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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 17, Slice 4 - "Magnetite" to "Malt"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE MAGNETOMETER: "... the determination of the magnetic
      elements on board ship is a matter of very considerable
      importance." 'determination' amended from 'determinaton'.

    ARTICLE MAGNETO-OPTICS: "The relation of the magnetic rotation to
      chemical constitution has been studied in great detail by Perkin,
      Wachsmuth, Jahn and Schönrock." 'constitution' amended from
      'consitution'.

    ARTICLE MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV: "... ('Magnus's green salt' is
      PtCl2, 2NH3), of sulphovinic ..." 'PtCl2' amended from 'Ptll2'.

    ARTICLE MAHOMET: "With this change we may perhaps couple the
      adoption of the name Allah for the Deity ..." 'Deity' amended from
      'Diety'.

    ARTICLE MAHOMMEDAN LAW: "It was rather the Moslem leaders who were
      compelled to abandon their ideas and for the sake of the spread of
      Islam to accept and incorporate much that was diametrically opposed
      to the original legislation either of the Koran or of Mahomet's
      recorded decisions." 'decisions' amended from 'decisons'.

    ARTICLE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO: "In 1611 the headquarters of the Dutch
      was changed from Bantam to Jakarta, which in 1619 was renamed
      Batavia, and was thenceforward the Dutch capital." 'Jakarta'
      amended from 'Jakatra'.

    ARTICLE MALAYS: "When the first Europeans visited the Malay
      Archipelago the Malays had already acquired the art of
      manufacturing gunpowder and forging cannon." 'cannon' amended from
      'canon'.

    ARTICLE MALAY STATES: "The country is mountainous except close to
      the coast. The principal rivers are the Patani and the Teloban,
      long, winding and shallow, and navigable for small boats only."
      'the' amended from 'tle'.

    ARTICLE MALOCELLO, LANCILOTO: "This was a Genoese expedition, which
      about 1270 seems to have sailed into the Atlantic, re-discovered
      the 'Fortunate Islands' or Canaries" 'Atlantic' amended from
      'Alantic'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XVII, SLICE IV

              Magnetite to Malt



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  MAGNETITE                         MAJOR, JOHN
  MAGNETOGRAPH                      MAJOR
  MAGNETOMETER                      MAJORCA
  MAGNETO-OPTICS                    MAJORIAN
  MAGNOLIA                          MAJORITY
  MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV           MAJUBA
  MAGNY, CLAUDE DRIGON              MAKALAKA
  MAGO                              MAKARAKA
  MAGPIE                            MAKART, HANS
  MAGWE                             MAKING-UP PRICE
  MAGYARS                           MAKÓ
  MAHABALESHWAR                     MAKRAN
  MAHAFFY, JOHN PENTLAND            MAKSOORA
  MAHALLAT                          MALABAR
  MAHAN, ALFRED THAYER              MALABARI, BEHRAMJI
  MAHANADI                          MALABON
  MAHANOY CITY                      MALACCA
  MAHAR                             MALACHI
  MAHARAJPUR                        MALACHITE
  MAHAVAMSA                         MALACHOWSKI, STANISLAW
  MAHAYANA                          MALACHY, ST
  MAHDI                             MALACOSTRACA
  MAHDIA                            MALAGA (province of Spain)
  MAHÉ                              MALAGA (city of Spain)
  MAHESHWAR                         MALAKAND PASS
  MAHI                              MALALAS, JOHN
  MAHI KANTHA                       MALAN, SOLOMON CAESAR
  MAHMUD I.                         MÄLAR
  MAHMUD II.                        MALARIA
  MAHMUD NEDIM PASHA                MALATIA
  MAHMUD OF GHAZNI                  MALAYALAM
  MAHOBA                            MALAY ARCHIPELAGO
  MAHOGANY                          MALAIR
  MAHOMET                           MALAY PENINSULA
  MAHOMMED AHMED IBN ABDULLAH       MALAYS
  MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS           MALAY STATES (British)
  MAHOMMEDAN LAW                    MALAY STATES (Siamese)
  MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION               MALCHIN
  MAHONY, FRANCIS SYLVESTER         MALCOLM
  MAHOUT                            MALCOLM, SIR JOHN
  MAHRATTAS                         MALDA
  MAHSEER                           MALDEN
  MAI, ANGELO                       MALDIVE ISLANDS
  MAIA                              MALDON
  MAIDA                             MALEBRANCHE, NICOLAS
  MAIDAN                            MALER KOTLA
  MAIDEN                            MALESHERBES, CHRÉTIEN DE LAMOIGNON DE
  MAIDENHAIR                        MALET, LUCAS
  MAIDENHEAD                        MALHERBE, FRANÇOIS DE
  MAID MARIAN                       MALIBRAN, MARIE FÉLICITÉ
  MAIDSTONE                         MALIC ACID
  MAIHAR                            MALIGNANT
  MAIL                              MALIK IBN ANAS
  MAILLY, LOUISE JULIE              MALINES
  MAIMANA                           MALLANWAN
  MAIMAND                           MALLARMÉ, FRANÇOIS RENÉ AUGUSTE
  MAIMBOURG, LOUIS                  MALLARMÉ, STÉPHANE
  MAIMING                           MALLECO
  MAIMON, SALOMON                   MALLEMUCK
  MAIMONIDES                        MALLESON, GEORGE BRUCE
  MAIN (river of Germany)           MALLET, DAVID
  MAIN (power or strength)          MALLET, PAUL HENRI
  MAINA and MAINOTES                MALLET, ROBERT
  MAINE, ANNE LOUISE DE BOURBON     MALLET DU PAN, JACQUES
  MAINE, SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER     MALLING, EAST and WEST
  MAINE (French province)           MALLOCK, WILLIAM HURRELL
  MAINE (U.S. state)                MALLOW (town of Ireland)
  MAINE DE BIRAN, FRANÇOIS-GONTHIER MALLOW (botanical genus)
  MAINE-ET-LOIRE                    MALMEDY
  MAINPURI                          MALMESBURY, JAMES HARRIS
  MAINTENANCE                       MALMESBURY, JAMES HOWARD HARRIS
  MAINTENON, FRANÇOISE D'AUBIGNÉ    MALMESBURY
  MAINZ                             MALMÖ
  MAIRET, JEAN DE                   MALMSEY
  MAISTRE, JOSEPH DE                MALOCELLO, LANCILOTO
  MAISTRE, XAVIER DE                MALOLOS
  MAITLAND, EDWARD                  MALONE, EDMOND
  MAITLAND, FREDERIC WILLIAM        MALONE
  MAITLAND, SIR RICHARD             MALONIC ACID
  MAITLAND, WILLIAM                 MALORY, SIR THOMAS
  MAITLAND, EAST and WEST           MALOT, HECTOR HENRI
  MAITREYA                          MALOU, JULES ÉDOUARD XAVIER
  MAIWAND                           MALOUET, PIERRE VICTOR
  MAIZE                             MALPIGHI, MARCELLO
  MAJESTY                           MALPLAQUET
  MAJLÁTH, JÁNOS                    MALSTATT-BURBACH
  MAJOLICA                          MALT



MAGNETITE, a mineral forming the natural magnet (see MAGNETISM), and
important also as an iron-ore. It is an iron-black, opaque mineral, with
metallic lustre; hardness about 6, sp. gr. 4.9 to 5.2. When scratched,
it yields a black streak. It is an oxide of iron having the formula
Fe3O4, corresponding with 72.4% of metal, whence its great value as an
ore. It may be regarded as a ferroso-ferric oxide, FeO·Fe2O3, or as iron
ferrate, Fe´´Fe2´´´O4. Titanium is often present, and occasionally the
mineral contains magnesium, nickel, &c. It is always strongly magnetic.
Magnetite crystallizes in the cubic system, usually in octahedra, less
commonly in rhombic dodecahedra, and not infrequently in twins of the
"spinel type" (fig. 1). The rhombic faces of the dodecahedron are often
striated parallel to the longer diagonal. There is no distinct cleavage,
but imperfect parting may be obtained along octahedral planes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Magnetite is a mineral of wide distribution, occurring as grains in many
massive and volcanic rocks, like granite, diorite and dolerite. It
appears to have crystallized from the magma at a very early period of
consolidation. Its presence contributes to the dark colour of many
basalts and other basic rocks, and may cause them to disturb the
compass. Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as
beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in
various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the
states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in
Canada. In some cases it appears to have segregated from a basic
eruptive magma, and in other cases to have resulted from metamorphic
action. Certain deposits appear to have been formed, directly or
indirectly, by wet processes. Iron rust sometimes contains magnetite. An
interesting deposit of oolitic magnetic ore occurs in the Dogger
(Inferior Oolite) of Rosedale Abbey, in Yorkshire; and a somewhat
similar pisolitic ore, of Jurassic age, is known on the continent as
chamoisite, having been named from Chamoison (or Chamoson) in the
Valais, Switzerland. Grains of magnetite occur in serpentine, as an
alteration-product of the olivine. In emery, magnetite in a granular
form is largely associated with the corundum; and in certain kinds of
mica magnetite occurs as thin dendritic enclosures. Haematite is
sometimes magnetic, and A. Liversidge has shown that magnetite is
probably present. By deoxidation, haematite may be converted into
magnetite, as proved by certain pseudomorphs; but on the other hand
magnetite is sometimes altered to haematite. On weathering, magnetite
commonly passes into limonite, the ferrous oxide having probably been
removed by carbonated waters. Closely related to magnetite is the rare
volcanic mineral from Vesuvius, called magnoferrite, or magnesioferrite,
with the formula MgFe2O4; and with this may be mentioned a mineral from
Jakobsberg, in Vermland, Sweden, called jakobsite, containing MnFe2O4.
     (F. W. R.*)



MAGNETOGRAPH, an instrument for continuously recording the values of the
magnetic elements, the three universally chosen being the declination,
the horizontal component and the vertical component (see TERRESTRIAL
MAGNETISM). In each case the magnetograph only records the variation of
the element, the absolute values being determined by making observations
in the neighbourhood with the unifilar magnetometer (q.v.) and
inclinometer (q.v.).

  _Declination._--The changes in declination are obtained by means of a
  magnet which is suspended by a long fibre and carries a mirror,
  immediately below which a fixed mirror is attached to the base of the
  instrument. Both mirrors are usually concave; if plane, a concave lens
  is placed immediately before them. Light passing through a vertical
  slit falls upon the mirrors, from which it is reflected, and two
  images of the slit are produced, one by the movable mirror attached to
  the magnet and the other by the fixed mirror. These images would be
  short lines of light; but a piano-cylindrical lens is placed with its
  axis horizontal just in front of the recording surface. In this way a
  spot of light is obtained from each mirror. The recording surface is a
  sheet of photographic paper wrapped round a drum which is rotated at a
  constant speed by clockwork about a horizontal axis. The light
  reflected from the fixed mirror traces a straight line on the paper,
  serving as a base line from which the variations in declination are
  measured. As the declination changes the spot of light reflected from
  the magnet mirror moves parallel to the axis of the recording drum,
  and hence the distance between the line traced by this spot and the
  base line gives, for any instant, on an arbitrary scale the difference
  between the declination and a constant angle, namely, the declination
  corresponding to the base line. The value of this constant angle is
  obtained by comparing the record with the value for the declination as
  measured with a magnetometer. The value in terms of arc of the scale
  of the record can be obtained by measuring the distance between the
  magnet mirror and the recording drum, and in most observations it is
  such that a millimetre on the record represents one minute of arc. The
  time scale ordinarily employed is 15 mm. per hour, but in modern
  instruments provision is generally made for the time scale to be
  increased at will to 180 mm. per hour, so that the more rapid
  variations of the declination can be followed. The advantages of using
  small magnets, so that their moment of inertia may be small and hence
  they may be able to respond to rapid changes in the earth's field,
  were first insisted upon by E. Mascart,[1] while M. Eschenhagen[2]
  first designed a set of magnetographs in which this idea of small
  moment of inertia was carried to its useful limit, the magnets only
  weighing 1.5 gram each, and the suspension consisting of a very fine
  quartz fibre.

  _Horizontal Force._--The variation of the horizontal force is obtained
  by the motion of a magnet which is carried either by a bifilar
  suspension or by a fairly stiff metal wire or quartz fibre. The upper
  end of the suspension is turned till the axis of the magnet is at
  right angles to the magnetic meridian. In this position the magnet is
  in equilibrium under the action of the torsion of the suspension and
  the couple exerted by the horizontal component, H, of the earth's
  field, this couple depending on the product of H into the magnetic
  moment, M, of the magnet. Hence if H varies the magnet will rotate in
  such a way that the couple due to torsion is equal to the new value of
  H multiplied by M. Since the movements of the magnet are always small,
  the rotation of the magnet is proportional to the change in H, so long
  as M and the couple, [theta], corresponding to unit twist of the
  suspension system remain constant. When the temperature changes,
  however, both M and [theta] in general change. With rise of
  temperature M decreases, and this alone will produce the same effect
  as would a decrease in H. To allow for this effect of temperature a
  compensating system of metal bars is attached to the upper end of the
  bifilar suspension, so arranged that with rise of temperature the
  fibres are brought nearer together and hence the value of [theta]
  decreases. Since such a decrease in [theta] would by itself cause the
  magnet to turn in the same direction as if H had increased, it is
  possible in a great measure to neutralize the effects of temperature
  on the reading of the instrument. In the case of the unifilar
  suspension, the provision of a temperature compensation is not so
  easy, so that what is generally done is to protect the instrument from
  temperature variation as much as possible and then to correct the
  indications so as to allow for the residual changes, a continuous
  record of the temperature being kept by a recording thermograph
  attached to the instrument. In the Eschenhagen pattern instrument, in
  which a single quartz fibre is used for the suspension, two magnets
  are placed in the vicinity of the suspended magnet and are so arranged
  that their field partly neutralizes the earth's field; thus the
  torsion required to hold the magnet with its axis perpendicular to the
  earth's field is reduced, and the arrangement permits of the
  sensitiveness being altered by changing the position of the deflecting
  magnets. Further, by suitably choosing the positions of the deflectors
  and the coefficient of torsion of the fibre, it is possible to make
  the temperature coefficient vanish. (See Adolf Schmidt, _Zeits. für
  Instrumentenkunde_, 1907, 27, 145.) The method of recording the
  variations in H is exactly the same as that adopted in the case of the
  declination, and the sensitiveness generally adopted is such that 1
  mm. on the record represents a change in H of .00005 C.G.S., the time
  scale being the same as that employed in the case of the declination.

  _Vertical Component._--To record the variations of the vertical
  component use is made of a magnet mounted on knife edges so that it
  can turn freely about a horizontal axis at right angles to its length
  (H. Lloyd, _Proc. Roy. Irish Acad._, 1839, 1, 334). The magnet is so
  weighted that its axis is approximately horizontal, and any change in
  the inclination of the axis is observed by means of an attached
  mirror, a second mirror fixed to the stand serving to give a base line
  for the records, which are obtained in the same way as in the case of
  the declination. The magnet is in equilibrium under the influence of
  the couple VM due to the vertical component V, and the couple due to
  the fact that the centre of gravity is slightly on one side of the
  knife-edge. Hence when, say, V decreases the couple VM decreases, and
  hence the north end of the balanced magnet rises, and vice versa. The
  chief difficulty with this form of instrument is that it is very
  sensitive to changes of temperature, for such changes not only alter M
  but also in general cause the centre of gravity of the system to be
  displaced with reference to the knife-edge. To reduce these effects
  the magnet is fitted with compensating bars, generally of zinc, so
  adjusted by trial that as far as possible they neutralize the effect
  of changes of temperature. In the Eschenhagen form of vertical force
  balance two deflecting magnets are used to partly neutralize the
  vertical component, so that the centre of gravity is almost exactly
  over the support. By varying the positions of these deflecting magnets
  it is possible to compensate for the effects of changes of temperature
  (A. Schmidt, loc. cit.). In order to eliminate the irregularity which
  is apt to be introduced by dust, &c., interfering with the working of
  the knife-edge, W. Watson (_Phil. Mag._, 1904 [6], 7, 393) designed a
  form of vertical force balance in which the magnet with its mirror is
  attached to the mid point of a horizontal stretched quartz fibre. The
  temperature compensation is obtained by attaching a small weight to
  the magnet, and then bringing it back to the horizontal position by
  twisting the fibre.

  The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical
  force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective
  needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by
  passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter
  surrounding the instruments.

  The width of the photographic sheet which receives the spot of light
  reflected from the mirrors in the above instruments is generally so
  great that in the case of ordinary changes the curve does not go off
  the paper. Occasionally, however, during a disturbance such is not the
  case, and hence a portion of the trace would be lost. To overcome this
  difficulty Eschenhagen in his earlier type of instruments attached to
  each magnet two mirrors, their planes being inclined at a small angle
  so that when the spot reflected from one mirror goes off the paper,
  that corresponding to the other comes on. In the later pattern a third
  mirror is added of which the plane is inclined at about 30° to the
  horizontal. The light from the slit is reflected on to this mirror by
  an inclined fixed mirror, and after reflection at the movable mirror
  is again reflected at the fixed mirror and so reaches the recording
  drum. By this arrangement the angular rotation of the reflected beam
  is less than that of the magnet, and hence the spot of light reflected
  from this mirror yields a trace on a much smaller scale than that
  given by the ordinary mirror and serves to give a complete record of
  even the most energetic disturbance.

  See also Balfour Stewart, _Report of the British Association_,
  Aberdeen, 1859, 200, a description of the type of instrument used in
  the older observatories; E. Mascart, _Traité de magnétisme terrestre_,
  p. 191; W. Watson, _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1901, 6, 187, describing
  magnetographs used in India; M. Eschenhagen, _Verhandlungen der
  deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft_, 1899, 1, 147; _Terrestrial
  Magnetism_, 1900, 5, 59; and 1901, 6, 59; _Zeits. für
  Instrumentenkunde_, 1907, 27, 137; W. G. Cady, _Terrestrial
  Magnetism_, 1904, 9, 69, describing a declination magnetograph in
  which the record is obtained by means of a pen acting on a moving
  strip of paper, so that the curve can be consulted at all times to see
  whether a disturbance is in progress.

  The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the
  horizontal and vertical force magnetographs, it is usual to place the
  instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means
  of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible
  from temperature changes. For descriptions of the arrangements adopted
  in some observatories see the following: U.S. observatories,
  _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1903, 8, 11; Utrecht, _Terrestrial
  Magnetism_, 1900, 5, 49; St Maur, _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1898, 3, 1;
  Potsdam, _Veröffentlichungen des k. preuss. meteorol. Instituts_,
  "Ergebnisse der magnetischen Beobachtungen in Potsdam in den Jahren
  1890 und 1891;" Pavlovsk, "Das Konstantinow'sche meteorologische und
  magnetische Observatorium in Pavlovsk," _Ausgabe der kaiserl. Akad.
  der Wissenschaften zu St Petersburg_, 1895.     (W. Wn.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Report British Association_, Bristol, 1898, p. 741.

  [2] _Verhandlungen der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft_, 1899,
    1, 147; or _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1900, 5, 59.



MAGNETOMETER, a name, in its most general sense, for any instrument used
to measure the strength of any magnetic field; it is, however, often
used in the restricted sense of an instrument for measuring a particular
magnetic field, namely, that due to the earth's magnetism, and in this
article the instruments used for measuring the value of the earth's
magnetic field will alone be considered.

The elements which are actually measured when determining the value of
the earth's field are usually the declination, the dip and the
horizontal component (see MAGNETISM, TERRESTRIAL). For the instruments
and methods used in measuring the dip see INCLINOMETER. It remains to
consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal
component, these two elements being generally measured with the same
instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to indicate
declination.]

  _Measurement of Declination._--The measurement of the declination
  involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a)
  the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle
  between the two being the declination. In order to determine the
  magnetic meridian the orientation of the magnetic axis of a freely
  suspended magnet is observed; while, in the absence of a distant mark
  of which the azimuth is known, the geographical meridian is obtained
  from observations of the transit of the sun or a star. The geometrical
  axis of the magnet is sometimes defined by means of a mirror rigidly
  attached to the magnet and having the normal to the mirror as nearly
  as may be parallel to the magnetic axis. This arrangement is not very
  convenient, as it is difficult to protect the mirror from accidental
  displacement, so that the angle between the geometrical and magnetic
  axes may vary. For this reason the end of the magnet is sometimes
  polished and acts as the mirror, in which case no displacement of the
  reflecting surface with reference to the magnet is possible. A
  different arrangement, used in the instrument described below,
  consists in having the magnet hollow, with a small scale engraved on
  glass firmly attached at one end, while to the other end is attached a
  lens, so chosen that the scale is at its principal focus. In this case
  the geometrical axis is the line joining the central division of the
  scale to the optical centre of the lens. The position of the magnet is
  observed by means of a small telescope, and since the scale is at the
  principal focus of the lens, the scale will be in focus when the
  telescope is adjusted to observe a distant object. Thus no alteration
  in the focus of the telescope is necessary whether we are observing
  the magnet, a distant fixed mark, or the sun.

  The Kew Observatory pattern unifilar magnetometer is shown in figs. 1
  and 2. The magnet consists of a hollow steel cylinder fitted with a
  scale and lens as described above, and is suspended by a long thread
  of unspun silk, which is attached at the upper end to the torsion head
  H. The magnet is protected from draughts by the box A, which is closed
  at the sides by two shutters when an observation is being taken. The
  telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when
  determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when
  determining the geographical meridian.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to show
  deflexion.]

  When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the
  same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the
  torsion of the fibre is taken out. The magnet having been attached,
  the instrument is rotated about its vertical axis till the centre
  division of the scale appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire
  of the telescope. The two verniers on the azimuth circle having been
  read, the magnet is then inverted, i.e. turned through 180° about its
  axis, and the setting is repeated. A second setting with the magnet
  inverted is generally made, and then another setting with the magnet
  in its original position. The mean of all the readings of the verniers
  gives the reading on the azimuth circle corresponding to the magnetic
  meridian. To obtain the geographical meridian the box A is removed,
  and an image of the sun or a star is reflected into the telescope B by
  means of a small transit mirror N. This mirror can rotate about a
  horizontal axis which is at right angles to the line of collimation of
  the telescope, and is parallel to the surface of the mirror. The time
  of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the
  telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the
  error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or
  star, if the latitude and longitude of the place of observation are
  given. Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are
  made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading
  corresponding to the geographical meridian.

  The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the
  serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the
  chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some
  difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
  If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate
  about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so
  that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be
  read off, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so.
  Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away
  with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a
  separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object,
  which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination
  observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope
  and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.

  The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a
  fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk
  suspension, as it is found that, although the fibre may be entirely
  freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet
  at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of
  torsion may have appeared. Soaking the fibre with glycerine, so that
  the moisture it absorbs does not change so much with the hygrometric
  state of the air, is of some advantage, but does not entirely remove
  the difficulty. For this reason some observers use a thin strip of
  phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of
  a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty
  in handling the more fragile metallic suspension.

  _Measurement of the Horizontal Component of the Earth's Field._--The
  method of measuring the horizontal component which is almost
  exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field,
  consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and
  then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet
  is deflected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment.
  By the vibration experiment we obtain the value of the product of the
  magnetic moment (M) of the magnet into the horizontal component (H),
  while by the deflexion experiment we can deduce the value of the ratio
  of M to H, and hence the two combined give both M and H.

  In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used
  for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the
  purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the
  observation of the magnetic meridian. The time of vibration is
  obtained by means of a chronometer, using the eye-and-ear method. The
  temperature of the magnet must also be observed, for which purpose a
  thermometer C (fig. 1) is attached to the box A.

  When making the deflection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as
  shown in fig. 2. The auxiliary magnet has a plane mirror attached, the
  plane of which is at right angles to the axis of the magnet. An image
  of the ivory scale B is observed after reflection in the magnet mirror
  by the telescope A. The magnet K used in the vibration experiment is
  supported on a carriage L which can slide along the graduated bar D.
  The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the
  mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears
  to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of
  the two magnets are at right angles. During the experiment the mirror
  magnet is protected from draughts by two wooden doors which slide in
  grooves. What is known as the method of sines is used, for since the
  axes of the two magnets are always at right angles when the mirror
  magnet is in its zero position, the ratio M/H is proportional to the
  sine of the angle between the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet and
  the magnetic meridian. When conducting a deflexion experiment the
  deflecting magnet K is placed with its centre at 30 cm. from the
  mirror magnet and to the east of the latter, and the whole instrument
  is turned till the centre division of the scale B coincides with the
  cross-wire of the telescope, when the readings of the verniers on the
  azimuth circle are noted. The magnet K is then reversed in the
  support, and a new setting taken. The difference between the two sets
  of readings gives twice the angle which the magnetic axis of the
  mirror magnet makes with the magnetic meridian. In order to eliminate
  any error due to the zero of the scale D not being exactly below the
  mirror magnet, the support L is then removed to the west side of the
  instrument, and the settings are repeated. Further, to allow of a
  correction being applied for the finite length of the magnets the
  whole series of settings is repeated with the centre of the deflecting
  magnet at 40 cm. from the mirror magnet.

  Omitting correction terms depending on the temperature and on the
  inductive effect of the earth's magnetism on the moment of the
  deflecting magnet, if [theta] is the angle which the axis of the
  deflected magnet makes with the meridian when the centre of the
  deflecting magnet is at a distance r, then

    r³H                    P     Q
    --- sin [theta] = 1 + --- + --- + &c.,
    2M                     r     r²

  in which P and Q are constants depending on the dimensions and
  magnetic states of the two magnets. The value of the constants P and Q
  can be obtained by making deflexion experiments at three distances. It
  is, however, possible by suitably choosing the proportions of the two
  magnets to cause either P or Q to be very small. Thus it is usual, if
  the magnets are of similar shape, to make the deflected magnet 0.467
  of the length of the deflecting magnet, in which case Q is negligible,
  and thus by means of deflexion experiments at two distances the value
  of P can be obtained. (See C. Börgen, _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1896,
  i. p. 176, and C. Chree, _Phil. Mag._, 1904 [6], 7, p. 113.)

  In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be
  introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the
  inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the
  magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension
  fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer. If the temperature of
  the magnet were always exactly the same in both the vibration and
  deflexion experiment, then no correction on account of the effect of
  temperature in the magnetic moment would be necessary in either
  experiment. The fact that the moment of inertia of the magnet varies
  with the temperature must, however, be taken into account. In the
  deflexion experiment, in addition to the induction correction, and
  that for the effect of temperature on the magnetic moment, a
  correction has to be applied for the effect of temperature on the
  length of the bar which supports the deflexion magnet.

  See also Stewart and Gee, _Practical Physics_, vol. 2, containing a
  description of the Kew pattern unifilar magnetometer and detailed
  instructions for performing the experiments; C. Chree, _Phil. Mag._,
  1901 (6), 2, p. 613, and _Proc. Roy. Soc._, 1899, 65, p. 375,
  containing a discussion of the errors to which the Kew unifilar
  instrument is subject; E. Mascart, _Traité de magnétisme terrestre_,
  containing a description of the instruments used in the French
  magnetic survey, which are interesting on account of their small size
  and consequent easy portability; H. E. D. Fraser, _Terrestrial
  Magnetism_, 1901, 6, p. 65, containing a description of a modified Kew
  pattern unifilar as used in the Indian survey; H. Wild, _Mém. Acad.
  imp. sc. St Pétersbourg_, 1896 (viii.), vol. 3, No. 7, containing a
  description of a most elaborate unifilar magnetometer with which it is
  claimed results can be obtained of a very high order of accuracy; K.
  Haufsmann, _Zeits. für Instrumentenkunde_, 1906, 26, p. 2, containing
  a description of a magnetometer for field use, designed by M.
  Eschenhagen, which has many advantages.

_Measurements of the Magnetic Elements at Sea._--Owing to the fact that
the proportion of the earth's surface covered by sea is so much greater
than the dry land, the determination of the magnetic elements on board
ship is a matter of very considerable importance. The movements of a
ship entirely preclude the employment of any instrument in which a
magnet suspended by a fibre has any part, so that the unifilar is
unsuited for such observations. In order to obtain the declination a
pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical
meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars. A carefully
made ship's compass is usually employed, though in some cases the
compass card, with its attached magnets, is made reversible, so that the
inclination to the zero of the card of the magnetic axis of the system
of magnets attached to the card can be eliminated by reversal. In the
absence of such a reversible card the index correction must be
determined by comparison with a unifilar magnetometer, simultaneous
observations being made on shore, and these observations repeated as
often as occasion permits. To determine the dip a Fox's dip circle[1] is
used. This consists of an ordinary dip circle (see INCLINOMETER) in
which the ends of the axle of the needle are pointed and rest in
jewelled holes, so that the movements of the ship do not displace the
needle. The instrument is, of course, supported on a gimballed table,
while the ship during the observations is kept on a fixed course. To
obtain the _strength_ of the field the method usually adopted is that
known as Lloyd's method.[2] To carry out a determination of the total
force by this method the Fox dip circle has been slightly modified by E.
W. Creak, and has been found to give satisfactory results on board ship.
The circle is provided with two needles in addition to those used for
determining the dip, one (a) an ordinary dip needle, and the other (b) a
needle which has been loaded at one end by means of a small peg which
fits into one of two symmetrically placed holes in the needle. The
magnetism of these two needles is never reversed, and they are as much
as possible protected from shock and from approach to other magnets, so
that their magnetic state may remain as constant as possible. Attached
to the cross-arm which carries the microscopes used to observe the ends
of the dipping needle is a clamp, which will hold the needle _b_ in such
a way that its plane is parallel to the vertical circle and its axis is
at right angles to the line joining the two microscopes. Hence, when the
microscopes are adjusted so as to coincide with the points of the
dipping needle _a_, the axes of the two needles must be at right angles.
The needle _a_ being suspended between the jewels, and the needle _b_
being held in the clamp, the cross-arm carrying the reading microscopes
and the needle _b_ is rotated till the ends of the needle a coincide
with the cross-wires of the microscopes. The verniers having been read,
the cross-arm is rotated so as to deflect the needle _a_ in the opposite
direction, and a new setting is taken. Half the difference between the
two readings gives the angle through which the needle a has been
deflected under the action of the needle _b_. This angle depends on the
ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle _b_ to the total force of the
earth's field. It also involves, of course, the distance between the
needles and the distribution of the magnetism of the needles; but this
factor is determined by comparing the value given by the instrument, at
a shore station, with that given by an ordinary magnetometer. Hence the
above observation gives us a means of obtaining the _ratio_ of the
magnetic moment of the needle _b_ to the value of the earth's total
force. The needle _b_ is then substituted for _a_, there being now no
needle in the clamp attached to the microscope arm, and the difference
between the reading now obtained and the dip, together with the weight
added to the needle, gives the product of the moment of the needle _b_
into the earth's total force. Hence, from the two observations the value
of the earth's total force can be deduced. In an actual observation the
deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while
different weights would be used to deflect the needle _b_.

  For a description of the method of using the Fox circle for
  observations at sea consult the _Admiralty Manual of Scientific
  Inquiry_, p. 116, while a description of the most recent form of the
  circle, known as the Lloyd-Creak pattern, will be found in
  _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1901, 6, p. 119. An attachment to the
  ordinary ship's compass, by means of which satisfactory measurements
  of the horizontal component have been made on board ship, is described
  by L. A. Bauer in _Terrestrial Magnetism_, 1906, 11, p. 78. The
  principle of the method consists in deflecting the compass needle by
  means of a horizontal magnet supported vertically over the compass
  card, the axis of the deflecting magnet being always perpendicular to
  the axis of the magnet attached to the card. The method is not
  strictly an absolute one, since it presupposes a knowledge of the
  magnetic moment of the deflecting magnet. In practice it is found that
  a magnet can be prepared which, when suitably protected from shock,
  &c., retains its magnetic moment sufficiently constant to enable
  observations of H to be made comparable in accuracy with that of the
  other elements obtained by the instruments ordinarily employed at sea.
       (W. Wn.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Annals of Electricity_, 1839, 3, p. 288.

  [2] Humphrey Lloyd, _Proc. Roy. Irish Acad._, 1848, 4, p. 57.



MAGNETO-OPTICS. The first relation between magnetism and light was
discovered by Faraday,[1] who proved that the plane of polarization of a
ray of light was rotated when the ray travelled through certain
substances parallel to the lines of magnetic force. This power of
rotating the plane of polarization in a magnetic field has been shown to
be possessed by all refracting substances, whether they are in the
solid, liquid or gaseous state. The rotation by gases was established
independently by H. Becquerel,[2] and Kundt and Röntgen,[3] while
Kundt[4] found that films of the magnetic metals, iron, cobalt, nickel,
thin enough to be transparent, produced enormous rotations, these being
in iron and cobalt magnetized to saturation at the rate of 200,000° per
cm. of thickness, and in nickel about 89,000°. The direction of rotation
is not the same in all bodies. If we call the rotation positive when it
is related to the direction of the magnetic force, like rotation and
translation in a right-handed screw, or, what is equivalent, when it is
in the direction of the electric currents which would produce a magnetic
field in the same direction as that which produces the rotation, then
most substances produce positive rotation. Among those that produce
negative rotation are ferrous and ferric salts, ferricyanide of
potassium, the salts of lanthanum, cerium and didymium, and chloride of
titanium.[5]

  The magnetic metals iron, nickel, cobalt, the salts of nickel and
  cobalt, and oxygen (the most magnetic gas) produce positive rotation.

  For slightly magnetizable substances the amount of rotation in a space
  PQ is proportional to the difference between the magnetic potential at
  P and Q; or if [theta] is the rotation in PQ, [Omega]_P, [Omega]_Q,
  the magnetic potential at P and Q, then [theta] = R([Omega]_P -
  [Omega]_Q), where R is a constant, called Verdet's constant, which
  depends upon the refracting substance, the wave length of the light,
  and the temperature. The following are the values of R (when the
  rotation is expressed in circular measure) for the D line and a
  temperature of 18° C.:--

          Substance.         R × 10^5.            Observer.

    Carbon bisulphide        / 1.222     Lord Rayleigh[6] and Köpsel.[7]
                             \ 1.225     Rodger and Watson.[8]
    Water                    /  .377     Arons.[9]
                             \  .3808    Rodger and Watson.[8]
    Alcohol                     .330     Du Bois.[10]
    Ether                       .315     Du Bois.[10]
    Oxygen (at 1 atmosphere)    .000179  Kundt and Röntgen (_loc. cit._)
    Faraday's heavy glass      1.738

  The variation of Verdet's constant with temperature has been
  determined for carbon bisulphide and water by Rodger and Watson (_loc.
  cit._). They find if R_t, R0 are the values of Verdet's constant at
  t°C and 0°C. respectively, then for carbon bisulphide R_t = R0 (1 -
  .0016961), and for water R_t = R0 (1 - .0000305t - .00000305t²).

  For the magnetic metals Kundt found that the rotation did not increase
  so rapidly as the magnetic force, but that as this force was increased
  the rotation reached a maximum value. This suggests that the rotation
  is proportional to the intensity of magnetization, and not to the
  magnetic force.

  The amount of rotation in a given field depends greatly upon the wave
  length of the light; the shorter the wave length the greater the
  rotation, the rotation varying a little more rapidly than the inverse
  square of the wave length. Verdet[11] has compared in the cases of
  carbon bisulphide and creosote the rotation given by the formula

                           c²      /               di    \
    [theta] = mc[gamma] --------- ( c - [lamda] --------- )
                        [lambda]²  \            d[lambda]/

  with those actually observed; in this formula [theta] is the angular
  rotation of the plane of polarization, m a constant depending on the
  medium, [lambda] the wave length of the light in air, and i its index
  of refraction in the medium. Verdet found that, though the agreement
  is fair, the differences are greater than can be explained by errors
  of experiment.

Verdet[12] has shown that the rotation of a salt solution is the sum of
the rotations due to the salt and the solvent; thus, by mixing a salt
which produces negative rotation with water which produces positive
rotation, it is possible to get a solution which does not exhibit any
rotation. Such solutions are not in general magnetically neutral. By
mixing diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances we can get magnetically
neutral solutions, which, however, produce a finite rotation of the
plane of polarization. The relation of the magnetic rotation to chemical
constitution has been studied in great detail by Perkin,[13]
Wachsmuth,[14] Jahn[15] and Schönrock.[16]

The rotation of the plane of polarization may conveniently be regarded
as denoting that the velocity of propagation of circular-polarized light
travelling along the lines of magnetic force depends upon the direction
of rotation of the ray, the velocity when the rotation is related to the
direction of the magnetic force, like rotation and translation on a
right-handed screw being different from that for a left-handed rotation.
A plane-polarized ray may be regarded as compounded of two oppositely
circularly-polarized rays, and as these travel along the lines of
magnetic force with different velocities, the one will gain or lose in
phase on the other, so that when they are again compounded they will
correspond to a plane-polarized ray, but in consequence of the change of
phase the plane of polarization will not coincide with its original
position.

_Reflection from a Magnet._--Kerr[17] in 1877 found that when
plane-polarized light is incident on the pole of an electromagnet,
polished so as to act like a mirror, the plane of polarization of the
reflected light is rotated by the magnet. Further experiments on this
phenomenon have been made by Righi,[18] Kundt,[19] Du Bois,[20]
Sissingh,[21] Hall,[22] Hurion,[23] Kaz[24] and Zeeman.[25] The simplest
case is when the incident plane-polarized light falls normally on the
pole of an electromagnet. When the magnet is not excited the reflected
ray is plane-polarized; when the magnet is excited the plane of
polarization is rotated through a small angle, the direction of rotation
being opposite to that of the currents exciting the pole. Righi found
that the reflected light was slightly elliptically polarized, the axes
of the ellipse being of very unequal magnitude. A piece of gold-leaf
placed over the pole entirely stops the rotation, showing that it is not
produced in the air near the pole. Rotation takes place from magnetized
nickel and cobalt as well as from iron, and is in the same direction
(Hall). Righi has shown that the rotation at reflection is greater for
long waves than for short, whereas, as we have seen, the Faraday
rotation is greater for short waves than for long. The rotation for
different coloured light from iron, nickel, cobalt and magnetite has
been measured by Du Bois; in magnetite the direction of rotation is
opposite to that of the other metals. When the light is incident
obliquely and not normally on the polished pole of an electromagnet, it
is elliptically polarized after reflection, even when the plane of
polarization is parallel or at right angles to the plane of incidence.
According to Righi, the amount of rotation when the plane of
polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the plane of
incidence reaches a maximum when the angle of incidence is between 44°
and 68°, while when the light is polarized in the plane of incidence the
rotation steadily decreases as the angle of incidence is increased. The
rotation when the light is polarized in the plane of incidence is always
less than when it is polarized at right angles to that plane, except
when the incidence is normal, when the two rotations are of course
equal.

_Reflection from Tangentially Magnetized Iron._--In this case Kerr[26]
found: (1) When the plane of incidence is perpendicular to the lines of
magnetic force, no rotation of the reflected light is produced by
magnetization; (2) no rotation is produced when the light is incident
normally; (3) when the incidence is oblique, the lines of magnetic force
being in the plane of incidence, the reflected light is elliptically
polarized after reflection, and the axes of the ellipse are not in and
at right angles to the plane of incidence. When the light is polarized
in the plane of incidence, the rotation is at all angles of incidence in
the opposite direction to that of the currents which would produce a
magnetic field of the same sign as the magnet. When the light is
polarized at right angles to the plane of incidence, the rotation is in
the same direction as these currents when the angle of incidence is
between 0° and 75° according to Kerr, between 0° and 80° according to
Kundt, and between 0° and 78° 54´ according to Righi. When the incidence
is more oblique than this, the rotation of the plane of polarization is
in the opposite direction to the electric currents which would produce a
magnetic field of the same sign.

The theory of the phenomena just described has been dealt with by
Airy,[27] C. Neumann,[28] Maxwell,[29] Fitzgerald,[30] Rowland,[31] H.
A. Lorentz,[32] Voight,[33] Ketteler,[34] van Loghem,[35] Potier,[36]
Basset,[37] Goldhammer,[38] Drude,[39] J. J. Thomson,[40] and
Leatham;[41] for a critical discussion of many of these theories we
refer the reader to Larmor's[42] British Association Report. Most of
these theories have proceeded on the plan of adding to the expression
for the electromotive force terms indicating a force similar in
character to that discovered by Hall (see MAGNETISM) in metallic
conductors carrying a current in a magnetic field, i.e. an electromotive
force at right angles to the plane containing the magnetic force and the
electric current, and proportional to the sine of the angle between
these vectors. The introduction of a term of this kind gives rotation of
the plane of polarization by transmission through all refracting
substance, and by reflection from magnetized metals, and shows a fair
agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. The simplest
way of treating the questions seems, however, to be to go to the
equations which represent the propagation of a wave travelling through a
medium containing ions. A moving ion in a magnetic field will be acted
upon by a mechanical force which is at right angles to its direction of
motion, and also to the magnetic force, and is equal per unit charge to
the product of these two vectors and the sine of the angle between them.
For the sake of brevity we will take the special case of a wave
travelling parallel to the magnetic force in the direction of the axis
of z.

  Then supposing that all the ions are of the same kind, and that there
  are _n_ of these each with mass _m_ and charge _e_ per unit volume,
  the equations representing the field are (see ELECTRIC WAVES):--

       dX0           d[xi]   d[beta]
    K0 --- + 4[pi]ne ----- = -------;
       dt             dt       dz

    dX[0]   d[beta]
    ----- = -------;
     dz       dt

       dY0           d[eta]     d[alpha]
    K0 --- + 4[pi]ne ------ = - --------
       dt              dt          dz

    dY0     d[alpha]
    --- = - --------;
    dz         dt

      d²[xi]      d[xi]            /     4[pi]       \         d[eta]
    m ------ + R1 ----- + a[xi] = ( X0 + ----- ne[xi] ) e + He ------
        dt²        dt              \       3         /           dt

      d²[eta]      d[eta]             /     4[pi]        \         d[xi]
    m ------- + R1 ------ + a[eta] = ( Y0 + ----- ne[eta] ) e - He -----;
        dt²          dt               \       3          /           dt

  where H is the external magnetic field, X0, Y0 the components of the
  part of the electric force in the wave not due to the charges on the
  atoms, [alpha] and [beta] the components of the magnetic force, [xi]
  and [eta] the co-ordinates of an ion, R1 the coefficient of resistance
  to the motion of the ions, and [alpha] the force at unit distance
  tending to bring the ion back to its position of equilibrium, K0 the
  specific inductive capacity of a vacuum. If the variables are
  proportional to [epsilon]^[l(pt - qz)] we find by substitution that q
  is given by the equation

                4[pi]ne²p²P     4[pi]ne³Hp³
    q² - K0p² - ----------- = ± -----------,
                P² - H²e²p²     P² - H²e²p²

  where

    P = (a - (4/3)[pi]ne²) + R1[iota]p - mp²,

  or, by neglecting R, P = m(s² - p²), where s is the period of the free
  ions. If, q1², q2² are the roots of this equation, then corresponding
  to q1 we have X0 = [iota]Y0 and to q2 X0 = -[iota]Y0. We thus get two
  oppositely circular-polarized rays travelling with the velocities p/q1
  and p/q2 respectively. Hence if v1, v2 are these velocities, and v the
  velocity when there is no magnetic field, we obtain, if we neglect
  terms in H²,

     1    1     4[pi]ne³Hp
    --- = -- + ------------,
    v1²   v²   m²(s² - p²)²

     1    1     4[pi]ne³Hp
    --- = -- - ------------.
    v2²   v²   m²(s² - p²)²

  The rotation r of the plane of polarization per unit length

          / 1     1  \    2[pi]ne³Hp²v
    = ½p ( --- - ---  ) = -------------.
          \ v1    v2 /     m²(s² - p²)²

  Since 1/v² = K0 + 4[pi]ne²/m(s² - p²), we have if µ is the refractive
  index for light of frequency p, and v0 the velocity of light in vacuo.

    µ² - 1 = 4[pi]ne²v²0 / m(s² - p²)  (1)

  So that we may put

    r = (µ² - 1)²p²H / s[pi]µne v0³  (2)

  Becquerel (_Comptes rendus_, 125, p. 683) gives for r the expression

       e   H      dµ
    ½ --- ---- ---------,
       m   v0  d[lambda]

  where [lambda] is the wave length. This is equivalent to (2) if µ is
  given by (1). He has shown that this expression is in good agreement
  with experiment. The sign of r depends on the sign of e, hence the
  rotation due to negative ions would be opposite to that for positive.
  For the great majority of substances the direction of rotation is that
  corresponding to the negation ion. We see from the equations that the
  rotation is very large for such a value of p as makes P = 0: this
  value corresponds to a free period of the ions, so that the rotation
  ought to be very large in the neighbourhood of an absorption band.
  This has been verified for sodium vapour by Macaluso and Corbino.[43]

  If plane-polarized light falls normally on a plane face of the medium
  containing the ions, then if the electric force in the incident wave
  is parallel to x and is equal to the real part of A[epsilon]^[l(pt -
  qz)], if the reflected beam in which the electric force is parallel to
  x is represented by B[epsilon]^[l(pt + qz)] and the reflected beam in
  which the electric force is parallel to the axis of y by
  C[epsilon]^[l(pt + qz)], then the conditions that the magnetic force
  parallel to the surface is continuous, and that the electric forces
  parallel to the surface in the air are continuous with Y0, X0 in the
  medium, give

            A                B         [iota]C
    ----------------- = ----------- = ----------
    (q + q1) (q + q2)   (q² - q1q2)   q(q2 - q1)

  or approximately, since q1 and q2 are nearly equal,

    [iota]C   q(q2 - q1)    (µ² - 1)pH
    ------- = ---------- = ------------.
       B       q² - q1²    4[pi]µne V0²

  Thus in transparent bodies for which µ is real, C and B differ in
  phase by [pi]/2, and the reflected light is elliptically polarized,
  the major axis of the ellipse being in the plane of polarization of
  the incident light, so that in this case there is no rotation, but
  only elliptic polarization; when there is strong absorption so that µ
  contains an imaginary term, C/B will contain a real part so that the
  reflected light will be elliptically polarized, but the major axis is
  no longer in the plane of polarization of the incident light; we
  should thus have a rotation of the plane of polarization superposed on
  the elliptic polarization.

_Zeeman's Effect._--Faraday, after discovering the effect of a magnetic
field on the plane of polarization of light, made numerous experiments
to see if such a field influenced the nature of the light emitted by a
luminous body, but without success. In 1885 Fievez,[44] a Belgian
physicist, noticed that the spectrum of a sodium flame was changed
slightly in appearance by a magnetic field; but his observation does not
seem to have attracted much attention, and was probably ascribed to
secondary effects. In 1896 Zeeman[45] saw a distinct broadening of the
lines of lithium and sodium when the flames containing salts of these
metals were between the poles of a powerful electromagnet; following up
this observation, he obtained some exceedingly remarkable and
interesting results, of which those observed with the blue-green cadmium
line may be taken as typical. He found that in a strong magnetic field,
when the lines of force are parallel to the direction of propagation of
the light, the line is split up into a doublet, the constituents of
which are on opposite sides of the undisturbed position of the line, and
that the light in the constituents of this doublet is circularly
polarized, the rotation in the two lines being in opposite directions.
When the magnetic force is at right angles to the direction of
propagation of the light, the line is resolved into a triplet, of which
the middle line occupies the same position as the undisturbed line; all
the constituents of this triplet are plane-polarized, the plane of
polarization of the middle line being at right angles to the magnetic
force, while the outside lines are polarized on a plane parallel to the
lines of magnetic force. A great deal of light is thrown on this
phenomenon by the following considerations due to H. A. Lorentz.[46]

  Let us consider an ion attracted to a centre of force by a force
  proportional to the distance, and acted on by a magnetic force
  parallel to the axis of z: then if m is the mass of the particle and e
  its charge, the equations of motion are

      d²x            dy
    m --- + ax = -He --;
      dt²            dt

      d²y           dx
    m --- + ay = He --;
      dt²           dt

      d²z
    m --- + ax = 0.
      dt²

  The solution of these equations is

    x = A cos (p1t + [beta]) + B cos (p2t + [beta]1)

    y = A sin (p1t + [beta]) - B sin (p2t + [beta]1)

    z = C cos (pt + [gamma])

  where

    a - mp1² = - He p1

    a - mp2² = He p2

    p² = [alpha]/m,

  or approximately

               He              He
    p1 = p + ½ ---, p2 = p - ½ ---.
                m               m

  Thus the motion of the ion on the xy plane may be regarded as made up
  of two circular motions in opposite directions described with
  frequencies p1 and p2 respectively, while the motion along z has the
  period p, which is the frequency for all the vibrations when H = 0.
  Now suppose that the cadmium line is due to the motion of such an ion;
  then if the magnetic force is along the direction of propagation, the
  vibration in this direction has its period unaltered, but since the
  direction of vibration is perpendicular to the wave front, it does not
  give rise to light. Thus we are left with the two circular motions in
  the wave front with frequencies p1 and p2 giving the circularly
  polarized constituents of the doublet. Now suppose the magnetic force
  is at right angles to the direction of propagation of the light; then
  the vibration parallel to the magnetic force being in the wave front
  produces luminous effects and gives rise to a plane-polarized ray of
  undisturbed period (the middle line of the triplet), the plane of
  polarization being at right angles to the magnetic force. The
  components in the wave-front of the circular orbits at right angles to
  the magnetic force will be rectilinear motions of frequency p1 and p2
  at right angles to the magnetic force--so that they will produce
  plane-polarized light, the plane of polarization being parallel to the
  magnetic force; these are the outer lines of the triplet.

If Zeeman's observations are interpreted from this point of view, the
directions of rotation of the circularly-polarized light in the doublet
observed along the lines of magnetic force show that the ions which
produce the luminous vibrations are _negatively_ electrified, while the
measurement of the charge of frequency due to the magnetic field shows
that e/m is of the order 10^7. This result is of great interest, as this
is the order of the value of e/m in the negatively electrified particles
which constitute the Cathode Rays (see CONDUCTION, ELECTRIC III.
_Through Gases_). Thus we infer that the "cathode particles" are found
in bodies, even where not subject to the action of intense electrical
fields, and are in fact an ordinary constituent of the molecule. Similar
particles are found near an incandescent wire, and also near a metal
plate illuminated by ultra-violet light. The value of e/m deduced from
the Zeeman effect ranges from 10^7 to 3.4 × 10^7, the value of e/m for
the particle in the cathode rays is 1.7 × 10^7. The majority of the
determinations of e/m from the Zeeman effect give numbers larger than
this, the maximum being about twice this value.

A more extended study of the behaviour of the spectroscopic lines has
afforded examples in which the effects produced by a magnet are more
complicated than those we have described, indeed the simple cases are
much less numerous than the more complex. Thus Preston[47] and Cornu[48]
have shown that under the action of a transverse magnetic field one of
the D lines splits up into four, and the other into six lines; Preston
has given many other examples of these quartets and sextets, and has
shown that the change in the frequency, which, according to the simple
theory indicated, should be the same for all lines, actually varies
considerably from one line to another, many lines showing no appreciable
displacement. The splitting up of a single line into a quartet or sextet
indicates, from the point of view of the ion theory, that the line must
have its origin in a system consisting of more than one ion. A single
ion having only three degrees of freedom can only have three periods.
When there is no magnetic force acting on the ion these periods are
equal, but though under the action of a magnetic force they are
separated, their number cannot be increased. When therefore we get four
or more lines, the inference is that the system giving the lines must
have at least four degrees of freedom, and therefore must consist of
more than one ion. The theory of a system of ions mutually influencing
each other shows, as we should expect, that the effects are more complex
than in the case of a single ion, and that the change in the frequency
is not necessarily the same for all systems (see J. J. Thomson, _Proc.
Camb. Phil. Soc._ 13, p. 39). Preston[49] and Runge and Paschen have
proved that, in some cases at any rate, the change in the frequency of
the different lines is of such a character that they can be grouped into
series such that each line in the series has the same change in
frequency for the same magnetic force, and, moreover, that homologous
lines in the spectra of different metals belonging to the same group
have the same change in frequency.

A very remarkable case of the Zeeman effect has been discovered by H.
Becquerel and Deslandres (_Comptes rendus_, 127, p. 18). They found
lines in iron when the most deflected components are those polarized in
the plane at right angles to the magnetic force. On the simple theory
the light polarized in this way is not affected. Thus the behaviour of
the spectrum in the magnetic field promises to throw great light on the
nature of radiation, and perhaps on the constitution of the elements.
The study of these effects has been greatly facilitated by the invention
by Michelson[50] of the echelon spectroscope.

There are some interesting phenomena connected with the Zeeman effect
which are more easily observed than the effect itself. Thus Cotton[51]
found that if we have two Bunsen flames, A and B, coloured by the same
salt, the absorption of the light of one by the other is diminished if
either is placed between the poles of a magnet: this is at once
explained by the Zeeman effect, for the times of vibration of the
molecules of the flame in the magnetic field are not the same as those
of the other flame, and thus the absorption is diminished. Similar
considerations explain the phenomenon observed by Egoroff and
Georgiewsky,[52] that the light emitted from a flame in a transverse
field is partially polarized in a plane parallel to the magnetic force;
and also Righi's[53] observation that if a sodium flame is placed in a
longitudinal field between two crossed Nicols, and a ray of white light
sent through one of the Nicols, then through the flame, and then through
the second Nicol, the amount of light passing through the second Nicol
is greater when the field is on than when it is off. Voight and Wiechert
(_Wied. Ann._ 67, p. 345) detected the double refraction produced when
light travels through a substance exposed to a magnetic field at right
angles to the path of the light; this result had been predicted by
Voight from theoretical considerations. Jean Becquerel has made some
very interesting experiments on the effect of a magnetic field on the
fine absorption bands produced by xenotime, a phosphate of yttrium and
erbium, and tysonite, a fluoride of cerium, lanthanum and didymium, and
has obtained effects which he ascribes to the presence of positive
electrons. A very complete account of magneto- and electro-optics is
contained in Voight's _Magneto- and Elektro-optik_.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Experimental Researches_, Series 19.

  [2] _Comptes rendus_, 88, p. 709.

  [3] _Wied. Ann._ 6, p. 332; 8, p. 278; 10, p. 257.

  [4] _Wied. Ann._ 23, p. 228; 27, p. 191.

  [5] _Wied. Ann._ 31, p. 941.

  [6] _Phil. Trans._, A. 1885, Pt. 11, p. 343.

  [7] _Wied. Ann._ 26, p. 456.

  [8] _Phil. Trans._, A. 1895, Pt. 17, p. 621.

  [9] _Wied. Ann._ 24, p. 161.

  [10] _Wied. Ann._ 31, p. 970.

  [11] _Comptes rendus_, 57, p. 670.

  [12] _Comptes rendus_, 43, p. 529; 44, p. 1209.

  [13] _Journ. Chem. Soc._ 1884, p. 421; 1886, p. 177; 1887, pp. 362
    and 808; 1888, p. 561; 1889, pp. 680 and 750; 1891, p. 981; 1892, p.
    800; 1893, pp. 75, 99 and 488.

  [14] _Wied. Ann._ 44, p. 377.

  [15] _Wied. Ann._ 43, p. 280.

  [16] _Zeitschrift f. physikal. Chem._ 11, p. 753.

  [17] _Phil. Mag._ [5] 3, p. 321.

  [18] _Ann. de chim. et de phys._ [6] 4, p. 433; 9, p. 65; 10, p. 200.

  [19] _Wied. Ann._ 23, p. 228; 27, p. 191.

  [20] _Wied. Ann._ 39, p. 25.

  [21] _Wied. Ann._ 42, p. 115.

  [22] _Phil. Mag._ [5] 12, p. 171.

  [23] _Journ. de Phys._ 1884, p. 360.

  [24] _Beiblätter zu Wied. Ann._ 1885, p. 275.

  [25] _Messungen über d. Kerr'sche Erscheinung._ Inaugural Dissert.
    Leiden, 1893.

  [26] _Phil. Mag._ [5] 5, p. 161.

  [27] _Phil. Mag._ [3] 28, p. 469.

  [28] _Die Magn. Drehung d. Polarisationsebene des Lichts_, Halle,
    1863.

  [29] _Electricity and Magnetism_, chap. xxi.

  [30] _Phil. Trans._ 1880 (2), p. 691.

  [31] _Phil. Mag._ (5) 11, p. 254, 1881.

  [32] _Arch. Néerl._ 19, p. 123.

  [33] _Wied. Ann._ 23, p. 493; 67, p. 345.

  [34] _Wied. Ann._ 24, p. 119.

  [35] _Wied. Beiblätter_, 8, p. 869.

  [36] _Comptes rendus_, 108, p. 510.

  [37] _Phil. Trans._ 182, A. p. 371, 1892; _Physical Optics_, p. 393.

  [38] _Wied. Ann._ 46, p. 71; 47, p. 345; 48, p. 740; 50, p. 722.

  [39] _Wied. Ann._ 46, p. 353; 48, p. 122; 49, p. 690.

  [40] _Recent Researches_, p. 489 et seq.

  [41] _Phil. Trans._, A. 1897, p. 89.

  [42] _Brit. Assoc. Report_, 1893.

  [43] _Comptes rendus_, 127, p. 548.

  [44] _Bull. de l'Acad. des Sciences Belg._ (3) 9, pp. 327, 381, 1885;
    12 p. 30, 1886.

  [45] _Communications from the Physical Laboratory_, Leiden, No. 33,
    1896; Phil. Mag. 43, p. 226; 44, pp. 55 and 255; and 45, p. 197.

  [46] _Arch. Néerl._ 25, p. 190.

  [47] _Phil. Mag._ 45, p. 325; 47, p. 165.

  [48] _Comptes rendus_, 126, p. 181.

  [49] _Phil. Mag._ 46, p. 187.

  [50] _Phil. Mag._ 45, p. 348.

  [51] _Comptes rendus_, 125, p. 865.

  [52] _Comptes rendus_, pp. 748 and 949, 1897.

  [53] _Comptes rendus_, 127, p. 216; 128, p. 45.

       (J. J. T.)



MAGNOLIA, the typical genus of the botanical order Magnoliaceae, named
after Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor of medicine and botany at
Montpellier. It contains about twenty species, distributed in Japan,
China and the Himalayas, as well as in North America.

Magnolias are trees or shrubs with deciduous or rarely evergreen
foliage. They bear conspicuous and often large, fragrant, white, rose or
purple flowers. The sepals are three in number, the petals six to
twelve, in two to four series of three in each, the stamens and carpels
being numerous. The fruit consists of a number of follicles which are
borne on a more or less conical receptacle, and dehisce along the outer
edge to allow the scarlet or brown seeds to escape; the seeds however
remain suspended by a long slender thread (the funicle). Of the
old-world species, the earliest in cultivation appears to have been _M.
Yulan_ (or _M. conspicua_) of China, of which the buds were preserved,
as well as used medicinally and to season rice; together with the
greenhouse species, _M. fuscata_, it was transported to Europe in 1789,
and thence to North America, and is now cultivated in the Middle States.
There are many fine forms of _M. conspicua_, the best being
_Soulangeana_, white tinted with purple, _Lenné_ and _stricta_. Of the
Japanese magnolias, _M. Kobus_ and the purple-flowered _M. obovata_ were
met with by Kaempfer in 1690, and were introduced into England in 1709
and 1804 respectively. _M. pumila_, the dwarf magnolia, from the
mountains of Amboyna, is nearly evergreen, and bears deliciously scented
flowers; it was introduced in 1786. The Indian species are three in
number, _M. globosa_, allied to _M. conspicua_ of Japan, _M.
sphenocarpa_, and, the most magnificent of all magnolias, _M.
Campbellii_, which forms a conspicuous feature in the scenery and
vegetation of Darjeeling. It was discovered by Dr Griffith in Bhutan,
and is a large forest tree, abounding on the outer ranges of Sikkim, 80
to 150 ft. high, and from 6 to 12 ft. in girth. The flowers are 6 to 10
in. across, appearing before the leaves, and vary from white to a deep
rose colour.

The first of the American species brought to Europe (in 1688 by John
Banister) was _M. glauca_, a beautiful evergreen species about 15 ft.
high with obtuse leathery leaves, blue-green above, silvery underneath,
and globular flowers varying from creamy white to pale yellow with age.
It is found in low situations near the sea from Massachusetts to
Louisiana--more especially in New Jersey and the Carolinas. _M.
acuminata_, the so-called "cucumber tree," from the resemblance of the
young fruits to small cucumbers, ranges from Pennsylvania to Carolina.
The wood is yellow, and used for bowls; the flowers, 3 to 4 in. across,
are glaucous green tinted with yellow. It was introduced into England
from Virginia about 1736. _M. tripetala_ (or _M. umbrella_), is known as
the "umbrella tree" from the arrangement of the leaves at the ends of
the branches resembling somewhat that of the ribs of an umbrella. The
flowers, 5 to 8 in. across, are white and have a strong but not
disagreeable scent. It was brought to England in 1752. _M. Fraseri_ (or
_M. auriculata_), discovered by John Bartram in 1773, is a native of the
western parts of the Carolinas and Georgia, extending southward to
western Florida and southern Alabama. It grows 30 to 50 ft. high, has
leaves a foot or more long, heart-shaped and bluntly auricled at the
base, and fragrant pale yellowish-white flowers, 3 to 4 in. across. The
most beautiful species of North America is _M. grandiflora_, the "laurel
magnolia," a native of the south-eastern States, and introduced into
England in 1734. It grows a straight trunk, 2 ft. in diameter and
upwards of 70 ft. high, bearing a profusion of large, powerfully
lemon-scented creamy-white flowers. It is an evergreen tree, easily
recognized by its glossy green oval oblong leaves with a rusty-brown
under surface. In England it is customary to train it against a wall in
the colder parts, but it does well as a bush tree; and the original
species is surpassed by the Exmouth varieties, which originated as
seedlings at Exeter from the tree first raised in England by Sir John
Colliton, and which flower much more freely than the parent plant. Other
fine magnolias now to be met with in gardens are _M. cordata_, a North
American deciduous tree 40 to 50 ft. high, with heart-shaped leaves,
woolly beneath, and yellow flowers lined with purple; _M. hypoleuca_, a
fine Japanese tree 60 ft. high or more, with leaves a foot or more long,
6 to 7 in. broad, the under surface covered with hairs; _M.
macrophylla_, a handsome deciduous North American tree, with smooth
whitish bark, and very large beautiful green leaves, 1 to 3 ft. long, 8
to 10 in. broad, oblong-obovate and heart-shaped at the base; the open
sweet-scented bell-shaped flowers 8 to 10 in. across, are white with a
purple blotch at the base of the petals; _M. stellata_ or _Halleana_, a
charming deciduous Japanese shrub remarkable for producing its pure
white starry flowers as early as February and March on the leafless
stems; and _M. Watsoni_, another fine deciduous Japanese bush or small
tree with very fragrant pure white flowers 5 to 6 in. across.

[Illustration: _Magnolia grandiflora_, shoot with flower; rather less
than ½ nat. size.

  1. Flower after removal of the sepals and petals, showing the
  indefinite stamens, s, and carpels, c.

  2. Fruit--the ripe carpels are splitting, exposing the seeds, some of
  which are suspended by the long funicle.

  3. Floral diagram, b, bract.]

The tulip tree, _Liriodendron tulipifera_, a native of North America,
frequently cultivated in England, is also a member of the same family.
It reaches a height of over 100 ft. in a native condition, and as much
as 60 to 80 ft. in England. It resembles the plane tree somewhat in
appearance, but is readily recognized by lobed leaves having the apical
lobe truncated, and by its soft green and yellow tulip-like
flowers--which however are rarely borne on trees under twenty years of
age.

  For a description of the principal species of magnolia under
  cultivation see J. Weathers, _Practical Guide to Garden Plants_, pp.
  174 seq., and for a detailed account of the American species see C. S.
  Sargent, _Silva of North America_, vol. i.



MAGNUS, HEINRICH GUSTAV (1802-1870), German chemist and physicist, was
born at Berlin on the 2nd of May 1802. His father was a wealthy
merchant; and of his five brothers one, Eduard (1799-1872), became a
celebrated painter. After studying at Berlin, he went to Stockholm to
work under Berzelius, and later to Paris, where he studied for a while
under Gay-Lussac and Thénard. In 1831 he returned to Berlin as lecturer
on technology and physics at the university. As a teacher his success
was rapid and extraordinary. His lucid style and the perfection of his
experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic
scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by
conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he
further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at
his house with a small circle of young students. From 1827 to 1833 he
was occupied mainly with chemical researches, which resulted in the
discovery of the first of the platino-ammonium compounds ("Magnus's
green salt" is PtCl2, 2NH3), of sulphovinic, ethionic and isethionic
acids and their salts, and, in conjunction with C. F. Ammermüller, of
periodic acid. Among other subjects at which he subsequently worked were
the absorption of gases in blood (1837-1845), the expansion of gases by
heat (1841-1844), the vapour pressures of water and various solutions
(1844-1854), thermo-electricity (1851), electrolysis (1856), induction
of currents (1858-1861), conduction of heat in gases (1860), and
polarization of heat (1866-1868). From 1861 onwards he devoted much
attention to the question of diathermancy in gases and vapours,
especially to the behaviour in this respect of dry and moist air, and to
the thermal effects produced by the condensation of moisture on solid
surfaces.

In 1834 Magnus was elected extraordinary, and in 1845 ordinary professor
at Berlin. He was three times elected dean of the faculty, in 1847, 1858
and 1863; and in 1861, rector magnificus. His great reputation led to
his being entrusted by the government with several missions; in 1865 he
represented Prussia in the conference called at Frankfort to introduce a
uniform metric system of weights and measures into Germany. For
forty-five years his labour was incessant; his first memoir was
published in 1825 when he was yet a student; his last appeared shortly
after his death on the 4th of April 1870. He married in 1840 Bertha
Humblot, of a French Huguenot family settled in Berlin, by whom he left
a son and two daughters.

  See _Allgemeine deutsche Biog._ The Royal Society's _Catalogue_
  enumerates 84 papers by Magnus, most of which originally appeared in
  _Poggendorff's Annalen_.



MAGNY, CLAUDE DRIGON, MARQUIS DE (1797-1879), French heraldic writer,
was born in Paris. After being employed for some time in the postal
service, he devoted himself to the study of heraldry and genealogy, his
work in this direction being rewarded by Pope Gregory XVI. with a
marquisate. He founded a French college of heraldry, and wrote several
works on heraldry and genealogy, of which the most important were
_Archives nobiliaires universelles_ (1843) and _Livre d'or de la
noblesse de France_ (1844-1852). His two sons, Edouard Drigon and
Achille Ludovice Drigon, respectively comte and vicomte de Magny, also
wrote several works on heraldry.



MAGO, the name of several Carthaginians, (1) The reputed founder of the
military power of Carthage, fl. 550-500 B.C. (Justin xviii. 7, xix. i).
(2) The youngest of the three sons of Hamilcar Barca. He accompanied
Hannibal into Italy, and held important commands in the great victories
of the first three years. After the battle of Cannae (216 B.C.) he
sailed to Carthage to report the successes gained. He was about to
return to Italy with strong reinforcements for Hannibal, when the
government ordered him to go to the aid of his other brother, Hasdrubal,
who was hard pressed in Spain. He carried on the war there with varying
success in concert with the two Hasdrubals until, in 209, his brother
marched into Italy to help Hannibal. Mago remained in Spain with
Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco. In 207 he was defeated by M. Junius
Silanus, and in 206 the combined forces of Mago and Hasdrubal were
scattered by Scipio Africanus in the decisive battle of Silpia. Mago
maintained himself for some time in Gades, but afterwards received
orders to carry the war into Liguria. He wintered in the Balearic Isles,
where the harbour Portus Magonis (Port Mahon) still bears his name.
Early in 204 he landed in Liguria, where he maintained a desultory
warfare till in 203 he was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul by the Roman
forces. Shortly afterwards he was ordered to return to Carthage, but on
the voyage home he died of wounds received in battle.

  See Polybius iii.; Livy xxi.-xxiii.; xxviii., chs. 23-37; xxix., xxx.;
  Appian, _Hispanica_, 25-37; T. Friedrich, _Biographie des Barkiden
  Mago_; H. Lehmann, _Der Angriff der drei Barkiden auf Italien_
  (Leipzig, 1905); and further J. P. Mahaffy, in _Hermathena_, vii.
  29-36 (1890).

(3) The name of Mago is also attached to a great work on agriculture
which was brought to Rome and translated by order of the senate after
the destruction of Carthage. The book was regarded as a standard
authority, and is often referred to by later writers.

  See Pliny, _Nat. Hist_, xviii. 5; Columella, i. 1; Cicero, _De
  oratore_, i. 58.



MAGPIE, or simply PIE (Fr. _pie_), the prefix being the abbreviated form
of a human name (Margaret[1]), a bird once common throughout Great
Britain, though now nearly everywhere scarce. Its pilfering habits have
led to this result, yet the injuries it causes are exaggerated by common
report; and in many countries of Europe it is still the tolerated or
even the cherished neighbour of every farmer, as it formerly was in
England if not in Scotland also. It did not exist in Ireland in 1617,
when Fynes Morison wrote his _Itinerary_, but it had appeared there
within a hundred years later, when Swift mentions its occurrences in his
_Journal to Stella_, 9th July 1711. It is now common enough in that
country, and there is a widespread but unfounded belief that it was
introduced by the English out of spite. It is a species that when not
molested is extending its range, as J. Wolley ascertained in Lapland,
where within the last century it has been gradually pushing its way
along the coast and into the interior from one fishing-station or
settler's house to the next, as the country has been peopled.

Since the persecution to which the pie has been subjected in Great
Britain, its habits have altered greatly. It is no longer the merry,
saucy hanger-on of the homestead, but is become the suspicious thief,
shunning the gaze of man, and knowing that danger may lurk in every
bush. Hence opportunities of observing it fall to the lot of few, and
most persons know it only as a curtailed captive in a wicker cage, where
its vivacity and natural beauty are lessened or wholly lost. At large
few European birds possess greater beauty, the pure white of its
scapulars and inner web of the flight-feathers contrasting vividly with
the deep glossy black on the rest of its body and wings, while its long
tail is lustrous with green, bronze, and purple reflections. The pie's
nest is a wonderfully ingenious structure, placed either in high trees
or low bushes, and so massively built that it will stand for years. Its
foundation consists of stout sticks, turf and clay, wrought into a deep,
hollow cup, plastered with earth, and lined with fibres; but around this
is erected a firmly interwoven, basket-like outwork of thorny sticks,
forming a dome over the nest, and leaving but a single hole in the side
for entrance and exit, so that the whole structure is rendered almost
impregnable. Herein are laid from six to nine eggs, of a pale
bluish-green freckled with brown and blotched with ash-colour.
Superstition as to the appearance of the pie still survives even among
many educated persons, and there are several versions of a rhyming adage
as to the various turns of luck which its presenting itself, either
alone or in company with others, is supposed to betoken, though all
agree that the sight of a single pie presages sorrow.

The pie belongs to the same family of birds as the crow, and is the
_Corvus pica_ of Linnaeus, the _Pica caudata_, _P. melanoleuca_, or _P.
rustica_ of modern ornithologists, who have recognized it as forming a
distinct genus, but the number of species thereto belonging has been a
fruitful source of discussion. Examples from the south of Spain differ
slightly from those inhabiting the rest of Europe, and in some points
more resemble the _P. mauritanica_ of north-western Africa; but that
species has a patch of bare skin of a fine blue colour behind the eye,
and much shorter wings. No fewer than five species have been
discriminated from various parts of Asia, extending to Japan; but only
one of them, the _P. leucoptera_ of Turkestan and Tibet, has of late
been admitted as valid. In the west of North America, and in some of its
islands, a pie is found which extends to the upper valleys of the
Missouri and the Yellowstone, and has long been thought entitled to
specific distinction as _P. hudsonia_; but its claim thereto is now
disallowed by some of the best ornithologists of the United States, and
it can hardly be deemed even a geographical variety of the Old-World
form. In California, however, there is a permanent race if not a good
species, _P. nuttalli_, easily distinguishable by its yellow bill and
the bare yellow skin round its eyes; on two occasions in the year 1867 a
bird apparently similar was observed in Great Britain (_Zoologist_, ser.
2, pp. 706, 1016).     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] "Magot" and "Madge," with the same origin, are names, frequently
    given in England to the pie; while in France it is commonly known as
    _Margot_, if not termed, as it is in some districts, _Jaquette_.



MAGWE, a district in the Minbu division of Upper Burma. Area, 2913 sq.
m.; pop. (1901), 246,708, showing an increase of 12.38% in the decade.
Magwe may be divided into two portions: the low, flat country in the
Taungdwingyi subdivision, and the undulating high ground extending over
the rest of the district. In Taungdwingyi the soil is rich, loamy, and
extremely fertile. The plain is about 45 m. from north to south. At its
southern extremity it is about 30 m. wide, and lessens in width to the
north till it ends in a point at Natmauk. On the east are the Pegu
Yomas, which at some points reach a height of 1500 ft. A number of
streams run westwards to the Irrawaddy, of which the Yin and the Pin,
which form the northern boundary, are the chief. The only perennial
stream is the Yanpè. Rice is the staple product, and considerable
quantities are exported. Sesamum of very high quality, maize, and millet
are also cultivated, as well as cotton in patches here and there over
the whole district.

  In this district are included the well-known Yenangyaung petroleum
  wells. The state wells have been leased to the Burma Oil Company. The
  amount of oil-bearing lands is estimated at 80 sq. m. and the portion
  not leased to the company has been demarcated into blocks of 1 sq. m.
  and offered on lease. The remaining land belongs to hereditary Burmese
  owners called _twinsa_, who dig wells and extract their oil by the
  rope and pulley system as they have always done. Lacquered wood trays,
  bowls and platters, and cart-wheels, are the only manufactures of any
  note in the district.

  The annual rainfall averages about 27 inches. The maximum temperature
  rises to a little over 100° in the hot season, and falls to an average
  minimum of 53° and 54° in the cold season.

  The town of Magwe is the headquarters of the district; pop. (1901),
  6232. It is diagonally opposite Minbu, the headquarters of the
  division, on the right bank of the Irrawaddy.



MAGYARS, the name of the dominant race in Hungary, or Hungarians proper.
Though they have become physically assimilated to the western peoples,
they belong in origin and language to the Finno-Ugrian (q.v.) division
of the Ural-Altaic race. They form barely half of the population of
Hungary, but are by far the largest and most compact of all its racial
groups. Magyar is the official language of Hungary, the official name of
which (_Magyarorzág_, or "country of the Magyars") enshrines the Magyar
claim to predominance. While all Magyars are properly Hungarians, all
Hungarians are not necessarily Magyars. "Hungarian" may be used as a
generic term covering all the various races of Hungary, while "Magyar"
is strictly specific to a single group. The Magyars themselves, indeed,
sometimes apply the name _Magyarorzág_ to Hungary "proper," excluding
Croatia-Slavonia, the whole kingdom being called _Magyarbirodalom_, the
Magyar monarchy or realm. See HUNGARY.



MAHABALESHWAR, or MALCOLMPETH, a hill station in Satara district, and
the principal sanatorium in the Bombay presidency, India. Pop. (1901),
5299. It is reached by carriage from Wathar railway station (39 m.) or
by motor car from Poona (119 m.). Mahabaleshwar occupies the summit of a
ridge of the Western Ghats, with a general elevation of 4500 ft. above
sea-level. It was established in 1828 by Sir John Malcolm, governor of
Bombay, who obtained the site from the raja of Satara in exchange for
another patch of territory. The superior elevation of Mahabaleshwar
renders it much cooler than Matheran (2460 ft.), a sanatorium about 50
m. E. of Bombay, but its heavy rainfall (292 in. annual average) makes
it almost uninhabitable during the rainy season. The mean annual
temperature is 67° F. In the hottest season (March-April) an extreme of
a little over 90° is reached during the day. Mahabaleshwar forms the
retreat usually during spring, and occasionally in autumn, of the
governor of Bombay, and the chief officers of his establishment, and has
the usual public buildings of a first-class sanatorium.



MAHAFFY, JOHN PENTLAND (1839-   ), Irish classical scholar, was born in
Switzerland on the 12th of July 1839. He received his early education in
Switzerland and Germany, and later at Trinity College, Dublin, where he
held the professorship of ancient history. Mahaffy, a man of great
versatility, published numerous works, some of which, especially those
dealing with what may be called the Silver age of Greece, became
standard authorities. The following deserve mention: _History of
Classical Greek Literature_ (4th ed., 1903 seq.); _Social Life in Greece
from Homer to Menander_ (4th ed., 1903); _The Silver Age of the Greek
World_ (1906); _The Empire of the Ptolemies_ (1896); _Greek Life and
Thought from Alexander to the Roman Conquest_ (2nd ed., 1896); _The
Greek World under Roman Sway from Polybius to Plutarch_ (1890). His
translation of Kuno Fischer's _Commentary on Kant_ (1866) and his own
exhaustive analysis, with elucidations, of Kant's critical philosophy
are of great value. He also edited the Petrie papyri in the _Cunningham
Memoirs_ (3 vols. 1891-1905).



MAHALLAT, a province of central Persia, situated between Kashan and
Irak. Pop. about 20,000; yearly revenue about £2500. Until 1890 it was
one of the five "central provinces" (the other four being Irak, Ferahan,
Kezzaz, and Savah), which were under a governor appointed by the shah;
since then it has formed part of the Isfahan government. It is traversed
by the Anarbar or Kum River, and comprises the city of Mahallat, divided
into upper and lower, or Rivkan and Zanjirvan, and twenty-two
flourishing villages. It was known in former times as Anar, the Anarus
of Peutinger's tables. The city, capital of the province, is situated at
an elevation of 5850 ft. in 33° 51´ N., 50° 30´ E.; pop. about 9000.



MAHAN, ALFRED THAYER (1840-   ), American naval officer and historian,
was born on the 27th of September 1840 at West Point, New York. His
father, Dennis Hart Mahan (1802-1871) was a professor in the military
academy, and the author of textbooks on civil and military engineering.
The son graduated at the naval academy in 1859, became lieutenant in
1861, served on the "Congress," and on the "Pocahontas," "Seminole," and
"James Adger" during the Civil War, and was instructor at the naval
academy for a year. In 1865 he was made lieut.-commander, commander in
1872, captain in 1885. Meanwhile he saw service in the Gulf of Mexico,
the South Atlantic, the Pacific, and Asia, and did shore duty at Boston,
New York and Annapolis. In 1886-89 he was president of the naval war
college at Newport, Rhode Island. Between 1889 and 1892 he was engaged
in special service for the bureau of navigation, and in 1893 was made
commander of the "Chicago," of the European squadron. In 1896 he retired
from active service, but was a member of the naval board of strategy
during the war between the United States and Spain. He was a member of
the peace congress at the Hague in 1899. This long and varied service
gave him extensive opportunities for observation, which he supplemented
by constant study of naval authorities and reflection on the
interpretation of the problems of maritime history. His first book was a
modest and compact story of the affairs in _The Gulf and Inland Waters_
(1883), in a series of volumes by various writers, entitled _The Navy in
the Civil War_; in 1890 he suddenly acquired fame by the appearance of
his masterly work entitled _The Influence of Sea Power upon History,
1660-1783_. Having been impressed by the failure of historians to allow
for the influence of sea power in struggles between nations, he was led
to make prolonged investigations of this general theme (see SEA POWER).
The reception accorded the volume was instant and hearty; in England, in
particular, it was deemed almost an epoch-making work, and was studied
by naval specialists, cabinet ministers and journalists, as well as by a
large part of the general public. It was followed by _The Influence of
Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire_ (2 vols. 1892); _The
Life of Nelson, the Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain_
(1897); and _Sea Power in its Relations to the War of 1812_ (1905). The
author's general aim in these works--some of which have been translated
into French, German and Japanese--was to make the consideration of
maritime matters paramount to that of military, political or economic
movements, without, however, as he himself says "divorcing them from
their surroundings of cause and effect in general history, but seeking
to show how they modified the latter, and were modified by them." He
selected the year 1660 as the beginning of his narrative, as being the
date when the "sailing-ship era, with its distinctive features, had
fairly begun." The series as a whole has been accepted as finally
authoritative, supplanting its predecessors of similar aim, and
almost--in the words of Theodore Roosevelt--founding a new school of
naval historical writing.

  Other works by Mahan are a _Life of Admiral Farragut_ (1892); _The
  Interest of America in Sea Power_ (1897); _Lessons of the War with
  Spain_ (1899); _The Story of the War with South Africa_ and _The
  Problem of Asia_ (1900); _Types of Naval Officers drawn from the
  History of the British Navy_ (1901); _Retrospect and Prospect_,
  studies of international relations (1902).



MAHANADI, or MAHANUDDY ("The Great River"), a river of India. It rises
in 20° 10´ N., 82° E., 25 m. S. of Raipur town, in the wild mountains of
Bastar in the Central Provinces. At first an insignificant stream,
taking a northerly direction, it drains the eastern portion of the
Chhattisgarh plain, then a little above Seorinarayan it receives the
waters which its first great affluent, the Seonath, has collected from
the western portion of the plain; thence flowing for some distance due
E., its stream is augmented by the drainage of the hills of Uprora,
Korba, and the ranges that separate Sambalpur from Chota Nagpur. At
Padampur it turns towards the south, and struggling through masses of
rock, flows past the town of Sambalpur to Sonpur. From Sonpur it pursues
a tortuous course among ridges and rocky crags towards the range of the
Eastern Ghats. This mountain line it pierces by a gorge about 40 m. in
length, overlooked by forest-clad hills. Since the opening of the
Bengal-Nagpur railway, the Mahanadi is little used for navigation. It
pours down upon the Orissa delta at Naraj, about 7 m. west of Cuttack
town; and after traversing Cuttack district from west to east, and
throwing off numerous branches (the Katjori, Paika, Biropa, Chitartala,
&c.) it falls into the Bay of Bengal at False Point by several channels.

  The Mahanadi has an estimated drainage area of 43,800 sq. m., and its
  rapid flow renders its maximum discharge in time of flood second to
  that of no other river in India. During unusually high floods
  1,500,000 cub. ft. of water pour every second through the Naraj gorge,
  one-half of which, uncontrolled by the elaborate embankments, and
  heavily laden with silt, pours over the delta, filling the swamps,
  inundating the rice-fields, and converting the plains into a sea. In
  the dry weather the discharge of the Mahanadi dwindles to 1125 cub.
  ft. per second. Efforts have been made to husband and utilize the vast
  water supply thrown upon the Orissa delta during seasons of flood.
  Each of the three branches into which the parent stream splits at the
  delta head is regulated by a weir. Of the four canals which form the
  Orissa irrigation system, two take off from the Biropa weir, and one,
  with its branch, from the Mahanadi weir. On the 31st of December 1868
  the government took over the whole canal works from the East Indian
  Irrigation Company, at a cost of £941,368. The canals thus taken over
  and since completed, are the high-level canal, the Kendrapara canal,
  the Taldanda canal and the Machgaon canal, irrigating 275,000 acres.



MAHANOY CITY, a borough of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 56
m. N.E. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1890), 11,286; (1900), 13,504, of whom 3877
were foreign-born, mostly Slavs; (1910 census) 15,936. It is served by
branches of the Lehigh Valley and the Philadelphia & Reading railways.
The borough is situated in the valley of Mahanoy Creek, and has an
elevation of 1240 ft. above the sea; Broad Mountain (1795 ft.), a ridge
extending through Schuylkill county, overlooks it on the S.E. The valley
is a part of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, fire clay
abounds in the vicinity, and the borough's principal industries are the
mining and shipping of coal, and the manufacture of shirts and foundry
products. Mahanoy City, originally a part of Mahanoy township (pop. in
1910, 6256), was incorporated as a borough in 1863.



MAHAR, the name of a servile caste in the Deccan, India. Their special
function, apart from that of scavenger, is to act as village watchman,
as guardian of the village boundaries, and as public messenger. In some
parts they are also weavers of coarse cotton cloth. In 1901 their total
number in all India was just under three millions.



MAHARAJPUR, a village in Gwalior state, Central India. Pop. (1901), 366.
It was the scene of a battle (Dec. 29, 1843) in which Sir Hugh Gough,
accompanied by the governor-general, Lord Ellenborough, defeated the
insurgent army of the Gwalior state.



MAHAVAMSA, the _Great Chronicle_, a history of Ceylon from the 5th
century B.C. to the middle of the 5th century A.D., written in Pali
verse by Mahanama of the Dighasanda Hermitage, shortly after the close
of the period with which it deals. In point of historical value it
compares well with early European chronicles. In India proper the
decipherment of early Indian inscriptions was facilitated to a very
great extent by the data found only in the Mahavamsa. It was composed on
the basis of earlier works written in Sinhalese, which are now lost,
having been supplanted by the chronicles and commentaries in which their
contents were restated in Pali in the course of the 5th century. The
particular one on which our Mahavamsa was mainly based was also called
the Mahavamsa, and was written in Sinhalese prose with Pali memorial
verse interspersed. The extant Pali work gives legends of the Buddha and
the genealogy of his family; a sketch of the history of India down to
Asoka; an account of Buddhism in India down to the same date; a
description of the sending out of missionaries after Asoka's council,
and especially of the mission of Mahinda to Ceylon; a sketch of the
previous history of Ceylon; a long account of the reign of Devanam-piya
Tissa, the king of Ceylon who received Mahinda, and established Buddhism
in the island; short accounts of the kings succeeding him down to Duttha
Gamiin (Dadagamana or Dutegemunu); then a long account, amounting to an
epic poem, of the adventures and reign of that prince, a popular hero,
born in adversity, who roused the people, and drove the Tamil invaders
out of the island. Finally we have short notices of the subsequent kings
down to the author's time. The Mahavamsa was the first Pali book made
known to Europe. It was edited in 1837, with English translation and an
elaborate introduction, by George Turnour, then colonial secretary in
Ceylon. Its vocabulary was an important part of the material utilized in
Childer's _Pali Dictionary_. Its relation to the sources from which it
drew has been carefully discussed by various scholars and in especial
detail by Geiger. It is agreed that it gives a reasonably fair and
correct presentation of the tradition preserved in the lost Sinhalese
Mahavamsa; that, except in the earliest period, its list of kings, with
the years of each reign, is complete and trustworthy; and that it gives
throughout the view, as to events in Ceylon, of a resident in the Great
Minster at Anuradhapura.

  See _The Mahavamsa_, ed. by Geo. Turnour (Colombo, 1837); ed. by W.
  Geiger (London, 1908); H. Oldenberg, in the introduction to his
  edition of the _Dipavamsa_ (London, 1879); O. Franke, in _Wiener
  Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes_ (1907); W. Geiger,
  _Dipavamsa und Mahavamsa_ (Leipzig, 1905, trans. by Ethel M.
  Coomaraswamy, Colombo, 1908).     (T. W. R. D.)



MAHAYANA ("Great Vehicle"), the name given to the later Buddhism, the
popular religion which embraced all the people and had its pantheon of
Buddhas and Bodhisatvas, with attendant deities and demons, spacious
temples and images, pompous ceremonial and noisy festivals. It was thus
contrasted with the Hinayana ("Little Vehicle") of the primitive
Buddhism which had been only for the select few. (See BUDDHISM.)



MAHDI (Arab. "he who is guided aright"), a title assumed by the third
Abbasid caliph (see CALIPHATE: _Abbasids_, § 3). According to Moslem
traditionists Mahomet declared that one of his descendants, the imam of
God, who would fill the earth with equity and justice, would bear the
name of al-mahdi. The Sunnis hold that this mahdi has not yet appeared.
The name of mahdi is also given by the Shi'ite Mahommedans to the last
of the imams of the house of 'Ali. It was under the name of al-mahdi
that Mokhtar proclaimed 'Ali's son Mahommed as the opponent of the
caliph Abdalmalik, and, according to Shahrastani, the doctrine of the
mahdi, the hidden deliverer who is one day to appear and fill the
oppressed world with righteousness, first arose in connexion with a
belief that this Mahommed had not died but lived concealed at Mount
Radwa, near Mecca, guarded by a lion and a panther. The hidden imam of
the common Shi'ites is, however, the twelfth imam, Mahommed Abu'I-Qasim,
who disappeared mysteriously in 879. The belief in the appearance of the
mahdi readily lent itself to imposture. Of the many pretenders to this
dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the
first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, 'Obaidallah
al-Mahdi, who reigned 909-933. After him was named the first capital of
the dynasty, the once important city of Mahdia (q.v.). Another great
historical movement, headed by a leader who proclaimed himself the mahdi
(Mahommed ibn Abdallah ibn Tumart), was that of the Almohades (q.v.). In
1881 Mahommed Ahmed ibn Seyyid Abdullah (q.v.), a Dongolese, proclaimed
himself al-mahdi and founded in the eastern Sudan the short-lived empire
overthrown by an Anglo-Egyptian force at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.
Concurrently with the claim of Mahommed Ahmed to be the mahdi the same
title was claimed by, or for, the head of the Senussites, a
confraternity powerful in many regions of North Africa.



MAHDIA (also spelt _Mehdia_, _Mehedia_, &c.), a town of Tunisia, on the
coast between the gulfs of Hammamet and Gabes, 47 m. by rail S.S.E. of
Susa. Pop. about 8000. Mahdia is built on a rocky peninsula which
projects eastward about a mile beyond the normal coast line, and is not
more than a quarter of a mile wide. The extremity of the peninsula is
called Ras Mahdia or Cape Africa--Africa being the name by which Mahdia
was designated by Froissart and other European historians during the
middle ages and the Renaissance. In the centre of the peninsula and
occupying its highest point is a citadel (16th century); another castle
farther west is now used as a prison and is in the centre of the native
town. The European quarter and the new port are on the south-west side
of the peninsula. The port is available for small boats only; steamers
anchor in the roadstead about a quarter of a mile from the shore. On the
south-east, cut out of the rock, is the ancient harbour, or _cothon_,
measuring about 480 ft by 240 ft., the entrance being 42 ft. wide. There
are manufactories of olive oil, but the chief industry is sardine
fishing, largely in the hands of Italians.

Mahdia occupies the site of a Phoenician settlement and by some
authorities is identified with the town called Turris Hannibalis by the
Romans. Hannibal is said to have embarked here on his exile from
Carthage. After the Arab conquest of North Africa the town fell into
decay. It was refounded in 912 by the first Fatimite caliph,
'Obaidallah-al-Mahdi, after whom it was named. It became the port of
Kairawan and was for centuries a city of considerable importance,
largely owing to its great natural strength, and its position on the
Mediterranean. It carried on an active trade with Egypt, Syria and
Spain. The town was occupied by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th
century, but after holding it for about twelve years they were driven
out in 1159 by the Almohades. In 1390 a joint English and French force
vainly besieged Mahdia for sixty-one days. In the early part of the 16th
century the corsair Dragut seized the town and made it his capital, but
in 1550 the place was captured by the Spaniards, who held it until 1574.
Before evacuating the town the Spaniards dismantled the fortifications.
Under the rule of the Turks and, later, the beys of Tunis Mahdia became
a place of little importance. It was occupied by the French in 1881
without opposition, and regained some of its former commercial
importance.

  During 1908 numbers of bronzes and other works of art were recovered
  from a vessel wrecked off Mahdia in the 5th century A.D. (see
  _Classical Review_, June 1909).



MAHÉ, a French settlement in the Malabar district of Madras, India,
situated in 11° 43´ N. and 75° 33´ E., at the mouth of a river of the
same name. Area, 26 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 10,298. It is the only French
possession on the west coast of India, and is in charge of a _chef de
service_, subordinate to the governor-general at Pondicherry. It is now
a decaying place.



MAHESHWAR, a town in Indore state, Central India, on the N. bank of the
Narbada (Nerbudda). Pop. (1901), 7042. Though of great antiquity and
also of religious sanctity, it is chiefly noted as the residence of
Ahalya Bai, the reigning queen of the Holkar dynasty during the last
half of the 18th century, whose ability and munificence are famous
throughout India. Close by her cenotaph stands the family temple of the
Holkars.



MAHI, a river of western India, which rises in Central India and, after
flowing through south Rajputana, enters Gujarat and falls into the sea
by a wide estuary near Cambay; total length, 300 m.; estimated drainage
area, 16,000 sq. m. It has given its name to the Mahi Kantha agency of
Bombay, and also to the mehwasis, marauding highlanders often mentioned
in Mahommedan chronicles.



MAHI KANTHA, a political agency or collection of native states in India,
within the Gujarat division of Bombay. Over half the territory is
covered by the native state of Idar. There are eleven other chiefships,
and a large number of estates belonging to Rajput or Koli thakurs,
formerly feudatories of Baroda. Several of the states are under British
administration. Total area, 3125 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 361,545, showing a
decrease of 38% in the decade, due to famine; estimated revenue,
£76,000; tribute (mostly to the gaekwar of Baroda), £9000. Many of the
inhabitants belong to the wild tribes of Bhils and Kolis. In 1897 a
metre-gauge railway was opened from Ahmedabad through Parantij to
Ahmednagar. At Sadra is the Scott College for the education of the sons
of chiefs on the lines of an English public school. There are also
Anglo-vernacular schools at Sadra, Idar and Mansa. The famine of
1899-1900 was severely felt in this tract.



MAHMUD I. (1696-1754), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mustafa II., and
succeeded his uncle Ahmed III. in 1730. After the suppression of a
military revolt the war with Persia was continued with varying success,
and terminated in 1736 by a treaty of peace restoring the _status quo
ante bellum_. The next enemy whom Turkey was called upon to face was
Russia, later joined by Austria. War went on for four years; the
successes gained by Russia were outweighed by Austria's various
reverses, terminating by the defeat of Wallis at Krotzka, and the peace
concluded at Belgrade was a triumph for Turkish diplomacy. The sultan,
throughout desirous for peace, is said to have been much under the
influence of the chief eunuch, Haji Beshir Aga. In 1754 Mahmud died of
heart-disease when returning from the Friday service at the mosque. He
had a passion for building, to which are due numberless kiosques, where
nocturnal orgies were carried on by him and his boon companions. In this
reign the system of appointing Phanariote Greeks to the principalities
of Moldavia and Wallachia was instituted. (See PHANARIOTES.)



MAHMUD II. (1785-1839), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Abu-ul-Hamid
I., and succeeded his brother, Mustafa IV., in 1808. He had shared the
captivity of his ill-fated cousin, the ex-sultan, Selim III., whose
efforts at reform had ended in his deposition by the janissaries. Mahmud
was thus early impressed with the necessity for dissembling his
intention to institute reforms until he should be powerful enough to
carry them through. The reforming efforts of the grand vizier Bairakdar,
to whom he had owed his life and his accession, broke on the opposition
of the janissaries; and Mahmud had to wait for more favourable times.
Meanwhile the empire seemed in danger of breaking up. Not till 1812 was
the war with Russia closed by the treaty of Bucharest, which restored
Moldavia and the greater part of Wallachia to the Ottoman government.
But though the war was ended, the terms of the treaty left a number of
burning questions, both internal and external, unsettled. This was
notably the case with the claim of Russia to Poti and the valley of the
Rion (Phasis), which was still outstanding at the time of the congress
of Vienna (1814-1815) and prevented the question of a European guarantee
of the integrity of Turkey from being considered.

Meanwhile, within the empire, ambitious valis were one by one attempting
to carve out dominions for themselves at the expense of the central
power. The ambitions of Mehemet Ali of Egypt were not yet fully
revealed; but Ali (q.v.) of Jannina, who had marched to the aid of the
sultan against the rebellious pasha Pasvan Oglu of Widdin, soon began to
show his hand, and it needed the concentration of all the forces of the
Turkish empire to effect his overthrow and death (1822). The
preoccupation of the sultan with Ali gave their opportunity to the
Greeks whose disaffection had long been organized in the great secret
society of the _Hetaeria Philike_, against which Metternich had in vain
warned the Ottoman government. In 1821 occurred the abortive raid of
Alexander Ypsilanti into the Danubian principalities, and in May of the
same year the revolt of the Greeks of the Morea began the war of Greek
Independence (see GREECE: _History_). The rising in the north was easily
crushed; but in the south the Ottoman power was hampered by the
defection of the sea-faring Greeks, by whom the Turkish navy had
hitherto been manned. After three abortive campaigns Mahmud was
compelled, infinitely against his will, to summon to his assistance the
already too powerful pasha of Egypt, Mehemet Ali, whom he had already
employed to suppress the rebellious Wahhabis in Arabia. The disciplined
Egyptian army, supported by a well organized fleet, rapidly accomplished
what the Turks had failed to do; and by 1826 the Greeks were practically
subdued on land, and Ibrahim was preparing to turn his attention to the
islands. But for the intervention of the powers and the battle of
Navarino Mahmud's authority would have been restored in Greece. The news
of Navarino betrayed Mahmud into one of those paroxysms of rage to which
he was liable, and which on critical occasions were apt fatally to cloud
his usual good sense. After in vain attempting to obtain an apology for
"the unparalleled outrage against a friendly power" he issued on the
20th of December a solemn _hatti sheriff_ summoning the faithful to a
holy war. This, together with certain outstanding grievances and the
pretext of enforcing the settlement of the Greek Question approved by
the powers, gave Russia the excuse for declaring war against Turkey.
After two hardly fought campaigns (1828, 1829) Mahmud was at length, on
the 14th of September 1829, compelled to sign the peace of Adrianople.
From this moment until his death Mahmud was, to all intents and
purposes, the "vassal of Russia," though not without occasional
desperate efforts to break his chains. (For the political events of the
period between the first revolt of Mehemet Ali (Sept. 1832) and the
death of Mahmud see MEHEMET ALI.) The personal attitude of the sultan,
which alone concerns us here, was determined throughout by his
overmastering hatred of the upstart pasha, of whom he had stooped to ask
aid, and who now defied his will; and the importance of this attitude
lies in the fact that, as the result of the success of his centralizing
policy, and notably of the destruction of the janissaries (q.v.), the
supreme authority, hitherto limited by the practical power of the
ministers of the Porte and by the turbulence of the privileged military
caste, had become concentrated in his own person. It was no longer the
Porte that decided, but the Seraglio, and the sultan's private secretary
had more influence on the policy of the Ottoman empire than the grand
vizier.

This omnipotence of the sultan in deciding the policy of the government
was in striking contrast with his impotence in enforcing his views on
his subjects and in his relations with foreign powers. Mahmud, in spite
of--or rather because of--his well-meant efforts at reform, was hated by
his Mussulman subjects and stigmatized as an "infidel" and a traitor to
Islam. He was, in fact, a victim to those "half-measures" which
Machiavelli condemns as fatal to success. Ibrahim, the conqueror of
Syria, scoffed at the sultan's idea "that reform consisted in putting
his soldiers into tight trousers and epaulettes." The criticism is not
entirely unjust. Mahmud's policy was the converse of that recommended by
Machiavelli, viz. in making a revolution to change the substance while
preserving the semblance of the old order. Metternich's advice to Mahmud
to "remain a Turk" was sound enough. His failure to do so--in
externals--left him isolated in his empire: _rayahs_ and true believers
alike distrusted and hated him. Of this hatred he was fully conscious;
he knew that his subjects, even many of his own ministers, regarded
Mehemet Ali as the champion of Islam against the "infidel sultan;" he
suspected the pasha, already master of the sacred cities, of an
intention to proclaim himself caliph in his stead. This, together with
the weakness due to military reforms but recently begun, drove him to
rely on foreign aid; which, in the actual conditions of Europe, meant
the aid of Russia. The long tradition of French friendship for Turkey
had been broken, in 1830, by the conquest of Algiers. Austria was, for
the time, but the faithful ally of the tsar. On the 9th of August 1832
Mahmud made, through Stratford Canning, a formal proposal for an
alliance with Great Britain, which Palmerston refused to consider for
fear of offending France. Mahmud bitterly contrasted the fair
professions of England with the offers of effective help from Russia.
His old ally having deserted him, he accepted the aid of his hereditary
foe. The Russian expedition to the Bosporus, the convention of Kutaiah,
and the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (July 8, 1833) followed. Mahmud was
under no illusion as to the position in which the latter placed him
towards Russia; but his fear of Mehemet Ali and his desire to be
revenged upon him outweighed all other considerations. He resented the
action of France and England in forcing the settlement of Kutaiah upon
him, and remained shut up in his palace, inaccessible to all save his
favourites and the representative of Russia. With his single aim in view
he busied himself with the creation of a national militia, with the aid
of Moltke and other German officers. In 1834 the revolt of Syria against
Ibrahim seemed to give him his opportunity. He pleaded the duty of a
sultan to go to the aid of his subjects when oppressed by one of his
servants; but the powers were obdurate, even Russia, much occupied in
affairs nearer home, leaving him in the lurch. He was astute enough to
take advantage of the offence given to the powers by Mehemet Ali's
system of monopolies, and in 1838 signed with Great Britain, and
afterwards with others, a commercial treaty which cut at the root of the
pasha's system. A few months later his passionate impatience overcame
his policy and his fears. The hand of death was upon him, and he felt
that he must strike now or never. In vain the powers, now united in
their views, warned him of the probable consequences of any aggressive
action on his part. He would rather die, he exclaimed, or become the
slave of Russia, than not destroy his rebellious vassal. On his sole
initiative, without consulting his ministers or the council of the
empire, he sent instructions to Hafiz Pasha, commanding the Ottoman
troops concentrated at Bir on the Euphrates, to advance into Syria. The
fatal outcome of the campaign that followed he did not live to hear.
When the news of Ibrahim's overwhelming victory at Nessib (June 24,
1839) reached Constantinople, Mahmud lay dying and unconscious. Early in
the morning of the 1st of July his proud and passionate spirit passed
away.

Mahmud II. cannot be reckoned among the great sultans, neither had he
any of the calculating statecraft which characterized Abd-ul-Hamid II.;
but his qualities of mind and heart, none the less, raised him far above
the mass of his predecessors and successors. He was well versed in state
affairs and loyal to those who advised and served him, personally brave,
humane and kindly when not maddened by passion, active and energetic,
and always a man of his word. Unhappily, however, the taint of the
immemorial corruption of Byzantium had fallen upon him too, and the
avenue to his favour and to political power lay too often through
unspeakable paths. In view of the vast difficulty of the task before him
at his succession it is less surprising that he failed to carry out his
ideas than that he accomplished so much. When he came to the throne the
empire was breaking up from within; one by one he freed the provinces
from the tyrannical rulers who, like Ali of Jannina, were carving out
independent, or quasi-independent, empires within the empire. If he
failed in his wider schemes of reform, this was only one more
illustration of a truth of which other "enlightened" sovereigns besides
himself had experienced the force, namely, that it is impossible to
impose any system, however admirable, from above on a people whose
deepest convictions and prejudices it offends.

  There is a great deal of valuable material for the history of Mahmud
  and his policy in the unpublished F.O. records (1832-1839), volumes of
  correspondence marked _Turkey.--From Sir Stratford Canning.--From Mr.
  Mandeville.--From Lord Ponsonby._ See further works mentioned under
  TURKEY: _History_; and MEHEMET ALI.     (W. A. P.)



MAHMUD NEDIM PASHA (c. 1818-1883), Turkish statesman, was the son of
Nejib Pasha, ex-governor-general of Bagdad. After occupying various
subordinate posts at the Porte he became successively under-secretary of
state for foreign affairs, governor-general of Syria and Smyrna,
minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli; minister
successively of justice and of marine (1869); grand vizier from 1871 to
1872 and from 1875 to 1876. He was high in favour with Sultan
Abd-ul-Aziz and fell much under the influence of General Ignatiev, the
forceful Russian ambassador before the war of 1877-78, his subserviency
to Russia earning for him the nickname of "Mahmudoff." His
administration was most unsuccessful from every point of view, and he
was largely responsible for the issue of the decree suspending the
interest on the Turkish funds. He was minister of the interior from 1879
to 1883.



MAHMUD[1] OF GHAZNI (971-1030), son of Sabuktagin, Afghan conqueror, was
born on the 2nd of October 971. His fame rests chiefly on his successful
wars, in particular his numerous invasions of India. His military
capacity, inherited from his father, Nasir-ud-din Sabuktagin, was
strengthened by youthful experience in the field. Sabuktagin, a Turki
slave of Alptagin, governor of Khorasan under Abdalmalik I. b. Nuh of
the Samanid dynasty of Bokhara, early brought himself to notice (see
SAMANIDS). He was raised to high office in the state by Alptagin's
successor, Abu Ishak, and in A.H. 366 (A.D. 977), by the choice of the
nobles of Ghazni, he became their ruler. He soon began to make conquests
in the neighbouring countries, and in these wars he was accompanied by
his young son Mahmud. Before he had reached the age of fourteen he
encountered in two expeditions under his father the Indian forces of
Jaipal, raja of Lahore, whom Sabuktagin defeated on the Punjab frontier.

In 994 Mahmud was made governor of Khorasan, with the title of Saif
addaula (ud-daula) ("Sword of the State") by the Samanid Nuh II. Two
years later, his father Sabuktagin died in the neighbourhood of Balkh,
having declared his second son, Ismail, who was then with him, to be his
successor. As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh,
Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing
a division of the territories held by their father at his death. Ismail
rejected the proposal, and was immediately attacked by Mahmud and
defeated. Retreating to Ghazni, he there yielded, and was imprisoned,
and Mahmud obtained undisputed power as sovereign of Khorasan and Ghazni
(997).

The Ghaznevid dynasty is sometimes reckoned by native historians to
commence with Sabuktagin's conquest of Bost and Kosdar (978). But
Sabuktagin, throughout his reign at Ghazni, continued to acknowledge the
Samanid suzerainty, as did Mahmud also, until the time, soon after
succeeding to his father's dominions, when he received from Qadir,
caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPHATE, C. § 25), a _khilat_ (robe of honour),
with a letter recognizing his sovereignty, and conferring on him the
titles _Yamiin-addaula_ ("Right hand of the State"), and
_Amin-ul-Millat_ ("Guardian of the Faith"). From this time it is the
name of the caliph that is inscribed on Mahmud's coins, together with
his own new titles. Previously the name of the Samanid sovereign, Mansur
II. b. Nuh is given along with his own former title, Saif addaula
Mahmud. The earliest of those of the new form gives his name Mahmud bin
Sabuktagin. Thereafter his father's name does not appear on his coins,
but it is inscribed again on his tomb.

The new honours received from the caliph gave fresh impulse to Mahmud's
zeal on behalf of Islam, and he resolved on an annual expedition against
the idolaters of India. He could not quite carry out this intention, but
a great part of his reign was occupied with his Indian campaigns. In
1000 he started on the first of these expeditions, but it does not
appear that he went farther than the hill country near Peshawar. The
hostile attitude of Khalaf ibn Ahmad, governor of Seistan, called Mahmud
to that province for a short time. He was appeased by Khalaf's speedy
submission, together with the gift of a large sum of money, and further,
it is said, by his subdued opponent addressing him as _sultan_, a title
new at that time, and by which Mahmud continued to be called, though he
did not formally adopt it, or stamp it on his coins. Four years later
Khalaf, incurring Mahmud's displeasure again, was imprisoned, and his
property confiscated.

Mahmud's army first crossed the Indus in 1001, opposed by Jaipal, raja
of Lahore. Jaipal was defeated, and Mahmud, after his return from this
expedition, is said to have taken the distinctive appellation of _Ghazi_
("Valiant for the Faith"), but he is rarely so-called. On the next
occasion (1005) Mahmud advanced, as far as Bhera on the Jhelum, when his
adversary Anang-pal, son and successor of Jaipal, fled to Kashmir. The
following year saw Mahmud at Multan. When he was in the Punjab at this
time, he heard of the invasion of Khorasan by the Ilek Khan Nasr I.
ruler of Transoxiana whose daughter Mahmud had married. After a rapid
march back from India, Mahmud repelled the invaders. The Ilek Khan,
having retreated across the Oxus, returned with reinforcements, and took
up a position a few miles from Balkh, where he was signally defeated by
Mahmud.

Mahmud again entered the Punjab in 1008, this time for the express
purpose of chastising Sewah Pal, who, having become a Mussulman, and
been left by Mahmud in charge of Multan, had relapsed to Hinduism. The
Indian campaign of 1009 was notable. Near the Indus Mahmud was opposed
again by Anang-pal, supported by powerful rajas from other parts of
India. After a severe fight, Anang-pal's elephants were so terror-struck
by the fire-missiles flung amongst them by the invaders that they turned
and fled, the whole army retreating in confusion and leaving Mahmud
master of the field. Mahmud, after this victory, pushed on through the
Punjab to Nagar-kot (Kangra), and carried off much spoil from the Hindu
temples to enrich his treasury at Ghazni. In 1011 Mahmud, after a short
campaign against the Afghans under Mahommed ibn Sur in the hill country
of Ghur, marched again into the Punjab. The next time (1014) he advanced
to Thanesar, another noted stronghold of Hinduism, between the Sutlej
and the Jumna. Having now found his way across all the Punjab rivers, he
was induced on two subsequent occasions to go still farther. But first
he designed an invasion of Kashmir (1015), which was not carried out, as
his progress was checked at Loh-kot, a strong hill fort in the
north-west of the Punjab. Then before undertaking his longer inroad into
Hindustan he had to march north into Khwarizm (Khiva) against his
brother-in-law Mamun, who had refused to acknowledge Mahmud's supremacy.
The result was as usual, and Mahmud, having committed Khwarizm to a new
ruler, one of Mamun's chief officers, returned to his capital. Then in
1018, with a very large force, he proceeded to India again, extending
his inroad this time to the great Hindu cities of Mathra on the Jumna
and Kanauj on the Ganges. He reduced the one, received the submission of
the other, and carried back great stores of plunder. Three years later
he went into India again, marching over nearly the same ground, to the
support, this time, of the raja of Kanauj, who, having made friendship
with the Mahommedan invader on his last visit, had been attacked by the
raja of Kalinjar. But Mahmud found he had not yet sufficiently subdued
the idolaters nearer his own border, between Kabul and the Indus, and
the campaign of 1022 was directed against them, and reached no farther
than Peshawar. Another march into India the following year was made
direct to Gwalior.

The next expedition (1025) is the most famous of all. The point to which
it was directed was the temple of Somnath on the coast of the Gujarat
peninsula. After an arduous journey by Multan, and through part of
Rajputana, he reached Somnath, and met with a very vigorous but
fruitless resistance on the part of the Hindus of Gujarat. Moslem feet
soon trod the courts of the great temple. The chief object of worship it
contained was broken up, and the fragments kept to be carried off to
Ghazni. The story is often told of the hollow figure, cleft by Mahmud's
battle-axe, pouring out great store of costly jewels and gold. But the
idol in this Sivite temple was only a tall block or pillar of hewn
stone, of a familiar kind. The popular legend is a very natural one.
Mahmud, it was well known, made Hindu temples yield up their most
precious things. He was a determined idol-breaker. And the stone block
in this temple was enriched with a crown of jewels, the gifts of wealthy
worshippers. These data readily give the Somnath exploit its more
dramatic form. For the more recent story of the Somnath gates see
SOMNATH.

After the successes at Somnath, Mahmud remained some months in India
before returning to Ghazni. Then in 1026 he crossed the Indus once more
into the Punjab. His brilliant military career closed with an expedition
to Persia, in the third year after this, his last, visit to India. The
Indian campaigns of Mahmud and his father were almost, but not
altogether, unvarying successes. The Moslem historians touch lightly on
reverses. And, although the annals of Rajputana tell how Sabuktagin was
defeated by one raja of Ajmere and Mahmud by his successor, the course
of events which followed shows how little these and other reverses
affected the invader's progress. Mahmud's failure at Ajmere, when the
brave raja Bisal-deo obliged him to raise the siege but was himself
slain, was when the Moslem army was on its way to Somnath. Yet Mahmud's
Indian conquests, striking and important in themselves, were, after all,
in great measure barren, except to the Ghazni treasury. Mahmud retained
no possessions in India under his own direct rule. But after the
repeated defeats, by his father and himself, of two successive rajas of
Lahore, the conqueror assumed the right of nominating the governors of
the Punjab as a dependency of Ghazni, a right which continued to be
exercised by seven of his successors. And for a time, in the reign of
Masa'ud II. (1098-1114), Lahore was the place of residence of the
Ghaznevid sovereign.

Mahmud died at Ghazni in 1030, the year following his expedition to
Persia. He is conspicuous for his military ardour, his ambition, strong
will, perseverance, watchfulness and energy, combined with great courage
and unbounded self-reliance. But his tastes were not exclusively
military. His love of literature brought men of learning to Ghazni, and
his acquaintance with Moslem theology was recognized by the learned
doctors.

  The principal histories of Mahmud's reign are--_Kitab-i-Yamini_
  (Utbi); _Tarikh-us-Subuktigin_ (Baihaki); _Tabakat i Nasiri_ (Minhaj
  el-Siraj); _Rauzat-us-Safa_ (Mir Khond); _Habib-us-Sivar_ (Khondamir).
  See Elliot, _History of India_; Elphinstone, _History of India_; and
  Roos-Keppel's translation of the _Tarikh-i-Sultan Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi_
  (1901).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The name is strictly Mahmud.



MAHOBA, an ancient town in India, in Hamirpur district of the United
Provinces. Pop. (1901), 10,074. As the capital of the Chandel dynasty,
who ruled over Bundelkhand from the 9th to the 13th century, the
neighbourhood is covered with architectural antiquities, prominent among
which are artificial lakes, formed by banking up valleys with masonry
dams. The largest of these is more than 4 m. in circuit.



MAHOGANY, a dark-coloured wood largely used for household furniture, the
product of a large tree indigenous to Central America and the West
Indies. It was originally received from Jamaica; 521,300 ft. were
exported from that island in 1753. It is known botanically as _Swietenia
Mahogani_, and is a member of the order _Meliaceae_. It bears compound
leaves, resembling those of the ash, and clusters of small flowers, with
five sepals and petals and ten stamens which are united into a tube. The
fruit is a pear-shaped woody capsule, and contains many winged seeds.
The dark-coloured bark has been considered a febrifuge, and the seeds
were used by the ancient Aztecs with oil for a cosmetic, but the most
valuable product is the timber, first noticed by the carpenter on board
Sir Walter Raleigh's ship in 1595 for its great beauty, hardness and
durability. Dr Gibbons brought it into notice as well adapted for
furniture in the early part of the 18th century, and its use as a
cabinet wood was first practically established by a cabinet-maker named
Wollaston, who was employed by Gibbons to work up some mahogany brought
to England by his brother. It was introduced into India in 1795, and is
now cultivated in Bengal and as far north as Saharunpur.

  The timber of species of _Cedrela_ and _Melia_, other members of the
  order _Meliaceae_, are used as Mahogany, and the product of the West
  African _Khaya senegalensis_ is known as African mahogany. There is
  some confusion between the product of these various trees. Herbert
  Stone (_The Timbers of Commerce_, 1904) says: "The various species of
  mahogany and cedar are so confusing that it is difficult to make
  precise statements as to their structure or origin. I know of no
  convincing proof that any of the American kinds met with on the
  English market are the wood of _Swietenia Mahogani_, nor that those
  shipped from Africa are the wood of _Khaya senegalensis_. These two
  genera are very nearly allied to _Cedrela_ and _Melia_, and it is
  difficult to separate any of the four from the rest by the characters
  of the wood. After giving the most careful attention to every detail,
  I lean to the view that most if not all of the mahoganies commonly met
  with are Cedrelas."

  _Kiggelaria Dregeana_ (natural order _Bixineae_), a native of South
  Africa, is known as Natal mahogany.



MAHOMET (strictly MUHAMMAD, commonly also MOHAMMED), founder of the
religious system called in Europe after him Mahommedanism, and by
himself Islam or Hanifism. He died, according to the ordinary
synchronism, on the 7th of June 632 (12 Rabia, A.H. 11), and his
birthday was exactly sixty-three or sixty-five years earlier, the latter
number being evidently an interpretation in lunar years of a number
thought to refer to solar years. The lunar system was introduced into
Arabia by Mahomet himself quite at the close of his career; that which
existed before was certainly solar, as it involved a process of
intercalation--which, however, seems to have been arbitrarily
manipulated by priests, whence certain synchronisms cannot be got for
the events in the Prophet's career. The number 63 for the years of his
life may rest on tradition, though it is unlikely that such matters were
accurately noted; it can also be accounted for by a priori combination.
A Meccan, it is said, became a full citizen at the age of 40; this then
would be the age at which the mission might be started. The Medina
period (of which count was kept) lasted ten to eleven years; for the
Meccan period ten years would seem a likely length. Finally it was known
that for some years--about three--the mission had been conducted
secretly. The only event in contemporary history to which the Koran
alludes in its earlier parts is the Persian conquest of Palestine in
616. Clearly Mahomet had begun to prophesy at that date.


  His Country.

Before the rise of Islam, Mahomet's native place, Mecca, appears to
figure nowhere in historical records, unless there be a reference to it
in the "valley of Baca" (Psalm lxxxiv. 6). Its sacred, and therefore
archaic, name is _Bakkah_; hence the identification of the name with
that of the sanctuary Makoraba, known to the Greek geographers, is not
philologically tenable; although so eminent a linguist as Dozy evolved a
theory of the origin of the city from this name, which appears to be
South Arabian for "sanctuary," and has no connexion with Hebrew (as Dozy
supposed). In the 3rd century of Islam the mythology of Mecca was
collected and published in book form, but we learn little more from it
than names of tribes and places; it is clear that there was no record of
the mode in which the community inhabiting the place had got there, and
that little was remembered with accuracy of the events which preceded
the rise of its prophet. The city had a sanctuary, called the _Cube_
(_ka'ba_), of which the nucleus was the "Black Stone," probably to be
identified with Allah, the god of the community; both still exist, or
rather their legitimate substitutes, as the Ka`ba has been repeatedly
reconstructed, and the original Black Stone was stolen by the
Carmathians in the 4th century of Islam; they afterwards returned one,
but it may or may not have been the same as that which they removed. At
some time in the 6th century--said to have been the birth-year of the
Prophet, but really much earlier--an Abyssinian invader raided Mecca
with the view of abolishing this sanctuary; but for some reason had to
desist. This expedition, known as the "Raid of the Elephant," one of
these animals being employed in it, seems to be of great importance for
explaining the rise of Islam; for a sanctuary which can repel an invader
acquires tremendous reputation. Some verses in the Koran which are
perhaps not genuine, record the miracle whereby Allah repelled the
"People of the Elephant." The sanctuary was apparently in the possession
of the tribe Koreish (Quraish), the origin of whose name is unknown,
said to have come originally from Cutha in Mesopotamia. They were known
(we are told) as the people of Allah, and, by wearing a badge, were
sacrosanct throughout Arabia. If this be true, it was probably a
privilege earned by the miraculous defence of the Ka`ba, and is
sufficient to account for the rise of Meccan commerce of which we hear
much in the biography of the Prophet, and to which some verses of the
earliest part of the Koran allude; for merchants who were safe from
attacks by bandits would have an enormous advantage. The records seem,
however, to be inconsistent with this assertion; and the growth of the
Meccan commerce is sufficiently accounted for by the fact that after the
Abyssinian invasion pilgrimage to the Ka`ba became the practice of
numerous Arab tribes, and for four months in the year (selected by
Meccan priests) raiding was forbidden, in order to enable the pilgrimage
to be safely made. In addition to this it would seem that all Mecca
counted as sanctuary--i.e. no blood might under any circumstances be
shed there. The community lived by purveying to pilgrims and the
carrying trade; and both these operations led to the immigration of
strangers.


  Mahomet's Family.

There seems to be no doubt that Mahomet was himself a member of the
tribe Koreish, and indeed too many of his relatives figure in history to
permit of his parentage being questioned. His cousin 'Ali, fourth
caliph, was the son of Abu Talib, whose name attests the historical
character of the kindred name `Abd al-Mottalib, Mahomet's grandfather:
for the fact that this name is in part enigmatical is certainly no
argument against its genuineness. In the 3rd century of Islam a document
was shown in which a man of San'a in Yemen acknowledged that he had
borrowed from `Abd al-Mottalib 1000 silver dirhems of the Hudaida
standard, and Allah with the two "angels" (probably a euphemism for the
goddesses Al-lat and al-`Uzza) served as witness; it is difficult to see
why such a document should have been forged. The name Hashim (for `Abd
al-Mottalib's father) may or may not be historical; here, as in the
ascending line throughout, we have subjects without predicates. The name
of `Abd al-Mottalib's son, who was Mahomet's father, is given as
`Abdallah; the correctness of this has been questioned, because "Servant
of Allah" would seem to be too appropriate, and the name was often given
by the Prophet to converts as a substitute for some pagan appellation.
This, however, is hypercritical, as the name of the father could not
easily be altered, when relatives abounded, and it would seem that at
one time the Prophet made no theological use of the name Allah, for
which he intended to substitute Rahman. The name of his mother is given
as Aminah, and with this one of his own titles, Amin, agrees; although
the Arabs do not appear to bring the two into connexion. Her father's
name is given as Wahb, and she is brought into relation with a Medinese
tribe called the Banu `Adi b. al-Najjar, to whom she is said to have
brought her son in his early infancy. The circumstances may have been
suggested by his later connexion with that place; yet in what seems a
historical narrative her grave is mentioned as known to be at Abwa,
midway between the two cities, whence this early bond between the
Prophet and his future home may have really existed.

His own name is given in the Koran in the forms Ahmad and the familiar
Muhammad; in contemporary poetry we also find the form Mahmud. Similar
variation between derivatives from the same root is found in proper
names which occur in early poetry; the meaning of all would be "the
praised," if the root be given its Arabic signification--"the desired"
if interpreted from the Hebrew.

  The form Muhammad (ordinarily transliterated Mohammed; Mahomet,
  Mehmet, &c., represent the Turkish pronunciation) is found in a
  pre-Islamic inscription, and appears to have been fairly common in
  Arabia. In Hag. ii. 7 a derivative of the Hebrew equivalent root
  occurs in the prophecy "and the desired of all nations shall come,"
  and this passage has suggested the idea that the name may have been
  taken by the Prophet as the equivalent of "Messiah," while the Moslems
  themselves find its equivalent in the _Paraclete_ of the Fourth
  Gospel, though this identification requires more ingenuity. His
  _kunyah_ (i.e. the Arab title of respect, in which a man is called
  after his son) is Abu'l-Qasim; other names by which he is called are
  titles of honour, e.g. Mustafa "chosen." (See further the genealogical
  table, _ad fin._)


  Early Life.

In the Koran, Allah says that He found the Prophet an orphan, poor and
astray; it is possible that all these expressions should be understood
figuratively, like the "poor, naked, blind" of Christian hymns; the
Arabs, however, take them literally, and Mahomet is said to have been a
posthumous child, whose mother died a few months or years after his
birth, and who was brought up first by his grandfather, and then by his
uncle Abu Talib, one of the poorer members of the family; in the
controversy between the Alid and Abbasid pretenders of the 2nd century
of Islam the Abbasid Mansur claims that his ancestor fed the ancestor of
`Ali, i.e. Abu Talib, otherwise he would have had to beg. There was
evidently an apparent inconsistency between Mahomet's being a poor
orphan and the favourite grandchild of the eminent and wealthy `Abd
al-Mottalib; and it was solved in this way. There was a tradition that
in his early years he was sent into the desert to acquire the habits and
the language of the Bedouins; and this seems to have been attested by
the Prophet himself. In a tribal fight he is said to have acted as
armour-bearer to one of his uncles, Zubair. There seems no doubt that he
often accompanied Meccan caravans to the countries with which the
Meccans had trade relations; such especially were Syria and south
Arabia, and perhaps Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is conceivable that he may
have visited Abyssinia by sea. For though accurate knowledge is nowhere
to be found in the Koran, it exhibits a large amount of miscellaneous
information, such as a trader might well pick up. His career as a
caravan-conductor appears to have terminated with his marriage to
Khadija, daughter of Khuwailid, represented by the tradition as a
wealthy widow, fifteen years his senior and forty years of age at the
time of the union. As she became the mother of a numerous family, a
special rule was discovered by Moslem physiologists extending the
child-bearing period of Korashite women beyond that of others. Since it
is claimed for Mahomet that he first gave Arab women the right to
inherit property, the difficulty noticed is not the only one connected
with this marriage; and Robertson Smith has called attention to some
others, unconnected with his theory of "marriage and kinship in early
Arabia." After his marriage Mahomet appears to have been partner in a
shop in Mecca; where he apparently sold agricultural produce. His style
is strongly marked by phrases and metaphors drawn from trade, though as
a statesman he never displayed any financial ability.


  Education.

Writing in the monumental script of South Arabia had been known for
centuries in the peninsula; and shortly before the rise of Islam a
cursive script--the parent of the ordinary Arabic character--had been
started in the Christian state of Hira, with which the beginnings of
modern Arabic literature are connected. A modification of this had been
introduced into Mecca, and was probably used for contracts and similar
documents. The word _ummi_, literally "popular" or "plebeian" (according
to one etymology), applied to Mahomet in the Koran, is said to mean "one
who can neither read nor write," and the most generally accepted view is
that he could do neither, a supposition which enters into the doctrine
of the miraculous nature of the Koran. According to another
interpretation the word means "Meccan," i.e. native of "the Mother of
the Villages" (_Umm al-Qura_); and the most probable theory is that he
could do both, but unskilfully. Indeed on one historic occasion he
erased certain words in a document; and where in the Koran he rebuts the
charge of "taking notes," he does not employ the obvious retort that he
could not write, but gives a far less convincing answer. For poetry,
which seems to have been cultivated in Arabia long before his time, he
possessed no ear; but we have little reason for supposing that either
writing or versification had yet entered into Arabian education. The
former would be acquired by those who needed it, the latter was regarded
as a natural gift. There is reason for thinking the language of the
Koran incorrect and ungrammatical in parts, but as it afterwards became
the ultimate standard of classical Arabic, this point is not easy to
prove. On the whole then his early life seems to have been such as was
normal in the case of a man belonging to one of the more important
families in a community which had not long been started on a career of
prosperity.


  Social System.

Of the organization of that community we unfortunately know very little,
though we hear of a council-chamber, and, as has been seen, of an
age-qualification for admission to it. It is, however, certain that the
theory of decision by majority was absolutely unknown to Mahomet's
second successor, whence we learn little from this tradition (even if it
be authentic) of the mode whereby the tribes who together formed the
Meccan population managed their common concerns, whether commercial or
political. The form of government seems to have been a rudimentary
oligarchy, directed by some masterful individual; before the Flight we
read of various prominent personages, after the Flight and the battle of
Badr (A.H. 2) one chieftain, Abu Sofian (see CALIPHATE, _ad init._),
appears to take the lead whether in war or in policy. It would seem,
however, that the right of independent action belonged to the individual
tribes, even to the extent of refusing to take part in a campaign. For
the settlement of ordinary disputes recourse was had (it appears) rather
to soothsayers, near or distant, than to any regularly constituted
authority or tribunal. On the other hand we are furnished with a list of
officials who were concerned with different parts of the festal
performances and the ordinary worship. Of these we may mention the
Custodian of the Ka`ba, and the official whose duty was _siqayah_
("watering"), said to mean furnishing the pilgrims with water, but more
ingeniously interpreted in recent times as "rain-bringing," a function
which even in the 2nd century of Islam the governor in some places was
supposed to exercise.


  Beginnings of the Mission.

Of Arabian paganism we possess no trustworthy or complete account; since
we hear of no theological literature belonging to it, probably no such
account could have been given. There were doubtless a variety of
practices, many of which have been continued to this day in the
ceremonies of the pilgrimage, and offerings of different sorts to
various deities, interpreted variously by the worshippers in accordance
with their spiritual, intellectual and moral levels; e.g. as actual
stones, or as men (or more often women) residing in the stones or
otherwise connected with them, or bearing a similar relation to trees,
or stars, &c. In general every tribe had its patron of the kind, and
where there were aggregations of tribes, connexions were established
between these deities, and affiliation-theories excogitated; hence the
theory attributed in the Koran to the Meccans that the goddesses
al-`Uzza, &c. were the daughters of Allah, may well represent the
outcome of such speculation. These, however, were known to few, whereas
the practices were familiar to all. Some of these were harmless, others
barbarous; many offensive, but not very reprehensible, superstitions.


  External Influences.

Before Mahomet's time Arabian paganism had already been attacked both
from the outside and from the inside. On the one hand the northern
tribes had gradually been christianized, owing to the influence of the
Byzantine empire; on the other hand south Arabia had fallen successively
under Jewish, Abyssinian and Persian influence; and the last, though
little is known of Persian rule, is unlikely to have favoured pagan
cults. Christianity had also some important representation in Najran far
south of Mecca, while Jewish settlements were prospering north of Mecca
in the Prophet's future home Yathrib and its neighbourhood. Power,
civilization and learning were thus associated with monotheism
(Judaism), dualism (Mazdaism) and tritheism (as the Arabs interpreted
Christianity); paganism was the religion of ignorance (_jahiliyyah_,
interpreted by Goldziher as "barbarism," but the difference is not very
considerable). Mecca itself and the neighbouring and allied Taif are
said to have produced some monotheists or Christians, who identified the
_Allah_ of Mecca with the _Allaha_ or God of the Syrian Christians,
called by the Abyssinian Christians "Lord of the Regions," and by the
Jews "the Merciful" (_Rahmana_); one such is said to have been a cousin
of Khadija, Mahomet's wife; his name is given as Waraqah, son of Naufal,
and he is credited with copying or translating a Gospel. We even hear of
flagellant monks and persons vowed to total abstinence among the
precursors of Islam.

With these persons Mahomet had little in common, since they do not
appear to have claimed to enforce their views upon others, or to have
interfered with politics. He appears mainly to have been struck by the
personality of the founders of the systems dominant in the civilized
world, and to have aspired from the first to occupy the place of
legislator or mouthpiece of the Deity; and that he was this was and is
the main proposition of the Mahommedan creed. The "Prophet" or "Apostle"
(at different times he employed both the Jewish and the Christian
phrase) was the divinely appointed dictator of his community; if he were
not obeyed, divine vengeance would overtake the disobedient. At this
proposition Mahomet arrived by induction from the records of the
Biblical prophets, as well as others who seem to have figured in Arabian
mythology, e.g. the destruction of the tribe Thamud (mentioned by Pliny,
and therefore historical) for their disobedience to their prophet Salih,
and of `Ad (probably mythical) for their similar treatment of Hud. The
character of the message did not affect the necessity for obedience; at
times it was condemnation of some moral offence, at others a trivial
order. Divine vengeance overtook those who disobeyed either.


  The Prophet's Call.

This is the theory of the prophetic office which pervades the Koran,
wherein the doctrine is formulated that every nation had its divine
guide and that Mecca before Mahomet's time had none. This place, then,
Mahomet felt a divine call to fill. But we are never likely to ascertain
what first put the idea into his mind. The fables which his biographers
tell on this subject are not worth repeating; his own system, in which
he is brought into direct communication with the Deity, though at a
later period the angel Gabriel appears to have acted as intermediary,
naturally leaves no room for such speculations; and since his
dispensation was thought to be absolutely new, and to make a _tabula
rasa_ of the pagan past, his first followers, having broken with that
past, left no intelligible account of the state of affairs which
preceded their master's call. Some generations therefore elapsed before
that past was studied with any sort of sympathy, and details could not
then be recovered, any more than they can now be supplied by conjecture.

So far as Mahomet may be said from the first to have formulated a
definite notion of his work, we should probably be right in thinking it
to be the restoration of the religion of Abraham, or (as the Koran calls
him) Ibrahim. Though we have no reason for supposing the name of Abraham
or Ishmael to have been known in Mecca generally before Mahomet's time,
the Biblical ethnology was not apparently questioned by those who were
told of it, and there are stories, not necessarily apocryphal, of
precursors of Mahomet going abroad in search of the "religion of
Abraham." One feature of that system, associated in the Bible with the
name of Ishmael as well, was circumcision, which was actually observed
by the Meccan tribes, though it would appear with technical differences
from the Jewish method; the association of monotheism with it would seem
reasonable enough, in view of Jewish traditions, such as Mahomet may
have heard on his travels; why the doctrine of the future life should be
coupled with it is less obvious. That the Meccan temple and its rites
had been founded by these two patriarchs appears to have been deduced by
Mahomet himself, but perhaps at a later stage of his career. That these
rites, so far as they were idolatrous, were in flagrant defiance of the
religion of Abraham must have struck any one who accepted the accounts
of it which were current among Jews and Christians. The precursors,
however, appear to have felt no call to reform their fellow-citizens;
whereas it is evident that Mahomet regarded himself as charged with a
message, which he was bound to deliver, and which his God would in some
way render effective.

As it was obvious that the claim to be God's mouthpiece was to claim
autocracy, Mahomet employed the utmost caution in his mode of asserting
this claim; on the question of his sincerity there have been different
opinions held, and it is not necessary to take any view on this matter.
For three years his followers were a secret society; and this period
appears to have been preceded by one of private preparation, the first
revelation being received when the Prophet was in religious
retirement--a ceremony called _tahannuth_, of which the meaning is
uncertain, but which can have no connexion with the Hebrew _tehinnoth_
("supplications")--on Mount Hira, near Mecca.


  The Koran.

If the traditional dates assigned to the _suras_ (chapters) of the Koran
(q.v.) are correct, the earliest revelations took the form of pages or
rolls which the Prophet was to read by the "grace of God," as Joseph
Smith, the founder of the Mormon community, said of the power given him
to read the "Egyptian" characters on the gold plates which he had found.
The command to read is accompanied by the statement that "his most
generous Lord had taught man by the pen (_calamus_) that which he did
not know." Waraqah, to whom the event is said to have been communicated
by Khadija, called these communications "the Greater Law (_nomos_)." The
Prophet was directed to communicate his mission at the first only to his
nearest relatives. The utterances were from the first in a sort of
rhyme, such as is said to have been employed for solemn matter in
general, e.g. oracles or prayers. At an early period the production of a
written communication was abandoned for oral communications, delivered
by the Prophet in trance; their delivery was preceded by copious
perspiration, for which the Prophet prepared (in accordance with
instructions found in the Koran) by wrapping himself in a blanket.
Trusty followers were instructed to take these utterances down, but the
phenomena which accompanied their delivery at least in one case
suggested imposture to the scribe, who apostatized in consequence. It is
extraordinary that there is no reason to suppose that any official
record was ever kept of these revelations; the Prophet treated them
somewhat as the Sibyl did her leaves. This carelessness is equally
astounding whether the Prophet was sincere or insincere.

If the matter afterwards collected in the Koran be genuine, the early
revelations must have been miscellaneous in content, magical, historical
and homiletic. To some strange oaths are prefixed. Apparently the
purpose to be compassed was to convince the audience of their miraculous
origin. The formulation of doctrines belongs to a later period and that
of jurisprudence to the latest of all. In that last period also, when
Mahomet was despot of Medina, the Koran served as an official chronicle,
well compared by Sprenger to the leading articles on current events in a
ministerial organ. Where the continuous paragraph is substituted for the
ejaculation, the divine author apologizes for the style.

Certain doctrines and practices (e.g. washing of the person and the
garments) must have been enjoined from the first, but our authorities
scarcely give us any clear notion what they were. The doctrines to which
the Prophet himself throughout assigned most value seem to have been the
unity of God and the future life, or resurrection of the body. The
former necessitated the abandonment of the idolatrous worship which
formed part of the daily life of Mecca, and in which Mahomet and Khadija
had been accustomed to take their part. Yet it seems to have been due to
the initiative of the proselytes themselves rather than to the Prophet's
orders that the Meccan worship was actually flouted by them; for the
anecdote which represents the Prophet and his young cousin attempting to
pull down the images in or about the Ka'ba appears to be apocryphal. The
first Moslem ceremony would appear to have been the religious meeting
for the purpose of hearing the delivery of revelations, of which after
the Prophet's death the sermon (_khutbah_) took the place. After various
provisional meeting-places, the house of one al-Arqam on Mt. Safa was
adopted for this purpose; and here proselytes were initiated.


  Growth of the Early Community.

The names which the new community received from its founder are both
philological puzzles; for the natural sense of Moslem (_Muslim_) appear
to be "traitors," and to this a contemporary war-song of Mahomet's
enemies alludes; while _Hanif_ (especially applied in the Koran to
Abraham) seems to be the Hebrew word for "hypocrite." The former is
explained in the Koran to mean "one who hands over his face or person to
God," and is said to have been invented by Abraham; of the latter no
explanation is given, but it seems to signify from the context
"devotee." Since the divine name _Rahman_ was at one time favoured by
Mahomet, and this was connected with one Maslama of the tribe Hanifa,
who figures in politics at the end of Mahomet's career but must have
been a religious leader far earlier, it has been suggested that the
names originally belonged to Maslama's community. The honour of having
been Mahomet's first convert is claimed for three persons: his wife
Khadija, his cousin Ali, who must have been a lad at the commencement of
the mission, and Abu Bekr, son of Abu Quhafah, afterwards Mahomet's
first successor. This last person became Mahomet's _alter ego_, and is
usually known as the _Siddiq_ (Heb. word signifying "the saint," but to
the Arabs meaning "faithful friend)". His loyalty from first to last was
absolutely unswerving; he was selected to accompany Mahomet on the most
critical occasion of his life, the Flight from Mecca; Mahomet is said to
have declared that had he ever made a confidant of any one, that person
would have been Abu Bekr; implying that there were things which were not
confided even to him. The success of the Prophet's enterprise seems to
have been very largely due to the part played by this adherent, who
possessed a variety of attainments which he put at Mahomet's service;
who when an intermediary was required was always ready to represent him,
and who placed the commendation of the Prophet above every other
consideration, private or public. The two appear to have regularly laid
siege to those persons in Mecca whose adherence was desirable; and the
ability which many of the earlier converts afterwards displayed, whether
as statesmen or generals, is a remarkable testimony to their power of
gauging men. It seems clear that the growth of wealth in Mecca had led
to the accentuation of the difference between persons of different
station, and that many were discontented with the oligarchy which
governed the city. Converts could, therefore, be won without serious
difficulty among the aliens and in general those who suffered under
various disqualifications. Some members of the Jewish community seem
also to have joined; and some relics of the Abyssinian expedition (i.e.
descendants of the invaders). Among the most important converts of the
Meccan period were Mahomet's uncle Hamza, afterwards for his valour
called "the Lion of God"; 'Abd al-Rahman (Abdar-rahman) son of 'Auf;
Othman, son of 'Affan, who married two of the Prophet's daughters
successively, and was Mahomet's third successor; and, more important
than any save Abu Bekr, Omar, son of al-Khattab, a man of extraordinary
force of character, to whom siege seems to have been laid with
extraordinary skill. At some time he received the honourable title
_Faruq_ ("Deliverer"); he is represented as regularly favouring force,
where Abu Bekr favoured gentle methods; unlike Abu Bekr, his loyalty was
not always above suspicion. His adherence is ascribed to the period of
publicity.

The secrecy which marked its early years was of the greatest value for
the eventual success of the mission; for when Mahomet came forward
publicly he was already the head of a band of united followers. His own
family appear to have been either firm adherents, or violent enemies, or
lukewarm and temporizing--this is the best which can be said for 'Abbas,
eponymus of the Abbasid dynasty; or finally espousers of his cause, on
family grounds, but not as believers.


  First Period of Publicity.

Rejecting accounts of Mahomet's first appearance as a public preacher,
which are evidently comments on a text of the Koran, we have reason for
supposing that his hand was forced by ardent followers, who many times
in his career compelled him to advance. The astute rulers of the
community perceived that the claim made by Mahomet was to be dictator or
autocrat; and while this was naturally ridiculed by them, some appear to
have been devoted adherents of the gods or goddesses whom he attacked.
The absence of dated documents for the period between this open
proclamation (which in any case commenced before 616) and the Flight to
Medina in 622 renders the course of events somewhat conjectural, though
certain details appear to be well established. Apparently there was a
war of words, followed by a resort to diplomacy and then to force; and
then a period in which Mahomet's attention was directed to foreign
conversions, resulting in his being offered and accepting the
dictatorship of Yathrib.

Of the war of words we have an imperfect record in the Meccan suras of
the Koran, which occasionally state the objections urged by the
opponents. In the course of the debate the theological position of both
parties seems to have shifted, and the knowledge of both was probably
increased in various ways. The miracle of the Koran, which at first
consisted in its mode of production, was transformed into a marvel
connected with its contents; first by Mahomet's claiming to tell
historical narratives which had previously been unknown to him;
afterwards by the assertion that the united efforts of mankind and Jinn
would be unable to match the smallest passage of the Koran in sublimity.
Probably the first of these claims could not be long maintained, though
A. J. Davis, "the Seer of Poughkeepsie," in our own time brought a
similar one in regard to his _Principles of Nature_. Indeed both parties
evidently resorted to external aid. To those who undertook to name the
man who dictated stories of the ancients to Mahomet day and night, he
replied that the individual whom they had in mind was a foreigner,
whereas the Koran was in pure Arabic. This was obviously a quibble, for
it was scarcely asserted that he delivered the matter dictated to him
without alteration. The purity of the Arabic also appears to have been
very questionable; for several expressions appear to be Ethiopic rather
than Arabic, and the person whom the Meccans had in mind is likely to
have been an Abyssinian Christian, since the Christian technicalities of
the Koran are mainly derived from the Ethiopic Gospels and Acts. On one
occasion when some questions suggested by learned foreigners had been
propounded to the Prophet he required a fortnight's delay before the
revelation which solved them came; the matter contained in his reply was
certainly such as required research. His sources of information seem at
all times to have been legendary rather than canonical; and the
community which seemed to his opponents to agree best with his views was
that of the Sabians or Mandaeans (qq.v.).

It has been suggested that Mahomet first threatened the Meccans with
temporal punishment, and only when this threat failed to take effect
resorted to the terrors of the Day of Judgment and the tortures of Hell;
it seems however a mistake to distinguish between the two. These threats
provided the Prophet with his most powerful sermons. The boasts of
incomparable eloquence which the Koran contains are evidence that his
oratorical power was effective with his audiences, since the more
successful among the Arabic poets talk of their compositions somewhat in
the same way. These discourses certainly led to occasional conversions,
perhaps more frequently among women than men.


  The Exiles in Axum.

The diplomatic war seems to have been due to the Prophet's increasing
success, which led to serious persecution of Mahomet's less influential
followers, though, as has been seen, no blood could be shed in Mecca.
Abu Talib, moreover, prevented him from being exiled, though he probably
had to endure many personal insults. Something however had to be done
for the persecuted Moslems, and (perhaps at the suggestion of his
Abyssinian helper) Mahomet endeavoured to find a refuge for them in the
realm of Axum. Abyssinia was doubtless connected in every Meccan mind
with the "Expedition of the Elephant"; and such an alliance secured by
Mahomet was a menace to the existence of the Meccan community. A
deputation was therefore sent by the Meccan leaders to demand
extradition of the exiles; and as chief of this expedition the future
conqueror of Egypt, 'Amr b. al-'As (see 'AMR IBN EL-ASS), first figures
in history. To frustrate his efforts Mahomet sent his cousin Ja'far
armed with an exposition of the Prophet's beliefs and doctrines
afterwards embodied in the Koran as the Sura of Mary (No. XIX.; though
with the addition of some anti-Christian matter). The original document
contained an account of the Nativity of Christ with various miracles not
known to either the canonical or even the apocryphal gospels which have
been preserved, but which would be found edifying rather than unorthodox
by a church one of whose most popular books is _The Miracles of the
Virgin Mary_. To this there were added certain notices of Old Testament
prophets. The Abyssinian king and his ecclesiastical advisers took the
side of Mahomet and his followers, whom they appear to have regarded as
persecuted Christians; and an attempt made probably by the astute 'Amr
to embroil them with the Abyssinians on the difficult question of the
Natures of Christ failed completely. There seems reason for thinking
that the Abyssinian king contemplated bringing back the exiles by force,
but was diverted from this purpose by frontier wars; meanwhile they were
safely harboured, though they seem to have suffered from extreme
poverty. The want of an Abyssinian chronicle for this period is a
serious disadvantage for the study of Islamic origins. The sequel shows
that regular correspondence went on between the exiles and those who
remained in Mecca, whence the former were retained within the fold of
Islam, with occasional though rare apostasies to Christianity.

Mahomet's diplomatic victory roused the Meccan leaders to fury, and they
decided on the most vigorous measures to which they could rise; Abu
Talib, Mahomet's protector, and the clan which acknowledged him as
_sheikh_, including the Prophet and his family, were blockaded in the
quarter which they occupied; as in other sanctuaries, though blood might
not be shed, a culprit might be starved to death. That this did not
occur, though the siege appears to have lasted some months at least, was
due to the weak good nature of the Meccans, but doubtless also to the
fact that there were enlisted on Mahomet's side many men of great
physical strength and courage (as their subsequent careers proved), who
could with impunity defy the Meccan embargo. After a time however the
besieged found the situation intolerable, and any assistance which they
might have expected from the king of Axum failed to come. The course
adopted by Mahomet was retractation of those of his utterances which had
most offended the Meccans, involving something like a return to
paganism. A revelation came acknowledging the effectiveness of the
Meccan goddesses as well as Allah, and the Meccans raised the siege.
News of the reconciliation reached the Abyssinian exiles and they
proceeded to return.

By the time they reached the Arabian coast the dispute had recommenced.
The revelation was discovered to be a fabrication of the Devil, who, it
appears, regularly interpolates in prophetic revelations; such at least
is the apology preserved in the Koran, whence the fabricated verses have
been expunged. Since our knowledge of this episode (regarded as the most
disgraceful in the Prophet's career) is fragmentary, we can only guess
that the Prophet's hand had once more been forced by the more earnest of
his followers, for whom any compromise with paganism was impossible. The
exiles went back to Abyssinia; and about this time both Abu Talib and
Khadija died, leaving the Prophet unprotected.

He fled to the neighbouring oasis of Taif, where wealthy Meccans had
possessions, and where the goddess al-`Uzza was worshipped with special
zeal--where she is said still to exist in the form of a block of stone.
He had but little success there in proselytizing, and indeed had to
cease preaching; but he opened negotiations with various Meccan magnates
for a promise of protection in case of his return. This was at last
obtained with difficulty from one Mot`im b. `Adi. It would appear that
his efforts were now confined to preaching to the strangers who
assembled at or near Mecca for the ceremonies connected with the feasts.
He received in consequence some invitations to come and expound his
views away from Mecca, but had to wait some time before one came of a
sort which he could wisely accept.


  The Flight to Yathrib.

The situation which led to Mahomet's Flight (_hijra_, anglicized
incorrectly _hejira_, q.v.) was singularly favourable to Mahomet's
enterprise, and utilized by him with extraordinary caution and skill. At
the palm plantation called Yathrib, afterwards known as _al-Medina_,
Medina, "the City" (i.e. of the Prophet), there were various tribes, the
two most important, called Aus and Khazraj, being pagan, and engaged in
an internecine feud, while under their protection there were certain
Jewish tribes, whose names have come down to us as Qainuqa, Nadir and
Quraiza--implying that the Israelites, as might be expected, imitated
the totem nomenclature of their neighbours. The memory of these
Israelites is exclusively preserved by the Moslem records; the main
stream of Jewish history flowed elsewhere. In the series of combats
between the Aus and Khazraj the former had generally been worsted; the
Jews, as usual, had avoided taking any active part in the fray. Finally,
owing to an act of gross perfidy, they were compelled to fight in aid of
the Aus; and in the so-called battle of Bu`ath the Aus aided by the Jews
had won a victory, doubtless attributed to the God of the Jews. As has
been seen, the divine name employed by Mahomet (_Rahman_) was one
familiar to the Jews; and the Yathribites who visited Mecca at
feast-time were naturally attracted by a professed representative of
al-Rahman. The first Yathribite converts appear to have been
Khazrajites, and one As`ad, son of Zurarah, is the most prominent
figure. Their idea may have been in the first place to secure the aid of
the Israelitish Deity in their next battle with the Aus, and indeed the
primary object of their visit to Mecca is said to have been to request
assistance for their war. For this the plan was substituted of inviting
the Prophet to come to Mecca as dictator, to heal the feud and restore
order, a procedure to which Greek antiquity offers parallels. The new
converts were told to carry on secret propaganda in Yathrib with this
end in view. At the next feast some of the rival faction embraced Islam.
A trusty follower of Mahomet, Mus'ab b.'Umair, who resembled Mahomet in
personal appearance, was sent to Yathrib to assist in the work. The
correspondence between this person and the Prophet would, if we
possessed it, be of the greatest value for the study of Islamic
antiquity. We first hear at this time of _the conditions of Islam_, i.e.
a series of undertakings into which the convert entered: namely, to
abstain from adultery, theft, infanticide and lying, and to obey Mahomet
_in licitis et honestis_. The wholesale conversion of Yathrib was
determined by that of two chieftains, Usaid b. Huraith and Sa'd b.
Mu'adh, both Ausites. The example of these was quickly followed, and
iconoclasm became rife in the place. At the next Meccan feast a
deputation of seventy Yathribites brought Mahomet a formal invitation,
which he accepted, after imposing certain conditions. The interviews
between Mahomet and the Yathribites are known as the _'Aqabah_ (probably
with reference to a text of the Koran). The attitude of the Jews towards
the project appears to have been favourable.


  The Refugees.

Among the conditions imposed by Mahomet on his new adherents appears to
have been the protection and harbouring of the older proselytes, whom
Mahomet most wisely determined to send before him to Yathrib, where, in
the event of the Yathribite loyalty wavering, they could be counted on
with certainty. The welcome given these refugees (_muhajirun_), as they
were from this time known in contra-distinction to the helpers (_ansar_)
or allies from Yathrib, is said to have been of the warmest; a Helper
with two wives would hand one over to a wifeless Refugee. A yet more
important condition which preceded the Flight was readiness to fight men
of all colours in defence of the faith.

Although the transactions with the people of Yathrib had been carried on
with profound secrecy, the nature of Mahomet's contract with his new
adherents was somewhat divulged to the Meccan magnates, and the danger
of allowing an implacable enemy to establish himself on the high-road of
their north-bound caravans flashed upon them. The rule which forbade
bloodshed in the sacred city had at last to be suspended; but elaborate
precautions were to be taken whereby every tribe (except Mahomet's own
clan) should have their share in the guilt, which would thus be spread
over the whole community fairly. When the committee appointed to
perpetrate the crime reached Mahomet's house, they found that it was too
late; Mahomet had already departed, leaving Ali in his bed.

The actual Flight from Mecca to Yathrib has naturally been a favourite
subject for romance, and indeed appears to have been executed with the
greatest cunning. Accompanied by Abu Bekr only, Mahomet took refuge in a
cave of Mt Thaur, in the opposite direction to that which he intended to
take finally, and there remained for three days; provision had been made
of every requisite, food, powerful camels, a trusty and competent guide.
The date at which he reached Kuba, on the outskirts of Yathrib, where
there was already some sort of Moslem oratory, is given as 8 Rabia I.,
of the year A.H. 1; the fact that he arrived there on the Jewish Day of
Atonement gives us the date September 20, 622. The Meccans, who had
employed professional trackers to hunt down the fugitives, proceeded to
confiscate the houses and goods of Mahomet and of his followers who had
fled.


  Mahomet as Despot of Yathrib.

The safe arrival of Mahomet at his destination marks the turning-point
in his career, which now became one of almost unbroken success; his
intellectual superiority over both friends and enemies enabling him to
profit by defeat little less than by victory. His policy appears to have
been to bind his followers to himself and them to each other by every
possible tie; he instituted brotherhoods between the Refugees and
Helpers, which were to count as relationships for legal purposes, and
having himself no sons, he contracted numerous marriages partly with the
same end in view; e.g. with the infant daughter of Abu Bekr, Ayesha
('A'ishah), whose ability he appears to have discerned; and the
unamiable Hafsa, daughter of Omar. Of his own daughters three were given
to faithful allies, the one by whom his line is supposed to have been
continued to our time, Fatima, was reserved for his cousin Ali. Owing to
his efforts the alliance between the Refugees and Helpers resisted
numerous attempts on the part of enemies to break it up, and only
towards the end of the Prophet's life, when he appeared to favour
Meccans unduly, do we hear of any bitterness between the two
communities.


  The Medina Community.

The population of Yathrib, or, as it may now be called, Medina, soon
divided into three groups: Mahomet's united followers; the Jews; and a
party known as the "Hypocrites," i.e. professing Moslems, who were
lukewarm, or disaffected, among whom the most prominent is `Abdallah b.
Ubayy, a Khazrajite chieftain, who is said to have himself aspired to be
despot of Yathrib, and who till nearly the end of Mahomet's career
figures somewhat as a leader of the opposition; of his importance there
is no question, but the reason for it and the mode whereby he made it
felt are often obscure. It would seem that the pagans remaining in
Yathrib speedily adopted Islam after the Prophet's arrival, whence we
hear little of serious opposition on their part. Coming in the capacity
of prophet of the Israelitish God, Mahomet at first seems to have
courted alliance with the Jews, and to have been ready to adopt their
system with very slight modifications--similar to those which, according
to his opinion, Jesus had come to introduce. The Jews met these advances
by submitting him to examination in the intricacies of the _Torah_, and,
finding him very poorly equipped, proceeded to denounce him as an
imposter; one of his examiners is said to have even translated the
_Torah_ into Arabic with a view of convicting him of ignorance and
imposture. They are' further charged with exercising their magical arts
on the Prophet and his followers, and to have succeeded thereby in
producing barrenness among the Moslem women. Their conduct must not of
course be judged by the statement of their enemies; it is however clear
that Mahomet soon found that there was no possibility of compromising
with them on religious questions, or of obtaining their loyal support;
meanwhile he discovered that they were incapable of united and
persistent action, and useless as warriors except against each other. He
therefore resolved on their extermination. His ruthlessness in their
case compared with his patience and forbearance in the case of the
"Hypocrites" was consistent with his principle (always faithfully
observed) that no inquiry was permissible into the motives of
conversion, and with his division of mankind into the two antagonistic
factions Believers and Unbelievers. The latter principle, as will be
seen, was somewhat modified before the end of his life.


  Development of Islam.

Mahomet's failure to effect a compromise with the Jews caused a reaction
in his mind towards paganism, and after about a year's residence at
Medina the direction of prayer, which had till then been towards
Jerusalem, was turned southward to the pagan temple at Mecca. With this
change we may perhaps couple the adoption of the name _Allah_ for the
Deity; in the Moslem formula "in the Name of Allah the Rahman the
Merciful," the translation attached to the word _Rahman_, and the
prefixing to it of the name _Allah_ furnish clear evidence of
theological transition, though the stages are not recorded; we know,
however, that the Meccans approved of the name _Allah_, but objected to
the name _Rahman_. Prayer (_salat_), said to have been prescribed on the
occasion of the Prophet's ascent into heaven after a miraculous journey
from Mecca to Jerusalem, began to assume a stereotyped form in the place
of assembly built by Mahomet immediately after his arrival; the
attitudes of prayer in use among many communities (e.g. the Jewish
standing, the prostration of some Christian sects) were combined. In
general it was Mahomet's principle, while taking over a practice from
some other sect, to modify it so as to render the Moslem method
absolutely distinct; thus when a summons to prayer became requisite, a
new mode (by the voice of a crier called _muaddhin_ or _muezzin_) was
preferred to the Christian hammer; a new sacred day was adopted, in lieu
of the Jewish Saturday and the Christian Sunday, in the weekday on which
he had safely reached Kuba, Friday; but the sanctity was reduced to the
actual time occupied by public worship. On the subject of food he was
satisfied with the regulations of the Council of Jerusalem, recorded in
Acts xv.; which were observed by few if any Christian sects. The
prohibition of wine, which was enacted in A.H. 3, is said to have been
occasioned by the riotous conduct of one of his followers when under the
influence of liquor; Palgrave saw in it (perhaps with justice) a
deliberate attempt to prevent harmony between Moslems and Christians, in
whose most sacred rite wine is used. The Fast of Ramadan, in which food
both liquid and solid is forbidden from sunrise to sunset, is said to be
a pagan or semi-pagan institution; its importance for military training
and discipline is not likely to have been overlooked by the Prophet.
When the direction of prayer was altered, it is probable that Mahomet
already intended to introduce into his system the whole of the pagan
pilgrimage with its antique ceremonial (with, of course, a new
interpretation); before this he is supposed to have aimed at the
abolition of the Ka`ba and all that appertained to it.

The difference between religious and civil law has never been recognized
by Islamic jurists, whose manuals deal equally with the law of contract
and the amount of the body to be washed before prayer; the Prophet's
ordinances on both subjects were suggested by the occasion in each case,
and it would seem that the opinions of trusted advisers were regularly
heard before a revelation was issued. Even when this had been done the
ordinance might be cancelled by an abrogating revelation; it being "easy
for Allah" to substitute for a text already revealed another that was
better or at least as good.

As Islam began to spread outside the limits of Medina both conversion to
Islam and persistence therein were reduced to simple tests; the
pronunciation of the double formula of belief in Allah and Mahomet was
sufficient to indicate conversion, whilst payment of an income-tax,
called by the Jewish names for alms (_zakat_ and _sadaqah_), was
evidence of loyalty. This income-tax, of which the definite assessment
perhaps belongs to a later period, was for the support of necessitous
converts--an element in the community whose presence accounts for the
mode in which the development of the Islamic state proceeded.


  First Campaigns of Mahomet.

The industries in which the Meccan Refugees had been engaged were not of
a sort which they could exercise at Medina, where the palm took the
place of the camel as the basis of society. Moreover the Prophet seems
to have given some disastrous advice on the subject of palmiculture, and
thereby to have accentuated the poverty of the place. He had, therefore,
to find some fresh source of revenue in order to deal with this
difficulty, and one of the Helpers is said to have suggested the plan
which he adopted, viz. of attacking the Meccan caravans. With this view
he organized a series of expeditions, taking the lead himself sometimes,
while at others he gave it to one of his veteran followers; and at first
only Refugees took part in them. The leaders of the caravans, however,
were expert in evading attacks of this sort, which were doubtless
regularly attempted by the desert tribes; and in the first year of his
despotism Mahomet did not score a single success of the kind intended.
The attempts were not wholly fruitless; for while on the one hand he
accustomed his followers to campaigning, on the other he made a series
of agreements with the chieftains of the tribes through whose territory
the caravans ordinarily passed. Finding continued failure intolerable,
he resolved to take advantage of his power to bind and to loose by
sending an expedition of seven men under his cousin `Abdallah b. Jahsh
to attack a caravan at the beginning of the sacred month Rajab, when, as
raiding during such a season was unknown, success was practically
certain. The commander on this, the Nakhlah raid, was given sealed
orders, to be opened after two days' march; the men were then to be
given the option of retiring, if they disapproved. Of this no one seems
definitely to have availed himself, and the raid ended successfully, for
considerable booty was captured, while of the four persons who escorted
the caravan two were made prisoners, one escaped, and one, `Amr b.
al-Hadrami, was killed; he was the first person slain fighting against
an Islamic force. The violation of the sacred month seems to have caused
considerable scandal in Arabia, but led to no serious consequence; on
the other hand the shedding of blood created a feud between the people
of Mecca and the Refugees, with whom the Meccans long declined to
identify the people of Medina. The fact that the man who had been killed
was a client, not a citizen, made no difference. The circumstance that
booty had been actually acquired appears to have helped the Prophet's
cause very considerably.


  Attack on Meccan Caravan.

Both these consequences, the Meccan desire to avenge the blood that had
been shed and the anxiety of the Medinese to take part in a successful
raid, manifested themselves a few months later, when an expedition was
organized by Mahomet to attack a caravan returning from Syria, which had
escaped him the previous year. Many desired to take part in the raid,
and finally some 300 persons were selected, including a large number of
"Helpers." The leader of the caravan learned somehow that an attack was
being organized by Mahomet on a large scale, and sent to Mecca for aid,
while hurrying home by forced marches. This is the first historical
appearance of Abu Sofian (the leader of the caravan), who now for some
years played the part of president in the Meccan opposition to Mahomet,
and whose son was destined to found the second Mahommedan dynasty (see
CALIPHATE, B). The day before the battle to be fought at Badr, near the
point where the northern road leaves the coast to turn eastwards to
Mecca, the Moslem army learned that the Meccan succour (some 1000
strong) was near, but that the caravan had escaped. The Meccans, it is
asserted, would have returned home now that their object was secured,
but the patrons of the man who had been killed in the former raid were
compelled to strike for vengeance.

The battle (Ramadan 19, A.H. 2, usually made to synchronize with March
17, 624) ended in a complete victory for Mahomet, whose followers killed
seventy of the enemy and took seventy prisoners--if we may trust what
seem to be round numbers; it was attributed by him to divine
co-operation, taking the form of an illusion wrought on the enemy, and
the despatch of a regiment of angels to the assistance of the Believers,
while on the other hand the treachery of the Devil did mischief to the
Meccans. The popular tradition attributed it to the prowess of some of
Mahomet's followers, especially his uncle Hamza and his cousin Ali. In
the narratives which have come down and which seem to be authentic the
result is amply accounted for by the excellence of the Moslem discipline
and the complete absence of any on the Meccan side. Mahomet himself is
said to have fainted at the first sight of blood, and to have remained
during the battle in a hut built for him to which swift camels were
tied, to be used in case of a defeat; yet these accounts make him
responsible for the tactics, whilst assigning the credit for the
strategy to one Hobab b. al-Mondhir. Several of Mahomet's old enemies
and friends of Meccan days perished on this occasion; notably one Abu
Jahl, his uncle, but represented as an implacable enemy; another hostile
uncle, Abu Lahab, who is cursed in the Koran, was not present but died
shortly after the battle.

The day is called in the Koran by a Syriac expression the "Day of
Deliverance," and both for internal and external politics it was of
incalculable advantage to Islam. The booty and the ransoms of the
prisoners provided the means for dealing with distress; the story of
supernatural aid soothed the feelings of the defeated Meccans and had a
tendency to disarm resistance elsewhere; whilst Mahomet in the
popularity acquired by his victory was able to strike forcibly at his
enemies in Medina. One of the sequels to the victory was a series of
assassinations whereby critics of his actions were removed.


  The Taking of Mecca.

The defeat at Badr naturally led to efforts on the part of the Meccans
to avenge their dead and besides to secure the commerce, by which they
lived, from an enemy who was gradually getting all the seaboard that lay
between Jeddah and Yanbo within his sphere of influence; and the year
after Badr (A.H. 3) Abu Sofian was able to lead a force said to be three
times as great as that which had been defeated, and so numbering some
3000 men, against Medina itself; part of it was under Khalid b.
al-Walid, one of the greatest of Arab captains, afterwards conqueror of
Syria. It is said that Mahomet's plan was to remain in Medina itself,
and leave it to the Meccan commander to discover some way of taking the
place; but that his hand was forced by his more ardent followers.
Others, however, assign this advice to Abdallah b. Ubayy, and make the
Prophet anxious to fight from the first. A battle was in consequence
fought under Mt Uhud (or Ohod), north-west of Medina, wherein Khalid
succeeded in inflicting a severe defeat on Mahomet's forces; his uncle
Hamza, hero of Badr, was killed on this occasion. Fortunately for the
Moslems, the Meccans considered that they had finished their task when
they discovered that they had killed a number of the former equal to
those who had fallen at Badr on their own side; instead therefore of
pursuing their victory they went home. The immediate effect on Arabia
appears to have been to dissipate the illusion that the Prophet could
count on supernatural assistance in his wars; and we hear of some blows
being dealt him from outside. Meanwhile his relations towards the
Medinese Jews had grown more and more hostile, and these are credited
with doing their best to rouse the Meccans to a sense of the danger
which threatened them in the continuance of the Prophet's power, and in
general to stir up hostility against him in Arabia. Whether this part
was played by them or not, in the fifth year of the Prophet's stay at
Medina a fresh invasion of the territory took place by a vast
confederate force of Meccans with their allies, the tribes Fazarah,
Asad, Murrah, &c., to the number, it is said, of 10,000. This time the
intention of the leaders was undoubtedly to stamp out Islam. For the
first time in Arab warfare Mahomet resorted to the expedient of
defending his city by a trench, called by a Persian name, and suggested
by a Persian convert. But he also employed agents to sow dissension
among the confederates, and succeeded with this no less than with the
other expedient. After a brief stay, and scarcely striking a blow, the
confederacy dispersed, leaving the Jews who still remained in Medina to
the summary vengeance of the Prophet. The want of records written from
the Meccan standpoint renders the abortiveness of this last attempt at
storming the Prophet's stronghold scarcely intelligible.

From this time, however, the road towards the eventual taking of Mecca
became easy, and we are told that such was the importance attached to
that city throughout Arabia that its acquisition meant for the Prophet
the acquisition of the whole peninsula. The next year (A.H. 6) he deemed
it advisable to make a truce with the Meccans (the Truce of Hodaibiyah),
whereby he secured for his followers the right of performing the
pilgrimage in the following year; on this occasion he even consented to
forgo his title "Prophet of Allah," when the Meccans refused to sign a
deed in which it was employed, greatly to the scandal of his more
earnest followers, including Omar; they were however too deeply
committed to Islam to be able to defy the Prophet. When the pilgrimage
was performed (A.H. 7), Mahomet not only won important converts in the
persons of Khalid and the no less able `Amr b. al-`As, but in general
impressed the population with the idea that his was the winning side. An
excuse was easily found for invading Mecca itself in the following year,
when Abu Sofian took the opportunity of embracing Islam before it was
too late. Very little resistance was now made by the Meccans, whose
chiefs were already in Mahomet's camp, and Mahomet used his victory with
great moderation; his proscription list was finally reduced to two. The
theory that all offences were cancelled by conversion was loyally
observed. Moreover the Prophet incurred the displeasure of his Medinese
friends by the anxiety which he displayed to soothe the feelings of his
former enemies and antagonists. The Medinese, however, prevailed upon
him to maintain their city as his political capital, while making Mecca
the religious centre of his system; and this arrangement accounts
perhaps more than anything else for the persistence of the system amid
so many dynastic changes.

In the main he appears to have introduced little alteration into the
government of Mecca, and it is said that he even declined to retaliate
on those who had confiscated the possessions of the Refugees. Even the
Ka`ba was left in the keeping of its former custodian, though of course
its interior as well as its precincts were cleansed of all that could
offend monotheists. In the following year the pilgrimage was for the
first time conducted by a Moslem official, Abu Bekr. A proclamation was
made on that occasion, forbidding idolaters in future to take part in
the pilgrimage, and giving all Arabs who were not as yet converted four
months' grace before force was to be brought to bear upon them. In the
following year Mahomet conducted the Pilgrimage himself. This solemn
occasion (the "Farewell Pilgrimage") was also employed for the delivery
of an important proclamation, wherein the Prophet declared that God had
completed their religion. The principle whereon he specially insisted
was the brotherhood of Islam; but there is some difficulty in
enucleating the original sermon from later additions.


  Conquest of Arabia.

It would seem that Mahomet's enterprise originally comprised the
conversion of Mecca only, and that he thought of himself as sent to his
fellow-citizens only, as had been the case with earlier prophets, whose
message was for their "brethren." His views took a somewhat different
direction after his brief exile to Taif, and the conquest of Arabia was
in a way forced upon him in the course of his struggle with the Meccans.
It is not indeed perfectly clear by what process he arrived at the
resolution to exclude paganism from Arabia; at first he appears to have
tolerated it at Medina, and in some of his earlier contracts with
neighbouring tribes he is represented as allowing it, though some of our
texts make him reserve to himself the right of enforcing Islam if he
chose; only the Meccans were at first, according to the most authentic
documents, excluded from all truce or treaty. At the battle of Badr he
appears to have formulated the rule that no one might fight on his side
who had not embraced Islam; and when once he had won fame as a
successful campaigner, those who wished to share his adventures had to
pass the Islamic test. After the battle of Uhud (Ohod) we hear of a
tribe demanding missionaries to instruct them in Islamic principles; and
though in the case recorded the demand was treacherous, the idea of
sending missionaries appears not to have been unfamiliar even then,
albeit the number sent (70), if rightly recorded, implies that the
Prophet suspected the good faith of the applicants. After the taking of
Mecca, whereby the chief sanctuary at any rate of north Arabia had been
cleared of all idolatrous associations, and consecrated to monotheism,
paganism in general was conscious of being attacked; and the city had
scarcely been brought under the new régime before the Prophet had to
face a confederation of tribes called Hawazin and Thaqif. The battle
which ensued, known as the Day of Honain, was near ending disastrously
for Islam; some of Mahomet's sturdiest followers fled; but the terrible
danger of a defeat in the neighbourhood of recently conquered Mecca
roused the Prophet and Ali to heroism, and they saved the day.
Emissaries were now sent far and wide demanding the destruction of
idols, and only Taif appears to have made any considerable resistance;
against this place for the first time the Prophet made use of siege
artillery, such as was employed by the Byzantines; though compelled by
the bravery of the inhabitants to raise the siege, he was afterwards
able to take the city by capitulation. It has been observed that here
only do we read of much attachment to the old deities; in most places
they were discarded with few regrets when once their impotence had been
found out. After the taking of Mecca and the victory of Honain there
appears to have been a general desire, extending even to the extreme
south of Arabia, to make the best terms with the conqueror so soon as
possible; iconoclasm became general. Flatterers of various kinds,
including poets, came to seek the favour of the sovereign; and a mock
war of words appears to have been substituted by some tribes for more
serious fighting, to terminate in surrender. For warfare of his sort
Mahomet had a powerful helper in the poet Hassan b. Thabit, for whose
effusions a pulpit was erected in the Medina mosque, and whose verses
were said to be inspired by the Holy Spirit; though, as has been seen,
Mahomet was not himself able to judge of their artistic merit. It was
not, however, found easy to enforce the payment of the alms on these new
converts; and this taxation caused an almost general revolt so soon as
Mahomet's death had been ascertained.


  Plan of World-conquest.

Although the central portions of the peninsula in Mahomet's time were
practically independent, large portions of the north-west and south-east
were provinces of the Byzantine and Persian empires respectively, whence
any scheme for the conquest of Arabia would necessarily involve the
conqueror in war with these great powers. The conquest of Persia is said
to have been contemplated by the Prophet as early as A.H. 5, when the
famous Trench was being dug; but it was not till the year A.H. 7, on the
eve of the taking of Mecca, that the Prophet conceived the idea of
sending missives to all known sovereigns and potentates, promising them
safety if, but only if, they embraced Islam. The text of these letters,
which only varied in the name of the person addressed, is preserved
(doubtless faithfully) by the Moslem Oral Tradition; in the middle of
the last century a French explorer professed to discover in Egypt the
original of one of them--addressed to the mysterious personage called
the Muqauqis (Mukaukis) of Egypt--and this, it appears, is still
preserved amid other supposed relics of the Prophet in Constantinople,
though there is little reason for believing it to be genuine. The
anecdotes dealing with the reception of these letters by their
addressees are all fabulous in character. Two appear to have sent
favourable replies: the king of Axum, who now could send the exiles whom
he had so long harboured to their successful master; and the Egyptian
governor, who sent Mahomet a valuable present, including two Coptic
women for his harem. The emperor Heraclius is claimed as a secret
convert to Islam, on whom pressure had to be put by his advisers to
conceal his convictions. The Persian king is said to have sent orders to
have Mahomet arrested; his messengers arrived in Medina, but were unable
to carry out the commands of their master, who died while they were
there. Two of the letters are said to have had important results. One
was addressed to the Himyarite chiefs (called by the south Arabian
appellation _qail_) in Yemen, and effected their conversion; another to
the governor of Bostra in Roman Arabia, who put the bearer of this
insolent message to death; a force was despatched by Mahomet immediately
afterwards (beginning of A.H. 8) to avenge this outrage; and though the
Moslems were defeated in their first encounter with the Byzantine forces
at Mutah, they appear to have given a good account of themselves; it was
here that Ja`far, cousin of the Prophet, met his death. In A.H. 9 a
successful expedition was led by the Prophet himself northward, in
which, though no Byzantine force was encountered, a considerable region
was withdrawn from the Byzantine sphere of influence, and made either
Islamic or tributary to Islam. At the time of his death (of fever, after
a short illness) he was organizing an expedition for the conquest of
Syria.


  Jewish and Christian Communities.

The Prophet claimed throughout that his revelation confirmed the Jewish
and Christian Scriptures, and this claim is on the whole reasonable,
though his acquaintance with both was in the highest degree vague and
inaccurate. Still he reproduced the Old Testament as faithfully as he
could, and though he patriotically endeavours to shed some lustre on his
supposed ancestor Ishmael, he does not appear to have questioned the
Biblical theory according to which the founder of the north Arabian
nations was the son of a slave girl. On neither the truth of the
Biblical history and miracles nor the validity of the Mosaic legislation
does he appear to have cast any doubt. He even allows that Israel was
the chosen people. The Gospel was known to him chiefly through
apocryphal and heretical sources, which cannot certainly be identified;
but he accepted the doctrine of the Virgin-birth, the miracles of
healing the sick and raising the dead, and the ascension; the
crucifixion and resurrection were clearly denied by the sect from whom
he had received his information, and rejected by him, though certainly
not because of any miracle which the latter involved. His quarrel with
the Jews at Medina appears to have been by no means of his own seeking,
but to have arisen unavoidably, owing to his particular view of his
office being such as they could not accept; and his attempt to
discredit, not the Mosaic Law, but the form in which they presented it,
was an expedient to which he resorted in self-defence. An attempt was
made shortly after his arrival at Medina to settle the relations between
the two communities by a treaty, according to which, while their
equality was guaranteed there should be little interference between the
two; this, however, was found unworkable, and each victory of Mahomet
over the Meccans was followed by violent measures against the Medinese
Israelites. When experience had shown him their military incompetence he
appears to have been unable to resist the temptation to appropriate
their goods for the benefit of his followers; and his attack on the
flourishing Jewish settlement of Khaibar, after the affair of
Hodaibiyah, appears to have been practically unprovoked, and designed to
satisfy his discontented adherents by an accession of plunder. Yet the
consciousness that this process was economically wasteful suggested to
him an idea which Islamic states are only now abandoning, viz. that of a
tolerated caste, who should till the soil and provide sustenance for the
Believers who were to be the fighting caste. Whereas then his former
plan in dealing with Israelites had been to banish or massacre, he now
left the former owners of Khaibar (who had survived the capture of the
place) in possession of the soil, of whose produce they were to pay a
fixed proportion to the Islamic state. The same principle was adopted in
the case of later conquests of Jewish settlements.

Disputes with Christians occur somewhat later in the Prophet's career
than those with Jews, for neither at Mecca nor Medina were the former to
be found in any numbers; individuals are likely to have been found in
both cities, and we hear of one Medinese "Abu'Amir the Monk," who after
Mahomet's arrival at Medina branded him as an impostor, and, going
himself into exile, made many an abortive attempt to discredit and
injure Mahomet's cause. The notices of him are meagre and obscure.
Mahomet's manifesto to the world, about the time of the taking of
Khaibar, appears to represent his definite breach with Christianity; and
when in the "year of the embassies" the Christians of Najran sent a
deputation to him, they found that the breach between the two systems
was not to be healed. Of the three alternatives open to
them--conversion, internecine war, and tribute, they chose the last. The
Christian tribes of north Arabia showed greater inclination towards the
first. The Prophet's policy was to give Christians lighter terms than
Jews, and though the Koran reflects the gradual adoption by the Prophet
of an attitude of extreme hostility to both systems, its tone is on the
whole far more friendly to the former than to the latter. Some other
communities are mentioned in the Koran, but merely in casual allusions:
thus we know that Mahomet's sympathy was with the Byzantines in their
struggle with Persia, but in his most tolerant utterance the Magians or
Mazdians as well as the Sabians (with whom his followers were identified
by the Meccans) are mentioned with respect.


  Mahomet's Administration.

The financial requirements of Mahomet's state were of the simplest kind,
for there is no trace of any form of governmental department having been
instituted by him, even when he was master of the peninsula; nor can we
name any permanent officials in his employ except his _muaddhin_ Bilal,
and perhaps his court-poet Hassan. A staff of scribes was finally
required both to take down his revelations and to conduct
correspondence; but although he encouraged the acquisition of penmanship
(indeed some of the prisoners at Badr are said to have been allowed to
ransom themselves by teaching it to the Medinese), we know of no regular
secretaries in his employ. As despot of Medina he combined the functions
of legislator, administrator, general and judge; his duties in the last
three capacities were occasionally delegated to others, as when he
appointed a governor of Medina during his absence, or leaders for
expeditions, with provision for successors in case of their falling, but
we hear of no permanent or regular delegation of them. Till near the end
of his career at Medina he maintained the principle that migration to
that city was a condition of conversion; but when, owing to the
extension of his power, this was no longer practicable, his plan was in
the main to leave the newly converted communities to manage their
internal affairs as before, only sending occasional envoys to discharge
special duties, especially instruction in the Koran and the principles
of Islam, and to collect the Alms; quite towards the end of his life he
appears to have sent persons to the provinces to act as judges, with
instructions to judge according to the Koran, and where that failed,
_the practice_ (_sunna_), i.e. the practice of the community, for which
a later generation substituted the practice of the Prophet. There were,
therefore, no regular payments to permanent officials; and the taxation
called _Alms_, which developed into an income-tax, but was at first a
demand for voluntary contributions, was wholly for the support of the
poor Moslems; it might not be used for the maintenance of the state,
i.e. Mahomet and his family. For them, and for public business, e.g. the
purchase of war material and gratuities to visitors, provision was made
out of the booty, of which Mahomet claimed one-fifth (the chieftain's
share had previously, we are told, been one-fourth), while the
remainder--or at least the bulk of it--was distributed among the
fighting men; the Prophet appears to have prided himself on the justice
of his distribution on these occasions, and doubtless won popularity
thereby, though we hear occasionally of grumbling; for difficulties
occurred when a defeated tribe embraced Islam, and so could claim
equality with their conquerors, or when portions of the spoil were
irregularly employed by Mahomet to allay resentment: the persons whose
allegiance was thus purchased were euphemistically termed "those whose
hearts were united." What afterwards proved the main source of revenue
in Islamic states dates from the taking of Khaibar; for the rent paid to
the state by tolerated communities for the right to work their land
developed long after Mahomet's time into a poll-tax for Unbelievers (see
CALIPHATE, e.g. B. § 8 and MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS), and a land-tax for
all owners of land. Immediately after the taking of Khaibar certain
communities, of which the most notable was Fadak, sent tribute before
they had been attacked and reduced; their land was regarded by Mahomet
as his private domain, but after his death it was withdrawn from his
heirs by his successor Abu Bekr, in virtue of a maxim that Prophets left
no inheritance, which in the opinion of Fatima was contrary to Koranic
doctrine, and invented by Ayesha's father expressly for the purpose of
excluding her and her husband from their rights; and this is likely to
have been the case.

As a military organizer Mahomet, as has been seen, was anxious to adopt
the most advanced of contemporary methods, and more than once is said to
have scandalized the Arabs by foreign innovations, as at a later time
the Moslem chiefs who first used gunpowder scandalized their
co-religionists. The unit in his armies seems to have been, as of old,
the tribe, under its natural leader; that he introduced no more
scientific division, and nothing like a hierarchy of officers was
perhaps due to the difficulty of reconciling such a system with the
equality of all Moslems.

As has been seen, the Koran only assumed the character of a civil code
as the need for one arose; and for some time after Mahomet's arrival at
Medina old-fashioned methods of settling disputes continued in use, and
doubtless in accordance with precedent where such was known. For
difficult cases, even in Arab opinion, divine inspiration was required;
and since Mahomet naturally claimed to be in sole enjoyment of this, his
utterances soon became the unique source of law, though he did not at
first think of organizing a code. Such a plan is said to have occurred
to him, and he even wished to dictate a code upon his deathbed; but his
friends supposed or professed to suppose him to be delirious. A table
regulating the "Alms" was left by him, it is said, in the possession of
Abu Bekr; but other traditions assign another origin to this document.

Just as there were no regular officials for the arrangement of business,
so there were none for its execution; when punishment was to be
administered, any follower of Mahomet might be called upon to administer
it. In the case of the massacre of the Banu Quraizah care was taken to
see that some of the heads were struck off by their former allies, in
order that the latter might be unable at any time to bring a demand for
vengeance. The Prophet hoped by the mere terror of his name to make
complete security reign throughout Arabia, and there is no evidence that
any system of policing either it or even Medina occurred to him.


    Domestic Life.

  Until the death of Khadija the Prophet's private life seems to have
  been normal and happy, for though the loss of his sons in infancy is
  said to have earned him a contemptuous epithet, he was fortunate in
  his adoption of Zaid b. Harithah, apparently a prisoner ransomed by
  Khadija or one of her relatives, who appears as dutiful almost to
  excess and competent in affairs. The marriages of his daughters seem
  all to have been happy, with, curiously, the exception of that between
  Fatima and Ali. His domestic troubles, to which an unreasonable amount
  of space seems to be devoted, even in the Koran, began after the
  Migration, when, probably in the main for political reasons, he
  instituted a royal harem. One of these political motives was the
  principle which long survived, that the conquest of a state was
  consummated by possession of the former monarch's wife, or daughter;
  another, as has been seen, the desire to obtain the securest possible
  hold on his ministers. In his marriage with the daughter of his
  arch-enemy Abu Sofian, before the latter's conversion, we can see a
  combination of the two. Few, therefore, of these marriages occasioned
  scandal; yet public morality seemed to be violated when the Prophet
  took to himself the wife of his adopted son Zaid, whose name has in
  consequence the honour of mention in the Koran in the revelation which
  was delivered in defence of this act. Its purpose was, according to
  this, to establish the difference between adoptive and real filiation.
  Serious trouble was occasioned by a charge of adultery brought against
  the youthful favourite Ayesha, and this had to be refuted by a special
  revelation; the charge, which was backed up apparently by Ali, seems
  to have been connected with some deeper scheme for causing dissension
  between the Prophet and his friends. Yet another revelation is
  concerned with a mutiny in the harem organized by Omar's daughter
  Hafsa, owing to undue favour shown to a Coptic concubine (Mary, mother
  of a son called Ibrahim, who died in infancy; his death was marked by
  an eclipse, January 27, 632); and various details of factions within
  the harem are told us by Mahomet's biographers.

  Of the members of this harem the only prominent one is Ayesha, married
  to the Prophet shortly after the Flight, when she had scarcely passed
  the period of infancy, but who appears to have been gifted with
  astuteness and ambition that were quite beyond her years, and who
  maintained her ascendancy over the Prophet in spite of the fact that
  many carping criticisms of his revelations are attributed to her. Some
  of this may have been due to the obligations (including pecuniary
  obligations) under which her father had laid Mahomet; but her
  reputation seems to have been greatly enhanced by the sending down of
  a revelation to exonerate her (A.H. 6), for which she thanked God and
  not the Prophet. Each accession to the harem rendered the building of
  a house or room necessary for the newcomer's accommodation; a fact in
  which Robertson Smith perhaps rightly saw a relic of the older system
  whereby the tent was the property of women. The trouble noticed above
  seems to have arisen from the want of a similar arrangement in the
  case of slave girls, with whom Mahomet's system permits cohabitation.
  When Mahomet, whether in consequence of the fatigue incurred by the
  "Farewell Pilgrimage," or, as others thought, by the working of some
  poison put into his food some years before by a Jewess of Khaibar, was
  attacked by the illness which proved fatal, it was to the house of
  Ayesha that he was transferred (from that of another wife) to be
  nursed; and he apparently died in the arms of the favourite, on whose
  statements we have to rely for what we know of his last hours.


    General Characteristics.

  The traditional description of Mahomet is "of middle height, greyish,
  with hair that was neither straight nor curly; with a large head,
  large eyes, heavy eyelashes, reddish tint in the eyes, thick-bearded,
  broad-shouldered, with thick hands and feet"; he was in the habit of
  giving violent expression to the emotions of anger and mirth. The
  supposition that he at any time suffered from physical weakness seems
  absolutely refuted by his career as a leader of difficult, dangerous
  and wearisome expeditions, from his migration to Medina until his
  death; indeed, during his last years he exhibited a capacity for both
  physical and intellectual activity which implies a high degree of both
  health and strength; and without these the previous struggle at Mecca
  could scarcely have been carried on. The supposition that he was
  liable to fits (epileptic or cataleptic) was intended to account for
  certain of the phenomena supposed to accompany the delivery of
  revelations; some of these however rest on very questionable
  authority: and the greater number of the revelations give evidence of
  careful preparation rather than spontaneity.

  The literary matter ascribed to the Prophet consists of (1) the Koran
  (q.v.); (2) certain contracts, letters and rescripts preserved by his
  biographers; (3) a number of sayings on a vast variety of topics,
  collected by traditionalists. The references in the Koran to a form of
  literature called "Wisdom" (_hikmah_) suggest that even in the
  Prophet's time some attempts had been made to collect or at least
  preserve some of the last; the general uncertainty of oral tradition
  and the length of time which elapsed before any critical treatment of
  it was attempted, and the variety of causes, creditable and
  discreditable, which led to the wilful fabrication of prophetic
  utterances, render the use to which No. 3 can be put very limited.
  Thus the lengthy description of the journey to heaven which Sprenger
  was inclined to accept as genuine is regarded by most critics as a
  later fabrication. It is very much to be regretted that the number of
  _pièces justificatives_ (No. 2) quoted by the biographers is so small,
  and that for these oral tradition was preferred to a search for the
  actual documents, some of which may well have been in existence when
  the earliest biographies were written. Their style appears to have
  been plain and straightforward, though the allusions which they
  contain are not always intelligible.

  In his personal relations with men Mahomet appears to have been able
  to charm and impress in an extraordinary degree, whence we find him
  able to control persons like Omar and Khalid, who appear to have been
  self-willed and masterful, and a single interview seems to have been
  sufficient to turn many an enemy into a devoted adherent. Cases
  (perhaps legendary) are quoted of his being able by a look or a word
  to disarm intending assassins.

  Although the titles which he took were religious in character, and his
  office might not be described as sovereignty, his interests appear to
  have lain far more in the building up and maintenance of empire than
  in ecclesiastical matters. Thus only can we account for the violent
  and sudden changes which he introduced into his system, for his
  temporary lapse into paganism, and for his ultimate adoption of the
  cult of the Black Stone, which, it is said, gave offence to some of
  his sincere adherents (e.g. Omar), and seems hard to reconcile with
  his tirades against fetish-worship. The same is indicated by his
  remarkable doctrine that the utterance of the creed constituted a
  Moslem and not its cordial acceptance, and his practice of at times
  buying adhesion. Even an historian so favourable to the Prophet as
  Prince Caetani recognizes that ultimately what he regarded as most
  important was that his subjects should pay their taxes. And in general
  his system was not favourable to fanaticism (_al-ghulu fi`l-din_); he
  repeatedly gave permission for concealment of faith when the
  profession of it was dangerous; he took care to avoid institutions
  which, like the Jewish Sabbath, interfered seriously with military
  expeditions and the conduct of business, and permitted considerable
  irregularity in the matters of prayer and fasting when circumstances
  rendered it desirable. In his theory that Koranic texts could be
  abrogated he made wise provision against the danger of hasty
  legislation, though some of its usefulness was frustrated by his
  failure to provide for such abrogation after his death.


  Mahomet's Reforms.

As has been seen, Mahomet claimed to introduce a wholly new
dispensation, and a maxim of his law is that Islam cancels all that
preceded it, except, indeed, pecuniary debts; it is not certain that
even this exception always held good. Hence his system swept away a
number of practices (chiefly connected with the camel) that were
associated with pagan superstitions. The most celebrated of these is the
arrow-game, a form of gambling for shares in slaughtered camels, to
which poetic allusions are very frequent. More important than this was
his attitude towards the blood-feud, or system of tribal responsibility
for homicide (whether intentional or accidental), whereby one death
regularly led to protracted wars, it being considered dishonourable to
take blood-money (usually in the form of camels) or to be satisfied with
one death in exchange. This system he endeavoured to break down, chiefly
by sinking all earlier tribal distinctions in the new brotherhood of
Islam; but also by limiting the vengeance to be demanded to such as was
no more than the equivalent of the offence committed, and by urging the
acceptance of money-compensation instead, or complete forgiveness of the
offence. The remembrance of pre-Islamic quarrels was visited by him with
condign punishment on those who had embraced Islam; and though it was
long before the tribal system quite broke down, even in the great cities
which rose in the new provinces, and the old state of things seems to
have quickly been resumed in the desert, his legislation on this subject
rendered orderly government among Arabs possible.

Next in importance to this is the abolition of infanticide, which is
condemned even in early Suras of the Koran. The scanty notices which we
have of the practice are not altogether consistent; at times we are told
that it was confined to certain tribes, and consisted in the burying
alive of infant daughters; at other times it is extended to a wider
area, and said to have been carried out on males as well as females.
After the taking of Mecca this prohibition was included among the
conditions of Islam.

In the laws relating to women it seems likely that he regulated current
practice rather than introduced much that was actually new, though, as
has been seen, he is credited with giving them the right to inherit
property; the most precise legislation in the Koran deals with this
subject, of which the main principle is that the share of the male
equals that of two females. Our ignorance of the precise nature of the
marriage customs prevalent in Arabia at the rise of Islam renders it
difficult to estimate the extent to which his laws on this subject were
an improvement on what had been before. The pre-Islamic family, unless
our records are wholly misleading, did not differ materially from the
Islamic; in both polygamy and concubinage were recognized and normal;
and it is uncertain that the text which is supposed to limit the number
of wives to four was intended to have that meaning. The "condition of
Islam" whereby adultery was forbidden is said to have been ridiculed at
the time, on the ground that this practice had never been approved. Yet
it would seem that certain forms of promiscuity had been tolerated,
though the subject is obscure. Against these services we must set the
abrogation of some valuable practices. His unfortunate essay in
astronomy, whereby a calendar of twelve lunar months, bearing no
relation to the seasons, was introduced, was in any case a retrograde
step; but it appears to have been connected with the abrogation of the
sanctity of the four months during which raiding had been forbidden in
Arabia, which, as has been seen, he was the first to violate. He also,
as has been noticed, permitted himself a slight amount of bloodshed in
Mecca itself, and that city perhaps never quite recovered its sacrosanct
character. Of more serious consequences for the development of the
community was his encouragement of the shedding of kindred blood in the
cause of Islam; the consequences of the abrogation of this taboo seem to
have been felt for a great length of time. His assassinations of enemies
were afterwards quoted as precedents in books of Tradition. No less
unfortunate was the recognition of the principle whereby atonement could
be made for oaths. On the question how far the seclusion of women was
enjoined or countenanced by him different views have been held.


    Sources.

  Besides the contemporary documents enumerated above (Koranic texts,
  rescripts and authentic traditions) many of the events were celebrated
  by poets, whose verses were ostensibly incorporated in the standard
  biography of Ibn Ishaq; in the abridgment of that biography which we
  possess many of these are obelized as spurious, and, indeed, what we
  know of the procedure of those who professed to collect early poetry
  gives us little confidence in the genuineness of such odes. A few,
  however, seem to stand criticism, and the _diwan_ (or collection of
  poems) attributed to Hassan b. Thabit is ordinarily regarded as his.
  Though they rarely give detailed descriptions of events, their
  attestation is at times of value, e.g. for the story that the bodies
  of the slain at Badr were cast by the Prophet into a pit. Besides
  this, the narratives of eyewitnesses of important events, or of those
  who had actually taken part in them, were eagerly sought by the second
  generation, and some of these were committed to writing well before
  the end of the 1st century. The practice instituted by the second
  Caliph, of assigning pensions proportioned to the length of time in
  which the recipient had been a member of the Islamic community, led to
  the compilation of certain rolls, and to the accurate preservation of
  the main sequence of events from the commencement of the mission, and
  for the detailed sequence after the Flight, which presently became an
  era (beginning with the first month of the year in which the Flight
  took place). The procedure whereby the original dates of the events
  (so far as they were remembered) were translated into the Moslem
  calendar--for something of this sort must have been done--is unknown,
  and is unlikely to have been scientific.

  Mahomet's conduct being made the standard of right and wrong, there
  was little temptation to "whitewash" him, although the original
  biography by Ibn Ishaq appears to have contained details which the
  author of the abridgment omitted as scandalous. The preservation of so
  much that was historical left little room for the introduction of
  miraculous narrations; these therefore either belong to the obscure
  period of his life or can be easily eliminated; thus the narratives of
  the Meccan council at which the assassination of Mahomet was decided,
  of the battles of Badr, Uhud and Honain, and the death of Sad`b. Mu
  `adh, would lose nothing by the omission of the angels and the devil,
  though a certain part is assigned the one or the other on all these
  occasions. We should have expected biographies which were published
  when the `Abbasids were reigning to have falsified history for the
  purpose of glorifying `Abbas, their progenitor; the very small extent
  to which this expectation is justified is a remarkable testimony to
  their general trustworthiness.


  RELATIVES OF THE PROHET[1]

  1. _Family of `Abd al-Mottalib_, Mahomet's maternal
  grandfather:--*`Abbas (d. A.H. 32 or 34), *Hamza (d. A.H. 3),
  `Abdallah, father of the Prophet, *Abu Talib (said to be named `Abd
  Manaf), ? *Zubair, Harith, Hajal, Moqawwam, Dirar, *Abu Lahab (said to
  be named `Abd al-`Uzza, d. A.H. 2), *_Safiyyah_ (d. A.H. 20), _Umm
  Hakim_, _al-Baida_, _`Atikah_, _Umaimah_, _Arwa_, _Barrah_.

  2. _Family of Abu Talib_:--*`Aqil (d. after A.H. 40), *Ja`far (d. A.H.
  8), Talib, Tulaiq, `Ali, the caliph, _Umm Hani'_, _Jumanah_, _Raitah_.

  3. _Family of Mahomet. Wives_:--*_Khadija_ (Children:--Qasim; ? `Abd
  Manaf (Tahir, Tayyib); *_Zainab_ m. Abu'l-`As b. Rabi', d. A.H. 7;
  *_Ruqayyah_, m. `Othman b. `Affan, d. A.H. 2; *_Umm Kulthum_ m.
  `Othman b. `Affan, d. A.H. 9; *_Fatimah_, m. `Ali, d. A.H. 11):
  *_Saudah bint Zam`ah_,? d. A.H. 54, *_`A'ishah (Ayesha) bint Abi Bekr_
  (d. A.H. 56), *_Hafsa bint `Omar_ (d. A.H. 45 or 47), *_Zainab bint
  Khuzaimah_, d. before A.H. 11, *_Zainab bint Jahsh_, d. A.H. 20, *_Umm
  Salimah_, d. A.H. 59, *_Maimunah_, d. A.H. 38, *_Juwairiyah_, d. A.H.
  56, *_Umm Habibah Ramlah bint Abi Sofian_, d. A.H. 44.

  _Concubines_:--*_Safiyyah bint Huyyay_, d. A.H. 36, *_Raihanah bint
  Zaid_, *_Mariyah the Copt_, d. A.H. 15 or 16, mother of Ibrahim.
  (Other names given by Ibn Sa`d, vol. viii.)

  _Chronological Table of Chief Events in the Life of Mahomet._[2]

    ? 570 Birth.
    ? 595 Marriage with Khadija.
    ? 610 Commencement of call.
    ? 613 Public appearance.
      616 Persian conquest of the nearer East.
    ? 617 Flight of his followers to Abyssinia.
    ? 618-619 Siege in Mecca. Retractation and subsequent repudiation.
            Death of Abu Talib and Khadija.
    ? 620 Flight to Taif.
      622 July 16. Beginning of the Moslem era.
          Sept. 20. Arrival at Kuba after the Flight.
      632 Jan. 27. Death of his son Ibrahim.
      632 June 7. Death of Mahomet.

  The following dates are given by the Arabic historians according to
  their own calendar. For the reasons which have been seen it is
  impossible to obtain certain synchronisms.

  A.H.

    2. Rajab 1. Raid of `Abdallah b. Jahsh to Nakhlah.
       Ramadan 19. Battle of Badr.
       Shawwal 15. Attack on the Banu Qainuqa.

    3. Rabia I. 14. Assassination of Ka`b b. al-Ashraf.
       Shawwal 7. Battle of Uhud.

    4. Saphar. Massacre of Mahomet's 70 missionaries at Bi'r Ma`unah.
       Rabia I. Attack on the Banu Nadir.
       Dhu'l-Qa`da. Abortive raid called "the lesser Badr."

    5. Shaaban 2. Attack on the Banu'l-Mustaliq (according to Waqidi).
       Dhu'l-Qa`da. Battle of the Trench.
                      Massacre of the Banu Quraizah.

    6. Jomada i. Capture of a caravan by Zaid b. Harithah.
       Futile attempt to assassinate Abu Sofian.
       Dhu'l-Qa`da. Affair of Hodaibiyah.

    7. Jomada i. Taking of Khaibar. Mission extended to the world.
       Dhu'l-Qa`da. Pilgrimage to Mecca (called _'umrat al-qadiyyah_)

    8. Jomada i. Expedition to Mutah.
       Ramadan 20. Taking of Mecca.
       Shawwal. Battle of Honain.
                Attack on Ta`if.

    9. Muharram. Tax-gatherers sent over Arabia.
       Rajab. Expedition to Tabuk.
              Rival Mosque built at Kuba, destroyed on Mahomet's return
                to Medina.
       Dhu'l-Hijja. Pilgrimage conducted by Abu Bekr.
                    Abolition of idolatry in Arabia.

    10. Ramadan. Expedition of `Ali to Yemen.
        Dhu'l-Qa`da. "Farewell Pilgrimage."

    11. Saphar. Expedition ordered against the Byzantines.


  _Companions of the Prophet._

  The _sahabah_, as they are called, are the subject of a vast
  literature, and the biographical dictionaries devoted to them, of
  which the best known are the _Usd ul-ghaba_ of the historian Ibn Athir
  and the _Isabah_ of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, enumerate many thousands.
  The following two lists are of special groups.

  (a) _Naqibs_, i.e. leaders selected by Mahomet from the Medinese
  tribes: i. _Khazrajites_:--As`ad b. Zurarah, Sa`d b. al-Rabi`,
  `Abdallah b. Rawahah, al-Bara' b. Ma`rur, `Abdallah b. `Amr b. Haram,
  `Ubadah b. al-Samit, Sa`d b. `Ubadah, al-Mondhir b. 'Amr; ii.
  _Ausites_: Usaid b. Hudair, Sa`d b. Khaithamah, Rifa`ah b. `Abd
  al-Mondhir.

  (b) _Commanders of Expeditions_: names occurring in (a) are not
  repeated: `Abdallah b. Jahsh, `Abd ar-Rahman b. `Auf, Abu Bekr, Abu
  Qatadah, Abu `Ubaidah b. al-Jarrah, `Ali, `Alqamah b. Mujazziz, `Amr
  b. al-`As (ibn el-Ass), Bashir b. Sa`d, Dahhak b. Sofian, Ghalib b.
  `Abdallah, Ibn Abi'l-Auja, Ka`b b. `Umair, Khalid b. al-Walid, Kurz b.
  Jabir, Marthad b. Abi Marthad, Muhammad b. Maslamah, Qutbah b. `Amir,
  Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas, Sa`d d. Zaid, Salama b. `Abd al-Asad, Shuja` b.
  Wahb, `Ubaidah b. al-Harith, `Ukkashah b. Mihsan, `Umar b. al-Khattab,
  Usamah b. Zaid, `Uyainah b. Hisn, Zaid b. Harithah.

  AUTHORITIES.--The biography of Ibn Ishaq was before the world long
  before the two chief causes for the falsification of tradition had
  begun to have serious effects; these were the need for legal
  precedents, and the concept of saintliness, combining those of
  asceticism and thaumaturgy. These gave rise to the classical works on
  the _Evidences of Mohammed's Mission_ by Abu Nu`aim (d. A.D.
  1012-1013) and Baihaqi (d. A.D. 1066).

  _Lives of the Prophet_ ([+] indicates that the work is lost);
  [+]`Urwah b. Zubair (d. 712-713); [+]Musa b. `Ukbah (d. 758-759);
  [+]Mohammed b. Ishaq (d. 768); Mohammed b. Hisham (d. 828-829), ed.
  Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1860); reprinted in Egypt by Zubair Pasha, a
  series of excerpts from the last; Mohammed b. Omar al-Waqidi (d. 823),
  portion published by Kremer (Calcutta, 1855), abridged trans. of a
  fuller copy by Wellhausen, _Muhammad in Medina_ (Berlin, 1882);
  Mohammed b. Sa`d (d. 844-845), an encyclopaedic work on the history of
  Mahomet and his followers, called _Tabaqat_, ed. Sachau and others
  (Berlin, foll.); Mohammed b. Jarir al-Tabari (see TABARI). Many more
  writers on this subject are enumerated in the _Fihrist_, cf.
  Sprenger's _Leben Muhammads_, iii. 54-76.

  Among the most popular compilers of later times are: Ibn al-Athir
  (q.v.) al Jazari, the historian (d. 1233); Ahmad b. Ali al Kastalani
  (d. A.D. 1517), whose _al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah_ was published with
  commentary (Cairo, 1278); Hosain b. Mohammed al Diyarbakri (d. 1574)
  whose work _Ta'rikh al-Khamis_ was published in Cairo, A.H. 1382; `Ali
  b. Burhan al-din al-Halabi (d. A.D. 1634), whose biography called
  _Insan al-`uyun_ was published in Cairo, A.H. 1292. To these must be
  added all the collections of Tradition.

  _Modern Authorities._--The critical study of the Life of Mahomet
  begins in Europe with the publication by Th. Gagnier in 1723 of the
  Life by Abulfeda (q.v.). Presently there appeared an apologetic
  biography by Henri Cmte. de Boulainvilliers (2nd ed., Amsterdam,
  1731), to which Gagnier replied in 1732 (_La Vie de Mahomet,
  traduite_, &c. ibid.). The next considerable advance in the treatment
  of the subject is marked by the biography of G. Weil (_Muhammed der
  Prophet_, Stuttgart, 1843), which is wholly without religious bias;
  the popular life by Washington Irving (London, 1849) is based on this.
  That by J. L. Merrick (the _Life and Religion of Mohammed_, Boston,
  U.S.A., 1850) rests on Shi`ite sources. The search for MSS. in India
  conducted by A. Sprenger led to the discovery of fresh material, which
  was utilized by Sprenger himself in his unfinished _Life of Mohammad_
  (Pt. 1, Allahabad, 1851), and his more elaborate _Das Leben und die
  Lehre des Mohammad_ (Berlin, 1861-1865), and by Sir William Muir in
  his _Life of Mahomet_, (London, 1858-1861) 4 vols.: afterwards
  abridged in one volume and reprinted. These are still the standard
  treatises on the subject; the pro-Christian bias of Muir is very
  marked, while Sprenger has hazarded numerous conjectures on subjects
  with which he had little familiarity. The biography by S. W. Koelle,
  _Mohammed and Mohammedanism_ (London, 1889), is pro-Christian, the
  popular work of Syed Ameer Ali _The Spirit of Islam_, (London, 1896)
  an apology for Mahommedanism. Later treatises, resting on original
  authorities, are those by H. Grimme _Mohamed_, (Münster, 1892, and
  Munich, 1904), F. Buhl, _Mohameds Liv_ (Copenhagen, 1903--Danish:
  since translated into German), D. S. Margoliouth _Mohammed and the
  Rise of Islam_ (N.Y., 1905, &c.), and Prince Caetani _Annali del
  Islam_, i. ii. (Milan, 1905-1907). For the direction of public opinion
  in Mahomet's favour the Lecture on _The Hero as Prophet_ in Carlyle's
  _Heroes and Hero-worship_ (London, 1846) was singularly effective; his
  views were enforced by R. Bosworth Smith _Mohammed and Mohammedanism_,
  (London, 1873, &c.). A somewhat similar line was taken in France by J.
  Barthélémy Saint-Hilaire, _Mahomet et le Coran_, (Paris, 1865), while
  the _Vie de Mahomet d'après la Tradition_ of E. Lamairesse and G.
  Dujarric (Paris, 1897) is written entirely from the Moslem standpoint.

  See further CALIPHATE, _ad init._; MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS; MAHOMMEDAN
  LAW; MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION.     (D. S. M.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] * is prefixed to names which figure on occasions which seem to be
    historical. Female names are in italics.

  [2] Dates are given A.D.



MAHOMMED AHMED IBN SEYYID ABDULLAH (1848-1885), Sudanese tyrant, known
as "the Mahdi," was born in Dongola. His family, known as excellent
boat-builders, claimed to be _Ashraf_ (or _Sherifs_), i.e. descendants
of Mahomet. His father was a _fiki_ or religious teacher, and Mahommed
Ahmed devoted himself early to religious studies. When about twenty
years old he went to live on Abba Island on the White Nile about 150 m.
above Khartum. He first acquired fame by a quarrel with the head of the
brotherhood which he had joined, Mahommed asserting that his master
condoned transgression of the divine law. After this incident many
dervishes (religious mendicants) gathered round the young sheikh, whose
reputation for sanctity speedily grew. He travelled secretly through
Kordofan, where (with ample justification) he denounced to the villagers
the extortion of the tax-gatherer and told of the coming of the mahdi
who should deliver them from the oppressor. He also wrote a pamphlet
summoning true believers to purify their religion from the defilements
of the "Turks" i.e. the Egyptian officials and all non-native
inhabitants of the Sudan. The influence he gained at length aroused the
anxiety of the authorities, and in May 1881 a certain Abu Saud, a
notorious scoundrel, was sent to Abba Island to bring the sheikh to
Khartum. Abu Saud's mission failed, and Mahommed Ahmed no longer
hesitated to call himself al-Mahdi al Montasir, "The Expected Guide." In
August he defeated another force sent to Abba Island to arrest him, but
thereafter deemed it prudent to retire to Jebel Gedir, in the Nuba
country south of Kordofan, where he was soon at the head of a powerful
force; and 6000 Egyptian troops under Yusef Pasha, advancing from
Fashoda, were nearly annihilated in June 1882. By the end of 1882 the
whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in rebellion, with the exception
of the Bahr-el-Ghazal and the Equatorial Provinces. In January 1883 El
Obeid, the capital of Kordofan, was captured. In the November following
Hicks Pasha's force of 10,000 men was destroyed at Kashgil, and in the
same year the mahdi's lieutenant, Osman Digna, raised the tribes in the
eastern Sudan, and besieged Sinkat and Tokar, near Suakin, routing
General Valentine Baker's force of 2500 men at El Teb in February 1884.
The operations undertaken by Great Britain in face of this state of
affairs are narrated under EGYPT: _Military Operations_. It need only be
added that General Gordon (q.v.) was besieged at Khartum by the mahdi
and was killed there when the town was captured by the mahdists on the
25th-26th of January 1885. The mahdi himself died at Omdurman a few
months later (June 22, 1885), and was succeeded in power by his khalifa
Abdullah.

When he announced his divine mission Mahommed Ahmed adopted the Shi`ite
traditions concerning the mahdi, and thus put himself in opposition to
the sultan of Turkey as the only true commander of the faithful. To
emphasize his position the mahdi struck coins in his own name and set
himself to suppress all customs introduced by the "Turks." His social
and religious reforms are contained in various proclamations, one of
which is drawn up in the form of ten commandments. They concern,
chiefly, such matters as ritual, prayers, soberness in food and raiment,
the cost of marriage and the behaviour of women. How far the mahdi was
the controller of the movement which he started cannot be known, but
from the outset of his public career his right-hand man was a Baggara
tribesman named Abdullah (the khalifa), who became his successor, and
after his flight to Jebel Gedir the mahdi was largely dependent for his
support on Baggara sheikhs, who gratified one of his leading tastes by
giving him numbers of their young women. In the few months between the
fall of Khartum and his death the mahdi, relieved from the incessant
strain of toil, copied in his private life all the vices of Oriental
despots while maintaining in public the austerity he demanded of his
followers. His death is variously attributed to disease and to poisoning
by a woman of his harem. On the occupation of Omdurman by the British
(Sept. 1898) the mahdi's tomb was destroyed, his body burnt and the
ashes thrown into the Nile (see SUDAN: _Anglo-Egyptian_).

  See _Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan_ by F. R. Wingate (1891); _Ten
  Years' Captivity in the Mahdi's Camp_ (1882-1892) from the MS. of
  Father Joseph Ohrwalder by F. R. Wingate (1892) and _Fire and Sword in
  the Sudan_ (1879-1895) by Slatin Pasha (trans. F. R. Wingate, 1896).
  Both Ohrwalder and Slatin were personally acquainted with the mahdi,
  and their narratives contain much first-hand information. Wingate
  prints many translations of the proclamations and correspondence of
  the mahdi.



MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS.

  The Caliphate.

Of all the institutions of Islam the caliphate is the oldest, the most
fundamental, and in essence the most enduring. For its history see
CALIPHATE; the present subject is its origin and nature. Mahomet enjoyed
absolute rule over his people as a divinely inspired and guided prophet.
He led the public prayers; he acted as judge; he ruled. If he consulted
with others or paid attention to public feeling or local usage, it was
as a matter of policy; the ultimate decision lay with himself. He was
the state. On his death a leader was put in his place of similar
authority, though without the divine prophetic guidance. He was called
the "successor" (_khalifa_, caliph) of the Prophet, later also the
_amir-al-mu'minin_, commander of the faithful, and was elected by the
Moslems, just as the Arab tribes had always elected their chiefs. He was
thus an absolute ruler, but was democratically elected; and such is the
essence of the caliphate among Sunnite Moslems to this day. For them it
has been a matter of agreement (see MAHOMMEDAN LAW) from the earliest
times that the Moslem community must appoint such a leader (see IMAM).
The Shi`ites, on the other hand, hold that the appointment lies with
God, and that God always has appointed, though his appointment may not
always have been known and accepted. Their position may be called a
legitimist one. Some few heretical sects have held that the necessity of
a leader was based on reason, not on the agreement of the community.
But, for all, the rule of the leader thus appointed is absolute, and all
authority is delegated from him and, in theory, can be resumed by him at
any time. Just as God can require unreasoning obedience from his
creatures (his "slaves" in Arabic), so can the caliph, his
representative on earth.

But Abu Bekr, the first caliph, nominated his successor, Omar, and that
nomination was accepted and confirmed by the people. So a second
precedent was fixed, which was again carried a step farther, when
Moawiya I., the first Omayyad caliph, nominated his son, Yazid I., as
his successor, and caused an oath of allegiance to be taken to him. The
hereditary principle was thus introduced, though some relics of the form
of election persisted and still persist. The true election possible in
the early days of the small community at Medina became first a formal
acceptance by the populace of the capital; then an assertion, by the
palace guard, of their power; and now, in the investiture of the sultans
of the Ottoman Turks, who claim the caliphate, a formal ceremony by the
`ulema (q.v.) of Constantinople. The Ottoman claim is based on an
asserted nomination by the last Abbasid, who died in exile in Egypt in
1538, of the Ottoman sultan, Suleiman the Great, as his successor. Such
a nomination in itself was a perfectly legal act, but in this case had a
fatal flaw. It is an absolute condition, laid down in tradition, that
the caliph must be of the tribe of Koreish (Quraish), that of the
Prophet.

The duties of this democratically elected autocrat are, in theory,
generally stated as follows. He shall enforce legal decisions and
maintain the divinely revealed restrictive ordinances; guard the
frontiers and equip armies; receive the alms; put down robberies,
thieving, highwaymen; maintain the Friday services and the festivals;
decide disputes and receive evidence bearing on legal claims; marry
minors, male and female, who have no guardians; divide booty. He must be
a free, male, adult Moslem; must have administrative ability; must be an
effective governor and do justice to the wronged. So long as he fulfils
these conditions he is to be absolutely obeyed; private immorality or
even tyranny are not grounds for deposing him. This is a position
reached by Islam practically. But a caliph who openly denied the faith
would be as impossible as an unbelieving pope. The caliph, therefore, is
the highest executive officer of a system assumed to be definite and
fixed. He, in a word, administers Islam; and the content of Islam is
determined by the agreement of the Moslem people, expressed immediately
through the `ulema, and ultimately, if indirectly and half-consciously,
by the people. To depose him a _fatwa_ (see MUFTI) would be required--in
Turkey from the Sheikh-ul-Islam--that he had violated some essential of
the Moslem faith, and no longer fulfilled the conditions of a caliph.


    The Diwans.

  But it was impossible for the caliph personally to administer the
  affairs of the empire, and by degrees the supreme office was gradually
  put into commission, until the caliph himself became a mere
  figure-head, and vanished into the sacred seclusion of his palace. The
  history of the creation of government bureaus (_diwans_; see DIVAN)
  must therefore now be sketched. The first need which appeared was that
  of a means of regulating and administering the system of taxation and
  the revenues of the state. Immense sums flowed into Medina from the
  Arab conquests; the surplus, after the requirements of the state were
  met, was distributed among the believers. All Moslems had a right to a
  certain share of this, which was regarded as booty. Omar, the second
  caliph, regulated this distribution and also the system of taxation,
  and the result was the first divan and the constitution of Omar,
  looked back to now by all Sunnite Moslems as an ideal. The sources of
  revenue were (i) the poor-rate (_zakat_), a tithe paid by every
  Moslem; (ii) the fifth of all booty; (iii) the poll-tax (_jizya_) on
  non-Moslems; and (iv) the land-tax (_kharaj_) also on non-Moslems.
  Thus the constitution determined the position of all non-Moslems in a
  Moslem state. The ideal was that the Moslems should be kept apart as a
  superior, fighting caste, and that the non-Moslems should support them
  (cf. CALIPHATE, B. § 8, on the reign of Omar II.). The Moslems,
  therefore, were forbidden to acquire land in conquered countries. The
  non-Moslems must retain their lands, cultivate them and pay the
  land-tax (the Arabic word is also used of revenue from the work of a
  slave) and the poll-tax (the Arabic word means also "ransom"), and
  give contributions in kind to support the local Moslem garrisons which
  were massed in great camp-cities at strategic points. If a non-Moslem
  embraced Islam he entered the ruling caste; his land was distributed
  among his non-Moslem fellows, and he no longer paid the land-tax but
  rather received support from the public funds. The amount of these
  pensions varied with the standing of the pensioner from 10,000 dirhems
  (a dirhem equalled about a franc) to the widows and relations of the
  Prophet down to 300. This bureau had, therefore, not only to keep the
  books of the state, but also to maintain a list of all Moslems,
  classified genealogically and socially. Its registers were kept by
  Greeks, Copts and Persians; the Arabs, it may be said in general,
  adopted the method of administration which they found in the captured
  countries and drew upon the trained services of their inhabitants.

  Such a system led naturally to wholesale conversions to Islam; and the
  consequent decline in revenue, combined with large donations of lands
  by Othman, the third caliph, to his own family, gradually broke it
  down. The first patriarchal period of conquest, unearned wealth and
  the simple life--called by Moslems the period of the "four rightly
  guided caliphs," and very happily by Sachau, _ein mönchisches
  Imperium_--passed rapidly into the genuinely Arab empire of the
  Omayyads, with whom came an immediate development of organization in
  the state. The constructive genius in this was Moawiya, the first
  Omayyad caliph. Under him the old simplicity vanished. A splendid and
  ceremonious court was maintained at Damascus. A chamberlain kept the
  door; a bodyguard surrounded the caliph, and even in the mosque the
  caliph, warned by the murder of Othman and of Ali, prayed in a
  railed-off enclosure. The beginning of the seclusion of the caliph had
  come, and he no longer walked familiarly among his fellow Moslems.
  This seclusion increased still further when the administration of the
  state passed by delegation into other hands, and the caliph himself
  became a sacrosanct figure-head, as in the case of the later Abbasids;
  when theories of semi-divine nature and of theocratic rule appeared,
  as in the case of the Fatimites; and finally when all the elaborate
  court ritual of Byzantium was inherited by the Ottoman sultans.

  But Moawiya I. was still a very direct and personal ruler. He
  developed a post-system for the carrying of government despatches by
  relays, and thus received secret information from and kept control of
  the most distant provinces. He established a sealing-bureau by which
  state papers were secured against change. He dealt arbitrarily with
  the revenues of the state and the pensions of the Moslems. Governors
  of provinces were given a much freer hand, and were required to turn
  over to the central treasury their surplus revenue only. As they were
  either conquerors or direct successors of conquerors they had an
  essentially military government, and were really semi-independent
  rulers, unhampered except by direct action of the caliph, acting on
  information sent by the postmaster, who was his local spy. Being thus
  the heads of armies of occupation, they were not necessarily charged
  with the control of religious ritual and of justice. These, like every
  other function, inhered in the office of the caliph and he generally
  appointed in each province independent cadis over the courts and imams
  to be in charge of religious services. Yet the governor was sometimes
  permitted to hold these two other offices (see CADI; IMAM).


  The Vizierate.

Further administrative developments came with the Abbasids. They created
a new city, Bagdad, between the Tigris and the Euphrates, where the
three races, Syrian, Arab and Persian, met and sought with Bagdad as a
capital to consolidate the empire. The Arab empire, it is true, had
passed away with the Omayyads; yet there might be a chance to create a
world-empire of all the Moslem peoples. But not even the genius and
administrative skill of the early Abbasids could hold together that
unwieldy mass. The semi-independent provinces soon became fully
independent, or at most acknowledged the caliph as a spiritual head and
paid a nominal tribute. His name might stand on the coinage and prayers
be offered for him in the Friday service, the two signs of sovereignty
to this day in Islam. With this crumbling of the empire went a more
elaborate organization; bureaus took the place of principles and of the
energy of individual rulers. As the system of Moslem law was built on
that of the Roman codes, so was the machinery of administration on that
of Persia. And with the Abbasids the chance of the Persians had come.
Abu 'l-Abbas, the first Abbasid caliph, was the first to appoint a
vizier (_wazir_, "helper," so Aaron is wazir to Moses in the Koran), a
confidential minister to advise him and come between him and the people.
Advisers the caliphs had had before; but not a definite adviser with
this name. He must, we are told, have a strain of the ruler in him and a
strain of the people to be able to work with both. He must know how to
be acceptable; fidelity and truthfulness are his capital; sagacity,
firmness, generosity, clemency, dignity, effectiveness of speech are
essential. It is plain that the vizier became as important as the
caliph. But Abu 'l-Abbas was fortunate in early securing as his vizier
the grandfather of the house of the Barmecides (q.v.). On this Persian
family the fortunes of the Abbasids hung, and it secured for them and
for Islam a short golden age, like that of the Antonines, until the
jealous madness of Harun al-Rashid cast them down. Thereafter the
vizierate had many vicissitudes. Technically a vizier could be either
limited or unlimited. The limited vizier had no initiative; he carried
out the commands of the caliph. The unlimited vizier, often afterwards
called the grand vizier, exercised full authority and was the _alter
ego_ of the caliph, to whom he was required only to report. Naturally
the formal distinction is a later theorizing of history; for a weak
ruler his vizier became absolute, for a strong ruler his vizier remained
subordinate. Here, as with regard to all Moslem institutions, a marked
distinction must be made between the historic facts and the speculative
edifices raised by constitutional theorizers. Compare especially
MAHOMMEDAN LAW. Until the time of Radi (934-940) the vizierate thus
fluctuated in importance. In that caliphate the vizier lost all
authority, and in his place came the _amir al-omara_--equivalent to the
_major domus_ of the Franks--the head of the Turkish bodyguard, in
terror of whom the caliph now stood. When in 945 the Buyids captured
Bagdad and the caliph became a purely spiritual sovereign, they took the
title "vizier" for their own chief minister, and the caliphs retained
only a secretary (see CALIPHATE, C. § 22). Under the Seljuks, however,
they regained their viziers and some real authority. Elsewhere, also the
vizierate had its vicissitudes. Under the Mamelukes the vizier fell to
be merely the court purveyor. Under the Omayyads of Spain the title was
given to several responsible officers of the state, but their chief was
called _hajib_, chamberlain. Under the Almohades the chamberlain was
called vizier. In the modern Turkish empire the grand vizier (called
generally _sadr A`zam_) is the sultan's representative in secular
matters, and nominally stands between the sovereign and all the other
officials. He is the president of the council of ministers, but Abd-ul
Hamid II. deprived the office of almost all its importance.


    Other Ministers.

  Under the early Abbasids the four most important ministers were the
  chief cadi, the chief of police or head of the life guards, the
  minister of finance and the postmaster, who was the head of the system
  of information and espionage which covered the empire. But at
  different times the different bureaus varied greatly. Under Motawakkil
  we find the bureau of taxes and finance; bureau of the crown estates;
  bureau of state book-keeping; bureau of war, i.e. of hired troops;
  bureau which kept reckoning and control of the pensions of the clients
  and slaves of the ruling family; bureau of the post system; bureau of
  expenditures. But in spite of this elaborate system, no Moslem
  government has, except sporadically, been highly centralized. Provided
  the taxes are paid, a large measure of local autonomy has always been
  enjoyed by the country districts. Under the Abbasids almost the only
  exception was the necessarily centralized control of the irrigation
  system of the Tigris and Euphrates. And similarly elsewhere.

  In the case of all these offices, we have delegation by the caliph,
  under necessity, of his too heavy burdens. But one duty of an Oriental
  ruler he could not so easily lay aside. It had always to be possible
  for the oppressed to come into his presence and claim justice; he must
  sit in the gate and judge. Therefore, when the caliph found it
  necessary to delegate the ordinary administration of justice, he found
  it also necessary to set up a special court of oppressions, which
  developed, to a certain extent, into a court of appeals. The first to
  establish such a separate court was Abdalmalik the Omayyad (685-705),
  and his example was followed by the more vigorous of the caliphs up to
  the time of Mohtadi the Abbasid (869-870). If any other than the
  caliph presided over this court it had to be a man whose dignity,
  independence and authority commanded respect. He was not bound by
  strict rules of evidence, method and literal application of law as was
  the cadi. Rather, he applied a system of equity suited to the absolute
  source of authority which he represented.

  As the chief of police, mentioned above, was rather the head of the
  caliph's bodyguard, there was also a police system after our ideas,
  but more thoroughgoing. The _muhtasib_ had charge in the broadest
  sense of public order and morals in the streets, and had oversight as
  to weights, measures and adulterations; but had no right to interfere
  privately or enter houses save in the clearest and most necessary
  cases. He had a summary jurisdiction in all minor cases where no trial
  was necessary; but where witnesses and oaths entered the case must go
  to the cadi. Slaves and beasts of burden were under his guardianship;
  he prevented public scandals, such as the sale of wine; he regulated
  the public conduct of Jews and Christians. In the interest of public
  morals he had to find suitable husbands for widows and see that they
  did not marry before the legal time; questions of paternity also he
  had to investigate. The outdoor costume of the people he could
  regulate. It should, of course, be remembered that the canon law of
  Islam covers minutely all sides of life (see MAHOMMEDAN LAW).

It is impossible in Islam to separate logically from the mass of
institutions those which we should call religious, as Islam on all sides
is for the Moslem equally religious. But perhaps the following may
practically be separated under that rubric. Islam, runs a tradition, is
built on five things: testimony that there is no god save Allah, and
that Mahomet is the apostle of Allah; prayer; the poor-rate; pilgrimage;
fasting. For these see MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION.

  The law and usage of religious foundations in perpetuity (_waqf_,
  mortmain) became as important in Islam as monastic endowments in
  medieval Europe, and such foundations tended similarly to absorb the
  greater part of the national wealth. It was the only safe way of
  providing for posterity. A pious foundation could be erected in such a
  way that either so much from its funds would be paid yearly in
  perpetuity to the descendants of the erector, or those descendants
  would be employed as officials of the foundation.


    The Imam.

  When it became impossible for the caliph to lead the people personally
  in prayer in the mosque, he delegated that part of his duties to
  another, hence called imam (q.v.). Naturally, then, the appointment of
  the imam would lie with the supreme ruler. This holds of the daily
  prayers in the principal mosque (_al-masjid al-jami'_) supported by
  the ruler where the Friday service is held, but in the separate
  smaller mosques built by each community the community chooses its own
  imam. With regard to the Friday service, the schools of law disagree
  as to the necessity of the presence of an imam appointed by the chief
  ruler. But the imam should certainly make mention of the ruler in his
  sermon and pray for him. At the occasional prayers, such as those for
  rain, &c., the presence of an imam appointed by the ruler is not
  necessary. The imam appoints the _muaddhin_, the announcer of the hour
  of prayer from the minaret, and both have a claim on the state
  treasury.

  Another office exercised when possible by the caliph, but very
  frequently delegated to some high dignitary, such as the heir to the
  caliphate or a prince, was the leadership of the pilgrimage caravan to
  Mecca and back. Sometimes this official, called _amir-al-hajj_, was
  appointed imam as well. He then led all the pilgrimage ceremonies at
  Mecca. When outside of towns where there was a cadi he exercised also
  over the caravan the rights of a judge.


    The Cadi.

  Mahommedan law (q.v.) is treated separately. Here, again, as judging
  is a duty of the caliph, a cadi is the delegate, or, when appointed by
  a vizier or governor, a delegate of his delegate. He examines into
  disputes brought before him and enforces his judgments, he names
  administrators of the estates of minors, the insane, &c.; he
  supervises the _waqf_ property of mosques and schools in his district
  and inspects highways and public buildings; he watches over the
  execution of wills; he inflicts the due legal penalties for apostasy,
  neglect of religious duties, refusal to pay taxes, theft, adultery,
  outrages, murder; he can inflict the penalties of imprisonment, fine,
  corporal punishment, death; if there is no imam, he can perform his
  duty, as in fact can anyone who has the requisite knowledge. But it
  should be noticed that all this holds only of the un-europeanized
  Moslem state.


  The Army.

For the existence of an army in Islam, there are two grounds, the holy
war (_jihad_, q.v.) against unbelievers without the state and the
suppression of rebellion within. Under the ordinance of Omar the entire
community was preserved and used as a weapon for the subduing of the
world to Islam, and every able-bodied male Moslem was theoretically a
fighting man, part of the national militia. This army was divided into
corps situated in the conquered lands, as armies of occupation, where
they eventually came to form military colonies in great camp-cities. The
occupied countries had to support them, and they were bound to render
military service at any time. But as the ideal of Omar broke down before
facts the use of mercenary and slave troops finally increased; although
there has always continued in Moslem armies acting against unbelievers a
proportion of volunteers not paid a fixed wage but subsidized by the
state from the poor-rate and alms funds. The generals were appointed by
the caliph, and had either unlimited authority to act as his
representatives, concluding peace, acting as cadi and imam, distributing
booty; or were restricted within limits, e.g. to simple leading of the
troops and carrying on military operations. They, in turn, appointed
their subordinates; this principle of giving a head full powers and full
responsibility was very generally applied in Islam. It was controlled of
course by the espionage of the postal system. As war by a Moslem power
is essentially sacred war, the regulations of _jihad_ must be considered
here. Unbelievers must first be invited to embrace Islam and, if they
follow a sacred book and are not idol-worshippers, are given a choice
between (a) becoming Moslems; or (b) submitting to the Moslems and
entering on a treaty with them of protection and tribute; or (c)
fighting. If they accept Islam, their lives, families and property are
secure, and they form henceforth part of the Moslem community. The
ability of Islam to create a common feeling between highly different
races is one of its most striking features. If they submit and enter on
treaty relations, they pay a poll-tax, for which their personal safety
is assured, and assume a definitely inferior status, having no technical
citizenship in the state, only the condition of protected clients
(_dhimmis_). If they elect to fight, the door of repentance is open,
even when the armies are face to face. But after defeat their lives are
forfeit, their families are liable to slavery, and all their goods to
seizure. It is open to the sovereign either to put them to death; or to
enslave them; or to give them their liberty; or to exchange them for
ransom or against Moslem prisoners. The sovereign will choose that which
is best for Islam. As for their families and wealth, the sovereign can
release them only with consent of the army that has captured them.
Apostates must be put to death. Four-fifths of the booty after a battle
goes to the conquering army.

The technical art of war seems to have been little studied among
Moslems; they have treatises on archery but very little upon tactics.
Their writers recognize, however, the essential difference between the
European and Persian methods of charging in solid lines and holding the
ground stubbornly, and the Arab and Berber method of flying attacks and
retreats by clouds of cavalry. Therefore, one explained, the custom grew
of using a mass of European mercenaries as a fixed nucleus and
rallying-point. The early Moslem armies, too, had used the solid,
unyielding charge, which may have been the secret of their success. For
one of the greatest puzzles of history is the cause which changed the
erratic, untrustworthy swarms of Arab horsemen with their childish
strategy into the ever-victorious legions of the first caliphs. They
certainly learned rapidly. Byzantium and Persia taught them the use of
military engines and the entrenched camp. Before that they had been, at
the best, single knights with mail-shirt, helmet, sword and lance.
Bowmen, too, they used, but the principal use of the bow seems to have
come with the Turks.


    Education.

  The glory of Moslem education was its university system, which fed the
  higher learning and did not serve everyday needs. Its primary system
  was very poor, almost non-existent; and technical education has never
  been recognized in Islam. Primary teachers were despised as ignorant
  and foolish. Apparently, if we may trust the many stories of how
  ignorant men set up for themselves, there was no control of them by
  the state. Their pupils were young only; they taught the rudiments of
  reading, Koran, catechism, prayer, writing and arithmetic, but very
  little of the latter. Technical education was given by the gilds
  through their apprentice system, teaching mechanical arts and crafts.
  This was genuine instruction, but was not so regarded; it was looked
  upon rather as are the mysteries and secrets of operative masonry. It
  produced artisans of independent character, but not artists. Thus
  there was no distinction between architect and builder; there was no
  sculpture; and painting, so far as it went, was like carving, a craft.
  All Moslem university education, like all Moslem science, revolved
  round theology. There were, apparently, only two outstanding
  exceptions to this rule, the academy of Mamun (813-833) at Bagdad, and
  the hall of wisdom of the Fatimites at Cairo (1004-1171); both of
  these are explained by their environment. From the earliest times,
  independent scholars instructed classes in mosques--the common places
  of meeting for the community--and gave their pupils personal
  certificates. Their subjects were the reading and interpretation of
  the Koran; the body of traditions from the Prophet; the thence deduced
  system of theology; the canon law. But the interpretation of the Koran
  involved grammatical and lexicographical studies of early Arabic, and
  hence of the early Arabic literature. Theology came to involve
  metaphysical and logical studies. Canon law required arithmetic and
  mensuration, practical astronomy, &c. But these last were strictly
  ancillary; the object of the instruction was primarily to give
  knowledge of value for the life of the next world, and, secondarily,
  to turn out theologians and lawyers. Medicine was in Jewish and
  Christian hands; engineering, architecture, &c., with their
  mathematical bases, were crafts. Then this instruction was gradually
  subsidized and organized by the state, or endowed by individuals. How
  early this took place is uncertain. But the individual teacher, with
  his certificate, remained the object of the student; there was nothing
  corresponding to our general degrees. Thirdly, educational
  institutions came to be equipped with scholarships of money or in kind
  for the students. The first instance of this is generally ascribed to
  Nishapur (Naisabur) in 1066; but it soon became general in the system
  and afforded a means of control and centralization. A final, and most
  important, characteristic was the wide journeying of the students "in
  search of knowledge." Aided by Arabic as the universal language of
  learning, students journeyed from teacher to teacher, and from
  Samarkand to the Atlantic, gathering on their way hundreds of personal
  certificates. Scholars were thus kept in touch all over the Moslem
  world, and intellectual unity was maintained.


  The Sayyids.

To the democratic equality of Islam, in which the slave of to-day may be
the prime minister of to-morrow, there is one outstanding exception. The
descendants of the Prophet and of his relatives (the family of Hashim)
formed and form a special class, held in social reverence, and guarded
from contamination and injury. These are the _sayyids_ (lords), and
genealogical registers of them are carefully preserved. They are of all
degrees of wealth and poverty, but are guarded legally from
_mésalliances_ with persons of ignoble origin or equivocal occupation.
Their influence is very great, and in some parts of the Moslem world
they have the standing and reverence of saints.

  See Von Kremer, _Culturgeschichte des Orients_, based largely on
  Mawardi's _Ahkam_, trans. in part by Ostrorog; McG. de Slane's trans.
  of Ibn Khaldun, _Prolégomènes_; Lane, _Manners and Customs of the
  Modern Egyptians_; R. F. Burton, _Pilgrimage to Mekka_; Snouck
  Hurgronje, _Mekka_; Hughes, _Dictionary of Islam_; Juynboll, _De
  Mohammedaansche Wet_; Macdonald, _Development of Muslim Theology_, &c.
  For women in Islam, see HAREM.     (D. B. Ma.)



MAHOMMEDAN LAW. The legal situation in the Moslem world is of the
highest complexity, and can be made intelligible only by tracing its
historical development. First came the system (_fiqh_, _sharia_) which
takes the place in Islam of canon law in Roman Christendom. It begins
with Mahomet sitting as judge over the primitive Moslem community at
Medina. He was the Prophet of God, and judged, as he ruled, absolutely;
any decision of his was valid. But he found it, in general, advisable
and fitting to follow the local law or usage of Medina when the new
faith did not require a change. It thus came about that his decisions
followed, at one time, the usage of the Arab tribes of Medina; at
another, the law respected by the Jewish tribes there--a rabbinic
development of the law of Moses, deeply affected by Roman law; at
another, the more developed commercial law of Mecca, known to his
followers who had fled thence with him; or, finally, his own personal
judgment, stated it might be as his own sense of right or as the
decision of Allah and even incorporated in the Koran. In his use of
these he was an eclectic opportunist, and evidently, except as regards
such frequently recurring subjects as inheritance, marriage, &c., had no
thought of building up a system or code. At his death he left behind
only a few specific prescriptions in the Koran and a mass of recorded
decisions of cases that had come before him. He had used himself, in our
terms, common law, equity, legislation; to guide his followers he left
his legislative enactments and the record of his use of common law.
Since his death there has been no new legislation in orthodox Islam.

With the death of Mahomet began the development and codification of
Moslem law. It was at first entirely practical. Cases had to be decided,
and to decide them there was, first, the Koran; secondly, if nothing _ad
rem_ was found in the Koran, there were the decisions of the Prophet;
thirdly, if these failed, there was the common law of Medina; and,
fourthly, if it, in turn, failed, the common sense of the judge, or
equity. A knowledge of the decisions of Mahomet came thus to be of great
importance, and records of such decisions were eagerly sought and
preserved. But this was simply a part of a much wider movement and
tendency. As among primitive peoples in general, custom and usage have
always been potent among the Arabs. The ways of the fathers, the old
paths, they love to tread. Very early there arose a special reverence
for the path and usage (_sunna_) of Mahomet. Whatever he did or said, or
left unsaid or undone, and how he did it, has become of the first
importance to the pious Moslem, who would act in every way as did the
Prophet. There is evidence that for this purpose the immediate
companions of Mahomet took notes, either in memory or in writing, of his
table talk and wise sayings, just as they took down or learned by heart
for their private use the separate fragments of the Koran. His sayings
and doings, manners and customs, his answers to questions on religious
life and faith, above all his decisions in legal disputes, came to be
recorded on odd sheets in private notebooks. This was the beginning of
the enormous literature of traditions (_hadith_) in Islam. The
collecting and preserving of these, which was at first private, for
personal guidance and edification, finally became one of the most
powerful weapons of political and theological propaganda, and coloured
the whole method and fabric of Moslem thought. All knowledge tended to
be expressed in that form, and each element of it to be traced back to,
and given in the words of, some master or other through a chain of
transmitters. Above all there grew up an enormous mass of evidently
forged sayings put into the mouth of Mahomet. At every important
political or theological crisis each party would invent and put into
circulation a tradition from him, supporting its view. By a study of
these flatly opposed "sayings" it is possible to reconstruct the
different controversies of Islam in the past, and to discover what each
party regarded as the essence of its position.

  The first collecting of traditions was for private purposes, and the
  first publication dealing with them was legal. This was the Muwatta'
  of Malik ibn Anas (d. 795), a _corpus juris_ based partly on
  traditions, and a protest in its methods against the too speculative
  character of the books of canon law which preceded it. Thereafter came
  collections of two different types. The earlier kind was arranged
  according to the companions of Mahomet, on whose authority the
  traditions were transmitted; after each companion came the traditions
  going back to him. The best known example of this kind is the _Musnad_
  of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. The other kind, called _Musannaf_ (classified),
  contains traditions arranged in chapters according to their subject
  matter. That of Bukhari is the most famous, and is arranged to give a
  traditional basis for a complete system of canon law; its rubrics are
  those of such a system. Another is that of Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, who
  paid less attention to legal aspects and more to minute accuracy.
  There are many others of more or less acceptance and canonicity.
  Bukhari's book enjoys a reverence only second to that of the Koran.
  But in all these publications the primary object was to purify the
  mass of traditions of forged accretions and to give to the believer a
  sound basis for his knowledge of the usages of the Prophet, whether
  for his personal or for public use. These two kinds were a natural
  development. In the Moslem community there were from the first
  students of tradition proper whose interest lay in collecting, testing
  and transmitting, not in combining, systematizing and elucidating;
  whose preference was to take a single statement from the Prophet and
  apply it to a case, without reasonings or questionings. And there were
  students of canon law who were interested rather in the system and
  results, and who, while they used traditions, used them only to an end
  and insisted on the free application of speculative principles. The
  conflict of the future was to be between these traditionalists, on the
  one hand, and rationalists, on the other; and the result was to be a
  compromise.

With the wide sweep of Moslem conquest another element came into the
development. This was Roman law, which the Moslem jurist found at work
in the conquered Roman provinces and in the law courts of which they
went to school. It is to be remembered that the Arab armies were not
devastating hordes; they recognized the need of law and order wherever
they went, and it was the policy of their leaders to take over the
administrative systems of the countries which they seized. Even the
Arabic legal nomenclature shows evident signs of literal translation
from Latin, and many Moslem principles can be traced to the Roman codes.
One important development was plainly influenced by the liberty involved
in the _Responsa prudentium_ of Roman lawyers, and by the broad
conception of the law of nature in the Edict of the Praetor. In its
earliest stages Moslem law recognized in the judge a liberty of opinion
(_ra'y_) which went beyond even that of the _Responsa_ and became plain
equity, in the English sense, and one school (the Hanifite) established
as a basis the right of preference (_istihsan_) even when the analogy of
the code dictated otherwise; while another (the Malikite) used the term
_istislah_, "a seeking of (general) benefit" to the community, in a
similar situation. But these developments were bitterly contested, and
the liberty of opinion was in the end narrowed down to a principle of
analogy (_qiyas_), the nearest approach to which in Western law is legal
fiction.

It is necessary now to return to the first successors of Mahomet. "For
thirty years after my death," he is said to have declared, "my people
will tread in my path (_sunna_); thereafter will come kings and
princes." This tradition crystallizes the later feeling of Islam. The
first thirty years were a golden age; the centre of the state was the
Prophet's own city of Medina; the conditions of the state continued in
close conformity to those of his own time. The study of tradition, i.e.
of his usage, went hand in hand with the study of law. They were vital
functions of the state, and it encouraged both.

Then came the great _débâcle_. The _ancien régime_, a semi-monkish,
theocratic empire, went down, and the Omayyad dynasty, kings and princes
of the old Arab type, took its place (see CALIPHATE, B). The public life
of the state was no longer deeply religious; the pious said that it was
godless. Under these conditions law was indeed still needed; but it had
to be opportunist. Its development went on, but became speculative. The
study of tradition was now private, and its students were more and more
the personally pious. There were, thus, two results. On the one hand,
the framers of systems of canon law--as it now was--no longer lived in
contact with reality; hypothetical and ideal structures were reared
which could never stand the touch of the practical law-court. And on
another, traditions and law, even this hypothetical law, came to take
separate roads. The interest of the students of tradition became the
gathering of traditions for their own sake, going no farther than a
striving to regulate each detail of life by some specific, concrete,
prophetic dictum. They had no use for systems that went beyond the mere
registering of these dicta. The feeling also became widespread that any
system of government which did not simply reproduce the patriarchal form
of Medina was of the world and the devil--a thing with which no
religious man could have aught to do. At every turn he would have to
peril his soul.

Here we must place the transition of this law with which we have
hitherto dealt from being the law of the land to being in essence a
variety of canon law. It was always broader than any western secular
law. It regulated all the aspects of life--duty to God, to one's
neighbour, to one's self. It was really a system of duties, ethical,
legal, religious. It did not limit itself to defining the forbidden
(_haram_); but designated actions also as required (_fard_, _wajib_),
recommended (_mandub_, _mustahabb_), indifferent (_ja`iz_, _mubah_),
disliked (_makruh_). It played the part of, or rendered necessary, a
religious director quite as much as a lawyer. And for a time at Medina
it was really the law of the land. But from the Omayyad period on it has
held the position of the canon law of the Roman Church in countries that
will not recognize it and yet dare not utterly reject it. It governs, in
one or other of its four schools, the private lives of all pious
Moslems; it regulates some semi-public relationships--e.g. marriage,
divorce, inheritance; it compels respect, if not acceptance, from the
state; and by its ideal standard the world, filled with righteousness by
the Mahdi, will be ruled in the Moslem millennium.

The rise of the Abbasids brought a change, but not a great one. They had
promised a return to the old religious attitudes, and the promise was
formally kept. But in substance they were as much as the Omayyads, and
though the state was outwardly on a pious footing, and the religious
sentiment of the people was respected, the old, absolute canon law was
not restored. It was made possible for more theologians and lawyers to
work with the state, but an irreconcilable party still remained, and the
situation was fixed as it is to this day. It is true that the struggle
to adapt such a single and detailed system to all the varying
conditions, climates and times of the great empire was impossible; but
the failure marked the great rent in the supposed unity of Islam between
the church and the world, religion and law.

Yet the Abbasids did, in their way, encourage legal studies, and under
them processes and results, long pursued in private, became public.
Almost within the first century of their dynasty the four legal schools,
or rites, were formed and the principles established which survive to
this day.

  The first school to take definite form was the Hanifite, founded by
  Abu Hanifa (d. 767), who left behind him a definite system and many
  enthusiastic pupils. He was a man of means, in touch with commercial,
  but not with practical legal life, a speculative or philosophical
  jurist. Being of non-Arab origin, the usage of Medina had small
  interest for him. He therefore used few traditions, and preferred to
  go back to the Koran, and extract from it by reasoning the rulings
  which fitted his ideas. This he called the use of analogy (_qiyas_);
  but, in his hands, it became practically legal fiction, the
  application of a law in some sense undreamed by its first imposer. But
  he had another, and still freer instrument. The effect of differences
  in local conditions had been early observed and admitted in general
  terms. Abu Hanifa reduced it to a subjective formula. Under such
  conditions he claimed the right of preference (_istihsan_) of a ruling
  suited to the local needs, even when the strict analogy indicated
  otherwise. This met and meets with vehement protest when formally
  stated, but the usage of Islam has practically accepted it. His
  system, finally, was not developed through the exigencies of actual
  cases, but was worked out as a system of casuistry, though in a good
  sense. He tried, that is, to construct a system of rules to answer any
  conceivable question. After his death his pupils elaborated it still
  further, and accepted public office. The `Abbasids adopted his school,
  and threw their influence on its side; its philosophic breadth and
  casuistic possibilities evidently commended it to them. Later, the
  Ottoman Turks also adopted it, and it may be said to hold now a
  leadership among the four legal rites. Its influence has undoubtedly
  tended to broaden and humanize Moslem law.

  Twenty-eight years after Abu Hanifa, Malik ibn Anas, the founder of
  the Malikite school, died at Medina. In many points his situation was
  precisely opposite to that of Abu Hanifa, and yet his results were
  very similar. He was a working jurist, in practical touch with actual
  life; he was in the centre of the tradition of the usage of the
  Prophet, in the line, one might say, of the apostolic succession. He,
  therefore, used traditions much more generally than did Abu Hanifa,
  and when he, under pressure, took refuge in opinion, he certainly felt
  that he, under his conditions, had a better right to do so than any
  outsider. But two of his principles marked a distinct advance and
  showed that he was no mere traditionalist. For one, he laid down the
  conception of public advantage (_istislah_); when a rule founded on
  even a valid analogy would work a general injury it was to be set
  aside; justice must not be overcome by logic. And, for the other, he
  laid stress on the conception of the agreement (_ijma`_), an idea
  which was to have indefinite importance in the future. When the
  surviving companions of the Prophet, after his death, agreed upon any
  point as belonging to their store of tradition and experience, their
  agreement was accepted as final. In the first instance they agreed
  that such had been the statement of the Prophet. That easily passed
  over into an agreement that such was the true Moslem view, and finally
  into an acceptance of the principle that the Moslem Church, when
  unanimous, could formulate truth--practically as in the canon of
  Vincent of Lérins, _Quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus_. But
  such a broadly catholic position was still in the future, and for
  Malik, juristic agreement meant the agreement of Medina, though there
  are signs that he permitted the same latitude to other places also. It
  was a way of allowing for local conditions rather than of reaching the
  voice of the Church. His law book, the _Muwatta'_, the earliest in our
  possession written by the founder of a school, has already been
  mentioned. It is a collection of about seventeen hundred traditions of
  juristic importance, arranged according to subject, with appended
  remarks on the usage of Medina and on his own view of each matter.

  So far opinion and local usage had fully held their own, and the
  philosophical jurist had been free to work out his system. The
  difference between the _istihsan_ of Abu Hanifa and the _istislah_ of
  Malik was not great; students attended the lectures of both and
  combined their systems. But a reaction now began, and the
  traditionalist party finally made itself felt. We have the inevitable
  rivalry between the historical-empirical and the
  speculative-philosophical schools of jurisprudence, rendered all the
  more bitter in that the historical lawyers believed, in this case,
  that they were defending a divine institution. There resulted, first,
  one of the most important schools, the Shafi`ite; secondly, an
  extremely literal school for which ash-Shafi`i did not go far enough,
  and which has now vanished; and thirdly, the Hanbalite school, still
  surviving in small numbers, more moderately traditional than the last.

  The school founded by ash-Shafi`i (d. 820), a pupil of Malik, came
  first in order of time. The others were really revolts against the
  mildness of his compromise. His characteristics were a broad-minded,
  steady grasp of means and ends, a perception of what could and what
  could not be done, a willingness to admit all the tried principles in
  due balance, and, at one point especially, the insight of genius as to
  the possibilities of these principles. He laid great stress on
  tradition; a clear, authentic tradition he regarded as no less valid
  than the Koran itself. If the tradition was chronologically later than
  a Koranic passage and corrected that passage, he followed the
  tradition. But in this he was only regulating a fixed tendency. The
  Koran may be regarded theoretically as the first of all the sources of
  law and theology; practically its clear statements have been
  over-ridden in many cases. Most important of all, the principle of
  agreement (_ijma`_) came finally with him to its full rights. The
  agreement of the Moslem peoples was to be the voice of God. "My
  people," said a tradition from Mahomet, "will never agree in an
  error." And so, over traditions and over the Koran itself, the
  agreement tacitly or explicitly ruled and rules. It stamps as
  authoritative that which the other principles lay down. At the head of
  each section of a Shafi`ite law book we read, "The basis of this,
  before the agreement, is such and such." But with the aid of a
  principle of this breadth it was easy to reject the opinion which was
  so objectionable to the traditionalist party. In its place he took
  analogy (_qiyas_), which, discreetly used, could serve almost the same
  purpose. The Koranic passage or the tradition with which an analogy
  was suggested should, he taught, be examined to see if there was a
  reason clearly stated for the command. If so, that reason would give a
  basis for the analogy. Analogy based on the mechanical or external
  could not hold.

  The four bases thus laid down by ash-Shafi`i--Koran; prophetic usage
  as expressed in traditions; analogy; agreement--have come to be
  accepted by all existing schools. This applies to all spheres of life,
  ethical, social, theological, legal, and it should never be forgotten
  that the Koran is only one of the sources for Moslem faith and
  conduct.

  Few words are needed for the other, reactionary schools. One, now long
  extinct, was founded by a certain Da`ud uz-Zahiri, "David the
  Literalist," born three or four years before the death of ash-Shafi`i,
  and so called because he insisted upon an absolutely literal
  interpretation of his texts--Koran or tradition--without account of
  context or metaphor. In consequence he had to reject analogy, and
  limited agreement to that of the companions of Mahomet; the Church of
  Islam was to have no constructive authority. In one point he showed
  great sanity of judgment, namely in his rejection of the principle
  _jurare in verba magistri_, otherwise regnant in Islam. His school had
  long and interesting consequences, mostly theological, but is now
  extinct, and never took rank with the others. The Moslem world found
  his positions too impossible, and now no one swears to his words. The
  other, the Hanbalite school, was founded by the scholars of Ahmad ibn
  Hanbal after his death in 885. He himself would never have revolted
  against his master, ash-Shafi`i, but it was soon felt that his system,
  so far as he had any, was in essential opposition. He had been no
  lawyer, but a theologian and a collector and student of traditions.
  All his life had been a protest against speculation in divine things.
  Where the Koran and traditions were silent, he, too, had been silent.
  For this agnostic principle he had witnessed and suffered, and his
  standing with the people was that of a saint. Naturally, then, the
  last still existent school of traditionalist protest was launched in
  his name. It minimizes agreement and analogy, is literal in its
  interpretations, and is now by far the smallest of the four surviving
  schools. Its external history is that of a testifying and violent
  minority.

  Other men, such as Tabari, the historian and commentator, have had
  dreams that they, too, might join the Four Imams (see IMAM) as
  founders of legal rites, but none has succeeded. The Four remain the
  ultimate exponents of this canon law, and under the banner of one or
  other of them every Moslem must range himself. As there is a principle
  of unity in Islam, expressed in the alleged prophetic saying, "My
  people will never agree in an error," so there is a principle of
  variety, also expressed in an alleged prophetic saying, "The
  disagreement of my people is a mercy from God." The four rites may
  differ upon many points, yet the adherents of one never dream of
  regarding the adherents of the others as outside the Church of Islam;
  they are not "dissenters" in the English sense. God is merciful to his
  creatures, and gives them so much liberty of choice. Yet in practice
  this liberty is not great. The principle of swearing to the words of
  the master is a dead hand laid upon Islam. A man's legal rite is
  generally settled by the place and other conditions of his birth, and
  after he has once accepted a rite, he must, if good and pious, follow
  it in all its details. Only the avowed sceptic or the recognized
  eccentric can be an eclectic.

  The geographical distribution of the rites is roughly as follows:
  Moslems in Central Asia and northern India and the Turks everywhere
  are Hanifites; in Lower Egypt, Syria, southern India and the Malay
  Archipelago they are Shafi`ites; in Upper Egypt and in north Africa,
  west of Egypt, they are Malikites; only the Wahhabis (q.v.) in central
  Arabia are Hanbalites. But the will of the sovereign has also had a
  powerful influence and has frequently dictated the legal, as well as
  the theological, affiliations of his subjects. The Turks, for example,
  have thrown their weight almost everywhere on the Hanifite side. Their
  policy is to appoint only Hanifite judges (see CADI), although for
  private and personal questions they appoint and pay Muftis (q.v.) of
  the other rites. In other cases, with a population of mixed legal
  adherence, the government has been known to appoint judges of
  different rites.

  The Shi`ite canon law is dealt with separately, but some mention of
  two outstanding sects is here in place. The Ibadites (see MAHOMMEDAN
  RELIGION: _Sects_) have a system of canon law which in essentials is
  of older codification than that of any of the orthodox schools, going
  back to Abdallah ibn Ibad himself, of the first century of the Hijra
  (Hejira). Its basis is above all the Koran, then a sparing use of
  traditions, natural to their early origin, and finally the agreement
  of their own learned men, again natural to an extreme dissenting sect,
  and it still rules the Ibadite communities at Oman, Zanzibar and the
  Mzab in southern Algeria. At all these places they, the last
  descendants of the Kharijites, hold severely apart, while the other
  Moslems shrink from them as heretics of the worst. Not nearly so far
  from ordinary Islam, but still of an extreme self-conscious Puritanism
  are the Wahhabis. They are really Hanbalites, but apply the rules of
  that school with uncompromising, reforming energy. The doctrine of the
  agreement of the Church of Islam they reject; only that of the
  immediate companions of Mahomet is valid. The people of Mahomet can
  err and has erred; each man must, on his own responsibility, draw his
  doctrine from the Koran and the traditions. Here they follow the
  Zahirites.

All these schools of law administer a scheme of duties, which, as has
already been remarked, comes nearest to the canon law of the Roman
Church, and which for centuries has had only a partial connexion with
the real legal systems of the Moslem peoples. Among the Wahhabis and
Ibadites alone is it the whole of law. Elsewhere, since the Omayyad
period, its courts have been in great part pushed aside by others, and
its scheme has come to be regarded as an expression of impossible
theory, to be realized at best with the coming of the millennium. The
causes and methods of this change call now for detailed notice.

As Islam spread beyond the desert and the conditions in which the life
of Mahomet and his companions had been cast, it came to regions,
climates, customs, where the Arabian usages no longer held. Not only
were the prescripts of Medina ill adapted to the new conditions; the new
people had legal usages of their own to which they clung and which
nothing could make them abandon. It was rather the Moslem leaders who
were compelled to abandon their ideas and for the sake of the spread of
Islam to accept and incorporate much that was diametrically opposed to
the original legislation either of the Koran or of Mahomet's recorded
decisions. As in religion the faiths of the conquered peoples were
thinly veneered with Moslem phrases, so in law there grew up a customary
code (_`adat_) for each country, differing from every other, which often
completely obscured and annulled the prescriptions of the canon law. The
one was an ideal system, studied and praised by the pious learned; the
other was the actual working of law in the courts.

But besides the obstinate adherence of various peoples to their old
paths, the will of individual rulers was a determining factor. When
these ceased to be saints and students of divine things, and came to be
worldly statesmen and opportunists, followers of their own objects and
pleasures, no system could hold which set a limit to their authority.
The Oriental ruler must rule and judge on his own initiative, and the
schools of canon law tended to reduce everything to an academic
fixedness. There thus arose a new and specific statute law, emanating
from the sovereign. At first he judged in the gate as seemed good in his
eyes and as was his right and duty (cf. "court of oppressions"; see
MAHOMMEDAN INSTITUTIONS); later, his will was codified as in the Turkish
statute law (_qawanin_) derived from various European codes. Thus there
has grown up in almost every Moslem country at least two systems of
courts, the one administering this canon law, and taking cognisance of
private and family affairs, such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, its
officials also giving rulings on purely personal religious questions,
such as details of the ritual law, the law of oaths and vows, &c.; the
other, the true law courts of the land, administering codes based on
local custom and the decrees of the local rulers.

A rift almost as important entered the legal life of the Moslem lands on
another side. Non-Moslem communities, settled in Moslem territory, have
been uniformly permitted to administer and judge themselves according to
their own customs and laws. Save when they come into direct contact and
conflict with Moslems, they are left to themselves with a contemptuous
tolerance. The origin of this attitude in Islam appears to be threefold:
(i) The Islam of theory cannot conceive of a mixed state; it takes
account, only, of a state containing none but Moslems, and its ideal is
that the whole world will, in the end, form such a state. In practice,
then, Moslems try to shut their eyes to the existence of non-Moslems in
their midst and make no provision for them until compelled. That a
non-Moslem should have the same civil position as a Moslem is
unthinkable. (ii) This, of course, produces an attitude of extreme
contempt. The only citizens are Moslems and all others are to be looked
down upon and left to themselves. What they do or think among themselves
does not matter; they are outside the ring-fence of Islam. (iii) A
different, but equally important, cause is the Moslem indolence. When
the Arabs conquered, they knew that they must administer the conquered
lands, and they, very wisely, sought help from the machinery which they
found in operation. But besides the ordinary organization of the state,
they found also various ecclesiastical organizations, Christian and
Jewish, and to these they gave over the administration of the non-Moslem
sections of the community, making their rabbis and bishops their
responsible heads and the links of contact with the Moslem rulers. They,
unquestionably, found the same method in use by the Byzantine
government; but in Moslem hands it went so far as to make a number of
little states (_millet_, _milal_) within the state and effectually to
preclude the possibility of ever welding all the inhabitants of the land
into one corporate life.

But this indolence, when applied to resident aliens, had consequences
still more serious, because external as well as internal. Following the
same method of leaving the unbeliever to settle his affairs for himself,
the European merchant, living and trading in the East, was put first by
usage and finally by treaty under the jurisdiction and control of his
own consul. Thus there grew up the extra-territorial law of the
capitulations and conventions, by which the sanctity of the person and
household of an ambassador is extended to every European. And this in
turn, has reacted on the status of the non-Moslem subject races, and has
come to be the indirect but chief support on which they lean. Through
it, an element has developed which makes it practically impossible for a
Moslem state to introduce legal changes even remotely affecting its
non-Moslem population, alien or subject, without the consent of the
European embassies. Any change may be upset by their refusal to accept
it as incompatible with the capitulations and conventions. The embassies
have thus, as interpreters of a part, at least, of the constitution,
come to hold a position remarkably, if absurdly, like that of the
Supreme Court of the United States (see Young, _Corps de droit Ottoman,
passim_).

There may be said, then, in short, to be three elements in the legal
life of a Moslem state: the sacred and fixed canon law of Islam; the
civil law, based on the usages of the different peoples, Moslem and
non-Moslem, and on statutes going back to the will of rulers; the
international law of the capitulations, with a contractual sanction of
its own. The hope for the future in Islam, there can be little doubt,
lies in the principle of the agreement of the Moslem people, with its
conception of catholic unity, and its ability, through that unity, to
make and abrogate laws. As the Moslem peoples advance, their law can,
thus, advance with them, and the grasp of the dead hand of the canon law
be gradually and legally released.

  See I. Goldziher, _Muhammedanische Studien_, I. and II. (Halle a.S.,
  1889-1890); _Zahiriten_ (Leipzig, 1884); E. Sachau, _Zur ältesten
  Geschichte des muhammedanischen Rechts_ (Vienna Akad., 1870) and
  _Muhammedanisches Recht_ (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1897); Snouck
  Hurgronje, review of preceding in _Z.D.M.G._ liii. 125 seq. and "Le
  droit musulman" (_Rev. de l'hist. des religions_, xxxvii. 1 seq. and
  174 seq.); Juynboll, _Handleiding tot de Kennis von de mohammedaansche
  Wet_ (Leiden, 1903); Von Kremer, _Culturgeschichte des Orients unter
  den Chalifen_, i. 470 seq. (Vienna, 1875-1877); Hughes, _Dictionary of
  Islam_, pp. 285 seq. (London, 1896); D. B. Macdonald, _Development of
  Muslim Theology_, &c., pp. 65 seq. (New York, 1903); Bukhari, _Les
  Traditions islamiques traduites ... par O. Houdas et W. Marcel_
  (Paris, 1906); N. B. E. Bailie, _Digest of Moohummadan Law_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1875-1887). A good bibliography appeared in the _Bulletin of
  the New York Public Library_ for January 1907.     (D. B. Ma.)



MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION. The Mahommedan religion is generally known as
_Islam_--the name given to it by Mahomet himself--and meaning the
resigning or submitting oneself to God. The participle of the same
Arabic verb, _Muslim_ (in English usually spelt Moslem), is used for one
who professes this religion. The expression "Mahommedan religion" has
arisen in the West probably from analogy with "Christian religion," but
is not recognized as a proper one by Moslem writers. Islam claims to be
a divinely revealed religion given to the world by Mahomet, who was the
last of a succession of inspired prophets. Its _doctrine_ and
_practices_ are to be found in (i) the Book of God--the Koran--which was
sent down from the highest heaven to Gabriel in the lowest, who in turn
revealed it in sections to Mahomet; (2) the collections of tradition
(_hadith_) containing the sayings and manner of life (_sunna_) of the
Prophet; (3) the use of analogy (_qiyas_) as applied to (i) and (2); and
(4) the universal consent (_ijma'_) of the believers. The _worship_ of
Islam consists in (1) the recital of the creed; (2) the recital of the
ordained prayers; (3) the fast during the month of Ramadhan; (4)
alms-giving; (5) the _hajj_, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The _theology_ of
Islam finds its first public expression among the orthodox in the
teaching of al-Ash`ari (d. after 932), but had its real beginning among
the sects that arose soon after the death of Mahomet.

Islam is the latest of the so-called world-religions, and as several of
the others were practised in Arabia at the time of Mahomet, and the
Prophet undoubtedly borrowed some of his doctrines and some of his
practices from these, it is necessary to enumerate them and to indicate
the extent to which they prevailed in the Arabian world.

_Relations with Other Religions._--The religions practised in Arabia at
the time of Mahomet were heathenism, Judaism, Christianity, and
Zoroastrianism.

  i. _Heathenism_ was the religion of the majority of the Arabs. In the
  cities of south Arabia it was a survival from the forms represented in
  the Sabaean, Minaean and Himyaritic inscriptions of south Arabia (see
  ARABIA: _Antiquities_). The more popular form current among the nomads
  is known very imperfectly from the remains of pre-Islamic poetry and
  such works as the _Kitab ul-Asnam_ contained in Yaqut's geography,
  from Shahrastani's work on the sects, and from the few references in
  classical writers. From these we have mostly names of local deities
  (cf. J. Wellhausen, _Reste arabischen Heidentums_, 2nd ed., Berlin,
  1897) and ancient religious customs, which remained in part after the
  introduction of Islam (cf. W. Robertson Smith, _The Religion of the
  Semites_, Edinburgh, 1889, and _Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia_,
  Cambridge, 1885). From these sources we learn that Arabian religion
  was a nature-worship associated with fetishism. Sun, moon and stars
  were worshipped, some tribes being devoted to the worship of special
  constellations. Certain stones, wells and trees were regarded as
  sacred and as containing a deity. Many (perhaps most) tribes had their
  own idols. Hobal was the chief god of the Ka`ba in Mecca with its
  sacred stone, but round him were grouped a number of other tribal
  idols. It was against this association (_shirk_) of gods that Mahomet
  inveighed in his attempt to unify the religion and polity of the
  Arabs. But there were features in this heathenism favourable to unity,
  and these Mahomet either simply took over into Islam or adapted for
  his purpose. The popularity of the Ka`ba in Mecca as a place of resort
  for worshippers from all parts of Arabia led Mahomet not only to
  institute the _hajj_ as a duty, but also to take over the customs
  connected with the heathen worship of these visits, and later to make
  Mecca the _qibla_, i.e. the place to which his followers turned when
  they prayed. The name of Allah, who seems to have been the god of the
  Koreish (cf. D. S. Margoliouth, _Mohammed_, p. 19, London, 1905), was
  accepted by Mahomet as the name of the one God, though he abandoned
  the corresponding female deity Al-lat.

  2. _Judaism_ had long been known in Arabia at the time of the Prophet.
  Whether Hebrews settled in Arabia as early as the time of David (cf.
  R. Dozy, _Die Israeliten zu Mecca_, Leipzig, 1864), or not, is of
  little importance here as Judaism cannot be said to have existed until
  the end of the 5th century B.C. The Seleucid persecutions and the
  political troubles that ended with the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70)
  probably sent many Jews to Arabia. In the 5th and 6th centuries the
  history of south Arabia and of Nejran is largely that of the strife
  between Jews and Christians. In the north-west the Jews possessed
  Tema, Khaibar, Yathrib (Medina), Fadak, and other smaller settlements.
  In these they lived as self-contained communities, not seeking to
  proselytize but working at their trades, especially concerned with
  money and jewelry. Mahomet seems to have expected their help in his
  proclamation of monotheism, and his first _qibla_ was Jerusalem. It
  was only when they refused to accept him as prophet that he turned in
  anger against them. They had, however, supplied him with much material
  from the Old Testament, and the stories of creation, the patriarchs
  and early kings and prophets occur continually in the Koran, told
  evidently as they were recited by the common people and with many
  mistakes caused by his own misunderstanding.

  3. _Christianity_, though later than Judaism, had a sure footing in
  Arabia. It had suffered persecution in Nejran and had been supported
  in the south by the Abyssinian invasions. The kingdom of Hira was
  largely Christian; the same is true of the north Arabian tribes of
  Bakr and Taghlib, and east of the Jordan and on the Syrian boundary as
  well as in Yemama Christianity had made progress. Pre-Islamic
  literature contains many allusions to the teaching and practices of
  Christianity. Of the time of its introduction little is known; little
  also of the form in which it was taught, save that it came from the
  Eastern Church and probably to a large extent through Monophysite and
  Nestorian sects. Tradition says that Mahomet heard Christian preaching
  at the fair of Ukaz, and he probably heard more when he conducted the
  caravans of Khadija. Gospel stories derived apparently from
  uncanonical works, such as the Gospel of the Nativity, occur in the
  Koran. The asceticism of the monks attracted his admiration. A
  mistaken notion of the Trinity was sharply attacked by him. It is
  curious that his followers in the earliest times were called by the
  heathen Arabs, Sabians (q.v.), this being the name of a semi-Christian
  sect. In the time of the Omayyads Christianity led to some of the
  earliest theological sects of Islam (see below).

  4. _Zoroastrianism_ was known to the Arab tribes in the north-east,
  but does not seem to have exercised any influence in Mecca or Medina
  except indirectly through Judaism in its angelology. As soon, however,
  as the armies of Islam conquered Mesopotamia it began to penetrate the
  thought and practices of Islam (see below).

_Sources of Authority._--Islam, as we have said, is founded on: (1) the
Koran; (2) the tradition or rather the _sunna_ (manner of life of
Mahomet) contained in the tradition (_Hadith_); (3) _ijma`_; the
universal agreement; (4) _qiyas_ (analogy).

1. The _Koran_[1] (properly _Qur'an_ from _qara'a_ to collect, or to
read, recite) is the copy of an uncreated original preserved by God (see
below), sent down from the seventh heaven to Gabriel in the first
heaven, and revealed to Mahomet in sections as occasion required. These
revelations were recited by the Prophet and in many cases written down
at once, though from ii. 100 it would seem that this was not always the
case. God is the speaker throughout the revelations. It seems probable
that the whole Koran was written in Mahomet's lifetime, but not brought
together as a whole or arranged in order.

  As it exists now the Koran consists of 114 chapters called _suras_
  (from _sura_, a row of bricks in a wall, a degree or step). The first
  is the _Fatiha_ (opening), which occupies the place of the Lord's
  Prayer in Christianity. The others are arranged generally in order of
  length, the longest coming first, the shortest (often the earliest in
  date) coming at the end. Certain groups, however, indicated by initial
  unvowelled letters, seem to have been kept together from the time of
  the Prophet. At the head of each _sura_ is a title, the place of its
  origin (Mecca or Medina) and the number of its verses (_ayat_)
  together with the formula, "In the name of God the Merciful, the
  Compassionate" (except in _sura 9_). For liturgical purposes the whole
  book is divided into 60 sections (_ahzab_) or into 30 divisions
  (_ajza_), each subdivided into a number of prostrations (_ruk`a_ or
  _sajda_). The origin of the collected and written Koran is due to
  Omar, who in the caliphate of Abu Bekr pointed out that many
  possessors of _suras_ were being slain in the battles of Islam and
  their property lost, that there was a danger in this way that much of
  the revelation might disappear, and that men were uncertain what was
  to be accepted as genuine revelation. Accordingly Zaid ibn Thabit who
  had been secretary to Mahomet, was commissioned to collect all he
  could find of the revelation. His work seems to have been simply that
  of a collector. He seems to have done his work thoroughly and made a
  copy of the whole for Abu Bekr. The collection was thus chiefly a
  private matter, and this copy passed after Abu Bekr's death into the
  hands of Omar, and after his death to Hafsa, daughter of Omar, a widow
  of Mahomet. In the caliphate of Othman it was discovered that there
  were serious differences between the readings of the Koran possessed
  by the Syrian troops and those of the Eastern soldiers, and Othman was
  urged to have a copy prepared which should be authoritative for the
  Moslem world. He appointed Zaid ibn Thabit and three members of the
  tribe of Koreish (Quraish) to do the work. Each of these made a copy
  of Abu Bekr's collection, carefully preserving Koreishite forms of
  words. How far the text was amended by the help of other copies is
  doubtful; in any case the mode of procedure was undoubtedly very
  conservative. The four similar manuscripts were sent, one each to
  Medina, Cufa (Kufa), Basra and Damascus, and an order was issued that
  all differing copies should be destroyed. In spite of the personal
  unpopularity of Othman this recension was adopted by the Moslem world
  and remains the only standard text. A few variant readings and
  differences of order of the _suras_ in the collections of Ubay ibn
  Ka`b and of Ibn Mas`ud were, however, known to later commentators. The
  only variants after the time of Othman were owing to different
  possible ways of pronouncing the consonantal text. These are usually
  of little importance for the meaning. As the text is now always
  vowelled, variations are found in the vowels of different copies, and
  the opinions of seven leading "readers" are regarded as worthy of
  respect by commentators (see Th. Nöldeke, _Geschichte des Qorans_, pp.
  279 seq., Göttingen, 1860). Various characteristics enable one to
  establish with more or less certainty the relative chronological order
  of the _suras_ in the Koran, at any rate so far as to place them in
  the first or second Meccan period or that of Medina. The form of the
  sentences is a guide, for the earliest parts are usually written in
  the _saj`_ form (see ARABIA: _Literature_). The expressions used also
  help; thus the "O ye people" of the Meccan period is replaced in the
  Medina _suras_ by "O ye who believe." The oaths in the first Meccan
  period are longer, in the second shorter, and are absent in the
  Medinan. In the earliest period the style is more elevated and
  passionate. Occasionally the time of origin is determined by reference
  to historical events. In accordance with such principles of criticism
  two leading scholars, Nöldeke (_loc. cit._) and H. Grimme (in his
  _Mohammed Zweiter Teil_. _Einleitung in den Koran. System der
  koranischen Theologie_, Münster, 1895), have arranged the _suras_ as
  follows:--


  _Order of Suras in Koran._

  NÖLDEKE.

  _Mecca._

  1st to 5th yr. (a).
    96. 74. 111. 106. 108. 104. 107. 102. 105. 92. 90. 94. 93. 97. 86.
    91. 80. 68. 87. 95. 103. 85. 73. 101. 99. 82. 81. 53. 84. 100. 79.
    77. 78. 88. 89. 75. 83. 69. 51. 52. 56. 70. 55. 112. 109. 113. 114.
    1.

  5th and 6th yr. (b).
    54. 37. 71. 76. 44. 50. 20. 26. 15. 19. 38. 36. 43. 72. 67. 23. 21.
    25. 17. 27. 18.

  7th yr. to Flight (c).
    32. 41. 45. 16. 30. 11. 14. 12. 40. 28. 39. 29. 31. 42. 10. 34. 35.
    7. 46. 6. 13.

  _Medina._

    2. 98. 64. 62. 8. 47. 3. 61. 57. 4. 65. 59. 33. 63. 24. 58. 22. 48.
    66. 60. 110. 49. 9. 5.

  GRIMME.

  _Mecca_, (1).
    [2] In old saj` form: 111. 107. 106. 105. 104. [103=]. 102. 101.
    100. 99. 108. 96. 95. 94. 93. 92. 91. 90. 89. 88. [87=]. 86. [85=].
    [84=]. 83. 82. [81.=] 80. 79. [78=]. 77. [76=]. 75. [74=]. [73=].
    70. 69. 68. 114. 113. 36. 55. 54. [53=]. 52. 51. 50. 15. [22=].
    [14=].

  (2).
    In loosened _saj`_ form: 46. 72. 45. 44. 41. 97. 40. 39. 38. 37. 36.
    35. 34. 32. 31. 67. 30. [29=]. 28. 27. 26. 71. 25. 20. 23. 43. 21.
    19. 1. 42. 18. 17.

  _Medina._
    [16=]. 13. 12. 11. 10. [7=]. 6. 98. (112. 109).

  From the Flight to Badr.
    [2=]. 62. 5_(15.88.108-120). 47 and some interpolations in Meccan
    _suras_.

  From Badr to Ohod
    8. 24. 59.

  From Ohod to capture of Mecca.
    3. 29_(1-12). 4. 57. 64. 61. 60. 58. 65. 33. 63. 49. 110. 48.
    5_(1-14). 66. 9_(1-24).

  After capture of Mecca.
    9_(25-124).


  Theology.

On the supposition that the arrangements given above are at any rate
approximately correct, it is possible to trace a certain development in
the teaching of the Koran on some of the chief dogmas. It must, however,
be borne in mind that orthodox Islam recognizes the Koran as the work
not of Mahomet but of God. Yet Moslem theologians recognize that some
revelations are inconsistent with others, and so have developed the
doctrine of _nasikh_ and _mansukh_ ("abrogating" and "abrogated"),
whereby it is taught that in certain definite cases a later revelation
supersedes an earlier. A critical study of the Koran shows in the
earlier revelations the marks of a reflective mind trained under the
influence of Arabian education and stirred by an acquaintance (somewhat
imperfect) with Judaism and Christianity. The later revelations seem to
be influenced by the now dominant position of the Prophet and a desire
after the capture of Mecca to incorporate such heathen religious
ceremonies as are national. God is one and universal from the beginning.
His unity is emphasized as against the mistaken conception of the
Christian Trinity. At first his might is taught by the name _Rabb_
(Lord) which is generally used with an attribute as "the highest Lord,"
"Lord of the worlds," "Lord of men," "Lord of heaven and earth," "Lord
of the East and West," or "our Lord." Then he is identified with the god
Allah (see above) and the first part of the later Moslem creed is
announced--_la ilaha illa-llaha_, "there is no god but Allah." But every
act of creation is a proof not only of God's power but also of his
beneficence (xiv. 37), and so he becomes known as _ar-Rahman_, "the
Compassionate." The attributes of God may all be arranged in the three
classes of his power, unity and goodness. They are expressed by the
ninety-nine "beautiful names" applied to him in the Koran (see E. H.
Palmer, _The Quran_ in "Sacred Books of the East," vol. vi., Introd. pp.
67-68, Oxford, 1880). In the Medina period of Mahomet's life the nature
of God is not so clear, and the description of it varies according to
the moods of the Prophet.


  Spirits.

Beside God are two other uncreated beings: (1) the original of the
Koran, the "mother of the Book" (xliii. 3) on a "preserved tablet"
(_lauh mahfuz_) (lxxxv. 22), in accordance with which God acts, and (2)
the throne (_kursi_) (ii. 256). When the heavens are created, God sits
on his throne in the seventh heaven; around him are angels, pure,
sexless beings, some of whom bear the throne, while some are engaged in
praising him continually. They are also his messengers and are sent to
fight with the believers against the heathen. Some are the guardian
angels of men, others are the watchmen of hell. Mediate beings between
God and man are the "word" (_amr_) and from it the "spirit" (_ruh_) or
"holy spirit" (_ruh ul-qudus_). Another manifestation of God to the
believers only is the "glory" (_sakina_).


  Cosmology.

  Ethics.

God created the world in six days according to the plan of the Book. Each
new life was created by God's breathing into it a soul. The duality of
soul and body is maintained. In each man is a good and a bad impulse. The
bad impulse which was latent in Adam was roused to action by Satan
(_Iblis_). Adam by his fall lost the grace of God, which was restored to
him solely by the gracious choice of God. Between men and angels in their
nature are the genii (_jinn_) male and female, inhabitants of desert
places, created from smokeless fire. They had been accustomed to spy
round heaven, but in Mahomet's time could learn no more of its secrets.
Some of them were converted by the Prophet's teaching. Lowest of creation
in his estate is Satan (_Shaitan_), who was an angel but was expelled
from heaven because he refused to worship Adam at his Lord's command. God
has revealed himself to man by (1) writing (_kitab_), and (2) prophets.
As he had given to the Jews the Law (_Taurat_) and to the Christians the
Gospel (_Injil_) so he revealed to Mahomet the Koran (Qur`an, known also
by other names, e.g. _al-Furqan_, _at-Tafsil_, &c.), each single
revelation being called an aya. With his revelation God has also sent an
apostle or prophet to each people. Several of these are mentioned in the
Koran, Moses the prophet of the Jews, Jesus (_Isa_) that of the
Christians. Mahomet is not only the apostle of the Moslems but the "seal
of the prophets," i.e. the final member of the class. His mission at
first was to warn men of imminent judgment. Later he became more of a
teacher. At first he seems to have relied for the salvation of men on his
natural faculties, but later announced the doctrine of God's election.
The ethics of the Koran are based on belief (_iman_) and good works, the
latter alone occurring in the early Meccan _suras_. Fear of the judgment
of God was a motive of action; this is followed by repentance and turning
to God. A complete surrender to God's will (_islam_) is the necessary
condition of religious life and is expressed in the phrase so common in
everyday speech among the Moslems--_inshallah_, "if God will." God has
full power to overlook evil deeds if he will. Unbelievers can acquire no
merit, however moral their actions. A short account of the chief ethical
requirements of the Koran is given in xvii. 23-40:--

  "Put not God with other gods, or thou wilt sit despised and forsaken.
  Thy Lord has decreed that ye shall not serve other than Him; and
  kindness to one's parents, whether one or both of them reach old age
  with thee, and say not to them, 'Fie,' and do not grumble at them, but
  speak to them a generous speech. And lower to them the wing of
  humility out of compassion, and say, 'O Lord! have compassion on them
  as they brought me up when I was little!' Your Lord knows best what is
  in your souls if ye be righteous, and, verily, He is forgiving unto
  those who come back penitent.

  "And give thy kinsman his due and the poor and the son of the road;
  and waste not wastefully, for the wasteful were ever the devil's
  brothers, and the devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord.

  "But if thou dost turn away from them to seek after mercy from thy
  Lord, which thou hopest for, then speak to them an easy speech.

  "Make not thy hand fettered to thy neck, nor yet spread it out quite
  open, lest thou shouldest have to sit down blamed and straightened in
  means. Verily, thy Lord spreads out provision to whomsoever He will or
  He doles it out. Verily, He is ever well aware of and sees His
  servants.

  "And slay not your children for fear of poverty; we will provide for
  them; beware! for to slay them is ever a great sin.

  "And draw not near to fornication; verily, it is ever an abomination,
  and evil is the way thereof.

  "And slay not the soul that God has forbidden you, except for just
  cause; for he who is slain unjustly we have given his next of kin
  authority; yet let him not exceed in slaying; verily, he is ever
  helped.

  "And draw not near to the wealth of the orphan, save to improve it,
  until he reaches the age of puberty, and fulfil your compacts; verily,
  a compact is ever enquired of.

  "And give full measure when ye measure out, and weigh with a right
  balance; that is better and a fairer determination.

  "And do not pursue that of which thou hast no knowledge; verily, the
  hearing, the sight and the heart, all of these shall be enquired of.

  "And walk not on the earth proudly; verily, thou canst not cleave the
  earth, and thou shalt not reach the mountains in height.

  "All this is ever evil in the sight of your Lord and abhorred."

  (E. H. Palmer's translation.)


  Eschatology.

The eschatology of the Koran is especially prominent in its earlier
parts. The resurrection, last judgment, paradise and hell are all
described. At death the body again becomes earth, while the soul sinks
into a state of sleep or unconsciousness. At a time decreed, known as
"the hour" (_as-Sa`a_), "the day of resurrection" (_yaum ul-qiyyama_),
"day of judgment" (_yaum-ud-din_), &c., an angel will call or will sound
a trumpet, the earth will be broken up, and the soul will rejoin the
body. God will appear on his throne with angels. The great book will be
opened, and a list of his deeds will be given to every man, to the good
in his right hand, to the evil in his left (_sura 69_). A balance will
be used to weigh the deeds. The _jinn_ will testify against the
idolaters. The righteous will then obtain eternal peace and joy in the
garden (_al-janna_) and the wicked will be cast into the fiery ditch
(_Jahannam_), where pains of body and of soul are united.

2. The _Tradition._--The revelation of God is twofold--in a writing and
by a prophet. The former was contained in the Koran, the latter was
known from the actions of Mahomet in the different circumstances of
life. The manner of life of the Prophet (_sunna_) was contained in the
tradition (_al-hadith_). The information required was at first naturally
obtained by word of mouth from the companions and helpers of Mahomet.
These in turn bequeathed their information to their younger companions,
who quoted traditions and gave decisions in their names.

  For long these traditions circulated orally, the authority of each
  depending on the person who first gave it and the reliability of the
  chain (_isnad_) of men who had passed it on from him. At first this
  tradition was regarded as explanatory of, or at the most supplementary
  to, the teaching of the Koran. Early Moslem teachers pointed to the
  Jews as having two law-books--the _Taurat_ and the _Mishna_--while
  Islam had only one--the Koran. But opinion changed, the value of
  tradition as an independent revelation came to be more highly esteemed
  until at last it was seriously discussed whether a tradition might not
  abrogate a passage of the Koran with which it was at variance. The
  writing of traditions was at first strongly discouraged, and for more
  than a century the stories of the Prophet's conduct passed from mouth
  to mouth. Had all the narrators been pious men, this might have been
  tolerable, but this was not the case. The Omayyad dynasty was not a
  pious one. Men who were not religious but wished to appear so invented
  traditions to justify their manner of life. The sectarians did not
  hesitate to adopt the same means of spreading their own teaching. Many
  Moslem writers testify to the fact that forged traditions were
  circulated, and that religious opinion was confused thereby. The need
  for some sort of authoritative collection seems to have been felt by
  the one pious Omayyad caliph, Omar II. (717-720), who is said to have
  ordered Ibn Shihab uz-Zuhri to make such a collection. Of this work,
  if it was carried out, we know nothing further. It was, however, by a
  man born during this reign that the first systematic collection of
  traditions was made--the _Muwatta`_ of Malik ibn Anas (q.v.). Yet this
  work is not a book of tradition in the religious sense, it is really a
  corpus juris and not a complete one. The object of Malik was simply to
  record every tradition that had been used to give effect to a legal
  decision. The work of sifting the vast mass of traditions and
  arranging them according to their relation to the different parts of
  religious life and practice was first undertaken in the 3rd century of
  Islam (A.D. 815-912). In this century all the six collections
  afterwards regarded as canonical by the Sunnites (orthodox) were made.
  By this time an immense number of traditions was in circulation.
  Bukhari in the course of sixteen years' journeying through Moslem
  lands collected 600,000, and of these included 7275 (or, allowing for
  repetitions, 4000) in his work. The six collections of tradition
  received by the Sunnites as authoritative are: (i) The _Kitab ul-jami`
  us-Sahih_ of Bukhari (q.v.) (810-870). This is the most respected
  throughout the Moslem world and most carefully compiled (ed. L. Krehl
  and T. W. Juynboll, Leiden, 1862--and frequently in the East; also
  with many commentaries. French translation by O. Houdas and W.
  Marcais, Paris, 1903 sqq.). (ii) The _Sahih_ of Muslim (817-875) with
  an introduction on the science of tradition (ed. Calcutta, 1849, &c.).
  (iii) The _Kitab us-Sunan_ of Abu Da`ud (817-888) (ed. Cairo, 1863,
  Lucknow, 1888, Delhi, 1890). (iv) The _Jami` us-Sahih_ of Tirmidhi
  (q.v.). (v) _The Kitab us-Sunan_ of Nasa` i (830-915) (ed. Cairo,
  1894). (vi) The _Kitab us-Sunan_ of Ibn Maja (824-866) (ed. Delhi,
  1865 and 1889). The last four are not held in the same repute as the
  first two.

3. _Ijma`_ is the universal consent which is held to justify practices
or beliefs, although they are not warranted by the Koran or tradition,
and may be inconsistent with the apparent teaching of one or both of
these. These beliefs and practices, which had often come from the
pre-Islamic customs of those who had become believers, seem to have
escaped notice until the Abbasid period. They were too deeply rooted in
the lives of men to be abolished. It became necessary either to find a
tradition to abrogate the earlier forbidding one, or to acknowledge that
_ijma`_ is higher than the tradition. The former expedient was resorted
to by some later theologians (e.g. Nawawi) by a fiction that such a
tradition existed though it was not found now in writing. But in earlier
times some (as Ibn Qutaiba) had adopted the latter alternative, saying
that the truth can be derived much earlier from the _ijma`_ than from
the tradition, because it is not open to the same chances of corruption
in its transmission as the latter. Tradition itself was found to confirm
this view, for the Prophet is related to have said, "My people does not
agree to an error."

  But _ijma`_ itself has been used in different senses: (i) The _ijma`_
  of Medina was used to indicate the authority coming from the practices
  of the people of Medina (see below). (ii) The _ijma`_ of the whole
  community of Moslems is that most commonly recognized. It was used to
  support fealty to the Abbasid dynasty. By it the six books of
  tradition mentioned above are recognized as authoritative, and it is
  the justification of the conception of Mahomet as superhuman. (iii)
  Some of the more thoughtful theologians recognize only the _ijma`_ of
  the doctors or the teachers of Islam (the _mujtahidun_), these being
  restricted by the orthodox to the first few generations after Mahomet,
  while the Shi`ites allow the existence of such up to the present time.

4. The fourth basis of Islam is _qiyas_, i.e. analogy. It is that
process by which a belief or practice is justified on the ground of
something similar but not identical in the Koran, the tradition or
_ijma`_. Originally it seems to have been instituted as a check upon the
use of private opinion (_ra'y_) in the teaching of doctrine. The extent
to which it may be used is a subject of much discussion among
theologians. Some would apply it only to a "material similarity," others
to similarity of motive or cause as well.

_Worship and Ritual._--The acts of worship required by Islam are five in
number: (i) the recital of the creed; (ii.) observance of the five daily
prayers; (iii) the fast in the month of Ramadhan; (iv) giving of the
legal alms; (v) the pilgrimage to Mecca.


    Creed.

  i. The creed is belief--"la ilaha illa-llahu, Muhammad rasul allahi,"
  "there is no god but God (Allah), Mahomet is the apostle of God." It
  is required that this shall be recited at least once in a lifetime
  aloud, correctly, with full understanding of its meaning and with
  heartfelt belief in its truth. It is to be professed without
  hesitation at any time until death.


    Prayer.

  ii. Every man who professes Islam is required in ordinary life to pray
  five times in each day. In the Koran these prayers are commanded,
  though four only are mentioned. "Wherefore glorify God, when the
  evening overtaketh you, and when ye rise in the morning, and unto Him
  be praise in Heaven and earth; and in the evening and when ye rest at
  noon" (xxx. 16-17), but commentators say the "evening" includes the
  sunset and after sunset. The five times therefore are: (1) Dawn or
  just before sunrise, (2) just after noon, (3) before sunset, (4) just
  after sunset, and (5) just after the day has closed. Tradition decides
  within what limits the recitals may be delayed without impairing their
  validity. Prayer is preceded by the lesser ablution (_wadu_)
  consisting in the washing of face, hands (to the elbows) and feet in
  prescribed manner. Complete washing of the body (_ghusl_) is required
  only after legal pollution. In prayer the worshipper faces the _qibla_
  (direction of prayer), which was at first Jerusalem, but was changed
  by the Prophet to Mecca. In a mosque the _qibla_ is indicated by a
  niche (_mihrab_) in one of the walls. The prayers consist of
  prescribed ejaculations, petitions, and the recital of parts of the
  Koran, always including the first _sura_, accompanied by prostrations
  of the body. Detailed physical positions are prescribed for each part
  of the worship; these vary slightly in the four orthodox schools (see
  below). On a journey, in time of war or in other special
  circumstances, the set form of prayers may be modified in accordance
  with appointed rules. Besides these private prayers, there is the
  prayer of the assembly, which is observed on a Friday (_yaum
  ul-jam'a_, "the day of assembly") in a mosque, and is usually
  accompanied by an address or declamation (_khutba_) delivered from a
  step of the pulpit (_minbar_). Special prayers are also prescribed for
  certain occasions, as on the eclipse of the sun or the moon, &c. Among
  the Sufis special attention is given to informal prayer, consisting
  chiefly in the continual repetition of the name of God (_dhikr_) (see
  SUFI'ISM). This is still a characteristic of some of the dervish
  (q.v.) communities.


    Fasting.

  iii. The command to fast begins with the words, "O ye who believe!
  There is prescribed for you the fast, as it was prescribed for those
  before you." The expression "those before you" has been taken to refer
  to the Jews, who fasted on the day of atonement, but more probably
  refers to the long fast of thirty-six days observed by the Eastern
  Christians. In the passage of the Koran referred to (ii. 179-181)
  Moslems are required to fast during the month of Ramadhan, "wherein
  the Koran was revealed," but if one is on a journey or sick he may
  fast "another number of days," and if he is able to fast and does not,
  "he may redeem it by feeding a poor man," but "if ye fast, it is
  better for you." This fast was probably instituted in the second year
  at Medina. At that time the corrected lunar year was in use and
  Ramadhan, the ninth month, was always in the winter. A few years later
  Mahomet decreed the use of the uncorrected lunar year, which remains
  the standard of time for the Moslem world, so that the month of
  fasting now occurs at all seasons of the year in turn. The fast is
  severe, and means entire abstinence from food and drink from sunrise
  to sunset each day of the month. The fast is associated with the
  statement that in this month God sent down the Koran from the seventh
  heaven to Gabriel in the lowest that it might be revealed to the
  Prophet.


    Alms.

  iv. Alms are of two kinds: (1) the legal and determined (_zakat_), and
  (2) voluntary (_sadaqat_). The former were given in cattle, grain,
  fruit, merchandise and money once a year after a year's possession.
  For cattle a somewhat elaborate scale is adopted. Of grain and fruit a
  tenth is given if watered by rain, a twentieth if the result of
  irrigation. Of the value of merchandise and of money a fortieth is
  prescribed. In the early days of Islam the alms were collected by
  officials and used for the building of mosques and similar religious
  purposes. At the present time the carrying of these prescriptions is
  left to the conscience of the believers, who pay the alms to any needy
  fellow-Moslem. A good example of a _sadaqa_ is found in a gift to an
  unbeliever (see C. M. Doughty, _Arabia deserta_, i. 446, ii. 278,
  Cambridge, 1888).


    Pilgrimage.

  v. The fifth religious duty of the Moslem is the pilgrimage (_hajj_)
  to Mecca, which should be performed once by every Moslem "if he is
  able," that is if he can provide or obtain the means to support
  himself on pilgrimage and his family during his absence, and if he is
  physically capable. The pilgrimage is made at one time of the (Moslem)
  year, namely, from the 7th to the 10th of the month Dhu'l-Hijja. For
  the arrangements for the journey from various countries to Mecca see
  CARAVAN. When the pilgrim arrives within five or six miles of the holy
  city he puts off his ordinary dress after ablution and prayer, and
  puts on the two seamless wrappers which form the dress of the pilgrim
  (the _ihram_), who goes without head-covering or boots or shoes. He
  must not shave at all, or trim the nails or anoint the head during the
  ceremonial period. The chief parts of the ceremonial are the visit to
  the sacred mosque (_masjid ul-haram_), the kissing of the black stone,
  the compassing of the Ka`ba (the _Tawaf_) seven times, three times
  running, four times slowly, the visit to the Maqam Ibrahim, the ascent
  of Mount Safa and running from it to Mount Marwa seven times, the run
  to Mount `Arafat, hearing a sermon, and going to Muzdalifa, where he
  stays the night, the throwing of stones at the three pillars in Mina
  on the great feast day, and the offering of sacrifice there (for the
  localities see MECCA). After the accomplishment of these ceremonies
  the ordinary dress is resumed, the pilgrimage is finished, but the
  pilgrim usually remains another three days in Mecca, then visits
  Medina to pay his respects to the tomb of Mahomet. Beside the _hajj_
  (great pilgrimage) Islam also recognizes the merit of the _`umra_ (or
  lesser pilgrimage), i.e. a religious visit to Mecca at any time
  accompanied by most of the ceremonies of the _hajj_.

  The ceremonies of the _hajj_ have been described by several European
  travellers who have witnessed them, such as J. L. Burckhardt in 1814,
  Sir Richard Burton in 1853 (see bibliography to MECCA). A concise
  account of them is given in T. P. Hughes, _Notes on Muhammadanism_
  (3rd ed., London, 1894). Details in vol. i. of Bukhari's traditions
  (Houdas and Marcais's French translation, i. 493-567).

_The Development of Islam._--The battle of Siffin (657) between `Ali and
Moawiya was the occasion of the first breach in the unity of Islam, and
the results remain to this day. The occasion was in the first case
political, but politics were at that time too intimately connected with
religion to be considered apart from it. After the battle (see
CALIPHATE) `Ali was practically compelled to submit his claims to
arbitration, whereupon a number of his supporters broke away from him,
saying that there should have been no appeal save to the Book of God.
These men were for the most part country Arabs, and, inspired by the
free spirit of the desert, were democratic, claiming that the caliph
should be elected by the whole community from any family (and not from
the Koreish alone), and that the caliph might be deposed for sin. A few
extremists were republicans and would do without a caliph altogether.
The whole party was known as the Kharijites (Kharijiyya or Khawarij).
The Moslems who disagreed with them were regarded by them as renegades
and were to be put to death. They were soon divided into extremists and
moderates. The former put to death the children of unbelievers and
refused to hold intercourse in daily life with unbelievers. The
moderates, who came to be known as Ibadites (from their leader `Abdallah
ibn `Ibad), would allow the children of unbelievers to grow up, and
would then deal with them according to their choice. In ordinary life
they would mix with all men, but marriage with other Moslems outside
their own ranks was forbidden. These still remain in Oman, parts of
Algeria and East Africa.

Another party, consisting mainly of city Arabs infected with Persian
ideas as to the divinity of the ruler, clung to `Ali with inconvenient
affection. They regarded `Ali and his descendants as the only legitimate
caliphs, and came to be known as Shi`ites (q.v.). They remain to-day the
largest part of Islam outside orthodoxy. During the Omayyad caliphate
(661-750) there were three centres of religious thought and influence;
students and teachers often passed from one to the other, thus making
universal the teachings which in their origin were due to local
circumstances. These centres were Damascus (the seat of the caliphate),
Medina and the East (Irak, &c.). In Damascus the court was worldly and
indifferent to the interests of Islam. The early Omayyads were
distinguished for their striving after dominion (_mulk_). Instead of
attempting to propagate Islam, they tolerated other religions and
favoured Christians who were distinguished as poets (e.g. Akhtal) or
officials (John of Damascus), or men likely to be of use to them in any
way. The doctrines of Christianity began to influence even serious
Moslems and to affect their way of stating Moslem belief. John of
Damascus (d. before 767), the Greek theologian, and his pupil, Theodorus
Abucara (d. 826), have written controversial works on Islam, from which
it seems probable that disputations on subjects pertaining to religion
were held between Christians and Moslems. Two schools of heretical
Moslem sects arose under these influences--that of the Murjiites and
that of the Qadarites. The Murjiites ("postponers") were so called
because they postponed the judgment of human actions until the Day of
Judgment. In politics they accepted the Omayyads as _de facto_ rulers,
since they were Moslems, and left the judgment of their actions to God.
As theologians they taught that religion consists in belief (_iman_) in
the unity of God and in his apostle, and in that alone, consequently no
one who held this faith would perish eternally, though he had been a
sinner. This was opposed to the Kharijite doctrine that the unrepentant
sinner would perish eternally, even though he had professed Islam.

The Qadarites were concerned with the doctrine of predestination and
free-will. So long as Moslems were fighting the battles of Islam they
naturally paid most attention to those revelations which laid stress on
the absolute determination of a man's destiny by God. They fought with
great bravery because they believed that God had foreordained their
death or life and they could not escape His will. In the quieter realm
of town and court life and in their disputations with Christians they
were called upon to reconcile this belief with the appeals made in the
Koran to man's own self-determination to good, to courage, &c. Mahomet
was not a systematic theologian and had done nothing to help them. The
Qadarites declared that man had power over his own actions. But the
teaching of predestination had gained too great a hold on Moslems to be
thus displaced. The teaching of the Qadarites was held to be heresy, and
one of its first professors, Ma`bad ul-Juhani, was put to death in
699.[3] During this period Medina was the home of tradition. Those who
had been in closest relation with the Prophet dwelt there. The very
people of the city derived a certain splendour and authority from the
fact that Mahomet had lived and was buried there. Free thought in
religion had little chance of arising, less of expressing itself, in the
holy city. But the Koran was diligently studied, traditions were
collected (and invented) though not yet written in books, and innovation
(_bid`a_) was resolutely avoided. At the same time it really did
contribute a new element to religious practice, for the custom (_ijma`_,
see above) of Medina gained a certain authority even in Syria and the
East.

In the East, on the other hand, there was more mental activity, and the
religious teachers who came from Medina had to be prepared to meet with
many questions. The wits of the Moslems were sharpened by daily contact
with Christians, Buddhists, Manichaeans and Zoroastrians. Hasan ul-Basri
(q.v.), who has been claimed as one of the first mystics, also as one of
the first systematic theologians of Islam, was remarkable alike for his
personal piety and his orthodoxy. Yet it was among his pupils that the
great rationalist movement originated. Its founder was Wasil ibn `Ata,
who separated himself (whence his followers were called Motazilites,
strictly Mu`tazilites, "Separatists") from his teacher and founded a
school which became numerous and influential. The Mu`tazilites objected
to the attributes of God being considered in any way as entities beside
God; they explained away the anthropomorphisms used in speaking of the
deity; they regarded the Koran as created and as a product of Mahomet
writing under the divine influence. Briefly, they asserted the supremacy
of reason (_`aql_) as distinct from faith received by tradition
(_naql_). They also called themselves "the people of justice and unity"
(_Ahl ul-`adl wat-tauhid_). Such a faith as this naturally found favour
rather with the thinking classes than with the uneducated multitude, and
so went through many vicissitudes. At the time of its appearance and
until the reign of Ma`mun its adherents were persecuted as heretics.
After discussions among the theologians Ma`mun took the decided step of
proclaiming that the Koran was created, and that a belief in this dogma
was necessary. Other Mu`tazilite doctrines were proclaimed later.
Mu`tazilites were appointed to official posts, and an inquisition
(_mihna_) was appointed to enforce belief in their doctrines. This
movement was strongly opposed by the orthodox and especially by Ahmad
ibn Hanbal (q.v.). By him the founding of theology on reason was
rejected, and he suffered persecution for his faith (see W. N. Patton,
_Ahmed ibn Hanbal and the Mihna_, Leiden, 1897). Mu`tazilism retained
its sway until 849, when the caliph Motawakkil again declared the Koran
uncreate and restored orthodoxy. It was during the early years of the
Abbasid rule that the four legal schools of Abu Hanifa (d. 767), Malik
ibn Anas (d. 795), ash-Shafi'i (d. 819) and Ibn Hanbal (d. 855) came
into existence (see MAHOMMEDAN LAW). As the bases of religion and law
were the same, so the methods applied in the treatment of the one
affected the other. Abu Hanifa depended little on tradition, but
referred back to the Koran, making use of individual opinion (_ra`y_) as
controlled by analogy (_qiyas_) with a written ordinance. Malik Ibn Anas
supplemented the Koran and Sunna by customary law founded largely on the
custom (_ijma`_) of Medina, and by what he conceived to be for the
public good (_istislah_). Shafi`i recognized tradition as equal to the
Koran, and even as being able to supersede its ordinances, while he also
recognized the universal custom (_ijma`_) of the Moslem world as divine
and binding. His four bases of religion--Koran, sunna, qiyas and
ijma`--have been generally accepted in Islam (see above). Ibn Hanbal's
position has been already mentioned. All these four schools are reckoned
orthodox, and all orthodox Moslems belong to one or another of them.
Another teacher of this time, who founded a school which did not succeed
in being recognized as orthodox, was Da`ud uz-Zahiri. Trained as a
Shafi`ite, he became too strict for this school, rejected analogy,
restricted _ijma`_ to the agreement or custom of the companions of
Mahomet, and accepted the whole of the Koran and tradition in the most
literal and external sense. His followers were called Zahirites (i.e.
externalists). After Ash`ari's time these principles were applied to
theology by Ibn Hazm (q.v.) see I. Goldziher, _Die Zahiriten, ihr
Lehrsystem und ihre Geschichte_ (Leipzig, 1884).

Before turning to the reform of Ash`ari and the introduction into
orthodox theology of scholastic philosophy it is necessary to notice
another phase of religious life which became the common property of
orthodox and heretics. This was the introduction of asceticism in
religions practice and of mysticism in religious thought. Sufi`ism
(q.v.), which combined these two, is rightly not counted among the sects
of Islam. Asceticism seems to have won a certain amount of approval from
Mahomet himself, who much respected the Christian monks. The attention
paid in early Islam to the joys and punishments of the future life led
to self-denial and simple living in this world. An Arabian writer,
speaking of the simplicity of manners of the first four caliphs, says
that their affairs were conducted with more consideration of the future
life than of this world. Many Moslems went even farther than these
caliphs, and gave up all concern as far as possible with the affairs of
this world and lived in poverty, in wanderings or in retirement (see
DERVISH). For the historical development of this movement, with its
accompanying mysticism, see SUFI`ISM. Ash`ari (d. before 942) was for
forty years a Mu`tazilite, then became orthodox (see ASH`ARI), and at
once applied rational methods for the support and interpretation of the
orthodox faith. Before him, reason had not been allowed any scope in
orthodox theology. He was not the first to use it; some teachers (as
al-Junaid) had employed it in teaching, but only in secret and for the
few. The methods of scholastic philosophy were now introduced into
Moslem theology. The chief characteristic of his religious teaching was
the adoption of the _via media_ between materialistic grossness and the
ideas of pure speculative philosophy. Thus he taught, as to the
attributes of God, that they exist, but are not to be compared with
human attributes; as to His visibility, that He can be seen but without
the limitations of human sight. As to the great question of free will,
he denied man's power but asserted his responsibility. So he passed in
review the doctrines of God, faith, the Koran, sin, intercession, &c.,
and for the first time in the history of Islam produced a systematic
theology. The teaching of Ash`ari was taken up and propagated by the
Buyids soon after his death, and was developed and perfected by Abu Bekr
ul-Baqilani, the Cadi (d. 1012), but up to the middle of the 5th century
of Islam (c. A.D. 1058) was suspected elsewhere and confounded with
Mu`tazilism. The Ash`arite al-Juwaini (known as Imam ul-Haramain) was
persecuted under Toghrul Beg (c. 1053) and exiled, but was restored
under Alp Arslan by the vizier Nizam ul-Mulk, who founded an Ash`arite
college (the Nizamiyya). In the West, Ibn Hazm (q.v.) fiercely opposed
the system, but Ghazali established its orthodoxy in the East, and it
spread from Persia to Syria and Egypt under the Ayyubites and Mamelukes
and thence to the Almohades in Africa under Ibn Tumart (1130). It
remains the predominating influence to the present day, its only serious
rival being the theological system of al-Mataridi, a Hanifite (d. 945),
whose creed as represented in that of an-Nasafi is still used largely by
the Turks. Since the 12th century no great theological movement has been
made in Islam. The quiet of religious life has twice been broken, once
by Wahhabism (q.v.) in Arabia, once by Babism (q.v.) in Persia.


THE SECTS

According to an early tradition Mahomet said that Islam would be divided
into seventy-three parties (sects),[4] of which seventy-two would perish
and one would be saved. The orthodox Arabian writers on heretical sects
of Islam feel compelled by this tradition to make up their number to
seventy-two, and, as different writers adopt different divisions or are
familiar with different parties, the names of sects amount to some
hundreds. Each writer, however, adopts certain main classes under which
he attempts to group the others. Abu Muti` Makhul at the beginning of
the 10th century in his "Refutation" (MS. in Bodleian Library) has six
such chief classes: Harurites (i.e. Kharijites), Rafidites (i.e.
Shi`ites), Qadarites, Jabarites, Jahmites and Murjiites. Ibn Hazm (q.v.)
adopts four classes: Mu`tazilites (Motazilites), Murjiites, Shi`ites and
Kharijites. Shahrastani (q.v.) complains of the want of system in
earlier writers, and suggests as bases of classification the position of
parties with regard to the doctrines as to (1) the divine attributes,
(2) predestination and free-will (3) promises and threats, faith and
error, (4) revelation, reason, the imamate. In one part of his preface
he gives as the chief parties the Qadarites, Sifatites, Kharijites and
Shi`ites, proposing to divide these classes according to leaders who
agreed with the main doctrines of their class but differed in some
points. In another place he mentions four opposite pairs of sects: (1)
the Qadarites with their doctrine of free-will, and the Jabarites, who
are necessitarians; (2) the Sifatites, who maintain the eternal nature
of the attributes of God, and the Mu`tazilites, who deny it; (3) the
Murjiites, who postpone judgment of actions until the Last Day, and the
Wa`idites, who condemn in this life; (4) the Kharijites, who consider
the caliphate a human institution, and the Shi`ites, who deify their
ruler. In his detailed treatment of the sects Shahrastani arranged them
under the headings: Mu`tazilites, Jabarites, Sifatites, Kharijites,
Murjiites and Shi`ites. About the same time as Shahrastani two other
Arabian writers wrote on the sects--Tahir ul-Isfaraini (d. 1078), whose
MS. is in the Berlin library, and `Abd ul-Qadir ul-Jilani (1078-1166) in
his _Kitab ul-Ghaniyya li-Talibi Tariq il-Haqqi_ (Cairo, 1871). Both
adopt as main classes Rafidites (or Shi`ites), Qadarites (or
Mu`tazilites), Kharijites, Murjiites, Najjarites, Dirarites, Jahmites,
Mushabbiha, to which Tahir adds Bakrites, Karramites, and a class
including those sects which are not reckoned as Moslem though they have
sprung from Islam. Jilani adds to the eight the Kilabites.

The following list is not a complete list of names of sects but is
founded on that of Shahrastani.[5]

  _Aftahites._--Shi`ites of the Imamite class, who ascribe the imamate
  to `Abdallah ul-Aftahi, the son of Sadiq.

  _Ajarida._--Kharijites, followers of Ibn `Ajarrad, who agreed for the
  most part with the Najadat (below), considered grave sins as
  equivalent to unbelief, but remained friendly with those who professed
  Islam but did not fight for it. They rejected _sura_ 7 as a fable.
  Shahrastani enumerates seven divisions of this sect.

  _Akhnasites._--A section of the Tha`aliba not so strict in treatment
  of those who fear to fight for Islam.

  _Ash`arites._--Followers of Ash`ari (q.v.) who are counted by
  Shahrastani among the Sifatites.

  _Atrafites._--A division of the `Ajarida who agree with the Hamzites
  except that they excuse the lower classes for inaction when they are
  ignorant of the law.

  _Azraqites._--Kharijites who followed al-Azraq in the days of Ibn
  Zubair. They held `Ali to be an unbeliever; those who did not fight
  were unbelievers; the children of unbelievers were to be put to death
  and went to hell. Sin is unbelief.

  _Bahshamites._--Mu`tazilites akin to the Jubba`ites.

  _Baihasites._--Kharijites, followers of Abu Baihas ul-Haitham, who was
  put to death by the caliph Walid. They asserted the necessity of
  knowledge for religion.

  _Baqirites._--Shi`ites who followed Abu Ja`far ul-Baqir, the fifth
  imam, and looked for his return.

  _Batinites._--Isma`ilites, so called because they believe that every
  external has an internal (_batin_), and every passage in the Koran has
  an allegoric meaning.

  _Bishrites._--Mu`tazilites, followers of Bishr ibn Mu`tamir, one of
  the most learned men of his party. His teaching was philosophical and
  was distinguished by his doctrine of "origination" (_tawallud_).

  _Bunanites._--Kaisanites, followers of Bunan ibn Sim`an un-Nahdi, who
  claimed that the imamate passed from Abu Hashim to himself and that he
  had also acquired the divine element of `Ali.

  _Butrites._--Zaidites, followers of Kathir un-Nawa ul-Abtar, who
  agreed with the Suleimanites (Sulaimanites) except that he suspended
  judgment as to whether Othman was a believer or not.

  _Dirarites._--Jabarites who empty God of his attributes, and assert
  that man has a sixth sense by which he will see God on the day of
  resurrection. The actions of man are "created" and acquired by him. A
  caliph need not be chosen from the Koreish.

  _Ghaliites_ (Ghula) are the extreme Shi`ites (q.v.) in ascribing deity
  to the imams. Their heresies are said to be four in number: (1) Making
  God resemble man, (2) ascribing change of mind to God, (3) looking for
  the return of the imam, (4) metempsychosis. They are divided by
  Shahrastani into ten classes.

  _Ghassanites._--Murjiites, followers of Ghassan ibn ul-Kufi, who say
  that faith consists of knowledge of God, his apostle, and the Koran in
  general not in detail, and that faith increases but is not diminished.

  _Habities_ = Hayitites (below).

  _Hadathites_ (Hudabites) are Mu`tazilites, followers of Fadl ibn
  ul-Hadathi, who agreed with the Hayitites (below).

  _Hafsites._--Ibadites, followers of Hafs ibn abi-l-Miqdam, who
  distinguished between idolatry (_shirk_) and unbelief (_kufr_).

  _Hamzites._--`Ajarida, followers of Hamza ibn Adrak in Sijistan. They
  agree with the Maimunites, but condemn the children of unbelievers to
  hell.

  _Harithites._--Ibadites who differ from others in holding the
  Mu`tazilite doctrine of free-will.

  _Harurites._--A name given to the first Kharijites, who rebelled
  against `Ali, and met in Harura near Kufa.

  _Hashimites._--Shi`ites who supported Abu Hashim, son of Mahommed ibn
  ul-Hanafiyya, although they held that his father had gone astray.

  _Hashwiites._--A party who asserted the eternity even of the letters
  of the Koran. They are not mentioned as a separate sect by
  Shahrastani; cf. van Vloten, "_Les Hachwia et Nabita_," in the _Acts
  of the 11th Oriental Congress_ (Paris, 1899), pt. iii., pp. 99 sqq.

  _Hayitites._--Mu`tazilites who agreed with the Nazzamites, but added
  three heresies of their own: (1) the divinity of the Messiah, (2)
  metempsychosis, (3) the interpretation of all references to the vision
  of God as referring to the "first Reason" or "creative Reason."

  _Hishamites._--A name given to two sects: (1) Mu`tazilites, strong in
  their assertion of man's free-will, even opposing the statement of the
  Koran. (2) Shi`ites of the extreme kind, who attributed to God a body
  with quantities (measurements) and qualities.

  _Hudabites._--See Hadathites.

  _Hudhailites_ (Hodhailites).--Mu`tazilites, followers of Abu-l Hudhail
  Hamdan, who was a leading teacher of his party and developed the
  philosophical side of its teaching. Ten of his main doctrines are
  given by Shahrastani.

  _Ibadites._--Kharijites of moderate tendencies (see above).

  _Ilbaites._--Ghaliites who put `Ali above Mahomet and blamed the
  latter because he called men to himself instead of to `Ali.

  _Imamites._--One of the chief divisions of the Shi`ites (q.v.).

  _Ishaqites._--Ghaliites agreeing with the Nusairites except that they
  incline to speak of the imams' participation in the prophetic office
  rather than of their divinity.

  _Isma`ilites._--This name is applied to all who consider Isma`il ibn
  Ja`far the last imam, some believing that he did not die but will
  return, others, that at his death his son Mahommed became imam (see
  ASSASSINS); it is also used as equivalent to the Batinites.

  _Ithna`asharites._--Imamites who accept the twelve imams (see
  SHI`ITES).

  _Jabarites._--Those who deny all actions and power to act to man and
  ascribe all to God (see above).

  _Ja`farites._--Imamites who carry the imamate no farther than Ja`far
  us-Sadiq.

  _Jahizites._--Mu`tazilites, followers of the celebrated writer Jahiz
  (q.v.), who indulged in philosophical speculations, believed in the
  eternity of matter, and was regarded as a naturalist (_taba`i_) rather
  than a theist (_allahi_).

  _Jahmites._--Jabarites, followers of Jahm ibn Safwan, who was put to
  death at Merv toward the close of the Omayyad period. He was extreme
  in his denial of the attributes of God.

  _Jarudites._--Zaidites who held that Mahomet designated `Ali as imam,
  not by name but by his attributes, and that the Moslem sinned by not
  taking sufficient trouble to recognize these attributes.

  _Jubba`ites._--Mu`tazilites who followed the philosophical teaching of
  Abu `Ali Mahommed ul-Jubba`i of Basra.

  _Kaisanites._--A main class of the Shi`ites (q.v.).

  _Kamilites._--Ghaliites, followers of Abu Kamil, who condemned the
  companions (_Ansar_) because they did not do allegiance to `Ali, and
  `Ali because he surrendered his claims.

  _Karramites._--Sifatites, followers of Ibn Karram, who went so far as
  to ascribe a body to God, and assimilated his nature to human nature.

  _Kayyalites._--Ghaliites, followers of Ahmad ibn Kayyal, who, after
  supporting a propaganda for an Aliite, claimed to be the imam himself
  on the ground of his power over the spheres.

  _Khalafites._--`Ajarida of Kerman and Multan, who believed that God
  wills good and evil, but condemned the children of unbelievers to
  hell.

  _Kharijites._--One of the earliest sects of Islam (see above).

  _Kharimites._--`Ajarida, agreeing mostly with the Shu`aibites and
  teaching that the relation of God to a man depends on what he
  professes at the end of his life.

  _Khattabites._--Ghaliites, followers of Abu-l Khattab, who was put to
  death by Ibn Musa at Kufa. He was a violent supporter of Ja`far
  us-Sadiq, who however disowned him.

  _Khayyatites._--Mu`tazilites, followers of Abu-l Hosain ul-Khayyat, a
  teacher in Bagdad, part of whose philosophical teaching was that the
  non-existent is a thing.

  _Ma`badites._--Tha`labites who differed from the Akhnasites on the
  question of the marriage of believing women and from Tha`lab on the
  question of taking alms from slaves.

  _Maimunites._--`Ajarida, followers of Maimun ibn Khalid, who believed
  that God wills good only and that man determines his actions.

  _Majhulites._--Tha`labites, agreeing generally with the Kharimites,
  but teaching that he who knows some names and attributes of God and is
  ignorant of some knows God.

  _Ma`lumites._--Tha`labites agreeing generally with the Kharimites but
  alleging that a believer must know all the names and attributes of
  God.

  _Mansurites._--Ghaliites, followers of Abu Mansur ul-`Ijli, who at
  first supported al-Baqir, but, rejected by him, claimed the imamate
  for himself. He was crucified by the caliph Hisham ibn `Abd ul-Malik
  (Abdalmalik).

  _Mu`ammarites._[6]--Mu`tazilites who strongly denied the
  predestination of God, and affirmed that God created bodies only, and
  that the accidents spring naturally from them.

  _Mufaddalites._[6]--The same as the Musaites (q.v.).

  _Mughirites._[6]--Ghaliites, followers of Mughira ibn Sa`id ul-`Ijli,
  who claimed the imamate and prophetic office and held extremely gross
  views of God.

  _Muhakkima_[6] (the first).--Another name for the Harurites (above).

  _Mukarramites._[6]--Tha`labites who taught that sin consists in
  ignorance of God.

  _Mukhtarites._[6]--Kaisanites, followers of al-Mukhtar ibn `Ubaid, who
  held to Mahommed ibn ul-Hanafiyya but was disowned by him. He allowed
  the possibility of change of mind on the part of God.

  _Murjiites._--Those who postponed judgment of actions until the Day of
  Judgment. See above.

  _Musaites._--Imamites who held to the imamate of Musa ibn Ja`far, who
  was imprisoned by Harun al-Rashid and poisoned.

  _Mushabbiha._[6]--Sifatites who compared God's actions with human
  actions. They said that the Koran was eternal with all its letters,
  accents and written signs.

  _Mu`tazilites._[6]--The rationalists of Islam. See above, cf. also H.
  Steiner, _Die Mu`taziliten oder die Freidenker im Islam_ (Leipzig,
  1865).

  _Muzdarites._[6]--Mu`tazilites, followers of al-Muzdar, a pupil of
  Bishr (cf. Bishrites) whose teaching he developed further. He taught
  that God has power to do evil, but, if he acted thus, would be an evil
  God; also that man can produce the equal of the Koran.

  _Najadat_ (also known as _`Adhirites_).--Kharijites, who followed
  Najda ibn `Amir of Yemama as he went to join the Azraqites but
  withdrew from these, being more orthodox than they. He held that fear
  of fighting was not sin.

  _Nawisites_ take their name from a person or a place. They are
  Ja`farites who believe in Sadiq as the mahdi.

  _Nazzamites._--Mu`tazilites, followers of Ibrahim ibn Sayyar
  un-Nazzam, who was an extremist in his teaching of man's free-will and
  other philosophical doctrines.

  _Nu`manites._[6]--Ghaliites agreeing in some points with Hishamites,
  but holding that God is a light in the form of a man, yet not a body.

  _Nusairites._[6]--Ghaliites who agree with the Ishaqites except that
  they lay more stress on the incorporation of the deity.

  _Qadarites._--The upholders of free-will (see above).

  _Qata`ites._--Musaites who regard the rank of the imams as closed with
  the death of Musa.

  _Rafidites._--A term used by some writers to denote the Shi`ites as a
  whole; by others given to a class of the Shi`ites who forsook Zaid ibn
  `Ali because he forbade them to abuse the Companions.

  _Rashidites._--Tha`labites, followers of Rashid ut-Tusi, sometimes
  called `Ushrites ("tithers") because they differed from others on the
  question of tithing the produce of land watered by rivers and canals.

  _Rizamites._--Kaisanites of Khorasan at the time of Abu Muslim, to
  whom they ascribed the imamate and the Spirit of God. They also
  believed in metempsychosis.

  _Saba`ites._--Ghaliites, who followed `Abdallah ibn Saba (see
  SHI`ITES).

  _Salihites._--(a) Zaidites, followers of al-Hasan ibn Salih, who
  agreed with the teachings of the Butrites (above); (b) Murjiites,
  followers of Salih ibn Amr, who united with the doctrines of their own
  party those of the Qadarites.

  _Saltites._--`Ajarida who had nothing to do with the children of
  believers until they had grown up and professed Islam.

  _Shaibanites._--Tha`labites, followers of Shaiban ibn Salama, who was
  killed in the time of Abu Muslim (Moslem). They arose chiefly in
  Jorjan and Armenia and agreed in doctrine with the Jahmites.

  _Shamitites._--Ja`farites, followers of Yahya ibn Abu Shamit.

  _Shi`ites._--See separate article.

  _Shu`aibites._--`Ajarida who said that God creates the actions of men,
  and men appropriate them.

  _Sifatites_ are those who ascribe eternity to all the attributes of
  God, whether they denote essence or action, or are of the class called
  descriptive attributes.

  _Sifrites_, the same as Ziyadites (below).

  _Sulaimanites_ (Suleimanites).--Zaidites, followers of Suleiman ibn
  Jarir, who held that the appointment to the imamate was a matter of
  consultation and that the imamates of Abu Bekr and Omar were legal
  although `Ali had a better claim.

  _Tha`labites._--A party of the Kharijites, followers of Tha`lab ibn
  Amir, who agreed with the `Ajarida except that he was friendly with
  children until they actually denied the faith. He also took alms from
  slaves when they were rich, and gave alms to poor slaves.

  _Thaubanites._--Murjiites who said that faith consists in the
  knowledge and confession of God and His apostle, and what the
  intellect is not capable of doing. What the intellect can do (or
  leave) is not of faith.

  _Thumamites._--Mu`tazilites, followers of Thumama ibn Ashras in the
  days of Mamun, who taught that all non-Moslems would become dust on
  the day of resurrection.

  _Tumanites._--Murjiites who taught that faith depends on obedience
  rather to the principles than to the commands of Islam.

  _`Ubaidites._--Murjiites who believed that anything but idolatry might
  be forgiven, and that if a man died professing the unity of God his
  sins would not hurt him.

  _Wa`idites._--Those who, opposed to the Murjiites, pronounced judgment
  in this life; they are not counted as a separate sect by Shahrastani
  (see above).

  _Wasilites._--A name given to those who followed Wasil ibn `Ata, the
  founder of Mu`tazilitism, who denied the attributes of God, asserted
  the power of man over his own actions, taught the existence of a
  middle place between heaven and hell, and despised the parties of
  Othman and `Ali alike.

  _Yazidites._--Ibadites who said that they followed the religion of the
  Sabians in the Koran, and believed that God would send an apostle from
  the Persians.

  _Yunusites._--Murjiites who taught that faith consists in knowledge of
  God, subjection to Him, abandonment of pride before Him, and love in
  the heart. Obedience apart from knowledge is not of faith.

  _Zaidites._--The moderate Shi`ites (see SHI`ITES).

  _Ziyadites._--Kharijites, followers of Ziyad ibn ul-Asfar, who did not
  regard those who abstained from fighting for Islam as unbelievers, and
  did not kill the children of idolaters or condemn them to hell.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the philosophy and theology of Ash`ari see M. A. F.
  Mehren, _Exposé de la réforme de l'Islamisme par Abou-`l Hasan Ali
  el-Ash`ari_ (Leiden, 1878); W. Spitta, _Zur Geschichte Abu-l Hasan
  al-Ash`aris_ (Leipzig, 1876); M. Schreiner, _Zur Geschichte des
  Ash`aritenthums_ (Leiden, 1891); D. B. Macdonald, _Development of
  Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory_ (London,
  1903). The last work contains translations of the creeds of Ash`ari
  and Nasafi (Mataridite). A further bibliography of works on the faith
  and outlook of Islam will be found in D. B. Macdonald's _Muslim
  Theology_.

  The text of the Koran has been edited by G. Flügel, Leipzig, various
  dates; and by G. M. Redslob, Paris, 1868 and 1880. There are also
  hundreds of Eastern editions. Concordances have been published by G.
  Flügel, Leipzig, 1842 (several times reprinted), also in Egypt,
  Palestine and India. A dictionary and glossary were published by J.
  Penrice, London, 1873. English translations have been made by G. Sale,
  London, 1734 (the fullest edition is that with notes by E. M. Wherry,
  4 vols., London, 1882-1886); by J. M. Rodwell with notes, London, 1861
  and 1876; and by E. H. Palmer in vols, vi. and ix. of the "Sacred
  Books of the East," Oxford, 1880-1882. Among the best or best-known
  Arabic commentaries are those of Tabari (q.v.), Zamakhshari (q.v.),
  Baidhawi (q.v.), the Jalalain (see SUYUTI), and such later ones as the
  Mafatih ul-Ghaib of ar-Razi (d. 1210). The composition and theology of
  the Koran are treated in the works of Nöldeke and Grimme referred to
  above.

  On the eschatology of Islam see M. Wolff, _Muhammedanische
  Eschatologie_ (Leipzig, 1872); and on the doctrine of revelation. Otto
  Pautz, _Muhammeds Lehre von der Offenbarung_ (Leipzig, 1898).
       (G. W. T.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See also KORAN.

  [2] Underlined = with interpolations.

  [3] For the doctrines of these two sects see Shahrastani's _Book of
    Sects_, and for the Qadarites, A. de Vlieger's _Kitab ul-Qadr,
    matériaux pour servir à l'étude de la doctrine de la prédestination
    dans la théologie musulmane_ (Leiden, 1903).

  [4] For the origin and significance of this number see M.
    Steinschneider, "Die kanonische Zahl der muhammedanischen Secten und
    die Symbolik der Zahl, 70-73," _in Zeitschr. d. deutschen morgenl.
    Gesellschaft_, iv., 145-170 (1850); and I. Goldziher, "Le
    Denombrement des sectes mohamétanes" in _Revue de l'hist. des
    religions_, xxvi. 129-137 (1892).

  [5] The names are given throughout in the anglicized form on the
    analogy of Shi`ites, which is recognized in common usage. The strict
    termination according to the scheme of transliteration adopted in
    this work is _iyya_, or _iya_, e.g. Hishamiyya for Hishamites. For
    information regarding the important sects see separate articles and
    the preceding portion of this article.

  [6] All these names are alternatively spelt Mo- instead of Mu-.



MAHONY, FRANCIS SYLVESTER (1804-1866), known as "Father Prout," Irish
priest and author, son of a woollen manufacturer, was born in Cork in
1804. His classical education was chiefly obtained at a Jesuit college
at Amiens, and after studying in Paris he entered the Jesuit college at
Rome and was admitted into the Society of Jesus. He served in
Switzerland and at Clongoweswood, Ireland, where he was prefect of
studies and subsequently master of rhetoric. Here he was involved in
scandals that led to his resignation. On going to Italy he was told at
Florence that he was expelled from the Society. He succeeded, however,
in obtaining priest's orders at Rome in 1832, and returned to Ireland,
but subsequently went to London, officiating for some time in the chapel
of the Bavarian Legation. While there he fell in with William Maginn,
and about 1834 began to contribute his celebrated "Prout Papers" to
_Fraser's Magazine_. These consist of episodes in the life of the parish
priest "Father Prout," and dialogues after the model of "Christopher
North," varied by translations of well-known English songs into Latin,
Greek, French and Italian verse, which he humorously represents as being
the true originals from which the English authors had merely plagiarized
them. Mahony's translations have been universally admired for the
extraordinary command which they display of the various languages into
which his renderings are made, and for their spirit and freedom both of
thought and expression. His original verse tends chiefly to show that
with all his sarcastic and cynical wit his genius had also its tender,
serious and sentimental side. His "Bells of Shandon" has always been
greatly admired. In 1846 Mahony became correspondent at Rome to the
_Daily News_, and his letters from that capital gave very vivid pictures
of the first years of the reign of Pius IX. The last twelve or fifteen
years of his life were spent in Paris, whence he supplied the _Globe_
with a series of piquant letters on the incidents of the day. He died in
Paris on the 18th of May 1866.

  The _Reliques of Father Prout_ were collected from _Fraser's Magazine_
  and published in two volumes in 1836; _The Final Reliques of Father
  Prout_, chiefly extracted from the _Daily News_ and the _Globe_, were
  edited by Blanchard Jerrold in 1876, and an edition of his works,
  edited by Charles Kent, was published in 1881.



MAHOUT (Hind. _mahawat_), an elephant-driver. The mahout sits on the
elephant's neck and directs him by voice and by the use of a goad called
_ankus_.



MAHRATTAS, a people of India, inhabiting the district known by the
ancient name of Maharashtra (Sans. "great kingdom or region"). This
large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura
mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central
India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar,
the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.

The etymology of the word Mahratta (_Maratha_) is uncertain. The name
does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even
tribal. Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's
generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin. In
a wider sense it may be extended to include all who inhabit Maharashtra
and speak Mahratti as their mother-tongue. In 1901 the total number of
speakers of Mahratti in all India exceeded 18 millions.

The Mahrattas have always been a separate nation or people, and still
regard themselves as such, though nowadays they are almost all under
British or Mahommedan jurisdiction; that is, they belong either to
British India or to the nizam's dominions. There are indeed still three
large native states nominally Mahratta: that of Sindhia near the borders
of Hindustan in the north, that of Holkar in Malwa in the heart of the
Indian continent, and that of the gaekwar in Gujarat on the western
coast. But in these states the prince, his relatives and some of his
ministers or officials only are Mahrattas; the mass of the people belong
to other sections of the Hindu race. These states then are not to be
included in the Mahratta nation, though they have a share in Mahratta
history.

  In general terms the Mahrattas, in the wider sense, may be described
  under two main heads: first the Brahmans, and secondly the low-caste
  men. The Mahratta Brahmans possess, in an intense degree, the
  qualities of that famous caste, physical, intellectual and moral. They
  have generally the lofty brow, the regular features, the spare upright
  figure, and the calm aspect which might be expected in a race
  maintained in great purity yet upon a broad basis. In modern times
  they have proved themselves the most able and ambitious of all the
  Brahmans in the Indian Empire. They are notably divided into two
  sections: the Konkanast, coming from the Konkan or littoral tract on
  the west coast below the Western Ghat mountains; and the Deshast,
  coming from the uplands or Deccan, on the east of the mountains.
  Though there have been many distinguished Deshasts, yet the most
  remarkable of all have been Konkanasts. For instance, the peshwas, or
  heads of the Mahratta confederation which at one time dominated nearly
  all India, were Konkanast Brahmans. The birthplaces of these persons
  are still known, and to this day there are sequestered villages,
  nestling near the western base of the Ghats, which are pointed to as
  being the ancestral homes of men who two centuries ago had political
  control over half India.

  Apart from the Brahmans, the Mahrattas may be generally designated as
  Sudras, the humblest of the four great castes into which the Hindu
  race is theoretically divided. But the upper classes claim to be
  Kshattriyas or Rajputs. They probably are aborigines fundamentally,
  with a mixture of what are now called the Scythian tribes, which at a
  very early time overran India. The ordinary Mahrattas, who form the
  backbone of the nation, have plain features, an uncouth manner, short
  stature, a small but wiry frame. Though not powerful physically as
  compared with the northern races of the Punjab and Oudh, they have
  much activity and an unsurpassed endurance. Born and bred in or near
  the Western Ghat mountains and the numerous tributary ranges, they
  have all the qualities of mountaineers. In recent times they enter
  military service less and less, betaking themselves mainly to
  cultivation and to the carrying business connected with agriculture.
  As husbandmen they are not remarkable; but as graziers, as cartmen, as
  labourers, they are excellent. As artisans they have seldom signalized
  themselves, save as armourers and clothweavers.

  In the Konkan there are some superior proprietors termed Khots. With
  this and perhaps some other exceptions, there are not in the Mahratta
  country many large landlords, nor many of the superior tenure-holders
  whose position relatively to that of the peasantry has caused much
  discussion in other parts of India. There are indeed many Mahratta
  chiefs still resident in the country, members of the aristocracy which
  formerly enjoyed much wealth and power. They are sometimes in the
  position of landlords, but often they are the assignees of the land
  revenue, which they are entitled under special grants to collect for
  themselves instead of for government, paying merely a small sum to
  Government by way of quit-rent. Under them the cultivators are by
  British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.
  The village community has always existed as the social unit in the
  Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than
  in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab. The ancient
  offices pertaining to the village, as those of the headmen (_patel_),
  the village accountant, &c., are in working order throughout the
  Mahratta country.

  The Mahratta peasantry possess manly fortitude under suffering and
  misfortune. Though patient and good-tempered in the main, they have a
  latent warmth of temper, and if oppressed beyond a certain limit they
  would fiercely turn upon their tormentors. As a rule they are orderly
  and law-abiding, but traditions of plunder have been handed down to
  them from early times, and many of them retain the predatory instincts
  of their forefathers. The neighbourhood of dense forests, steep
  hill-sides, and fastnesses hard of access offers extraordinary
  facilities to plunderers for screening themselves and their booty.
  Thus gang robbery is apt to break out, gains head with rapidity, and
  is suppressed with difficulty. In times of peace it is kept under, but
  during war, or whenever the bands of civil order are loosened, it
  becomes a cause of anxiety and a source of danger. The women have
  frankness and strength of character; they work hard in the fields, and
  as a rule evince domestic virtue.

  The peasantry preserve a grave and quiet demeanour, but they have
  their humble ideas of gaiety, and hold their gatherings on occasions
  of births or marriages. They frequently beguile their toil with
  carols. They like the gossiping and bartering at the rural markets and
  in the larger fairs, which are sometimes held in strikingly
  picturesque localities. They are superstitious, and worship with
  hearty veneration any being or thing whose destructive agency they
  fear. They even speak of the tiger with honorific titles. They are
  Hindus, but their Hinduism is held to be of a non-Aryan type. They are
  sincerely devout in religion, and feel an awe regarding "the holy
  Brahmans," holding the life and the person of a Brahman sacred, even
  though he be a criminal of the deepest dye. They of course regard the
  cow as equally sacred. There are two principal sects among modern
  Hindus--those who follow Vishnu, and those who follow Siva. The
  Mahrattas generally follow Siva and his wife, a dread goddess known
  under many names. The Mahratta war-cry, "Har, Har, Mahadeo," referred
  to Siva. All classes high and low are fond of the religious festivals,
  the principal of which, the Dasahra, occurs in October, when the first
  harvest of the year has been secured and the second crops sown. This
  has always been held with the utmost pomp and magnificence at every
  centre of Mahratta wealth and power. The people frequently assemble in
  bowers and arbours constructed of leafy boughs to hear kathas recited.
  These recitations are partly religious, partly also romantic and
  quasi-historical. After them national resolves of just resistance or
  of aggressive ambition have often been formed.

  Apart from the Mahratta Brahmans, as already mentioned, the Mahratta
  nobles and princes are not generally fine-looking men. There is
  general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect
  that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput,
  there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta. Bluff
  good-nature, a certain jocoseness, a humour pungent and ready, though
  somewhat coarse, a hot or even violent disposition, are
  characteristics of Mahratta chieftains. They usually show little
  aptitude for business or for sedentary pursuits; but, on the other
  hand, they are born equestrians and sportsmen. Mahratta ladies and
  princesses have often taken a prominent part, for good or evil, in
  public affairs and dynastic intrigues.

  Though they have produced some poetry, the Mahrattas have never done
  much for literature. Nor have they been distinguished in industrial
  art. Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak
  forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and
  for carving. They had also much skill in the construction of works for
  the supply of drinking water on a large scale and for irrigation.

The range of the Western Ghats enabled the Mahrattas to rise against
their Mahommedan conquerors, to reassert their Hindu nationality against
the whole power of the Mogul Empire, and to establish in its place an
empire of their own. It is often stated that in India British conquest
or annexation succeeded Mahommedan rule; and to a considerable extent
this was the case. But, on the other hand, the principal power, the
widest sovereignty, which the British overthrew in India was that of the
Mahrattas.

During the earlier Moslem invasions in 1100 and in subsequent years, the
Mahrattas do not seem to have made much resistance. They submitted to
several Mahommedan kings under the changing circumstances of those
times. It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that
Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657. Sivaji and
his fighting officers were Mahrattas of humble caste, but his ministers
were Brahmans. When the Mogul Empire absorbed the Bijapur kingdom he
defied the emperor. He imparted a self-reliant enthusiasm to his
countrymen, formed them into an army, and organized them as a political
community; his mountaineer infantry, though limited in numbers, proved
desperately courageous; his cavalry was daring and ubiquitous. The
Moslems, having once overcome the Hindus in almost all parts of India,
had not for centuries met with any noteworthy uprising. Sivaji, however,
planned their expulsion, and before the end of his restless life made
much progress in the execution of that design. The new state which he
founded was maintained under various vicissitudes after his death.
Mahratta resistance, once aroused by him, was never extinguished, and
the imperial resources were worn out by ceaseless though vain efforts to
quell it. The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor
was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument. The
Mahratta king, a descendant of Sivaji, had become a _roi fainéant_, and
the arrangement was negotiated by his Brahman minister, whose official
designation was the peshwa. The office of peshwa then became hereditary
in the minister's family, and grew in importance as the Mahratta kingdom
rose, while the king sunk into the condition of a puppet. Thus the
Mahratta power was consolidated throughout nearly the whole of
Maharashtra under the Brahman peshwa as virtual sovereign, with his
capital at Poona, while the titular Mahratta raja or king had his court
at the neighbouring city of Satara. Despite his political importance,
however, the raja was still venerated as the descendant of Sivaji.

Then several chiefs carved out principalities of their own from among
the ruins of the Mogul Empire. Thus Raghoji Bhonsla established himself
in the tracts lying underneath the southern base of the Satpura range
(namely, Nagpur and Berar), overran Orissa and entered Bengal. Damaji
Gaekwar descended from the Western Ghats upon the alluvial plains of
Gujarat around Baroda; Tukoji Holkar subdued the uplands of Malwa beyond
the Vindhya range on the north bank of the Nerbudda; and Mahadji Sindhia
obtained possession of large tracts immediately south of Agra and Delhi,
marched into Hindustan and became virtually the master of the Mogul
emperor himself (see GWALIOR). Sivaji's own father had founded a
dominion at Tanjore in the extreme south, which, however, never had
relations with the central power at Poona. The same may be said of the
state of Kolhapur, allotted to a younger branch of Sivaji's family.

But these principalities, though independent respecting internal
administration, and making war or peace with their neighbours according
to opportunity, owned allegiance to the peshwa at Poona as the head of
the Mahratta race. On state occasions heads of principalities would
visit Poona by way of acknowledging the superior position of the peshwa.
On the other hand, the peshwa was careful to obtain the sanction of his
nominal sovereign at Satara to every important act of state. Thus a
confederation was formed of which the Brahman peshwa or head was at
Poona, governing the adjacent territories, while the members, belonging
to the lower castes, were scattered throughout the continent of India.
Such was the Mahratta Empire which supplanted the Mogul Empire. The
Mahratta power grew and prospered till it embraced all western and most
of central India. Its culminating point was reached about 1750, or about
a century after Sivaji first rebelled against his Mahommedan sovereign.

Its armies drew soldiers from all parts of India. The infantry was not
of good quality; but its cavalry was really an enormous force, numbering
fully a hundred thousand in all. The horsemen were splendidly audacious
in riding for long distances into the heart of a hostile country,
without support, striking some terrific blows, and then returning
rapidly beyond reach of pursuit. They could truly boast of having
watered their horses in every Indian river from the Cauvery to the
Indus. If attacked, however, in a competent manner, they would not
stand; and afterwards, in conflict with the British, whole masses of
them behaved in a dastardly manner. As their ambition grew the chiefs
began to organize their troops after the system learnt from the English
and French. In this way several Frenchmen--Benoit de Boigne, Perron and
others--rose in the Mahratta service to a position dangerous to the
British. But the new system was unsuited to the Mahratta genius; it
hampered the meteoric movements of the cavalry, which was obliged to
manoeuvre in combination with the new artillery and the disciplined
battalions. Mahratta elders hence uttered predictions of military
disaster which were in the end more than fulfilled.

The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it
the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India. But it lacked the
elements of true greatness. It was founded by plundering expeditions,
and its subsequent existence was tainted by the baseness of this
predatory origin. With the exception of the peshwas, its chiefs were
little more than free-booting warriors, for the most part rude, violent
and unlettered. Their custom was to offer their neighbours or victims
the alternative of paying _chouth_, that is, one-fourth of the revenue,
or being plundered and ravaged. Thus the Mahratta _chouth_ came to have
an ominous significance in Indian history. Desultory efforts were made
to establish a civil government, but in the main there was no
administration formed on statesmanlike principles. The peshwas, on the
other hand, as Brahmans, were men of the highest education then possible
in India. But they were absorbed by the direction of military and
political combinations, and by intrigues for the preservation of their
own power; and, even allowing for all this, they failed to evince the
civil capacity which might have been anticipated. While several
displayed commanding abilities, and some possessed many virtues, one
alone attempted to conduct an administration in an enlightened manner,
and he died prematurely.

There were at the same time powers existing in India to keep the
Mahrattas in check, and some parts of India were excepted from their
depredations. The English power was rising at Calcutta, Madras and
Bombay. The nascent Sikh power prevented Mahratta incursions from being
permanently successful in the Punjab. As the Mogul Empire broke up, some
separate Mahommedan powers rose upon its ruins. The nizam of the Deccan
established himself at Hyderabad, comparatively near the headquarters of
the peshwa. Hyder Ali was proclaimed sultan of Mysore in the south.
Ahmed Shah Abdali burst upon India from Afghanistan. The Mahrattas
bravely encountered him at Panipat near Delhi in 1761, and were
decisively defeated. The defeat, however, did not essentially shake the
Mahratta confederation. It was collision with the English that broke
that wonderful fabric to pieces.

The first collision with the English occurred in 1775, arising from a
disputed succession to the peshwaship. The English government at Bombay
supported one of the claimants, and the affair became critical for the
English as well as for the Mahrattas. It was at this conjuncture that
Warren Hastings displayed his political genius and rendered signal
service to his country, by succouring from Bengal the defeated Bombay
army and negotiating a peace (in 1782) that restored the _status quo_.

The next collision happened in 1803. The peshwa had fallen into grave
difficulties with some of the principal members of the Mahratta
confederation. He therefore placed himself under British protection, and
this led to the great Mahratta War, in which the Marquis Wellesley
displayed those talents for military and political combination which
rendered him illustrious. It was during the campaigns which ensued that
General Arthur Wellesley defeated Sindhia and the Bhonsla raja at
Assaye, and General Lake won the victories of Farrukhabad, Dig and
Laswari over Sindhia and Holkar. The three confederates, Sindhia, Holkar
and the Bhonsla, concluded peace with the British government, after
making large sacrifices of territory in favour of the victor, and
submitting to British control politically. It was during these events
that the British won the province of Orissa, the old Hindustan
afterwards part of the North-Western Provinces, and a part of the
western coast in Gujarat.

The third collision came to pass between 1816 and 1818, through the
conduct, not only of the confederates, but also of the peshwa (Baji Bao)
himself. During the previous war the peshwa had been the protégé and
ally of the British; and since the war he had fallen more completely
than before under British protection--British political officers and
British troops being stationed at his capital. He apparently felt
encouraged by circumstances to rebel. Holkar and the Bhonsla committed
hostile acts. The predatory Pindaris offered a formidable resistance to
the British troops. So the peshwa ventured to take part in the
combination against the British power, which even yet the Mahrattas did
not despair of overthrowing. After long-protracted menaces, he attacked
the British at Kirkee, but failed utterly, and fled a ruined man.
Ultimately he surrendered to Sir John Malcolm, and was sent as a state
pensioner to Bithur, near Cawnpore. The British, however, released the
raja of Satara from the captivity in which he had been kept during the
peshwa's time, and reinstated him on the throne, with a limited
territory. Owing to these events the British government became possessed
of the Konkan and of the greater part of the Deccan.

It remains to mention briefly the fortunes of each remaining member of
the once imperial confederation. The principality of Satara was held to
have lapsed in 1848 by the death of the raja without lineal heirs, and
was annexed by the British government. The Bhonsla raja of Nagpur died
without lineal heirs in 1853, and his territory was likewise annexed.
The house of Holkar remained faithful to its engagements with the
British government, and its position as a feudatory of the empire was
maintained. In Sindhia's territory, by reason of internal feuds, the
British had to undertake measures which were successfully terminated
after the battles of Maharajpur and Panniar in 1843. But on the whole
the house of Sindhia remained faithful. Sindhia himself was actively
loyal during the Mutiny. The gaekwar gradually fell under British
control towards the close of the 18th century, and his house never
engaged in hostilities with the British government. The ex-peshwa lived
to old age at Bithur, and died in 1857. His adopted son grew up to be
the Nana Sahib, of infamous memory, who took a leading part in the
Mutiny.

  See J. Grant Duff, _History of the Mahrattas_ (3 vols., 1826); T. D.
  Broughton, _Letters written in a Mahratta Camp_ (1813); M. G. Ranade,
  _Rise of the Maratha Power_ (Bombay, 1900).     (R. T.; J. S. Co.)



MAHSEER, or MAHASEER (_Barbus mosal_), a kind of barbel, abundant in the
rivers of India, especially in pools of the upper and more rapid streams
where they issue from the mountainous part of the country. It is one of
the largest species of the Cyprinid family, attaining to a length of 3
to 5 ft., and sometimes exceeding a weight of 70 lb. Its body is
well-proportioned, rather elongate, and somewhat like that of the
European barbel, but covered with very large scales, of which there are
only twenty-five or twenty-seven placed along the lateral line; the
dorsal fin is armed with a long and strong spine, and the mouth provided
with four slender and short barbels. The lips are sometimes produced
into fleshy lobes. To the fisherman in India the mahseer affords the
same kind of sport as the salmon in the British Isles, and it rivals
that fish as regards size, strength and activity. Its flesh is likewise
much esteemed.



MAI, ANGELO (1782-1854), Italian cardinal and philologist, was born of
humble parents at Schilpario in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, on
the 7th of March 1782. In 1799 he entered the Society of Jesus, and in
1804 he became a teacher of classics in the college of Naples. After
completing his studies at the Collegium Romanum, he lived for some time
at Orvieto, where he was engaged in teaching and palaeographical
studies. The political events of 1808 necessitated his withdrawal from
Rome (to which he had meanwhile returned) to Milan, where in 1813 he was
made custodian of the Ambrosian library. He now threw himself with
characteristic energy and zeal into the task of examining the numerous
MSS. committed to his charge, and in the course of the next six years
was able to restore to the world a considerable number of long-lost
works. Having withdrawn from the Society of Jesus, he was invited to
Rome in 1819 as chief keeper of the Vatican library. In 1833 he was
transferred to the office of secretary of the congregation of the
Propaganda; on the 12th of February 1838 he was raised to the dignity of
cardinal. He died at Castelgandolfo, near Albano, on the 8th of
September 1854.

It is on his skill as a reader of palimpsests that Mai's fame chiefly
rests. To the period of his residence at Milan belong: Fragments of
Cicero's _Pro Scauro, Pro Tullio, Pro Flacco, In Clodium et Curionem, De
aere alieno Milonis, De rege_ (_Alexandrino_ (1814); _M. Corn. Frontonis
opera inedita, cum epistolis item ineditis, Antonini Pii, Marci Aurelii,
Lucii Veri et Appiani_ (1815; new ed., 1823, with more than 100
additional letters found in the Vatican library); portions of eight
speeches of Quintus Aurelius Symmachus; fragments of Plautus; the
oration of Isaeus _De hereditate Cleonymi_; the last nine books of the
_Antiquities_ of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and a number of other
works. _M. Tullii Ciceronis de republica quae supersunt_ appeared at
Rome in 1822; _Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, e vaticanis codicibus
edita_ in 1825-1838; _Classici scriptores e vaticanis codicibus editi_
in 1828-1838; _Spicilegium romanum_ in 1839-1844; and _Patrum nova
bibliotheca_ in 1845-1853. His edition of the celebrated _Codex
vaticanus_, completed in 1838, but not published (ostensibly on the
ground of inaccuracies) till four years after his death (1858), is the
least satisfactory of his labours and was superseded by the edition of
Vercellone and Cozza (1868), which itself leaves much to be desired.
Although Mai was not as successful in textual criticism as in the
decipherment of manuscripts, he will always be remembered as a laborious
and persevering pioneer, by whose efforts many ancient writings have
been rescued from oblivion.

  See B. Prina, _Biografia del cardinale Angelo Mai_ (Bergamo, 1882), a
  scientific work, which gives a full and, at the same time, a just
  appreciation of his work; Cozza-Luzi, _Epistolario del card. Angelo
  Mai_ (Bergamo, 1883); life by G. Poletto (Siena, 1887).



MAIA, in Greek mythology, the eldest of the Pleiades, the seven
daughters of Atlas and the Oceanid Pleïone. She and her sisters, born on
Mt Cyllene in Arcadia, are sometimes called mountain goddesses. In a
cave of Cyllene Maia became by Zeus the mother of the god Hermes. The
story is told in the _Hymn to Hermes_ attributed to Homer. She was
identified by the Romans with Maia Majesta, an old Italian goddess of
spring, to whom a sacrifice was offered on the 1st of May by the priest
of Vulcan.



MAIDA, a town of Calabria, Italy, in the province of Catanzaro, from
which it is 30 m. W.S.W. direct, and 12 m. N.N.E. of Pizzo by rail (the
station is 8 m. W. of the town). Pop. (1901), 5190. The town gives its
name to the plain of Maida, where in 1806 British troops under Sir John
Stuart defeated the French under Regnier. The names Maida Hill and Maida
Vale in London are derived from this battle.



MAIDAN, an Indian term for any open plain. The Maidan is the name of the
park in Calcutta, surrounding Fort William, where society people drive
in the afternoon. The name is also applied to one of the valleys in the
Afridi country of Tirah, and to the plateau portion of the state of
Mysore.



MAIDEN, or MAID, a young unmarried girl. "Maid" is a shortened form of
"maiden," O. Eng. _maegden_, which represents a diminutive of a Teutonic
word meaning "young person," of either sex. An old English word "may,"
meaning a kinsman or kinswoman, and also a virgin or girl, represents
the original. In early usage "maiden" as meaning "virgin" is frequently
applied to the male sex, thus, in Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_, Sir
Percyvale is called a "parfyte clene megden." Apart from the direct
applications of the word to the unmarried state, such as "maiden name,"
"maiden lady," &c., the word is used adjectivally, implying the
preservation of the first state of an object, or indicating a first
effort of any kind. Probably a "maiden" fortress is one which has never
fallen, though the _New English Dictionary_ suggests that the various
"maiden castles" in England, usually ancient earthworks, may have been
so called from being so strong that they could be defended by maidens,
and points out that Edinburgh Castle, called "maiden-castle" by William
Drummond of Hawthornden (_Speech for Edinburgh to the King_), is styled
_Castrum puellarum_, the "castle of the maidens," in Geoffrey of
Monmouth. A "maiden" assize, circuit or session is one at which there
are no prisoners for trial; a "maiden over" or "maiden" in cricket is an
over from which no runs are scored. A "maiden speech" is the first
speech made by a member of parliament in the house. In the _Annual
Register_ for 1794 (quoted in _N.E.D._) the expression, with reference
to Canning's first speech, is said to be "according to the technical
language of the house." "Maiden" is applied to several objects, to a
movable framework or horse for drying and airing of linen, to a
washerwoman's "dolly" or wooden beater, to the "kirnbaby" formed of the
last sheaf of corn reaped which formerly figured in the Scottish harvest
homes, and to the beheading instrument, known as the "Scottish maiden"
(see below). "Maid," apart from its primary sense of an unmarried woman,
is chiefly used for a domestic female servant, usually with a qualifying
word prefixed, such as "housemaid," "parlour-maid," &c.

The title of "MAID OF HONOUR" is given to an unmarried lady attached to
the personal suite of a queen. The custom of sending young girls of
noble or good birth to the court of a prince or feudal superior, for the
purpose, primarily, of education, goes back to early feudal times, and
is parallel with the sending of boys to act as pages and squires to the
feudal castles. The regular establishment of maids of honour (_filles
d'honneur_) appears first in the royal court of France. This has usually
been attributed to Anne of Brittany, wife of Charles VIII.; she had a
group of unmarried girls of high rank at her court as part of her
household, in whom she took a lively and parental interest, educating
them and bestowing a dowry upon them on their marriage. A slightly
earlier instance, however, has been found. When the young Margaret of
Austria came to France on her espousal to Charles VIII., broken by his
marriage to Anne of Brittany, there were in her train several _filles
d'honneur_, whose names appear in the _Comptes d'argenterie de la reine
Marguerite d'Autriche_, from 1484-1485 and 1488-1489 (_Archives de
l'empire K. K. 80 and 81_ quoted by A. Jal, _Dictionnaire critique de
biographie et d'histoire_). It is from the days of Francis I. that the
_chroniques scandaleuses_ begin which circle round the maids of honour
of the French court. The maids of Catherine de Medici, celebrated as the
"flying squadron," _l'escadron volant_, are familiar from the pages of
Pierre de l'Estoile (1574-1611) and Brantôme. Among those whose beauty
Catherine used in her political intrigues, the most famous were Isabelle
de Limeuil, Mlle de Montmorency-Fosseux, known as _la belle Fosseuse_,
and Charlotte de Baune. The _filles d'honneur_, as an institution, were
suppressed in the reign of Louis XIV., at the instigation of Mme de
Montespan--who had been one of them--and their place was taken by the
_dames de palais_. In the English court, this custom of attaching "maids
of honour" to the queen's person was no doubt adopted from France. At
the present day a queen regnant has eight maids of honour, a queen
consort four. They take precedence next after the daughters of barons,
and where they have not by right or courtesy a title of their own, they
are styled "Honourable."

  THE SCOTTISH MAIDEN was an instrument of capital punishment formerly
  in use in Scotland. It is said to have been invented by the earl of
  Morton, who is also said to have been its first victim. This, however,
  could not have been the case, as the maiden was first used at the
  execution of the inferior agents in the assassination of Rizzio (1561)
  and Morton was not beheaded till 1581. The maiden was practically an
  early form of guillotine. A loaded blade or axe moving in grooves was
  fixed in a frame about ten feet high. The axe was raised to the full
  height of the frame and then released, severing the victim's head from
  his body. At least 120, suffered death by the maiden, including the
  regent Morton, Sir John Gordon of Haddo, President Spottiswood, the
  marquis and earl of Argyll. In 1710 it ceased to be used; it is now
  preserved in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in
  Edinburgh.



MAIDENHAIR, in botany, the common name for a fern, _Adiantum
Capillus-Veneris_, characterized by the spreading hairlike branches of
the frond, the ultimate pinnules of which are ½ to 1 in. long with a
rounded crenate outer edge and repeatedly forked veins; the sori (or
masses of spore-capsules) are in the crenatures of the pinnules, and are
protected by a kidney-shaped involucre. The plant is widely distributed
in temperate and tropical regions, and is occasionally found in the
western counties of England, the Isle of Man, and west Ireland, growing
on damp rocks or walls especially near the sea. The genus _Adiantum_ is
a large one containing many handsome species both tropical and
temperate, well known in greenhouse and hothouse cultivation.

  MAIDENHAIR-TREE is a popular name for _Ginkgo biloba_, a remarkable
  and handsome gymnospermous tree, the fan-shaped leaves of which with
  their forked veins recall those of the maidenhair (see GYMNOSPERMS).



MAIDENHEAD, a market town and municipal borough in the Wokingham
parliamentary division of Berkshire, England; 24½ m. W. of London by the
Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 12,980. Area, 2125 acres. It is
pleasantly situated on and above the west (right) bank of the Thames,
and is much in favour as a residential town and a resort of boating
parties. Though of high antiquity it is wholly modern in appearance, and
a large number of handsome houses have been built in its vicinity. A
beautiful timbered house of the 15th century, however, survives in
Ockwells, a short distance south of the town. The stone bridge carrying
the London road over the Thames dates from 1772; but the crossing is of
ancient importance. Maidenhead has trade in malt and grain. The borough
is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.

The history of Maidenhead (Maydenhutt, Maydenhith) is bound up with that
of the ancient bridge. It is not mentioned in Domesday. Edward I. (1297)
gave a grant of pontage in aid of the bridge, which was almost broken
down; similar grants to the "bailiffs and good men of Maydenhithe" were
made by succeeding sovereigns. In 1451 Henry VI. incorporated the gild
of the Brethren and Sisters of Maydenhith to provide certain necessaries
for the celebration of Mass and to keep the bridge in order: the gild,
dissolved at the Reformation, was revived by Elizabeth, who, however,
later (1581) substituted for it a corporation consisting of a warden,
bridgemaster, burgesses and commonalty: the governing charter until the
19th century was that of James I. (1685) incorporating the town under
the title of the mayor, bridgemaster and burgesses. In 1400 Thomas
Holand, earl of Kent, held the bridge in the interests of the deposed
Richard II., but was eventually forced to retire. In 1643 a meeting took
place in the town between Charles I. and three of his children. In the
18th century a considerable trade was done in carrying malt, meal and
timber in barges to London: at that time three fairs were held which
have now practically disappeared. The Wednesday market is held under a
charter of Elizabeth (1582).



MAID MARIAN, a personage incorporated in the English legend of Robin
Hood. There is no evidence that she had originally any connexion with
the Robin Hood cycle. She seems to have been an essential feature of the
morris dance, and in the may-game was paired sometimes with Robin-Hood,
but oftener with Friar Tuck. The well-known pastoral play of Adam de la
Hale, _Jeu de Robin et Marion_, and the many French songs on the
subject, account for the association of the names. In the ballads on
Robin Hood her name is twice casually mentioned, but there is a late
ballad, by a certain S. G. (F. J. Child, _English and Scottish Ballads_,
i. 219), which tells how Maid Marian sought Robin in the forest
disguised as a page, and fought with him for an hour before she
recognized him by his voice. S. G. was perhaps acquainted with the two
plays, written in 1598, of _The Downfall and The Death of Robert Earl of
Huntingdon_, by Anthony Munday and Harry Chettle. In _The Downfall_
Matilda Fitz Walter escapes from the persecution of King John by
following her lover to Sherwood Forest, where they took the names of
Robin Hood and Maid Marian, and lived apart until they could be legally
united. Perhaps this tale has some connexion with the romance of the
outlaw Fulk Fitz Warin. Matilda or Mahaud, widow of Theobald Walter,
escaped from John's solicitations by marrying the outlawed Fulk and
following him to the forest. There were in semi-historical legends three
Matildas pursued by King John, of whom particulars are given by H. L. D.
Ward in his _Catalogue of Romances_ (i. 502). Their several histories
were fused by the Elizabethan dramatists, and associated with the Maid
Marian of the morris dance, who up to that time had probably only a
vague connexion with Robin Hood.



MAIDSTONE, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough, and
the county town of Kent, England, 41 m. E.S.E. of London by the South
Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901), 33,516; area, 4008 acres. It
lies principally on the eastern bank of the river Medway, the modern
part spreading over the western slopes of a picturesque valley, which is
intersected and environed by orchards and hop gardens, this being the
richest agricultural district of Kent. The hop grounds form the
so-called middle growth of Kent, and the town has the principal grain
market in the county. Archbishop Boniface in 1260 established a hospital
here (Newark hospital) for poor pilgrims, the chapel of which, with
modern additions, is now St Peter's Church. The parish church of St
Mary, which had existed from Norman times, was demolished in 1395 by
Archbishop Courtenay, who erected on the site the present church of All
Saints. This fine Perpendicular building contains, besides many
excellent monuments, the richly carved sedilia and the twenty-eight oak
seats used by the collegiate priests. Courtenay also founded a college
of secular canons, the ruins of which are an interesting specimen of
14th-century architecture. From the reign of John until the Reformation
the archbishops had a residence here, at which Stafford and Courtenay
died. This Perpendicular building, with its Elizabethan east front, was
acquired by the corporation as a memorial of Queen Victoria's Jubilee in
1887, and houses the school of science and art. The rectory, with the
manor, passed into lay hands at the Reformation; and, having been a
perpetual curacy for three hundred and twenty years, the living became a
vicarage in 1866. The grammar school was founded in 1549, and endowed
with the estates of the local Corpus Christi fraternity, then dissolved;
the hall in which the gild assembled remains, but the school is
established in modern buildings on a new site. There are oil-mills,
rope, sacking and twine factories, and cement, lime, and brick works.
There is a considerable carrying trade on the Medway. A museum, with
public library, was opened in 1858, in an interesting building of the
early part of the 16th century. This is the headquarters of the Kent
Archaeological Society, founded by the Rev. L. B. Larking in 1858. In
1890 an art gallery was added. The West Kent and General hospital, the
county ophthalmic hospital, county gaol and barracks may be mentioned
among other institutions. From Saxon times down to 1830 condemned
malefactors were executed, and all the great county meetings were held,
on Penenden Heath, a common situated about a mile north-east of the
town, and enclosed by the corporation as a public recreation ground. The
parliamentary borough of Maidstone returns one member. The town is
governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.

There is evidence of a Roman settlement at Maidstone. The name Maidstone
(Medwegestun, Meddestane, Maydestan), probably meaning Medway Town, is
presumably of Saxon origin. At the time of the Domesday Survey it
belonged to the archbishop of Canterbury, and from the reign of John the
archbishops had a residence there. Its position in the centre of Kent
gave it an early importance; the shire-moot was held on Penenden Heath
in the 11th century, and Maidstone was an assize town in the reign of
Edward I. In 1537 Cranmer exchanged the manor of Maidstone with the
king, and it was granted by Edward VI. to Sir Thomas Wyatt. Edward also
incorporated the town by the title of the mayor, jurats and commonalty;
it had formerly been governed by a portreve and 12 "brethren." This
charter was forfeited through Wyatt's rebellion; a second charter was
granted by Elizabeth in 1559 and confirmed by subsequent sovereigns. A
new charter constituting a governing body of a mayor, 12 jurats and 40
common councilmen was given at the petition of the inhabitants by George
II. in 1747, and remained the governing charter until 1835. Four fairs
were granted by the charter of 1559; these are now held on the 13th of
February, the 12th of May, the 20th of June and the 17th of October. A
Thursday market was granted by Henry III. to Archbishop Boniface, and a
market every second Tuesday in the month by charter of George II. A corn
market on Tuesday and a cattle market on Thursday are still held. The
manufacture of linen and woollen goods was introduced by Walloons, who
settled here in 1567. This was succeeded by paper-making, now the chief
industry of the town. The cultivation of hops has been carried on since
the 17th century.

Maidstone has been associated with various incidents of general history.
Wat Tyler broke into the prison, liberated John Ball the rebel preacher,
and committed various depredations. Several of the leading inhabitants
joined Jack Cade's rising. The rising of the Kentish Royalists in 1648
collapsed at Maidstone, where on the 1st of June Fairfax, after five
hours' obstinate fighting, captured the town at midnight.

  See _Victoria County History, Kent_; I. M. Russell, _History of
  Maidstone_ (1881).



MAIHAR, a native state of Central India, in the Baghelkhand agency.
Area, 407 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 63,702; estimated revenue, £4700. The
state, which is watered by the Tons river, consists mainly of alluvial
soil covering sandstone, and is fertile except in the hilly district of
the south. A large area is under forest, the produce of which provides a
small export trade. The chief, whose title is raja, claims descent from
the Kachwaha Rajput clan. The state suffered severely from famine in
1896-1897. The town of Maihar (pop. 6802) is on the East Indian railway,
97 m. N. of Jubbulpore. Extensive ruins of shrines and other buildings
in its neighbourhood indicate a former much greater extent of the place.



MAIL. (1) (Through Fr. _maille_, from Lat. _macula_, a spot or hole, the
mesh of a net), properly a metal ring or link which, joined closely with
other links, formed the fabric of body and other armour in the middle
ages, till it was superseded by plate-armour. The word "mail," properly
applied to this form of chain-armour, is also used of armour generally,
whether plate or chain, and is also transferred to the horny defensive
coverings of animals, such as the tortoise, crab, &c. (see ARMS AND
ARMOUR). (2) (O. Eng. _mál_, speech; probably the same as O. Saxon
_mahal_, assembly; in meaning connected with O. Norse _mále_,
stipulation), a Scots law term meaning rent, tax. "Mails and duties" are
the rents, whether in kind or money, of an estate. In English the word
only survives in "blackmail" (q.v.). (3) (Through O. Fr. _male_, mod.
_malle_, a Teutonic word surviving in Dutch _maal_), properly a bag,
especially one used in travelling; this word, which appears in Chaucer,
is now applied chiefly to the despatch and delivery of postal matter. In
this sense "mail" is properly the bag in which such matter is conveyed,
and hence is applied to the contents of the mail, postal matter
collectively, and to the train, carts, or other means used in the
despatch and delivery of the same. In general usage "mail" is confined
to the "foreign" as opposed to the "inland" despatch of letters, &c.,
and to which the word "post" is chiefly applied; in official language,
the word refers to the inland despatch. The word appears also in
"mail-coach," a coach used for conveying the mails, and in "mail-cart,"
a cart similarly employed. This word is also applied to a light low
vehicle propelled or drawn by hand, suitable for young children. The
"mail phaeton" is a type of phaeton with high seat for two persons and
drawn by a pair of horses.



MAILLY, LOUISE JULIE, COMTESSE DE (1710-1751), mistress of Louis XV. of
France, was the daughter of Louis, marquis de Nesle. She was the eldest
of three sisters who succeeded one another as favourites of the king. In
1726 she married her cousin, Louis Alexandre de Mailly. Although Louis
XV. had paid her attentions from 1732, she did not become titular
mistress until 1738. She did not use her position either to enrich
herself or to interfere in politics. She was supplanted by her sister,
the duchess of Châteauroux, and obliged to leave court in 1742.

  See E. and J. de Goncourt, _La Duchesse de Châteauroux et ses soeurs_
  (1879); Toussaint, _Anecdotes curieuses de ... Louis XV._ (2 vols.,
  1905); J. B. H. R. Capefigue, _Mesdemoiselles de Nesle et la jeunesse
  de Louis XV._ (1864).



MAIMANA, a town and khanate of Afghan Turkestan. The town is situated
100 m. S.W. of Balkh, and only some 25 m. from the frontier of Russian
Turkestan. It is about two-thirds the size of Herat, square built and
surrounded by a ruined wall and moat. The khanate was for long in
dispute between Bokhara and Kabul, but in 1868 Abdur Rahman laid siege
to the town, and it was compelled to come to terms. Its political status
as an Afghan province was definitely fixed by the Russo-Afghan boundary
commission of 1885. The inhabitants are chiefly Uzbegs.



MAIMAND, a town in the province of Fars, Persia, a few miles east of
Firuzabad and about 70 m. from Shiraz. It has a population of about
5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of
rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as
to Arabia, India and Java. The district also produces great quantities
of almonds. The rose gardens cover several square miles. In 1349 a
great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it
became _wakf_ (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mïr Ahmed,
surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the
Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine
by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the
administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of
the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.



MAIMBOURG, LOUIS (1610-1686), French Jesuit and historian, was born at
Nancy. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen, and after
studying at Rome became a classical master in the Jesuit college at
Rouen. He afterwards devoted himself to preaching, but with only
moderate success. After having taken some part in minor controversies he
threw himself with energy into the dispute which had arisen as to the
Gallican liberties; for his _Traité historique sur les prérogatives de
l'Église de Rome_ (1682) he was by command of Innocent XI. expelled from
the Society, but rewarded by Louis XIV. with a residence at the abbey of
St Victor, Paris, and a pension. He died on the 13th of August 1686. His
numerous works include histories of Arianism, the iconoclastic
controversy, the Greek schism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and of the
pontificates of Leo I. and Gregory I.; they are mere compilations,
written indeed in a very lively and attractive style, but inaccurate and
untrustworthy.

  _The History of Arianism_ was published in English (1728-1729) by
  William Webster, with an appendix on the English writers in the
  Socinian and Arian controversies.



MAIMING, mutilation, a physical injury which involves the loss of, or
incapacity to use, a bodily member. The verb "to maim," in M. E.
_maynhe_, _mahayme_, _mayme_, &c. was adopted from O. Fr. _mahaignier_:
cf. It. _magagnars_, Med. Lat. _mahemiare_, _mahennare_, &c. (see Du
Cange, _Gloss._, _s.v._ "Mahamium"). Maiming or mutilation is and has
been practised by many races with various ethnical and religious
significances, and was a customary form of punishment on the principle
of an "eye for an eye" (see MUTILATION). In law "maiming" is a criminal
offence; the old law term for a special case of maiming of persons was
"mayhem" (q.v.), an Anglo-French variant form of the word. Maiming of
animals by others than their owners is a particular form of the offences
generally grouped as "malicious damage." For the purpose of the law as
to this offence animals are divided into cattle, which includes horses,
pigs and asses, and other animals which are either subjects of larceny
at common law or are usually kept in confinement or for domestic
purposes. The punishment for maiming of cattle is three to fourteen
years' penal servitude. Malicious injury to other animals is a
misdemeanour punishable on summary conviction. For a second offence the
penalty is imprisonment with hard labour for over twelve months.
(Malicious Damage Act 1861.) Maiming of animals by their owner falls
under the Cruelty to Animals Acts.



MAIMON, SALOMON (1754-1800), German philosopher, was born of Jewish
parentage in Polish Lithuania, and died at Nieder-Siegersdorf on the
22nd of November 1800. He married at the age of twelve, and studied
medicine in Berlin. In 1770 he severed his connexion with his orthodox
co-religionists by his critical commentary on the _Moreh Nebuhim_ of
Maimonides, and devoted himself to the study of philosophy on the lines
of Wolff and Moses Mendelssohn. After many vicissitudes he found a
peaceful residence in the house of Count Kalkreuth at Nieder-Siegersdorf
in 1790. During the ensuing ten years he published the works which have
made his reputation as a critical philosopher. Hitherto his life had
been a long struggle against difficulties of all kinds. From his
autobiography, it is clear that his keen critical faculty was developed
in great measure by the slender means of culture at his disposal. It was
not till 1788 that he made the acquaintance of the Kantian philosophy,
which was to form the basis of his lifework, and as early as 1790 he
published the _Versuch über die Transcendentalphilosophie_, in which he
formulates his objections to the system. He seizes upon the fundamental
incompatibility of a consciousness which can apprehend, and yet is
separated from, the "thing-in-itself." That which is object of thought
cannot be outside consciousness; just as in mathematics [root](-1) is an
unreal quantity, so "things-in-themselves" are _ex hypothesi_ outside
consciousness, i.e. are unthinkable. The Kantian paradox he explains as
the result of an attempt to explain the origin of the "given" in
consciousness. The _form_ of things is admittedly subjective; the mind
endeavours to explain the _material_ of the given in the same terms, an
attempt which is not only impossible but involves a denial of the
elementary laws of thought. Knowledge of the given is, therefore,
essentially incomplete. Complete or perfect knowledge is confined to the
domain of pure thought, to logic and mathematics. Thus the problem of
the "thing-in-itself" is dismissed from the inquiry, and philosophy is
limited to the sphere of pure thought. The Kantian categories are,
indeed, demonstrable and true, but their application to the given is
meaningless and unthinkable. By this critical scepticism Maimon takes up
a position intermediate between Kant and Hume. Hume's attitude to the
empirical is entirely supported by Maimon. The casual concept, as given
by experience, expresses not a necessary objective order of things, but
an ordered scheme of perception; it is subjective and cannot be
postulated as a concrete law apart from consciousness. The main argument
of the _Transcendentalphilosophie_ not only drew from Kant, who saw it
in MS., the remark that Maimon alone of his all critics had mastered the
true meaning of his philosophy, but also directed the path of most
subsequent criticism.

  Maimon's chief works, in addition to the above quoted, are _Philos.
  Wörterbuch_ (1791); _Streifereien im Gebiete der Philos._(1793); _Über
  die Progresse der Philos._ (1793); _Die Kategorien des Aristoteles mit
  Anmerkungen erläutert_ (1794); _Versuch einer neuen Logik_ (1794 and
  1798); _Kritische Untersuchungen über den menschl. Geist_ (1797). See
  _S. Maimons Lebensgeschichte von ihm selbst beschrieben_ (1792, ed. K.
  P. Moritz; Eng. trans. by J. C. Murray, 1888); Wolff, _Maimoniana_
  (1813); Witte, _S. Maimon_ (1876).



MAIMONIDES, the common name of RABBI MOSES BEN MAIMON (1135-1204), also
known from the initials of these last words as RAMBAM, Jewish
philosopher. His life falls into three epochs, which may be typified by
the towns in which they were passed, viz. Cordova, Fez and Cairo. He was
born in Cordova on the 20th of March 1135, the eve of Passover; he had a
brother, David, and one sister. His early years were spent in his native
town, which had then just passed the zenith of its glory. The Arab
rulers had fostered the development of science, art, medicine,
philosophy, literature and learning. All these influences played their
part in the education of Maimonides, whose father, besides training him
in all branches of Hebrew and Jewish scholarship, implanted in the youth
a sound knowledge of these secular studies as well. In 1148 Cordova was
taken from the last Fatimite caliph by the victorious Almohades, who had
spread over Spain from N. Africa. These militant revivalists strove to
re-establish Islam in what they considered its primitive simplicity.
They laid great stress on the unity of God, and tolerated neither schism
within the faith nor dissent without. The position of the orthodox
Spanish Jews became intolerable, and Maimon, after ten years of
hardships, wanderings and escapes, decided to take his family out of the
country. He settled in Fez. The years which Maimonides spent there
(1160-1165) were memorable for his friendship with Abdul Arab Ibn
Muisha--a Moslem poet and theologian--and for the commencement of his
literary activity. His energies were diverted towards stimulating the
religious feelings of his brethren and combating assimilation. In
consequence he became alarmed for his own safety, and in 1165 left for
Egypt, where he settled after a passing visit to the Holy Land. Cordova
taught him the humanities; Fez humanity. Cairo, besides giving him
prominence at court and in the Jewish community, was the centre of the
almost world-wide influence which he exercised over Jewry by his
monumental writings and dominant personality. By 1177 Maimonides was the
recognized chief of the Cairene congregation and consulted on important
matters by communities far and wide. Here he was joined by his most
famous disciple, Joseph Aknin. But his early life in Egypt was fraught
with deep sorrow. His father died soon after their arrival, and
Maimonides himself suffered severely from prostration and sickness. His
brother David, jointly with whom he carried on a trade in gems, was
shipwrecked in the Indian Ocean. With him perished the entire fortune of
the family. Forced to earn a livelihood, Maimonides turned to medicine.
The fame of his skill eventually brought him the appointment of body
physician to Saladin, to whom, it is said, he was so attached that when
Richard I. wrote from Ascalon, offering him a similar post at the
English court, Maimonides refused. He married the sister of Ibn al Mali,
one of the royal secretaries. In 1186, his son Abraham was born. His
remaining years were spent in ceaseless activity and in controversy,
which he sought to avoid. He died amidst universal sorrow and
veneration.

  The works of Maimonides fall into three periods: (a) To the Spanish
  period belong his commentary on the whole Talmud (not fully carried
  out), a treatise on the calendar (_Maamar ha-ibbur_), a treatise on
  logic (_Milloth Higgayon_), and his commentary on the _Mishnah_ (this
  was called _Siraj_ or _Maor_, i.e. "Light": begun 1158, completed
  1168 in Egypt). (b) While he was in Fez, he wrote an essay on the
  Sanctification of the Name of God (_Maamar Kiddush Hashem_, _Iggereth
  Hashemad_). (c) The works written in Egypt were: Letter to the
  Yemenites (_Iggereth Teman_ or _Pethah Tiqvah_); _Responsa_ on
  questions of law; Biblical and Rabbinical Code (_Misnheh Torah_ or
  _Yad Hahazaka_, completed 1180); _Sepher hamitzvoth_, an abbreviated
  handbook of the preceding; and his great philosophical work _Moreh
  Nebuhim_ or "the guide of the perplexed" (1190). To these must be
  added certain portions of the _Mishnah_ commentary, such as the "Eight
  Chapters," the discussion on reward and punishment and immortality,
  the Jewish Creed, which have acquired fame as independent works.

The influence of Moses ben Maimon is incalculable. "From Moses unto
Moses there arose not one like Moses," is the verdict of posterity.
Maimonides was the great exponent of reason in faith and toleration in
theology. One of the main services to European thought of the "Guide"
was its independent criticism of some of Aristotle's principles. His
codification of the Talmud was equally appreciated in the study of the
scholar and in practical life. Christian Europe owed much to Maimonides.
Not only did his "Guide" influence scholasticism in general, but it was
from his Code that the Church derived its medieval knowledge of the
Synagogue.

  A complete bibliography will be found in _Maimonides_, by David Yellin
  and Israel Abrahams (London, 1903); the final chapter of that work
  gives a summary of the influence of Maimonides on Christian
  philosophers such as Aquinas, and Jewish such as Spinoza. The "Guide"
  has been translated into English by M. Friedlander (1881-1885; new
  ed., 1905). See also _Jewish Encyclopedia_, articles _s.v._, and the
  volumes edited by Guttmann, _Moses ben Maimon_ (Leipzig, 1908, &c.).
       (H. Le.)



MAIN (Lat. _Moenus_), a river of Germany, and the most important
right-bank tributary of the Rhine. It has two sources, the Weisse Main
(White Main), which rises in the Fichtelgebirge on the east side of the
Ochsenkopf, and the Rote Main (Red Main), which, rising on the eastern
slope of the Frankish Jura, flows past Bayreuth. They unite 3 m. below
Kulmbach, 920 ft. above the sea. Hence the river, already of
considerable size, pursues a north-westerly direction, skirting the
spurs of the Frankish Jura in a pleasant valley. At Lichtenfels the
river takes a south-westerly course, which it retains until entering the
fertile basin of Bamberg. Here it receives from the south-east the
waters of its chief tributary, the Regnitz, and enters upon its middle
course. Its direction is now again north-west, and meandering through
pleasant vales and pastures it passes Hassfurt and reaches Schweinfurt.
Its course is now almost due south to Ochsenfurt, when it again proceeds
north-west. Continuing in this direction amid vine-clad hills, it washes
the walls of the university city of Würzburg, and thence, dividing the
forest-clad ranges of the Spessart and the Odenwald, reaches Gemünden.
Here it is joined from the right by the Frankish Saale and, turning
abruptly south, receives at Wertheim the beautiful Tauber. Feudal
castles and medieval towns now crown its banks, notably, Freudenberg and
Miltenberg. From the latter it proceeds due north to Aschaffenburg,
whence passing Frankfort it pours its yellow waters into the green
waters of the Rhine just above Mainz. The Main has a total length of 310
m. and drains a basin of approximately 11,000 sq. m. It is navigable
from the confluence of the Regnitz, 240 m. from its mouth, for barges
and other small craft, and through the Ludwig Canal is connected with
the Danube.

  See Ulrici, _Das Maingebiet in seiner natürlichen Beschaffenheit_
  (Kassel, 1885); E. Faber, _Zur Hydrographie des Maingebiets_ (Munich,
  1895), and Lill, _Mainthal, Main und Mainschiffahrt_ (Berlin, 1904).



MAIN (from the Aryan root which appears in "may" and "might," and Lat.
_magnus_, great), a word meaning properly power or strength, especially
physical. This use chiefly survives in the expression "with might and
main." The word is more common as a substantival elliptical use of the
adjective, which usually has the sense of principal or chief in size,
strength, importance, &c. Thus "the main," the high open sea, is for
"main sea," cf. "mainland," the principal part of a territory excluding
islands and sometimes far-projecting peninsulas. The expression "the
Spanish main" properly meant that part of the main land of the N.E.
coast of South America stretching from the Orinoco to the Isthmus of
Panama, and the former Spanish possessions in Central America bordering
on the Caribbean Sea, but it is often loosely used, especially in
connexion with the buccaneers, of the Caribbean Sea itself. The term
"main" is also thus used of a principal pipe or cable for conducting
gas, water, electricity, &c. The elliptical use does not appear,
however, in such expressions as main road, line, stream. Another use of
the word "main" has a somewhat obscure history. It appears as a term in
the game of hazard, and also in cock-fighting. In the last it is used
for a match, and for the cocks engaged in a match. In hazard it is the
number called by the "caster" before the dice are thrown; this may be
any number from five to nine inclusive. The usual derivation is from the
French _main_, a hand, but according to the _New English Dictionary_
there is no evidence for this, and the more probable explanation is that
it is an adaptation of "main" meaning principal or chief. From this use
of the word in hazard the expression "main chance" is derived. "Main," a
shortened form of domain or demesne, only now survives in Scotland,
usually in the plural "mains" for a home farm.



MAINA (or MANI) and MAINOTES, a district and people of the Peloponnesus,
the modern Morea. Maina is the country occupied by the mountain range of
Taygetus from Sparta to Cape Matapan, the ancient Taenarum. It is now
divided between the modern districts Oetylos and Gythion. Before the
organization of the present kingdom of Greece, Maina was subdivided into
[Greek: Exô Manê], Outer Maina, from the frontier of Kalamata, on the
Gulf of Messenia, to Vitylo (Oetylos) and inland to the summit of
Taygetus; [Greek: Katô Manê], Lower Maina, from Vitylo to Cape Matapan;
and [Greek: Mesa Manê], or Inner Maina, on the east, and on the Gulf of
Laconia as far as the plain of Elos. It contained over a hundred
villages. The country is mountainous and inaccessible, a formation to
which it owes its historical importance. The Mainotes claim to descend
from the Spartans, and probably represent the Eleuthero, or free,
Laconians who were delivered by Rome from the power of Sparta, as is
suggested by the traces of ancient Greek in their dialect and by their
physical type. Their country being a natural fortress, they were able to
defend themselves against the Byzantine emperors, the barbarians who
broke into the empire, the Latin princes of Achaea of the house of
Villehardouin, and the Turks. As their country is also poor and
maritime, they were early tempted to take to piratical adventure. Gibbon
says that "in the time of Constantine Porphyrogenitus they had acquired
the name of Mainotes, under which they dishonour the claim of liberty by
the inhuman pillage of all that is shipwrecked on their rocky shore."
Their neighbours gave their country the name of "Kakaboulia"--the land
of wicked counsels. The passes of their mountains were elaborately
fortified and their villages were full of fortified towers (_pyrgoi_)
from which they formed their own favourite epithet, Maina
Polypyrgos--many-towered Maina. On the western side it also contains the
remains of feudal keeps, erected by William II. de Villehardouin
(1245-1278) and other Latin princes of Achaea. The Mainotes did not
become Christians till the 9th century. From the 15th till the 17th
century they recognized a family which claimed to belong to the Comneni
of Trebizond as head chiefs. But the real power was in the hands of the
chiefs of the different families and villages, who formed a turbulent
and martial aristocracy. Enduring and ferocious feuds were common among
them. In the course of the 18th century the family of Mavromicheli
(Black Michael), which belonged to lower Maina, established a general
headship over the Mainotes after much strife and many murders. When
Russia endeavoured to promote a rising against the Turks in the Morea in
1770 the Mainotes acted with her, and the strength of their country
enabled them to escape the vengeance of the Turks when the Christians
were cynically deserted by the Russians. In 1777 their practical
independence was recognized by the sultan's officers. During the Greek
war of independence the Mainotes were chiefly led by Petros (Petro Bey)
Mavromicheli, known to his countrymen as the king of Maina, who
undoubtedly cherished the hope of establishing a principality for
himself. The freedom of Greece, for which he had fought in his own way,
proved the ruin of his ambition. He found the new order less compatible
with his schemes than the Turkish dominion. Petro Bey was imprisoned by
the Greek president Capodistrias (see CAPO D'ISTRIA, COUNT.), who was in
revenge murdered by the Mavromichelis. The family were finally content
to become courtiers and officials in the reign of King Otto I. In the
19th century Maina was but little affected by civilization, except in so
far as the efficiency of modern navies debarred the Mainotes from their
old resource of piracy.

  See W. Martin Leake, _Travels in the Morea_ (1830); M. E. Yemeniz, "La
  Maina," in _Revue des deux mondes_ (March 1, 1865); and Philipson,
  "Zur Ethnographie des Peloponnes," in _Petermanns Mittheilungen_, vol.
  36 (Gotha).



MAINE, ANNE LOUISE BÉNÉDICTE DE BOURBON, DUCHESSE DU (1676-1753),
daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Anne of Bavaria,
was born on the 8th of November 1676. On the 19th of March 1692 she
married Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, son of Louis XIV. and
Mme de Montespan. The duchesse du Maine held a little court at Sceaux,
where she gave brilliant entertainments and immersed herself in
political intrigues. Displeased with the action of the regent Orleans in
degrading the illegitimate children of Louis XIV. from their precedence
above the peers of France, she induced her husband to join in the
Cellamare conspiracy for the transference of the regency to the king of
Spain. The plot, however, was discovered, and she was imprisoned in
1719. The following year she returned to Sceaux, where she resumed her
salon and gathered round her a brilliant company of wits and poets. She
died in Paris on the 23rd of January 1753.

  See Général de Piépape, _La Duchesse du Maine_ (1910).



MAINE, SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER (1822-1888), English comparative jurist
and historian, son of Dr James Maine, of Kelso, Roxburghshire, was born
on the 15th of August 1822. He was at school at Christ's Hospital, and
thence went up to Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1840. At Cambridge he
was one of the most brilliant classical scholars of his time. He won a
Craven scholarship and graduated as senior classic in 1844, being also
senior chancellor's medallist in classics. Shortly afterwards he
accepted a tutorship at Trinity Hall. In 1847 he was appointed regius
professor of civil law, and he was called to the bar three years later;
he held this chair till 1854. Even the rudiments of Roman law were not
then included in the ordinary training of English lawyers; it was
assumed at the universities that any good Latin scholar could qualify
himself at short notice for keeping up such tradition of civilian
studies as survived. Maine cannot have known much Roman law in 1847,
but in 1856 he contributed to the _Cambridge Essays_ the essay on Roman
law and legal education, republished in the later editions of _Village
Communities_, which was the first characteristic evidence of his genius.
Meanwhile he had become one of the readers appointed by the Inns of
Court, in the first of their many half-hearted attempts at legal
education, in 1852. Lectures delivered by Maine in this capacity were
the groundwork of _Ancient Law_ (1861), the book by which his reputation
was made at one stroke. Its object, as modestly stated in the preface,
was "to indicate some of the earliest ideas of mankind, as they are
reflected in ancient law, and to point out the relation of those ideas
to modern thought." Within a year of its publication the post of legal
member of council in India was offered to Maine, then a junior member of
the bar with little practice, few advantages of connexion, and no
political or official claims. He declined once, on grounds of health;
the very next year the office was again vacant. This time Maine was
persuaded to accept, not that his health had improved, but that he
thought India might not make it much worse. It turned out that India
suited him much better than Cambridge or London. His work, like most of
the work done by Englishmen in India in time of peace, was not of a
showy kind--its value is shown by the fact that he was asked to prolong
his services beyond the regular term of five years, and returned to
England only in 1869. The subjects on which it was his duty to advise
the government of India were as much political as legal. They ranged
from such problems as the land settlement of the Punjab, or the
introduction of civil marriage to provide for the needs of unorthodox
Hindus, to the question how far the study of Persian should be required
or encouraged among European civil servants. On the civil marriage
question in particular, and some years earlier on the still more
troublesome one of allowing the remarriage of native converts to
Christianity, his guidance, being not only learned but statesmanlike,
was of the greatest value. Plans of codification, moreover, were
prepared, and largely shaped, under Maine's direction, which were
carried into effect by his successors, Sir J. Fitzjames Stephen and Dr
Whitley Stokes. The results are open to criticism in details, but form
on the whole a remarkable achievement in the conversion of unwritten and
highly technical law into a body of written law sufficiently clear to be
administered by officers to many of whom its ideas and language are
foreign. All this was in addition to the routine of legislative and
consulting work and the establishment of the legislative department of
the government of India on substantially its present footing.

Maine's power of swiftly assimilating new ideas and appreciating modes
of thought and conduct remote from modern Western life came into contact
with the facts of Indian society at exactly the right time, and his
colleagues and other competent observers expressed the highest opinion
of his work. In return Maine brought back from his Indian office a store
of knowledge which enriched all his later writings, though he took India
by name for his theme only once. This essay on India was his
contribution to the composite work entitled _The Reign of Queen
Victoria_ (ed. T. H. Ward, 1887). Not having been separately published,
it is perhaps the least known of Maine's writings; but its combination
of just perception and large grasp with command of detail is not easily
matched outside W. Stubbs's prefaces to some of the chronicles in the
Rolls series, and (more lately) F. W. Maitland's monographs. As
vice-chancellor of the university of Calcutta, Maine commented, with his
usual pregnant ingenuity, on the results produced by the contact of
Eastern and Western thought. Three of these addresses were published,
wholly or in part, in the later editions of _Village Communities_; the
substance of others is understood to be embodied in the Cambridge Rede
lecture of 1875, which is to be found in the same volume. The practical
side of Maine's experience was not long lost to India; he became a
member of the secretary of state's council in 1871, and remained so for
the rest of his life. In the same year he was gazetted a K.C.S.I. In
1869 Maine was appointed to the chair of historical and comparative
jurisprudence newly founded in the university of Oxford by Corpus
Christi College. Residence at Oxford was not required, and the election
amounted to an invitation to the new professor to resume and continue in
his own way the work he had begun in _Ancient Law_. During the
succeeding years he published the principal matters of his lectures in a
carefully revised literary form: _Village Communities in the East and
the West_ (1871); _Early History of Institutions_ (1875); _Early Law and
Custom_ (1883). In all these works the phenomena of societies in an
archaic stage, whether still capable of observation or surviving in a
fragmentary manner among more modern surroundings or preserved in
contemporary records, are brought into line, often with singular
felicity, to establish and illustrate the normal process of development
in legal and political ideas.

In 1877 the mastership of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where Maine had
formerly been tutor, became vacant. There were two strong candidates
whose claims were so nearly equal that it was difficult to elect either;
the difficulty was solved by a unanimous invitation to Maine to accept
the post. His acceptance entailed the resignation of the Oxford chair,
though not continuous residence at Cambridge. Ten years later
considerations of a somewhat similar kind led to his election to succeed
Sir William Harcourt as Whewell professor of international law at
Cambridge. His all too short performance in this office is represented
by a posthumous volume which had not received his own final revision,
_International Law_ (1888).

Meanwhile Maine had published in 1885 his one work of speculative
politics, a volume of essays on _Popular Government_, designed to show
that democracy is not in itself more stable than any other form of
government, and that there is no necessary connexion between democracy
and progress. The book was deliberately unpopular in tone; it excited
much controversial comment and some serious and useful discussion.

In 1886 there appeared in the _Quarterly Review_ (clxii. 181) an article
on the posthumous work of J. F. M'Lennan, edited and completed by his
brother, entitled "The Patriarchal Theory." The article, though
necessarily unsigned (in accordance with the rule of the _Quarterly_ as
it then stood), was Maine's reply to the M'Lennan brothers' attack on
the historical reconstruction of the Indo-European family system put
forward in _Ancient Law_ and supplemented in _Early Law and Custom_.
Maine was generally averse from controversy, but showed on this occasion
that it was not for want of controversial power. He carried the war back
into the invader's country, and charged J. F. M'Lennan's theory of
primitive society with owing its plausible appearance of universal
validity to general neglect of the Indo-European evidence and
misapprehension of such portions of it as M'Lennan did attempt to
handle.

Maine's health, which had never been strong, gave way towards the end of
1887. He went to the Riviera under medical advice, and died at Cannes on
the 3rd of February 1888. He left a wife and two sons, of whom the elder
died soon afterwards.

An excellent summary of Maine's principal writings may be seen in Sir
Mountstuart Grant Duff's memoir. The prompt and full recognition of
Maine's genius by continental publicists must not pass unmentioned even
in the briefest notice. France, Germany, Italy, Russia have all
contributed to do him honour; this is the more remarkable as one or two
English publicists of an older school signally failed to appreciate him.
Maine warned his countrymen against the insularity which results from
ignorance of all law and institutions save one's own; his example has
shown the benefit of the contrary habit. His prominent use of Roman law
and the wide range of his observation have made his works as
intelligible abroad as at home, and thereby much valuable
information--for example, concerning the nature of British supremacy in
India, and the position of native institutions there--has been made the
property of the world of letters instead of the peculiar and obscure
possession of a limited class of British public servants. Foreign
readers of Maine have perhaps understood even better than English ones
that he is not the propounder of a system but the pioneer of a method,
and that detailed criticism, profitable as it may be and necessary as in
time it must be, will not leave the method itself less valid or diminish
the worth of the master's lessons in its use. The rather small bulk of
Maine's published and avowed work may be explained partly by a fine
literary sense which would let nothing go out under his name unfinished,
partly by the drawbacks incident to precarious health. Maine's
temperament was averse from the labour of minute criticism, and his
avoidance of it was no less a matter of prudence. But it has to be
remembered that Maine also wrote much which was never publicly
acknowledged. Before he went to India he was one of the original
contributors to the _Saturday Review_, founded in 1855, and the inventor
of its name. Like his intimate friend Fitzjames Stephen, he was an
accomplished journalist, enjoyed occasional article-writing as a
diversion from official duties, and never quite abandoned it. The
practice of such writing probably counted for something in the freedom
and clearness of Maine's style and the effectiveness of his dialectic.
His books are a model of scientific exposition which never ceases to be
literature.

  See Sir A. Lyall and others, in _Law Quart. Rev._ iv. 129 seq. (1888);
  Sir F. Pollock, "Sir Henry Maine and his Work," in _Oxford Lectures,
  &c._ (1890); "Sir H. Maine as a Jurist," _Edin. Rev._ (July 1893);
  Introduction and Notes to new ed. of _Ancient Law_ (1906); Sir M. E.
  Grant Duff, _Sir Henry Maine: a brief Memoir of his Life, &c._ (1892);
  _Notes from a Diary_, _passim_; L. Stephen, "Maine" in _Dict. Nat.
  Biog._ (1893); Paul Vinogradoff, _The Teaching of Sir Henry Maine_
  (1904).     (F. Po.)



MAINE, an old French province, bounded N. by Normandy, E. by Orléanais,
S. by Touraine and Anjou, and W. by Brittany. Before the Roman Conquest
the region occupied by this province was inhabited by the Aulerci
Cenomanni and the Aulerci Diablintes; under the Roman empire it
consisted of two _civitates_ comprised in the Provincia Lugdunensis
Tertia--the Civitas Cenomannorum and the Civitas Diablintum, whose chief
towns were Le Mans and Jublains. These two _civitates_ were united
during the barbarian period and formed a single bishopric, that of Le
Mans, suffragan to the metropolitan see of Tours. Under the Merovingians
and Carolingians the diocese of Le Mans corresponded to the Pagus
Cenomanensis, and in the feudal period to the county of Maine. In the
16th century the county of Maine, with the addition of Perche, formed a
military government--the province of Maine. Since 1790 this province has
been represented approximately by the departments of Sarthe and Mayenne,
the respective capitals of which are Le Mans and Laval. In 1855 the
bishopric of Laval was separated from that of Le Mans. Maine was
evangelized in the 3rd century by St Julian. After forming part of the
kingdom of Syagrius, it was conquered by Clovis at the end of the 5th
century. Owing to the scarcity of documents the history of Maine until
the end of the 9th century is merged in the history of the bishops of Le
Mans, which has come down to us in the _Actus pontificum Cenomannis in
urbe degentium_ (ed. Busson-Ledru, Le Mans, 1901), composed under the
direction of Bishop Aldric (832-857). Roger (_c._ 892-_c._ 898) was
perhaps the first hereditary count of Maine; the counts whose existence
is certain are Hugh I. (_c._ 939-before 992), Hugh II. (before
992-1015), Herbert I. (1015-1032 to 1036), Hugh III. (1032 to
1036-1051), Herbert II. (1051-1062), William the Bastard (1063-1087),
Robert Curthose (1087-1091), Hugh IV. (1091-1092) and Helias
(1092-1110). Maine, which was in the vassalage of Anjou as early as the
9th century, was united to Anjou in 1110 by the marriage of Count
Helias's daughter to Fulk V., count of Anjou, and passed to the English
crown in 1154, when Henry Plantagenet (who was born at Le Mans) became
king of England. In 1204, after the confiscation of the estates of John
of England, Maine was united to France; in 1246 it was separated from
France by Louis IX., who handed it over to his brother Charles, count of
Provence. Again united to France in 1328, it was given in 1356 as an
apanage to Louis, second son of King John II., and did not definitely
return to the French crown until 1481, after the death of Charles II.,
count of Maine. During the Hundred Years' War Maine was taken in 1425 by
the English, who lost it in 1448.

  See _Histoire de l'église du Mans_, by Dom Piolin (Paris, 1851-1858),
  which is useful but out of date; _Revue historique et archéologique du
  Maine_ (1876); _La Province du Maine_ (1893); B. Hauréau, _Histoire
  littéraire du Maine_ (1870-1877).



MAINE, a North Atlantic state of the United States of America, the most
north-easterly state in the Union, and the largest of the New England
group. It lies between 43° 4´ and 47° 27´ 33´´ N., and between 66° 56´
48´´ and 71° 6´ 41´´ W. It is bounded N.W. by the Canadian province of
Quebec; N. and E. by the Canadian province of New Brunswick, from which
it is separated in part by the natural barriers of the Saint John River,
the Grand (or Schoodic) Lakes, the Saint Croix River, and Passamaquoddy
Bay; S.S.E. by the Atlantic Ocean; and W. by New Hampshire, the
Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers being the natural boundary lines at
the S.W. The area of the state is 33,040 sq. m., 3145 sq. m. being water
surface.

Maine attracts more summer visitors than any other state in the Union.
This is due to the cool and refreshing summer climate; the picturesque
coast and its many islands, which are favourite grounds for camps and
summer cottages; the mountains, and the beautiful lakes and rivers, many
of which afford opportunities for good fishing and canoeing. Among the
more widely known resorts are Mount Desert Island, on which is Bar
Harbor, a fashionable summer place of great beauty; Long Island, Orr's
and other islands in Casco Bay; Old Orchard, with a gently sloping white
sand sea-beach 9 m. long, Rangeley and Moosehead Lakes, favourite
resorts of fishermen and hunters; Mt Katahdin, in the heart of the moose
country; and Poland Springs (38 m. by rail from Portland) in
Androscoggin county, near lake Anasigunticook. About 1870, camps, summer
cottages, summer hotels and boarding houses began to multiply throughout
the state. The needs of this summer population gave a new impulse and a
new turn to agriculture; and the demand for souvenirs revived among the
Indians basket-weaving, moccasin-making, and such crafts.

  _Physical Features._--The surface is a gently rolling upland, forming
  a part of the "New England uplands," above which rise isolated
  mountain peaks and clusters of peaks, and below which are cut numerous
  river valleys.[1] The highest peak is Mt Katahdin (5200 ft.), a little
  N.E. of the centre of the state in Piscataquis county, which rises
  from a comparatively level upland. South-west of Katahdin, in Franklin
  county, are most of the other high peaks of the state: Saddleback
  Mountain (4000 ft.), Mt Abraham (3388 ft.), Mt Bigelow (3600 ft.), and
  Mt Blue (3200 ft.). A little N. of this line of mountain peaks is the
  water-parting which divides the state into a north slope and a south
  slope. The north slope descends gently both to the N. and to the E.;
  although quite hilly in the middle and western portions it is so
  poorly drained that swamps abound in all sections. The south slope
  which contains nearly all the mountains and is generally more hilly,
  has a mean descent toward the sea of about 7 ft. to the mile, the fall
  being greater in the W., where the mountains are high at the N. and
  the shore low at the S., and less to the E., where the water-parting
  is lower and the shore high and rocky.

  After the uplift which caused the rivers to cut below the general
  "uplands," and develop well marked valleys for themselves, came the
  period of the great continental glaciation. The glacier or ice sheet
  overran all Maine, irregularly scouring out the bed rock to produce
  rock basins, damming up many river valleys with glacial deposits and
  completely disarranging the drainage lines. When the ice melted, the
  rock basins and the dammed-up valleys filled with water to produce
  lakes. This is the origin of the numerous lakes of Maine, which give
  it some of its most beautiful scenery, and help to make it a holiday
  resort in summer. These lakes are about 1600 in number, are scattered
  in all parts of the state, are especially numerous at high elevations,
  and have an aggregate area of more than 2000 sq. m. Few other regions
  have so many large lakes so variously situated, and with such beauty
  of aspect and surroundings. They contribute largely to a constant
  supply of water power for which the course of the rivers of S.W. Maine
  are exceptionally well adapted, many of them abound in trout, salmon,
  togue, black bass and pickerel; and near them there is still much
  game. Moosehead Lake (about 120 sq. m.; 35 m. long and from 2 m. to 10
  m. wide), on the boundary between Piscataquis and Somerset counties,
  is the largest in Maine and the largest inland body of water wholly in
  New England; the Kennebec River is its principal outlet and Mt Kineo
  rises abruptly to about 1760 ft. above the sea (about 700 ft. above
  the lake) on its eastern shore. Other lakes, such as the Rangeley
  Lakes,[2] Chesuncook and Twin Lakes on the Penobscot, and the Grand or
  Schoodic Lakes, in the western boundary at the head waters of the
  Saint Croix River, equal or surpass Moosehead in picturesqueness. The
  glacier or ice sheet, above referred to, deposited till or boulder
  clay, which was compacted under the enormous pressure of the ice sheet
  to form the "hard-pan" referred to later. The glaciation is also
  responsible for the poor soil of most of the state, for, although the
  rocks are the same crystallines which give good soils further south in
  unglaciated regions, all the decayed portions of the Maine rocks have
  been removed by glacial erosion, revealing fresh, barren rock over
  great areas, or depositing the rather sterile hard-pan as a thin
  coating in other places.

  After the uplift came a period of subsidence, during which this region
  sank one or more thousand feet, allowing the sea to encroach on the
  land and run far inland into the previously made river valleys. This
  depression probably occurred during the glacial period, perhaps toward
  its close, and is responsible for the second most important feature of
  Maine physiography, the embayed coast. To this subsidence are due the
  picturesque coastal scenery, the numerous islands and bays, the good
  harbours and the peculiar coast-line.

  The shortest distance between the N.E. and the S.W. extremities of the
  coast is only 225 m.; but, on account of projections and indentations,
  the coast-line measures not less than 2500 m. The headlands, the deep
  indentations and the numerous islands in the bays and beyond produce a
  beautiful mingling of land and sea and give to the whole ocean front
  the appearance of a fringed and tasselled border; west of the mouth of
  the Kennebec River are a marshy shore and many low grassy islands; but
  east of this river the shore becomes more and more bold, rising in the
  precipitous cliffs and rounded summits of Mt Desert and Quoddy Head,
  1527 and 1000 ft. high respectively. All along the coast-line there
  are capacious and well-protected harbours, Casco, Penobscot,
  Frenchman's, Machias and Passamaquoddy bays being especially
  noteworthy.

  After the subsidence came another period of uplift, possibly still in
  progress. This uplift has brought up submarine deposits of sand, &c.,
  to form little coastal plains at some points along the coast,
  providing good land for settlement and clay for brick and pottery.
  Further evidence of this uplift is found in old beach lines now well
  above sea-level.

  The principal river systems of Maine are the Saint John on the north
  slope, and the Penobscot, the Kennebec, the Androscoggin, and the Saco
  on the south slope. The mean height of the basin of the St John is
  exceeded only by that of the Androscoggin, but the fall of the St John
  River through the greater part of its course in Maine is only
  sufficient to give a sluggish or a gentle current. The Penobscot,
  Kennebec, Androscoggin and Saco have numerous falls and rapids.

  _Fauna._--The animal life of Maine shows a mixture of northern and
  southern forms, and very little that is peculiar as compared with
  surrounding regions. The state has moose, caribou and deer, especially
  in the northern part. The black bear, wolf, catamount, wolverine, wild
  cat, fox, beaver, racoon, marten, sable, woodchuck, skunk, otter,
  mink, rabbit and squirrel are also found. Geese, ducks and other water
  fowl frequent the lakes and bays in the migratory season, and eagles,
  gulls, hawks, kingfishers, owls, plover, woodcock, "partridge" (ruffed
  grouse), robins, orioles, bobolinks, blue birds, swallows, sparrows,
  and many other insectivorous birds are common. In the inland waters
  salmon, trout, togue (_Salvelinus namaycush_), pickerel and bass
  abound; along the shore there are lobsters, clams and scallops
  (_Pecten irradians_); and off the shore are herring, alewives,
  mackerel, cod, halibut, haddock, smelts, hake, menhaden, porgies and
  porpoises. The game in the North Woods attracts large numbers of
  sportsmen during the autumn season.

  [Illustration: Map of Maine.]

  _Flora._--Maine was formerly covered with forests, principally of
  white pine and spruce, but mixed with these were some hemlock,
  tamarack, cedar, and, on the south slope, birch, poplar, oak, maple
  and beech. Chestnut and walnut are rare and are found only near the
  south-west border. In 1900 about 21% of the state's area was cleared,
  and much besides had once been cleared, but not being suited to
  agriculture had become reforested. Of fruit trees the chief is the
  apple. The plum, cherry and pear also thrive. The peach grows well
  only in the south-west near the border. Species of grape, gooseberry
  and currant are native, and others are cultivated with advantage. The
  blackberry, raspberry, blueberry and strawberry grow wild in profusion
  throughout the state.

  _Climate._--The climate of the state is moist and, for its latitude,
  cold. Extremes of temperature are not so great as farther inland in
  the same latitude; for the summer heats are tempered by the sea and
  the cool north winds, and the winter cold is so constant as to be less
  severely felt than the changing temperature of more southern
  districts. The summers are short, there being only about 4½ months
  between frosts even in the southern sections, and the mean summer
  temperature is about 62° F. The mean winter temperature is
  approximately 20° F., and the mean annual temperature for the entire
  state is 42° F., that for the north slope being about 5° F. less than
  that for the south slope. Although the temperature remains pretty
  steadily below the freezing point for at least three months of the
  year, many of the harbours remain unobstructed; for the tides and the
  prevailing off-shore winds break up and drive off the ice. The
  precipitation is about 42 in. annually, and is distributed very evenly
  throughout the year, 10-11 in. of rain or its equivalent in snow
  falling each season. During 4½ months about 44% of the precipitation
  is in the form of snow; but the snow-fall varies from about 60 in. on
  the coast to more than 100 in. on the north slope. The winds are
  variable; at no season of the year is it usual for them to blow from
  the same direction for many days in succession. But, with the
  exception of those from the west, they are maritime and consequently
  moisture-bearing. In summer, especially in the latter part of it, the
  cool and moist N. or N.E. winds often cause a considerable part of the
  state to be enveloped in fog for several days in succession.

  _Agriculture._--The soil is for the most part glacial drift,
  containing a large mixture of clay with sand or gravel, and the
  subsoil is mostly "hard-pan," i.e. mingled clay and boulders which
  have been so much compressed by glacial action as to make the mixture
  hard and ledge-like. Except in the valley of the Aroostook and along
  the Kennebec, the Penobscot, and some other rivers, the soil is
  generally unfit for cultivation, there being too little alluvium mixed
  with it to make it fertile. In the Aroostook valley, however, is the
  largest undivided area of good arable land in all New England, the
  soil being a deep, porous, yellow loam well adapted to the growth of
  cereals and to market gardening. The most sterile regions are on the
  mountains and along the coast. Because of the cold climate, the large
  areas in which there is little or no good arable land, the growing
  demand for timber land, and the large and constant supply of
  water-power afforded by the principal rivers, agriculture in Maine, as
  in all the other New England states except Vermont, is a smaller
  industry than manufacturing; in 1900 there were 87,932 people engaged
  in manufacturing and only 76,932 engaged in agriculture. Only 32.9% of
  the state's land area was in that year included in farms, only 37.9%
  of this farm land was improved, and only 16.3% of the improved land
  was in crops other than hay and forage. Nevertheless, as indicated by
  the unusually large proportion of farmers who either own their farms
  or pay cash rent for them, farming usually is profitable. The number
  of farms in 1900 was 59,299; of these 18,644 contained between 50 and
  100 acres and 17,191 contained between 100 and 175 acres, the average
  size being 106.2 acres; 54,263 (or 91.5%) were operated by their
  owners, 775 were operated by part owners, 2030 by cash tenants, and
  only 745 by share tenants. Beginning with the middle of the 19th
  century, the increasing competition of the more productive soils of
  the West, the growth of urban population in the state, and the number
  of summer visitors effected the reforesting of much poor land and the
  more intensive cultivation of the better arable land. The cultivation
  of cereals, for example, has given way to a marked extent in nearly
  all the farming districts except in Aroostook county to market
  gardening, dairying, and egg and poultry production. The number of
  dairy cows increased from 157,240 in 1890 to 183,000 in 1908, and the
  annual production of milk increased from 57,969,791 gallons in 1890 to
  99,586,188 gallons in 1900. The number of other neat cattle (180,878
  in 1900; 151,000 in 1908) decreased during every decade from 1860 to
  1900; the number of sheep in 1900 was 427,209 (31.9% less than in
  1890), and in 1908 it was 267,000; but the number of horses in 1890
  and 1900 was about the same (140,310 in 1960, but only 116,000 in
  1908). Hay is still by far the largest crop, the acreage of it and of
  forage in 1899 being 1,270,254 acres, or 76.5% of that of all crops,
  and the yield was 1,133,932 tons; in 1907 the acreage was 1,400,000
  acres, and the crop was 2,100,000 tons. The acreage of cereals
  decreased from 187,013 in 1880, when agriculture in Aroostook county
  was little developed, to 166,896 in 1899, when the cereal acreage in
  Aroostook county alone was 82,069. Maine potatoes are of a superior
  quality, and the acreage of this crop increased from 49,617 in 1889 to
  118,000 in 1907. Sweet Indian corn, cabbages, turnips, cucumbers and
  tomatoes are grown in large quantities. The fruit crop consists very
  largely of apples and strawberries (1,421,773 bushels of apples and
  1,066,860 quarts of strawberries in 1899). The output of eggs
  increased from 9,369,534 dozen in 1889 to 13,304,150 dozen in 1899.
  The most productive dairy section of the state is a belt extending
  from the south-west corner N.E. entirely across the state and
  embracing the whole or parts of the counties of York, Oxford,
  Cumberland, Androscoggin, Kennebec, Penobscot and Aroostook.

  _Lumber Industry._--Except in the remote parts, the valuable white
  pine, for which Maine was long noted, has been cut; but the woodland
  of the state was estimated in 1900 at 23,700 sq. m. or 79% of its
  area. The tendency is for this area to increase, for the establishment
  between 1890 and 1900 of large paper and pulp mills on some of the
  principal rivers of the south slope greatly increased the value of
  forests, especially those of spruce and poplar. The state makes large
  appropriations for preventing and extinguishing forest fires, and in
  1903 established a department of forestry in the university of Maine.
  Good spruce, which is by far the most valuable timber in the state and
  is used most largely for the manufacture of paper and pulp, stands in
  large quantities in the St John, Penobscot, Androscoggin and Kennebec
  basins. Poplar, also used for the manufacture of paper, abounds in
  several sections of the south slope, but is most abundant in the basin
  of the Kennebec. White birch, used largely for the manufacture of
  spools, is found throughout a wide belt extending across the middle of
  the state. There is much cedar on the north slope. Oak, maple and
  beech are rather scarce. A new growth of white pine and other timber
  is gradually becoming valuable. The value of the timber product
  increased from $11,849,654 in 1890 to $13,489,401 in 1900, and to
  $17,937,683 in 1905.

  _Fisheries._--Fishing has always been an important industry in Maine.
  From 1901 to 1904 inclusive, the average annual catch amounted to
  195,335,646 lb., and its average value was $5,557,083. In 1908,
  according to state reports, the catch was 185,476,343 lb., valued at
  $3,849,900. Herrings are caught in largest quantities (in 1908,
  according to state reports, 68,210,800 lb., valued at $450,665), and
  Maine is noted for the canning of the smaller herrings under the name
  of "sardines." In 1908, according to state reports, the take of
  lobsters was 17,635,980 lb. valued at $1,558,252. Maine markets more
  clams than any other state in the Union, and the catches of cod, hake,
  haddock, smelt, mackerel, swordfish, shad, pollock, cusk, salmon,
  alewives, eels and halibut are of importance. The scallop fishery is
  becoming more and more valuable. For the protection and promotion of
  the lobster fishery the United States government has established a
  lobster hatchery at Boothbay Harbor; and the state legislature enacted
  a law in 1895 prohibiting the taking of lobsters less than 10-1/2 in.
  in length (one effect of this law being to drive the lobster-canning
  industry from the state) and another law in 1903 for the protection of
  lobsters with eggs attached. This latter law directs the state fish
  commissioner to purchase such lobsters whenever caught and either to
  liberate them or to sell them to the United States for keeping in a
  fish hatchery.

  _Minerals._--The principal mineral products are granite, limestone,
  slate, clay products and mineral waters. In 1905 Maine held first rank
  among the states of the Union as a producer of granite, the value of
  the output being $2,713,795. In 1907 Maine's granite was valued at
  $2,146,420, that of Massachusetts at $2,328,777, and that of Vermont
  at $2,693,889. The stone is of superior quality, and the largest part
  of it is used for building purposes; much of it is used as paving
  blocks and some for monuments. It abounds all along the coast east of
  the Kennebec and on the adjacent islands, and is found farther inland,
  especially about the Rangeley lakes in Franklin and Oxford counties,
  and, near Mt Katahdin, in Penobscot and Piscataquis counties. The
  principal quarries, however, are situated in positions most convenient
  for shipment by water, in the vicinity of Penobscot bay and in
  Kennebec county, and these have supplied the bulk of the material used
  in the construction of many prominent buildings and monuments in the
  United States. The Fox Island granite comes from the quarries on
  Vinalhaven Island and the surrounding islands, and on Vinalhaven were
  quarried monolithic columns 51.5 to 54 ft. long and 6 ft. in diameter
  for the Cathedral of St John the Divine in New York City. Black
  granite was quarried in 1907 at 12 quarries, in York, Lincoln, Waldo,
  Penobscot and Washington counties. Limestone abounds, especially in
  the south-east part of the state, but it is quarried chiefly in Knox
  county. As its colour--blue and blue-black streaked with
  white--renders it undesirable for building purposes, nearly all of it
  is burned into lime, which has become a very important article of
  manufacture in the city of Rockland; the industry dates back to 1733
  in Knox county. In 1907 the quantity of lime burned in Maine was
  159,494 tons and its value was $747,947. Slate is quarried chiefly in
  Piscataquis county, most of it being used for roofing, but some for
  blackboards; in 1907 the amount quarried in Maine was valued at
  $236,106. About 1896 some remarkably white and pure feldspar began to
  be quarried in Androscoggin, Oxford and Sagadahoc counties, but
  afterwards the spar mined in Maine was of less excellent quality; in
  1907 the production in Maine was valued at $157,334, the total for the
  entire country being $499,069. Clay is obtained in various places, and
  in 1905 the total value of the clay products was $619,294. In Oxford
  county tourmaline, spodumene (or kunzite) and beryl occur, the
  tourmaline crystals being notably large and beautiful. Mineral water
  occurs in many localities, particularly in Androscoggin, York,
  Cumberland and Oxford counties; the most famous springs are the Poland
  Springs in Androscoggin county. Most of the mineral waters bottled in
  the state are chalybeate and slightly alkaline--saline; their average
  temperature is about 43°. In 1908 27 springs were reported, their
  aggregate sales amounting to 1,182,322 gallons. Copper, gold alloyed
  with platinum, iron ore, barytes, graphite and lead occur in small
  quantities in the state. In 1908 the total mineral product of the
  state was valued at $7,044,678.

  _Manufactures._--Although Maine has no coal and only a very small
  amount of iron ore within her borders for the encouragement of
  manufacturing, yet the abundance of fine timber and the numerous
  coves, bays and navigable streams along or near the coast promoted
  ship-building from the first, and this was the leading industry of the
  state until about the middle of the 19th century, when wooden ships
  began to be supplanted by those of iron and steel. Until about the
  same time, when the Maine liquor law was passed, the manufacture of
  rum from molasses, received in exchange for lumber and fish in the
  West Indies, was also an important industry. It was not until early in
  the 19th century that the large and constant supply of water power
  afforded by the rivers began to be used to any considerable extent.
  The first cotton mill was built at Brunswick on the Androscoggin about
  1809, and from 1830 the development of cotton manufacturing was rapid;
  woollen mills followed, and late in the 19th century were erected some
  of the largest paper and pulp mills in the country, which are run by
  water power from the rivers, and use the spruce and poplar timber in
  the river basins. The total value of the manufactures of the state
  increased from $95,689,500 in 1890 to $127,361,485 in 1900; and in
  1905 the value of factory-made products alone was $144,020,197, or
  27.5% greater than their value in 1900.[3] Measured by the value of
  the output, paper and wood pulp rose from fifth among the state's
  manufactures in 1890 to third in 1900 and to first in 1905; from
  $3,281,051 in 1890 to $13,223,275 in 1900, an increase of 303% within
  the decade, and to $22,951,124 in 1905, a further increase of 73.6% in
  this period. Lumber and timber products ranked second
  (1905)--$11,849,654 in 1890, $13,489,401 in 1900, and $17,937,683 in
  1905. Cotton goods ranked third (1905) in value--$15,316,909 in 1890,
  $14,631,086 in 1900, and $15,404,823 in 1905. Woollen goods ranked
  fourth (1905)--$8,737,653 in 1890, $13,744,126 in 1900, an increase of
  57.3% within the decade; and the value of the factory-made product
  alone in 1905 was $13,969,600, or 20.1% greater than in 1900. Boots
  and shoes ranked fifth (1905)--$12,295,847 in 1900, and $12,351,293 in
  1905. Fish, canned and preserved, followed next, $1,660,881 in 1890
  and $4,779,773 in 1900, an increase within the decade of 187.8%, most
  of which was in one branch--the canning of small herring under the
  name "sardines"; from 1900 to 1905 the increase was slight, only
  $275,358, or 5.8%. In the value of its manufactures as compared with
  those of the other states of the Union, in wooden ships and boats,
  Maine in 1900 and in 1905 was outranked by New York only; in canned
  and preserved fish by Washington only (the value of fish canned and
  preserved in Maine in 1900 was 21.7% of the total for the United
  States, and in 1905 19.2%); in the output of woollen mills by
  Massachusetts and Pennsylvania only; in the output of paper mills by
  New York and Massachusetts only. It ranked ninth in 1900 and tenth in
  1905 in the value of its cotton goods. Portland, Lewiston, Biddeford,
  and Auburn are the leading manufacturing cities, and in 1905 the total
  value of their manufactures was 21.5% of those of the entire state.
  But from 1900 to 1905 the value of manufactures grew most rapidly in
  Rockland (especially noted for lime), the increase being from
  $1,243,881 to $1,822,591 (46.5%), and in Waterville, where the
  increase was from $2,283,536 to $3,069,309 (34.4%). Among the largest
  paper mills are those at Millinocket, in Penobscot county, at Madison
  on the Kennebec river, and at Rumford Falls on the Androscoggin river.
  Lewiston leads in the manufacture of cotton goods; Auburn, Bangor and
  Augusta, in the manufacture of boots and shoes; Bath, in ship and boat
  building; Eastport and Lubec, in canning "sardines."

  _Transportation and Commerce._--The south-western part of the state,
  including the manufacturing, the quarrying, and much of the older
  agricultural district, early had fairly satisfactory means of
  transportation either by water or by rail; for the coast has many
  excellent harbours, the Kennebec river is navigable for coast vessels
  to Augusta, the Penobscot to Bangor, and railway service was soon
  supplied for the villages of the south-west, but it was not until the
  last decade of the 19th century that the forests, the farming lands,
  and the summer resorts of Aroostook county were reached by a railway,
  the Bangor & Aroostook. The first railway in the state, from Bangor to
  Old Town, was completed in 1836, and the state's railway mileage
  increased from 12 m. in that year to 245 m. in 1850, to 1377.47 m. in
  1890, and to 2210.79 in January 1909. The principal railway systems
  are the Maine Central, which enters every county but one, the Boston &
  Maine, the Bangor & Aroostook, the Grand Trunk and the Canadian
  Pacific. Lines of steamboats ply regularly between the largest cities
  of the state and Boston, between Portland and New York, and between
  Portland and several Canadian ports.

  The foreign trade, especially that with the West Indies and with Great
  Britain, decreased after 1875, and yet much trade from the West that
  goes to Montreal during the warmer months passes through Portland
  during the winter season. The chief exports to foreign countries are
  textile fabrics, Indian corn, meat, dairy products, apples, paraffin,
  boards and shooks; the chief imports from foreign countries are sugar,
  molasses and wool. Fish, canned goods, potatoes, granite, lime, paper,
  and boots and shoes are also exported to foreign countries to some
  extent, but they are shipped in larger quantities to other states of
  the Union, from which Maine receives in return cotton, coal, iron,
  oil, &c. The ports of entry in Maine are Bangor, Bath, Belfast,
  Castine, Eastport, Ellsworth, Houlton, Kennebunk, Machias, Portland,
  Wiscasset and York.

_Population._--The population in 1880 was 648,936; in 1890, 661,086; in
1900, 694,466; and in 1910, 742,371.[4] From 1880 to 1900 there was an
increase of only 7%, a percentage which was exceeded in every other
state in the Union except Nevada and Vermont. Of the total population of
1900, 599,291, or 86.3%, were native whites, 93,330 were foreign-born,
1,319 were negroes, 798 were Indians, 119 were Chinese, and 4 were
Japanese. Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 588,211, or
97.8%, were natives of New England and 560,506 were natives of Maine,
and of the foreign-born 67,077, or 71.8%, were natives of Canada (36,169
English and 30,908 French), and 10,159, or 10.8%, were natives of
Ireland. Of the total population, 199,734 were of foreign
parentage--i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born--and 89,857
were of Canadian parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's
side (41,355 English and 48,502 French). The French-speaking inhabitants
probably number considerably more than 50,000. They are of two quite
distinct classes. One, numbering about 15,000, includes those who became
citizens by the establishment of the northern boundary in 1842 and their
descendants. They are largely of Acadian stock. The state has
established among them a well-appointed training school for teachers,
conducted in the English language, the graduates of which render
excellent service in the common schools. The other class is of
French-Canadian immigrants, who find profitable employment in the
manufacturing centres. The colony of Swedes established by the state
near its north-eastern border in 1870 has proved in every way
successful. The Indians are remnants of the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy
tribes, the Passamaquoddies being a little the more numerous. The
Penobscots' chief gathering places are on the islands of the Penobscot
river north of Old Town; the Passamaquoddies', on the shores of
Passamaquoddy Bay and the banks of the Saint Croix river.

Roman Catholics are more numerous than all the Protestant sects taken
together, having in 1906 a membership of 113,419 out of a total of
212,988 in all denominations. In the last decade of the 19th century the
urban population (i.e. population of places having 4,000 inhabitants or
more) increased from 226,268 to 251,685, or 11.2%; the semi-urban
population (i.e. population of incorporated places, or the approximate
equivalent, having less than 4,000 inhabitants) increased from 14,221 to
26,674, or 87.5%; while the rural population (i.e. population outside of
incorporated places) decreased from 420,597 to 416,134, or 1%. The
principal cities of the state are: Portland, pop. (1910), 58,571;
Lewiston, 26,247; Bangor, 24,803; Biddeford, 17,079; Auburn, 15,064;
Augusta (the capital), 13,211; Waterville, 11,458; Bath, 9,396;
Westbrook, 8,281; and Rockland, 8,174.

_Administration._--Maine has had but one state constitution; this was
ratified in December 1819, about three months before the admission of
the state into the Union. It admits of amendment by a two-thirds vote of
both houses of the legislature followed by a majority vote of the
electorate at the next September election; or, as provided by an
amendment adopted in 1875, the legislature may by a two-thirds vote of
each house summon a constitutional convention. From 1819 to 1875 twelve
amendments were adopted; in 1875, after nine more were added, the
twenty-one were incorporated in the text; and between 1875 and 1899 nine
more were adopted. Suffrage is conferred by the constitution on all male
citizens of the United States who are at least twenty-one years of age
and have, for some other reason than because of being in the military,
naval or marine service of the United States, or of being students at
college, lived in the state for three months next preceding any
election; the following classes, however, are excepted: paupers, persons
under guardianship, Indians not taxed, and, as provided by an amendment
adopted in 1892, persons intellectually incapable of reading the state
constitution in the English language or of writing their names. State
elections were annual until 1897 when they were made biennial; they are
held on the second Monday in September in even numbered years, Maine
being one of the few states in the Union in which they are not held in
November.

  The governor is the only executive officer of the state elected by
  popular vote. There is no lieutenant-governor, the president of the
  Senate succeeding to the office of governor in case of a vacancy, but
  there is a council of seven members elected by the legislature (not
  more than one from any one senatorial district), whose sole function
  is to advise the governor. The governor's term of office is two years
  (before 1879 it was one year); and the constitution further directs
  that he shall be at least thirty years of age at the beginning of his
  term, that he shall be a native-born citizen of the United States,
  that when elected he shall have been a resident of the state for five
  years, and that he shall reside in the state while in office. His
  power of appointment is unusually extensive and the advice and consent
  of the council (instead of that of the Senate as in other states) are
  required for his appointments. He appoints all judges, coroners and
  notaries public, besides all other civil and military officers for
  whose appointment neither the constitution nor the laws provide
  otherwise. The governor is commander-in-chief of the state militia.
  Any bill of which he disapproves he can within five days after its
  passage prevent from becoming a law unless it is passed over his veto
  by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature. He and the
  council examine and pass upon election returns; he may summon extra
  sessions of the legislature, and he may grant pardons, reprieves, and
  commutations in all cases except impeachment, but the manner of
  hearing applications for pardon is in a measure prescribed by statute,
  and he must present to the legislature an account of each case in
  which he grants a pardon. His salary is $2,000 a year. The seven
  members of the council, the secretary of state, the treasurer, the
  attorney general and the commissioner of agriculture are elected
  biennially by a joint ballot of the two houses of the legislature,
  which also elects, one every two years, the three state assessors,
  whose term is six years.

  The legislature meets biennially at Augusta, the capital, and is
  composed of a Senate of thirty-one members and a House of
  Representatives of one hundred and fifty-one members. Members of each
  house are elected for a term of two years: one senator from each
  senatorial district and one to seven representatives (one for a
  population of 1,500, and seven for a population of 26,250) from each
  township, or, where the township or plantation has less than 1,500
  inhabitants, from each representative district, according to its
  population. There is a new reapportionment every ten years, counting
  from 1821. Every senator and every representative must at the
  beginning of his term have been for five years a citizen of the United
  States, for one year a resident of the state, and for three months
  next preceding his election, as well as during his term of office, a
  resident of the township or district which he represents; and every
  senator must be at least twenty-five years of age. All revenue bills
  must originate in the House of Representatives, but to such bills the
  Senate may propose amendments provided they relate solely to raising
  revenue. Other bills may originate in either house. In September 1908
  a constitutional amendment was adopted providing for referendum and
  initiative by the people. Any bill proposed in the legislature or
  passed by it must be referred to popular vote before becoming law, if
  there is a referendum petition therefor signed by 10,000 voters; and a
  petition signed by 12,000 voters initiates new legislation.

  At the head of the department of justice is the supreme judicial
  court, which consists of a chief justice and seven associate justices
  appointed by the governor and council for a term of seven years. When
  it sits as a law court, at least five of its justices must be present,
  and it holds three such sessions annually: one at Augusta, one at
  Bangor, and one at Portland. But only one of its justices is required
  for a trial court, and trial courts are held two or three times a year
  in each county for the trial of both civil and criminal cases which
  come before it in the first instance or upon appeal. In Cumberland and
  Kennebec counties there is a superior court presided over by one
  justice and having extensive civil and criminal jurisdiction; and in
  each of the counties there are a probate court for the settlement of
  the estates of deceased persons and courts of the trial justice and
  the justice of the peace for the trial of petty offences and of civil
  cases in which the debt or damage involved does not exceed $20.

  The principal forms of local government are the town (or township),
  the plantation, the county and the city. As in other parts of New
  England, the town is the most important of these. At the regular town
  meeting held in March the electorate of the town assembles, decides
  what shall be done for the town during the ensuing year, elects
  officers to execute its decisions with limited discretion, and votes
  money to meet the expenses. The principal officers are the selectmen
  (usually three), town clerk, assessors, collector, treasurer, school
  committee and road commissioner. A populous section of a town, in
  order to promote certain financial ends, is commonly incorporated as a
  village without however becoming a governing organization distinct
  from the town. Maine is the only state in the Union that retains what
  is known as the organized plantation. This is a governmental unit
  organized from an unincorporated township having at least 200
  inhabitants,[5] and its principal officers are the moderator, clerk,
  three assessors, treasurer, collector, constable and school committee.
  The county is a sort of intermediate organization between the state
  and the towns to assist chiefly in the administration of justice,
  especially in the custody of offenders, and in the making and care of
  roads. Its officers are three commissioners, a treasurer, a register
  of deeds, a judge and a register of probate, and a sheriff. They are
  all elected: the commissioners for a term of six years, one retiring
  every two years, the register of deeds and the judge and the register
  of probate for a term of four years, and the others for two years.
  Among other duties the commissioners care for county property, manage
  county business and take charge of county roads. Maine has no general
  law under which cities are chartered, and does not even set a minimum
  population. A town may, therefore, be incorporated as a city whenever
  it can obtain from the legislature a city charter which a majority of
  its electorate prefers to a continuance under its town government;
  consequently there is much variety in the government of the various
  cities of the state.

By the laws of Maine the property rights of a wife are approximately
equal to those of a husband. A woman does not lose nor a man acquire
right to property by marriage, and a wife may manage, sell, or will her
property without the assent of her husband. She may even receive as her
own the wages of her personal labour which was not performed for her own
family. In the absence of a will, bar or release, there is no legal
distinction between the rights of a widower in the estate of his
deceased wife and those of a widow in the estate of her deceased
husband. The grounds for divorce in the state are adultery, impotence,
extreme cruelty, desertion for three consecutive years next preceding
the application, gross and confirmed habits of intoxication, cruel and
abusive treatment, or a husband's gross or wanton refusal or neglect to
provide a suitable maintenance for his wife.

Under the laws of Maine a householder owning and occupying a house and
lot may hold the same, or such part of it as does not exceed $500 in
value, as a homestead exempt from attachment, except for the
satisfaction of liens for labour or material, by filing in the registry
of deeds a certificate stating his desire for such an exemption,
provided he is not the owner of an exempted lot purchased from the
state; and the exemption may be continued during the widowhood of his
widow or the minority of his children. A considerable amount of personal
property, including apparel, household furniture not exceeding $100 in
value, a library not exceeding $150 in value, interest in a pew in a
meeting-house, and a specified amount of fuel, provisions, tools or
farming implements, and domestic animals, and one fishing boat, is also
exempt from attachment.

Maine was the first state in the Union to enact a law for prohibiting
the sale of intoxicating liquors. An act for restricting the sale of
such liquors was passed in 1846; the first prohibitory act was passed,
largely through the influence of Neal Dow, in 1851; this was frequently
amended; and in 1884 an amendment to the constitution was adopted which
declares the manufacture of intoxicating liquors and their sale, except
"for medicinal and mechanical purposes and the arts," forever
prohibited. By the law enacted for enforcing this prohibition the
governor and council appoint a state liquor commissioner from whom alone
the selectmen of a town, the mayor or aldermen of a city, are authorized
to receive the liquors which may be sold within the exceptions named in
the amendment, and the selectmen, mayor or aldermen appoint an agent who
alone is authorized to sell any of these liquors within their
jurisdiction and who is forbidden to sell any whatever to minors,
Indians, soldiers and drunkards. But the law labours under the
disadvantage of all laws not vigorously sustained by general public
sentiment, and is grossly violated. For the most part it is executed to
the degree demanded by local sentiment in the several municipalities,
thus operating in practice much the same as a "local option" law. The
law looks to checking the demand by preventing the supply; and since
habitual reliance on the stringency of law tends to the neglect of other
influences for the removal of evils from the community, the citizens
seem to absolve themselves from personal responsibility, both for the
execution of the law and for the existence of the evil itself. There has
been a strong movement for the repeal of the law, and the question of
prohibition has long been an important one in state politics.

The death penalty was abolished in Maine in 1876, restored in 1883, and
again abolished in 1887.

  _Penal and Charitable Institutions._--The state penal and reformatory
  institutions consist of the state prison at Thomaston, the state
  (reform) school for boys at South Portland, and a state industrial
  school for girls at Hallowell, established in 1875 and taken over by
  the state in 1899. The two schools are not places of punishment, but
  reformatory schools for delinquent boys (from 8 to 16 years of age)
  and girls (from 6 to 16 years), who have been committed by the courts
  for violations of law, and, in the case of girls, who, by force of
  circumstances or associations, are "in manifest danger of becoming
  outcasts of society." The prison is in charge of a board of three
  inspectors and a warden, and each of the other two institutions is in
  charge of a board of trustees; the inspectors, warden, and trustees
  are all appointed by the governor and council. Convicts in the prison
  are usually employed in the manufacture of articles that are not
  extensively made elsewhere in the state, such as carriages, harness,
  furniture and brooms. The inmates of the state school for boys receive
  instruction in farming, carpentry, tailoring, laundry work, and
  various other trades and occupations; and the girls in the state
  industrial school are trained in housework, laundering, dressmaking,
  &c. Paupers are cared for chiefly by the towns and cities, those
  wholly dependent being placed in almshouses and those only partially
  dependent receiving aid at their homes. The charitable institutions
  maintained by the state are: the military and naval orphan asylum at
  Bath, the Maine institution for the blind at Portland, the Maine
  school for the deaf (established in 1876, and taken over by the state
  in 1897) at Portland, the Maine insane hospital at Augusta, the
  Eastern Maine insane hospital at Bangor, and a school for the
  feeble-minded (established in 1907) at West Pownal, each of which is
  governed by trustees appointed by the governor and council, with the
  exception of a part of those of the orphan asylum, who are appointed
  by the corporation. Besides the strictly state institutions, there are
  a number of private charitable institutions which are assisted by
  state funds; among these are the eye and ear infirmary at Portland,
  the Maine state sanatorium at Hebron for the treatment of
  tuberculosis, and various hospitals, orphanages, &c. The national
  government has a branch of the national home for disabled volunteer
  soldiers at Togus, and a marine hospital at Portland.

  _Education._--The school-district system was established in 1800 while
  Maine was still a part of Massachusetts and was maintained by the
  first school law passed, in 1821, by the state legislature; but,
  beginning in the next year, one town after another received the
  privilege of abolishing its districts, and in 1893 the system was
  abolished by act of the legislature. A state board of education,
  composed of one member from each county, was established in 1846, but
  for this was substituted, in 1852, a commissioner of schools for each
  county, appointed by the governor, and two years later a state
  superintendent of schools was substituted for the county
  commissioners. County supervision by county supervisors was tried in
  1869-1872. Since these several changes the common school system has
  been administered by towns and cities subject to an increasing amount
  of control through enactments of the state legislature and the general
  supervision of the state superintendent. The town officers are a
  superintending school committee of three members and a superintendent.
  The members of the committee are elected for a term of three years,
  one retiring every year, and women as well as men are eligible for the
  office. The superintendent may be elected by the town or appointed by
  the committee, or towns having not less than twenty or more than fifty
  schools may unite in employing a superintendent. In cities the
  committee is usually larger than in towns and is commonly elected by
  wards. Since 1889 each town and city has been required to furnish
  textbooks, apparatus and supplies, without cost to the pupils. The
  minimum length of the school year is fixed by a statute of 1893 at
  twenty weeks; the average length is about twenty-eight weeks. A
  compulsory education law, enacted in 1901, requires the attendance at
  some public or approved private school of each child between the ages
  of seven and fifteen during all the time that school is in session,
  except that necessary absences may be excused. For the maintenance of
  the common schools each town is required (since 1905) to raise
  annually at least fifty-five cents _per capita_, exclusive of what may
  be received from other sources, and to this is added the proceeds of a
  state tax of one and a half mills on a dollar, one-half the proceeds
  of the tax on savings banks, a 6% income from the permanent school
  fund (derived mainly from the sale of school lands), and state
  appropriations for the payment in part of the superintendence in towns
  that have united for that purpose. Any section of a town may establish
  and maintain a high school provided there be not more than two such
  schools in one town, and the state makes appropriations for the
  support of such schools equal to one-half the cost of instruction, but
  the maximum grant to any one such school is $250.

  The state maintains five normal schools: that at Farmington
  (established 1864), that at Castine (1866), that at Gorham (1879);
  that at Presque Isle (the Aroostook state normal school, 1903), and
  the Madawaska training school at Fort Kent, each of which is under the
  direction of a board of trustees consisting of the governor, the state
  superintendent of schools, and five other members appointed by the
  governor and council for not more than three years. At the head of the
  public school system is the university of Maine, near the village of
  Orono in Orono township (pop. in 1900, 3257), Penobscot county. This
  institution was founded in 1865 as the state college of agriculture
  and the mechanic arts; in 1897 the present name was adopted. It
  embraces a college of arts and sciences, a college of agriculture, a
  college of technology (including a department of forestry), a college
  of law (at Bangor), and a college of pharmacy. The most conspicuous of
  its twenty-five buildings is the library, built with funds contributed
  by Andrew Carnegie. In 1908-1909 the university had 104 instructors
  and 884 students, of whom 113 were in the college of law at Bangor and
  420 in the college of technology. The university is maintained with
  the proceeds of an endowment fund derived chiefly from public lands
  given by the national government in accordance with the land grant, or
  Morrill, Act of 1862 (see Morrill, Justin S.) and from the bequest
  ($100,000) of Abner Coburn (1803-1885); by appropriations of Congress
  under the second Morrill Act (1890), and under the Nelson Amendment of
  1907, by appropriations of the state legislature, and by fees paid by
  the students. Connected with the university is an agricultural
  experiment station, established and maintained under the Hatch Act
  (1887) and the Adams Act (1906) of the national Congress. The
  government of the university is entrusted, subject to inspection of
  the governor and council, to a board of eight trustees. Among the
  important institutions of learning which have no official connexion
  with the state are Bowdoin College (opened in 1802), at Brunswick;
  Colby College (Baptist, opened in 1818), at Waterville; and Bates
  College (originally Free Baptist but now unsectarian; opened in 1863),
  at Lewiston. In 1900 5.1% of the state's inhabitants ten years of age
  and over were illiterate (i.e. could neither read nor write, or could
  read but not write); of the native whites within this age limit 2.4%
  were illiterate, of the foreign whites, 19.4%. Of the foreign-born
  whites 15.7% were unable to speak English.

  _Finance._--The chief sources of the state's revenue are a general
  property tax and taxes on the franchises of corporations, especially
  those of railway and insurance companies and savings banks; among the
  smaller sources are licences or fees, a poll tax, and a collateral
  inheritance tax. The general property tax for state and local purposes
  is assessed by local assessors, but their work is reviewed for the
  purpose of equalization among the several towns and counties by a
  board of state assessors, which also assesses the corporations. This
  board of three members (not more than two of whom may be of the same
  political party) is elected by a joint ballot of the two houses of the
  legislature for a term of six years, one member retiring every two
  years. The state is prohibited by the constitution from creating a
  debt exceeding $300,000 except for the suppression of a rebellion, for
  repelling an invasion, or for war purposes; and every city and town is
  forbidden by an amendment adopted in 1877 from creating one exceeding
  5% of the assessed value of its property. But the state was authorized
  by an amendment adopted in 1868 to issue bonds for the reimbursement
  of the expenses incurred by its cities, towns, and plantations on
  account of the Civil War, and these bonds, with those issued by the
  state itself during the Civil War, constituted the largest part of the
  state's bonded indebtedness. The bonded debt, however, is rapidly
  being paid; in January 1901 it was $2,103,000, and in January 1909
  only $698,000.

_History._--During the 16th century and the early part of the 17th, the
coast of Maine attracted various explorers, among them Giovanni da
Verrazano (1524), Estéban Gomez (1525), Bartholomew Gosnold (1602),
Martin Pring (1603), Pierre du Guast, Sieur De Monts (1604), George
Weymouth (1605), and John Smith (1614), who explored and mapped the
coast and gave to the country the name New England; but no permanent
English settlement was established within what are now the borders of
the state until some time between 1623 and 1629. In 1603 De Monts
received from Henry IV. of France a charter for all the region between
40° and 46° N. under the name of Acadie, or Acadia, and in 1604 he built
a fort on Neutral Island at the mouth of the Saint Croix river. This he
abandoned in 1605, but some of his followers were in the vicinity a few
years later. In the same year George Weymouth explored the south-west
coast, kidnapped five Indians, and carried them to England, where three
of them lived for a time in the family of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who
soon became the leader in founding Maine. In 1607 the Plymouth Company,
of which he was an influential member and which had received a grant of
this region from James I. of England in the preceding year, sent out a
colony numbering 120 under George Popham (c. 1550-1608), brother of Sir
John Popham, and Raleigh Gilbert, son of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. The
colony established itself at the mouth of the Kennebec river in August,
but, finding its supplies insufficient, about three-fifths of its number
returned to England in December; a severe winter followed and Popham
died; then Gilbert, who succeeded to the presidency of the council for
the colony, became especially interested in his claim to the territory
under his father's charter,[6] and in 1608 the colony was abandoned. In
1609 the French Jesuits Biard and Masse established a fortified mission
station on the island of Mount Desert, and although this as well as the
remnant of De Monts' settlement at the mouth of the Saint Croix was
taken in 1613 by Sir Samuel Argall (d. 1626), acting under the
instructions of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, some of these
colonists returned later. In 1620 the Council for New England, the
successor of the Plymouth Company, obtained a grant of the country
between latitude 40° and 48° N. extending from sea to sea, and two years
later Gorges and John Mason (1586-1635) received from the Council a
grant of the territory between the Merrimac and the Kennebec rivers for
60 m. inland under the name of the Province of Maine. In 1629 they
divided their possession, Gorges taking the portion between the
Piscataqua and the Kennebec. Numerous grants of land in this vicinity
followed within a few years; and in the meantime permanent settlements
at York, Saco, Biddeford, Port Elizabeth, Falmouth (now Portland) and
Scarborough were established in rapid succession. The Council for New
England surrendered its charter in 1635. In the division of its
territory Gorges retained the portion previously granted to him, and the
region between the Kennebec and the Saint Croix north to the Saint
Lawrence, though still claimed by the French as part of Acadia, was
conveyed to Sir William Alexander (1567?-1640); later, in 1664, this was
conveyed to the duke of York, afterwards James II. of England.

Gorges named his tract the County of New Somersetshire, and immediately
began the administration of government, setting up in 1635 or 1636 a
court at Saco under the direction of his kinsman William Gorges. In 1639
he procured for his province a royal charter modelled after that of
Maryland, which invested him with the feudal tenure of a county palatine
and vice-regal powers of government. He called into existence a
formidably large number of officers to govern it, but his charter was in
conflict with the other (mutually conflicting) grants of the Council for
New England, east of the Piscataqua; and Gorges and his agents met with
a determined opposition under the leadership of George Cleeve, the
deputy-president of the Lygonia, or "Plough" Patent, which extended
along the coast from Cape Porpoise to Casco, and in issuing which the
Council for New England had granted governmental as well as territorial
rights. Moreover, Puritan Massachusetts, which was naturally hostile to
the Anglicanism of Gorges and his followers, interpreted her charter so
as to make her northern boundary run east and west from a point 3 m.
north of the source of the Merrimac river, and on this basis laid claim
to practically the whole of Maine then settled. The factional quarrels
there, together with the Commonwealth government in England, made it
easy for Massachusetts to enforce this claim at the time, and between
1652 and 1658 Maine was gradually annexed to Massachusetts. In 1672
Massachusetts extended her boundary eastward as far as Penobscot Bay.
Ferdinando Gorges, a grandson of the original proprietor, brought before
parliament his claim to Maine and in 1664 a committee of that body
decided in his favour; but Massachusetts successfully resisted until
1677, when the king in council decided against her. She then quietly
purchased the Gorges claim for £1,250 and held the province as a
proprietor until 1691, when by the new Massachusetts charter Maine was
extended to the Saint Croix river, and was made an integral part of
Massachusetts.

The French still claimed all territory east of the Penobscot, and not
only was Maine an exposed frontier and battleground during the long
struggle of the English against the Indians and the French, but its
citizens bore a conspicuous part in the expeditions beyond its borders.
Port Royal was taken in May 1690 by Sir William Phipps and Louisburg in
June 1745 by Sir William Pepperell, both these commanders being from
Maine. These expeditions were such a drain on Maine's population that
Massachusetts was called upon to send men to garrison the little forts
that protected the homes left defenceless by men who had gone to the
front. During the War of Independence, the town of Falmouth (now
Portland), which had ardently resisted the claims of the British, was
bombarded and burned, in 1775; in the same year Benedict Arnold followed
the course of the Kennebec and Dead rivers on his expedition to Quebec;
and from 1779 to 1783 a British force was established at Castine. The
embargo and non-intercourse laws from 1807 to 1812 were a severe blow to
Maine's shipping, and in the War of 1812 Eastport, Castine, Hampden,
Bangor and Machias fell into the hands of the British.

Maine was in general well governed as a part of Massachusetts, but a
geographical separation, a desire to be rid of the burden of a large
state debt, and a difference of economic interests as well as of
politics (Maine was largely Democratic and Massachusetts was largely
Federalist) created a desire for an independent commonwealth. This was
felt before the close of the War of Independence and in 1785-1787
conventions were held at Falmouth (Portland) to consider the matter, but
the opposition prevailed. The want of protection during the War of 1812
revived the question, and in 1816 the General Court in response to a
great number of petitions submitted to a vote in the towns and
plantations of the District the question: "Shall the legislature be
requested to give its consent to the separation of the District of Maine
from Massachusetts, and the erection of said District into a separate
state?" The returns showed 10,393 yeas to 6501 nays, but they also
showed that less than one-half the full vote had been cast. Acting upon
these returns the legislature passed a bill prescribing the terms of
separation, and directed another vote of the towns and plantations upon
the question of separation and the election of delegates to a convention
at Brunswick which should proceed to frame a constitution in case the
second popular vote gave a majority of five to four for separation; but
as that vote was only 11,969 yeas to 10,347 nays the advocates of
separation were unsuccessful. But a large source of opposition to
separation was removed in 1819 when Congress, dividing the east coast of
the United States into two great districts, did away with the regulation
which, making each state a district for entering and clearing vessels,
would have required coasting vessels from the ports of Maine as a
separate state to enter and clear on every trip to or from Boston; as a
consequence, the separation measures were carried by large majorities
this year, a constitution was framed by a convention which met at
Portland in October, this was ratified by town meetings in December, and
Maine applied for admission into the Union. Owing to the peculiar
situation at the time in Congress, arising from the contest over the
admission of Missouri, the question of the admission of Maine became an
important one in national politics. By an Act of the 3rd of March 1820,
however, Maine was finally admitted into the Union as a separate state,
her admission being a part of the Missouri compromise (q.v.).

The boundary on the north had not yet been ascertained, and it had long
been a subject of dispute between the United States and Great Britain.
The treaty of 1783 (Article II.) had defined the north-east boundary of
the United States as extending along the middle of the river St Croix
"from its mouth in the bay of Fundy to its source" and "due north from
the source of St Croix river to the highlands; along the said highlands
which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St
Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the
north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the
middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude." Great
Britain claimed that the due north line was 40 m. long and ran to Mars
Hill in Aroostook county, and that the highlands ran thence westerly 115
m. to the source of the Chaudière; the United States, on the other hand,
claimed that the northerly line was 140 m. long, running to highlands
dividing the Ristigouche and the tributaries of the Metis; and there was
a further disagreement with regard to the side of the highlands on which
the boundary should be, and as to what stream was the "north-westernmost
head of Connecticut river." The fifth article of the Jay treaty of 1794
provided for a commission to decide what the St Croix river actually
was, and this commission in 1798 defined the St Croix, saying that its
mouth was in Passamaquoddy bay and that the boundary ran up this river
and the Cheputnatecook to a marked monument. The treaty of Ghent in 1814
(Article IV.) referred the question of the ownership of the islands in
Passamaquoddy bay to a commission which gave Moose, Dudley and Frederick
islands to the United States; and the same treaty by Article V. provided
for the survey (which was made in 1817-1818) of a part of the disputed
territory, and for a general commission. The general commissioners met
at St Andrews, N.B., in 1816, and in New York City in 1822, only to
disagree; and when the king of the Netherlands, chosen as arbitrator in
1829 (under the Convention of 1827) rendered in 1831 a decision against
which the state of Maine protested, the Federal Senate withheld its
assent to his decision. In 1838-1839 the territory in dispute between
New Brunswick and Maine became the scene of a border "war," known as the
"Aroostook disturbance"; Maine erected forts along the line she claimed,
Congress authorized the president to resist any attempt of Great Britain
to enforce exclusive jurisdiction over the disputed territory, and an
armed conflict seemed imminent. General Winfield Scott was sent to take
command on the Maine frontier, and on the 21st of March 1839 he arranged
a truce and a joint occupancy of the territory in dispute until a
satisfactory settlement should be reached by the United States and Great
Britain. The Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842 was a compromise, which
allowed Maine about 5500 sq. m. less than she had claimed and allowed
Great Britain about as much less than her claim; all grants of land
previously made by either party within the limits of the territory which
by this treaty fell within the dominions of the other party were to be
"held valid, ratified and confirmed to the persons in possession under
such grants, to the same extent as if such territory had ... fallen
within the dominions of the party by whom such grants were made"; and
the government of the United States agreed to pay to Maine and
Massachusetts[7] "in equal moieties" the sum of $300,000 as
compensation for the lands which they had claimed and which under the
treaty they were called upon to surrender. The long controversy, which
is known in American history as "The North-East boundary dispute," was
not finally settled however until 1910.

It was the Democratic majority in the district of Maine that effected
the separation from Massachusetts, and from the date of that separation
until 1853 Maine was classed as a Democratic state, although it elected
a Whig governor in 1838 and in 1840, and cast its electoral vote for
John Quincy Adams in 1824 and 1828 and for W. H. Harrison in 1840. As a
result of the slavery question, there was a party disintegration between
1850 and 1855, followed by the supremacy of the Republican party from
1856 to 1878. In 1878, of the 126,169 votes cast in the election for
governor, Selden Connor (b. 1839), re-nominated by the Republicans,
received 56,554; Joseph L. Smith ("National" or "Greenback"), 41,371;
Alonzo Garcelon (1813-1906) (Democratic), 28,218; as no candidate
received a majority of the votes, the election was left to the
legislature.[8] The vote of the House eliminated Connor, and Garcelon
was chosen in the Senate by a Democratic-National fusion. Again there
was no election by popular vote in 1879, and Garcelon and his council,
to secure the election of a fusion government, counted-in a fusion
majority in the legislature by evident falsification of the returns. On
the 3rd of January 1880 the Supreme Court declared the governor and
council in error in counting in a fusion majority, but on the 7th the
governor swore in a legislature with 78 fusion and only two Republican
members, and, the governor's term having expired, the president of the
Senate, James D. Lamson, became governor, ex-officio. On the 12th the
legislative chambers were seized by the Republicans, whose organized
legislature was declared legal by the Supreme Court, and who chose as
governor Daniel Franklin Davis (1843-1897); whereupon, on the 17th,
Joshua L. Chamberlain, to whom the peaceful solution of the difficulty
had largely been due, retired from the task assigned him by Garcelon on
the 5th of January "to protect the public property and institutions of
the state" until Garcelon's successor should be duly qualified. In 1880
the Democrats and Greenbacks united and elected their candidate, but
after 1883 Maine was strongly Republican until 1910.

  The governors of the state have been as follows:--

    William King                        Democrat        1820
    William Durkee Williamson (acting)     "            1821
    Benjamin Ames (acting)                 "            1821
    Albion Keith Parris                    "            1822
    Enoch Lincoln                          "            1827
    Nathan Cutler (acting)                 "            1829
    Jonathan G. Hunton                     "            1830
    Samuel Emerson Smith                   "            1831
    Robert Pinckney Dunlap                 "            1834
    Edward Kent                           Whig          1838
    John Fairfield                      Democrat        1839
    Edward Kent                           Whig          1841
    John Fairfield                      Democrat        1842
    Edward Kavanagh (acting)               "            1843
    Hugh J. Anderson                       "            1844
    John Winchester Dana                   "            1847
    John Hubbard                           "            1850
    William George Crosby           Whig and Free Soil  1853
    Anson Peaslee Morrill              Republican       1855
    Samuel Wells                        Democrat        1856
    Hannibal Hamlin                    Republican       1857
    Joseph H. Williams (acting)            "            1857
    Lot Myrick Morrill                     "            1858
    Israel Washburn                        "            1861
    Abner Coburn                           "            1863
    Samuel Cony                        Republican       1864
    Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain            "            1867
    Sidney Perham                          "            1871
    Nelson Dingley                         "            1874
    Selden Connor                          "            1876
    Alonzo Garcelon                     Democrat        1879
    Daniel F. Davis                    Republican       1880
    Harris Merrill Plaisted        Democrat-Greenback   1881
    Frederick Robie                    Republican       1883
    Joseph R. Bodwell                      "            1887
    Sebastian S. Marble (acting)           "            1887
    Edwin C. Burleigh                      "            1889
    Henry B. Cleaves                       "            1893
    Llewellyn Powers                       "            1897
    John Fremont Hill                      "            1901
    William T. Cobb                        "            1905
    Bert M. Fernald                        "            1909
    Frederick W. Plaisted               Democrat        1911

  See S. L. Boardman, _Climate, &c., of Maine_ (Washington, 1884);
  Walton Wells, _The Water Power of Maine_ (Augusta, 1869); G. H.
  Hitchcock, _General Report on the Geology of Maine_ (Augusta, 1861);
  G. H. Stone, _The Glacial Gravels of Maine and their Associated
  Deposits_ (Washington, 1899); T. Nelson Dale, _The Granites of Maine_
  (Washington, 1907), being Bulletin 313 of the U. S. Geological Survey;
  B. F. De Costa, _Sketches of the Coast of Maine and Isle of Shoals_
  (New York, 1869); H. D. Thoreau, _The Maine Woods_ (Boston, 1881 ); L.
  L. Hubbard, _Woods and Lakes of Maine_ (Boston, 1883); T. S. Steele,
  _Canoe and Camera, a Two Hundred Mile Tour through the Maine Forests_
  (New York, 1882); William MacDonald, _The Government of Maine, Its
  History and Administration_ (New York, 1902); _Maine Historical
  Society Collections_ (Portland, 1831-   ); W. D. Williamson, _History
  of the State of Maine_ (Hallowell, 1832); J. P. Baxter, _Sir
  Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine_ (Boston, 1890) and
  _George Cleeve of Casco Bay_ (Portland, 1885); George Folsom, _History
  of Saco and Biddeford, with notices of other Early Settlements and of
  the Proprietary Governments in Maine_ (Saco, 1830); J. L. Chamberlain,
  _Maine, Her Place in History_ (Augusta, 1877); E. S. Whitin, _Factory
  Legislation in Maine_ (New York, 1908).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This condition results from the fact that Maine and the adjacent
    region were worn down nearly to sea-level by stream erosion, except
    certain peaks and ridges inland; then the region was elevated and
    numerous river valleys were cut down below the general erosion
    surface formed before. Thus we have a general "upland surface," above
    which the mountain remnants tower, and below which the rivers have
    been entrenched.

  [2] This name is applied to a chain of lakes (the Rangeley, or
    Oquossoc, the Cupsuptic, the Mooselookmeguntic, the Molechunkamunk or
    Upper Richardson, the Welokenebacook or Lower Richardson, and the
    Umbagog) in Franklin and Oxford counties, in the western part of the
    state; the Umbagog extends into New Hampshire and its outlet helps to
    form the Androscoggin River. These lakes are connected by straits,
    have a total area of between 80 and 90 sq. m., and are from 1200 to
    1500 ft. above the sea. They are sometimes called the Androscoggin
    Lakes.

  [3] The census of 1905 was taken under the direction of the United
    States census bureau, but the statistics for hand trades were
    omitted.

  [4] According to previous censuses the population was as follows:
    (1790) 96,540; (1800) 151,719; (1810) 228,705; (1820) 298,335; (1830)
    399,455; (1840) 501,793; (1850) 583,169; (1860) 628,279; (1870)
    626,915.

  [5] An unincorporated township containing less than 200 inhabitants
    may, on the application of three resident voters, be organized as a
    plantation, but does not pay state or county taxes unless by special
    legislative order. Other unincorporated districts, especially islands
    along the coast, are called "grants," "surpluses," "gores" or
    "tracts."

  [6] By this charter, issued in 1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was
    entitled to all territory lying within two hundred leagues of any
    colony that he might plant within six years; although it had long
    since lapsed, Raleigh Gilbert seems not to have been aware of it.

  [7] An article in the Act relating to the separation of Maine from
    Massachusetts stipulated that the lands within the District of Maine
    which prior to the separation had belonged to Massachusetts should
    after the separation belong one-half to Maine and one-half to
    Massachusetts. In 1826 the wild lands of Maine were surveyed and
    divided between the two states; and in 1853 Maine acquired from
    Massachusetts, for $362,500, all of this land still remaining in
    possession of the latter state.

  [8] According to Art. V. of the constitution a majority of the total
    number of votes cast was required for election; in case no candidate
    should receive a majority, it was prescribed that the "House of
    Representatives shall, by ballot, from the persons having the four
    highest numbers of votes on the lists, if so many there be, elect two
    persons and make returns of their names to the Senate, of whom the
    Senate shall, by ballot, elect one, who shall be declared the
    governor." An amendment, which became a part of the constitution on
    the 9th of November 1880, provided that a plurality of the total
    number of votes cast should be sufficient for election.



MAINE DE BIRAN, FRANÇOIS-PIERRE-GONTHIER (1766-1824), French
philosopher, was born at Bergerac, on the 29th of November, 1766. The
name Maine he assumed (some time before 1787) from an estate called Le
Maine, near Mouleydier. After studying with distinction under the
_doctrinaires_ of Périgueux, he entered the life-guards of Louis XVI.,
and was present at Versailles on the memorable 5th and 6th of October
1789. On the breaking up of the _gardes du corps_ Biran retired to his
patrimonial inheritance of Grateloup, near Bergerac, where his retired
life preserved him from the horrors of the Revolution. It was at this
period that, to use his own words, he "passed _per saltum_ from
frivolity to philosophy." He began with psychology, which he made the
study of his life. After the Reign of Terror Maine de Biran took part in
political affairs. Having been excluded from the council of the Five
Hundred on suspicion of royalism, he took part with his friend Laîné in
the commission of 1813, which gave expression for the first time to
direct opposition to the will of the emperor. After the Restoration he
held the office of treasurer to the chamber of deputies, and habitually
retired during the autumn recess to his native district to pursue his
favourite study. He died on the 20th (16th, or 23rd, according to
others) of July 1824.

Maine de Biran's philosophical reputation has suffered from two
causes--his obscure and laboured style, and the fact that only a few,
and these the least characteristic, of his writings appeared during his
lifetime. These consisted of the essay on habit (_Sur l'influence de
l'habitude_, 1803), a critical review of P. Laromiguière's lectures
(1817), and the philosophical portion of the article "Leibnitz" in the
_Biographie universelle_ (1819). A treatise on the analysis of thought
(_Sur la décomposition de la pensée_), although sent to press, was never
printed. In 1834 these writings, together with the essay entitled
_Nouvelles considérations sur les rapports du physique et du moral de
l'homme_, were published by Victor Cousin, who in 1841 added three
volumes, under the title _Oeuvres philosophiques de Maine de Biran_. But
the publication (in 1859) by E. Naville (from MSS. placed at his
father's disposal by Biran's son) of the _Oeuvres inédites de Maine de
Biran_, in three volumes, first rendered possible a connected view of
his philosophical development. At first a sensualist, like Condillac and
Locke, next an intellectualist, he finally shows himself a mystical
theosophist. The _Essai sur les fondements de la psychologie_
represents the second or completest stage of his philosophy, the
fragments of the _Nouveaux essais d'anthropologie_ the third.

  Maine de Biran's first essays in philosophy were written avowedly from
  the point of view of Locke and Condillac, but even in them he was
  brought to signalize the essential fact on which his later speculation
  turns. Dealing with the formation of habits, he is compelled to note
  that passive impressions, however transformed, do not furnish a
  complete or adequate explanation. With Laromiguière he distinguishes
  attention as an active effort, of no less importance than the passive
  receptivity of sense, and with Butler distinguishes passively formed
  customs from active habits. He finally arrived at the conclusion that
  Condillac's notion of passive receptivity as the one source of
  conscious experience was not only an error in fact but an error of
  method--in short, that the mechanical mode of viewing consciousness as
  formed by external influence was fallacious and deceptive. For it he
  proposed to substitute the genetic method, whereby human conscious
  experience might be exhibited as growing or developing from its
  essential basis in connexion with external conditions. The essential
  basis he finds in the real consciousness, of self as an active
  striving power, and the stages of its development, corresponding to
  what one may call the relative importance of the external conditions
  and the reflective clearness of self-consciousness he designates as
  the affective, the perceptive and the reflective. In connexion with
  this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing
  with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is
  cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from
  extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which
  the relations of things are known to us--cause, power, force, &c.

  In the latest stage of his speculation Biran distinguishes the animal
  existence from the human, under which the three forms above noted are
  classed, and both from the life of the spirit, in which human thought
  is brought into relation with the supersensible, divine system of
  things. This stage is left imperfect. Altogether Biran's work presents
  a very remarkable specimen of deep metaphysical thinking directed by
  preference to the psychological aspect of experience.

  The _Oeuvres inédites_ of Maine de Biran by E. Naville contain an
  introductory study; in 1887 appeared _Science et psychologie:
  nouvelles oeuvres inédites_, with introduction by A. Bertrand. See
  also O. Merton, _Étude critique sur Maine de Biran_ (1865); E.
  Naville, _Maine de Biran, sa vie et ses pensées_ (1874); J. Gérard,
  _Maine de Biran, essai sur sa philosophie_ (1876); Mayonade, _Pensées
  et pages inédites de Maine de Biran_ (Périgueux, 1896); G. Allievo,
  "Maine de Biran e la sua dottrina antropologica" (Turin, 1896, in
  _Memorie dell' accademia delle scienze_, 2nd ser., xlv, pt. 2); A.
  Lang, _Maine de Biran und die neuere Philosophie_ (Cologne, 1901);
  monographs by A. Kühtmann (Bremen, 1901) and M. Couailhac (1905); N.
  E. Truman in _Cornell Studies in Philosophy_, No. 5 (1904) on Maine de
  Biran's Philosophy of Will.



MAINE-ET-LOIRE, a department of western France, formed in 1790 for the
most part out of the southern portion of the former province of Anjou,
and bounded N. by the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe, E. by
Indre-et-Loire, S.E. by Vienne, S. by Deux-Sèvres and Vendée, W. by
Loire-Inférieure, and N.W. by Ille-et-Vilaine. Area, 2786 sq. m. Pop.
(1906), 513,490. Maine-et-Loire is made up of two distinct regions, the
line of demarcation running roughly from north to south along the valley
of the Sarthe, then turning south-west and passing Brissac and Doué;
that to the west consists of granites, felspars, and a continuation of
the geological formations of Brittany and Vendée; to the east, schists,
limestone and chalk prevail. The department is traversed from east to
west by the majestic valley of the Loire, with its rich orchards,
nurseries and market-gardens. The highest altitudes are found in the
south-west, where north-east of Cholet one eminence reaches 689 ft.
Elsewhere the surface is low and undulating in character. The department
belongs entirely to the basin of the Loire, the bed of which is wide but
shallow, and full of islands, the depth of the water in summer being at
some places little more than 2 ft. Floods are sudden and destructive.
The chief affluent of the Loire within the department is the Maine,
formed a little above Angers by the junction of the Mayenne and the
Sarthe, the latter having previously received the waters of the Loire.
All three are navigable. Other tributaries of the Loire are the Thouet
(with its tributary the Dive), the Layon, the Evre, and the Divatte on
the left, and the Authion on the right. The Mayenne is joined on the
right by the Oudon, which can be navigated below Segré. The Erdre, which
joins the Loire at Nantes, and the Moine, a tributary of the
Sèvre-Nantaise, both rise within this department. The climate is very
mild. The mean annual temperature of Angers is about 53°, slightly
exceeding that of Paris; the rainfall (between 23 and 24 in. annually)
is distinctly lower than that of the rest of France. Notwithstanding
this deficiency, the frequent fogs, combined with the peculiar nature of
the soil in the south-east of the department, produce a degree of
moisture which is highly favourable to meadow growths. The winter colds
are never severe, and readily permit the cultivation of certain trees
which cannot be reared in the adjoining departments.

The agriculture of the department is very prosperous. The produce of
cereals, chiefly wheat, oats and barley, is in excess of its needs, and
potatoes and mangels also give good returns. Extensive areas in the
valley of the Loire are under hemp, and the vegetables, melons and other
fruits of that region are of the finest quality. Good wine is produced
at Serrant and other places near Angers, and on the right bank of the
Layon and near Saumur, the sparkling white wine of which is a rival of
the cheaper brands of champagne. Cider is also produced, and the
cultivation of fruit is general. Forests and woodland in which oak and
beech are the chief trees cover large tracts. The fattening of cattle is
an important industry round Cholet, and horses much used for light
cavalry are reared. Several thousand workmen are employed in the slate
quarries in the vicinity of Angers, tufa is worked in the river valleys,
and freestone and other stone, mispickel, iron and coal are also found.
Cholet, the chief industrial town, and its district manufacture
pocket-handkerchiefs, as well as linen cloths, flannels, cotton goods,
and hempen and other coarse fabrics, and similar industries are carried
on at Angers, which also manufactures liqueurs, rope, boots and shoes
and parasols. Saumur, besides its production of wine, makes beads and
enamels. The commerce of Maine-et-Loire comprises the exportation of
live stock and of the various products of its soil and industries, and
the importation of hemp, cotton, and other raw materials. The department
is served by the railways of the state and the Orléans and Western
companies. The Mayenne, the Sarthe and the Loir, together with some of
the lesser rivers, provide about 130 m. of navigable waterway. In the
south-east the canal of the Dive covers some 10 m. in the department.

There are five arrondissements--Angers, Baugé, Cholet, Saumur and Segré,
with 34 cantons and 381 communes. Maine-et-Loire belongs to the académie
(educational division) of Rennes, to the region of the VIII. army corps,
and to the ecclesiastical province of Tours. Angers (q.v.), the capital,
is the seat of a bishopric and of a court of appeal. Other principal
places are Cholet, Saumur, and Fontevrault, which receive separate
treatment. For architectural interest there may also be mentioned the
châteaux of Brissac (17th century), Serrant (15th and 16th centuries),
Montreuil-Bellay (14th and 15th centuries), and Ecuillé (15th century),
and the churches of Puy-Notre-Dame (13th century) and St
Florent-le-Vieil (13th, 17th, and 19th centuries), the last containing
the fine monument to Charles Bonchamps, the Vendean leader, by David
d'Angers. Gennes has remains of a theatre and other ruins of the Roman
period, as well as two churches dating in part from the 10th century.
Ponts-de-Cé, an interesting old town built partly on islands in the
Loire, is historically important, because till the Revolution its
bridges formed the only way across the Loire between Saumur and Nantes.



MAINPURI, or MYNPOOREE, a town and district of British India, in the
Agra division of the United Provinces. The town has a station on a
branch of the East Indian railway recently opened from Shikohabad. Pop.
(1901), 19,000. It consists of two separate portions, Mainpuri proper
and Mukhamganj. Holkar plundered and burned part of the town in 1804,
but was repulsed by the local militia. Since the British occupation the
population has rapidly increased and many improvements have been carried
out. The Agra branch of the Grand Trunk road runs through the town,
forming a wide street lined on both sides by shops, which constitute the
principal bazaar. Mainpuri has a speciality in the production of carved
wooden articles inlaid with brass wire. The American Presbyterian
mission manages a high school.

The DISTRICT OF MAINPURI lies in the central Doab. Area, 1675 sq. m.
Pop. (1901), 829,357, an increase of 8.8% in the decade. It consists of
an almost unbroken plain, intersected by small rivers, with a few
undulating sand ridges. It is wooded throughout with mango groves, and
isolated clumps of _bábul_ trees occasionally relieve the bareness of
its saline _usar_ plains. On the south-western boundary the Jumna flows
in a deep alluvial bed, sometimes sweeping close to the high banks which
overhang its valley, and elsewhere leaving room for a narrow strip of
fertile soil between the river and the upland plain. From the low-lying
lands thus formed a belt of ravines stretches inland for some 2 m.,
often covered with jungle, but affording good pasturage for cattle. The
district is watered by two branches of the Ganges canal, and is
traversed by the main line of the East Indian railway.

  Mainpuri anciently formed part of the great kingdom of Kanauj, and
  after the fall of that famous state it was divided into a number of
  petty principalities, of which Rapri and Bhongaon were the chief. In
  1194 Rapri was made the seat of a Moslem governor. Mainpuri fell to
  the Moguls on Baber's invasion in 1526, and, although temporarily
  wrested from them by the short-lived Afghan dynasty of Shere Shah, was
  again occupied by them on the reinstatement of Humayun after the
  victory of Panipat. Like the rest of the lower Doab, Mainpuri passed,
  towards the end of the 18th century, into the power of the Mahrattas,
  and finally became a portion of the province of Oudh. When this part
  of the country was ceded to the British, in 1801, Mainpuri town became
  the headquarters of the extensive district of Etawah, which was in
  1856 reduced by the formation of Etah and Mainpuri into separate
  collectorates. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857 the regiment
  stationed at Mainpuri revolted and attacked the town, which was
  successfully defended by the few Europeans of the station for a week,
  until the arrival of the Jhansi mutineers made it necessary to abandon
  the district.



MAINTENANCE (Fr. _maintenance_, from _maintenir_, to maintain, support,
Lat. _manu tenere_, to hold in the hand). The action of giving support,
supplying means of subsistence, keeping efficient or in working order.
In English law maintenance is an officious intermeddling in an action
that in no way belongs to one by maintaining or assisting either party,
with money or otherwise, to prosecute or defend it. It is an indictable
offence, both at common law and by statute, and punishable by fine and
imprisonment. It invalidates all contracts involving it. It is also
actionable. There are, however, certain cases in which maintenance is
justifiable, e.g. any one who has an interest, even if it be only
contingent, in the matter at variance can maintain another in an action
concerning the matter; or several parties who have a common interest in
the same thing may maintain one another in a suit concerning the same.
Neither is it reckoned maintenance to assist another in his suit on
charitable grounds, or for a master to assist his servant, or a parent
his son, or a husband his wife. The law with regard to the subject is
considered at length in _Bradlaugh_ v. _Newdegate_, 1883, 11 Q.B.D. 1.
See also CHAMPERTY. For the practice of "livery and maintenance" see
ENGLISH HISTORY, §§ v. and vi.

  A CAP OF MAINTENANCE, i.e. a cap of crimson velvet turned up with
  ermine, is borne, as one of the insignia of the British sovereign,
  immediately before him at his coronation or on such state occasions as
  the opening of parliament. It is carried by the hereditary bearer, the
  marquess of Winchester, upon a white wand. A similar cap is also borne
  before the lord mayor of London. The origin of this symbol of dignity
  is obscure. It is stated in the _New English Dictionary_ that it was
  granted by the pope to Henry VII. and Henry VIII. It is probably
  connected with the "cap of estate" or "dignity," sometimes also styled
  "cap of maintenance," similar to the royal symbol with two peaks or
  horns behind, which is borne as a heraldic charge by certain families.
  It seems originally to have been a privilege of dukes. Where it is
  used the crest is placed upon it, instead of on the usual wreath.



MAINTENON, FRANÇOISE D'AUBIGNÉ, MARQUISE DE (1635-1719), the second wife
of Louis XIV., was born in a prison at Niort, on the 27th of November
1635. Her father, Constant d'Aubigné, was the son of Agrippa d'Aubigné,
the famous friend and general of Henry IV., and had been imprisoned as a
Huguenot malcontent, but her mother, a fervent Catholic, had the child
baptized in her religion, her sponsors being the duc de la
Rochefoucauld, father of the author of the _Maxims_, and the comtesse de
Neuillant. In 1639 Constant d'Aubigné was released from prison and took
all his family with him to Martinique, where he died in 1645, after
having lost what fortune remained to him at cards. Mme d'Aubigné
returned to France, and from sheer poverty unwillingly yielded her
daughter to her sister-in-law, Mme de Villette, who made the child very
happy, but converted or pretended to convert her to Protestantism. When
this was known an order of state was issued that she should be entrusted
to Mme de Neuillant, her godmother. Every means was now used to convert
her back to Catholicism, but at the last she only yielded on the
condition that she need not believe that the soul of Mme de Villette was
lost. Once reconverted, she was neglected and sent home to live with her
mother, who had only a small pension of 200 livres a year, which ceased
on her death in 1650. The chevalier de Meré, a man of some literary
distinction, who had made her acquaintance at Mme de Neuillant's,
discovered her penniless condition, and introduced his "young Indian,"
as he called her, to Scarron, the famous wit and comic writer, at whose
house all the literary society of the day assembled. Scarron took a
fancy to the friendless girl, and offered either to pay for her
admission to a convent, or, though he was deformed and an invalid, to
marry her himself. She accepted his offer of marriage, and became Mme
Scarron in 1651. For nine years she was not only his most faithful
nurse, but an attraction to his house, where she tried to bridle the
licence of the conversation of the time. On the death of Scarron, in
1660, Anne of Austria continued his pension to his widow, and even
increased it to 2000 livres a year, which enabled her to entertain and
frequent the literary society her husband had made her acquainted with;
but on the queen-mother's death in 1666 the king refused to continue her
pension, and she prepared to leave Paris for Lisbon as lady attendant to
the queen of Portugal. But before she started she met Mme de Montespan,
who was already, though not avowedly, the king's mistress, and who took
such a fancy to her that she obtained the continuance of her pension,
which put off for ever the question of going to Portugal. Mme de
Montespan did yet more for her, for when, in 1669, her first child by
the king was born, Mme Scarron was established with a large income and a
large staff of servants at Vaugirard to bring up the king's children in
secrecy as they were born. In 1674 the king determined to have his
children at court, and their governess, who had now made sufficient
fortune to buy the estate of Maintenon, accompanied them. The king had
now many opportunities of seeing Mme Scarron, and, though at first he
was prejudiced against her, her even temper contrasted so advantageously
with the storms of passion and jealousy exhibited by Mme de Montespan,
that she grew steadily in his favour, and had in 1678 the gratification
of having her estate at Maintenon raised to a marquisate and herself
entitled Mme de Maintenon by the king. Such favours brought down the
fury of Mme de Montespan's jealousy, and Mme de Maintenon's position was
almost unendurable, until, in 1680, the king severed their connexion by
making the latter second lady in waiting to the dauphiness, and soon
after Mme de Montespan left the court. The new _amie_ used her influence
on the side of decency, and the queen openly declared she had never been
so well treated as at this time, and eventually died in Mme de
Maintenon's arms in 1683. The queen's death opened the way to yet
greater advancement; in 1684 Mme de Maintenon was made first lady in
waiting to the dauphiness, and in the winter of 1685-1686 she was
privately married to the king by Harlay, archbishop of Paris, in the
presence, it is believed, of Père la Chaise, the king's confessor, the
marquis de Montchevreuil, the chevalier de Forbin, and Bontemps. No
written proof of the marriage is extant, but that it took place is
nevertheless certain. Her life during the next thirty years can be fully
studied in her letters, of which many authentic examples are extant. As
a wife she was wholly admirable; she had to entertain a man who would
not be amused, and had to submit to that terribly strict court etiquette
of absolute obedience to the king's inclination, which Saint-Simon so
vividly describes, and yet be always cheerful and never complain of
weariness or ill-health. Her political influence has probably been
exaggerated, but it was supreme in matters of detail. The ministers of
the day used to discuss and arrange all the business to be done with the
king beforehand with her, and it was all done in her cabinet and in her
presence, but the king in more important matters often chose not to
consult her. Such mistakes as, for instance, the replacing of Catinat by
Villeroi may be attributed to her, but not whole policies--notably,
according to Saint-Simon, not the policy with regard to the Spanish
succession. Even the revocation of the edict of Nantes and the
dragonnades have been laid to her charge, but recent investigations have
tended to show that in spite of ardent Catholicism, she at least
opposed, if not very vigorously, the cruelties of the dragonnades,
although she was pleased with the conversions they procured. She was
apparently afraid to imperil her great reputation for devotion, which
had in 1692 obtained for her from Innocent XII. the right of visitation
over all the convents in France. Where she deserves blame is in her use
of her power for personal patronage, as in compassing the promotions of
Chamillart and Villeroi, and the frequent assistance given to her
brother Comte Charles d'Aubigné. Her influence was on the whole a
moderating and prudent force. Her social influence was not as great as
it might have been, owing to her holding no recognized position at
court, but it was always exercised on the side of decency and morality,
and it must not be forgotten that from her former life she was intimate
with the literary people of the day. Side by side with this public life,
which wearied her with its shadowy power, occasionally crossed by a
desire to be recognised as queen, she passed a nobler and sweeter
private existence as the foundress of St Cyr. Mme de Maintenon was a
born teacher; she had so won the hearts of her first pupils that they
preferred her to their own mother, and was similarly successful later
with the young and impetuous duchess of Burgundy, and she had always
wished to establish a home for poor girls of good family placed in such
straits as she herself had experienced. As soon as her fortunes began to
mend she started a small home for poor girls at Ruel, which she
afterwards moved to Noisy, and which was the nucleus of the splendid
institution of St Cyr, which the king endowed in 1686, at her request,
out of the funds of the Abbey of St Denis. She was in her element there.
She herself drew up the rules of the institution; she examined every
minute detail; she befriended her pupils in every way; and her heart
often turned from the weariness of Versailles or of Marly to her "little
girls" at St Cyr. It was for them that Racine wrote his _Esther_ and his
_Athalie_, and it was because he managed the affairs of St Cyr well that
Michel Chamillart became controller-general of the finances. The later
years of her power were marked by the promotion of her old pupils, the
children of the king and Mme de Montespan, to high dignity between the
blood royal and the peers of the realm, and it was doubtless under the
influence of her dislike for the duke of Orleans that the king drew up
his will, leaving the personal care of his successor to the duke of
Maine, and hampering the duke of Orleans by a council of regency. On or
even before her husband's death she retired to St Cyr, and had the
chagrin of seeing all her plans for the advancement of the duke of Maine
overthrown by means of the parliament of Paris. However, the regent
Orleans in no way molested her, but, on the contrary, visited her at St
Cyr and continued her pension of 48,000 livres. She spent her last years
at St Cyr in perfect seclusion, but an object of great interest to all
visitors to France, who, however, with the exception of Peter the Great,
found it impossible to get an audience with her. On the 15th of April
1719 she died, and was buried in the choir at St Cyr, bequeathing her
estate at Maintenon to her niece, the only daughter of her brother
Charles and wife of the maréchal de Noailles, to whose family it still
belongs.

  L. A. la Beaumelle published the _Lettres de Madame de Maintenon_, but
  much garbled, in 2 vols. in 1752, and on a larger scale in 9 vols. in
  1756. He also, in 1755, published _Mémoires de Madame de Maintenon_,
  in 6 vols., which caused him to be imprisoned in the Bastille. All
  earlier biographies were superseded by Théophile Lavallée's _Histoire
  de St Cyr_, reviewed in _Causeries du lundi_, vol. viii., and by his
  edition of her _Lettres historiques et édifiantes_, &c., in 7 vols.
  and of her _Correspondance générale_, in 4 vols. (1888), which latter
  must, however, be read with the knowledge of many forged letters,
  noticed in P. Grimblot's _Faux autographes de Madame de Maintenon_.
  Saint-Simon's fine but biased account of the court in her day and of
  her career is contained in the twelfth volume of Chéruel and Regnier's
  edition of his _Mémoires_. See also Mademoiselle d'Aumale's _Souvenirs
  sur Madame de Maintenon_, published by the Comte d'Haussonville and G.
  Hanotaux (Paris, 3 vols., 1902-1904); an excellent account by A.
  Geffroy, _Madame de Maintenon d'après sa correspondance authentique_
  (Paris, 2 vols., 1887); P. de Noailles, _Histoire de Madame de
  Maintenon et des principaux évènements du règne de Louis XIV._ (4
  vols., 1848-1858); A. de Boislisle, _Paul Scarron et Françoise
  d'Aubigné d'après des documents nouveaux_ (1894); É. Pilastre, _Vie et
  caractère de Madame de Maintenon d'après les oeuvres du duc de
  Saint-Simon et des documents anciens ou récents_ (1907); A. Rosset,
  _Madame de Maintenon et la révocation de l'édit de Nantes_ (1897).
       (H. M. S.)



MAINZ (Fr. Mayence) a city, episcopal see and fortress of Germany,
situated on the left bank of the Rhine, almost opposite the influx of
the Main, at the junction of the important main lines of railway from
Cologne to Mannheim and Frankfort-on-Main, 25 m. W. of the latter. Pop.
(1905), 91,124 (including a garrison of 7500 men), of whom two-thirds
are Roman Catholic. The Rhine, which here attains the greatest breadth
of its upper course, is crossed by a magnificent bridge of five arches,
leading to the opposite town of Castel and by two railway bridges. The
old fortifications have recently been pushed farther back, and their
place occupied by pleasant boulevards. The river front has been
converted into a fine promenade, commanding extensive views of the
Taunus range of mountains, and the "Rheingau," the most favoured wine
district of Germany. Alongside the quay are the landing-places of the
steamboats navigating the Rhine. The railway, which formerly incommoded
the bank, has been diverted, and now, following the ceinture of the new
line of inner fortifications, runs into a central station lying to the
south of the city. The interior of the old town consists chiefly of
narrow and irregular streets, with many quaint and picturesque houses.
The principal street of the new town is the Kaiserstrasse, leading from
the railway station to the river.

The first object of historical and architectural interest in Mainz is
the grand old cathedral, an imposing Romanesque edifice with numerous
Gothic additions and details (for plan, &c. see ARCHITECTURE:
_Romanesque and Gothic in Germany_). It was originally erected between
975 and 1009, but has since been repeatedly burned down and rebuilt, and
in its present form dates chiefly from the 12th, 13th and 14th
centuries. The largest of its six towers is 300 ft. high. The whole
building was restored by order of Napoleon in 1814, and another thorough
renovation was made more recently. The interior contains the tombs of
Boniface, the first archbishop of Mainz, of Frauenlob, the Minnesinger,
and of many of the electors. Mainz possesses nine other Roman Catholic
churches, the most noteworthy of which are those of St Ignatius, with a
finely painted ceiling, of St Stephen, built 1257-1328, and restored
after an explosion in 1857, and of St Peter. The old electoral palace
(1627-1678), a large building of red sandstone, now contains a valuable
collection of Roman and Germanic antiquities, a picture gallery, a
natural history museum, the Gutenberg Museum, and a library of 220,000
volumes. Among the other principal buildings are the palace of the grand
duke of Hesse, built in 1731-1739 as a lodge of the Teutonic order, the
theatre, the arsenal, and the government buildings. A handsome statue of
Gutenberg, by Thorwaldsen, was erected at Mainz in 1837. Mainz still
retains many relics of the Roman period, the most important of which is
the Eigelstein, a monument believed to have been erected by the Roman
legions in honour of Drusus. It stands within the citadel, which
occupies the site of the Roman castrum. A little to the south-west of
the town are the remains of a large Roman aqueduct, of which upwards of
sixty pillars are still standing. The educational and scientific
institutions of Mainz include an episcopal seminary, two gymnasia and
other schools, a society for literature and art, a musical society, and
an antiquarian society. The university, founded in 1477, was suppressed
by the French in 1798.

The site of Mainz would seem to mark it out naturally as a great centre
of trade, but the illiberal rule of the archbishops and its military
importance seriously hampered its commercial and industrial development,
and prevented it from rivalling its neighbour Frankfort. It is now,
however, the chief emporium of the Rhenish wine traffic, and also
carries on an extensive transit trade in grain, timber, flour,
petroleum, paper and vegetables. The natural facilities for carriage by
water are supplemented by the extensive railway system. Large new
harbours to the north of the city were opened in 1887. The principal
manufactures are leather goods, furniture, carriages, chemicals, musical
instruments and carpets, for the first two of which the city has
attained a wide reputation. Other industries include brewing and
printing. Mainz is the seat of the administrative and judicial
authorities of the province of Rhein-Hessen, and also of a Roman
Catholic bishop.

_History._--Mainz, one of the oldest cities in Germany, was originally a
Celtic settlement. Its strategic importance was early recognized by the
Romans, and about 13 B.C. Drusus, the son-in-law of Augustus, erected a
fortified camp here, to which the _castellum Mattiacorum_ (the modern
Castel) on the opposite bank was afterwards added, the two being
connected with a bridge at the opening of the Christian era. The Celtic
name became latinized as _Maguntiacum_, or _Moguntiacum_, and a town
gradually arose around the camp, which became the capital of Germania
Superior. During the Völkerwanderung Mainz suffered severely, being
destroyed on different occasions by the Alamanni, the Vandals and the
Huns. Christianity seems to have been introduced into the town at a very
early period, and in the 6th century a new Mainz was founded by Bishop
Sidonius. In the middle of the 8th century under Boniface it became an
archbishopric, and to this the primacy of Germany was soon annexed.
Charlemagne, who had a palace in the neighbourhood, gave privileges to
Mainz, which rose rapidly in wealth and importance, becoming a free city
in 1118. During the later middle ages it was the seat of several diets,
that of 1184 being of unusual size and splendour. In 1160 the citizens
revolted against Archbishop Arnold, and in 1163 the walls of the city
were pulled down by order of the emperor Frederick I. But these events
did not retard its progress. In 1244 certain rights of self-government
were given to the citizens; and in 1254 Mainz was the centre and
mainspring of a powerful league of Rhenish towns. Owing to its
commercial prosperity it was known as _goldene_ Mainz, and its
population is believed to have been as great as it is at the present
day. But soon a decline set in. In 1462 there was warfare between two
rival archbishops, Diether or Dietrich II. of Isenburg (d. 1463) and
Adolph II. of Nassau (d. 1475). The citizens espoused the cause of
Diether, but their city was captured by Adolph; it was then deprived of
its privileges and was made subject to the archbishop. Many of the
inhabitants were driven into exile, and these carried into other lands a
knowledge of the art of printing, which had been invented at Mainz by
Johann Gutenberg in 1450. During the Thirty Years' War Mainz was
occupied by the Swedes in 1631 and by the French in 1644, the
fortifications being strengthened by the former under Gustavus Adolphus;
in 1688 it was captured again by the French, but they were driven out in
the following year. In 1792 the citizens welcomed the ideas of the
French Revolution; they expelled their archbishop, Friedrich Karl Joseph
d'Erthal, and opened their gates to the French troops. Taken and retaken
several times during the next few years, Mainz was ceded to France by
the treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, and again by the Treaty of Lunéville
in 1801. In 1814 it was restored to Germany and in 1816 it was handed
over to the grand duke of Hesse; it remained, however, a fortress of the
German confederation and was garrisoned by Prussian and Austrian troops.
Since 1871 it has been a fortress of the German Empire. There were
disturbances in the city in 1848.

  See Brühl, _Mainz, geschichtlich, topographisch und malerisch_ (Mainz,
  1829); C. A. Schaab, _Geschichte der Stadt Mainz_ (Mainz, 1841-1845);
  K. Klein, _Mainz und seine Umgebungen_ (1868); C. G. Bockenheimer,
  _Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Mainz_ (1874); Neeb, _Führer durch
  Mainz und Umgebung_ (Stuttgart, 1903); and O. Beck, _Mainz und sein
  Handel_ (Mainz, 1881).

The ARCHBISHOPRIC OF MAINZ, one of the seven electorates of the Holy
Roman Empire, became a powerful state during the middle ages and
retained some of its importance until the dissolution of the empire in
1806. Its archbishop was president of the electoral college,
arch-chancellor of the empire and primate of Germany. Its origin dates
back to 747, when the city of Mainz was made the seat of an archbishop,
and a succession of able and ambitious prelates, obtaining lands and
privileges from emperors and others, made of the district under their
rule a strong and vigorous state. Among these men were Hatto I. (d.
913), Siegfried III. of Eppstein (d. 1249), Gerhard of Eppstein (d.
1305), and Albert of Brandenburg (d. 1545), all of whom played important
parts in the history of Germany. There were several violent contests
between rivals anxious to secure so splendid a position as the
electorate, and the pretensions of the archbishops occasionally moved
the citizens of Mainz to revolt. The lands of the electorate lay around
Mainz, and were on both banks of the Rhine; their area at the time of
the French Revolution was about 3200 sq. m. The last elector was Karl
Theodor von Dalberg. The archbishopric was secularized in 1803, two
years after the lands on the left bank of the Rhine had been seized by
France. Some of those on the right bank of the river were given to
Prussia and to Hesse; others were formed into a grand duchy for Dalberg.
The archbishopric itself was transferred to Regensburg.

  For the history of the electorate see the _Scriptores rerum
  moguntiacarum_, edited by G. C. Joannis (Frankfort, 1722-1727);
  Schunk, _Beiträge zur Mainzer Geschichte_ (Frankfort, 1788-1791);
  Hennes, _Die Erzbischöfe von Mainz_ (Mainz, 1879); Ph. Jaffé,
  _Monumenta moguntina_ (Berlin, 1866), and J. F. Böhmer and C. Will,
  _Regesta archiepiscoporum moguntinensium_ (Innsbruck, 1877-1886).



MAIRET, JEAN DE (1604-1686), French dramatist, was born at Besançon, and
baptized on the 10th of May 1604. His own statement that he was born in
1610 has been disproved. He went to Paris to study at the Collège des
Grassins about 1625, in which year he produced his first piece
_Chriséide et Arimand_, followed in 1626 by _Sylvie_, a "pastoral
tragi-comedy." In 1634 appeared his masterpiece, _Sophonisbe_, which
marks, in its observance of the rules, the beginning of the "regular"
tragedies. Mairet was one of the bitterest assailants of Corneille in
the controversy over _The Cid_. It was perhaps his jealousy of Corneille
that made him give up writing for the stage. He was appointed in 1648
official representative of the Franche-Comté in Paris, but in 1653 he
was banished by Mazarin. He was subsequently allowed to return, but in
1668 he retired to Besançon, where he died on the 31st of January 1686.
His other plays include _Silvanire ou la Morte-vive_, published in 1631
with an elaborate preface on the observance of the unities, _Les
Galanteries du duc d'Orsonne_ (1632), _Virginie_ (1633), _Marc-Antoine_
(1635), and _Le Grand et dernier Solyman_ (1637).

  See G. Bizos, _Étude sur la vie et les oeuvres de Jean de Mairet_
  (1877). _Sophonisbe_ was edited by K. Vollmöller (Heilbronn, 1888),
  and _Silvanire_ by R. Otto (Bamberg, 1890).



MAISTRE, JOSEPH DE (1754-1821), French diplomatist and polemical writer,
was born at Chambéry on the 1st of April 1754. His family was an ancient
and noble one, enjoying the title of count, and is said to have been of
Languedocian extraction. The father of Joseph was president of the
senate of Savoy, and held other important offices. Joseph himself, after
studying at Turin, received various appointments in the civil service of
Savoy, finally becoming a member of the senate. In 1786 he married
Françoise de Morand. The invasion and annexation of Savoy by the French
Republicans made him an exile. He did not take refuge in that part of
the king of Sardinia's domains which was for the time spared, but betook
himself to the as yet neutral territory of Lausanne. There, in 1796, he
published his first important work (he had previously written certain
discourses, pamphlets, letters, &c.), _Considérations sur la France_. In
this he developed his views, which were those of a Legitimist, but a
Legitimist entirely from the religious and Roman Catholic point of view.
The philosophism of the 18th century was Joseph de Maistre's lifelong
object of assault.

After the still further losses which, in the year of the publication of
this book, the French Revolution inflicted on Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel
summoned Joseph de Maistre to Turin, and he remained there for the brief
space during which the king retained a remnant of territory on the
mainland. Then he went to the island of Sardinia, and held office at
Cagliari. In 1802 he was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister
plenipotentiary at St Petersburg, and journeyed thither the next year.
Although his post was no sinecure, its duties were naturally less
engrossing than the official life, with intervals of uneasy exile and
travelling, which he had hitherto known, and his literary activity was
great. He only published a single treatise, on the _Principe générateur
des Constitutions_; but he wrote his best and most famous works, _Du
Pape_, _De L'église gallicane_ and the _Soirées de St Pétersbourg_, the
last of which was never finished. _Du Pape_, which the second-named book
completes, is a treatise in regular form, dealing with the relations of
the sovereign pontiff to the Church, to temporal sovereigns, to
civilization generally, and to schismatics, especially Anglicans and the
Greek Church. It is written from the highest possible standpoint of
papal absolutism. The _Soirées de St Pétersbourg_, so far as it is
anything (for the arrangement is somewhat desultory), is a kind of
_théodicée_, dealing with the fortunes of virtue and vice in this world.
It contains two of De Maistre's most famous pieces, his panegyric on the
executioner as the foundation of social order, and his acrimonious, and
in part unfair, but also in part very damaging, attack on Locke. The _Du
Pape_ is dated May 1817; on the _Soirées_ the author was still engaged
at his death. Besides these works he wrote an examination of the
philosophy of Bacon, some letters on the Inquisition (an institution
which, as may be guessed from the remarks just noticed about the
executioner, was no stumbling-block to him), and, earlier than any of
these, a translation of Plutarch's "Essay on the Delay of Divine
Justice," with somewhat copious notes. After 1815 he returned to Savoy,
and was appointed to high office, while his _Du Pape_ made a great
sensation. But the world to which he had returned was not altogether in
accordance with his desires. He had domestic troubles; and chagrin of
one sort and another is said to have had not a little to do with his
death by paralysis on the 26th of February 1821 at Turin. Most of the
works mentioned were not published till after his death, and it was not
till 1851 that a collection of _Lettres et opuscules_ appeared, while
even since that time fresh matter has been published.

Joseph de Maistre was one of the most powerful, and by far the ablest,
of the leaders of the neo-Catholic and anti-revolutionary movement. The
most remarkable thing about his standpoint is that, layman as he was, it
was entirely ecclesiastical. Unlike his contemporary Bonald, Joseph de
Maistre regarded the temporal monarchy as an institution of altogether
inferior importance to the spiritual primacy of the pope. He was by no
means a political absolutist, except in so far as he regarded obedience
as the first of political virtues, and he seldom loses an opportunity of
stipulating for a tempered monarchy. But the pope's power is not to be
tempered at all, either by councils or by the temporal power or by
national churches, least of all by private judgment. The peculiarity of
Joseph de Maistre is that he supports his conclusions, or if it be
preferred his paradoxes, by the hardest and heaviest argument. Although
a great master of rhetoric, he never makes rhetoric do duty for logic.
Every now and then it is possible to detect fallacies in him, but for
the most part he has succeeded in carrying matters back to those
fundamental differences of opinion which hardly admit of argument, and
on which men take sides in consequence chiefly of natural bent, and of
predilection for one state of things rather than for another. The
absolute necessity of order may be said to have been the first principle
of this thinker, who, in more ways than one, will invite comparison with
Hobbes. He could not conceive such order without a single visible
authority, reference to which should settle all dispute. He saw that
there could be no such temporal head, and in the pope he thought that he
saw a spiritual substitute. The anarchic tendencies of the Revolution in
politics and religion were what offended him. It ought to be added that
he was profoundly and accurately learned in history and philosophy, and
that the superficial blunders of the 18th-century _philosophes_
irritated him as much as their doctrines. To Voltaire in particular he
shows no mercy.

  Of the two works named as his masterpieces, _Du Pape_ and the _Soirées
  de St Pétersbourg_, editions are extremely numerous. No complete
  edition of his works appeared till 1884-1887, when one was published
  at Lyons in 14 volumes. This had been preceded, and has been followed,
  by numerous biographies and discussions: C. Barthélemy, _L'Esprit de
  Joseph de Maistre_ (1859); R. de Sézeval, _Joseph de Maistre_ (1865),
  and J. C. Glaser, _Graf Joseph Maistre_ (same year); L. I. Moreau,
  _Joseph de Maistre_ (1879); F. Paulhan, _Joseph de Maistre et sa
  philosophie_ (1893); L. Cogordan, "Joseph de Maistre" in the _Grands
  écrivains français_ (1894); F. Descostes, _Joseph de Maistre avant la
  révolution_ (1896), and other works by the same writer; J. Mandoul,
  _Un Homme d'état italien: Joseph de Maistre et la politique de la
  maison de Savoie_ (1900); and E. Grasset, _Joseph de Maistre_ (1901).
       (G. Sa.)



MAISTRE, XAVIER DE (1763-1852), younger brother of Joseph de Maistre,
was born at Chambéry in October 1763. He served when young in the
Piedmontese army, and wrote his delightful fantasy, _Voyage autour de ma
chambre_ (published 1794) when he was under arrest at Turin in
consequence of a duel. Xavier shared the politics and the loyalty of his
brother, and on the annexation of Savoy to France, he left the service,
and took a commission in the Russian army. He served under Suvarov in
his victorious Austro-Russian campaign and accompanied the marshal to
Russia. He shared the disgrace of his general, and supported himself for
some time in St Petersburg by miniature painting. But on his brother's
arrival in St Petersburg he was introduced to the minister of marine. He
was appointed to several posts in the capital, but also saw active
service, was wounded in the Caucasus, and attained the rank of
major-general. He married a Russian lady and established himself in his
adopted country, even after the overthrow of Napoleon, and the
consequent restoration of the Piedmontese dynasty. For a time, however,
he lived at Naples, but he returned to St Petersburg and died there on
the 12th of June 1852. He was only once in Paris (in 1839), when
Sainte-Beuve, who has left some pleasant reminiscences of him, met him.
Besides the _Voyage_ already mentioned, Xavier de Maistre's works (all
of which are of very modest dimensions) are _Le Lépreux de la cité
d'Aoste_ (1811), a touching little story of human misfortune; _Les
Prisonniers du Caucase_, a powerful sketch of Russian character, _La
Jeune Sibérienne_, and the _Expédition nocturne_, a sequel to the
_Voyage autour de ma chambre_ (1825). His style is of remarkable ease
and purity.

  His works, with the exception of some brief chemical tractates, are
  included in the collections of Charpentier, Garnier, &c. See
  Sainte-Beuve's _Portraits contemporains_, vol. iii.



MAITLAND, EDWARD (1824-1897), English humanitarian writer, was born at
Ipswich on the 27th of October 1824, and was educated at Caius College,
Cambridge. The son of Charles David Maitland, perpetual curate of St
James's Chapel, Brighton, he was intended for the Church, but his
religious views did not permit him to take holy orders. For some years
he lived abroad, first in California and then as a commissioner of
Crownlands in Australia. After his return to England in 1857 he took up
an advanced humanitarian position, and claimed to have acquired a new
sense by which he was able to discern the spiritual condition of other
people. He was associated with Mrs Anna Kingsford (1846-1888), the
lady-doctor and supporter of vegetarianism and anti-vivisectionism, who,
besides being one of the pioneers of higher education for women, had
become a devotee of mystical theosophy; with her he brought out _Keys of
the Creeds_ (1875), _The Perfect Way: or the Finding of Christ_ (1882),
and founded the Hermetic Society in 1884. After her death he founded the
Esoteric Christian Union in 1891, and wrote her _Life and Letters_
(1896). He died on the 2nd of October 1897.



MAITLAND, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1850-1906), English jurist and historian,
son of John Gorham Maitland, was born on the 28th of May 1850, and
educated at Eton and Trinity, Cambridge, being bracketed at the head of
the moral sciences tripos of 1872, and winning a Whewell scholarship
for international law. He was called to the bar (Lincoln's Inn) in 1876,
and made himself a thoroughly competent equity lawyer and conveyancer,
but finally devoted himself to comparative jurisprudence and especially
the history of English law. In 1884 he was appointed reader in English
law at Cambridge, and in 1888 became Downing professor of the laws of
England. Though handicapped in his later years by delicate health, his
intellectual grasp and wide knowledge and research gradually made him
famous as a jurist and historian. He edited numerous volumes for the
Selden Society, including _Select Pleas for the Crown, 1200-1225_,
_Select Pleas in Manorial Courts_ and _The Court Baron_; and among his
principal works were _Gloucester Pleas_ (1884), _Justice and Police_
(1885), _Bracton's Note-Book_ (1887), _History of English Law_ (with Sir
F. Pollock, 1895; new ed. 1898; see also his article ENGLISH LAW in this
encyclopaedia), _Domesday Book and Beyond_ (1897), _Township and
Borough_ (1898), _Canon Law in England_ (1898), _English Law and the
Renaissance_ (1901), the _Life of Leslie Stephen_ (1906), besides
important contributions to the _Cambridge Modern History_, the _English
Historical Review_, the _Law Quarterly Review_, _Harvard Law Review_ and
other publications. His writings are marked by vigour and vitality of
style, as well as by the highest qualities of the historian who
recreates the past from the original sources; he had no sympathy with
either legal or historical pedantry; and his death at Grand Canary on
the 19th of December 1906 deprived English law and letters of one of
their most scholarly and most inspiring representatives, notable alike
for sweetness of character, acuteness in criticism, and wisdom in
counsel.

  See P. Vinogradoff's article on Maitland in the _English Historical
  Review_ (1907); Sir F. Pollock's in the _Quarterly Review_ (1907); G.
  T. Lapsley's in _The Green Bag_ (Boston, Mass., 1907); A. L. Smith,
  _F. W. Maitland_ (1908); H. A. L. Fisher, _F. W. Maitland_ (1910).



MAITLAND, SIR RICHARD (LORD LETHINGTON) (1496-1586), Scottish lawyer,
poet, and collector of Scottish verse, was born in 1496. His father, Sir
William Maitland of Lethington and Thirlestane, fell at Flodden; his
mother was a daughter of George, Lord Seton. He studied law at the
university of St Andrews, and afterwards in Paris. His castle at
Lethington was burnt by the English in 1549. He was in 1552 one of the
commissioners to settle matters with the English about the debateable
lands. About 1561 he seems to have lost his sight, but this did not
render him incapable of attending to public business, as he was the same
year admitted an ordinary lord of session with the title of Lord
Lethington, and a member of the privy council; and in 1562 he was
appointed keeper of the Great Seal. He resigned this last office in
1567, in favour of John, prior of Coldingham, his second son, but he sat
on the bench till he attained his eighty-eighth year. He died on the
20th of March 1586. His eldest son, by his wife Mary Cranstoun of
Crosbie, was William Maitland (q.v.): his second son, John (c.
1545-1595), was a lord of session, and was made a lord of parliament in
1590, with the title of Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, in which he was
succeeded by his son John, also for some time a lord of session, who was
created earl of Lauderdale in 1624. One of Sir Richard's daughters,
Margaret, assisted her father in preparing his collection of old Scots
verse.

The poems of Sir Richard Maitland, none of them lengthy, are for the
most part satirical, and are principally directed against the social and
political abuses of his time. He is chiefly remembered as the industrial
collector and preserver of many pieces of Scots poetry. These were
copied into two large volumes, one in folio and another in quarto, the
former written by himself, and the latter by his daughter. After being
in the possession of his descendant the duke of Lauderdale, these
volumes were purchased at the sale of the duke's library by Samuel
Pepys, and have since been preserved in the Pepysian Library, Magdalene
College, Cambridge. They lay there unnoticed for many years till Bishop
Percy published one of the poems in his _Reliques of English Poetry_.
Several of the prices were then transcribed by John Pinkerton, who
afterwards published them under the title of _Ancient Scottish Poems_ (2
vols., 1786.)

  For an account of the Maitland Folio MS. see Gregory Smith's
  _Specimens of Middle Scots_, 1902 (p. lxxiii.). The Scottish Text
  Society has undertaken an edition of the entire manuscript. Maitland's
  own poems were reprinted by Sibbald in his _Chronicle of Scottish
  Poetry_ (1802), and in 1830 by the Maitland Club, named after him, and
  founded for the purpose of continuing his efforts to preserve the
  remains of early Scots literature. Sir Richard left in manuscript a
  history of the family of Seton, and a volume of legal decisions
  collected by him between the years 1550 and 1565. Both are preserved
  in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; the former was published by the
  Maitland Club, in 1829.



MAITLAND (MAITLAND OF LETHINGTON), WILLIAM (c. 1528-1573), Scottish
statesman, eldest son of the preceding, was educated at St Andrews. At
an early age he entered public life and began in various ways to serve
the regent, Mary of Lorraine, becoming her secretary of state in 1558.
In 1559, however, he deserted her and threw in his lot with the lords of
the congregation, to whom his knowledge of foreign, and especially of
English, politics and his general ability were assets of the highest
value. The lords sent him to England to ask for assistance from
Elizabeth, and his constant aim throughout his political career was to
bring about a union between the two crowns. He appears to have feared
the return of Mary Queen of Scots to Scotland, but after her arrival in
1561 he was appointed secretary of state, and for about six years he
directed the policy of Scotland and enjoyed the confidence of the queen.
His principal antagonist was John Knox; there were several tussles
between them, the most famous, perhaps, being the one in the general
assembly of 1564, and on the whole Maitland held his own against the
preachers. He was doubtless concerned in the conspiracy against David
Rizzio, and after the favourite's murder he was obliged to leave the
court and was himself in danger of assassination. In 1567, however, he
was again at Mary's side. He was a consenting party to the murder of
Darnley, although he had favoured his marriage with Mary, but the enmity
between Bothwell and himself was one of the reasons which drove him into
the arms of the queen's enemies, among whom he figured at Langside. He
was one of the Scots who met Elizabeth's representatives at York in
1568; here he showed a desire to exculpate Mary and to marry her to the
duke of Norfolk, a course of action probably dictated by a desire to
avoid all revelations about the Darnley murder. But this did not prevent
him from being arrested in September 1569 on account of his share in the
crime. He was, however, delivered from his captors by a ruse on the part
of his friend, Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange, and was brought into
Edinburgh Castle, while his trial was put off because the city was
thronged with his adherents. Maitland now became the leader of the
remnant which stood by the cause of the imprisoned queen. Already a
physical wreck, he was borne into Edinburgh Castle in April 1571 and
with Kirkcaldy he held this fortress against the regent Morton and his
English auxiliaries. The castle surrendered in May 1573 and on the 7th
or the 9th of June following Maitland died at Leith, there being very
little evidence for the theory that he poisoned himself. "Secretary
Maitland" was a man of great learning with a ready wit and a caustic
tongue. He was reputed to be the most versatile and accomplished
statesman of his age, and almost alone among his Scottish contemporaries
he placed his country above the claims of either the Roman Catholic or
the Protestant religions. Among the testimonies to his great abilities
are those of Queen Elizabeth, of William Cecil and of Knox. By his
second wife, Mary Fleming, one of Queen Mary's ladies, whom he married
in 1567, he had a son and daughter. His son James died without issue
about 1620.

  See John Skelton, _Maitland of Lethington_ (1894); A. Lang, _History
  of Scotland_, vol. ii. (1902).



MAITLAND, EAST and WEST, adjoining municipalities in Northumberland
county, New South Wales, Australia, 120 m. by rail N. of Sydney. Pop.
(1901), West Maitland, 6798; East Maitland, 3287. These towns are
situated in a valley on the Hunter River, which is liable to sudden
floods, to guard against which the river is protected by stone
embankments at West Maitland, while there are flood-gates at East
Maitland. Maitland is the centre of the rich agricultural district of
the Hunter Valley, which produces maize, wheat and other cereals,
lucerne, tobacco, fruit and wine; excellent coal also is worked in the
vicinity. East Maitland is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, whose
cathedral (St John's), however, is situated in the larger town. Besides
this, West Maitland contains several handsome public and commercial
buildings.



MAITREYA, the name of the future Buddha. In one of the works included in
the Pali canon, the _Digha Nikaya_, a prophecy is put into the Buddha's
mouth that after the decay of the religion another Buddha, named
Metteyya, will arise who will have thousands of followers instead of the
hundreds that the historical Buddha had. This is the only mention of the
future Buddha in the canon. For some centuries we hear nothing more
about him. But when, in the period just before and after the Christian
era, some Buddhists began to write in Sanskrit instead of Pali, they
composed new works in which Maitreya (the Sanskrit form of Metteyya) is
more often mentioned, and details are given as to his birthplace and
history. These are entirely devised in imitation of the details of the
life of the historical Buddha, and have no independent value. Only the
names differ. The document in which the original prophecy occurs was put
together at some date during the 1st century after the Buddha's death
(see NIKAYA). It is impossible to say whether tradition was, at that
time, correct in attributing it to the Buddha. But whoever chose the
name (it is a patronymic or family, not a personal name), had no doubt
regard to the etymological connexion with the word for "love," which is
Metta in Pali. This would only be one of those punning allusions so
frequent in Indian literature.

Long afterwards, probably in the 6th or 7th century, a reformer in south
India, at a time when the incoming flood of ritualism and superstition
threatened to overwhelm the simple teaching of the earlier Buddhism,
wrote a Pali poem, entitled the _Anagata Vamsa_. In this he described
the golden age of the future when, in the time of Metteyya, kings,
ministers and people would vie one with the other in the maintenance of
the original simple doctrine, and in the restoration of the good times
of old. The other side also claimed the authority of the future Buddha
for their innovations. Statues of Maitreya are found in Buddhist
temples, of all sects, at the present day; and the belief in his future
advent is universal among Buddhists.

  Authorities.--_Digha Nikaya_, vol. iii., edited by J. E. Carpenter,
  (London, 1908); "_Anagata Vamsa_," edited by J. Minayeff in _Journal
  of the Pali Text Society_ (1886); _Watters on Yuan Chwang_, edited by
  Rhys Davids and S. W. Bushell (London, 1904-1905).     (T. W. R. D.)



MAIWAND, a village of Afghanistan, 50 m. N.W. of Kandahar. It is chiefly
notable for the defeat inflicted on a British brigade under General
Burrows by Ayub Khan on the 27th of July 1880 during the second Afghan
War (see AFGHANISTAN). Ayub Khan, Shere Ali's younger son, who had been
holding Herat during the British operations at Kabul and Kandahar, set
out towards Kandahar with a small army in June 1880, and a brigade under
General Burrows was detached from Kandahar to oppose him. Burrows
advanced to the Helmund, opposite Girishk, to oppose Ayub Khan, but was
there deserted by the troops of Shere Ali, the wali of Kandahar, and
forced to retreat to Kushk-i-Nakhud, half way to Kandahar. In order to
prevent Ayub passing to Ghazni, Burrows advanced to Maiwand on the 27th
of July, and attacked Ayub, who had already seized that place. The
Afghans, who numbered 25,000, outflanked the British, the artillery
expended their ammunition, and the native portion of the Brigade got out
of hand and pressed back on the few British infantry. The British were
completely routed, and had to thank the apathy of the Afghans for
escaping total annihilation. Of the 2476 British troops engaged, 934
were killed and 175 wounded or missing. This defeat necessitated Sir
Frederick Roberts' famous march from Kabul to Kandahar.

  See Lord Roberts, _Forty-one Years in India_ (1896).



MAIZE, or INDIAN CORN, _Zea Mays_ (from [Greek: zeá] or [Greek: zeiá],
which appears to have been "spelt," _Triticum spelta_, according to the
description of Theophrastus), a plant of the tribe Maydeae of the order
Gramineae or grasses (see fig. 1). It is unknown in the native state,
but is most probably indigenous to tropical America. Small grains of an
unknown variety have been found in the ancient tombs of Peru, and Darwin
found heads of maize embedded on the shore in Peru at 85 ft. above the
present sea-level. Bonafous, however (_Histoire naturelle du maïs_),
quotes authorities (Bock, 1532, Ruel and Fuchs) as believing that it
came from Asia, and maize was said by Santa Rosa de Viterbo to have been
brought by the Arabs into Spain in the 13th century. A drawing of maize
is also given by Bonafous from a Chinese work on natural history,
_Li-chi-tchin_, dated 1562, a little over sixty years after the
discovery of the New World. It is not figured on Egyptian monuments, nor
was any mention made of it by Eastern travellers in Africa or Asia prior
to the 16th century. Humboldt, Alphonse de Candolle and others, however,
do not hesitate to say that it originated solely in America, where it
had been long and extensively cultivated at the period of the discovery
of the New World; and that is the generally accepted modern view. Some
hold the view that maize originated from a common Mexican fodder grass,
_Euchlaena mexicana_, known as Teosinte, a closely allied plant which
when crossed with maize yields a maize-like hybrid.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.

Maize--_Zea Mays_--unripe cob. The membranous spathes have been cut and
drawn aside, revealing the spike of fruit which bears the long silky
styles. One-third nat. size.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Spike of Male Flowers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Male Spikelet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Female Spike.]

The plant is monoecious, producing the staminate (male) flowers in a
large feathery panicle at the summit, and the (female) dense spikes of
flowers, or "cobs," in the axils of the leaves below, the long pink
styles hanging out like a silken tassel. They are invested by the
sheaths of leaves, much used in packing oranges in south Europe, and the
more delicate ones for cigarettes in South America. Fig. 2 shows a
branch of the terminal male inflorescence. Fig. 3 is a single spikelet
of the same, containing two florets, with the three stamens of one only
protruded. Fig. 4 is a spike of the female inflorescence, protected by
the sheaths of leaves--the blades being also present. Usually the
sheaths terminate in a point, the blades being arrested. Fig. 5 is a
spikelet of the female inflorescence, consisting of two outer glumes,
the lower one ciliated, which enclose two florets--one (a) barren
(sometimes fertile), consisting of a flowering glume and pale only, and
the other (b) fertile, containing the pistil with elongated style. The
mass of styles from the whole spike is pendulous from the summit of the
sheaths, as in fig. 4. Fig. 6 shows the fruit or grain. More than three
hundred varieties are known, which differ more among themselves than
those of any other cereal. Some come to maturity in two months, others
require seven months; some are as many feet high as others are inches;
some have kernels eleven times larger than others. They vary similarly
in shape and size of ears, colour of the grain, which may be white,
yellow, purple, striped, &c., and also in physical characters and
chemical composition. Dr E. Lewis Sturtevant, who has made an extended
study of the forms and varieties, classes into seven groups those grown
primarily for the grain, the distinguishing characters of which are
based on the grains or kernels; there are, in addition, forms of
horticultural interest grown for ornament. Pod corn (var. _tunicata_) is
characterized by having each kernel enclosed in a husk. Pop corn (var.
_everta_) has a very large proportion of the "endosperm"--the nutritious
matter which with the small embryo makes up the grain--of a horny
consistency, which causes the grain to pop when heated, that is to say,
the kernel becomes turned inside out by the explosion of the contained
moisture. It is also characterized by the small size of the grain and
ear. Flint corn (var. _indurata_) has a starchy endosperm enclosed in a
horny layer of varying thickness in the different varieties. The colour
of the grain is white, yellow, red, blue or variegated. It is commonly
cultivated in Canada and northern United States, where the seasons are
too short for Dent corn, and has been grown as far north as 50° N. lat.
Dent or field corn (var. _indentata_) has the starchy endosperm
extending to the summit of the grain, with horny endosperm at the sides.
The top of the grain becomes indented, owing to the drying and shrinkage
of the starchy matter; the character of the indented surface varies with
the height and thickness of the horny endosperm. This is the form
commonly grown in the United States; the varieties differ widely in the
size of the plants and the appearance of the ear.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Female Spikelet.]

The colour of the grain varies greatly, being generally white, yellow,
mottled red, or less commonly red. Soft corn (var. _amylacea_) has no
horny endosperm, and hence the grains shrink uniformly. It is cultivated
only to a limited extent in the United States, but seems to have been
commonly grown by the Indians in many localities in North and South
America. Sweet corn (var. _saccharata_) is characterized by the
translucent horny appearance of the grains and their more or less
wrinkled condition. It is pre-eminently a garden vegetable, the ear
being used before the grain hardens, when it is well filled but soft and
milky. It is often cooked and served in the cob; when canned it is cut
from the cob. Canned sweet corn is an important article of domestic
commerce in Canada and the United States. In starchy sweet corn (var.
_amylea-saccharata_) the grain has the external appearance of sweet
corn, but examination shows the lower half to be starchy, the upper
horny and translucent. A form of flint corn, with variegated leaves, is
grown for ornament under the name _Zea japonica_ or Japanese striped
corn.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Grain.]

Chemical analysis, like common experience, shows that Indian corn is a
very nutritious article of food, being richer in albuminoids than any
other cereals when ripe (calculated in the dry weight). It can be grown
in the tropics from the level of the sea to a height equal to that of
the Pyrenees and in the south and middle of Europe, but it cannot be
grown in England with any chance of profit, except perhaps as fodder.
Frost kills the plant in all its stages and all its varieties; and the
crop does not flourish well if the nights are cool, no matter how
favourable the other conditions. Consequently it is the first crop to
disappear as one ascends into the mountain regions, and comparatively
little is grown west of the great plains of North America. In Brittany,
where it scarcely ripens the grain, it furnishes a strong crop in the
autumn upon sandy soil where clover and lucerne will yield but a poor
produce. It prefers a deep, rich, warm, dry and mellow soil, and hence
the rich bottoms and fertile prairies of the Mississippi basin
constitute the region of its greatest production. It is extensively
grown throughout India, both for the ripe grain and for use of the
unripe cob as a green vegetable. It is the most common crop throughout
South Africa, where it is known as mealies, being the staple food of the
natives. It is also largely used for fodder and is an important article
of export.

As an article of food maize is one of the most extensively used grains
in the world. Although rich in nitrogenous matter and fat, it does not
make good bread. A mixture of rye and corn meal, however, makes an
excellent coarse bread, formerly much used in the Atlantic states, and a
similar bread is now the chief coarse bread of Portugal and some parts
of Spain. It is either baked into cakes, called _tortilla_ by the
Indians of Yucatan, or made into a kind of porridge, as in Ireland. When
deprived of the gluten it constitutes oswego, maizena or corn flour.
Maize contains more oil than any other cereal, ranging from 3.5 to 9.5%
in the commercial grain. This is one of the factors in its value for
fattening purposes. In distilling and some other processes this oil is
separated and forms an article of commerce. When maize is sown,
broadcast or closely planted in drills the ears may not develop at all,
but the stalk is richer in sugar and sweeter; and this is the basis of
growing "corn-fodder." The amount of forage that may be produced in this
way is enormous; 50,000 to 80,000 lb. of green fodder are grown per
acre, which makes 8000 to 12,000 lb. as field-cured. Sugar and molasses
have from time to time been manufactured from the corn stalks.

  See articles on corn and _Zea Mays_ in L. H. Bailey's _Cyclopaedia of
  American Horticulture_ (1900-1902); and for cultivation in India,
  Watt's _Dictionary of the Economic Products of India_, vi. (1893).



MAJESTY (Fr. _majesté_; Lat. _majestas_, grandeur, greatness, from the
base _mag-_, as in _magnus_, great, _major_, greater, &c.), dignity,
greatness, a term especially used to express the dignity and power of a
sovereign. This application is to be traced to the use of _majestas_ in
Latin to express the supreme sovereign dignity of the Roman state, the
_majestas reipublicae_ or _populi Romani_, hence _majestatem laedere_ or
_minuere_, was to commit high treason, _crimen majestatis_. (For the
modern law and usage of _laesa majestas, lèse majesté,
Majestätsbeleidigung_, see TREASON.) From the republic _majestas_ was
transferred to the emperors, and the _majestas populi Romani_ became the
_majestas imperii_, and _augustalis majestas_ is used as a term to
express the sovereign person of the emperor. Honorius and Theodosius
speak of themselves in the first person as _nostra majestas_. The term
"majesty" was strictly confined in the middle ages to the successors of
the Roman emperors in the West, and at the treaty of Cambrai (1529) it
is reserved for the emperor Charles V. Later the word is used of kings
also, and the distinction is made between imperial majesty (_caesareana
majestas_) and kingly or royal majesty. From the 16th century dates the
application of "Most Christian and Catholic Majesty" to the kings of
France, of "Catholic Majesty" to the kings of Spain, of "Most Faithful
Majesty" to the kings of Portugal, and "Apostolic Majesty" to the kings
of Hungary. In England the use is generally assigned to the reign of
Henry VIII., but it is found, though not in general usage, earlier; thus
the _New English Dictionary_ quotes from an _Address of the Kings Clerks
to Henry II._ in 1171 (Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket,
vii. 471, Rolls Series, 1885), where the king is styled _vestra
majestas_, and Selden (_Titles of Honour_, part i. ch. 7, p. 98, ed.
1672) finds many early uses in letters to Edward I., in charters of
creation of peers, &c. The fullest form in English usage is "His Most
Gracious Majesty"; another form is "The King's Most Excellent Majesty,"
as in the English Prayer-book. "His Sacred Majesty" was common in the
17th century; and of this form Selden says: "It is true, I think, that
in our memory or the memory of our fathers, the use of it first began in
England." "His Majesty," abbreviated H.M., is now the universal European
use in speaking of any reigning king, and "His Imperial Majesty,"
H.I.M., of any reigning emperor.

From the particular and very early use of "majesty" for the glory and
splendour of God, the term has been used in ecclesiastical art of the
representation of God the Father enthroned in glory, sometimes with the
other persons of the Trinity, and of the Saviour alone, enthroned with
an aureole.



MAJLÁTH, JÁNOS, or JOHN, COUNT (1786-1855), Hungarian historian and
poet, was born at Pest on the 5th of October 1786. First educated at
home, he subsequently studied philosophy at Eger (Erlau) and law at Györ
(Raab), his father, Count Joseph Majláth, an Austrian minister of state,
eventually obtaining for him an appointment in the public service.
Majláth devoted himself to historical research and the translation into
German of Magyar folk-tales, and of selections from the works of the
best of his country's native poets. Moreover, as an original lyrical
writer, and as an editor and adapter of old German poems, Majláth showed
considerable talent. During the greater part of his life he resided
either at Pest or Vienna, but a few years before his death he removed to
Munich, where he fell into a state of destitution and extreme
despondency. Seized at last by a terrible infatuation, he and his
daughter Henriette, who had long been his constant companion and
amanuensis, drowned themselves in the Lake of Starnberg, a few miles
south-west of Munich, on the 3rd of January 1855.

  Of his historical works the most important are the _Geschichte der
  Magyaren_ (Vienna, 1828-1831, 5 vols.; 2nd ed., Ratisbon, 1852-1853)
  and his _Geschichte des österreichischen Kaiserstaats_ (Hamburg,
  1834-1850, 5 vols.). Specially noteworthy among his metrical
  translations from the Hungarian are the _Magyarische Gedichte_
  (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1825); and _Himfy's auserlesene Liebeslieder_
  (Pest, 1829; 2nd ed., 1831). A valuable contribution to folk-lore
  appeared in the _Magyarische Sagen, Märchen und Erzählungen_ (Brünn,
  1825; 2nd ed., Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1837, 2 vols.).



MAJOLICA, a name properly applied to a species of Italian ware in which
the body is coated with a tin-enamel, on which is laid and fired a
painted decoration. It is also applied to similar wares made in
imitation of the Italian ware in other countries. The word in Italian is
_maiolica_. Du Cange (_Gloss. s.v._ "Majorica") quotes from a chronicle
of Verona of 1368, in which the form _majolica_ occurs for the more
usual Latin form _majorica_. It has usually been supposed that this type
of pottery was first made in the island of Majorca, but it is more
probable that the name was given by the Italians to the lustred Spanish
ware imported by ships hailing from the Balearic Islands. (See CERAMICS:
_Medieval and Later Italian_.)



MAJOR (or MAIR), JOHN (1470-1550), Scottish theological and historical
writer, was born at the village of Gleghornie, near North Berwick,
Scotland, in the year 1470. He was educated at the school of Haddington,
where John Knox was later a pupil. After a short period spent at
Cambridge (at God's House, afterwards Christ's College) he entered the
university of Paris in 1493, studying successively at the colleges of St
Barbe, Montaigu and Navarre, and graduating as master of arts in 1496.
Promoted to the doctorate in 1505, he lectured on philosophy at Montaigu
College and on theology at Navarre. He visited Scotland in 1515 and
returned in 1518, when he was appointed principal regent in the
university of Glasgow, John Knox being among the number of those who
attended his lectures there. In 1522 he removed to St Andrew's
University, where in 1525 George Buchanan was one of his pupils. He
returned to the college of Montaigu in 1525, but was once more at St
Andrew's in 1531, where he was head of St Salvator's College from 1534
until his death.

Major's voluminous writings may be grouped under (a) logic and
philosophy, (b) Scripture commentary, and (c) history. All are in Latin,
all appeared between 1503 and 1530, and all were printed at Paris. The
first group includes his _Exponabilia_ (1503), his commentary on Petrus
Hispanus (1505-1506), his _Inclitarum artium libri_ (1506, &c.), his
commentary on Joannes Dorp (1504, &c.), his _Insolubilia_ (1516, &c.),
his introduction to Aristotle's logic (1521, &c.), his commentary on the
ethics (1530), and, chief of all, his commentary on Peter Lombard's
_Sentences_ (1509, &c.); the second consists of a commentary on Matthew
(1518) and another on the Four Gospels (1529); the last is represented
by his famous _Historia Majoris Britanniae tam Angliae quam Scotiae per
J. M._ (1521). In political philosophy he maintained the Scotist
position, that civil authority was derived from the popular will, but in
theology he was a scholastic conservative, though he never failed to
show his approbation of Gallicanism and its plea for the reform of
ecclesiastical abuses. He has left on record that it was his aim and
hope to reconcile realism and nominalism in the interests of theological
peace. He had a world-wide reputation as a teacher and writer.
Buchanan's severe epigram, perhaps the only unfriendly words in the
flood of contemporary praise, may be explained as a protest against the
compromise which Major appeared to offer rather than as a personal
attack on his teacher. Major takes a more independent attitude in his
_History_, which is a remarkable example of historical accuracy and
insight. He claims that the historian's chief duty is to write
truthfully, and he is careful to show that a theologian may fulfil this
condition.

  The _History_, on which his fame now rests, was reprinted by Freebairn
  (Edinburgh, 1740), and was translated in 1892 by Archibald Constable
  for the Scottish History Society. The latter volume contains a full
  account of the author by Aeneas J. G. Mackay and a bibliography by
  Thomas Graves Law.



MAJOR (Lat. for "greater"), a word used, both as a substantive and
adjective, for that which is greater than another in size, quality,
degree, importance, &c., often opposed correlatively to that to which
"minor" is applied in the same connotation. In the categorical syllogism
in logic, the major term is the term which forms the predicate of the
conclusion, the major premise is that which contains the major term.
(For the distinction between major and minor intervals, and other
applications in music, see MUSIC and HARMONY.)

The use of _Major_ as part of an official title in Med. Lat. has given
the Span. _mayor_, Fr. _maire_, and Eng. "_mayor_" (q.v.). In English the
unadapted form "major" is the title of a military officer now ranking
between a captain and a lieutenant-colonel. Originally the word was used
adjectivally in the title "sergeant-major," an officer of high rank
(third in command of an army) who performed the same duties of
administration, drill and encampments on the staff of the chief commander
as the sergeant in a company performs as assistant to the captain. This
was in the latter half of the 16th century, and very soon afterwards the
"sergeant-major" became known as the "sergeant-major-general"--hence the
modern title of major-general. By the time of the English Civil War
"majors" had been introduced in each regiment of foot, who corresponded
in a lesser sphere to the "major-general" of the whole army. The major's
sphere of duties, precedence and title have since varied but little,
though he has, in the British service, taken the place of the
lieutenant-colonel as second in command--the latter officer exercising
the command of the cavalry regiment, infantry battalion or artillery
brigade, and the colonel being, save for certain administrative
functions, little more than the titular chief of his regiment. Junior
majors command companies of infantry; squadrons of cavalry and batteries
of artillery are also commanded by majors. In most European armies,
however, and of late years in the army of the United States also, the
major has become a battalion commander under the orders of a regimental
commander (colonel or lieutenant-colonel). The word appears also in the
British service in "brigade-major" (the adjutant or staff officer of a
brigade). "Town-majors" (garrison staff officers) are now no longer
appointed. In the French service up to 1871 the "major-general" was the
chief of the general staff of a field army, and thus preserved the
tradition of the former "sergeant-major" or "sergeant-major-general."



MAJORCA (_Mallorca_), the largest of the group of Spanish islands in the
Mediterranean Sea known as the Balearic Islands (q.v.). Pop. (1900),
248,191; area, 430 sq. m. Majorca has the shape of a trapezoid, with the
angles directed to the cardinal points; and its diagonal, from Cape
Grozer in the west to Cape Pera in the east, is about 60 m. On the
north-west the coast is precipitous, but on the other sides it is low
and sloping. On the north-east there are several considerable bays, of
which the chief are those of Alcudia and Pollensa; while on the
south-west is the still more important bay of Palma. No fewer than
twelve ports or harbours are enumerated round the island, of which may
be mentioned Andraitx and Sóller. In the north-west Majorca is traversed
by a chain of mountains running parallel with the coast, and attaining
its highest elevation in Silla de Torrellas (5154 ft.). Towards the
south and east the surface is comparatively level, though broken by
isolated peaks of considerable height. The northern mountains afford
great protection to the rest of the island from the violent gales to
which it would otherwise be exposed, and render the climate remarkably
mild and pleasant. The scenery of Majorca has all the picturesqueness of
outline that usually belongs to a limestone formation. Some of the
valleys, such as those of Valdemosa and Sóller, with their luxuriant
vegetation, are delightful resorts. There are quarries of marble of
various grains and colours--those near Santañy, in the district of
Manacor, being especially celebrated; while lead, iron and cinnabar have
also been obtained. Coal of a jet-like character is found at Benisalem,
where it was first worked in 1836; at Selva, where it has been mined
since 1851; near Santa Maria and elsewhere. It is used in the industrial
establishments of Palma, and in the manufacture of lime, plaster and
bricks near the mines. A considerable quantity is also exported to
Barcelona.

The inhabitants are principally devoted to agriculture, and most of the
arable land is cultivated. The mountains are terraced; and the old pine
woods have in many places given way to the olive, the vine and the
almond tree, to fields of wheat and flax, or to orchards of figs and
oranges. For the last-mentioned fruits the valley of Sóller is one of
the most important districts, the produce being largely transmitted to
France. The yield of oil is very considerable, and Inca is the centre of
the oil district. The wines are light but excellent, especially the
Muscadel and Montona. During the summer there is often great scarcity of
water; but, according to a system handed down by the Moors, the rains of
autumn and winter are collected in enormous reservoirs, which contain
sufficient water to last through the dry season; and on the payment of a
certain rate, each landholder has his fields flooded at certain
intervals. Mules are used in the agriculture and traffic of the island.
The cattle are small, but the sheep are large and well fleeced. Pigs are
reared for export to Barcelona, and there is abundance of poultry and
small game. Brandy is made and exported in large quantities. Excellent
woollen and linen cloths are woven; the silkworm is reared and its
produce manufactured; and canvas, rope and cord are largely made, from
both native and foreign materials.

The roads are excellent, the four principal being those from Alcudia,
Manacor, Sóller and Andraitx to the capital. Forty-eight miles of
railway were open at the beginning of the 20th century. The main line
runs from Palma to Manacor and Alcudia. The telegraphic system is fairly
complete, and there is regular steam communication with Barcelona and
Alicante. The principal towns include--besides Palma (63,937), Felanitx
(11,294) and Manacor (12,408), which are described in separate
articles--Andraitx (6516), Inca (7579), Llummayor (8859), Pollensa
(8308), Santañy (6692) and Sóller (8026).



MAJORIAN (JULIUS VALERIUS MAJORIANUS), emperor of the West from 457 to
461. He had distinguished himself as a general by victories over the
Franks and Alemanni, and six months after the deposition of Avitus he
was declared emperor by the regent Ricimer. After repelling an attack by
the Vandals upon Campania (458) he prepared a large force, composed
chiefly of barbarians, to invade Africa, which he previously visited in
disguise. Having during his stay in Gaul defeated and concluded an
alliance with Theodoric the Visigoth, at the beginning of 460 he crossed
the Pyrenees for the purpose of joining the powerful fleet which he had
collected at Carthagena. The Vandal king Genseric, however, after all
overtures of peace had been rejected, succeeded through the treachery of
certain officers in surprising the Roman fleet, most of the ships being
either taken or destroyed. Majorian thereupon made peace with Genseric.
But his ill-success had destroyed his military reputation; his efforts
to put down abuses and improve the condition of the people had roused
the hatred of the officials; and Ricimer, jealous of his fame and
influence, stirred up the foreign troops against him. A mutiny broke out
in Lombardy, and on the 2nd of August 461 Majorian was forced to resign.
He died five days afterwards, either of dysentery or by violence.
Majorian was the author of a number of remarkable laws, contained in the
Theodosian Code. He remitted all arrears of taxes, the collection of
which was for the future placed in the hands of the local officials. He
revived the institution of _defensores_, defenders of cities, whose duty
it was to protect the poor and inform the emperor of abuses committed in
his name. The practice of pulling down the ancient monuments to be used
as building material, which was connived at by venal officials, was
strictly prohibited. He also passed laws against compulsory ordination
and premature vows of celibacy.

  See Sidonius Apollinaris, _Panegyric of Majorian_; Gibbon, _Decline
  and Fall_, ch. xxxvi. (where an outline of the "novels" of Majorian is
  given); J. B. Bury, _Later Roman Empire_, bk. iii.



MAJORITY (Fr. _majorité_; Med. Lat. _majoritas_; Lat. _major_, greater),
a term signifying the greater number. In legislative and deliberative
assemblies it is usual to decide questions by a majority of those
present at a meeting and voting. In law, majority is the state of being
of full age, which in the United Kingdom is twenty-one years of age. A
person attains his majority at twelve o'clock at night of the day
preceding his twenty-first birthday (see INFANT; AGE).



MAJUBA (properly AMAJUBA, Zulu for "the hill of doves"), a mountain in
northern Natal, part of the Drakensberg range, rising about 7000 ft.
above the sea and over 2000 ft. above the level of the surrounding
country. It overlooks the pass through the Drakensberg known as Laing's
Nek, is 8 m. S. of the Transvaal border and 18 m. N. of the town of
Newcastle. The railway from Durban to Johannesburg skirts the base of
the mountain. During the Boer War of 1880-81 Majuba was occupied on the
night of the 26th of February 1881 by some 600 British troops under Sir
George Pomeroy Colley. On the following morning the hill was stormed by
the Boers under Piet Joubert and the British routed, Colley being among
the slain.



MAKALAKA, a general designation used by the Bechuana, Matabele and
kindred peoples, for conquered or slave tribes. Thus many of the tribes
subjugated by the Makololo chief, Sebituane, about 1830 were called
Makalaka (see David Livingstone's _Missionary Travels and Researches in
South Africa_, London, 1857). By early writers on south-central Africa
certain of the inhabitants of Barotseland were styled Makalaka; the name
is more frequently used to designate the Makalanga, one of the tribes
now classed as Mashonas (q.v.), who were brought into subjection by the
Matabele.



MAKARAKA, or IDDIO ("Cannibals"), a negroid people of Central Africa,
closely related to the powerful Azandeh or Niam-Niam race, occupying the
Bahr-el-Ghazal west of Lado. They came originally from the country of
the Kibas, north of the Welle. Dr W. Junker described them as among the
most trustworthy, industrious and intelligent people of the
Bahr-el-Ghazal. They are a reddish-black, with nose less flat and
cheek-bones less prominent than the ordinary negroes, and, unlike the
latter, do not extract the incisors. Their long silky hair is built up
in the most fantastic form by means of vegetable substances. They are
well-known for strength and staying power.

  See W. Junker, _Travels in Africa_ (1890-1892).



MAKART, HANS (1840-1884), Austrian painter, born at Salzburg, was the
son of an inspector of the imperial castle. He has been aptly called the
first German _painter_ of the 19th century. When he, as a youth, entered
the Vienna Academy German art was under the rule of Cornelius's cold
classicism. It was entirely intellectual and academic. Clear and precise
drawing, sculpturesque modelling, and pictorial erudition were the
qualities most esteemed; and it is not surprising that Makart, poor
draughtsman to the very last, with a passionate and sensual love of
colour, and ever impatient to escape the routine of art-school drawing,
was found to be "devoid of all talent" and forced to leave the Vienna
Academy. He went to Munich, and after two years of independent study
attracted the attention of Piloty, under whose guidance he made rapid
and astonishing progress. The first picture he painted under Piloty,
"Lavoisier in Prison," though timid and conventional, attracted
attention by its sense of colour. In the next, "The Knight and the Water
Nymphs," he first displayed the decorative qualities to which he
afterwards sacrificed everything else in his work. With the "Cupids" and
"The Plague in Florence" of the next year his fame became firmly
established. "Romeo and Juliet" was soon after bought by the Austrian
emperor for the Vienna Museum, and Makart was invited to come to Vienna,
where a large studio was placed at his disposal. In Vienna Makart became
the acknowledged leader of the artistic life of the city, which in the
'seventies passed through a period of feverish activity, the chief
results of which are the sumptuously decorated public buildings of the
Ringstrasse.

The enthusiasm of the time, the splendour of the fêtes over which Makart
presided, and the very obvious appeal of his huge compositions in their
glowing richness of colour, in which he tried to emulate Rubens, made
him appear a very giant to his contemporaries in Vienna, and indeed in
all Austria and Germany. The appearance of each of his ambitious
historical and allegorical paintings was hailed with enthusiasm--the
"Catherina Cornaro," "Diana's Hunt," "The Entry of Charles V. into
Antwerp," "Abundantia," "Spring," "Summer," "The Death of Cleopatra" and
the "Five Senses." He reached the zenith of his fame when, in 1879, he
designed, single-handed, the costumes, scenic setting, and triumphal
cars of the grand pageant with which the citizens of Vienna celebrated
the silver wedding of their rulers. Some 15,000 people participated in
the pageant, all dressed in the costumes of the Rubens and Rembrandt
period. Makart died in Vienna in October 1884.

  Unfortunately Makart was in the habit of using such villainous
  pigments and mediums that in the few decades which have passed since
  his death, the vast majority of his large paintings have practically
  perished. The blues have turned into green; the bitumen has eaten away
  the rich glow of the colour harmonies; the thickly applied paint has
  cracked and in some instances crumbled away. And this loss of their
  chief quality has accentuated the weaknesses of these pictures--the
  faulty drawing, careless and hasty execution, lack of deeper
  significance and prevalence of glaring anachronisms. Important
  examples of his work are to be found at the galleries of Vienna,
  Berlin, Hamburg and Stuttgart. For the Vienna Museum he also executed
  a series of decorative lunettes.



MAKING-UP PRICE, a term used in the London and other British Stock
Exchanges, to denote the price at which speculative bargains are carried
over from one account to the next. The carrying over of a "bull"
position in Eries, for example, implies a sale for cash and a
simultaneous repurchase for the new account, both bargains being done at
the making-up price. This is fixed at noon on carry-over day, in
accordance with the market price then current (see ACCOUNT; STOCK
EXCHANGE). The term is also used in New York, where the making-up prices
are fixed at the end of a day's business, in accordance with the
American system of daily settlements.



MAKÓ, a town of Hungary, capital of the county of Csanád 135 m. S.E. of
Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 33,701. It is situated near the right
bank of the Maros, and is a typical Hungarian town of the Alföld. The
most noteworthy building is the palace of the bishop of Csanád, whose
usual residence is in Temesvár. The town possesses numerous mills, and
the surrounding country is fertile. The communal lands are extensive;
they afford excellent pasturage for horses and sheep and also for large
herds of horned cattle, for the size and quality of which Makó has
obtained a high repute.



MAKRAN, or MEKRAN, a province of Baluchistan, fringing the Arabian Sea
from Persia almost to Sind for about 200 m. It is subject to the khan of
Kalat under British political supervision. Estimated area, 26,000 sq.
m.; estimated pop. (1903), 78,000. The long lateral valley of Kej is
usually associated with Makran in early geographical records. The
Kej-Macoran of Marco Polo is the Makran of to-day.

The long stretch of sandy foreshore is broken on the coast-line by the
magnificent cliffs of Malan, the hammer-shaped headlands of Ormarah and
Gwadar, and the precipitous cliffs of Jebel Zarain, near Pasni. Within
them lies the usual frontier band of parallel ridges, alternating with
narrow valleys. Amongst them the ranges called Talana and Talur are
conspicuous by their height and regular configuration. The normal
conformation of the Baluchistan frontier is somewhat emphasized in
Makran. Here the volcanic action, which preceded the general upheaval of
recent strata and the folding of the edges of the interior highlands, is
still in evidence in occasional boiling mud volcanoes on the coast-line.
It is repeated in the blazing summit of the Kuh-i-taftan (the burning
mountain of the Persian frontier) which is the highest active volcano in
Asia (13,000 ft.), and probably the farthest inland. Evidence of extinct
mud volcanoes exists through a very wide area in Baluchistan and
Seistan. Probably the _miri_, or fort, at Quetta represents one of them.
The coast is indented by several harbours. Ormarah, Khor Kalmat, Pasni
and Gwadar are all somewhat difficult of approach by reason of a
sand-bar which appears to extend along the whole coast-line, and which
is very possibly the last evidence of a submerged ridge; and they are
all subject to a very lively surf under certain conditions of wind. Of
these the port of Gwadar (which belongs to Muscat and is therefore
foreign territory) is the most important. They all are (or were)
stations of the Indo-Persian telegraph system which unites Karachi with
Bushire. With the exception of the Kej valley, and that of the Bolida,
which is an affluent of the Kej, there are no considerable spaces of
cultivation in Makran. These two valleys seem to concentrate the whole
agricultural wealth of the country. They are picturesque, with thick
groves of date palms at intervals, and are filled with crops and
orchards. They are indeed exceedingly beautiful; and yet the surrounding
waste of hills is chiefly a barren repetition of sun-cracked crags and
ridges with parched and withered valleys intersecting them, where a
trickle of salt water leaves a white and leprous streak amongst the
faded tamarisk or the yellow stalks of last season's grass. Makran is
the home of remnants of an innumerable company of mixed people gathered
from the four corners of Asia and eastern Africa. The ancient
Dravidians, of whom the Brahui is typical, still exist in many of the
districts which are assigned to them in Herodotus. Amongst them there is
always a prominent Arab element, for the Arabs held Makran even before
they conquered Sind and made the Kej valley their trade highway to
India. There are negroes on the coast, bred from imported slaves. The
Meds of the Indus valley still form the greater part of the fishing
population, representing the Ichthyophagi of Arrian. The old Tajik
element of Persia is not so evident in Makran as it is farther north;
and the Karak pirates whose depredations led to the invasion of India
and the conquest of Sind, seem to have disappeared altogether. The
fourth section includes the valleys formed by the Rakshan and Mashkel,
which, sweeping downwards from the Kalat highlands and the Persian
border east and west, unite to break through the intervening chain of
hills northward to form the Mashkel swamps, and define the northern
limits of Makran. In these valleys are narrow strips of very advanced
cultivation, the dates of Panjgur being generally reckoned superior even
to those of the Euphrates. The great Mashkel swamp and the Kharan desert
to the east of it, mark the flat phase of southern Baluchistan
topography. It is geologically part of an ancient inland lake or sea
which included the present swamp regions of the Helmund, but not the
central depression of the Lora. The latter is buttressed against hills
at a much higher elevation than the Kharan desert, which is separated
from the great expanse of the Helmund desert within the borders of
Afghanistan by a transverse band of serrated hills forming a distinct
watershed from Nushki to Seistan. Here and there these jagged peaks
appear as if half overwhelmed by an advancing sea of sand. They are
treeless and barren, and water is but rarely found at the edges of their
foothills. The Koh-i-Sultan, at the western extremity of the northern
group of these irregular hills, is over 6000 ft. above sea-level, but
the general level of the surrounding deserts is only about 2000 ft.,
sinking to 1500 ft. in the Mashkel Hamun and the Gaod-i-Zirreh.

The whole of this country has been surveyed by Indian surveyors and the
boundary between Persian and British Baluchistan was demarcated by a
commission in 1895-1896. In 1898 a column of British troops under
Colonel Mayne was despatched to Makran by sea, owing to a rebellion
against the authority of the khan of Kalat, and an attack made by some
Makran chiefs on a British survey party. The campaign was short and
terminated with the capture of the Kej citadel. Another similar
expedition was required in 1901 to storm the fort at Nodiz. The
headquarters of the native governor, under the khan of Kalat, are at
Turbat, with deputies at Tump, Kolwa, Pasni and Panjgur. A levy corps,
with two British officers, is stationed along the western frontier. The
port of Gwadur forms an enclave belonging to the sultan of Muscat.

  _Baluchistan District Gazetteer_, vol. vii. (Bombay, 1907).
       (T. H. H.*)



MAKSOORA, the term in Mahommedan architecture given to the sanctuary or
praying-chamber in a mosque, which was sometimes enclosed with a screen
of lattice-work; the word is occasionally used for a similar enclosure
round a tomb.



MALABAR, a district of British India, in the Madras Presidency.
Geographically the name is sometimes extended to the entire western
coast of the peninsula. Properly it should apply to the strip below the
Ghats, which is inhabited by people speaking the Malayalam language, a
branch of the Dravidian stock, who form a peculiar race, with castes,
customs and traditions of their own. It would thus be coextensive with
the old kingdom of Chera, including the modern states of Travancore and
Cochin, and part of Kanara. In 1901 the total number of persons speaking
Malayalam in all India was 6,029,304.

The district of Malabar extends for 145 m. along the coast, running
inland to the Ghats with a breadth varying from 70 to 25 m. The
administrative headquarters are at Calicut. Area, 5795 sq. m. Malabar is
singularly diversified in its configuration; from the eastward, the
great range of the Western Ghats, only interrupted by the Palghat gap,
looks down on a country broken by long spurs, extensive ravines, dense
forests and tangled jungle. To the westward, gentler slopes and downs,
and gradually widening valleys closely cultivated, succeed the forest
uplands, till, nearer the seaboard, the low laterite table-lands shelve
into rice plains and backwaters fringed with coco-nut palms. The coast
runs in a south-easterly direction, and forms a few headlands and small
bays, with a natural harbour in the south at Cochin. In the south there
is considerable extent of table-land. The mountains of the Western Ghats
run almost parallel to the coast, and vary from 3000 to 7000 ft. in
height. One of the most characteristic features of Malabar is an all but
continuous chain of lagoons or backwaters lying parallel to the coast,
which have been formed by the action of the waves and shore currents in
obstructing the waters of the rivers. Connected by artificial canals,
they form a cheap means of transit; and a large local trade is carried
on by inland navigation. Fishing and fishcuring is an important
industry. The forests are extensive and of great value, but they are
almost entirely private property. The few tracts which are conserved
have come into government hands by escheat or by contract. Wild animals
include the elephant, tiger, panther, bison, _sambhar_, spotted deer,
Nilgiri ibex, and bear. The population in 1901 was 2,800,555, showing an
increase of 5.6% in the decade.

The staple crop is rice, the next most important product being
coco-nuts. Coffee is grown chiefly in the upland tract known as the
Wynaad, where there are also a few acres under tea. The Madras railway
crosses the district and has been extended from Calicut to Cannanore
along the coast. There are eleven seaports, of which the principal are
Calicut, Tellicherry, Cannanore and Cochin. The principal exports are
coffee, coco-nut products and timber. There are factories for cleaning
coffee, pressing coir and making matting, making tiles, sawing timber
and weaving cotton.

  See _Malabar District Gazetteer_ (Madras, 1908).



MALABARI, BEHRAMJI (1853-   ), Indian journalist and social reformer, was
born in 1853 at Baroda, the son of a poor Parsi in the employment of the
state, who died shortly after his birth. His mother took him to Surat,
where he was educated in a mission school, but he never succeeded in
gaining an academical degree. Coming to Bombay, he fell under the
influence of Dr John Wilson, principal of the Scottish College. As early
as 1875 he published a volume of poems in Gujarati, followed in 1877 by
_The Indian Muse in English Garb_, which attracted attention in England,
notably from Tennyson, Max Müller, and Florence Nightingale. His life
work began in 1880 when he acquired the _Indian Spectator_, which he
edited for twenty years until it was merged in the _Voice of India_. In
1901 he became editor of _East and West_. Always holding aloof from
politics, he was an ardent and indefatigable advocate of social reform
in India, especially as regards child marriage and the remarriage of
widows. It was largely by his efforts, both in the press and in tours
through the country, that the Age of Consent Act was passed in 1891. His
account of his visits to England, entitled _The Indian Eye on English
Life_ (1893), passed through three editions, and an earlier book of a
somewhat satirical nature, _Gujarat and the Gujaratis_ (1883), was
equally popular.

  See R. P. Karkaria, _India, Forty Years of Progress and Reform_,
  (London, 1896).



MALABON, a town of the province of Rizal, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 1
m. inland from the shore of Manila Bay and 3 m. N. of the city of
Manila, with which it is connected by an electric tramway. Pop. (1903),
20,136. The leading industries are the refining of sugar, fishing,
trade, the weaving of jusi cloth, the making of cigars, and the
cultivation of ilang-ilang-trees (_Cananga odorata_) for their flowers,
from which a fine perfume is distilled; ilang-ilang is one of the
principal exports, mostly to France. Tagalog and Spanish are the
principal languages. Malabon was formerly known as Tambóbong.



MALACCA, a town on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, in 2° 14´ N.,
102° 12´ E., which, with the territory lying immediately around and
behind it forms one of the Straits Settlements, and gives its name to
the Straits which divide Sumatra from the Malay Peninsula. Its name,
which is more correctly transliterated _melaka_, is that of a species of
jungle fruit, and is also borne by the small river on the right bank of
which the old Dutch town stands. The Dutch town is connected by a bridge
with the business quarter on the left bank, which is inhabited almost
exclusively by Chinese, Eurasians and Malays.

Malacca, now a somnolent little town, a favourite resort of rich Chinese
who have retired from business, is visited by few ships and is the least
important of the three British settlements on the Straits which give
their name to the colony. It has, however, a remarkable history. The
precise date of its foundation cannot be ascertained, but there is
strong reason to believe that this event took place at the earliest in
the 14th century. The Roman youth Ludovigo Barthema is believed to have
been the first European to visit it, some time before 1503; and in 1509
Diogo Lopez de Siqueira sailed from Portugal for the express purpose of
exploiting Malacca. At first he was hospitably received, but
disagreements with the natives ensued and word was brought to Siqueira
by Magellan, who was one of his company, that a treacherous attack was
about to be made upon his ships. Siqueira then sent a native man and
woman ashore "with an arrow passed through their skulls" to the sultan,
"who was thus informed," says de Barros, "through his subjects that
unless he kept a good watch the treason which he had perpetrated would
be punished with fire and sword." The sultan retaliated by arresting Ruy
de Araujo, the factor, and twenty other men who were ashore with him
collecting cargo for the ships. Siqueira immediately burned one of his
vessels and sailed direct for Portugal. In 1510 Mendez de Vasconcellos
with a fleet of four ships set out from Portugal "to go and conquer
Malacca," but d'Alboquerque detained him at Goa, and it was not until
1511 that d'Alboquerque himself found time to visit Malacca and seek to
rescue the Portuguese prisoners who all this time had remained in the
hands of the sultan. An attack was delivered by d'Alboquerque on the
25th of July 1511, but it was only partially successful, and it was not
until the 4th of August, when the assault was repeated, that the place
finally fell. Since that time Malacca has continued to be the possession
of one or another of the European Powers. It was a Portuguese possession
for 130 years, and was the headquarters of their trade and the base of
their commercial explorations in south-eastern Asia while they enjoyed,
and later while they sought to hold, their monopoly in the East. It was
from Malacca, immediately after its conquest, that d'Alboquerque sent
d'Abreu on his voyage of discovery to the Moluccas, or Spice Islands,
which later were the objective of Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation.
During the Portuguese tenure of Malacca the place was attacked at least
twice by the Achinese; its shipping was harried by Lancaster in 1592,
when the first British fleet made its way into these seas; it was
besieged by the Dutch in 1606, and finally fell to a joint attack of the
Dutch and the Achinese in 1641. It was under the Portuguese government
that St Francis Xavier started a mission in Malacca, the first Christian
mission in Malayan lands.

The Dutch held Malacca till 1795, when it was taken from them by Great
Britain, and the Dutch system of monopoly in the straits was forthwith
abolished. The colony was restored to the Dutch, however, in 1818, but
six years later it came finally into the hands of Great Britain, being
exchanged by a treaty with Holland for the East India Company's
settlement of Benkulen and a few other unimportant places on the western
coast of Sumatra. By this treaty the Dutch were precluded from
interference in the affairs of the Malay Peninsula, and Great Britain
from similar action in regard to the States of Sumatra, with the sole
exception of Achin, the right to protect that state being maintained by
Great Britain until 1872 when it was finally abandoned by a treaty
concluded with Holland in that year. The Dutch took advantage of this
immediately to invade Achin, and the strife begun in 1873 still
continues and is now a mere war of extermination. It was not until 1833
that the whole territory lying at the back of Malacca was finally
brought under British control, and as late as 1887 the Negri Sembilan,
or Nine States, which adjoin Malacca territory on the east and
north-east, were completely independent. They to-day form part of the
Federated Malay States, which are under the protection of Great Britain,
and are governed with the assistance and by the advice of British
officers.

Malacca, in common with the rest of the Straits Settlements, was
administered by the government of India until 1867, when it became a
crown colony under the control of the Colonial Office. It is to-day
administered by a resident councillor, who is responsible to the
governor of the Straits Settlements, and by a number of district
officers and other officials under his direction. The population of the
town and territory of Malacca in 1901 was 94,487, of whom 74 were
Europeans and Americans, 1598 were Eurasians, the rest being Asiatics
(chiefly Malays with a considerable sprinkling of Chinese). The
population in 1891 was 92,170, and the estimated population for 1905 was
97,000. The birth-rate is about 35 per thousand, and the death-rate
about 29 per thousand. The trade of this once flourishing port has
declined, most of the vessels being merely coasting craft, and no large
line of steamers holding any communication with the place. This is due
partly to the shallowness of the harbour, and partly to the fact that
the ports of Penang and Singapore, at either entrance to the straits,
draw all the trade and shipping to themselves. The total area of the
settlement is about 700 sq. m. The colony is wholly agricultural, and
the land is almost entirely in the hands of the natives. About 50,000
acres are under tapioca, and about 9000 acres are under rubber
(_hevea_). This cultivation is rapidly extending. There are still
considerable areas unoccupied which are suitable for rubber and for
coco-nuts. The settlement is well opened up by roads; and a railway,
which is part of the Federated Malay States railway system, has been
constructed from the town of Malacca to Tampin in the Negri Sembilan.
There is a good rest-house at Malacca and a comfortable seaside bungalow
at Tanjong Kling, seven miles from the town. Malacca is 118 m. by sea
from Singapore and 50 m. by rail from Seremban, the capital of the Negri
Sembilan. There is excellent snipe-shooting to be had in the vicinity of
Malacca.

  See _The Commentaries of d'Alboquerque_ (Hakluyt Society); _The
  Voyages and Adventures of Fernand Mendez Pinto_ (London, 1653); _An
  Account of the East Indies_, by Captain Alexander Hamilton (Edinburgh.
  1727); Valentyn's _History of Malacca_, translated by Dudley Hervey;
  _Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_; "Our
  Tropical Possessions in Malayan India," by the same author, _ibid._;
  _Further India_, by Hugh Clifford (London, 1904); _British Malaya_, by
  Sir Frank Swettenham (London, 1906).     (H. Cl.)



MALACHI, the name assigned to the last book of the Old Testament in
English (the last of the "prophets" in the Hebrew Bible), which
according to the title (Mal. i. 1) contains the "word of Yahweh to
Israel by the hand of Malachi." In form the word means "my messenger."
It could be explained as a contraction of Malachiah, "messenger of
Yahweh"; but the Septuagint is probably right in not regarding it as a
proper name ("by the hand of His messenger"). Not only do we know
nothing from internal or external evidence of the existence of a prophet
of this name,[1] but the occurrence of the word in the title is
naturally explained as derived from iii. 1: "Behold, I send my
messenger" (cf. ii. 7). The prophecy must, therefore, be regarded as
anonymous; the title was added by the compiler who wrote similar
editorial titles to the anonymous prophecies beginning Zech. ix. 1, xii.
1.

The contents of the prophecy fall into a series of clearly marked
sections, as in the paragraph division of the Revised Version. These
apply, in various ways, the truth emphasized at the outset: Yahweh's
love for Israel in contrast with his treatment of Edom (i. 2-5).
Israel's response should be a proper regard for the ritual of His
worship; yet any offering, however imperfect, is thought good enough for
Yahweh's altar (i. 6-14). Let the priests, who are responsible, take
warning, and return to their ancient ideals (ii. 1-9). Again, the common
Fatherhood of God should inspire a right relation among fellow
Israelites, not such conduct as the divorce of Israelite wives in order
to marry non-Israelite women (ii. 10-16).[2] The prevalence of
wrong-doing has provoked scepticism as to righteous judgment; but the
messenger of Yahweh is at hand to purge away indifferentism from worship
and immorality from conduct (ii. 17-iii. 6). The payment of tithes now
withheld will be followed by the return of prosperity (iii. 7-12).
Religion may seem useless, but Yahweh remembers His own, and will soon
in open judgment distinguish them from the irreligious (iii. 13-iv. 3).
The book closes with an appeal to observe the law of Moses, and with a
promise that Elijah shall come before the threatened judgment.[3]

The topics noticed clearly relate the prophecy to the period of Ezra and
Nehemiah, when the Temple had been rebuilt (i. 10; iii. 1, 10), the
province of Judah was under a Persian governor (i. 8), and there had
been time enough for the loss of earlier enthusiasm. The majority of
modern scholars are agreed that the prophet prepares for the work of
those reformers (Ezra, 458; Nehemiah, 444, 432 B.C.). The abuses of
which he particularly complains are such as were found rampant by Ezra
and Nehemiah--marriage with foreign women (ii. 11; cf. Ezra ix.; Neh.
xiii. 23 seq.; Deut. vii. 3) and failure in payment of sacred dues (iii.
8 seq.; cf. Neh. x. 34 seq.; xiii. 10 seq.; Deut. xxvi. 12 seq.). The
priests have fallen into contempt (ii. 9) and have neglected what is
still one of their chief trusts, the oral law (ii. 6 seq.). The priestly
code of written law was not promulgated until 444 B.C. (Neh. viii.-x.);
"Malachi" writes under the influence of the earlier Code of Deuteronomy
only,[4] and must therefore belong to a date prior to 444. The
independent character of the attack on current abuses also suggests
priority to the work of Ezra in 458. The prophecy affords an interesting
and valuable glimpse of the post-exilic community, with its various
currents of thought and life. The completion of the second Temple (516
B.C.) has been followed by disillusionment as to the anticipated
prosperity, by indifference to worship, scepticism as to providence, and
moral laxity.[5] In view of these conditions, the prophet's message is
to reassert the true relation of Israel to Yahweh, and to call for a
corresponding holiness, especially in regard to questions of ritual and
of marriage. He saw that "the disobedience of his time was the outcome
of a lowered morality, not of a clearer spiritual vision."[6] A strong
sense of the unique privileges of the children of Jacob, the objects of
electing love (i. 2), the children of the Divine Father (ii. 10), is
combined with an equally strong assurance of Yahweh's righteousness
notwithstanding the many miseries that pressed on the unhappy
inhabitants of Judaea. At an earlier date the prophet Haggai had taught
that the people could not expect Yahweh's blessing while the Temple lay
in ruins. In Malachi's time the Temple was built (i. 10) and the priests
waited in their office, but still a curse seemed to rest on the nation's
labours (iii. 9). To Malachi the reason of this is plain. The "law of
Moses" was forgotten (iv. 4 [iii. 22]); let the people return to Yahweh,
and He will return to them. It was in vain to complain, saying, "Every
one that doeth evil is good in the eyes of Yahweh," or "Where is the God
of judgment?"--vain to ask "Wherein shall we return?" Obedience to the
law is the sure path to blessing (ii. 17-iii. 12).

He calls the people to repentance, and he enforces the call by
proclaiming the approach of Yahweh in judgment against the sorcerers,
the adulterers, the false swearers, the oppressors of the poor, the
orphan and the stranger. Then it shall be seen that He is indeed a God
of righteous judgment, distinguishing between those that serve Him and
those that serve Him not. The Sun of Righteousness shall shine forth on
those that fear Yahweh's name; they shall go forth with joy, and tread
the wicked under foot. The conception of the day of final decision, when
Yahweh shall come suddenly to His temple (iii. 1) and confound those who
think the presumptuous godless happy (iii. 15), is taken from earlier
prophets, but is applied wholly within the Jewish nation. The day of
Yahweh would be a curse, not a blessing, if it found the nation in its
present state: the priests listlessly performing a fraudulent service
(i. 7-ii. 9), the people bound by marriage to heathen women, while the
tears of the daughters of Israel, thrust aside to make way for
strangers, cover the altar (ii. 11-16), all faith in divine justice gone
(ii. 17; iii. 14 seq.), sorcery, uncleanness, falsehood and oppression
rampant (iii. 5), the house of God deprived of its dues (iii. 8), and
the true fearers of God a little flock gathered together in private
exercises of religion (perhaps the germ of the later synagogue) in the
midst of a godless nation (iii. 16). That the day of Yahweh is delayed
in such a state of things is but a new proof of His unchanging love
(iii. 6), which refuses to consume the sons of Jacob. Meantime He is
about to send His messenger to prepare His way before Him. The prophet
Elijah must reappear to bring back the hearts of fathers and children
before the great and terrible day of Yahweh come. Elijah was the
advocate of national decision in the great concerns of Israel's
religion; and it is such decision, a clear recognition of what the
service of Yahweh means, a purging of His professed worshippers from
hypocritical and half-hearted service (iii. 3) that Malachi with his
intense religious earnestness sees to be the only salvation of the
nation. In thus looking to the return of the ancient prophet to do the
work for which later prophecy is too weak, Malachi unconsciously
signalizes the decay of the order of which he was one of the last
representatives; and the somewhat mechanical measure which he applies to
the people's sins, as for example when he teaches that if the sacred
dues were rightly paid prosperous seasons would at once return (iii.
10), heralds the advent of that system of formal legalism which thought
that all religious duty could be reduced to a system of set rules. Yet
Malachi himself is no mere formalist. To him, as to the Deuteronomic
legislation, the forms of legal observance are of value only as the
fitting expression of Israel's peculiar sonship and service, and he
shows himself a true prophet when he contrasts the worthless ministry of
unwilling priests with the pure offering of prayer and praise that rises
from the implicit monotheism of even Gentile worship[7] (i. 11), or when
he asserts the brotherhood of all Israelites under their one Father
(ii. 10), not merely as a ground of separation from the heathen, but as
inconsistent with the selfish and cruel freedom of divorce current in
his time.[8] The book is a significant landmark in the religious history
of Israel. Its emphasis on the observance of ritual finds fullest
development in the Priestly Code, subsequently promulgated; its protest
against foreign marriages is made effective through the reforms of Ezra
and Nehemiah;[9] the influence of its closing words on later expectation
is familiar to every reader of the new Testament.[10]

The style of Malachi, like his argument, corresponds in its generally
prosaic character to that transformation or decay of prophecy which
began with Ezekiel; and Ewald rightly called attention to the fact that
the conduct of the argument already shows traces of the dialectic manner
of the schools. Yet there is a simple dignity in the manner not unworthy
of a prophet, and rising from time to time to poetical rhythm.

  LITERATURE.--Nowack, _Die kleinen Propheten_ (1897; 2nd ed., 1904);
  Wellhausen, id. (iii. 1898); G. A. Smith, _The Book of the Twelve_
  (ii. 1898); A. C. Welch, art. "Malachi" in Hastings's _Dict. of the
  Bible_, iii. 218-222 (1900); C. C. Torrey, id. in _Ency. Bib._ iii. c.
  2907-2910 (1902); Marti, _Dodekapropheton_ (1904); Stade, _Biblische
  Theologie des Alten Test._ § 141 (1905); Driver, _The Minor Prophets_,
  ii. (Century Bible, 1906).     (W. R. S.; H. W. R.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] A Hebrew tradition given in the Targum of Jonathan, and approved
    by Jerome, identifies Malachi with Ezra the priest and scribe.

  [2] Torrey (_Ency. Bib._ c. 2908) holds that the reference here is
    purely figurative; "Judah has dealt falsely with the wife of his
    youth, the covenant religion, and is wedding a strange cult." But he
    assigns the book to the 4th century.

  [3] This closing prophecy may possibly be a later addition (so Marti)
    rounding off the prophetic canon by reference to the two great names
    of Moses and Elijah, and their characteristic activities. In this
    case, "Elijah" will represent an early interpretation (cf. Ecclus.
    xlviii. 10) of the "messenger," originally conceived as a purely
    ideal figure. The only other passage in the book whose originality is
    not generally accepted is that referring to mixed marriages (ii. 11,
    12).

  [4] It is the Deuteronomic law that is most familiar to him, as
    appears from his use of the name Horeb for the mountain of the law,
    and the Deuteronomic phrase "statutes and judgments" (iv. 4), from
    his language as to tithes and offerings (iii. 8, 10; cf. Deut. xii.
    11; xxvi. 12), and especially from his conception of the priesthood
    as resting on a covenant with Levi (ii. 4 seq.). Malachi indeed
    assumes that the "whole tithe"--the Deuteronomic phrase for the tithe
    in which the Levites shared--is not stored in each township, but
    brought into the treasury at the Temple. But this was a modification
    of the Deuteronomic law naturally called for under the circumstances
    of the return from Babylon, and Neh. x. and xiii. produce the
    impression that it was not introduced for the first time by Ezra and
    Nehemiah, though the collection of the tithe was enforced by them.
    See further, W.R.S. in _O.T.J.C._ ii. 425-427.

  [5] Cf. Stade's reconstruction, _G.V.I._ ii. 128-138.

  [6] Welch in _D.B._ iii. 220.

  [7] This remarkable utterance is sometimes (as by W.R.S.) interpreted
    of the worship of Jews scattered in the Dispersion: reasons for the
    above view are given by Driver.

  [8] In ii. 16 the Targum renders "If thou hatest her put her away."
    It is characteristic of later Judaism that an arbitrary exegesis
    transformed the above anticipation of the doctrine of marriage laid
    down in the gospel into an express sanction of the right of the
    husband to put away his wife at will.

  [9] "The permanence of Judaism depended on the religious separateness
    of the Jews" (Ryle, _Ezra and Nehemiah_, p. 143).

  [10] Matt. xvii. 3, 4, 10-13; xxvii. 47, 49; John i. 21, 25.



MALACHITE, a copper-ore of fine green colour, sometimes polished as an
ornamental stone. The name is derived from Gr. [Greek: maláchê], the
mallow, in allusion to the colour of the mineral being rather like that
of the mallow-leaf. Malachite was perhaps one of the green minerals
described by Theophrastus under the general name of [Greek: smaragdos];
and according to the late Rev. C. W. King it was probably the _smaragdus
medicus_ of Pliny, whilst his _molochites_ seems to have been a
different stone from our malachite and may have been a green jasper. It
is suggested by J. L. Myres (_Ency. Bib._) that malachite may have been
the Heb. _soham_, of the high priest's breastplate.

Malachite is a basic cupric carbonate, represented by the formula
CuCO3Cu(HO)2, and has usually been formed by the action of meteoric
agencies on other copper-minerals; hence it is found in the upper part
of ore-deposits, often as an incrustation, and occasionally as a
pseudomorph after cuprite, chalcocite, &c. When formed, as commonly
happens, by the alteration of copper-pyrites the iron of this mineral
usually takes the form of limonite, which may remain associated with the
malachite. Occasionally, though but rarely, malachite occurs in small
dark-green prismatic crystals of the monoclinic system. Its usual mode
of occurrence is in nodular or stalagmitic forms, with a mammillated,
reniform or botryoidal surface, whilst in other cases it forms fibrous,
compact or even earthy masses. The nodules, though commonly dull on the
outside, may display on fracture a beautiful zonary structure, the
successive layers often succeeding each other as curved deposits of
light and dark tints. The colours include various shades of apple-green,
grass-green, emerald-green and verdigris-green. Certain varieties
exhibit a finely fibrous structure, producing on the fractured surface a
soft silky sheen.

Whilst malachite is found in greater or less quantity in most
copper-mines, the finer varieties useful for ornamental purposes are of
very limited occurrence, and the lapidary has generally drawn his supply
from Russia and Australia. The principal source in recent years has been
the Medno-Rudiansk mine near Nizhne Tagilsk, on the Siberian side of the
Urals, but it was formerly obtained from mines near Bogoslovsk to the
north and Gumishev to the south of this locality. A mass from Gumishev,
preserved in the museum of the Mining Institute of St Petersburg weighs
3240lb. and still larger masses have been found near Nizhne Tagilsk. The
mineral is prized in Russia for use in mosaic-work, and for the
manufacture of vases, snuff-boxes and various ornamental objects. Even
folding doors, mantelpieces, table-tops and other articles of furniture
have been executed in malachite, the objects being veneered with thin
slabs cleverly fitted together so as to preserve the pattern, and having
the interspaces filled up with fragments and powder of malachite applied
with a cement. The malachite is sawn into slabs, ground with emery and
polished with tripoli. Its hardness is less than 4, but it takes a good
polish like marble: it is rather denser than marble, having a specific
gravity of 3.7 to 4, but it is more difficult to work, in consequence of
a tendency to break along the curved planes of deposition. Exceptionally
fine examples of the application of malachite are seen in some of the
columns of St Isaac's Cathedral in St Petersburg, which are hollow iron
columns encrusted with malachite. Large masses of ornamental malachite
have been found in Australia, especially at the old Burra Burra
copper-mine in South Australia. The Copper Queen and other mines in
Arizona have yielded fine specimens of malachite associated with
azurite, and polished slabs of the mixed minerals sometimes show the
vivid green and the deep blue carbonate in very striking contrast. This
natural association, cut as an ornamental stone, has been named, by Dr
G. F. Kunz, azurmalachite. Malachite is occasionally used for
cameo-work, and some fine antique examples are known. It was formerly
worn as an amulet to preserve the wearer from lightning, contagion and
witchcraft.

  The mineral, when ground, has been used as a pigment under the name of
  "mountain green." The coarser masses are extensively used, with other
  minerals, as ores of copper, malachite containing about 57% of metal.
  "Blue malachite" is a name sometimes given to azurite (q.v.), whilst
  "siliceous malachite" is a term inappropriately applied to chrysocolla
  (q.v.).     (F. W. R.*)



MALACHOWSKI, STANISLAW (1736-1809), Polish statesman, the younger son of
Stanislaw Malachowski, palatine of Posen, the companion in arms of
Sobieski. From his youth Malachowski laboured zealously for the good of
his country, and as president of the royal court of justice won the
honourable title of the "Polish Aristides." He was first elected a
deputy to the Coronation Diet of 1764, and the great Four Years' Diet
unanimously elected him its speaker at the beginning of its session in
1788. Accurately gauging the situation, Malachowski speedily gathered
round him all those who were striving to uphold the falling republic and
warmly supported every promising project of reform. He was one of the
framers of the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791, exceeding in
liberality all his colleagues and advocating the extension of the
franchise to the towns and the emancipation of the serfs. He was the
first to enter his name as a citizen of Warsaw in the civic register and
to open negotiations with his own peasantry for their complete
liberation. Disappointed in his hopes by the overthrow of the
constitution, he resigned office and left the country in 1792, going
first to Italy and subsequently to his estates in Galicia, where he was
imprisoned for a time on a false suspicion of conspiracy. In 1807
Malachowski was placed at the head of the executive committee appointed
at Warsaw after its evacuation by the Prussians, and when the grand
duchy of Warsaw was created Malachowski became president of the senate
under King Frederick Augustus of Saxony. In the negotiations with the
Austrian government concerning the Galician salt-mines Malachowski came
to the assistance of the depleted treasury by hypothecating all his
estates as an additional guarantee. In 1809 he died at Warsaw. His death
was regarded as a public calamity, and multitudes followed his remains
to their last resting-place in the Church of the Holy Cross. In all the
other towns of the grand duchy funeral services were held simultaneously
as a tribute of the respect and gratitude of the Polish nation.

  See August Sokolowski, _Illustrated History of Poland_ (Pol.), vol.
  iv. (Vienna, 1900); _Life and Memoirs of S. Malachowski_, edited by
  Lucyan Siemienski (Pol; Cracow, 1853).     (R. N. B.)



MALACHY, ST (c. 1094-1148), otherwise known as Maol-Maodhog (or
Maelmaedhog) Ua Morgair, archbishop of Armagh and papal legate in
Ireland, was born at Armagh. His father, an Irish clergyman, the
_Fearleighlinn_, or _lector_, at the university, was said to have been
of noble family. Having been ordained to the priesthood, he for some
time acted as vicar of Archbishop Celsus or Ceallach of Armagh, and
carried out many reforms tending to increase conformity with the usage
of the Church of Rome. In order to improve his knowledge of the Roman
ritual he spent four years with Malchus, bishop of Lismore (in Munster),
a strong advocate of Romanism. Here he became acquainted with Cormac
MacCarthy, king of Desmond, who had sought refuge with Malchus, and,
when he subsequently regained his kingdom, rendered great services to
Malachy. On his return from Lismore, Malachy undertook the government of
the decayed monastery of Bangor (in Co. Down), but very soon afterwards
he was elected bishop of Connor (now a small village near Ballymena).
After the sack of that place by the king of Ulster he withdrew into
Munster; here he was kindly received by Cormac MacCarthy, with whose
assistance he built the monastery of Ibrach (in Kerry). Meanwhile he had
been designated by Celsus (in whose family the see of Armagh had been
hereditary for many years) to succeed him in the archbishopric; in the
interests of reform he reluctantly accepted the dignity, and thus became
involved for some years in a struggle with the so-called heirs. Having
finally settled the diocese, he was permitted, as had been previously
stipulated by himself, to return to his former diocese, or rather to the
smaller and poorer portion of it, the bishopric of Down. Although the
Roman party had by this time obtained a firm hold in the north of
Ireland, the organization of the Church had not yet received the
sanction of the pope. Accordingly, in 1139, Malachy set out from Ireland
with the purpose of soliciting from the pope the pallium (the token of
archiepiscopal subjection to Rome) for the archbishop of Armagh. On his
way to Rome he visited Clairvaux, and thus began a lifelong friendship
with St Bernard. Malachy was received by Innocent II. with great honour,
and made papal legate in Ireland, though the pope refused to grant the
pallium until it had been unanimously applied for "by a general council
of the bishops, clergy and nobles." On his way home Malachy revisited
Clairvaux, and took with him from there four members of the Cistercian
order, by whom the abbey of Mellifont (in the county of Louth) was
afterwards founded in 1141. For the next eight years after his return
from Rome Malachy was active in the discharge of his legatine duties,
and in 1148, at a synod of bishops and clergy held at Inis-Patrick (St
Patrick's Island, near Skerries, Co. Dublin), he was commissioned to
return to Rome and make fresh application for the pallium; he did not,
however, get beyond Clairvaux, where he died in the arms of St Bernard
on the 2nd of November 1148. The object of his life was realized four
years afterwards, in 1152, during the legateship of his successor.
Malachy was canonized by Clement III. in 1190.

The influence of Malachy in Irish ecclesiastical affairs has been
compared with that of Boniface in Germany. He reformed and reorganized
the Irish Church and brought it into subjection to Rome; like Boniface,
he was a zealous reformer and a promoter of monasticism. But perhaps his
chief claim to distinction is that of having opened the first Cistercian
monastery in Ireland, five more being soon afterwards established.
Several works are attributed to him, but are all probably spurious. The
most curious of these is a _Prophecy concerning the Future Roman
Pontiffs_, which has produced an extensive literature. It is now
generally attributed to the year 1590, and is supposed to have been
forged to support the election of Cardinal Simoncelli to the papal
chair.

  St Bernard's _Life_ of Malachy, and two sermons on his death will be
  found in J. P. Migne, _Patrologia Latina_; clxxxii., clxxxiii.; see
  also _Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters_, ed. J.
  O'Donovan (Dublin, 1851); G. Germano, _Vita, gesti e predittioni del
  padre san Malachia_ (Naples, 1670); the ecclesiastical histories of
  Ireland by J. Lanigan (1829) and W. D. Killen (1875); A. Bellesheim,
  _Geschichte der katholischen Kirche in Irland_, Bd. I. (Mainz, 1890);
  G. T. Stokes, _Ireland and the Celtic Church_ (6th ed., 1907); J.
  O'Hanlon, _Life of Saint Malachy_ (Dublin, 1859); articles in
  _Dictionary of National Biography_ and Herzog-Hauck's
  _Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie_. On the _Prophecy_,
  see the treatise by C. F. Menêtrier (Paris, 1689); Marquis of Bute in
  _Dublin Review_ (1885); A. Harnack in _Zeitschrift für
  Kirchengeschichte_, Bd. III.



MALACOSTRACA. Under this zoological title are included several groups of
Crustacea (q.v.), united by characters which attest their common origin,
though some, and probably all of them, were already separated in distant
geological ages, and some have now attained a peculiar isolation.
Throughout the whole, the researches made since 1860 have not only added
a great throng of new species, genera and families, but have thrown a
flood of light upon questions of their phylogeny, systematic
arrangement, horizontal and bathymetric distribution, organization,
habits of life and economic importance. There are at least seven orders:
the stalk-eyed Brachyura, Macrura, Schizopoda, Stomatopoda, and the
sessile-eyed Sympoda, Isopoda, Amphipoda. An ocular segment claimed by
the former division is not present or in no case demonstrable in the
latter. In neither does the terminal segment or telson, whether large or
obsolescent, whether articulated or coalescent, carry appendages, unless
occasionally in fusion with itself. Between the eyes and the tail-piece
in all the orders nineteen segments are counted, the proof of a
segment's existence depending on its separateness, complete or partial,
or on a sutural indication, or else on the pair of appendages known to
belong to it. All these marks may fail, and then the species must be
proved to be Malacostracan by other evidence than the number of its
segments; but if some exceptions exhibit fewer, none of the Malacostraca
exhibits more than 19 (+1 or + 2) segments, unless the Nebaliidae be
included. Of the corresponding pairs of appendages thirteen belong to
the head and trunk, two pairs of antennae, one pair of mandibles, two
pairs of maxillae, followed by three which may be all maxillipeds or may
help to swell the number of trunk-legs to which the next five pairs
belong. The abdomen or pleon carries the remaining six pairs, of which
from three to five are called pleopods and the remainder uropods.
Underlying the diversity of names and functions and countless varieties
of shape, there is a common standard to which the appendages in general
can be referred. In the maxillipeds and the trunk-legs it is common to
find or otherwise easy to trace a seven-jointed stem, the endopod, from
which may spring two branches, the epipod from the first joint, the
exopod from the second.[1] The first antennae are exceptional in
branching, if at all, at the third joint. In the mandibles and maxillae
some of the terminal joints of the stem are invariably wanting. In the
rest of the appendages they may either be wanting or indistinguishable.
The latter obscurity results either from coalescence, to which all
joints and segments are liable, or from subdivision, which occasionally
affects joints even in the trunk-legs. The carapace, formerly referred
only to the antennar-mandibular segments, may perhaps in fact contain
elements from any number of other segments of head and trunk, Huxley,
Alcock, Bouvier giving support to this opinion by the sutural or other
divisional lines in _Potamobius_, _Nephrops_, _Thalassina_, and various
fossil genera. Not all questions of classification internal to this
division are yet finally settled. Between the Brachyura and Macrura some
authors uphold an order Anomura, though in a much restricted sense, the
labours of Huxley, Boas, Alcock and conjointly Alphonse Milne-Edwards
and Bouvier, having resulted in restoring the Dromiidea and Raninidae to
the Brachyura, among which de Haan long ago placed them. The French
authors argue that from the macruran lobsters (_Nephropsidae_) anciently
diverged two lines: one leading through the Dromiidea to the genuine
Brachyura; or crabs, the other independently to the Anomura proper,
which may conveniently be named and classed as _Macrura anomala_. Spence
Bate maintained that the Schizopoda ought not to form a separate order,
but to be ranged as a macruran tribe, "more nearly allied to the
degraded forms of the Penaeidea than to those of any other group"
(_"Challenger" Reports_, "Macrura," p. 472, 1888). According to Sars,
the Sympoda (or Cumaceans), in spite of their sessile eyes, have closer
affinities with the stalk-eyed orders. H. J. Hansen and others form a
distinct order Tanaidea for the decidedly anomalous group called by Sars
_Isopoda chelifera_.

  1. BRACHYURA.--For the present, as of old, the true Brachyura are
  divided into four tribes: _Cyclometopa_, with arched front as in the
  common eatable crab; _Catometopa_, with front bent down as in the
  land-crabs and the little oyster-crab; _Oxyrhyncha_, with sharpened
  beak-like front as in the various spider-crabs; _Oxystomata_,
  including the Raninidae, and named not from the character of the front
  but from that of the buccal frame which is usually narrowed forwards.
  In these tribes the bold and active habits, the striking colours, or
  the fantastic diversities of structure, have so long attracted remark
  that recent investigations, while adding a multitude of new species
  and supplying the specialist with an infinity of new details, have not
  materially altered the scientific standpoint. New light, however, has
  been thrown upon the "intellectual" capacity of Crustacea by the proof
  that the spider-crabs deliberately use changes of raiment to harmonize
  with their surroundings, donning and doffing various natural objects
  as we do our manufactured clothes. Others have the power of producing
  sounds, one use to which they put this faculty being apparently to
  signal from their burrow in the sand that they are "not at home" to an
  inopportune visitor. Deep-sea exploration has shown that some species
  have an immensely extended range, and still more, that species of the
  same genus, and genera of the same family, though separated by great
  intervals of space, may be closely allied in character. A curious
  effect of parasitism, well illustrated in crabs, though not confined
  to them, has been expounded by Professor Giard, namely, that it tends
  to obliterate the secondary sexual characters. Modern research has
  discovered no crab to surpass _Macrocheira kämpferi_, De Haan, that
  can span between three and four yards with the tips of its toes, but
  at the other end of the scale it has yielded _Collodes malabaricus_,
  Alcock, "of which the carapace, in an adult and egg-laden female, is
  less than one-sixth of an inch in its greatest diameter." The most
  abyssal of all crabs yet known is _Ethusina abyssicola_, Smith, or
  what is perhaps only a variety of it, _E. challengeri_, Miers. Of the
  latter the "Albatross" obtained a specimen from a depth of 2232
  fathoms (Faxon, 1895), of the former from 2221 fathoms, and of this S.
  I. Smith remarks that it has "distinctly faceted black eyes," although
  in them "there are only a very few visual elements at the tips of the
  immobile eye-stalks."

  The _Brachyura anomala_, or Dromiidea, "have preserved the external
  characters and probably also the organization of the Brachyura of the
  Secondary epoch" (Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, 1901). They agree with
  the true crabs in not having appendages (uropods) to the sixth segment
  of the pleon, the atrophy being complete in the Homolidae and
  Homolodromiidae, whereas in the Dromiidae and Dynomenidae a pair of
  small plates appear to be vestiges of these organs. In the family
  Homolidae stands the strange genus _Latreillia_, Roux, with long
  slender limbs and triangular carapace after the fashion of oxyrhynch
  spider-crabs. In _Homola_ the carapace is quadrilateral. Between these
  two a very interesting link was discovered by the "Challenger" in the
  species _Latreillopsis bispinosa_. Henderson. Bouvier (1896) has shown
  that _Palaeinachus longipes_, Woodward, from the Forest Marble of
  Wiltshire, is in close relationship, not to the oxyrhynch Inachidae,
  but to the genera _Homolodromia_ and _Dicranodromia_ of the
  Homolodromiidae, and that the Jurassic crabs in general, of the family
  Prosoponidae (Meyer), are Dromiidea.

  2. MACRURA.--The _Macrura anomala_, or Anomura in restricted sense,
  are popularly known through the hermit-crabs alone. These only
  partially represent one of the three main divisions, Paguridea,
  Galatheidea, Hippidea. The first of these is subdivided into
  _Pagurinea_, _Lithodinea_, _Lomisinea_, each with a literature of its
  own. Among the Pagurinea is the _Birgus latro_, or robber-crab, whose
  expertness in climbing the coco-nut palm need no longer be doubted,
  since in recent years it has been noted and photographed by
  trustworthy naturalists in the very act. Alcock "observed one of these
  crabs drinking from a runnel of rain-water, by dipping the fingers of
  one of its chelipeds into the water and then carrying the wet fingers
  to its mouth." Hermits of the genus _Coenobita_ he found feeding
  voraciously on nestling sea-terns. That pagurids must have the usually
  soft pleon or abdomen protected by the shell of a mollusc is now known
  to be subject to a multitude of exceptions. _Birgus_ dispenses with a
  covering; _Coenobita_ can make shift with half the shell of a
  coco-nut; _Chlaenopagurus_ wraps itself up in a blanket of colonial
  polyps; _Cancellus tanneri_, Faxon, was found in a piece of dead coral
  rock; _Xylopagurus rectus_, A. Milne-Edwards, lodges in tubes of
  timber or bits of hollow reed. The last-named species has a straight
  symmetrical abdomen, with the penultimate segment expanded and
  strongly calcified to form a back-door to the very unconventional
  habitation. This it enters head-foremost from the rear, while
  "hermits" in general are forced to go backwards into their spiral or
  tapering shelters by the front. Some of the species can live in the
  ocean at a depth of two or three miles. Some can range inland up to a
  considerable height on mountains. The advantage that this group has
  derived from the adoption of mollusc shells as houses or fortresses,
  ready built and light enough for easy transport, is obviously
  discounted by a twofold inconvenience. There is nothing to ensure that
  the supply will be equal to the demand, and Nature has not arranged
  that the borrowed tenement shall continue to grow with the growth of
  its new tenant. To meet these defects it is found that numerous
  species encourage or demand the companionship of various zoophytes,
  simple or colonial. These sometimes completely absorb the shell on
  which they are settled, but then act as a substitute for it, and in
  any case by their outgrowth they extend the limits of the dwelling, so
  that the inmate can grow in comfort without having to hunt or fight
  for a larger abode. Among the _Lithodinea_, or stone crabs, besides
  important readjustments of classification (Bouvier, 1895, 1896),
  should be noticed the evidence of their cosmopolitan range, and the
  species _Neolithodes agassizii_ (Smith) and _N. grimaldii_,
  Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, which carry to an extreme the spinosity
  characteristic of the group (fig. 1). S. I. Smith's investigations on
  the early stages of _Hippa talpoida_, Say, were published in 1877.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Neolithodes grimaldii_, A. Milne-Edwards and
  Bouvier.]

  With regard to the accessions to knowledge in the enormous group of
  the genuine Macrura, reference need only be made to the extensive
  reports in which Spence Bate, S. I. Smith, Faxon, Wood-Mason, Alcock,
  and others have made known the results of celebrated explorations.
  Various larval stages have been successfully investigated by Sars.
  Alcock (1901) describes from his own observation the newly hatched
  _Phyllosoma_ larva of _Thenus orientalis_, Fabricius. An admirable
  discrimination of the larval and adult characters of the genus
  _Sergestes_ has been given by H. J. Hansen (_Proc. Zool. Soc._,
  London, 1896). Singularity excites our wonder in _Thaumastocheles
  zaleucus_, v. Willemoes Suhm, which makes up for its vanished eyes by
  its extraordinarily elongate and dentated claws; in _Psalidopus
  huxleyi_, Wood-Mason and Alcock (1892), bristling with spikes from
  head to tail; in the Nematocarcinidae, with their long thread-like
  limbs and longer antennae; in species of _Aristaeopsis_ reported by
  Chun from deep water off the east coast of Africa, bright red prawns
  nearly a foot long, with antennae about five times the length of the
  body. That certain species, particularly many from deep water, have
  disproportionately large eggs, is explained by the supposition that
  the young derive the advantage of being hatched in an advanced stage
  of development.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Anaspides tasmaniae_, Thomson.]

  3. SCHIZOPODA.--This order of animals for the most part delicately
  beautiful, has for the moment five families--Lophogastridae,
  Eucopiidae, Euphausiidae, Mysidae and Anaspididae. In the Euphausiidae
  the digitiform-arborescent branchiae, as if conscious of their own
  extreme elegance, remain wholly uncovered. In the two preceding
  families they are partially covered. In the Mysidae the branchiae are
  wanting, and some would form this family into a separate order,
  Mysidacea. In _Anaspides_, a peculiar fresh-water genus discovered in
  1892 by G. M. Thomson on Mount Wellington, in Tasmania, the gills are
  not arborescent, and there are seven segments of the trunk free of the
  carapace (fig. 2). A membranaceous carapace separates the Eucopiidae
  from the more solidly invested Lophogastridae. Among many papers that
  the student will find it necessary to consult may be mentioned the
  "_Challenger_" _Report_ on Schizopoda, by Sars, 1885, dealing with
  the order at large; "British Schizopoda," by Norman _Ann. Nat. Hist._
  (1892); "Decapoden und Schizopoden," _Plankton-Expedition_ (Ortmann,
  1893); "Euphausiidae," by Stebbing, _Proc. Zool. Soc._ (London, 1900);
  _Mysidae of the Russian Empire_, by Czerniavski (1882-1883); and
  _Mysidae of the Caspian_, by Sars (1893-1895-1897).

  4. STOMATOPODA.--This order, at one time a medley of heterogeneous
  forms, is now confined to the singularly compact group of the
  Squillidae. Here the articulation of the ocular segment is unusually
  distinct, and here two characters quite foreign to all the preceding
  groups come into view. The second maxillipeds are developed into
  powerful prehensile organs, and the branchiae, instead of being
  connected with the appendages of head and trunk, are developed on the
  pleopods, appendages of the abdomen. At least three segments of the
  trunk are left uncovered by the carapace. The developing eggs are not
  carried about by the mother, but deposited in her subaqueous burrow,
  "where they are aerated by the currents of water produced by the
  abdominal feet of the parent." An excellent synopsis of the genera and
  species is provided by R. P. Bigelow (_Proc. U.S. Mus._ vol. xvii.,
  1894). For the habits and peculiarities of these and many other
  Crustaceans, A. E. Verrill and S. I. Smith on the _Invertebrates of
  Vineyard Sound_ should be consulted (1874). The general subject has
  been illuminated by the labours of Claus, Miers, Brooks (_"Challenger"
  Report_, 1886), and the latest word on the relationship between the
  various larvae and their respective genera has been spoken by H. J.
  Hansen (_Plankton-Expedition Report_, 1895). The striking forms of
  _Alima_ and _Erichthus_, at one time regarded as distinct genera, are
  now with more or less certainty affiliated to their several squillid
  parents.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Pseudocuma pectinatum_, Sowinsky.]

  5. SYMPODA.--This order of sessile-eyed decapods was absolutely
  unknown to science till 1779. A species certainly belonging to it was
  described by Lepekhin in 1780, but the obscure _Gammarus esca_, "food
  Gammarus" beloved of herrings, described by J. C. Fabricius in the
  preceding year, may also be one of its members. Nutritious
  possibilities are implied in _Diastylis rathkii_, Kröyer, one of the
  largest forms, which, though slender and rarely an inch long, in its
  favourite Arctic waters is found "in incalculable masses, in thousands
  of specimens" (Stuxberg, 1880). Far on in the 19th century eminent
  naturalists were still debating whether in this group there were eyes
  or no eyes, whether the eyes were stalked or sessile, whether the
  animals observed were larval or adult. The American T. Say in 1818
  gave a good description of a new species and founded the premier genus
  _Diastylis_, but other investigators derived little credit from the
  subject till more than sixty years after its introduction by the
  Russian Lepekhin. Then Goodsir, Kröyer, Lilljeborg, Spence Bate and
  one or two others made considerable advances, and in 1865 a memorable
  paper by G. O. Sars led the way to the great series of researches
  which he has continued to the present day. The name _Cumacea_,
  however, which he uses cannot be retained, being founded on the
  preoccupied name _Cuma_ (Milne-Edwards, 1828). The more recent name
  _Sympoda_ (see Willey, _Results_, pt. v. p. 609, 1900) alludes to the
  huddling together of the legs, which is conspicuous in most of the
  species. Ten families are now distinguished--Diastylidae, Lampropidae,
  Platyaspidae, Pseudocumidae, all with an articulated telson; without
  one, the Bodotriidae (formerly called _Cumidae_), Vaunthompsoniidae,
  Leuconidae, Nannastacidae, Campylaspidae, Procampylaspidae. All the
  Leuconidae and Procampylaspidae are blind, and some species in most of
  the other families. Usually the sides of the carapace are strangely
  produced into a mock rostrum in front of the ocular lobe, be it
  oculiferous or not. The last four or five segments of the trunk are
  free from the carapace. The slender pleon has always six distinct
  segments, the sixth carrying two-branched uropods, the preceding five
  armed with no pleopods in the female, whereas in the male the number
  of pairs varies from five to none. The resemblance of these creatures
  to miniature Macrura is alluded to in the generic name _Nannastacus_,
  meaning dwarf-lobster. In this genus alone of the known Sympoda the
  eyes sometimes form a pair, in accordance with the custom of all other
  malacostracan orders except this and of this order itself in the
  embryo (Sars, 1900). The most but not the only remarkable character
  lies in the first maxillipeds. These, with the main stem more or less
  pediform, have the epipod and exopod modified for respiratory
  purposes. The backward-directed epipods usually carry branchial
  vesicles. The forward-directed exopods either act as valves or form a
  tube (rarely two tubes), protensile and retractile, for regulating
  egress of water from the branchial regions. This mechanism as a whole
  is unique, although, as Sars observes, the epipod of the first
  maxillipeds has a respiratory function also in the Lophogastridae and
  Mysidae and in the cheliferous isopods. As a rule armature of the
  carapace is much more developed in the comparatively sedentary female
  than in the usually more active male. Only in the male do the second
  antennae attain considerable length, with strong resemblance to what
  is found in some of the Amphipoda. About 150 species distributed among
  thirty-four genera are now known, many from shallow water and from
  between tide-marks, some from very great depths. H. J. Hansen
  concludes that "they are all typically ground animals, and as yet no
  species has been taken under such conditions that it could be reckoned
  to the pelagic plankton." As they have been found in all zones and
  chiefly by a very few observers, it is probable that a great many more
  species remain to be discovered. In recent years thirteen species, all
  belonging to the same genus _Pseudocuma_ (fig. 3), have been recorded
  by Sars from the Caspian Sea. A bibliography of the order is given in
  that author's _Crustacea of Norway_, vol. iii. (1899-1900).

  [Illustration: Fig. 4.--_Rhabdosoma piratum_, Stebbing.]

  6. ISOPODA.--This vast and populous order can be traced far back in
  geological time. It is now represented in all seas and lands, in
  fresh-water lakes and streams, and even in warm springs. It adapts
  itself to parasitic life not only in fishes, but in its own class
  Crustacea, and that in species of every order, its own included. In
  this process changes of structure are apt to occur, and sometimes
  unimaginable sacrifices of the normal appearance. The order has been
  divided into seven tribes, of which a fuller summary than can here be
  given will be found in Stebbing, _History of Crustacea_ (1893). The
  first tribe, called Chelifera, from the usually chelate or
  claw-bearing first limbs, may be regarded as _Isopoda anomala_, of
  which some authors would form a separate order, Tanaidea. Like the
  genuine isopods, they have seven pairs of trunk-legs, but instead of
  having seven segments of the middle body (or peraeon) normally free,
  they have the first one or two of its segments coalesced with the
  head. Instead of the breathing organs being furnished by the
  appendages of the pleon with the heart in their vicinity, the
  respiration is controlled by the maxillipeds, with the heart in the
  peraeon (see Delage, _Arch. Zool. expér. et gén._, vol. ix., 1881).
  There are two families, Tanaidae and Apseudidae. Occasionally the
  ocular lobes are articulated.

  The genuine Isopoda are divided among the _Flabellifera_, in which the
  terminal segment and uropods form a flabellum or swimming fan; the
  _Epicaridea_, parasitic on Crustaceans; the _Valvifera_, in which the
  uropods fold valve-like over the branchial pleopods; the _Asellota_,
  in which the first pair of pleopods of the female are usually
  transformed into a single opercular plate; the _Phreatoicidea_, a
  fresh-water tribe, known as yet only from subterranean waters in New
  Zealand and an Australian swamp nearly 6000 ft. above sea-level; and
  lastly, the _Oniscidea_, which are terrestrial. Only the last of
  these, under the contemptuous designation of wood-lice, has
  established a feeble claim to popular recognition. Few persons hear
  without surprise that England itself possesses more than a score of
  species in this air-breathing tribe. Those known from the world at
  large number hundreds of species, distributed among dozens of genera
  in six families. That a wood-louse and a land-crab are alike
  Malacostracans, and that they have by different paths alike become
  adapted to terrestrial life, are facts which even a philosopher might
  condescend to notice. Of the other tribes which are aquatic there is
  not space to give even the barest outline. Their swarming multitudes
  are of enormous importance in the economy of the sea. If in their
  relation to fish it must be admitted that many of them plague the
  living and devour the dead, in return the fish feed rapaciously upon
  them. Among the most curious of recent discoveries is that relating to
  some of the parasitic _Cymothoidae_, as to which Bullar has shown that
  the same individual can be developed first as a male and then as a
  female. Of lately discovered species the most striking is one of the
  deep-sea Cirolanidae, _Bathynomus giganteus_, A. M. Edwards (1879),
  which is unique in having supplementary ramified branchiae developed
  at the bases of the pleopods. Its eyes are said to contain nearly 4000
  facets. The animal attains what in this order is the monstrous size of
  9 in. by 4. A general uniformity of the trunk-limbs in Isopoda
  justifies the ordinal name, but the valviferous Astacillidae, and
  among the Asellota the Munnopsidae, offer some remarkable exceptions
  to this characteristic. Among many essential works on this group may
  be named the _Monogr. Cymothoarum_ of Schiödte and Meinert
  (1879-1883); "_Challenger_" _Report_, Beddard (1884-1886);
  _Cirolanidae_, H. J. Hansen (1890); _Isopoda Terrestria_, Budde-Lund
  (1885); _Bopyridae_, Bonnier (1900); _Crustacea of Norway_, vol. ii.
  (Isopoda), Sars (1896-1899), while their multitude precludes
  specification of important contributions by Benedict, Bovallius,
  Chilton, Dohrn, Dollfus, Fraisse, Giard and Bonnier, Harger, Haswell,
  Kossmann, Miers, M'Murrich, Norman, Harriet Richardson, Ohlin, Studer,
  G. M. Thomson, A. O. Walker, Max Weber and many others.

  7. AMPHIPODA.--As in the genuine Isopoda, the eyes of Amphipoda are
  always sessile, and generally paired, and, in contrast to crabs and
  lobsters, these two groups have only four pairs of mouth-organs
  instead of six, but seven pairs of trunk-legs instead of five. From
  the above-named isopods the present order is strongly differentiated
  by having heart and breathing organs not in the pleon, but in the
  peraeon, or middle body, the more or less simple branchial vesicles
  being attached to some or all of the last six pairs of trunk-legs.
  Normally the pleon carries six pairs of two-branched appendages, of
  which the first three are much articulated flexible swimming feet, the
  last three few-jointed comparatively indurated uropods. There are
  three tribes, _Gammaridea_, _Caprellidea_, _Hyperiidea_. The middle
  one contains but two families, the cylindrical and often thread-like
  skeleton shrimps, Caprellidae, and their near cousins, the broad,
  flattened, so-called whale-lice, Cyamidae. This tribe has the pleon
  dwindled into insignificance, whereas in the other two tribes it is
  powerfully developed. The Hyperiidea are distinguished by having their
  maxillipeds never more than three-jointed. In the companion tribes
  these appendages have normally seven joints, and always more than
  three. The order thus sharply divided is united by an intimate
  interlacing of characters, and forms a compact whole at present
  defying intrusion from any other crustacean group. Since 1775, when J.
  C. Fabricius instituted the genus _Gammarus_ for five species, of
  which only three were amphipods, while he left five other amphipods in
  the genus _Oniscus_, from this total of eight science has developed
  the order, at first very slowly, but of late by great leaps and
  bounds, so that now the _Gammaridea_ alone comprise more than 1300
  species, distributed among some 300 genera and 39 families. They
  burrow in the sands of every shore; they throng the weeds between
  tide-marks; they ascend all streams; they are found in deep wells, in
  caverns, in lakes; in Arctic waters they swarm in numbers beyond
  computation; they find lodgings on crabs, on turtles, on weed-grown
  buoys; they descend into depths of the ocean down to hundreds or
  thousands of fathoms; they are found in mountain streams as far above
  sea-level as some of their congeners live below it. The Talitridae,
  better known as sandhoppers, can forgo the briny shore and content
  themselves with the damp foliage of inland forests or casual humidity
  in the crater of an extinct volcano. Over the ocean surface, as well
  as at various depths, float and swim innumerable _Hyperiidea_--the
  wonderful _Phronima_, glass-like in its glassy barrel hollowed out of
  some Tunicate; the _Cystisoma_, 4 or 5 in. long, with its eye-covered
  head; the _Rhabdosoma_, like a thin rod of glass, with needle-like
  head and tail, large eyes, but limbs and mouth-organs all in
  miniature, and the second antennae of the male folding up like a
  carpenter's rule (fig. 4). On jelly-fishes are to be found species of
  _Hyperia_ and their kindred, so fat and wholesome that they have been
  commended to shipwrecked men in open boats as an easily procurable
  resource against starvation. Many of the Amphipoda are extremely
  voracious. Some of them are even cannibals. The Cyamidæ afflict the
  giant whale by nibbling away its skin; the _Chelura terebrans_ is
  destructive to submerged timber. But, on the other hand, they largely
  help to clear the sea and other waters of refuse and carrion, and for
  fishes, seals and whales they are food desirable and often
  astoundingly copious. From the little flea-like species, scarcely a
  tenth of an inch long, up to the great and rare but cosmopolitan
  _Eurythenes gryllus_, Lichtenstein, and the still larger _Alicella
  gigantea_, Chevreux, nearly half a foot long, captured by the prince
  of Monaco from a depth of 2936 fathoms, not one of these ubiquitous,
  uncountable hordes has ever been accused of assailing man. For the
  naturalist they have the recommendation that many are easy to obtain,
  that most, apart from the very minute, are easy to handle, and that
  all, except as to the fleeting colours, are easy to preserve.

  A nearly complete bibliography of the order down to 1888 will be found
  in the "_Challenger_" _Reports_, vol. xxviii., and supplementary
  notices in Della Valle's _Monograph of the Gammarini_ (1893), the
  scope of his work, however, not covering the Hyperiidea and
  Oxycephalidae of Bovallius (1889, 1890); but since these dates very
  numerous additions to the literature have been made by Birula,
  Bonnier, Norman, Walker and others, especially the _Crustacea of
  Norway_, vol. i. (_Amphipoda_), Sars (1890-1895), demanding attention,
  and the quite recent _Amphipoda of the Hirondelle_, Chevreux (1900),
  and _Hyperiidea of the Plankton-Expedition_, Vosseler (1901).
       (T. R. R. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem
    constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and
    "exopodite."



MALAGA, a maritime province of southern Spain, one of the eight modern
subdivisions of Andalusia; bounded on the W. by Cadiz, N. by Seville and
Cordova, E. by Granada, and S. by the Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1900),
511,989; area, 2812 sq. m. The northern half of Malaga belongs to the
great Andalusian plain watered by the Guadalquivir, the southern is
mountainous, and rises steeply from the coast. Of the numerous sierras
may be mentioned that of Alhama, separating the province from Granada,
and at one point rising above 7000 ft.; its westward continuation in the
Sierra de Abdalajis and the Axarquia between Antequera and Malaga; and
not far from the Cadiz boundary the Sierras de Ronda, de Mijas, de Tolox
and Bermeja, converging and culminating in a summit of nearly 6500 ft.
The rivers which rise in the watershed formed by all these ranges reach
the sea after a short and precipitous descent, and in rainy seasons are
very liable to overflow their banks. In 1907 great loss of life and
destruction of property were caused in this manner. The principal river
is the Guadalhorce, which rises in the Sierra de Alhama, and, after a
westerly course past the vicinity of Antequera, bends southward through
the wild defile of Peñarrubia and the beautiful _vega_ or vale of
Malaga, falling into the sea near that city. The only other considerable
stream is the Guadiaro, which has the greater part of its course within
the province and flows past Ronda. There is an extensive salt lagoon
near the northern boundary. The mountains are rich in minerals, lead,
and (in the neighbourhood of Marbella) iron, being obtained in large
quantities. There are warm sulphurous springs and baths at Carratraca.
Though the methods of agriculture are for the most part rude, the yield
of wheat in good seasons is considerably in excess of the local demand;
and large quantities of grapes and raisins, oranges and lemons, figs and
almonds, are annually exported. The oil and wines of Malaga are also
highly esteemed, and after 1870 the manufacture of beet and cane sugar
developed into an important industry. In 1905 there were about 500 flour
mills and 230 oil factories beside 95 stills and 100 wine-presses in the
province. Malaga has suffered severely from the agricultural depression
prevalent throughout southern Spain, but its manufacturing industries
tend to expand. The fisheries are important; a fleet of about 300 boats
brings in 18,000,000 lb. annually, of which 25% is exported. The
internal communications are in many parts defective, owing to the broken
nature of the surface; but the province is traversed from north to south
by the Cordova-Malaga railway, which sends off branches from Bobadilla
to Granada and Algeciras. A branch line along the coast from Malaga to
Vélez Malaga was opened in 1908.

  Malaga, the capital (pop. 130,109), Antequera (31,609), Vélez Malaga
  (23,586), Ronda (20,995), Coín (12,326), and Alora (10,325), are
  described in separate articles. Other towns with more than 7000
  inhabitants are Marbella (9629), Estepona (9310), Archidona (8880) and
  Nerja (7112). The population of the province tends gradually to
  decrease, as many families emigrate to South America, Algeria and
  Hawaii.



MALAGA, the capital of the province of Malaga, an episcopal see, and,
next to Barcelona, the most important seaport of Spain, finely situated
on the Mediterranean coast, at the southern base of the Axarquia hills
and at the eastern extremity of the fertile vega (plain) of Malaga in
36° 43´ N. and 4° 25´ W. Pop. (1900), 130,109. From the clearness of its
sky, and the beautiful sweep of its bay, Malaga has sometimes been
compared with Naples. The climate is one of the mildest and most equable
in Europe, the mean annual temperature being 66.7° Fahr. The principal
railway inland gives access through Bobadilla to all parts of Spain, and
a branch line along the coast to Vélez-Malaga was opened in 1908. Malaga
lies principally on the left bank of a mountain torrent, the
Guadalmedina ("river of the city"); the streets near the sea are
spacious and comparatively modern, but those in the older part of the
town, where the buildings are huddled around the ancient citadel, are
narrow, winding and often dilapidated. Well-built suburbs have also
spread on all sides into the rich and pleasant country which surrounds
Malaga, and several acres of land reclaimed from the sea have been
converted into a public park. There are various squares or plazas and
public promenades; of the former the most important are the Plaza de
Riego (containing the monument to General José Maria Torrijos, who, with
forty-eight others, was executed in Malaga on the 11th of December 1831,
for promoting an insurrection in favour of the constitution) and the
Plaza de la Constitucion; adjoining the quays is the fine Paseo de la
Alameda. The city has no public buildings of commanding architectural or
historical importance. The cathedral, on the site of an ancient mosque,
was begun about 1528; after its construction had been twice interrupted,
it was completed to its present state in the 18th century, and is in
consequence an obtrusive record of the degeneration of Spanish
architecture. The woodwork of the choir, however, is worthy of
attention. The church of El Cristo de la Victoria contains some relics
of the siege of 1487. There are an English church and an English
cemetery, which dates from 1830; up to that year all Protestants who
died in Malaga were buried on the foreshore, where their bodies were
frequently exposed by the action of wind and sea. Of the old Moorish
arsenal only a single horseshoe gateway remains, the rest of the site
being chiefly occupied by an iron structure used as a market; the
Alcazába, or citadel, has almost disappeared. The castle of Gibralfaro,
on a bold eminence to the north-east dates from the 13th century, and is
still in fairly good preservation.

During the 19th century so much silt accumulated in the harbour that
vessels were obliged to lie in the roads outside, and receive and
discharge cargo by means of lighters; but new harbour works were
undertaken in 1880, and large ships can now again load or discharge at
the quays, which are connected with the main railway system by a branch
line. About 2150 ships of 1,750,000 tons enter at Malaga every year.
Iron, lead, wine, olive oil, almonds, fresh and dried fruit, palmetto
hats and canary seed are exported in large quantities, while the imports
include grain, codfish, fuel, chemicals, iron and steel, machinery,
manures and staves for casks. Although trade was impeded during the
early years of the 20th century by a succession of bad harvests and by
the disastrous floods of September 1907, the number of industries
carried on in and near Malaga tends steadily to increase. There are
large cotton mills, iron foundries, smelting works and engineering
works. Pottery, mosaic, artificial stone and tiles are produced chiefly
for the home market, though smaller quantities are sent abroad. There is
a chromo-lithographic establishment, and the other industries include
tanning, distilling and the manufacture of sugar, chocolate, soap,
candles, artificial ice, chemical products, white lead and pianos.
Foreign capital has played a prominent part in the development of
Malaga; a French syndicate owns the gas-works, and the electric lighting
of the streets is controlled by British and German companies.

Malaga is the [Greek: Málaka] of Strabo (iii. 156) and Ptolemy (ii. 4,
7) and the _Malaca foederatorum_ of Pliny (iii. 3). The place seems to
have been of some importance even during the Carthaginian period; under
the Romans it became a municipium, and under the Visigoths an episcopal
see. In 711 it passed into the possession of the Moors, and soon came to
be regarded as one of the most important cities of Andalusia. It was
attached to the caliphate of Cordova, but on the fall of the Omayyad
dynasty it became for a short time the capital of an independent
kingdom; afterwards it was dependent on Granada. In 1487 it was taken
and treated with great harshness by Ferdinand and Isabella after a
protracted siege. In 1810 it was sacked by the French under General
Sebastiani. The citizens of Malaga are noted for their opposition to the
Madrid government; they took a prominent part in the movements against
Espartero (1843), against Queen Isabella (1868) and in favour of a
republic (1873).



MALAKAND PASS, a mountain pass in the North-West Province of India,
connecting the British district of Peshawar with the Swat Valley. It is
now a military post and the headquarters of a political agency. It came
into prominence for the first time in 1895 during the Chitral campaign,
when 7000 Pathans held it against Sir Robert Low's advance, but were
easily routed. After the campaign was over a fortified camp was formed
on the Malakand to guard the road to Chitral. During the frontier
risings of 1897 the Swatis made a determined attack on the Malakand,
where 700 were killed, and on the adjacent post of Chakdara, where 2000
were killed. This was the origin of the Malakand Expedition of the same
year. (See SWAT.)



MALALAS (or MALELAS) (Syriac for "orator"), JOHN (c. 491-578), Byzantine
chronicler, was born at Antioch. He wrote a [Greek: Chronographia] in 18
books, the beginning and the end of which are lost. In its present state
it begins with the mythical history of Egypt and ends with the
expedition to Africa under Marcianus, the nephew of Justinian. Except
for the history of Justinian and his immediate predecessors, it
possesses little historical value; it is written without any idea of
proportion and contains astonishing blunders. The writer is a supporter
of Church and State, an upholder of monarchical principles. The work is
rather a chronicle written round Antioch, which he regarded as the
centre of the world, and (in the later books) round Constantinople. It
is, however, important as the first specimen of a chronicle written not
for the learned but for the instruction of the monks and the common
people, in the language of the vulgar, with an admixture of Latin and
Oriental words. It obtained great popularity, and was conscientiously
exploited by various writers until the 11th century, being translated
even into the Slavonic languages. It is preserved in an abridged form in
a single MS. now at Oxford.

  For the authorities consulted by Malalas, the influence of his work on
  Slavonic and Oriental literature, the state of the text, the original
  form and extent of the work, the date of its composition, the relation
  of the concluding part to the whole, and the literature of the
  subject, see C. Krumbacher's _Geschichte der byzantinischen
  Litteratur_ (1897). See also the _editio princeps_, by E. Chilmead
  (Oxford, 1691), containing an essay by Humphrey Hody and Bentley's
  well-known letter to Mill; other editions in the Bonn _Corpus
  scriptorum hist. byz._, by L. Dindorf (1831), and in J. P. Migne
  _Patrologia graeca_, xcvii.



MALAN, SOLOMON CAESAR (1812-1894), British divine and orientalist, was
by birth a Swiss descended from an exiled French family, and was born at
Geneva on the 22nd of April 1812, where his father, Dr Henry Abraham
Caesar Malan (1787-1864) enjoyed a great reputation as a Protestant
divine. From his earliest youth he manifested a remarkable faculty for
the study of languages, and when he came to Scotland as tutor in the
marquis of Tweeddale's family at the age of 18 he had already made
progress in Sanskrit, Arabic and Hebrew. In 1833 he matriculated at St
Edmund Hall, Oxford; and English being almost an unknown tongue to him,
he petitioned the examiners to allow him to do his paper work of the
examination in French, German, Spanish, Italian, Latin or Greek, rather
than in English. But his request was not granted. After gaining the
Boden and the Pusey and Ellerton scholarships, he graduated 2nd class in
_Lit. hum._ in 1837. He then proceeded to India as classical lecturer at
Bishop's College, Calcutta, to which post he added the duties of
secretary to the Bengal branch of the Royal Asiatic Society; and
although compelled by illness to return in 1840, laid the foundation of
a knowledge of Tibetan and Chinese. After serving various curacies, he
was presented in 1845 to the living of Broadwindsor, Dorset, which he
held until 1886. During this entire period he continued to augment his
linguistic knowledge, which he carried so far as to be able to preach in
that most difficult language, Georgian, on a visit which he paid to
Nineveh in 1872. His translations from the Armenian, Georgian and Coptic
were numerous. He applied his Chinese learning to the determination of
important points connected with Chinese religion, and published a vast
number of parallel passages illustrative of the Book of Proverbs. In
1880 the university of Edinburgh conferred upon him the honorary degree
of D.D. No modern scholar, perhaps, has so nearly approached the
linguistic omniscience of Mezzofanti; but, like Mezzofanti, Dr Malan was
more of a linguist than a critic. He made himself conspicuous by the
vehemence of his opposition to Westcott and Hort's text of the New
Testament, and to the transliteration of Oriental languages, on neither
of which points did he in general obtain the suffrages of scholars. His
extensive and valuable library, some special collections excepted, was
presented by him in his lifetime to the Indian Institute at Oxford. He
died at Bournemouth on the 25th of November 1894. His life has been
written by his son.



MÄLAR, a lake of Sweden, extending 73 m. westward from Stockholm, which
lies at its junction with the Saltsjö, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The
height of the lake is normally only from 11 in. to 2 ft. above
sea-level, and its outflow is sometimes reversed. The area is 449 sq. m.
The bottom consists of a series of basins separate by ridges from which
rise numerous islands. The deepest sounding is 210 ft. The outline is
very irregular, the mean breadth being about 15 m., but an arm extends
northward for 30 m. nearly to the city of Upsala with many
ramifications. The area of the drainage basin is 8789 sq. m., of which
1124 are occupied by lakes. The navigable connexions with the lake
are--(1) with lake Hjelmar to the south-west by the Arboga river and the
Hjelmar canal; and by the Eskilstuna river and the Thorshälla canal; (2)
with the Baltic southward through the Södertelge canal, the route
followed by the Göta canal steamers; (3) with the Baltic by two channels
at Stockholm. The more important towns, besides Stockholm, are Vesterås
on the north, Södertelge and Eskilstuna near the south shore. The lake
offers a field for recreation fully appreciated by the inhabitants of
the capital, and many of those whose business lies at Stockholm have
their residences on the shores of Mälar. On Drottningholm (Queen's
Island, named from Catherine, wife of John III.) is a palace with a fine
park and formal gardens. John III. built a palace at the close of the
16th century, but the existing building, by Nicodemus Tessin and his son
Nicodemus, dates from the second half of the 17th century. At Mariefred
on the south shore there is the castle of Gripsholm (1537), built by
Gustavus Vasa, a picturesque erection with four towers, richly adorned
within, and containing a large collection of portraits. Strengnäs, on
the same shore, became an episcopal see in 1291, when the fine
cathedral, much altered since, was consecrated. In the episcopal palace,
a building of the 15th century now used as a school, Gustavus Vasa was
elected to the throne of Sweden in 1523. On the northward arm of the
lake is the palace of Rosenberg, used as a school of gunnery, in a
well-wooded park. On a branch of the same arm is Sigtuna, a village
whose ruined churches are a memorial of its rank among the principal
towns of Sweden after its foundation in the 11th century. Remains prove
that on Björkö, an island in the eastern part of the lake, there was a
large settlement of earlier importance than Sigtuna. Here a cross
commemorates the preaching of Christianity by St Ansgar in 829. Finally,
on the northern arm about 10 m. south of Upsala, there is the château of
Skokloster, occupying the site of a monastery, and presented by Gustavus
Adolphus to Marshal Herman Wrangel, whose son Charles Gustavus Wrangel
stored it with a remarkable collection of trophies from Germany, taken
during the Thirty Years' War; including a library, an armoury, and a
great accumulation of curios.



MALARIA, an Italian colloquial word (from _mala_, bad, and _aria_, air),
introduced into English medical literature by Macculloch (1827) as a
substitute for the more restricted terms "marsh miasm" or "paludal
poison." It is generally applied to the definite unhealthy condition of
body known by a variety of names, such as ague, intermittent (and
remittent) fever, marsh fever, jungle fever, hill fever, "fever of the
country" and "fever and ague." A single paroxysm of simple ague may come
upon the patient in the midst of good health or it may be preceded by
some malaise. The ague-fit begins with chills proceeding as if from the
lower part of the back, and gradually extending until the coldness
overtakes the whole body. Tremors of the muscles more or less violent
accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower
jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and
trunk. The expression has meanwhile changed: the face is pale or livid;
there are dark rings under the eyes; the features are pinched and sharp,
and the whole skin shrunken; the fingers are dead white, the nails blue.

All those symptoms are referable to spasmodic constriction of the small
surface arteries, the pulse at the wrist being itself small, hard and
quick. In the interior organs there are indications of a compensating
accumulation of blood, such as swelling of the spleen, engorgement (very
rarely rupture) of the heart, with a feeling of oppression in the
chest, and a copious flow of clear and watery urine from the congested
kidneys. The body temperature will have risen suddenly from the normal
to 103° or higher. This first or cold stage of the paroxysm varies much
in length; in temperate climates it lasts from one to two hours, while
in tropical and subtropical countries it may be shortened. It is
followed by the stage of dry heat, which will be prolonged in proportion
as the previous stage is curtailed. The feeling of heat is at first an
internal one, but it spreads outwards to the surface and to the
extremities; the skin becomes warm and red, but remains dry; the pulse
becomes softer and more full, but still quick; and the throbbings occur
in exposed arteries, such as the temporal. The spleen continues to
enlarge; the urine is now scanty and high-coloured; the body temperature
is high, but the highest temperatures occur during the chill; there is
considerable thirst; and there is the usual intellectual unfitness, and
it may be confusion, of the feverish state. This period of dry heat,
having lasted three or four hours or longer, comes to an end in
perspiration, at first a mere moistness of the skin, passing into
sweating that may be profuse and even drenching. Sleep may overtake the
patient in the midst of the sweating stage, and he awakes, not without
some feeling of what he has passed through, but on the whole well, with
the temperature fallen almost or altogether to the normal, or it may be
even below the normal; the pulse moderate and full; the spleen again of
its ordinary size; the urine that is passed after the paroxysm deposits
a thick brick-red sediment of urates. The three stages together will
probably have lasted six to twelve hours. The paroxysm is followed by a
definite interval in which there is not only no fever, but even a fair
degree of bodily comfort and fitness; this is the intermission of the
fever. Another paroxysm begins at or near the same hour next day
(quotidian ague), which results from a double tertian infection, or the
interval may be forty-eight hours (tertian ague), or seventy-two hours
(quartan ague). It is the general rule, with frequent exceptions, that
the quotidian paroxysm comes on in the morning, the tertian about noon,
and the quartan in the afternoon. Another rule is that the quartan has
the longest cold stage, while its paroxysm is shortest as a whole; the
quotidian has the shortest cold stage and a long hot stage, while its
paroxysm is longest as a whole. The point common to the various forms of
ague is that the paroxysm ceases about midnight or early morning.
Quotidian intermittent is on the whole more common than tertian in hot
countries; elsewhere the tertian is the usual type, and quartan is only
occasional.

If the first paroxysm should not cease within the twenty-four hours, the
fever is not reckoned as an intermittent, but as a remittent.

  _Remittent_ is a not unusual form of the malarial process in tropical
  and subtropical countries, and in some localities or in some seasons
  it is more common than intermittent. It may be said to arise out of
  that type of intermittent in which the cold stage is shortened while
  the hot stage tends to be prolonged. A certain abatement or remission
  of the fever takes place, with or without sweating, but there is no
  true intermission or interval of absolute apyrexia. The periodicity
  shows itself in the form of an exacerbation of the still continuing
  fever, and that exacerbation may take place twenty-four hours after
  the first onset, or the interval may be only half that period, or it
  may be double. A fever that is to be remittent will usually declare
  itself from the outset: it begins with chills, but without the
  shivering and shaking fit of the intermittent; the hot stage soon
  follows, presenting the same characters as the prolonged hot stage of
  the quotidian, with the frequent addition of bilious symptoms, and it
  may be even of jaundice and of tenderness over the stomach and liver.
  Towards morning the fever abates; the pulse falls in frequency, but
  does not come down to the normal; headache and aching in the loins and
  limbs become less, but do not cease altogether; the body temperature
  falls, but does not touch the level of apyrexia. The remission or
  abatement lasts generally throughout the morning; and about noon there
  is an exacerbation, seldom ushered in by chills, which continues till
  the early morning following, when it remits or abates as before. A
  patient with remittent may get well in a week under treatment, but the
  fever may go on for several weeks; the return to health is often
  announced by the fever assuming the intermittent type, or, in other
  words, by the remissions touching the level of absolute apyrexia.
  Remittent fevers (as well as intermittents) vary considerably in
  intensity; some cases are intense from the outset, or pernicious, with
  aggravation of all the symptoms--leading to stupor, delirium,
  collapse, intense jaundice, blood in the stools, blood and albumen in
  the urine, and, it may be, suppression of urine followed by
  convulsions. The severe forms of intermittent are most apt to occur in
  the very young, or in the aged, or in debilitated persons generally.
  Milder cases of malarial fever are apt to become dangerous from the
  complications of dysentery, bronchitis or pneumonia. Severe remittents
  (pernicious or bilious remittents) approximate to the type of yellow
  fever (q.v.), which is conventionally limited to epidemic outbreaks in
  western longitudes and on the west coast of Africa.

Of the mortality due to malarial disease a small part only is referable
to the direct attack of intermittent, and chiefly to the fever in its
pernicious form. Remittent fever is much more fatal in its direct
attack. But probably the greater part of the enormous total of deaths
set down to malaria is due to the _malarial cachexia_. The dwellers in a
malarious region like the Terai (at the foot of the Himalayas) are
miserable, listless and ugly, with large heads and particularly
prominent ears, flat noses, tumid bellies, slender limbs and sallow
complexions; the children are impregnated with malaria from their birth,
and their growth is attended with aberrations from the normal which
practically amount to the disease of rickets. The malarial cachexia that
follows definite attacks of ague consists in a state of ill-defined
suffering, associated with a sallow skin, enlarged spleen and liver, and
sometimes with dropsy.

_Causation._--From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or
periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers,
who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes
anticipated--vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy--the results
of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt
until the closing years of the 19th century. It has now been
demonstrated by a series of accurate investigations, contributed by many
workers, that malaria is caused by a microscopic parasite in the blood,
into which it is introduced by the bites of certain species of mosquito.
(See PARASITIC DISEASES and MOSQUITOES.)


  History of Discovery.

The successive steps by which the present position has been reached form
an interesting chapter in the history of scientific progress. The first
substantial link in the actual chain of discovery was contributed in
1880 by Laveran, a French army surgeon serving in Algeria. On the 6th of
November in that year he plainly saw the living parasites under the
microscope in the blood of a malarial patient, and he shortly afterwards
communicated his observations to the Paris Académie de Médecine. They
were confirmed, but met with little acceptance in the scientific world,
which was preoccupied with the claims of a subsequently discredited
Bacillus malariae. In 1885 the Italian pathologists came round to
Laveran's views, and began to work out the life history of his
parasites. The subject has a special interest for Italy, which is
devastated by malaria, and Italian science has contributed materially to
the solution of the problem. The labours of Golgi, Marchiafava, Celli
and others established the nature of the parasite and its behaviour in
the blood; they proved the fact, guessed by Rasori so far back as 1846,
that the periodical febrile paroxysm corresponds with the development of
the organisms; and they showed that the different forms of malarial
fever have their distinct parasites, and consequently fall into distinct
groups, defined on an etiological as well as a clinical basis--namely,
the mild or spring group, which includes tertian and quartan ague, and
the malignant or "aestivo-autumnal" group, which includes a tertian or a
semi-tertian and the true quotidian type. Three distinct parasites,
corresponding with the tertian, quartan and malignant types of fever,
have been described by Italian observers, and the classification is
generally accepted; intermediate types are ascribed to mixed and
multiple infections. So far, however, only half the problem, and from
the practical point of view the less important half, had been solved.
The origin of the parasite and its mode of introduction into the blood
remained to be discovered. An old popular belief current in different
countries, and derived from common observation, connected mosquitoes
with malaria, and from time to time this theory found support in more
scientific quarters on general grounds, but it lacked demonstration and
attracted little attention. In 1894, however, Sir Patrick Manson,
arguing with greater precision by analogy from his own discovery of the
cause of filariasis and the part played by mosquitoes, suggested that
the malarial parasite had a similar intermediate host outside the human
body, and that a suctorial insect, which would probably be found to be a
particular mosquito, was required for its development. Following up this
line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a
mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw
out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he
discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be
the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of
development, within the stomach-wall of mosquitoes which had been fed on
malarial blood. He further found that only mosquitoes of the genus
_Anopheles_ had these cells, and that they did not get them when fed on
healthy blood. Then, turning his attention to the malaria of birds, he
worked out the life-history of these cells within the body of the
mosquito. "He saw that they increased in size, divided, and became full
of filiform spores, then ruptured and poured out their multitudinous
progeny into the body-cavity of their insect host. Finally, he saw the
spores accumulate within the cells of the salivary glands, and
discovered that they actually passed down the salivary ducts and along
the grooved hypopharynx into the seat of puncture, thus causing
infection in a fresh vertebrate host" (Sambon). To apply these
discoveries to the malaria of man was an obvious step. In working out
the details the Italian school have again taken a prominent part.


  Experiment.

Thus we get a complete scientific demonstration of the causation of
malaria in three stages: (1) the discovery of the parasite by Laveran;
(2) its life-history in the human host and connexion with the fever
demonstrated by the Italian observers; (3) its life-history in the
alternate host, and the identification of the latter with a particular
species of mosquito by Ross and Manson. The conclusions derived from the
microscopical laboratory were confirmed by actual experiment. In 1898 it
was conclusively shown in Italy that if a mosquito of the _Anopheles_
variety bites a person suffering from malaria, and is kept long enough
for the parasite to develop in the salivary gland, and is then allowed
to bite a healthy person, the latter will in due time develop malaria.
The converse proposition, that persons efficiently protected from
mosquito bites escape malaria, has been made the subject of several
remarkable experiments. One of the most interesting was carried out in
1900 for the London School of Tropical Medicine by Dr Sambon and Dr Low,
who went to reside in one of the most malarious districts in the Roman
Campagna during the most dangerous season. Together with Signor Terzi
and two Italian servants, they lived from the beginning of July until
the 19th of October in a specially protected hut, erected near Ostia.
The sole precaution taken was to confine themselves between sunset and
sunrise to their mosquito-proof dwelling. All escaped malaria, which was
rife in the immediate neighbourhood. Mosquitoes caught by the
experimenters, and sent to London, produced malaria in persons who
submitted themselves to the bites of these insects at the London School
of Tropical Medicine. Experiments in protection on a larger scale, and
under more ordinary conditions, have been carried out with equal success
by Professor Celli and other Italian authorities. The first of these was
in 1899, and the subjects were the railwaymen employed on certain lines
running through highly malarious districts. Of 24 protected persons, all
escaped but four, and these had to be out at night or otherwise
neglected precautions; of 38 unprotected persons, all contracted malaria
except two, who had apparently acquired immunity. In 1900 further
experiments gave still better results. Of 52 protected persons on one
line, all escaped except two, who were careless; of 52 protected on
another line, all escaped; while of 51 unprotected persons, living in
alternate houses, all suffered except seven. Out of a total of 207
persons protected in these railway experiments, 197 escaped. In two
peasants' cottages in the Campagna, protected with wire netting by
Professor Celli, all the inmates--10 in number--escaped, while the
neighbours suffered severely; and three out of four persons living in a
third hut, from which protection was removed owing to the indifference
of the inmates, contracted malaria. In the malarious islet of Asinara a
pond of stagnant water was treated with petroleum and all windows were
protected with gauze. The result was that the houses were free from
mosquitoes and no malaria occurred throughout the entire season, though
there had been 40 cases in the previous year. Eight Red Cross
ambulances, each with a doctor and attendant, were sent into the most
malarious parts of the Campagna in 1900. By living in protected houses
and wearing gloves and veils at night all the staff escaped malaria
except one or two attendants. These and other experiments, described by
Dr Manson in the _Practitioner_ for March 1900, confirming the
laboratory evidence as they do, leave no doubt whatever of the
correctness of the mosquito-parasitic theory of malaria.

It is possible, though not probable, that malaria may also be contracted
in some other way than by mosquito bite, but there are no
well-authenticated facts which require any other theory for their
explanation. The alleged occurrence of the disease in localities free
from mosquitoes or without their agency is not well attested; its
absence from other localities where they abound is accounted for by
their being of an innocent species, or--as in England--free from the
parasite. The old theory of paludism or of a noxious miasma exhaled from
the ground is no longer necessary. The broad facts on which it is based
are sufficiently accounted for by the habits of mosquitoes. For
instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their
breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general
immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding
facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the
comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that
they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the
diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the
breeding-grounds and not flying far. Similarly, the subsidence of
malaria during cold weather and its seasonal prevalence find an adequate
explanation in the conditions governing insect life. At the same time it
should be remembered that many points await elucidation, and it is
unwise to assume conclusions in advance of the evidence.


  Parasites.

With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in
man, an account of them is given under the heading of PARASITIC
DISEASES, and little need be said about them here. They belong to the
group of Protozoa, and, as already explained, have a double cycle of
existence: (1) a sexual cycle in the body of the mosquito, (2) an
asexual cycle in the blood of human beings. They occupy and destroy the
red corpuscles, converting the haemoglobin into melanin; they multiply
in the blood by sporulation, and produce accessions of fever by the
liberation of a toxin at the time of sporulation (Ross). The number in
the blood in an acute attack is reckoned by Ross to be not less than 250
millions. A more general and practical interest attaches to the insects
which act as their intermediate hosts. These mosquitoes or gnats--the
terms are synonymous--belong to the family _Culicidae_ and the genus
_Anopheles_, which was first classified by Meigen in 1818. It has a wide
geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England),
Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt;
west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies,
United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in
those countries. About fifty species are recognized at present. It is
believed that all of them may serve as hosts of the parasite. The
species best known in connexion with malaria are _A. maculipennis_
(Europe and America), _A. funestus_ and _A. costales_ (Africa). In
colour _Anopheles_ is usually brownish or slaty, but sometimes buff, and
the thorax frequently has a dark stripe on each side. The wings in
nearly all species have a dappled or speckled appearance, owing to the
occurrence of blotches on the front margin and to the arrangement of the
scales covering the veins in alternating light and dark patches
(Austen). The genus with which _Anopheles_ is most likely to be
confounded is _Culex_, which is the commonest of all mosquitoes, has a
world-wide distribution, and is generally a greedy blood-sucker. A
distinctive feature is the position assumed in resting; _Culex_ has a
humpbacked attitude, while in _Anopheles_ the proboscis, head and body
are in a straight line, and in many species inclined at an angle to the
wall, the tail sticking outwards. In the female of _Culex_ the palpi are
much shorter than the proboscis; in _Anopheles_ they are of the same
length. The wings in _Culex_ have not the same dappled appearance.
_Anopheles_ is also a more slender insect, with a smaller head, narrower
body and thinner legs. There are further differences in the other stages
of life. Mosquitoes go through four phases: (1) ovum, (2) larva, (3)
nympha, (4) complete insect. The ova of _Anopheles_ are tiny black
rod-shaped objects, which are deposited on the water of natural puddles,
ponds, or slowly moving streams, by preference those which are well
supplied with vegetation; they float, singly or attached to other
objects or clustered together in patterns. They can live in brackish and
even in sea water. The larva has no breathing-tube, and floats
horizontally at the surface, except when feeding; it does not frequent
sewage or foul water. The ova of _Culex_, on the other hand, are
deposited in any stagnant water, including cesspools, drains, cisterns,
or water collected in any vessel; they float in boat-shaped masses on
the surface. The larva has a breathing-tube, and floats head downwards;
when disturbed it wriggles to the bottom (Christy). Some observers
maintain that _Anopheles_ does not "sing," like the common mosquito, and
its bite is much less irritating. Only the females suck blood; the act
is believed to be necessary for fertilization and reproduction.
_Anopheles_ rarely bites by day, and then only in dark places. In the
daytime "the gorged females rest motionless on the walls and ceilings of
rooms, choosing always the darkest situations for this purpose"
(Austen). In temperate climates the impregnated females hibernate during
the winter in houses, cellars, stables, the trunks of trees, &c., coming
out to lay their eggs in the spring. The four phases are passed in
thirty days in a favourable season, and consequently there are
ordinarily four or five generations from April to September (Celli).

The most important question raised by the mosquito-parasitic theory of
malaria is that of prevention. This may be considered under two heads:
(1) individual prophylaxis; (2) administrative prevention on a large
scale.


  Prophylaxis.

(1) In the first place, common sense suggests the avoidance, in
malarious countries, of unhealthy situations, and particularly the
neighbourhood of stagnant water. Among elements of unhealthiness is next
to be reckoned the proximity of native villages, the inhabitants of
which are infected. In the tropics "no European house should be located
nearer to a native village than half a mile" (Manson), and, since
children are almost universally infected, "the presence of young natives
in the house should be absolutely interdicted" (Manson). When unhealthy
situations cannot be avoided, they may be rendered more healthy by
destroying the breeding-grounds of mosquitoes in the neighbourhood. All
puddles and collections of water should be filled in or drained; as a
temporary expedient they may be treated with petroleum, which prevents
the development of the larvae. When a place cannot be kept free from
mosquitoes the house may be protected, as in the experiments in Italy,
by wire gauze at the doors and windows. The arrangement used for the
entrance is a wire cage with double doors. Failing such protection
mosquito curtains should be used. Mosquitoes in the house may be
destroyed by the fumes of burning sulphur or tobacco smoke. According to
the experiments of Celli and Casagrandi, these are the most effective
culicides; when used in sufficient quantity they kill mosquitoes in one
minute. The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide
(an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be
burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is
of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house;
turpentine appears to be the best. Exposure at night should be avoided.
All these prophylactic measures are directed against mosquitoes. There
remains the question of protection against the parasite. Chills are
recognized as predisposing both to primary infection and to relapses,
and malnutrition is also believed to increase susceptibility; both
should therefore be avoided. Then a certain amount of immunity may be
acquired by the systematic use of quinine. Manson recommends five to ten
grains once or twice a week; Ross recommends the same quantity every day
before breakfast. There is some evidence that arsenic has a prophylactic
effect. An experiment made on the railway staff at Bovino, a highly
malarious district on the Adriatic, gave a striking result. The number
of persons was 78, and they were divided into two equal groups of 39
each. One group was treated with arsenic, and of these 36 escaped
altogether, while three had mild attacks; the remaining 39 who were not
treated, all had fever. In a more extended experiment on 657 railwaymen
402 escaped. This was in 1889; but in spite of the encouraging results
the use of arsenic does not appear to have made any further progress.
Experiments in immunizing by sero-therapeutic methods have not as yet
met with success.


  Administrative Measures.

(2) Much attention has been directed in scientific circles to the
possibility of "stamping out" epidemic malaria by administrative
measures. The problem is one of great practical importance, especially
to the British Empire. There are no data for estimating the damage
inflicted by malaria in the British colonies. It is, indeed, quite
incalculable. In Italy the annual mortality from this cause averages
15,000, which is estimated to represent two million cases of sickness
and a consequent loss of several million francs. In British tropical
possessions the bill is incomparably heavier. There is not only the
heavy toll in life and health exacted from Europeans, but the virtual
closing of enormous tracts of productive country which would otherwise
afford scope for British enterprise. The "deadly" climates, to which so
much dread attaches, generally mean malaria, and the mastery of this
disease would be equivalent to the addition of vast and valuable areas
to the empire. The problem, therefore, is eminently one for the
statesman and administrator. A solution may be sought in several
directions, suggested by the facts already explained. The existence of
the parasite is maintained by a vicious interchange between its
alternate hosts, mosquitoes and man, each infecting the other. If the
cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it
has no other origin or mode of existence. The most effective step would
obviously be the extermination of the _Anopheles_ mosquito. A great deal
may be done towards this end by suppressing their breeding-places, which
means the drying of the ground. It is a question for the engineer, and
may require different methods in different circumstances. Put
comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface
waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable
agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase
the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.

The city of Rome is an example of what can be done by drainage; situated
in the midst of malaria, it is itself quite healthy. Recent reports also
show us how much may be done in infected districts. At Ismailia malaria
was reduced from 1551 cases in 1902 to 37 cases in 1905. The cost of
operations amounted to an initial expenditure of 6.25 francs, and an
annual expenditure of about 2.3 francs per head of the population. "The
results are due to mosquito reduction together with cinchonization." The
following is a tabulated list of the cases. The population of Ismailia
is about 6000.

  +------------------+------+------+-------+------+------+--------+
  | Year             | 1900 | 1901 | 1902* | 1903 | 1904 |  1905  |
  +------------------+------+------+-------+------+------+--------+
  | Cases of Malaria | 2250 | 1990 | 1548  |  214 |   90 | 372[2] |
  +------------------+------+------+-------+------+------+--------+

  * Drainage works begun.

Klang and Port Swettenham are contiguous towns in the Federated Malay
States, having a population of 4000 and a rainfall of 100 in. a year. At
Klang the expenditure has been £3100, with an annual expenditure of
£270, devoted to clearing and draining 332 acres. At Port Swettenham
£7000, with an annual upkeep of £240, has been devoted to treating 110
acres. In Hong-Kong similar measures were carried out, with the result
that the hospital admissions for malaria diminished from 1294 in 1901,
the year when operations were begun, to 419 in 1905.

  Klang and Port Swettenham.

  +------------------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+
  | Year             | 1900 | 1901* | 1902 | 1903 | 1904 | 1905 |
  +------------------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+
  | Cases of Malaria |  510 |  610  |  199 |   69 |   32 |   23 |
  +------------------+------+-------+------+------+------+------+

  * Nearly all were relapses of previous infection.

A systematic campaign for the destruction of breeding-places has been
inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging
results. The planting of eucalyptus trees is out of favour at present,
but it appears to have been successful in Portugal, not from any
prophylactic virtues in the plant, but through the great absorption of
moisture by its deep roots, which tends to dry the subsoil. Treating the
breeding-ponds with petroleum or similar preparations seems to be hardly
applicable on a large scale, and in any case can only be a temporary
expedient. H. Ziemann advocates the destruction of mosquito larvae by
the growing of such plants as the water-pest (_Anacharis alsinatrum_)
which covers the surface of the water and suffocates larvae and nymphae.
Short of suppressing mosquitoes, the parasitic cycle may theoretically
be broken by preventing them from giving the infection to man or taking
it from him. The means of accomplishing the former have been already
pointed out, but they are obviously difficult to carry out on a large
scale, particularly in native communities. It is one thing to protect
individuals from mosquito bites, another to prevent the propagation of
the parasite in a whole community. Perhaps the converse is more feasible
in some circumstances--that is to say, preventing mosquitoes from having
access to malarial persons, and so propagating the parasite in
themselves. It could be carried out where the infected persons are few,
by isolating and protecting them, but not where many are infected, as in
native villages. Koch has suggested that the disinfection of malarial
persons by quinine would have the desired effect, but other authorities
of greater experience do not consider it practicable. In spite of the
difficulties, however, there is no doubt that a great deal can be done
to reduce, if not stamp out, malaria by the methods indicated, which
should be applied according to circumstances. An encouraging example is
afforded by the remarkable fact that malaria, which was once rife in
certain districts of England, has now died out, although the _Anopheles
maculipennis_ mosquito still exists there. The parasitic cycle has been
broken, and the insect is no longer infected. The suggested causes are
(1) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the
use of quinine. Sir Patrick Manson has suggested that the problem of
stamping out malaria may be assisted by the discovery of some at present
unknown factors. He has pointed out that certain areas and certain
islands are entirely free from the disease, while neighbouring areas and
islands are devastated. This immunity is apparently not due to the
absence of favourable conditions, but rather to the presence of some
inimical factor which prevents the development of the parasite. If this
factor could be discovered it might be applied to the suppression of the
disease in malarious localities.

A few other points may be noted. The pathological changes in malaria are
due to the deposition of melanin and the detritus of red corpuscles and
haemoglobin, and to the congregation of parasites in certain sites
(Ross). In chronic cases the eventual effects are anaemia, melanosis,
enlargement of the spleen and liver, and general cachexia. Apparently
the parasites may remain quiescent in the blood for years and may cause
relapses by fresh sporulation. Recent discoveries have done little or
nothing for treatment. Quinine still remains the one specific. In
serious cases it should not be given in solid form, but in solution by
the stomach, rectum, or--better--hypodermically (Manson). According to
Ross, it should be given promptly, in sufficient doses (up to 30
grains), and should be continued for months. Euquinine is by some
preferred to quinine, but it is more expensive. Nucleogen and Aristochin
have also been recommended instead of quinine. The nature of immunity is
not known. Some persons are naturally absolutely immune (Celli), but
this is rare; immunity is also sometimes acquired by infection, but as a
rule persons once infected are more predisposed than others. Races
inhabiting malarious districts acquire a certain degree of resistance,
no doubt through natural selection. Children are much more susceptible
than adults.

_Malaria in the Lower Vertebrates._--Birds are subject to malaria, which
is caused by blood parasites akin to those in man and having a similar
life-history. Two species, affecting different kinds of birds, have been
identified. Their alternate hosts are mosquitoes of the _Culex_ genus.
Oxen, sheep, dogs, monkeys, bats, and probably horses also suffer from
similar parasitic diseases. In the case of oxen the alternate host of
the parasite is a special tick (Smith and Kilborne). In the other
animals several parasites have been described by different observers,
but the alternate hosts are not known.

  AUTHORITIES.--Celli, _Malaria_; Christy, _Mosquitoes and Malaria_;
  Manson, _Tropical Diseases_; Allbutt's _System of Medicine_; Ross,
  "Malaria," Quain's _Dictionary of Medicine_, 3rd ed.; _The
  Practitioner_, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); _Lancet_ (Sept. 29,
  1907); _British Medical Journal_ (Oct. 19, 1907); _Indian Medical
  Gazette_ (February 1908).     (A. Sl.; H. L. H.)



MALATIA (MALATIEH or ASPUZU) the chief town of a sanjak of the same name
in the Mamuret el-Aziz vilayet of Asia Minor, and a military station on
the Samsun-Sivas-Diarbekr road, altitude 2900 ft., situated about 10 m.
S.W. of the junction of the Tokhma Su (med. Kubakib) with the Euphrates,
near the south end of a fertile plain, and at the northern foot of the
Taurus. Pop. about 30,000, including, besides many Armenian Christians,
bodies of Kurds and "Kizilbash." It is a wholly modern place, rebuilt
since the earthquake of 1893, contains fine public buildings, and is
noted for its fruit orchards. There are Protestant (American) and Roman
Catholic missions, and an Armenian Catholic archbishop has his seat
here. Eskishehr or Old Malatia (_Melitene_), 5 m. N.E. and 3 m. from the
great medieval bridge (Kirkgeuz) over the Tokhma Su, is said to owe its
present desolation largely to its occupation by Hafiz Pasha as his
headquarters in 1838 before his advance to fight the disastrous battle
of Nizib with the Egyptian, Ibrahim. But it has still many inhabitants
and large gardens and many ruinous mosques, baths, &c., relics of
Mansur's city. It was the residence of von Moltke for some months, while
attached to Hafiz's army. The earliest site was possibly Arslan Tepe
about 2 m. south of Eskishehr were two "Hittite" stelae, representing
hunting scenes, now in the Constantinople and Paris museums, were found
in 1894.

  In the time of Strabo (xii. 537) there was no town in the district of
  Melitene, which was reckoned part of Cappadocia. Under Titus the place
  became the permanent station of the 12th ("Thundering") legion; Trajan
  raised it to a city. Lying in a very fertile country at the crossing
  point of important routes, including the Persian "Royal Road," and two
  imperial military highways from Caesarea and along the Euphrates bank,
  it grew in size and importance, and was the capital of Armenia Minor
  or Secunda. Justinian, who completed the walls commenced by
  Anastasius, made it the capital of Armenia Tertia; it was then a very
  great place (Procop., _De aed._, iii. 4). The town was burnt by
  Chosroes on his retreat after his great defeat there in 577. Taken by
  the Saracens, retaken and destroyed by Constantine Copronymus, it was
  presently recovered to Islam, and rebuilt under Mansur (A.D. 756). It
  again changed hands more than once, being reckoned among the frontier
  towns of Syria (Istakhry, pp. 55, 62). At length the Greeks recovered
  it in 934, and Nicephorus II., finding the district much wasted,
  encouraged the Jacobites to settle in it, which they did in great
  numbers. A convent of the Virgin, and the great church which bears his
  name, were erected by the bishop Ignatius (Isaac the Runner). From
  this time Malatia continued to be a great seat of the Jacobites, and
  it was the birthplace of their famous maphrian Barhebraeus (or
  Abulfaragius). At the commencement of the 11th century the population
  was said to number 60,000 fighting men (Assem., _Bib. Or._, ii. 149;
  cf. Barheb., _Chr. Eccl._, i. 411, 423). At the time of the first
  crusade, the city, being hard pressed by the Turks under Ibn
  Danishmend, was relieved by Baldwin, after Bohemund had failed and
  lost his liberty in the attempt. But the Jacobites had no cause to
  love Byzantium, and the Greek governor Gabriel was so cruel and
  faithless that the townsmen were soon glad to open their gates to Ibn
  Danishmend (1102), and the city subsequently became part of the realm
  of Kilij Arslan, sultan of Iconium.

  See H. C. B. v. Moltke, _Briefe über Zustände, &c. in der Türkei_
  (1835-1839).     (D. G. H.)



MALAYALAM, a language of the Dravidian family, spoken on the west coast
of southern India. It is believed to have developed out of Tamil as
recently as the 9th century. It possesses a large literature, in which
words borrowed from Sanskrit are conspicuous. In 1901 the total number
of speakers of Malayalam in all India was just about six millions.



MALAY ARCHIPELAGO[1] (variously called _Malaysia_, the _Indian
Archipelago_, the _East Indies_, _Indonesia_, _Insulinde_), the largest
group of islands in the world, lying south-east of Asia and north and
north-west of Australia. It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas,
New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar
group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it
successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the
most important islands. A. R. Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands
as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago
"includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them,
Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be
surrounded by a sea of forests. Sumatra is about equal in extent to
Great Britain; Java, Luzon, and Celebes are each about the size of
Ireland. Eighteen more islands are on the average as large as Jamaica;
and more than a hundred are as large as the Isle of Wight."

  +------------------------+---------+-----------------------+
  |                        |  Area.  | Estimated Population. |
  +------------------------+---------+-----------------------+
  | Sunda Islands          | 459,578 |      32,632,400       |
  | Moluccas, with Celebes | 115,334 |       3,000,000       |
  | New Guinea             | 312,329 |         800,000       |
  | Philippine Islands     | 115,026 |       7,635,400       |
  +------------------------+---------+-----------------------+

The islands of the archipelago nearly all present bold and picturesque
profiles against the horizon, and at the same time the character of the
scenery varies from island to island and even from district to district.
The mountains are arranged for the most part in lines running either
from north-west to south-east or from west to east. In Sumatra and in
the islands between Sumatra and Borneo the former direction is
distinctly marked, and the latter is equally noticeable in Java and the
other southern islands. The mountains of Borneo, however, rise rather in
short ridges and clusters. Nothing in the general physiognomy of the
islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the
volcanoes, active or extinct. Running south-east through Sumatra, east
through Java and the southern islands to Timor, curving north through
the Moluccas, and again north, from the end of Celebes through the whole
line of the Philippines, they follow a line roughly resembling a
horseshoe narrowed towards the point. The loftiest mountain in the
archipelago would appear to be Kinabalu in Borneo (13,698 ft.). An
important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that
Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them and
the Asiatic mainland, all rest on a great submerged bank, nowhere more
than 100 fathoms below sea-level, which may be considered a continuation
of the continent; while to the east the depth of the sea has been found
at various places to be from 1000 to 2500 fathoms. As the value of this
fact was particularly emphasized by Wallace, the limit of the shallow
water, which is found in the narrow but deep channel between Bali and
Lombok, and strikes north to the east of Borneo, has received the name
of "Wallace's Line." The Philippines on the other hand, "are almost
surrounded by deep sea, but are connected with Borneo by means of two
narrow submarine banks" (A. R. Wallace, _Island Life_). The archipelago,
in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the
Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its
geography--zoological, botanical, and even human. It is believed that
there was a land-connexion between Asia and Australia in the later part
of the Secondary epoch, and that the Australian continent, when
separated, became divided into islands before the south-eastern part of
the Asiatic did so.

  The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is
  the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of _Pithecanthropus
  erectus_, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man. In its
  structure and cranial capacity it is entitled to a higher place in the
  zoological scale than any anthropoid, for it almost certainly walked
  erect; and, on the other hand, in its intellectual powers it must have
  been much below the lowest of the human race at present known. The
  strata in which it was found belong to the Miocene or Upper Pliocene.
  Among the rocks of economic importance may be mentioned granite of
  numerous kinds, syenite, serpentine, porphyry, marble, sandstones and
  marls. Coal is worked in Sumatra, Borneo and Labuan. Diamonds are
  obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes
  in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra,
  Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines,
  Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka,
  Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold
  is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes,
  Bachian, Timor and Borneo. Manganese could be readily worked in Timor,
  where it lies in the Carboniferous Limestone. Platinum is found in
  Landak and other parts of Borneo. Petroleum is a valuable product of
  Sumatra and Java, and is also found in Borneo.

_Climate_, _Flora_, _Fauna._--The most striking general fact as regards
climate in the archipelago is that wherever that part of the south-east
monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is
comparatively dry, and the vegetation is less luxuriant. The east end of
Java, e.g. has a less rainfall than the west; the distribution of the
rain on the north coast is quite different from that on the south, and a
similar difference is observed between the east and the west of Celebes.
The north-west monsoon, beginning in October and lasting till March,
brings the principal rainy season in the archipelago.

  Most of the islands of the archipelago belong to the great equatorial
  forest-belt. In its economical aspect the vegetation, whether natural
  or cultivated, is of prime interest. The list of fruits is very
  extensive, though few of them are widely known. These, however,
  include the orange, mango, mangosteen, shaddock, guava and the durian.
  The variety of food-plants is equally notable. Not only are rice and
  maize, sugar and coffee, among the widely cultivated crops, but the
  coco-nut, the bread-fruit, the banana and plantain, the sugar-palm,
  the tea-plant, the sago-palm, the coco-tree, the ground-nut, the yam,
  the cassava, and others besides, are of practical importance. The
  cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the
  Dutch; and to them also is due the introduction of tea. They have
  greatly encouraged the cultivation of the coco-nut among the natives,
  and it flourishes, especially in the coast districts, in almost every
  island in their territory. The oil is largely employed in native
  cookery. Pepper, nutmegs and cloves were long the objects of the most
  important branch of Dutch commerce; and gutta-percha, camphor, dammar,
  benzoin and other forest products have a place among the exports.

  To the naturalist the Malay Archipelago is a region of the highest
  interest; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of
  explorers of the first rank. The physical division between the Asiatic
  and Australian regions is clearly reflected in the botany and zoology.
  The flora of the Asiatic islands (thus distinguished) "is a special
  development of that prevailing from the Himalayas to the Malay
  Peninsula and south China. Farther east this flora intermingles with
  that of Australia" (F. H. H. Guillemard, _Australasia_). Similarly, in
  the Asiatic islands are found the great mammals of the continent--the
  elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, anthropoid ape, &c., which are wanting
  in the Australian region, with which the eastern part of the
  archipelago is associated. (For details concerning flora and fauna,
  see separate articles, especially JAVA.)

[Illustration: Map of Malay Archipelago.]

_Inhabitants._--The majority of the native inhabitants of the Malay
Archipelago belong to two races, the Malays and the Melanesians
(Papuans). As regards the present racial distribution, the view accepted
by many anthropologists, following A. H. Keane, is that the Negritos,
still found in the Philippines, are the true aborigines of Indo-China
and western Malaysia, while the Melanesians, probably their kinsmen,
were the earliest occupants of eastern Malaysia and western Polynesia.
At some date long anterior to history it is supposed that Indo-China was
occupied first by a fair Caucasian people and later by a yellow
Mongolian race. From these two have come all the peoples--other than
Negrito or Papuan--found to-day from the Malay Peninsula to the farthest
islands of Polynesia. The Malay Archipelago was thus first invaded by
the Caucasians, who eventually passed eastward and are to-day
represented in the Malay Archipelago only by the Mentawi islanders. They
were followed by an immigration of Mongol-Caucasic peoples with a
preponderance of Caucasic blood--the Indonesians of some, the pre-Malays
of other writers--who are to-day represented in the archipelago by such
peoples as the Dyaks of Borneo and the Battas of Sumatra. At a far later
date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a
combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and
overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race. A Hindu
strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and
Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans
from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less
amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from
an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the
community in many of the more civilized districts. Chinese have been
established in the archipelago from a very early date: the first Dutch
invaders found them settled at Jacatra; and many of them, as, for
instance, the colony of Ternate, have taken so kindly to their new home
that they have acquired Malay to the disuse of their native tongue.
Chinese tombs are among the objects that strike the traveller's
attention at Amboyna and other ancient settlements.

  There is a vast field for philological explorations in the
  archipelago. Of the great number of distinct languages known to exist,
  few have been studied scientifically. The most widely distributed is
  the Malay, which has not only been diffused by the Malays themselves
  throughout the coast regions of the various islands, but, owing partly
  to the readiness with which it can be learned, has become the common
  medium between the Europeans and the natives. The most cultivated of
  the native tongues is the Javanese, and it is spoken by a greater
  number of people than any of the others. To it Sundanese stands in the
  relation that Low German holds to High German, and the Madurese in the
  relation of a strongly individualized dialect. Among the other
  languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically
  analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the
  Batta (with its dialect the Toba), the Dyak and the Macassarese.
  Alfurese, a vague term meaning in the mouths of the natives little
  else than non-Mahommedan, has been more particularly applied by Dutch
  philologists to the native speech of certain tribes in Celebes. The
  commercial activity of the Buginese causes their language to be fairly
  widely spoken--little, however, by Europeans.

_Political Division._--Politically the whole of the archipelago, except
British North Borneo, &c. (see BORNEO), part of Timor (Portuguese), New
Guinea east of the 141st meridian (British and German), and the
Philippine Islands, belongs to the Netherlands. The Philippine Islands
which had been for several centuries a Spanish possession, passed in
1898 by conquest to the United States of America. For these several
political units see the separate articles; a general view, however, is
here given of the government, economic conditions, &c., of the Dutch
possessions, which the Dutch call _Nederlandsch-Indië_.


NETHERLANDS INDIA

  _Administration._--The Dutch possessions in Asia lie between 6° N. and
  11° S. and 95° E. and 141° E. Politically they are divided into lands
  under the direct government of the Netherlands vassal lands and
  confederated lands. Administratively they are further divided into
  residencies, divisions, regencies, districts, and _dessas_ or
  villages. In the principal towns and villages there are parish
  councils, and in some provinces county councils have been established.
  Natives, Chinese and Arabs, are given seats, and in certain instances
  some of the members are elected, but more generally they are appointed
  by government. The islands are often described as of two groups, Java
  and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo,
  Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca
  Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea--the
  Outposts as they are collectively named. The Outposts are divided into
  20 provinces. A governor-general holds the superior administrative and
  executive authority, and is assisted by a council of five members,
  partly of a legislative and partly of an advisory character, but with
  no share in the executive work of the government. In 1907 a Bill was
  introduced to add four extraordinary members to the council, but no
  immediate action was taken. The governor-general not only has supreme
  executive authority, but can of his own accord pass laws and
  regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of
  right to the home government, and as he is bound by the constitutional
  principles on which, according to the _Regulations for the Government
  of Netherlands India_, passed by the king and States-General in 1854,
  the Dutch East Indies must be governed. There are nine departments,
  each under a director: namely, justice; interior; instruction, public
  worship and industry; agriculture (created in 1905); civil public
  works; government works (created in 1908); finance; war; marine. The
  administration of the larger territorial divisions (_gouvernement_,
  _residentie_) is in the hands of Dutch governors, residents, assistant
  residents and _contrôleurs_. In local government a wide use is made of
  natives, in the appointment of whom a primary consideration is that if
  possible the people should be under their own chieftains. In Surakarta
  and Jokjakarta in Java, and in many parts of the Outposts, native
  princes preserve their positions as vassals; they have limited power,
  and act generally under the supervision of a Dutch official. In
  concluding treaties with the vassal princes since 1905, the Dutch have
  kept in view the necessity of compelling them properly to administer
  the revenues of their states, which some of them formerly squandered
  in their personal uses. Provincial banks have been established which
  defray the cost of public works.

  _Population._--The following table gives the area and population of
  Java (including Madura) and of the Outposts:--

    +------------------------------+--------+-------------------------+
    |                              | Area:  |           Pop.          |
    |                              |English +-----------+-------------+
    |                              | sq. m. |   1900.   |    1905.    |
    +------------------------------+--------+-----------+-------------+
    | Java and Madura              | 50,970 |28,746,688 |  30,098,008 |
    |         / Sumatra, West Coast| 31,649 | 1,527,297 |\            |
    |         | Sumatra, East Coast| 35,312 |   421,090 ||            |
    |         | Benkulen           |  9,399 |   162,396 ||            |
    | Sumatra<  Lampong Districts  | 11,284 |   142,426 | > 4,029,505 |
    |         | Palembang          | 53,497 |   804,299 ||            |
    |         \ Achin              | 20,471 |   110,804 |/            |
    | Riouw-Lingga Archipelago     | 16,301 |    86,186 |     112,216 |
    | Banka                        |  4,446 |   106,305 |     115,189 |
    | Billiton                     |  1,863 |    43,386 |      36,858 |
    | Borneo, West Coast           | 55,825 |   413,067 |\            |
    | Borneo, South and East       |        |           | > 1,233,655 |
    |   Districts                  |156,912 |   716,822 |/            |
    | Celebes / Celebes            | 49,390 |   454,368 |     415,499 |
    |         \ Menado             | 22,080 |   429,773 |     436,406 |
    | Molucca Islands              | 43,864 |   410,190 |     407,419 |
    | Timor Archipelago            | 17,698 |   119,239 |     308,600 |
    | Bali and Lombok              |  4,065 | 1,041,696 |     523,535 |
    | New Guinea to 141° E.        |151,789 |   200,000 |       ....  |
    +------------------------------+--------+-----------+-------------+
    |          Total               |736,815 |36,000,000 |  37,717,377*|
    +------------------------------+--------+-----------+-------------+

    * Including 487 in Merauke, the capital of Dutch New Guinea.

  In no case are the above figures for population more than fairly
  accurate, and in some instances they are purely conjectural. The
  population is legally divided into Europeans and persons assimilated
  to them, and natives and persons assimilated to them. The first class
  includes half-castes (who are numerous, for the Dutch are in closer
  relationship with the natives than is the case with most colonizing
  peoples), and also Armenians, Japanese, &c. The total number of this
  class in 1900 was 75,833; 72,019 of these were called Dutch, but
  61,022 of them were born in Netherlands India; there were also 1382
  Germans, 441 British and 350 Belgians. Among the natives and persons
  assimilated to them were about 537,000 Chinese and 27,000 Arabs. In
  the decade 1890-1900 the increase of the European population was
  30.9%, of the Arabs 26.6%, and of the Chinese 16.5%. A large
  proportion of the Europeans are government officials, or retired
  officials, for many of the Dutch, once established in the colonies,
  settle there for life. The remaining Europeans are mostly planters and
  heads of industrial establishments; the Arabs are nearly all traders,
  as are some of the Chinese, but a large number of the latter are
  labourers in the Sumatra tobacco plantations and the tin mines of
  Banka, Billiton, &c. The bulk of the natives are agriculturists.

  _Religion and Instruction._--Entire liberty is granted to the members
  of all religious confessions. The Reformed Church has about 40
  ministers and 30 assistants, the Roman Catholic 35 curates and 20
  priests, not salaried out of the public funds. There are about 170
  Christian missionaries, and the progress of their work may be
  illustrated by showing that the number of Christians among the natives
  and foreign Orientals was:--

    +--------------------+---------+---------+---------------+
    |                    | In 1873.| In 1896.|    In 1903.   |
    +--------------------+---------+---------+---------------+
    | In Java and Madura |   5,673 |  19,193 | About  34,000 |
    | In the Outposts    | 148,672 | 290,065 |   "   390,000 |
    +--------------------+---------+---------+---------------+

  About 10,000 natives go annually to Mecca on pilgrimage.

  Both the government and private enterprise maintain vernacular
  schools. Large sums have been voted in Holland for the establishment
  of primary and secondary schools, and the government has undertaken to
  assist in the establishment of parochial schools, the object being
  that every village, at least in Java, should possess one. There are
  schools for higher education at Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang; at the
  first two of these towns are government schools for mechanical
  engineering, and at Batavia a crafts school and a medical school for
  natives. There are five colleges for native schoolmasters and four for
  sons of native officials. Government schools for the European
  education of Chinese children are established in the principal towns.
  Private mechanical and crafts schools are established at Jokjakarta,
  Surabaya and Semarang, and there is an agricultural school at
  Buitenzorg.

  _Justice._--As regards the administration of justice, the distinction
  is maintained between (1) Europeans and persons assimilated with them
  (who include Christians and Japanese), and (2) natives, together with
  Chinese, Arabs, &c. The former are subject to laws closely resembling
  those of the mother country, while the customs and institutions of
  natives are respected in connexion with the administration of justice
  to the latter. In 1906 a bill was passed somewhat modifying the
  existing status of the classes above mentioned, and especially
  directing new ordinances with regard to the judicial treatment of
  Christian natives. A general judicial revision being also in
  contemplation, this bill did not immediately come into force. Justice
  for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with
  administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have
  extensive powers in native affairs. For European justice the High
  Court of Justice is established at Batavia; there are councils of
  justice at Batavia, Semarang and Surabaya, with authority not only
  over Java but over parts of the Outposts; there is a resident court of
  justice in each residency. For native justice there are courts in the
  districts and regencies; residents act as police judges; provincial
  councils have judicial powers, and there are councils of priests with
  powers in matrimonial disputes, questions of succession, &c.

  As regards pauperism, the government subsidizes Protestant and
  Catholic orphan houses.

  _Finance._--The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly
  from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from
  monopolies--opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began
  to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous
  system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests,
  and from agricultural and other concessions. But attempts have been
  made, and have been largely successful, to make the revenue dependent
  to a less extent on monopolies and the products (especially
  agricultural) of the land; and to abolish licences and substitute
  direct taxes. There is a progressive income-tax for Europeans, and the
  system has also been applied in the case of natives.

  The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and
  expenditure:--

    +------+-------------+--------------+
    | Year.|   Revenue.  | Expenditure. |
    +------+-------------+--------------+
    | 1880 | £12,236,500 | £12,244,666  |
    | 1890 |  11,482,457 |  10,644,728  |
    | 1900 |  11,832,417 |  12,313,854  |
    | 1905 |  12,951,497 |  13,844,173  |
    +------+-------------+--------------+

  The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the
  _guilder_), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of
  small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions. The Java Bank,
  established in 1828, with headquarters at Batavia, is the only bank
  issuing notes, two-fifths of the amount of which must be covered by
  specie or bullion. The government has a control over the
  administration of this bank.

  _Defence._--The army is purely colonial, i.e. distinct from that of
  the Netherlands. Its strength is a little under 40,000, about
  one-third being Europeans of various nationalities and two-thirds
  natives of various races. No portion of the regular army of the
  Netherlands is allowed to be sent on colonial service, but individual
  soldiers are at liberty to enlist, by permission of their commanding
  officers, in the army of Netherlands India, and they form its nucleus.
  Native and European soldiers are generally mixed together in the same
  battalions, though in separate companies. The officers were all Dutch
  till 1908, when a trial was made of native officers from noble
  Javanese families. The artillery is composed of European gunners, with
  native riders, while the cavalry are Europeans and natives. A military
  academy is established at Meester Cornelis, near Batavia. Schools for
  soldiers are attached to every battalion. There are certain local
  forces outside the regular army--militia in some of the large towns,
  native infantry in Madura, and guards of some of the vassal princes.
  Unlike the army, which is purely colonial, the navy in Netherlands
  India is partly colonial, partly belonging to the royal navy of the
  Netherlands, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother
  country and partly by the colony. About six ironclads and twenty
  smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters;
  the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and
  undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.

  _Trade and Industries._--The principal articles of export are sugar,
  tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee,
  petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier. The
  average annual value of exports during 1900-1905 was £22,496,468, and
  of imports £17,050,338. A great proportion of the exports goes to the
  mother country, though a considerable quantity of rice is exported to
  China. An indication of the mineral products has already been given;
  as regards the export trade, tin is the most important of these, but
  the Ombilin coalfields of Sumatra, connected by a railway with the
  coast, call for mention here also. Agricultural labour is very
  carefully regulated by law, in the enforcement of which the residents
  and lower officials have wide powers. One day's gratuitous labour out
  of seven or more can be demanded of labourers either on private or on
  government estates; but in 1882 this form of labour was for the most
  part abolished as far as government estates were concerned, each
  labourer so exempted paying one guilder per year. The principal
  private agricultural estates are in the west of Java, in which island
  the greater part of the soil is government property. Such estates have
  increased greatly in number and extent, not only in Java but
  elsewhere, since the agrarian law of 1870, under which it became
  possible for settlers to obtain waste lands on hereditary lease for 75
  years. In 1899 the total acreage of land ceded was 1,002,766 acres; in
  1903 it was 1,077,295. The government ceased to cultivate sugar in
  1891, but coffee, and to some extent cinchona, are cultivated on
  government plantations, though not in equal quantity to that grown on
  land held on emphyteusis. The average annual yield of sugar in
  1900-1905 was 852,400 tons, but it increased steadily during that
  period. The average annual yield of coffee during the same period was
  101,971,132 lb.; it fluctuates greatly. The average annual production
  of tobacco is about fifty million pounds from each of the islands of
  Java and Sumatra. The total annual yield of the tin mines is about
  15,000 tons, and of the coal mines 240,000 tons. The average output of
  petroleum annually in 1900-1905 was 120,000,000 gallons; this, again,
  has fluctuated greatly. There are upwards of 3000 miles of railways
  and steam tramways in Netherlands India, but these are almost entirely
  in Java; elsewhere only Sumatra has a few short lines. The principal
  steamship company in the archipelago is the Royal Packet (_Koninklyke
  Paketvaart_) Company.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See _Aardrijkskundig en statistisch Woordenboek van
  Nederl. Indië_ (Amsterdam, 1869), to which P. J. Veth and other
  specialists were contributors. A general survey of the people,
  administration and resources of the Dutch colony is provided in
  _Twentieth Century Impressions of Netherlands India_, ed. by Arnold
  Wright (London, 1910). See also A. R. Wallace, _Malay Archipelago_
  (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological
  distribution) and _Island Life_ (London, 1880, notably for
  ornithology). H. O. Forbes, _A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern
  Archipelago_ (London, 1885); P. van der Lith, _Nederlandsch Oostindië_
  (2nd ed., Leiden, 1893-1895); F. H. H. Guillemard, _Australasia_, vol.
  ii., in _Stamford's Compendium_ (London, 1894); _Encyclopaedie van
  Nederlandsch-Indië_ (the Hague, 1895-1904); _Guide à travers la
  section des Indes néerlandaises_, Paris Exhibition (the Hague, 1900);
  A. R. Colquhoun, _The Mastery of the Pacific_ (London, 1902); M.
  Weber, _Der indo-australische Archipel und die Geschichte seiner
  Tierwelt_ (Jena, 1902); G. Karsten and H. Schenck,
  _Vegetationsbilder_, vol. ii. (Jena, 1903); J. van Bemmelen and G. B.
  Hooyer, _Guide through Netherlands India_ (London, 1903); D. Bezemer,
  _Nederlandsch Oost-Indië_ (the Hague, 1904); H. Blink, _Nederlandsch
  Oost- en West-Indië, geographisch, ethnologisch, en economisch
  beschreven_ (Leiden, 1904, sqq.). Among Dutch official publications
  may be mentioned _Jaarcijfers door het Centraal Bureau voor de
  Statistiek_; _Jaarboek van het Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch Oost-Indië_
  (Amsterdam); _Koloniale-Economische Bijdragen_ (the Hague); _Koloniaal
  Verslag_ (the Hague); _Regeerings-Almanak voor Nederlandsch-Indië_
  (Batavia). A number of important periodicals (_Tijdschrift_) of
  various institutions are issued at Batavia, &c. _Languages_: P. J.
  Veth in _De Gids_ (1864); R. N. Cust, _Sketch of the Modern Languages
  of the East Indies_ (London, 1878); and for bibliography, Boele van
  Neusbroek, _De Beoefening der oostersche talen ..._ (Leiden, 1875).


HISTORY

_Portuguese and Spanish Ascendancy, 1511-1595._--Ptolemy and other
ancient geographers describe the Malay Archipelago, or part of it, in
vague and inaccurate terms, and the traditions they preserved were
supplemented in the middle ages by the narratives of a few famous
travellers, such as Ibn Batuta, Marco Polo, Odoric of Pordenone and
Niccolò Conti. Malay and Chinese records also furnish material for the
early history of individual islands, but the known history of the
archipelago as a whole begins in the 16th century. At this period a
civilization, largely of Hindu origin, had flourished and decayed in
Java, where, as in all the more important islands, Mahommedanism had
afterwards become the dominant creed. But the smaller islands and the
remoter districts, even of Java and Sumatra, remained in a condition of
complete savagery.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize any part of the
archipelago. A Portuguese squadron under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira arrived
off Sumatra in 1509, explored the north coast for some distance, and
noted that the inhabitants of the interior were cannibals, while those
of the littoral were civilized and possessed a gold coinage. The main
object of the Portuguese was to obtain a share in the lucrative spice
trade carried on by the Malays, Chinese and Japanese; the trade-routes
of the archipelago converged upon Malacca, which was the point of
departure for spice merchants trading with every country on the shores
of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. In 1511 the Portuguese under
Alphonso d'Albuquerque occupied Malacca, and in November of that year an
expedition under Antonio de Abreu was despatched to find a route to the
Moluccas and Banda Islands, then famous for their cloves and nutmegs.
The explorers reached Amboyna and Ternate, after gaining some knowledge
of Java, Madura, Sumbawa and other islands, possibly including New
Guinea. During the return voyage the second-in-command, Francisco
Serrão, was shipwrecked, but succeeded in making his way in a native
boat to Mindanao. Thus the Philippines were discovered: In 1514 a second
Portuguese fleet arrived at Ternate, which during the next five years
became the centre of Portuguese enterprise in the archipelago; regular
traffic with Malacca and Cochin was established, and the native raja
became a vassal of Portugal.

Meanwhile the Spanish government was considering whether the Moluccas
did not fall within the Spanish sphere of influence as defined by the
Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494; and in August 1519 an expedition
commanded by Ferdinand Magellan (q.v.) sailed from Seville to seek a
westward passage to the archipelago. After losing the commander in the
Philippines and discovering Borneo, the two surviving ships reached the
Moluccas late in 1520. One vessel returned to Seville by the Cape route,
thus completing the first voyage round the world; the other attempted to
return by the Pacific, but was driven back to Tidore and there welcomed
by the natives as a useful ally against the Portuguese. Reinforcements
from Spain arrived in 1525 and 1528; but in 1529 a treaty was concluded
between the emperor Charles V. and John III. of Portugal, by which, in
return for 350,000 gold ducats, the Spanish claim to the Moluccas was
withdrawn. The boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese spheres was
fixed at 17° E. of the Moluccas, but by a geographical fiction the
Philippines were included within the Spanish sphere. Further disputes
occurred from time to time, and in 1542 a Spanish fleet came into
conflict with the Portuguese off Amboyna; but after 1529 the supremacy
of each power in its own sphere was never seriously endangered.

Though the Portuguese traders frequented the coast of Java, they annexed
no territory either there or in Sumatra; but farther east they founded
numerous forts and factories, notably in Amboyna, the Banda Island,
Celebes and Halmahera. Ternate remained the seat of the governor of the
Moluccas, who was the highest official in the archipelago, though
subordinate to the viceroy or governor of Portuguese India. The first
attempt to enter into relations with the states of Borneo was made by D.
Jorge de Menezes, who visited Brunci in 1526, and in 1528 sent an envoy
to its raja. The embassy failed in a curious manner. Among the gifts
sent by Menezes was a piece of tapestry representing the marriage of
Catherine of Aragon to Arthur, prince of Wales. The raja was persuaded
that these mysterious figures were demons under a spell, which might
come to life and kill him as he slept. The envoy was therefore
dismissed.

In 1536, after a period of war and anarchy caused by the tyrannical rule
of Menezes, Antonio Galvão, the historian, was appointed governor of the
Moluccas. He crushed the rebellion and won the affection of the natives
by his just and enlightened administration, which had no parallel in the
annals of Portuguese rule in the archipelago. He returned to Europe in
1540 (see PORTUGAL: _Literature_), after inaugurating an active
missionary movement, which was revived in 1546-1547 by Francis Xavier
(q.v.). At this period the Portuguese power in the East was already
beginning to wane; in the archipelago it was weakened by administrative
corruption and by incessant war with native states, notably Bintang and
Achin; bitter hostility was aroused by the attempts which the Portuguese
made to establish a commercial monopoly and to force Christianity upon
their native subjects and allies (see PORTUGAL: _History_). From 1580 to
1640 Portugal was itself united to Spain--a union which differed from
annexation in little but name.

_The English and Dutch, 1595-1674._--Pirates from Dieppe visited the
archipelago between 1527 and 1539. It is possible that they reached
Australia[2]--more than sixty years before the first voyage thither of
which there is any clear record; but their cruise had no political
significance, and the Spaniards and Portuguese remained without European
competitors until the appearance of Sir Francis Drake in 1579. An
English squadron under Sir James Lancaster came into conflict with the
Portuguese in 1591, and an expedition under Sir Henry Middleton traded
in the archipelago in 1604. But the English were simple traders or
explorers; far more formidable were the Dutch, who came to the East
partly to avenge the injuries inflicted on their country by the
Spaniards, partly to break the commercial monopoly of the peninsular
states. As middlemen they already possessed a large interest in the
spice trade, for the Portuguese, having no direct access to the
principal European markets, had made a practice of sending cargo to the
Netherlands for distribution by way of the Scheldt and Rhine. The Dutch
now sought to monopolize not only the distribution but the production of
spices--an enterprise facilitated by the co-operation of many exiled
Portuguese Jews who had settled in Holland.

The first Dutch fleet sailed from Texel, under the command of Cornelis
Houtman, on the 2nd of April 1595 and reached Sumatra on the 1st of
January 1596. It visited Madura, and came into conflict with the
Portuguese at Bantam in Java, returning to Holland in 1597. Though not a
commercial success, the expedition had demonstrated the weakness of the
Portuguese. In 1602 the Dutch East India Company (q.v.) was
incorporated, and for nearly two centuries this organization played the
chief part in the history of the archipelago. By 1604 the Dutch could
already claim to be the stronger power at sea. They had attacked the
Portuguese in Ceylon (1601), established friendly relations with Achin
(1602), and defeated a powerful fleet off Banda (1602). In 1606 they
concluded a treaty of alliance with the sultan of Johor, and in 1608
they forced the Portuguese to assent to an armistice for twelve years.
On the 29th of November 1609 Pieter Both was chosen by the
states-general, on the nomination of the Dutch East India Company, as
first governor-general of Netherlands India. In 1611 the headquarters of
the Dutch was changed from Bantam to Jakarta, which in 1619 was renamed
Batavia, and was thenceforward the Dutch capital. Meanwhile the English
East India Company, chartered in 1600, had also extended its operations
to the archipelago. After 1611 the commercial rivalry between the Dutch
and British became acute, and in 1613, 1615 and 1618 commissioners met
in London to discuss the matters in dispute. The result of their
deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619
and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for
co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for
the maintenance of a joint fleet. But neither company could restrain
its agents in the East from aggressive action, and many fresh causes of
dispute arose, the chief being the failure of the British to provide the
naval forces required for service against the Portuguese, and the
so-called "massacre of Amboyna" (q.v.) in 1623. The Treaty of Defence
lapsed in 1637, but as early as 1634 the British made peace with
Portugal. Even without allies, however, the Dutch continued to extend
their trade and to annex fresh territory, for the British were weakened
by civil war at home, while, after 1640, the Portuguese were struggling
to maintain their independence against Spain. The Dutch company opened
up a profitable trade with Japan and China, and prosecuted the war
against Portugal with great vigour, invading Portuguese India and
capturing Point de Galle in 1640, Malacca in 1641, Cochin and Cannanore
in 1663. The war with England in 1652-54 and the renewal of the
Anglo-Portuguese alliance by the marriage of Charles II. to Catherine of
Braganza in 1661 were unable to check the growth of Dutch power; more
serious was the resistance offered by some of the native states.
Rebellions in Java (1629) and the Moluccas (1650) were suppressed with
great severity, but in 1662 the company suffered a heavy reverse in
Formosa, all its colonists being expelled from the island. A new war
between Great Britain and Holland broke out in 1672 and was terminated
by the Treaty of Westminster (February 17, 1674), by which the points at
issue between the two companies were referred first to commissioners and
finally to an arbitrator. The full details of the settlement are
unknown, but thenceforward the British company devoted its energies
chiefly to the development of its Indian possessions, while the Dutch
were left supreme in the archipelago. In 1684 the British even evacuated
Bantam, their chief settlement, and retired to Benkulen in Sumatra,
which remained for more than a century their sole territorial possession
in the archipelago.

_Dutch Ascendancy, 1674-1749._--The weakness of Spain and Portugal and
the withdrawal of the British left the Dutch company free to develop its
vast colonial and commercial interests. In 1627 the so-called Dutch
"colonial system" had been inaugurated by the fourth governor-general,
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (q.v.). Under this system, which was intended to
provide Netherlands India with a fixed population of European descent,
Dutch girls were sent to the archipelago to be married to white
settlers, and subsequently marriages between Dutchmen and captive native
women were encouraged. As early as 1624 vast fortunes had been acquired
by trade: two members of the company who died in that year were stated
to possess seven and eight tons of gold respectively, an amount
approximately equivalent, in the aggregate, to £2,000,000. The use of
slave labour, and the application of the _corvée_ system to natives who
were nominally free, enabled the company to lower the cost of
production, while the absence of competition enabled it to raise prices.
The hardship inflicted on the native races provoked an insurrection
throughout Java, in which the Chinese settlers participated; but the
Dutch maintained naval and military forces strong enough to crush all
resistance, and a treaty between the company and the Susuhunan in
November 1749 made them practically supreme throughout the island.

_Decline of Dutch Power, 1749-1811._--In the second half of the 17th
century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced
labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the
revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the
British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from
India to Europe, was severely felt. The administration was corrupt,
largely because of the vast powers given to officials, who were
invariably underpaid; and the financial methods of the company
precipitated its ruin, large dividends being paid out of borrowed money.
The burden of defence could no longer be sustained; piracy and smuggling
became so common that the company was compelled to appeal to the
states-general for aid. In 1798 it was abolished and its authority
vested in a "Council of the Asiatic Possessions." In 1803 a commission
met to consider the state of the Dutch colonies, and advocated drastic
administrative and commercial reforms, notably freedom of trade in all
commodities except firearms, opium, rice and wood--with coffee, pepper
and spices, which were state monopolies. Some of these reforms were
carried out by H. W. Daendels (1808-1811), who was sent out as
governor-general by Louis Bonaparte, after the French conquest of
Holland. Daendels, however, maintained the existing restrictions upon
trade and even made rice a state monopoly. His harsh rule aroused great
antagonism; in 1811 he was recalled and J. W. Janssens became
governor-general.

_British Occupation, 1811-1816._--Netherlands India was at this time
regarded as a part of the Napoleonic Empire, with which Great Britain
was at war. A British naval squadron arrived in the Moluccas in February
1810 and captured Amboyna, Banda, Ternate and other islands. In 1811 a
strong fleet was equipped by Lord Minto, then governor-general of India,
for the conquest of Java; a British force was landed on the 4th of
August; Batavia was captured on the 26th, and on the 18th of September
Janssens and the remnant of his army surrendered. Lord Minto had issued
a proclamation establishing British rule on the 11th of September, and
Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) Stamford Raffles was appointed
lieutenant-governor. Raffles (q.v.) held office until March 1816, and
introduced many important changes in the departments of revenue,
commerce and judicature. He was succeeded by John Fendall, who in 1816
carried out the retrocession of Netherlands India to the Dutch, in
accordance with the Treaty of Vienna (1814).

_Restoration and Reform of Dutch Power, 1816-1910._--Various disputes
between Great Britain and the Netherlands, arising chiefly out of the
transfer of power in Java and the British occupation of Singapore
(1819), were settled by treaty between the two powers in 1824. By this
treaty the Dutch were given almost entire freedom of action in Sumatra,
while the Malay Peninsula was recognized as within the British sphere of
influence. In 1825-30 a serious rebellion in Java involved the despatch
of a large military force from the Netherlands, and was with difficulty
suppressed. An outbreak of Mahommedan fanaticism in Sumatra also gave
much trouble.

The reform movement inaugurated by the commission of 1803 was resumed in
1830, when Governor-General Johannes van den Bosch endeavoured to
improve the conditions of land-tenure and agriculture by introducing the
so-called "culture system." The native cultivators were to be exempted
from the ground-tax, but were to cultivate one-fifth of their land as
the government might direct, the government taking the produce. This
culture-system worked fairly during Van den Bosch's tenure of office,
but gave rise to many abuses between 1833 and 1844, involving, as it
did, a combination of the _métayer_ and _corvée_ systems.

In 1848 the _Grondwet_, or fundamental law of the Netherlands,
recognized for the first time the responsibility of the Dutch nation for
its colonial dependencies. The _Grondwet_ involved certain important
changes, which were embodied in an act passed in 1854 and commonly known
as the _Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India_. The
_Regulations_ substituted statute law for administrative and military
despotism, and made the governor-general in council responsible to the
minister of the colonies at the Hague. They reformed the judicature,
introduced elementary education for the natives, and abolished slavery
in Java as from the 1st of January 1860. They also prepared the way for
further legislation tending towards the gradual emancipation of the
natives from the culture system, and from semi-feudal servitude to their
native rulers. That servitude existed in many forms all over the
archipelago, but among the most curious must be reckoned the
_pandelingschap_ or "pledgedom," which originated in Borneo, and
according to which a man had the power to make his debtors his serfs
until their debts were paid.

The reform movement was aided by the publication in 1860 of _Max
Havelaar_, a romance by E. Douwes Dekker (q.v.), which contained a
scathing indictment of the colonial system. Many important financial and
agrarian measures were carried between 1860 and 1890. In 1863 Fransen
van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the
annual colonial budgets for which the _Regulations_ had provided, thus
enabling the states-general to control the revenue and expenditure of
Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the
differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from
Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a
number of free ports throughout the archipelago. The import duty was
considered so moderate that an increase required for revenue purposes
was readily conceded in 1886. In 1876 the practice of paying a yearly
surplus (_batig slot_) from the revenues of Netherlands India to the
treasury at the Hague was discontinued. The chief reforms in the land
system were those introduced by De Waal, then minister for the colonies,
in 1870. The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for
the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the
sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and
provided for their abolition after 1890. He also enabled natives to
secure proprietary rights over the land they cultivated, and legalized
the leasing of Crown forest-lands to Europeans.

The extension of Dutch political power--notably in Java, Sumatra,
Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, the Sunda Islands and New
Guinea--proceeded simultaneously with the reform movement, and from time
to time involved war with various native states. A large expedition was
sent to Lombok in 1894, and almost the whole of that island was
incorporated in the Dutch dominions. The long and costly war with Achin
(q.v.) began in 1873 and reached its climax in the military occupation
of the country after 1905, when the native sultan surrendered and was
deported. A guerrilla war was still carried on by his subjects, but
their principal leader, the chief Panglima Polim, was captured in 1907;
in 1908-1910 the condition of Achin under the military rule of General
Swart was one of almost unbroken peace, and taxes were regularly paid.

While the Dutch were thus consolidating their authority, other countries
were acquiring new commercial or colonial interests in the archipelago.
Immigration from China and Japan steadily increased, especially towards
the end of the period 1816-1910. The enterprise of Sir James Brooke
(q.v.) led, after 1838, to the establishment of British sovereignty in
North Borneo; in 1895 New Guinea was divided between Great Britain,
Germany and the Netherlands; and the Spanish-American War of 1898
resulted in the cession of the Philippines, Sulu Island and the largest
of the Mariana Islands to the United States, and the sale of the
Caroline group to Germany. Australian and Japanese trade in the
archipelago was stimulated by the establishment of the Australian
Commonwealth (1901) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5). In 1910 the
nations most directly interested in the future of the archipelago were
the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Japan, China
and Portugal.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For the period 1511-1595, the chief Portuguese
  authorities are the chronicles of Barros, Corrêa, Castanheda and Couto
  (see PORTUGAL: _History_), with the letters of Xavier (q.v.), and the
  _Tratado_ of A. Galvão (Lisbon, 1563 and 1731), of which a translation
  entitled _Discoveries of the World_ was made for Richard Hakluyt and
  reprinted by the Hakluyt Society (London, 1862). See also M. F. de
  Navarette, _Coleccion de los viages_ (vols. 4 and 5, Madrid, 1837).
  For later history see John Crawfurd, _History of the Indian
  Archipelago_ (Edinburgh, 1820), which quotes from native as well as
  European records, and _Twentieth-Century Impressions of Netherlands
  India_ (ed. A. Wright, London, 1910), which gives references to the
  principal English and Dutch authorities. Further bibliography will be
  found in J. A. van der Chijs, _Proeve eener nederlandsch-indische
  Bibliografie, 1659-1870_ (Batavia, 1875).     (K. G. J.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For more detailed information respecting the several islands and
    groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles BORNEO; JAVA;
    PHILIPPINE ISLANDS; SUMATRA, &c.

  [2] See _The Geographical Journal_, ix. 80 seq. (London, 1897).



MALAIR, a small province of Persia, situated between Hamadan and
Burujird. It has a population of about 70,000, and, together with the
district Tusirkhan, pays a yearly revenue of about £13,000. It produces
much corn and fruit; a great quantity of the latter, dried, is exported.
Its capital and seat of government is Doletabad (Dowletabad), a thriving
little city, with a population of about 5000, situated at an elevation
of 5680 ft., 38 m. from Hamadan and 32 m. from Burujird. It has post and
telegraph offices.



MALAY PENINSULA (called by the Malays _Tanah Malayu_, i.e. the Malay
Land), a lozenge-shaped strip of land projecting into the China Sea,
and forming the most southerly portion of the continent of Asia.
Geographically, the peninsula begins at the isthmus of Kra, 10° N., at
which point it is only between 60 and 70 m. in width, and the distance
from sea to sea is further diminished by a large irregular salt-water
inlet. Politically and anthropologically, however, this upper portion
must be regarded as a continuation of the kingdom of Siam rather than as
a section of Malaya. From the isthmus of Kra the peninsula extends south
with a general inclination towards the east, the most southerly point
being Tanjong Bulus in 1° 16½´ N. A line drawn diagonally down the
centre from the isthmus of Kra to Cape Romania (Ramunya) gives the
extreme length at about 750 miles. The breadth at the widest point, from
Tanjong Pen-unjut in Trengganu to Tanjong Hantu in the Dindings
territory, is about 200 m. The area is estimated at about 70,000 sq. m.
The peninsula is bounded on the N. by Siam, on the S. by the island and
strait of Singapore, on the E. by the China Sea, and on the W. by the
Strait of Malacca.

  _Physical Characteristics._--A range of granite mountains forms a
  backbone which divides the peninsula into two unequal portions, the
  larger of which lies to the east and the smaller to the west of the
  chain. Smaller ranges run parallel to the main mountain chain in many
  places, and there are numerous isolated spurs which have no connexion
  with either. The country is covered with limestone in many parts, and
  large isolated bluffs of this formation stand up in the plains both on
  the eastern and the western slopes. The descent from the summits of
  the range into the plain is somewhat less abrupt on the western than
  it is on the eastern side, and between the foot of the mountains and
  the Strait of Malacca the largest known alluvial deposits of tin are
  situated. On the eastern side of the range, after a steep descent, the
  granite formation speedily gives place to slates of vast depth,
  intersected here and thereby fissures of quartz containing gold, and
  in many places covered by limestone which has been superimposed upon
  the slates. The highest known peak in the main range is that of Gunong
  Korbu, 7217 ft. above sea-level. The highest mountain is believed to
  be Gunong Tahan, which forms part of an isolated range on the eastern
  side, between Pahang and Kelantan, and is estimated at about 8000 ft.
  The west coast throughout its whole length is covered to a depth of
  some miles with mangrove swamps, with only a few isolated stretches of
  sandy beach, the dim foliage of the mangroves and the hideous mud
  flats presenting a depressing spectacle. On the east coast the force
  of the north-east monsoon, which beats upon the shores of the China
  Sea annually from November to February, has kept the land for the most
  part free from mangroves, and the sands, broken here and there by
  rocky headlands thickly wooded, and fringed by _casuarina_ trees,
  stretch for miles without interruption. The islands on each coast
  present the features of the shore to which they are adjacent. On both
  the east and the west coast the islands are thickly wooded, but
  whereas the former are surrounded by beautiful sands and beaches, the
  latter are fringed by mangrove-swamps. The whole peninsula may be
  described as one vast forest, intersected in every direction by
  countless streams and rivers which together form the most lavish
  water-system in the world. Only an insignificant fraction of these
  forests has ever been visited by human beings, the Malays and even the
  aboriginal tribe having their homes on the banks of the rivers, and
  never, even when travelling from one part of the country to another,
  leaving the banks of a stream except for a short time when passing
  from one river-system to another. The bulk of the jungle, therefore,
  which lies between stream and stream, has never been trodden by the
  foot of man. The principal rivers on the west coast are the Perak, the
  Bernam and the Muar. The first-named is far finer than its fellows,
  and is navigable for steamers for about 40 m. from its mouth, and for
  native craft for over 250 m. It is exceedingly shallow, however, and
  is not of much importance as a waterway. The Bernam runs through flat
  swampy country for the greater part of its course, and steam-launches
  can penetrate to a distance of over 100 m. from its mouth, and it is
  therefore probably the deepest river. The country which it waters,
  however, is not of any value, and it is not much used. The Muar waters
  a very fertile valley, and is navigable for native boats for over 150
  m. On the east coast the principal streams are the Petani, Telubin,
  Kelantan, Besut, Trengganu, Dungun, Kmamun, Kuantan, Pahang, Rompin,
  Endau and Sedeli, all guarded by difficult bars at their mouths, and
  dangerous during the continuance of the north-east monsoon. The
  deepest rivers are the Kuantan and Rompin; the largest are the
  Kelantan and the Pahang, both of which are navigable for native boats
  for a distance of over 250 m. The Trengganu river is obstructed by
  impassable rapids at a distance of about 30 m. from its mouth. The
  rivers on the east coast are practically the only highways, the Malays
  always travelling by boat in preference to walking, but they serve
  their purpose very indifferently, and their great beauty is their
  chief claim to distinction. Magnificent caves are found on both slopes
  of the peninsula, those at Batu in Selangor being the finest on the
  west coast, while those of Chadu and Koto Glanggi in Pahang are the
  most extensive yet visited by Europeans on the east coast. They are
  all of limestone formation. So far as is known, the Malay Peninsula
  consists of an axial zone of crystalline rocks, flanked on each side
  by an incomplete band of sedimentary deposits. Granite is the most
  widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds
  occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with. These rocks
  form the greater part of the central range, and they are
  often--especially the granite--decomposed and rotten to a considerable
  depth. The sedimentary deposits include slate, limestone and
  sandstone. Impure coal has also been recorded. The limestone has
  yielded _Proetus_, _Chonetes_ and other fossils, and is believed to be
  of Carboniferous age. In the sandstone Myophoria and other Triassic
  fossils have been found, and it appears to belong to the Rhaetic or
  Upper Trias.[1] The minerals produced are tin, gold, iron, galena and
  others, in insignificant quantities.

  The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or
  near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite. As stream tin it
  occurs abundantly in some of the alluvial deposits derived from the
  crystalline area, especially on the west coast. Only two tin lodes are
  worked, however, and both are situated on the east coast, the one at
  Kuantan in Pahang, the other at Bandi in Trengganu territory. On the
  west coast no true lode has yet been discovered, though the vast
  alluvial deposits of tin found there seem to make such a discovery
  probable in the future. Since 1890 the tin produced from these
  alluvial beds has supplied between 50% and 75% of the tin of the
  world. Gold is worked with success in Pahang, and has been exploited
  from time immemorial by the natives of that state and of Kelantan.
  Small quantities have also been found on the western slope in Perak.

  _Climate, &c._--It was formerly the custom to speak of the Malay
  Peninsula as an unhealthy climate, and even to compare it with the
  west coast of Africa. It is now generally admitted, however, that,
  though hot, it compares favourably with that of Burma. The chief
  complaint which Europeans make concerning it is the extreme humidity,
  which causes the heat to be more oppressive than is the case where the
  air is dry. On the other hand, the thermometer, even at Singapore on
  the southern coast, which is the hottest portion of the peninsula,
  seldom rises above 98° in the shade, whereas the mean for the year at
  that place is generally below 80°. On the mainland, and more
  especially on the eastern slope, the temperature is cooler, the
  thermometer seldom rising above 93° in the shade, and falling at night
  below 70°. On an average day in this part of the peninsula the
  temperature in a European house ranged from 88° to 68°. The number of
  rainy days throughout the peninsula varies from 160 to over 200 in
  each year, but violent gusts of wind, called "Sumatras," accompanied
  by a heavy downpour of short duration, are more common than persistent
  rain. The rainfall on the west coast varies from 75 to 120 in. per
  annum, and that of the east coast, where the north-east monsoon breaks
  with all its fury, is usually about 155 in. per annum. Malarial fevers
  make their appearance in places where the forest has been recently
  felled, or where the surface earth has been disturbed. It is noticed
  that labourers employed in deep mines worked by shafts suffer less
  from fever than do those who are engaged in stripping the alluvial
  deposits. This, of course, means that a new station, where clearing,
  digging, and building are in progress, is often unhealthy for a time,
  and to this must be attributed the evil reputation which the peninsula
  formerly enjoyed. To Europeans the climate is found to be relaxing and
  enervating, but if, in spite of some disinclination for exertion,
  regular exercise is taken from the beginning, and ordinary precautions
  against chills, more especially to the stomach, are adopted, a
  European has almost as good a chance of remaining in good health in
  the peninsula as in Europe. A change of climate, however, is
  imperatively necessary every five or six years, and the children of
  European parents should not be kept in the peninsula after they have
  attained the age of four or five years. The Chinese immigrants suffer
  chiefly from fever of a malarial type, from beri-beri, a species of
  tropical dropsy, and from dysentery. The Malays formerly suffered
  severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula
  under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of
  the disease no longer assume serious dimensions. Occasional outbreaks
  of cholera occur from time to time, and in the independent states
  these cause terrible loss of life, as the natives fly from the disease
  and spread the infection in every direction. As a whole, the Malays
  are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and
  hereditary diseases are rare among them. There is little leprosy in
  the peninsula, but there is a leper hospital near Penang on Pula
  Deraja and another on an island on the west coast for the reception of
  lepers from the Federated Malay States.

  _Flora and Fauna._--The soil of the peninsula is remarkably fertile
  both in the plains and on the mountain slopes. In the vast forests the
  decay of vegetable matter during countless ages has enriched the soil
  to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous
  tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing
  plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and
  parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like
  trailers. In most places the jungle is so dense that it is impossible
  to force a way through it without the aid of a wood-knife, and even
  the wild beasts use well-worn game-tracks through the forest. In the
  interior brakes of bamboos are found, many of which spread for miles
  along the river banks. Good hard-wood timber is found in plenty, the
  best being the _merabau_, _penak_, _rasok_ and _chengal_. Orchids of
  countless varieties abound. The principal fruit trees are the
  _duri-an_, mangosteen, custard-apple, pomegranate, _rambut-an_,
  _pulas-an_, _langsat_, _rambai_, jack-fruit, coco-nut, areca-nut,
  sugar-palm, and banana. Coffee, tobacco, sugar-cane, rice, pepper,
  gambier, cotton and sago are cultivated with success. Great
  developments have been made of recent years in the cultivation of
  rubber in British Malaya. The principal jungle products are gutta and
  rubber of several varieties, and many kinds of rattan. The mangrove
  grows on the shores of the west coast in profusion. Agilawood, the
  camphor tree, and ebony are also found in smaller quantities.

  The fauna of the peninsula is varied and no less profuse than is the
  vegetable life. The Asiatic elephant; the _seladang_, a bison of a
  larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the
  honey bear (_bruang_), the tapir, the sambhur (_rusa_); the speckled
  deer (_kijang_), three varieties of mouse-deer (_napoh_, _plandok_ and
  _kanchil_); the gibbon (_ungka_ or _wawa'_), the _siamang_, another
  species of anthropoid ape, the _brok_ or coco-nut monkey, so called
  because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the
  coco-nut trees, the _lotong_, _kra_, and at least twenty other kinds
  of monkey; the _binturong_ (_arctictis binturong_), the lemur; the
  Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat
  (_harimau akar_), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the
  wild dog; the flying squirrel, the flying fox; the python, the cobra,
  and many other varieties of snake, including the hamadryad; the
  alligator, the otter and the gavial, as well as countless kinds of
  squirrel, rat, &c., are found throughout the jungles of the peninsula
  in great numbers. On the east coast peafowl are found, and throughout
  the interior the argus pheasant, the firebacked pheasant, the blue
  partridge, the adjutant-bird, several kinds of heron and crane, duck,
  teal, cotton-teal, snipe, wood-pigeon, green-pigeon of several
  varieties, swifts, swallows, pied-robins, hornbills, parakeets,
  fly-catchers, nightjars, and many other kinds of bird are met with
  frequently. A few specimens of solitary goose have been procured, but
  the bird is rarely met with. The forests literally swarm with insects
  of all kinds, from _cicadae_ to beautiful butterflies, and from stick-
  and leaf-insects to endless varieties of ants. The scorpion and the
  centipede are both common. The study of the insect life of the
  peninsula opens a splendid field for scientific research, and the
  profusion and variety of insects found in these forests probably
  surpass those to be met with anywhere else in the world.

_Political Divisions and Population._--Politically the Malay Peninsula
is divided into four sections: the colony of the Straits Settlements and
the Federated Malay States; the independent Malay State of Johor, which
is within the British sphere of influence; the non-federated states
under British protection; and the groups of states to the north of Perak
and Pahang which are now recognized as lying within the sphere of
influence of Siam. The colony of the Straits Settlements consists of the
islands of Singapore, Penang and the Dindings, the territory of Province
Wellesley, on the mainland opposite to Penang, the insignificant
territory of the Dindings, and the town and territory of Malacca. The
Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the
sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast,
and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast. Johor is the only Malay
state in the southern portion of the peninsula, the whole of which is
within the British sphere, which has been suffered to remain under
native rule. The non-federated states under British protection (since
1909) are Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis (Palit). The population
of the peninsula numbers about 2,000,000, of whom about 600,000 inhabit
the colony of the Straits Settlements, about 900,000 the Federated Malay
States, about 200,000 the Malay State of Johor, and about 250,000 to
300,000 the remainder of the peninsula. The population of the peninsula
includes about 850,000 Chinese, mostly immigrants or descendants of
immigrants from the southern provinces of China, of whom about 300,000
reside in the colony of the Straits Settlements, 365,000 in the
Federated Malay States, 150,000 in Johor, and the remainder in smaller
communities or as isolated traders scattered throughout the villages and
small towns of the peninsula. The Malay population of the peninsula,
including immigrants from the eastern archipelago, number some 750,000
to 800,000, while the Tamils and other natives of India number about
100,000, the aboriginal natives of the peninsula perhaps 20,000,
Europeans and Americans about 6500, and Eurasians about 9000. The colony
of the Straits Settlements, and to a lesser extent the towns of the
Federated Malay States, carry a considerable heterogenous population, in
which most of the races of Asia find their representatives.

[Illustration: Map of Malay Peninsula.]

  _Races of the Peninsula._--Excluding the Tai, or Siamese, who are
  undoubtedly recent intruders from the north, there are three races
  which for an extended period of time have had their home in the Malay
  Peninsula. These are the Semang or Pangan, the Sakai or Jakun, and the
  Malays. The Semang, as they are most usually called by the Malays, are
  Negritos--a small, very dark people, with features of the negroid
  type, very prognathous, and with short, woolly hair clinging to the
  scalp in tiny crisp curls. These people belong to the race which would
  seem to be the true aboriginal stock of southern Asia. Representatives
  of it are found scattered about the islands from the Andaman group
  southwards. The state of civilization to which they have attained is
  very low. They neither plant nor have they any manufactures except
  their rude bamboo and rattan vessels, the fish and game traps which
  they set with much skill, and the bows, blow-pipes and bamboo spears
  with which they are armed. They are skilful hunters, however, catch
  fish by ingeniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on
  jungle-roots and the produce of their hunting and fishing. The most
  civilized of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of
  this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c.
  They cannot, however, be taken as typical of their race, and other
  specimens of this people are seldom seen even by the Sakai. From time
  to time they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to
  be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern
  side of the peninsula. The mistake of speaking of the Sakai tribes as
  practically identical with the Semang or Pangan has very frequently
  been made, but as a matter of fact the two races are absolutely
  distinct from one another. It has also been customary to include the
  Sakai in the category of Malayan races, but this too is undoubtedly
  incorrect. The Sakai still inhabit in greatest numbers the country
  which forms the interior of Pahang, the Plus and Kinta districts of
  Perak, and the valley of Nenggiri in Kelantan. Representatives of
  their race are also found scattered among the Malayan villages
  throughout the country, and also along the coast, but these have
  intermixed so much with the Malays, and have acquired so many customs,
  &c., from their more civilized neighbours, that they can no longer be
  regarded as typical of the race to which they belong. The pure Sakai
  in the interior have a good knowledge of planting rice, tapioca, &c.,
  fashion pretty vessels from bamboos, which they decorate with patterns
  traced by the aid of fire, make loin-cloths (their only garment) from
  the bark of the _trap_ and _ipoh_ trees; are very musical, using a
  rude lute of bamboo, and a nose-flute of a very sweet tone, and
  singing in chorus very melodiously; and altogether have attained in
  their primitive state to a higher degree of civilization than have the
  Semang. They are about as tall as the average Malay, are slimly built,
  light of colour, and have wavy fine hair. In their own language they
  usually have only three numerals, viz. _na-nun_, one; _nar_, two; and
  _ne'_, three, or variants of these; all higher arithmetical ideas
  being expressed by the word _kerpn_, which means "many." A few cases
  have been recorded, however, of tribes who can count in their own
  tongue up to four and five. Among the more civilized, however, the
  Malay numerals up to ten are adopted by the Sakai. An examination of
  their language seems to indicate that it belongs to the Mon-Khmer
  group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming
  concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater
  affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan
  stock. Though they now use metal tools imported by the Malays, it is
  noticeable that the names which they give to those weapons which most
  closely resemble in character the stone implements found in such
  numbers all over the peninsula are native names wholly unconnected
  with their Malay equivalents. On account of this, it has been
  suggested that in a forgotten past the Sakai were themselves the
  fashioners of the stone implements, and certain it is that all tools
  which have no representatives among the stone kelts are known to the
  Sakai by obvious corruptions of their Malayan names. The presence of
  the Sakai, a people of the Mon-Khmer stock, in the interior of the
  peninsula has also been considered as one of many proofs that the
  Malays intruded from the south and approached the peninsula by means
  of a sea-route, since had they swept down from the north, being driven
  thence by the people of a stronger breed, it might be expected that
  the fringe of country dividing the two contending races would be
  inhabited by men of the more feeble stock. Instead, we find the Sakai
  occupying this position, thus indicating that they have been driven
  northward by the Malays, and that the latter people has not been
  expelled by the Mon-Khmer races from the countries now represented by
  Burma, Siam and French Indo-China. The Sakai population is dying out,
  and must eventually disappear. (With regard to the Malay, see MALAYS.)

  _Archaeology._--The only ancient remains found in the peninsula are
  the stone implements, of which mention has already been made, and some
  remarkable ancient mines, which are situated in the Jelai valley in
  Pahang. The stone implements are generally of one or two types: a long
  rectangular adze or wedge rudely pointed at one end, and used in
  conjunction with a mallet or flat stone, and a roughly triangular
  axe-head, which has evidently been fixed in the cleft of a split
  stick. A few stones, which might perhaps be arrowheads, have been
  found, but they are very rare. The mines, which have been constructed
  for the purpose of working quartz lodes containing gold, are very
  extensive, and argue a high stage of civilization possessed by the
  ancient miners. They consist of a number of circular or rectangular
  pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some
  cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped
  by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level
  of the valley was reached. The shafts are placed so close together
  that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of
  solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work
  has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners
  who came after the people who originally sank the shafts. Native
  tradition attributes these mines to the Siamese, but no importance can
  be attached to this, as it is very general for the Malays to give this
  explanation for anything which is obviously not the work of their own
  ancestors. A theory, which seems to have some probability in its
  favour, is that these mines were worked by the Khmer people during the
  period of power, energy and prosperity which found its most lofty
  expression in the now ruined and deserted city of Angkor Thom; while
  another attributes these works to the natives of India whose Hindu
  remains are found in Java and elsewhere, whose influence was at one
  time widespread throughout Malayan lands, and of whose religious
  teaching remnants still linger in the superstitions of the Malays and
  are preserved in some purity in Lombok and Bali. In the absence,
  however, of any relics of a kind which might lead to the
  identification of the ancient miners, their nationality and origin are
  matters which must continue to be mere questions of speculation and
  conjecture.

_History._--The first hint to reach Europe concerning the existence of
habitable lands to the eastward of the Ganges is to be found in the
writings of Pomponius Mela (A.D. 43) which speak of Chryse, or the
Golden Isle, as lying off Cape Tamus--supposed to be the most easterly
point in Asia--and over against the estuary of the Ganges. Thereafter
there occur vague references to Chryse in the _Periplus of the Erythrean
Sea_, &c., but the earliest trace of anything resembling first-hand
knowledge concerning the peninsula of Indo-China and Malaya is revealed
in the writings of Ptolemy, whose views were mainly derived from those
of his predecessor Marinus of Tyre, who in his turn drew his deductions
from information supplied to him by the mariner Alexander who, there is
every reason to think, had himself voyaged to the Malay Peninsula and
beyond. In the light of present knowledge concerning the trade-routes of
Asia, which had been in existence for thousands of years ere ever
Europeans attempted to make use of them, it is safe to identify
Ptolemy's Sinus Perimulicus with the Gulf of Siam, the Sinus Sabaricus
with the Straits of Malacca from their southern portals to the Gulf of
Martaban, the Aurea Chersonesus with the Malay Peninsula, and the island
of Iabadius or Sabadius--the reading of the name is doubtful--with
Sumatra, not as has often been mistakenly attempted with Java. Although
the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates
from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently
well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in
his _Antiquities of the Jews_, written during the latter half of the 1st
century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him
by Hiram of Tyre commands "that they should go along with his stewards
to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus,
which belongs to India, to fetch gold." After the time of Ptolemy no
advance in knowledge concerning the geography of south-eastern Asia was
made until Cosmas Indicopleustes, a monk and an Alexandrian Greek, wrote
from personal knowledge between A.D. 530 and 550. His primary object was
to prove that the world was built after the same shape and fashion as
the Ark made by the Children of Israel in the desert; but he was able to
show that the Malay Peninsula had to be rounded and thereafter a course
steered in a northerly direction if China was to be reached. Meanwhile
inter-Asiatic intercourse by means of sea-routes had been steadily on
the increase since the discovery of the way to utilize the monsoons and
to sail directly to and fro across the Indian Ocean (attributed to the
Greek pilot Hippalus) had been made. After the decline of the power of
Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia,
and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the
scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia
were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
There is considerable reason to think, however, that the more frequent
ports of call in the Straits of Malacca were situated in Sumatra, rather
than on the shores of the Malay Peninsula, and two famous medieval
travellers, Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta, both called and wintered at the
former, and make scant mention of the latter.

The importance of the Malay Peninsula, as has been noted, consisted in
the privilege which its locality conferred upon it of being the
distributing centre of the spices brought thither from the Moluccas _en
route_ for India and Europe. As early as the 3rd century B.C.
Megasthenes makes mention of spices brought to the shores of the Ganges
from "the southern parts of India," and the trade in question was
probably one of the most ancient in the world. So long, however, as
India held the monopoly of the clove, the Malay Peninsula was ignored,
the Hindus spreading their influence through the islands of the
archipelago and leaving traces thereof even to this day. The Mahommedan
traders from Persia and Arabia, following the routes which had been
prepared for them by their forebears, broke down the Hindu monopoly and
ousted the earlier exploiters so effectually that by the beginning of
the 16th century the spice trade was almost exclusively in their hands.
These traders were also missionaries of their religion, as indeed is
every Mahommedan, and to them is due the conversion of the Malays from
rude pantheism, somewhat tinctured by Hindu mythology, to the Mahommedan
creed. The desire to obtain the monopoly of the spice trade has been a
potent force in the fashioning of Asiatic history. The Moluccas were,
from the first, the objective of the Portuguese invaders, and no sooner
had the white men found their way round the Cape of Good Hope and
established themselves successively upon the coast of East Africa, in
the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Aden and the Malabar coast, than
Malacca, then the chief trading centre of the Malayan Archipelago,
became the object of their desire. The first Portuguese expedition sent
out to capture Malacca was under the command of Diogo Lopez de Siqueira
and sailed from Portugal in 1508. At Cochin Siqueira took on board
certain adherents of Alphonso d'Alboquerque who were in bad odour with
his rival d'Almeida, among them being Magellan, the future
circumnavigator of the world, and Francisco Serrão, the first European
who ever lived in the Spice Islands. Siqueira's expedition ended in
failure, owing partly to the aggressive attitude of the Portuguese,
partly to the very justifiable suspicions of the Malays, and he was
presently forced to destroy one of his vessels, to leave a number of his
men in captivity, and to sail direct for Portugal. In 1510 a second
expedition against Malacca was sent out from Portugal under the command
of Diogo Mendez de Vasconcellos, but d'Alboquerque retained it at Cochin
to aid him in the retaking of Goa, and it was not until 1511 that the
great viceroy could spare time to turn his attention to the scene of
Siqueira's failure. After some futile negotiations, which had for their
object the recovery of the Portuguese captives before hostilities should
begin, an assault was delivered upon Malacca, and though the first
attempt to take the city failed after some hard fighting, a second
assault made some days later succeeded, and Malacca passed for ever into
European hands. The Portuguese were satisfied with the possession of
Malacca itself and did not seek further to extend their empire in
Malaya. Instead they used every endeavour to establish friendly
relations with the rulers of all the neighbouring kingdoms, and before
d'Alboquerque returned to India he despatched embassies to China, Siam,
and several kingdoms of Sumatra, and sent a small fleet, with orders to
assume a highly conciliatory attitude toward all natives, in search of
the Moluccas. Very soon the spice trade had become a Portuguese
monopoly, and Malacca was the great headquarters of the trade. It should
moreover be noted that Magellan's famous expedition had for its object
not the barren feat of circumnavigation but the breaking down of this
monopoly, without violating the terms of the papal bull which gave to
Spain the conquest of the West, to Portugal the possession of the East.
In 1528 a French expedition sailed from Dieppe, penetrated as far as
Achin in Sumatra, but returned without reaching the Malay Peninsula. It
was, however, the first attempt ever made to defy the papal bull. In
1591, three years after the defeat of the Armada, Raymond and Lancaster
rounded the Cape, and after cruising off Penang, decided to winter in
Achin. They subsequently hid among the Pulau Sambilan near the mouth of
the Perak river, and thence captured a large Portuguese vessel which was
sailing from Malacca in company with two Burmese ships. In 1595 the
first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more
southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to
Java and the neighbouring islands. During this period Achin developed a
determined enmity to the Portuguese, and more than one attempt was made
to drive the strangers from Malacca. Eventually, in 1641, a joint attack
was made by the Achinese and the Dutch, but the latter, not the people
of the sturdy little Sumatran kingdom, became the owners of the coveted
port. Malacca was taken from the Dutch by the British in 1795; was
restored to the latter in 1818; but in 1824 was exchanged for Benkulen
and a few more unimportant places in Sumatra. The first British factory
in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the
east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the
16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an
untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was
killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch. Penang was
purchased from Kedah in 1786, and Singapore from the then sultan of
Johor in 1819. The Straits Settlements--Singapore, Malacca and
Penang--were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a
crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office. In 1874 the Malay
state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered
into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a
British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor,
Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and
Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States. By a treaty made
between Great Britain and Siam in 1902 the northern Malay states of the
peninsula were admitted to lie within the Siamese sphere of influence,
but by a treaty of 1909 Siam ceded her suzerain rights over the states
of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Britain.

Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters
of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time
being is _ex officio_ high commissioner of the Federated Malay States,
British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands,
and governor of Labuan.

  See Sir F. Swettenham, _British Malaya_ (1906); H. Clifford, _Further
  India_ (1904); _Journal of the Malay Archipelago_, Logan (Singapore);
  _Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_
  (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the _Journal of
  the Royal Colonial Institute_ (London); Clifford in the _Journal of
  the Royal Geographical Society_ (London).     (H. Cl.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See R. B. Newton, "Notes on Literature bearing upon the Geology
    of the Malay Peninsula; with an Account of a Neolithic Implement from
    that Country" (Geol. Mag., 1901, pp. 128-134). See also the various
    reports by J. B. Scrivenor in _Suppl. Perak Gov. Gazette_, 1905.



MALAYS, the name given by Europeans to the people calling themselves
_Orang Malayu_, i.e. Malayan folk, who are the dominant race of the
Malay Peninsula and of the Malay Archipelago. Broadly speaking, all the
brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and
Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from
Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family,
if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay
Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.
For the purposes of this article, however, only those among these races
which bear the name of Orang Malayu, speak the Malayan language, and
represent the dominant people of the land, can be included under the
title of Malays. These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula
to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the
mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of
that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch
Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller
islands of the archipelago. Though in these lands they have for not less
than a thousand years enjoyed the position of the dominant race, they
all possess a tradition that they are not indigenous, and that their
first rulers "came out of the sea," with a large band of Malayan
warriors in their train. In the peninsula especially, where the
presence of the Malays is more recent than elsewhere, many traditions
exist which point to a comparatively recent occupation of the country.
It has been remarked that there is evidence that the Malays had attained
to a certain stage of civilization before ever they set foot in Malaya.
For instance, the names which they give to certain fruits, such as the
_duri-an_, the _rambut-an_ and the _pulas-an_, which are indigenous in
the Malayan countries, and are not found elsewhere, are all compound
words meaning respectively the thorny, the hairy and the twisted fruit.
These words are formed by the addition of the substantial affix "-_an_,"
the use of which is one of the recognized methods by which the Malays
turn primitive words into terms of more complex meaning. This may be
taken to indicate that when first the Malays became acquainted with the
fruits which are indigenous in Malayan lands they already possessed a
language in which most primary words were represented, and also that
their tongue had attained to a stage of development which provided for
the formation of compound words by a system sanctioned by custom and the
same linguistic instinct which causes a Malay to-day to form similar
compounds from European and other foreign roots. For any aboriginal race
inhabiting these countries, such important articles of diet as the
_duri-an_, &c., could not fail to be among the first natural objects to
receive a name, and thus we find primary terms in use among the Sakai
and Semang, the aborigines of the Peninsula, to describe these fruits.
The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these
things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays
arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in
their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from
the original state of primitive man.

In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological
and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the
Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from
the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading
across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent
date. The fact that the semi-wild tribes, which are ethnologically
Malayan and distinct from the aboriginal Semang and Sakai, are met with
almost invariably in the neighbourhood of the coast would seem to
indicate that they reached the peninsula by a sea, not by a land route,
a supposition which is strengthened by their almost amphibious habits.
Many of these tribes have retained their pristine paganism, but many
others it is certain have adopted the Mahommedan religion and have been
assimilated by the subsequent and stronger wave of Sumatran immigrants.
A study of the local dialects to be met with in some of the districts of
the far interior, e.g. the Tembeling valley in Pahang, whose people are
now Mahommedans and in many respects indistinguishable from the ordinary
Malays of the peninsula, reveals the fact that words, current in the
archipelago to the south but incomprehensible to the average peninsula
Malays, by whom these more ancient populations are now completely
surrounded, have been preserved as local words, whereas they really
belong to an older dialect once spoken widely in the peninsula, as
to-day it is spoken in the Malayan islands. This would seem to show that
in some instances the earlier Malay immigrants fell or were driven by
the later invaders back from the coast and sought refuge in the far
interior.


  Theories of Origin.

Until recently many eminent scientists held the theory that the Malayan
peoples were merely an offspring of the Mongol stock, and that their
advance into the lands they now inhabit had taken place from the cradle
of the Mongolian race--that is to say, from the north. In the fifth
edition of his _Malay Archipelago_, A. R. Wallace notes the resemblance
which he traced between the Malays and the Mongolians, and others have
recorded similar observations as to the physical appearance of the two
races. To-day, however, fuller data are available than when Wallace
wrote, and the more generally accepted theory is that the Malayan race
is distinct, and came from the south, until it was stayed by the
Mongolian races living on the mainland of southern Asia. The cranial
measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections
seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian
races. Their language, which is neither monosyllabic nor tonic, has
nothing in common with that of the Mon-Annam group. It has, moreover,
been pointed out that had the Malays been driven southwards by the
stronger races of the mainland of Asia, it might be expected that the
people inhabiting the country nearest to the border between Siam and
Malaya would belong to the Malayan and not to the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer
stock. As a matter of fact the Sâkai of the interior of the peninsula
belong to the latter race. It might also be anticipated, were the theory
of a southward immigration to be sustained, that the Malays would be
new-comers in the islands of the archipelago, and have their oldest
settlements on the Malayan Peninsula. The facts, however, are in exact
contradiction to this; and accordingly the theory now most generally
held by those who have studied the question is that the Malays form a
distinct race, and had their original home in the south. Where this home
lay it is not easy to say, but the facts recorded by many writers as to
the resemblance between the Polynesian and the Malayan races, and the
strong Malayan element found in the languages of the former (see
Tregear's _Maori and Comparative Polynesian Dictionary_, London, 1891),
have led some students to think that the two races may have had a common
origin. John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his _Dictionary of the
Malay Language_, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan
terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the
casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the
Polynesian Archipelago. The appearance of the same Malayan words in
localities so widely separated from each other, however, cannot be
satisfactorily accounted for by any such explanation, and the theory is
now more generally held that the two races are probably allied and may
at some remote period of history have shared a common home. It has been
suggested that their separation did not take place until after the
continent which once existed in the north Pacific had become submerged,
and that the Malays wandered northward, while the Polynesian race spread
itself over the islands of the southern archipelago. All this, however,
must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the
only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our
knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the
Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the
Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the
Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged
to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations
tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races;
(c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, new-comers in the lands
which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their
emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote
period of their history, they came into close contact with the
Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area
which it now occupies.


    Religion and Superstitions.

  The Malays to-day are Sunni Mahommedans of the school of Shafi'i, and
  they habitually use the terms _Orang Malayu_, i.e. a Malay, and _Orang
  Islam_, i.e. a Mahommedan, as synonymous expressions. Their conversion
  from paganism took place during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries of
  our era. The raja of Achin, in northern Sumatra, is said to have been
  converted as early as 1206, while the Bugis people in Celebes are
  supposed not to have become Mahommedans until 1495. Mahommedanism
  undoubtedly spread to the Malays of the peninsula from Sumatra, but
  their conversion was slow and gradual, and may even now in some
  respects be regarded as imperfect. Upon the bulk of the Malayan
  peoples their religion sits but lightly. Few are found to observe the
  law concerning the Five Hours of Prayer, and many fail to put in an
  appearance at the Friday congregational services in the mosques. The
  Fast of Ramadhan, however, is generally observed with some
  faithfulness. Compared with other Mahommedan peoples, the Malays are
  not fanatical, though occasionally an outbreak against those of a
  different creed is glorified by them into a holy war. The reason of
  such outbreaks, however, is usually to be found in political and
  social rather than in religious grievances. Prior to their conversion
  to Mahommedanism the Malays were subjected to a considerable Hindu
  influence, which reached them by means of the traders who visited the
  archipelago from India. In the islands of Bali and Lombok the people
  still profess a form of Hinduism, and Hindu remains are to be found in
  many other parts of the archipelago, though their traces do not extend
  to the peninsula. Throughout, however, the superstitions of the Malays
  show indications of this Hindu influence, and many of the demons whom
  their medicine-men invoke in their magic practices are clearly
  borrowed from the pantheon of India. For the rest, a substratum of
  superstitious beliefs, which survives from the days when the Malays
  professed only their natural religion, is to be found firmly rooted in
  the minds of the people, and the influence of Mahommedanism, which
  regards such things with horror, has been powerless to eradicate this.
  Mr W. W. Skeat's _Malay Magic_ (London, 1900) is a compilation of all
  the writings on the subject of Malay superstitions by the best
  authorities and contains considerable original matter.


    Mode of Life, &c.

  The Malays of the coast are a maritime people, and were long famous
  for the daring character of their acts of piracy. They are now
  peaceable fisher-folk, who show considerable ingenuity in their
  calling. Inland the Malays live by preference on the banks of rivers,
  building houses on piles some feet from the ground, and planting
  groves of coco-nut, betel-nut, sugar-palm and fruit-trees around their
  dwellings. Behind their villages the rice-fields usually spread, and
  rice, which is the staple food of the people, is the principal article
  of agriculture among them. Sugar-cane, maize, tapioca and other
  similar products are grown, however, in smaller quantities. In
  planting rice three methods are in use: the cultivation of swamp-rice
  in irrigated fields; the planting of ploughed areas; and the planting
  of hill-rice by sowing each grain separately in holes bored for the
  purpose. In the irrigated fields the rice plants are first grown in
  nurseries, and are subsequently transplanted when they have reached a
  certain stage of development. The Malays also work jungle produce, of
  which the most important are gutta, rattans, agila wood, camphor wood,
  and the beautiful _kamuning_ wood which is used by the natives for the
  hilts of their weapons. The principal manufactures of the Malays are
  cotton and silk cloths, earthenware and silver vessels, mats and
  native weapons. The best cotton cloths are those manufactured by the
  Bugis people in Celebes, and the _batek_ cloths which come from Java
  and are stamped with patterns. The best silks are produced by the
  natives of Pahang, Kelantan and Johor in the Malay Peninsula. Lord
  Leighton pronounced the silver ware from Malaya to be the most
  artistic of any exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition held in London in
  1886. The pottery of the Malays is rude but curious. When the first
  Europeans visited the Malay Archipelago the Malays had already
  acquired the art of manufacturing gunpowder and forging cannon. The
  art of writing also appears to have been independently invented by the
  Malayan races, since numerous alphabets are in use among the peoples
  of the archipelago, although for the writing of Malay itself the
  Arabic character has been adopted for some hundreds of years. The
  Malays are excellent boat-builders.


    Character, &c.

  While the Malays were famous almost exclusively for their piratical
  expeditions they naturally bore an evil reputation among Europeans,
  but now that we have come into closer contact with them, and have
  learned to understand them better, the old opinions concerning them
  have been greatly modified. They used to be described as the most
  cruel and treacherous people in the world, and they certainly are
  callous of the pain suffered by others, and regard any strategy of
  which their enemies are the victims with open admiration. In ordinary
  circumstances, however, the Malay is not treacherous, and there are
  many instances recorded in which men of this race have risked their
  own lives on behalf of Europeans who chanced to be their friends. As a
  race they are exceedingly courteous and self-respecting. Their own
  code of manners is minute and strict, and they observe its provisions
  faithfully. Unlike many Orientals, the Malays can be treated with a
  friendly familiarity without such treatment breeding lack of respect
  or leading to liberties being taken with the superior. The Malays are
  indolent, pleasure-loving, improvident beyond belief, fond of bright
  clothing, of comfort, of ease, and they dislike toil exceedingly. They
  have no idea of the value of money, and little notion of honesty where
  money is concerned. They would always borrow rather than earn money,
  and they feel no shame in adopting the former course. They will
  frequently refuse to work for a wage when they most stand in need of
  cash, and yet at the invitation of one who is their friend they will
  toil unremittingly without any thought of reward. They are much
  addicted to gambling, and formerly were much given to fighting, though
  they never display that passion for war in the abstract which is
  characteristic of some of the white races, and their courage on the
  whole is not high if judged by European standards. It is notorious,
  however, on the coasts that a Malay gang on board a ship invariably
  gets the better of any fight which may arise between it and the
  Chinese crew. The sexual morality of the Malays is very lax, but
  prostitution is not common in consequence. Polygamy, though allowed by
  their religion, is practised for the most part among the wealthy
  classes only. The Malays are an intensely aristocratic people, and
  show a marvellous loyalty to their rajas and chiefs. Their respect for
  rank is not marred by any vulgarity or snobbery. The ruling classes
  among them display all the vices of the lower classes, and few of the
  virtues except that of courtesy. They are for the most part, when
  left to their own resources, cruel, unjust, selfish and improvident.

  Much has been written concerning the acts of homicidal mania called
  amuck (_amok_), which word in the vernacular means to attack. It was
  formerly believed that these outbursts were to be attributed to
  madness _pur et simple_, and some cases of _amok_ can certainly be
  traced to this source. These are not, however, in any sense typical,
  and might equally have been perpetrated by men of another race. The
  typical _amok_ is usually the result of circumstances which render a
  Malay desperate. The motive is often inadequate from the point of view
  of a European, but to the Malay it is sufficient to make him weary of
  life and anxious to court death. Briefly, where a man of another race
  might not improbably commit suicide, a Malay runs _amok_, killing all
  whom he may meet until he himself is slain.

  The nervous affliction called _latah_, to which many Malays are
  subject, is also a curious trait of the people. The victims of this
  affliction lose for the time all self-control and all sense of their
  own identity, imitating the actions of any person who chances to rivet
  their attention. Accounts of these manifestations will be found in
  Swettenham's _Malay Sketches_ (London, 1895) and Clifford's _Studies
  in Brown Humanity_ (London, 1897).


    Costume, Weapons, &c.

  The Malays wear a loose coat and trousers, and a cap or head-kerchief,
  but the characteristic item of their costume is the _sarong_, a silk
  or cotton cloth about two yards long by a yard and a quarter wide, the
  ends of which are sewn together, forming a kind of skirt. This is worn
  round the waist folded in a knot, the women allowing it to fall to the
  ankle, the men, when properly dressed in accordance with ancient
  custom, folding it over the hilt of their waist-weapon, and draping it
  around them so that it reaches nearly to the knee. In the hall of a
  raja on state occasions a head-kerchief twisted into a peak is worn,
  and the coat is furnished with a high collar extending round the back
  of the neck only. This coat is open in front, leaving the chest bare.
  The trousers are short and of a peculiar cut and material, being
  coloured many hues in parallel horizontal lines. The _sarong_ is of
  Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high
  polish is imparted by friction with a shell. The typical fighting
  costume of the Malay is a sleeveless jacket with texts from the Koran
  written upon it, short tight drawers reaching to the middle of the
  thigh, and the _sarong_ is then bound tightly around the waist,
  leaving the hilt of the dagger worn in the girdle exposed to view. The
  principal weapon of the Malays is the _kris_, a short dagger with a
  small wooden or ivory handle, of which there are many varieties. The
  blade of a _kris_ may either be wavy or straight, but if wavy the
  number of waves must always be uneven in number. The _kris_ most
  prized by the Malays are those of Bugis (Celebes) manufacture, and of
  these the kind called _tuasek_ are of the greatest value. Besides the
  short _kris_, the Malays use long straight _kris_ with very narrow
  blades, shorter straight _kris_ of the same form, short broad swords
  called _sundang_, long swords of ordinary pattern called _pedang_,
  somewhat shorter swords curved like scimitars with curiously carved
  handles called _chenangkas_, and short stabbing daggers called _tumbok
  lada_. The principal tools of the Malays are the _parang_ or _gôlok_,
  a heavy knife used in the jungle, without which no peasant ever stirs
  abroad from his house, the _beliong_ or native axe, and the _pisau
  raut_, which is used for scraping rattan. Their implements are very
  primitive, consisting of a plough fashioned from a fork of a tree, and
  a rude harrow. Reaping is usually performed by the aid of a curious
  little knife which severs each ear of grain separately. The
  fisher-folk use many kinds of nets, which they manufacture themselves.
  Sails, paddles, oars and punting-poles are all in use.


  MALAY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

  The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of the
  Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no means a
  representative type of the section which has taken its name from it.
  The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca
  with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater
  part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of
  Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands. It is the general medium of
  communication throughout the archipelago from Sumatra to the
  Philippine Islands, and it was so upwards of three hundred and fifty
  years ago when the Portuguese first appeared in those parts.

  There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental records with
  inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the spreading of Islam in
  the archipelago, about the end of the 13th century. By some it has
  been argued from this fact that the Malays possessed no kind of
  writing prior to the introduction of the Arabic alphabet (W. Robinson,
  J. J. de Hollander); whereas others have maintained, with greater show
  of probability, that the Malays were in possession of an ancient
  alphabet, and that it was the same as the Rechang (Marsden,
  Friederich), as the Kawi (Van der Tuuk), or most like the Lampong
  (Kern)--all of which alphabets, with the Battak, Bugi and Macassar,
  are ultimately traceable to the ancient Cambojan characters. With the
  Mahommedan conquest the Perso-Arabic alphabet was introduced among the
  Malays; it has continued ever since to be in use for literary,
  religious and business purposes. Where Javanese is the principal
  language, Malay is sometimes found written with Javanese characters;
  and in Palembang, in the Menangkabo country of Middle Sumatra, the
  Rechang or Renchong characters are in general use, so called from the
  sharp and pointed knife with which they are cut on the smooth side of
  bamboo staves. It is only since the Dutch have established their
  supremacy in the archipelago that the Roman character has come to be
  largely used in writing and printing Malay. This is also the case in
  the Straits Settlements.

  By the simplicity of its phonetic elements, the regularity of its
  grammatical structure, and the copiousness of its nautical vocabulary,
  the Malay language is singularly well fitted to be the _lingua franca_
  throughout the Indian archipelago. It possesses the five vowels _a_,
  _i_, _u_, _e_, _o_, both short and long, and one pure diphthong, _au_.
  Its consonants are _k_, _g_, _ng_, _ch_, _j_, _ñ_, _t_, _d_, _n_, _p_,
  _b_, _m_, _y_, _r_, _l_, _w_, _s_, _h_. Long vowels can only occur in
  open syllables. The only possible consonantal nexus in purely Malay
  words is that of a nasal and mute, a liquid and mute and vice versa,
  and a liquid and nasal. Final _k_ and _h_ are all but suppressed in
  the utterance. Purely Arabic letters are only used in Arabic words, a
  great number of which have been received into the Malay vocabulary.
  But the Arabic character is even less suited to Malay than to the
  other Eastern languages on which it has been foisted. As the short
  vowels are not marked, one would, in seeing, e.g. the word _bntng_,
  think first of _bintang_, a star; but the word might also mean a large
  scar, to throw down, to spread, rigid, mutilated, enceinte, a kind of
  cucumber, a redoubt, according as it is pronounced, _bantang_,
  _banting_, _bentang_, _buntang_, _buntung_, _bunting_, _bonteng_,
  _benteng_.

  Malay is essentially, with few exceptions, a dissyllabic language, and
  the syllabic accent rests on the penultimate unless that syllable is
  open and short; e.g. datang, namaña, besár, diumpatkanñalah. Nothing
  in the form of a root word indicates the grammatical category to which
  it belongs; thus, _kasih_, kindness, affectionate, to love; _ganti_, a
  proxy, to exchange, instead of. It is only in derivative words that
  this vagueness is avoided. Derivation is effected by infixes,
  prefixes, affixes and reduplication. Infixes occur more rarely in
  Malay than in the cognate tongues. Examples are--_guruh_, a rumbling
  noise, _gumuruh_, to make such a noise; _tunjuk_, to point,
  _telunjuk_, the forefinger; _chuchuk_, to pierce, _cheruchuk_, a
  stockade. The import of the prefixes--me (meng, meñ, men, mem), pe
  (peng, peñ, pen, pem ber (bel), per, pel, ka, di, ter,--and
  affixes--an, kan, i, lah--will best appear from the following
  examples--root word _ajar_, to teach, to learn; _mengajar_, to
  instruct (expresses an action); _bleajar_, to study (state or
  condition); _mengajari_, to instruct (some one, trans.);
  _mengajarkan_, to instruct (in something, causative); _pengajar_, the
  instructor; _pelajar_, the learner; _pengajaran_, the lesson taught,
  also the school; _pelajaran_, the lesson learnt; _diajar_, to be
  learnt; _terajar_, learnt; _terajarkan_, taught; _terajari_,
  instructed; _[peraja_ (from _raja_, prince), to recognize as prince;
  _perajakan_, to crown as prince; karajaan, royalty]; _ajarkanlah_,
  teach! Examples of reduplication are--_ajar-ajar_, a sainted person;
  _ajar-berajar_ (or _belajar_), to be learning and teaching by turns;
  similarly there are forms like _ajar-mengajar_, _berajar-ajaran_,
  _ajar-ajari_, _memperajar_, _memperajarkan_, _memperajari_,
  _terbelajarkan_, _perbelajarkan_, &c. Altogether there are upwards of
  a hundred possible derivative forms, in the idiomatic use of which the
  Malays exhibit much skill. See especially H. von Dewall, _De
  vormveranderingen der Maleische taal_ (Batavia, 1864) and I.
  Pijnappel, _Maleisch-Hollandsch Woordenboek_ (Amsterdam, 1875),
  "Inleiding." In every other respect the language is characterized by
  great simplicity and indefiniteness. There is no inflexion to
  distinguish number, gender or case. Number is never indicated when the
  sense is obvious or can be gathered from the context; otherwise
  plurality is expressed by adjectives such as _sagala_, all, and
  _bañak_, many; more rarely by the repetition of the noun, and the
  indefinite singular by _sa_ or _satu_, one, with a class-word. Gender
  may, if necessary, be distinguished by the words _laki-laki_, male,
  and _perampuan_, female, in the case of persons, and of _jantan_ and
  _betina_ in the case of animals. The genitive case is generally
  indicated by the position of the word after its governing noun. Also
  adjectives and demonstrative pronouns have their places after the
  noun. Comparison is effected by the use of particles. Instead of the
  personal pronouns, both in their full and abbreviated forms,
  conventional nouns are in frequent use to indicate the social position
  or relation of the respective interlocutors, as, e.g. _hamba tuan_,
  the master's slave, i.e. I. These nouns vary according to the
  different localities. Another peculiarity of Malay (and likewise of
  Chinese, Shan, Talaing, Burmese and Siamese) is the use of certain
  class-words or coefficients with numerals, such as _orang_ (man), when
  speaking of persons, _ekor_ (tail) of animals, _keping_ (piece) of
  flat things, _biji_ (seed) of roundish things; e.g. _lima biji,
  telor_, five eggs. The number of these class-words is considerable.
  Malay verbs have neither person or number nor mood or tense. The last
  two are sometimes indicated by particles or auxiliary verbs; but these
  are generally dispensed with if the meaning is sufficiently plain
  without them. The Malays avoid the building up of long sentences. The
  two main rules by which the order of the words in a sentence is
  regulated are--subject, verb, object; and qualifying words follow
  those which they qualify. This is quite the reverse of what is the
  rule in Burmese.

  The history of the Malays amply accounts for the number and variety of
  foreign ingredients in their language. Hindus appear to have settled
  in Sumatra and Java as early as the 4th century of our era, and to
  have continued to exercise sway over the native populations for many
  centuries. These received from them into their language a very large
  number of Sanskrit terms, from which we can infer the nature of the
  civilizing influence imparted by the Hindu rulers. Not only in words
  concerning commerce and agriculture, but also in terms connected with
  social, religious and administrative matters that influence is
  traceable in Malay. See W. E. Maxwell, _Manual of the Malay Language_
  (1882), pp. 5-34, where this subject is treated more fully than by
  previous writers. This Sanskrit element forms such an integral part of
  the Malay vocabulary that in spite of the subsequent infusion of
  Arabic and Persian words adopted in the usual course of Mahommedan
  conquest it has retained its ancient citizenship in the language. The
  number of Portuguese, English, Dutch and Chinese words in Malay is not
  considerable; their presence is easily accounted for by political or
  commercial contact.

  The Malay language abounds in idiomatic expressions, which constitute
  the chief difficulty in its acquisition. It is sparing in the use of
  personal pronouns, and prefers impersonal and elliptical diction. As
  it is rich in specific expressions for the various aspects of certain
  ideas, it is requisite to employ always the most appropriate term
  suited to the particular aspect. In Maxwell's _Manual_, pp. 120 seq.,
  no less than sixteen terms are given to express the different kinds of
  striking, as many for the different kinds of speaking, eighteen for
  the various modes of carrying, &c. An unnecessary distinction has been
  made between _High Malay_ and _Low Malay_. The latter is no separate
  dialect at all, but a mere brogue or jargon, the medium of intercourse
  between illiterate natives and Europeans too indolent to apply
  themselves to the acquisition of the language of the people; its
  vocabulary is made up of Malay words, with a conventional admixture of
  words from other languages; and it varies, not only in different
  localities, but also in proportion to the individual speaker's
  acquaintance with Malay proper. A few words are used, however, only in
  speaking with persons of royal rank--e.g. _santap_, to eat (of a raja)
  instead of _makan_; _beradu_, to sleep, instead of ti_dor_; _gring_,
  unwell, instead of _sakit_; _mangkat_, to die, instead of _mati_, &c.
  The use is different as regards the term _Jawi_ as applied to the
  Malay language. This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser
  Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it
  accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two
  great islands.


    Literature.

  The Malays cannot, strictly speaking, be said to possess a literature,
  for none of their writings can boast any literary beauty or value.
  Their most characteristic literature is to be found, not in their
  writings, but in the folk-tales which are transmitted orally from
  generation to generation, and repeated by the wandering minstrels
  called by the people _Peng-lipor Lara_, i.e. "Soothers of Care." Some
  specimens of these are to be found in the _Journal of the Straits
  Branch of the Asiatic Society_ (Singapore). The collections of _Malay
  Proberbs_ made by Klinkert, Maxwell and Clifford also give a good idea
  of the literary methods of the Malays. Their verse is of a very
  primitive description, and is chiefly used for purposes of
  love-making. There are numerous rhymed fairy tales, which are much
  liked by the people, but they are of no literary merit. The best Malay
  books are the _Hikayat Hang Tuak_, _Bestamam_ and the _Hikayat
  Abdullah_. The latter is a diary of events kept during Sir Stamford
  Raffle's administration by his Malay scribe.

  AUTHORITIES.--Hugh Clifford, _In Court and Kampong_ (London, 1897);
  _Studies in Brown Humanity_ (London, 1898); _In a Corner of Asia_
  (London, 1899); _Bush-whacking_ (London 1901); Clifford and
  Swettenham, _Dictionary of the Malay Language_, parts i. to v. A-G.
  Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, _History of the Indian
  Archipelago_ (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); _Grammar and Dictionary of
  the Malay Language_ (2 vols., London, 1852); _A Descriptive Dictionary
  of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries_ (London, 1856); _Journal
  of the Indian Archipelago_ (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); _Journal
  of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_, 33 Nos.
  (Singapore, 1878-1900); H. C. Klinkert, _Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch
  Woordenboek_ (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, _Malay Annals_ (London,
  1821); William Marsden, _The History of Sumatra_ (London, 1811);
  _Malay Dictionary_ (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, _A Manual of
  the Malay Language_ (London, 1888); T. J. Newbold, _Political and
  Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of
  Malacca_; W. W. Skeat, _Malay Magic_ (London, 1900); Skeat and
  Blagden, _Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula_ (London, 1906); Sir
  Frank Swettenham, _Malay Sketches_ (London, 1895); _The Real Malay_
  (London, 1899); _British Malaya_ (London, 1906); H. von-de Wall,
  edited by H. N. van der Tuuk, _Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woordenboek_
  (Batavia, 1877-1880); _Malay Dictionary_ (Singapore, 1903), Wilkinson.
       (H. Cl.)



MALAY STATES (BRITISH). The native states of the Malay Peninsula under
British protection are divided into two groups: (1) federated, and (2)
non-federated.


I.--FEDERATED STATES

The federated states, under the protection of Great Britain, but not
British possessions, are Perak, Selangor and the confederation of small
states known as the Negri Sembilan (i.e. Nine States) on the west
coast, and the state of Pahang on the east coast. Each state is under
the rule of a sultan, who is assisted in his legislative duties by a
state council, upon which the resident, and in some cases the secretary
to the resident, has a seat, and which is composed of native chiefs and
one or more Chinese members nominated by the sultan with the advice and
consent of the resident. The council, in addition to legislative and
other duties, revises all sentences of capital punishment. The
administrative work of each state is carried on by the resident and his
staff of European officials, whose ranks are recruited by successful
candidates in the competitive examinations held annually by the Civil
Service commissioners. The sultan of each state is bound by treaty with
the British government to accept the advice of the resident, who is thus
practically paramount; but great deference is paid to the opinions and
wishes of the sultans and their chiefs, and the British officials are
pledged not to interfere with the religious affairs of the Mahommedan
community. In the actual administration of the Malay population great
use is made of the native aristocratic system, the peasants being
governed largely by their own chiefs, headmen and village elders, under
the close supervision of British district officers. The result is a
benevolent autocracy admirably adapted to local conditions and to the
character and traditions of the people. A recognition of the fact that
the welfare of the Malays, who are the people of the land and whose
sultans have never ceded their territories to the British, must be
regarded as the first consideration has been the guiding principle of
the administration of the Malay States, and this has resulted in an
extraordinary amelioration of the condition of the natives, which has
proceeded concurrently with a notable development of the country and its
resources, mineral and agricultural. To the work of development,
however, the Malays have themselves contributed little, sound
administration having been secured by the British officials, enterprise
and capital having been supplied mainly by the Chinese, and the labour
employed being almost entirely Chinese or Tamil. Meanwhile the Malays
have improved their ancestral holdings, have enjoyed a peace and a
security to which their past history furnishes no parallel, have
obtained easy access to new and important markets for their agricultural
produce, and for the rest have been suffered to lead the lives best
suited to their characters and their desires. Each principal department
of the administration has its federal head, and all the residents
correspond with and are controlled by the resident-general, who, in his
turn, is responsible to the high commissioner, the governor of the
Straits Settlements for the time being.

  The estimated aggregate area of the Federated Malay States is 28,000
  sq. m., and the estimated population in 1905 was 860,000, as against
  678,595 in 1901. Of these only about 230,000 are Malays. The revenue
  of the federation in 1905 was $23,964,593 (about £2,795,000), and the
  expenditure was $20,750,395 (about £2,460,000). The imports for the
  same year were valued at $50,575,455 (about £5,900,000), and the
  exports at $80,057,654 (about £9,340,000), making a total trade of
  nearly 15¼ millions sterling. The principal sources of revenue are an
  export duty on tin, the rents paid for the revenue farms of the right
  to collect import duties on opium, wine and spirits, and to keep
  licensed gambling-houses for the exclusive use of the Chinese
  population, railway receipts, land and forest revenue and postal
  revenue. The tin is won from large alluvial deposits found in the
  states of the western seaboard, and the mines are worked almost
  exclusively by Chinese capital and labour. Since 1889 the Federated
  Malay States have produced considerably more than half the tin of the
  world. Recently there has been a great development in agricultural
  enterprise, especially with regard to rubber, which is now grown in
  large quantities, the estates being mainly in the hands of Europeans,
  and the labour mostly Tamil. The states are opened up by over 2500 m.
  of some of the best metalled cart-roads in the world, and by a railway
  system, 350 m. of which, extending from the mainland opposite Penang
  to the ancient town of Malacca, are open to traffic. Another 150 m. of
  railway is under construction. The government offices at Kuala Lumpor,
  the federal capital of the states, are among the finest buildings of
  the kind in Asia. The whole of this extraordinary development, it
  should be noted, has been effected by careful, sound and wise
  administration coupled with a courageous and energetic policy of
  expenditure upon public works. Throughout, not one penny of debt has
  been incurred, the roads, railways, &c., being constructed entirely
  from current balances. This of course has only been rendered possible
  by the extraordinary mineral wealth which the states on the western
  seaboard have developed in the hands of Chinese miners amid the peace
  and security which British rule has brought to these once lawless
  lands. The value of the tin output for the year 1905 amounted to
  $69,460,993 (£8,104,199). Although agricultural enterprise in the
  Malay States is assuming considerable proportions and a growing
  importance, the total value of the principal agricultural products,
  including timber, for the year 1905 only aggregated $2,435,513
  (£289,143).

  The whole of the Malay Peninsula is one vast forest, through which
  flow countless streams that form one of the most lavish water-systems
  in the world. The rivers, though many of them are of imposing
  appearance and of considerable length, are uniformly shallow, only a
  few on the west coast being navigable by ships for a distance of some
  40 m. from their mouths. In spite of the notable development above
  referred to, only a very small fraction of the entire area of the
  states has as yet been touched either by mining or agricultural
  enterprise. It is not too much to assert that the larger half of the
  forest-lands has never been trodden by the foot of man. (For
  information concerning the botany, geology, &c., of the Malay States
  see MALAY PENINSULA. For the ethnology see MALAYS.)

PERAK is situated between the parallels 3° 37´ and 6° 5´ N. and 100° 3´
to 101° 51´ E. on the western side of the Malay Peninsula. It is bounded
on the N. by the British possession of Province Wellesley and the Malay
state of Kedah; on the S. by the protected native state of Selangor; on
the E. by the protected native state of Pahang and the independent
states of Kelantan and Petani; and on the W. by the Straits of Malacca.
The coast-line is about 90 m. in length. The extreme distance from the
most northerly to the most southerly portions of the state is about 172
m., and the greatest breadth from east to west is about 100 m. The total
area of the country is estimated at about 10,000 sq. m.

  The Perak river, which runs in a southerly direction almost parallel
  with the coast for nearly 150 m. of its course, is navigable for small
  steamers for about 40 m. from its mouth, and by native trading boats
  for nearly 200 m. The Plus, Batang, Padang and Kinta rivers are its
  principal tributaries, all of them falling into the Perak on its left
  bank. The other principal rivers of the state are the Krian, Kurau,
  Larut and Bruas to the north of the mouth of the Perak, and the Bernam
  to the south. None of these rivers is of any great importance as a
  waterway, although the Bernam River is navigable for small steamers
  for nearly 100 m. of its course. The mountain ranges, which cover a
  considerable area, run from the north-east to the south-west. The
  highest altitudes attained by them do not exceed 7500 ft., but they
  average about 2500 ft. They are all thickly covered with jungle. The
  ranges are two, running parallel to one another, with the valley of
  the Perak between them. The larger is a portion of the main chain,
  which runs down the peninsula from north to south. The lesser is
  situated in the district of Larut. There are several hill sanatoria in
  the state at heights which vary from 2500 to 4700 ft. above sea-level,
  but the extreme humidity of the atmosphere renders the coolness thus
  obtainable the reverse of enjoyable.


    Geology.

  Mr Leonard Wray, curator of the Perak museum, writes as follows on the
  subject of the geological formation of the state: "There are really
  only four formations represented--firstly, the granitic rocks;
  secondly, a large series of beds of gneiss, quartzite, schist and
  sandstone, overlaid in many places by thick beds of crystalline
  limestone; thirdly, small sheets of trap rock; and fourthly,
  river-gravels and other Quaternary deposits. The granites are of many
  varieties, and also, in all probability, of several different
  geological periods. The series of quartzites, schists, and limestone
  are of great age, but as no fossils have ever been found in any of
  them, nothing definite can be stated as to their exact chronological
  position. Their lithological characteristics and the total absence of
  all organic remains point to the Archaean period. The failure to
  discover signs of life in them is, of course, merely negative
  evidence, and the finding of a single fossil would at once upset it.
  However, until this happens they may be conveniently classed as
  Laurentian. It is at present impossible to form anything approaching
  an accurate estimate of the thickness of this extensive series, but it
  is probable that it is somewhere between 4000 and 5000 ft.
  Unconformability has been noticed between the limestones and the beds
  beneath, but whether this is sufficient to separate them or not is a
  matter for future investigation.... The taller hills are exclusively
  composed of granite, as also are some of the lower ones.... The ores
  of the following metals have been found in the formations named:
  Granite--tin, lead, iron, arsenic, tungsten and titanium;
  Laurentian--tin, gold, lead, silver, iron, arsenic, copper, zinc,
  tungsten, manganese and bismuth; Quaternary--tin, gold, copper,
  tungsten, iron and titanium. This is not to be considered a complete
  list, as small quantities of other metals have also been found."


    History.

  The early history of Perak is obscure, the only information on the
  subject being obtained from native traditions, which are altogether
  untrustworthy. According to these authorities, however, a settlement
  was first made by Malays in Perak at Bruas, and the capital was later
  moved to the banks of the Perak River, the site chosen being a little
  village called Temong, which lies some miles up stream from Kuala
  Kangsar, the present residence of the sultan. When the Malacca
  sultanate fell, owing to the invasion of the Portuguese in 1511, a
  member of that royal house is said to have migrated to Perak, and the
  present dynasty claims to have been descended from him. As this boast
  is also made by almost every ruling family in the peninsula, the
  tradition is not worthy of any special attention. What is more certain
  is the tradition that Perak was twice invaded by the Achinese, and its
  rulers carried off into captivity, one of them, Sultan Mansur Shah,
  subsequently becoming the ruler of Achin. The first European
  settlement in Perak was made by the Dutch in 1650, under a treaty
  entered into with the Achinese, but the natives of the country rose
  against the Dutch again and again, and it was abandoned in 1783,
  though it was afterwards reoccupied, the Dutch being finally ejected
  by the British in 1795. In 1818 the Siamese conquered Perak, but its
  independence was secured by a treaty between the British and Siamese
  governments in 1824. From that date until 1874 Perak was ruled by its
  own sultans, but in that year, owing to internal strife, Sultan
  Abdullah applied to the then governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir
  Andrew Clarke, for the assistance of a British Resident. The treaty of
  Pangkor was concluded on the 20th of January 1874, and the first
  resident, Mr J. W. W. Birch, was murdered on the 2nd of November 1875.
  A punitive expedition became necessary; sultan Abdullah and the other
  chiefs concerned in the murder were banished, the actual murderers
  were hanged, and Raja Muda Jusuf was declared regent. He died in 1888,
  and was succeeded by the sultan Raja Idris, K.C.M.G., a most
  enlightened ruler, who was from the first a strong and intelligent
  advocate of British methods of administration. Sir Hugh Low was
  appointed resident, a position which he held until 1889, when he was
  succeeded by Sir Frank Swettenham. Since then the history of Perak has
  been one of continuous peace and growing prosperity and wealth.
  Although the federal capital is Kuala Lumpor in Selangor, Perak still
  enjoys the honour of being the senior and leading state of the
  federation.


    Population.

  By the census taken on the 5th of April 1891 the population of Perak
  was shown to be as follows: Europeans, 366; Eurasians, Jews and
  Armenians, 293; Malays, 96,719; Chinese, 94,345; Tamils, 13,086;
  aborigines, 5779; other nationalities, 3666; thus making a grand total
  of 214,254, of whom 156,408 were males and 57,846 were females. The
  estimated population in 1905 was 400,000, of whom 200,000 were Chinese
  and 160,000 were Malays, but owing to the disparity of the proportions
  between the sexes the deaths in each year largely outnumber the
  births, and the increase in the population is accounted for solely by
  the number of immigrants, chiefly from the mainland of China, and to a
  lesser extent from India also.

  The revenue of Perak in 1874 amounted to $226,333. That for 1905
  amounted to $12,242,897. Of this latter sum $4,876,400 was derived
  from duty on exported tin, $2,489,300 from railway receipts, $505,300
  from land revenue and $142,800 from postal and telegraphic revenue.
  The remainder is mainly derived from the revenue farms, which are
  leased to Chinese capitalists for a short term of years, conveying to
  the lessee the right to collect import duties upon opium, wine and
  spirits, to keep pawnbroking shops, and to keep public licensed
  gambling-houses for the use of Chinese only. The expenditure for 1905
  amounted to $10,141,980. Of this sum $4,236,000 was expended upon
  railway upkeep and construction and $2,176,100 upon public works. The
  value of the imports into Perak during 1905 was over $20,000,000, and
  that of the exports exceeded $40,000,000, making a total of over
  $60,000,000, equivalent to about seven million sterling. The output of
  tin from Perak ranged between 18,960 tons, valued at $23,099,506 in
  1899, and 26,600 tons, valued at $35,500,000, in 1905. The fluctuating
  character of the output is due, not to any exhaustion of the mineral
  deposits of the state--that is not to be anticipated for many years
  yet to come--but to the uncertainty of the labour supply. The mining
  population is recruited exclusively from the districts of southern
  China, and during certain years an increased demand for labourers in
  China itself, in French Indo-China, in the Dutch colonies, and in
  South Africa temporarily and adversely affected immigration to the
  Straits of Malacca. The output has, moreover, been affected from time
  to time by the price of tin, which was $32.20 per pikul in 1896, rose
  to $42.96 in 1898, to $74.15 in 1900, and averaged $80.60 in 1905.
  Exclusive of tin, the principal exports were $108,000 worth of Para
  rubber, $181,000 of copra, $54,000 of hides, $48,000 of patchouli, and
  considerable quantities of timber, rattans and other jungle produce.
  The agricultural development of the state is still in its infancy, but
  rubber is cultivated in rapidly increasing areas, and the known
  fertility of the soil, the steady and regular rainfall, the excellent
  means of communication, and the natural and artificial conditions of
  the country, justify the expectation that the future of Perak as an
  agricultural country will be prosperous.


    General.

  Although so much has been done to develop the resources of Perak, by
  far the greater portion of the state is still covered by dense and
  virgin forest. In 1898 it was calculated that only 330,249 acres of
  land were occupied or cultivated out of a total acreage of 6,400,000.
  The area of agricultural holdings has notably increased, but a
  considerable period must yet elapse before it will amount to even
  one-tenth of the whole. A line of railway connects the port of Teluk
  Anson with the great mining district of Kinta, whence the line runs,
  crossing the Perak River at Enggor, to Kuala Kangsar, the residence of
  the sultan, thence to Taiping, the administrative capital of the
  state, and via Krian to a point opposite to the island of Penang. A
  second line runs south from Perak and connects with the railway system
  of Selangor, which in its turn connects with the Negri Sembilan and
  Malacca line, thus giving through railway communication between the
  last-named town and Penang. Perak also possesses some 600 miles of
  excellent metalled cart-road, and the length of completed road is
  annually increasing.

  For administrative purposes the state is divided into six districts:
  Upper Perak, Kuala Kangsar and Lower Perak, on the Perak River; Kinta;
  Batany Padang and Larut and Krian. Of these, Larut and Kinta are the
  principal mining centres, while Krian is the most prosperous
  agricultural district. The districts on the Perak River are mostly
  peopled by Malays. The administrative capital is Taiping, the chief
  town of Larut. Kuala Kangsar is chiefly memorable as having been the
  scene of the first federal meeting of native chiefs, who, with the
  British Residents from each state, met together in 1897 for friendly
  discussion of their common interests for the first time in history,
  under the auspices of the high commissioner, Sir Charles H. B.
  Mitchell. This, in the eyes of those who are acquainted with the
  character of the Malays and of the relations which formerly subsisted
  between the rulers of the various states, is perhaps the most signal
  token of the changes which British influence has wrought in the
  peninsula.

SELANGOR is situated between the parallels 2° 32´ and 3° 37´ N. and 100°
38´ and 102° E., on the western side of the Malay Peninsula. It is
bounded on the N. by the protected native state of Perak, on the S. by
the protected states of the Negri Sembilan, on the E. by Pahang and the
Negri Sembilan, and on the W. by the Straits of Malacca. The coast-line
is about 100 m. in length, greatest length about 104 m., and greatest
breadth about 48 m., total area estimated at about 3000 sq. m.

  The state consists of a narrow strip of land between the mountain
  range which forms the backbone of the peninsula and the Straits of
  Malacca. Compared with other states in the peninsula, Selangor is
  poorly watered. The principal rivers are the Selangor, the Klang and
  the Langat. The principal port of the state is Port Swettenham,
  situated at the mouth of the Klang River, and is connected with the
  capital, Kuala Lumpor, by a railway. The geology of the state closely
  resembles that of Perak. The state is possessed of most valuable
  deposits of alluvial tin, and mining for this metal is the chief
  industry of the population. Kuala Lumpor is also the federal capital
  of the Malay States.


    History.

  According to native tradition, the ruling house of Selangor is
  descended from a Bugis raja, who, with two of his brothers, settled in
  the state in 1718, the son of the youngest brother eventually becoming
  ruler of the country. In 1783 the then sultan of Selangor joined with
  the Iang-di-per-Tuan Muda of Riau in an unsuccessful attack upon the
  Dutch who then held Malacca. In retaliation the Dutch, under Admiral
  Van Braam, invaded Selangor and drove the sultan out of his country.
  In 1785, aided by the Bendahara of Pahang, Sultan Ibrahim of Selangor
  reconquered his state; but the Dutch blockaded his ports, and
  eventually forced him to enter into a treaty whereby he consented to
  acknowledge their sovereignty. The earliest British political
  communication with Selangor began in 1818, when a commercial treaty
  was concluded with the governor of Penang. In 1867 Sultan Abdul Samad
  of Selangor appointed his son-in-law, Tungku Dia Udin, to be viceroy;
  and this gave rise to a civil war which lasted almost without
  intermission till 1873, when the enemies of Tungku Dia Udin were
  finally vanquished, largely by the agency of the Bendahara of Pahang,
  who, at the invitation of the governor of the Straits Settlements,
  sent a warlike expedition to the assistance of the viceroy. In 1874
  the occurrence of an atrocious act of piracy off the mouth of the
  Langat River led to the governor, Sir Andrew Clarke, appointing, at
  the request of the sultan, a British Resident to aid him in the
  administration of his kingdom. Since that date there has been no
  further breach of the peace, and the prosperity of Selangor has
  increased annually.

  By the census taken on the 5th of April 1891 the population of
  Selangor was given at 81,592 souls, of whom 67,051 were males and only
  14,541 were females. The census taken on the 5th of April 1901 gave a
  total population of 168,789 souls, of whom 136,823 were males and
  31,966 females. Of these 108,768 were Chinese, 33,997 were Malays,
  16,748 were Tamils, and only 487 were Europeans. The returns deal with
  nearly a score of different nationalities. Since 1901 the population
  has been much increased and now certainly exceeds 200,000 souls. Now,
  however, that instead of a single port of entry there exist easy means
  of access to the state by rail both from the north and the south, it
  is no longer possible to estimate the annual increase by immigration
  with any approach to accuracy. It will be noted that the inhabitants
  of this erstwhile Malayan state were, even at the time of the census
  of 1901, over 64% Chinese, while the Malays were little more than 20%
  of the population. In Selangor, as elsewhere in the Malay Peninsula,
  the deaths annually far outnumber the births recorded (e.g. in 1905
  births 8293, deaths 12,500). The disproportion of the female to the
  male sections of the population is greater in Selangor than in any
  other part of the colony or Malay States. The development of planting
  enterprise in Selangor, and more especially the cultivation of rubber,
  has led during recent years to the immigration of a considerable
  number of Tamil coolies, but the Tamil population is still
  insignificant as compared with the Chinese.


    Finance, Trade, &c.

  The revenue of Selangor in 1875 amounted to only $115,656; in 1905 it
  had increased to $8,857,793. Of this latter sum $3,195,318 was derived
  from duty on tin exported, $1,972,628 from federal receipts, and
  $340,360 from land revenue. The balance is chiefly derived from the
  revenue farms, which include the right to collect import duty on opium
  and spirits. The expenditure for 1905 amounted to $7,186,146, of which
  sum $3,717,238 was on account of federal charges and $1,850,711 for
  public works. The value of the imports in 1905 was $24,643,619 and
  that of the exports was $26,683,316, making a total of $51,326,935,
  equivalent to £5,988,000. Tin is the principal export. The amount
  exported in 1905 was 17,254 tons. The total area of alienated mining
  land at the end of 1905 amounted to 65,573 acres, and it was estimated
  that over 60,000 Chinese were employed in the mines.

  The main trunk line of the Federated Malay States railways passes
  through Selangor. It enters the state at Tanjong Malim on the Perak
  boundary, runs southward through Kuala Lumpor and so into the Negri
  Sembilan. It runs for 81 m. in Selangor territory. A branch line 27 m.
  long connects Kuala Lumpor with Port Swettenham on the Klang Straits
  where extensive wharves, capable of accommodating ocean-going vessels,
  have been constructed. A second branch line, measuring rather more
  than 4 m. in length, has been opened to traffic. It connects the caves
  at Batu with Kuala Lumpor. Frequent communication is maintained by
  steamer between Port Swettenham and Singapore, and by coasting vessels
  between the former port and those on the shores of the Straits of
  Malacca. All the principal places in the state are connected with one
  another by telegraph.

  For administrative purposes Selangor is divided into six districts:
  Kuala Lumpor, in which the capital and the principal tin-fields are
  situated; Ulu Selangor, which is also a prosperous mining district;
  Kuala Selangor, which is agricultural, and poorly populated by Malays;
  Ulu Langat, mining and agricultural; Kuala Langat, the residence of
  the late sultan Abdul Samad, agricultural; and Klang, the only
  prosperous port of the state. Much money has been expended upon the
  capital, Kuala Lumpor, which possesses some fine public buildings,
  waterworks, &c., and where the principal residence of the
  Resident-General is situated. In some sort Kuala Lumpor is the capital
  not only of Selangor, but also of the whole federation. Its scenery is
  very attractive.

NEGRI SEMBILAN (the Nine States) is a federation of small native states
which is now treated as a single entity, being under the control of a
British Resident, and is situated between parallels 2° 28´ and 3° 18´ N.
and 101° 45´ and 102° 45´ E., on the western side of the Malay
Peninsula. It is bounded on the N. by the protected state of Pahang, on
the S. by the territory of Malacca, on the E. by Pahang and the
independent state of Johor, and on the W. by the Straits of Malacca. The
coast-line is about 28 m. in length, and the extreme distance from north
to south is 55 m., and that from east to west about 65 m. The estimated
area is about 3000 sq. m. Port Dickson, or Arang-Arang, is the only port
on the coast. It is connected with the capital, Seremban, by a railway
24 m. in length. Most of the states comprising the federation depend
largely for their prosperity upon agriculture, but in some of the
districts tin is being worked in considerable quantities, with good
results.


    History.

  As is the case with the history of most Malayan states, much rests
  upon no surer ground than tradition, in so far as the records of the
  Negri Sembilan are concerned. At the same time the native story that
  the states which now form the federation of the Negri Sembilan were
  originally peopled by tribes of Sakai, or aborigines of the peninsula,
  who descended from the mountains of the interior and peopled the
  valleys, is supported by much corroborative evidence. Not only does
  the Malay's contempt for the Sakai make it exceedingly unlikely that
  the tradition, which is hardly a matter for pride, should have been
  preserved if it were not true, but also many of the laws and customs
  in force in these states are wholly foreign to those of the Malays,
  and can plainly be traced to the aborigines. As an instance, the
  custom of inheriting rank and property through the mother instead of
  through the father may be mentioned. Tradition further relates that
  towards the end of the 18th century a raja of the royal house of
  Menangkabu came from Sumatra to rule over the federation of small
  states, each of which continued to be governed in all its local
  affairs by its own chief and by the village and other councils
  sanctioned by ancient custom. The Sumatran raja took the title of
  Iang-di-per-Tuan of Sri Menanti. Although they bore the name of the
  "Nine States," only six seem to have belonged to the federation during
  the time of which history speaks. These are Sri Menanti, Johol,
  Tampin, Rembau, Jelebu, and Sungei Ujong. Later the two latter
  separated themselves from the confederation. Ancient tradition says
  that the names of the nine states were originally Klang, Jelebu,
  Sungei Ujong, Johol, Segamat, Pasir Besar, Naning, Rembau and Jelai.
  Of these Klang was annexed by Selangor, Segamat and Pasir Besar by
  Johor, and Naning by Malacca. During the last years of the 18th
  century the Iang-di-per-Tuan appointed an Iang-di-per-Tuan Muda to
  rule Rembau, and the state of Tampin was created to provide for the
  family of the new chief. In 1887 the governor of the Straits
  Settlements sent Mr Martin Lister to the Negri Sembilan, which had
  become disintegrated, and by his influence the ancient federal system
  was revived under the control of a Resident appointed by the governor.
  The states which formed this new confederation were Johol, Ulu Muar,
  Jempol, Terachi, Inas, Gunong Pasir, Rembau, Tampin and Gemencheh.
  Prior to this, in 1873, owing to a civil war in Sungei Ujong, Sir
  Andrew Clarke sent a military force to that state, put an end to the
  disturbances, and placed the country under the control of a British
  Resident. Jelebu was taken under British protection in 1886, and was
  thenceforth managed by a magistrate under the orders of the Resident
  of Sungei Ujong. In 1896, when the federation of all the Malayan
  states under British control was effected, Sungei Ujong and Jelebu
  were reunited to the confederation of small states from which they had
  so long been separated and the whole, under the old name of the Negri
  Sembilan, or Nine States, was placed under one Resident.

  The population of the Negri Sembilan, which according to the census
  taken in April 1891 was only 70,730, had increased to 96,028 by 1901,
  and was estimated at 119,454 in 1905. Of these 46,500 are Chinese,
  65,000 Malays, 6700 Tamils, and 900 Europeans and Eurasians. The
  births registered slightly exceed the deaths in number, there being a
  large Malay population in the Negri Sembilan among whom the proportion
  of women to men is fair, a condition of things not found in localities
  where the inhabitants are mostly Chinese immigrants.


    Finance and Trade.

  The revenue of the Negri Sembilan amounted to only $223,435 in 1888.
  In 1898 it had increased to $701,334, in 1900 to $1,251,366, and in
  1905 to $2,335,534. The revenue for 1905 was derived mainly as
  follows:--customs $1,268,602, land revenue $145,475, land sales
  $21,407, while the revenue farms contributed $584,459. The expenditure
  in 1905 amounted to $2,214,093, of which $1,125,355 was expended upon
  public works. The trade returns for 1905, which are not, however,
  complete, show an aggregate value of about $13,000,000. The value of
  the tin exported during 1905 exceeded $6,900,000, and the value of the
  agricultural produce, of which gambier represented $211,000 and damar
  $80,000, amounted to $407,990.


    General.

  Seremban, the administrative capital of the Negri Sembilan, is
  connected with Port Dickson by a railway line, owned by the Sungei
  Ujong Railway Company, which is 24½ m. in length. It is also situated
  on the trunk line of the Federated Malay States, and is thus joined by
  rail to Selangor on the north and to Malacca on the south. Frequent
  steam communication is maintained between Port Dickson and the ports
  on the Straits of Malacca and with Singapore.

  For administrative purposes the Negri Sembilan is divided into five
  districts, viz. the Seremban District, the Coast District, Jelebu,
  Kuala Pilah and Tampin. Each of these is under the charge of a
  European district officer, who is responsible to the Resident. The
  Iang-di-per-Tuan lives at Kuala Pilah, but the capital of the
  federation is at Seremban in Sungei Ujong, where the Resident is
  stationed. The hereditary chiefs of the various states aid in the
  government of their districts, and have seats upon the state council,
  over which the Iang-di-per-Tuan presides. The watering-place of
  Magnolia Bay, where excellent sea-bathing is obtainable, is one of the
  pleasure resorts of this part of the peninsula.

PAHANG, on the east coast of the peninsula, is situated between
parallels 2° 28´ and 3° 45´ N. and 101° 30´ and 103° 30´ E. It is
bounded on the N. by the independent native states of Kelantan and
Trengganu; on the S. by the Negri Sembilan and Johor; on the E. by the
China Sea; and on the W. by the protected states of Perak and Selangor.
The coast-line is about 112 m. in length; the greatest length is about
210 m., and greatest breadth about 130 m. The state is the largest in
the peninsula, its area being estimated at 15,000 sq. m. The ports on
the coast are the mouths of the Endau, Rompin, Pahang and Kuantan
rivers, but during the north-east monsoon the coast is not easy of
approach, and the rivers, all of which are guarded by difficult bars,
are impossible of access except at high tides.

  The principal river of the state is the Pahang, from which it takes
  its name. At a distance of 180 m. from the coast this river is formed
  by two others named respectively the Jelai and the Tembeling. The
  former is joined 20 m. farther up stream by the Lipis, which has its
  rise in the mountains which form the boundary with Perak. The Jelai
  itself has its rise also in a more northerly portion of this range,
  while its two principal tributaries above the mouth of the Lipis, the
  Telom and the Serau, rise, the one in the plateau which divides Perak
  from Pahang, the other in the hills which separate Pahang from
  Kelantan. The Tembeling has its rise in the hills which divide Pahang
  from Kelantan, but some of its tributaries rise on the Trengganu
  frontier, while the largest of its confluents comes from the hills in
  which the Kuantan River takes its rise. The Pahang is navigable for
  large boats as far as Kuala Lipis, 200 m. from the mouth, and
  light-draught launches can also get up to that point. Smaller boats
  can be taken some 80 m. higher up the Jelai and Telom. The river,
  however, as a waterway is of little use, since it is uniformly
  shallow. The Rompin and Kuantan rivers are somewhat more easily
  navigated for the first 30 m. of their course, but taken as a whole
  the waterways of Pahang are of little value. The interior of Pahang is
  chiefly noted for its auriferous deposits. Gunong Tahan is situated on
  the boundary between Pahang and Kelantan. Its height is estimated at
  8000 ft. above sea-level, but it has never yet been ascended. Pahang,
  like the states on the west coast, is covered almost entirely by one
  vast forest, but in the Lipis valley, which formerly was thickly
  populated, there is a considerable expanse of open grass plain unlike
  anything to be seen on the western seaboard. The coast is for the most
  part a sandy beach fringed with _casuarina_ trees and there are only a
  few patches of mangrove-swamp throughout its entire length.


    History.

  The ancient name of Pahang was Indrapura. It is mentioned in the
  history of _Hang Tuah_, the great Malacca brave, who flourished in the
  16th century, and succeeded in abducting a daughter of the then ruling
  house of Pahang for his master, the sultan of Malacca. Prior to this,
  Pahang had been ruled by the Siamese. When Malacca fell into the hands
  of the Portuguese in 1511 the sultan, Muhammad Shah, fled to Pahang,
  and the present ruling house claims to have been descended from him.
  The title of the ruler of Pahang was Bendahara until 1882, when the
  present (1902) ruler, Wan Ahmad, assumed the title of sultan, taking
  the name of Sultan Ahmad Maatham Shah. Up to that time the Bendahara
  had been installed on his accession by the sultan of Riau, and held
  his office by virtue of that chief's letter of authority. About 1855
  the father of the present sultan died at Pekan, and his son Bendahara
  Korish, who succeeded him, drove Wan Ahmad from the country. After
  making three unsuccessful attempts to conquer the land and to dethrone
  his elder brother, Wan Ahmad at last succeeded in 1865 in invading the
  state and wresting the throne from his nephew, who had succeeded his
  father some years earlier. From that time, in spite of two attempts to
  shake his power by invasions from Selangor which were undertaken by
  his nephews Wan Aman and Wan Da, Bendahara Ahmad ruled his country
  with a rod of iron. In 1887 he consented to enter into a treaty with
  the governor of the Straits by which he accepted a consular agent at
  his court. This treaty was finally signed on the 8th of October 1887.
  In February of the following year a Chinese British subject was
  murdered at Pekan in circumstances which pointed to the responsibility
  of the sultan for the crime, and in October 1888 a Resident was
  appointed to assist the sultan in the administration of his country,
  that being, in the opinion of the British government, the only
  guarantee for the safety of the life and property of British subjects
  which it could accept. In December 1891 disturbances broke out in
  Pahang, the nominal leaders of which were certain of the sultan's most
  trusted chiefs. The sultan himself took no part in the outbreak, but
  it undoubtedly had his sympathy, even if it was not caused by his
  direct commands. The rebels were driven to seek safety in flight in
  November 1892, but in June 1894 they gathered strength for a second
  disturbance, and raided Pahang from Kelantan, in which state they had
  been given shelter by the Mahommedan rulers. This event, added to the
  occurrence of other raids from across the border, led to an irregular
  expedition being led into Trengganu and Kelantan by the Resident of
  Pahang (Mr Hugh Clifford) in 1895, and this had the desired result.
  The rebel chiefs were banished to Siam, and no further breach of the
  peace has troubled the tranquillity of Pahang since that time. Pahang
  joined the Federated Malay States by a treaty signed in 1895, and the
  sultan and his principal chiefs were present at the federal durbar
  held at Kuala Kangsar in Perak in 1897.


    Population.

  The census taken in April 1901 gave the total population of Pahang at
  84,113, of whom 73,462 were Malays, 8695 Chinese, 1227 Tamils and
  other natives of India, 180 Europeans and Eurasians, and 549 people of
  other nationalities. The population in 1905 was estimated at 100,000,
  the increase being due to immigration mainly from the states on the
  western seaboard. In former days Pahang was far more thickly populated
  than in modern times, but the long succession of civil wars which
  racked the land after the death of Bendahara Ali caused thousands of
  Pahang Malays to fly the country. To-day the valley of the Lebir River
  in Kelantan and the upper portions of several rivers near the Perak
  and Selangor boundaries are inhabited by Pahang Malays, the
  descendants of these fugitives. The Pahang natives are almost all
  engaged in agriculture. The work of the mines, &c., is performed by
  Chinese and foreign Malays. In the Lipis valley the descendants of the
  Rawa Malays, who at one time possessed the whole of the interior in
  defiance of the Pahang rajas, still outnumber the people of the land.


    Finance and Trade.

  The revenue of Pahang in 1899 amounted to only $62,077; in 1900 to
  $419,150. In 1905 it was $528,368. The expenditure in 1905 amounted to
  $1,208,176. Of this sum $736,886 was expended on public works. Pahang
  is still a source of expense to the federation, its progress having
  been retarded by the disturbances which lasted from December 1891
  until 1895, with short intervals of peace, but the revenue is now
  steadily increasing, and the ultimate financial success of the state
  is considered to be secure. Pahang owes something over $3,966,500 to
  Selangor and $1,175,000 to Perak, which have financed it now for some
  years out of surplus revenue. The value of the imports in 1905 was
  $1,344,346, that of the exports was $3,838,928, thus making a total
  trade value of $5,183,274. The most valuable export is tin, the value
  of which in 1905 amounted to $2,820,745. The value of the gutta
  exported exceeded $140,000, that of dried and salted fish amounted to
  nearly $70,000, and that of timber to $325,000.


    General.

  The geological formation of the states lying to the eastward of the
  main range of mountains which splits the peninsula in twain differs
  materially from that of the western states. At a distance of about a
  dozen miles from the summits of the mountains the granite formation is
  replaced by slates, which in many places are intersected by fissures
  of quartz, and in others are overlaid by vast thicknesses of
  limestone. Those of the quartz fissures which have been exploited are
  found to be auriferous, and several mining companies have attempted to
  work the deposits. Their efforts, however, have not hitherto been
  successful. A magnificent road over the mountains, with a ruling grade
  of 1 in 30, joins Kuala Lipis, the administrative capital of Pahang,
  to Kuala Kubu, the nearest railway station in Selangor. The road
  measures 82 m. in length. Pekan, where the sultan has his residence,
  was the capital of Pahang until the middle of 1898, when the
  administrative headquarters were transferred to the interior as being
  more central. None of these towns is of any size or importance. In the
  Kuantan valley, which lies parallel to the Pahang River, a European
  company is working tin lodes with considerable success. These lodes
  are the only mines of the kind being worked in the Federated Malay
  States. Pahang is fertile and well suited for agriculture of many
  kinds. The rainfall is heavy and regular. The climate is cooler than
  that of the west coast, and the full force of the monsoon is felt from
  October to February in each year. For administrative purposes Pahang
  is divided into four districts--Ulu Pahang, in which the present
  capital is situated; Temerloh, which includes 80 odd miles of the
  Pahang valley and the Semantan River; Pekan, which includes the coast
  rivers down to Endau; and Kuantan. Each of these is under the charge
  of a district officer, who is responsible to the resident. The
  boundary with Johor and the Negri Sembilan was rectified by a
  commission which sat in London in 1897-1898.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Journal of the Eastern Archipelago_ (Singapore);
  _Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society_
  (Singapore); Maxwell, _Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute_,
  vol. xxiii.; Swettenham, ibid. vol. xxvii; Clifford, ibid. vol. xxx.
  (London, 1892, 1895, 1899); Swettenham, _About Perak_ (Singapore,
  1893); _Malay Sketches_ (London, 1895); _The Real Malay_ (London,
  1899); _British Malaya_ (London, 1906); Clifford, _In Court and
  Kampong_ (London, 1897); _Studies in Brown Humanity_ (London, 1898);
  _In a Corner of Asia_ (London, 1899); _Bush-whacking_ (London, 1901);
  _Further India_ (London, 1904); De la Croix, _Les Mines d'etins de
  Perak_ (Paris, 1882); Bluebook, C. 9524 (London, 1899); _The Straits
  Directory_ (Singapore, 1906); Skeat, _Malay Magic_ (London, 1900);
  Skeat and Blagden, _Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula_ (London,
  1906).     (H. Cl.)


II.--NON-FEDERATED STATES

In 1909 a treaty was made between Great Britain and Siam, one provision
of which was the cession to the former of the suzerain rights enjoyed by
the latter over certain territories in the Malay Peninsula. These
territories consisted of the four Siamese Malay States: Kelantan,
Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis, very ancient dependencies of Siam, all of
which except Trengganu, were in a flourishing condition and had been
administered by British officers in the service of Siam for some years
prior to their transference. Though the four states were loyal to Siam
and wished to retain their former allegiance, the change was effected
without disturbance of any kind, the British government on assuming the
rights of suzerainty placing an adviser at the court of each raja and
guaranteeing the continuance of the administration on the lines already
laid down by Siam so far as might be compatible with justice and fair
treatment for all. The four states lie to the north of the Federated
Malay States, two on the east and two on the west side of the peninsula.

KELANTAN.--This state on the east coast, bounded N. and N.E. by the
China Sea, E. by Trengganu, S. by Pahang and W. by Perak and Ra-ngé,
lies between 4° 48´ and 6° 20´ N. and 101° 33´ and 102° 45´ E. The
greatest length from north to south is 115 m. and the greatest breadth
from east to west 60 m. The area is about 5000 sq. m. The northern part
of the state is flat and fertile, but the southern district which
comprises more than half the total area, is mountainous and
uncultivated.

  Next to the Pahang, the Kelantan River is the largest on the east
  coast. It is 120 miles long and is navigable for shallow-draft
  launches and big country boats for about 80 miles, and for vessels of
  8 ft. draft for about six miles. Its principal tributaries are the
  Galas, Pergau and Lebir. The Golok and Semarak rivers water the west
  and east parts of the state, falling into the sea a few miles on
  either side of the mouth of the Kelantan River. The climate of
  Kelantan is mild and singularly healthy in the open cultivated
  regions. The population is about 300,000 of which 10,000 are
  aboriginal tribes (Sakeis and Jakuns), 10,000 Siamese and Chinese and
  the rest Malays. The Chinese are increasing and natives of different
  parts of India are resorting to the state for purposes of trade. Kota
  Bharu (pop. 10,000) is the only town in the state. It lies on the
  right bank of the river, about six miles from the sea. Since 1904 it
  has been laid out with metalled roads and many public and private
  buildings have been erected. The town is the commercial as well as the
  administrative centre of the state. Tumpat and Tabar on the coast,
  with population 4000 and 3000 respectively, are the places next in
  importance after Kota Bharu. A network of creeks render communication
  easy in the northern districts, the river and its tributaries afford
  means of access to all parts of the south; 20 miles of road have been
  made in the neighbourhood of Kota Bharu. Kelantan is connected by
  telegraph with Bangkok and Singapore, and maintains regular postal
  communication with those places. Rice cultivation is the principal
  industry and is increasing rapidly. Coco-nut and betel-nut growing are
  also largely practised. Much livestock is raised. About 400,000 acres
  of land are under cultivation. Though reputed rich in minerals, past
  misrule prevented mining enterprise in Kelantan until, in 1900, a
  large concession was given to an Englishman and the country was opened
  to foreigners. In 1909 three mining syndicates were at work, and
  several others were in process of formation. Gold, tin and galena have
  been found in several localities and during the years 1906-1909 28,000
  ounces of gold were dredged from the Kelantan River. The Kelantanese
  are expert fishermen, some 30,000 finding employment in fishing and
  fish-drying. Silk-weaving is a growing industry. Foreign trade, which
  in 1909 reached the value of two and a half million dollars, is
  chiefly with Singapore. Principal exports are copra, rice, fish,
  cattle and gold; chief imports are cotton goods, hardware and specie.
  The currency is the Straits Settlements dollar and small silver coin,
  supplemented by a locally made tin coin of low value.

  By virtue of a mutual agreement made in 1902 Siam appointed a resident
  commissioner to Kelantan and consented, so long as the advice of that
  officer should be followed, to leave internal affairs to be conducted
  locally. Under this arrangement a council of state was appointed,
  departments of government were organized, penal, civil and revenue
  laws were passed and enforced, courts were established and a police
  force was raised. Though formerly of an evil reputation, the people
  were found to be naturally peaceful and law-abiding, and serious crime
  is rare. The state revenue, which was practically nothing in 1902,
  amounted to $320,000 in 1907. Islamism was adopted about 300 years ago
  but the old animistic superstitions are still strong. The state is
  divided into _mukim_ or parishes, but the _imam_ no longer exercise
  temporal authority. There are three schools at Kota Bharu, education
  in the interior being in the hands of the imam assisted with
  government grants.

  No historical records of Kelantan exist, and the state was not noticed
  by the European merchants of the 16th and 17th centuries. Consequently
  little is known of its early history beyond what is to be gathered
  from brief references in the Malay annals and the old chronicles of
  Siam. The sites of ancient towns and the remains of former gold
  diggings are visible here and there, but all knowledge of the men who
  made these marks has been lost. The present ruling family dates from
  about 1790. Siam was frequently called upon to maintain internal peace
  and in 1892 a royal prince was sent to reside in Kelantan as
  commissioner. Complications brought about by the incapacity of the
  ruler led to the making of the agreement of 1902 above mentioned, to
  the fixing of a regular tribute in money to Siam, and ultimately to
  the merging of the state from chaotic lawlessness into the path of
  reform. On the 15th of July 1909 the state came under British
  suzerainty and the commissioner of Siam was replaced by a British
  adviser, from which date the liability to payment of tribute ceased,
  though in all other respects the administrative arrangements of Siam
  remained unaltered.

TRENGGANU.--This state on the east coast, bounded N. and N.E. by the
China Sea, S. by Pahang and W. by Pahang and Kelantan, lies between
parallels 4° 4´ and 4° 46´ N. and 102° 30´ and 103° 26´ E. The greatest
length from north to south is 120 m., and the greatest breadth from east
to west 50 m. It has a coast-line of 130 m. and an estimated area of
about 5000 sq. m. There are several islands off the coast, some of which
are inhabited. The surface is generally mountainous.

  Principal rivers are the Besut, Stiu, Trengganu, Dungun and Kmamun,
  none of which is navigable for any distance. The climate is mild and
  fairly healthy. The population numbers about 180,000, almost all
  Malays, and mostly clusters round the mouths and lower reaches of the
  rivers. The capital, which is situated at the mouth of the Trengganu
  River, contains, with its suburbs, not less than 30,000 people.
  Difficulty of access by river and by land render the interior
  districts almost uninhabitable. Communication is maintained by boat
  along the coast. There are no roads and no postal or telegraphic
  communications.

  The majority of the people are sailors and fishermen. Rice is grown,
  but not in sufficient quantities to supply local needs. Much pepper
  and gambier were at one time grown and exported, but about the year
  1903 agriculture began to fall off owing to prevailing insecurity of
  life and property. Not much livestock is raised, the few head of
  cattle exported from Besut being mostly stolen from across the
  neighbouring Kelantan border. A successful tin mine under European
  control exists in the Kmamun district, but as everything possible was
  done in the past to discourage all foreign enterprise, the probable
  mineral wealth of the country is still practically untouched.
  Silk-weaving, carried on entirely by the women, is a considerable
  industry. The silk is imported raw and is re-exported in the form of
  Malay clothing (_sarongs_) of patterns and quality which are widely
  celebrated. The manufacture of native weapons and of brassware was at
  one time brisk but is declining. The trade of Trengganu is not
  increasing. It is valued roughly at about one and a half million
  dollars a year, is chiefly with Singapore, and is to a great extent
  carried in Trengganu-built ships, which latter also do some carrying
  trade for other states on the east coast.

  The Trengganu sultanate is one of the most ancient in the peninsula
  and ranks with that of Riau. The state was feudatory to Malacca in the
  13th century and during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries its
  possession was frequently disputed between Malacca and Siam. The
  present sultan is the descendant of an ancient family, the members of
  which have quarrelled and fought with each other for the succession
  from time immemorial. The last serious disturbance was in 1837 when
  the grandfather of the present sultan stole the throne from his
  nephew. Until the acquisition of the state by Great Britain a
  triennial tribute of gold flowers was paid to Siam, and this with
  occasional letters of instructions and advice, constituted almost the
  only tangible evidence of Siamese suzerainty. Of government there was
  practically none. The sultan, having alienated most of his powers and
  prerogatives to his relatives, passed his life in religious seclusion
  and was ruler in no more than name. The revenues were devoured by the
  relatives, a small part of those accruing from the capital sufficing
  for the sultan's needs. There were no written laws, no courts and no
  police. All manner of crime was rampant, the peasantry was mercilessly
  downtrodden, but the land was full of holy men and the cries of the
  miserable were drowned in the noise of ostentatious prayer. In fine,
  Trengganu presented in the beginning of the year 1909 the type of
  untrammelled Malay rule which had fortunately disappeared from every
  other state in the peninsula. In July of that year, however, the first
  British adviser or agent arrived in the state, which was shortly
  afterwards visited by the governor of the Straits Settlements, who
  discussed with the sultan the changed conditions consequent upon the
  Anglo-Siamese treaty and laid the foundations of future reform.

KEDAH.--This state, on the west coast of the peninsula, lies between
parallels 5° 20´ and 6° 42´ N., and is bounded, N. by Palit and Songkla,
E. by Songkla and Raman, S. by Province Wellesley and Perak, and W. by
the sea. The coast-line is 65 m. long, the greatest distance from north
to south is 115 m. and the greatest breadth 46 m. Off the coast lies a
group of islands, the largest of which is Langkawi, well peopled and
forming a district of the state.

  The total area of Kedah is about 4000 sq. m. The land is low-lying and
  swampy near the coast except towards the south where the height known
  as Kedah Hill rises from the shore opposite Penang, flat and fertile
  farther inland, and mountainous towards the eastern border. The rivers
  are small, the Sungei Kedah, navigable for a few miles for vessels of
  50 tons, and the S. Muda, which forms the boundary with Province
  Wellesley, being the only streams worthy of notice. The plains are
  formed of marine deposit, and in the mountains limestone and granite
  preponderate. The population is estimated at 220,000, of whom about
  100,000 are Malays, 50,000 Siamese and Samsams and 70,000 Chinese and
  Madrassis (Klings). There are three towns of importance. Alor Star,
  the capital, on the Kedah river, 10 miles from the sea, in a flat,
  unhealthy, but fertile locality, is a well laid out town with good
  streets, many handsome public and private buildings, and good
  wharfage for small vessels. The population is about 20,000, of whom
  more than half are Chinese and the remainder government servants and
  retainers of the local aristocracy. Kuala Muda (pop. 10,000) and Kulim
  (pop. 8000) situated in the south, are unimposing collections of small
  birch houses and thatched bamboo huts; the latter is the centre of the
  Kedah tin mining industry. The bulk of the population is scattered
  over the plains in small villages. A good road runs north from Alor
  Star to the border of the state, a distance of 40 miles, and other
  roads are being constructed. The state has 185 miles of telegraph line
  and 75 miles of telephone line. Mails are closed daily at Alor Star
  for Penang and there is a good internal postal service. The chief
  industry is rice cultivation. Coco-nut, betel-nut and fruit
  plantations are many, and the cultivation of rubber has recently been
  taken up with prospects of success. The estimated area under
  cultivation is about 300,000 acres. There are rice-mills at Alor Star
  and at Kuala Muda. The principal exports are rice, cattle and tin. The
  chief imports are cotton goods, provisions, hardware and raw silk.
  Accurate trade statistics are not available. The ruler holds the rank
  of sultan and is assisted in the government by a council and by the
  British adviser who since the state passed from Siamese to British
  protection in 1909, has replaced the officer formerly appointed by
  Siam. The sultan comes of a family long recognized by Siam as having
  hereditary right to the rulership. The penal and civil laws are
  administered in accordance with the precepts of Islamism, the official
  religion of the state. Though much has been done to improve the
  courts, justice is not easily obtainable. A land registration system
  is in force but is in a state of confusion, though a land law passed
  in 1905 gives security of tenure over lands newly acquired. The mining
  laws are similar to those of Siam. In 1905 the Siamese government
  advanced two and a half million dollars to Kedah, to pay the debts of
  the state, which sum was refunded by the British Government on
  assuming the position of protector. The annual revenue is $1,000,000
  and the expenditure about the same. Chief heads of revenue are opium
  and land tax. Many revenue monopolies, created in the past, have not
  yet expired; but for this the revenue would be greater than it is.
  There is no army. In 1906 the police service was reorganized under
  British officers, resulting in great improvement to this department.
  The state is divided into a number of administrative districts under
  Malay officials. Each district comprises several _mukim_ or parishes,
  the _imam_ of which exercise both spiritual and temporal control.
  There are schools in the chief towns, but education has not yet been
  seriously undertaken.

  Kedah was founded by colonists from India in A.D. 1200, about which
  time the Siamese had subdued Nakhon Sri Tammarat and claimed the whole
  Malay Peninsula. When the rise of Malacca shook Siamese authority in
  the peninsula, Kedah oscillated between them, and on the conquest of
  Malacca by the Portuguese, fell to Siam, though the capital was raided
  and burnt by the Europeans. The ruler and his people were converted to
  Islam in the 15th century. In 1768, the Siamese kingdom being
  disorganized, the sultan of Kedah entered into direct political
  relations with the Hon. East India Company, leasing the island of
  Penang to the latter. Further treaties followed in 1791 and 1802, but
  in 1821 Siam reasserted her control, expelling the rebellious sultan
  after a sanguinary war. The sultan made several fruitless efforts to
  recover the state, and at length made full submission, when he was
  reinstated. In 1868 an agreement between Great Britain and Siam was
  substituted for the treaties of the East India Company with the
  sultan. The present sultan succeeded in 1881, and for 14 years
  governed well, but in 1895 he began to contract debts and to leave the
  government to his minions. The result was chaos, and in 1905 the
  Siamese government had to intervene to avert a condition of
  bankruptcy, adjusting the finances and reorganizing the general
  administration to such effect that when, four years later, the state
  became a British dependency, a government was found established on a
  sound basis and requiring nothing but the presence of a firm and
  experienced officer as adviser to maintain its efficiency and assist
  its further advance.

PERLIS (_Palit_).--This small state, consisting of the left bank
drainage area of the Perlis River, lies between Setul and Kedah, which
bound it on the N. and W. and on the E. respectively. It touches the sea
only round the mouth of the river.

  The population is about 10,000, Malays and Chinese. The chief town,
  Perlis, is situated about 12 m. up the river. A good deal of tin is
  worked, and rice and pepper are grown and exported. In the early part
  of the 19th century Perlis was a district of Kedah, but during a
  period of disturbance in the latter state it established itself as a
  separate chiefdom. In 1897 Siam restored the nominal authority of
  Kedah, but the measure was not productive of good. In 1905 the Siamese
  government advanced a loan of $200,000 to Perlis, and appointed an
  English adviser to assist in the general administration. This money
  was refunded to Siam and the adviser relieved by a British officer
  when the state became British in July 1909. The condition of the state
  has improved, but the revenue, $80,000, is not sufficient for the
  immediate needs of government.

  Authorities.--Norman, _The Far East_ (London, 1895); H. Clifford, in
  the _Geographical Journal_ (London, 1896); Carter, _The Kingdom of
  Siam_ (London, 1904); Graham, _Reports on Kelantan_ (Bangkok,
  1905-1909); Skeat and Blagden, _Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula_
  (London, 1906); Hart, _Reports on Kedah_ (Calcutta, 1907-1909);
  Graham, _Kelantan, a Handbook_ (Glasgow, 1907).     (W. A. G.)



MALAY STATES (SIAMESE). The authority of Siam, which at one time covered
the whole of the Malay peninsula, now extends southward to an irregular
line drawn across the Peninsula at about 6° 30´ N. Between that line and
the Isthmus of Kra, usually accepted as the northernmost point of the
Malay Peninsula, there lie some 20,000 sq. m. of territory inhabited by
a mixed population of Siamese and Malays with here and there a few
remnants of the aboriginal inhabitants clinging to the wilder districts,
and with a few Chinese settlers engaged in commerce. Formerly this tract
was divided into a number of states, each of which was ruled by a chief
(Siamese, _Chao Muang_; Malay, _raja_), who held his title from the king
of Siam, but, subject to a few restrictions, conducted the affairs of
his state in accordance with his own desires; the office of chief,
moreover, was hereditary, subject always to the approval of the
suzerain. The states formed two groups: a northern, including Langsuan,
Chaya, Nakhon Sri Tammarat, Songkla, Renawng, Takoapa, Pang Nga, Tongka
and Trang, in which the Siamese element predominated and of which the
chiefs were usually Siamese or Chinese; and a southern, including
Palean, Satun (Setul), Patani, Raman, Jering, Sai (Teloban), Re Nge
(Legeh), Yala (Jalor) and Nong Chik, in which the population was
principally Malay and the ruler also Malay. Four other states of the
southern group, Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis, of which the
population is entirely Malay, passed from Siamese to British protection
in 1909.

With the gradual consolidation of the Siamese kingdom all the states of
the northern group have been incorporated as ordinary provinces of Siam
(q.v.), the hereditary _Chao Muang_ having died or been pensioned and
replaced by officials of the Siamese Civil Service, while the states
themselves now constitute provinces of the administrative divisions of
Chumpon, Nakhon Sri Tammarat and Puket. The states of the southern
group, however, retain their hereditary rulers, each of whom presides
over a council and governs with the aid of a Siamese assistant
commissioner and with a staff of Siamese district officials, subject to
the general control of high commissioners under whom the states are
grouped. This southern group, with a total area of about 7000 sq. m. and
a population of 375,000, constitutes the Siamese Malay States. A British
consul with headquarters at Puket, and a vice-consul who resides at
Songkla, watch over the interests of British subjects in the states of
the west and east sides of the peninsula respectively. Other foreign
powers are unrepresented.

  _Palean._--This small state on the west coast, bounded N. by the
  province of Trang, E. by the Songkla division, S. by the state of
  Setul, and W. by the sea, is about 900 sq. m. in area, and has a
  population of about 20,000. It is attached for administrative purposes
  to the province of Trang, and its people are chiefly engaged in the
  cultivation of pepper, of which about 150 tons are annually exported.
  A few tin mines are also worked.

  _Satun_ (_Setul_).--This small state, bounded N. by Palean, E. by
  Songkla, S. by Perlis, and W. by the sea, contains about 1000 sq. m.
  area with a population of about 25,000, Malays, Siamese and a few
  Chinese. The principal production is pepper, which is exported in
  junks and in the small Penang steamers which ply on the west coast of
  the peninsula. In 1897 Setul was placed under the control of Kedah,
  then a Siamese dependency, but the arrangement was not a success, and
  in 1907 the Siamese government was forced, owing to prevailing
  corruption and misrule, to restrict the powers of the chief and,
  cancelling the authority of Kedah, to place him to some extent under
  the orders of the high commissioner of Songkla. By the terms of the
  Anglo-Siamese treaty of 1909 about half of the state of Perlis was
  added to Satun, an arrangement by which the importance of the latter
  was considerably increased.

  _Patani._--The seven Malay states of Nawng Chik, Patani, Jering, Yala
  (Jalor), Sai (Teloban), Raman and Ra-ngé (Legeh) were constituted from
  the old state of Patani at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1906
  they were reunited to form the Patani administrative division of Siam,
  but each state retains its Malay ruler, who governs jointly with a
  Siamese officer under the direction of the Siamese high commissioner,
  and many of the ancient privileges and customs of Malay government are
  preserved. The group of States is situated between 5° 34´ and 6° 52´
  N. and 100° 54´ and 101° 58´ E. It is bounded N. by the China Sea, E.
  by the China Sea and Kelantan, S. by Perak, and W. by Kedah. The total
  area is about 5000 sq. m. The country is mountainous except close to
  the coast. The principal rivers are the Patani and the Teloban, long,
  winding and shallow, and navigable for small boats only. The
  population is about 335,000, of whom the great majority are Malays.
  Each state has its capital, but Patani (the headquarters of the high
  commissioner) is the only town of importance. Communications are poor
  and are chiefly by river, but roads are under construction. Patani and
  Sai are in telegraphic communication with Bangkok and Singapore, and
  regular weekly mails are despatched to those places. The area under
  cultivation is small except round about Patani and in Nawng Chik,
  where much rice is grown. Tin mining is a growing industry; many
  Chinese own mines and several European syndicates are at work in
  Raman, Ra-ngé and Patani, prospecting for, or mining, this metal.
  Fishing and salt-evaporation occupy a large proportion of the
  population. The annual export of tin is about 400 tons, and dried
  fish, salt, cattle and elephants are other exports. Steamers up to 300
  tons maintain frequent communication with Bangkok and Singapore, and
  the Patani roads afford good anchorage at all seasons.

  Mahommedan law is followed in the settlement of inherited property
  disputes and of matrimonial affairs; otherwise the laws of Siam
  obtain. Efficient law courts have been established in each state, and
  there is a serviceable force of gendarmerie recruited from amongst
  Malays and Siamese alike. The revenue amounts to about 600,000 ticals,
  or £45,000 a year, one-third being payable to the rulers as private
  income for themselves and their relatives, one-third expended on the
  administration, and one-third reserved for special purposes, but it is
  usually found necessary to devote the last-mentioned third to the
  expenses of administration. Patani has been subject to Siam from the
  remotest times. It is said that the old state adopted Islamism in the
  16th century, the chief, a relative of the kings of Siam, embracing
  that religion and at the same time revolting to Malacca. It has
  several times been necessary to send punitive expeditions to recall
  the state to its allegiance. The present rulers are mostly descended
  from the ruling families of the neighbouring state of Kelantan, but
  the chief of Patani itself is a member of the family which ruled there
  in the days of its greatness. Throughout the 17th century Patani was
  resorted to by Portuguese, Dutch and English merchants, who had
  factories ashore and used the place as an emporium for trade with
  Siam. In 1621 an engagement took place in the Patani roads between
  three Dutch and two British ships, the latter being taken after the
  president of the British merchants, John Jourdain, had been killed. In
  1899 the border between the state of Perak and Raman was fixed by an
  agreement between England and Siam, a dispute of old standing being
  thereby settled, but the question was reopened in the negotiations
  which preceded the Anglo-Siamese treaty of 1909, when a new border
  line was fixed between British and Siamese possessions in the
  Peninsula.     (W. A. G.)



MALCHIN, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
on the river Peene, between lakes Malchin and Kummerow, 28 m. by rail
N.W. of Neu-Brandenburg. Pop. (1900), 7449. It is, alternately with
Sternberg, the place of assembly of the Diet of Mecklenburg. Here are
the châteaux of Remplin, Basedow and Schlitz; a church dating from the
14th century, and a fine town-hall. The well-wooded and undulating
country, environing the shores of Lake Malchin, is known as the
"Mecklenburg Switzerland," and is increasing in favour as a summer
resort. A canal unites Lake Kummerow with the Peene. The industries of
the town include the manufacture of sugar and bricks, and brewing and
malting. Malchin became a town in 1236.



MALCOLM, the name of four kings of the Scots, two of whom, MALCOLM I.,
king from 943 to 954, and MALCOLM II., king from 1005 to 1034, are
shadowy and unimportant personages.

MALCOLM III. (d. 1093), called Canmore or the "large-headed," was a son
of King Duncan I., and became king after the defeat of the usurper
Macbeth in July 1054, being crowned at Scone in April 1057. Having
married as his second wife, (St) Margaret (q.v.), a sister of Edgar
Ætheling, who was a fugitive at his court, he invaded England in 1070 to
support the claim of Edgar to the English throne, returning to Scotland
with many captives after harrying Northumbria. William the Conqueror
answered this attack by marching into Scotland in 1072, whereupon
Malcolm made peace with the English king at Abernethy and "was his man."
However, in spite of this promise he ravaged the north of England again
and again, until in 1091 William Rufus invaded Scotland and received his
submission. Then in 1092 a fresh dispute arose between the two kings,
and William summoned Malcolm to his court at Gloucester. The Scot
obeyed, and calling at Durham on his southward journey was present at
the foundation of Durham Cathedral. When he reached Gloucester Rufus
refused to receive him unless he did homage for his kingdom; he declined
and returned home in high dudgeon. Almost at once he invaded
Northumbria, and was killed at a place afterwards called Malcolm's
Cross, near Alnwick, on the 13th of November 1093. Four of Malcolm's
sons, Duncan II., Edgar, Alexander I., and David I., became kings of
Scotland; and one of his daughters, Matilda, became the wife of Henry I.
of England, a marriage which united the Saxon and the Norman royal
houses.

MALCOLM IV. (c. 1141-1165) was the eldest son of Henry, earl of
Huntingdon (d. 1152), son of King David I., and succeeded his
grandfather David as king of Scotland in 1153. He is called the
"Maiden," and died unmarried on the 9th of December 1165.

  See E. A. Freeman, _The Norman Conquest_, vols. iv. and v.
  (1867-1879), and _The Reign of William Rufus_ (1882); W. F. Skene,
  _Celtic Scotland_ (1876-1880); E. W. Robertson, _Scotland under her
  Early Kings_ (1862); and A. Lang, _History of Scotland_, vol. i.
  (1900).



MALCOLM, SIR JOHN (1769-1833), Anglo-Indian soldier, diplomatist,
administrator and author, was born at Burnfoot on the Esk, near
Langholm, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, on the 2nd of May 1769. His father
was a humble farmer, but three of his sons attained the honour of
knighthood. At the age of twelve he received a cadetship in the Indian
army, and in April 1783 he landed at Madras, shortly afterwards joining
his regiment at Vellore. In 1792, having for some time devoted himself
to the study of Persian, he was appointed to the staff of Lord
Cornwallis as Persian interpreter, but two years afterwards was
compelled by ill health to leave for England. On his return to India in
1796 he became military secretary to Sir Alured Clarke,
commander-in-chief at Madras, and afterwards to his successor General
Harris; and in 1798 he was appointed by Lord Wellesley assistant to the
resident at Hyderabad. In the last-mentioned capacity he highly
distinguished himself by the manner in which he gave effect to the
difficult measure of disbanding the French corps in the pay of the
nizam. In 1799, under the walls of Seringapatam, began his intimacy with
Colonel Arthur Wellesley, which in a short time ripened into a lifelong
friendship. In the course of the same year he acted as first secretary
to the commission appointed to settle the Mysore government, and before
its close he was appointed by Lord Wellesley to proceed as envoy to the
court of Persia for the purpose of counteracting the policy of the
French by inducing that country to form a British alliance. Arriving at
Teheran in December 1800, he was successful in negotiating favourable
treaties, both political and commercial, and returned to Bombay by way
of Bagdad in May 1801. He now for some time held the interim post of
private secretary to Lord Wellesley, and in 1803 was appointed to the
Mysore residency. At the close of the Mahratta War, in 1804, and again
in 1805, he negotiated important treaties with Sindhia and Holkar, and
in 1806, besides seeing the arrangements arising out of these alliances
carried out, he directed the difficult work of reducing the immense body
of irregular native troops. In 1808 he was again sent on a mission to
Persia, but circumstances prevented him from getting beyond Bushire; on
his reappointment in 1810, he was successful indeed in procuring a
favourable reception at court, but otherwise his embassy, if the
information which he afterwards incorporated in his works on Persia be
left out of account, was (through no fault of his) without any
substantial result. He sailed for England in 1811, and shortly after his
arrival in the following year was knighted. His intervals of leisure he
devoted to literary work, and especially to the composition of a
_History of Persia_, which was published in two quarto volumes in 1815.
On his return to India in 1817 he was appointed by Lord Moira his
political agent in the Deccan, with eligibility for military command; as
brigadier-general under Sir T. Hislop he took a distinguished part in
the victory of Mehidpur (December 21, 1817), as also in the subsequent
work of following up the fugitives, determining the conditions of peace
and settling the country. In 1821 he returned once more to England,
where he remained until 1827, when he was appointed governor of Bombay.
His influence in this office was directed to the promotion of various
economical reforms and useful administrative measures. Leaving India for
the last time in 1830, he shortly after his arrival in England entered
parliament as member for Launceston, and was an active opponent of the
Reform Bill. He died of paralysis on the 30th of May 1833.

  Besides the work mentioned above, Sir John Malcolm published _Sketch
  of the Political History of India since ... 1784_ (in 1811 and 1826);
  _Sketch of the Sikhs_ (1812); _Observations on the Disturbances in the
  Madras Army in 1809_ (1812); _Persia, a Poem_, anonymous (1814); _A
  Memoir of Central India_ (2 vols., 1823); and _Sketches of Persia_,
  anonymous (1827). A posthumous work, _Life of Robert, Lord Clive_,
  appeared in 1836. See _Life and Correspondence of Sir John Malcolm_,
  by J. W. Kaye (2 vols., 1856).



MALDA, a district of British India, in the Rajshahi division of Eastern
Bengal and Assam. Area, 1899 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 884,030, showing an
increase of 8.5 in the decade. The administrative headquarters are at
English Bazar (pop. 13,667) near the town of Old Malda. The district is
divided into two almost equal parts by the Mahananda river, flowing from
north to south. The western tract between the Mahananda and the main
stream of the Ganges is an alluvial plain of sandy soil and great
fertility. The eastern half is an elevated region broken by the deep
valleys of the Tangan and Purnabhaba rivers and their small tributary
streams. The soil here is a hard red clay; and the whole is overgrown
with thorny tree jungle known as the _katal_. Agricultural prosperity
centres on the Mahananda, where mango orchards and high raised plots of
mulberry land extend continuously along both banks of the river. The
Ganges nowhere intersects the district, but skirts it from its
north-western corner to the extreme south. The Mahananda flows in a deep
well-defined channel through the centre, and joins the Ganges at the
southern corner. Its tributaries are the Kalindri on the right, and the
Tangan and Purnabhaba on the left bank. The two principal industries are
the production of indigo and silk. The first has declined, and so has
the second as far as concerns the weaving of piece goods, but the
rearing of silkworms and the export of raw silk and silk thread are
carried on upon a large scale. No railway touches the district, but the
communications by water are good.

  Malda supplied two great capitals to the early Mahommedan kings of
  Bengal; and the sites of Gaur and Pandua exhibit the most interesting
  remains to be found in the lower valley of the Ganges. (See GAUR.) The
  connexion of the East India Company with Malda dates from a very early
  period. As far back as 1676 there was a factory there. In 1770 English
  Bazar was fixed upon for a commercial residency, the buildings of
  which at the present day form both the public offices and private
  residence of the collector.



MALDEN, a city, including several villages, of Middlesex county,
Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the Malden river, about 5 m. N. of Boston.
Pop. (1890), 23,031, (1900), 33,664, of whom 9513 were foreign-born,
3673 being English Canadians, 870 English, and 617 Swedes; (1910 census)
44,404. Malden had in 1906 a land area of 4.78 sq. m. It is served by
the Boston & Maine railroad, and by inter-urban electric railways.
Although it is largely a residential suburb of Boston--its post office
is a Boston sub-station--it has important manufacturing industries. The
most valuable manufactured product is rubber boots and shoes. The
capital invested in manufacturing in 1905 was $5,553,432; and the value
of the factory product, $11,235,635, was 70.2% greater than the value of
the factory product in 1900. Among Malden's institutions are the public
library (endowed by Elisha S. Converse), the Malden hospital, the Malden
day nursery, a Young Men's Christian Association, and a home for the
aged. A fine system of parks is maintained; the best known is possibly
Pine Banks. To the north and west is the Middlesex Fells, a state
reservation; about 60 acres of this and about 20 acres of the Middlesex
Fells Parkway lie within Malden. Malden, when first settled about 1640,
was part of Charlestown, and was known for some years as Mystic Side. It
was incorporated as a town under the name of "Mauldon" in 1640, and was
chartered as a city in 1881. The north part of Malden was set off in
1850 to form Melrose, and the south part in 1870 to form the town of
Everett. Malden was the birthplace of Adoniram Judson, the "apostle to
Burma." Michael Wigglesworth was pastor here from 1656 until 1705.

  See D. P. Corey, _History of Malden_ (Malden, 1899); and _Malden, Past
  and Present_ (Malden, 1899).



MALDIVE ISLANDS, an archipelago of coral islets in the Indian Ocean,
forming a chain between 7° 6´ N. and 0° 42´ S. It consists of seventeen
atolls with an immense number of islands, of which some three hundred
are inhabited. In the extreme south are the isolated atolls of Addu and
Fua-Mulaku, separated from Suvadiva by the Equatorial Channel, which is
itself separated from the main chain of atolls by One-and-a-half-degree
Channel.[1] Following the chain northward from this channel, we have
Haddumati and Kolumadulu, after which the chain becomes double: to the
east the chief atolls are Mulaku, Felidu, South Malé, North Malé,
Kardiva (where the channel of the same name, 35 m. broad, partly breaks
the chain), and Fadiffolu. To the west are South Nilandu, North Nilandu,
Ari, South Mahlos, North Mahlos and Miladumadulu. To the north again are
Tiladumati and Ihavandifulu. Finally, to the north of Eight-degree
Channel is Minikoi, 71 m. from the nearest point of the Maldives, and
110 m. from that of the Laccadives to the north. The main part of the
archipelago, north of One-and-a-half-degree Channel, consists of a
series of banks either surrounded or studded all over with reefs (see J.
S. Gardiner, "Formation of the Maldives," in _Geographical Journ._ xix.
277 seq.). Mr Gardiner regarded these banks as plateaus rising to
different elevations beneath the surface of the sea from a main plateau
rising steeply from the great depths of the Indian Ocean.

After the Portuguese, from about 1518 onwards, had attempted many times
to establish themselves on the islands by force, and after the
Maldivians had endured frequent raids by the Mopla pirates of the
Malabar coast, they began to send tokens of homage and claims of
protection (the first recorded being in 1645) to the rulers of Ceylon,
and their association with this island has continued practically ever
since. The hereditary sultan of the archipelago is tributary to the
British government of Ceylon. The population of the Maldives is
estimated at 30,000. All are Mahommedans. By Messrs. Gardiner and Cooper
they are classed in four ethnological divisions. (1) Those of the atolls
north of the Kardiva Channel. Here the reefs are generally less perfect
than elsewhere, seldom forming complete central lagoons, and as they
were formerly exposed to the constant attacks of the Mopla pirates from
India, the people are hardier and more vigorous than their less warlike
southern neighbours. They annually visited the coasts of India or
Ceylon, and often married Indian wives, thus acquiring distinct racial
characters of an approximately Dravidian type. (2) Those of the central
division, comprising the atolls between North Malé and Haddumati, who
are under the direct rule of the sultan, and have been more exposed to
Arab influences. They formerly traded with Arabia and Malaysia, and many
Arabs settled amongst them, so that they betray a strong strain of
Semitic blood in their features. (3 and 4) The natives of Suvadiva,
Addu, Mulaku and the other southern clusters, who have had little
communication with the Central Malé people, and probably preserve more
of the primitive type, approximating in appearance to the Sinhalese
villagers of Ceylon. They are an intelligent and industrious people,
growing their own crops, manufacturing their own cloth and mats, and
building their own boats, while many read Arabic more or less fluently,
although still believers in magic and witchcraft. The language is a
dialect of Sinhalese, but indicating a separation of ancient date and
more or less mahommedanized.

The sultan's residence and the capital of the archipelago is the island
of Malé. From the earliest notices the production of coir, the
collection of cowries, and the weaving of excellent textures on these
islands have been noted. The chief exports of the islands besides coir
and cowries (a decreasing trade) are coco-nuts, copra, tortoise-shell
and dried bonito-fish.

Minikoi atoll, with the numerous wrecks on its reefs, its lighthouse,
and its position on the track of all eastward-bound vessels, is a
familiar sight to seafarers in these waters. The atoll, which is
pear-shaped and disposed in the direction from S.W. to N.E. is 5 m.
long, with an extreme breadth of nearly 3 m., with a large but shallow
lagoon approached from the north by a passage two fathoms deep. The
atoll is growing outwards on every side, and at one place rises 19 ft.
above sea-level. The population, which numbers about 3000, is sharply
divided into five castes, of which the three highest are pure
Maldivians, the lower two the same as in the Laccadives. All are centred
in a small village opposite Mou Rambu Point on the west or lagoon side;
but most of the men are generally absent, many being employed with the
Lascar crews on board the large liners plying in the eastern seas.

  In 1899-1900 Messrs. J. Stanley Gardiner and C. Forster Cooper carried
  out an expedition to the Maldives and Laccadives, for the important
  results of which see _The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and
  Laccadive Archipelagoes_, ed. J. S. Gardiner (Cambridge, 1901-1905),
  also _Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society_, vol. xi.
  pt. 1 (1900), and the _Geographical Journ._, _loc. cit._, &c. A French
  adventurer, François Pyrard de la Val, was wrecked in the Maldives in
  1602 and detained there five years; he wrote an interesting account of
  the archipelago, _Voyage de F. P. de la Val_ (Paris, 1679; previous
  editions 1611, &c.). See also A. Agassiz, "An Expedition to the
  Maldives" in _Amer. Journ. Science_, vol. xiii. (1902).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] These and other channels in the locality are named from their
    position under parallels of latitude.



MALDON, a market town, municipal borough and port, in the Maldon
parliamentary borough of Essex, England, on an acclivity rising from the
south side of the Blackwater, 43 m. E.N.E. from London by a branch from
Witham of the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901), 5565. There are east
and west railway stations. The church of All Saints, dating from 1056,
but, as it stands, Early English and later, consists of chancel, nave
and aisles, with a triangular Early English tower (a unique form) at the
west end surmounted by a hexagonal spire. The tower of St Mary's Church
shows Norman work with Roman materials. The other public buildings are
the grammar school, founded in 1547; the town-hall, formerly D'Arcy's
tower, built in the reign of Henry VI.; and the public hall. There are
manufactures of crystallized salt, breweries, an oyster fishery and some
shipping. On Osea Island, in the Blackwater estuary, there is a farm
colony for the unemployed. A mile west of Maldon are remains of Beeleigh
Abbey, a Premonstratensian foundation of the 12th century. They consist
of the chapter-house and another chamber, and are of fine Early English
work. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area,
3028 acres.

At Maldon (_Maelduna_, _Melduna_, _Mealdon_ or _Meaudon_) palaeolithic,
neolithic and Roman remains that have been found seem to indicate an
early settlement. It is not, however, an important Roman site. An
earthwork, of which traces exist, may be Saxon or Danish. The
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that Edward the Elder established a "burh"
there about 921, and that Ealdorman Brihtnoth was killed there by the
Danes in 991. The position of Maldon may have given it some commercial
importance, but the fortress is the point emphasized by the Chronicle.
Maldon remained a royal town up to the reign of Henry I., and thus is
entered as on _terra regis_ in Domesday. Henry II. granted the burgesses
their first charter, probably in 1155, giving them the land of the
borough and suburb with sac and soc and other judicial rights, also
freedom from county and forest jurisdiction, danegeld, scutage, tallage
and all tolls, by the service of one ship a year for forty days. This
charter was confirmed by Edward I. in 1290, by Edward III. in 1344, and
by Richard II. in 1378. In 1403 the bishop of London granted further
judicial and financial rights, and Henry V. confirmed the charters in
1417, Henry VI. in 1443, and Henry VIII. in 1525. Maldon was
incorporated by Philip and Mary in 1554, and received confirmatory
charters from Elizabeth in 1563 and 1592, from Charles I. in 1631,
Charles II. and James II. In 1768 the incorporation charter was
regranted, with modifications in 1810.



MALEBRANCHE, NICOLAS (1638-1715), French philosopher of the Cartesian
school, the youngest child of Nicolas Malebranche, secretary to Louis
XIII., and Catherine de Lauzon, sister of a viceroy of Canada, was born
at Paris on the 6th of August 1638. Deformed and constitutionally
feeble, he received his elementary education from a tutor, and left home
only when sufficiently advanced to enter upon a course of philosophy at
the Collège de la Marche, and subsequently to study theology at the
Sorbonne. He had resolved to take holy orders, but his studious
disposition led him to decline a stall in Notre Dame, and in 1660 he
joined the congregation of the Oratory. He was first advised by Père
Lecointe to devote himself to ecclesiastical history, and laboriously
studied Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, but "the facts
refused to arrange themselves in his mind, and mutually effaced one
another." Richard Simon undertook to teach him Hebrew and Biblical
criticism with no better success. At last in 1664 he chanced to read
Descartes's _Traité de l'homme_ (_de homine_), which moved him so deeply
that (it is said) he was repeatedly compelled by palpitations of the
heart to lay aside his reading. Malebranche was from that hour
consecrated to philosophy, and after ten years' study of the works of
Descartes he produced the famous _De la recherche de la vérité_,
followed at intervals by other works, both speculative and
controversial. Like most of the great metaphysicians of the 17th
century, Malebranche interested himself also in questions of mathematics
and natural philosophy, and in 1699 was admitted an honorary member of
the Academy of Sciences. During his later years his society was much
courted, and he received many visits from foreigners of distinction. He
died on the 13th of October 1715; his end was said to have been hastened
by a metaphysical argument into which he had been drawn in the course of
an interview with Bishop Berkeley. For a critical account of
Malebranche's place in the history of philosophy, see CARTESIANISM.

  WORKS.--_De La recherche de la vérité_ (1674; 6th ed., 1712; ed.
  Bouillier, 1880; Latin trans, by J. Lenfant at Geneva in 1685; English
  trans. by R. Sault, 1694; and T. Taylor, 1694, 1712); _Conversations
  chrétiennes_ (1677, and frequently; Eng. trans., London, 1695);
  _Traité de la nature et de la grâce_ (1680; Eng. trans., London,
  1695); _Méditations chrétiennes et métaphysiques_ (1683); _Traité de
  morale_ (1684; separate ed. by H. Joly, 1882; Eng. trans, by Sir J.
  Shipton, 1699); several polemical works against Arnauld from 1684 to
  1688; _Entretiens sur la métaphysique et sur la religion_ (1688);
  _Traité de l'amour de Dieu_ (1697); _Entretiens d'un philosophe
  chrétien et d'un philosophe chinois sur l'existence et la nature de
  Dieu_ (1708); _Réflexions sur la prémotion physique_ (1715).

  A convenient edition of his works in two volumes, with an
  introduction, was published by Jules Simon in 1842. A full account by
  Mrs Norman Smith of his theory of vision, in which he unquestionably
  anticipated and in some respects surpassed the subsequent work of
  Berkeley, will be found in the _British Journal of Psychology_ (Jan.
  1905). For recent criticism see H. Joly, in the series _Les Grands
  philosophes_ (Paris, 1901); L. Ollé-Laprune, _La Philosophie de
  Malebranche_ (1870); M. Novaro, _Die Philosophie des Nicolaus
  Malebranche_ (1893).



MALER KOTLA, a native state of India, within the Punjab. It ranks as one
of the Cis-Sutlej states, which came under British influence in 1809.
The territory lies south of Ludhiana. Area, 167 sq. m. Pop. (1901),
77,506, showing an increase of 2% in the decade. Estimated gross
revenue, £30,100. The military force numbers 280 men; and there is no
tribute. The town Maler Kotla is 30 m. S. of Ludhiana; pop. (1901),
21,122. The nawab or chief is of Afghan descent; his family originally
came from Kabul, and occupied positions of trust in Sirhind under the
Mogul emperors. They gradually became independent as the Mogul Empire
sank into decay in the course of the 18th century. In General Lake's
campaign against Holkar in 1805 the nawab of Maler Kotla sided with the
British. After the subjugation and flight of Holkar, the English
government succeeded to the power of the Mahrattas in the districts
between the Sutlej and the Jumna; and in 1809 its protection was
formally extended to Maler Kotla, as to the other Cis-Sutlej states,
against the formidable encroachments of Ranjit Singh. In the campaigns
of 1806, 1807 and 1808 Ranjit Singh had made considerable conquests
across the Sutlej; in 1808 he marched on Maler Kotla and demanded a
ransom of £10,000 from the nawab. This led to the interference of the
British, who addressed an ultimatum to Ranjit Singh, declaring the
Cis-Sutlej states to be under British protection. Finally the raja of
Lahore submitted, and the nawab was reinstated in February 1809. Owing
to the mental incapacity of nawab Ibrahim Ali Khan, the state was
administered in recent years for some time by the chief of Loharu; but
his son, Ahmed Ali Khan, was made regent in February 1905.

  See _Maler Kotla State Gazetteer_ (Lahore, 1908).



MALESHERBES, CHRÉTIEN GUILLAUME DE LAMOIGNON DE (1721-1794), commonly
known as Lamoignon-Malesherbes, French statesman, minister, and
afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI., came of a famous legal
family. He was born at Paris on the 6th of December 1721, and was
educated for the legal profession. The young lawyer soon proved his
intellectual capacity, when he was appointed president of the _cour des
aides_ in the parlement of Paris in 1750 on the promotion of his father,
Guillaume de Lamoignon, to be chancellor. One of the chancellor's duties
was to control the press, and this duty was entrusted to Malesherbes by
his father during his eighteen years of office, and brought him into
connexion with the public far more than his judicial functions. To carry
it out efficiently he kept in communication with the literary leaders of
Paris, and especially with Diderot, and Grimm even goes so far as to say
that "without the assistance of Malesherbes the _Encyclopédie_ would
probably never have been published." In 1771 he was called upon to mix
in politics; the parlements of France had been dissolved, and a new
method of administering justice devised by Maupeou, which was in itself
commendable as tending to the better and quicker administration of
justice, but pernicious as exhibiting a tendency to over-centralization,
and as abolishing the hereditary "nobility of the robe," which, with all
its faults, had from its nature preserved some independence, and been a
check on the royal power. Malesherbes presented a strong remonstrance
against the new system, and was at once banished to his country seat at
St Lucie, to be recalled, however, with the old parlement on the
accession of Louis XVI., and to be made minister of the _maison du roi_
in 1775. He only held office nine months, during which, however, he
directed his attention to the police of the kingdom, which came under
his department, and did much to check the odious practice of issuing
_lettres de cachet_. The protest of the _cour des aides_ in 1775 is one
of the most important documents of the old régime in France. It gives a
complete survey of the corrupt and inefficient administration, and
presented the king with most outspoken criticism. On retiring from the
ministry with Turgot in 1776, he betook himself entirely to a happy
country and domestic life and travelled through Switzerland, Germany and
Holland. An essay on Protestant marriages (1787) did much to procure for
them the civil recognition in France. He had always been an enthusiastic
botanist; his avenue at St Lucie was world famous; he had written
against Buffon on behalf of the botanists whom Buffon had attacked, and
had been elected a member of the _Académie des sciences_ as far back as
1750. He was now elected a member of the _Académie française_, and
everything seemed to promise a quiet and peaceful old age spent in the
bosom of his family and occupied with scientific and literary pursuits,
when the king in his difficulties wished for the support of his name,
and summoned him back to the ministry in 1787. Lamoignon-Malesherbes
held office but a short time, but returned to his country life this time
with a feeling of insecurity and disquiet, and, as the troubles
increased, retired to Switzerland. Nevertheless, in December 1792, in
spite of the fair excuse his old age and long retirement would have
given him, he voluntarily left his asylum and undertook with Tronchet
and Desèze the defence of the king before the Convention, and it was his
painful task to break the news of his condemnation to the king. After
this effort he returned once more to the country, but in December 1793
he was arrested with his daughter, his son-in-law M. de Rosambo, and his
grandchildren, and on the 23rd of April 1794 he was guillotined, after
having seen all whom he loved in the world executed before his eyes for
their relationship to him. Malesherbes is one of the sweetest
characters of the 18th century; though no man of action, hardly a man of
the world, by his charity and unfeigned goodness he became one of the
most popular men in France, and it was an act of truest self-devotion in
him to sacrifice himself for a king who had done little or nothing for
him.

  There are in print several scientific works of Malesherbes of varying
  value, of which the most interesting is his _Observations sur Buffon
  et Daubenton_, written when he was very young, and published with a
  notice by Abeille in 1798. There exist also his _Mémoire pour Louis
  XVI._, his _Mémoire sur la liberté de la presse_ (published 1809) and
  extracts from his remonstrances, published as _Oeuvres choisies de
  Malesherbes_ in 1809. For his life should be read the _Notice
  historique_ (3rd ed., 1806) of Dubois, the _Éloge historique_ (1805)
  of Gaillard, and the interesting _Essai sur la vie, les écrits et les
  opinions de M. de Malesherbes_ (in 2 vols., 1818), of F. A. de Boissy
  d'Anglas. There are also many éloges on him in print, of which the
  best-known is that of M. Dupin, which was delivered at the Academy in
  1841, and was reviewed with much light on Malesherbes's control of the
  press by Sainte-Beuve in the 2nd volume of the _Causeries du lundi_.
  The protest of the _cour des aides_ has been published with
  translation by G. Robinson in the _Translations and Reprints of the
  University of Pennsylvania_ (1900). For his defence of Louis XVI. see
  Marquis de Beaucourt, _Captivité et derniers moments de Louis XVI._ (2
  vols., 1892, Soc. d'hist. contemp.), and A. Tuetey, _Répertoire
  général des sources manuscrites de l'hist. de Paris pendant la Rev.
  fr._, vol. viii. (1908).



MALET, LUCAS, the pen-name of Mary St Leger Harrison (1852-   ), English
novelist. She was the eldest daughter of Charles Kingsley, and was born
at Eversley on the 4th of June 1852. She studied at the Slade school and
at University College, London, and married in 1876 William Harrison,
rector of Clovelly. After her husband's death in 1897 she eventually
settled in London. She had already written several books--_Mrs Lorimer_
(1882), _Colonel Enderby's Wife_ (1885), _Little Peter_ (1887), _A
Counsel of Perfection_ (1888)--when she published her powerful story,
_The Wages of Sin_ (1891), which attracted great attention. Her _History
of Sir Richard Calmady_ (1901) had an even greater success. Her other
novels include _The Carissima_ (1896), _The Gateless Barrier_ (1900),
_On the Far Horizon_ (1906).



MALHERBE, FRANÇOIS DE (1555-1628), French poet, critic and translator,
was born at Caen in 1555. His family was of some position, though it
seems not to have been able to establish to the satisfaction of heralds
the claims which it made to nobility older than the 16th century. The
poet was the eldest son of another François de Malherbe, _conseiller du
roi_ in the magistracy of Caen. He himself was elaborately educated at
Caen, at Paris, at Heidelberg and at Basel. At the age of twenty-one,
preferring arms to the gown, he entered the household of Henri
d'Angoulême, grand prior of France, the natural son of Henry II. He
served this prince as secretary in Provence, and married there in 1581.
It seems that he wrote verses at this period, but, to judge from a
quotation of Tallemant des Réaux, they must have been very bad ones. His
patron died when Malherbe was on a visit in his native province, and for
a time he had no particular employment, though by some servile verses he
obtained a considerable gift of money from Henry III., whom he
afterwards libelled. He lived partly in Provence and partly in Normandy
for many years after this event; but very little is known of his life
during this period. His _Larmes de Saint Pierre_, imitated from Luigi
Tansillo, appeared in 1587.

It was in the year parting the two centuries (1600) that he presented to
Marie de' Medici an ode of welcome, the first of his remarkable poems.
But four or five years more passed before his fortune, which had
hitherto been indifferent, turned. He was presented by his countryman,
the Cardinal Du Perron, to Henry IV.; and, though that economical prince
did not at first show any great eagerness to entertain the poet, he was
at last summoned to court and endowed after one fashion or another. It
is said that the pension promised him was not paid till the next reign.
His father died in 1606, and he came into his inheritance. From this
time forward he lived at court, corresponding affectionately with his
wife, but seeing her only twice in some twenty years. His old age was
saddened by a great misfortune. His son, Marc Antoine, a young man of
promise, fell in a duel in 1626. His father used his utmost influence
to have the guilty parties (for more than one were concerned, and there
are grounds for thinking that it was not a fair duel) brought to
justice. But he died before the suit was decided (it is said in
consequence of disease caught at the camp of La Rochelle, whither he had
gone to petition the king), in Paris, on the 16th of October, 1628, at
the age of seventy-three.

The personal character of Malherbe was far from amiable, but he
exercised, or at least indicated the exercise of, a great and enduring
effect upon French literature, though by no means a wholly beneficial
one. The lines of Boileau beginning _Enfin Malherbe vint_ are rendered
only partially applicable by the extraordinary ignorance of older French
poetry which distinguished that peremptory critic. But the good as well
as bad side of Malherbe's theory and practice is excellently described
by his contemporary and superior Regnier, who was animated against him,
not merely by reason of his own devotion to Ronsard but because of
Malherbe's discourtesy towards Regnier's uncle P. Desportes, whom the
Norman poet had at first distinctly copied. These are the lines:--

  "Cependant leur savoir ne s'étend nullement
   Qu'à régratter un mot douteuse au jugement,
   Prendre garde qu'un _qui_ ne heurte une diphthongue,
   Epier si des vers la rime est brève ou longue,
   Ou bien si la voyelle à l'autre s'unissant
   Ne rend point à l'oreille un vers trop languissant.
       .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .
   C'est proser de la rime et rimer de la prose."

This is perfectly true, and from the time of Malherbe dates that great
and deplorable falling off of French poetry in its more poetic
qualities, which was not made good till 1830. Nevertheless the critical
and restraining tendency of Malherbe was not ill in place after the
luxuriant importation and innovation of the _Pléiade_; and if he had
confined himself to preaching greater technical perfection, and
especially greater simplicity and purity in vocabulary and
versification, instead of superciliously striking his pen through the
great works of his predecessors, he would have deserved wholly well. As
it was, his reforms helped to elaborate the kind of verse necessary for
the classical tragedy, and that is the most that can be said for him.
His own poetical work is scanty in amount, and for the most part frigid
and devoid of inspiration. The beautiful _Consolation à Duperier_, in
which occurs the famous line--

  Et, rose, elle a vécu ce que vivent les roses--

the odes to Marie de' Medici and to Louis XIII., and a few other pieces
comprise all that is really worth remembering of him. His prose work is
much more abundant, not less remarkable for care as to style and
expression, and of greater positive value. It consists of some
translations of Livy and Seneca, and of a very large number of
interesting and admirably written letters, many of which are addressed
to Peiresc, the man of science of whom Gassendi has left a delightful
Latin life. It contains also a most curious commentary on Desportes, in
which Malherbe's minute and carping style of verbal criticism is
displayed on the great scale.

  The chief authorities for the biography of Malherbe are the _Vie de
  Malherbe_ by his friend and pupil Racan, and the long _Historiette_
  which Tallemant des Réaux has devoted to him. The standard edition is
  the admirable one of Ludovic Lalanne (5 vols., Paris, 1862-1869). Of
  the poems only, there is an excellent and handsome little issue in the
  _Nouvelle collection Jannet_ (Paris, 1874). Of modern works devoted to
  him, _La Doctrine de Malherbe_, by G. Brunot (1891), is not only the
  most important but a work altogether capital in regard to the study of
  French language and literature. Others are A. Gasté, _La Jeunesse de
  Malherbe_ (1890); V. Bourrienne, _Points obscurs dans la vie normande
  de Malherbe_ (1895); and the duc de Broglie's "Malherbe" in _Les
  Grands écrivains français_. On his position in French and general
  critical history, G. Saintsbury's _History of Criticism_, vol. ii.,
  may be consulted.     (G. Sa.)



MALIBRAN, MARIE FÉLICITÉ (1808-1836), operatic singer, daughter of
Manoel Garcia, was born in Paris on the 24th of March 1808. Her father
was then a member of the company of the Théâtre des Italiens, and she
accompanied him to Italy and London. She possessed a soprano voice of
unusual beauty and phenomenal compass, which was carefully cultivated
by her father. She was only seventeen when, in consequence of an
indisposition of Madame Pasta, she was suddenly asked to take her place
in _The Barber of Seville_ at Covent Garden. She was forthwith engaged
for the remaining six weeks of the season, and then followed her father
to New York, where she appeared in _Othello_, _The Barber of Seville_,
_Don Juan_, _Romeo and Juliet_, _Tancred_. Her gifts as an actress were
on a par with her magnificent voice, and her gaiety made her
irresistible in light opera, although her great triumphs were obtained
chiefly in tragic parts. She married a French banker of New York, named
Malibran, who was much older than herself. The marriage was an unhappy
one, and Mme Malibran returned alone to Europe in 1828, when she began
the series of representations at the Théâtre des Italiens, which excited
an enthusiasm in Paris only exceeded by the reception she received in
the principal towns of Italy. She was formally divorced from Malibran in
1835, and married the Belgian violinist, Charles de Beriot; but she died
of fever on the 23rd of September 1836.

  See _Memoirs of Mme Malibran by the comtesse de Merlin and other
  intimate friends, with a selection from her correspondence_ (2 vols.,
  1840); and M. Teneo, _La Malibran, d'après des documents inédits_, in
  _Sammelbände der internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft_ (Leipzig, 1906).



MALIC ACID (HYDROXYETHYLENE SUCCINIC ACID), C4H6O5, an organic acid
found abundantly in the juices of many plants, particularly in
mountain-ash berries, in unripe apples and in grapes. The acid potassium
salt is also found in the leaves and stalks of rhubarb. Since the acid
contains an asymmetric carbon atom, it can exist in three forms, a
dextro-rotatory, a laevo-rotatory and an inactive form; the acid
obtained in the various synthetical processes is the inactive form. It
may be prepared by heating racemic acid (see TARTARIC ACID) with fuming
hydriodic acid; by heating fumaric acid (q.v.) with water at 150-200°
C.; by the action of nitrous acid on inactive aspartic acid; and by the
action of moist silver oxide on monobromsuccinic acid. It forms
deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at
100° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid
(q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and
fumaric acid. It yields coumarins when warmed with sulphuric acid and
phenols (H. v. Pechmann, _Ber._, 1884, 17, 929, 1649 et seq.). Potassium
bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to
oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid. The
inactive variety may be split into the component active forms by means
of its cinchonine salt (G. J. W. Bremer, _Ber._, 1880, 13, 352).



MALIGNANT (Lat. _malignus_, evil-disposed, from _maligenus_), wicked, of
a malicious or wilfully evil disposition. The word was early applied by
the Protestants to the Romanists, with an allusion to the "congregation
of evil doers" (Vulgate _Ecclesiam malignantium_) of Psalm xxvi. 5. In
English history, during the Great Rebellion, the name was given to the
Royalists by the Parliamentary party. In the Great Remonstrance of 1641
occur the words "the malignant partie, wherof the Archbishop (Laud) and
the earl of Strafford being heads." The name throughout the period had
special reference to the religious differences between the parties. In
medical science, the term "malignant" is applied to a particularly
virulent or dangerous form which a disease may take, or to a tumour or
growth of rapid growth, extension to the lymphatic glands, and
recurrence after operation.



MALIK IBN ANAS (c. 718-795), the founder of the Malikite school of canon
law, was born at Medina about A.D. 718: the precise date is not certain.
He studied and passed his life there, and came to be regarded as the
greatest local authority in theology and law. (For his legal system and
its history see MAHOMMEDAN LAW.) His life was one of extreme honour and
dignity, but uneventful, being given to study, lecturing on law and
acting as mufti and judge. Only two episodes stand out in his biography.
When Mahommed ibn 'Abdallah, the 'Alid, rose in A.D. 762 at Medina
against the 'Abbasids, Malik gave a _fatwa_, or legal opinion, that the
oath of allegiance to the 'Abbasids was invalid, as extorted by force.
For this independence he was severely scourged by the 'Abbasid governor,
who, apparently, did not dare to go beyond scourging with a man of his
standing with the people. The second episode gave equal proof of
independence. In 795 Harun al-Rashid made the pilgrimage, came with two
of his sons to Medina, and sat at the feet of Malik as he lectured in
the mosque. The story, legendary or historical, adds that Malik had
refused to go to the caliph, saying that it was for the student to come
to his teacher. Late in life he seems to have turned to asceticism and
contemplation. It is said that he retired from all active, public life
and even neglected plain, public duties, replying to reproaches, "Not
every one can speak in his own excuse" (Ibn Qutaiba, _Ma 'arif_, 250).
He is also entered among the early ascetic Sufis (cf. _Fihrist_, 183).
He died in Medina, A.D. 795.

  For a description of his principal book, the _Muwatta'_, see
  Goldziher's _Muhammedanische Studien_, ii. 213 sqq. He wrote also a
  Koran commentary, now apparently lost, and a hortatory epistle to
  Harun al-Rashid. See further, de Slane's trans. of Ibn Khallikan, ii.
  545 sqq.; von Kremer, _Culturgeschichte_, i. 477 sqq.; Brockelmann,
  _Gesch. der arab. Litt._, i. 175 sqq.; Macdonald, _Muslim Theology,
  &c._, 99 sqq. and index; _Fihrist_, 198 seq.; Nawawi, 530 sqq.
       (D. B. Ma.)



MALINES (Flemish, _Mechelen_, called in the middle ages by the Latin
name Mechlinia, whence the spelling Mechlin), an ancient and important
city of Belgium, and the seat since 1559 of the only archbishopric in
that country. Pop. (1904), 58,101. The name is supposed to be derived
from _maris linea_, and to indicate that originally the sea came up to
it. It is now situated on the Dyle, and is in the province of Antwerp,
lying about half-way between Antwerp and Brussels. The chief importance
of Malines is derived from the fact that it is in a sense the religious
capital of Belgium--the archbishop being the primate of the Catholic
Church in that country. The archbishop's palace is in a picturesque
situation, and dates from the creation of the dignity. The principal
building in the city is the exceedingly fine cathedral dedicated to St
Rombaut. This cathedral was begun in the 12th and finished early in the
14th century, and although modified in the 15th after a fire, it remains
one of the most remarkable specimens of Gothic architecture in Europe.
The massive tower of over 300 ft., which is described as unfinished
because the original intention was to carry it to 500 ft., is its most
striking external feature. The people of Malines gained in the old
distich--"gaudet Mechlinia stultis"--the reputation of being "fools,"
because one of the citizens on seeing the moon through the dormer
windows of St Rombaut called out that the place was on fire, and his
fellow-citizens, following his example, endeavoured to put out the
conflagration until they realized the truth. The cathedral contains a
fine altar-piece by Van Dyck, and the pulpit is in carved oak of the
17th century. Another old palace is that of Margaret of Austria, regent
for Charles V., which has been carefully preserved and is now used as a
court of justice. In the church of Notre Dame (16th century) is Rubens'
masterpiece "the miraculous draught of fishes," and in that of St John
is a fine triptych by the same master. Malines, although no longer
famous for its lace, carries on a large trade in linen, needles,
furniture and oil, while as a junction for the line from Ghent to
Louvain and Liège, as well as for that from Antwerp to Brussels and the
south, its station is one of the busiest in Belgium, and this fact has
contributed to the general prosperity of the city.

The lordship of Malines was conferred as a separate fief by Pippin the
Short on his kinsman Count Adon in 754. In the 9th century Charles the
Bald bestowed the fief on the bishop of Liége, and after being shared
between Brabant and Flanders it passed into the hands of Philip the
Bold, founder of the house of Burgundy, in 1384. During the religious
troubles of the 16th century Malines suffered greatly, and in 1572 it
was sacked by Alva's troops during three days. In the wars of the 17th
and 18th centuries it was besieged many times and captured by the
French, Dutch and English on several occasions. The French finally
removed the fortifications in 1804, since which year it has been an open
town.



MALLANWAN, a town in Hardoi district, the United Provinces, India. Pop.
(1901), 11,158. Under native rule the town possessed considerable
political importance, and upon the British annexation of Oudh it was
selected as the headquarters of the district, but was abandoned in
favour of Hardoi after the Mutiny. Saltpetre and brass utensils are
manufactured.



MALLARMÉ, FRANÇOIS RENÉ AUGUSTE (1755-1835), French Revolutionist, the
son of a lawyer, was born at Nancy on the 25th of February 1755. He was
brought up in his father's profession, and was appointed
_procureur-syndic_ of the district of Pont-à-Mousson. During the
Revolution he was elected by the department of Meurthe deputy to the
Legislative Assembly and the Convention, where he attached himself to
the Mountain and voted for the death of Louis XVI. He was elected
president of the Convention on the 30th of May 1793, and by his weakness
during the crisis of the following day contributed much to the success
of the insurrection against the Girondists. He took an active part in
the _levée-en-masse_, and in November 1793 was given the task of
establishing the revolutionary government in the departments of Meuse
and Moselle, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by ordering the
execution of the sentence of death decreed by the revolutionary tribunal
on some young girls at Verdun who had offered flowers to the Prussians
when they entered the town. After the fall of Robespierre he joined the
group of "Thermidorians" and was sent on mission to the south of France,
where he closed the Jacobin club at Toulouse and set free a number of
imprisoned "suspects." On the 1st of June 1795 he was denounced and
arrested, but was soon set at liberty. In 1796 he was appointed by the
Directory commissioner for the organization of the departments of Dyle
and Mont-Tonnerre. Under the empire he was receiver of the _droits
réunis_ at Nancy, and lost his money in 1814 in raising a levy of
volunteers. Appointed sub-prefect of Avesnes during the Hundred Days, he
was imprisoned by the Prussians in revenge for the death of the maidens
of Verdun, and lived in exile during the Restoration. He returned to
France after the revolution of 1830, and died at Richemont
(Seine-Inférieure) on the 25th of July 1835.



MALLARMÉ, STÉPHANE (1842-1898), French poet and theorist, was born at
Paris, on the 18th of March 1842. His life was simple and without event.
His small income as professor of English in a French college was
sufficient for his needs, and, with his wife and daughter, he divided
the year between a fourth-floor flat in Paris and a cottage on the banks
of the Seine. His Tuesday evening receptions, which did so much to form
the thought of the more interesting of the younger French men of
letters, were almost as important a part of his career as the few
carefully elaborated books which he produced at long intervals.
_L'Après-midi d'un faune_ (1876) and other fragments of his verse and
prose had been known to a few people long before the publication of the
_Poésies complètes_ of 1887, in a facsimile of his clear and elegant
handwriting, and of the Pages of 1891 and the _Vers et prose_ of 1893.
His remarkable translation of poems of Poe appeared in 1888, "The Raven"
having been published as early as 1875, with illustrations by Manet.
_Divagations_, his own final edition of his prose, was published in
1897, and a more or less complete edition of the _Poésies_,
posthumously, in 1899. He died at Valvins, Fontainebleau, on the 9th of
September 1898. All his life Mallarmé was in search of a new aesthetics,
and his discoveries by the way were often admirable. But he was too
critical ever to create freely, and too limited ever to create
abundantly. His great achievement remains unfinished, and all that he
left towards it is not of equal value. There are a few poems and a few
pieces of imaginative prose which have the haunting quality of Gustave
Moreau's pictures, with the same jewelled magnificence, mysterious and
yet definite. His later work became more and more obscure, as he seemed
to himself to have abolished limit after limit which holds back speech
from the expression of the absolute. Finally, he abandoned punctuation
in verse, and invented a new punctuation, along with a new construction,
for prose. Patience in the study of so difficult an author has its
reward. No one in our time has vindicated with more pride the
self-sufficiency of the artist in his struggle with the material world.
To those who knew him only by his writings his conversation was
startling in its clearness; it was always, like all his work, at the
service of a few dignified and misunderstood ideas.

  See also Paul Verlaine, _Les Poètes maudits_ (1884); J. Lemaître, _Les
  Contemporains_ (5th series, 1891); Albert Moekel, _Stéphane Mallarmé,
  un héros_ (1899); E. W. Gosse, _French Profiles_ (1905) and A. Symons,
  _The Symbolist Movement in Literature_ (1900). A complete bibliography
  is given in the _Poètes d'aujourd'hui_ (1880-1900, 11th ed., 1905) of
  MM. A. van Bever and P. Léautaud.     (A. Sy.)



MALLECO, a province of southern Chile, once a part of the Indian
territory of Araucania (q.v.), lying between the provinces of Bio-Bio on
the N. and E., Cautin on the S. and Arauco on the W. Area, 2973 sq. m.
Pop. (1895), 98,032. It belongs to the rainy, forested region of
southern Chile, and is thinly populated, a considerable part of its
population being Araucanian Indians, who occupy districts in the Andean
foothills. Gold placer mining has attracted some attention, but the
output is small. The principal industries are cattle and wheat raising
and timber-cutting. The capital is Angol (pop., 7056 in 1895; estimated
at 7638 in 1902), a small town in the northern part of the province, on
the Malleco river, and a station on the Traiguen branch of the state
railway. Traiguen (pop., 5732 in 1895; estimated at 7099 in 1902) in the
southern part of the province is the second town in importance, and
Victoria (pop., 6989 in 1895; estimated at 10,002 in 1902), about 20 m.
E. of the last-named town, was for a time the terminal station of the
main line of the railway.



MALLEMUCK, from the German rendering of the Dutch _Mallemugge_ (which
originally meant small flies or midges that madly whirl round a light),
a name given by the early Dutch Arctic voyagers to the Fulmar (q.v.), of
which the English form is nowadays most commonly applied by our sailors
to the smaller albatrosses, of about the size of a goose, met with in
the Southern Ocean--corrupted into "molly mawk," or "mollymauk." A
number of species have been identified. _Diomedea irrorata_ of West Peru
is sooty-brown with white mottlings and a white head; _D. migripes_ of
the North Pacific is similar in colour but with white only near the eye
and at the base of the tail and bill; _D. immutabilis_ of Japan is
darker but has a white head. _D. melanophrys_ of the southern oceans has
been found in summer both in California, in England, and as far north as
the Faeroes. According to J. Gould the latter is the commonest species
of albatross inhabiting the Southern Ocean, and its gregarious habits
and familiar disposition make it well known to every voyager to or from
Australia, for it is equally common in the Atlantic as well as the
Pacific. The back, wings and tail are of a blackish-grey, but all the
rest of the plumage is white, except a dusky superciliary streak, whence
its name of black-browed albatross, as also its scientific epithet, are
taken. The bill of the adult is of an ochreous-yellow, while that of the
young is dark. This species breeds on the Falkland Islands. _D. bulleri_
of the New Zealand seas is greyish-brown, with white underparts and rump
and ashy head. _Diomedea_ (or _Thalassogeron_) _culminata_ and
_chlororhyncha_ of the southern seas, _D._ (or _T._) _cauta_ of
Tasmania, _salvini_ of New Zealand and _layardi_ of the Cape resemble
_D. bulleri_, but have a strip of naked skin between the plates of the
maxilla towards its base. H. N. Moseley (_Notes of a Naturalist_, 130)
describes _D. culminata_ as making a cylindrical nest of grass, sedge
and clay, with a shallow basin atop and an overhanging rim--the whole
being about 14 in. in diameter and 10 in height. The bird lays a single
white egg, which is held in a sort of pouch, formed by the skin of the
abdomen, while she is incubating. The feet of _D. bulleri_ are red, of
_D. chlororhyncha_ flesh-coloured, of the others yellow.     (A. N.)



MALLESON, GEORGE BRUCE (1825-1898), Indian officer and author, was born
at Wimbledon, on the 8th of May 1825. Educated at Winchester, he
obtained a cadetship in the Bengal infantry in 1842, and served through
the second Burmese War. His subsequent appointments were in the civil
line, the last being that of guardian to the young maharaja of Mysore.
He retired with the rank of colonel in 1877, having been created C.S.I.
in 1872. He died at Kensington, on the 1st of March 1898. He was a
voluminous writer, his first work to attract attention being the famous
"Red Pamphlet," published at Calcutta in 1857, when the Mutiny was at
its height. He continued, and considerably rewrote the _History of the
Indian Mutiny_ (6 vols., 1878-1880), which was begun but left unfinished
by Sir John Kaye. Among his other books the most valuable are _History
of the French in India_ (2nd ed., 1893) and _The Decisive Battles of
India_ (3rd ed., 1888).



MALLET (or MALLOCH), DAVID (?1705-1765), Scottish poet and dramatist,
the son of a Perthshire farmer, was born in that county, probably in
1705. In 1717 he went to the high school at Edinburgh, and some three
years later to the university, where he made the friendship of James
Thomson, author of _The Seasons_. As early as 1720 he began to publish
short poems in the manner of the period, a number of which appeared
during the next few years in collections such as the _Edinburgh
Miscellany_ and Allan Ramsay's _Tea Table Miscellany_, in which his
ballad "William and Margaret" was published in 1724. For some years from
1723 he was private tutor to the duke of Montrose's sons, with whom he
travelled on the Continent in 1727. His real name was Malloch; but this
he changed to Mallet in 1724. In 1735 he took the M.A. degree at Oxford.
He had already made the friendship of Pope, whose vanity he flattered in
a poem on _Verbal Criticism_, in 1733; and through Pope he became
acquainted with Bolingbroke and other Tory politicians, especially those
attached to the party of the prince of Wales, who in 1742 appointed
Mallet to be his paid secretary. After Pope's death, in 1744, Mallet, at
the instigation of Bolingbroke and forgetful of past favours and
friendship, vilified the poet's memory, thereby incurring the resentment
of Pope's friends. For his services as a party pamphleteer, in which
character he published an attack on Admiral Byng, Mallet received from
Lord Bute a lucrative sinecure in 1760. He died on the 21st of April
1765. Mallet was a small man, in his younger days something of a dandy
and inordinately vain. He was twice married; by his first wife he had a
daughter, Dorothy, who married Pietro Paolo Celesia, a Genoese
gentleman, and was the author of several poems and plays, notably
_Almida_, produced by Garrick at Drury Lane in 1771.

Mallet's own works included several plays, some of which were produced
by Garrick, who was Mallet's personal friend. _Eurydice_, a tragedy,
with prologue and epilogue by Aaron Hill, was produced at Drury Lane in
1731; _Mustapha_, also a tragedy, had considerable success at the same
theatre in 1739; in 1740, in collaboration with Thomson, he produced the
masque _Alfred_, of which he published a new version in 1751, after
Thomson's death, claiming it to be almost entirely his own work. This
masque is notable as containing the well-known patriotic song, "Rule
Britannia," the authorship of which has been attributed to Mallet,
although he allowed it to appear without protest in his lifetime with
Thomson's name attached. His other writings include _Poems on Several
Occasions_ (1743); _Amyntor and Theodora, or the Hermit_ (1747); another
volume of _Poems_ (1762).

  In 1759 a collected edition of Mallet's _Works_ was published in three
  volumes; and in 1857 his _Ballads and Songs_ were edited by F.
  Dinsdale with notes, and a biographical memoir of the author.



MALLET, PAUL HENRI (1730-1807), Swiss writer, was born on the 20th of
August 1730, in Geneva. After having been educated there, he became
tutor in the family of the count of Calenberg in Saxony. In 1752 he was
appointed professor of _belles lettres_ to the academy at Copenhagen. He
was naturally attracted to the study of the ancient literature and
history of his adopted country, and in 1755 he published the first
fruits of his researches, under the title _Introduction à l'histoire du
Danemarck où l'on traite de la religion, des moeurs, des lois, et des
usages des anciens Danois_. A second part, more particularly relating to
the ancient literature of the country, _Monuments de la mythologie et de
la poesie des Celtes, et particulièrement des anciens Scandinaves_, was
issued in 1756, and was also translated into Danish. A translation into
English, with notes and preface, by Bishop Percy, was issued in 1770
under the title of _Northern Antiquities_ (republished with additions in
1847). The book had a wide circulation, and attracted much attention on
account of its being the first (though a very defective) translation
into French of the _Edda_. The king of Denmark showed his appreciation
by choosing Mallet to be preceptor of the crown prince. In 1760 he
returned to Geneva, and became professor of history in his native city.
While there he was requested by the czarina to undertake the education
of the heir-apparent of Russia (afterwards the czar Paul I.), but
declined the honour. An invitation more congenial to his tastes led to
his accompanying Lord Mountstuart in his travels through Italy and
thence to England, where he was presented at court and commissioned to
write the history of the house of Brunswick. He had previously received
a similar commission from the landgrave of Hesse-Cassel for the
preparation of a history of the house of Hesse, and both works were
completed in 1785. The quietude of a literary life was rudely broken by
the shock of the Revolution, to which he was openly hostile. His
leanings to the unpopular side were so obnoxious to his fellow-citizens
that he was obliged to quit his native country in 1792, and remained in
exile till 1801. He died at Geneva, on the 8th of February 1807.

  A memoir of his life and writings, by Sismondi, was published at
  Geneva in 1807. Besides the _Introduction to the History of Denmark_,
  his principal works are: _Histoire du Danemarck_ (3 vols., Copenhagen,
  1758-1777); _Histoire de la maison de Hesse_ (4 vols., 1767-1785);
  _Histoire de la maison de Brunswick_ (4 vols., 1767-1785); _Histoire
  de la maison et des états du Mecklenbourg_ (1796); _Histoire des
  Suisses ou Helvétiens_ (4 vols., Geneva, 1803) (mainly an abridgment
  of J. von Müller's great history); _Histoire de la ligue hanséatique_
  (1805).



MALLET, ROBERT (1810-1881), Irish engineer, physicist and geologist, was
born in Dublin, on the 3rd of June 1810. He was educated at Trinity
College in that city, and graduated B.A. in 1830. Trained as an
engineer, he was elected M.Inst.C.E. in 1842; he built in 1848-1849 the
Fastnet Rock lighthouse, south-west of Cape Clear, and was engaged in
other important works. Devoting much attention to pure science, he
became especially distinguished for his researches on earthquakes, and
from 1852-1858 he was engaged (with his son John William Mallet) in the
preparation of his great work, _The Earthquake Catalogue of the British
Association_ (1858). In 1862 he published two volumes, dealing with the
_Great Neapolitan Earthquake of 1857_ and _The First Principles of
Observational Seismology_. He then brought forward evidence to show that
the depth below the earth's surface, whence came the impulse of the
Neapolitan earthquake, was about 8 or 9 geographical miles. One of his
most important essays was that communicated to the Royal Society (_Phil.
Trans._ clxiii. 147; 1874), entitled _Volcanic Energy: an Attempt to
develop its True Origin and Cosmical Relations_. He sought to show that
volcanic heat may be attributed to the effects of crushing, contortion
and other disturbances in the crust of the earth; the disturbances
leading to the formation of lines of fracture, more or less vertical,
down which water would find its way, and if the temperature generated be
sufficient volcanic eruptions of steam or lava would follow. He was
elected F.R.S. in 1854, and he was awarded the Wollaston medal by the
Geological Society of London in 1877. He died at Clapham, London, on the
5th of November 1881.



MALLET DU PAN, JACQUES (1749-1800), French journalist, of an old
Huguenot family, was born near Geneva in 1749, the son of a Protestant
minister. He was educated at Geneva, and through the influence of
Voltaire obtained a professorship at Cassel. He soon, however, resigned
this post, and going to London joined H.S.N. Linguet in the production
of his _Annales politiques_ (1778-1780). During Linguet's imprisonment
in the Bastille Mallet du Pan continued the _Annales_ by himself
(1781-1783); but Linguet resented this on his release, and Mallet du Pan
changed the title of his own publication to _Mémoires historiques_
(1783). From 1783 he incorporated this work with the _Mercure de France_
in Paris, the political direction of which had been placed in his hands.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution he sided with the Royalists,
and was sent on a mission (1791-1792) by Louis XVI. to Frankfort to try
and secure the sympathy and intervention of the German princes. From
Germany he travelled to Switzerland and from Switzerland to Brussels in
the Royalist interest. He published a number of anti-revolutionary
pamphlets, and a violent attack on Bonaparte and the Directory resulted
in his being exiled in 1797 to Berne. In 1798 he came to London, where
he founded the _Mercure britannique_. He died at Richmond, Surrey, on
the 10th of May 1800, his widow being pensioned by the English
government. Mallet du Pan has a place in history as a pioneer of modern
political journalism. His son JOHN LEWIS MALLET (1775-1861) spent a
useful life in the English civil service, becoming secretary of the
Board of Audit; and J. L. Mallet's second son, SIR LOUIS MALLET
(1823-1890) also entered the civil service in the Board of Trade and
rose to be a distinguished economist and a member of the Council of
India.

  Mallet du Pan's _Mémoires et correspondance_ was edited by A. Sayous
  (Paris, 1851). See _Mallet du Pan and the French Revolution_ (1902),
  by Bernard Mallet, son of Sir Louis Mallet, author also of a biography
  of his father (1900).



MALLING, EAST and WEST, two populous villages in the Medway
parliamentary division of Kent, England, respectively 5 and 6 m. W. by
N. of Maidstone, with a station on the South-Eastern and Chatham
railway. Pop. (1901), East Malling, 2391; West Malling, 2312. They are
situated in a rich agricultural district on the western slope of the
valley of the Medway, and East Malling has large paper mills. At West
Malling are remains of Malling Abbey, a Benedictine nunnery founded in
1090 by Gundulf, bishop of Rochester. The remains, which are partly
incorporated in a modern building, include the Norman west front of the
church, the Early English cloisters, the chapter-house, gate-house (the
chapel of which is restored to use), and other portions. About Addington
near West Malling are considerable prehistoric remains, including
mounds, single stones, stone circles and pits in the chalk hills; while
at Leybourne are the gateway and other fragments of the castle held by
the Leybourne family from the 12th to the 14th century.



MALLOCK, WILLIAM HURRELL (1849-   ), English author, was born at
Cockington Court, Devonshire. He was educated privately, and at Balliol
College, Oxford. He won the Newdigate prize in 1872, and took a second
class in the final classical schools in 1874. He attracted considerable
attention by his satirical story _The New Republic_ (2 vols., 1877), in
which he introduced characters easily recognized as prominent living
men, Mark Pattison, Matthew Arnold, W. K. Clifford and others. His keen
logic and gift for acute exposition and criticism were displayed in
later years both in fiction and in controversial works. In a series of
books dealing with religious questions he insisted on dogma as the basis
of religion and on the impossibility of founding religion on purely
scientific data. In _Is Life Worth Living?_ (1879) and _The New Paul and
Virginia_ (1878) he attacked Positivist theories, and in a volume on the
intellectual position of the Church of England, _Doctrine and Doctrinal
Disruption_ (1900), he advocated the necessity of a strictly defined
creed. Later volumes on similar topics were _Religion as a Credible
Doctrine_ (1903) and _The Reconstruction of Belief_ (1905). He published
several brilliant works on economics, directed against Radical and
Socialist theories: _Social Equality_ (1882), _Property and Progress_
(1884), _Labour and the Popular Welfare_ (1893), _Classes and Masses_
(1896) and _Aristocracy and Evolution_ (1898); and among his
anti-socialist works should be classed his novel, _The Old Order
Changes_ (1886). His other novels include _A Romance of the Nineteenth
Century_ (1881), _A Human Document_ (1892), _The Heart of Life_ (1895)
and _The Veil of the Temple_ (1904). He published a volume of _Poems_ in
1880, and in 1900 _Lucretius on Life and Death_ in verse.



MALLOW, a market town and watering place of Co. Cork, Ireland, on the
Blackwater, 144½ m. S.W. from Dublin, and 21 N. from Cork by the Great
Southern and Western railway. Pop. (1901), 4542. It is a junction for
lines westward to Killarney and Co. Kerry, and eastward to Lismore and
Co. Waterford. The town owes its prosperity to its beautiful situation
in a fine valley surrounded by mountains, and possesses a tepid mineral
spring, considered efficacious in cases of general debility and for
scorbutic and consumptive complaints. A spa-house with pump-room and
baths was erected in 1828. The parish church dates from 1818, but there
are remains of an earlier bui