye, and
extending toward the nape; fore part of head, cheeks, and all the
lower parts pure white; hind head and nape dusky grey, mixed with
white; the rest of the upper parts light greyish-blue, excepting the
rump, which is white; the primary coverts and quills, as well as the
tail-feathers and their coverts, hoary, with the shafts white, but
five of the quills dusky on the outer web, on the inner along the
shaft, and on the inner margin toward the end. Young, in winter, with
the bill somewhat shorter, and more tinged with brown, the lower
parts, rump, outer web of lateral tail-feathers, and sides of neck,
white; wings as in the adult, but the primaries internally margined
with white, and the secondaries tipped with the same; upper part of
the head, and the rest of the upper parts, light yellowish-brown,
intermixed with greyish-blue; a band of black on the sides of the
head, as in the adult.

_Adult_, 15-1/2, wing, 10-8/12.

From Texas to South Carolina. Common. Migratory.

    Havell's Tern, Sterna Havelli, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 122.


435. 7. Sterna Trudeaui, Aud. Trudeau's Tern.

     Plate CCCCIX. Fig. 2. Adult.

Bill about the length of the head, rather slender; wings a little
longer than the tail, which is deeply forked. Bill black, with part of
the base of the lower mandible, the edges of both, and their tips to
the length of five-twelfths of an inch, yellow; feet orange, claws
brown, toward the end yellow; a band of blackish-grey surrounding the
eye, and extending toward the nape; fore part of head, cheeks, and
upper part of throat, white; the rest of the upper and lower parts
light greyish-blue, excepting the axillar feathers, lower
wing-coverts, and rump, which are white; tail-coverts and tail
greyish-white; primary coverts and quills hoary, but the outer five
dusky grey on the inner web, toward the margin, and less so along the
shaft, and on the outer web; the shafts of all the quills and
tail-feathers white, as are the inner edges of the primaries and tips
of the secondaries, the inner excepted. This species has the bill
somewhat longer and more slender than that of Havell's Tern, and
differently coloured; the tarsus longer, and the lower parts of the
body of the same tint as the upper, whereas that species is white
beneath.

_Adult_, 16; wing, 10-10/12.

Great Egg Harbour and Long Island. Rare. Migratory.

    Trudeau's Tern, Sterna Trudeaui, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 125.


436. 8. Sterna arctica, Temm. Arctic Tern.

     Plate CCL. Male.

Bill about the same length as the head, slender, and with the mouth
and feet vermilion, tinged with carmine; wings about two inches
shorter than the tail, which is very deeply forked; upper part of
head and occiput greenish-black; sides of head and chin white; upper
parts pale greyish-blue, the rump bluish-white, the tail and its
coverts white, excepting the outer webs of the two lateral feathers,
which are dusky grey; primaries dusky towards the ends, the two outer
with their outer webs blackish, all with the greater part of the inner
web white, secondaries tipped with white; neck, breast, and sides,
pale greyish-blue, like the upper parts, but lighter; abdomen, lower
tail-coverts, and lower surfaces of wings and tail, white.

_Male_, 15-1/2, 32.

Along the coast of the Atlantic in autumn and winter, sometimes as far
as New Jersey. Common in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Labrador, where it
breeds in multitudes, as well as on the Magdalene Islands, and on the
shores of the Arctic Seas. Migratory.

    Sterna arctica, Bonap. Syn. p. 354.

    Sterna arctica, Arctic Tern, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 414.

    Arctic Tern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 275.

    Arctic Tern, Sterna arctica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 366.


437. 9. Sterna Dougallii, Mont. Roseate Tern.

     Plate CCXL. Male.

Bill about the same length as the head, slender, brownish-black, deep
orange at the base; feet vermilion; wings about three inches shorter
than the tail, which is very deeply forked; upper part of the head and
occiput bluish-black; hind neck white; the rest of the upper parts
pale bluish-grey, the tail lighter; edges of wings, tips and inner
edges of quills, and their shafts, white; first quill black on the
outer web and part of the inner, the next two similarly marked, but
with the black shaded over with pale grey, the loose barbules being of
that colour, the other primaries becoming gradually lighter; lower
parts of a beautiful roseate hue, soon fading after death; under
surface of wings and tail white.

_Male_, 14-10/12, 30.

Florida Keys, where it is abundant, and breeds. Migratory.

    Sterna Dougallii, Mont. Temm.

    Roseate Tern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 278.

    Roseate Tern, Sterna Dougallii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        296.


438. 10. Sterna nigra, Linn. Black Tern.

     Plate CCLXXX. Adult and Young.

Bill about the same length as the head, rather slender,
brownish-black; feet reddish-brown; wings two inches longer than the
tail, which is merely emarginate; head, neck, breast, sides, and
abdomen, greyish-black; lower tail-coverts white, lower wing-coverts
bluish-grey; upper parts dark bluish-grey, the outer web of the first
quill greyish-black; shafts of quills and tail-feathers white. Young
in second plumage with the upper parts greyish-blue, the feathers of
the fore part of the back, and especially the scapulars, brown towards
the end; the upper and hind part of the head greyish-black, of which
there is a darker mark behind and another before the eye; forehead
greyish-white, as are the sides of the head, the fore neck, breast,
and abdomen; sides dusky grey; lower wing-coverts greyish-white.

_Adult_, 9, 24. _Young_, in autumn, 7-3/4; wing, 9-8/12.

Arrives in Texas from the south early in spring, proceeds along the
coast to the Mississippi, then ascends that river and its tributaries,
breeding around ponds, or along the streams; and even advances to the
Fur Countries, where it also breeds. Abundant. Migratory. Occasionally
along the coasts of the Middle Atlantic Districts.

    Sterna nigra, Bonap. Syn. p. 355.

    Sterna nigra, Black Tern, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v. ii.
        p. 415.

    Black Tern or Stern, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 282.

    Black Tern, Sterna nigra, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 593; v.
        v. p. 642.


439. 11. Sterna minuta, Linn. Least Tern.

     Plate CCCXIX. Adult and Young.

Bill about the length of the head, slender, yellowish-orange, with the
tips black, but the extreme points horn-colour; feet light orange-red;
wings an inch or more longer than the tail, which is deeply forked; on
the forehead a triangular white patch, extending to over the middle of
the eye; upper part of head and nape, and loral space, deep black;
sides of head, fore neck, and lower parts pure white; back and wings
very pale bluish-grey; first two quills with the outer web
greyish-black, and rather less than half of their inner web of the
same colour, the rest white, extending to about half an inch from
their extremities; tail white in summer, of a paler tint than the back
at other times. Young, when fledged, with the bill greenish-black, all
the lower parts dull greyish-white, as are the upper, including the
tail, the hind part of the head streaked with dusky, on the back and
rump the feathers with a curved marginal band of greyish-brown;
primary quills greyish-brown, the outer two darker; tail even, each
feather narrowly margined with greyish-white.

_Adult_, 8-3/4, 18-3/4.

Breeds from Galveston along the shores to Labrador. Not mentioned as
found in the Fur Countries. Returns southward, and passes beyond Texas
in autumn. Extremely abundant at times on the Great Lakes, as well as
the Ohio and Mississippi.

    Least Tern, Sterna minuta, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii. p. 80.

    Sterna minuta, Bonap. Syn. p. 355.

    Silvery Tern, Sterna argentea, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 280.

    Least Tern, Sterna minuta, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 175.

    * Tail graduated.


440. 12. Sterna stolida, Linn. Noddy Tern.

     Plate CCLXXV. Male.

Bill a little longer than the head, rather slender, a little decurved,
black; tail cuneate; general colour of plumage sooty-brown; primaries
and tail-feathers brownish-black; upper part of head greyish-white; a
black spot anterior to and over the eye.

_Male_, 16-4/12, 32.

Abundant on the Gulf of Mexico during the whole year. Breeds in vast
multitudes on the Tortugas Keys.

    Sterna stolida, Bonap. Syn. p. 356.

    Noddy, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 285.

    Noddy Tern, Sterna stolida, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 516; v.
        v. p. 642.



GENUS III. LARUS, Linn. GULL.


Bill shorter than the head, nearly straight, moderately stout,
compressed; upper mandible with its dorsal outline straight to the
middle, then decurved, the ridge convex, the sides rapidly sloping,
the edges sharp and direct, the tip rather obtuse; nasal groove rather
long and narrow; nostrils submedial, longitudinal, linear-oblong,
broader anteriorly; lower mandible, with the angle long and pointed,
the outline of its crura decurved anteriorly, that of the ridge
slightly concave and ascending, the sides erect, the edge-line
decurved toward the tip, which is narrow but obtuse. Head of moderate
size, broadly ovate; neck of ordinary length; body compact. Feet
rather long or of moderate length, rather stout; tibia bare at the
lower part; tarsus moderately compressed, with numerous curved
anterior scutella, and smaller behind; toes slender, of moderate
length, scutellate; first very small, third a little longer than
fourth. Claws small, slightly arched, compressed, rather blunt.
Plumage close, soft, blended, on the back and wings rather compact.
Wings very long, pointed; first and second quills longest; secondaries
broad, the inner more elongated. Tail of moderate length, generally
even, rarely rounded or emarginate, of twelve feathers. In those
which have the head white in summer, it is streaked with dusky in
winter; and those which are hooded in summer, have the head white and
slightly streaked in winter.

    * Tail emarginate.


441. 1. Larus Sabini, Sabine. Fork-tailed Gull.

     Plate CCLXXXV. Fig. 1, Male.

Tail of moderate length, forked; bill of moderate length, rather
slender, black, with the terminal third yellow; feet black; head and
upper part of neck all round blackish-grey, that colour terminated by
a collar of pure black; lower neck all round, the whole lower surface,
upper tail-coverts, and tail, pure white; back and wings bluish-grey,
excepting a large terminal portion of the secondaries, and the tips of
the primaries, which are white, the primaries themselves being black,
with their shafts brownish-black.

_Male_, 13, 33.

Accidental as far south in winter, as New York. Rather common along
the coast of Nova Scotia. Breeds in Newfoundland, and along the coasts
of the Arctic Seas. Seen on the banks of Newfoundland in great
numbers.

    Larus Sabini, Fork-tailed Gull, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 428.

    Fork-tailed Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 295.

    Forked-tailed Gull, Larus Sabini, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        561.

    ** Tail cuneate.


442. 2. Larus Rossii, Richardson. Ross's Gull.

     Not figured.

Tail much rounded, the middle feathers being an inch longer than the
lateral; bill of moderate length, slender, black; feet vermilion;
head, neck, all round, lower parts, rump and tail, white, the lower
parts tinged with pink, which soon fades; a narrow collar of black;
fore part of back, scapulars, and both surfaces of wings light
greyish-blue; tips of scapulars and secondaries white.

_Adult_, 14; wing 10-1/2.

Arctic Seas.

    Larus Rossii, Cuneate-tailed Gull, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 427.

    Ross's Gull, Larus Rossii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 324.

    *** Tail even.


443. 3. Larus Bonapartii, Richardson. Bonaparte's Gull.

     Plate CCCXXIV.

Bill slender, black; feet orange, tinged with vermilion; head and
upper part of neck all round greyish-black, that colour extending half
an inch lower on the throat than on the occiput; a white band divided
by a narrow black line margining the eye behind; lower part of neck
all round, anterior edge of wing, alular, smaller coverts on the
carpal margin, four outer primary coverts, shaft and inner web of
outer primary, both webs of second, inner webs of third and fourth,
rump, tail, and all the lower parts, white; back, scapulars, and wings
light greyish-blue; outer web of first quill, excepting a small
portion toward the end, its tips to the length of half an inch, black,
as are the ends of the next six, which however have a small tip of
white, the black on some of them being an inch long, and running along
the inner edge to a considerable extent. Female somewhat smaller,
similar to the male, but with the head and upper part of the neck
umber-brown. Young in second plumage with the bill greyish-black, the
feet flesh-coloured; head and neck greyish-white; a small patch of
black behind the eye; upper parts dull bluish-grey, many of the
wing-coverts greyish-brown, edged with paler; quills as in the adult;
rump and tail white, the latter with a broad band of black at the end,
the tips narrowly edged with whitish.

_Adult_, 14-1/8, 32-1/4.

Extremely abundant in winter, on the coast of Florida. Equally
plentiful in spring, along the coasts of the Middle and Eastern
Districts, especially in the Chesapeake. Breeds from the Bay of Fundy
to high latitudes. Not uncommon in autumn, on the Great Lakes, and the
Ohio and Mississippi.

    Brown-masked Gull, Larus capistratus, Bonap. Amer. Orn. v. iv.
        Female.

    Larus capistratus, Bonap. Syn. p. 358.

    Larus Bonapartii, Bonapartian Gull, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 425.

    Bonapartian Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 294.

    Bonapartian Gull, Larus Bonapartii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p.
        212.


444. 4. Larus Atricilla, Linn. Black-headed Gull.--Laughing Gull.

     Plate CCCXIV. Male and Young.

Bill moderately stout, and with the feet, margin of eyelids, and
inside of mouth deep carmine; wings extending three inches beyond the
tail, which is even; head and upper neck all round blackish lead-grey,
darker on the upper part of the head and along the posterior margin,
which descends lower in front, or to the extent of about two inches
and a half from the base of the lower mandible; two narrow white bands
bordering the upper and lower eyelids; lower neck all round, the whole
lower surface, rump and tail white, but the fore part of the neck and
the breast down to the legs, of a beautiful light rosy tint; back and
wings greyish-blue, with a slight tinge of purple, excepting a large
terminal portion of the secondaries, and the tips of the primaries,
which are white; first primary black, with a tinge of grey on the
inner web at the base; second and third similar, with the grey more
extended; the fourth with it extending over two-thirds, the fifth
black only for an inch and a half, on the sixth the black reduced to
two spots near the end; the other parts and the remaining primaries of
the same general colour as the back. Female similar, but considerably
smaller. In winter, the head white, the feathers on its upper part and
the nape more or less brownish-grey in their concealed part, that
colour appearing in slight patches here and there, and especially
along the posterior margin of the part that is coloured in summer, as
well as on a small space before the eye; in other respects the plumage
as in summer, but without the rosy tint. Young, when fledged, with the
bill, feet, inside of mouth, and edges of eyelids olivaceous brown;
upper parts brownish-grey, the feathers edged with paler; hind part of
back light bluish-grey; upper tail-coverts nearly white; tail pale
greyish-blue, with a broad band of brownish-black at the end, the
extreme tips narrowly edged with white, the outer margin of the
lateral feathers of the same colour; the first four primaries
destitute of white at the tip; a small patch before the eye, two
slight bands on the eyelids, and the throat, greyish-white; lower part
of neck brownish-grey; the rest of the lower parts greyish-white, the
sides darker, the axillars ash-grey, lower surface of wing dusky grey.

_Adult_, 17, 40-3/4.

Most abundant from Texas to Massachusetts, breeding along the coast.
Up the Mississippi to New Orleans. Those which in spring remove to the
eastward of the Floridas return early in autumn.

    Black-headed Gull, Larus ridibundus, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix.
        p. 89.

    Larus atricilla, Bonap. Syn. p. 359.

    Black-headed Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 291.

    Black-headed or Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 118.


445. 5. Larus Franklinii, Richardson. Franklin's Rosy Gull.

     Not figured.

"Bill rather stout, and with the feet vermilion; mantle pearl-grey;
wings an inch and a half longer than the tail, which is even; five
exterior quills barred with black, the first one tipped with white for
an inch; tarsus twenty lines long; hood black in summer. Both eyelids,
the neck, rump, tail, and whole under plumage white, the latter and
interior of the wings deeply tinged with peach-blossom red; black hood
covering three-quarters of an inch of the nape, and extending as much
lower on the throat; mantle and wings bluish-grey; the outer web of
the first quill-feathers is black to near the top, and a broad band of
the same crosses the ends of the five outer primaries; all the
quill-feathers are terminated with white, that of the first primary
and of all the secondaries being upwards of an inch long; all the
shafts whitish."

_Male_, 17, wing, 11.

Interior of Fur Countries, breeding on the edges of large lakes.

    Larus Franklinii, Franklin's Rosy Gull, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii p. 424.

    Franklin's Rosy Gull, Larus Franklinii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 323.


446. 6. Larus tridactylus, Linn. Kittiwake Gull.

     Plate CCXXIV. Adult and Young.

Bill moderately stout, greenish-yellow; feet black, with the hind toe
rudimentary, and furnished with a minute knob in place of the claw;
head, neck, rump, tail, and lower parts pure white; back and upper
surface of wings light greyish-blue; the first five quills black at
the end, the first on its outer web also; the fifth with a small white
tip; the tips of all the other quills more or less white. Young in its
second plumage with the bill and feet black; hind head and neck
bluish-grey; a semilunar blackish mark before the eye; tips of
auriculars dark grey; forehead, sides of head, throat, and lower
parts, white, as are the rump and tail, the latter with a broad
terminal band of black; mantle bluish-grey, with a broad band of black
crossing the lower part of the hind neck; larger wing-coverts of the
same colour toward the end; primary quills black, more or less
margined with white internally.

_Adult_, 18, 36-1/2.

Common as far south as New York. Abundant from Massachusetts eastward.
Breeds from the Bay of Fundy northward.

    Larus tridactylus, Bonap. Syn. p. 359.

    Larus tridactylus, Kittiwake, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 423.

    Kittiwake, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 298.

    Kittiwake Gull, Larus tridactylus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        186.


447. 7. Larus eburneus, Gmel. Ivory Gull.

     Plate CCLXXXVII.

Bill moderately stout, yellow, feet black; wings an inch and a half
longer than the tail; plumage pure white. After the second moult, the
bill dusky for two-thirds, yellow at the end, feet black; plumage
white, the forehead and sides of the head mottled with leaden-grey,
most of the wing-coverts with, a greyish-black spot towards the end;
the quills, large coverts, and tail-feathers similarly marked, the
markings on the tail forming a subterminal bar.

_Adult_, 19, 41.

Accidental on the coast of the United States. Common in winter in
Labrador and Newfoundland. Breeds in high latitudes.

    Larus eburneus, Bonap. Syn. p. 360.

    Larus eburneus, Ivory Gull, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.

    Ivory Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 301.

    Ivory Gull, Larus eburneus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 571.


448. 8. Larus zonorhynchus, Richardson. Ring-billed Gull.--Common
American Gull.

     Plate CCXII. Adult and Young.

Bill stout, compressed, greenish-yellow, with a broad band of black
opposite the prominence; wings two inches and a half longer than the
tail; feet greenish-yellow; general colour of the plumage pure white,
excepting the back and upper surface of the wings, which are light
greyish-blue; the first-six quills black towards their extremities,
the first and second being almost entirely so, the sixth with only a
small spot; the tips of these feathers white, the first moreover with
a long patch of white, over its whole breadth, the second with a
smaller patch, not occupying the entire breadth, sometimes confined to
the inner web, the other quills white at the end. Young after second
moult with the bill black, the feet purplish-grey; general colour of
plumage dull white, mottled with greyish-brown beneath, on the back
with large brownish-black spots, the dark markings being central;
anterior to the eye a crescent of greyish-black; outer primary quills
black, terminally edged with white.

_Adult_, 20, 48.

Common during winter from Texas, along the coast, to Maine. Up the
Mississippi to Natchez. Breeds from Maine to Labrador, Hudson's Bay,
and Arctic shores. Columbia River. Migratory.

    Larus canus, Mew or Common Gull, Rich. & Swains. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 420.

    Larus zonorhynchus, Ring-billed Mew-Gull, Ibid. p. 421.

    Larus brachyrhynchus, Short-billed Mew-Gull, Ibid. p. 422.

    Ring-billed Mew-Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 300.

    Common American Gull, Larus zonorhynchus. _Aud._ Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 98; v. v. p. 638.


449. 9. Larus leucopterus, Fabr. White-winged Silvery Gull.

     Plate CCLXXXII. Adult and Young.

Bill stout, gamboge-yellow, with a spot of orange-red near the end of
the lower mandible; angle of the mouth and edges of eyelids
orange-red; feet pale flesh-colour; wings more than two inches longer
than the tail; plumage pure white, excepting the back and upper
surface of the wings, which are light greyish-blue; the tips of the
secondaries, the terminal third of the primaries, and the upper
tail-coverts, also white. Young in second plumage with the bill
yellow, tipped with black, the feet yellowish flesh-colour; plumage
yellowish-grey, marked on the head and neck with longitudinal streaks
of pale brown, on the back and wings with transverse undulations,
those on the tail much fainter; the first six quills destitute of
markings.

_Adult_, 26, 50.

During winter from New York to Nova Scotia. Not rare. Breeds on the
islands and peninsulas of the Arctic Seas.

    Larus leucopterus, Bonap. Syn. p. 361.

    Larus leucopterus, White-winged Silvery Gull, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 418.

    White-winged Silvery Gull, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 305.

    White-winged Silvery Gull, Larus leucopterus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 553.


450. 10. Larus occidentalis, Aud. Western Gull.

     Not figured.

Bill robust, compressed, yellow, with an orange-red patch toward the
end of the lower mandible; iris light hazel; feet flesh-coloured;
head, neck, lower parts, rump, and tail pure white; back and wings
light greyish-blue, of a deeper tint than in L. argentatus; edges of
the wings and extremities of the quills white; first seven quills
greyish-black toward the end, that colour including the outer webs and
the greater part of the inner of the two first, and on the rest
gradually diminishing, so as on the seventh merely to form a
subterminal bar; the first quill with a patch of white on both webs
near the end; the tips of all white. Young male in winter with the
bill black, feet flesh-coloured; upper part and sides of the head,
hind part and sides of the neck, light brownish-grey, faintly mottled
and streaked with white; upper parts in general greyish-brown,
confusedly mottled with whitish; rump white barred with brown; primary
quills greyish-black, without white at the end; secondary quills
similar, more grey toward the base, margined and tipped with white,
undulated with brown; tail greyish-black, tipped with whitish; lower
parts greyish-white, mottled with greyish-brown. This species, which
is very intimately allied to _Larus argentatus_, is remarkable for the
great depth and comparative shortness of its bill.

_Male_, 27, wing 17-1/4, but the feathers not complete.

    Western Gull, Larus occidentalis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        320.


451. 11. Larus argentatus, Brunnich. Herring or Silvery Gull.

     Plate CCXCI. Adult and Young.

Bill robust, compressed, gamboge-yellow, with an orange-red patch
toward the end of the lower mandible; iris silvery-white; feet
flesh-coloured; head, neck, lower parts, rump, and tail pure white;
back and wings light greyish-blue; edges of wing and extremities of
quills white; the first six quills brownish-black towards the end,
that colour including the outer webs and the greater part of the inner
of the first two, and on the rest gradually diminishing, so as on the
sixth merely to form a bar; the first quill with a patch of white
about an inch and a half long on both webs near the end, the second
with a circular patch on the inner web; the tips of all white. The
terminal markings of the outer quills vary. Young with the bill
brownish-black, paler at the base of the lower mandible, feet purplish
flesh-colour; general colour of plumage light purplish-grey, the upper
part of the head darker, the lower parts mottled with pale
yellowish-grey; feathers of upper parts and upper tail-coverts
irregularly edged and barred with greyish-white; primary quills
greyish-black, terminally margined with whitish; tail of the same
colour, its base and the outer webs of the lateral feathers
irregularly mottled with whitish, the tips brownish-white.

_Male_, 23, 53. _Young_, in winter, 18-3/4, 51.

Abundant in autumn, winter, and early spring, from Texas along the
whole Atlantic coast to Newfoundland. Breeds from the Bay of Fundy to
Melville Island. Common in autumn on the Great Lakes, the Ohio, and
Mississippi.

    Larus argentatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 360.

    Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 304.

    Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        588; v. v. p. 638.


452. 12. Larus glaucus, Brunn. Glaucous Gull.--Burgomaster.

     Plate CCCXCVI. Adult and Young.

Bill stout, compressed, gamboge yellow, with a carmine patch toward
the end of the lower mandible; iris yellow; feet flesh-coloured;
second quill slightly longer than the first; tail slightly rounded;
head, neck, lower parts, rump, and tail pure white; back and wings
light greyish-blue; the edges of the wing and a large portion of all
the quills toward the end, white. Young when fledged with the bill
yellow, in its terminal third black; feet flesh-coloured; plumage very
pale yellowish-brown, the feathers of the upper parts with a large
dusky spot toward the end, the quills and tail-feathers barred with
the same.

_Adult_, 30; wing, 19-1/2.

Met with in Labrador in summer. Baffin's Bay and Arctic Seas
generally. Not observed within the limits of the United States.

    Larus glaucus, Bonap. Syn. p. 361.

    Larus glaucus, Burgomaster Gull, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 416.

    Glaucous Gull or Burgomaster, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 306.

    Glaucous Gull or Burgomaster, Larus glaucus, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 59.


453. 13. Larus marinus, Linn. Great Black-backed Gull.

     Plate CCXLI. Male.

Bill robust, compressed, gamboge yellow, with a patch of carmine
toward the end of the lower mandible, feet flesh-coloured; head, neck,
lower parts, rump and tail, pure white; back and wings deep
blackish-purple or dark slate-colour; edges of wing and a large
portion of the extremities of all the quills white; the second, third,
fourth, and fifth primaries with a broad band of black across their
ends. Young when fledged with the bill brownish-black, the iris dark
brown, the feet as in the adult; the head and neck greyish-white,
streaked with pale brownish-grey; upper parts mottled with
brownish-black, brownish-grey, and dull white, the rump paler; primary
quills blackish-brown, slightly tipped with brownish-white;
tail-feathers white, with a large brownish-black patch towards the
end, larger on the middle feathers, which are also barred towards the
base with dusky; lower parts greyish-white, sides and lower
tail-coverts obscurely mottled with greyish-brown.

_Male_, 29-1/2, 67.

Not uncommon during winter as far south as Florida, the young
especially. Common from New York to Labrador, where it breeds. Lake
Erie, Ontario, the St Lawrence, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers. Columbia
River.

    Larus marinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 225.

    Black-backed Gull or Cobb, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 308.

    Great Black-billed Gull, Larus marinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 305; v. v. p. 636.



FAMILY XLIII. PROCELLARINÆ. FULMARS.


Bill generally shorter than the head, moderately stout, compressed;
upper mandible with the ridge formed of two generally united plates,
at the anterior part of which, usually about half the length of the
bill, are the nostrils; the sides separated by a groove, the tip a
decurved, compressed, pointed unguis; lower mandible with the angle
very long and narrow, the tip more or less decurved. Head of moderate
size, ovate; neck of moderate length; body compact. Feet of ordinary
length, rather slender; tibia bare below for a short space; tarsus
little compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes four, the first
extremely small and elevated, with a conical deflected claw; anterior
toes webbed; the third and fourth nearly equal. Claws arched,
compressed, acute. Plumage full, soft, rather compact above. Wings
long, rather broad, pointed, the first quill generally longest. Tail
short, of from twelve to sixteen feathers. Œsophagus very wide,
often enormously dilated, especially at its lower part, stomach small,
moderately muscular; intestine of moderate length; cœca rather
long; cloaca oblong or globular. Trachea simple, with a single pair of
inferior laryngeal muscles.



GENUS I. LESTRIS, Illiger. JAGER.


Bill shorter than the head, strong, slightly compressed, straight,
with the tip curved; upper mandible with the dorsal line nearly
straight, toward the tip decurved, the ridge broad and convex, formed
by two plates, which overlap the nostrils, the sides narrow and
convex, the edges sharp and inflected, the tip or unguis decurved,
compressed, acute; nasal groove long, narrow; the nostrils in its fore
part medial, lateral, longitudinal, broad before, extremely narrow
behind, open and pervious; lower mandible with the angle long and
narrow, a slight prominence at its extremity, beyond which the dorsal
line is slightly concave, the sides erect, and slightly convex, the
edges sharp and inflected, the tip obliquely truncate. Head rather
large; neck of moderate length; body rather full. Feet of moderate
length, rather stout; tibia bare at its lower part, and rough all
round, with small convex scales; tarsus compressed behind and
scabrous, anteriorly scutellate; hind toe extremely small and
elevated; fore toes of moderate size, connected by convex webs, the
third toe longest, the fourth little shorter. Claws strong, much
curved, very acute, compressed. Plumage full, soft, blended, on the
back rather compact. Wings very long, rather broad, pointed, the first
quill longest. Tail of moderate length, or elongated, of twelve
feathers, of which the middle are longest. Tongue broadly channelled
above, contracted and induplicate toward the end, with the point slit;
œsophagus very wide; stomach small, moderately muscular, with the
epithelium thin, dense, and longitudinally rugous; intestine rather
short and wide; cœca rather long; cloaca oblong.


454. 1. Lestris pomarinus, Temm. Pomarine Jager.

     Plate CCLIII. Adult Female.

Tail of moderate length, rounded, but with the two middle broad
rounded feathers extending an inch beyond the next; bill dull green,
toward the end dusky; tibia, toes, webs, and lower half of tarsus
black, the upper half light blue; upper part and sides of head
anteriorly brownish-black; upper part of neck all round
yellowish-white; the rest of the neck white, barred with
brownish-black, each feather having two transverse bands of that
colour; breast white; sides, abdomen, and lower tail-coverts white,
barred with brownish-black, as are the upper tail-coverts; back and
wings brownish-black; primary quills of the same colour, white on the
inner webs toward the base, as are the secondaries and tail-feathers;
lower surface of wings mottled and barred with white and dusky.

_Female_, 20-1/4, 48.

From Massachusetts northward. Seen in Labrador. Breeds in high
northern latitudes.

    Lestris pomarina, Bonap. Syn. p. 364.

    Lestris pomarina, Pomarine Jager, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 429.

    Pomarine Jager, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 315.

    Pomarine Jager, Lestris pomarinus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        396; v. v. p. 643.


455. 2. Lestris Richardsonii, Swains. Richardson's Jager.

     Plate CCLXXII. Male and Young.

Male with the bill greyish-black, tinged with blue above; feet black;
tail-feathers of moderate length, except the middle two, which extend
about three inches beyond the rest, and taper to a point; plumage
sooty-brown; the upper part of the head, primary quills, and tail
darker; cheeks and sides of neck dull yellow; fore part of neck and
breast white. Female similar, but without white on the neck and
breast, those parts being merely of a lighter brown. Young, when
fledged, with the bill light blue, dusky at the end; tarsi and basal
portion of the toes and webs light blue, the rest black; general
colour of the plumage sooty-brown, lighter on the neck and lower
parts, feathers of the back and wings all marginally tipped with
whitish; breast, sides, lower wing-coverts, abdomen, and lower
tail-coverts, undulatingly barred with pale greyish-yellow.

_Male_, 18-1/2, 40. _Young_, in September, 15-1/2; wing, 11-1/2.

Coast of Massachusetts and Maine, during winter. Breeds in the
northern barren grounds, away from the coast.

    Lestris Richardsonii, Richardson's Jager, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 433.

    Richardson's Jager, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 319.

    Richardson's Jager, Lestris Richardsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 503.


456. 3. Lestris parasiticus, Linn. Arctic Jager.

     Plate CCLXVII.

Bill greyish-black, tinged with blue above; feet black, but with the
greater part of the tarsus yellow; tail-feathers of moderate length,
except the two middle, which are extremely elongated and attenuated,
extending eight inches or more beyond the next, the rest broad and
rounded; neck and lower parts white, the former tinged with yellow;
upper and fore part of head, with the space before the cheeks,
blackish-brown; lower part of hind neck, and all the upper parts,
blackish-grey; primary quills and tail-feathers brownish-black, the
shafts of the former white. Female similar to the male, but with the
middle tail-feathers about three inches shorter.

_Male_, 23, 45.

Ranges, during winter, along and off the coast, though always in sight
of land, as far as the Gulf of Mexico. Breeds in high latitudes.

    Lestris Buffonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 364.

    Lestris parasitica, Arctic Jager, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 430.

    Arctic Jager, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 317.

    Arctic Jager, Lestris parasiticus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        470.



GENUS II. DIOMEDEA, Linn. ALBATROSS.


Bill rather longer than the head, nearly straight, stout, much
compressed; upper mandible, with its dorsal line, much declinate, and
nearly straight for a third of its length, then concave ascending to
the unguis, on which it is arched and decurved in the third of a
circle, the ridge broad, convex, rounded at the base, separated in its
whole length by a groove, margined below, beyond the nostrils by a
prominent line, from the sides, which are erect and slightly convex,
the edges sharp, the unguis decurved, much compressed, with its sides
flattened, and the tip acute; nostrils subbasal, prominent, tabular,
having a horny sheath; lower mandible with the angle very narrow,
reaching to the tip, and having at its extremity a long slender
interposed horny process; the outline of the crura gently ascending,
and quite straight, until near the end, when it is a little decurved,
the sides ascending, nearly erect, a little convex, the edges sharp,
the tip extremely compressed, its upper edges decurved. Head rather
large, ovate; neck of moderate length; body full. Feet rather short,
stoutish; tibia bare, below scaly; tarsus roundish, reticulated; toes
three, long, slender, outer very little shorter than middle, scaly for
half their length, then scutellate. Claws rather small, slender,
slightly arched, somewhat obtuse. Plumage full, soft, blended, but
rather fine, somewhat compact above. Wings very long, and very narrow,
the humerus and cubitus extremely elongated; first quill longest. Tail
of twelve broadly rounded feathers, short, rounded.


457. 1. Diomedea chlororhynchos, Gmel. Yellow-nosed Albatross.

     Not figured.

Bill much compressed, its ridge convex in its whole length, but with
its basal outline, although semicircular, only half an inch in extent,
so that between its margins and those of the sides of the bill, there
is behind the nostrils a space nearly a quarter of an inch in breadth;
the ridge in its whole length, the tip of the upper mandible, and the
crura of the lower along their inferior edge, yellow, the rest black;
feet yellow; head and neck ash-grey; the fore part of the back shaded
into blackish-grey; wings entirely brownish-black, shafts of primaries
white, toward the end brownish-black; hind part of back, rump, and
upper tail-coverts white; tail deep grey, the bases and shafts of the
feathers white, loral space of a darker grey than the rest of the
head, that colour deepening at the fore part of the eye, forming a
spot which includes the whole of the upper eyelid, and the anterior
half the lower, of which the other half is white; lower half of the
neck anteriorly, breast, sides, abdomen, lower tail-coverts, some of
the axillaries, and the larger wing-coverts white; the others being
brownish-black.

Length, 37; wing, 21; bill, 5-1/4; tail, 8-1/4.

Pacific Ocean, not far from Columbia River.

    Diomedea chlororhynchos, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 326.


458. 3. Diomedea nigripes, Aud. Black-footed Albatross.

     Not figured.

Bill brownish-black, moderately compressed, its ridge very broad and
convex at the base, its basal outline semicircular and two inches in
extent, so that its sides behind overlap and obliterate the sutural
space behind the nostrils; feet black; fore part of head, cheeks and
throat light dusky-grey, the capistral feathers nearly white, as is a
small patch at the posterior angle of the eye; upper part of head,
hind neck, and all the upper parts, including the wings and tail,
sooty-brown tinged with grey, as are the lower surface of the wings
and the axillaries; lower parts dull grey, deeper on the fore parts
and sides of the neck.

Length, 36; wings, 21; bill, 5; tail, 3.

Pacific Ocean, off California.

    Black-footed Albatross, Diomedea nigripes, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 327.


459. 2. Diomedea fusca, Aud. Dusky Albatross.

     Plate CCCCVII. Adult.

Bill black, much compressed, its ridge carinate, with its basal
outline running up on the forehead into a very acute angle, lower
mandible with a groove on each side in its whole length, as far as the
unguis; feet yellow; head and upper part of the neck greyish-black,
tinged with brown, the rest of the neck, all the lower parts, the back
and rump light brownish-grey, scapulars darker, wings brownish-black,
primary quills and tail-feathers greyish-black with white shafts;
eyelids narrowly margined with white feathers, their anterior part
excepted.

_Adult_, length, 34; wing, 21; tail, 11; bill, 4-10/12.

Off the Columbia River.

    Dusky Albatross, Diomedea fusca, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 116.



GENUS III. PROCELLARIA, Linn. FULMAR.


Bill of about the length of the head, or somewhat shorter, robust,
straight, moderately compressed, with the tip decurved; upper mandible
with the nostrils dorsal, separated by a thin septum, covered by an
elevated horny case, and opening directly forwards, the ridge nearly
straight or concave in its outline, laterally sloping or convex,
separated by a groove from the sides, which are erect and convex, the
edges sharp, inflected, and in their outline slightly recurved from
the base to the unguis, which is strong, decurved, and acute; lower
mandible with the angle long, narrow, acute, the sides erect, with a
groove in their whole length, the edges sharp and direct, the very
short dorsal line ascending and slightly concave, the edges decurved
at the end. Head rather large, ovate; neck rather short; body full.
Feet of moderate length, stout; tibia bare for a short space below;
tarsus a little compressed, reticulated with angular scales; hind toe
a slight prominence with a conical claw; fore toes long, slender,
scutellate, connected by striated even webs; fourth toe slightly
shorter than third. Claws moderate, arched, compressed, rather acute.
Plumage full, close, elastic, rather compact above. Wings very long,
narrow, the first quill longest. Tail short, or of moderate length, of
from twelve to sixteen feathers.

    * Bill robust; tail of more than twelve feathers.


460. 1. Procellaria gigantea, Linn. Gigantic Fulmar.

     Not figured.

Bill longer than the head, nasal plate carinate, very slightly concave
above, yellow, as are the feet; tail of sixteen feathers; general
colour of plumage a deep brown tinged with grey, lighter on the lower
parts, and especially on the lower surface of the wings.

Length, 36; tail, 7-1/2; bill, 4.

Off the Columbia River.

    Gigantic Fulmar, Procellaria gigantea, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 330.


461. 2. Procellaria glacialis, Linn. Common Fulmar.

     Plate CCLXIV. Male.

Bill shorter than the head, moderately compressed, with the nasal
plate flattened concave above; tail slightly rounded, of fourteen
feathers; bill, feet, and claws yellow; head, neck, and lower parts,
pure white; back and wings light greyish-blue, the rump paler, the
tail bluish-white; primary quills and coverts blackish-brown. Young in
first plumage greyish-brown.

_Male_, 8, 18.

Not uncommon off the coast, from New York to Nova Scotia. Abundant on
the banks of Newfoundland. Breeds in high latitudes.

    Procellaria glacialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 369.

    Fulmar Petrel, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 330.

    Fulmar Petrel, Procellaria glacialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 446.


462. 3. Procellaria pacifica, Aud. Pacific Fulmar.

     Not figured.

Bill shorter than the head, considerably compressed, with the nasal
plate carinate and almost straight; tail rounded, of fourteen
feathers; bill and feet yellow; head, neck, and lower parts pure
white; back and wings light greyish-blue, but most of the feathers,
including those of the tail, becoming dark grey toward the end;
primary quills and their coverts blackish-brown tinged with grey.
Differs from P. glacialis chiefly in the form of the bill.

_Adult_, 18; wing, 12-3/4; tail, 4-3/4; bill, 1-3/4.

North west coast of America. Abundant.

    Pacific Fulmar, Procellaria pacifica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p.
        331.


463. 4. Procellaria tenuirostris, Aud. Slender-billed Fulmar.

     Not figured.

Bill about the same length as the head, rather slender, much
compressed, with the nasal plate somewhat carinate and concave; tail
much rounded, of fourteen feathers; bill yellow, with the nasal plate,
half of the unguis of the upper mandible, and the tip of the lower
black; feet yellow, claws brownish-black; plumage greyish-blue, paler
on the lower parts, neck, and head; primary quills and their coverts
blackish-grey. Differs from the last chiefly in the form and colour of
the bill.

Length, 18-1/2; wing, 13; tail, 5; bill, 2-1/12.

Off the Columbia River. Common.

    Slender-billed Fulmar, Procellaria tenuirostris, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 333.



GENUS IV. PUFFINUS, Briss. SHEARWATER.


Bill of the length of the head, rather slender, nearly as deep as
broad at the base, much compressed toward the end, nearly straight,
being slightly recurved, with the tips decurved; upper mandible with a
cere at the base, extending narrow to the nostrils, which are dorsal,
each covered with a lateral convex plate, and opening anteriorly, with
an elliptical aperture, dorsal line as far as the nostrils nearly
straight, then suddenly deflected, afterwards slightly concave,
towards the end decurved, the ridge very broad and convex at the base,
narrower beyond the nostrils, from which a groove runs obliquely on
each side, sides convex, nearly erect, edges sharp, tip or unguis
strong, decurved, much compressed, very acute; lower mandible with the
angle very long and narrow, the dorsal line beyond it decurved, the
sides sloping outwards, the edges sharp and inflected, the unguis
decurved, acute. Head rather large, oblong; neck rather short; body
moderate. Feet rather large; tibia bare for a short space below;
tarsus of moderate length, compressed, reticulated with angular
scales; hind toe obsolete, but with a small conical deflected claw;
fore toes long, slender, connected by webs; outer toe slightly longer
than third. Claws arched, compressed, acute. Plumage full, close,
elastic, rather compact above. Wings very long, narrow, the first
quill longest. Tail of moderate length, graduated, of twelve rounded
feathers.


464. 1. Puffinus cinereus, Lath. Wandering Shearwater.

     Plate CCLXXXIII. Male.

Bill yellowish-green, with the tips brownish-black; feet light
greenish-grey, webs and claws yellowish flesh-colour; upper parts deep
brown, the hind neck paler, and tinged with grey; primary quills and
tail brownish-black; lower parts greyish-white, lower wing-coverts
white, those next to the edge of the wing greyish-black towards the
end, axillary feathers white, greyish-brown toward the end, lower
tail-coverts similar.

_Male_, 20, 45.

Common off the shores, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to that of
Mexico. Abundant off Nova Scotia. Ranges to a great distance at sea in
autumn and winter.

    Puffinus cinereus, Bonap. Syn. p. 370.

    Cinereous Puffin, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 334.

    Wandering Shearwater, Puffinus cinereus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 555.


465. 2. Puffinus Anglorum, Ray. Manks Shearwater.

     Plate CCXCV.

Bill deep greenish-black; inner and middle of outer side of tibia dull
orange, the rest greenish-black, as are the fourth toe and outer side
of the third, the inner side of the latter and the whole of the second
dull orange, webs pale yellow; upper parts brownish-black, lower
white.

_Adult_, 15, 32.

Not uncommon off the coast of Maine during summer. Breeds on Sable
Island, off Nova Scotia. Ranges, at times, to great distances
seaward.

    Puffinus anglorum, Bonap. Syn. p. 371.

    Shearwater Petrel, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 336.

    Manks Shearwater, Puffinus anglorum, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 604.


466. 3. Puffinus obscurus, Lath. Dusky Shearwater.

     Plate CCXCIX. Male.

Bill light blue, the tips black; outside of tarsus and toes
indigo-black, inside and webs pale yellowish flesh-colour; upper parts
sooty-black, lower pure white.

_Male_, 11, 26.

Abundant during summer in the Gulf of Mexico, and off the coast
eastward to Georgia. Some wander as far as Long Island.

    Puffinus obscurus, Bonap. Syn. p. 371.

    Dusky Petrel, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 337.

    Dusky Petrel, Puffinus obscurus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        620.



GENUS V. THALASSIDROMA, Vigors. PETREL.


Bill shorter than the head, slender, as high as broad at the base,
extremely compressed at the end; upper mandible with the nostrils
dorsal forming a tube on its ridge at the base, on which the dorsal
line is concave and ascending, then abrupt, afterwards, for a short
space, straight, and lastly decurved, the sides separated by a groove,
convex, the edges sharp and inflected, the tip decurved, slender,
acute; lower mandible with the angle rather long, narrow, and pointed,
the dorsal line beyond it decurved, the sides erect, the edges sharp,
the tip decurved, acute. Head of moderate size, rounded above; neck
short; body rather slender. Feet rather long, slender; tibia bare at
its lower part; tarsus slender, reticulate; hind toe minute, with a
conical deflected claw; anterior toes of moderate length, slender,
scutellate, webbed, the third and fourth about equal. Claws slender,
arched, compressed, acute. Plumage very soft and blended, the feathers
distinct only on the wings, which are very long, with the primaries a
little incurved toward the end, the second longest, the first and
fourth about equal; tail emarginate or even, of twelve feathers.
Tongue much flattened, tapering to a horny point; œsophagus wide,
within the thorax enormously distended, and with the proventriculus
forming an ovate sac, which is recurved; stomach very small; intestine
short, of moderate width; cœca small; cloaca globular.


467. 1. Thalassidroma Leachii, Temm. Leach's Petrel.--Fork-tailed
Petrel.

     Plate CCLX. Male and Female.

Tail forked; bill and feet black; plumage dark greyish-brown; quills
and tail brownish-black; smaller wing-coverts and inner secondaries
light greyish-brown; rump, sides of abdomen, and outer lower
tail-coverts white; upper tail-coverts also white, but with a terminal
black band.

_Male_, 8, 18-1/2.

Common on the Banks of Newfoundland, and at times off the coast of
Massachusetts, Maine, and Nova Scotia. Breeds on the shores of
Baffin's Bay.

    Thalassidroma Leachii, Bonap. Syn. p. 367.

    Fork-tailed Stormy Petrel, Thalassidroma Leachii, Nutt. Man.
        v. ii. p. 326.

    Forked-tailed Petrel, Thalassidroma Leachii, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 434.


468. 2. Thalassidroma Wilsonii, Bonap. Wilson's Petrel.--Mother
Carey's Chicken.

     Plate CCLXX. Male and Female.

Tail even; bill and feet black, but the webs yellow, unless at the
margin; plumage dark greyish-brown; quills and tail brownish-black;
outer secondary wing-coverts and some of the secondary quills light
greyish-brown, and tipped with white; rump, sides of abdomen, and
outer lower tail-coverts, white.

_Male_, 7-1/4, 15-3/4.

Wanders from the Gulf of Mexico, off the whole Atlantic coast to
Baffin's Bay, and often almost across the ocean towards Europe. Breeds
in vast numbers from Maine to Baffin's Bay.

    Stormy Petrel, Procellaria pelagica, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. vii.
        p. 90.

    Thalassidroma Wilsonii, Bonap. Syn. p. 367.

    Wilson's Stormy Petrel, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 322.

    Wilson's Petrel, Thalassidroma Wilsonii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 486; v. v. p. 645.


469. 3. Thalassidroma pelagica, Linn. Least Petrel.--Mother Carey's
Chicken.

     Plate CCXI.

Tail slightly rounded; bill and feet black; general colour of the
upper parts greyish-black, with a tinge of brown; lower parts
sooty-brown; secondary coverts margined externally with dull
greyish-white; feathers of rump and upper tail-coverts white, with the
shafts black, the tail-coverts broadly tipped with black.

_Male_, 5-3/4, 13-1/2.

Not uncommon on the Banks of Newfoundland. Not observed to breed on
the American coast.

    Stormy Petrel, Thalassidroma pelagica, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p.
        327.

    Least Petrel, Thalassidroma pelagica, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv.
        p. 310.



FAMILY XLIV. ALCINÆ. AUKS.


Bill not longer than the head, much compressed, generally very high,
in the species approaching the next family rather slender. Nostrils
small, linear, basal, and submarginal. Head large, broadly ovate,
anteriorly narrowed; neck short and thick; body full, compact, ovate,
or somewhat elongated. Feet short, rather stout, placed far behind;
tibia bare for a short space; tarsus very short, compressed,
anteriorly scutellate; toes three, of moderate length, scutellate,
webbed. Claws strong, arched, acute. Plumage dense, blended, soft.
Wings small, narrow, pointed. Tail very short. Tongue slender,
trigonal; œsophagus very wide, within the thorax extremely dilated;
stomach rather large, muscular, with the epithelium dense and
longitudinally rugous; intestine long and wide; cœca of moderate
size. Trachea simple, with a single pair of inferior laryngeal
muscles. Egg generally single.



GENUS I. MORMON, Illiger. PUFFIN.


Bill about the length of the head, nearly as high as long, exceedingly
compressed, at the base as high as the head, obliquely furrowed on the
sides; upper mandible with a horny dotted rim along the basal margin;
its dorsal line decurved from the base, the ridge narrow, at the base
rounded, the sides rapidly sloped, with three or four curved oblique
grooves, the edges sharp, their outline nearly straight, the tip
deflected, very narrow, but obtuse; lower mandible with the angle very
narrow, and so placed, that the base of the bill is inflected beyond
the perpendicular, the dorsal line a little convex at first, towards
the end ascending, and nearly straight, the sides perpendicular, the
edges sharp; the tip very narrow, obliquely truncate; gape-line
extending downwards a little beyond the base of the bill, and
furnished with a soft corrugated extensile membrane. Nostrils
marginal, linear, direct, in the horny part of the bill. Head large,
roundish-ovate; neck short and thick; body full and rounded. Feet
short, rather stout, placed far behind; tibia bare for a short space;
tarsus very short, little compressed, anteriorly with a series of
small scutella; toes three, connected by entire webs, the outer and
middle toes nearly equal. Claws strong, of moderate length, arched,
acute, that of the inner toe much curved. Plumage close, blended,
soft. Wings short, narrow, curved, acute; the first quill longest;
secondaries short and rounded. Tail very short, slightly rounded, of
sixteen feathers.


470. 1. Mormon cirrhatus, Lath. Tufted Puffin.

     Plate CCXLIX. Male.

Bill with four curved grooves on the upper mandible anterior to the
nostrils, the lower smooth, a horny subcylindrical addition to the
ridge at the base about an inch in length, the colour yellowish-red,
the basal rim and ridge towards the end of the upper mandible bright
red; feet bright red; two tufts of loose, acuminate, decurved
feathers on the sides of the head behind the eye; face white; upper
parts brownish-black, glossed with blue, lower sooty-brown, tinged
with grey on the abdomen; part of the sides and under wing-coverts
greyish-brown.

_Male_, 15, 22-1/2.

Extremely rare and accidental on the coast of the United States in
winter. Common in the Arctic Seas, and on the north-west coast of
America.

    Alca cirrhata, Lath. Ind. Orn. v. ii. p. 791.

    Mormon cirrhatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 429.

    Tufted Mormon or Puffin, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 539.

    Tufted Puffin, Mormon cirrhatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        364.


471. 2. Mormon glacialis, Leach. Large-billed Puffin.

     Plate CCXCIII. Male.

Bill with three curved grooves on each of the mandibles toward the
end, a compressed addition to the ridge about three-quarters of an
inch long, its colour, and that of the feet, orange-yellow; on the
upper eyelid an oblong, tapering, horny body, directed upwards and
backwards, on the lower an adherent linear body of the same nature;
sides of the head, and the lower parts, white; upper part of head
light brownish-grey, tinged with lilac; a broad collar extending to
the lower mandible; of a dark greyish-brown tint below, gradually
passing into the colour of the upper parts, which is brownish-black,
glossed with blue; primary quills and their coverts blackish-brown;
part of the sides and under wing-coverts greyish-brown.

_Male_, 13, 24-1/2.

Very rare, and in winter only, off the Bay of Fundy.

    Mormon glacialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 430.

    Large-billed Puffin, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 541.

    Large-billed Puffin, Mormon glacialis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii.
        p. 599.


472. 3. Mormon Arcticus, Linn. Common or Arctic Puffin.

     Plate CCXIII. Male and Female.

Bill with three curved grooves on both mandibles toward the end, a
very slight addition to the ridge at the base only a quarter of an
inch long; the basal rim and first ridge of both mandibles dull
yellow, the intervening space greyish-blue, the rest bright red; on
the upper eyelid a flattened triangular nearly erect horny body, and
along the lower an adherent elongated body of the same nature; feet
vermilion; throat and sides of the head greyish-white; upper parts of
the head greyish-black, tinged with blue; the middle of the neck all
round, and all the upper parts deep black, glossed with blue, the
quills tinged with brown; under parts white, except the upper part of
the sides, which are dusky, and the lower wing-coverts, which are
brownish-grey.

_Male_, 11-3/4, 23.

Ranges southward along the coast in winter, at times as far as
Georgia. Less rare from Long Island eastward, and becomes plentiful in
the Bay of Fundy. Breeds in vast numbers in burrows, on the islands
off Labrador.

    Mormon arcticus, Bonap. Syn. p. 430.

    Puffin or Coulterneb, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 542.

    Puffin, Mormon arcticus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 105.



GENUS. II. ALCA, Linn. AUK.


Bill as long as the head, feathered as far as the nostrils, beyond
which it is very high, exceedingly compressed, and obliquely furrowed
on the sides; upper mandible with the dorsal line decurved, the ridge
extremely narrow, the sides nearly flat, the nasal groove very large,
and feathered, with its lower margin very narrow, and convex, the
edges sharp and inflected, the tip decurved, very narrow, but obtuse;
lower mandible with the angle very narrow, and having a horny
triangular appendage, the sides at first extremely narrow, towards the
end erect and flat, the edges inflected, the dorsal outline concave,
the tip decurved. Nostrils medial marginal, linear, short, concealed
by the feathers. Head large, ovate; neck short and thick; body full,
rather depressed. Feet placed far behind, short, stout; tibia bare for
a short space; tarsus very short, compressed, anteriorly scutellate;
hind toe wanting; anterior toes of moderate length, rather slender,
scutellate, webbed, the outer slightly longer than the middle. Claws
rather small, arched, compressed, obtuse. Plumage close, blended, very
soft. Wings very short, narrow, acute, first quill longest. Tail
short, tapering, of twelve or fourteen feathers.


473. 1. Alca impennis, Linn. Great Auk.

     Plate CCCXLI. Adult.

Bill rather longer than the head, its dorsal line convexo-declinate,
upper mandible with a basal and eight terminal grooves, lower with
ten or twelve grooves; wings diminutive, much pointed, the primaries
tapering to an acute point, the first longest, secondaries broad,
scarcely longer than their coverts; tail short, of fourteen feathers;
bill black, with the grooves white; feet black; head, neck, and upper
parts black, the throat and sides of the neck tinged with
chocolate-brown, the wings with greyish-brown, the head, hind neck,
and back glossed with olive-green; fore part of neck below and all the
lower parts white, as are a large oblong patch before each eye, and
the tips of the secondary quills.

_Adult_, 29, 27-1/4.

Rare and accidental on the Banks of Newfoundland; said to breed on a
rock near that island.

    Great Auk, Alca impennis, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 553.

    Great Auk, Alca impennis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 316.


474. 2. Alca Torda, Linn. Razor-billed Auk.

     Plate CCXIV. Male and Female.

Bill rather shorter than the head, with its dorsal line very convex,
upper mandible with five, lower with four grooves, black with a white
band across each mandible; feet black; head, neck, and upper parts
black, the head, hind neck, and back glossed with olive-green, the
throat and sides of the neck tinged with chocolate, the wings with
brown; lower part of neck below and all the lower parts white, as are
a line from the eye to the bill on each side, and the tips of the
secondaries. Female similar. Young, in the winter, with the colours
similar, but the back duller, the wings more brown, the throat and
sides of the head mottled with white, and the bill much smaller,
without furrows or white line. Old birds, in winter, with the throat
and sides of the neck mottled with white, but in other respects the
colouring as in summer.

_Male_, 17, 29-1/2.

Rare on the eastern coast of the United States, and only during
winter. Breeds in great numbers on the Gannet Rock in the Gulf of St
Lawrence, on the shores of Newfoundland, and the western coast of
Labrador, chiefly in the fissures of rocks.

    Alca Torda, Bonap. Syn. p. 431.

    Razor-bill, Alca Torda, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 547.

    Razor-billed Auk, Alca Torda, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 112;
        v. v. p. 628.



GENUS III. PHALERIS, Temm. PHALERIS.


Bill shorter than the head, stout, straightish, broad at the base,
compressed toward the end; upper mandible with a prominent basal rim
as in the puffin, its dorsal line convex and declinate, the sides
sloping, the edges sharp, with a deep sinus close to the narrow,
declinate, blunt tip; lower mandible with the angle rather long and
wide, the dorsal line ascending and a little convex, the sides sloping
outwards, the edges sharp, the tip ascending, obliquely truncate.
Nostrils linear-oblong, direct, near the margin, in the horny part of
the bill. Head rather large, ovate; neck short and thick; body full
and compact. Feet short, placed far behind; tibia bare below; tarsus
very short, much compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes three,
connected by emarginate webs; middle and outer toes of the same
length. Claws rather stout, moderately arched, compressed, rather
obtuse. Plumage dense, blended, soft. Wings of moderate length, very
narrow, pointed. Tail very short, rounded, of fourteen feathers.


475. 1. Phaleris cristatella, Gmel. Curled-crested Phaleris.

     Plate CCCCII. Fig. 4. Adult.

Bill scarlet, with the tips yellow. Upper mandible with a somewhat
triangular horny plate at the base detached from the other parts, and
a deep oblique groove anterior to the nostrils; lower mandible with a
groove on each side; a tuft of about twenty linear recurved feathers
from the anterior part of the forehead; general colour of upper parts
brownish-black, of lower purplish-grey; a short line of elongated
linear white feathers commencing under the eye, and proceeding along
the side of the neck.

_Adult_, 10, wing, 6-3/4.

North-west coast of America.

    Alca cristatella, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 552.

    Curled-crested Phaleris, Phaleris cristatella, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. v. p. 102.


476. 2. Phaleris nodirostris, Bonap. Knobbed-billed Phaleris.

     Plate CCCCII. Fig. 3. Adult.

Bill deep red, much shorter than the head, stout, upper mandible with
a roundish, compressed, decurvate, greyish-blue knob on its ridge,
between the nostrils, which are covered by a projecting operculum;
tail of fourteen feathers; feet dusky grey; general colour of upper
parts brownish-black; fore part and sides of head streaked with
linear, acuminate, white feathers; tips of secondaries also white;
cheeks and a small portion of the throat at the base of the bill
dusky; lower parts white, mottled with dusky, the tips of the feathers
being of that colour.

_Adult_, 6, wing, 4.

North-west coast of America.

    Knobbed-billed Phaleris, Phaleris nodirostris, Bonap. Aud.
        Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 101.



GENUS IV. MERGULUS, Ray. SEA-DOVE.


Bill shorter than the head, stout, nearly straight, subpentagonal at
the base, compressed towards the end; upper mandible with the dorsal
line convexo-declinate, the ridge convex, the sides sloping, the edges
sharp and overlapping, the tip rather obtuse; nasal depression short
and broad; nostrils basal, oblong; lower mandible with the angle long
and wide, the dorsal line ascending, straight, the sides convex,
toward the end ascending and flattened, the edges sharp and inclinate,
the tip acute, with a sinus behind. Head large, ovate; neck short and
thick; body full and compact. Feet short, rather stout; tibia bare for
a very short space; tarsus very short, compressed, anteriorly covered
with oblique scutella; hind toe wanting; anterior toes connected by
entire webs, the third and fourth nearly equal. Claws rather small,
moderately arched, compressed, rather acute. Plumage dense, glossy
blended. Wings of moderate length, narrow, pointed; the first quill
longest; secondaries rounded. Tail very short, slightly rounded, of
twelve feathers.


477. 1. Mergulus Alle, Linn. Common Sea-Dove.

     Plate CCCXXXIX. Male and Female.

Bill black, feet pale flesh-coloured, webs dusky, inside of mouth
light yellow; head, upper part of neck, and all the upper surface
glossy bluish-black; a small spot on the upper eyelid, another on the
lower, several longitudinal streaks on the scapulars, and a bar along
the tips of the secondary quills, together with the breast and
abdomen, white; feathers on the sides under the wings with the inner
webs dusky, lower wing-coverts blackish-grey. In winter, the throat,
and lower parts of the cheeks white, sides and fore part of the neck
white, the latter barred with blackish-grey; the other parts as in
summer, but the black duller.

_Male_, 7-1/8, 14-1/4.

Rare and only during winter along the coast of the United States, from
New York to Maine. More abundant along the coast of Nova Scotia, and
far at sea. Breeds on the Arctic coasts.

    Little Auk, Alca Alle, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix. p. 94.

    Uria Alle, Bonap. Syn. p. 425.

    Little Guillemot, Uria Alle, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer. v.
        ii. p. 479.

    Little Auk or Sea Dove, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 531.

    Little Guillemot, Uria Alle, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iv. p. 304.



GENUS V. URIA, Lath. GUILLEMOT.


Bill generally shorter than the head, stout, compressed, tapering,
acute; upper mandible with the dorsal line slightly arched; the ridge
narrow, broader at the base, the sides sloping, the edges sharp and
inflected, the tip a little decurved, with a slight notch; nasal
groove broad, feathered; nostrils at its lower edge, subbasal,
lateral, longitudinal, linear; lower mandible with the angle rather
long, narrow, the dorsal line ascending and straight, the back very
narrow, the sides nearly flat, the edges sharp and inflected, the tip
acute. Head large, oblong; neck short and thick; body stout,
elongated, rather depressed. Feet short, placed far behind; the
greater part of the tibia concealed, its lower part bare; tarsus
short, stout, compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes three, of
moderate length, middle toe longest, outer little shorter, scutellate,
connected by entire webs. Claws small, slightly arched, compressed,
rather acute. Plumage dense, very soft, blended. Wings rather short,
narrow, acute; primary quills curved, tapering, the first and second
longest; secondaries short, rounded. Tail very short, rounded, of
twelve or more feathers.


478. 1. Uria antiqua, Gmel. Black-throated Guillemot.

     Plate CCCCII. Fig. 1. Adult. Fig. 2. Young.

Bill yellow, shorter than the head, rather stout, compressed toward
the end, the upper outline arched; feet yellow; head and upper part of
neck black, excepting a band of elongated linear feathers beginning
over the eye and extending down the hind part of the neck, and a broad
band of white commencing behind the ear and curving forwards, to join
the white, which is the general colour of the lower parts, with the
exception of the flanks, which are black; back, wings, and tail
greyish-black. Young, when fledged, with the bill black, the feet
dusky; the upper parts blackish-grey, each feather black in the
centre, the lower parts greyish-yellow, transversely barred with
dusky; the tail broadly tipped with white.

_Adult_, 10-1/2, wings, 5-9/12.

North-west coast of America. Abundant.

    Alca antiqua, Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. i. p. 551.

    Black-throated Guillemot, Uria antiqua, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v.
        p. 100.


479. 2. Uria occidentalis, Bonap. Horned-billed Guillemot.

     Plate CCCCII. Fig. 5. Adult.

Bill orange-yellow, shorter than the head, stout, straight, with the
dorsal line arched, and an oblong compressed knob on the ridge between
the nostrils, which are linear, and placed in the bare skin; feet
greyish-yellow; upper parts black, as are the cheeks, the upper part
and sides of the fore neck; the lower parts white; two decurved bands
of white slender feathers on each side of the head, one commencing
over the eye, the other at the angle of the mouth; tail very short,
even, of sixteen feathers.

_Adult_, 15-1/2, wing, 6-10/12.

North-west coast of America.

    Cerorhyncha occidentalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 428.

    Western cerorhyncha, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 538.

    Horned-billed Guillemot, Ceratorhyncha occidentalis, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. v. p. 104.


480. 3. Uria Brunnichii, Sabine. Large-billed Guillemot.

     Plate CCCXLV. Male.

Bill stout, black; feet dusky, tinged with red; general colour of
plumage greyish-black on the upper parts; sides of the head and throat
tinged with brown; lower fore part of neck, the breast, abdomen, edges
of wings and tips of secondaries white; sides streaked with
greyish-black. In winter the sides of the head and neck, the fore part
of the latter, with the rest of the lower parts white, the sides
streaked with greyish-black, and a line of the same behind the eye.

_Male_, 18-1/2, 30.

Occasionally procured in Maine. Not very rare off the coast of Nova
Scotia. Breeds from Hudson's Bay to the Arctic Seas.

    Uria Brunnichii, Bonap. Syn. p. 424.

    Uria Brunnichii, Brunnich's Guillemot, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 477.

    Large-billed Guillemot, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 529.

    Large-billed Guillemot, Uria Brunnichii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 336.


481. 4. Uria Troile, Linn. Foolish Guillemot. Murre.

     Plate CCXVIII. Male and Female.

Bill rather stout, black; feet black; general colour of upper parts
greyish-black, sides of the head and throat tinged with brown; lower
fore neck, breast, abdomen, edges of wings, and tips of secondaries
white; sides streaked with greyish-black; a line of white encircling
the eye, and extending upwards of an inch behind it, but in some
individuals wanting. In winter, the sides of the head and neck, the
fore part of the latter, with the lower parts, white.

_Male_, 17-1/2, 30.

More or less abundant during winter on the coast of Massachusetts and
Maine, rarely as far south as New York. Breeds in vast multitudes on
the Rocky Islands of the Gulf of St Lawrence, Newfoundland, and
Labrador. Occasionally found in Hudson's Bay.

    Uria Troile, Bonap. Syn. p. 424.

    Uria Troile, Foolish Guillemot, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 477.

    Foolish Guillemot or Murre, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 526.

    Foolish Guillemot, Uria Troile, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        142.


482. 5. Uria Grylle, Linn. Black Guillemot.

     Plate CCXIX. Adult in summer and winter, and Young.

Bill shorter than the head, rather slender, black; feet vermilion,
tinged with carmine; general colour of plumage deep black, on the
upper parts tinged with green, on the lower with brown; a patch on
each wing, including the secondary coverts and some of the small
feathers white, of which colour also are the axillars and lower
wing-coverts. In winter the general colour of the plumage white; the
sides of the head, the neck all round, the lower parts, and the rump
being of that colour, more or less shaded with grey; upper part of
head obscurely mottled with greyish-black; back and scapulars black,
each feather tipped with greyish-white, those of the latter more
broadly; wings and tails brownish-black, the former with a conspicuous
white patch as in summer. Young at first covered with soft, thick,
brownish-black down.

_Adult_, 13-7/8, 21-1/2.

Accidental as far south, on the eastern coast, as New York; not rare
from thence eastward, during winter. Breeds from the Bay of Fundy
along all the rocky shores, to Labrador, and the highest latitudes,
where considerable numbers even spend the winter.

    Uria Grylle, Bonap. Syn. p. 423.

    Uria Grylle, Black Guillemot, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 523.

    Black Guillemot, Uria Grylle, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p. 148;
        v. v. p. 627.


483. 4. Uria Townsendii, Aud. Slender-billed Guillemot.

     Plate CCCCXXX. Male and Female.

Bill shorter than the head, straight, slender, much compressed, acute,
black; feet yellow, claws black; plumage very soft, close, blended, as
in the other species; wings small, very narrow, convex, falcate; first
quill longest; secondaries incurved, obliquely rounded; tail extremely
short, narrow, rounded, of twelve weak, rounded feathers. Upper parts
brownish-black, the feathers of the back terminally margined with
light grey; lower parts, cheeks, a transverse band on the nape, both
eyelids, and a longitudinal band on each side, formed by some of the
scapulars, white, some dusky streaks on the hind part of the sides,
and the lower wing-coverts greyish-brown, some of them whitish. Young
in autumn with the upper parts brownish-black, the feathers terminally
margined with brown; the occipital band merely indicated by some
lighter feathers, and the scapular band brownish or chestnut-red;
lower parts of a curious mottled appearance, the feathers being
brownish-grey at the end, but in the rest of their extent white, that
colour appearing more or less on all the parts, and shewing a patch on
the hind part of the sides.

_Adult_, 10; wing 5-2/12. _Young_, in autumn, 9-3/4; wing 5-1/12.

Abundant on the north-west coast of America, not far from the Columbia
River.

    Slender-billed Guillemot, Uria Townsendii, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        v. p. 251.



FAMILY XLV. COLYMBINÆ. DIVERS AND GREBES.


Bill of the length of the head, straight, rather stout, much
compressed, pointed; upper mandible with the dorsal line declinate,
almost straight, or towards the end convex; nasal groove rather long,
feathered at the base. Nostrils basal, linear, direct, pervious. Feet
stout, short, placed extremely far behind; tarsus extremely
compressed; toes four, the first very small, and lobed; the anterior
united by webs, which in some are lobed. Plumage dense, short,
glossy, generally silky beneath. Wings small, very narrow, acute. Tail
very short, sometimes extremely small, and forming a slight tuft.
Tongue slender, trigonal, tapering; œsophagus very wide in its
whole length, or narrowed in the anterior part with the proventriculus
wide; stomach generally large, muscular, with a dense rugous
epithelium; intestine rather long and wide; as are the cœca; cloaca
globular.



GENUS I. COLYMBUS, Linn. DIVER.


Bill as long as the head, straight, rather stout, much compressed,
tapering, pointed; upper mandible with the dorsal line descending, and
slightly convex towards the end, the ridge convex, narrowed towards
the point, the sides nearly erect, convex, the edges sharp and
considerably inflected; the tip narrow; nasal groove rather long,
feathered at the base. Nostrils basal, linear, direct, pervious; lower
mandible with the angle extremely narrow and extending beyond the
middle, the dorsal line straight and sloping towards the point, the
ridge convex and narrow, the edges sharp and involute, the tip
attenuated. Head of moderate size or rather large, oblong, narrowed
before; neck rather long and thick; body elongated, much depressed.
Feet short, rather large, placed very far back; tibia almost entirely
concealed; tarsus short, exceedingly compressed, sharp-edged before
and behind, covered all over with reticulated scales; toes four, hind
toe extremely small, connected with the second by a very small
membrane; anterior toes united by entire membranes, the outer longest,
the third a little shorter, all scutellate. Claws very small,
depressed, blunt. Plumage short and dense, the feathers in general
oblong. Wings very small and narrow, curved, first quill longest,
secondaries broad and rounded. Tail extremely short, rounded of more
than twelve feathers. Tongue long, trigonal, tapering; œsophagus
very wide; proventriculus extremely dilated; stomach rather large,
roundish, a little compressed, moderately muscular, with a rather
thick, dense, longitudinally rugous epithelium; intestine rather long
and wide; cœca rather long and wide; cloaca globular.


484. 1. Colymbus glacialis, Linn. Great Northern Diver.--Loon.

     Plate CCCVI. Male, and Young in winter.

Adult in summer with the bill black, the feet livid greyish-blue,
their inner sides tinged with flesh-colour; head and neck dark
greenish-blue with purple gloss; on the throat a small transverse
patch of white longitudinally streaked with dusky; above the middle of
the neck two large patches of white similarly streaked, separated in
front to the distance of an inch, but almost continuous behind; lower
parts glossy white, excepting the feathers on the sides under the
wings, which are black, each with two, three, or four elliptical white
spots, a faint dusky band across the vent, the lower tail-coverts,
which are brownish-black tipped with white, and the axillar-feathers
and large wing-coverts, which have a dusky streak along the middle;
sides of the neck at its lower part longitudinally streaked with black
and white; upper parts glossy black, variegated with spots of white in
regular transverse slightly curved lines, having the convexity
backwards, the spots small and roundish towards the neck and sides,
larger and somewhat four-sided along the middle of the back, largest
and rectangular on the scapulars, very small and roundish on the hind
part of the back and tail-coverts; upper part of wing similar, with
smallish spots; alula and quills brownish-black, a few of the inner
secondaries only having two white spots at the end of the tail
brownish-black, of twenty feathers. Young in winter with the bill pale
yellowish-green, the ridge and tip of the upper mandible dusky; upper
parts dark greyish-brown, each feather margined with lighter, lower
parts white, sides of the neck below streaked with dusky, sides of
body dusky, without spots.

_Adult_, 32-7/8, 57-1/2. _Young Male_, in winter, 31-1/4, 54-1/2.

During winter dispersed over the United States, in Texas, as well as
along the coasts of the Atlantic, and the north-west. Breeds from
Massachusetts northward to very high latitudes. Common.

    Great Northern Diver or Loon, Wils. Amer. Orn. v. ix.

    Colymbus glacialis, Bonap. Syn. p. 420.

    Colymbus glacialis, Great Northern Diver, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 474.

    Loon or Great Northern Diver, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 513.

    Great Northern Diver or Loon, Colymbus glacialis, Aud. Orn.
        Biog. v. iv. p. 43.


485. 2. Colymbus arcticus, Linn. Black-throated Diver.

     Plate CCII. Male, Female, and Young in winter.

Adult in summer with the bill black, the feet greyish-blue, the
anterior edge of the tarsus, upper surface of toes, and part of the
webs, pale livid flesh-colour; fore part and sides of head, throat,
and sides of neck light bluish-grey, fore part and sides of head
darker; upper parts glossy bluish-black, tinged with green anteriorly,
and shaded with brown posteriorly; on the fore part of the back two
longitudinal bands of transverse white bars, the feathers being tipped
with that colour; the scapulars, excepting the outer, marked in the
same manner with transverse rows of rather large square spots; most of
the wing-coverts with two roundish spots of white near the end; quills
blackish-brown, tinged with grey externally, paler on the inner webs;
tail blackish-brown, of eighteen feathers; fore neck to the length of
six and a half inches purplish-black, ending angularly below, and with
a transverse interrupted band of linear-white spots near the upper
part, beyond which the sides of the neck blackish-brown, with several
longitudinal white streaks, formed by the edges of the feather; on the
lower part of the neck a broad space occupied by their longitudinal
dusky and white streaks; lower parts pure white, except a dusky
longitudinal band on the sides under the wing. Young in winter with
the bill bluish-grey, on the ridge dusky; upper part of head and hind
neck dark greyish-brown, sides of head greyish-white, minutely
streaked with brown, sides of neck also streaked, its fore part
faintly mottled; lower parts white, the sides and lower tail-coverts
greyish-brown; upper parts blackish-brown, the feathers broadly edged
with pale grey, quills and tail brownish-black.

_Male_, 29, 39-1/2.

The young range throughout the interior and along the coast as far as
Texas, in autumn and winter. Adult in full plumage very rare. Breeds
in high latitudes. Columbia River.

    Colymbus arcticus, Bonap. Syn. p. 420.

    Colymbus arcticus, Black-throated Diver, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 475.

    Black-throated Diver, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 517.

    Black-throated Diver, Colymbus arcticus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iv. p. 345.


486. 3. Colymbus septentrionalis, Linn. Red-throated Diver.

     Plate CCII. Male in summer, Male in winter, Female, and
     Young.

Adult, in summer, with the bill bluish-black, the feet brownish-black,
anterior part of tarsus, upper surface of toes, and part of webs,
livid flesh-colour; fore part and sides of head, throat, and sides of
neck, bluish-grey; fore part of neck rich brownish-red; hind part of
head and hind neck longitudinally streaked with greenish-black and
pure white, each feather black in the middle, with the sides white,
the colours disposed in lines; upper parts in general brownish-black,
tinged with green, more or less mottled with white, according to age,
excepting the primary quills and the tail-feathers, of which there are
twenty; lower parts pure white, excepting the feathers on the sides
under the wings, some of those about the vent, and the lower
tail-coverts, which are greyish-brown, with white margins and tips.
Young, in winter, with the fore part of the neck white, or slightly
mottled with red; all the feathers of the upper parts with two white
spots near the end; tail-feathers edged and tipped with white. Young
at first covered with dense elastic down, of a greyish-black colour,
tinged with Brown.

_Male_, 19, 25. _Female_, 18, 24.

Not uncommon during winter, autumn, and early spring, from Maryland
eastward. Breeds in Newfoundland, Labrador, and as far north as the
Arctic Seas.

    Colymbus septentrionalis, Bonap. Syn. p. 421.

    Red-throated Diver, Colymbus septentrionalis, Swains. & Rich.
        F. Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 476.

    Red-throated Diver, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 519.

    Red-throated Diver, Colymbus septentrionalis, Aud. Orn. Biog.
        v. iii. p. 20; v. v. p. 625.



GENUS II. PODICEPS, Lath. GREBE.


Bill about the length of the head, or shorter, straight, rather stout,
much compressed, tapering, pointed; upper mandible with the dorsal
line declinate and more or less convex toward the end, the ridge
convex, the sides erect and somewhat convex, the edges sharp and
inflected, the tip narrow; nasal groove rather long, extending to
nearly half the length of the mandible, feathered at the base;
nostrils linear-elliptical, basal, rather small, pervious; lower
mandible with the angle long and extremely narrow, the dorsal line
ascending and straight, the sides erect and slightly convex, the edges
sharp and involute, the tip acute. Head of moderate size, oblong,
narrowed before; neck rather long and slender; body long, depressed.
Feet short, large, placed close to the extremity of the body; tibia
feathered to the joint; tarsus extremely compressed, its anterior edge
with a row of small scutella, the sides broadly scutellate, the
posterior ridge with a double row of small prominent scales; toes
four, first very small, with a posterior membrane, fourth longest, all
scutellate, the anterior connected at the base by membranes, and
having on both sides an expanded web-like margin, marked with oblique
lines. Claws flat, that of the third toe broadest. Plumage very soft
and blended, on the lower parts dusky. Wings small acute, curved, the
second primary longest, the first little shorter; secondaries short
and rounded. Tail a slight tuft of loose feathers, fourteen in number.
Tongue slender, trigonal, pointed; œsophagus of moderate width;
proventriculus very large, ovate; stomach extremely large, roundish,
its muscular coat thin; the epithelium thick, soft, rugous; a small
pyloric sac; intestine of moderate length and width; cœca rather
long, slender; cloaca very large, globular. Bronchi with the rings
entire and ossified.


487. 1. Podiceps cristatus, Lath. Crested Grebe.

     Plate CCXCII. Male and Female.

Male with the bill about the length of the head, rather slender,
blackish-brown, tinged with carmine; feet greenish-black, tinged with
greyish-blue; tail of fourteen feathers; two tufts of elongated
feathers on the occiput, and a large frill on the sides and anterior
part of the neck; upper part of head and tufts greyish-black, tinged
with green, as is the hind part of the ruff, its anterior part being
brownish-red; sides of the head and throat white; fore neck white,
tinged with brown; breast silvery-white, sides reddish-brown, with
dusky streaks; upper parts brownish-black, the feathers edged with
lighter, the sides of the neck tinged with reddish, as is the rump;
wing-coverts greyish-brown; primary quills brownish-black, middle
secondaries, inner webs of their coverts, and outer webs of outer
scapulars, white. Female with the occipital feathers a little
elongated, but without the ruff; bill dusky green, upper part of head
and hind neck blackish-grey; back and wings as in the male, but more
tinged with grey; lower parts silvery-white, the sides dusky.

_Male_, 24, 33.

Not uncommon during autumn and early spring on all the larger streams
of the Western Country, as well as on the coast of the Atlantic, from
Nova Scotia to Texas. Breeds in the mountainous parts of the Fur
Countries, Rocky Mountains, and high latitudes. Migratory.

    Podiceps cristatus, Bonap. Syn. p. 417.

    Podiceps cristatus, Crested Grebe, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor.
        Amer. v. ii. p. 410.

    Crested Grebe or Gannet, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 250.

    Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        598.


488. 2. Podiceps rubricollis, Lath. Red-necked Grebe.

     Plate CCXCVIII. Adult Male, and Young in winter.

Male with the bill about the length of the head, rather slender,
brownish-black, yellow at the base; tarsi and toes greenish-black
externally, yellow on the inner side; two tufts of elongated feathers
behind the eye; feathers on the hind part of the cheeks also
elongated; upper part of head greyish-black, lower part ash-grey, with
a white line from the base of the lower mandible to beyond the eye;
hind part of neck, and upper parts generally, greyish-black, the
feathers edged with paler; edges of wings and outer secondaries white;
fore part and sides of neck rich brownish-red; breast and sides
silvery-white, faintly marked with grey. Young, in winter, with the
bill bright yellow, its ridge dusky; feet as in the adult; upper part
of head blackish-grey; hind neck and upper parts of the same colour,
darker towards the end; edge of wing and outer secondaries
greyish-white, the latter grey towards the end; lower parts
greyish-white.

_Male_, 18-3/4, 32.

During winter, not uncommon from New York to Maine. Breeds in the Fur
Countries. Accidental in the interior.

    Podiceps rubricollis, Bonap. Syn. p. 417.

    Podiceps rubricollis, Red-necked Grebe, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 411.

    Red-necked Grebe, Nutt. Man. v. ii. p. 253.

    Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps rubricollis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 617; v. v. p. 620.


489. 3. Podiceps cornutus, Linn. Horned Grebe.

     Plate CCLIX. Male and Female.

Male with the bill shorter than the head, rather slender,
bluish-black, its tip yellow; feet dusky externally, dull yellow
internally; a tuft of feathers on each side behind the eyes, a larger
tuft on each side of the upper part of the neck; forehead
greyish-brown; upper part of head bluish-black, as are the sides, fore
neck anteriorly, and the ruff-feathers; a broad band over the eyes,
and the elongated tufts behind them yellowish-brown; fore neck
brownish-red; lower parts white, the sides reddish-brown, abdomen dull
grey; upper parts brownish-black, the feathers edged with greyish, the
middle secondary quills white. Young, in winter, with the feathers of
the hind head a little elongated, but no tufts or ruff; bill
bluish-grey, as are the feet; upper part of head and hind neck
greyish-black, as are the upper parts in general, the feathers of the
back edged with light grey; throat, sides of head, a broad patch on
each side of the neck, nearly meeting behind, the fore neck and lower
parts, white; sides and downy feathers of the abdomen brownish-grey;
some of the secondaries white, as in the adult.

_Male_, 14-3/4, 25-1/2.

Very common during autumn on the Ohio, Missouri, Mississippi, and all
their tributaries, as well as in all the Atlantic Districts, to Texas.
Breeds from the Great Lakes to the Fur Countries. Migratory.

    Podiceps cornutus, Bonap. Syn. p. 417.

    Podiceps cornutus, Horned Grebe, Swains. & Rich. F. Bor. Amer.
        v. ii. p. 411.

    Horned Grebe or Dobchick, Nutt. Man. v. ii. 254.

    Horned Grebe, Podiceps cornutus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. iii. p.
        429; v. v. p. 423.


490. 4. Podiceps auritus, Lath. Eared Grebe.

     Plate CCCCIV. Adult and Young.

Male with the bill considerably shorter than the head, rather stout,
bluish-black; feet dusky grey externally, greenish-grey on the inner
side; a tuft of very long loose feathers on each side of the head,
behind the eye and covering the ears, orange; head and neck all round
deep black; upper parts brownish-black, the wings greyish-brown, with
a broad patch of white, the secondary quills being of that colour;
lower parts silvery-white, except the sides of the body and rump,
which are light red. Young, in autumn, with the tufts not developed;
the upper part brownish-black, the neck tinged with grey behind, the
secondary quills white; throat, and a broad band curving behind the
ear so as almost to meet the other on the nape, greyish-white; neck
light brownish-grey in front; lower parts of the body and rump dusky
grey.

_Adult_ 13, wing 5-8/12.

Very rare, and not found by me in America.

    Eared Dobchick or Grebe, Podiceps auritus, Nutt. Man. v. ii.
        p. 256.

    Eared Grebe, Podiceps auritus, Aud. Orn. Biog. v. v. p. 108.


491. 5. Podiceps Carolinensis, Lath. Pied-billed Dobchick.

     Plate CCXLVIII. Male and Female.

Male with the bill shorter than the head, stout, deep, compressed,
pale blue, the upper mandible dusky along the ridge, the lower with a
black band beyond the middle; feet greyish-black; feathers on the
forehead with stiff enlarged shafts, as in the Rails; upper part of
the head and the throat black; neck and sides of the head light
greyish-brown; stiff edges of the feathers on the lower parts of the
neck greyish-yellow; back brownish-black, as are the inner
secondaries; outer secondaries light brown, with a reddish-white spot
on the end of the inner web; primaries light brown, dusky at the end;
breast silvery-white, abdomen brownish-grey, the sides mottled with
greyish-brown. Female without the black band on the bill, or the black
patch on the throat, but otherwise nearly similar. Young of both sexes
like the female.

_Male_, 14, 23.

Extremely common in autumn on all our Western streams, as well as
those of the Atlantic Districts. In winter in the Southern States, as
far as Texas. Breeds on the Wabash, and other streams of the interior,
to Maine. Migratory.

    Podiceps carolinensis, Bonap. Syn. p. 418.

    Podiceps carolinensis, Pied-bill Grebe, Swains. & Rich. F.
        Bor. Amer. v. ii. p. 412.

    Pied-bill Dobchick, Podiceps carolinensis, Nutt. Man. v. ii.
        p. 259.

    Pied-bill Dobchick, Podiceps carolinensis, Aud. Orn. Biog. v.
        iii. p. 359; v. v. p. 624.


PRINTED BY NEILL AND CO., OLD FISHMARKET, EDINBURGH.



      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Although most taxonomic terms were accepted as printed, a number of
species names were changed where two spellings were presented and one
was not found through an internet search (e.g., p. 29: Virginana and
Virginiana [not found]).

Page Change Made
==== =========================
 xii "XLV. COLUMBINÆ. DIVERS..."     => "XLV. COLYMBINÆ. DIVERS..."
  48 "71. 1. mitratus, Lath..."      => "71. 1. Myiodioctes mitratus, Lath..."
 163 "244. Icteria viridis, Gmel."   => "244. 1. Icteria viridis, Gmel."
 214 "310. Ortygometra Jamaicensis"  => "310. 3. Ortygometra Jamaicensis"
 220 "tip narrowed, broader than..." => "...tip narrowed, (broader than..."
 264 "_Female_, 12, wing 4-3/4."     => "_Female_, 12, wing 14-3/4."





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